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Sample records for abdominal ct images

  1. Abdominal wall hernias: imaging with spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabile Ianora, A.A.; Midiri, M.; Vinci, R.; Rotondo, A.; Angelelli, G.

    2000-01-01

    Computed tomography is an accurate method of identifying the various types of abdominal wall hernias, especially if they are clinically occult, and of distinguishing them from other diseases such as hematomas, abscesses and neoplasia. In this study we examined the CT images of 94 patients affected by abdominal wall hernias observed over a period of 6 years. Computed tomography clearly demonstrates the anatomical site of the hernial sac, the content and any occlusive bowel complications due to incarceration or strangulation. Clinical diagnosis of external hernias is particularly difficult in obese patients or in those with laparotic scars. In these cases abdominal imaging is essential for a correct preoperative diagnosis and to determine the most effective treatment. (orig.)

  2. Imaging of abdominal tumours: CT or MRI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Oeystein E.

    2009-01-01

    The scope of this review is to discuss a theoretical approach to imaging policy, particularly in the perspective of radiation risk reduction. Decisions are ideally driven by empirical evidence about efficacy and risk, e.g., in classical hierarchical efficacy model. As a result of the paucity of empirical evidence (inevitable because of rapid technological development), a pragmatic model is needed. This should avoid overemphasis of factors that currently seem to hamper change, namely personal preference, local expertise, infrastructure, availability. Extrapolation of current general knowledge about CT and MRI demonstrates how a pragmatic approach can be applied in the real world with intermediate goals such as (1) channeling patients from CT to MRI, and (2) reducing CT-delivered radiation. Increased utilisation of MRI in body imaging requires optimisation of scan protocols and equipment, and, being a very operator-dependent modality, the active involvement of the radiologist. In CT dose reduction the main challenge is to benchmark the minimum radiation-dose requirement, and therefore the minimum required image quality that is diagnostically acceptable. As this will ultimately depend on pre-test likelihoods in institutional populations, it is difficult to issue general guidance, and local assessment remains a cornerstone in this effort. (orig.)

  3. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... the technologist verifies that the images are of high enough quality for accurate interpretation. The CT examination ... abdominal pain or injury from trauma with very high accuracy, enabling faster treatment and often eliminating the ...

  4. Unsupervised quantification of abdominal fat from CT images using Greedy Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Chirag; Dallal, Ahmed H.; Arbabshirani, Mohammad R.; Patel, Aalpen; Moore, Gregory

    2017-02-01

    Adipose tissue has been associated with adverse consequences of obesity. Total adipose tissue (TAT) is divided into subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Intra-abdominal fat (VAT), located inside the abdominal cavity, is a major factor for the classic obesity related pathologies. Since direct measurement of visceral and subcutaneous fat is not trivial, substitute metrics like waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) are used in clinical settings to quantify obesity. Abdominal fat can be assessed effectively using CT or MRI, but manual fat segmentation is rather subjective and time-consuming. Hence, an automatic and accurate quantification tool for abdominal fat is needed. The goal of this study is to extract TAT, VAT and SAT fat from abdominal CT in a fully automated unsupervised fashion using energy minimization techniques. We applied a four step framework consisting of 1) initial body contour estimation, 2) approximation of the body contour, 3) estimation of inner abdominal contour using Greedy Snakes algorithm, and 4) voting, to segment the subcutaneous and visceral fat. We validated our algorithm on 952 clinical abdominal CT images (from 476 patients with a very wide BMI range) collected from various radiology departments of Geisinger Health System. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind on such a large and diverse clinical dataset. Our algorithm obtained a 3.4% error for VAT segmentation compared to manual segmentation. These personalized and accurate measurements of fat can complement traditional population health driven obesity metrics such as BMI and WC.

  5. Analysis of local concentration in stomach fold pattern by using abdominal X-ray CT image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shigeto; Hasegawa, Jun-ichi; Mekada, Yoshito; Mori, Kensaku; Nawano, Shigeru

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a method for analysis of stomach folds pattern in abdominal X-ray CT images. Many stomach cancers have local concentration of folds at cancer lesions. Therefore, in stomach diagnosis, it is very important to evaluate quantitatively such fold concentration. In this paper, a method for calculation of concentration index for line figure on a curved surface is proposed first. Then, using this method a processing procedure for detection of stomach cancer from an abdominal X-ray CT image is developed. In the experiment using practical X-ray CT images, it is shown that by the proposed procedure, higher values of concentration index are obtained at cancer area. (author)

  6. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... often used to determine the cause of unexplained pain. CT scanning is fast, painless, noninvasive and accurate. ... help diagnose the cause of abdominal or pelvic pain and diseases of the internal organs, small bowel ...

  7. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... organs and is often used to determine the cause of unexplained pain. CT scanning is fast, painless, ... procedure is typically used to help diagnose the cause of abdominal or pelvic pain and diseases of ...

  8. Automated segmentation and recognition of abdominal wall muscles in X-ray torso CT images and its application in abdominal CAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X.; Kamiya, N.; Hara, T.; Fujita, H.; Chen, H.; Yokoyama, R.; Hoshi, H.

    2007-01-01

    The information of abdominal wall is very important for the planning of surgical operation and abdominal organ recognition. In research fields of computer assisted radiology and surgery and computer-aided diagnosis, the segmentation and recognition of the abdominal wall muscles in CT images is a necessary pre-processing step. Due to the complexity of the abdominal wall structure and indistinctive in CT images, the automated segmentation of abdominal wall muscles is a difficult issue and has not been solved completely. We propose an approach to segment the abdominal wall muscles and divide it into three categories (front abdominal muscles including rectus abdominis; left and right side abdominal muscles including external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscles) automatically. The approach, first, makes an initial classification of bone, fat, and muscles and organs based on the CT number. Then a layer structure is generated to describe the 3-D anatomical structures of human torso by stretching the torso region onto a thin-plate for easy recognition. The abdominal wall muscles are recognized on the layer structures using the spatial relations to the skeletal structure and CT numbers. Finally, the recognized regions are mapped back to the 3-D CT images using an inverse transformation of the stretching process. This method is applied to 20 cases of torso CT images and evaluations are based on visual comparison of the recognition results and the original CT images by an expert in anatomy. The results show that our approach can segment and recognize abdominal wall muscle regions effectively. (orig.)

  9. Automated segmentation and recognition of abdominal wall muscles in X-ray torso CT images and its application in abdominal CAD

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    Zhou, X.; Kamiya, N.; Hara, T.; Fujita, H. [Dept. of Intelligent Image Information, Div. of Regeneration and Advanced Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu Univ., Gifu (Japan); Chen, H. [Dept. of Anatomy, Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu Univ., Gifu (Japan); Yokoyama, R.; Hoshi, H. [Dept. of Radiology, Gifu Univ. Graduate School of Medicine and Univ. Hospital, Gifu (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    The information of abdominal wall is very important for the planning of surgical operation and abdominal organ recognition. In research fields of computer assisted radiology and surgery and computer-aided diagnosis, the segmentation and recognition of the abdominal wall muscles in CT images is a necessary pre-processing step. Due to the complexity of the abdominal wall structure and indistinctive in CT images, the automated segmentation of abdominal wall muscles is a difficult issue and has not been solved completely. We propose an approach to segment the abdominal wall muscles and divide it into three categories (front abdominal muscles including rectus abdominis; left and right side abdominal muscles including external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscles) automatically. The approach, first, makes an initial classification of bone, fat, and muscles and organs based on the CT number. Then a layer structure is generated to describe the 3-D anatomical structures of human torso by stretching the torso region onto a thin-plate for easy recognition. The abdominal wall muscles are recognized on the layer structures using the spatial relations to the skeletal structure and CT numbers. Finally, the recognized regions are mapped back to the 3-D CT images using an inverse transformation of the stretching process. This method is applied to 20 cases of torso CT images and evaluations are based on visual comparison of the recognition results and the original CT images by an expert in anatomy. The results show that our approach can segment and recognize abdominal wall muscle regions effectively. (orig.)

  10. Colonic polyp detection method from 3D abdominal CT images based on local intensity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, M.; Nakada, Y.; Kitasaka, T.; Mori, K.; Suenaga, Y.; Takayama, T.; Takabatake, H.; Mori, M.; Natori, H.; Nawano, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a detection method of colonic polyps from 3D abdominal CT images based on local intensity analysis. Recently, virtual colonoscopy (VC) has widely received attention as a new colon diagnostic method. VC is considered as a less-invasive inspection method which reduces patient load. However, since the colon has many haustra and its shape is long and convoluted, a physician has to change the viewpoint and the viewing direction of the virtual camera of VC many times while diagnosis. Additionally, there is a risk to overlook lesions existing in blinded areas caused by haustra. This paper proposes an automated colonic polyp detection method from 3D abdominal CT images. Colonic polyps are located on the colonic wall. Their CT values are higher than those of colonic lumen regions and lower than those of fecal materials tagged by an X-ray opaque contrast agent. CT values inside polyps which exist outside the tagged fecal materials tend to gradually increase from outward to inward (blob-like structure). CT values inside polyps that exist inside the tagged fecal materials tend to gradually decrease from outward to inward (inv-blob-like structure). We employ the blob and the inv-blob structure enhancement filters based on the eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix to detect polyps using intensity characteristic of polyps. Connected components with low output values of the enhancement filter are eliminated in false positive reduction process. Small connected components are also eliminated. We applied the proposed method to 44 cases of abdominal CT images. Sensitivity for polyps of 6 mm or larger was 80% with 4.7 false positives per case. (orig.)

  11. Post-processing image filtration enabling dose reduction in standard abdominal CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leander, Peter; Söderberg, Marcus; Fält, Tobias; Gunnarsson, Mikael; Albertsson, Ida

    2010-01-01

    The collective effective radiation dose to the population is increasing due to a higher use of computerised tomography. SharpView AB, Linköping, Sweden, has developed an adaptive non-linear post-processing image filtration that may enable the use of lower radiation doses. The present study assessed if a lower dose with image filtration had the same image quality as a higher dose without the filter applied. All imaging was performed on a Siemens Somatom Sensation 16 CT. The parameters used were 120 kV and 200 mAs (40 patients) and 130 mAs without and with image filtering (40 patients), respectively. All studies were quantitatively evaluated for noise and image quality was assessed by visual grading characteristics (VGC) analysis. After image filtration, the noise in the processed images was lowered and the image quality was improved as shown by the VGC analysis. However, images using the higher dose were still ranked as the best in five out of eight criteria as shown by the VGC analysis. Image filtration enhances CT images significantly and further studies will show if 130 mAs with image filtration may be sufficient for clinically general abdominal CT.

  12. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT ... distinguished from one another on an x-ray film or CT electronic image. In a conventional x- ...

  13. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... time, resulting in more detail and additional view capabilities. Modern CT scanners are so fast that they ... the technologist verifies that the images are of high enough quality for accurate interpretation. The CT examination ...

  14. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... can lead to artifacts on the images. This loss of image quality can resemble the blurring seen ... advantage of CT is its ability to image bone, soft tissue and blood vessels all at the ...

  15. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... CD or DVD. CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail ... image on a special electronic image recording plate. Bones appear white on the x-ray; soft tissue, ...

  16. CT and MR imaging in patients with localized acute abdominal pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prassopoulos, P.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Acute abdominal pain (AAP) is one of the most common causes for admissions to emergency departments. Clinical presentation, physical and laboratory examinations are often inconclusive and, therefore, imaging evaluation is required. Ultrasonography is efficient in the evaluation of gallbladder and gynecologic conditions and it is considered the first-line examination in many centres. Plain radiography and barium studies are often falsely normal or non-specific, especially in the most common conditions related with rightsided AAP and their use has significantly decreased. CT is a rapid and accurate imaging modality in the diagnosis of common (appendicitis, acute cholecystitis, biliary obstruction, duodenal ulcer perforation) or uncommon (mesenteric adenitis, liver abscess, cholangitis etc) conditions associated with right-sided AAP. CT may demonstrate a number of either specific or sensitive imaging findings for the confident diagnosis of diseases manifested with AAP. Moreover, CT has the advantage to suggest alternative diagnoses, if the suspected clinical diagnosis is unconfirmed. Different examination protocols and different strategies for the application of oral-rectal-intravenous contrast agents have been proposed to balance diagnostic accuracy to time effectiveness and radiation dose. MRI is suggested for AAP related to biliary abnormalities or to gynecologic diseases and it may be used as a complementary examination in pregnant patients. Imaging evaluation is an indispensable part in the diagnostic work up of most patients with AAP. CT has gained widespread acceptance, as offering more accurate and confident diagnosis and its use has changed management of the patients in 28-60% of the cases

  17. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... images or pictures of the inside of the body. The cross-sectional images generated during a CT scan can be reformatted ... of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of your body, which are then displayed on a monitor. CT ...

  18. Automated extraction of metastatic liver cancer regions from abdominal contrast CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Junki; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Kimura, Shouta; Hasegawa, Junichi; Shinozaki, Kenji; Nawano, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, automated extraction of metastatic liver cancer regions from abdominal contrast X-ray CT images is investigated. Because even in Japan, cases of metastatic liver cancers are increased due to recent Europeanization and/or Americanization of Japanese eating habits, development of a system for computer aided diagnosis of them is strongly expected. Our automated extraction procedure consists of following four steps; liver region extraction, density transformation for enhancement of cancer regions, segmentation for obtaining candidate cancer regions, and reduction of false positives by shape feature. Parameter values used in each step of the procedure are decided based on density and shape features of typical metastatic liver cancers. In experiments using practical 20 cases of metastatic liver tumors, it is shown that 56% of true cancers can be detected successfully from CT images by the proposed procedure. (author)

  19. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ... GI) contrast exams and ultrasound are preferred for evaluation of acute abdominal conditions in babies, such as ...

  20. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... abdominal conditions in babies, such as vomiting or blood in stool. For some conditions, including but not limited to some liver, kidney, pancreatic, uterine or ... Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy ...

  1. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... images or pictures of the inside of the body. The cross-sectional images generated during a CT ... very much like other x-ray examinations. Different body parts absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. ...

  2. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like ... imaging provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as ...

  3. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... its ability to image bone, soft tissue and blood vessels all at the same time. Unlike conventional x-rays, CT scanning provides very detailed images of many types of tissue as well as the lungs, bones, ...

  4. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... pictures of the inside of the body. The cross-sectional images generated during a CT scan can ... large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of your body, which are then ...

  5. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... an image on a special electronic image recording plate. Bones appear white on the x-ray; soft ... will hear only slight buzzing, clicking and whirring sounds as the CT scanner's internal parts, not usually ...

  6. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... accurate. A major advantage of CT is its ability to image bone, soft tissue and blood vessels ...

  7. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... will analyze the images and send an official report to your primary care physician or physician who ... been shown to be a cost-effective imaging tool for a wide range of clinical problems. CT ...

  8. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... lives. CT has been shown to be a cost-effective imaging tool for a wide range of ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  9. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... to obtain images. For children, the CT scanner technique will be adjusted to their size and the ... evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. A follow-up examination may also be necessary ...

  10. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside of the body. ... often eliminating the need for additional, more invasive diagnostic ... of CT is its ability to image bone, soft tissue and blood vessels all at ...

  11. Abdominal aspergillosis: CT findings

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    Yeom, Suk Keu, E-mail: pagoda20@hanmail.net [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hye Jin, E-mail: kimhyejin@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jae Ho, E-mail: jhbyun@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ah Young, E-mail: aykim@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Moon-Gyu, E-mail: mglee@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Hyun Kwon, E-mail: hkha@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Objective: In order to retrospectively evaluate the CT findings of abdominal aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Materials and methods: CT scans were reviewed with regard to the sites, number, morphologic appearance, attenuation, and the contrast enhancement patterns of the lesions in six patients (5 women, 1 man; mean age, 43.4 years; range, 23-59 years) with pathologically proved abdominal aspergillosis by two gastrointestinal radiologists in consensus. Medical records were also reviewed to determine each patient's clinical status and outcome. Results: All patients were immunocompromised state: 4 patients received immunosuppressive therapy for solid organ transplantation and 2 patients received chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. Aspergillosis involved blood vessels (n = 3), liver (n = 2), spleen (n = 2), gastrointestinal tract (n = 2), native kidney (n = 1), transplanted kidney (n = 1), peritoneum (n = 1), and retroperitoneum (n = 1). CT demonstrated solid organ or bowel infarction or perforation secondary to vascular thrombosis or pseudoaneurysm, multiple low-attenuating lesions of solid organs presenting as abscesses, concentric bowel wall thickening mimicking typhlitis, or diffuse or nodular infiltration of the peritoneum and retroperitoneum. Conclusion: Familiarity with findings commonly presenting as angioinvasive features or abscesses on CT, may facilitate the diagnosis of rare and fatal abdominal aspergillosis.

  12. Automatic multi-label annotation of abdominal CT images using CBIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhiyun; Antani, Sameer; Long, L. Rodney; Thoma, George R.

    2017-03-01

    We present a technique to annotate multiple organs shown in 2-D abdominal/pelvic CT images using CBIR. This annotation task is motivated by our research interests in visual question-answering (VQA). We aim to apply results from this effort in Open-iSM, a multimodal biomedical search engine developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM). Understanding visual content of biomedical images is a necessary step for VQA. Though sufficient annotational information about an image may be available in related textual metadata, not all may be useful as descriptive tags, particularly for anatomy on the image. In this paper, we develop and evaluate a multi-label image annotation method using CBIR. We evaluate our method on two 2-D CT image datasets we generated from 3-D volumetric data obtained from a multi-organ segmentation challenge hosted in MICCAI 2015. Shape and spatial layout information is used to encode visual characteristics of the anatomy. We adapt a weighted voting scheme to assign multiple labels to the query image by combining the labels of the images identified as similar by the method. Key parameters that may affect the annotation performance, such as the number of images used in the label voting and the threshold for excluding labels that have low weights, are studied. The method proposes a coarse-to-fine retrieval strategy which integrates the classification with the nearest-neighbor search. Results from our evaluation (using the MICCAI CT image datasets as well as figures from Open-i) are presented.

  13. Efficacy of 'fine' focal spot imaging in CT abdominal angiography

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    Oh, Lawrence Chia Wei; Devapalasundaram, Ashwini; Ardley, Nicholas [Monash Health, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Lau, Kenneth K. [Monash Health, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Monash University, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing, and Health Sciences, Victoria (Australia); Buchan, Kevin [Phillips Healthcare, Clinical Science, PO Box 312, Mont Albert, Victoria (Australia); Huynh, Minh [RMIT University, School of Mathematical and Geospatial Sciences, Victoria (Australia)

    2014-12-15

    To assess the efficacy of fine focal spot imaging in calcification beam-hardening artefact reduction and vessel clarity on CT abdominal angiography (CTAA). Adult patients of any age and gender who presented for CTAA were included. Thirty-nine patients were examined with a standard focal spot size (SFSS) of 1 x 1 mm in the first 3 months while 31 consecutive patients were examined with a fine focal spot size (FFSS) of 1 x 0.5 mm in the following 3 months. Vessel clarity and calcification beam-hardening artefacts of the abdominal aorta, celiac axis, superior mesenteric artery, inferior mesenteric artery, renal arteries, and iliac arteries were assessed using a 5-point grading scale by two blinded radiologists randomly. Cohen's Kappa test indicated that on average, there was substantial agreement among reviewers for vessel wall clarity and calcification artefact grading. Mann-Whitney test showed that there was a significant difference between the two groups, with FFSS performing significantly better for vessel clarity (U, 6481.50; p < 0.001; r, 0.73) and calcification artefact reduction (U, 1916; p < 0.001; r, 0.77). Fine focus CT angiography produces images with better vessel wall clarity and less vessel calcification beam-hardening artefact. (orig.)

  14. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... images or pictures of the inside of the body. The cross-sectional images generated during a CT scan can be reformatted ... at and passes through the part of the body being examined, recording an image on a special electronic image recording plate. Bones ...

  15. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much like other x-ray examinations. Different ... bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. CT has been shown to be a cost-effective imaging ...

  16. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... objects, including jewelry, eyeglasses, dentures and hairpins, may affect the CT images and should be left at ... of the examination the same way that it affects photographs. If contrast material is used, depending on ...

  17. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer Radiation Therapy for Colorectal Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ... GI Tract X-ray (Radiography) - Upper GI Tract Colorectal Cancer Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Abdomen and ...

  18. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... CT scanning. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org: Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer Radiation ... To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR- ...

  19. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... liver, shows up in shades of gray, and air appears black. With CT scanning, numerous x-ray ... cause blurring of the images and degrade the quality of the examination the same way that it ...

  20. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... slices. When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ...

  1. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... hours prior to your exam. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be ... the CT images and should be left at home or removed prior to your exam. You may ...

  2. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... entire body will be "inside" the scanner at one time such as with MRI. If an intravenous ... CT scanning provides very detailed images of many types of tissue as well as the lungs, bones, ...

  3. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... DVD. CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail than traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood vessels. top of page What are some common ...

  4. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... tomography (CT) scan View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. ...

  5. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... scanning is painless, noninvasive and accurate. A major advantage of CT is its ability to image bone, ... us improve RadiologyInfo.org by taking our brief survey: Survey Do you have a personal story about ...

  6. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. Any of these conditions may increase the risk ... imaging tool for a wide range of clinical problems. CT is less sensitive to patient movement than ...

  7. Abdominal tuberculosis: Imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Jose M.; Madureira, Antonio J.; Vieira, Alberto; Ramos, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    Radiological findings of abdominal tuberculosis can mimic those of many different diseases. A high level of suspicion is required, especially in high-risk population. In this article, we will describe barium studies, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) findings of abdominal tuberculosis (TB), with emphasis in the latest. We will illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis and describe imaging features that differentiate it from other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, particularly lymphoma and Crohn's disease. As tuberculosis can affect any organ in the abdomen, emphasis is placed to ileocecal involvement, lymphadenopathy, peritonitis and solid organ disease (liver, spleen and pancreas). A positive culture or hystologic analysis of biopsy is still required in many patients for definitive diagnosis. Learning objectives:1.To review the relevant pathophysiology of abdominal tuberculosis. 2.Illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis

  8. Abdominal tuberculosis: Imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Jose M. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: jmpjesus@yahoo.com; Madureira, Antonio J. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Vieira, Alberto [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Ramos, Isabel [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)

    2005-08-01

    Radiological findings of abdominal tuberculosis can mimic those of many different diseases. A high level of suspicion is required, especially in high-risk population. In this article, we will describe barium studies, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) findings of abdominal tuberculosis (TB), with emphasis in the latest. We will illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis and describe imaging features that differentiate it from other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, particularly lymphoma and Crohn's disease. As tuberculosis can affect any organ in the abdomen, emphasis is placed to ileocecal involvement, lymphadenopathy, peritonitis and solid organ disease (liver, spleen and pancreas). A positive culture or hystologic analysis of biopsy is still required in many patients for definitive diagnosis. Learning objectives:1.To review the relevant pathophysiology of abdominal tuberculosis. 2.Illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis.

  9. Liver Segmentation Based on Snakes Model and Improved GrowCut Algorithm in Abdominal CT Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyan Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method based on Snakes Model and GrowCut algorithm is proposed to segment liver region in abdominal CT images. First, according to the traditional GrowCut method, a pretreatment process using K-means algorithm is conducted to reduce the running time. Then, the segmentation result of our improved GrowCut approach is used as an initial contour for the future precise segmentation based on Snakes model. At last, several experiments are carried out to demonstrate the performance of our proposed approach and some comparisons are conducted between the traditional GrowCut algorithm. Experimental results show that the improved approach not only has a better robustness and precision but also is more efficient than the traditional GrowCut method.

  10. Abdominal wall CT angiography: a detailed account of a newly established preoperative imaging technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Timothy J; Stella, Damien L; Rozen, Warren M; Ashton, Mark; Taylor, G Ian

    2008-10-01

    Institutional review board approval was obtained for this study, and all patients gave written informed consent. Autologous surgical breast reconstruction with use of abdominal wall donor flaps based on the deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) and one or more of its anterior musculocutaneous perforating branches (DIEA perforator flap) is being used with increasing frequency instead of breast reconstruction with use of traditional transverse rectus abdominus musculocutaneous and modified muscle-sparing flaps. Preoperative mapping of the DIEA perforators with abdominal wall computed tomographic (CT) angiography may improve patient care by providing the surgeon with additional information that will lead to optimization of the surgical technique, shorter procedure time, and reduction in the frequency of surgical complications. The branching patterns of the DIEA, the segmental anatomy of the anterior adipocutaneous perforating branches of the DIEA, and the importance of these features in pre- and intraoperative surgical planning necessitate a different approach to abdominal wall CT angiography than that used with other abdominal CT angiographic techniques. In abdominal wall CT angiography, the common femoral artery is used as the bolus trigger, CT scanning is performed in the caudocranial direction, the automatic exposure control feature is disabled, a scaled grid overlay tool is used to present information to the surgeons, and radiation dose is minimized (average dose, 6 mSv). The anatomic accuracy of abdominal wall CT angiography has been investigated in cadaveric and surgical studies, with sensitivity of 96%-100% and specificity of 95%-100%. This detailed description will allow other radiologists and surgeons interested in free DIEP flap surgery to incorporate this useful tool into their practice. (c) RSNA, 2008.

  11. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Abdomen ...

  12. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Ultrasound - Abdomen X-ray (Radiography) - Lower GI Tract X-ray (Radiography) - Upper GI Tract Colorectal Cancer Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Abdomen and ...

  13. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... Rotating around you, the x-ray tube and electronic x-ray detectors are located opposite each other ... another on an x-ray film or CT electronic image. In a conventional x-ray exam, a ...

  14. Determination of the optimal energy level in spectral CT imaging for displaying abdominal vessels in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Di; Yu, Tong; Duan, Xiaomin; Peng, Yun; Zhai, Renyou

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the optimal energy level in contrast-enhanced spectral CT imaging for displaying abdominal vessels in pediatric patients. Materials and methods: This retrospective study was institutional review board approved. 15 children (8 males and 7 females, age range, 6–15 years, mean age 10.1 ± 3.1 years) underwent contrast-enhanced spectral CT imaging for diagnosing solid tumors in abdomen and pelvic areas were included. A single contrast-enhanced scan was performed using a dual energy spectral CT mode with a new split contrast injection scheme (iodixanol at 1–1.5 ml/kg dose. 2/3 first, 1/3 at 7–15 s after the first injection). 101 sets of monochromatic images with photon energies of 40–140 keV with 1 keV interval were reconstructed. Contrast-noise-ratio (CNR) for hepatic portal or vein were generated and compared at every energy level to determine the optimal energy level to maximize CNR. 2 board-certified radiologists interpreted the selected image sets independently for image quality scores. Results: CT values and CNR for the vessels increased as photon energy decreased from 140 to 40 keV: (CT value: 48.29–570.12 HU, CNR: 0.08–14.90) in the abdominal aorta, (58.48–369.73 HU, 0.64–5.87) in the inferior vena cava, and (58.48–369.73 HU, 0.06–6.96) in the portal vein. Monochromatic images at 40–50 keV (average 42.0 ± 4.67 keV) could display vessels above three levels clearly, and with excellent image quality scores of 3.17 ± 0.58 (of 4) (k = 0.50). The CNR values at the optimal energy level were significantly higher than those at 70 keV, an average energy corresponding to the conventional 120 kVp for abdominal CT imaging. Conclusion: Spectral CT imaging provides a set of monochromatic images to optimize image quality and enhance vascular visibility, especially in the hepatic portal and vein systems. The best CNR for displaying abdominal vessels in children was obtained at 42 keV photon energy level

  15. A novel multiinstance learning approach for liver cancer recognition on abdominal CT images based on CPSO-SVM and IO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huiyan; Zheng, Ruiping; Yi, Dehui; Zhao, Di

    2013-01-01

    A novel multi-instance learning (MIL) method is proposed to recognize liver cancer with abdominal CT images based on instance optimization (IO) and support vector machine with parameters optimized by a combination algorithm of particle swarm optimization and local optimization (CPSO-SVM). Introducing MIL into liver cancer recognition can solve the problem of multiple regions of interest classification. The images we use in the experiments are liver CT images extracted from abdominal CT images. The proposed method consists of two main steps: (1) obtaining the key instances through IO by texture features and a classification threshold in classification of instances with CPSO-SVM and (2) predicting unknown samples with the key instances and the classification threshold. By extracting the instances equally based on the entire image, the proposed method can ignore the procedure of tumor region segmentation and lower the demand of segmentation accuracy of liver region. The normal SVM method and two MIL algorithms, Citation-kNN algorithm and WEMISVM algorithm, have been chosen as comparing algorithms. The experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively recognize liver cancer images from two kinds of cancer CT images and greatly improve the recognition accuracy.

  16. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... accurate. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. ... kidney and bladder stones. abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), injuries to abdominal organs such as the spleen, liver, ...

  17. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... pancreas, ovaries and bladder as well as lymphoma. kidney and bladder stones. abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), injuries to abdominal organs such as the spleen, liver, kidneys or other internal organs in cases of trauma. ...

  18. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple slices in a single rotation. These scanners, called multislice CT or multidetector CT, ...

  19. Automatic spectral imaging protocol selection and iterative reconstruction in abdominal CT with reduced contrast agent dose: initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Peijie; Liu, Jie; Chai, Yaru; Yan, Xiaopeng; Gao, Jianbo; Dong, Junqiang [The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Department of Radiology, Zhengzhou, Henan Province (China)

    2017-01-15

    To evaluate the feasibility, image quality, and radiation dose of automatic spectral imaging protocol selection (ASIS) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) with reduced contrast agent dose in abdominal multiphase CT. One hundred and sixty patients were randomly divided into two scan protocols (n = 80) each; protocol A, 120 kVp/450 mgI/kg, filtered back projection algorithm (FBP); protocol B, spectral CT imaging with ASIS and 40 to 70 keV monochromatic images generated per 300 mgI/kg, ASIR algorithm. Quantitative parameters (image noise and contrast-to-noise ratios [CNRs]) and qualitative visual parameters (image noise, small structures, organ enhancement, and overall image quality) were compared. Monochromatic images at 50 keV and 60 keV provided similar or lower image noise, but higher contrast and overall image quality as compared with 120-kVp images. Despite the higher image noise, 40-keV images showed similar overall image quality compared to 120-kVp images. Radiation dose did not differ between the two protocols, while contrast agent dose in protocol B was reduced by 33 %. Application of ASIR and ASIS to monochromatic imaging from 40 to 60 keV allowed contrast agent dose reduction with adequate image quality and without increasing radiation dose compared to 120 kVp with FBP. (orig.)

  20. Evaluation of adverse events and imaging quality in contrast-enhanced abdominal CT using generic CT contrast developed in South Korea: A multicenter prospective observational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, You Sung [Dept. of Radiology, Ilsan Paik Hospital, College of Medicine, Inje University, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seung Eun; Park, Micheal Yong; Rha, Sung Eun [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo Rim [Dept. of Radiology, Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Seong Su [Dept. of Radiology, St. Vincent Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Yeon Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Bucheon St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong Mi [Dept. of Radiology, Yeouido St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical safety and usefulness of the Prosure®300 in contrast-enhanced abdominal CT. This prospective study was approved by our center's Institutional Review Board. This study included 727 patients in four hospitals who underwent contrast-enhanced abdominal CT using Prosure®300 from December 2010 to June 2011. Adverse events were classified into minor and major adverse events. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between adverse events and patient gender, age, underlying disease, and amount of injected contrast agent. Two radiologists independently evaluated imaging quality as poor, insufficient, sufficient, good, or very good. One hundred seventy-six out of 727 patients complained of adverse events, but most of them were minor adverse events. Five patients complained of dyspnea and one patient had hoarseness, but recovered without treatment. The rate of adverse events was significantly higher in men (p = 0.011), and a greater amount of injected contrast agent was related to a higher rate of adverse events (p = 0.000). Imaging quality was evaluated as 'good' or 'very good' in all cases. Prosure®300, a generic CT contrast agent developed in South Korea, can be used in contrast-enhanced abdominal CT.

  1. Evaluation of adverse events and imaging quality in contrast-enhanced abdominal CT using generic CT contrast developed in South Korea: A multicenter prospective observational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, You Sung; Jung, Seung Eun; Park, Micheal Yong; Rha, Sung Eun; Lee, Soo Rim; Hwang, Seong Su; Lim, Yeon Soo; Park, Jeong Mi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical safety and usefulness of the Prosure®300 in contrast-enhanced abdominal CT. This prospective study was approved by our center's Institutional Review Board. This study included 727 patients in four hospitals who underwent contrast-enhanced abdominal CT using Prosure®300 from December 2010 to June 2011. Adverse events were classified into minor and major adverse events. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between adverse events and patient gender, age, underlying disease, and amount of injected contrast agent. Two radiologists independently evaluated imaging quality as poor, insufficient, sufficient, good, or very good. One hundred seventy-six out of 727 patients complained of adverse events, but most of them were minor adverse events. Five patients complained of dyspnea and one patient had hoarseness, but recovered without treatment. The rate of adverse events was significantly higher in men (p = 0.011), and a greater amount of injected contrast agent was related to a higher rate of adverse events (p = 0.000). Imaging quality was evaluated as 'good' or 'very good' in all cases. Prosure®300, a generic CT contrast agent developed in South Korea, can be used in contrast-enhanced abdominal CT

  2. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... scanners to obtain multiple slices in a single rotation. These scanners, called multislice CT or multidetector CT, ... prescribed procedure with your doctor, the medical facility staff and/or your insurance provider to get a ...

  3. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ... preferable over CT scanning. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org: Radiation Therapy for Bladder ...

  4. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... the scanner at one time such as with MRI. If an intravenous contrast material is used, you ... CT is less sensitive to patient movement than MRI. CT can be performed if you have an ...

  5. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Viewing a CT scan, an experienced radiologist ... CT scans should have no immediate side effects. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer ...

  6. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... of soft tissues and blood vessels. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? This ... information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page What does the CT equipment look like? The CT ...

  7. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... of CT Scanning of the Abdomen and Pelvis? What is CT Scanning of the Abdomen/Pelvis? Computed ... soft tissues and blood vessels. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? This ...

  8. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... resulting in more detail and additional view capabilities. Modern CT scanners are so fast that they can ... to ensure that you are properly positioned. With modern CT scanners, you will hear only slight buzzing, ...

  9. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... CT scanner or may be over the weight limit—usually 450 pounds—for the moving table. CT ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ...

  10. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... CT scanner is typically a large, box-like machine with a hole, or short tunnel, in the ... Then, the table will move slowly through the machine as the actual CT scanning is performed. Depending ...

  11. Establishing the case for CT angiography in the preoperative imaging of abdominal wall perforators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozen, W M; Ashton, M W; Grinsell, D; Stella, D L; Phillips, T J; Taylor, G I

    2008-01-01

    Preoperative imaging of the donor site vasculature for deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) perforator flaps and other abdominal wall reconstructive flaps has become more commonplace. Abdominal wall computed tomography angiography (CTA) has been described as the most accurate and reproducible modality available for demonstrating the location, size, and course of individual perforators. We drew on our experience of 75 consecutive patients planned for DIEA-based flap surgery undertaking CTA at a single institution. Seven of these cases have been reported to highlight the utility of CTA for preoperative planning, emphasizing the unique information supplied by CTA that may influence operative outcome. Among all cases that underwent preoperative imaging with CTA, there was 100% flap survival, with no partial or complete flap necrosis. We found that in three of the cases described, the choice of operation was necessarily selected based on CTA findings (DIEA perforator flap, transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap, and superficial superior epigastric artery flap). In addition, three cases demonstrate that CTA findings may dictate the decision to operate at all, and one case demonstrates the utility of CTA for evaluating the entire abdominal contents for comorbid conditions. Our experience with CTA for abdominal wall perforator mapping has been highly beneficial. CTA may guide operative technique and improve perforator selection in uncomplicated cases, and in difficult cases it can guide the most appropriate operation or indeed if an operation is appropriate at all. This is particularly the case in the setting of comorbidities or previous abdominal surgery.

  12. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... for tumors as well as monitor response to chemotherapy. top of page How should I prepare? You ... of acute abdominal conditions in babies, such as vomiting or blood in stool. For some conditions, including ...

  13. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... be asked to remove hearing aids and removable dental work. Women will be asked to remove bras ... can diagnose many causes of abdominal pain or injury from trauma with very high accuracy, enabling faster ...

  14. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... experienced radiologist can diagnose many causes of abdominal pain or injury from trauma with very high accuracy, enabling faster treatment and often eliminating the need for additional, more ...

  15. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... disease such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease , pancreatitis or liver cirrhosis. cancers of the liver, kidneys, ... exams and ultrasound are preferred for evaluation of acute abdominal conditions in babies, such as vomiting or ...

  16. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... the liver, kidneys, pancreas, ovaries and bladder as well as lymphoma. kidney and bladder stones. abdominal aortic ... and properly administer radiation treatments for tumors as well as monitor response to chemotherapy. top of page ...

  17. Comparison of image quality and radiation dose between split-filter dual-energy images and single-energy images in single-source abdominal CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, André; Obmann, Markus M; Szucs-Farkas, Zsolt; Mileto, Achille; Zaehringer, Caroline; Falkowski, Anna L; Winkel, David J; Marin, Daniele; Stieltjes, Bram; Krauss, Bernhard; Schindera, Sebastian T

    2018-02-19

    To compare image quality and radiation dose of abdominal split-filter dual-energy CT (SF-DECT) combined with monoenergetic imaging to single-energy CT (SECT) with automatic tube voltage selection (ATVS). Two-hundred single-source abdominal CT scans were performed as SECT with ATVS (n = 100) and SF-DECT (n = 100). SF-DECT scans were reconstructed and subdivided into composed images (SF-CI) and monoenergetic images at 55 keV (SF-MI). Objective and subjective image quality were compared among single-energy images (SEI), SF-CI and SF-MI. CNR and FOM were separately calculated for the liver (e.g. CNR liv ) and the portal vein (CNR pv ). Radiation dose was compared using size-specific dose estimate (SSDE). Results of the three groups were compared using non-parametric tests. Image noise of SF-CI was 18% lower compared to SEI and 48% lower compared to SF-MI (p 0.628). Subjective sharpness was equal between single-energy and monoenergetic images and diagnostic confidence was equal between single-energy and composed images. FOM liv was highest for SF-CI. FOM pv was equal for SEI and SF-MI (p = 0.78). SSDE was significant lower for SF-DECT compared to SECT (p quality at lower radiation dose compared to single-energy CT with ATVS. • Split-filter dual-energy results in 18% lower noise compared to single-energy with ATVS. • Split-filter dual-energy results in 11% lower SSDE compared to single-energy with ATVS. • Spectral shaping of split-filter dual-energy leads to an increased dose-efficiency.

  18. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... benefits of the scan far outweigh any possible risks from the exposure to diagnostic radiation. top of page What are the limitations of CT Scanning of the Abdomen/Pelvis? A person who is very large may not fit into the opening of a conventional CT scanner ...

  19. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... CT equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do I get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of CT Scanning of ...

  20. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... are very nervous or anxious or have chronic pain, you may find a CT exam to be stressful. The technologist or nurse, under the direction of a physician, may offer you some medication to help you tolerate the CT scanning procedure. ...

  1. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page What does the CT equipment look like? The CT scanner is typically a large, box-like machine with a hole, or short tunnel, in the center. You will ...

  2. Abdominal CT during pregnancy: a phantom study on the effect of patient centring on conceptus radiation dose and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomou, G.; Damilakis, J. [University of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Physics, Heraklion, P.O. Box 2208, Crete (Greece); Papadakis, A.E. [University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Medical Physics, Heraklion, P.O. Box 1352, Crete (Greece)

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the effect of patient centring on conceptus radiation dose and image quality in abdominal CT during pregnancy. Three anthropomorphic phantoms that represent a pregnant woman at the three trimesters of gestation were subjected to a routine abdominal CT. Examinations were performed with fixed mAs (mAs{sub f}) and with the automatic exposure control system (AEC) activated. The percent reduction between mAs{sub f} and modulated mAs (mAs{sub mod}) was calculated. Conceptus dose (D{sub c}) was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters. To study the effect of misplacement of pregnant women on D{sub c}, each phantom was positioned at various locations relative to gantry isocentre. Image quality was evaluated on the basis of image noise, signal-to-noise ratio, and contrast-to-noise ratio. The maximum reduction between mAs{sub f} and mAs{sub mod} was 59.8 %, while the corresponding D{sub C} reduction was 59.3 %. D{sub C} was found to decrease by up to 25 % and 7.9 % for phantom locations below and above the isocentre, respectively. Image quality deteriorated when AEC was activated, and it was progressively improved from lower to higher than the isocentre locations. Centring errors do not result in an increase in D{sub c}. To maintain image quality, accurate centring is required. (orig.)

  3. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... to help diagnose the cause of abdominal or pelvic pain and diseases of the internal organs, small bowel and colon, such as: infections such as appendicitis , pyelonephritis or infected fluid collections, also known as abscesses. inflammatory bowel disease such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's ...

  4. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease , pancreatitis or liver cirrhosis. cancers of the liver, kidneys, pancreas, ovaries and bladder as well as ... injuries to abdominal organs such as the spleen, liver, kidneys or other internal organs in cases of ...

  5. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... exams and ultrasound are preferred for evaluation of acute abdominal conditions in babies, such as vomiting or blood in stool. For some conditions, including but not limited to some liver, kidney, pancreatic, uterine or ovarian abnormalities, the evaluation and diagnosis ...

  6. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... small amount of radiation is aimed at and passes through the part of the body being examined, ... of CT scan, the machine may make several passes. You may be asked to hold your breath ...

  7. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much ... deal with them. Manufacturers of intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 ...

  8. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... you have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. Any of these ... allows the body parts to be distinguished from one another on an x-ray film or CT ...

  9. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... scanning is fast, painless, noninvasive and accurate. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding ... vessels. CT examinations are fast and simple; in emergency cases, they can reveal internal injuries and bleeding ...

  10. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... as: infections such as appendicitis , pyelonephritis or infected fluid collections, also known as abscesses. inflammatory bowel disease ... caused by a burst appendix or an infected fluid collection and the subsequent spread of infection. CT ...

  11. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. Tell your doctor if there’s a possibility you ... injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. CT has been shown to be a cost- ...

  12. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... allows the body parts to be distinguished from one another on an x-ray film or CT ... entire body will be "inside" the scanner at one time such as with MRI. If an intravenous ...

  13. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ...

  14. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... seconds, and even faster in small children. Such speed is beneficial for all patients but especially children, ... pain is caused by infection and inflammation, the speed, ease and accuracy of a CT examination can ...

  15. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page What does ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. CT scanning is, in general, ...

  16. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... treatments. plan for and assess the results of surgery, such as organ transplants. stage, plan and properly ... CT scanning may eliminate the need for exploratory surgery and surgical biopsy. No radiation remains in a ...

  17. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... pancreatic, uterine or ovarian abnormalities, the evaluation and diagnosis with MRI may be preferable over CT scanning. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org: Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer Radiation Therapy for Colorectal Cancer ...

  18. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pancreatic, uterine or ovarian abnormalities, the evaluation and diagnosis with MRI may be preferable over CT scanning. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org: Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer Radiation Therapy for Colorectal Cancer top of page ...

  19. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... you are pregnant and discuss any recent illnesses, medical conditions, medications you’re taking, and allergies. You ... a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple ...

  20. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... up in shades of gray, and air appears black. With CT scanning, numerous x-ray beams and ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ...

  1. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... to remove hearing aids and removable dental work. Women will be asked to remove bras containing metal ... increase the risk of an unusual adverse effect. Women should always inform their physician and the CT ...

  2. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. Any of these conditions may ... still, are very nervous or anxious or have chronic pain, you may find a CT exam to ...

  3. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Viewing a CT scan, an experienced radiologist can ... cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. ...

  4. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ... to urinate; however, this is actually a contrast effect and subsides quickly. If the contrast material is ...

  5. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... many types of tissue as well as the lungs, bones, and blood vessels. CT examinations are fast ... of many areas of the body, particularly the lungs, abdomen, pelvis and bones. A diagnosis determined by ...

  6. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... infections such as appendicitis , pyelonephritis or infected fluid collections, also known as abscesses. inflammatory bowel disease such ... by a burst appendix or an infected fluid collection and the subsequent spread of infection. CT scanning ...

  7. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. Tell your ... emergency cases, they can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. CT has ...

  8. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... should always inform their physician and the CT technologist if there is any possibility that they may ... located in a separate control room, where the technologist operates the scanner and monitors your examination in ...

  9. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... as monitor response to chemotherapy. top of page How should I prepare? You should wear comfortable, loose- ... of a speaker and microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT ...

  10. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... to arriving. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? CT exams are ... at most a minute or two. You may experience a sensation like you have to urinate; however, ...

  11. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... is reduced. Though the scanning itself causes no pain, there may be some discomfort from having to ... are very nervous or anxious or have chronic pain, you may find a CT exam to be ...

  12. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... varying degrees. It is this crucial difference in absorption that allows the body parts to be distinguished ... will hear only slight buzzing, clicking and whirring sounds as the CT scanner's internal parts, not usually ...

  13. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... that contain iodine is extremely rare, and radiology departments are well-equipped to deal with them. Manufacturers ... always be done with low-dose technique. Radiology departments tailor the radiation dose for CT scans, especially ...

  14. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... high accuracy, enabling faster treatment and often eliminating the need for additional, more invasive diagnostic procedures. When pain ... A diagnosis determined by CT scanning may eliminate the need for exploratory surgery and surgical biopsy. No radiation ...

  15. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... preferable over CT scanning. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org: Radiation Therapy for Bladder ... Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No Please type ...

  16. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... Abdomen and Pelvis? What is CT Scanning of the Abdomen/Pelvis? Computed tomography, more commonly known as ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? This procedure is typically used to help ...

  17. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... beneficial for all patients but especially children, the elderly and critically ill, all of whom may have ... x-rays. CT scanning is, in general, not recommended for pregnant women unless medically necessary because of ...

  18. Abdominal imaging in AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Dawei; Wang Wei; Yuan Chunwang; Jia Cuiyu; Zhao Xuan; Zhang Tong; Ma Daqing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate abdominal imaging in AIDS. Methods: The imaging examinations (including US, CT and MR) of 6 patients with AIDS associated abdominal foci were analysed retrospectively. All the cases were performed US, and CT scan, of which 4 performed enhanced CT scan and 1 with MR. Results: Abdominal tuberculosis were found in 4 patients, including abdominal lymph nodes tuberculosis (3 cases) and pancreatic tuberculosis (1 case). The imaging of lymph nodes tuberculosis typically showed enlarged peripheral tim enhancement with central low-attenuation on contrast-enhanced CT. Pancreatic tuberculosis demonstrated low-attenuation area in pancreatic head and slightly peripheral enhancement. Disseminated Kaposi's sarcoma was seen in 1 case: CT and MRI scan demonstrated tumour infiltrated along hepatic portal vein and bronchovascular bundles. Pelvic tumor was observed in 1 case: CT scan showed large mass with thick and irregular wall and central low attenuation liquefacient necrotic area in the pelvic cavity. Conclusion: The imaging findings of AIDS with abdominal foci is extraordinarily helpful to the diagnosis of such disease. Tissue biopsy is needed to confirm the diagnosis. (authors)

  19. The diagnostic role of abdominal CT imaging findings in adults intussusception: Focused on the vascular compromise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Bin; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Kim, Ah Young; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Hye Jin; Park, Beom Jin; Jin, Yong Hyun; Park, Seong Ho; Kim, Kyoung Won

    2007-01-01

    Intussusception is defined as telescoping of one segment of the gastrointestinal tract into an adjacent one. Unlike that in children, adult intussusception is a relatively rare condition. More than 90% of patients with adult intussusception have been reported to have an organic cause, with benign or malignant tumors for accounting for approximately 65% of the cases. In general, the diagnosis is easily made by means of computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The imaging appearance of a bowel-within-bowel configuration with or without contained fat and mesenteric vessels, is pathognomonic. As the intussusceptum enters into the intussuscipiens, the mesentery is carried forward and trapped between the overlapping layers of bowel. The twisting or severe constriction of the mesenteric vessels may result in vascular compromise with subsequent edematous thickening of the involved bowel. In these circumstances, ischemic necrosis may develop if timely intervention is not undertaken. Therefore, determination of the presence or absence of intestinal necrosis in intussusception is important in patient management. On CT, the presence of well-known diagnostic CT criteria for strangulated obstruction (especially severe engorgement or twisting of the mesenteric vessels) as well as evidence of loss of the layered pattern, accumulation of extraluminal fluid collection, and bowel perforation, may suggest the diagnosis of intestinal necrosis. CT and MR imaging are limited in determining the primary disease causing intussusception. However, CT and MR provide excellent pre-operative evaluation, including the possible extension and/or dissemination of a malignant tumor. CT and MR imaging may also be useful in suggesting the presence of vascular compromise

  20. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a ... other in a ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located ...

  1. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... cause blurring of the images and degrade the quality of the examination the same way that it ... artifacts on the images. This loss of image quality can resemble the blurring seen on a photograph ...

  2. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... you through a built-in intercom system. With pediatric patients, a parent may be allowed in the room but will be required to wear a lead apron to minimize radiation exposure. After a CT exam, the intravenous line used to inject the contrast material will be ...

  3. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. Any of these conditions may increase the risk of an unusual adverse effect. Women should always ... such as the liver, kidneys and pancreas. When you enter the CT scanner, ...

  4. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... may increase the risk of an unusual adverse effect. Women should always inform their physician and the CT technologist if there is any possibility that they may be pregnant. See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy ...

  5. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... pancreatic, uterine or ovarian abnormalities, the evaluation and diagnosis with MRI may be preferable over CT scanning. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org: Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer Radiation Therapy for Colorectal Cancer top of page ...

  6. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much like other x-ray examinations. Different ... shield may stay in the room with their child. However, the technologist will always be able to ...

  7. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... children should always be done with low-dose technique. Radiology departments tailor the radiation dose for CT scans, especially when scanning children, so that the benefits of the scan far outweigh any possible risks from the exposure to diagnostic radiation. top of page What are ...

  8. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... to arriving. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? CT exams are ... areas. Outside links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo. ...

  9. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... in direct visual contact and usually with the ability to hear and talk to you with the use of a speaker and microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much like other x-ray examinations. Different body parts absorb the x-rays in varying ...

  10. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... operates the scanner and monitors your examination in direct visual contact and usually with the ability to hear and talk to you with the use of a speaker and microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much ...

  11. Abdominal multi-organ segmentation from CT images using conditional shape–location and unsupervised intensity priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linguraru, Marius George; Hori, Masatoshi; Summers, Ronald M; Tomiyama, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the automated segmentation of multiple organs in upper abdominal computed tomography (CT) data. The aim of our study is to develop methods to effectively construct the conditional priors and use their prediction power for more accurate segmentation as well as easy adaptation to various imaging conditions in CT images, as observed in clinical practice. We propose a general framework of multi-organ segmentation which effectively incorporates interrelations among multiple organs and easily adapts to various imaging conditions without the need for supervised intensity information. The features of the framework are as follows: (1) A method for modeling conditional shape and location (shape–location) priors, which we call prediction-based priors, is developed to derive accurate priors specific to each subject, which enables the estimation of intensity priors without the need for supervised intensity information. (2) Organ correlation graph is introduced, which defines how the conditional priors are constructed and segmentation processes of multiple organs are executed. In our framework, predictor organs, whose segmentation is sufficiently accurate by using conventional single-organ segmentation methods, are pre-segmented, and the remaining organs are hierarchically segmented using conditional shape–location priors. The proposed framework was evaluated through the segmentation of eight abdominal organs (liver, spleen, left and right kidneys, pancreas, gallbladder, aorta, and inferior vena cava) from 134 CT data from 86 patients obtained under six imaging conditions at two hospitals. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed prediction-based priors and the applicability to various imaging conditions without the need for supervised intensity information. Average Dice coefficients for the liver, spleen, and kidneys were more than 92%, and were around 73% and 67% for the pancreas and gallbladder, respectively. PMID:26277022

  12. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... Survey Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery ... Related Articles and Media Ultrasound - Abdomen X-ray (Radiography) - Lower GI Tract X-ray (Radiography) - Upper GI ...

  13. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... the imaging information is located in a separate control room, where the technologist operates the scanner and ... cause blurring of the images and degrade the quality of the examination the same way that it ...

  14. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy ...

  15. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ... not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments and procedures may vary by geographic ...

  16. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... cause blurring of the images and degrade the quality of the examination the same way that it ...

  17. Whole body imaging in the abdominal cancer patient: pitfalls of PET-CT.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDermott, Shaunagh

    2012-02-01

    Proper interpretation of PET-CT images requires knowledge of the normal physiological distribution of the tracer, frequently encountered physiological variants, and benign pathological causes of FDG uptake that can be confused with a malignant neoplasm. In addition, not all malignant processes are associated with avid tracer uptake. A basic knowledge of the technique of image acquisition is also required to avoid pitfalls such as misregistration of anatomical and scintigraphic data. This article reviews these potential pitfalls as they apply to the abdomen and pelvis of patients with cancer.

  18. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... the abdomen and pelvis is a diagnostic imaging test used to help detect diseases of the small ...

  19. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... you have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. Any of these ... its ability to image bone, soft tissue and blood vessels all at the same ... very detailed images of many types of tissue as well as the lungs, bones, ...

  20. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos ... a diagnostic imaging test used to help detect diseases of the small bowel, colon and other internal ...

  1. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of your body, which ... contrast you will be asked to arrive approximately two hours prior to your scan time or begin ...

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    Full Text Available ... images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail than traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood vessels. top of page What are some common ...

  3. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of ... tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail than traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood ...

  4. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... may increase the risk of an unusual adverse effect. Women should always inform their physician and the ... cause blurring of the images and degrade the quality of the examination the same way that it ...

  5. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments ...

  6. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... need to be taken 12 hours prior to administration of contrast material. To avoid unnecessary delays, contact ... the imaging information is located in a separate control room, where the technologist operates the scanner and ...

  7. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... cause blurring of the images and degrade the quality of the examination the same way that it affects photographs. If contrast material is used, depending on the type of exam, ...

  8. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... to you, revolve around you during the imaging process. You will be alone in the exam room ... possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by a ...

  9. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z ...

  10. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... vessels. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? This procedure is typically used ... special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of ...

  11. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... be needed for children who cannot hold still. Motion will cause blurring of the images and degrade ... to hold your breath during the scanning. Any motion, whether breathing or body movements, can lead to ...

  12. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... Any motion, whether breathing or body movements, can lead to artifacts on the images. This loss of ... circumstances. For example, sometimes a parent wearing a lead shield may stay in the room with their ...

  13. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... If contrast material is used, depending on the type of exam, it will be swallowed, injected through ...

  14. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located in a separate ... follows a spiral path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two- ...

  15. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... the imaging information is located in a separate control room, where the technologist operates the scanner and ... speak with you through a built-in intercom system. With pediatric patients, a parent may be allowed ...

  16. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Ultrasound - Abdomen X-ray (Radiography) - Lower ... facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments ...

  17. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... vessels. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? This procedure is typically used ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ...

  18. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... other medical conditions and whether you have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or ... other in a ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located ...

  19. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of ... Society of Urogenital Radiology note that the available data suggest that it is safe to continue breastfeeding ...

  20. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... speak with you through a built-in intercom system. With pediatric patients, a parent may be allowed ... will analyze the images and send an official report to your primary care physician or physician who ...

  1. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site ...

  2. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... Alternate imaging techniques such as plain films, gastrointestinal (GI) contrast exams and ultrasound are preferred for evaluation ... and Media Ultrasound - Abdomen X-ray (Radiography) - Lower GI Tract X-ray (Radiography) - Upper GI Tract Colorectal ...

  3. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... beneficial for all patients but especially children, the elderly and critically ill, all of whom may have ... the scanning. Any motion, whether breathing or body movements, can lead to artifacts on the images. This ...

  4. SU-E-I-23: A General KV Constrained Optimization of CNR for CT Abdominal Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir, V; Zhang, J [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: While Tube current modulation has been well accepted for CT dose reduction, kV adjusting in clinical settings is still at its early stage. This is mainly due to the limited kV options of most current CT scanners. kV adjusting can potentially reduce radiation dose and optimize image quality. This study is to optimize CT abdomen imaging acquisition based on the assumption of a continuous kV, with the goal to provide the best contrast to noise ratio (CNR). Methods: For a given dose (CTDIvol) level, the CNRs at different kV and pitches were measured with an ACR GAMMEX phantom. The phantom was scanned in a Siemens Sensation 64 scanner and a GE VCT 64 scanner. A constrained mathematical optimization was used to find the kV which led to the highest CNR for the anatomy and pitch setting. Parametric equations were obtained from polynomial fitting of plots of kVs vs CNRs. A suitable constraint region for optimization was chosen. Subsequent optimization yielded a peak CNR at a particular kV for different collimations and pitch setting. Results: The constrained mathematical optimization approach yields kV of 114.83 and 113.46, with CNRs of 1.27 and 1.11 at the pitch of 1.2 and 1.4, respectively, for the Siemens Sensation 64 scanner with the collimation of 32 x 0.625mm. An optimized kV of 134.25 and 1.51 CNR is obtained for a GE VCT 64 slice scanner with a collimation of 32 x 0.625mm and a pitch of 0.969. At 0.516 pitch and 32 x 0.625 mm an optimized kV of 133.75 and a CNR of 1.14 was found for the GE VCT 64 slice scanner. Conclusion: CNR in CT image acquisition can be further optimized with a continuous kV option instead of current discrete or fixed kV settings. A continuous kV option is a key for individualized CT protocols.

  5. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... electronic x-ray detectors are located opposite each other in a ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located in a separate control room, where the technologist operates the scanner and ...

  6. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News ... you have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. Any of these ...

  7. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... possibility that they may be pregnant. See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x- ...

  8. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ... and blood vessels provide greater detail than traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood vessels. top ...

  9. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. A follow-up examination may also be necessary so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way to see if treatment is working or ...

  10. Experimental study of abdominal CT scanning exposal doses adjusted on the basis of pediatric abdominal perimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Wenzhou; Zhu Gongsheng; Zeng Lingyan; Yin Xianglin; Yang Fuwen; Liu Changsheng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To optimize the abdominal helical CT scanning parameters in pediatric patients and to reduce its radiation hazards. Methods: 60 canines were evenly grouped into 4 groups on the basis of pediatric abdominal perimeter, scanned with 110,150,190 and 240 mAs, and their qualities of canine CT images were analyzed. 120 pediafric patients with clinic suspected abdominal diseases were divided into 4 groups on the basis of abdominal perimeter, scanned by optimal parameters and their image qualities were analyzed. Results: After CT exposure were reduced, the percentages of total A and B were 90.9 % and 92.0 % in experimental canines and in pediatric patients, respectively. Compared with conventional CT scanning, the exposure and single slice CT dose index weighted (CTDIw) were reduced to 45.8%-79.17%. Conclusion: By adjusted the pediatric helical CT parameters basedon the of pediatric abdominal perimeter, exposure of patient to the hazards of radiation is reduced. (authors)

  11. Balancing Radiation and Contrast Media Dose in Single-Pass Abdominal Multidetector CT: Prospective Evaluation of Image Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camera, Luigi; Romano, Federica; Liccardo, Immacolata; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Imbriaco, Massimo; Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Pizzuti, Laura Micol; Segreto, Sabrina; Maurea, Simone; Brunetti, Arturo

    2015-11-01

    As both contrast and radiation dose affect the quality of CT images, a constant image quality in abdominal contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (CE-MDCT) could be obtained balancing radiation and contrast media dose according to the age of the patients. Seventy-two (38 Men; 34 women; aged 20-83 years) patients underwent a single-pass abdominal CE-MDCT. Patients were divided into three different age groups: A (20-44 years); B (45-65 years); and C (>65 years). For each group, a different noise index (NI) and contrast media dose (370 mgI/mL) was selected as follows: A (NI, 15; 2.5 mL/kg), B (NI, 12.5; 2 mL/kg), and C (NI, 10; 1.5 mL/kg). Radiation exposure was reported as dose-length product (DLP) in mGy × cm. For quantitative analysis, signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratios were calculated for both the liver (L) and the abdominal aorta (A). Statistical analysis was performed with a one-way analysis of variance. Standard imaging criteria were used for qualitative analysis. Although peak hepatic enhancement was 152 ± 16, 128 ± 12, and 101 ± 14 Hounsfield units (P contrast media dose (mL) administered were 476 ± 147 and 155 ± 27 for group A, 926 ± 291 and 130 ± 16 for group B, and 1981 ± 451 and 106 ± 15 for group C, respectively (P contrast media dose administered to patients of different age. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Diagnostic imaging and acute abdominal pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljekvist, Mads Svane; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-19

    Acute abdominal pain is a common clinical condition. Clinical signs and symptoms can be difficult to interpret, and diagnostic imaging may help to identify intra-abdominal disease. Conventional X-ray, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen vary in usability between common surgical causes of acute abdominal pain. Overall, conventional X-ray cannot confidently diagnose or rule out disease. US and CT are equally trustworthy for most diseases. US with subsequent CT may enhance diagnostic precision. Magnetic resonance seems promising for future use in acute abdominal imaging.

  13. Improved image quality in abdominal CT in patients who underwent treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma with small metal implants using a raw data-based metal artifact reduction algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofue, Keitaro; Sugimura, Kazuro [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Ohno, Yoshiharu [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Negi, Noriyuki [Kobe University Hospital, Division of Radiology, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Inokawa, Hiroyasu; Sugihara, Naoki [Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, Otawara, Tochigi (Japan)

    2017-07-15

    To determine the value of a raw data-based metal artifact reduction (SEMAR) algorithm for image quality improvement in abdominal CT for patients with small metal implants. Fifty-eight patients with small metal implants (3-15 mm in size) who underwent treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma were imaged with CT. CT data were reconstructed by filtered back projection with and without SEMAR algorithm in axial and coronal planes. To evaluate metal artefact reduction, mean CT number (HU and SD) and artefact index (AI) values within the liver were calculated. Two readers independently evaluated image quality of the liver and pancreas and visualization of vasculature using a 5-point visual score. HU and AI values and image quality on images with and without SEMAR were compared using the paired Student's t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Interobserver agreement was evaluated using linear-weighted κ test. Mean HU and AI on images with SEMAR was significantly lower than those without SEMAR (P < 0.0001). Liver and pancreas image qualities and visualizations of vasculature were significantly improved on CT with SEMAR (P < 0.0001) with substantial or almost perfect agreement (0.62 ≤ κ ≤ 0.83). SEMAR can improve image quality in abdominal CT in patients with small metal implants by reducing metallic artefacts. (orig.)

  14. Comparative study of radiation dose and image noise between single-source fast kilo voltage peak switching technique and conventional mode on abdominal CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Xiaozhu; Xu Xueqin; Chen Kemin; Yan Fuhua; Isao Tanaka; Rika Fukui; Haruhiko Machida; Eiko Ueno

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the radiation dose and image noise of abdominal CT with spectral imaging and conventional scan mode. Methods: This was a retrospective study. The first part of this study was a phantom study. A standard quality assessment phantom was scanned with gemstone spectral imaging mode and conventional helical mode using 120 kVp with different mAs. A regression function for the mAs between conventional scan mode and spectral imaging mode was obtained. According to the regression function, the mAs on 120 kVp corresponding to different gemstone spectral imaging protocol were calculated. The second part of this study was a clinical study. Twenty-two patients who underwent contrast enhanced abdominal CT scanning were included. The pre-contrast CT was scanned by a conventional mode with automatic exposure control technique. According to the mAs of pre-contrast scan, corresponding spectral imaging parameters were selected for the portal venous phase of post-contrast scan. Five sets of images with 5 mm slice thickness were reconstructed, with 65 keV monochromatic image for spectral imaging and FBP, 20%,40% and 60% ASIR image for conventional imaging respectively. Image noise was measured on hepatic parenchyma and urinary bladder for each set of image. Radiation dose and image noise were compared between CT spectral imaging and conventional imaging with paired t-test. Results: No significant differences were found for the CTDIvol [(13.8 ± 4.8) mGy versus (14.0 ± 7.0) mGy] and DLP [(691.1 ± 274.2) mGy · cm versus (678.8 ± 385.0) mGy · cm] between CT spectral imaging and conventional imaging. Monochromatic image (65 keV) by spectral imaging [(7.6 ± 1.4) HU for hepatic parenchyma and (9.1 ± 1.3) HU for urinary bladder] had equal image noise with 40% ASIR [hepatic parenchyma: (7.8 ±0.7) HU] and 20% ASIR [urinary bladder: (9.2 ± 1.2) HU] and lower image noise than FBP image [(10.4 ± 1.0) HU for hepatic parenchyma and (10.5 ± 1.3) HU for urinary

  15. Improved image quality in abdominal CT in patients who underwent treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma with small metal implants using a raw data-based metal artifact reduction algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofue, Keitaro; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Negi, Noriyuki; Inokawa, Hiroyasu; Sugihara, Naoki; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2017-07-01

    To determine the value of a raw data-based metal artifact reduction (SEMAR) algorithm for image quality improvement in abdominal CT for patients with small metal implants. Fifty-eight patients with small metal implants (3-15 mm in size) who underwent treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma were imaged with CT. CT data were reconstructed by filtered back projection with and without SEMAR algorithm in axial and coronal planes. To evaluate metal artefact reduction, mean CT number (HU and SD) and artefact index (AI) values within the liver were calculated. Two readers independently evaluated image quality of the liver and pancreas and visualization of vasculature using a 5-point visual score. HU and AI values and image quality on images with and without SEMAR were compared using the paired Student's t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Interobserver agreement was evaluated using linear-weighted κ test. Mean HU and AI on images with SEMAR was significantly lower than those without SEMAR (P small metal implants by reducing metallic artefacts. • SEMAR algorithm significantly reduces metallic artefacts from small implants in abdominal CT. • SEMAR can improve image quality of the liver in dynamic CECT. • Confidence visualization of hepatic vascular anatomies can also be improved by SEMAR.

  16. Value of a probabilistic atlas in medical image segmentation regarding non-rigid registration of abdominal CT scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjin; Meyer, Charles R.

    2012-10-01

    A probabilistic atlas provides important information to help segmentation and registration applications in medical image analysis. We construct a probabilistic atlas by picking a target geometry and mapping other training scans onto that target and then summing the results into one probabilistic atlas. By choosing an atlas space close to the desired target, we construct an atlas that represents the population well. Image registration used to map one image geometry onto another is a primary task in atlas building. One of the main parameters of registration is the choice of degrees of freedom (DOFs) of the geometric transform. Herein, we measure the effect of the registration's DOFs on the segmentation performance of the resulting probabilistic atlas. Twenty-three normal abdominal CT scans were used, and four organs (liver, spinal cord, left and right kidneys) were segmented for each scan. A well-known manifold learning method, ISOMAP, was used to find the best target space to build an atlas. In summary, segmentation performance was high for high DOF registrations regardless of the chosen target space, while segmentation performance was lowered for low DOF registrations if a target space was far from the best target space. At the 0.05 level of statistical significance, there were no significant differences at high DOF registrations while there were significant differences at low DOF registrations when choosing different targets.

  17. Abdominal imaging findings in gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flicek, Kristina T; Vikram, Holenarasipur R; De Petris, Giovanni D; Johnson, C Daniel

    2015-02-01

    To describe the abdominal imaging findings of patients with gastrointestinal Basidiobolus ranarum infection. A literature search was performed to compile the abdominal imaging findings of all reported worldwide cases of gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis (GIB). In addition, a retrospective review at our institution was performed to identify GIB cases that had imaging findings. A radiologist aware of the diagnosis reviewed the imaging findings in detail. Additional information was obtained from the medical records. A total of 73 GIB cases have been published in the medical literature. The most common abdominal imaging findings were masses in the colon, the liver, or multiple sites and bowel wall thickening. Initially, many patients were considered to have either a neoplasm or Crohn disease. We identified 7 proven cases of GIB at our institution, of which 4 had imaging studies (4 computed tomography [CT] examinations, 4 abdominal radiographs, and an upper gastrointestinal study). Imaging studies showed abnormalities in all 4 cases. Three-fourths of our study patients had an abdominal mass at CT. Two of 3 masses involved the kidneys and included urinary obstruction. All masses showed an inflammatory component with adjacent soft tissue stranding, with or without abscess formation. Radiologists should consider GIB when a patient from an arid climate presents with abdominal pain, weight loss, and an inflammatory abdominal mass on CT. Abdominal masses of the colon or liver, bowel wall thickening, and abscesses are the most common imaging findings.

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? What is Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and ... as the liver or kidneys. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ...

  19. Imaging in Tuberculosis abdominal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, Tatiana; Garcia, Vanessa; Tamara, Estrada; Acosta, Federico

    2010-01-01

    In this article we illustrate and discuss imaging features resulting from Tuberculosis abdominal affectation. We present patients evaluated with several imaging modalities who had abdominal symptoms and findings suggestive of granulomatous disease. Diagnosis was confirm including hystopatology and clinical outgoing. Cases involved presented many affected organs such as lymphatic system, peritoneum, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, ureters, adrenal glands and pelvic organs Tuberculosis, Tuberculosis renal, Tuberculosis hepatic, Tuberculosis splenic Tomography, x-ray, computed

  20. Whole-body CT in polytrauma patients: the effect of arm position on abdominal image quality when using a human phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Pil-Hyun [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Wonju Christian Hospital, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Joung; Lee, Chang-Lae; Kim, Dae-Hong [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Hyung; Jeon, Sung-Su [Wonju Christian Hospital, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    For a considerable number of emergency computed tomography (CT) scans, patients are unable to position their arms above their head due to traumatic injuries. The arms-down position has been shown to reduce image quality with beam-hardening artifacts in the dorsal regions of the liver, spleen, and kidneys, rendering these images non-diagnostic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of arm position on the image quality in patients undergoing whole-body CT. We acquired CT scans with various acquisition parameters at voltages of 80, 120, and 140 kVp and an increasing tube current from 200 to 400 mAs in 50 mAs increments. The image noise and the contrast assessment were considered for quantitative analyses of the CT images. The image noise (IN), the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and the coefficient of variation (COV) were evaluated. Quantitative analyses of the experiments were performed with CT scans representative of five different arm positions. Results of the CT scans acquired at 120 kVp and 250 mAs showed high image quality in patients with both arms raised above the head (SNR: 12.4, CNR: 10.9, and COV: 8.1) and both arms flexed at the elbows on the chest (SNR: 11.5, CNR: 10.2, and COV: 8.8) while the image quality significantly decreased with both arms in the down position (SNR: 9.1, CNR: 7.6, and COV: 11). Both arms raised, one arm raised, and both arms flexed improved the image quality compared to arms in the down position by reducing beam-hardening and streak artifacts caused by the arms being at the side of body. This study provides optimal methods for achieving higher image quality and lower noise in abdominal CT for trauma patients.

  1. Whole-body CT in polytrauma patients: the effect of arm position on abdominal image quality when using a human phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Pil-Hyun; Kim, Hee-Joung; Lee, Chang-Lae; Kim, Dae-Hong; Lee, Won-Hyung; Jeon, Sung-Su

    2012-01-01

    For a considerable number of emergency computed tomography (CT) scans, patients are unable to position their arms above their head due to traumatic injuries. The arms-down position has been shown to reduce image quality with beam-hardening artifacts in the dorsal regions of the liver, spleen, and kidneys, rendering these images non-diagnostic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of arm position on the image quality in patients undergoing whole-body CT. We acquired CT scans with various acquisition parameters at voltages of 80, 120, and 140 kVp and an increasing tube current from 200 to 400 mAs in 50 mAs increments. The image noise and the contrast assessment were considered for quantitative analyses of the CT images. The image noise (IN), the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and the coefficient of variation (COV) were evaluated. Quantitative analyses of the experiments were performed with CT scans representative of five different arm positions. Results of the CT scans acquired at 120 kVp and 250 mAs showed high image quality in patients with both arms raised above the head (SNR: 12.4, CNR: 10.9, and COV: 8.1) and both arms flexed at the elbows on the chest (SNR: 11.5, CNR: 10.2, and COV: 8.8) while the image quality significantly decreased with both arms in the down position (SNR: 9.1, CNR: 7.6, and COV: 11). Both arms raised, one arm raised, and both arms flexed improved the image quality compared to arms in the down position by reducing beam-hardening and streak artifacts caused by the arms being at the side of body. This study provides optimal methods for achieving higher image quality and lower noise in abdominal CT for trauma patients.

  2. CT images of gossypiboma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Hae Jeong; Lim, Jong Nam; Choi, Young Chil; Park, Jeong Hee

    1994-01-01

    Surgical sponges retained after laparotomy can cause serious problem if they were not be identified in early state. In these circumstances abdominal CT yields the accurate diagnostic images. The purpose of this report is to present highly indicative findings permitting correct preoperative diagnosis of the gossypiboma. We experienced three cases in which CT showed the images sufficiently characteristic to suggest the correct preoperative diagnosis. We evaluated retrospectively the radiological images of gossypiboma confirmed by operation. Three patients were admitted due to palpable masses. Two female patients had medical histories of cesarean sections and a male patient had been operated due to malignant fibrous histiocytoma, previously. Abdominal CT scan of one case revealed huge ovoid hypodense mass with enhanced peripheral rim. Calcific spots and whirl-like stripes were noted within the lesion. Towel was found in pathologic specimen. CT images of two patients showed well-encapsulated, mixed fluid and soft tissue density mass with several gas bubbles. Surgical sponges were found within abscesses. The authors conclude that these characteristic CT findings and careful histories of surgery are very useful for correct pre-operative diagnosis and permit the guideline for the optimal plan of the surgical treatment

  3. CT images of gossypiboma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Hae Jeong; Lim, Jong Nam; Choi, Young Chil; Park, Jeong Hee [College of Medicine, Kon-Kuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-15

    Surgical sponges retained after laparotomy can cause serious problem if they were not be identified in early state. In these circumstances abdominal CT yields the accurate diagnostic images. The purpose of this report is to present highly indicative findings permitting correct preoperative diagnosis of the gossypiboma. We experienced three cases in which CT showed the images sufficiently characteristic to suggest the correct preoperative diagnosis. We evaluated retrospectively the radiological images of gossypiboma confirmed by operation. Three patients were admitted due to palpable masses. Two female patients had medical histories of cesarean sections and a male patient had been operated due to malignant fibrous histiocytoma, previously. Abdominal CT scan of one case revealed huge ovoid hypodense mass with enhanced peripheral rim. Calcific spots and whirl-like stripes were noted within the lesion. Towel was found in pathologic specimen. CT images of two patients showed well-encapsulated, mixed fluid and soft tissue density mass with several gas bubbles. Surgical sponges were found within abscesses. The authors conclude that these characteristic CT findings and careful histories of surgery are very useful for correct pre-operative diagnosis and permit the guideline for the optimal plan of the surgical treatment.

  4. Imaging of abdominal neuroblastoma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugosson, C.; Nyman, R.; Jorulf, H.; McDonald, P.; Rifai, A.; Jacobsson, B.; Kofide, A.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of the study were: (1) to assess the efficacy of different imaging methods for use prior to treatment; (2) to compare the surgico-histopathologically-based International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) staging with the imaging results; and (3) to suggest a localisation scheme for abdominal neuroblastoma. Material and Methods: Thirty-one children with an abdominal neuroblastoma (median age 2 years), underwent abdominal US, CT of chest and abdomen, MR imaging of abdomen and spine, chest radiography, skeletal survey, radionuclide bone scintigraphy, MIBG scintigraphy, and bone marrow biopsy. Results: In the evaluation of local disease, CT and MR were superior to US. There was no significant difference between CT and MR in assessment of the location or size of the tumour. Evaluation of invasive growth and lymphadenopathy was uncertain irrespective of imaging modality. Intraspinal extension was more distinctly demonstrated with MR. Tissue characterization with CT and MR did not contribute in the assessment of the tumours. Contrast enhancement at CT and MR examinations both improved demarcation between tumour and kidney, and was a necessity for evaluation of vessel encasement with CT. The local disease was best assessed by either CT or MR, while metastatic disease was best revealed by CT, MR, scintigraphy or bone marrow biopsy. Conclusion: Imaging may be a valuable basis for clinical assessment and pretreatment staging of abdominal neuroblastoma. (orig.)

  5. Differential Aging Signals in Abdominal CT Scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Nikita V; Makrogiannis, Sokratis; Ferrucci, Luigi; Goldberg, Ilya G

    2017-12-01

    Changes in the composition of body tissues are major aging phenotypes, but they have been difficult to study in depth. Here we describe age-related change in abdominal tissues observable in computed tomography (CT) scans. We used pattern recognition and machine learning to detect and quantify these changes in a model-agnostic fashion. CT scans of abdominal L4 sections were obtained from Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) participants. Age-related change in the constituent tissues were determined by training machine classifiers to differentiate age groups within male and female strata ("Younger" at 50-70 years old vs "Older" at 80-99 years old). The accuracy achieved by the classifiers in differentiating the age cohorts was used as a surrogate measure of the aging signal in the different tissues. The highest accuracy for discriminating age differences was 0.76 and 0.72 for males and females, respectively. The classification accuracy was 0.79 and 0.71 for adipose tissue, 0.70 and 0.68 for soft tissue, and 0.65 and 0.64 for bone. Using image data from a large sample of well-characterized pool of participants dispersed over a wide age range, we explored age-related differences in gross morphology and texture of abdominal tissues. This technology is advantageous for tracking effects of biological aging and predicting adverse outcomes when compared to the traditional use of specific molecular biomarkers. Application of pattern recognition and machine learning as a tool for analyzing medical images may provide much needed insight into tissue changes occurring with aging and, further, connect these changes with their metabolic and functional consequences. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. SU-F-207-02: Use of Postmortem Subjects for Subjective Image Quality Assessment in Abdominal CT Protocols with Iterative Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mench, A [Salem Hospital, Salem, OR (United States); Lipnharski, I; Carranza, C; Lamoureux, R; Smajdor, L; Cormack, B; Mohammed, T; Rill, L; Arreola, M [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sinclair, L [Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: New radiation dose reduction technologies are emerging constantly in the medical imaging field. The latest of these technologies, iterative reconstruction (IR) in CT, presents the ability to reduce dose significantly and hence provides great opportunity for CT protocol optimization. However, without effective analysis of image quality, the reduction in radiation exposure becomes irrelevant. This work explores the use of postmortem subjects as an image quality assessment medium for protocol optimizations in abdominal CT. Methods: Three female postmortem subjects were scanned using the Abdomen-Pelvis (AP) protocol at reduced minimum tube current and target noise index (SD) settings of 12.5, 17.5, 20.0, and 25.0. Images were reconstructed using two strengths of iterative reconstruction. Radiologists and radiology residents from several subspecialties were asked to evaluate 8 AP image sets including the current facility default scan protocol and 7 scans with the parameters varied as listed above. Images were viewed in the soft tissue window and scored on a 3-point scale as acceptable, borderline acceptable, and unacceptable for diagnosis. The facility default AP scan was identified to the reviewer while the 7 remaining AP scans were randomized and de-identified of acquisition and reconstruction details. The observers were also asked to comment on the subjective image quality criteria they used for scoring images. This included visibility of specific anatomical structures and tissue textures. Results: Radiologists scored images as acceptable or borderline acceptable for target noise index settings of up to 20. Due to the postmortem subjects’ close representation of living human anatomy, readers were able to evaluate images as they would those of actual patients. Conclusion: Postmortem subjects have already been proven useful for direct CT organ dose measurements. This work illustrates the validity of their use for the crucial evaluation of image quality

  7. Non-contrast CT at comparable dose to an abdominal radiograph in patients with acute renal colic; impact of iterative reconstruction on image quality and diagnostic performance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLaughlin, P D

    2014-04-01

    The aim was to assess the performance of low-dose non-contrast CT of the urinary tract (LD-CT) acquired at radiation exposures close to that of abdominal radiography using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR).

  8. An incidentally found inflamed uterine myoma Causing low abdominal pain, using TC-99m-tektrotyd single photon emission computed tomography-CT hybrid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zandieh, Shahin; Schuetz, Matthias; Bernt, Reinhard; Zwerina, Jochen; Haller, Joerg [Hanusch-Hospital, Teaching Hospital of Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    We report the case of a 50-year-old woman presented with a history of right hemicolectomy due to an ileocecal neuroendocrine tumor and left breast metastasis. Owing to a slightly elevated chromogranin A-level and lower abdominal pain, single photon emission computed tomography-computer tomography (SPECT-CT) was performed. There were no signs of recurrence on the SPECT-CT scan, but the patient was incidentally found to have an inflamed intramural myoma. We believe that the slightly elevated chromogranin A-level was caused by the hypertension that the patient presented. In the clinical context, this is a report of an inflamed uterine myoma seen as a false positive result detected by TC-99m-Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-Octreotide (Tektrotyd) SPECT-CT hybrid imaging.

  9. An incidentally found inflamed uterine myoma causing low abdominal pain, using Tc-99m-tektrotyd single photon emission computed tomography-CT hybrid imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandieh, Shahin; Schütz, Matthias; Bernt, Reinhard; Zwerina, Jochen; Haller, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 50-year-old woman presented with a history of right hemicolectomy due to an ileocecal neuroendocrine tumor and left breast metastasis. Owing to a slightly elevated chromogranin A-level and lower abdominal pain, single photon emission computed tomography-computer tomography (SPECT-CT) was performed. There were no signs of recurrence on the SPECT-CT scan, but the patient was incidentally found to have an inflamed intramural myoma. We believe that the slightly elevated chromogranin A-level was caused by the hypertension that the patient presented. In the clinical context, this is a report of an inflamed uterine myoma seen as a false positive result detected by TC-99m-Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-Octreotide (Tektrotyd) SPECT-CT hybrid imaging.

  10. Quality of routine diagnostic abdominal images generated from a novel detector-based spectral CT scanner: a technical report on a phantom and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojjati, Mojgan; Van Hedent, Steven; Rassouli, Negin; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Jordan, David; Dhanantwari, Amar; Rajiah, Prabhakar

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the image quality of routine diagnostic images generated from a novel detector-based spectral detector CT (SDCT) and compare it with CT images obtained from a conventional scanner with an energy-integrating detector (Brilliance iCT), Routine diagnostic (conventional/polyenergetic) images are non-material-specific images that resemble single-energy images obtained at the same radiation, METHODS: ACR guideline-based phantom evaluations were performed on both SDCT and iCT for CT adult body protocol. Retrospective analysis was performed on 50 abdominal CT scans from each scanner. Identical ROIs were placed at multiple locations in the abdomen and attenuation, noise, SNR, and CNR were measured. Subjective image quality analysis on a 5-point Likert scale was performed by 2 readers for enhancement, noise, and image quality. On phantom studies, SDCT images met the ACR requirements for CT number and deviation, CNR and effective radiation dose. In patients, the qualitative scores were significantly higher for the SDCT than the iCT, including enhancement (4.79 ± 0.38 vs. 4.60 ± 0.51, p = 0.005), noise (4.63 ± 0.42 vs. 4.29 ± 0.50, p = 0.000), and quality (4.85 ± 0.32, vs. 4.57 ± 0.50, p = 0.000). The SNR was higher in SDCT than iCT for liver (7.4 ± 4.2 vs. 7.2 ± 5.3, p = 0.662), spleen (8.6 ± 4.1 vs. 7.4 ± 3.5, p = 0.152), kidney (11.1 ± 6.3 vs. 8.7 ± 5.0, p = 0.033), pancreas (6.90 ± 3.45 vs 6.11 ± 2.64, p = 0.303), aorta (14.2 ± 6.2 vs. 11.0 ± 4.9, p = 0.007), but was slightly lower in lumbar-vertebra (7.7 ± 4.2 vs. 7.8 ± 4.5, p = 0.937). The CNR of the SDCT was also higher than iCT for all abdominal organs. Image quality of routine diagnostic images from the SDCT is comparable to images of a conventional CT scanner with energy-integrating detectors, making it suitable for diagnostic purposes.

  11. SU-F-I-47: Optimizing Protocols for Image Quality and Dose in Abdominal CT of Large Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L; Yester, M [UAB Medical Center, Birmingham, AL (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Newer CT scanners are able to use scout views to adjust mA throughout the scan in order to achieve a given noise level. However, given constraints of radiologist preferences for kVp and rotation time, it may not be possible to achieve an acceptable noise level for large patients. A study was initiated to determine for which patients kVp and/or rotation time should be changed in order to achieve acceptable image quality. Methods: Patient scans were reviewed on two new Emergency Department scanners (Philips iCT) to identify patients over a large range of sizes. These iCTs were set with a limit of 500 mA to safeguard against a failure that might cause a CT scan to be (incorrectly) obtained at too-high mA. Scout views of these scans were assessed for both AP and LAT patient width and AP and LAT standard deviation in an ROI over the liver. Effective diameter and product of the scout standard deviations over the liver were both studied as possible metrics for identifying patients who would need kVp and/or rotation time changed. The mA used for the liver in the CT was compared to these metrics for those patients whose CT scans showed acceptable image quality. Results: Both effective diameter and product of the scout standard deviations over the liver result in similar predictions for which patients will require the kVp and/or rotation time to be changed to achieve an optimal combination of image quality and dose. Conclusion: Two mechanisms for CT technologists to determine based on scout characteristics what kVp, mA limit, and rotation time to use when DoseRight with our physicians’ preferred kVp and rotation time will not yield adequate image quality are described.

  12. Systematic radiation dose optimization of abdominal dual-energy CT on a second-generation dual-source CT scanner: assessment of the accuracy of iodine uptake measurement and image quality in an in vitro and in vivo investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindera, Sebastian T; Zaehringer, Caroline; D'Errico, Luigia; Schwartz, Fides; Kekelidze, Maka; Szucs-Farkas, Zsolt; Benz, Matthias R

    2017-10-01

    To assess the accuracy of iodine quantification in a phantom study at different radiation dose levels with dual-energy dual-source CT and to evaluate image quality and radiation doses in patients undergoing a single-energy and two dual-energy abdominal CT protocols. In a phantom study, the accuracy of iodine quantification (4.5-23.5 mgI/mL) was evaluated using the manufacturer-recommended and three dose-optimized dual-energy protocols. In a patient study, 75 abdomino-pelvic CT examinations were acquired as follows: 25 CT scans with the manufacturer-recommended dual-energy protocol (protocol A); 25 CT scans with a dose-optimized dual-energy protocol (protocol B); and 25 CT scans with a single-energy CT protocol (protocol C). CTDI vol and objective noise were measured. Five readers scored each scan according to six subjective image quality parameters (noise, contrast, artifacts, visibility of small structures, sharpness, overall diagnostic confidence). In the phantom study, differences between the real and measured iodine concentrations ranged from -8.8% to 17.0% for the manufacturer-recommended protocol and from -1.6% to 20.5% for three dose-optimized protocols. In the patient study, the CTDI vol of protocol A, B, and C were 12.5 ± 1.9, 7.5 ± 1.2, and 6.5 ± 1.7 mGycm, respectively (p dual-energy and the single-energy protocol. A dose reduction of 41% is feasible for the manufacturer-recommended, abdominal dual-energy CT protocol, as it maintained the accuracy of iodine measurements and subjective image quality compared to a single-energy protocol.

  13. CT diagnosis of abdominal abscess in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xin; Yang Zhiyong

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate CT in the diagnosis of abdominal abscess in children. Methods: Analysis of CT manifestations in 23 cases proved by operation and needle aspiration. Causes: acute appendicitis 13 cases, ascending colon perforation 1 case, Meckel diverticulitis 2 cases, cause obscured 7 cases. Bolus injection of contrast medium was given in 19 cases. Results: The CT value had no relationship to the course of disease and type of bacteria, amount of abscess had positive relevance relative with course of illness. Air-fluid level or scattered gas bubbles was seen in abscesses in 52%; little calcified plague was present in 22%. All cases presented nonhomogeneous thick wall enhancement after one week of illness. Conclusion: The characteristic CT features of intra-abdominal abscess were the presence of air and little calcified plague shadow; a large air-fluid level was indicative of fistula, while the absence of air in the abscess can not exclude fistula

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Children's (pediatric) abdominal ultrasound imaging produces pictures ...

  15. CT diagnosis of abdominal abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobota, J.

    1983-01-01

    The noninvasive nature and amount of information obtained using computed tomography have very quickly put this method of diagnosis to the forefront of the interest of the medical public. So far the authors examined 21 cases of intraabdominal abscess. The successful detection of the abscess depends on the site of the abscess, the stage of development, the size, the choice of measuring program and the experience of the examining physician. The diagnostic possibilities of CT as compared with other radiological methods are by far the best. Ultrasound and scintigraphy are also highly successful but CT also allows the physician to localize the abscess, to determine its size, shape and distance from neighbouring organs which is very important in targeted aspiration biopsy. CT also makes it possible to estimate the stage of development, to make a choice of therapy and to evaluate the state of healing or the success of drainage. (author)

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... appendicitis is the most common reason for emergency abdominal surgery. Ultrasound imaging can also: help a physician determine the source of abdominal pain, such as gallstones, kidney stones, abscesses or ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Except for traumatic injury, appendicitis is the most common reason for emergency abdominal surgery. Ultrasound imaging can also: help a physician determine the source of abdominal pain, such as gallstones, kidney stones, ...

  18. Radiography and abdominal CT compared with sacroiliac joint CT in the diagnosis of sacroiliitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Julian; Azraq, Yusef; Chary-Valckenaere, Isabelle; Rat, Anne-Christine; Texeira, Pedro; Blum, Alain; Loeuille, Damien

    2017-10-01

    Background The presence of structural sacroiliitis is strong evidence for the diagnosis of spondyloarthritis (SpA). Purpose To assess the performance of abdominal computed tomography (CT) and pelvic plain radiography for the diagnosis of structural sacroiliitis compared with sacroiliac CT (SI joint CT) considered the reference technique in patients with SpA. Material and Methods All SpA patients eligible for biologic treatment were selected from 2005 to 2012. An assessment of sacroiliitis was based on radiography according to the modified New York criteria and on abdominal CT and SI joint CT scans depending on the presence of erosion on at least two consecutive slices. A senior rheumatologist and radiologist independently scored the grade and diagnosis of structural sacroiliitis for the three imaging modalities. After a consensus reading of conflicting examinations (radiography and CT), a final diagnosis of structural sacroiliitis was attained. Results Of the 72 patients selected, sacroiliitis was diagnosed on radiography, abdominal CT, and SI joint CT in 40, 31, and 44 patients, respectively. Inter-reader agreements for the grade of sacroiliitis were substantial for the three imaging modalities, with a weighted kappa range of 0.63-0.75 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52-0.83), and they were moderate for the diagnosis of sacroiliitis, with a kappa range of 0.50-0.55 (95% CI, 0.32-0.74). The sensitivity and specificity were 79.1% and 70.5%, respectively, for radiography and 82.1% and 100%, respectively, for abdominal CT. Conclusion This study demonstrates the relevance of abdominal CT for the diagnosis of structural sacroiliitis, with good sensitivity and excellent specificity. These imaging techniques avoid unnecessary examinations.

  19. Routine use of precontrast and delayed acquisitions in abdominal CT: time for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Pamela T; Fishman, Elliot K

    2013-04-01

    With major efforts being made to reduce radiation exposure in CT, one area of practice that requires additional improvement is limiting the number of acquisitions for body CT imaging. This review article defines best MDCT practice in terms of tailored abdominal CT protocols, designed to maximize lesion detection while limiting radiation exposure. The literature defines optimal acquisitions for a range of abdominal CT indications, with precontrast and delayed acquisitions being least commonly indicated.

  20. A case of lanthanum carbonate ingestion thought to be phlebosclerotic colitis on CT imaging and abdominal radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, K.; Balcam, S.

    2017-01-01

    A male admitted in the early hours of the morning, complained of a four week, right sided, non-radiating, dull and intermittent abdominal pain. Imaging suggested a diagnosis of phlebosclerotic colitis which was later discounted when the patients' history of lanthanum carbonate ingestion was examined. Phlebosclerotic colitis mostly affects the Asian population, and its cause is still not known, but can be associated with specific radiographic features. Collections of lanthanum may confuse a diagnosis of phlebosclerotic colitis as well as other factors such as voxel errors, photon starvation and movement. - Highlights: • PC can be non-specific, its cause unknown, diagnosis is often delayed. • PC depends on specific radiographic features. • Lanthanum Carbonate can collect within the lumen and confuses diagnosis. • Voxel errors, photon starvation and patient movement can displace densities.

  1. Pitfalls in diagnosing colon cancer on abdominal CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klang, E; Eifer, M; Kopylov, U; Belsky, V; Raskin, S; Konen, E; Amitai, M M

    2017-10-01

    To assess the frequency of undetected colon cancer on conventional abdominal CT and to evaluate the imaging features that are characteristic of those cancers. The present study included consecutive patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer at colonoscopy (2006-2015) who also underwent abdominal computed tomography (CT) performed for various reasons within a year prior to the colonoscopy. The frequency of undetected lesions was evaluated for the original CT interpretations ("original readers"). Two radiologists ("study readers"), blinded to the tumour location, independently performed interpretations oriented for colon cancer detection. The study readers analysed the imaging features of detected tumours (tumour shape, length, maximal wall thickness, free fluid, fat stranding, vascular engorgement, stenosis, and lymphadenopathy). Imaging features of the cancers undetected by the original readers were evaluated. The study included 127 patients. The original readers' frequency of undetected cancer was 25/127 (19.7%). Each study reader could not identify the cancer in 8/127 (6.3%) patients. Imaging features associated with undetected cancers by the original readers included the absence of fat stranding (p=0.007, p=0.003), absence of vascular engorgement (pColon cancer is undetected in 20% of abdominal CT examinations in patients subsequently proven to have colon cancer at colonoscopy. The absence of fat stranding, vascular engorgement, or lymphadenopathy, and an average tumour length of 3.3 cm are contributing factors for failure of detection. Radiologists' training should emphasis these findings as it may improve cancer detection, and clinicians should be aware of the limitations of abdominal CT. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Abdominal organ motion measured using 4D CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandner, Edward D.; Wu, Andrew; Chen, Hungcheng; Heron, Dwight; Kalnicki, Shalom; Komanduri, Krishna; Gerszten, Kristina; Burton, Steve; Ahmed, Irfan; Shou, Zhenyu

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To measure respiration-induced abdominal organ motion using four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT) scanning and to examine the organ paths. Methods and Materials: During 4D CT scanning, consecutive CT images are acquired of the patient at each couch position. Simultaneously, the patient's respiratory pattern is recorded using an external marker block taped to the patient's abdomen. This pattern is used to retrospectively organize the CT images into multiple three-dimensional images, each representing one breathing phase. These images are analyzed to measure organ motion between each phase. The displacement from end expiration is compared to a displacement limit that represents acceptable dosimetric results (5 mm). Results: The organs measured in 13 patients were the liver, spleen, and left and right kidneys. Their average superior to inferior absolute displacements were 1.3 cm for the liver, 1.3 cm for the spleen, 1.1 cm for the left kidney, and 1.3 cm for the right kidney. Although the organ paths varied among patients, 5 mm of superior to inferior displacement from end expiration resulted in less than 5 mm of displacement in the other directions for 41 of 43 organs measured. Conclusions: Four-dimensional CT scanning can accurately measure abdominal organ motion throughout respiration. This information may result in greater organ sparing and planning target volume coverage

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kidneys. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... imaging can also: help a physician determine the source of abdominal pain, such as gallstones, kidney stones, ... be turned to either side to improve the quality of the images. A clear water-based gel ...

  5. Dual-energy CT iodine maps as an alternative quantitative imaging biomarker to abdominal CT perfusion: determination of appropriate trigger delays for acquisition using bolus tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skornitzke, Stephan; Fritz, Franziska; Mayer, Philipp; Koell, Marco; Hansen, Jens; Pahn, Gregor; Hackert, Thilo; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Stiller, Wolfram

    2018-03-07

    Quantitative evaluation of different bolus tracking trigger delays for acquisition of dual energy (DE) CT iodine maps as an alternative to CT perfusion. Prior to this retrospective analysis of prospectively acquired data, DECT perfusion sequences were dynamically acquired in 22 patients with pancreatic carcinoma using dual source CT at 80/140 kV p with tin filtration. After deformable motion-correction, perfusion maps of blood flow (BF) were calculated from 80 kV p image series of DECT, and iodine maps were calculated for each of the 34 DECT acquisitions per patient. BF and iodine concentrations were measured in healthy pancreatic tissue and carcinoma. To evaluate potential DECT acquisition triggered by bolus tracking, measured iodine concentrations from the 34 DECT acquisitions per patient corresponding to different trigger delays were assessed for correlation to BF and intergroup differences between tissue types depending on acquisition time. Average BF measured in healthy pancreatic tissue and carcinoma was 87.6 ± 28.4 and 38.6 ± 22.2 ml/100 ml min -1 , respectively. Correlation between iodine concentrations and BF was statistically significant for bolus tracking with trigger delay greater than 0 s (r max = 0.89; p alternative to CT perfusion measurements of BF. Advances in knowledge: After clinical validation, DECT iodine maps of pancreas acquired using bolus tracking with appropriate trigger delay as determined in this study could offer an alternative quantitative imaging biomarker providing functional information for tumor assessment at reduced patient radiation exposure compared to CT perfusion measurements of BF.

  6. Abdominal Wall Hernias: Various Imaging Features Correlated with the Anatomy of Abdominal Wall at MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Shin Young; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Sang Won; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong [Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    Abdominal wall hernias are a common condition. However, they may develop acute complications and require surgical correction in most cases. Hence, the correct radiological examination is requisite for an accurate diagnosis. A multi-detector row CT (MDCT) provides an accurate identification of the anatomy of the abdominal wall, precise hernia type, and helps in the detection of early signs of complication. We report various imaging features of abdominal wall hernias via a MDCT.

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... children. Except for traumatic injury, appendicitis is the most common reason for emergency abdominal surgery. Ultrasound imaging ... of page How is the procedure performed? For most ultrasound exams, you will be positioned lying face- ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kidneys. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed ... to have your child drink several glasses of water, depending on the child's size, two hours prior ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kidneys. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed ... the scanner by a cord. Some exams may use different transducers (with different capabilities) during a single ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... injury, appendicitis is the most common reason for emergency abdominal surgery. Ultrasound imaging can also: help a ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... proper blood flow into it. top of page How should we prepare for an abdominal ultrasound exam? ... are poorly suited for ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed to evaluate ... for ultrasound examinations. top of page What does the ultrasound equipment look like? Ultrasound scanners consist of ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed to evaluate the: appendix stomach/ pylorus liver gallbladder spleen pancreas intestines kidneys ... as gallstones, kidney stones, abscesses or an inflamed appendix guide procedures such as biopsies, in which needles, ...

  14. Spiral CT angiography of the abdominal aorta and its branches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, P. [Dept. of Radiology, Deaconess Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Gaa, J. [Dept. of Radiology, Deaconess Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Spiral CT angiography (CTA) was performed on 19 patients for the pre-operative assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysms and in 3 post-operative renal artery bypass patients. Spiral CTA performed during intravenous contrast infusion provided a volume of data that was reconstructed at thin increments. Images were edited and reformatted either as surface rendered three-dimensional or maximum intensity projection (MIP) displays. Final images were viewed in a cine-loop presentation of quality comparable to conventional angiograms. The entire aorta can be examined from the coeliac axis to mid-pelvis with only 107 ml of 60% contrast. (orig.)

  15. ROLE OF ULTRASONOGRAPHY AND CT IN THE EVALUATION OF ABDOMINAL MASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harinath

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACK GROUND : Investigators have stressed the ability of CT and US to image abdominal masses and have touted them as first - line imaging modalities. MRI may be used to evaluate complex lesions not definitely characterized by US or CT. We want to evaluate the utility of U S and CT for evaluating abdominal masses in our rural India setup, wherein the study has to be appropriately utilized and tailored to the clinical need and also according to the socioeconomic situation. MATERIALS AND METHODS : This is a prospective observat ional study done in Department of Radiodiagnosis, PES Institute of medical sciences, Kuppam, between November 2011 to June 2013 in 30 patients with suspicious of abdominal masses and referred to the Department of Radio diagnosis and Imaging, for ult rasound and CT scan of abdomen. RESULTS : Ultrasound and CT has 73% and 100% sensitivity respectively for identifying the site of origin in abdominal and retroperitoneal masses when compared with surgical findings. Ultrasound is less sensitive for the detection of fat and characterization of retroperitoneal masses compared to CT. By combining the ultrasound and CT findings we can able to give the histopathological diagnosis in 83% c ases of abdominal mass lesions. CONCLUSION : We conclude that ultrasound and CT has additive role in the evaluation of abdominal masses and their management

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging is extremely safe and does not ... barium exams, CT scanning , and MRI are the methods of choice in such a setting. Large patients ...

  17. Automatic abdominal lymph node detection method based on local intensity structure analysis from 3D x-ray CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Nimura, Yukitaka; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Mizuno, Shinji; Furukawa, Kazuhiro; Goto, Hidemi; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Misawa, Kazunari; Ito, Masaaki; Nawano, Shigeru; Mori, Kensaku

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents an automated method of abdominal lymph node detection to aid the preoperative diagnosis of abdominal cancer surgery. In abdominal cancer surgery, surgeons must resect not only tumors and metastases but also lymph nodes that might have a metastasis. This procedure is called lymphadenectomy or lymph node dissection. Insufficient lymphadenectomy carries a high risk for relapse. However, excessive resection decreases a patient's quality of life. Therefore, it is important to identify the location and the structure of lymph nodes to make a suitable surgical plan. The proposed method consists of candidate lymph node detection and false positive reduction. Candidate lymph nodes are detected using a multi-scale blob-like enhancement filter based on local intensity structure analysis. To reduce false positives, the proposed method uses a classifier based on support vector machine with the texture and shape information. The experimental results reveal that it detects 70.5% of the lymph nodes with 13.0 false positives per case.

  18. Using Abdominal CT Data for Visceral Fat Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pop

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quantitative assessment of body fat is important for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases related to obesity, Computed tomography (CT becoming the standard procedure for measuring the abdominal fat distribution. Material and method: The retrospective study included 111 inpatients, who underwent routine abdominal CT exams in the Radiology Laboratory of SCJU Tg.Mures (2013. MPR MDCT (SOMATOM AS 64 data was processed using a custom written MATLAB R2009b software, ImageJ being used for tracing of the visceral fat area (VFA. Patient data (including blood glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides were analyzed using MO Excel and GraphPad Inprism5. Results: Visceral Fat percentage varied in population from 14.59-68.69 (SD = 11.83 with significant difference between sexes (male vs. female, 46.98 vs. 31.62, p 220 mg% and triglycerides >150 mg% are significantly associated with the VF percent (p <0.05. Overall there is a weak correlation between the lab variables and the measured fat, the strongest one being between triglycerides and the VFA (r = +0.23 and between age and VFA percentage (certain samples. Conclusions: The technique used should decreases the human error in marking of the fat areas providing a better estimation of the VF/VF percentage. CT measured VF relates with certain lab tests. Further analysis, is required for a better use of CT in obesity related pathology diagnosis and treatment

  19. Selective nonoperative management in 1106 patients with abdominal gunshot wounds: conclusions on safety, efficacy, and the role of selective CT imaging in a prospective single-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navsaria, Pradeep H; Nicol, Andrew J; Edu, Sorin; Gandhi, Rajiv; Ball, Chad G

    2015-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to delineate the role of computed tomography (CT) in patients undergoing NOM for AGSW. Nonoperative management (NOM) of abdominal gunshot wounds (AGSWs) remains controversial. This prospective study included all patients with abdominal gunshot injuries admitted to our trauma center from April 1, 2004 to September 30, 2009. Exclusion criteria included patients with peritonitis, hemodynamic instability, unreliable physical examination, head and spinal cord injury with an AGSW underwent immediate laparotomy. The remaining patients were selected for NOM. Nonperitonitic stable patients with right-sided thoracoabdominal/right upper quadrant gunshots and/or hematuria underwent mandatory CT with intravenous contrast. CT to detect missile trajectory was optional. The primary outcome measure was failure of NOM. Secondary outcomes were unnecessary laparotomy rates and mortality. A total of 1106 patients with abdominal gunshot injuries were admitted. Of these, 834 (75.4%) underwent immediate laparotomy, whereas 272 (24.6%) were selected for NOM. In the former group, there were 56 (6.7%) deaths and 29 (3.5%) unnecessary laparotomies, whereas in the latter NOM group, 82 (30.1%) patients were managed by serial clinical examination alone, whereas 190 (69.9%) patients underwent abdominal CT scanning, in addition to serial clinical examination. The overall NOM success rate was 95.2%. Of the 13 patients undergoing delayed laparotomy, there were 10 therapeutic, 2 nontherapeutic, and 1 negative laparotomy. The NOM of appropriately selected patients with AGSW with selective use of CT scanning is feasible, safe, and effective, but largely based on findings from serial clinical examinations.

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... is the most common reason for emergency abdominal surgery. Ultrasound imaging can also: help a physician determine ...

  1. An Incidentally Found Inflamed Uterine Myoma Causing Low Abdominal Pain, Using Tc-99m-Tektrotyd Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography-CT Hybrid Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Zandieh, Shahin; Sch?tz, Matthias; Bernt, Reinhard; Zwerina, Jochen; Haller, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 50-year-old woman presented with a history of right hemicolectomy due to an ileocecal neuroendocrine tumor and left breast metastasis. Owing to a slightly elevated chromogranin A-level and lower abdominal pain, single photon emission computed tomography-computer tomography (SPECT-CT) was performed. There were no signs of recurrence on the SPECT-CT scan, but the patient was incidentally found to have an inflamed intramural myoma. We believe that the slightly elevated ch...

  2. Quantifying the usefulness of CT in evaluating seniors with abdominal pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Lawrence M.; Klippel, Allen P.; Bavolek, Rebecca A.; Ross, Laura M.; Scherer, Tara M.; Banet, Gerald A.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: (1) Determine if older patients with abdominal pain who receive emergency department (ED) abdominal CT have changes in diagnosis and/or disposition more often than similar patients without CT; (2) compare physician confidence in diagnosis and disposition for patients with versus without CT; (3) document factors that most influence physician's decision to order abdominal CT in this population. Methods: ED patients 60 years of age or older, with acute non-traumatic abdominal pain were enrolled over a 6-week period. Physicians documented a preliminary and final ED diagnosis and disposition, along with pre- and post-evaluation confidence levels. Decision to order CT, along with clinical information most influencing that decision, was noted. Physician confidence levels and percent change in diagnosis and disposition were compared for patients with versus without CT. Results: One hundred and twenty-six patients comprised study sample. Abdominal CT rate was 59% (95%CI, 50-67%). CT was associated with an increased change in diagnosis (46%; 95%CI, 4-58% versus 29%; 95%CI, 16-42%), but no change in disposition between patients with versus without CT. Preliminary diagnostic confidence was lower for EPs who ordered a CT than for those who did not (p < 0.001). Patient history most influenced ordering CT, whereas prior lab/imaging results most influenced not ordering CT. Conclusion: Patients with CT had a change in diagnosis more often than those without. Preliminary diagnostic confidence was lower in CT group. Percent change in disposition did not differ between groups. Physicians most often ordered CT based on history and did not order CT when other diagnostic evaluation supported a specific diagnosis

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound waves are ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will my child experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do we get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... young children. It is also valuable for evaluating the brain, spinal cord and hip joints in newborns and infants. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound waves are ...

  6. Iterative reconstruction reduces abdominal CT dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinsen, Anne Catrine Trægde; Sæther, Hilde Kjernlie; Hol, Per Kristian; Olsen, Dag Rune; Skaane, Per

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In medical imaging, lowering radiation dose from computed tomography scanning, without reducing diagnostic performance is a desired achievement. Iterative image reconstruction may be one tool to achieve dose reduction. This study reports the diagnostic performance using a blending of 50% statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and filtered back projection reconstruction (FBP) compared to standard FBP image reconstruction at different dose levels for liver phantom examinations. Methods: An anthropomorphic liver phantom was scanned at 250, 185, 155, 140, 120 and 100 mA s, on a 64-slice GE Lightspeed VCT scanner. All scans were reconstructed with ASIR and FBP. Four readers evaluated independently on a 5-point scale 21 images, each containing 32 test sectors. In total 672 areas were assessed. ROC analysis was used to evaluate the differences. Results: There was a difference in AUC between the 250 mA s FBP images and the 120 and 100 mA s FBP images. ASIR reconstruction gave a significantly higher diagnostic performance compared to standard reconstruction at 100 mA s. Conclusion: A blending of 50–90% ASIR and FBP may improve image quality of low dose CT examinations of the liver, and thus give a potential for reducing radiation dose.

  7. Value of abdominal CT in the emergency department for patients with abdominal pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, Max P.; Siewert, Bettina; Bromberg, Rebecca; Raptopoulos, Vassilios [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Sands, Daniel Z. [Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Edlow, Jonathan [Department of Emergency Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of our study is to demonstrate the value of CT in the emergency department (ED) for patients with non-traumatic abdominal pain. Between August 1998 and April 1999, 536 consecutive patients with non-traumatic abdominal pain were entered into our study. Using a computer order entry system, physicians were asked to identify: (a) their most likely diagnosis; (b) their level of certainty in their diagnosis; (c) if they thought CT would be normal or abnormal; (d) their treatment plan (prior to knowledge of the CT results); and (e) their role in deciding to order CT. This information was correlated with each patient's post-CT diagnosis and subsequent management. Pre- and post-CT diagnoses were concordant in 200 of 536 (37%) patients. The physicians' certainty in the accuracy of their pre-CT diagnosis was less than high in 88% of patients. Prior to CT, the management plan included hospital admission for 402 patients. Following CT, only 312 patients were actually admitted; thus, the net impact of performing CT was to obviate the need for hospital admission in 90 of 536 (17%) of patients with abdominal pain. Prior to CT, 67 of 536 (13%) of all patients would have undergone immediate surgery; however, following CT only 25 (5%) actually required immediate surgery. Among patients with the four most common pre-CT diagnoses (appendicitis, abscess, diverticulitis, and urinary tract stones) CT had the greatest impact on hospital admission and surgical management for patients with suspected appendicitis. For patients with suspected appendicitis, CT reduced the hospital admission rate in 28% (26 of 91) of patients and changed the surgical management in 40% (39 of 91) of patients. Our study demonstrates the advantage of performing abdominal CT in the ED for patients with non-traumatic abdominal pain. (orig.)

  8. Value of abdominal CT in the emergency department for patients with abdominal pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, Max P.; Siewert, Bettina; Bromberg, Rebecca; Raptopoulos, Vassilios; Sands, Daniel Z.; Edlow, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to demonstrate the value of CT in the emergency department (ED) for patients with non-traumatic abdominal pain. Between August 1998 and April 1999, 536 consecutive patients with non-traumatic abdominal pain were entered into our study. Using a computer order entry system, physicians were asked to identify: (a) their most likely diagnosis; (b) their level of certainty in their diagnosis; (c) if they thought CT would be normal or abnormal; (d) their treatment plan (prior to knowledge of the CT results); and (e) their role in deciding to order CT. This information was correlated with each patient's post-CT diagnosis and subsequent management. Pre- and post-CT diagnoses were concordant in 200 of 536 (37%) patients. The physicians' certainty in the accuracy of their pre-CT diagnosis was less than high in 88% of patients. Prior to CT, the management plan included hospital admission for 402 patients. Following CT, only 312 patients were actually admitted; thus, the net impact of performing CT was to obviate the need for hospital admission in 90 of 536 (17%) of patients with abdominal pain. Prior to CT, 67 of 536 (13%) of all patients would have undergone immediate surgery; however, following CT only 25 (5%) actually required immediate surgery. Among patients with the four most common pre-CT diagnoses (appendicitis, abscess, diverticulitis, and urinary tract stones) CT had the greatest impact on hospital admission and surgical management for patients with suspected appendicitis. For patients with suspected appendicitis, CT reduced the hospital admission rate in 28% (26 of 91) of patients and changed the surgical management in 40% (39 of 91) of patients. Our study demonstrates the advantage of performing abdominal CT in the ED for patients with non-traumatic abdominal pain. (orig.)

  9. animal trial on imaging appearances of abdominally retained gauze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Longxia; An Ningyu; Yin Hui; Wang Xiangdong; Li Jia; Bai Ying

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the imaging appearances of abdominally retained crumpled gauze with US, CT and MRI and the changes with time. Methods: Eight rabbits were operated and crumpled gauze was put into in their abdominal cavity. US , plain and enhanced CT and MRI scan were performed on the day of operation, and 1 to 7 weeks after operation. The imaging appearances were compared with operation findings. Pathologic examination was done simultaneously. Results: Abdominally retained crumpled gauze was instantly adhesive with omentum and neighboring intestines tightly. Fibro-connective tissue membrane was produced at the adhesion site gradually, spreading out to enclose the crumpled gauze. The enclosure was finished completely in 3 to 4 weeks. Thickened membrane also invaded into the spaces within the gauze. The crumpled gauze was eventually infected. These changes could be revealed on US, CT or MRI scans. The US appearance exhibited a hyper echoic arc zone with broad clean acoustic shadow behind. It appeared as a soft tissue mass to CT and MRI scans. In early stage CT scan could easily show the gas within the crumpled gauze. CT and MRI enhanced scans showed only the enhanced membrane and no enhancement of the crumpled gauze. Conclusion: US, CT and MRI have quite characteristic appearances of the abdominally retained crumpled gauze, especially when combined imaging techniques were employed, which can lead to a correct diagnosis together with a history of operation

  10. Impact of model-based iterative reconstruction on low-contrast lesion detection and image quality in abdominal CT: a 12-reader-based comparative phantom study with filtered back projection at different tube voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euler, Andre; Stieltjes, Bram; Eichenberger, Reto; Reisinger, Clemens; Hirschmann, Anna; Zaehringer, Caroline; Kircher, Achim; Streif, Matthias; Bucher, Sabine; Buergler, David; D' Errico, Luigia; Kopp, Sebastien; Wilhelm, Markus [University Hospital Basel, Clinic of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); Szucs-Farkas, Zsolt [Hospital Centre of Biel, Institute of Radiology, Biel (Switzerland); Schindera, Sebastian T. [University Hospital Basel, Clinic of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital Aarau, Institute of Radiology, Aarau (Switzerland)

    2017-12-15

    To evaluate the impact of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) on image quality and low-contrast lesion detection compared with filtered back projection (FBP) in abdominal computed tomography (CT) of simulated medium and large patients at different tube voltages. A phantom with 45 hypoattenuating lesions was placed in two water containers and scanned at 70, 80, 100, and 120 kVp. The 120-kVp protocol served as reference, and the volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) was kept constant for all protocols. The datasets were reconstructed with MBIR and FBP. Image noise and contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR) were assessed. Low-contrast lesion detectability was evaluated by 12 radiologists. MBIR decreased the image noise by 24% and 27%, and increased the CNR by 30% and 29% for the medium and large phantoms, respectively. Lower tube voltages increased the CNR by 58%, 46%, and 16% at 70, 80, and 100 kVp, respectively, compared with 120 kVp in the medium phantom and by 9%, 18% and 12% in the large phantom. No significant difference in lesion detection rate was observed (medium: 79-82%; large: 57-65%; P > 0.37). Although MBIR improved quantitative image quality compared with FBP, it did not result in increased low-contrast lesion detection in abdominal CT at different tube voltages in simulated medium and large patients. (orig.)

  11. Multidetector CT findings of bowel Transection in blunt abdominal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyun Suk; Woo, Ji Young; Hong, Hye Suk; Park, Mee Hyun; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Jung, Ah Young; Hwang, Ji Young [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Hong Il [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Though a number of CT findings of bowel and mesenteric injuries in blunt abdominal trauma are described in literature, no studies on the specific CT signs of a transected bowel have been published. In the present study we describe the incidence and new CT signs of bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma. We investigated the incidence of bowel transection in 513 patients admitted for blunt abdominal trauma who underwent multidetector CT (MDCT). The MDCT findings of 8 patients with a surgically proven complete bowel transection were assessed retrospectively. We report novel CT signs that are unique for transection, such as complete cutoff sign (transection of bowel loop), Janus sign (abnormal dual bowel wall enhancement, both increased and decreased), and fecal spillage. The incidence of bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma was 1.56%. In eight cases of bowel transection, percentage of CT signs unique for bowel transection were as follows: complete cutoff in 8 (100%), Janus sign in 6 (100%, excluding duodenal injury), and fecal spillage in 2 (25%). The combination of complete cutoff and Janus sign were highly specific findings in patients with bowel transection. Complete cut off and Janus sign are the unique CT findings to help detect bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma and recognition of these findings enables an accurate and prompt diagnosis for emergency laparotomy leading to reduced mortality and morbidity.

  12. Diagnostic imaging of acute abdominal pain in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Sarah L; Knudson, Mark P

    2015-04-01

    Acute abdominal pain is a common presentation in the outpatient setting and can represent conditions ranging from benign to life-threatening. If the patient history, physical examination, and laboratory testing do not identify an underlying cause of pain and if serious pathology remains a clinical concern, diagnostic imaging is indicated. The American College of Radiology has developed clinical guidelines, the Appropriateness Criteria, based on the location of abdominal pain to help physicians choose the most appropriate imaging study. Ultrasonography is the initial imaging test of choice for patients presenting with right upper quadrant pain. Computed tomography (CT) is recommended for evaluating right or left lower quadrant pain. Conventional radiography has limited diagnostic value in the assessment of most patients with abdominal pain. The widespread use of CT raises concerns about patient exposure to ionizing radiation. Strategies to reduce exposure are currently being studied, such as using ultrasonography as an initial study for suspected appendicitis before obtaining CT and using low-dose CT rather than standard-dose CT. Magnetic resonance imaging is another emerging technique for the evaluation of abdominal pain that avoids ionizing radiation.

  13. Gallbladder visualization on CT shortly after abdominal angiography with iodixanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Ryusuke; Goto, Shinsuke; Aoyama, Toshiya; Kaizu, Toshihide; Ichikawa, Taro; Kumazaki, Tatsuo; Onda, Masahiko

    1996-01-01

    Fifteen patients underwent CT examination shortly after abdominal angiography with iodixanol. Gallbladder opacification was observed in 13 patients in the absence of clinical evidence of renal impairment. Among them, 2 patients showed a strong opacification on CT. There was no significant relationship between visualization of the gallbladder and the total dose of contrast medium. Gallbladder opacification on CT examination shortly after angiography shows that the hepatobiliary tract is important in the excretion of iodixanol. (author)

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of low-dose CT compared with abdominal radiography in non-traumatic acute abdominal pain: prospective study and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshamari, Muhammed; Norrman, Eva; Geijer, Mats; Jansson, Kjell; Geijer, Håkan

    2016-06-01

    Abdominal radiography is frequently used in acute abdominal non-traumatic pain despite the availability of more advanced diagnostic modalities. This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of low-dose CT compared with abdominal radiography, at similar radiation dose levels. Fifty-eight patients were imaged with both methods and were reviewed independently by three radiologists. The reference standard was obtained from the diagnosis in medical records. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated. A systematic review was performed after a literature search, finding a total of six relevant studies including the present. Overall sensitivity with 95 % CI for CT was 75 % (66-83 %) and 46 % (37-56 %) for radiography. Specificity was 87 % (77-94 %) for both methods. In the systematic review the overall sensitivity for CT varied between 75 and 96 % with specificity from 83 to 95 % while the overall sensitivity for abdominal radiography varied between 30 and 77 % with specificity 75 to 88 %. Based on the current study and available evidence, low-dose CT has higher diagnostic accuracy than abdominal radiography and it should, where logistically possible, replace abdominal radiography in the workup of adult patients with acute non-traumatic abdominal pain. • Low-dose CT has a higher diagnostic accuracy than radiography. • A systematic review shows that CT has better diagnostic accuracy than radiography. • Radiography has no place in the workup of acute non-traumatic abdominal pain.

  15. Clinical efficacy of a new barium sulfate for abdominal CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Tatuya; Kohno, Mitio; Uematsu, Sadao; Nisitani, Hiromu; Tanaka, Takao.

    1988-01-01

    Computed Tomography of the abdomen requires that the intestines are filled with contrast medium so that the gut is not misinterpreted as a pathologic process. Besides, normal structures may be difficult to delimit in patients with scanty intra-abdominal fat. In Japan, up to date, only a single contrast medium has been available for this purpose, Gastrografin and thus identical with the intravasculaly used Urografin or Angiografin. A new Barium Sulfate suspention (Fusimi Seiyaku, Kagawa) for computed tomographic use has been dilute solution (4.77 %) and with suspending agents that prevent a rapid sedimentation of the Barium Sulfate. The aim of this investigation was to compare Gastrografin with a new barium regarding patients tolerance, side effects and diagnostic information. The investigation comprised 146 patients who were reffered for abdominal CT and was carried out by 5 facilities; National Cancer Center, Kobe University, Chiba University, Kyushu University and Juntendo University. Diagnostic information was judged with respect to the filling of the stomach and intestines, the presence of imaging artifacts and finally clinical estimation. Patients tolerance was investigated as regards taste and side effects. Good filling of the stomach and intestines was obtained in this investigation. However, imaging artifacts occured in only a few cases. The imaging artifacts appeared almost exclusively to arise in the boundary layer between the bowel gas and contrast medium, and were most common in the stomach. However, the contrasting effect of this medium did not in itself appear to cause any imaging artifacts. Fushimi's new barium seems to be preffered because of its lesser tendency to arise artifacts and better tendency to make good filling of the stomach and intestines. Moreover, this investigation did not have any side effects. (J.P.N.)

  16. Role of F-18 FDG PET/CT in the management of infected abdominal aortic aneurysm due to salmonella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Jin; Lee, Jin Soo; Cheong, Moon Hyun; Byun, Sung Su; Hyun, In Young [Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    We present a case of infected abdominal aortic aneurysm due to salmonella enteritidis. F-18 FDG PET/CT was performed to diagnosis and during follow-up after antibiotic treatment. Computed tomography (CT) is considered to be the best diagnostic imaging modality in infected aortic lesions. In this case, a combination of CT and FDG PET/CT provided accurate information for the diagnosis of infected abdominal aortic aneurysm. Moreover, FDG PET/CT made an important contribution of monitoring disease activity during antibiotic treatment.

  17. Abdominal actinomycosis associated with intrauterine device: CT features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, T.; Grandi, P. de; Schnyder, P.

    1996-01-01

    We report two cases of pelviperitoneal actinomycosis appearing in two young women with acute low abdominal pain. Abdominal CT demonstrated multiple solid or encapsulated peritoneal masses with marked contrast enhancement and infiltration of the adjacent mesenteric fat. Laparoscopy confirmed the presence of intraperitoneal abscesses which contained Actinomyces israelii. High doses of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (Augmentine) were given and following CT scan after 2 and 6 weeks showed a slow, but complete, resolution of the lesions. Although the radiologic presentation of actinomycosis is nonspecific, the diagnosis should be raised in the presence of pseudotumoral mesenteric infiltration, particularly in young women with an IUD. Abdominal CT is a useful method for diagnosis and for follow-up. (orig./MG)

  18. Abdominal actinomycosis associated with intrauterine device: CT features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, T. [Dept. of Radiology, CHUV-1011, Lausanne (Switzerland); Grandi, P. de [Dept. of Gynecology-Obstetrics, CHUV-1011, Lausame (Switzerland); Schnyder, P. [Dept. of Radiology, CHUV-1011, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1996-10-01

    We report two cases of pelviperitoneal actinomycosis appearing in two young women with acute low abdominal pain. Abdominal CT demonstrated multiple solid or encapsulated peritoneal masses with marked contrast enhancement and infiltration of the adjacent mesenteric fat. Laparoscopy confirmed the presence of intraperitoneal abscesses which contained Actinomyces israelii. High doses of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (Augmentine) were given and following CT scan after 2 and 6 weeks showed a slow, but complete, resolution of the lesions. Although the radiologic presentation of actinomycosis is nonspecific, the diagnosis should be raised in the presence of pseudotumoral mesenteric infiltration, particularly in young women with an IUD. Abdominal CT is a useful method for diagnosis and for follow-up. (orig./MG)

  19. Immersive Virtual Reality for Visualization of Abdominal CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiufeng; Xu, Zhoubing; Li, Bo; Baucom, Rebeccah; Poulose, Benjamin; Landman, Bennett A; Bodenheimer, Robert E

    2013-03-28

    Immersive virtual environments use a stereoscopic head-mounted display and data glove to create high fidelity virtual experiences in which users can interact with three-dimensional models and perceive relationships at their true scale. This stands in stark contrast to traditional PACS-based infrastructure in which images are viewed as stacks of two-dimensional slices, or, at best, disembodied renderings. Although there has substantial innovation in immersive virtual environments for entertainment and consumer media, these technologies have not been widely applied in clinical applications. Here, we consider potential applications of immersive virtual environments for ventral hernia patients with abdominal computed tomography imaging data. Nearly a half million ventral hernias occur in the United States each year, and hernia repair is the most commonly performed general surgery operation worldwide. A significant problem in these conditions is communicating the urgency, degree of severity, and impact of a hernia (and potential repair) on patient quality of life. Hernias are defined by ruptures in the abdominal wall (i.e., the absence of healthy tissues) rather than a growth (e.g., cancer); therefore, understanding a hernia necessitates understanding the entire abdomen. Our environment allows surgeons and patients to view body scans at scale and interact with these virtual models using a data glove. This visualization and interaction allows users to perceive the relationship between physical structures and medical imaging data. The system provides close integration of PACS-based CT data with immersive virtual environments and creates opportunities to study and optimize interfaces for patient communication, operative planning, and medical education.

  20. Immersive virtual reality for visualization of abdominal CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiufeng; Xu, Zhoubing; Li, Bo; Baucom, Rebeccah; Poulose, Benjamin; Landman, Bennett A.; Bodenheimer, Robert E.

    2013-03-01

    Immersive virtual environments use a stereoscopic head-mounted display and data glove to create high fidelity virtual experiences in which users can interact with three-dimensional models and perceive relationships at their true scale. This stands in stark contrast to traditional PACS-based infrastructure in which images are viewed as stacks of two dimensional slices, or, at best, disembodied renderings. Although there has substantial innovation in immersive virtual environments for entertainment and consumer media, these technologies have not been widely applied in clinical applications. Here, we consider potential applications of immersive virtual environments for ventral hernia patients with abdominal computed tomography imaging data. Nearly a half million ventral hernias occur in the United States each year, and hernia repair is the most commonly performed general surgery operation worldwide. A significant problem in these conditions is communicating the urgency, degree of severity, and impact of a hernia (and potential repair) on patient quality of life. Hernias are defined by ruptures in the abdominal wall (i.e., the absence of healthy tissues) rather than a growth (e.g., cancer); therefore, understanding a hernia necessitates understanding the entire abdomen. Our environment allows surgeons and patients to view body scans at scale and interact with these virtual models using a data glove. This visualization and interaction allows users to perceive the relationship between physical structures and medical imaging data. The system provides close integration of PACS-based CT data with immersive virtual environments and creates opportunities to study and optimize interfaces for patient communication, operative planning, and medical education.

  1. Comparison of abdominal MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging to {sup 68}Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT in detection of neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid-Tannwald, Christine; Schmid-Tannwald, Christoph M.; Neumann, Ralph; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Schramm, Nicolai; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Rist, Carsten [Ludwig Maximilians University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Morelli, John N. [Scott and White Hospital Temple, Department of Radiology, Temple, TX (United States); Haug, Alexander R.; Jansen, Nathalie [Ludwig Maximilians University Hospital Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate contrast-enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI (DW MRI), and {sup 68}Ga-DOTATATE positron emission tomography (PET)/CT in the detection of intermediate to well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of the pancreas. Eighteen patients with pathologically proven pancreatic NET who underwent MRI including DW MRI and PET/CT within 6 weeks of each other were included in this retrospective study. Two radiologists evaluated T2-weighted (T2w), T2w + DW MRI, T2w + contrast-enhanced T1-weighted (CE T1w) MR images, and PET/CT for NET detection. The sensitivity and level of diagnostic confidence were compared among modalities using McNemar's test and a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) of pancreatic NETs and normal pancreatic tissue were compared with Student's t test. Of the NETs, 8/23 (34.8 %) and 9/23 (39.1 %) were detected on T2w images by observers 1 and 2, respectively. Detection rates improved significantly by combining T2w images with DW MRI (observer 1: 14/23 = 61 %; observer 2: 15/23 = 65.2 %; p < 0.05) or CE T1w images (observer 1: 14/23 = 61 %; observer 2: 15/23 = 65.2 %; p < 0.05). Detection rates of pancreatic NET with PET/CT (both observers: 23/23 = 100 %) were statistically significantly higher than with MRI (p < 0.05). The mean ADC value of NET (1.02 {+-} 0.26 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) was statistically significantly lower than that of normal pancreatic tissue (1.48 {+-} 0.39 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s). DW MRI is a valuable adjunct to T2w imaging and comparable to CE T1w imaging in pancreatic NET detection, quantitatively differentiating between NET and normal pancreatic tissue with ADC measurements. {sup 68}Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT is more sensitive than MRI in the detection of pancreatic NET. (orig.)

  2. Pulmonary hypertension CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedevska, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The right heart catheterization is the gold standard in the diagnosis and determines the severity of pulmonary hypertension. The significant technical progress of noninvasive diagnostic imaging methods significantly improves the pixel density and spatial resolution in the study of cardiovascular structures, thus changes their role and place in the overall diagnostic plan. Learning points: What is the etiology, clinical manifestation and general pathophysiological disorders in pulmonary hypertension. What are the established diagnostic methods in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with pulmonary hypertension. What is the recommended protocol for CT scanning for patients with clinically suspected or documented pulmonary hypertension. What are the important diagnostic findings in CT scan of a patient with pulmonary hypertension. Discussion: The prospect of instantaneous complex - anatomical and functional cardiopulmonary and vascular diagnostics seems extremely attractive. The contrast enhanced multislice computed (CT ) and magnetic resonance imaging are very suitable methods for imaging the structures of the right heart, with the possibility of obtaining multiple projections and three-dimensional imaging reconstructions . There are specific morphological features that, if carefully analyzed, provide diagnostic information. Thus, it is possible to avoid or at least reduce the frequency of use of invasive diagnostic cardiac catheterization in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Conclusion: This review focuses on the use of contrast-enhanced CT for comprehensive evaluation of patients with pulmonary hypertension and presents the observed characteristic changes in the chest, lung parenchyma , the structures of the right half of the heart and pulmonary vessels

  3. CT image of thymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Nobuo; Shudo, Yuji; Jahana, Masanobu; Matsuki, Tsutomu; Kotani, Kazuhiko

    1983-01-01

    Computor tomographic images of 11 patients who had had thymectomy for myasthenia gravis or thymoma were studied retrospectively. Of those 11 patients, malignant thymoma and benign condition including normal thymus were 6 and 5 respectively. On CT, calcification and lobulation with irregular margin seem to be reliable findings of malignancy. Defect or abscence of fatty plane and non-homogenous density are ancillary. (author)

  4. Abdominal lymphadenopathy in tuberculosis and lymphoma: Differentiation with CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Yong Moon; Choi, Byung Ihn; Han, Joon Koo; Han, Man Chung; Song, Chi Sung; Yang, Seoung Oh

    1993-01-01

    Tuberculosis and lymphoma, these 2 dieases can present with lymphadenopathy in anywhere of the body. Therefore differentiation of tuberculosis from lymphoma is often difficult. CT scans of 17 patients with tuberculosis and 23 patients with lymphoma were retrospectively reviewed to evaluate the efficacy of CT scans in differentating adenopathy between tuberculosis and lymphoma. All the patients underwent abdominal CT scans with contrast enhancement before treatment. The size, internal architecture, distribution of lymph nodes, and associated findings on CT scans were analyzed. As compared with lymphoma, tuberculous lymphadenopathy showed 1) female preponderance (65%), 2) predilection for percolative lymph nodes (47%), 3) internal low attenuation in lymph nodes (82%), 4) cold abscess formation (24%). Characteristics of lymphoma on CT scans include 1) male preponderance (78%), 2) conglomeration of lymph nodes (39%), 3) homogeneous internal lymph node structure (83%). These results suggest that evaluation of the cahracteristics of lymphadenopathy on CT scans is helpful for differentiating between tuberculousis and lymphoma

  5. Inter-observer agreement for abdominal CT in unselected patients with acute abdominal pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randen, Adrienne van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lameris, Wytze [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nio, C.Y.; Spijkerboer, Anje M.; Meier, Mark A.; Tutein Nolthenius, Charlotte; Smithuis, Frank; Stoker, Jaap [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bossuyt, Patrick M. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Bioinformatics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boermeester, Marja A. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-06-15

    The level of inter-observer agreement of abdominal computed tomography (CT) in unselected patients presenting with acute abdominal pain at the Emergency Department (ED) was evaluated. Two hundred consecutive patients with acute abdominal pain were prospectively included. Multi-slice CT was performed in all patients with intravenous contrast medium only. Three radiologists independently read all CT examinations. They recorded specific radiological features and a final diagnosis on a case record form. We calculated the proportion of agreement and kappa values, for overall, urgent and frequently occurring diagnoses. The mean age of the evaluated patients was 46 years (range 19-94), of which 54% were women. Overall agreement on diagnoses was good, with a median kappa of 0.66. Kappa values for specific urgent diagnoses were excellent, with median kappa values of 0.84, 0.90 and 0.81, for appendicitis, diverticulitis and bowel obstruction, respectively. Abdominal CT has good inter-observer agreement in unselected patients with acute abdominal pain at the ED, with excellent agreement for specific urgent diagnoses as diverticulitis and appendicitis. (orig.)

  6. Inter-observer agreement for abdominal CT in unselected patients with acute abdominal pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randen, Adrienne van; Lameris, Wytze; Nio, C.Y.; Spijkerboer, Anje M.; Meier, Mark A.; Tutein Nolthenius, Charlotte; Smithuis, Frank; Stoker, Jaap; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Boermeester, Marja A.

    2009-01-01

    The level of inter-observer agreement of abdominal computed tomography (CT) in unselected patients presenting with acute abdominal pain at the Emergency Department (ED) was evaluated. Two hundred consecutive patients with acute abdominal pain were prospectively included. Multi-slice CT was performed in all patients with intravenous contrast medium only. Three radiologists independently read all CT examinations. They recorded specific radiological features and a final diagnosis on a case record form. We calculated the proportion of agreement and kappa values, for overall, urgent and frequently occurring diagnoses. The mean age of the evaluated patients was 46 years (range 19-94), of which 54% were women. Overall agreement on diagnoses was good, with a median kappa of 0.66. Kappa values for specific urgent diagnoses were excellent, with median kappa values of 0.84, 0.90 and 0.81, for appendicitis, diverticulitis and bowel obstruction, respectively. Abdominal CT has good inter-observer agreement in unselected patients with acute abdominal pain at the ED, with excellent agreement for specific urgent diagnoses as diverticulitis and appendicitis. (orig.)

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... particularly valuable for evaluating abdominal, pelvic or scrotal pain in children. Preparation will depend on the type ... help a physician determine the source of abdominal pain, such as gallstones, kidney stones, abscesses or an ...

  8. Incision for abdominal laparoscopy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal laparoscopy is a useful aid in diagnosing disease or trauma in the abdominal cavity with less scarring than ... as liver and pancreatic resections may begin with laparoscopy to exclude the presence of additional tumors (metastatic ...

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLE ORIG ORIG CT for upper abdominal pathology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exists in other modalities, and tailoring the examination to pathology will result in higher positive yield. Objective. ... Of 133 CT studies done, 116 did not show any abnormality in the pelvis. In 3 cases there were pelvic .... dependence and poor evaluation of the pelvis as directed by a request for upper-abdominal pathology.

  10. Practical human abdominal fat imaging utilizing electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, T; Katashima, M; Maki, K

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental cause of metabolic syndrome is thought to be abdominal obesity. Accurate diagnosis of abdominal obesity can be done by an x-ray computed tomography (CT) scan. But CT is expensive, bulky and entails the risks involved with radiation. To overcome such disadvantages, we attempted to develop a measuring device that could apply electrical impedance tomography to abdominal fat imaging. The device has 32 electrodes that can be attached to a subject's abdomen by a pneumatic mechanism. That way, electrode position data can be acquired simultaneously. An applied alternating current of 1.0 mArms was used at a frequency of 500 kHz. Sensed voltage data were carefully filtered to remove noise and processed to satisfy the reciprocal theorem. The image reconstruction software was developed concurrently, applying standard finite element methods and the Marquardt method to solve the mathematical inverse problem. The results of preliminary experiments showed that abdominal subcutaneous fat and the muscle surrounding the viscera could be imaged in humans. While our imaging of visceral fat was not of sufficient quality, it was suggested that we will be able to develop a safe and practical abdominal fat scanner through future improvements

  11. Can abdominal multi-detector CT diagnose spinal osteoporosis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadakis, Antonios E.; Damilakis, John [University of Crete, Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box 2208, Iraklion, Crete (Greece); Karantanas, Apostolos H. [University of Crete, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box 2208, Iraklion, Crete (Greece); Papadokostakis, Giorgos [University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Orthopedics, Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box 2208, Iraklion, Crete (Greece); Petinellis, Effie [University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Radiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box 2208, Iraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2009-01-15

    The aim of this study was to (1) generate quantitative CT (QCT) densitometric data based on routine abdominal multi-detector (MDCT) examinations and (2) investigate whether these data can be used to differentiate osteoporotic from healthy females. Twenty-five female patients (group A) with a history of radiotherapy were examined both with routine abdominal MDCT and standard QCT to generate a MDCT-to-QCT conversion equation. Twenty-one osteoporotic (group B) and 23 healthy female patients (group C) were also recruited in the study. Patients of groups B and C underwent routine abdominal MDCT examination for various clinical indications. Mean bone mineral density (BMD) in patients of group A was 103.4 mg/ml {+-} 32.8 with routine abdominal MDCT and 91.0 mg/ml {+-}28.5 with QCT. Quantitative CT BMD{sub QCT} values for patients in groups B and C were calculated utilizing the BMD{sub MDCT} values derived from routine abdominal MDCT data sets and the MDCT to QCT conversion equation: BMD{sub QCT}=0.78. BMD{sub MDCT}+10.13. The calculated QCT densitometric data adequately differentiated osteoporotic from healthy females (area under ROC curve 0.828, p=0.05). In conclusion, this study showed that in a group of female patients, QCT data derived from routine abdominal MDCT examinations discriminated osteoporotic from healthy subjects. (orig.)

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) Perfusion in Abdominal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Lundsgaard; Norling, Rikke; Lauridsen, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    for assessment of vascularity. CT perfusion has also been used for tumor characterization, staging of disease, response evaluation of newer drugs targeted towards angiogenesis and as a method for early detection of recurrence after radiation and embolization. There are several software solutions available...

  13. CT angiography versus intraarterial DSA in abdominal aortic aneurysms; CT-Angiographie versus intraarterielle DSA bei Bauchaortenaneurysmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieker, O. [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Dueber, C. [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Schmiedt, W. [Klinik fuer Herz-, Thorax- und Gefaesschirurgie, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Neufang, A. [Klinik fuer Herz-, Thorax- und Gefaesschirurgie, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Pittow, M. [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Schweden, F. [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany)

    1996-07-01

    To evaluate if CT angiography is able to image all features necessary for the preoperative planning of abdominal aortic aneurysms (accessory renal arteries, stenoses or occlusions of renal and iliac arteries, patency of inferior mesentric artery). CT angiography and DSA were performed on 27 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms. CT angiography was performed using a protocol that covered the abdominal aorta and the pelvic arteries with a single spiral acquisition (contrast dose: 150 ml, collimation: 5 mm, table feed: 7.5 mm/s, increment of reconstruction: 2 mm). Maximum intensity projections (MIP) and axial scans were compared with the results of intraarterial DSA. Using axial scans and subvolume MIP, CTA accurately defined 7/8 accessory renal arteries, 13/13 occlusions and 9/12 high grade stenoses of renal and pelvic arteries. High-grade stenoses of the iliac arteries were underestimated in two cases and overlooked in one case. CT angiography was superior to DSA in imaging the inferior mesenteric artery. CT angiography precisely diagnosed 33 aneurysms of the iliac, renal and coeliac arteries. CT angiography using a single administration of intravenous contrast may replace preoperative DSA in most cases of abdominal aortic aneurysm. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel dieser Studie war es zu pruefen, ob mit der CT-Angiographie die fuer die praeoperative Planung von Bauchaortenaneurysmen relevanten Gefaessveraenderungen darstelbar sind (Akzessorische Nierenarterien, Nierenarterienstenosen, A. mesenterica inferior, Beckenarterien). Die CT-Angiographien wurden mit einem Protokoll durchgefuehrt, das die Bauchaorta und die Beckenarterien bis zur Leiste mit einer einzigen Spiralakquisition erfasst (150 ml Kontrastmittel, Kollimation: 5 mm, Tischvorschub: 7,5 mm/s, Rekonstruktionsintervall: 2 mm). Die Befunde aus Maximum-Intensitaets-Projektionen (MIP) und den axialen Schnittbildern wurden mit den Befunden der intraarteriellen DSA bei 27 Patienten verglichen. Bei Hinzuziehung von

  14. Abdominal CT findings of delayed postoperative complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zissin, R.; Osadchy, A. [Sapir Medical Center, Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Kfar Saba (Israel)]. E-mail: zisinrivka@clalit.org.il; Gayer, G. [Assaf Harofe Medical Center, Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Zrifin (Israel)

    2007-10-15

    Despite progress in surgical techniques and modern medical treatment, postoperative complications occur not infrequently and vary according to type of surgery, clinical setting, and time elapsed since surgery. In general, they can be divided into early and delayed complications. Delayed postoperative complications can be classified as specific and nonspecific. The common nonspecific delayed complications are incisional hernia and postoperative bowel obstruction. Bowel obstruction can be further categorized as obstruction related to benign or neoplastic etiology, the latter occurring in oncology patients in whom the primary surgery was related to an underlying abdominal neoplasm. Gossypiboma is another, fortunately rare, postoperative complication. Specific complications appear after specific operations and include the following: Splenosis - following splenectomy. Retained gallstones and spilled gallstones - following cholecystectomy, mainly laparoscopic. Dropped appendicolith and stump appendicitis - following appendectomy, mainly laparoscopic. Obturation obstruction by a bezoar - following gastric surgery. Afferent loop syndrome (ALS) - following Bilroth II gastrectomy. (author)

  15. Lossy three-dimensional JPEG2000 compression of abdominal CT images: assessment of the visually lossless threshold and effect of compression ratio on image quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringl, Helmut; Schernthaner, Ruediger E.; Kulinna-Cosentini, Christiane; Weber, Michael; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia; Herold, Christian J.; Schima, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To retrospectively determine the maximum compression ratio at which compressed images are indistinguishable from the original by using a three-dimensional (3D) wavelet algorithm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The protocol of this study was approved by the local Institutional Review Board and

  16. Screening of illegal intracorporeal containers ("body packing"): is abdominal radiography sufficiently accurate? A comparative study with low-dose CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Canel, Laurent; Becker, Christoph D; Wolff, Hans; Elger, Bernice; Lock, Eric; Sarasin, François; Bonfanti, Monica S; Dupuis-Lozeron, Elise; Perneger, Thomas; Platon, Alexandra

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of abdominal radiography in the detection of illegal intracorporeal containers (hereafter, packets), with low-dose computed tomography (CT) as the reference standard. This study was approved by the institutional ethical review board, with written informed consent. From July 2007 to July 2010, 330 people (296 men, 34 women; mean age, 32 years [range, 18-55 years]) suspected of having ingested drug packets underwent supine abdominal radiography and low-dose CT. The presence or absence of packets at abdominal radiography was reported, with low-dose CT as the reference standard. The density and number of packets (≤ 12 or >12) at low-dose CT were recorded and analyzed to determine whether those variables influence interpretation of results at abdominal radiography. Packets were detected at low-dose CT in 53 (16%) suspects. Sensitivity of abdominal radiography for depiction of packets was 0.77 (41 of 53), and specificity was 0.96 (267 of 277). The packets appeared isoattenuated to the bowel contents at low-dose CT in 16 (30%) of the 53 suspects with positive results. Nineteen (36%) of the 53 suspects with positive low-dose CT results had fewer than 12 packets. Packets that were isoattenuated at low-dose CT and a low number of packets (≤12) were both significantly associated with false-negative results at abdominal radiography (P = .004 and P = .016, respectively). Abdominal radiography is mainly limited by low sensitivity when compared with low-dose CT in the screening of people suspected of carrying drug packets. Low-dose CT is an effective imaging alternative to abdominal radiography. © RSNA, 2012.

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of low-dose CT compared with abdominal radiography in non-traumatic acute abdominal pain: prospective study and systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alshamari, Muhammed; Geijer, Haakan [Oerebro University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Oerebro (Sweden); Norrman, Eva [Oerebro University, Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Oerebro (Sweden); Geijer, Mats [Lund University and Skaane University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging and Physiology, Lund (Sweden); Jansson, Kjell [Oerebro University, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Oerebro (Sweden)

    2016-06-15

    Abdominal radiography is frequently used in acute abdominal non-traumatic pain despite the availability of more advanced diagnostic modalities. This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of low-dose CT compared with abdominal radiography, at similar radiation dose levels. Fifty-eight patients were imaged with both methods and were reviewed independently by three radiologists. The reference standard was obtained from the diagnosis in medical records. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated. A systematic review was performed after a literature search, finding a total of six relevant studies including the present. Overall sensitivity with 95 % CI for CT was 75 % (66-83 %) and 46 % (37-56 %) for radiography. Specificity was 87 % (77-94 %) for both methods. In the systematic review the overall sensitivity for CT varied between 75 and 96 % with specificity from 83 to 95 % while the overall sensitivity for abdominal radiography varied between 30 and 77 % with specificity 75 to 88 %. Based on the current study and available evidence, low-dose CT has higher diagnostic accuracy than abdominal radiography and it should, where logistically possible, replace abdominal radiography in the workup of adult patients with acute non-traumatic abdominal pain. (orig.)

  18. CT identification of abdominal injuries in abused pre-school-age children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmes, Melissa A.; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Kan, J.H.; Greeley, Christopher S.; Piercey, Lisa M.; Yu, Chang

    2011-01-01

    Although the abdominopelvic CT findings of abdominal trauma in children have been described, little has been written about the subset of children who are victims of abuse. Our purpose is to describe abdominopelvic injuries in abused pre-school-age children as identified on CT. An IRB-approved retrospective review of our institutional child abuse registry was performed. Searching a 14-year period, we identified 84 children ≤ 5 years of age with medically diagnosed abuse who underwent CT. We reviewed imaging studies, operative reports, autopsy findings and patient outcomes. Consensus review of the CT examinations was performed by CAQ-certified pediatric radiologists, and findings were categorized as normal or by injury types (solid organ versus bowel). The injuries were analyzed in light of existing literature on pediatric accidental and non-accidental injuries. Of the 84 children, 35 (41.7%) had abdominal injuries. Abdominal injuries included liver (15), bowel (13), mesentery (4), spleen (6), kidneys (7), pancreas (4) and adrenal glands (3). Of these children, 26% (9/35) required surgical intervention for bowel, mesenteric and pancreatic injuries. Another 9/35 children died, not as a result of abdominal injuries but as a direct result of inflicted intracranial injuries. Our data indicate that abdominal injuries in abused children present in a pattern similar to that of children with accidental abdominal trauma, underscoring the need for vigilance and correlative historical and clinical data to identify victims of abuse. Mortality in abused children with intra-abdominal injury was frequently related to concomitant head injury. (orig.)

  19. CT identification of abdominal injuries in abused pre-school-age children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmes, Melissa A.; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Kan, J.H. [Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Nashville, TN (United States); Greeley, Christopher S. [University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Department of Pediatrics, Houston, TX (United States); Piercey, Lisa M. [Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Yu, Chang [Vanderbilt University, Department of Biostatistics, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Although the abdominopelvic CT findings of abdominal trauma in children have been described, little has been written about the subset of children who are victims of abuse. Our purpose is to describe abdominopelvic injuries in abused pre-school-age children as identified on CT. An IRB-approved retrospective review of our institutional child abuse registry was performed. Searching a 14-year period, we identified 84 children {<=} 5 years of age with medically diagnosed abuse who underwent CT. We reviewed imaging studies, operative reports, autopsy findings and patient outcomes. Consensus review of the CT examinations was performed by CAQ-certified pediatric radiologists, and findings were categorized as normal or by injury types (solid organ versus bowel). The injuries were analyzed in light of existing literature on pediatric accidental and non-accidental injuries. Of the 84 children, 35 (41.7%) had abdominal injuries. Abdominal injuries included liver (15), bowel (13), mesentery (4), spleen (6), kidneys (7), pancreas (4) and adrenal glands (3). Of these children, 26% (9/35) required surgical intervention for bowel, mesenteric and pancreatic injuries. Another 9/35 children died, not as a result of abdominal injuries but as a direct result of inflicted intracranial injuries. Our data indicate that abdominal injuries in abused children present in a pattern similar to that of children with accidental abdominal trauma, underscoring the need for vigilance and correlative historical and clinical data to identify victims of abuse. Mortality in abused children with intra-abdominal injury was frequently related to concomitant head injury. (orig.)

  20. The optimal parameter for radiation dose in pediatric low dose abdominal CT: cross-sectional dimensions versus body weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yoon Young; Goo, Hyun Woo [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    To investigate the best parameter between cross-sectional dimensions and body weight in pediatric low dose abdominal CT. One hundred and thirty six children consecutively underwent weight-based abdominal CT. The subjects consisted of group 1 (79 children, weight range 10.0-19.9 kg) and group 2 (57 children, weight range 20.0-39.9 kg). Abdominal cross-sectional dimensions including circumference, area, anteroposterior diameters and transverse diameters were calculated. Image noise (standard deviation of CT density) was measured by placing a region of interest in the posterior segment of the right hepatic lobe on a CT image at the celiac axis. The measured image noise was correlated with the cross-sectional abdominal dimensions and body weight for subjects in each group. In group 1 subjects,area, circumference, transverse diameter, anteroposterior diameter, and body weight showed a significant positive correlation with image noise in descending order({gamma} = 0.63, 0.62, 0.61, 0.51, and 0.49; {rho} < 0.0001). In group 2 subjects, transverse diameter, circumference, area, anteroposterior diameter, and body weight showed a significant positive correlation with image noise in descending order ({gamma} = 0.83, 0.82, 0.78, 0.71, and 0.71; {rho} < 0.0001). Cross-sectional dimensions such as area, circumference, and transverse diameter showed a higher positive correlation with image noise than body weight for pediatric low dose abdominal CT.

  1. The optimal parameter for radiation dose in pediatric low dose abdominal CT: cross-sectional dimensions versus body weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yoon Young; Goo, Hyun Woo

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the best parameter between cross-sectional dimensions and body weight in pediatric low dose abdominal CT. One hundred and thirty six children consecutively underwent weight-based abdominal CT. The subjects consisted of group 1 (79 children, weight range 10.0-19.9 kg) and group 2 (57 children, weight range 20.0-39.9 kg). Abdominal cross-sectional dimensions including circumference, area, anteroposterior diameters and transverse diameters were calculated. Image noise (standard deviation of CT density) was measured by placing a region of interest in the posterior segment of the right hepatic lobe on a CT image at the celiac axis. The measured image noise was correlated with the cross-sectional abdominal dimensions and body weight for subjects in each group. In group 1 subjects,area, circumference, transverse diameter, anteroposterior diameter, and body weight showed a significant positive correlation with image noise in descending order(γ = 0.63, 0.62, 0.61, 0.51, and 0.49; ρ < 0.0001). In group 2 subjects, transverse diameter, circumference, area, anteroposterior diameter, and body weight showed a significant positive correlation with image noise in descending order (γ = 0.83, 0.82, 0.78, 0.71, and 0.71; ρ < 0.0001). Cross-sectional dimensions such as area, circumference, and transverse diameter showed a higher positive correlation with image noise than body weight for pediatric low dose abdominal CT

  2. Extra-appendiceal findings in pediatric abdominal CT for suspected appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Mark; Delgado, Jorge; Mahboubi, Soroosh [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Much has been written regarding the incidence, types, importance and management of abdominal CT incidental findings in adults, but there is a paucity of literature on incidental findings in children. We sought to determine the prevalence and characteristics of extra-appendiceal and incidental findings in pediatric abdominal CT performed for suspected appendicitis. A retrospective review was performed of abdominal CT for suspected appendicitis in a pediatric emergency department from July 2010 to June 2012. Extra-appendiceal findings were recorded. Any subsequent imaging was noted. Extra-appendiceal findings were divided into incidental findings of doubtful clinical significance, alternative diagnostic findings potentially providing a diagnosis other than appendicitis explaining the symptoms, and incidental findings that were abnormalities requiring clinical correlation and sometimes requiring further evaluation but not likely related to the patient symptoms. One hundred sixty-five children had abdominal CT for suspected appendicitis. Seventy-seven extra-appendiceal findings were found in 57 (34.5%) patients. Most findings (64 of 77) were discovered in children who did not have appendicitis. Forty-one of these findings (53%) could potentially help explain the patient's symptoms, while 30 of the findings (39%) were abnormalities that were unlikely to be related to the symptoms but required clinical correlation and sometimes further work-up. Six of the findings (8%) had doubtful or no clinical significance. Extra-appendiceal findings are common in children who undergo abdominal CT in the setting of suspected appendicitis. A significant percentage of these patients have findings that help explain their symptoms. Knowledge of the types and prevalence of these findings may help radiologists in the planning and interpretation of CT examinations in this patient population. (orig.)

  3. Primary congenital abdominal aortic aneurysm: a case report with perinatal serial follow-up imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Im; Lee, Whal; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Sang Joon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Seoul (Korea); Seo, Jeong-Wook [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea)

    2008-11-15

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms in neonates and infants are rare and are usually associated with infection, vasculitis, connective tissue disorder, or iatrogenic trauma such as umbilical catheterization. An idiopathic congenital abdominal aortic aneurysm is the least common category and there are few descriptions of the imaging features. We present the antenatal and postnatal imaging findings of an idiopathic congenital abdominal aortic aneurysm including the findings on US, MRI and CT. (orig.)

  4. Abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) interpretation: discrepancy rates among experienced radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abujudeh, Hani H.; Boland, Giles W.; Kaewlai, Rathachai; Rabiner, Pavel; Thrall, James H. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Halpern, Elkarn F.; Gazelle, G.S. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Institute for Technology Assessment, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-08-15

    To assess the discrepancy rate for the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) examinations among experienced radiologists. Ninety abdominal and pelvic CT examinations reported by three experienced radiologists who specialize in abdominal imaging were randomly selected from the radiological database. The same radiologists, blinded to previous interpretation, were asked to re-interpret 60 examinations: 30 of their previous interpretations and 30 interpreted by others. All reports were assessed for the degree of discrepancy between initial and repeat interpretations according to a three-level scoring system: no discrepancy, minor, or major discrepancy. Inter- and intrareader discrepancy rates and causes were evaluated. CT examinations included in the investigation were performed on 90 patients (43 men, mean age 59 years, SD 14, range 19-88) for the following indications: follow-up/evaluation of malignancy (69/90, 77%), pancreatitis (5/90, 6%), urinary tract stone (4/90, 4%) or other (12/90, 13%). Interobserver and intraobserver major discrepancy rates were 26 and 32%, respectively. Major discrepancies were due to missed findings, different opinions regarding interval change of clinically significant findings, and the presence of recommendation. Major discrepancy of between 26 and 32% was observed in the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic CT examinations. (orig.)

  5. The CT features of abdominal tuberculosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Welman, Chris J.; Kader, Ebrahim

    2002-01-01

    Background: The last decade has seen a resurgence in the incidence and clinical presentation of tuberculosis (TB). Little data exist in the paediatric age group regarding abdominal tuberculosis (ATB) and limited reports of its CT features have been published. Purpose: To elucidate the CT features of ATB in children. Materials and methods: The medical records of 22 patients with ATB were reviewed. Data were extracted regarding the methods of diagnosis and HIV status. The plain chest films were examined and the CT scans were assessed for adenopathy, solid organ involvement, ascites, bowel wall and omental thickening and inflammatory masses. Results: Ten patients had biopsy-proven ATB, 11 had extra-abdominal TB with clinical suspicion of ATB and 1 had a positive trial of therapy. Five patients were tested for HIV and one tested positive. Thirteen patients had abnormal chest radiographs. The commonest CT finding was lymphadenopathy (n=17), followed by solid organ involvement (n=12), ascites (n=5), bowel wall thickening (n=5), inflammatory masses (n=2) and omental thickening (n=1). Conclusions: The clinical features of ATB are protean. This usually results in a delay in diagnosis and impacts negatively on patient morbidity and mortality. On CT, the constellation of findings is highly suggestive of the diagnosis of ATB and, used in conjunction with clinical and laboratory data, should narrow the differential considerably. Unique findings include histologically proven active TB in calcified lymph nodes and a pancreatic TB granuloma. (orig.)

  6. TU-E-BRA-09: Evaluation of a Patient-Specific Respiratory Motion Model in Thoracic and Abdominal Phantom and Patient CT Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F; Zhang, Q; Hu, Y; Goodman, K; Mageras, G

    2012-06-01

    We have previously described a model of patient-specific respiratory motion to predict organ deformations without assuming repeatable breath cycles. The model is derived from deformable image registration (DIR) between respiration-correlated images (RCCT), followed by a principal component analysis (PCA) which relates the first two principal components of 3D deformations to the position and direction of motion of the diaphragm or implanted fiducials. This study examines model accuracy in phantom and patient images. We compare model and DIR accuracy using 3 types of image sets, each exhibiting different deformation patterns: (1) synthetic images in lung and abdomen from the 4D NURBS-based cardiac torso (NCAT) phantom with known deformations; (2) CT scans of physical deformable phantom with implanted markers in liver; and (3) liver structures in patient RCCT images using rigid registration in a small VOI as approximate ground truth. The model is calibrated by applying fast free-form DIR between a reference image set at end expiration and each of the other images at different motion states, defined by diaphragm or, in some patient cases, implanted fiducials as surrogate signals. Following PCA, the first two principal components are selected to yield a model-predicted displacement field for the given surrogate signal. Discrepancy between model prediction and ground truth (mean ± stand deviation) in 3D displacements is 3.3±2.0 mm in lung and 3.7±1.9 mm in abdomen in NCAT phantom, 3.8±2.7 mm in physical deformable phantom and 2.8±2.9 mm in patient data (N=7). Corresponding DIR discrepancies are 3.8±2.0 mm (NCAT lung), 3.7±1.8 mm (NCAT abdomen), 3.6±2.8 mm (physical phantom), and 2.0±2.2 mm (patient data). Motion model accuracy is found to be comparable to fast free-form in all three types of images, indicating that the assumption of two principal components is sufficient to describe the fast free-form DIR-derived deformations. NIH/NCI award R01 CA126993. © 2012

  7. A pictorial review of imaging of abdominal tumours in adolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasalkar, Darshana D.; Chu, Winnie C.W.; Cheng, Frankie W.T.; Li, Chi Kong; Hui, Sze Ki; Ling, Siu Cheung

    2010-01-01

    Neoplastic abdominal tumours, particularly those originating from embryonal tissue (such as hepatoblastoma and nephroblastoma) and neural crest cells (such as neuroblastoma), are well-documented in young children. Neoplasms of adulthood, most commonly carcinoma of different visceral organs, are also well-documented. Abdominal tumours in adolescence constitute a distinct pathological group. The radiological features of some of these tumours have been described only in isolated reports. The purpose of this pictorial essay was to review the imaging findings of various kinds of abdominal tumours in adolescent patients (with an age range of 10-16 years) who presented to the Children Cancer Center of our institution in the past 15 years. Some tumours, though rare, have characteristic imaging appearances (especially in CT) that enable an accurate diagnosis before definite histological confirmation. (orig.)

  8. A pictorial review of imaging of abdominal tumours in adolescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasalkar, Darshana D.; Chu, Winnie C.W. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Cheng, Frankie W.T.; Li, Chi Kong [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Hui, Sze Ki [Princess Margaret Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hong Kong (China); Ling, Siu Cheung [Princess Margaret Hospital, Department of Paediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-09-15

    Neoplastic abdominal tumours, particularly those originating from embryonal tissue (such as hepatoblastoma and nephroblastoma) and neural crest cells (such as neuroblastoma), are well-documented in young children. Neoplasms of adulthood, most commonly carcinoma of different visceral organs, are also well-documented. Abdominal tumours in adolescence constitute a distinct pathological group. The radiological features of some of these tumours have been described only in isolated reports. The purpose of this pictorial essay was to review the imaging findings of various kinds of abdominal tumours in adolescent patients (with an age range of 10-16 years) who presented to the Children Cancer Center of our institution in the past 15 years. Some tumours, though rare, have characteristic imaging appearances (especially in CT) that enable an accurate diagnosis before definite histological confirmation. (orig.)

  9. Assessment of image quality and low-contrast detectability in abdominal CT of obese patients: comparison of a novel integrated circuit with a conventional discrete circuit detector at different tube voltages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Euler, A.; Heye, T.; Kekelidze, M.; Bongartz, G.; Schindera, Sebastian T.; Szucs-Farkas, Z.; Sommer, C.; Schmidt, B.

    2015-01-01

    To compare image quality and low-contrast detectability of an integrated circuit (IC) detector in abdominal CT of obese patients with conventional detector technology at low tube voltages. A liver phantom with 45 lesions was placed in a water container to mimic an obese patient and examined on two different CT systems at 80, 100 and 120 kVp. The systems were equipped with either the IC or conventional detector. Image noise was measured, and the contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR) was calculated. Low-contrast detectability was assessed independently by three radiologists. Radiation dose was estimated by the volume CT dose index (CTDI vol ). The image noise was significantly lower, and the CNR was significantly higher with the IC detector at 80, 100 and 120 kVp, respectively (P = 0.023). The IC detector resulted in an increased lesion detection rate at 80 kVp (38.1 % vs. 17.2 %) and 100 kVp (57.0 % vs. 41.0 %). There was no difference in the detection rate between the IC detector at 100 kVp and the conventional detector at 120 kVp (57.0 % vs. 62.2 %). The CTDI vol at 80, 100 and 120 kVp measured 4.5-5.2, 7.3-7.9 and 9.8-10.2 mGy, respectively. The IC detector at 100 kVp resulted in similar low-contrast detectability compared to the conventional detector with a 120-kVp protocol at a radiation dose reduction of 37 %. (orig.)

  10. Abdominal fat volume estimation by stereology on CT: a comparison with manual planimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manios, G.E.; Mazonakis, M.; Damilakis, J. [University of Crete, Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Voulgaris, C.; Karantanas, A. [University of Crete, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2016-03-15

    To deploy and evaluate a stereological point-counting technique on abdominal CT for the estimation of visceral (VAF) and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF) volumes. Stereological volume estimations based on point counting and systematic sampling were performed on images from 14 consecutive patients who had undergone abdominal CT. For the optimization of the method, five sampling intensities in combination with 100 and 200 points were tested. The optimum stereological measurements were compared with VAF and SAF volumes derived by the standard technique of manual planimetry on the same scans. Optimization analysis showed that the selection of 200 points along with the sampling intensity 1/8 provided efficient volume estimations in less than 4 min for VAF and SAF together. The optimized stereology showed strong correlation with planimetry (VAF: r = 0.98; SAF: r = 0.98). No statistical differences were found between the two methods (VAF: P = 0.81; SAF: P = 0.83). The 95 % limits of agreement were also acceptable (VAF: -16.5 %, 16.1 %; SAF: -10.8 %, 10.7 %) and the repeatability of stereology was good (VAF: CV = 4.5 %, SAF: CV = 3.2 %). Stereology may be successfully applied to CT images for the efficient estimation of abdominal fat volume and may constitute a good alternative to the conventional planimetric technique. (orig.)

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... enlarged abdominal organ identify the location of abnormal fluid in the abdomen help determine causes of vomiting ... and helps assure safe and accurate placement and fluid drainage for diagnosis and/or relief of patient ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not use ionizing radiation, has no known harmful effects, and is particularly valuable for evaluating abdominal, pelvic ... of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... such as the liver or kidneys. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ... is rarely needed for ultrasound examinations. top of page What does the ultrasound equipment look like? Ultrasound scanners ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for laboratory testing help detect the presence and cause of an apparent enlarged abdominal organ identify the location of abnormal fluid in the abdomen help determine causes of vomiting in young infants Because ultrasound provides real- ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your doctor if there are specific instructions for eating and drinking prior to the exam. Your child ... for laboratory testing help detect the presence and cause of an apparent enlarged abdominal organ identify the ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How should we prepare for an abdominal ultrasound exam? Your child should be dressed in comfortable, loose-fitting clothing for an ultrasound exam. Other preparation depends on the type of examination. ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your child should wear loose, comfortable clothing and may be asked to wear a gown. What is ... within a child's abdomen. A Doppler ultrasound study may be part of a child's abdominal ultrasound examination. ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... child's abdominal ultrasound examination. Doppler ultrasound , also called color Doppler ultrasonography, is a special ultrasound technique that ... and processes the sounds and creates graphs or color pictures that represent the flow of blood through ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arteries and veins in the abdomen, arms, legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or ... help a physician determine the source of abdominal pain, such as gallstones, kidney stones, abscesses or an ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of an apparent enlarged abdominal organ identify the location of abnormal fluid in the abdomen help determine ... places the transducer on the skin in various locations, sweeping over the area of interest or angling ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for laboratory testing help detect the presence and cause of an apparent enlarged abdominal organ identify the ... of abnormal fluid in the abdomen help determine causes of vomiting in young infants Because ultrasound provides ...

  2. Malignant granular cell tumor of the abdominal wall mimicking desmoid tumor: A case report with CT imaging findings and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Je Hong; Ahn, Sung Eun; Lee, Dong Ho; Park, Seong Jin; Moon, Sung Kyoung; Lim, Joo Won [Dept. Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Granular cell tumors (GCTs) are extremely rare mesenchymal neoplasms of Schwann cell origin. Malignant GCTs (MGCTs) comprise 0.5-2% of all GCTs. In the present report, we describe a case of a 66-year-old man with MGCT of the abdominal wall. The patient visited our hospital due to a recently growing palpable soft tissue mass in the abdominal wall. Computed tomography scan revealed a 4.3 × 4.1 × 2.9 cm sized mass arising from the left abdominal wall, which was contemplated as a desmoid tumor before surgical excision. Histopathological examination confirmed MGCT.

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... particularly valuable for evaluating abdominal, pelvic or scrotal pain in young children. It is also valuable for evaluating the brain, spinal cord and hip joints in newborns and infants. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on ...

  4. Role of multidetector abdominal CT in the evaluation of abnormalities in polyarteritis nodosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, M.; Gupta, P.; Sharma, A.; Lal, A.; Rathi, M.; Khandelwal, N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To identify arterial and end-organ abnormalities on abdominal computed tomography (CT) in patients with polyarteritis nodosa (PAN). Materials and methods: A prospective study comprising 27 consecutive patients with PAN was conducted from 2007 to 2013. Departmental ethics committee approval was obtained. All patients underwent contrast-enhanced CT comprising an arterial and a portal venous phase. Images were assessed for arterial irregularity, aneurysms, stenosis, and occlusion. End-organ changes, including infarcts, haematoma, and bowel involvement, were also recorded. Results: A positive CT was recorded in 15 patients including eight females. The mean age was 32 years. The most common abnormalities were aneurysms seen in 12 patients. The renal artery was the most common site of aneurysms (n=9). The hepatic (n=3), superior mesenteric (n=3) and splenic arteries (n=1) were also involved. Contour irregularity was noted in four patients involving the hepatic, splenic, and superior mesenteric arteries. Stenosis/occlusion was also noted in seven patients. The most common end-organ abnormality was infarct (n=9), followed by bowel wall thickening (n=3), and perinephric haematoma (n=2). Conclusion: A combination of arterial and end-organ abnormalities on abdominal CT enables an accurate diagnosis of PAN in occult cases and may obviate the need for angiography and, sometimes, biopsy. - Highlights: • A combination of findings on CT allows a diagnosis of PAN. • Specific findings include arterial and end organ abnormalities. • The most common abnormalities on CTA and CT are aneurysms and infarcts.

  5. Non-traumatic abdominal emergencies: imaging and intervention in sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Cross-sectional imaging, in particular CT, has become the main method of detecting abdominal collections. Indium-labelled white-cell scintigraphy and gallium scintigraphy are reserved for patients in whom there is a high clinical suspicion of abdominal sepsis but CT has not revealed a source of sepsis. Scintigraphy is also used in patients with suspected vascular graft infections or suspected infected hip prostheses. Percutaneous abscess drainage (PAD) has revolutionised the treatment of abdominal abscesses over the past 20 years, with repeat laparotomy for postoperative abscesses becoming a rare event. Ultrasound or CT can be used to guide PAD. Choosing an access route that does not cross intervening organs is of crucial importance to the safe performance of PAD. The Trocar or Seldinger techniques can be used with equal success. The cavity should be aspirated until dry and irrigated with saline. Repeat imaging after drainage is helpful to detect any undrained locules. PAD endpoints include patient defervescence, reduction in white blood cell count and catheter drainage of less than 10 ml per day. Details regarding PAD in specific abdominal regions are discussed. Success rates for PAD are high (close to 90%) in most abdominal organs. Slightly lower success rates are seen with PAD of pancreatic abscesses and abscesses associated with fistulas (60-85% success rates). Complication rates lie between 0% and 10%. Complications can be minimised by ensuring that the patient has broad spectrum antibiotic coverage before drainage, by carefully planning the access route and by ensuring diligent post-procedure care by radiology staff. (orig.)

  6. Quantification of abdominal aortic calcification: Inherent measurement errors in current computed tomography imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijs, Ruben V C; Leemans, Eva L; Greuter, Marcel; Tielliu, Ignace F J; Zeebregts, Clark J; Willems, Tineke P

    2018-01-01

    Quantification software for coronary calcification is often used to measure abdominal aortic calcification on computed tomography (CT) images. However, there is no evidence substantiating the reliability and accuracy of these tools in this setting. Differences in coronary and abdominal CT acquisition and presence of intravascular contrast may affect the results of these tools. Therefore, this study investigates the effects of CT acquisition parameters and iodine contrast on automated quantification of aortic calcium on CT. Calcium scores, provided in volume and mass, were assessed by automated calcium quantification software on CT scans. First, differences in calcium scores between the abdominal and coronary CT scanning protocols were assessed by imaging a thorax phantom containing calcifications of 9 metrical variations. Second, aortic calcification was quantified in 50 unenhanced and contrast-enhanced clinical abdominal CT scans at a calcification threshold of 299 Hounsfield Units (HU). Also, the lowest possible HU threshold for calcifications was calculated per individual patient and compared to a 130 HU threshold between contrast-enhanced and unenhanced CT images, respectively. No significant differences in volume and mass scores between the abdominal and the coronary CT protocol were found. However, volume and mass of all calcifications were overestimated compared to the physical volume and mass (volume range: 0-649%; mass range: 0-2619%). In comparing unenhanced versus contrast-enhanced CT images showed significant volume differences for both thresholds, as well as for mass differences for the 130 vs patient-specific threshold (230 ± 22.6 HU). Calcification scoring on CT angiography tends to grossly overestimate volume and mass suggesting a low accuracy and reliability. These are reduced further by interference of intravascular contrast. Future studies applying calcium quantification tools on CT angiography imaging should acknowledge these issues and apply

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLE ORIG ORIG CT for upper abdominal pathology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quadrant pain. Abdom Imaging 2003; 28: 643-651. 3. Ramsay DW, Markham DH, Morgan B, Rodgers PM, Liddicoat AJ. The use of dilute Calogen as a fat density oral contrast medium in upper abdominal computed tomography, compared with the use of water and positive oral contrast media. Clin Radiol 2001; 56: 670-673.

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement ... of vomiting in young infants Because ultrasound provides real-time images, images that are renewed continuously, it ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of ... vomiting in young infants Because ultrasound provides real-time images, images that are renewed continuously, it also ...

  10. Dosimetry in abdominal imaging by 6-slice computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Sonia Isabel [Hospital de Faro, EPE (Portugal); Abrantes, Antonio Fernando; Ribeiro, Luis Pedro; Almeida, Rui Pedro Pereira [University of Algarve (Portugal). School of Health. Dept. of Radiology

    2012-11-15

    Objective: To determine the effective dose in abdominal computed tomography imaging and to study the influence of patients' characteristics on the received dose. Materials and Methods: Dose values measurements were performed with an ionization chamber on phantoms to check the agreement between dose values and those presented by the computed tomography apparatus, besides their compliance with the recommended reference dose levels. Later, values of dose received by physically able patients submitted to abdominal computed tomography (n = 100) were measured and correlated with their anthropometric characteristics. Finally, the dose to organs was simulated with the Monte Carlo method using the CT-Expo V 1.5 software, and the effect of automatic exposure control on such examinations. Results: The main characteristics directly influencing the dose include the patients' body mass, abdominal perimeter and body mass index, whose correlation is linear and positive. Conclusion: The radiation dose received from abdominal CT scans depends on some patient's characteristics, and it is important to adjust the acquisition parameters to their dimensions (author)

  11. Clinical significance of pulmonary nodules detected on abdominal CT in pediatric patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, Micheal; Lee, Edward Y. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Zurakowski, David [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Departments of Anesthesiology and Surgery, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-11-15

    The clinical significance of a pulmonary nodule that is detected incidentally on CT studies in children is unknown. In addition, there is limited information regarding the management of incidentally detected pulmonary nodules discovered on abdominal CT studies in children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of incidental pulmonary nodules detected on abdominal CT studies in children. This was a retrospective study performed following institutional review board approval. Abdominal CT reports in patients younger than 18 years of age from July 2004 to June 2011 were reviewed for the terms ''nodule,'' ''nodular'' or ''mass'' in reference to the lung bases. The study population included those pediatric patients in whom pulmonary nodules were initially detected on abdominal CT studies. The largest pulmonary nodules detected on CT studies were evaluated for their features (size, shape, margin, attenuation, location, and presence of calcification and cavitation). Follow-up CT studies and clinical records were reviewed for demographic information, history of underlying malignancies and the clinical outcome of the incidental pulmonary nodules. Comparison of malignant versus benign pulmonary nodules was performed with respect to the size of the nodule, imaging features on CT, and patient history of malignancy using the Student's t-test and Fisher exact test. Youden J-index in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off size for suggesting a high risk of malignancy of incidentally detected pulmonary nodules. Pulmonary nodules meeting inclusion criteria were detected in 62 (1.2%) of 5,234 patients. The mean age of patients with nodules was 11.2 years (range: 5 months-18 years). Thirty-one patients (50%) had follow-up CT studies and two of these patients (6%) were subsequently found to have malignant pulmonary nodules. Both of these

  12. CT in predicting abdominal cocoon in patients on peritoneal dialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terebus Loock, M. [Service de Radiologie A, CHU Minjoz, Besancon (France); Lubrano, J. [Service de Chirurgie Digestive, CHU Minjoz, Besancon (France); Courivaud, C.; Bresson Vautrin, C. [Service de Nephrologie, CHU St-Jacques, Besancon (France); Kastler, B. [Service de Radiologie A, CHU Minjoz, Besancon (France); Delabrousse, E., E-mail: eric.delabrousse@orange.f [Service de Radiologie A, CHU Minjoz, Besancon (France)

    2010-11-15

    Aim: To evaluate the computed tomography (CT) signs of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) as predictive factors for the evolution to abdominal cocoon (AC). Materials and methods: Clinical features and CT signs of 90 patients on PD were retrospectively reviewed. According to the clinical features, they were divided into three groups (asymptomatic, moderate, or severe). Clinical results were correlated with previously reported CT signs of EPS, i.e., peritoneal thickening, peritoneal calcifications, loculated fluids, small bowel faeces sign, small bowel obstruction, clustered bowel loops, pseudo sac, signs of bowel ischaemia or necrosis. AC was defined at CT by the association of clustered bowel loops and a pseudo sac. Statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher's exact test and the t-test. Results: Although demonstrated in symptomatic patients (p = 0.041), the occurrence of AC was not correlated with the severity of the symptoms (p = 0.16). Among the CT signs, the presence of loculated fluids (p = 0.011), a small bowel faeces sign (p = 0.002); and small bowel obstruction (p = 0.0001) were found to be statistically correlated with the appearance of an AC. Moreover, the association of loculated fluids, small bowel faeces sign, small bowel obstruction was extremely sensitive and specific in the development of AC (sensitivity = 67%, specifity = 100%, positive predictive value = 100%, negative predictive value = 96%). Conclusion: CT should be carried out in every symptomatic patient on PD. Indeed, the association of loculated fluid, small bowel faeces sign, and small bowel obstruction enables the prediction of the development of AC, which is likely to curtail PD and require surgery.

  13. Traumatic injuries: imaging of abdominal and pelvic injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weishaupt, Dominik; Grozaj, Ana M.; Willmann, Juergen K.; Roos, Justus E.; Hilfiker, Paul R.; Marincek, Borut

    2002-01-01

    The availability of new imaging modalities has altered the diagnostic approach to patients with abdominal and pelvic trauma. Computed tomography and ultrasound have largely replaced diagnostic peritoneal lavage. Ultrasound is used in most trauma centers as the initial imaging technique for the detection of hemoperitoneum and helps to determine the need for emergency laparotomy. Computed tomography allows for an accurate diagnosis of a wide range of traumatic abdominal and pelvic conditions. The speed of single-detector helical and multi-detector row CT (MDCT) permits a rapid CT examination of the seriously ill patient in the emergency room. In particular, the technology of MDCT permits multiple, sequential CT scans to be quickly obtained in the same patient, which is a great advance in the rapid assessment of the multiple-injured patient. The evolving concepts in trauma care promoting non-operative management of liver and splenic injuries creates the need for follow-up cross-sectional imaging studies in these patients. Computed tomography and, less frequently, MR or ultrasound, are used for this purpose. (orig.)

  14. Dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, Damiano [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncological and Pathological Sciences, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Latina (Italy); Eid, Marwen [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U. Joseph, E-mail: schoepf@musc.edu [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Jin, Kwang Nam [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Varga-Szemes, Akos [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Tesche, Christian [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Heart Center Munich-Bogenhausen, Munich (Germany); Mangold, Stefanie [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); and others

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • CT myocardial perfusion provides functional assessment of the myocardium. • CCTA is limited in determining the hemodynamic significance of coronary stenosis. • CT-MPI can accurately detect hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenosis. - Abstract: Non-invasive cardiac imaging has rapidly evolved during the last decade due to advancements in CT based technologies. Coronary CT angiography has been shown to reliably assess coronary anatomy and detect high risk coronary artery disease. However, this technique is limited to anatomical assessment, thus non-invasive techniques for functional assessment of the heart are necessary. CT myocardial perfusion is a new CT based technique that provides functional assessment of the myocardium and allows for a comprehensive assessment of coronary artery disease with a single modality when combined with CTA. This review aims to discuss dynamic CT myocardial perfusion as a new technique in the assessment of CAD.

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... Survey Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery ... reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of North America ( ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... using ultrasound. View full size with caption Related Articles and Media Appendicitis Images related to Children's (Pediatric) ... facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care physician, or to the ... provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as needle ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Children’s (pediatric) ultrasound imaging of the ... abdomen using ultrasound. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ... not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments and procedures may vary by geographic ...

  20. Distribution of pleural effusion associated with ascites on abdominal CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, In Young; Park, Chan Sup; Yeon, Jae Woo; Jeon, Yong Sun; Choi, Sung Kyu; Chung, Won Kyun [Inha Univ. Hospital, Songnam (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-04-01

    To determine through an analysis of the location of pleural effusion associated with ascites, as seen on abdominal CT scan, differences in the distribution of pleural effusion according to the etiology and distribution of ascites. We retrospectively evaluated 77 consecutive patients in whom abdominal CT scan revealed pleural effusion associated with ascites. Patients with history of surgery or trauma and those with clinically and radiologically diagnosed lung or pleural diseases were excluded. We compared the location of pleural effusion with the etiology and distribution of ascites. Forty-two patients were suffering from hepatobiliary diseases, mainly right dominant pleural effusion (26/42, 62%). Fourteen had intraperitoneal carcinomatosis with no significant difference between the frequency of right dominant (5/14, 36%) and of left dominant (6/14, 43%) pleural effusion. Eleven patients had pancreatic diseases, with mainly left dominant pleural effusion (6/11, 55%). Patients with right dominant ascites usually had right dominant pleural effusion (22/24, 92%) and those with left dominant ascites had left dominant pleural effusion (9/10, 90%). Ascites-associated pleural effusion correlated with the anatomical location of the etiology of ascites; its laterality was, in addition, usually the same as that of ascites.

  1. Cost reduction in abdominal CT by weight-adjusted dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arana, Estanislao; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Tobarra, Eva; Sierra, Consuelo

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To analyze the influence of contrast dose adjusted by weight vs. fixed contrast dose in the attenuation and cost of abdominal computed tomography (CT). Materials and methods: A randomised, consecutive, parallel group study was conducted in 151 patients (74 men and 77 women, age range 22-67 years), studied with the same CT helical protocol. A dose at 1.75 ml/kg was administered in 101 patients while 50 patients had a fixed dose of 120 ml of same non-ionic contrast material (320 mg/ml). Mean enhancements were measured at right hepatic lobe, superior abdominal aorta and inferior cava vein. Statistical analysis was weight-stratified ( 81 kg). Results: Aortic attenuation was significantly superior (p 61 kg in dose-adjusted group, presented higher hepatic attenuation, being statistically significant in those >81 kg (p 80 kg, there was an over cost of Euro 10.7 per patient. Conclusions: An injection volume of 1.75 ml/kg offers an optimal diagnostic quality with a global savings of Euro 1.34 per patient.

  2. Cost reduction in abdominal CT by weight-adjusted dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Estanislao; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Tobarra, Eva; Sierra, Consuelo

    2009-06-01

    To analyze the influence of contrast dose adjusted by weight vs. fixed contrast dose in the attenuation and cost of abdominal computed tomography (CT). A randomised, consecutive, parallel group study was conducted in 151 patients (74 men and 77 women, age range 22-67 years), studied with the same CT helical protocol. A dose at 1.75 ml/kg was administered in 101 patients while 50 patients had a fixed dose of 120 ml of same non-ionic contrast material (320 mg/ml). Mean enhancements were measured at right hepatic lobe, superior abdominal aorta and inferior cava vein. Statistical analysis was weight-stratified (81 kg). Aortic attenuation was significantly superior (p61 kg in dose-adjusted group, presented higher hepatic attenuation, being statistically significant in those >81 kg (p80 kg, there was an over cost of euro 10.7 per patient. An injection volume of 1.75 ml/kg offers an optimal diagnostic quality with a global savings of euro 1.34 per patient.

  3. A segmentation framework for abdominal organs from CT scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campadelli, Paola; Casiraghi, Elena; Pratissoli, Stella

    2010-09-01

    Computed tomography images are becoming an invaluable mean for abdominal organ investigation. In the field of medical image processing, some of the current interests are the automatic diagnosis of liver, spleen, and kidney pathologies, and the 3D volume rendering of these abdominal organs. Their automatic segmentation is the first and fundamental step in all these studies, but it is still an open problem. In this paper we propose a fully automatic, gray-level based segmentation framework based on a multiplanar fast marching method. The proposed segmentation scheme is general, and employs only established and not critical anatomical knowledge. For this reason, it can be easily adapted to segment different abdominal organs, by overcoming problems due to the high inter- and intra-patient gray-level, and shape variabilities; the extracted volumes are then combined to produce the final results. The system has been evaluated by computing the symmetric volume overlap (SVO) between the automatically segmented (liver and spleen) volumes and the volumes manually traced by radiological experts. The test dataset is composed of 60 images, where 40 images belong to a private dataset, and 20 images to a public one. Liver segmentation has achieved an average SVO congruent with94, which is comparable to the mean intra- and inter-personal variation (96). Spleen segmentation achieves similar, promising results (SVO congruent with93). The comparison of these results with those achieved by active contour models (SVO congruent with90), and topology adaptive snakes (SVO congruent with92) proves the efficacy of our system. The described segmentation method is a general framework that can be adapted to segment different abdominal organs, achieving promising segmentation results. It has to be noted that its performance could be further improved by incorporating shape based rules. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Imaging of small bowel-related complications following major abdominal surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan [Department of Radiology, Indiana University Medical Center, UH 0279, 550 N. University Boulevard, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Maglinte, Dean D.T. [Department of Radiology, Indiana University Medical Center, UH 0279, 550 N. University Boulevard, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)]. E-mail: dmaglint@iupui.edu

    2005-03-01

    To recognize and document the small bowel reactions following major abdominal surgery is an important key for a correct diagnosis. Usually, plain abdominal radiography is the initial imaging examination requested in the immediate postoperative period, whereas gastrointestinal contrast studies are used to look for specific complications. In some countries, especially in Europe, sonography is widely employed to evaluate any acute affection of the abdomen. CT is commonly used to assess postoperative abdominal complications; in our institution also CT enteroclysis is often performed, to provide additional important informations. Radiologist should be able to diagnose less common types of obstruction, such as afferent loop, closed loop, strangulating obstruction as well as internal hernia. This knowledge may assume a critical importance for surgeons to decide on therapy. In this article, we focus our attention on the imaging (particularly CT) in small bowel complications following abdominal surgery.

  5. Abdominal Applications of a Novel Detector-Based Spectral CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Nicholas; Rajiah, Prabhakar

    Detector-based spectral computed tomography (SDCT) is a recently introduced technology that uses a single x-ray tube and 2 layers of detectors to simultaneously collect low- and high-energy data. In this article, we provide an overview of this novel SDCT technology in abdominal imaging. Several applications of SDCT in abdominal imaging are discussed and illustrated, along with a brief description of current literature on the status of dual-energy computed tomography in these applications. This includes urinary calculus composition, characterization of masses (renal, adrenal, hepatic, and others), tumor perfusion, improving vascular contrast, improving lesion conspicuity, decreasing artifacts, and reducing radiation dose. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Histogram equalization of CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, J L; Capek, P

    1985-01-01

    Histogram equalization for display of clinical CT images was evaluated. In theory, histogram equalization makes optimal use of an available grey scale to display an image, and its use could circumvent the problem of selecting specific window settings for each image. In several clinical images, the use of a spatially variable histogram equalization technique limited to that portion of the CT image occupied by the patient did appear to increase the visibility of anatomic structures. However, using the technique also increased displayed image noise and artifacts. Although radiologists found this to be objectionable, it did not decrease the detectability of simulated low-contrast liver metastases. Further evaluation of histogram equalization for displaying CT images is being pursued.

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  8. Various complications of abdominal aortic aneurysm : CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Byun, Jae Young; Kim, Bum Soo; Kim, Euy Neyung; Yoon, Yeo Dong; Kim, Ki Tae; Lee, Jae Mun; Shinn, Kyung Sub [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-01

    To evaluate on abdominal CT the type and incidence of various complications of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Twenty six suspected cases of AAA were confirmed by operation(n=21) and by CT(n=5). The etiology, size, shape and incidence of various complications of AAA were then retrospectively evaluated. In addition, post-operative complications were also evaluated in five cases. The etiology of the aneurysm was atherosclerotic in 18 cases and mycotic in three;it showed the presence of Behcet disease in three cases, of tuberculosis in one, and of Marfan syndrome in one. Among the 18 fusiform AAA, the mean maximum diameter of ruptured AAA(7.5{+-}3cm, n=3) was significantly larger than that of unruptured AAA(4.9{+-}1.6cm, n=15) (p<0.05). The saccular type was much more likely to rupture than the fusiform type(p<0.00001). Out of the eight saccular AAA, seven ruptured ; their mean maximum diameter was 3.9{+-}1.3cm This was significantly smaller than that of ruptured fusiform aneurysm(p<0.05). The most common complication was rupture, and occurred ten of 26 cases(38%). Others included hydronephrosis in three cases, bowel infarction in one, and perianeurysmal retroperitoneal fibrosis in one case. Various post-oper-ative complications developed in five patients; these comprised periprosthetic pseudoaneurysm with hematoma (two cases), bowel ischemia (one), focal renal infarction (one), and secondary aorticoduodenal fistula (one). The most common complication of AAA was rupture, the rate of which was much higher in the saccular type with smaller size than the fusiform type. Other various and uncommon complications were observed. CT was helpful in detecting complications arising from AAA and in planning its treatment.

  9. Various complications of abdominal aortic aneurysm : CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Byun, Jae Young; Kim, Bum Soo; Kim, Euy Neyung; Yoon, Yeo Dong; Kim, Ki Tae; Lee, Jae Mun; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate on abdominal CT the type and incidence of various complications of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Twenty six suspected cases of AAA were confirmed by operation(n=21) and by CT(n=5). The etiology, size, shape and incidence of various complications of AAA were then retrospectively evaluated. In addition, post-operative complications were also evaluated in five cases. The etiology of the aneurysm was atherosclerotic in 18 cases and mycotic in three;it showed the presence of Behcet disease in three cases, of tuberculosis in one, and of Marfan syndrome in one. Among the 18 fusiform AAA, the mean maximum diameter of ruptured AAA(7.5±3cm, n=3) was significantly larger than that of unruptured AAA(4.9±1.6cm, n=15) (p<0.05). The saccular type was much more likely to rupture than the fusiform type(p<0.00001). Out of the eight saccular AAA, seven ruptured ; their mean maximum diameter was 3.9±1.3cm This was significantly smaller than that of ruptured fusiform aneurysm(p<0.05). The most common complication was rupture, and occurred ten of 26 cases(38%). Others included hydronephrosis in three cases, bowel infarction in one, and perianeurysmal retroperitoneal fibrosis in one case. Various post-oper-ative complications developed in five patients; these comprised periprosthetic pseudoaneurysm with hematoma (two cases), bowel ischemia (one), focal renal infarction (one), and secondary aorticoduodenal fistula (one). The most common complication of AAA was rupture, the rate of which was much higher in the saccular type with smaller size than the fusiform type. Other various and uncommon complications were observed. CT was helpful in detecting complications arising from AAA and in planning its treatment

  10. Evaluation of atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta by contrast enhanced helical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Honghan; Hiraishi, Kumiko; Shimizu, Tadafumi; Adachi, Itaru; Sueyoshi, Kouzou; Narabayashi, Isamu

    1997-01-01

    We retrospectively evaluated helical CT findings of the abdominal aorta in 85 patients (47 men and 38 women) ranging from 21 to 84 years of age (mean±SD : 58.8±13.6) with nonvascular disease. The degree of atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta was assessed by examining the imaging findings of the curvature, double contour (wall thickening), and calcification of the abdominal aorta. Each of the atherosclerosis findings was classified into one of four degree of severity: no atherosclerosis as 0, minimal atherosclerosis as 1, moderate atherosclerosis as 2, and severe atherosclerosis as 3. Findings of abdominal aortic sclerosis were given a score of 9. The mean score of the men was 2.8±1.8 and that of the women was 1.1±1.2. The mean score of patients below age 39 was 0.3±0.7, that of patients between ages 40 and 59 was 1.4±1.5, and that of patients over age 60 was 2.9±1.6. The results showed that atherosclerosis occurred earlier and more frequently, and was more severe, in the men than in the women. There are many nonsymptomatic patients with arteriosclerosis, and they should be carefully managed. Because of high resolusion and fast scanning, helical CT is useful for evaluating the severity of atherosclerosis. Double contour of the abdominal aorta at the later arterial phase of the contrast enhancement was an important finding, suggesting atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta. (author)

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... Patients may be turned to either side to improve the quality of the images. A clear water- ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the ... tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... radiology examinations, will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care physician, or to the physician or other healthcare ... information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments and procedures ... Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... imaging of the abdomen is a safe, noninvasive test that uses sound waves to produce a clear ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments and procedures may vary by ...

  16. Abdominal CT Does Not Improve Outcome for Children with Suspected Acute Appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle I. Miano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute appendicitis in children is a clinical diagnosis, which often requires preoperative confirmation with either ultrasound (US or computed tomography (CT studies. CTs expose children to radiation, which may increase the lifetime risk of developing malignancy. US in the pediatric population with appropriate clinical follow up and serial exam may be an effective diagnostic modality for many children without incurring the risk of radiation. The objective of the study was to compare the rate of appendiceal rupture and negative appendectomies between children with and without abdominal CTs; and to evaluate the same outcomes for children with and without USs to determine if there were any associations between imaging modalities and outcomes. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review including emergency department (ED and inpatient records from 1/1/2009–2/31/2010 and included patients with suspected acute appendicitis. Results: 1,493 children, aged less than one year to 20 years, were identified in the ED with suspected appendicitis. These patients presented with abdominal pain who had either a surgical consult or an abdominal imaging study to evaluate for appendicitis, or were transferred from an outside hospital or primary care physician office with the stated suspicion of acute appendicitis. Of these patients, 739 were sent home following evaluation in the ED and did not return within the subsequent two weeks and were therefore presumed not to have appendicitis. A total of 754 were admitted and form the study population, of which 20% received a CT, 53% US, and 8% received both. Of these 57%, 95% CI [53.5,60.5] had pathology-proven appendicitis. Appendicitis rates were similar for children with a CT (57%, 95% CI [49.6,64.4] compared to those without (57%, 95% CI [52.9,61.0]. Children with perforation were similar between those with a CT (18%, 95% CI [12.3,23.7] and those without (13%, 95% CI [10.3,15.7]. The proportion of

  17. Imaging the Abdominal Manifestations of Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Gillespie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is a multisystem disease with a range of abdominal manifestations including those involving the liver, pancreas, and kidneys. Recent advances in management of the respiratory complications of the disease has led to a greater life expectancy in patients with CF. Subsequently, there is increasing focus on the impact of abdominal disease on quality of life and survival. Liver cirrhosis is the most important extrapulmonary cause of death in CF, yet significant challenges remain in the diagnosis of CF related liver disease. The capacity to predict those patients at risk of developing cirrhosis remains a significant challenge. We review representative abdominal imaging findings in patients with CF selected from the records of two academic health centres, with a view to increasing familiarity with the abdominal manifestations of the disease. We review their presentation and expected imaging findings, with a focus on the challenges facing diagnosis of the hepatic manifestations of the disease. An increased familiarity with these abdominal manifestations will facilitate timely diagnosis and management, which is paramount to further improving outcomes for patients with cystic fibrosis.

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Children’s (pediatric) ultrasound imaging of ... 30 minutes. top of page What will my child experience during and after the procedure? Ultrasound examinations ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... a clear picture of the internal organs and blood vessels within your child’s abdomen. Ultrasound does not ... of the body's internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... to have your child drink several glasses of water, depending on the child's size, two hours prior ... improve the quality of the images. A clear water-based gel is applied to the area of ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... echoes from the tissues in the body. The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and ... work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles involved in the sonar used by bats, ships ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound ... from the probe through the gel into the body. The transducer collects the sounds that bounce back ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and creates graphs or color pictures ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... images and send a signed report to your primary care physician, or to the physician or other ... Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No Please type ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... special ultrasound technique that allows the physician to see and evaluate blood flow through arteries and veins ... Doppler ultrasound images can help the physician to see and evaluate: blockages to blood flow (such as ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... in the body. The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and submarines. The ultrasound image ... based on the same principles involved in the sonar used by bats, ships and fishermen. When a ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... placement and fluid drainage for diagnosis and/or relief of patient discomfort. Doppler ultrasound images can help ... tenderness, your child may feel pressure or minor pain from the procedure. If a Doppler ultrasound study ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... View full size with caption Related Articles and Media Appendicitis Images related to Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen ... or your insurance provider to get a better understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's ( ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No Please type ... facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and creates graphs or color pictures ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... the returning echoes from the tissues in the body. The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and submarines. The ultrasound image is immediately visible on a video display screen ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... images and send a signed report to your primary care physician, or to the physician or other healthcare provider who requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... waves from passing into your body. The sonographer (ultrasound technologist) or radiologist then places the transducer on the skin in various locations, sweeping over the area of interest or angling the ... ultrasound images are reviewed. An ultrasound examination is usually ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured ... called color Doppler ultrasonography, is a special ultrasound technique that allows the physician to see and evaluate ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... abdomen is a safe, noninvasive test that uses sound waves to produce a clear picture of the ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... called color Doppler ultrasonography, is a special ultrasound technique that allows the physician to see and evaluate ... evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. A follow-up examination may also be necessary ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... your child’s abdomen. Ultrasound does not use ionizing radiation, has no known harmful effects, and is particularly ... an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and movement of the body's internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... the transducer is pressed against the skin, it directs small pulses of inaudible, high-frequency sound waves ...

  5. Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging of the abdominal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyhen, Deydre S; Gill, Norman W; Whittaker, Jackie L; Henry, Sharon M; Hides, Julie A; Hodges, Paul

    2007-08-01

    Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI) of the abdominal muscles is increasingly being used in the management of conditions involving musculoskeletal dysfunctions associated with the abdominal muscles, including certain types of low back and pelvic pain. This commentary provides an overview of current concepts and evidence related to RUSI of the abdominal musculature, including issues addressing the potential role of ultrasound imaging in the assessment and training of these muscles. Both quantitative and qualitative aspects associated with clinical and research applications are considered, as are the possible limitations related to the interpretation of measurements made with RUSI. Research to date has utilized a range of methodological approaches, including different transducer placements and imaging techniques. The pros and cons of the various methods are discussed, and guidelines for future investigations are presented. Potential implications and opportunities for clinical use of RUSI to enhance evidence-based practice are outlined, as are suggestions for future research to further clarify the possible role of RUSI in the evaluation and treatment of abdominal muscular morphology and function.

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and helps assure safe and accurate placement and fluid drainage for diagnosis and/or relief of patient discomfort. Doppler ultrasound images can help the physician to see and evaluate: blockages to blood flow (such as clots) narrowing of vessels tumors and ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be turned to either side to improve the quality of the images. A clear water-based gel is applied to the area of the body being studied to help the transducer make secure contact with the body and eliminate air pockets between the transducer and the skin that ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Children’s (pediatric) ... ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of the body's ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... within your child’s abdomen. Ultrasound does not use ionizing radiation, has no known harmful effects, and is particularly ... create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... waves from passing into your body. The sonographer (ultrasound technologist) or radiologist then places the transducer on the skin in various locations, sweeping over the area of interest or angling the ... ultrasound images are reviewed. An ultrasound examination is usually ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. A follow-up examination may also be necessary so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way to see if treatment is working or ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an area of tenderness, your child may feel pressure or minor pain from the procedure. If a Doppler ultrasound study is performed, your child may actually hear pulse-like sounds that change in pitch as the blood flow is monitored and measured. Once the imaging ...

  15. Quantitative analysis of calcification of the abdominal aorta by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromi; Kubota, Kazuo; Ito, Kengo; Ono, Shuichi; Matsuzawa, Taiju

    1983-01-01

    Of the abdominal aorta, the relationship between the calcification index (C.I.) obtained from CT films and the atheromatous surface involved (S.I.) obtained from autopsy specimens was studied. The relations of C.I. to hypertension and hyperlipidemia were also analyzed. The coefficient of correlation between C.I. and S.I. was 0.83 (p< 0.001). Compared with a non-hypertensive group, the hypertensives showed a higher C.I., and such a difference was great in the male patients in their 50s and females in their 60s and 70s. The male patients with hyperlipidemia did not show definite differences in C.I. from the non-hyperlipidemia group, but the female patients in their 60s and 70s showed significantly higher values. (Chiba, N.)

  16. Effects of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction on radiation dose reduction and diagnostic accuracy of pediatric abdominal CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sohi; Kim, Myung-Joon; Lee, Mi-Jung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Choon-Sik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Wook; Hong, Jung Hwa [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Since children are more radio-sensitive than adults, there is a need to minimize radiation exposure during CT exams. To evaluate the effects of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) on radiation dose reduction, image quality and diagnostic accuracy in pediatric abdominal CT. We retrospectively reviewed the abdominal CT examinations of 41 children (24 boys and 17 girls; mean age: 10 years) with a low-dose radiation protocol and reconstructed with ASIR (the ASIR group). We also reviewed routine-dose abdominal CT examinations of 41 age- and sex-matched controls reconstructed with filtered-back projection (control group). Image quality was assessed objectively as noise measured in the liver, spleen and aorta, as well as subjectively by three pediatric radiologists for diagnostic acceptability using a four-point scale. Radiation dose and objective image qualities of each group were compared with the paired t-test. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by reviewing follow-up imaging studies and medical records in 2012 and 2013. There was 46.3% dose reduction of size-specific dose estimates in ASIR group (from 13.4 to 7.2 mGy) compared with the control group. Objective noise was higher in the liver, spleen and aorta of the ASIR group (P < 0.001). However, the subjective image quality was average or superior in 84-100% of studies. Only one image was subjectively rated as unacceptable by one reviewer. There was only one case with interpretational error in the control group and none in the ASIR group. Use of the ASIR technique resulted in greater than a 45% reduction in radiation dose without impairing subjective image quality or diagnostic accuracy in pediatric abdominal CT, despite increased objective image noise. (orig.)

  17. A tool for validating MRI-guided strategies: a digital breathing CT/MRI phantom of the abdominal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganelli, Chiara; Summers, Paul; Gianoli, Chiara; Bellomi, Massimo; Baroni, Guido; Riboldi, Marco

    2017-11-01

    Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is emerging as the elected image modality for organ motion quantification and management in image-guided radiotherapy. However, the lack of validation tools is an open issue for image guidance in the abdominal and thoracic organs affected by organ motion due to respiration. We therefore present an abdominal four-dimensional (4D) CT/MRI digital phantom, including the estimation of MR tissue parameters, simulation of dedicated abdominal MR sequences, modeling of radiofrequency coil response and noise, followed by k-space sampling and image reconstruction. The phantom allows the realistic simulation of images generated by MR pulse sequences with control of scan and tissue parameters, combined with co-registered CT images. In order to demonstrate the potential of the phantom in a clinical scenario, we describe the validation of a virtual T1-weighted 4D MRI strategy. Specifically, the motion extracted from a T2-weighted 4D MRI is used to warp a T1-weighted breath-hold acquisition, with the aim of overcoming trade-offs that limit T1-weighted acquisitions. Such an application shows the applicability of the digital CT/MRI phantom as a validation tool, which should be especially useful for cases unsuited to obtain real imaging data.

  18. Computed tomography and 67Ga citrate radionuclide imaging for evaluating suspected abdominal abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitt, R.G.; Biello, D.R.; Sagel, S.; Stanley, R.J.; Aronberg, D.J.; Robinson, M.L.; Siegel, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of the results of 67 Ga citrate radionuclide imaging and computed tomography (CT) in 45 patients with suspected abdominal abscess was conducted to determine the merits of each method. Both techniques were highly sensitive in detecting abdominal abscesses, and often provided complementary and supplementary diagnostic information; their combined use many times offset the limitations of each method used alone. Guidelines are suggested that permit rapid evaluation, while limiting diagnostic errors, when using 67 Ga citrate radionculide imaging and CT in the presence or absence of localizing symptoms and signs

  19. Abdominal vascular syndromes: characteristic imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardarelli-Leite, Leandro; Velloni, Fernanda Garozzo; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Lemos, Marcelo Delboni; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: leandrocleite@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Mediciana. Departmento de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2016-07-15

    Abdominal vascular syndromes are rare diseases. Although such syndromes vary widely in terms of symptoms and etiologies, certain imaging findings are characteristic. Depending on their etiology, they can be categorized as congenital - including blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome) - compressive - including 'nutcracker' syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome, Cockett syndrome (also known as May-Thurner syndrome), and superior mesenteric artery syndrome. In this article, we aimed to illustrate imaging findings that are characteristic of these syndromes, through studies conducted at our institution, as well as to perform a brief review of the literature on this topic. (author)

  20. Abdominal vascular syndromes: characteristic imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardarelli-Leite, Leandro; Velloni, Fernanda Garozzo; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Lemos, Marcelo Delboni; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal vascular syndromes are rare diseases. Although such syndromes vary widely in terms of symptoms and etiologies, certain imaging findings are characteristic. Depending on their etiology, they can be categorized as congenital - including blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome) - compressive - including 'nutcracker' syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome, Cockett syndrome (also known as May-Thurner syndrome), and superior mesenteric artery syndrome. In this article, we aimed to illustrate imaging findings that are characteristic of these syndromes, through studies conducted at our institution, as well as to perform a brief review of the literature on this topic. (author)

  1. Intra-abdominal Kikuchi's Disease Mimicking Malignant Lymphoma on FDG PET-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hye Suk; Kim, Gi hyun; Cho, Young Shim; Joo, Hye Jin; Lee, Ok Jun; Ryu, Dong Hee; Lee, Ki Hyeong; Kim, Seung Taik [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    Kikuchi's disease is a self-limiting benign disease characterized by cervical lymphadenopathy, but it can be mistaken for malignant disease, and when involved lymph nodes are unusually located, diagnosis can be more difficult. The authors report the case of a 19-year-old man with Kikuchi's disease, who had isolated intraabdominal lymphadenopathy and increased 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT). Although its incidence is extremely rare, intra-abdominal Kikuchi's disease with increased FDG uptake in PET-CT image should be considered in the differential diagnosis when constitutional symptoms mimic those of malignant lymphoma.

  2. Image Quality Improvement after Implementation of a CT Accreditation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, You Sung; Jung, Seung Eun; Choi, Byung Gil; Shin, Yu Ri; Hwang, Seong Su; Ku, Young Mi; Lim, Yeon Soo; Lee, Jae Mun

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate any improvement in the quality of abdominal CTs after the utilization of the nationally based accreditation program. Approval was obtained from the Institutional Review Board, and informed consent was waived. We retrospectively analyzed 1,011 outside abdominal CTs, from 2003 to 2007. We evaluated images using a fill-up sheet form of the national accreditation program, and subjectively by grading for the overall CT image quality. CT scans were divided into two categories according to time periods; before and after the implementation of the accreditation program. We compared CT scans between two periods according to parameters pertaining to the evaluation of images. We determined whether there was a correlation between the results of a subjective assessment of the image quality and the evaluation scores of the clinical image. The following parameters were significantly different after the implementation of the accreditation program: identifying data, display parameters, scan length, spatial and contrast resolution, window width and level, optimal contrast enhancement, slice thickness, and total score. The remaining parameters were not significantly different between scans obtained from the two different periods: scan parameters, film quality, and artifacts. After performing the CT accreditation program, the quality of the outside abdominal CTs show marked improvement, especially for the parameters related to the scanning protocol

  3. Emergency assessment of patients with acute abdominal pain using low-dose CT with iterative reconstruction: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Becker, Minerva; Becker, Christoph D; Halfon Poletti, Alice; Rutschmann, Olivier T; Zaidi, Habib; Perneger, Thomas; Platon, Alexandra

    2017-08-01

    To determine if radiation dose delivered by contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) for acute abdominal pain can be reduced to the dose administered in abdominal radiography (<2.5 mSv) using low-dose CT (LDCT) with iterative reconstruction algorithms. One hundred and fifty-one consecutive patients requiring CECT for acute abdominal pain were included, and their body mass index (BMI) was calculated. CECT was immediately followed by LDCT. LDCT series was processed using 1) 40% iterative reconstruction algorithm blended with filtered back projection (LDCT-IR-FBP) and 2) model-based iterative reconstruction algorithm (LDCT-MBIR). LDCT-IR-FBP and LDCT-MBIR images were reviewed independently by two board-certified radiologists (Raters 1 and 2). Abdominal pathology was revealed on CECT in 120 (79%) patients. In those with BMI <30, accuracies for correct diagnosis by Rater 1 with LDCT-IR-FBP and LDCT-MBIR, when compared to CECT, were 95.4% (104/109) and 99% (108/109), respectively, and 92.7% (101/109) and 100% (109/109) for Rater 2. In patients with BMI ≥30, accuracies with LDCT-IR-FBP and LDCT-MBIR were 88.1% (37/42) and 90.5% (38/42) for Rater 1 and 78.6% (33/42) and 92.9% (39/42) for Rater 2. The radiation dose delivered by CT to non-obese patients with acute abdominal pain can be safely reduced to levels close to standard radiography using LDCT-MBIR. • LDCT-MBIR (<2.5 mSv) can be used to assess acute abdominal pain. • LDCT-MBIR (<2.5 mSv) cannot safely assess acute abdominal pain in obese patients. • LDCT-IR-FBP (<2.5 mSv) cannot safely assess patients with acute abdominal pain.

  4. Improving Accuracy for Image Fusion in Abdominal Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Ewertsen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Image fusion involving real-time ultrasound (US is a technique where previously recorded computed tomography (CT or magnetic resonance images (MRI are reformatted in a projection to fit the real-time US images after an initial co-registration. The co-registration aligns the images by means of common planes or points. We evaluated the accuracy of the alignment when varying parameters as patient position, respiratory phase and distance from the co-registration points/planes. We performed a total of 80 co-registrations and obtained the highest accuracy when the respiratory phase for the co-registration procedure was the same as when the CT or MRI was obtained. Furthermore, choosing co-registration points/planes close to the area of interest also improved the accuracy. With all settings optimized a mean error of 3.2 mm was obtained. We conclude that image fusion involving real-time US is an accurate method for abdominal examinations and that the accuracy is influenced by various adjustable factors that should be kept in mind.

  5. Don't Forget the Abdominal Wall: Imaging Spectrum of Abdominal Wall Injuries after Nonpenetrating Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalon, Shanna A; Askari, Reza; Gates, Jonathan D; Patel, Ketan; Sodickson, Aaron D; Khurana, Bharti

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal wall injuries occur in nearly one of 10 patients coming to the emergency department after nonpenetrating trauma. Injuries range from minor, such as abdominal wall contusion, to severe, such as abdominal wall rupture with evisceration of abdominal contents. Examples of specific injuries that can be detected at cross-sectional imaging include abdominal muscle strain, tear, or hematoma, including rectus sheath hematoma (RSH); traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH); and Morel-Lavallée lesion (MLL) (closed degloving injury). These injuries are often overlooked clinically because of (a) a lack of findings at physical examination or (b) distraction by more-severe associated injuries. However, these injuries are important to detect because they are highly associated with potentially grave visceral and vascular injuries, such as aortic injury, and because their detection can lead to the diagnosis of these more clinically important grave traumatic injuries. Failure to make a timely diagnosis can result in delayed complications, such as bowel hernia with potential for obstruction or strangulation, or misdiagnosis of an abdominal wall neoplasm. Groin injuries, such as athletic pubalgia, and inferior costochondral injuries should also be considered in patients with abdominal pain after nonpenetrating trauma, because these conditions may manifest with referred abdominal pain and are often included within the field of view at cross-sectional abdominal imaging. Radiologists must recognize and report acute abdominal wall injuries and their associated intra-abdominal pathologic conditions to allow appropriate and timely treatment. © RSNA, 2017.

  6. Oral contrast agents in abdominal MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuck, A.F.; Schhidbauer, E.; Allgayer, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper compares Gd-DTPA, FE 2+ SO 4 , and Fe 2 Cl 3 -EDTA solutions as oral contrast agents in abdominal/pelvic MR imaging. MR imaging was performed at 1.5 T in 62 patients with tumors or inflammatory disorders of the abdomen and pelvis and in 28 normal volunteers. After precontrast imaging, an oral contrast medium was administered. Thirty subjects received 700-1,200 mL of a Gd-DTPA solution (1.0 mM; 15 g of mannitol per liter), 30 ingested the same amount of 5.0 mM Fe 2+ SO 4 , and 30 received Fe 2 Cl 3 -EDTA solution. The postcontrast study included T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo sequences and T1- and T2*-weighted gradient-echo sequences. Bowel peristalsis was reduced with intravenous application of Buscopan. Gd-DTPA, Fe 2+ SO 4 solution, and Fe 2 Cl 3 -EDTA solution provided homogeneous hyperintense signal intensity and high contrast of stomach and duodenum in all sequences, with significantly improved delineation of pathologic structures and abdominal organs in 78% of cases. Best contrast was achieved in T1-weighted sequences

  7. Role of CT in the Diagnosis of Nonspecific Abdominal Pain: A Multicenter Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Jonathan D; Reisner, Andrew T; Binder, William D; Zaheer, Atif; Gunn, Martin L; Linnau, Ken F; Miller, Chad M; Tramontano, Angela C; Herring, Maurice S; Dowling, Emily C; Halpern, Elkan F; Donelan, Karen; Gazelle, G Scott; Pandharipande, Pari V

    2017-03-01

    The objective of our study was to determine whether specific patient and physician factors-known before CT-are associated with a diagnosis of nonspecific abdominal pain (NSAP) after CT in the emergency department (ED). We analyzed data originally collected in a prospective multicenter study. In the parent study, we identified ED patients referred to CT for evaluation of abdominal pain. We surveyed their physicians before and after CT to identify changes in leading diagnoses, diagnostic confidence, and admission decisions. In the current study, we conducted a multiple regression analysis to identify whether the following were associated with a post-CT diagnosis of NSAP: patient age; patient sex; physicians' years of experience; physicians' pre-CT diagnostic confidence; and physicians' pre-CT admission decision if CT had not been available. We analyzed patients with and those without a pre-CT diagnosis of NSAP separately. For the sensitivity analysis, we excluded patients with different physicians before and after CT. In total, 544 patients were included: 10% (52/544) with a pre-CT diagnosis of NSAP and 90% (492/544) with a pre-CT diagnosis other than NSAP. The leading diagnoses changed after CT in a large proportion of patients with a pre-CT diagnosis of NSAP (38%, 20/52). In regression analysis, we found that physicians' pre-CT diagnostic confidence was inversely associated with a post-CT diagnosis of NSAP in patients with a pre-CT diagnosis other than NSAP (p = 0.0001). No other associations were significant in both primary and sensitivity analyses. With the exception of physicians' pre-CT diagnostic confidence, the factors evaluated were not associated with a post-CT diagnosis of NSAP.

  8. Relationship between abdominal fat area measured by screening abdominal fat CT and metabolic syndrome in asymptomatic Korean individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dae Woong; Park, Noh Hyuck; Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Seon Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, MyoungJi Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal fat as assessed by abdominal fat CT and metabolic syndrome (MS), especially in asymptomatic Korean individuals. Retrospectively, a medical record analysis was performed in a total of 111 patients with screening abdominal fat CT. The data such as visceral fat (VF), subcutaneous fat (SF) and VF/SF were elicited by abdominal fat CT, and we analyzed the relationship of VF, SF, and VF/SF with MS and cardiovascular risk factors. In males, VF and SF had a positive correlation with many cardiovascular risk factors and MS, but VF was superior to SF. In females, VF, but not SF, had a positive correlation with some cardiovascular risk factors and MS. The cut-off values of VF and SF to predict MS, which were calculated by drawing receiver operating characteristic curves, were as follows: the cut-off value of VF in men: 136.50 cm{sup 2}, the cut-off value of SF in men: 159.50 cm{sup 2}, and the cut-off value of VF in women: 134.50 cm{sup 2}. In conclusion, VF accumulation was the best predictor of MS and it had a positive correlation with cardiovascular risk factors in both sexes. SF also had a significant association with MS, especially in men, although it was not superior to VF.

  9. Cholestrol granuloma of the breast incidentally detected on dynamic abdominal CT: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Sun Hye; Lee, Eun Hye; Hong, Hyun Sook; Kwak, Jeong Ja [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    A breast cholesterol granuloma is an uncommon nodular breast lesion. We incidentally detected a persistently enhancing breast mass on the dynamic abdominal computed tomography (CT) of a 78-year-old woman. The mass decreased in diameter over 50 days following a core needle biopsy. This report is the first to describe the dynamic-enhanced CT features of a breast cholesterol granuloma.

  10. CT in the diagnosis of abdominal wall hernias: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejer, A.M.; Jess, P. [Department of Surgery, Roskilde County Hospital Koege, DK-4600 Koege (Denmark); Rygaard, H. [Department of Radiology, Roskilde County Hospital Koege, DK-4600 Koege (Denmark)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the value of CT in the diagnosis of abdominal wall hernias and at the same time to create a standard for this CT investigation. Twenty-four patients with suspected hernia of the abdominal wall were examined. All were operated on. The CT scans were assessed by two radiologists to estimate the interobserver variation. The CT diagnoses made by the two radiologists were correct in 83 % and 79 % of cases, respectively. The sensitivity was 0.83 in both CT evaluations and the specificity was 0.83 and 0.67, respectively. The predictive value of a positive CT finding was 0.94 and 0.88, while the predictive value of a negative CT finding was 0.63 and 0.57, respectively. The interobserver variation (kappa) was 0.87. The study therefore indicates that a positive CT finding of abdominal wall hernia is reliable, while a negative finding does not exclude the diagnosis. The interobserver variation of the CT diagnoses is acceptable. To achieve the highest diagnostic accuracy, it is recommended to always use the Valsalva manoeuvre, oral intake of contrast and 10/10 mm CT slices. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs.

  11. CT-SPECT fusion to correlate radiolabeled monoclonal antibody uptake with abdominal CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, E.L.; Noz, M.E.; Sanger, J.J.; Megibow, A.J.; Maguire, G.Q.

    1989-01-01

    To enhance the information provided by computed tomography (CT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) performed with radiolabeled, anti-carcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody (MoAb), the authors performed fusion of these types of images from eight subjects with suspected colorectal adenocarcinoma. Section thickness and pixel size of the two studies were matched, coordinates of corresponding points from each study were identified, and CT sections were translated, rotated, and reprojected to match the corresponding SPECT scans. The CT-SPECT fusion enabled identification of anatomic sites of tumor-specific MoAb accumulation in four cases, showed non-specific MoAb accumulation in two, and helped confirm information only suggested by the two studies separately in one

  12. TU-AB-BRA-01: Abdominal Synthetic CT Generation in Support of Liver SBRT Dose Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredfeldt, JS; Liu, L; Feng, M [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Cao, Y [The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Balter, J [University Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate and validate a technique for generating MRI-derived synthetic CT volumes (MRCTs) in support of adaptive liver SBRT. Methods: Under IRB approval, ten hepatocellular carcinoma patients were scanned using a single MR sequence (T1 Dixon-VIBE), yielding inherently-registered water, fat, and T1-weighted images. Air-containing voxels were identified by intensity thresholding. The envelope of the anterior vertebral bodies was segmented from the fat image by fitting a shape model to vertebral body candidate voxels, then using level sets to expand the contour outward. Fuzzy-C-Means (FCM) was then used to classify each non-air voxel in the image as fat, water, bone, or marrow. Bone and marrow only were classified within the vertebral body envelope. The MRCT was created by integrating the product of the FCM class probability with the assigned class density for each voxel. The resulting MRCTs were deformably aligned with planning CTs and 2-ARC SBRT VMAT plans were optimized on the MRCT density maps. Fluence was copied onto the CT density grids and dose recalculated. Results: The MRCTs faithfully reproduced most of the features visible in the corresponding CT image volumes, with exceptions of ribs and posterior spinous processes. The liver, vertebral bodies, kidneys, spleen and cord all had median HU differences of less than 75 between MRCT and CT images. PTV D99% values had an average 0.2% difference (standard deviation: 0.46%) between calculations on MRCT and CT density grids. The maximum difference in dose to 0.1cc of the PTV was 0.25% (std:0.49%). OAR dose differences were similarly small (mean:0.03Gy, std:0.26Gy). The largest normal tissue complication percentage (NTCP) difference was 1.48% (mean:0.06%, std:0.54%). Conclusions: MRCTs from a single abdominal imaging sequence are promising for use in SBRT dose calculation. Future work will focus on extending models to better define bones in the upper abdomen. Supported by NIHR01EB016079 and NIH1L30CA

  13. Abdominal manifestations of polyarteritis nodosa demonstrated with CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adaletli, Ibrahim; Ozpeynirci, Yigit; Kurugoglu, Sebuh [Istanbul University, Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Sever, Lale; Arisoy, Nil [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-05-15

    We report a rare case of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) presenting in childhood. The child had multiple visceral aneurysms and later developed ascending colitis and jejunitis. The diagnosis was established with multidetector CT and CT angiography. (orig.)

  14. Profiles of US and CT imaging features with a high probability of appendicitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Randen, A.; Laméris, W.; van Es, H.W.; ten Hove, W.; Bouma, W.H.; van Leeuwen, M.S.; van Keulen, E.M.; van der Hulst, V.P.M.; Henneman, O.D.; Bossuyt, P.M.; Boermeester, M.A.; Stoker, J.

    2010-01-01

    To identify and evaluate profiles of US and CT features associated with acute appendicitis. Consecutive patients presenting with acute abdominal pain at the emergency department were invited to participate in this study. All patients underwent US and CT. Imaging features known to be associated with

  15. Computerized organ localization in abdominal CT volume with context-driven generalized Hough transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Li, Qiang

    2014-03-01

    Fast localization of organs is a key step in computer-aided detection of lesions and in image guided radiation therapy. We developed a context-driven Generalized Hough Transform (GHT) for robust localization of organ-of-interests (OOIs) in a CT volume. Conventional GHT locates the center of an organ by looking-up center locations of pre-learned organs with "matching" edges. It often suffers from mislocalization because "similar" edges in vicinity may attract the prelearned organs towards wrong places. The proposed method not only uses information from organ's own shape but also takes advantage of nearby "similar" edge structures. First, multiple GHT co-existing look-up tables (cLUT) were constructed from a set of training shapes of different organs. Each cLUT represented the spatial relationship between the center of the OOI and the shape of a co-existing organ. Second, the OOI center in a test image was determined using GHT with each cLUT separately. Third, the final localization of OOI was based on weighted combination of the centers obtained in the second stage. The training set consisted of 10 CT volumes with manually segmented OOIs including liver, spleen and kidneys. The method was tested on a set of 25 abdominal CT scans. Context-driven GHT correctly located all OOIs in the test image and gave localization errors of 19.5±9.0, 12.8±7.3, 9.4±4.6 and 8.6±4.1 mm for liver, spleen, left and right kidney respectively. Conventional GHT mis-located 8 out of 100 organs and its localization errors were 26.0±32.6, 14.1±10.6, 30.1±42.6 and 23.6±39.7mm for liver, spleen, left and right kidney respectively.

  16. Is dual-phase abdominal CT necessary for the optimal detection of metastases from renal cell carcinoma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Y.; Liew, S.; Taylor, M.B.; Bonington, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether dual-phase abdominal computed tomography (CT) detected more metastases than portal-phase CT alone in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Materials and methods: Audit committee approval was obtained. A retrospective audit was undertaken in 100 patients who underwent both arterial and portal phase CT. The CT images were independently reviewed by two consultant radiologists. The presence of metastases in the liver, pancreas, and contralateral kidney were recorded for each phase of contrast enhancement. Results: Metastases were identified in the liver in 27 patients, pancreas in 12, and contralateral kidney in 23 patients. Nine of the 27 (33%) liver metastases, three of the 12 (25%) pancreatic metastases, and two of the 23 (9%) renal metastases were only detected in the arterial phase, whilst four of the 27 (15%) liver metastases, three of the 12 (25%) pancreatic metastases, and two of the 23 (9%) renal metastases were only detected in the portal phase. Nine patients (9%) had metastases only visualized in the arterial phase, and six (6%) only in the portal phase. Detection of metastases only visible in the arterial phase led to a change of management in two patients (2%). Conclusion: The audit results support our current standard of dual-phase abdominal CT for optimal detection of RCC metastases.

  17. Automated tube potential selection for standard chest and abdominal CT in follow-up patients with testicular cancer: comparison with fixed tube potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnannt, Ralph; Winklehner, Anna; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Alkadhi, Hatem; Eberli, Daniel; Knuth, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate prospectively, in patients with testicular cancer, the radiation dose-saving potential and image quality of contrast-enhanced chest and abdominal CT with automated tube potential selection. Forty consecutive patients with testicular cancer underwent contrast-enhanced arterio-venous chest and portal-venous abdominal CT with automated tube potential selection (protocol B; tube potential 80-140 kVp), which is based on the attenuation of the CT topogram. All had a first CT at 120 kVp (protocol A) using the same 64-section CT machine and similar settings. Image quality was assessed; dose information (CTDI vol ) was noted. Image noise and attenuation in the liver and spleen were significantly higher for protocol B (P vol was significantly lower for protocol B compared to protocol A (reduction by 12%, P < 0.01). In patients with testicular cancer, radiation dose of chest and abdominal CT can be reduced with automated tube potential selection, while image quality is preserved. (orig.)

  18. CFD modelling of abdominal aortic aneurysm on hemodynamic loads using a realistic geometry with CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudah, Eduardo; Ng, E Y K; Loong, T H; Bordone, Maurizio; Pua, Uei; Narayanan, Sriram

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to find a correlation between the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) geometric parameters, wall stress shear (WSS), abdominal flow patterns, intraluminal thrombus (ILT), and AAA arterial wall rupture using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Real AAA 3D models were created by three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of in vivo acquired computed tomography (CT) images from 5 patients. Based on 3D AAA models, high quality volume meshes were created using an optimal tetrahedral aspect ratio for the whole domain. In order to quantify the WSS and the recirculation inside the AAA, a 3D CFD using finite elements analysis was used. The CFD computation was performed assuming that the arterial wall is rigid and the blood is considered a homogeneous Newtonian fluid with a density of 1050 kg/m(3) and a kinematic viscosity of 4 × 10(-3) Pa·s. Parallelization procedures were used in order to increase the performance of the CFD calculations. A relation between AAA geometric parameters (asymmetry index ( β ), saccular index ( γ ), deformation diameter ratio ( χ ), and tortuosity index ( ε )) and hemodynamic loads was observed, and it could be used as a potential predictor of AAA arterial wall rupture and potential ILT formation.

  19. CFD Modelling of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm on Hemodynamic Loads Using a Realistic Geometry with CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Soudah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to find a correlation between the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA geometric parameters, wall stress shear (WSS, abdominal flow patterns, intraluminal thrombus (ILT, and AAA arterial wall rupture using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. Real AAA 3D models were created by three-dimensional (3D reconstruction of in vivo acquired computed tomography (CT images from 5 patients. Based on 3D AAA models, high quality volume meshes were created using an optimal tetrahedral aspect ratio for the whole domain. In order to quantify the WSS and the recirculation inside the AAA, a 3D CFD using finite elements analysis was used. The CFD computation was performed assuming that the arterial wall is rigid and the blood is considered a homogeneous Newtonian fluid with a density of 1050 kg/m3 and a kinematic viscosity of 4×10-3 Pa·s. Parallelization procedures were used in order to increase the performance of the CFD calculations. A relation between AAA geometric parameters (asymmetry index (β, saccular index (γ, deformation diameter ratio (χ, and tortuosity index (ε and hemodynamic loads was observed, and it could be used as a potential predictor of AAA arterial wall rupture and potential ILT formation.

  20. Emergency assessment of patients with acute abdominal pain using low-dose CT with iterative reconstruction: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Becker, Minerva; Becker, Christoph D.; Zaidi, Habib; Platon, Alexandra [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Radiology, Geneva (Switzerland); Halfon Poletti, Alice; Rutschmann, Olivier T. [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Community, Primary Care and Emergency Medicine, Geneva (Switzerland); Perneger, Thomas [University Hospital of Geneva, Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-08-15

    To determine if radiation dose delivered by contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) for acute abdominal pain can be reduced to the dose administered in abdominal radiography (<2.5 mSv) using low-dose CT (LDCT) with iterative reconstruction algorithms. One hundred and fifty-one consecutive patients requiring CECT for acute abdominal pain were included, and their body mass index (BMI) was calculated. CECT was immediately followed by LDCT. LDCT series was processed using 1) 40% iterative reconstruction algorithm blended with filtered back projection (LDCT-IR-FBP) and 2) model-based iterative reconstruction algorithm (LDCT-MBIR). LDCT-IR-FBP and LDCT-MBIR images were reviewed independently by two board-certified radiologists (Raters 1 and 2). Abdominal pathology was revealed on CECT in 120 (79%) patients. In those with BMI <30, accuracies for correct diagnosis by Rater 1 with LDCT-IR-FBP and LDCT-MBIR, when compared to CECT, were 95.4% (104/109) and 99% (108/109), respectively, and 92.7% (101/109) and 100% (109/109) for Rater 2. In patients with BMI ≥30, accuracies with LDCT-IR-FBP and LDCT-MBIR were 88.1% (37/42) and 90.5% (38/42) for Rater 1 and 78.6% (33/42) and 92.9% (39/42) for Rater 2. The radiation dose delivered by CT to non-obese patients with acute abdominal pain can be safely reduced to levels close to standard radiography using LDCT-MBIR. (orig.)

  1. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: surveillance of endoleak using maximum transverse diameter of aorta on non-enhanced CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagayama, Hiroki; Sueyoshi, Eijun; Sakamoto, Ichiro; Uetani, Masataka [Dept. of Radiology, Nagasaki Univ. School of Medicine, Nagasaki (Japan)], E-mail: sueyo@nagasaki-u.ac.jp

    2012-07-15

    Background. Repeat volumetric analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) after endovascular AAA repair (EVAR) is time-consuming and requires advanced processing, dedicated equipment, and skilled operators. Purpose. To clarify the validity of measuring the maximal short-axis diameter (Dmax) of AAA in follow-up non-enhanced axial CT as a means of detecting substantial endoleaks after EVAR. Material and Methods. CT images were retrospectively reviewed in 47 patients (7 women, 40 men; mean age, 76.2 years) who had no endoleak on initial contrast-enhanced CT after EVAR. Regular follow-up CT studies were performed every 6 months. At each CT study, the Dmax on the CT axial image was measured and compared with that on the last CT (115 data-sets). Contrast-enhanced CT was regarded as the standard of reference to decide the presence or absence of endoleaks. The appearance of endoleak was defined as the end point of this study. Results. Endoleaks were detected in 17 patients during the follow-up period. Mean Dmax changes for 6 months were significant between positive and negative endoleak cases (1.8 {+-} 1.9 vs. -1.1 {+-} 3.0 mm, P < 0.0001). When the Dmax change {<=} 0 mm for 6 months was used as the threshold for negative endoleak, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 74.5, 82.4, 96.1, and 35.9%, respectively. When Dmax change {<=}-1 mm was used as the threshold, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 38.8, 100, 100, and 22.1%, respectively. Conclusion. Contrast-enhanced CT is not required for the evaluation of endoleaks when the Dmax decreases by at least 1 mm over 6 months after EVAR.

  2. Feasibility of abdominal plain film images in evaluation suspected drug smuggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sormaala, Markus J.; Salonen, Hanna-Mari; Mattila, Ville M.; Kivisaari, Arto; Autti, Taina

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Drug smuggling in the gastrointestinal tract has soared within the last 20 years. Though illegal substances in the gastrointestinal tract can be visualized with ultrasound, MRI and CT, the abdominal radiograph has by far remained the most frequently used way of detecting smuggled drugs. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the inter-radiologist interpretation error and the reliability of the abdominal radiograph in detecting smuggled drugs. Materials and methods: A total of 279 abdominal radiographs of suspected smugglers were classified by three radiologists as clearly positive or negative for drug smuggling. All available information about the cases was collected from the customs officers and police. Results: Out of these cases 203 (73%) were interpreted as negative and 35 (13%) as positive by all three radiologists. In 86% of the cases there was, therefore, an inter-radiological agreement in interpreting the images. In 41 (14%) cases, however, there was an inter-radiologist disagreement. Kappa-value for inter-observer variability was 0.70. Conclusions: In up to a seventh of the abdominal radiographs the interpretation can be challenging even for an experienced radiologist. False positive interpretation can lead to innocent passengers being detained in vain. As negatively interpreted images usually result in releasing of the suspect, there is no way of knowing how many false negative occur. This makes the abdominal radiograph a suboptimal examination, and low dose CT should be considered as the screening modality for gastrointestinal drug smugglers

  3. Feasibility of abdominal plain film images in evaluation suspected drug smuggler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sormaala, Markus J., E-mail: markus.sormaala@welho.com [Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Salonen, Hanna-Mari, E-mail: hanna-mari.salonen@hus.fi [Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Mattila, Ville M., E-mail: ville.mattila@uta.fi [Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Trauma, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere (Finland); Kivisaari, Arto, E-mail: arto.kivisaari@hus.fi [Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Autti, Taina, E-mail: taina.autti@hus.fi [Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-09-15

    Objective: Drug smuggling in the gastrointestinal tract has soared within the last 20 years. Though illegal substances in the gastrointestinal tract can be visualized with ultrasound, MRI and CT, the abdominal radiograph has by far remained the most frequently used way of detecting smuggled drugs. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the inter-radiologist interpretation error and the reliability of the abdominal radiograph in detecting smuggled drugs. Materials and methods: A total of 279 abdominal radiographs of suspected smugglers were classified by three radiologists as clearly positive or negative for drug smuggling. All available information about the cases was collected from the customs officers and police. Results: Out of these cases 203 (73%) were interpreted as negative and 35 (13%) as positive by all three radiologists. In 86% of the cases there was, therefore, an inter-radiological agreement in interpreting the images. In 41 (14%) cases, however, there was an inter-radiologist disagreement. Kappa-value for inter-observer variability was 0.70. Conclusions: In up to a seventh of the abdominal radiographs the interpretation can be challenging even for an experienced radiologist. False positive interpretation can lead to innocent passengers being detained in vain. As negatively interpreted images usually result in releasing of the suspect, there is no way of knowing how many false negative occur. This makes the abdominal radiograph a suboptimal examination, and low dose CT should be considered as the screening modality for gastrointestinal drug smugglers.

  4. Chronic contained rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm (CCR-AAA) with massive vertebral bone erosion: computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Sachiko; Okauchi, Kenzo; Tsushima, Yoshito

    2014-02-01

    A 62-year-old male presented with sudden onset of low back and right leg pain. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography demonstrated an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), along with a large mass lesion causing vertebral body erosion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested that the mass lesion consisted of a chronic hematoma. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) demonstrated increased uptake around the mass lesion, but not around the AAA. Surgical intervention was performed, and the subsequent histological diagnosis was chronic contained rupture of AAA. The mass lesion consisted of chronic hematoma and necrosis with inflammatory cell infiltration and hemosiderin deposition. This condition mimics some neoplastic diseases, but MRI and FDG-PET findings may help establish the correct diagnosis.

  5. Three-dimensional-CT imaging of colorectal disease with thin collimation helical CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Toshihiro; Koizumi, Koichi; Sakai, Tatsuya; Kai, Shunkichi; Takatsu, Kazuaki; Maruyama, Masakazu

    1998-01-01

    We have conducted research on three-dimensional (3D)-CT-colonoscopy with thin collimation helical CT scanning over the past three years. This has lately become a subject of special interest. 3D-CT-colonoscopy has three kinds of visualizing methods depending on the threshold setting of CT values. The first one is the virtual endoscopy method which is displayed in a similar fashion to colonoscopic images. The second one is the air image method using the air in the digestive tract as a contrast medium. The third one is the pseudo-tract method which has characteristics of both virtual endoscopy and the air image method and visualizes in a shape of the digestive tract. The image visualized by 3D-CT-colonoscopy is similar to that of conventional colonoscopy and barium enema study, which is obtained with minimal invasion to patients. Obvious advanced carcinomas were easily visualized, and even a small flat polyp measuring 5 mm in size, was able to be observed retrospectively. The characteristics of our method are that we can easily make an examination in a short time and with little dependence on expert technique. Also patients have little discomfort compared to that experienced during colonoscopy and barium enema study. Important features are as follows; long calculation time, insufficient air insufflation, fecal material in the patient''s bowel, whole abdominal scan, and spatial resolution. In the near future, a multislice CT scanner system will have ability to overcome these problems. Therefore, 3D-CT-colonoscopy might be applied in the future for first line examination as a mass screening for colorectal carcinoma. (author)

  6. Pyelolymphatic backflow demonstrated by an abdominal CT: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durhan, Gamze; Ayyıldız, Veysel Atilla; Çiftçi, Türkmen Turan; Akata, Deniz; Özmen, Mustafa Nasuh

    2014-01-01

    Pyelolymphatic backflow phenomenon, which is a subtype of pyelorenal backflow, is a rare condition that occurs during the acute phase of urinary obstruction. Pyelorenal backflow has already been described in humans with retrograde pyelography. Our report presents a rare case of pyelolyphatic backflow demonstrated by a computed tomography. A 67-year-old man with a history of bladder carcinoma was admitted to the emergency department due to right-sided flank pain and hematuria. Hematuria resolved after insertion of a 3-way urinary catheter, but flank pain persisted. As a result, an abdominopelvic CT was performed. CT revealed numerous tiny, serpiginous tubular structures connected with each other and filled with urine. They began intrarenally and extended caudally surrounding the ureter in the retroperitoneum. Subsequently, the patient underwent an ultrasound-guided nephrostomy to decompress the collecting system of the right kidney. Antegrade pyelography revealed minimal hydroneprosis. However, no leakage from the ureter to the retroperitoneum was observed, proving that the changes demonstrated by a CT were due to pyelolymphatic reflux caused by increased pressure in the collecting tubules filling the lymphatics with opaque urine. This report presents a very rare case of pyelolymphatic reflux demonstrated by a CT. We present this case report as a reminder that although rare, pyelolymphatic reflux can occur as a result of obstruction without manifestations of hydronephrosis and it can be confused with leakage from the ureter

  7. Panoramic three-dimensional CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamata, Akitoshi; Fujishita, Masami

    1998-01-01

    Panoramic radiography is a unique projection technique for producing a single image of both maxillary and mandibular arches and many other anatomical structures. To obtain a similar panoramic image without panoramic radiography system, a modified three-dimensional (3D) CT imaging technique was designed. A set of CT slice image data extending from the chin to the orbit was used for 3D reconstruction. The CT machine used in this study was the X-Vision (TOSHIBA, Japan). The helical scan technique was used. The slice thickness of reconstructed image was one or 1.5 mm. The occlusal plane or Frankfort horizontal (FH) plane was used as the reference line. The resultant slice image data was stored on a magnetic optical disk and then used to create panoramic 3D-CT images on a Macintosh computer systems (Power Macintosh 8600/250, Apple Computer Inc., USA). To create the panoramic 3D-CT image, the following procedure was designed: Design a curved panoramic 3D-CT imaging layer using the imaging layer and the movement of the x-ray beam in panoramic radiography system as a template; Cut this imaging layer from each slice image, then the trimmed image was transformed to a rectangular layer using the ''still image warping'' special effect in the Elastic Reality special effects system (Elastic Reality Inc., USA); Create panoramic 3D-CT image using the Voxel View (Vital Images Inc., USA) rendering system and volume rendering technique. Although the image quality was primitive, a panoramic view of maxillofacial region was obtained by this technique. (author)

  8. Acute Appendagitis Presenting with Features of Appendicitis: Value of Abdominal CT Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhpreet Dubb

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of acute appendagitis in a patient who presented initially with typical features of acute appendicitis. The diagnosis of acute appendagitis was made on pathognomonic signs on computed tomography (CT scan. Abdominal pain is a common surgical emergency. CT is not always done if there are clear features of acute appendicitis. The rare but important differential diagnosis of acute appendagitis must be borne in mind when dealing with patients with suspected acute appendicitis. A CT scan of the abdomen may avoid unnecessary surgery in these patients.

  9. Evaluation of reduced-dose CT for acute non-traumatic abdominal pain: evaluation of diagnostic accuracy in comparison to standard-dose CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ahmed E; Bongers, Malte Niklas; Zinsser, Dominik; Schabel, Christoph; Wichmann, Julian L; Arshid, Rami; Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Bamberg, Fabian

    2018-01-01

    Background Patients with acute non-traumatic abdominal pain often undergo abdominal computed tomography (CT). However, abdominal CT is associated with high radiation exposure. Purpose To evaluate diagnostic performance of a reduced-dose 100 kVp CT protocol with advanced modeled iterative reconstruction as compared to a linearly blended 120 kVp protocol for assessment of acute, non-traumatic abdominal pain. Material and Methods Two radiologists assessed 100 kVp and linearly blended 120 kVp series of 112 consecutive patients with acute non-traumatic pain (onset diagnostic confidence. Both 100 kVp and linearly blended 120 kVp series were quantitatively evaluated regarding radiation dose and image noise. Comparative statistics and diagnostic accuracy was calculated using receiver operating curve (ROC) statistics, with final clinical diagnosis/clinical follow-up as reference standard. Results Image quality was high for both series without detectable significant differences ( P = 0.157). Image noise and artifacts were rated low for both series but significantly higher for 100 kVp ( P ≤ 0.021). Diagnostic accuracy was high for both series (120 kVp: area under the curve [AUC] = 0.950, sensitivity = 0.958, specificity = 0.941; 100 kVp: AUC ≥ 0.910, sensitivity ≥ 0.937, specificity = 0.882; P ≥ 0.516) with almost perfect inter-rater agreement (Kappa = 0.939). Diagnostic confidence was high for both dose levels without significant differences (100 kVp 5, range 4-5; 120 kVp 5, range 3-5; P = 0.134). The 100 kVp series yielded 26.1% lower radiation dose compared with the 120 kVp series (5.72 ± 2.23 mSv versus 7.75 ± 3.02 mSv, P diagnostic accuracy for the assessment of acute non-traumatic abdominal pain.

  10. Limitations of dual time point FDG-PET imaging in the evaluation of focal abdominal lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebert, N.; Hamscho, N.; Menzel, C.; Neuss, L.; Gruenwald, F. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Allgemeine Nuklearmedizin; Kovacs, A.F. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Maxillofacial and Facial Plastic Surgery

    2004-10-01

    Aim: For the evaluation of the diagnostic potential of dual time point FDG positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with suspicious focal abdominal uptake, dual time point PET imaging was compared with clinical findings. Patients, methods: In a prospective study, 56 patients exhibiting a solitary suspicious, intense abdominal FDG uptake, underwent dual time point PET imaging for staging or restaging of different malignant tumors, maximal standardizes uptake value (SUVmax) measurements included. The first acquisition was started 64.8 {+-} 19.5, the second 211.3 {+-} 52.5 min after FDG injection. The final diagnosis based on CT or MRT imaging and a follow-up period of 12.6 {+-} 2.8 months. Additionally, colonoscopy was done in 6 patients. In another 6 patients histopathology was obtained from CT guided biopsy. Results: Malignant focal abdominal lesions with a SUVmax < 2.5 (n = 4) showed an uptake increase of {>=} 30%. In the remaining malignant cases with an uptake of {>=} 2.5 (n = 11), uptake increased in 64% and decreased in 36%. Malignant lesions showing FDG uptake decrease (n = 4) had an initial SUVmax value {>=} 2.5 and remained with a SUVmax {>=} 2.5 in the second imaging. In benign lesions with an initial SUVmax {>=} 2.5 (n = 31), the uptake increased in 17 patients (55%) and decreased in 14 patients (45%). All lesions which changed configuration (33%) were confirmed as benign (n = 5). Conclusion: Using dual time point PET abdominal lesions show a very heterogenous uptake pattern regardless of their dignity. Malignancy can only be reliably excluded in lesions which change their configuration and in lesions with an initial SUVmax value <2.5 combined with an SUV decrease in the delayed imaging. Particularly abdominal lesions which show an initial SUVmax {>=} 2.5 combined with a SUB increase in the delayed imaging are suspicious for malignancy and need further clarification. (orig.)

  11. A Method for the Automatic Exposure Control in Pediatric Abdominal CT: Application to the Standard Deviation Value and Tube Current Methods by Using Patient's Age and Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Ken; Akiyama, Shinji; Nambu, Atushi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Hasebe, Yuusuke

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to apply the pediatric abdominal CT protocol of Donnelly et al. in the United States to the pediatric abdominal CT-AEC. Examining CT images of 100 children, we found that the sectional area of the hepatic portal region (y) was strongly correlated with the body weight (x) as follows: y=7.14x + 84.39 (correlation coefficient=0.9574). We scanned an elliptical cone phantom that simulates the human body using a pediatric abdominal CT scanning method of Donnelly et al. in, and measured SD values. We further scanned the same phantom under the settings for adult CT-AEC scan and obtained the relationship between the sectional areas (y) and the SD values. Using these results, we obtained the following preset noise factors for CT-AEC at each body weight range: 6.90 at 4.5-8.9 kg, 8.40 at 9.0-17.9 kg, 8.68 at 18.0-26.9 kg, 9.89 at 27.0-35.9 kg, 12.22 at 36.0-45.0 kg, 13.52 at 45.1-70.0 kg, 15.29 at more than 70 kg. From the relation between age, weight and the distance of liver and tuber ischiadicum of 500 children, we obtained the CTDI vol values and DLP values under the scanning protocol of Donnelly et al. Almost all of DRL from these values turned out to be smaller than the DRL data of IAEA and various countries. Thus, by setting the maximum current values of CT-AEC to be the Donnelly et al.'s age-wise current values, and using our weight-wise noise factors, we think we can perform pediatric abdominal CT-AEC scans that are consistent with the same radiation safety and the image quality as those proposed by Donnelly et al.

  12. SPECT/CT workflow and imaging protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckers, Catherine; Hustinx, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Introducing a hybrid imaging method such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT greatly alters the routine in the nuclear medicine department. It requires designing new workflow processes and the revision of original scheduling process and imaging protocols. In addition, the imaging protocol should be adapted for each individual patient, so that performing CT is fully justified and the CT procedure is fully tailored to address the clinical issue. Such refinements often occur before the procedure is started but may be required at some intermediate stage of the procedure. Furthermore, SPECT/CT leads in many instances to a new partnership with the radiology department. This article presents practical advice and highlights the key clinical elements which need to be considered to help understand the workflow process of SPECT/CT and optimise imaging protocols. The workflow process using SPECT/CT is complex in particular because of its bimodal character, the large spectrum of stakeholders, the multiplicity of their activities at various time points and the need for real-time decision-making. With help from analytical tools developed for quality assessment, the workflow process using SPECT/CT may be separated into related, but independent steps, each with its specific human and material resources to use as inputs or outputs. This helps identify factors that could contribute to failure in routine clinical practice. At each step of the process, practical aspects to optimise imaging procedure and protocols are developed. A decision-making algorithm for justifying each CT indication as well as the appropriateness of each CT protocol is the cornerstone of routine clinical practice using SPECT/CT. In conclusion, implementing hybrid SPECT/CT imaging requires new ways of working. It is highly rewarding from a clinical perspective, but it also proves to be a daily challenge in terms of management. (orig.)

  13. SPECT/CT workflow and imaging protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckers, Catherine [University Hospital of Liege, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Oncological Imaging, Department of Medical Physics, Liege (Belgium); Hustinx, Roland [University Hospital of Liege, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Oncological Imaging, Department of Medical Physics, Liege (Belgium); Domaine Universitaire du Sart Tilman, Service de Medecine Nucleaire et Imagerie Oncologique, CHU de Liege, Liege (Belgium)

    2014-05-15

    Introducing a hybrid imaging method such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT greatly alters the routine in the nuclear medicine department. It requires designing new workflow processes and the revision of original scheduling process and imaging protocols. In addition, the imaging protocol should be adapted for each individual patient, so that performing CT is fully justified and the CT procedure is fully tailored to address the clinical issue. Such refinements often occur before the procedure is started but may be required at some intermediate stage of the procedure. Furthermore, SPECT/CT leads in many instances to a new partnership with the radiology department. This article presents practical advice and highlights the key clinical elements which need to be considered to help understand the workflow process of SPECT/CT and optimise imaging protocols. The workflow process using SPECT/CT is complex in particular because of its bimodal character, the large spectrum of stakeholders, the multiplicity of their activities at various time points and the need for real-time decision-making. With help from analytical tools developed for quality assessment, the workflow process using SPECT/CT may be separated into related, but independent steps, each with its specific human and material resources to use as inputs or outputs. This helps identify factors that could contribute to failure in routine clinical practice. At each step of the process, practical aspects to optimise imaging procedure and protocols are developed. A decision-making algorithm for justifying each CT indication as well as the appropriateness of each CT protocol is the cornerstone of routine clinical practice using SPECT/CT. In conclusion, implementing hybrid SPECT/CT imaging requires new ways of working. It is highly rewarding from a clinical perspective, but it also proves to be a daily challenge in terms of management. (orig.)

  14. SU-F-I-33: Estimating Radiation Dose in Abdominal Fat Quantitative CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X; Yang, K; Liu, B [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To compare size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) in abdominal fat quantitative CT with another dose estimate D{sub size,L} that also takes into account scan length. Methods: This study complied with the requirements of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. At our institution, abdominal fat CT is performed with scan length = 1 cm and CTDI{sub vol} = 4.66 mGy (referenced to body CTDI phantom). A previously developed CT simulation program was used to simulate single rotation axial scans of 6–55 cm diameter water cylinders, and dose integral of the longitudinal dose profile over the central 1 cm length was used to predict the dose at the center of one-cm scan range. SSDE and D{sub size,L} were assessed for 182 consecutive abdominal fat CT examinations with mean water-equivalent diameter (WED) of 27.8 cm ± 6.0 (range, 17.9 - 42.2 cm). Patient age ranged from 18 to 75 years, and weight ranged from 39 to 163 kg. Results: Mean SSDE was 6.37 mGy ± 1.33 (range, 3.67–8.95 mGy); mean D{sub size,L} was 2.99 mGy ± 0.85 (range, 1.48 - 4.88 mGy); and mean D{sub size,L}/SSDE ratio was 0.46 ± 0.04 (range, 0.40 - 0.55). Conclusion: The conversion factors for size-specific dose estimate in AAPM Report No. 204 were generated using 15 - 30 cm scan lengths. One needs to be cautious in applying SSDE to small length CT scans. For abdominal fat CT, SSDE was 80–150% higher than the dose of 1 cm scan length.

  15. Systematic unenhanced CT for acute abdominal symptoms in the elderly patients improves both emergency department diagnosis and prompt clinical management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millet, Ingrid; Pages-Bouic, Emma; Curros-Doyon, Fernanda; Taourel, Patrice [CHU Lapeyronie, Department of Medical Imaging, Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Sebbane, Mustapha [Department of Emergency Medicine, CHU Lapeyronie, Montpellier (France); Molinari, Nicolas [Department of Medical Information and Statistics, CHU Montpellier (France); Riou, Bruno [GH Pitie-Salpetriere, APHP, Department of Emergency Medicine and Surgery, Paris (France)

    2017-02-15

    To assess the added-value of systematic unenhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) on emergency department (ED) diagnosis and management accuracy compared to current practice, in elderly patients with non-traumatic acute abdominal symptoms. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. This prospective study included 401 consecutive patients 75 years of age or older, admitted to the ED with acute abdominal symptoms, and investigated by early systematic unenhanced abdominal CT scan. ED diagnosis and intended management before CT, after unenhanced CT, and after contrast CT if requested, were recorded. Diagnosis and management accuracies were evaluated and compared before CT (clinical strategy) and for two conditional strategies (current practice and systematic unenhanced CT). An expert clinical panel assigned a final diagnosis and management after a 3-month follow-up. Systematic unenhanced CT significantly improved the accurate diagnosis (76.8% to 85%, p=1.1 x 10{sup -6}) and management (88.5% to 95.8%, p=2.6 x 10{sup -6}) rates compared to current practice. It allowed diagnosing 30.3% of acute unsuspected pathologies, 3.4% of which were unexpected surgical procedure requirement. Systematic unenhanced abdominal CT improves ED diagnosis accuracy and appropriate management in elderly patients presenting with acute abdominal symptoms compared to current practice. (orig.)

  16. Systematic unenhanced CT for acute abdominal symptoms in the elderly patients improves both emergency department diagnosis and prompt clinical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millet, Ingrid; Pages-Bouic, Emma; Curros-Doyon, Fernanda; Taourel, Patrice; Sebbane, Mustapha; Molinari, Nicolas; Riou, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    To assess the added-value of systematic unenhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) on emergency department (ED) diagnosis and management accuracy compared to current practice, in elderly patients with non-traumatic acute abdominal symptoms. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. This prospective study included 401 consecutive patients 75 years of age or older, admitted to the ED with acute abdominal symptoms, and investigated by early systematic unenhanced abdominal CT scan. ED diagnosis and intended management before CT, after unenhanced CT, and after contrast CT if requested, were recorded. Diagnosis and management accuracies were evaluated and compared before CT (clinical strategy) and for two conditional strategies (current practice and systematic unenhanced CT). An expert clinical panel assigned a final diagnosis and management after a 3-month follow-up. Systematic unenhanced CT significantly improved the accurate diagnosis (76.8% to 85%, p=1.1 x 10 -6 ) and management (88.5% to 95.8%, p=2.6 x 10 -6 ) rates compared to current practice. It allowed diagnosing 30.3% of acute unsuspected pathologies, 3.4% of which were unexpected surgical procedure requirement. Systematic unenhanced abdominal CT improves ED diagnosis accuracy and appropriate management in elderly patients presenting with acute abdominal symptoms compared to current practice. (orig.)

  17. Prevalence of Os Trigonum on CT Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwiers, Ruben; Baltes, Thomas P. A.; Opdam, Kim T. M.; Wiegerinck, Johannes I.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2017-01-01

    The os trigonum is known as one of the main causes of posterior ankle impingement. In the literature, a wide variation of occurrence has been reported. All foot and/or ankle computed tomography (CT) scans made between January 2012 and December 2013 were reviewed. CT images were assessed, blinded for

  18. In vivo 3D PIXE-micron-CT imaging of Drosophila melanogaster using a contrast agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Shigeo; Hamada, Naoki; Ishii, Keizo; Nozawa, Yuichiro; Ohkura, Satoru; Terakawa, Atsuki; Hatori, Yoshinobu; Fujiki, Kota; Fujiwara, Mitsuhiro; Toyama, Sho

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) in vivo imaging system for imaging small insects with micrometer resolution. The 3D CT imaging system, referred to as 3D PIXE-micron-CT (PIXEμCT), uses characteristic X-rays produced by ion microbeam bombardment of a metal target. PIXEμCT was used to observe the body organs and internal structure of a living Drosophila melanogaster. Although the organs of the thorax were clearly imaged, the digestive organs in the abdominal cavity could not be clearly discerned initially, with the exception of the rectum and the Malpighian tubule. To enhance the abdominal images, a barium sulfate powder radiocontrast agent was added. For the first time, 3D images of the ventriculus of a living D. melanogaster were obtained. Our results showed that PIXEμCT can provide in vivo 3D-CT images that reflect correctly the structure of individual living organs, which is expected to be very useful in biological research.

  19. The stylohyoid chain: CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uysal Ramadan, Selma, E-mail: uysalselma@yahoo.co [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara 06590 (Turkey); Goekharman, Dilek, E-mail: gokharman@ttnet.net.t [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara 06590 (Turkey); Kosar, Pinar, E-mail: pkosar@hotmail.co [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara 06590 (Turkey); Kacar, Mahmut, E-mail: mkacar1961@gamil.co [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara 06590 (Turkey); Kosar, Ugur, E-mail: ugurkosar@hotmail.co [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara 06590 (Turkey)

    2010-09-15

    We aimed in this report to discuss the embryology, anatomy, theories of ossification and symptoms, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of the stylohyoid chain (SHC) variations, together with the role of radiographs, computed tomography (CT) and three-dimensional (3D)-CT in showing these variations. Because CT/3D-CT additionally facilitates visualization of the entire SHC with different axes, it is the most valuable method for establishing the relationship between the SHC and the surrounding tissue. SHC variation can be discovered during CT performed for indications other than ossified SHC. It is important to diagnose whether or not the SHC is ossified, since one of the treatment procedures in ossified SHC is total excision. If the clinician and radiologist are aware of these variations observed in the SHC, patients with vague symptoms may be spared unnecessary investigations and may be properly diagnosed earlier.

  20. Upper abdominal gadoxetic acid-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MRI for the detection of gastric cancer: Comparison with two-dimensional multidetector row CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, K.M.; Kim, S.H.; Lee, S.J.; Lee, M.W.; Choi, D.; Kim, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of gastric cancer in comparison with that of two-dimensional (2D) multidetector row computed tomography (CT). Materials and methods: The study included 189 patients with 170 surgically confirmed gastric cancers and 19 patients without gastric cancer, all of whom underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI with diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging, and multidetector contrast-enhanced abdominal CT imaging. Two observers independently analysed three sets of images (CT set, conventional MRI set, and combined conventional and DW MRI set). A five-point scale for likelihood of gastric cancer was used. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were evaluated. Quantitative [apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) analyses with Mann–Whitney U-test were conducted for gastric cancers and the nearby normal gastric wall. Results: The diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity for detection of gastric cancer were significantly higher on combined conventional and DW MRI set (77.8–78.3%; 75.3–75.9%) than the CT imaging set (67.7–71.4%; 64.1–68.2%) or the conventional MRI set (72–73%; 68.8–70%; p < 0.01). In particular, for gastric cancers with pT2 and pT3, the combined conventional and DW MRI set (91.6–92.6%) yielded significantly higher sensitivity for detection of gastric cancer than did the CT imaging set (76.8–81.1%) by both observers (p < 0.01). The mean ADC of gastric cancer lesions (1 ± 0.23 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s) differed significantly from that of normal gastric wall (1.77 ± 0.25 × 10 −3  mm 2 /s; p < 0.01). Conclusion: Abdominal MRI with DW imaging was more sensitive for the detection of gastric cancer than 2D-multidetector row CT or conventional MRI alone. - Highlights: • The sensitivity for detection of gastric cancer is high on abdominal MR imaging. • DW imaging is helpful for

  1. Cochlear anatomy: CT and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Manuel; Bruno, Claudio; Martin, Eduardo; Canale, Nancy; De Luca, Laura; Spina, Juan C. h

    2002-01-01

    The authors present a brief overview of the normal cochlear anatomy with CT and MR images in order to allow a more complete identification of the pathological findings in patients with perceptive hipoacusia. (author)

  2. Diagnostic value of CT compared to ultrasound in the evaluation of acute abdominal pain in children younger than 10 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanovsky, Natalia; Dola, Tamar; Hiller, Nurith

    2016-02-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of ultrasound compared to CT in evaluating acute abdominal pain of different causes in children 10 years of age and under, hospital records and imaging files of 4052 patients under age of 10 who had imaging for abdominal pain were reviewed. One-hundred-thirty-two patients (3 %), (74 males/58 females) who underwent ultrasound and CT within 24 h were divided by age: group I, ages 0-48 months (25 patients); group II, 49-84 months (53 patients); and group III, 85-120 months (54 patients). Diagnoses at ultrasound, CT, and discharge were compared. Cases of a change in diagnosis following CT and impact of the changed diagnosis on patient management were assessed. Non-diagnostic ultrasound or a diagnostic conundrum was present in a small percentage (3 %) of our patients. In the group of patients imaged with two modalities, CT changed the diagnosis in 73/132 patients (55.3 %). Patient management changed in 63/132 patients (47.7 %). CT changed the diagnosis in 46/64 patients with surgical conditions (71.8 %, p diagnostic or equivocal US in a small percentage of patients is probably sufficient to justify the additional radiation burden.

  3. Kaposi sarcoma and lymphadenopathy syndrome: limitations of abdominal CT in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, K.L. Jr.; Federle, M.P.; Abrams, D.I.; Volberding, P.; Lewis, B.J.

    1984-02-01

    Abdominal computed tomography (CT) was performed in 31 patients with Kaposi sarcoma (KS) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), three patients with classic KS, and 12 patients with the newly described lymphadenopathy syndrome (LNS). The frequency, distribution, and appearance of lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly were similar in the AIDS-related KS and LNS groups. Rectal and perirectal disease was identified in 86% of homosexual men studied; rectal KS could not be distinguished from proctitis on CT criteria alone. No CT abnormalities were seen in patients with classic KS. The CT demonstration of retroperitoneal, mesenteric, or pelvic adenopathy or of rectal or perirectal disease in patients with AIDS-related KS is not necessarily indicative of widespread involvement with the disease.

  4. Kaposi sarcoma and lymphadenopathy syndrome: limitations of abdominal CT in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, K.L. Jr.; Federle, M.P.; Abrams, D.I.; Volberding, P.; Lewis, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    Abdominal computed tomography (CT) was performed in 31 patients with Kaposi sarcoma (KS) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), three patients with classic KS, and 12 patients with the newly described lymphadenopathy syndrome (LNS). The frequency, distribution, and appearance of lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly were similar in the AIDS-related KS and LNS groups. Rectal and perirectal disease was identified in 86% of homosexual men studied; rectal KS could not be distinguished from proctitis on CT criteria alone. No CT abnormalities were seen in patients with classic KS. The CT demonstration of retroperitoneal, mesenteric, or pelvic adenopathy or of rectal or perirectal disease in patients with AIDS-related KS is not necessarily indicative of widespread involvement with the disease

  5. Sclerotic bone lesions at abdominal magnetic resonance imaging in children with tuberous sclerosis complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boronat, Susana; Barber, Ignasi; Pargaonkar, Vivek; Chang, Joshua; Thiele, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Sclerotic bone lesions are often seen on chest CT in adults with tuberous sclerosis complex. To characterize bone lesions at abdominal MRI in children with tuberous sclerosis complex. This retrospective review included 70 children with tuberous sclerosis complex who had undergone abdominal MRI for renal imaging. An additional longitudinal study was performed in 50 children who had had two or more MRI scans. Abdominal CT (eight children) and radiographs (three children) were reviewed and compared with MRI. A total of 173 sclerotic bone lesions were detected in 51/70 children (73%; 95% confidence interval: 0.61-0.82) chiefly affecting vertebral pedicles. New lesions appeared in 20 children and growth of previous sclerotic bone lesions was documented in 14 children. Sclerotic bone lesions were more frequent in girls and in children with more extensive renal involvement. Sclerotic bone lesions are commonly detected by abdominal MRI in children with tuberous sclerosis complex. They usually affect posterior vertebral elements and their number and size increase with age. As current recommendations for tuberous sclerosis complex surveillance include renal MR performed in childhood, recognition of these lesions is useful. (orig.)

  6. Sclerotic bone lesions at abdominal magnetic resonance imaging in children with tuberous sclerosis complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boronat, Susana [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Neurology, Boston, MA (United States); Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Vall d' Hebron Hospital, Barcelona (Spain); Barber, Ignasi [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Vall d' Hebron Hospital, Barcelona (Spain); Pargaonkar, Vivek [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Chang, Joshua; Thiele, Elizabeth A. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Neurology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Sclerotic bone lesions are often seen on chest CT in adults with tuberous sclerosis complex. To characterize bone lesions at abdominal MRI in children with tuberous sclerosis complex. This retrospective review included 70 children with tuberous sclerosis complex who had undergone abdominal MRI for renal imaging. An additional longitudinal study was performed in 50 children who had had two or more MRI scans. Abdominal CT (eight children) and radiographs (three children) were reviewed and compared with MRI. A total of 173 sclerotic bone lesions were detected in 51/70 children (73%; 95% confidence interval: 0.61-0.82) chiefly affecting vertebral pedicles. New lesions appeared in 20 children and growth of previous sclerotic bone lesions was documented in 14 children. Sclerotic bone lesions were more frequent in girls and in children with more extensive renal involvement. Sclerotic bone lesions are commonly detected by abdominal MRI in children with tuberous sclerosis complex. They usually affect posterior vertebral elements and their number and size increase with age. As current recommendations for tuberous sclerosis complex surveillance include renal MR performed in childhood, recognition of these lesions is useful. (orig.)

  7. Dual-energy CT for detection of endoleaks after endovascular abdominal aneurysm repair: usefulness of colored iodine overlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascenti, Giorgio; Mazziotti, Silvio; Lamberto, Salvatore; Bottari, Antonio; Caloggero, Simona; Racchiusa, Sergio; Mileto, Achille; Scribano, Emanuele

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the value of dual-source dual-energy CT with colored iodine overlay for detection of endoleaks after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. We also calculated the potential dose reduction by using a dual-energy CT single-phase protocol. From November 2007 to November 2009, 74 patients underwent CT angiography 2-7 days after endovascular repair during single-energy unenhanced and dual-energy venous phases. By using dual-energy software, the iodine overlay was superimposed on venous phase images with different percentages ranging between 0 (virtual unenhanced images) and 50-75% to show the iodine in an orange color. Two blinded readers evaluated the data for diagnosis of endoleaks during standard unenhanced and venous phase images (session 1, standard of reference) and virtual unenhanced and venous phase images with colored iodine overlay images (session 2). We compared the effective dose radiation of a single-energy biphasic protocol with that of a single-phase dual-energy protocol. The diagnostic accuracy of session 2 was calculated. The mean dual-energy effective dose was 7.27 mSv. By using a dual-energy single-phase protocol, we obtained a mean dose reduction of 28% with respect to a single-energy biphasic protocol. The diagnostic accuracy of session 2 was: 100% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% negative predictive value, and 100% positive predictive value. Statistically significant differences in the level of confidence for endoleak detection between the two sessions were found by reviewers for scores 3-5. Dual-energy CT with colored iodine overlay is a useful diagnostic tool in endoleak detection. The use of a dual-energy single-phase study protocol will lower radiation exposure to patients.

  8. CT aspects in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in the abdominal and urogenital areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, W.; Fischer, H.J.; Uhlenbrock, D.

    1983-01-01

    The morphologic aspect of abdominal tuberculosis are evaluated by C.T. The necrotising tuberculosis of the genitourinary tract presents course cystic lesions of fluid density. Similar morphologic criteria are seen in ileocoecal tuberculosis. The peritoneal tuberculosis is characterized by large soft tissue masses of a high density which can be found in nearly all areas of the abdomen. The increased morbidity of tuberculosis in peoble from foreign countries living in the Federal Republic of Germany is pointed out. (orig.) [de

  9. Clear cell sarcoma of the abdominal wall with peritoneal sarcomatosis: CT features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabate, J.M.; Fernandez, A.; Torrubia, S.; Villanueva, A.; Monill, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma, also called malignant melanoma of soft parts, is an uncommon neoplasm that involves tendons or aponeuroses of the lower extremity. The CT features of a clear cell sarcoma arising from the abdominal wall with later peritoneal dissemination are described. Peritoneal sarcomatosis from soft tissue sarcomas is a very rare condition previously unreported in the radiologic literature. Metastases to peritoneal surfaces must therefore be considered a possible site for systemic dissemination of soft tissue sarcomas. (orig.)

  10. Proposed protocol for realization of abdominal CT in patients admitted to the emergency room for trauma in HSJD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada Cascante, Lizbeth

    2013-01-01

    A protocol is established for computed tomography in trauma patients treated in emergency of Hospital San Juan de Dios. A literature review is conducted on abdominal CT protocols in specialized databases. The criteria, scanning, parameters and delay time are established for realization of abdominal CT in patients with traumatic emergencies in HSJD. Taking the thickness of the sections, the thickness of the sections in reconstruction, the quantities of contrast and the speed of injection in patients, have been standardized for the realization of abdominal CT in HSJD. Computed tomography should be preferably performed of routine in portal phase and the late from 5 minutes in patients with abdominal trauma, contributing in this phase as much information regarding the extent of abdominal injury [es

  11. Can the CT planning image determine whether a kidney stone is radiopaque on a plain KUB?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graumann, Ole; Osther, Susanne S; Spasojevic, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Almost all kidney stones are CT positive. Before a CT scan can be done a CT planning image (CTI) is generated in order to select the exact scanning area. The CTI looks approximately like a normal kidney-ureter-bladder abdominal radiography (KUB) but with reduced quality. It has been used as a guide...... evaluated the images in plenum. The following was recorded regarding the kidney stones: X-ray positive (radiopaque on KUB), CTI positive (radiopaque on CTI), location (a kidney, b upper two-thirds of ureter and c lower one-thirds of ureter including the bladder), size and Hounsfield units (HU). We also...

  12. Dose monitoring using the DICOM structured report: assessment of the relationship between cumulative radiation exposure and BMI in abdominal CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, J.; Lanzman, R.S.; Meineke, A.; Heusch, P.; Sawicki, L.M.; Antoch, G.; Kröpil, P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To perform a systematic, large-scale analysis using the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine structured report (DICOM-SR) to assess the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and radiation exposure in abdominal CT. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of DICOM-SR of 3121 abdominal CT examinations between April 2013 and March 2014 was performed. All examinations were conducted using a 128 row CT system. Patients (mean age 61 ± 15 years) were divided into five groups according to their BMI: group A <20 kg/m 2 (underweight), group B 20–25 kg/m 2 (normal weight), group C 25–30 kg/m 2 (overweight), group D 30–35 kg/m 2 (obese), and group E > 35 kg/m 2 (extremely obese). CT dose index (CTDI vol ) and dose–length product (DLP) were compared between all groups and matched to national diagnostic reference values. Results: The mean CTDI vol and DLP were 5.4 ± 2.9 mGy and 243 ± 153 mGy·cm in group A, 6 ± 3.6 mGy and 264 ± 179 mGy• cm in group B, 7 ± 3.6 mGy and 320 ± 180 mGy• cm in group C, 8.1 ± 5.2 mGy and 375 ± 306 mGy• cm in group D, and 10 ± 8 mGy and 476 ± 403 mGy• cm in group E, respectively. Except for group A versus group B, CTDI vol and DLP differed significantly between all groups (p<0.05). Significantly more CTDI vol values exceeded national diagnostic reference values in groups D and E (2.1% and 6.3%) compared to group B (0.5%, p<0.05). Conclusion: DICOM-SR is a comprehensive, fast, and reproducible way to analyse dose-related data at CT. It allows for automated evaluation of radiation dose in a large study population. Dose exposition is related to the patient's BMI and is increased by up to 96% for extremely obese patients undergoing abdominal CT. - Highlights: • DICOM-SR was used to implement automatic CT-dose monitoring. • DICOM-SR allowed for a fast and comprehensive analysis of CT dose data. • Radiation exposure for abdominal CT was increased by up to 96% for

  13. Value of a step-up diagnosis plan: CRP and CT-scan to diagnose and manage postoperative complications after major abdominal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Straatman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative complications frequently follow major abdominal surgery and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and treatment of complications is associated with improved patient outcome. In this study we assessed the value of a step-up diagnosis plan by C-reactive protein and CT-scan (computed tomography-scan imaging for detection of postoperative complications following major abdominal surgery. An observational cohort study was conducted of 399 consecutive patients undergoing major abdominal surgery between January 2009 and January 2011. Indication for operation, type of surgery, postoperative morbidity, complications according to the Clavien-Dindo classification and mortality were recorded. Clinical parameters were recorded until 14 days postoperatively or until discharge. Regular C-reactive protein (CPR measurements in peripheral blood and on indication -enhanced CT-scans were performed. Eighty-three out of 399 (20.6 % patients developed a major complication in the postoperative course after a median of seven days (IQR 4-9 days. One hundred and thirty two patients received additional examination consisting of enhanced CT-scan imaging, and treatment by surgical reintervention or intensive care observation. CRP levels were significantly higher in patients with postoperative complications. On the second postoperative day CRP levels were on average 197.4 mg/L in the uncomplicated group, 220.9 mg/L in patients with a minor complication and 280.1 mg/L in patients with major complications (p < 0,001. CT-scan imaging showed a sensitivity of 91.7 % and specificity of 100 % in diagnosis of major complications. Based on clinical deterioration and the increase of CRP, an additional enhanced CT-scan offered clear discrimination between patients with major abdominal complications and uncomplicated patients. Adequate treatment could then be accomplished.

  14. CT imaging of primary pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.-D.; Guan, Y.-B.; Chen, Y.-F.; Li, C.-X.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the computed tomography (CT) imaging findings of primary pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma. Materials and methods: Five cases of synovial sarcoma confirmed by histopathology and cytogenetic study were retrospectively analysed. All patients had undergone chest radiography and unenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT examinations, and three had also undergone multiphase CT enhancement examinations. Image characteristics, including shape, size, margin, and attenuation of each lesion before and after contrast enhancement, were analysed. Results: The chest radiographs of the five patients showed well-defined or partly well-defined masses, which were homogeneous and without associated calcification or lymphadenopathy. Pneumothorax was present in one patient. The unenhanced CT images showed well-defined, heterogeneous masses with patchy low density in all five patients. The contrast-enhanced CT images showed heterogeneous enhancement in all cases, three of which demonstrated cystic and necrotic areas. The tumour showed no prolonged or delayed enhancement in three cases using multiphase CT. There were small pleural effusions in four cases. No calcification was observed in any of the cases. There was no evidence of hilar or mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Conclusions: In these five patients, primary pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma presented as a well-defined mass with patchy low density and heterogeneous enhancement, with no evidence of regional lymphadenopathy. It should be included in the differential diagnosis of regional tumours.

  15. CT imaging of primary pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W-D; Guan, Y-B; Chen, Y-F; Li, C-X

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the computed tomography (CT) imaging findings of primary pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma. Five cases of synovial sarcoma confirmed by histopathology and cytogenetic study were retrospectively analysed. All patients had undergone chest radiography and unenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT examinations, and three had also undergone multiphase CT enhancement examinations. Image characteristics, including shape, size, margin, and attenuation of each lesion before and after contrast enhancement, were analysed. The chest radiographs of the five patients showed well-defined or partly well-defined masses, which were homogeneous and without associated calcification or lymphadenopathy. Pneumothorax was present in one patient. The unenhanced CT images showed well-defined, heterogeneous masses with patchy low density in all five patients. The contrast-enhanced CT images showed heterogeneous enhancement in all cases, three of which demonstrated cystic and necrotic areas. The tumour showed no prolonged or delayed enhancement in three cases using multiphase CT. There were small pleural effusions in four cases. No calcification was observed in any of the cases. There was no evidence of hilar or mediastinal lymphadenopathy. In these five patients, primary pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma presented as a well-defined mass with patchy low density and heterogeneous enhancement, with no evidence of regional lymphadenopathy. It should be included in the differential diagnosis of regional tumours. Copyright © 2012 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mass preserving image registration for lung CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Sporring, Jon; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a mass preserving image registration algorithm for lung CT images. To account for the local change in lung tissue intensity during the breathing cycle, a tissue appearance model based on the principle of preservation of total lung mass is proposed. This model is incorporated...

  17. Renal streaky artifact during contrast-enhanced abdominal and pelvic CT: Comparison of high versus low osmolality contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Hong; Kim, Jong Chul; Lee, Chung Keun; Shin, Kyoung Suk

    1994-01-01

    Introduction of low osmolality contrast agent(LOCA) has allowed safer, more comfortable contrast-enhanced CT examination, but there has been significant increase in image degradation when evaluating the kidneys due to streaky artifact. The authors reviewed findings of contrast- enhanced abdominal and pelvic computed tomography(CT) to know the difference of renal streaky artifact between a high osmolality contrast agent (HOCA) and LOCA. This study included two hundred contrast-enhanced CT in 200 patients, 100 performed with HOCA(meglumine ioglicate, 150 ml) and 100 performed with LOCA (iopromide,150 ml). The severity of renal streaky artifact was compared between HOCA and LOCA groups. Of the scans performed with HOCA, 40 had no artifact, 52 had grade I artifact, 6 had grade II artifact, and 2 had grade III artifact. Of the scans preformed with LOCA, 23 had no artifact, 44 had grade I artifact, 29 had grade II artifact, and 4 had grade III artifact. There was significant difference in the degree of the streaky artifact depending upon the osmolality of the contrast media used(by χ 2 -test, P=.0001). The results of this study revealed a statistically significant increased incidence of artifacts and distortions of renal image with LOCA when compared with HOCA

  18. Fifty Years of Technological Innovation: Potential and Limitations of Current Technologies in Abdominal Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenberger, Ulrike I; Morelli, John; Budjan, Johannes; Henzler, Thomas; Sourbron, Steven; Bock, Michael; Riffel, Philipp; Hernando, Diego; Ong, Melissa M; Schoenberg, Stefan O

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important modality for the diagnosis of intra-abdominal pathology. Hardware and pulse sequence developments have made it possible to derive not only morphologic but also functional information related to organ perfusion (dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI), oxygen saturation (blood oxygen level dependent), tissue cellularity (diffusion-weighted imaging), and tissue composition (spectroscopy). These techniques enable a more specific assessment of pathologic lesions and organ functionality. Magnetic resonance imaging has thus transitioned from a purely morphologic examination to a modality from which image-based disease biomarkers can be derived. This fits well with several emerging trends in radiology, such as the need to accurately assess response to costly treatment strategies and the need to improve lesion characterization to potentially avoid biopsy. Meanwhile, the cost-effectiveness, availability, and robustness of computed tomography (CT) ensure its place as the current workhorse for clinical imaging. Although the lower soft tissue contrast of CT relative to MRI is a long-standing limitation, other disadvantages such as ionizing radiation exposure have become a matter of public concern. Nevertheless, recent technical developments such as dual-energy CT or dynamic volume perfusion CT also provide more functional imaging beyond morphology.The aim of this article was to review and discuss the most important recent technical developments in abdominal MRI and state-of-the-art CT, with an eye toward the future, providing examples of their clinical utility for the evaluation of hepatic and renal pathologies.

  19. Wavelet compression algorithm applied to abdominal ultrasound images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Cheng-Hsun; Pan, Su-Feng; LU, Chin-Yuan; Lee, Ming-Che

    2006-01-01

    We sought to investigate acceptable compression ratios of lossy wavelet compression on 640 x 480 x 8 abdominal ultrasound (US) images. We acquired 100 abdominal US images with normal and abnormal findings from the view station of a 932-bed teaching hospital. The US images were then compressed at quality factors (QFs) of 3, 10, 30, and 50 followed outcomes of a pilot study. This was equal to the average compression ratios of 4.3:1, 8.5:1, 20:1 and 36.6:1, respectively. Four objective measurements were carried out to examine and compare the image degradation between original and compressed images. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was also introduced for subjective assessment. Five experienced and qualified radiologists as reviewers blinded to corresponding pathological findings, analysed paired 400 randomly ordered images with two 17-inch thin film transistor/liquid crystal display (TFT/LCD) monitors. At ROC analysis, the average area under curve (Az) for US abdominal image was 0.874 at the ratio of 36.6:1. The compressed image size was only 2.7% for US original at this ratio. The objective parameters showed the higher the mean squared error (MSE) or root mean squared error (RMSE) values, the poorer the image quality. The higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) or peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) values indicated better image quality. The average RMSE, PSNR at 36.6:1 for US were 4.84 ± 0.14, 35.45 dB, respectively. This finding suggests that, on the basis of the patient sample, wavelet compression of abdominal US to a ratio of 36.6:1 did not adversely affect diagnostic performance or evaluation error for radiologists' interpretation so as to risk affecting diagnosis

  20. The role of imaging studies in pancreatic injury due to blunt abdominal trauma in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosboom, D. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center St Radboud, Postbus 9101, Route 667, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Braam, A.W.E. [Department of Pediatric Surgery, University Medical Center St Radboud, Postbus 9101, Route 815, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Blickman, J.G. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center St Radboud, Postbus 9101, Route 667, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Wijnen, R.M.H. [Department of Pediatric Surgery, University Medical Center St Radboud, Postbus 9101, Route 815, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: R.Wijnen@kchir.umcn.nl

    2006-07-15

    Background: The role imaging studies play in the choice of treatment in traumatic pancreas damage remains unclear. This study was performed to gain insight into the role of radiological studies in children 16 years of age or younger admitted to our hospital with pancreatic damage due to a blunt abdominal trauma. Method: Retrospectively, the radiological as well as patient clinical records were reviewed of all children admitted to our hospital between 1975 and 2003 with a pancreatic lesion due to blunt abdominal trauma. Results: Thirty-four children with ages ranging from 3 to 14 years old were admitted with traumatic pancreas damage. Initially 33 children were treated conservatively for the pancreatic damage and only one had immediate surgery of the pancreas with a Roux-y pancreaticojejunostomy. Five other children had immediate surgery for other reasons. Overall, five children proved to have a pancreas transection on CT scans or during laparotomy. One child had a pancreas hematoma and 28 a pancreas contusion. In total 15 children developed a pseudocyst (44%), nine of which resolved spontaneously while six were treated by intervention. None of the children had residual morbidity, and there were no deaths. Considering the pancreas, the 11 available CT's were re-evaluated by two radiologists independently. Grade 3 pancreas damage (distal transection of the pancreatic duct) was diagnosed in five patients by radiologist A and four patients by radiologist B (80% match); Grade 1 was diagnosed in, respectively six and one patients (15% match). An US was performed on 19 children with 82 follow-up examinations, mostly for follow-up of the pseudocysts. Conclusion: Traumatic pancreas damage is a rare and difficult diagnosis. There is no straightforward answer for diagnostic imaging in blunt abdominal trauma in children. The diagnostic relevance of CT is limited. CT in combination with MRCP may be a better option for exclusion of pancreatic duct lesions.

  1. Advances in CT imaging for urolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Andrabi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urolithiasis is a common disease with increasing prevalence worldwide and a lifetime-estimated recurrence risk of over 50%. Imaging plays a critical role in the initial diagnosis, follow-up and urological management of urinary tract stone disease. Unenhanced helical computed tomography (CT is highly sensitive (>95% and specific (>96% in the diagnosis of urolithiasis and is the imaging investigation of choice for the initial assessment of patients with suspected urolithiasis. The emergence of multi-detector CT (MDCT and technological innovations in CT such as dual-energy CT (DECT has widened the scope of MDCT in the stone disease management from initial diagnosis to encompass treatment planning and monitoring of treatment success. DECT has been shown to enhance pre-treatment characterization of stone composition in comparison with conventional MDCT and is being increasingly used. Although CT-related radiation dose exposure remains a valid concern, the use of low-dose MDCT protocols and integration of newer iterative reconstruction algorithms into routine CT practice has resulted in a substantial decrease in ionizing radiation exposure. In this review article, our intent is to discuss the role of MDCT in the diagnosis and post-treatment evaluation of urolithiasis and review the impact of emerging CT technologies such as dual energy in clinical practice.

  2. Improving image quality in portal venography with spectral CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Li-qin; He, Wen; Li, Jian-ying; Chen, Jiang-hong; Wang, Ke-yang; Tan, Li

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of energy spectral CT on the image quality of CT portal venography in cirrhosis patients. Materials and methods: 30 portal hypertension patients underwent spectral CT examination using a single-tube, fast dual tube voltage switching technique. 101 sets of monochromatic images were generated from 40 keV to 140 keV. Image noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for portal veins from the monochromatic images were measured. An optimal monochromatic image set was selected for obtaining the best CNR for portal veins. The image noise and CNR of the intra-hepatic portal vein and extra-hepatic main stem at the selected monochromatic level were compared with those from the conventional polychromatic images. Image quality was also assessed and compared. Results: The monochromatic images at 51 keV were found to provide the best CNR for both the intra-hepatic and extra-hepatic portal veins. At this energy level, the monochromatic images had about 100% higher CNR than the polychromatic images with a moderate 30% noise increase. The qualitative image quality assessment was also statistically higher with monochromatic images at 51 keV. Conclusion: Monochromatic images at 51 keV for CT portal venography could improve CNR for displaying hepatic portal veins and improve the overall image quality.

  3. CT image processing using digital networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Several digital image transmission networks have been proposed, studied, and measured for local-area medical applications. The image processing service described here uses a commercial digital network to connect the computers of CT scanners. The network service shares image processing tasks with remote sites during the times that the scanners are otherwise idle. The network is nationwide, emphasizes resource sharing, uses moderate-bandwidth (4800 or 9600 baud, i.e., 480 or 960 characters/sec) dedicated leased telephone lines, and is restricted at this time to only a few types of CT scanner. Furthermore, because it offers services that are not interactive, it is able to optimize computer resources without routine interruption from users. Discussion begins by a brief overview of classic computer network topologies, with an emphasis on their application to CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and other medical imaging modalities. This somewhat technical introduction to networks demonstrates the unique characteristics of medical image communication as opposed to the more common applications of computer communication in the banking, retail, and management information industries. In the sections that follow, a more selective focus is made on the topology, hardware, image-processing, and operational characteristics of a network that is now composed of over 50 CT scanner systems throughout the United States. The chapter concludes by summarizing the network performance during its first 35 months of operation

  4. Research of ART method in CT image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhipeng; Cong Peng; Wu Haifeng

    2005-01-01

    This paper studied Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) in CT image reconstruction. Discussed the ray number influence on image quality. And the adopting of smooth method got high quality CT image. (authors)

  5. Metastasectomy of Abdominal Wall Lesions due to Prostate Cancer Detected Through PET/CT Gallium 68-PMSA: First Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ochoa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introducing the topic of abdominal wall metastasis secondary to prostate cancer with a reminder of the disease's rarity, being the first published case. This article is about a 66 year old patient diagnosed with prostate cancer [cT2aNxMx iPSA: 5,6 ng/ml Gleason 3+3, (Grade 1 Group], treated with radical prostatectomy as well as accompanied with amplified pelvic lymphadenectomy, who subsequently presented metastatic lesions to the abdominal wall diagnosed with PET/CT Gallium 68-PMSA technique and treated with abdominal metastasectomy with adequate short term results.

  6. Metastasectomy of Abdominal Wall Lesions due to Prostate Cancer Detected Through PET/CT Gallium 68-PMSA: First Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Claudia; Ramirez, Angie; Varela, Rodolfo; Godoy, Fabian; Vargas, Rafael; Forero, Jorge; Rojas, Andres; Roa, Carmen; Céspedes, Carlos; Ramos, Jose; Cabrera, Marino; Calderon, Andres

    2017-05-01

    Introducing the topic of abdominal wall metastasis secondary to prostate cancer with a reminder of the disease's rarity, being the first published case. This article is about a 66 year old patient diagnosed with prostate cancer [cT2aNxMx iPSA: 5,6 ng/ml Gleason 3+3, (Grade 1 Group)], treated with radical prostatectomy as well as accompanied with amplified pelvic lymphadenectomy, who subsequently presented metastatic lesions to the abdominal wall diagnosed with PET/CT Gallium 68-PMSA technique and treated with abdominal metastasectomy with adequate short term results.

  7. CT image registration in sinogram space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Weihua; Li, Tianfang; Wink, Nicole; Xing, Lei

    2007-09-01

    Object displacement in a CT scan is generally reflected in CT projection data or sinogram. In this work, the direct relationship between object motion and the change of CT projection data (sinogram) is investigated and this knowledge is applied to create a novel algorithm for sinogram registration. Calculated and experimental results demonstrate that the registration technique works well for registering rigid 2D or 3D motion in parallel and fan beam samplings. Problem and solution for 3D sinogram-based registration of metallic fiducials are also addressed. Since the motion is registered before image reconstruction, the presented algorithm is particularly useful when registering images with metal or truncation artifacts. In addition, this algorithm is valuable for dealing with situations where only limited projection data are available, making it appealing for various applications in image guided radiation therapy.

  8. CT image registration in sinogram space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Weihua; Li Tianfang; Wink, Nicole; Xing Lei

    2007-01-01

    Object displacement in a CT scan is generally reflected in CT projection data or sinogram. In this work, the direct relationship between object motion and the change of CT projection data (sinogram) is investigated and this knowledge is applied to create a novel algorithm for sinogram registration. Calculated and experimental results demonstrate that the registration technique works well for registering rigid 2D or 3D motion in parallel and fan beam samplings. Problem and solution for 3D sinogram-based registration of metallic fiducials are also addressed. Since the motion is registered before image reconstruction, the presented algorithm is particularly useful when registering images with metal or truncation artifacts. In addition, this algorithm is valuable for dealing with situations where only limited projection data are available, making it appealing for various applications in image guided radiation therapy

  9. Multislice CT imaging of pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoepf, J.U.; Kessler, M.A.; Rieger, C.T.; Herzog, P.; Wiesgigl, S.; Becker, C.R.; Exarhos, D.N.; Reiser, M.F.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years CT has been established as the method of choice for the diagnosis of central pulmonary embolism (PE) to the level of the segmental arteries. The key advantage of CT over competing modalities is the reliable detection of relevant alternative or additional disease causing the patient's symptoms. Although the clinical relevance of isolated peripheral emboli remains unclear, the alleged poor sensitivity of CT for the detection of such small clots has to date prevented the acceptance of CT as the gold standard for diagnosing PE. With the advent of multislice CT we can now cover the entire chest of a patient with 1-mm slices within one breath-hold. In comparison with thicker sections, the detection rate of subsegmental emboli can be significantly increased with 1-mm slices. In addition, the interobserver correlation which can be achieved with 1-mm sections by far exceeds the reproducibility of competing modalities. Meanwhile use of multislice CT for a combined diagnosis of PE and deep venous thrombosis with the same modality appears to be clinically accepted. In the vast majority of patients who receive a combined thoracic and venous multislice CT examination the scan either confirms the suspected diagnosis or reveals relevant alternative or additional disease. The therapeutic regimen is usually chosen based on the functional effect of embolic vascular occlusion. With the advent of fast CT scanning techniques, also functional parameters of lung perfusion can be non-invasively assessed by CT imaging. These advantages let multislice CT appear as an attractive modality for a non-invasive, fast, accurate, and comprehensive diagnosis of PE, its causes, effects, and differential diagnoses. (orig.)

  10. Non-traumatic abdominal emergencies: imaging of acute intestinal obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taourel, P.; Kessler, N.; Lesnik, A.; Blayac, P.M.; Morcos, L. [Departement d' Imagerie Medicale, Hopital Lapeyronie, 371, avenue du Doyen Gaston Giraud, 34295 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Bruel, J.M. [Departement d' Imagerie Medicale, Hopital Saint-Eloi, 80 rue Augustin Fliche, 34295 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the main clinical questions in bowel obstruction, to discuss the value of various imaging modalities, including conventional radiography, ultrasound, and CT, to underline the impact of imaging in the management of patients with suspect bowel obstruction, and then to suggest a diagnostic triage in such patients. (orig.)

  11. Effect of reducing abdominal compression during prone CT colonography on ascending colonic rotation during supine-to-prone positional change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jong eon; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Hyun Jin; KIm, Ah Young; Ha, Hyun Kwon

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of reduced abdominal compression in prone position on ascending colonic movement during supine-to-prone positional change during CT colonography (CTC). Eighteen consecutive patients who had undergone prone CTC scanning with cushion blocks placed under the chest and hip/thigh to reduce abdominal compression and had confirmed sessile polyps ≥ 6 mm in the well-distended, straight, mid-ascending colon, were included. Radial location along the ascending colonic luminal circumference (°) was measured for 24 polyps and 54 colonic teniae on supine and prone CTC images. The supine-to-prone change ranging between -180° and +180° (- and + for internal and external colonic rotations, respectively), was determined. In addition, possible causes of any ascending colonic rotations were explored. Abdominal compression during prone CTC scanning completely disappeared with the use of cushion blocks in 17 of 18 patients. However, some degrees of ascending colonic rotation were still observed, with the radial location changes of -22° to 61° (median, 13.9°) for the polyps and similar degrees for teniae. Fifty-four percent and 56% of polyps and teniae, respectively, showed changes > 10°. The radial location change of the polyps was significantly associated with the degree of anterior shift of the small bowel and mesentery (r = 0.722, p < 0.001) and the degree of posterior displacement of the ascending colon (r = 0.566, p = 0.004) during supine-to-prone positional change. Ascending colonic rotation upon supine-to-prone positional change during CTC, mostly in the form of external rotation, is not eliminated by removing abdominal compression in prone position

  12. Oral contrast for CT in patients with acute non-traumatic abdominal and pelvic pain: what should be its current role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielar, Ania Z; Patlas, Michael N; Katz, Douglas S

    2016-10-01

    Positive oral contrast agents, including barium suspensions and water-soluble iodinated solutions, have traditionally been used in conjunction with the CT evaluation of patients with abdominal and pelvic pain. Due to continued advancements in CT technology, and due to increasing obesity and correspondingly a general increase in the intra-abdominal and intra-pelvic fat separating bowel loops in North American patients and in patients in other parts of the world over the past few decades, the ability of radiologists to accurately evaluate the cause of acute symptoms has substantially improved. Recent research and evolving imaging society guidelines/systematic reviews increasingly support performing CT scans of the abdomen and pelvis without the need for positive oral contrast in these types of adult patient populations, in most clinical situations. Increased patient throughput, patient preference, patient safety, and most importantly, retention of high diagnostic accuracy, are reasons for this recent change in practice to routinely omit the use of enteric contrast agents for the majority of patients presenting with acute abdominal and pelvic pain whom are undergoing emergency CT.

  13. Segmenting the thoracic, abdominal and pelvic musculature on CT scans combining atlas-based model and active contour model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weidong; Liu, Jiamin; Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald M.

    2013-03-01

    Segmentation of the musculature is very important for accurate organ segmentation, analysis of body composition, and localization of tumors in the muscle. In research fields of computer assisted surgery and computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), muscle segmentation in CT images is a necessary pre-processing step. This task is particularly challenging due to the large variability in muscle structure and the overlap in intensity between muscle and internal organs. This problem has not been solved completely, especially for all of thoracic, abdominal and pelvic regions. We propose an automated system to segment the musculature on CT scans. The method combines an atlas-based model, an active contour model and prior segmentation of fat and bones. First, body contour, fat and bones are segmented using existing methods. Second, atlas-based models are pre-defined using anatomic knowledge at multiple key positions in the body to handle the large variability in muscle shape. Third, the atlas model is refined using active contour models (ACM) that are constrained using the pre-segmented bone and fat. Before refining using ACM, the initialized atlas model of next slice is updated using previous atlas. The muscle is segmented using threshold and smoothed in 3D volume space. Thoracic, abdominal and pelvic CT scans were used to evaluate our method, and five key position slices for each case were selected and manually labeled as the reference. Compared with the reference ground truth, the overlap ratio of true positives is 91.1%+/-3.5%, and that of false positives is 5.5%+/-4.2%.

  14. An Efficient Pipeline for Abdomen Segmentation in CT Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyuncu, Hasan; Ceylan, Rahime; Sivri, Mesut; Erdogan, Hasan

    2018-04-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scans usually include some disadvantages due to the nature of the imaging procedure, and these handicaps prevent accurate abdomen segmentation. Discontinuous abdomen edges, bed section of CT, patient information, closeness between the edges of the abdomen and CT, poor contrast, and a narrow histogram can be regarded as the most important handicaps that occur in abdominal CT scans. Currently, one or more handicaps can arise and prevent technicians obtaining abdomen images through simple segmentation techniques. In other words, CT scans can include the bed section of CT, a patient's diagnostic information, low-quality abdomen edges, low-level contrast, and narrow histogram, all in one scan. These phenomena constitute a challenge, and an efficient pipeline that is unaffected by handicaps is required. In addition, analysis such as segmentation, feature selection, and classification has meaning for a real-time diagnosis system in cases where the abdomen section is directly used with a specific size. A statistical pipeline is designed in this study that is unaffected by the handicaps mentioned above. Intensity-based approaches, morphological processes, and histogram-based procedures are utilized to design an efficient structure. Performance evaluation is realized in experiments on 58 CT images (16 training, 16 test, and 26 validation) that include the abdomen and one or more disadvantage(s). The first part of the data (16 training images) is used to detect the pipeline's optimum parameters, while the second and third parts are utilized to evaluate and to confirm the segmentation performance. The segmentation results are presented as the means of six performance metrics. Thus, the proposed method achieves remarkable average rates for training/test/validation of 98.95/99.36/99.57% (jaccard), 99.47/99.67/99.79% (dice), 100/99.91/99.91% (sensitivity), 98.47/99.23/99.85% (specificity), 99.38/99.63/99.87% (classification accuracy), and 98

  15. Discrimination and anatomical mapping of PET-positive lesions: comparison of CT attenuation-corrected PET images with coregistered MR and CT images in the abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Felix P.; Crook, David W.; Mader, Caecilia E.; Appenzeller, Philippe; Schulthess, G.K. von; Schmid, Daniel T. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Medical Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-01-15

    PET/MR has the potential to become a powerful tool in clinical oncological imaging. The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the performance of a single T1-weighted (T1w) fat-suppressed unenhanced MR pulse sequence of the abdomen in comparison with unenhanced low-dose CT images to characterize PET-positive lesions. A total of 100 oncological patients underwent sequential whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET with CT-based attenuation correction (AC), 40 mAs low-dose CT and two-point Dixon-based T1w 3D MRI of the abdomen in a trimodality PET/CT-MR system. PET-positive lesions were assessed by CT and MRI with regard to their anatomical location, conspicuity and additional relevant information for characterization. From among 66 patients with at least one PET-positive lesion, 147 lesions were evaluated. No significant difference between MRI and CT was found regarding anatomical lesion localization. The MR pulse sequence used performed significantly better than CT regarding conspicuity of liver lesions (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon signed ranks test), whereas no difference was noted for extrahepatic lesions. For overall lesion characterization, MRI was considered superior to CT in 40 % of lesions, equal to CT in 49 %, and inferior to CT in 11 %. Fast Dixon-based T1w MRI outperformed low-dose CT in terms of conspicuity and characterization of PET-positive liver lesions and performed similarly in extrahepatic tumour manifestations. Hence, under the assumption that the technical issue of MR AC for whole-body PET examinations is solved, in abdominal PET/MR imaging the replacement of low-dose CT by a single Dixon-based MR pulse sequence for anatomical lesion correlation appears to be valid and robust. (orig.)

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF CORONARY ARTERY CALCIFICATION AND DIAGNOSIS OF CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE BY ABDOMINAL CT; A RESIDENT EDUCATION CONTINUOUS QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROJECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Michael; Hobbs, Stephen; Charnigo, Richard; Embertson, Ryan; Daugherty, Michael; Hall, Michael; Brooks, Michael; Leung, Steve; Sorrell, Vince

    2015-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring is an excellent imaging tool for subclinical atherosclerosis detection and risk stratification. We hypothesize that although CAC has been underreported in the past on computed tomography (CT) scans of the abdomen, specialized resident educational intervention can improve on this underreporting. Materials and Methods Beginning July 2009, a dedicated radiology resident cardiac imaging rotation and curriculum was initiated. A retrospective review of the first 500 abdominal CT reports from January 2009, 2011 and 2013 was performed including studies originally interpreted by a resident as well as primary attending physician interpretations. Each scan was re-evaluated for presence or absence of CAC and coronary artery disease (CAD) by a cardiovascular CT expert reader. These data were then correlated to determine if the presence of CAC had been properly reported initially. The results of the three time periods were compared to assess for improved rates of CAC and CAD reporting after initiation of a resident cardiac imaging curriculum. Results Statistically significant improvements in the reporting of CAC and CAD on CT scans of the abdomen occurred following the initiation of formal resident cardiac imaging training which included two rotations (4 weeks each) of dedicated cardiac CT and cardiac MRI interpretation during the resident's 2nd, 3rd, or 4th radiology training years. The improvement was persistent and increased over time, improving from 1% to 72% after two years and to 90% after four years. Conclusion This single center retrospective analysis shows association between implementation of formal cardiac imaging training into radiology resident education and improved CAC detection and CAD reporting on abdominal CT scans. PMID:25579636

  17. Organ and effective dose reduction in adult chest CT using abdominal lead shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iball, G R; Brettle, D S

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare organ and effective dose savings that could be achieved using conventional lead aprons and a new, custom-designed shield as out-of-plane shielding devices during chest CT scans. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to measure doses throughout the abdomen and pelvis during CT scans of the chest of a RANDO phantom. Dose measurements were made with no shielding, with lead aprons and with the new shield around the abdomen and pelvis in order to quantify the achievable organ and effective dose reductions. Average dose savings in the 10 phantom sections ranged from 5% to 78% with the highest point dose saving of 93% being found in the mid-pelvis. When shielding was used, the maximum measured organ dose reduction was a 72% dose saving to the testes. Significant dose savings were found throughout the abdomen and pelvis, which contributed to an effective dose saving of 4% that was achieved over and above the dose savings obtained through conventional optimisation strategies. This could yield significant population dose savings and reductions in collective radiation risk. In this study significant organ and effective dose reductions have been achieved through the use of abdominal shielding during chest CT examinations and it is therefore recommended that out-of-plane patient shielding devices should be used for all chest CT scans and potentially for every CT scan, irrespective of body part.

  18. A multimodality vascular imaging phantom of an abdominal aortic aneurysm with a visible thrombus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, Louise; Chayer, Boris; Qin Zhao [Laboratory of Biorheology and Medical Ultrasonics, Research Center, University of Montreal Hospital (CRCHUM), Quebec H2L 2W5 (Canada); Soulez, Gilles [Department of Radiology, University of Montreal Hospital (CHUM), Quebec H2L 2M1 (Canada); Department of Radiology, Radio-Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Roy, David [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Cloutier, Guy [Laboratory of Biorheology and Medical Ultrasonics, Research Center, University of Montreal Hospital (CRCHUM), Quebec H2L 2W5 (Canada); Department of Radiology, Radio-Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: With the continuous development of new stent grafts and implantation techniques, it has now become technically feasible to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) with challenging anatomy using endovascular repair with standard, fenestrated, or branched stent-grafts. In vitro experimentations are very useful to improve stent-graft design and conformability or imaging guidance for stent-graft delivery or follow-up. Vascular replicas also help to better understand the limitation of endovascular approaches in challenging anatomy and possibly improve surgical planning or training by practicing high risk clinical procedures in the laboratory to improve outcomes in the operating room. Most AAA phantoms available have a very basic anatomy, which is not representative of the clinical reality. This paper presents a method of fabrication of a realistic AAA phantom with a visible thrombus, as well as some mechanical properties characterizing such phantom. Methods: A realistic AAA geometry replica of a real patient anatomy taken from a multidetector computed tomography (CT) scan was manufactured. To demonstrate the multimodality imaging capability of this new phantom with a thrombus visible in magnetic resonance (MR) angiography, CT angiography (CTA), digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and ultrasound, image acquisitions with all these modalities were performed by using standard clinical protocols. Potential use of this phantom for stent deployment was also tested. A rheometer allowed defining hyperelastic and viscoelastic properties of phantom materials. Results: MR imaging measurements of SNR and CNR values on T1 and T2-weighted sequences and MR angiography indicated reasonable agreement with published values of AAA thrombus and abdominal components in vivo. X-ray absorption also lay within normal ranges of AAA patients and was representative of findings observed on CTA, fluoroscopy, and DSA. Ultrasound propagation speeds for developed materials were also in

  19. Analysis of the utility of imaging in autopsied patients with abdominal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Mitsuo

    1983-01-01

    The utility of imaging was studied in 10 autopsy cases of abdominal tumor. Examinations strictly concurred with autopsy findings, in 83 (65.9%) of 126 procedures, and they were useful for the process of clinical diagnosis in 106 (74.1%) : 100% for CT, 87.5% and 12.5% for angiography, 80.0% and 20.0% for oral GI sereis, 50% and 36.4% for RI scan, 68.4% and 10.5% for chest X-P and 50.0% and 24.9% for abdominal X-P, respectively. Utility was not so much related to relative difficulty or complexity of diagnostic process. (Chiba, N.)

  20. CT imaging of necrosive fasciitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, M.; Overkamp, D.; Joanoviciu, S.; Horger, M.

    2008-01-01

    NF is a rare but dramatic and often fatal infection of the fascii and adjoining soft tissues. Contrary to the Fournier's definition, it is most common in elderly people. Patients with immune problems have a higher risk (e.g. Diabetes mellitus, alcohol or drug abuse, AIDS, leukaemia, chemotherapy and immunosuppressive medication). Predisposition factors are diverticulitis, insect bites, or surgical interventions (Uppot RN, Levy HM, PLatel PH, Radiology 2003; 226; 115; Wysoki MG, Santora TA, Shah RM et al. Necrotizing fasciitis: CT characteristics, Radiology 1997; 203;859). Men are affected more frequently than women. In principle, NF may occur everywhere in the body but incidence in the region of the scrotum, perineum and lower extremities are the most common. (orig.)

  1. Spectrum of abdominal pathologies detected with CT in long term dialysis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulu, Esra Meltem Kayahan [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak cad. No.: 45, Bahcelievler/Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: emkayahanulu@yahoo.com; Tarhan, N. Cagla [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak cad. No.: 45, Bahcelievler/Ankara (Turkey); Hocaoglu, Elif [Bakirkoy Dr Sadi Konuk Training and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology, Zuhurat Baba mah, Bakirkoy/Istanbul (Turkey); Akman, Beril [Department of Nephrology, Fevzi Cakmak cad. No.: 45, Bahcelievler/Ankara (Turkey); Basaran, Ceyla; Donmez, Fuldem Yildirim; Niron, Emin Alp [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak cad. No.: 45, Bahcelievler/Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-11-15

    As a consequence of the expanded use of long term hemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) treatments and extended life spans, complications of end-stage renal disease and dialysis treatments are being encountered with increasing frequency in these patients. Computed tomography can accurately depict many of the potential complications of end-stage renal disease on dialysis. This article presents the abdominal CT findings of 429 end-stage renal disease patients who are on either hemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis treatment.

  2. Endovascular repair of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm: serial changes of periaortic fibrosis demonstrated by CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueyoshi, Eijun; Sakamoto, Ichiro; Uetani, Masataka

    2009-07-01

    Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is characterized by inflammatory and/or fibrotic changes in the periaortic regions of the retroperitoneum. Surgical repair is usually selected for this disease. However, the perioperative mortality associated with open surgical repair of IAAs is three times higher than that with noninflammatory aortic aneurysms due to inflammation and periaortic fibrosis (PAF). Endovascular aneurysm repair of IAAs excludes the aneurysm and seems to reduce the size of the aneurysmal sac and the extent of PAF with acceptable peri-interventional and long-term morbidity. We describe the successful endovascular repair of an IAAA and the serial CT findings after repair.

  3. Stress myocardial perfusion imaging with multidetector CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Rossi (Alexia); D. Merkus (Daphne); E. Klotz (Ernst); N.R.A. Mollet (Nico); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); G.P. Krestin (Gabriel)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractComputed tomographic (CT) coronary angiography is a well-established, noninvasive imaging modality for detection of coronary stenosis, but it has limited accuracy in demonstrating whether a coronary stenosis is hemodynamically significant. An additional functional test is often required

  4. Fast parallel algorithm for CT image reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Liubov A; Vidal, Vicent; Mayo, Patricia; Rodenas, Francisco; Verdú, Gumersindo

    2012-01-01

    In X-ray computed tomography (CT) the X rays are used to obtain the projection data needed to generate an image of the inside of an object. The image can be generated with different techniques. Iterative methods are more suitable for the reconstruction of images with high contrast and precision in noisy conditions and from a small number of projections. Their use may be important in portable scanners for their functionality in emergency situations. However, in practice, these methods are not widely used due to the high computational cost of their implementation. In this work we analyze iterative parallel image reconstruction with the Portable Extensive Toolkit for Scientific computation (PETSc).

  5. Medical image of the week: massive abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larson M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. An 88 year-old presented to the emergency department with left flank and lower back pain as well as lower abdominal fullness. The fullness had started 2 days prior, but the left flank pain acutely started in the early morning before presenting. He had a history of unmedicated hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and mild vertigo. His review of systems was positive for chills and difficulty urinating but no hematuria. He was a non-smoker, and had undergone orthopedic surgeries but had otherwise avoided emergent hospitalizations. On exam, vitals were unremarkable; there was no flank nor costovertebral angle tenderness; however, a midline pulsatile mass was present. An initial non-contrast CT abdomen/pelvis revealed a massive abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA, Figure 1. Follow-up CT angiogram of the AAA can be seen in Figure 2. Upon further questioning, he had undergone a research study some 30 years earlier involving ultrasound to screen for AAA and was told he ...

  6. Gallstone ileus: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delabrousse, E.; Bartholomot, B.; Sohm, O.; Kastler, B. [Dept. of Radiology A, CHU Jean Minjoz, University of Besancon (France); Wallerand, H. [Dept. of Surgery, CHU Jean Minjoz, University of Besancon (France)

    2000-06-01

    Gallstone ileus is a rare complication of recurrent gallstone cholecystitis. The classic radiographic triad of small bowel obstruction, pneumobilia and ectopic gallstone on abdominal plain radiograph is described with CT imaging. Because of the better resolution of CT compared with abdominal radiography and its recent accession to emergency use, radiologists should be aware of CT findings of gallstone ileus. We report a case in which gallstone ileus was initially diagnosed by CT. (orig.)

  7. Abdominal CT predictors of fibrosis in patients with chronic pancreatitis undergoing surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Amitasha; Afghani, Elham [Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Division of Gastroenterology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Singh, Vikesh K. [Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Division of Gastroenterology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Pancreatitis Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Cruise, Michael; Matsukuma, Karen [Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Department of Pathology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ali, Sumera; Raman, Siva P.; Fishman, Elliot K. [Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, The Russel H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Andersen, Dana K. [National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD (United States); Makary, Martin A. [Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Department of Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States); Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Pancreatitis Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Zaheer, Atif [Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, The Russel H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Pancreatitis Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-05-01

    To determine which abdominal CT findings predict severe fibrosis and post-operative pain relief in chronic pancreatitis (CP). Pre-operative abdominal CTs of 66 patients (mean age 52 ± 12 years, 53 % males) with painful CP who underwent the Whipple procedure (n = 32), Frey procedure (n = 32) or pancreatic head biopsy (n = 2), between 1/2003-3/2014, were evaluated. CT was evaluated for parenchymal calcifications, intraductal calculi, main pancreatic duct dilation (>5 mm), main pancreatic duct stricture, and abnormal side branch(es). The surgical histopathology was graded for fibrosis. CT findings were evaluated as predictors of severe fibrosis and post-operative pain relief using regression and area under receiver operating curve (AUC) analysis. Thirty-eight (58 %) patients had severe fibrosis. Parenchymal calcification(s) were an independent predictor of severe fibrosis (p = 0.03), and post-operative pain relief over a mean follow-up of 1-year (p = 0.04). Presence of >10 parenchymal calcifications had higher predictive accuracy for severe fibrosis than 1-10 parenchymal calcification(s) (AUC 0.88 vs. 0.59, p = 0.003). The predictive accuracy of >10 versus 1-10 parenchymal calcifications increased after adjusting for all other CT findings (AUC 0.89 vs. 0.63, p = 0.01). Parenchymal calcification(s) independently predict severe fibrosis and are significantly associated with post-operative pain relief in CP. The presence of >10 parenchymal calcifications is a better predictor of severe fibrosis than 1-10 parenchymal calcification(s). (orig.)

  8. Abdominal CT predictors of fibrosis in patients with chronic pancreatitis undergoing surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Amitasha; Afghani, Elham; Singh, Vikesh K.; Cruise, Michael; Matsukuma, Karen; Ali, Sumera; Raman, Siva P.; Fishman, Elliot K.; Andersen, Dana K.; Makary, Martin A.; Zaheer, Atif

    2015-01-01

    To determine which abdominal CT findings predict severe fibrosis and post-operative pain relief in chronic pancreatitis (CP). Pre-operative abdominal CTs of 66 patients (mean age 52 ± 12 years, 53 % males) with painful CP who underwent the Whipple procedure (n = 32), Frey procedure (n = 32) or pancreatic head biopsy (n = 2), between 1/2003-3/2014, were evaluated. CT was evaluated for parenchymal calcifications, intraductal calculi, main pancreatic duct dilation (>5 mm), main pancreatic duct stricture, and abnormal side branch(es). The surgical histopathology was graded for fibrosis. CT findings were evaluated as predictors of severe fibrosis and post-operative pain relief using regression and area under receiver operating curve (AUC) analysis. Thirty-eight (58 %) patients had severe fibrosis. Parenchymal calcification(s) were an independent predictor of severe fibrosis (p = 0.03), and post-operative pain relief over a mean follow-up of 1-year (p = 0.04). Presence of >10 parenchymal calcifications had higher predictive accuracy for severe fibrosis than 1-10 parenchymal calcification(s) (AUC 0.88 vs. 0.59, p = 0.003). The predictive accuracy of >10 versus 1-10 parenchymal calcifications increased after adjusting for all other CT findings (AUC 0.89 vs. 0.63, p = 0.01). Parenchymal calcification(s) independently predict severe fibrosis and are significantly associated with post-operative pain relief in CP. The presence of >10 parenchymal calcifications is a better predictor of severe fibrosis than 1-10 parenchymal calcification(s). (orig.)

  9. Variation in CT Number and Image Noise Uniformity According to Patient Positioning in MDCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P; DuPlissis, Andrew; Pickhardt, Perry J

    2017-05-01

    Many algorithms for clinical decision making rely on assessment of the CT number (expressed as Hounsfield units); however, to our knowledge, few, if any, studies have addressed how CT numbers change as a function of patient positioning within the scanner. An anthropomorphic phantom underwent imaging with varying amounts of vertical orientation misalignment with respect to isocenter. CT number and noise were measured using ROIs in the upper thorax, mid thorax, and abdomen. The degree of noise nonuniformity and changes in the CT number were assessed by comparing values obtained in the anterior versus posterior ROIs. To add clinical relevance, data on vertical mispositioning were collected from 20,316 clinical abdominal CT scans. Box-and-whisker plot analysis was used to identify the range of patient positioning. Absolute CT number changes of more than 20 HU were observed for some ROIs at phantom positions of 10 cm from isocenter, with important differences noted between the thoracic and abdominal regions. Noise uniformity varied by more than twofold for all regions at 10 cm below isocenter. On clinical CT examinations, off-centering of more than 1, 2, 4, and 6 cm occurred for 41%, 19%, 1.9%, and 0.3% of patients, respectively. Radiologists should treat CT number measurements with caution when patients are grossly mispositioned in the scanner. The substantial changes in attenuation values shown in the present study are large enough to warrant further investigation.

  10. Myocardial perfusion imaging with dual energy CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Kwang Nam [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); De Cecco, Carlo N. [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Caruso, Damiano [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Rome (Italy); Tesche, Christian [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Heart Center Munich-Bogenhausen, Munich (Germany); Spandorfer, Adam; Varga-Szemes, Akos [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U. Joseph, E-mail: schoepf@musc.edu [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Stress dual-energy sCTMPI offers the possibility to directly detect the presence of myocardial perfusion defects. • Stress dual-energy sCTMPI allows differentiating between reversible and fixed myocardial perfusion defects. • The combination of coronary CT angiography and dual-energy sCTMPI can improve the ability of CT to detect hemodynamically relevant coronary artery disease. - Abstract: Dual-energy CT (DECT) enables simultaneous use of two different tube voltages, thus different x-ray absorption characteristics are acquired in the same anatomic location with two different X-ray spectra. The various DECT techniques allow material decomposition and mapping of the iodine distribution within the myocardium. Static dual-energy myocardial perfusion imaging (sCTMPI) using pharmacological stress agents demonstrate myocardial ischemia by single snapshot images of myocardial iodine distribution. sCTMPI gives incremental values to coronary artery stenosis detected on coronary CT angiography (CCTA) by showing consequent reversible or fixed myocardial perfusion defects. The comprehensive acquisition of CCTA and sCTMPI offers extensive morphological and functional evaluation of coronary artery disease. Recent studies have revealed that dual-energy sCTMPI shows promising diagnostic accuracy for the detection of hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease compared to single-photon emission computed tomography, invasive coronary angiography, and cardiac MRI. The aim of this review is to present currently available DECT techniques for static myocardial perfusion imaging and recent clinical applications and ongoing investigations.

  11. Characteristic MR and CT imaging findings of hepatobiliary paragonimiasis and their pathologic correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Chunyan; Hu, Yajun; Chen, Weixia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hepatobiliary paragonimiasis (HP) is not commonly encountered and may be confused with hepatobiliary tumors; however, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of HP allow this entity to be distinguished from other diseases. Purpose: To present the CT and MRI findings in patients with HP and to describe some specific imaging findings along with their pathological correlations. Material and Methods: Imaging and clinical findings of 21 patients (9 boys/men and 12 girls/women; age range 3-67 years; mean age 40 years) who were diagnosed with HP were retrospectively evaluated. Among these patients, 16 underwent CT examination only, two had MR examination only, and three underwent both CT and MR. All patients underwent surgery, and the HP diagnosis was confirmed by the surgical and histopathologic results. Results: Chronic abdominal pain or back pain was reported by 14 patients, severe abdominal pain with acute onset was reported by one patient, and six patients were asymptomatic and were discovered incidentally. Peripheral eosinophilia was present in 14 patients (14/21, 66.7%), and abnormal liver function tests were found in 16 patients (16/21, 76.2%). Of the 19 patients who underwent CT imaging, 17 patients showed multiple mixed hypodense lesions or multiple cysts with inlaying septation with separate irregular rims or circular enhancement on post-contrast CT images. Tunnel-shaped micro abscesses and necrotic cavities were found in the lesions of 12 of those 17 patients. The other two patients showed smaller cystic masses. MRI showed faveolate T1 hypointense and T2 hyperintense areas in the liver parenchyma with rim or peripheral enhancement. Nodular or circular hyperintense materials were found scattered in the lesions on T1-weighted imaging. Conclusion: CT and MRI can reveal the radiological-pathological features of HP. Together with laboratory findings, MRI and CT findings may provide diagnostic clues, especially in endemic

  12. PET CT imaging: the Philippine experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, Jonas Y.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the most discussed fusion imaging is PET CT. Fusion technology has tremendous potential in diagnostic imaging to detect numerous conditions such as tumors, Alzheimer's disease, dementia and neural disorders. The fusion of PET with CT helps in the localization of molecular abnormalities, thereby increasing diagnostic accuracy and differentiating benign or artefact lesions from malignant diseases. It uses a radiotracer called fluro deoxyglucose that gives a clear distinction between pathological and physiological uptake. Interest in this technology is increasing and additional clinical validation are likely to induce more health care providers to invest in combined scanners. It is hope that in time, a better appreciation of its advantages over conventional and traditional imaging modalities will be realized. The first PET CT facility in the country was established at the St. Luke's Medical Center in Quezon City in 2008 and has since then provided a state-of-the art imaging modality to its patients here and those from other countries. The paper will present the experiences so far gained from its operation, including the measures and steps currently taken by the facility to ensure optimum workers and patient safety. Plans and programs to further enhance the awareness of the Filipino public on this advanced imaging modality for an improved health care delivery system may also be discussed briefly. (author)

  13. Thrombus imaging in acute ischaemic stroke using thin-slice unenhanced CT: comparison of conventional sequential CT and helical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sung Soo; Kim, Eung Yeop

    2012-01-01

    Thin-slice helical unenhanced CT can be used for thrombus imaging but increases radiation exposure. Conventional sequential images obtained by multidetector CT can be reconstructed into thin-slice images. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if conventional sequential unenhanced CT images can replace helical unenhanced CT for thrombus imaging. Fifty consecutive patients with acute ischaemic stroke underwent both 5-mm conventional sequential unenhanced CT and helical unenhanced CT. Each of the sequential and helical unenhanced CT images was subsequently reconstructed into four 1.25-mm images. Thrombus volumes and HU were measured semi-automatically using both types of unenhanced CT. Thrombus HU ratio (rHU) was calculated using the HU of the contralateral segment. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess measurement agreement. The mean rHUs were 1.47 ± 0.17 for sequential unenhanced CT and 1.47 ± 0.18 helical unenhanced CT (P = 0.542). The mean thrombus volumes were 124.25 ± 125.65 mm 3 and 117.84 ± 124.32 mm 3 on sequential and helical unenhanced CT images, respectively (P = 0.063). Measurement agreement between thrombus volumes from the two unenhanced CT images was high (ICC = 0.981). Thin-slice unenhanced CT images reconstructed from 5-mm sequential images can replace helical unenhanced CT for thrombus imaging in acute ischaemic stroke. circle Unenhanced CT is used to evaluate intra-arterial thrombus. (orig.)

  14. Abdominal and pelvic CT: is positive enteric contrast still necessary? Results of a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, S; Höink, A J; Wessling, J; Heinzow, H; Koch, R; Schuelke, C; Heindel, W; Buerke, B

    2015-03-01

    Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of abdominal CT depending on the type of enteric contrast agent. Multislice CTs of 2,008 patients with different types of oral preparation (positive with barium, n = 576; neutral with water, n = 716; and no enteric contrast, n = 716) were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists including delineation of intestinal segments and influence on diagnosis and diagnostic reliability exerted by the enteric contrast, using a three-point scale. Furthermore, diagnostic reliability of the delineation of selected enteric pathologies was noted. CT data were assigned into groups: oncology, inflammation, vascular, pathology, trauma and gastrointestinal pathology. Delineation of the bowel was clearly practicable across all segments irrespective of the type of enteric contrast, though a slight impairment was observed without enteric contrast. Although delineation of intestinal pathologies was mostly classified "clearly delimitable" more difficulties occurred without oral contrast (neutral/positive/no contrast, 0.8 %/3.8 %/6.5 %). Compared to examinations without enteric contrast, there was a significant improvement in diagnosis that was even increased regarding the reader's diagnostic reliability. Positive opacification impaired detection of mucosal enhancement or intestinal bleeding. Water can replace positive enteric contrast agents in abdominal CTs. However, selected clinical questions require individual enteric contrast preparations. Pathology detection is noticeably impaired without any enteric contrast.

  15. Cone beam CT for organs motion evaluation in pediatric abdominal neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazmy, Mohamed Soliman; Khafaga, Yasser; Mousa, Amr; Khalil, Ehab

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: To quantify the organ motion relative to bone in different breathing states in pediatric neuroblastoma using cone beam CT (CBCT) for better definition of the planning margins during abdominal IMRT. Methods and materials: Forty-two datasets of kV CBCT for 9 pediatric patients with abdominal neuroblastoma treated with IMRT were evaluated. Organs positions on planning CT scan were considered the reference position against which organs and target motions were evaluated. The position of the kidneys and the liver was assessed in all scans. The target movement was evaluated in four patients who were treated for gross residual disease. Results: The mean age of the patients was 4.1 ± 1.6 years. The range of target movement in the craniocaudal direction (CC) was 5 mm. In the CC direction, the range of movement was 10 mm for the right kidney, and 8 mm for the left kidney. Similarly, the liver upper edge range of motion was 11 mm while the lower edge range of motion was 13 mm. Conclusions: With the use of daily CBCT we may be able to reduce the PTV margin. If CBCT is not used daily, a wider margin is needed.

  16. Comparative evaluation of organ and effective doses for paediatric patients with those for adults in chest and abdominal CT examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, K; Aoyama, T; Koyama, S; Kawaura, C

    2007-08-01

    Patient doses in paediatric and adult CT examinations were investigated for modern multislice CT scanners by using specially constructed in-phantom dose measuring systems. The systems were composed of 32 photodiode dosemeters embedded in various tissue and organ sites within anthropomorphic phantoms representing the bodies of 6-year-old children and adults. Organ and the effective doses were evaluated from dose values measured at these sites. In chest CT examinations, organ doses for organs within the scanning area were 2-21 mGy for children and 7-26 mGy for adults. Thyroid doses for children were frequently the highest with a maximum of 21 mGy. In abdominal CT examinations, organ doses for organs within the scanning area were 3-16 mGy for children and 10-34 mGy for adults. Effective doses evaluated for children and adults were found to be proportional to the effective mAs of CT scanners, where linear coefficients were specific to the types of CT examinations and to the manufacturers of CT scanners. Effective doses in paediatric chest CT and abdominal CT examinations were lower than those in adult examinations by a factor of two or greater on average for the same CT scanners because of the lower effective mAs adopted in paediatric examinations.

  17. CT Imaging of Craniofacial Fibrous Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerrin Unal Erzurumlu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrous dysplasia is a benign fibroosseous bone dysplasia that can involve single (monostotic or multiple (polyostotic bones. Monostotic form is more frequent in the jaws. It is termed as craniofacial fibrous dysplasia, when it involves, though rarely, adjacent craniofacial bones. A 16-year-old girl consulted for a painless swelling in the right posterior mandible for two years. Panoramic radiography revealed ground-glass ill-defined lesions in the three different regions of the maxilla and mandible. Axial CT scan (bone window showed multiple lesions involving skull base and facial bones. Despite lesions in the skull base, the patient had no abnormal neurological findings. The lesion was diagnosed as fibrous dysplasia based on radiological and histopathological examination. In this paper, CT findings and differential diagnosis of CFD are discussed. CT is a useful imaging technique for CFD cases.

  18. The neurolytic celiac plexus block using CT guidance through anterior abdominal approach to control the cancer pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jie; Yang Ning; Liu Wei; Jin Zhengyu; Zhao Yupei; Cai Lixing

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effect and safety of neurolytic celiac plexus block (Ncb) using CT guidance through anterior abdominal approach. Methods: The clinical data of 24 patients who were given NCPB because of the suffering of upper abdominal and back pain caused by pancreatic carcinoma and other cancer in advanced stage were retrospectively analyzed. The therapeutic effect was evaluated with complete pain relief and partial pain relief. Results: The effective rate and complete pain relief rate in short period ( 3 months) were 71.4% and 14.3% respectively. No severe complications occurred. Conclusion: NCPB guided by CT through anterior abdominal approach is an effective, safe and simple method to control the upper abdominal and back pain caused by cancer

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of lower abdominal and pelvic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beers, Bernard

    1992-01-01

    To determine the value of oral particles (OMP) as a superpara-magnetic MR contrast agent for the gastrointestinal tract in lower abdominal and pelvic lesions, 30 patients underwent spin-echo imaging before and after ingestion of OMP at a dose of approximately 80 mg of iron in 800 ml water. The preparation was divided into 4 portions and taken by the patient over a 2-h period. Two readers independently reviewed the MR images. The contrast material was well tolerated and the distribution of the contrast material was good to excellent in the proximal and pelvic small bowel, but was not sufficient in the colon with the dose and timing used in the study. Postcontrast images showed a significantly better delineation of the lesions, the small bowel and the paraaortic region, but no significant improvement in delineation of the colon, the iliac vessels are, bladder or genital tract. Compared with precontrast images, confidence in defining or excluding disease on postcontrast images was better, equal or worse in 40, 60 and 0% respectively (P<0.001) with a substantial agreement between readers (K0.71). OMP produced susceptibility artefacts of significant intensity in only one case. These results indicate that OMP may be useful in the delineation of lower abdominal and pelvic lesions at MR imaging. Marking of the colon by a contrast agent might improve the results. (author). 22 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  20. Imaging of head and neck tumors -- methods: CT, spiral-CT, multislice-spiral-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, Ulrich E-mail: baum@idr.med.uni-erlangen.de; Greess, Holger; Lell, Michael; Noemayr, Anton; Lenz, Martin

    2000-03-01

    Spiral-CT is standard for imaging neck tumors. In correspondence with other groups we routinely use spiral-CT with thin slices (3 mm), a pitch of 1.3-1.5 and an overlapping reconstruction increment (2-3 mm). In patients with dental fillings a short additional spiral parallel to the corpus of the mandible reduces artifacts behind the dental arches and improves the diagnostic value of CT. For the assessment of the base of the skull, the orbital floor, the palate and paranasal sinuses an additional examination in the coronal plane is helpful. Secondary coronal reconstructions of axial scans are helpful in the evaluation of the crossing of the midline by small tumors of the tongue base or palate. For an optimal vascular or tissue contrast a sufficient volume of contrast medium and a start delay greater than 70-80 s are necessary. In our opinion the best results can be achieved with a volume of 150 ml, a flow of 2.5 ml/s and a start delay of 80 s. Dynamic enhanced CT is only necessary in some special cases. There is clear indication for dynamic enhanced CT where a glomus tumor is suspected. Additional functional CT imaging during i-phonation and/or Valsalva's maneuver are of great importance to prove vocal cords mobility. Therefore, imaging during i-phonation is an elemental part of every thorough examination of the hypopharynx and larynx region. Multislice-spiral-CT allows almost isotropic imaging of the head and neck region and improves the assessment of tumor spread and lymph node metastases in arbitrary oblique planes. Thin structures (the base of the skull, the orbital floor, the hard palate) as well as the floor of the mouth can be evaluated sufficiently with multiplanar reformations. Usually, additional coronal scanning is not necessary with multislice-spiral-CT. Multislice-spiral-CT is especially advantageous in defining the critical relationships of tumor and lymph node metastases and for functional imaging of the hypopharynx and larynx not only in the

  1. Imaging of head and neck tumors -- methods: CT, spiral-CT, multislice-spiral-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, Ulrich; Greess, Holger; Lell, Michael; Noemayr, Anton; Lenz, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Spiral-CT is standard for imaging neck tumors. In correspondence with other groups we routinely use spiral-CT with thin slices (3 mm), a pitch of 1.3-1.5 and an overlapping reconstruction increment (2-3 mm). In patients with dental fillings a short additional spiral parallel to the corpus of the mandible reduces artifacts behind the dental arches and improves the diagnostic value of CT. For the assessment of the base of the skull, the orbital floor, the palate and paranasal sinuses an additional examination in the coronal plane is helpful. Secondary coronal reconstructions of axial scans are helpful in the evaluation of the crossing of the midline by small tumors of the tongue base or palate. For an optimal vascular or tissue contrast a sufficient volume of contrast medium and a start delay greater than 70-80 s are necessary. In our opinion the best results can be achieved with a volume of 150 ml, a flow of 2.5 ml/s and a start delay of 80 s. Dynamic enhanced CT is only necessary in some special cases. There is clear indication for dynamic enhanced CT where a glomus tumor is suspected. Additional functional CT imaging during i-phonation and/or Valsalva's maneuver are of great importance to prove vocal cords mobility. Therefore, imaging during i-phonation is an elemental part of every thorough examination of the hypopharynx and larynx region. Multislice-spiral-CT allows almost isotropic imaging of the head and neck region and improves the assessment of tumor spread and lymph node metastases in arbitrary oblique planes. Thin structures (the base of the skull, the orbital floor, the hard palate) as well as the floor of the mouth can be evaluated sufficiently with multiplanar reformations. Usually, additional coronal scanning is not necessary with multislice-spiral-CT. Multislice-spiral-CT is especially advantageous in defining the critical relationships of tumor and lymph node metastases and for functional imaging of the hypopharynx and larynx not only in the

  2. Angiomatous Meningioma: CT and MR Imaging Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hee Yeon; Yu, In Kyu; Kim, Min Sun [Dept. of Radiology, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Min; Kim, Han Kyu [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    To describe the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging features of angiomatous meningiomas. We reviewed the imaging findings of six patients with pathologically proven angiomatous meningiomas and characterized the location, margin, dura base, CT attenuation, MR signal intensity, intratumoral signal void, contrast enhancement, intratumoral cystic change, and peritumoral edema. Most tumors showed high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and low signal intensity on diffusion-weighted images. After intravenous contrast administration, the tumor showed heterogeneous strong enhancement. Most tumors had a lobulated margin with prominent intratumoral signal voids. Four patients showed marked or small intratumoral cystic changes. Typically, angiomatous meningiomas were dura-based masses characterized by lobulated margins with high signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), low signal intensity on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), prominent intratumoral signal voids, intratumoral cystic changes, and marked enhancement after intravenous contrast administration.

  3. Algorithms of CT value correction for reconstructing a radiotherapy simulation image through axial CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Takashi; Egawa, Sunao

    1991-01-01

    New algorithms of CT value correction for reconstructing a radiotherapy simulation image through axial CT images were developed. One, designated plane weighting method, is to correct CT value in proportion to the position of the beam element passing through the voxel. The other, designated solid weighting method, is to correct CT value in proportion to the length of the beam element passing through the voxel and the volume of voxel. Phantom experiments showed fair spatial resolution in the transverse direction. In the longitudinal direction, however, spatial resolution of under slice thickness could not be obtained. Contrast resolution was equivalent for both methods. In patient studies, the reconstructed radiotherapy simulation image was almost similar in visual perception of the density resolution to a simulation film taken by X-ray simulator. (author)

  4. Imaging findings of upper abdominal involvement by acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amemiya, Shiori; Akahane, Masaaki; Ohtomo, Kuni [University of Tokyo, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Takita, Junko; Igarashi, Takashi [University of Tokyo, Department of Paediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2008-04-15

    Acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia (AMKL), a relatively rare type of acute myeloid leukaemia, is characterized by frequent involvement of the liver, spleen and lymph nodes in addition to myelofibrosis in children. Diagnosis is difficult both clinically and pathologically, and the hepatic or lymph node involvement is not uncommonly misinterpreted as solid tumour. We report the imaging findings of upper abdominal involvement by AMKL in an infant. The hepatic lesion, initially suspected to be hepatoblastoma, showed a distinctive appearance on MRI suggesting its infiltrative nature. With the association of splenic lesion and lymphadenopathy, the imaging findings were considered indicative of a haematological disorder. (orig.)

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of a step-up imaging strategy in pediatric patients with blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuppen, J. van; Olthof, D.C.; Wilde, J.C.H.; Beenen, L.F.M.; Rijn, R.R. van; Goslings, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) is an important but often unrecognized cause of death in children. Imaging plays a vital role in the early detection of abdominal trauma. The exact role of imaging in the management of BAT in children is still under research. The aim of this study was to assess diagnostic accuracy of a step-up imaging strategy, where the decision to observe or to perform an intervention depends on the vital parameters of the patient, in combination with the presence or absence of free fluid at Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) and the findings on CT (performed selectively), for pediatric patients presenting to the ED with a blunt abdominal trauma. Methods: Consecutive patients aged ≤16 years admitted between January 2008 and December 2012 to a Dutch level 1 trauma centre were included in this retrospective study. Sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV) and the negative likelihood ratio (LR−) of the imaging strategy were calculated. Results: The cohort consisted of 122 patients; 66 (54%) patients were discharged home after primary survey, 51 (41%) patients were admitted and observed, 3 (2%) patients underwent transarterial embolization and 2 (2%) patients underwent surgery. Treatment failed in 1 patient, initially selected for observation. The sensitivity of the imaging strategy was 0.833 (0.446–0.990). The NPV and LR− were 0.991 (0.963–1.000) and 0.167 (0.028–0.997), respectively. Conclusion: The step-up imaging strategy that is applied in our academic level 1 trauma centre has a high sensitivity and a high negative predictive value. No clinically relevant injuries were missed without doing unnecessary harm, e.g. radiation or an intervention

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of a step-up imaging strategy in pediatric patients with blunt abdominal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuppen, J. van [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Olthof, D.C. [Trauma Unit Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wilde, J.C.H. [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Emma' s Children Hospital/Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Beenen, L.F.M.; Rijn, R.R. van [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Goslings, J.C., E-mail: j.c.goslings@amc.nl [Trauma Unit Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-01-15

    Introduction: Blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) is an important but often unrecognized cause of death in children. Imaging plays a vital role in the early detection of abdominal trauma. The exact role of imaging in the management of BAT in children is still under research. The aim of this study was to assess diagnostic accuracy of a step-up imaging strategy, where the decision to observe or to perform an intervention depends on the vital parameters of the patient, in combination with the presence or absence of free fluid at Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) and the findings on CT (performed selectively), for pediatric patients presenting to the ED with a blunt abdominal trauma. Methods: Consecutive patients aged ≤16 years admitted between January 2008 and December 2012 to a Dutch level 1 trauma centre were included in this retrospective study. Sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV) and the negative likelihood ratio (LR−) of the imaging strategy were calculated. Results: The cohort consisted of 122 patients; 66 (54%) patients were discharged home after primary survey, 51 (41%) patients were admitted and observed, 3 (2%) patients underwent transarterial embolization and 2 (2%) patients underwent surgery. Treatment failed in 1 patient, initially selected for observation. The sensitivity of the imaging strategy was 0.833 (0.446–0.990). The NPV and LR− were 0.991 (0.963–1.000) and 0.167 (0.028–0.997), respectively. Conclusion: The step-up imaging strategy that is applied in our academic level 1 trauma centre has a high sensitivity and a high negative predictive value. No clinically relevant injuries were missed without doing unnecessary harm, e.g. radiation or an intervention.

  7. Abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordany, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    Abdominal injury is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. Ten percent of trauma-related deaths are due to abdominal injury. Thousands of children are involved in auto accidents annually; many suffer severe internal injury. Child abuse is a second less frequent but equally serious cause of internal abdominal injury. The descriptions of McCort and Eisenstein and their associates in the 1960s first brought to attention the frequency and severity of visceral injury as important manifestations of the child abuse syndrome. Blunt abdominal trauma often causes multiple injuries; in the past, many children have been subjected to exploratory surgery to evaluate the extent of possible hidden injury. Since the advent of noninvasive radiologic imaging techniques including radionuclide scans and ultrasound and, especially, computed tomography (CT), the radiologist has been better able to assess (accurately) the extent of abdominal injury and thus allow conservative therapy in many cases. Penetrating abdominal trauma occurs following gunshot wounds, stabbing, and other similar injury. This is fortunately, a relatively uncommon occurrence in most pediatric centers and will not be discussed specifically here, although many principles of blunt trauma diagnosis are valid for evaluation of penetrating abdominal trauma. If there is any question that a wound has extended intraperitonelly, a sinogram with water-soluble contrast material allows quick, accurate diagnosis. The presence of large amounts of free intraperitoneal gas suggests penetrating injury to the colon or other gas-containing viscus and is generally considered an indication for surgery

  8. Development of automated quantification of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes from abdominal CT scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, Sanne D.; Spliethoff, Jarich W.; Belder, Ruben; Klaase, Joost M.; Bezooijen, Roland; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2011-03-01

    This contribution describes a novel algorithm for the automated quantification of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes from abdominal CT scans of patients referred for colorectal resection. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes can accurately be measured with errors of 1.2 and 0.5%, respectively. Also the reproducibility of CT measurements is good; a disadvantage is the amount of radiation. In this study the diagnostic CT scans in the work - up of (colorectal) cancer were used. This implied no extra radiation. For the purpose of segmentation alone, a low dose protocol can be applied. Obesity is a well known risk factor for complications in and after surgery. Body Mass Index (BMI) is a widely accepted indicator of obesity, but it is not specific for risk assessment of colorectal surgery. We report on an automated method to quantify visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes as a basic step in a clinical research project concerning preoperative risk assessment. The outcomes are to be correlated with the surgery results. The hypothesis is that the balance between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue together with the presence of calcifications in the major bloodvessels, is a predictive indicator for post - operatieve complications such as anastomotic leak. We start with four different computer simulated humanoid abdominal volumes with tissue values in the appropriate Hounsfield range at different dose levels. With satisfactory numerical results for this test, we have applied the algorithm on over a 100 patient scans and have compared results with manual segmentations by an expert for a smaller pilot group. The results are within a 5% difference. Compared to other studies reported in the literature, reliable values are obtained for visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas.

  9. Distant telephone transmission of CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masayuki; Takashima, Tsutomu; Nishijima, Hiroshi; Itoh, Hiroshi; Kitagawa, Kiyohide; Kadoya, Masumi; Wakatsuki, Toshinosuke.

    1985-01-01

    CT image transmission system using the telephone line was held between the Department of Radiology, Kanazawa University and Ushitsu General Hospital, about 95 km in distance, and was clinically evaluated. The transmission images were satisfactory and diagnostic in demonstrating both the normal anatomy and the pathological lesions. Tiny calcium shadows were often difficult to be detected. There were some cases in which the transmission images were distorted by the malfunction of the telephone line. Although the transmission time was too long (about 220 seconds), the use of multiimage display (usually four images) improved this disadvantage to some extent. The problems to be resolved have the technical and administrative aspects. The shortening of the transmission time and the development of the image storage system will be achieved in the near future. We stress that, for the popularization of this system, some administrative managements such as the reduction of the telephone charge and the introduction of the reading fee will be needed. (author)

  10. Pathology Image of the Month: Abdominal Pain and Peripheral Eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasson, Reggie; Alquist, Caroline Raasch; Farris, K Barton; McGoey, Robin

    2015-01-01

    A 69 year-old man presented to his primary care physician with abdominal discomfort. Medical history was notable for diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with recent (one week prior) steroid use and hypertension. Surgical history was significant for a remote sigmoid hemicolectomy for diverticulitis with a synthetic mesh abdominal repair. He was admitted to the hospital for suspected gastroparesis. An upper GI series showed a distended stomach with delayed gastric motility. He underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and a duodenal biopsy was taken. He remained afebrile but had an elevated white blood cell count of 19.1 x 103/mcL (4.5 - 11.0 x 103/mcL) with 28.8 percent eosinophils on differential. Microscopic images of the duodenal biopsy are shown below.

  11. Comparison of dose and image quality in protocols abdominal CT using high an low KVP; Comparacion de dosis y calidad de imagen en protocolos abdominales de TC utilizando alto y bajo kilovoltaje

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas Munoz, I.; Alejo Luque, L.; Corredoira Silva, E.; Sanchez Munoz, F. J.; Serrada Hierro, A.

    2013-07-01

    This paper compares quantitatively low kV Protocol with the conventional Protocol of abdomen, analysing the image quality with objective physical parameters and calculating the corresponding dummy dose reduction. (Author)

  12. Study of abdominal MR imaging in hemolytic-uremic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Takeshi; Mori, Yasuhiko; Takenaka, Yoshito [Osaka Rosai Hospital, Sakai (Japan)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    This study was performed to examine the usefulness of MR imaging in predicting disease course of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). The subjects were 7 HUS child patients, including 2 who underwent transfusion, whose ages ranged from one year and nine months to 6 years and nine months. Abdominal MR imaging was performed between 3 days and 11 months from the onset of HUS. Cortico-medullary differentiation (CMD) in the kidney disappeared on T1-weighted images in 4 patients. The presence or absence of CMD was suggested to reflect the renal function, especially glomerular function. T2-weighted images showed low signal intensities in the liver and spleen in 4 patients, which was considered to be due to hemosiderin precipitation, suggesting a correlation with disease stage and transfusion. (Y.S.).

  13. Comparison of diagnostic performance of CT and MRI for abdominal staging of pediatric renal tumors: a report from the Children's Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servaes, Sabah [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Khanna, Geetika [Washington University School of Medicine, Pediatric Radiology, St. Louis Children' s Hospital, Mallinckrodt Institute for Radiology, 510 S. Kingshighway, Campus Box 8131-MIR, St. Louis, MO (United States); Naranjo, Arlene [University of Florida, Department of Biostatistics, Gainesville, FL (United States); Geller, James I. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Oncology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Ehrlich, Peter F. [University of Michigan, Department of Surgery, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Gow, Kenneth W. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Surgery, Seattle, WA (United States); Perlman, Elizabeth J. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Pathology, Chicago, IL (United States); Dome, Jeffrey S. [Children' s National Medical Center, Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Washington, DC (United States); Gratias, Eric; Mullen, Elizabeth A. [Harvard University, Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-08-19

    CT and MRI are both used for abdominal staging of pediatric renal tumors. The diagnostic performance of the two modalities for local and regional staging of renal tumors has not been systematically evaluated. To compare the diagnostic performance of CT and MRI for local staging of pediatric renal tumors. The study population was derived from the AREN03B2 study of the Children's Oncology Group. Baseline abdominal imaging performed with both CT and MRI within 30 days of nephrectomy was available for retrospective review in 82 renal tumor cases. Each case was evaluated for capsular penetration, lymph node metastasis, tumor thrombus, preoperative tumor rupture, and synchronous contralateral lesions. The surgical and pathological findings at central review were the reference standard. The sensitivity of CT and MRI for detecting capsular penetration was 68.6% and 62.9%, respectively (P = 0.73), while specificity was 86.5% and 83.8% (P = 1.0). The sensitivity of CT and MRI for detecting lymph node metastasis was 76.5% and 52.9% (P = 0.22), and specificity was 90.4% and 92.3% (P = 1.0). Synchronous contralateral lesions were identified by CT in 4/9 cases and by MRI in 7/9 cases. CT and MRI have similar diagnostic performance for detection of lymph node metastasis and capsular penetration. MR detected more contralateral synchronous lesions; however these were present in a very small number of cases. Either modality can be used for initial loco-regional staging of pediatric renal tumors. (orig.)

  14. Comparison of diagnostic performance of CT and MRI for abdominal staging of pediatric renal tumors: a report from the Children's Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servaes, Sabah; Khanna, Geetika; Naranjo, Arlene; Geller, James I.; Ehrlich, Peter F.; Gow, Kenneth W.; Perlman, Elizabeth J.; Dome, Jeffrey S.; Gratias, Eric; Mullen, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    CT and MRI are both used for abdominal staging of pediatric renal tumors. The diagnostic performance of the two modalities for local and regional staging of renal tumors has not been systematically evaluated. To compare the diagnostic performance of CT and MRI for local staging of pediatric renal tumors. The study population was derived from the AREN03B2 study of the Children's Oncology Group. Baseline abdominal imaging performed with both CT and MRI within 30 days of nephrectomy was available for retrospective review in 82 renal tumor cases. Each case was evaluated for capsular penetration, lymph node metastasis, tumor thrombus, preoperative tumor rupture, and synchronous contralateral lesions. The surgical and pathological findings at central review were the reference standard. The sensitivity of CT and MRI for detecting capsular penetration was 68.6% and 62.9%, respectively (P = 0.73), while specificity was 86.5% and 83.8% (P = 1.0). The sensitivity of CT and MRI for detecting lymph node metastasis was 76.5% and 52.9% (P = 0.22), and specificity was 90.4% and 92.3% (P = 1.0). Synchronous contralateral lesions were identified by CT in 4/9 cases and by MRI in 7/9 cases. CT and MRI have similar diagnostic performance for detection of lymph node metastasis and capsular penetration. MR detected more contralateral synchronous lesions; however these were present in a very small number of cases. Either modality can be used for initial loco-regional staging of pediatric renal tumors. (orig.)

  15. AP diameter shows the strongest correlation with CTDI and DLP in abdominal and chest CT.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zarb, Francis

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships among cross-sectional diameters, weight and computed tomography (CT) dose descriptors (CTDI and DLP) to identify which is best used as a measure for the establishment of DRLs in CT. Data (gender, weight, cross-sectional diameters, dose descriptors) from 56 adult patients attending for either a CT examination of the abdomen or chest was obtained from two spiral CT units using automatic milliampere modulation. The AP diameter was demonstrated as the main contributing factor influencing the dose in CT (CTDI: r(2) = 0.269, p-value < or =0.001; DLP: r(2) = 0.260, p-value < or =0.001) since it has a greater correlation with radiation dose than body weight and can thus be its substitute in dose-reduction strategies and establishment of DRLs. The advantages of using the AP diameter are that it can easily be measured prior to scanning or retrospectively from previous CT images. However, further studies on the practicality of this approach are recommended.

  16. AP diameter shows the strongest correlation with CTDI and DLP in abdominal and chest CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarb, F.; Rainford, L.; McEntee, M. F.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships among cross-sectional diameters, weight and computed tomography (CT) dose descriptors (CTDI and DLP) to identify which is best used as a measure for the establishment of DRLs in CT. Data (gender, weight, cross-sectional diameters, dose descriptors) from 56 adult patients attending for either a CT examination of the abdomen or chest was obtained from two spiral CT units using automatic milli-ampere modulation. The AP diameter was demonstrated as the main contributing factor influencing the dose in CT (CTDI: r 2 = 0.269, p-value ≤0.001; DLP: r 2 = 0.260, p-value ≤0.001) since it has a greater correlation with radiation dose than body weight and can thus be its substitute in dose-reduction strategies and establishment of DRLs. The advantages of using the AP diameter are that it can easily be measured prior to scanning or retrospectively from previous CT images. However, further studies on the practicality of this approach are recommended. (authors)

  17. Nontraumatic abdominal emergencies: acute abdominal pain: diagnostic strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marincek, B. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2002-09-01

    Common causes of acute abdominal pain include appendicitis, cholecystitis, bowel obstruction, urinary colic, perforated peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, diverticulitis, and nonspecific, nonsurgical abdominal pain. The topographic classification of acute abdominal pain (pain in one of the four abdominal quadrants, diffuse abdominal pain, flank or epigastric pain) facilitates the choice of the imaging technique. The initial radiological evaluation often consists of plain abdominal radiography, despite significant diagnostic limitations. The traditional indications for plain films - bowel obstruction, pneumoperitoneum, and the search of ureteral calculi - are questioned by helical computed tomography (CT). Although ultrasonography (US) is in many centers the modality of choice for imaging the gallbladder and the pelvis in children and women of reproductive age, CT is considered to be one of the most valued tools for triaging patients with acute abdominal pain. CT is particularly beneficial in patients with marked obesity, unclear US findings, bowel obstruction, and multiple lesions. The introduction of multidetector row CT (MDCT) has further enhanced the utility of CT in imaging patients with acute abdominal pain. (orig.)

  18. Nontraumatic abdominal emergencies: acute abdominal pain: diagnostic strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marincek, B.

    2002-01-01

    Common causes of acute abdominal pain include appendicitis, cholecystitis, bowel obstruction, urinary colic, perforated peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, diverticulitis, and nonspecific, nonsurgical abdominal pain. The topographic classification of acute abdominal pain (pain in one of the four abdominal quadrants, diffuse abdominal pain, flank or epigastric pain) facilitates the choice of the imaging technique. The initial radiological evaluation often consists of plain abdominal radiography, despite significant diagnostic limitations. The traditional indications for plain films - bowel obstruction, pneumoperitoneum, and the search of ureteral calculi - are questioned by helical computed tomography (CT). Although ultrasonography (US) is in many centers the modality of choice for imaging the gallbladder and the pelvis in children and women of reproductive age, CT is considered to be one of the most valued tools for triaging patients with acute abdominal pain. CT is particularly beneficial in patients with marked obesity, unclear US findings, bowel obstruction, and multiple lesions. The introduction of multidetector row CT (MDCT) has further enhanced the utility of CT in imaging patients with acute abdominal pain. (orig.)

  19. Staging of untreated nasopharyngeal carcinoma with PET/CT: comparison with conventional imaging work-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Shu-Hang [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou Medical Center, Molecular Imaging Center and Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kueishan (China)]|[Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kueishan, Taoyuan (China); Chan, Sheng-Chieh; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Liu, Feng-Yuan [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kueishan (China); Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Fan, Kang-Hsing [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Kueishan (China); Liao, Chun-Ta [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou Medical Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Kueishan (China); Ko, Sheung-Fat; Chin, Shu-Chyn [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou Medical Center, Molecular Imaging Center and Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kueishan (China); Hsu, Cheng-Lung [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou Medical Center, Department of Medical Oncology, Kueishan (China)

    2009-01-15

    We prospectively compared PET/CT and conventional imaging for initial staging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A total of 111 patients with histologically proven NPC were investigated with PET/CT and conventional imaging (head-and-neck MRI, chest X-ray, abdominal ultrasound, and bone scan) before treatment. The respective findings were reviewed independently and then compared with each other. With regard to T staging, PET/CT showed a discrepancy with head-and-neck MRI in 36 (32.4%) of the study subjects. With regard to N staging, PET/CT showed a discrepancy with head-and-neck MRI in 15 (13.5%) patients. Among the discordant cases, MRI was superior in demonstrating tumor involvement in the parapharyngeal space, skull base, intracranial area, sphenoid sinus, and retropharyngeal nodes while PET/CT was superior in demonstrating neck nodal metastasis. PET/CT disclosed 13 of 16 patients with distant malignancy compared with four patients disclosed by conventional imaging work-up. The false-positive rate of PET/CT was 18.8%. PET/CT correctly modified M staging in eight patients (7.2%) and disclosed a second primary lung malignancy in one patient (0.9%). In NPC patients, MRI appears to be superior to PET/CT for the assessment of locoregional invasion and retropharyngeal nodal metastasis. PET/CT is more accurate than MRI for determining cervical nodal metastasis and should be the better reference for the neck status. PET/CT has an acceptable diagnostic yield and a low false-positive rate for the detection of distant malignancy and can replace conventional work-up to this aim. PET/CT and head-and-neck MRI are suggested for the initial staging of NPC patients. (orig.)

  20. Appearance of abdominal wall endometriosis on MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busard, Milou P.H.; Kuijk, Cees van; Waesberghe, Jan Hein T.M. van [VU Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Endometriosis Center VUMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mijatovic, Velja; Hompes, Peter G.A. [VU Medical Center, Department of Gynecology, Endometriosis Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-05-15

    Abdominal wall endometriosis (AWE) is defined as endometrial tissue that is superficial to the peritoneum. AWE is often difficult to diagnose, mimicking a broad spectrum of diseases. The aim of this study was to describe the appearance of AWE on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We present ten patients with AWE (12 lesions) in which MR imaging was used for diagnosis. MR imaging included T2-weighted imaging and T1-weighted imaging with fat suppression. To assess the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in endometriosis, four patients underwent additional DWI. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was calculated using b values of 50, 400, 800 and 1,200 s/mm{sup 2}. In most cases, the lesion was located ventral or dorsal to the aponeurosis of the rectus oblique muscle (n=6) or in the rectus abdominis (n = 5). MR of AWE lesions showed isointense or slightly hyperintense signal compared with muscle on T2-weighted images and showed isointense or slightly hyperintense signal compared with muscle on T1-weighted images with foci of high signal intensity, indicative of haemorrhage. The mean ADC value of AWE was 0.93 x 10{sup -3}/mm{sup 2}/s. MR imaging seems to be useful in determining the location and depth of infiltration in surrounding tissue preoperatively. (orig.)

  1. Attenuation correction of emission PET images with average CT: Interpolation from breath-hold CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tzung-Chi; Zhang, Geoffrey; Chen, Chih-Hao; Yang, Bang-Hung; Wu, Nien-Yun; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Wu, Tung-Hsin

    2011-05-01

    Misregistration resulting from the difference of temporal resolution in PET and CT scans occur frequently in PET/CT imaging, which causes distortion in tumor quantification in PET. Respiration cine average CT (CACT) for PET attenuation correction has been reported to improve the misalignment effectively by several papers. However, the radiation dose to the patient from a four-dimensional CT scan is relatively high. In this study, we propose a method to interpolate respiratory CT images over a respiratory cycle from inhalation and exhalation breath-hold CT images, and use the average CT from the generated CT set for PET attenuation correction. The radiation dose to the patient is reduced using this method. Six cancer patients of various lesion sites underwent routine free-breath helical CT (HCT), respiration CACT, interpolated average CT (IACT), and 18F-FDG PET. Deformable image registration was used to interpolate the middle phases of a respiratory cycle based on the end-inspiration and end-expiration breath-hold CT scans. The average CT image was calculated from the eight interpolated CT image sets of middle respiratory phases and the two original inspiration and expiration CT images. Then the PET images were reconstructed by these three methods for attenuation correction using HCT, CACT, and IACT. Misalignment of PET image using either CACT or IACT for attenuation correction in PET/CT was improved. The difference in standard uptake value (SUV) from tumor in PET images was most significant between the use of HCT and CACT, while the least significant between the use of CACT and IACT. Besides the similar improvement in tumor quantification compared to the use of CACT, using IACT for PET attenuation correction reduces the radiation dose to the patient.

  2. Imaging and management of complications of open surgical repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayeemuddin, M.; Pherwani, A.D.; Asquith, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Open repair is still considered the reference standard for long-term repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). In contrast to endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), patients with open surgical repair of AAA are not routinely followed up with imaging. Although complications following EVAR are widely recognized and routinely identified on follow-up imaging, complications also do occur following open surgical repair. With frequent use of multi-slice computed tomography (CT) angiography (CTA) in vascular patients, there is now improved recognition of the potential complications following open surgical repair. Many of these complications are increasingly being managed using endovascular techniques. The aim of this review is to illustrate a variety of potential complications that may occur following open surgical repair and to demonstrate their management using both surgical and endovascular techniques.

  3. A clinical retrospective study of the detectable ability of the advanced colorectal cancer by plain abdominal multislice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Kazufumi; Nakamura, Takashi; Matsuo, Kengo

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of plain CT for diagnosis of advanced colorectal cancer retrospectively. During 2 years between December 1999 and November 2001, 26 patients with advanced colorectal cancer underwent abdominal CT scan (Toshiba ASTEIONMULTI). The patients had received no special preparation for CT scan except for avoiding breakfast. The sensitivity of CT scan in detecting tumors was 76.9%. Moreover, cancers originated in the cecum, ascending colon and descending colon were all detectable by CT. Ninety-two percent of cancers occupying more than 2/3 of circumference of the colonic wall were detectable. These evidences may indicate that plain CT is useful for detecting colorectal cancers with little patients' burden as well as providing information about their extension and metastasis, when colorectal cancer is suspected by patients' symptom. (author)

  4. Parallel CT image reconstruction based on GPUs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, Liubov A.; Vidal, Vicent; Mayo, Patricia; Rodenas, Francisco; Verdú, Gumersindo

    2014-01-01

    In X-ray computed tomography (CT) iterative methods are more suitable for the reconstruction of images with high contrast and precision in noisy conditions from a small number of projections. However, in practice, these methods are not widely used due to the high computational cost of their implementation. Nowadays technology provides the possibility to reduce effectively this drawback. It is the goal of this work to develop a fast GPU-based algorithm to reconstruct high quality images from under sampled and noisy projection data. - Highlights: • We developed GPU-based iterative algorithm to reconstruct images. • Iterative algorithms are capable to reconstruct images from under sampled set of projections. • The computer cost of the implementation of the developed algorithm is low. • The efficiency of the algorithm increases for the large scale problems

  5. Incidental Detection of Interstitial Pregnancy on CT Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Byung Seok; Park, Mi-hyun

    2009-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is a potentially life-threatening condition. Detection of ectopic pregnancy on CT images is rare. In this case, we describe the CT findings of interstitial pregnancy both before and after rupture. If CT images demonstrate the presence of a strong enhancing ring-like mass in the pelvis, ectopic pregnancy should be considered.

  6. Incidental Detection of Interstitial Pregnancy on CT Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Byung Seok [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Mi Hyun [Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Ectopic pregnancy is a potentially life-threatening condition. Detection of ectopic pregnancy on CT images is rare. In this case, we describe the CT findings of interstitial pregnancy both before and after rupture. If CT images demonstrate the presence of a strong enhancing ring-like mass in the pelvis, ectopic pregnancy should be considered

  7. Incidental Detection of Interstitial Pregnancy on CT Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Byung Seok; Park, Mi Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is a potentially life-threatening condition. Detection of ectopic pregnancy on CT images is rare. In this case, we describe the CT findings of interstitial pregnancy both before and after rupture. If CT images demonstrate the presence of a strong enhancing ring-like mass in the pelvis, ectopic pregnancy should be considered

  8. Image reconstruction design of industrial CT instrument for teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Yongning; Cai Yufang

    2009-01-01

    Industrial CT instrument for teaching is applied to teaching and study in field of physics and radiology major, image reconstruction is an important part of software on CT instrument. The paper expatiate on CT physical theory and first generation CT reconstruction algorithm, describe scan process of industrial CT instrument for teaching; analyze image artifact as result of displacement of rotation center, implement method of center displacement correcting, design and complete image reconstruction software, application shows that reconstructed image is very clear and qualitatively high. (authors)

  9. A quantitative approach of abdominal aortic atherosclerosis with x-ray CT, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromi; Yoshioka, Seiro; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Itagaki, Shinya.

    1983-01-01

    Until now, aortic tortuosity is understood as a sign of atherosclerosis. But, there was no quantitative approach of abdominal aortic tortuosity. In this paper, we quantitatively evaluated the tortuosity with RI angiography. And, we already reported a quantitative method to evaluate aortic calcification from X-ray CT films. The Calcification Index (C.I.) calculated in its method has strong reration with aortic atherosclerosis evaluated by pathological method. So, we used C.I. as an atherosclerosis index. Tortuosity becomes stonger with increasing age. C.I. also becomes higher with increasing age, but there is no relation between tortuosity and C.I.. When atherosclerosis is defined as local lesion, tortuosity is not a sign of atherosclerosis but of aortic aging. (author)

  10. MR to CT registration of brains using image synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Snehashis; Carass, Aaron; Jog, Amod; Prince, Jerry L.; Lee, Junghoon

    2014-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is the preferred imaging modality for patient dose calculation for radiation therapy. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) is used along with CT to identify brain structures due to its superior soft tissue contrast. Registration of MR and CT is necessary for accurate delineation of the tumor and other structures, and is critical in radiotherapy planning. Mutual information (MI) or its variants are typically used as a similarity metric to register MRI to CT. However, unlike CT, MRI intensity does not have an accepted calibrated intensity scale. Therefore, MI-based MR-CT registration may vary from scan to scan as MI depends on the joint histogram of the images. In this paper, we propose a fully automatic framework for MR-CT registration by synthesizing a synthetic CT image from MRI using a co-registered pair of MR and CT images as an atlas. Patches of the subject MRI are matched to the atlas and the synthetic CT patches are estimated in a probabilistic framework. The synthetic CT is registered to the original CT using a deformable registration and the computed deformation is applied to the MRI. In contrast to most existing methods, we do not need any manual intervention such as picking landmarks or regions of interests. The proposed method was validated on ten brain cancer patient cases, showing 25% improvement in MI and correlation between MR and CT images after registration compared to state-of-the-art registration methods.

  11. 3D Interpolation Method for CT Images of the Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Asada

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A 3-D image can be reconstructed from numerous CT images of the lung. The procedure reconstructs a solid from multiple cross section images, which are collected during pulsation of the heart. Thus the motion of the heart is a special factor that must be taken into consideration during reconstruction. The lung exhibits a repeating transformation synchronized to the beating of the heart as an elastic body. There are discontinuities among neighboring CT images due to the beating of the heart, if no special techniques are used in taking CT images. The 3-D heart image is reconstructed from numerous CT images in which both the heart and the lung are taken. Although the outline shape of the reconstructed 3-D heart is quite unnatural, the envelope of the 3-D unnatural heart is fit to the shape of the standard heart. The envelopes of the lung in the CT images are calculated after the section images of the best fitting standard heart are located at the same positions of the CT images. Thus the CT images are geometrically transformed to the optimal CT images fitting best to the standard heart. Since correct transformation of images is required, an Area oriented interpolation method proposed by us is used for interpolation of transformed images. An attempt to reconstruct a 3-D lung image by a series of such operations without discontinuity is shown. Additionally, the same geometrical transformation method to the original projection images is proposed as a more advanced method.

  12. 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging factors that predict ischaemic stroke in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jahae; Song, Ho-Chun; Choi, Kang-Ho; Kim, Joon-Tae; Park, Man-Seok; Cho, Ki-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    18 F-FDG PET/CT can acquire both anatomical and functional images in a single session. We investigated which factors of 18 F-FDG PET/CT imaging have potential as biomarkers for an increased risk of ischaemic stroke in cancer patients. From among cancer patients presenting with various neurological symptoms and hemiparesis, 134 were selected as eligible for this retrospective analysis. A new infarct lesion on brain MRI within 1 year of FDG PET/CT defined future ischaemic stroke. The target-to-background ratio (TBR) of each arterial segment was used to define arterial inflammation on PET imaging. Abdominal obesity was defined in terms of the area and proportion of visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue and total adipose tissue (TAT) on a single CT slice at the umbilical level. Ischaemic stroke confirmed by MRI occurred in 30 patients. Patients with stroke had higher TBRs in the carotid arteries and abdominal aorta (P < 0.001) and a higher VAT proportion (P = 0.021) and TAT proportion (P = 0.041) than patients without stroke. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that TBRs of the carotid arteries and abdominal aorta, VAT and TAT proportions, and the presence of a metabolically active tumour were significantly associated with future ischaemic stroke. Combining PET and CT variables improved the power for predicting future ischaemic stroke. Our findings suggest that arterial FDG uptake and hypermetabolic malignancy on PET and the VAT proportion on CT could be independent predictors of future ischaemic stroke in patients with cancer and could identify those patients who would benefit from medical treatment. (orig.)

  13. Automatic anatomy recognition in whole-body PET/CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Huiqian; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Torigian, Drew A.; Zhao, Liming

    2016-01-01

    , to bring performance to the level achieved on diagnostic CT and MR images in body-region-wise approaches. The intermodality approach fosters the use of already existing fuzzy models, previously created from diagnostic CT images, on PET/CT and other derived images, thus truly separating the modality-independent object assembly anatomy from modality-specific tissue property portrayal in the image. Results: Key ways of combining the above three basic ideas lead them to 15 different strategies for recognizing objects in PET/CT images. Utilizing 50 diagnostic CT image data sets from the thoracic and abdominal body regions and 16 whole-body PET/CT image data sets, the authors compare the recognition performance among these 15 strategies on 18 objects from the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis in object localization error and size estimation error. Particularly on texture membership images, object localization is within three voxels on whole-body low-dose CT images and 2 voxels on body-region-wise low-dose images of known true locations. Surprisingly, even on direct body-region-wise PET images, localization error within 3 voxels seems possible. Conclusions: The previous body-region-wise approach can be extended to whole-body torso with similar object localization performance. Combined use of image texture and intensity property yields the best object localization accuracy. In both body-region-wise and whole-body approaches, recognition performance on low-dose CT images reaches levels previously achieved on diagnostic CT images. The best object recognition strategy varies among objects; the proposed framework however allows employing a strategy that is optimal for each object

  14. Automatic anatomy recognition in whole-body PET/CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huiqian [College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China and Medical Image Processing Group Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Udupa, Jayaram K., E-mail: jay@mail.med.upenn.edu; Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Torigian, Drew A. [Medical Image Processing Group Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Zhao, Liming [Medical Image Processing Group Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 and Research Center of Intelligent System and Robotics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China)

    2016-01-15

    , to bring performance to the level achieved on diagnostic CT and MR images in body-region-wise approaches. The intermodality approach fosters the use of already existing fuzzy models, previously created from diagnostic CT images, on PET/CT and other derived images, thus truly separating the modality-independent object assembly anatomy from modality-specific tissue property portrayal in the image. Results: Key ways of combining the above three basic ideas lead them to 15 different strategies for recognizing objects in PET/CT images. Utilizing 50 diagnostic CT image data sets from the thoracic and abdominal body regions and 16 whole-body PET/CT image data sets, the authors compare the recognition performance among these 15 strategies on 18 objects from the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis in object localization error and size estimation error. Particularly on texture membership images, object localization is within three voxels on whole-body low-dose CT images and 2 voxels on body-region-wise low-dose images of known true locations. Surprisingly, even on direct body-region-wise PET images, localization error within 3 voxels seems possible. Conclusions: The previous body-region-wise approach can be extended to whole-body torso with similar object localization performance. Combined use of image texture and intensity property yields the best object localization accuracy. In both body-region-wise and whole-body approaches, recognition performance on low-dose CT images reaches levels previously achieved on diagnostic CT images. The best object recognition strategy varies among objects; the proposed framework however allows employing a strategy that is optimal for each object.

  15. Quantitative Aortic Distensibility Measurement Using CT in Patients with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Reproducibility and Clinical Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfei Zha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the reproducibility of aortic distensibility (D measurement using CT and assess its clinical relevance in patients with infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA. Methods. 54 patients with infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm were studied to determine their distensibility by using 64-MDCT. Aortic cross-sectional area changes were determined at two positions of the aorta, immediately below the lowest renal artery (level 1. and at the level of its maximal diameter (level 2. by semiautomatic segmentation. Measurement reproducibility was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Bland-Altman analyses. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to assess linear associations between aortic D and anthropometric and biochemical parameters. Results. A mean distensibility of Dlevel  1.=(1.05±0.22×10-5  Pa-1 and Dlevel  2.=(0.49±0.18×10-5  Pa-1 was found. ICC proved excellent consistency between readers over two locations: 0.92 for intraobserver and 0.89 for interobserver difference in level 1. and 0.85 and 0.79 in level 2. Multivariate analysis of all these variables showed sac distensibility to be independently related (R2=0.68 to BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and AAA diameter. Conclusions. Aortic distensibility measurement in patients with AAA demonstrated high inter- and intraobserver agreement and may be valuable when choosing the optimal dimensions graft for AAA before endovascular aneurysm repair.

  16. The Use of CT Scan in Hemodynamically Stable Children with Blunt Abdominal Trauma : Look before You Leap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nellensteijn, David R.; Greuter, Marcel J.; el Moumni, Moustafa; Hulscher, Jan B.

    We set out to determine the diagnostic value of computed tomographic (CT) scans in relation to the radiation dose, tumor incidence, and tumor mortality by radiation for hemodynamically stable pediatric patients with blunt abdominal injury. We focused on the changes in management because of new

  17. A new technique for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis: abdominal CT with compression to the right lower quadrant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilincer, Abidin; Akpinar, Erhan; Uenal, Emre; Karaosmanoglu, Ali Devrim; Akata, Deniz; Oezmen, Mustafa [Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Erbil, Buelent [Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Kaynaroglu, Volkan [Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of General Surgery, Ankara (Turkey)

    2017-08-15

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of abdominal CT with compression to the right lower quadrant (RLQ) in adults with acute appendicitis. 168 patients (age range, 18-78 years) were included who underwent contrast-enhanced CT for suspected appendicitis performed either using compression to the RLQ (n = 71) or a standard protocol (n = 97). Outer diameter of the appendix, appendiceal wall thickening, luminal content and associated findings were evaluated in each patient. Kruskal-Wallis, Fisher's and Pearson's chi-squared tests were used for statistical analysis. There was no significant difference in the mean outer diameter (MOD) between compression CT scans (10.6 ± 1.9 mm) and standard protocol (11.2 ± 2.3 mm) in patients with acute appendicitis (P = 1). MOD was significantly lower in the compression group (5.2 ± 0.8 mm) compared to the standard protocol (6.5 ± 1.1 mm) (P < 0.01) in patients without appendicitis. A cut-off value of 6.75 mm for the outer diameter of the appendix was found to be 100% sensitive in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis for both groups. The specificity was higher for compression CT technique (67.7 vs. 94.9%). Normal appendix diameter was significantly smaller in the compression-CT group compared to standard-CT group, increasing diagnostic accuracy of abdominal compression CT. (orig.)

  18. Nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial infections following laparoscopic surgery: CT imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpato, Richard [Cassiano Antonio de Moraes University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Campi de Castro, Claudio [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Department of Radiology, Cerqueira Cesar, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Hadad, David Jamil [Cassiano Antonio de Moraes University Hospital, Nucleo de Doencas Infecciosas, Department of Internal Medicine, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Silva Souza Ribeiro, Flavya da [Laboratorio de Patologia PAT, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Filho, Ezequiel Leal [UNIMED Diagnostico, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Marcal, Leonardo P. [The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-09-15

    To identify the distribution and frequency of computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial (RGM) infection after laparoscopic surgery. A descriptive retrospective study in patients with RGM infection after laparoscopic surgery who underwent CT imaging prior to initiation of therapy. The images were analyzed by two radiologists in consensus, who evaluated the skin/subcutaneous tissues, the abdominal wall, and intraperitoneal region separately. The patterns of involvement were tabulated as: densification, collections, nodules (≥1.0 cm), small nodules (<1.0 cm), pseudocavitated nodules, and small pseudocavitated nodules. Twenty-six patients met the established criteria. The subcutaneous findings were: densification (88.5 %), small nodules (61.5 %), small pseudocavitated nodules (23.1 %), nodules (38.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (15.4 %), and collections (26.9 %). The findings in the abdominal wall were: densification (61.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (3.8 %), and collections (15.4 %). The intraperitoneal findings were: densification (46.1 %), small nodules (42.3 %), nodules (15.4 %), and collections (11.5 %). Subcutaneous CT findings in descending order of frequency were: densification, small nodules, nodules, small pseudocavitated nodules, pseudocavitated nodules, and collections. The musculo-fascial plane CT findings were: densification, collections, and pseudocavitated nodules. The intraperitoneal CT findings were: densification, small nodules, nodules, and collections. (orig.)

  19. Nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial infections following laparoscopic surgery: CT imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpato, Richard; Campi de Castro, Claudio; Hadad, David Jamil; Silva Souza Ribeiro, Flavya da; Filho, Ezequiel Leal; Marcal, Leonardo P.

    2015-01-01

    To identify the distribution and frequency of computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial (RGM) infection after laparoscopic surgery. A descriptive retrospective study in patients with RGM infection after laparoscopic surgery who underwent CT imaging prior to initiation of therapy. The images were analyzed by two radiologists in consensus, who evaluated the skin/subcutaneous tissues, the abdominal wall, and intraperitoneal region separately. The patterns of involvement were tabulated as: densification, collections, nodules (≥1.0 cm), small nodules (<1.0 cm), pseudocavitated nodules, and small pseudocavitated nodules. Twenty-six patients met the established criteria. The subcutaneous findings were: densification (88.5 %), small nodules (61.5 %), small pseudocavitated nodules (23.1 %), nodules (38.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (15.4 %), and collections (26.9 %). The findings in the abdominal wall were: densification (61.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (3.8 %), and collections (15.4 %). The intraperitoneal findings were: densification (46.1 %), small nodules (42.3 %), nodules (15.4 %), and collections (11.5 %). Subcutaneous CT findings in descending order of frequency were: densification, small nodules, nodules, small pseudocavitated nodules, pseudocavitated nodules, and collections. The musculo-fascial plane CT findings were: densification, collections, and pseudocavitated nodules. The intraperitoneal CT findings were: densification, small nodules, nodules, and collections. (orig.)

  20. Respiratory monitor system for 4D CT image acquisition based on accelerometer. Design and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llorente Manso, M.; Vivela Serrano, S.; Viera Jorge, J. C.; Garran del Rio, C.; Ferrer Gracia, C.; Carballo Gonzalez, N.

    2013-01-01

    The use of 4D CT images in Radiotherapy planning is increasing. Some commercial systems use abdominal movement to correlate images with respiratory phase. An in-house developed system based on an accelerometer to register patient's abdominal movement and a software to group 4D images in their corresponding respiratory phase is presented. A phantom test evaluates the capacity of the system to properly identify respiratory phases. A volunteers study compares breathing curves acquired by the accelerometer with those obtained using a commercial system. In the phantom images, maximum difference between real and calculated phase is 0.2 s. In the volunteer study, position of the curve maxima found by both systems differs, on average, around 2% (SD=2%) of the respiratory cycle period when volunteer's breathing is regular. Only when breathe is very irregular, differences of up to 10% in the phase assignment are found. (Author)