WorldWideScience

Sample records for abdominal computed tomography

  1. Abdominal perfusion computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kizrak, Yesim; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Yuceler, Zeynep; Sagsoz, M Erdem; Yilmaz, Omer; Aydinli, Bulent; Ozturk, Gurkan; Kantarci, Mecit

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an up to date review on the spectrum of applications of perfusion computed tomography (CT) in the abdomen. New imaging techniques have been developed with the objective of obtaining a structural and functional analysis of different organs. Recently, perfusion CT has aroused the interest of many researchers who are studying the applicability of imaging modalities in the evaluation of abdominal organs and diseases. Per-fusion CT enables fast, non-invasive imaging of the tumor vascular physiology. Moreover, it can act as an in vivo biomarker of tumor-related angiogenesis.

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) Perfusion in Abdominal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Lundsgaard; Norling, Rikke; Lauridsen, Carsten;

    2013-01-01

    on the market today based on different perfusion algorithms. However, there is no consensus on which protocol and algorithm to use for specific organs. In this article, the authors give an introduction to CT perfusion in abdominal imaging introducing technical aspects for calculation of perfusion parameters......Computed Tomography (CT) Perfusion is an evolving method to visualize perfusion in organs and tissue. With the introduction of multidetector CT scanners, it is now possible to cover up to 16 cm in one rotation, and thereby making it possible to scan entire organs such as the liver with a fixed...... table position. Advances in reconstruction algorithms make it possible to reduce the radiation dose for each examination to acceptable levels. Regarding abdominal imaging, CT perfusion is still considered a research tool, but several studies have proven it as a reliable non-invasive technique...

  3. Abdominal alterations in disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis: computed tomography findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermelho, Marli Batista Fernandes; Correia, Ademir Silva; Michailowsky, Tania Cibele de Almeida; Suzart, Elizete Kazumi Kuniyoshi; Ibanes, Aline Santos; Almeida, Lanamar Aparecida; Khoury, Zarifa; Barba, Mario Flores, E-mail: marlivermelho@globo.com [Instituto de Infectologia Emilio Ribas (IIER), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    Objective: to evaluate the incidence and spectrum of abdominal computed tomography imaging findings in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Materials and methods: retrospective analysis of abdominal computed tomography images of 26 patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. Results: abnormal abdominal tomographic findings were observed in 18 patients (69.2%), while no significant finding was observed in the other 8 (30.8%) patients. Conclusion: computed tomography has demonstrated to play a relevant role in the screening and detection of abdominal abnormalities in patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. (author)

  4. Paradoxical emboli: demonstration using helical computed tomography of the pulmonary artery associated with abdominal computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delalu, P.; Ferretti, G.R.; Bricault, I.; Ayanian, D.; Coulomb, M. [Service Central de Radiologie et Imagerie Medicale, CHU Grenoble (France)

    2000-02-01

    We report the case of a 60-year-old woman with a recent history of a cerebrovascular accident. Because of clinical suspicion of pulmonary embolism and negative Doppler ultrasound findings of the lower limbs, spiral computed tomography of the pulmonary artery was performed and demonstrated pulmonary emboli. We emphasize the role of computed tomography of the abdomen, performed 3 min after the thoracic acquisition, which showed an unsuspected thrombus within the abdominal aorta and the left renal artery with infarction of the left kidney. Paradoxical embolism was highly suspected on computed tomography data and confirmed by echocardiography which demonstrated a patent foramen ovale. (orig.)

  5. Helical computed tomography in the assessment of abdominal aortic pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicaretti, M.; Young, N.; Jenkins, J.; Fletcher, J. [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW (Australia)

    1997-05-01

    A pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the role of helical computed tomography in the assessment of abdominal aortic pathology. A total of 17 patients underwent intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (IADSA) and helical computed tomography, with eight patients undergoing subsequent operative intervention. A comparison of radiological findings between IADSA and helical computed tomography (CT) was made and, where applicable, a comparison was made with operative findings. Pathology included abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) (n=12), thoraco abdominal aneurysm (n=2) and dissection (n=1), graft distension following AAA repair (n=1) and plaque haemorrhage in the distal aorta following percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of the iliac artery (n=1). Planned operative management as based on pre-operative helical CT imaging findings, in particular with reference to the type of graft used (straight or bifurcated) was not changed at operation. Our findings on helical CT in regards to AAA, thoraco-abdominal aneurysm and dissection correlated well with angiography and surgery findings. (authors). 26 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  6. Dosimetry in abdominal imaging by 6-slice computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Sonia Isabel [Hospital de Faro, EPE (Portugal); Abrantes, Antonio Fernando; Ribeiro, Luis Pedro; Almeida, Rui Pedro Pereira [University of Algarve (Portugal). School of Health. Dept. of Radiology

    2012-11-15

    Objective: To determine the effective dose in abdominal computed tomography imaging and to study the influence of patients' characteristics on the received dose. Materials and Methods: Dose values measurements were performed with an ionization chamber on phantoms to check the agreement between dose values and those presented by the computed tomography apparatus, besides their compliance with the recommended reference dose levels. Later, values of dose received by physically able patients submitted to abdominal computed tomography (n = 100) were measured and correlated with their anthropometric characteristics. Finally, the dose to organs was simulated with the Monte Carlo method using the CT-Expo V 1.5 software, and the effect of automatic exposure control on such examinations. Results: The main characteristics directly influencing the dose include the patients' body mass, abdominal perimeter and body mass index, whose correlation is linear and positive. Conclusion: The radiation dose received from abdominal CT scans depends on some patient's characteristics, and it is important to adjust the acquisition parameters to their dimensions (author)

  7. Abdominal actinomycosis: barium enema and computed tomography findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, N; Ishikawa, T; Miyakawa, K; Iinuma, G; Nakajima, H; Ushio, K; Yokota, T; Akasu, T; Shimoda, T

    1997-02-01

    A case of abdominal actinomycosis is described in a woman with recurrent right lower abdominal pain and low-grade fever without history of appendectomy. Past history included the use of an intrauterine device (IUD) until 10 years before manifestation of these symptoms. We followed up the patient, via diagnostic imaging, for 7 months. On initial barium enema, a polypoid lesion was visualized at the bottom of the cecum and there was constriction of the sigmoid colon; the appendix was not seen. Seven months later, poor extension at the cecum, severe constriction in the sigmoid colon, and narrowing of the terminal ileum were also visualized. On computed tomography (CT), the lesion was initially localized only in the ileocecal region adjacent to the sigmoid colon. After 7 months, the lesion had infiltrated adjacent anatomic components and showed direct infiltration of the pelvic space. Differential diagnosis was difficult, as it was not obvious whether this was a pelvic abscess due to inflammation or appendiceal carcinoma. Laparotomy was performed. Macroscopically, the lesion was not limited to the ileocecal region, but involved the right ureter, tubes the Fallopian and ovary, bladder, psoas muscle, and abdominal wall. Pathology findings showed, chronic inflammatory tissue with evidence of actinomycosis. Although previous reports have described a lack of specific findings in this disease. When actinomycosis is suspected, CT is recommended to define its extent.

  8. Radiation Exposure of Abdominal Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailer, Anna M., E-mail: anni.sailer@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC), Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Schurink, Geert Willem H., E-mail: gwh.schurink@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Wildberger, Joachim E., E-mail: j.wildberger@mumc.nl; Graaf, Rick de, E-mail: r.de.graaf@mumc.nl; Zwam, Willem H. van, E-mail: w.van.zwam@mumc.nl; Haan, Michiel W. de, E-mail: m.de.haan@mumc.nl; Kemerink, Gerrit J., E-mail: gerrit.kemerink@mumc.nl; Jeukens, Cécile R. L. P. N., E-mail: cecile.jeukens@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC), Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo evaluate patients radiation exposure of abdominal C-arm cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).MethodsThis prospective study was approved by the institutional review board; written, informed consent was waived. Radiation exposure of abdominal CBCT was evaluated in 40 patients who underwent CBCT during endovascular interventions. Dose area product (DAP) of CBCT was documented and effective dose (ED) was estimated based on organ doses using dedicated Monte Carlo simulation software with consideration of X-ray field location and patients’ individual body weight and height. Weight-dependent ED per DAP conversion factors were calculated. CBCT radiation dose was compared to radiation dose of procedural fluoroscopy. CBCT dose-related risk for cancer was assessed.ResultsMean ED of abdominal CBCT was 4.3 mSv (95 % confidence interval [CI] 3.9; 4.8 mSv, range 1.1–7.4 mSv). ED was significantly higher in the upper than in the lower abdomen (p = 0.003) and increased with patients’ weight (r = 0.55, slope = 0.045 mSv/kg, p < 0.001). Radiation exposure of CBCT corresponded to the radiation exposure of on average 7.2 fluoroscopy minutes (95 % CI 5.5; 8.8 min) in the same region of interest. Lifetime risk of exposure related cancer death was 0.033 % or less depending on age and weight.ConclusionsMean ED of abdominal CBCT was 4.3 mSv depending on X-ray field location and body weight.

  9. Determination of dosimetric quantities in pediatric abdominal computed tomography scans*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jornada, Tiago da Silva; da Silva, Teógenes Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aiming at contributing to the knowledge on doses in computed tomography (CT), this study has the objective of determining dosimetric quantities associated with pediatric abdominal CT scans, comparing the data with diagnostic reference levels (DRL). Materials and methods The study was developed with a Toshiba Asteion single-slice CT scanner and a GE BrightSpeed multi-slice CT unit in two hospitals. Measurements were performed with a pencil-type ionization chamber and a 16 cm-diameter polymethylmethacrylate trunk phantom. Results No significant difference was observed in the values for weighted air kerma index (CW), but the differences were relevant in values for volumetric air kerma index (CVOL), air kerma-length product (PKL,CT) and effective dose. Conclusion Only the CW values were lower than the DRL, suggesting that dose optimization might not be necessary. However, PKL,CT and effective dose values stressed that there still is room for reducing pediatric radiation doses. The present study emphasizes the importance of determining all dosimetric quantities associated with CT scans. PMID:25741103

  10. Determination of dosimetric quantities in pediatric abdominal computed tomography scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jornada, Tiago da Silva [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Diagnostipo por Imagem; Silva, Teogenes Augusto da, E-mail: silvata@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Objective: aiming at contributing to the knowledge on doses in computed tomography (CT), this study has the objective of determining dosimetric quantities associated with pediatric abdominal CT scans, comparing the data with diagnostic reference levels (DRL). Materials and methods: the study was developed with a Toshiba Asteion single-slice CT scanner and a GE BrightSpeed multi-slice CT unit in two hospitals. Measurements were performed with a pencil-type ionization chamber and a 16 cm-diameter polymethylmethacrylate trunk phantom. Results: No significant difference was observed in the values for weighted air kerma index (C{sub W}), but the differences were relevant in values for volumetric air kerma index (C{sub VOL}), air kerma-length product (P{sub KL,CT}) and effective dose. Conclusion: Only the CW values were lower than the DRL, suggesting that dose optimization might not be necessary. However, P{sub KL,CT} and effective dose values stressed that there still is room for reducing pediatric radiation doses. The present study emphasizes the importance of determining all dosimetric quantities associated with CT scans. (author)

  11. Diagnosis of hepatic steatosis by contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo da Fonseca Monjardim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the diagnostic capacity of abdominal computed tomography in the assessment of hepatic steatosis using the portal phase with a simplified calculation method as compared with the non-contrast-enhanced phase. Materials and Methods In the present study, 150 patients were retrospectively evaluated by means of non-contrast-enhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography. One hundred patients had hepatic steatosis and 50 were control subjects. For the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in the portal phase, the authors considered a result of < 104 HU calculated by the formula [L - 0.3 × (0.75 × P + 0.25 × A] / 0.7, where L, P and A represent the attenuation of the liver, of the main portal vein and abdominal aorta, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated, using non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography as the reference standard. Results The simplified calculation method with portal phase for the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis showed 100% sensitivity, 36% specificity, negative predictive value of 100% and positive predictive value of 75.8%. The rate of false positive results was 64%. False negative results were not observed. Conclusion The portal phase presents an excellent sensitivity in the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis, as compared with the non-contrast-enhanced phase of abdominal computed tomography. However, the method has low specificity.

  12. Readjustment of abdominal computed tomography protocols in a university hospital: impact on radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Ricardo Francisco Tavares; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Torres, Lucas Rios; Bretas, Elisa Almeida Sathler; Bekhor, Daniel; Medeiros, Regina Bitelli; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: ricardo.romano@unifesp.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Caldana, Rogerio Pedreschi [Fleury Medicina e Saude, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Objective: To assess the reduction of estimated radiation dose in abdominal computed tomography following the implementation of new scan protocols on the basis of clinical suspicion and of adjusted images acquisition parameters. Materials and Methods: Retrospective and prospective review of reports on radiation dose from abdominal CT scans performed three months before (group A - 551 studies) and three months after (group B - 788 studies) implementation of new scan protocols proposed as a function of clinical indications. Also, the images acquisition parameters were adjusted to reduce the radiation dose at each scan phase. The groups were compared for mean number of acquisition phases, mean CTDI{sub vol} per phase, mean DLP per phase, and mean DLP per scan. Results: A significant reduction was observed for group B as regards all the analyzed aspects, as follows: 33.9%, 25.0%, 27.0% and 52.5%, respectively for number of acquisition phases, CTDI{sub vol} per phase, DLP per phase and DLP per scan (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The rational use of abdominal computed tomography scan phases based on the clinical suspicion in conjunction with the adjusted images acquisition parameters allows for a 50% reduction in the radiation dose from abdominal computed tomography scans. (author)

  13. MULTI - DETECTOR COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY AND INTRA - OPERATIVE CORRELATION IN BLUNT ABDOMINAL TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : With the change in the pace of life fast , faster , fastest being the motto of the present day , the incidence of trauma and the associated mortality and morbidities is on a continuous rise.Imaging plays a very important role in the management of these injuries in deciding which injuries , in trauma the final verdict of organ injury in abdomen is intra - ope rative findings. AIMS : In view of the above said we considered to study to determine diagnostic accuracy of MDCT (Multi - Detector Computed Tomography in detection of intra - abdominal solid organ injury in blunt abdominal trauma and to highlight the importance of MDCT in evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma. METHODS AND MATERIALS : This was a prospective study done between over a period of 2 years from between January 2011 to February 2013 on patients who presented with blun t abdominal trauma after excluding patients who were managed conservatively and normal on imaging , the data we compared had 32 patients and the analysis was as follows. RESULTS : Blunt abdominal trauma was common in males , the male to female ratio was 9:1 , road traffic accident is the most common mode of injury in blunt abdominal trauma with 60% of the patients in this mode of injury , single organ injury is 22 patients (76% spleen is the most commonly injured organ 15(47% patients having splenic injury , wi th grade 3 being the commonest splenic injury 8 out of the 15 patients had splenic injury bowel injury was the second common organ injured in blunt trauma abdomen. In this study computed tomography grading correlated well with intra - operative grading with a PPV of= 95.45 % (95% ci: 84.50 % to 99.31 % Asensitivityof 76.36 % (95% ci: 62.98 % to 86.76 % . CONCLUSION : Computed tomography is an important imaging technique for diagnosis of organ injuries in patients with abdominal trauma. It helps in grading of the type of injury and accordingly deciding the management of patient. It is a highly

  14. Anomalies of abdominal organs in polysplenia syndrome: Multidetector computed tomography findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Won; Lee, Yong Seok; Jung, Jin Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Dongguk University School of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Polysplenia syndrome is a rare situs ambiguous anomaly associated with multiple spleens and anomalies of abdominal organs. Because most of the minor anomalies do not cause clinical symptoms, polysplenia syndrome is detected incidentally in the adults. Anomalies of abdominal organs may include multiple spleens of variable size or right-sided spleen, large midline or left-sided liver, midline gallbladder, biliary tract anomalies, short pancreas, right-sided stomach, intestinal malrotation, inferior vena cava interruption with azygos or hemiazygos continuation, and a preduodenal portal vein. As the multidetector computed tomography is increasingly used, situs anomalies will likely to be found with greater frequency in the adults. Therefore, radiologists should become familiar with these rare and peculiar anomalies of abdominal organs in polysplenia syndrome.

  15. The role of the unenhanced phase in the routine abdominal computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Ana Paula Klautau; Mattos, Leandro Accardo de; Pinto, Gustavo Alfredo Duarte Henriques; Scaciota, Andrea Puchnick; Lederman, Henrique Manoel; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: scoposl@uol.com.br; Franco, Rita Maria Aparecida Monteiro Moura [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Gastroclinica; Andreoni, Cassio [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Urologia

    2008-09-15

    Objective: To determine the role of the unenhanced phase of abdominal computed tomography in patients without a definite diagnosis or undergoing tumor staging. Materials and methods: A prospective and transversal study was developed with 100 consecutive patients submitted to unenhanced and contrast enhanced abdominal computed tomography. Two observers evaluated all the computed tomography images in the contrast-enhanced phase (first analysis) and, later, in the unenhanced phase (second analysis) in an attempt to establish the primary and secondary diagnoses as a function of the clinical indication for the study. The frequency of changes in the diagnoses resulting from a combined analysis of the images in the pre- and post-contrast phases was evaluated. Cases with changes in the diagnosis were reviewed by clinical specialists for determining possible changes in the therapeutic approach. Results: Primary and secondary diagnoses were changed in respectively 1 and 18 cases (p = 1.000; p = 0.143) as follows: steatosis, adrenal nodules, nephrolithiasis, renal cysts and hepatic calcification. In the cases where the unenhanced phase changed the diagnosis, the specialists changed the therapeutic approach in 14 of the 19 patients (73%) (p = 0.038). Conclusion: No significant change was observed in the primary or secondary diagnosis as a result of the findings in the unenhanced phase. However, changes in secondary diagnoses affected the therapeutic approach adopted by the specialists. (author)

  16. Role of contrast enhanced ultrasound in detection of abdominal aortic abnormalities in comparison with multislice computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dirk-André Clevert; Kerstin Schick; CHEN Min-hua; ZHU Qing-li; Maximilian Reiser

    2009-01-01

    @@ dissection;abdominal aortic aneurysm;aorto-caval fistula;inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm Conventional ultrasound (US) is the most widely used imaging modality in routine clinical practice worldwide.The limitations of conventional ultrasound in the detection of aortic lesions versus multi-slice computed tomography angiography (MS-CTA) are well known.

  17. Abdominal fat distribution on computed tomography predicts ureteric calculus fragmentation by shock wave lithotripsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan, Hsu-Cheng; Chou, Yii-Her [Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Department of Urology, Kaohsiung (China); Lin, Hung-Yu [Kaohsiung Medical University, Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung (China); E-Da Hospital/ I-Shou University, Department of Urology, Kaohsiung (China); Yang, Yi-Hsin [Kaohsiung Medical University, Institute of Oral Health Sciences, Kaohsiung (China); Shih, Paul Ming-Chen [Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); Chuang, Shu-Mien [Yuh-Ing Junior College of Health Care and Management, Kaohsiung (China); Shen, Jung-Tsung [Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Department of Urology, Kaohsiung (China); Juan, Yung-Shun [Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Department of Urology, Kaohsiung (China); Kaohsiung Medical University, Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung (China); Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Kaohsiung (China)

    2012-08-15

    To assess the effects of abdominal fat on shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). We used pre-SWL unenhanced computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the impact of abdominal fat distribution and calculus characteristics on the outcome of SWL. One hundred and eighty-five patients with a solitary ureteric calculus treated with SWL were retrospectively reviewed. Each patient underwent unenhanced CT within 1 month before SWL treatment. Treatment outcomes were evaluated 1 month later. Unenhanced CT parameters, including calculus surface area, Hounsfield unit (HU) density, abdominal fat area and skin to calculus distance (SSD) were analysed. One hundred and twenty-eight of the 185 patients were found to be calculus-free following treatment. HU density, total fat area, visceral fat area and SSD were identified as significant variables on multivariate logistic regression analysis. The receiver-operating characteristic analyses showed that total fat area, para/perirenal fat area and visceral fat area were sensitive predictors of SWL outcomes. This study revealed that higher quantities of abdominal fat, especially visceral fat, are associated with a lower calculus-free rate following SWL treatment. Unenhanced CT is a convenient technique for diagnosing the presence of a calculus, assessing the intra-abdominal fat distribution and thereby helping to predict the outcome of SWL. (orig.)

  18. What is the real role of the equilibrium phase in abdominal computed tomography?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvadori, Priscila Silveira [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM-Unifesp), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Costa, Danilo Manuel Cerqueira; Romano, Ricardo Francisco Tavares; Galvao, Breno Vitor Tomaz; Monjardim, Rodrigo da Fonseca; Bretas, Elisa Almeida Sathler; Rios, Lucas Torres; Shigueoka, David Carlos; Caldana, Rogerio Pedreschi; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe_dr@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM-Unifesp), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Department of Diagnostic Imaging

    2013-03-15

    Objective: To evaluate the role of the equilibrium phase in abdominal computed tomography. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study reviewed 219 consecutive contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography images acquired in a three-month period, for different clinical indications. For each study, two reports were issued - one based on the initial analysis of non-contrast-enhanced, arterial and portal phases only (first analysis), and a second reading of these phases added to the equilibrium phase (second analysis). At the end of both readings, differences between primary and secondary diagnoses were pointed out and recorded, in order to measure the impact of suppressing the equilibrium phase on the clinical outcome for each of the patients. The extension of the exact Fisher's test was utilized to evaluate the changes in the primary diagnosis (p < 0.05 as significant). Results: Among the 219 cases reviewed, the absence of the equilibrium phase determined change in the primary diagnosis in only one case (0.46%; p > 0.999). As regards secondary diagnoses, changes after the second analysis were observed in five cases (2.3%). Conclusion: For clinical scenarios such as cancer staging, acute abdomen and investigation for abdominal collections, the equilibrium phase is dispensable and does not offer any significant diagnostic contribution. (author)

  19. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MULTIDETECTOR COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY AND ULTRASONOGRAPHY FINDINGS IN BLUNT ABDOMINAL TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okram Pusparani Devi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Blunt abdominal trauma usually has low sensitivity on physical examination and also subtle clinical manifestations. Improved resolution of the ultrasound machines and availability of multiple frequency probes has improved the specificity of ultrasound evaluation in blunt abdominal trauma. Despite this about 50% of the solid organ injuries are missed. Computed tomography has been used with better specificity to evaluate patients with blunt abdominal trauma who are FAST (Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma positive as well as indeterminate and clinically suspicious cases of solid organ, hollow viscera, spine and pelvic injury. AIM AND OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to determine sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of USG and MDCT and compare the efficacy of the two imaging modalities in blunt abdominal trauma. METHOD A prospective observational study of 100 patients was conducted in the Department of Radiodiagnosis, Bharati Hospital, Pune. All patients with blunt abdominal trauma were included. FAST screening was done with ANTARES ACUSON SIEMENS followed by MDCT on 16-Slice Philips Brilliance. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of USG and CT were determined by comparing with laparotomy findings. RESULTS Although USG was sensitive, specific and accurate in detecting free fluid in abdomen, CT was found better and also superior in detecting solid organ injury in patients with blunt abdominal trauma. CONCLUSION Ultrasound is an efficient modality in the initial evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma. But CT is the superior diagnostic modality and must be performed in symptomatic patient with ultrasound negative report and suboptimal ultrasound examination. CT scan thoroughly scrutinizes entire abdomen including retroperitoneum with additional assessment of thoracic trauma and bony pelvic trauma. Hence, CT increases diagnostic confidence and influences management decision.

  20. Abdominal computed tomography in macroglobulinemia (Waldenstroem's disease). Report of a case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspelin, P.; Adielsson, G.; Dimitrov, N.; Nyman, U.; Waldenstroem, J.

    The findings at abdominal computed tomography (CT) in a patient with primary macroglobulinemia (Waldenstroem's disease) are reported. CT was of special value in monitoring the extent of the disease in the abdomen and the response to treatment. At the first examination the patient had changes in both the reticuloendothelial system and the small bowel changes. The prompt disappearance on treatment of the small bowel changes proves that these changes were due to a high plasma viscosity syndrome. The slow response on the liver, spleen and lymph nodes suggests lymphomatous engagement. Although the primary method to diagnose Waldenstroem's disease is through laboratory tests, CT is of use in monitoring the abdominal involvement, especially the response to treatment.

  1. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ULTRASOUND AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN EVALUATION OF BLUNT ABDOMINAL TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of o u r study was to evaluate role of ultrasound and computed tomography in blunt abdominal trauma patients.50 pati ents with blunt injury to the abdomen were assessed for injuries to various organs using organ injury scale using both USG and CT and the results were compared and the sensitivity and spe cificity of USG compared with CT was calculated and the positive predictive value and nega tive predictive value of USG for individual organs was calculated. The study was performed from August 2012 to February 2013 in the Department of Radiodiagnosis Konaseema Institute of Medical Scien ces, Amalapuram, Andhra Pradesh on 50 cases with blunt abdominal trauma

  2. Fat deposition in the urinary bladder wall: Incidental finding on abdominal computed tomography: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Min Ho; Moon, Sung Kyoung; Ahn, Sung Eun; Park, Seong Jin; Lim, Joo Won; Lee, Dong Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    In a computed tomography (CT) scan, fat deposition in the urinary bladder wall is seen as a linear hypoattenuating band surrounded by soft tissue density. It is uncommon, but is often seen in normal cases. However, there is no report of fat deposition in the urinary bladder wall in Korea. The authors encountered a 62-year-old male patient who showed an incidental hypoattenuating band in the urinary bladder wall on abdominal CT. The patient showed no clinical signs related to fat deposition in the urinary bladder wall. When the patient's previous abdominal CT was retrospectively reviewed, the same CT finding was seen. This linear hypoattenuating band within the urinary bladder wall should be considered as a normal CT finding, although it is uncommon.

  3. Abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) interpretation: discrepancy rates among experienced radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abujudeh, Hani H.; Boland, Giles W.; Kaewlai, Rathachai; Rabiner, Pavel; Thrall, James H. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Halpern, Elkarn F.; Gazelle, G.S. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Institute for Technology Assessment, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-08-15

    To assess the discrepancy rate for the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) examinations among experienced radiologists. Ninety abdominal and pelvic CT examinations reported by three experienced radiologists who specialize in abdominal imaging were randomly selected from the radiological database. The same radiologists, blinded to previous interpretation, were asked to re-interpret 60 examinations: 30 of their previous interpretations and 30 interpreted by others. All reports were assessed for the degree of discrepancy between initial and repeat interpretations according to a three-level scoring system: no discrepancy, minor, or major discrepancy. Inter- and intrareader discrepancy rates and causes were evaluated. CT examinations included in the investigation were performed on 90 patients (43 men, mean age 59 years, SD 14, range 19-88) for the following indications: follow-up/evaluation of malignancy (69/90, 77%), pancreatitis (5/90, 6%), urinary tract stone (4/90, 4%) or other (12/90, 13%). Interobserver and intraobserver major discrepancy rates were 26 and 32%, respectively. Major discrepancies were due to missed findings, different opinions regarding interval change of clinically significant findings, and the presence of recommendation. Major discrepancy of between 26 and 32% was observed in the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic CT examinations. (orig.)

  4. Post-operative evaluation of endo vascularly treated abdominal aortic aneurysms by multidetector computed tomography angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomaz, Fabiana Barroso; Magalhaes, Fabio Vargas; Magalhaes, Isabela Ferreira de; Caramalho, Monica Ferreira; Kuroki, Iugiro Roberto [Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Unit of Computed Tomography]. E-mail: fabianabt@terra.com.br; Lopez, Gaudencio Espinosa [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). School of Medicine. Dept. of Surgery; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteri, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Radiology; Domingues, Romeu Cortes [Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    Objective: The present study was aimed at evaluating endo vascularly treated abdominal aortic aneurysms by multidetector computed tomography angiography. Materials and methods: Multidetector computed tomography angiography studies of 166 patients were retrospectively analyzed. The sample included 137 men and 29 women with mean age of 73 years who had undergone endovascular treatment for abdominal aortic aneurysm in the period between June 2005 and August 2006. Images were acquired in a 64-channel multidetector tomograph adopting the following parameters: 0.625 mm collimation, pitch 0.6-1, 300-400 mAs, and 120 kV. A nonionic iodinated contrast agent (350 mg/ml) was injected by infusion pump at a rate of 4 ml/s to 5 ml/s and a variable amount of 70 ml to 100 ml. The studies were evaluated for the presence of complications. Results: Among the 166 cases, 93 patients did not present complications and 73 presented the following findings: endoleak (n=37), circumferential thrombosis (n=29), angulation (n=17), presence of collection at the puncture site (n=10), graft migration (n=7), dissection of access vessels (n=7) and occlusion (n=6). Conclusion: In summary, endoleak was the most prevalent complication in the present series, with type II endoleak being most frequently found. (author)

  5. The contribution of ultrasonography and computed tomography in the evaluation of abdominal involvement in paracoccidioidomycosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Ivie Braga de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Pedroso, Enio Roberto Pietra; Ferreira, Cid Sergio, E-mail: enio@medicina.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina

    2014-01-15

    Introduction: paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a polymorphic systemic granulomatous inflammatory disease determined by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, one of the 10 leading causes of morbidity and mortality among the parasitic diseases endemic in Brazil. Objective: To identify the following aspects of PCM by ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT): abdominal changes, intensity and characteristics of the observed images, frequency of changes depending on clinical presentation, differences from other nosological entities. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study carried out with 35 patients with PCM treated at the Hospital das Clinicas (HC) at the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG). Patients with tuberculosis, bronchial asthma, generalized chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or in contact with silica or mines, as well as those with granulomatous diseases at any point in their current or past clinical history and detected through serology, anatomopathology or microbiological exams were excluded. Collected data were transcribed into SPSS for Windows® for statistical analysis. The study was approved by the UFMG Ethics Committee (082/00). Results and conclusion: CT and U.S. showed involvement of abdominal organs in all forms of PCM, including lymphadenopathy (40%), hepatomegaly (37%), splenomegaly (37%) and adrenal involvement (17%). Gallbladder and retroperitoneal musculature involvement were also observed, along with ascites and pleural effusion. Lymph node calcification, adrenal involvement and ascites constituted evidence of high probability of PCM even though these findings are not enough to differentiate PCM from tuberculosis. Chronic and sequelae forms, abdominal involvement is more frequent than indicated by the clinical manifestations. (author)

  6. Computed tomography in the evaluation of abdominal fat distribution associated with a hyperlipidic diet in previously undernourished rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Program of Post-graduation in Clinical and Experimental Physiopathology; Alves, Erika Gomes; Gonzalez, Gabriele Paula; Barbosa, Thais Barcellos Cortez; Lima, Veronica Demarco; Nascimento, Renata; Moura, Egberto Gaspar de; Saba, Celly Cristina Alves do Nascimento [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. of Physiological Sciences]. E-mail: cellysaba@terra.com.br; Monteiro, Alexandra Maria Vieira [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2007-09-15

    Objective: To study, by means of computed tomography, the repercussion of post-weaning dietary supplementation with soy oil or canola oil on the abdominal fat distribution in previously undernourished rats. Materials and methods: Dams submitted to 50% food restriction (FR) compared with dams receiving a standard diet (C). After weaning, undernourished rats received a diet supplemented with 19% soy oil (19% FR-soy) or 19% canola oil (19% FR-canola). Rats in the control group received a diet with 7% soy oil (7% C-soy) until the end of the experimental period. At the age of 60 days old, the rats were submitted to computed tomography for evaluation of total abdominal and visceral fat area. The rats' length and body mass were evaluated and, after their sacrifice, the abdominal fat depots were excised weighted. The data are reported as mean {+-} mean standard error, with p < 0.05 considered as significance level. Results: Rats in the group 19% FR presented similar length, body weight and visceral fat mass. As a whole, the evaluations have shower results significantly lower in relation to the control group (7% C-soy). However, computed tomography has found significant differences in abdominal fat distribution for the groups 19% FR-soy and 19% FR-canola. Conclusion: Computed tomography has demonstrated that the abdominal fat distribution may be dependent on the type of vegetable oil included in the diet. (author)

  7. The role of computed tomography in blunt abdominal trauma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G A; Fallat, M E; Potter, B M; Eichelberger, M R

    1988-12-01

    This study was performed in order to test the hypothesis that abdominal computed tomography (CT) can assist in the decision to perform laparotomy in children following blunt trauma to the abdomen. Three hundred forty children with blunt abdominal trauma underwent evaluation with CT. Abdominal injuries were detected in 84 children (25%). These included: 75 injuries to solid viscera in 60 patients (30 splenic, 29 hepatic, 13 renal, and three pancreatic); four injuries to hollow viscera (three small bowel transections, and one rupture of the urinary bladder); and 23 skeletal injuries (21 fractures of the pelvis, and two lumbar spine subluxations). Injury to solid viscera was categorized as minor in 32 (43%), moderate in 18 (24%), or severe in 25 (33%) according to an assessment of the percentage of parenchyma involved. Hemoperitoneum was detected in 42 patients, and characterized as small in 18 (43%), moderate in nine (21%), and large in 15 (36%). CT was useful in establishing the location and extent of injuries, and in detecting the presence of blood or air in the peritoneal cavity. However, the extent of injury to solid viscera detected on CT did not correlate with the need for laparotomy. Of 46 moderate to severe anatomic injuries of the liver, spleen or kidney, only five (9%) required surgical intervention because of persistent bleeding or infection. Although laparotomy occurred more frequently in the presence of a large hemoperitoneum, only 6/24 (25%) with moderate to large hemoperitoneum required surgical exploration. This analysis confirms the usefulness of CT for detection of location and extent of injury in pediatric blunt abdominal trauma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Correlation of fatty liver and abdominal fat distribution using a simple fat computed tomography protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seonah Jang; Chang Hee Lee; Kyung Mook Choi; Jongmee Lee; Jae Woong Choi; Kyeong Ah Kim; Cheol Min Park

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the relationship between hepatic fat infiltration and abdominal fat volume by using computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Three hundred and six patients who visited our obesity clinic between November 2007 and April 2008 underwent fat protocol CT scans. The age range of the patients was 19 to 79 years and the mean age was 49 years. The male to female ratio was 116:190. Liver and spleen attenuation measurements were taken with three regions of interests (ROIs) from the liver and two ROIs from the spleen. Hepatic attenuation indices (HAIs) were measured as follows: (1) hepatic parenchymal attenuation (CTLP); (2) liver to spleen attenuation ratio (LS ratio); and (3) difference between hepatic and splenic attenuation (LSdif). Abdominal fat volume was measured using a 3 mm slice CT scan starting at the level of the umbilicus and was automatically calculated by a workstation. Abdominal fat was classified into total fat (TF), visceral fat (VF), and subcutaneous fat (SF). We used a bivariate correlation method to assess the relationship between the three HAIs and TF, VF, and SF. RESULTS: There were significant negative correlations between CTLP, LS ratio, and LSdif with TF, VF, and SF, respectively. The CTLP showed a strong negative correlation with TF and VF (r = -0.415 and -0.434, respectively, P < 0.001). The correlation between CTLP and SF was less significant (r = -0.313, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Fatty infiltration of the liver was correlated with amount of abdominal fat and VF was more strongly associated with fatty liver than SF.

  9. COMPARISON OF COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY AND ABDOMINAL RADIOGRAPHY FOR DETECTION OF CANINE MECHANICAL INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Wm Tod; Green, Eric M; Zekas, Lisa J; Aarnes, Turi K; Su, Lillian; Habing, Gregory G

    2016-07-01

    Vomiting, often caused by mechanical intestinal obstruction, is common in dogs. Equivocal radiographic signs often necessitate repeat radiographs or additional imaging procedures. For our prospective, case-controlled, accuracy study, we hypothesized the following: (1) using computed tomography (CT), radiologists will be more sensitive and specific for detecting mechanical intestinal obstruction and recommending surgery compared to using radiographs; and (2) using measurements, radiologists will be more sensitive and specific using radiographs or CT for detecting mechanical intestinal obstruction and recommending surgery. Twenty dogs had abdominal radiographs and abdominal CT. Seventeen dogs had abdominal surgery and three dogs were not obstructed based on clinical follow-up. Confidence levels (five-point scale) of three experienced radiologists for mechanical intestinal obstruction and recommending surgery were recorded before and after making selected measurements. Eight dogs had surgically confirmed mechanical intestinal obstruction, and 12 dogs did not have obstruction. For detecting mechanical intestinal obstruction, CT was more sensitive (95.8% vs. 79.2%) and specific (80.6% vs. 69.4%) compared to radiographs, but the difference was not statistically significant. For recommending surgery, radiography was more sensitive (91.7% vs. 83.3%) and specific (83.3% vs. 72.2%) than using CT, but differences were not statistically significant. We reported objective CT measurements for predicting small mechanical intestinal obstruction. By incorporating these objective data, the diagnosis of mechanical intestinal obstruction changed in five of 120 instances (radiographs and CT). In no instance (0/120), did the objective data change the recommendation for surgery. Using CT or abdominal radiographs for the detection of canine mechanical intestinal obstruction is sensitive and specific when evaluated by experienced veterinary radiologists.

  10. Abdominal tuberculosis: a radiological review with emphasis on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Eduardo Lima da; Pedrassa, Bruno Cheregati; Bormann, Renata Lilian; Kierszenbaum, Marcelo Longo; Torres, Lucas Rios; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe_dr@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina

    2015-05-15

    Tuberculosis is a disease whose incidence has increased principally as a consequence of HIV infection and use of immunosuppressive drugs. The abdomen is the most common site of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. It may be confused with several different conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, cancer and other infectious diseases. Delay in the diagnosis may result in significantly increased morbidity, and therefore an early recognition of the condition is essential for proper treatment. In the present essay, cases with confirmed diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis were assessed by means of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, demonstrating the involvement of different organs and systems, and presentations which frequently lead radiologists to a diagnostic dilemma. A brief literature review was focused on imaging findings and their respective prevalence. (author)

  11. Abdominal tuberculosis: a radiological review with emphasis on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lima da Rocha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tuberculosis is a disease whose incidence has increased principally as a consequence of HIV infection and use of immunosuppressive drugs. The abdomen is the most common site of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. It may be confused with several different conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, cancer and other infectious diseases. Delay in the diagnosis may result in significantly increased morbidity, and therefore an early recognition of the condition is essential for proper treatment. In the present essay, cases with confirmed diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis were assessed by means of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, demonstrating the involvement of different organs and systems, and presentations which frequently lead radiologists to a diagnostic dilemma. A brief literature review was focused on imaging findings and their respective prevalence.

  12. A proposal for standardizing computed tomography reports on abdominal aortic aneurysms; Proposta para padronizacao do relatorio de tomografia computadorizada nos aneurismas da aorta abdominal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torlai, Fabiola Goda; Meirelles, Gustavo S. Portes [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil); Miranda Junior, Fausto; Fonseca, Jose Honorio A.P. da [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Cirurgia; Ajzen, Sergio; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: giuseppe_dr@uol.com.br

    2006-07-15

    Objective: to propose a model to standardize computed tomography reports on abdominal aortic aneurysms. Materials and methods: interviews were carried out with members of the Vascular Surgery Division of our institution, in the period between April and October 2004, aiming at developing a standardized model of computed tomography reports on abdominal aortic aneurysms. Based on this model, a questionnaire was elaborated and sent to other nine surgeons, all of them experienced in the field of abdominal aortic surgery. The questionnaires response rate was 55.5% (5/9). Results: the most frequently mentioned parameters of interest for evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysms were: maximum diameter of proximal aortic neck, proximal aortic neck length to lower renal arteries, shape of proximal aortic neck, maximum diameter of the aneurysm and diameter of the common iliac arteries. These data allowed the development of a proposal for a model to standardize computed tomography reports. Conclusion: a model for standardized tomographic analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysms has met vascular surgeons' needs for following-up patients and planning their treatment. (author)

  13. Ascending retrocecal appendicitis presenting with right upper abdominal pain: Utility of computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eugene Mun Wai Ong; Sudhakar Kundapur Venkatesh

    2009-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is a common surgical condition that is usually managed with early surgery, and is associated with low morbidity and mortality. However, some patients may have atypical symptoms and physical findings that may lead to a delay in diagnosis and increased complications. Atypical presentation may be related to the position of the appendix. Ascending retrocecal appendicitis presenting with right upper abdominal pain may be clinically indistinguishable from acute pathology in the gallbladder, liver, biliary tree, right kidney and right urinary tract. We report a series of four patients with retrocecal appendicitis who presented with acute right upper abdominal pain. The clinical diagnoses at presentation were acute cholecystitis in two patients, pyelonephritis in one, and ureteric colic in one. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen at presentation showed subhepatic collections in two patients and normal findings in the other two. Computed tomography (CT) identified correctly retrocecal appendicitis and inflammation in the retroperitoneum in all cases. In addition, abscesses in the retrocecal space ( n = 2) and subhepatic collections ( n = 2) were also demonstrated. Emergency appendectomy was performed in two patients, interval appendectomy in one, and hemicolectomy in another. Surgical findings confirmed the presence of appendicitis and its retroperitoneal extensions. Our case series illustrates the usefulness of CT in diagnosing ascending retrocecal appendicitis and its extension, and excluding other in- flammatory conditions that mimic appendicitis.

  14. Unenhanced Computed Tomography to Visualize Hollow Viscera and/or Mesenteric Injury After Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu-Yang; Wei, Ming-Tian; Jin, Cheng-Wu; Wang, Meng; Wang, Zi-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To identify and describe the major features of unenhanced computed tomography (CT) images of blunt hollow viscera and/or mesenteric injury (BHVI/MI) and to determine the value of unenhanced CT in the diagnosis of BHVI/MI. This retrospective study included 151 patients who underwent unenhanced CT before laparotomy for blunt abdominal trauma between January 2011 and December 2013. According to surgical observations, patients were classified as having BHVI/MI (n = 73) or not (n = 78). Sensitivity, specificity, P values, and likelihood ratios were calculated by comparing CT findings between the 2 groups. Six significant CT findings (P < 0.05) for BHVI/MI were identified and their sensitivity and specificity values determined, as follows: bowel wall thickening (39.7%, 96.2%), mesentery thickening (46.6%, 88.5%), mesenteric fat infiltration (12.3%, 98.7%), peritoneal fat infiltration (31.5%, 87.1%), parietal peritoneum thickening (30.1%, 85.9%), and intra- or retro-peritoneal air (34.2%, 96.2%). Unenhanced CT scan was useful as an initial assessment tool for BHVI/MI after blunt abdominal trauma. Six key features on CT were correlated with BHVI/MI. PMID:26945375

  15. When the non-contrast-enhanced phase is unnecessary in abdominal computed tomography scans? A retrospective analysis of 244 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Manuel Cerqueira Costa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the necessity of the non contrast-enhanced phase in abdominal computed tomography scans. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study was developed, evaluating 244 consecutive abdominal computed tomography scans both with and without contrast injection. Initially, the contrast-enhanced images were analyzed (first analysis. Subsequently, the observers had access to the non-contrast-enhanced images for a second analysis. The primary and secondary diagnoses were established as a function of the clinical indications for each study (such as tumor staging, acute abdomen, investigation for abdominal collection and hepatocellular carcinoma, among others. Finally, the changes in the diagnoses resulting from the addition of the non-contrast-enhanced phase were evaluated. Results: Only one (0.4%; p > 0.999; non-statistically significant out of the 244 reviewed cases had the diagnosis changed after the reading of non-contrast-enhanced images. As the secondary diagnoses are considered, 35 (14% cases presented changes after the second analysis, as follows: nephrolithiasis (10%, steatosis (3%, adrenal nodule (0.7% and cholelithiasis (0.3%. Conclusion: For the clinical indications of tumor staging, acute abdomen, investigation of abdominal collections and hepatocellular carcinoma, the non-contrast-enhanced phase can be excluded from abdominal computed tomography studies with no significant impact on the diagnosis.

  16. When the non-contrast-enhanced phase is unnecessary in abdominal computed tomography scans? A retrospective analysis of 244 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Danilo Manuel Cerqueira; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Monjardim, Rodrigo da Fonseca; Bretas, Elisa Almeida Sathler; Torres, Lucas Rios; Caldana, Rogerio Pedreschi; Shigueoka, David Carlos; Medeiros, Regina Bitelli; D' ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe_dr@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Departamento de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2013-06-15

    Objective: to evaluate the necessity of the non contrast-enhanced phase in abdominal computed tomography scans. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study was developed, evaluating 244 consecutive abdominal computed tomography scans both with and without contrast injection. Initially, the contrast-enhanced images were analyzed (first analysis). Subsequently, the observers had access to the non-contrast-enhanced images for a second analysis. The primary and secondary diagnoses were established as a function of the clinical indications for each study (such as tumor staging, acute abdomen, investigation for abdominal collection and hepatocellular carcinoma, among others). Finally, the changes in the diagnoses resulting from the addition of the non-contrast-enhanced phase were evaluated. Results: Only one (0.4%; p > 0.999; non-statistically significant) out of the 244 reviewed cases had the diagnosis changed after the reading of non-contrast-enhanced images. As the secondary diagnoses are considered, 35 (14%) cases presented changes after the second analysis, as follows: nephrolithiasis (10%), steatosis (3%), adrenal nodule (0.7%) and cholelithiasis (0.3%). Conclusion: For the clinical indications of tumor staging, acute abdomen, investigation of abdominal collections and hepatocellular carcinoma, the non-contrast-enhanced phase can be excluded from abdominal computed tomography studies with no significant impact on the diagnosis. (author)

  17. Impact of Abdominal Follow-Up Sonography in Trauma Patients Without Abdominal Parenchymal Organ Lesion or Free Intraabdominal Fluid in Whole-Body Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneck, Emmanuel; Koch, Christian; Borgards, Mara; Reichert, Martin; Hecker, Andreas; Heiß, Christian; Padberg, Winfried; Alejandre-Lafont, Enrique; Röhrig, Rainer; Krombach, Gabriele Anja; Weigand, Markus; Bernhard, Michael; Roller, Fritz Christian

    2017-02-01

    Purpose Patients suffering from severe blunt abdominal trauma are challenging because of their need for accurate diagnostic imaging and fast therapeutic action. Whole-body computed tomography (WBCT) is highly sensitive and represents the gold standard in the trauma room diagnostic setting. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact and therapy relevance of abdominal follow-up sonography (AFS) as part of the tertiary trauma survey (TTS) in patients without abdominal parenchymal organ lesions or free abdominal fluid in initial WBCT. Materials and Methods All adult patients without abdominal parenchymal organ lesions or free intraabdominal fluid in the initial WBCT examination, who received AFS within 24 hours after trauma, were included in this retrospective analysis between January 2008 and December 2011. Results 316 patients were analyzed (ISS 10 ± 8, NISS 13 ± 11) according to the inclusion criteria. Overall, only small amounts of free intraabdominal fluid were detected in AFS in 3 patients (0.9 %) and remained without therapeutic consequence. None of the patients died due to intraabdominal bleeding. Conclusion AFS as part of the TTS did not show additional benefits and had no impact on further treatment in patients without abdominal parenchymal organ lesions or free intraabdominal fluid in the initial WBCT examination. We conclude that AFS is not routinely required but should be performed if indicated on a clinical or laboratory basis because of its fast and less invasive character. Key points  · Seriously injured patients are challenging for medical imaging and treatment.. · Whole-body computed tomography is known for its high accuracy in trauma patients.. · Nonetheless, missed injuries are a major challenge in trauma patients.. · Therefore, follow-up ultrasound is often performed within the tertiary trauma survey.. · Follow-up ultrasound in patients with an inconspicuous abdominal computed tomography scan did not show any

  18. If unnecessary computed tomography scans are performing for abdominal emergent pathologies in our radiology unit; retrospective study with comparing performed abdominal computed tomography scans with previous safer tests like ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Betul Tiryaki Bastug

    2016-01-01

    Background: Abdominal computed tomography (CT) is an imaging method that uses X-rays and may be done to look for cause of abdominal pain or swelling and fever, hernia, masses, infections, injury. Besides advantages, CT use ionizing radiation, which has the potential to cause cancer. So CT may still be done if the benefits greatly outweigh the risks and it is important to minimize unnecessary CT scans. While a CT scan may provide information, it is sometimes unlikely to change the treatment. T...

  19. Long-term Computed Tomography Follow-up After Open Surgical Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantoni, M.; Neergaard, K.; Christoffersen, J. K.; Lambine, T.L.; Baekgaard, N. [Gentofte Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Depts. of Radiology and Vascular Surgery

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: To describe the findings on computed tomography (CT) of the aortic sac (AS) in patients operated on for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with insertion of a coated Dacron prosthesis. Material and Methods: A prospective study of 36 consecutive patients operated on for AAA over 2 years and followed longitudinally with CT for up to 10 years. Results: All patients had a fluid-filled AS on CT 7-10 days postoperatively. At 6 months, the AS had decreased in most patients, mainly in the antero-posterior diameter, and in two had disappeared completely. In five patients with complications, the AS increased in size. The AS disappeared completely at 10 years' follow-up in 13 patients. When present, a retroperitoneal hematoma always disappeared after 6 months. Conclusion: These data indicate that the AS after graft implantation will diminish gradually but will persist for at least 6 months. Usually the transverse diameter is bigger than the antero-posterior diameter. If the AS enlarges and becomes rounded and distended with an inhomogeneous interior, it might be a sign of graft infection. In these cases an ultrasound-guided or CT-guided puncture is recommended.

  20. Comparison of Colour Duplex Ultrasound with Computed Tomography to Measure the Maximum Abdominal Aortic Aneurysmal Diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gray

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Maximum diameter of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is the main indication for surgery. This study compared colour duplex ultrasound (CDU and computed tomography (CT in assessing AAA diameter. Patients and Methods. Patients were included if they had both scans performed within 90 days. Pearson’s correlation coefficient, paired t-test, and limits of agreement (LOA were calculated for the whole group. Subgroup analysis of small (6.5 cm aneurysms was performed. A P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. 389 patients were included, giving 130 pairs of tests for comparison. Excellent correlation was in the whole group (r = 0.95 and in the subgroups (r = 0.94; 0.69; 0.96, resp.. Small LOA between the two imaging modalities was found in all subgroups. Conclusion. Small aneurysms can be accurately measured using CDU. CDU is preferable for small AAAs, but cannot supplant CT for planning aortic intervention.

  1. Iomeprol versus iopamidol in contrast-enhanced computed tomography of thoracic and abdominal organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, A L; Tartaglione, T; Monti, L; Marano, P

    1994-05-01

    The aim of this double-blind, parallel-group study was to compare the safety, tolerance, and efficacy of iomeprol-350 (350 mgI/ml), iomeprol-400 (400 mgI/ml) and iopamidol-370 (370 mgI/ml) for use in contrast-enhanced body computed tomography (CT). Following written informed consent, 120 adult inpatients of either sex requiring CT of thoracic or abdominal organs were randomly assigned to receive iomeprol-350, iomeprol-400 or iopamidol-370. Pre- and post-contrast, all patients underwent clinical, instrumental and laboratory investigation to assess the safety of the test agents. Tolerance was assessed in terms of discomfort associated with contrast injection. Two experienced radiologists independently and blindly graded the quality of contrast enhancement obtained with the different contrast solutions by means of a five-point ordinal scale as follows: 1, insufficient; 2, sufficient; 3, good; 4, excellent; or E, excessive. Patients in the iomeprol groups needed fewer injections and a smaller volume of contrast medium to obtain examinations of adequate diagnostic quality. Contrast enhancement was judged as excellent or good in about 90% of the study examinations, without significant differences between the three study groups. During contrast injection, heat and pain sensations were minimal or absent in most cases. No serious adverse events occurred throughout the study. No significant changes in clinical, instrumental or laboratory safety parameters were observed. In conclusion, iomeprol-400 and iomeprol-350 appear to be contrast solutions at least as safe, well tolerated and effective as iopamidol-370 when used as contrast agents for body CT.

  2. Negative predictive value of preoperative computed tomography in determining pathologic local invasion, nodal disease, and abdominal metastases in gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagedan, D.J.; Frankul, F.; El-Sedfy, A.; McGregor, C.; Elmi, M.; Zagorski, B.; Dixon, M.E.; Mahar, A.L.; Vasilevska-Ristovska, J.; Helyer, L.; Rowsell, C.; Swallow, C.J.; Law, C.H.; Coburn, N.G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Before undergoing curative-intent resection of gastric adenocarcinoma (ga), most patients undergo abdominal computed tomography (ct) imaging to determine contraindications to resection (local invasion, distant metastases). However, the ability to detect contraindications is variable, and the literature is limited to single-institution studies. We sought to assess, on a population level, the clinical relevance of preoperative ct in evaluating the resectability of ga tumours in patients undergoing surgery. Methods In a provincial cancer registry, 2414 patients with ga diagnosed during 2005–2008 at 116 institutions were identified, and a primary chart review of radiology, operative, and pathology reports was performed for all patients. Preoperative abdominal ct reports were compared with intraoperative findings and final pathology reports (reference standard) to determine the negative predictive value (npv) of ct in assessing local invasion, nodal involvement, and intra-abdominal metastases. Results Among patients undergoing gastrectomy, the npv of ct imaging in detecting local invasion was 86.9% (n = 536). For nodal metastasis, the npv of ct was 43.3% (n = 450). Among patients undergoing surgical exploration, the npv of ct for intra-abdominal metastases was 52.3% (n = 407). Conclusions Preoperative abdominal ct imaging reported as negative is most accurate in determining local invasion and least accurate in nodal assessment. The poor npv of ct should be taken into account when selecting patients for staging laparoscopy. PMID:27536178

  3. Relevant incidental findings at abdominal multi-detector contrast-enhanced computed tomography:A collateral screening?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luca; Maria; Sconfienza; Giovanni; Mauri; Claudia; Muzzupappa; Alessandro; Poloni; Michele; Bandirali; Anastassia; Esseridou; Stefania; Tritella; Francesco; Secchi; Giovanni; Di; Leo; Francesco; Sardanelli

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence of relevant incidental findings(RIFs) detected during routine abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography(Ce CT).METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the reports of a consecutive series of abdominal Ce CT studies performed between January and May 2013. For each report, patients’ age and sex, admission as inpatient or outpatient, clinical suspicion as indicated by the requesting physician, availability of a previous abdominal examination, and name of the reporting radiologist were recorded. Based on the clinical suspicion, the presence and features of any RIFs(if needing additional workup) was noted.RESULTS: One thousand forty abdominal Ce CT were performed in 949 patients(528 males, mean age 66 ±14 years). No significant difference was found between inpatients and outpatients age and sex distribution(P > 0.472). RIFs were found in 195/1040(18.8%) Ce CT [inpatients = 108/470(23.0%); outpatients = 87/570(15.2%); P = 0.002]. RIFs were found in 30/440(6.8%) Ce CT with a previous exam and in 165/600(27.5%) without a previous exam(P < 0.001). Radiologists’ distribution between inpatients or outpatients was significantly different(P < 0.001). RIFs prevalence increased with aging, except for a peak in 40-49 year group. Most involved organs were kidneys, gallbladder, and lungs.CONCLUSION: A RIF is detected in 1/5 patients undergoing abdominal Ce CT. Risk of overdiagnosis should be taken into account.

  4. Abdominal Computed tomography of 25 patients with AIDS or lymphadenopathy Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrive, L.; Frija, J.; Couderc, L.J.; Clauvel, J.P.; Laval-Jeantet, M.

    1986-03-01

    An abdominal computed tomographic examination was performed to 20 patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and to 5 patients with Lymphadenopathy Syndrome (LAS). Intraabdominal lymph nodes were seen in 18 out of 20 cases of AIDS and in 5 cases of LAS. Lymph nodes have a normal size or are slightly enlarged but they are too numerous. Splenomegaly was found in 17 patients. Rectal modifications secondary to a proctitis were seen in the homosexual patients.

  5. Increased incidence of adrenal gland injury in blunt abdominal trauma: a computed tomography-based study from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Muhammad Usman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To determine the frequency of adrenal injuries in patients presenting with blunt abdominal trauma by computed tomography (CT. Methods: During a 6 month period from January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2011, 82 emergency CT examinations were performed in the setting of major abdominal trauma and retrospectively reviewed for adrenal gland injuries. Results: A total of 7 patients were identified as having adrenal gland injuries (6 males and 1 female. Two patients had isolated adrenal gland injuries. In the other 5 patients with nonisolated injuries, injuries to the liver (1 case, spleen (1 case, retroperitoneum (2 cases and mesentery (4 cases were identified. Overall 24 cases with liver injuries (29 %, 11 cases with splenic injuries (13%, 54 cases with mesenteric injuries (65%, 14 cases (17% with retroperitoneal injuries and 9 cases with renal injuries were identified. Conclusion: Adrenal gland injury is identified in 7 patients (11.7% out of a total of 82 patients who underwent CT after major abdominal trauma. Most of these cases were nonisolated injuries. Our experience indicates that adrenal injury resulting from trauma is more common than suggested by other reports. The rise in incidence of adrenal injuries could be attributed to the mode of injury.

  6. Improvement of distension and mural visualization of bowel loops using neutral oral contrasts in abdominal computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jahanbakhsh; Hashemi; Yasmin; Davoudi; Mina; Taghavi; Masoud; Pezeshki; Rad; Amien; Mahajeri; Moghadam

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess and compare the image quality of 4% sorbitol and diluted iodine 2%(positive oral contrast agent) in abdomino-pelvic multi-detector computed tomography.METHODS: Two-hundred patients, referred to the Radiology Department of a central educational hospital for multi-detector row abdominal-pelvic computed tomography, were randomly divided into two groups: the first group received 1500 m L of 4% sorbitol solution as a neutral contrast agent, while in the second group 1500 m L of meglumin solution as a positive contrast agent was administered in a one-way randomized prospective study. The results were independently reviewed by two radiologists. Luminal distension and mural thickness and mucosal enhancement were compared between the two groups. Statistical analysis of the results was performed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 16 and the Mann-Whitney test at a confidence level of 95%. RESULTS: Use of neutral oral contrast agent significantly improved visualization of the small bowel wall thickness and mural appearance in comparison with administration of positive contrast agent(P < 0.01). In patients who received sorbitol, the small bowel showed better distention compared with those who received iodine solution as a positive contrast agent(P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results of the study demonstrated that oral administration of sorbitol solution allows better luminal distention and visualization of mural features than iodine solution as a positive contrast agent.

  7. Abdominal body composition measured by quantitative computed tomography and risk of non-spine fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheu, Y; Marshall, L M; Holton, K F

    2013-01-01

    The effect of abdominal adiposity and muscle on fracture is unclear in older men; therefore, we examined the association among 749 men aged 65+. Among various adipose tissues and muscle groups, lower psoas muscle volume and higher fatty infiltration of abdominal muscle contribute to higher fractu...

  8. Traumatic hypovolemic shock revisited: the spectrum of contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography findings and clinical implications for its management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Hiroki; Kanki, Akihiko; Watanabe, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Akira; Noda, Yasufumi; Yasokawa, Kazuya; Higaki, Atsushi; Tamada, Tsutomu; Ito, Katsuyoshi

    2014-10-01

    Hypovolemic shock is often seen in patients with severe blunt trauma who have suffered from blood circulation inadequate to maintain oxygen delivery to multiple organs. The early recognition and prompt management of hypovolemic shock in patients with multiple injuries are mandatory to improving prognosis and patient conditions. The diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT) as a primary diagnostic tool is well established. The abdominal organs show several common and classic appearances on contrast-enhanced CT in patients with trauma. The hypovolemic shock complex is reported in the previous literature as decreased enhancement of the viscera, increased mucosal enhancement and luminal dilation of the small bowel, mural thickening and fluid-filled loops of the small bowel, the halo sign and flattening of the inferior vena cava, reduced aortic diameter, and peripancreatic edema. However, there have been controversial CT reports with contradictory appearances. Physicians understanding these findings could prompt alternative approaches to the early assessment and management of hypovolemic shock. The aim of this article is to illustrate common and well-known abdominal CT features in patients with traumatic hypovolemic shock, to discuss controversial CT signs in the pancreas and adrenal gland, and to describe CT findings' clinical implications when managing hypovolemic shock.

  9. Quality of abdominal computed tomography angiography: hand versus mechanical intravenous contrast administration in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayyala, Rama S.; Lee, Edward Y. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Zurakowski, David [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Departments of Anesthesiology and Surgery, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Abdominal CT angiography has been increasingly used for evaluation of various conditions related to abdominal vasculature in the pediatric population. However, no direct comparison has evaluated the quality of abdominal CT angiography in children using hand versus mechanical administration of intravenous (IV) contrast agent. To compare hand versus mechanical administration of IV contrast agent in the quality of abdominal CT angiography in the pediatric population. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical record to identify pediatric patients (≤18 years) who had abdominal CT angiography between August 2012 and August 2013. The information obtained includes: (1) type of administration of IV contrast agent (hand [group 1] versus mechanical [group 2]), (2) size (gauge) of IV catheter, (3) amount of contrast agent administered and (4) rate of contrast agent administration (ml/s). Two reviewers independently performed qualitative and quantitative evaluation of abdominal CT angiography image quality. Qualitative evaluation of abdominal CT angiography image quality was performed by visual assessment of the degree of contrast enhancement in the region of interest (ROI) based on a 4-point scale. Quantitative evaluation of each CT angiography examination was performed by measuring the Hounsfield unit (HU) using an ROI within the abdominal aorta at two levels (celiac axis and the inferior mesenteric artery) for each child. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the F-test was applied to compare contrast enhancement within the abdominal aorta at two levels (celiac axis and inferior mesenteric artery) between hand administration and mechanical administration of IV contrast methods with adjustment for age. We identified 46 pediatric patients (24 male, 22 female; mean age 7.3 ± 5.5 years; range 5 weeks to 18 years) with abdominal CT angiography performed during the study period. Of these patients, 16 (35%; 1.7 ± 2.2 years; range 5 weeks to 5 years) had hand

  10. The Relationship of Abdominal Obesity and Lipid Profiles by Computed Tomography in Adult Women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Dankook University Hospital, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    Abdominal obesity, especially, visceral obesity is thought to be a risk factor of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease. Based on previous studies visceral fat accumulation is highly related to these diseases compared to subcutaneous fat accumulation. The purpose of this study was to see the relation between abdominal obesity and lipid profiles in adult women. The included subjects were 25 adult women(BMI > 23 kg/m{sup 2} ), who visited the obesity clinic in a general hospital from April 2006 to September 2007. Blood pressure, fasting glucose and lipid profiles were measured. The abdominal fat distribution had been assessed by CT scan at the level of L4-L5. From bivariate analyses, the visceral fat accumulation showed negative correlations with TC and TC/HDL. The BMI, total abdominal fat and Visceral fat/Subcutaneous fat ratio showed significant correlations with visceral fat accumulation. From linear regression analyses of all the study subjects, TC, TG and HDL were found to be determinants of the visceral fat accumulation (R{sup 2}=0.474).

  11. A role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission/computed tomography in a strategy for abdominal wall metastasis of colorectal mucinous adenocarcinoma developed after laparoscopic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaneko Hironori

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metastasis to the abdominal wall including port sites after laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer is rare. Resection of metastatic lesions may lead to greater survival benefit if the abdominal wall metastasis is the only manifestation of recurrent disease. A 57-year-old man, who underwent laparoscopic surgery for advanced mucinous adenocarcinoma of the cecum 6 years prior, developed a nodule in the surgical wound at the lower right abdomen. Although tumor markers were within normal limits, the metastasis to the abdominal wall and abdominal cavity from the previous cecal cancer was suspected. An abdominal computed tomography scan did not provide detective evidence of metastasis. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT was therefore performed, which demonstrated increased 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake (maximum standardized uptake value: 3.1 in the small abdominal wall nodule alone. Histopathological examination of the resected nodule confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma. Prognosis of intestinal mucinous adenocarcinoma is reported to be poorer than that of non-mucinous adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, this case suggests an important role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in early diagnosis and decision-making regarding therapy for recurrent disease in cases where a firm diagnosis of recurrent colorectal cancer is difficult to make.

  12. A STUDY ON DIAGNOSTIC ACCURACY OF BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS AND TRANS–ABDOMINAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY IN COMPARISON TO MULTI-DETECTOR COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN DETECTION OF ACUTE PANCREATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biplab Debbarma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is an acute, mainly diffuse, inflammatory process of the pancreas. Computed Tomography (CT scan is the modality of choice for diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. But non-availability of Computed Tomography (CT scan in all health facilities made detection of acute pancreatitis is problemsome. OBJECTIVES 1. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of Biochemical Markers and Trans-Abdominal Ultrasonography in comparison to Multidetector Computed Tomography in diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. 2. To compare the findings of Trans-Abdominal Ultrasonography with Multidetector Computed Tomography. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 clinically suspected for acute pancreatitis patients were tested for abnormal biochemical markers, followed by examined by USG and then by MDCT in Radiodiagnosis Department of AGMC and GBP Hospital and findings were compared. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated. RESULTS The sensitivity and specificity of trans-abdominal ultrasonography was calculated as 75% (CI 64.06% - 84.01% and 100% (CI 83.16%-100%. CONCLUSION USG had similar sensitivity, but higher specificity value than serum markers (Amylase and Lipase.

  13. Diagnosis of hepatic steatosis by contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography; Diagnostico da esteatose hepatica pela tomografia computadorizada de abdome com meio de contraste intravenoso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monjardim, Rodrigo da Fonseca; Costa, Danilo Manuel Cerqueira; Romano, Ricardo Francisco Tavares; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Santos, Jaime de Vargas Conde dos; Atzingen, Augusto Castelli Von; Shigueoka, David Carlos; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe_dr@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2013-05-15

    Objective: to evaluate the diagnostic capacity of abdominal computed tomography in the assessment of hepatic steatosis using the portal phase with a simplified calculation method as compared with the non-contrast-enhanced phase. Materials and methods: in the present study, 150 patients were retrospectively evaluated by means of non-contrast-enhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography. One hundred patients had hepatic steatosis and 50 were control subjects. For the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in the portal phase, the authors considered a result of < 104 HU calculated by the formula [L - 0.3 Multiplication-Sign (0.75 Multiplication-Sign P + 0.25 Multiplication-Sign A)] / 0.7, where L, P and A represent the attenuation of the liver, of the main portal vein and abdominal aorta, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated, using non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography as the reference standard. Results: the simplified calculation method with portal phase for the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis showed 100% sensitivity, 36% specificity, negative predictive value of 100% and positive predictive value of 75.8%. The rate of false positive results was 64%. False negative results were not observed. Conclusion: The portal phase presents an excellent sensitivity in the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis, as compared with the non-contrast-enhanced phase of abdominal computed tomography. However, the method has low specificity. (author)

  14. Multidetector computed tomography in abdominal emergencies; Multidetektor-CT bei abdominellen Notfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorger, N.; Schreyer, A.G. [Universitaetsklinikum Regensburg (Germany). Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik

    2009-06-15

    Abdominal emergencies encompass traumatic events in the region of the abdomen as well as the clinical term acute abdomen. Multidetector CT (MDCT) represents one of the most important imaging modalities for detection and correct diagnosis in such abdominal emergencies. Based on the acquired data MDCT allows a stable imaging of the abdomen in an extremely short time even in critically ill patients. Multiplanar reconstructions can be created based on the high resolution data allowing an impressive visualization of the pathology. In this review article the most important abdominal pathologies of the abdomen diagnosed by MDCT are presented with special emphasis on the liver, bile ducts, spleen and kidneys as well as the gastro-intestinal tract. Additionally, MDCT imaging of the individual organ regions will be dealt with in detail. (orig.) [German] Abdominelle Notfaelle beinhalten sowohl traumatische Ereignisse im Bereich des Bauchraums als auch den klinischen Begriff des ''akuten Abdomens''. Die Darstellung solcher Notfaelle mittels Multidetektor-Computertomographie (MDCT) ist eine leistungsfaehige Methode zur Detektion und richtigen Diagnosefindung der abdominellen Notfaelle. Die MDCT erlaubt eine stabile Bildgebung des Abdomens in extrem kurzer Zeit bei schwerkranken Patienten und zudem multiplanare Rekonstruktionen, basierend auf den akquirierten Rohdatensaetzen mit der Moeglichkeit, zusaetzlich Befunde anschaulicher zu visualisieren. In diesem Uebersichtsartikel werden die MDCT-Charakteristika verschiedener abdomineller Notfaelle der wichtigsten Organregionen des Abdomens, wie der Leber und der Gallenwege, des Pankreas, der Milz und der Niere sowie des Gastrointestinaltrakts erlaeutert. Dabei wird speziell auf die Multidetektor-CT-Technik der einzelnen Organregionen eingegangen. (orig.)

  15. Duplex ultrasound and computed tomography angiography in the follow-up of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantador, Alex Aparecido; Siqueira, Daniel Emilio Dalledone; Jacobsen, Octavio Barcellos; Baracat, Jamal; Pereira, Ines Minniti Rodrigues; Menezes, Fabio Hüsemann; Guillaumon, Ana Terezinha, E-mail: alex_cantador@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FCM/UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2016-07-15

    Objective: To compare duplex ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) angiography in terms of their performance in detecting endoleaks, as well as in determining the diameter of the aneurysm sac, in the postoperative follow-up of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study involving 30 patients who had undergone endovascular repair of infrarenal aortoiliac aneurysms. Duplex ultrasound and CT angiography were performed simultaneously by independent radiologists. Measurements of the aneurysm sac diameter were assessed, and the presence or absence of endoleaks was determined. Results: The average diameter of the aneurysm sac, as determined by duplex ultrasound and CT angiography was 6.09 ± 1.95 and 6.27 ± 2.16 cm, respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficient showing a statistically significant correlation (R = 0.88; p < 0.01). Comparing the duplex ultrasound and CT angiography results regarding the detection of endoleaks, we found that the former had a negative predictive value of 92.59% and a specificity of 96.15%. Conclusion: Our results show that there is little variation between the two methods evaluated, and that the choice between the two would have no significant effect on clinical management. Duplex ultrasound could replace CT angiography in the postoperative follow-up of endovascular aneurysm repair of the infrarenal aorta, because it is a low-cost procedure without the potential clinical complications related to the use of iodinated contrast and exposure to radiation. (author)

  16. Duplex ultrasound and computed tomography angiography in the follow-up of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Aparecido Cantador

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To compare duplex ultrasound and computed tomography (CT angiography in terms of their performance in detecting endoleaks, as well as in determining the diameter of the aneurysm sac, in the postoperative follow-up of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study involving 30 patients who had undergone endovascular repair of infrarenal aortoiliac aneurysms. Duplex ultrasound and CT angiography were performed simultaneously by independent radiologists. Measurements of the aneurysm sac diameter were assessed, and the presence or absence of endoleaks was determined. Results: The average diameter of the aneurysm sac, as determined by duplex ultrasound and CT angiography was 6.09 ± 1.95 and 6.27 ± 2.16 cm, respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficient showing a statistically significant correlation (R = 0.88; p < 0.01. Comparing the duplex ultrasound and CT angiography results regarding the detection of endoleaks, we found that the former had a negative predictive value of 92.59% and a specificity of 96.15%. Conclusion: Our results show that there is little variation between the two methods evaluated, and that the choice between the two would have no significant effect on clinical management. Duplex ultrasound could replace CT angiography in the postoperative follow-up of endovascular aneurysm repair of the infrarenal aorta, because it is a low-cost procedure without the potential clinical complications related to the use of iodinated contrast and exposure to radiation.

  17. Duplex ultrasound and computed tomography angiography in the follow-up of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: a comparative study*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantador, Alex Aparecido; Siqueira, Daniel Emílio Dalledone; Jacobsen, Octavio Barcellos; Baracat, Jamal; Pereira, Ines Minniti Rodrigues; Menezes, Fábio Hüsemann; Guillaumon, Ana Terezinha

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare duplex ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) angiography in terms of their performance in detecting endoleaks, as well as in determining the diameter of the aneurysm sac, in the postoperative follow-up of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Materials and Methods This was a prospective study involving 30 patients who had undergone endovascular repair of infrarenal aortoiliac aneurysms. Duplex ultrasound and CT angiography were performed simultaneously by independent radiologists. Measurements of the aneurysm sac diameter were assessed, and the presence or absence of endoleaks was determined. Results The average diameter of the aneurysm sac, as determined by duplex ultrasound and CT angiography was 6.09 ± 1.95 and 6.27 ± 2.16 cm, respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficient showing a statistically significant correlation (R = 0.88; p < 0.01). Comparing the duplex ultrasound and CT angiography results regarding the detection of endoleaks, we found that the former had a negative predictive value of 92.59% and a specificity of 96.15%. Conclusion Our results show that there is little variation between the two methods evaluated, and that the choice between the two would have no significant effect on clinical management. Duplex ultrasound could replace CT angiography in the postoperative follow-up of endovascular aneurysm repair of the infrarenal aorta, because it is a low-cost procedure without the potential clinical complications related to the use of iodinated contrast and exposure to radiation. PMID:27777476

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses Computed tomography (CT) of the ... of CT of the Sinuses? What is CT (Computed Tomography) of the Sinuses? Computed tomography, more commonly ...

  19. A comparative study to validate the use of ultrasonography and computed tomography in patients with post-operative intra-abdominal sepsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Go, H.L.S. [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, C-1, P.O. Box 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Room G4-111, P.O. Box 22700, 1100 DE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Baarslag, H.J. [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, C-1, P.O. Box 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vermeulen, H. [Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Room G4-111, P.O. Box 22700, 1100 DE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lameris, J.S. [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, C-1, P.O. Box 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam (Netherlands); Legemate, D.A. [Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Room G4-111, P.O. Box 22700, 1100 DE Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: d.a.legemate@amc.uva.nl

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: To validate abdominal ultrasonography and helical computed tomography in detecting causes for sepsis in patients after abdominal surgery and to determine improved criteria for its use. Materials and methods: Eighty-five consecutive surgical patients primarily operated for non-infectious disease were included in this prospective study. Forty-one patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. All patients were suspected of an intra-abdominal sepsis after abdominal surgery. Both ultrasonography (US) and helical abdominal computed tomography (CT) were performed to investigate the origin of an intra-abdominal sepsis. The images of both US and CT were interpreted on a four-point scale by different radiologists or residents in radiology, the investigators were blinded of each other's test. Interpretations of US and CT were compared with a reference standard which was defined by the result of diagnostic aspiration of suspected fluid collections (re)laparotomy, clinical course or the opinion of an independent panel. Likelihood ratios and post-test probabilities were calculated and interobserver agreement was determined using {kappa} statistics. Results: The overall prevalence of an abdominal infection was 0.49. The likelihood ratio (LR) of a positive test-result for US was 1.33 (95% CI: 0.8-2.5) and for CT scan 2.53 (95% CI: 1.4-5.0); corresponding post-test probabilities for US 0.57 (95% CI: 0.42-0.70) and for CT 0.71 (95% CI: 0.57-0.83). The LR of a negative test-result was, respectively, 0.60 (95% CI: 0.3-1.3) and 0.18 (95% CI: 0.06-0.5); corresponding post-test probabilities for US 0.37 (95% CI: 0.20-0.57) and for CT 0.15 (95% CI: 0.06-0.32) were calculated. Conclusion: Computed tomography can be used as the imaging modality of choice in patients suspected of intra-abdominal sepsis after abdominal surgery. Because of the low discriminatory power ultrasonography should not be performed as initial diagnostic test.

  20. Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound in Detecting Endoleaks with Failed Computed Tomography Angiography Diagnosis after Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yang; Yue-Xin Chen; Bo Zhang; Yu-Xin Jiang; Chang-Wei Liu; Rui-Na Zhao; Qiong Wu

    2015-01-01

    Background:Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is one of the first-line therapies of abdominal aortic aneurysms.Postoperative endoleak is the most common complication of EVAR.Computed tomography angiography (CTA),which is routine for follow-up,has side effects (e.g.,radiation) and also has a certain percentage of missed diagnosis.Preliminary studies on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) have shown that the sensitivity of CEUS for detecting endoleak is no lower than that of CTA.To investigate the advantages of CEUS,we conducted CEUS examinations of post-EVAR cases in which CTA failed to detect endoleak or could not verify the type of endoleak.Methods:Post-EVAR patients,who were clinically considered to have endoleak and met the inclusion criteria were enrolled between March 2013 and November 2014.All of the patients underwent color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) and a CEUS examination.Size,location,microbubble dispersion,and hemodynamic characteristics of leaks were recorded.Comparison between the diagnosis of CEUS and CDFI was conducted using Fisher's exact test and clinical outcomes of all patients were followed up.Results:Sixteen patients were enrolled,and 12 (75%) had endoleaks with verified types by CEUS.Among 12 cases of endoleaks were positive by CEUS,10 were CDFI-positive,and the four CEUS-negative cases were all negative by CDFI.The diagnostic values of CEUS and CDFI were statistically different (P =0.008).Six patients with high-pressure endoleaks received endovascular re-intervention guided by CEUS results.One patient with type Ⅲ endoleak had open surgery when endovascular repair failed.Conclusions:CEUS is a new,safe,and effective means for detection ofendoleaks post-EVAR.This technique can be used as a supplement for routine CTA follow-up to provide more detailed information on endoleak and its category.

  1. Reproducibility of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Diameter Measurement and Growth Evaluation on Axial and Multiplanar Computed Tomography Reformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugas, Alexandre; Therasse, Eric; Kauffmann, Claude; Tang, An [University of Montreal, Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal (CHUM) and CHUM Research Center (CRCHUM) (Canada); Elkouri, Stephane [University of Montreal, Department of Surgery, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal (CHUM) (Canada); Nozza, Anna [Institut de Cardiologie de Montreal, Montreal Heart Institute Coordinating Centre (Canada); Giroux, Marie-France; Oliva, Vincent L.; Soulez, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.soulez.chum@ssss.gouv.qc.ca [University of Montreal, Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal (CHUM) and CHUM Research Center (CRCHUM) (Canada)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To compare different methods measuring abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) maximal diameter (Dmax) and its progression on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scan. Materials and Methods: Forty AAA patients with two MDCT scans acquired at different times (baseline and follow-up) were included. Three observers measured AAA diameters by seven different methods: on axial images (anteroposterior, transverse, maximal, and short-axis views) and on multiplanar reformation (MPR) images (coronal, sagittal, and orthogonal views). Diameter measurement and progression were compared over time for the seven methods. Reproducibility of measurement methods was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman analysis. Results: Dmax, as measured on axial slices at baseline and follow-up (FU) MDCTs, was greater than that measured using the orthogonal method (p = 0.046 for baseline and 0.028 for FU), whereas Dmax measured with the orthogonal method was greater those using all other measurement methods (p-value range: <0.0001-0.03) but anteroposterior diameter (p = 0.18 baseline and 0.10 FU). The greatest interobserver ICCs were obtained for the orthogonal and transverse methods (0.972) at baseline and for the orthogonal and sagittal MPR images at FU (0.973 and 0.977). Interobserver ICC of the orthogonal method to document AAA progression was greater (ICC = 0.833) than measurements taken on axial images (ICC = 0.662-0.780) and single-plane MPR images (0.772-0.817). Conclusion: AAA Dmax measured on MDCT axial slices overestimates aneurysm size. Diameter as measured by the orthogonal method is more reproducible, especially to document AAA progression.

  2. Successful treatment of a free-moving abdominal mass with radiation therapy guided by cone-beam computed tomography: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihadeh Ferial

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Because tumors in the abdomen can change position, targeting these tumors for radiation therapy should be done with caution; use of daily image-guided radiation therapy is advised. Case presentation We report the case of a 72-year-old Caucasian man with recurrent mantle cell lymphoma who was referred for palliative radiation therapy for an abdominopelvic tumor. Computed tomography was used to generate images for radiation treatment planning. Comparison of those planning images with a positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan ordered during the planning period revealed that the tumor had moved from one side of the abdomen to the other during the three-day interval between scans. To account for this unusual tumor movement, we obtained a second set of planning computed tomography scans and used a Varian cone-beam computed tomography scanner with on-board imaging capability to target the tumor before each daily treatment session, leading to successful treatment and complete resolution of the mass. Conclusion Abdominal masses associated with the mesentery should be considered highly mobile; thus, radiation therapy for such masses should be used with the utmost caution. Modern radiation therapy techniques offer the ability to verify the tumor location in real time and shift the treatment ports accordingly over the course of treatment.

  3. Comparison of ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging with intraoperative measurements in the evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysms; Comparacao entre ultrassonografia, tomografia computadorizada e ressonancia nuclear magnetica com medidas intra-operatorias na avaliacao dos aneurismas de aorta abdominal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Francisco das Chagas de; Zerati, Antonio Eduardo; Blasbalg, Roberto; Wolosker, Nelson; Puech-Leao, Pedro [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas]. E-mail: nwolosker@yahoo.com.br

    2005-01-15

    measurements with no significant differences in the statistic view when compared to the intraoperative measures. Conclusions: Ultrasonography is a reliable method for the diagnosis and follow-up of the aorta abdominal aneurysms, but insufficient for endovascular surgery planning. The conventional computed tomography can provoke distortion in the length measurements of the aorta dilatation. Helical computed tomography and nuclear magnetic angio resonance provided precise measurements of all the studied parameters, being of great utility for surgical planning. (author)

  4. A prospective study assessing the efficacy of abdominal computed tomography scan without bowel preparation in diagnosing intestinal wall and luminal lesions in patients presenting to the emergency room with abdominal complaints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michal Mizrahi; Yoav Mintz; Avraham Rivkind; David Kisselgoff; Eugene Libson; Mayer Brezis; Eran Goldin; Oren Shibolet

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the positive predictive value of abdominal non-prepared computed tomography (CT) for diagnosing intestinal lumen or wall lesions in patients presenting to the emergency room (ER) with abdominal complaints.METHODS: For 1-year we prospectively evaluated all ER patients hospitalized after abdominal CT scan detected either intraluminal or intestinal wall lesions. These patients underwent colonoscopy serving as gold standard. Patients with prior abdominal pathology or CT findings of appendicitis or diverticulitis were excluded.RESULTS: Five hundred and sixty-eight abdominopelvic CT scans were performed in the ER, 96 had positive colonic findings. Sixty-two patients were excluded, 46 because of diverticulitis or appendicitis, 16 because of prior abdominal pathology. Of the remaining 34 patients, 14 did not undergo colonoscopy during hospitalization.Twenty eligible patients were included in the study. The positive predictive value of the CT scans performed in the ER was calculated to be 45% (95% CI 25-67).CONCLUSION: CT findings correlated with colonoscopic findings only in approximately half of the cases. Relying on non-prepared CT scan findings in planning patient management and colonoscopy may lead to unnecessary diagnostic work-ups.

  5. Proposta para padronização do relatório de tomografia computadorizada nos aneurismas da aorta abdominal A proposal for standardizing computed tomography reports on abdominal aortic aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Goda Torlai

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Propor um modelo de padronização de relatório para aneurisma da aorta abdominal na tomografia computadorizada. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas, no período de abril a outubro de 2004, entrevistas com integrantes da Disciplina de Cirurgia Vascular da nossa instituição, para elaboração de um modelo de padronização de relatório de tomografia computadorizada para o estudo do aneurisma da aorta abdominal. A partir deste modelo foi elaborado um questionário, enviado a nove outros cirurgiões, todos com experiência em cirurgia da aorta abdominal. O índice de resposta aos questionários foi de 55,5% (5/9. RESULTADOS: Os parâmetros de interesse citados mais freqüentemente para a avaliação dos aneurismas de aorta abdominal foram: diâmetro máximo do colo proximal, extensão do colo proximal até a artéria renal mais baixa, forma do colo proximal, diâmetro máximo do aneurisma e diâmetro das artérias ilíacas comuns. Estes dados permitiram elaborar uma proposta de modelo para padronização de relatório na tomografia computadorizada. CONCLUSÃO: Um modelo para a análise tomográfica padronizada do aneurisma de aorta abdominal permite atender às necessidades dos cirurgiões vasculares para acompanhar a evolução e planejar o tratamento destes pacientes.OBJECTIVE: To propose a model to standardize computed tomography reports on abdominal aortic aneurysms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Interviews were carried out with members of Vascular Surgery Division of our institution, in the period between April and October 2004, aiming at developing a standardized model of computed tomography reports on abdominal aortic aneurysms. Based on this model, a questionnaire was elaborated and sent to other nine surgeons, all of them experienced in the field of abdominal aortic surgery. The questionnaires response rate was 55.5% (5/9. RESULTS: The most frequently mentioned parameters of interest for evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysms

  6. Differentiation between tuberculosis and leukemia in abdominal and pelvic lymph nodes: evaluation with contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the characteristics of tubercular vs. leukemic involvement of abdominopelvic lymph nodes using multidetector computed tomography (CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed multidetector computed tomography features including lymph node size, shape, enhancement patterns, and anatomical distribution, in 106 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed, untreated tuberculosis (55 patients; 52% or leukemia (51 patients; 48%. In patients with leukemia, 32 (62.7% had chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and 19 (37.3% had acute leukemias; of these, 10 (19.6% had acute myeloid leukemia, and 9 (17.6% had acute lymphocytic leukemia. RESULTS: The lower para-aortic (30.9% for tuberculosis, 63.2% for acute leukemias and 87.5% for chronic lymphocytic leukemia and inguinal (9.1% for tuberculosis, 57.9% for acute leukemias and 53.1% for chronic lymphocytic leukemia lymph nodes were involved more frequently in the three types of leukemia than in tuberculosis (both with p <0.017. Tuberculosis showed peripheral enhancement, frequently with a multilocular appearance, in 43 (78.2% patients, whereas patients with leukemia (78.9% for acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia, 87.5% for chronic lymphocytic leukemia demonstrated predominantly homogeneous enhancement (both with p <0.017. For the diagnosis of tuberculosis, the analysis showed that a peripheral enhancement pattern had a sensitivity of 78.2%, a specificity of 100%, and an accuracy of 88.7%. For the diagnosis of leukemia, the analysis showed that a homogeneous enhancement pattern was associated with a sensitivity of 84.3%, a specificity of 94.5%, and an accuracy of 89.6%. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the anatomical distribution and enhancement patterns of lymphadenopathy seen on multidetector computed tomography are useful for differentiating between untreated tuberculosis and leukemia of the abdominopelvic lymph nodes.

  7. Comparison of diagnostic performance between single- and multiphasic contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic computed tomography in patients admitted to the emergency department with abdominal pain: potential radiation dose reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Shin Hye; You, Je Sung; Choi, Jin-Young; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Chung, Yong Eun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Mi Kyong [Yonsei University, Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate feasibility of radiation dose reduction by optimal phase selection of computed tomography (CT) in patients who visited the emergency department (ED) for abdominal pain. We included 253 patients who visited the ED for abdominal pain. They underwent multiphasic CT including precontrast, late arterial phase (LAP), and hepatic venous phase (HVP). Three image sets (HVP, precontrast + HVP, and precontrast + LAP + HVP) were reviewed. Two reviewers determined the most appropriate diagnosis with five-point confidence scale. Diagnostic performances were compared among image sets by weighted-least-squares method or DeLong's method. Linear mixed model was used to assess changes of diagnostic confidence and radiation dose. There was no difference in diagnostic performance among three image sets, although diagnostic confidence level was significantly improved after review of triphasic images compared with both HVP images only or HVP with precontrast images (confidence scale, 4.64 ± 0.05, 4.66 ± 0.05, and 4.76 ± 0.04 in the order of the sets; overall P = 0.0008). Similar trends were observed in the subgroup analysis for diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease and cholecystitis. There is no difference between HVP-CT alone and multiphasic CT for the diagnosis of causes of abdominal pain in patients admitted to the ED without prior chronic disease or neoplasia. (orig.)

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) - Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Spine Computed tomography (CT) of the ... images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the ... images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Sinuses? What is CT (Computed Tomography) of the Sinuses? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT of the sinuses is primarily used ...

  11. A comparison of the Accuracy of Ultrasound and Computed Tomography in common diagnoses causing acute abdominal pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Randen, Adrienne; Lameris, Wytze; van Es, H. Wouter; van Heesewijk, Hans P. M.; van Ramshorst, Bert; ten Hove, Wim; Bouma, Willem H.; van Leeuwen, Maarten S.; van Keulen, Esteban M.; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Stoker, Jaap; Boermeester, Marja A.

    2011-01-01

    Head-to-head comparison of ultrasound and CT accuracy in common diagnoses causing acute abdominal pain. Consecutive patients with abdominal pain for > 2 h and <5 days referred for imaging underwent both US and CT by different radiologists/radiological residents. An expert panel assigned a final diag

  12. Focused Assessment with Sonography in Trauma and Abdominal Computed Tomography Utilization in Adult Trauma Patients: Trends over the Last Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Y. Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We sought to describe the trend in abdominal CT use in adult trauma patients after a point-of-care emergency ultrasound program was introduced. We hypothesized that abdominal CT use would decrease as FAST use increased. Methods. We performed a retrospective study of 19940 consecutive trauma patients over the age of 18 admitted to our level one trauma center from 2002 through 2011. Data was collected retrospectively and recorded in a trauma registry. We plotted the rate of FAST and abdominal CT utilization over time. Head CT was used as a surrogate for overall CT utilization rates during the study period. Results. Use of FAST increased by an average of 2.3% (95% CI 2.1 to 2.5, P<0.01 while abdominal CT use decreased by the same rate annually. The percentage of patients who received FAST as the sole imaging modality for the abdomen rose from 2.0% to 21.9% while those who only received an abdominal CT dropped from 21.7% to 2.3%. Conclusions. Abdominal CT use in our cohort declined while FAST utilization grew in the last decade. The rising use of FAST may have played a role in the reduction of abdominal CT performed as decline in CT utilization appears contrary to overall trends.

  13. Unenhanced Computed Tomography to Visualize Hollow Viscera and/or Mesenteric Injury After Blunt Abdominal Trauma: A Single-Institution Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu-Yang; Wei, Ming-Tian; Jin, Cheng-Wu; Wang, Meng; Wang, Zi-Qiang

    2016-03-01

    To identify and describe the major features of unenhanced computed tomography (CT) images of blunt hollow viscera and/or mesenteric injury (BHVI/MI) and to determine the value of unenhanced CT in the diagnosis of BHVI/MI. This retrospective study included 151 patients who underwent unenhanced CT before laparotomy for blunt abdominal trauma between January 2011 and December 2013. According to surgical observations, patients were classified as having BHVI/MI (n = 73) or not (n = 78). Sensitivity, specificity, P values, and likelihood ratios were calculated by comparing CT findings between the 2 groups. Six significant CT findings (P < 0.05) for BHVI/MI were identified and their sensitivity and specificity values determined, as follows: bowel wall thickening (39.7%, 96.2%), mesentery thickening (46.6%, 88.5%), mesenteric fat infiltration (12.3%, 98.7%), peritoneal fat infiltration (31.5%, 87.1%), parietal peritoneum thickening (30.1%, 85.9%), and intra- or retro-peritoneal air (34.2%, 96.2%). Unenhanced CT scan was useful as an initial assessment tool for BHVI/MI after blunt abdominal trauma. Six key features on CT were correlated with BHVI/MI.

  14. Comparison of image quality from filtered back projection, statistical iterative reconstruction, and model-based iterative reconstruction algorithms in abdominal computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yu; Lin, Yi-Yang; Lee, Rheun-Chuan; Lin, Chung-Jung; Chiou, Yi-You; Guo, Wan-Yuo

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the image noise-reducing abilities of iterative model reconstruction (IMR) with those of traditional filtered back projection (FBP) and statistical iterative reconstruction (IR) in abdominal computed tomography (CT) imagesThis institutional review board-approved retrospective study enrolled 103 patients; informed consent was waived. Urinary bladder (n = 83) and renal cysts (n = 44) were used as targets for evaluating imaging quality. Raw data were retrospectively reconstructed using FBP, statistical IR, and IMR. Objective image noise and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were calculated and analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. Subjective image quality was evaluated and analyzed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test with Bonferroni correction.Objective analysis revealed a reduction in image noise for statistical IR compared with that for FBP, with no significant differences in SNR. In the urinary bladder group, IMR achieved up to 53.7% noise reduction, demonstrating a superior performance to that of statistical IR. IMR also yielded a significantly superior SNR to that of statistical IR. Similar results were obtained in the cyst group. Subjective analysis revealed reduced image noise for IMR, without inferior margin delineation or diagnostic confidence.IMR reduced noise and increased SNR to greater degrees than did FBP and statistical IR. Applying the IMR technique to abdominal CT imaging has potential for reducing the radiation dose without sacrificing imaging quality.

  15. The relationship of abdominal fat mass assessed by helical or conventional computed tomography to serum leptin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Junji; Sasaki, Takeyoshi; Watanabe, Mitsuyo

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we focused on the relationship of intra-abdominal visceral fat (VF) or subcutaneous fat (SF) mass to serum leptin levels, and also on the relationship of leptin to serum lipid and lipoprotein concentration. Subjects with obesity (26 men, 26 women) were recruited for this study. We obtained helical CT scans with a tube current of 150 mA, voltage of 120 kV and 2:1 pitch (table speed in relation to slice thickness), starting at the upper edge of the liver and continuing to the pelvis. The intra-abdominal visceral fat (VF) volume was measured by drawing a line within the muscle wall surrounding the abdominal cavity. The abdominal SF volume was calculated by subtracting the VF volume from the total abdominal fat volume. By comparison, the abdominal VF and SF areas were determined at the umbilical level by the established slice-by-slice CT scanning technique. We found: 1) abdominal SF mass, either as volume or area, was a more important determinant of serum leptin than was VF mass; 2) among TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C, only TG had a positive correlation to serum leptin levels in men, whereas in women no lipid parameters had any relationship with leptin; and 3) VF mass had a positive correlation to serum TC and TG in men, whereas SF did not. The present study provides considerable evidence on the relationship between abdominal fat mass and serum leptin, and shows that the relationships between serum leptin and serum lipids and lipoproteins are not straightforward. We also suggest that fat area measured by conventional CT is a better indicator than its corresponding volume assessed by helical CT, based on the present results showing its closer association to serum lipids.

  16. O valor da fase sem contraste na tomografia computadorizada do abdome The role of the unenhanced phase in the routine abdominal computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Klautau Leite

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar o valor agregado da fase sem meio de contraste da tomografia computadorizada do abdome em pacientes sem diagnóstico determinado ou em estadiamento tumoral. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo e transversal em 100 pacientes consecutivos submetidos a tomografia computadorizada abdominal sem e com meio de contraste intravenoso. Dois examinadores avaliaram todos os exames, procurando estabelecer, através da fase com meio de contraste intravenoso (primeira análise e posteriormente através da fase sem contraste (segunda análise, o diagnóstico principal e os secundários em função da indicação clínica do exame. Mediu-se a freqüência de mudança diagnóstica decorrente da análise combinada das fases pré- e pós-contraste intravenoso. Casos que tiveram mudança diagnóstica foram avaliados por especialistas clínicos para determinar se implicaria mudanças de conduta. RESULTADOS: Diagnósticos principal e secundário foram modificados em 1 e 18 casos, respectivamente (p = 1,000; p = 0,143. Os diagnósticos modificados foram: esteatose, definição de nódulo em adrenal, nefrolitíase, classificação de cistos renais e calcificação hepática. Nos casos em que a fase sem contraste modificou o diagnóstico, os especialistas mudaram sua conduta em 14/19 (73% dos pacientes (p = 0,038. CONCLUSÃO: A fase sem contraste não modificou significativamente o diagnóstico principal ou secundário. Porém, as mudanças nos diagnósticos secundários influenciaram na conduta adotada pelos especialistas.OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of the unenhanced phase of abdominal computed tomography in patients without a definite diagnosis or undergoing tumor staging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective and transversal study was developed with 100 consecutive patients submitted to unenhanced and contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography. Two observers evaluated all the computed tomography images in the contrast-enhanced phase

  17. A comparison of the accuracy of ultrasound and computed tomography in common diagnoses causing acute abdominal pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randen, Adrienne van; Stoker, Jaap [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (suite G1-227), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lameris, Wytze; Boermeester, Marja A. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Es, H.W. van; Heesewijk, Hans P.M. van [St Antonius Hospital, Department of Radiology, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Ramshorst, Bert van [St Antonius Hospital, Department of Surgery, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Hove, Wim ten [Gelre Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Bouma, Willem H. [Gelre Hospitals, Department of Surgery, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Maarten S. van [University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Keulen, Esteban M. van [Tergooi Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Hilversum (Netherlands); Bossuyt, Patrick M. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Bioinformatics, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-07-15

    Head-to-head comparison of ultrasound and CT accuracy in common diagnoses causing acute abdominal pain. Consecutive patients with abdominal pain for >2 h and <5 days referred for imaging underwent both US and CT by different radiologists/radiological residents. An expert panel assigned a final diagnosis. Ultrasound and CT sensitivity and predictive values were calculated for frequent final diagnoses. Effect of patient characteristics and observer experience on ultrasound sensitivity was studied. Frequent final diagnoses in the 1,021 patients (mean age 47; 55% female) were appendicitis (284; 28%), diverticulitis (118; 12%) and cholecystitis (52; 5%). The sensitivity of CT in detecting appendicitis and diverticulitis was significantly higher than that of ultrasound: 94% versus 76% (p < 0.01) and 81% versus 61% (p = 0.048), respectively. For cholecystitis, the sensitivity of both was 73% (p = 1.00). Positive predictive values did not differ significantly between ultrasound and CT for these conditions. Ultrasound sensitivity in detecting appendicitis and diverticulitis was not significantly negatively affected by patient characteristics or reader experience. CT misses fewer cases than ultrasound, but both ultrasound and CT can reliably detect common diagnoses causing acute abdominal pain. Ultrasound sensitivity was largely not influenced by patient characteristics and reader experience. (orig.)

  18. Relationships between abdominal fat distribution assessed by computer tomography, body composition, serum lipids, plasma glucose and cardiorespiratory functions in obese children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torigoe, Katsumi; Numata, Osamu; Sudo, Shouji; Matsunaga, Masamichi; Kyo, Shigeharu; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Onozuka, Yutaka; Imai, Chihaya [Nagaoka Red Cross Hospital, Niigata (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Visceral abdominal fat to subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio (V/S ratio) is a predictor for cardiac disease, metabolic disease, and hypertension in obese adults. This study determined the histopathological value of V/S ratio in obese children using computed tomography (CT). The subjects were 37 boys and 26 girls with overweight by more than 20%, whose ages ranged from 3 to 16 years. Although the percentage of standard body weight (SBW), percentage of body fat (BF), and body mass index (BMI) were correlated with each other, there was no correlation between the V/S ratio and the three predictors. Thus, the V/S ratio is completely different from the other obesity predictors in children. The V/S ratio in children of 20% or more overweight of SBW was 0.28{+-}0.11. The V/S ratio of 0.4, used as an obesity predictor in adults, was not considered suitable in the case of children. Liver function, serum lipid levels, and serum glucose correlated with the percentage of SBW, BMI, and the percentage of BF, but not correlated with the V/S ratio. According to the V/S ratio, the patients were divided into the group of V/S ratio of less than 0.28 (group I, n=34) and the group of V/S ratio of 0.28 or more (group II, n=27). There was no significant difference in age, percentage of SBW, BMI, and percentage of BF. Triglyceride was significantly higher in group II than group I, but there was no significant difference in plasma glucose and other lipids, body composition, blood pressure or respiratory function. Of note, the V/S ratio of 0.4 or more was seen in only 9 of the 61 children (14.7%). These findings suggest that the V/S ratio for children is a predictor different from that in the case of adults. (N.K.).

  19. Jejunal diverticulitis: an unusual cause of an intra-abdominal abscess - coronal Computed Tomography reconstruction can aid the diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Virjee

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Jejunal diverticulitis is a rare condition that can present with an acute abdomen and be referred for imaging.  We present the case of an elderly patient who at CT was diagnosed with an intra-abdominal abscess involving both jejunum and transverse colon. However, the underlying eitiology was not initially clear until small bowel barium follow-through.Pertinent points regarding CT findings in jejunal diverticulitis are discussed, and practical recommendations in small bowel diverticulum recognition and diagnosis are made. 

  20. Duplex Ultrasound versus Computed Tomography for the Postoperative Follow-Up of Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair. Where Do We Stand Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikola, Evridiki; Dalainas, Ilias; Karaolanis, Georgios; Zografos, Georgios; Filis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has rapidly developed to be the preferred method for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in patients with suitable anatomy. EVAR offers the advantage of lower perioperative mortality and morbidity but carries the cost of device-related complications such as endoleak, graft migration, graft thrombosis, and structural graft failure. These complications mandate a lifelong surveillance of EVAR patients and their endografts. The purpose of this study is to review and evaluate the safety of color-duplex ultrasound (CDU) as compared with computed tomography (CT), based on the current literature, for post-EVAR surveillance. The post-EVAR follow-up modalities, CDU versus CT, are evaluated questioning three parameters: (1) accuracy of aneurysm size, (2) detection and classification of endoleaks, and (3) detection of stent-graft deformation. Studies comparing CDU with CT scan for investigation of post-EVAR complications have produced mixed results. Further and long-term research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of CDU versus CT, before CDU can be recommended as the primary imaging modality for EVAR surveillance, in place of CT for stable aneurysms. PMID:25317026

  1. Duplex Ultrasound versus Computed Tomography for the Postoperative Follow-Up of Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair. Where Do We Stand Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikola, Evridiki; Dalainas, Ilias; Karaolanis, Georgios; Zografos, Georgios; Filis, Konstantinos

    2014-09-01

    In the last decade, endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has rapidly developed to be the preferred method for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in patients with suitable anatomy. EVAR offers the advantage of lower perioperative mortality and morbidity but carries the cost of device-related complications such as endoleak, graft migration, graft thrombosis, and structural graft failure. These complications mandate a lifelong surveillance of EVAR patients and their endografts. The purpose of this study is to review and evaluate the safety of color-duplex ultrasound (CDU) as compared with computed tomography (CT), based on the current literature, for post-EVAR surveillance. The post-EVAR follow-up modalities, CDU versus CT, are evaluated questioning three parameters: (1) accuracy of aneurysm size, (2) detection and classification of endoleaks, and (3) detection of stent-graft deformation. Studies comparing CDU with CT scan for investigation of post-EVAR complications have produced mixed results. Further and long-term research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of CDU versus CT, before CDU can be recommended as the primary imaging modality for EVAR surveillance, in place of CT for stable aneurysms.

  2. Avaliação pós-operatória do tratamento endovascular de aneurismas da aorta abdominal por angiotomografia com multidetectores Post-operative evaluation of endovascularly treated abdominal aortic aneurysms by multidetector computed tomography angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Barroso Thomaz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo tem como objetivo a avaliação pós-operatória do tratamento endovascular de aneurismas da aorta abdominal por angiotomografia com multidetectores. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas, retrospectivamente, angiotomografias de 166 pacientes (137 homens e 29 mulheres com idade média de 73 anos portadores de aneurisma da aorta abdominal submetidos a terapêutica endovascular, no período de junho de 2005 a agosto de 2006. Os exames foram feitos em tomógrafo multidetector de 64 canais e os parâmetros adotados foram: colimação, 0,625 mm; pitch, 0,6-1; mAs, 300-400; kV, 120. Em todos os casos foi utilizado meio de contraste iodado não-iônico (350 mg/ml administrado por meio de bomba infusora, com fluxo de 4 ml/s a 5 ml/s e com volume variável de 70 ml a 100 ml. Os exames foram avaliados quanto à presença de complicações. RESULTADOS: Dos 166 exames realizados, 93 pacientes não apresentaram complicações e 73 apresentaram os seguintes achados: endoleak (n=37, trombose circunferencial da endoprótese (n=29, angulação (n=17, coleção no sítio de punção (n=10, migração da prótese (n=7, dissecção dos vasos de acesso (n=7 e oclusão (n=6. CONCLUSÃO: O endoleak foi a complicação mais prevalente em nosso estudo, sendo o tipo II o mais comum.OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed at evaluating endovascularly treated abdominal aortic aneurysms by multidetector computed tomography angiography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multidetector computed tomography angiography studies of 166 patients were retrospectively analyzed. The sample included 137 men and 29 women with mean age of 73 years who had undergone endovascular treatment for abdominal aortic aneurysm in the period between June 2005 and August 2006. Images were acquired in a 64-channel multidetector tomograph adopting the following parameters: 0.625 mm collimation, pitch 0.6-1, 300-400 mAs, and 120 kV. A nonionic iodinated contrast agent (350 mg/ml was injected

  3. Quantification of aortic distensibility in abdominal aortic aneurysm using ECG-gated multi-detector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganten, Maria-Katharina [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics in Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Ruprecht-Karls-University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Krautter, Ute; Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik von; Delorme, Stefan; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics in Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Boeckler, Dittmar; Schumacher, Hardy [Ruprecht-Karls-University of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Heidelberg (Germany); Stiller, Wolfram; Bock, Michael [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Department of Medical Physics in Radiology, Medical Physics in Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Kauffmann, Guenter W. [Ruprecht-Karls-University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    To detect distensibility changes that might be an indicator for an increased risk of rupture, cross-sectional area changes of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) have been determined using ECG-gated CT. Distensibility measurements of the aorta were performed in 67 patients with AAA. Time-resolved images were acquired with a four detector-row CT system using a modified CT-angiography protocol. Pulsatility-related cross-sectional area changes were calculated above and at AAA level by semiautomatic segmentation; distensibility values were obtained using additional systemic blood pressure measurements. Values were compared for small Oe< 5 cm (n=44) and large Oe> 5 cm (n = 23) aneurysms. The aorta could be segmented successfully in all patients. Upstream AAA distensibility D was significantly higher than at AAA level for both groups: means above AAA (at AAA) D{sub above} = (1.3 {+-}0.8) .10 {sup -5} Pa {sup -1} (D{sub AAA} = (0.6 {+-}0.5) .10 {sup -5} Pa {sup -1}) t-test p{sub D}<0.0001. Differences of the distensibility between smaller and larger aneurysms were not found to be significant. Distensibility can be measured non-invasively with ECG-gated CT. The reduction of distensibility within aneurysms compared to normal proximal aorta is subtle; the lack of difference between both small and large aneurysms suggests that this reduction occurs early in the aneurysm's development. Hence, reduced distensibility might be a predictive parameter in patients with high risk of aortic disease. (orig.)

  4. The application of automatic tube current modulation (ATCM) on image quality and radiation dose at abdominal computed tomography (CT): A phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Zhao, Xinming; Song, Junfeng; Guo, Ning; Zhu, Ying; Liu, Jianxin; Qi, Weiwei; Wu, Jing; Liang, Yuan; Feng, Shichao; Hu, Mancang; Zhou, Chunwu; Wang, Xiaoying; Hong, Nan

    2013-01-01

    Multi-phase spiral Computed tomography (CT) of abdomen has been widely used as an effective imaging modality to diagnose variety of diseases. As a result, the accumulated radiation exposure on the abdomen is substantially higher than other human organ regions. According to ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle, how to control radiation dose without compromising imaging quality becomes a research topic of high interest. However, how to achieve dose optimization of the abdomen CT examinations in Chinese patients have not been fully investigated in previous studies. In this study, we develop an abdomen-equivalent tissue model made by well-known CTP579 auxiliary testing model and the real CT data acquired from 68 Chinese male subjects. Combining with catphan600, we simulated the visibility of low and high contrast objects at adult abdomen under variety of x-ray dose levels. Using the automatic tube current modulation (ATCM) technique, we reduced the total radiation dose and identified a proper noise index (NI) for Chinese patients to maintain low or high contrast detectability of abdominal CT image. Our numerical experiments showed that in the phantom study for Chinese patients, when a NI was set at 10, the radiation dose reduced by 34.3% with low contrast objects detectable, while setting NI at 14 the dose level decreased by 65.1% without change the detectability of high contrast targets. The subjective ratings from three radiologists also yielded high consistence with Kappa > 0.75. This study demonstrated the feasibility of performing the CT dose optimization studies through a unique phantom with the ATCM method.

  5. Measuring Abdominal Circumference and Skeletal Muscle From a Single Cross-Sectional Computed Tomography Image: A Step-by-Step Guide for Clinicians Using National Institutes of Health ImageJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Perez, Sandra L; Haus, Jacob M; Sheean, Patricia; Patel, Bimal; Mar, Winnie; Chaudhry, Vivek; McKeever, Liam; Braunschweig, Carol

    2016-03-01

    Diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scans provide numerous opportunities for body composition analysis, including quantification of abdominal circumference, abdominal adipose tissues (subcutaneous, visceral, and intermuscular), and skeletal muscle (SM). CT scans are commonly performed for diagnostic purposes in clinical settings, and methods for estimating abdominal circumference and whole-body SM mass from them have been reported. A supine abdominal circumference is a valid measure of waist circumference (WC). The valid correlation between a single cross-sectional CT image (slice) at third lumbar (L3) for abdominal SM and whole-body SM is also well established. Sarcopenia refers to the age-associated decreased in muscle mass and function. A single dimensional definition of sarcopenia using CT images that includes only assessment of low whole-body SM has been validated in clinical populations and significantly associated with negative outcomes. However, despite the availability and precision of SM data from CT scans and the relationship between these measurements and clinical outcomes, they have not become a routine component of clinical nutrition assessment. Lack of time, training, and expense are potential barriers that prevent clinicians from fully embracing this technique. This tutorial presents a systematic, step-by-step guide to quickly quantify abdominal circumference as a proxy for WC and SM using a cross-sectional CT image from a regional diagnostic CT scan for clinical identification of sarcopenia. Multiple software options are available, but this tutorial uses ImageJ, a free public-domain software developed by the National Institutes of Health.

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head is typically ...

  7. Tomografia computadorizada na avaliação da distribuição do tecido adiposo abdominal de ratos alimentados com rações hiperlipídicas após desnutrição neonatal Computed tomography in the evaluation of abdominal fat distribution associated with a hyperlipidic diet in previously undernourished rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Soares da Costa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever repercussões da ração suplementada com óleo de soja ou óleo de canola, por meio da tomografia computadorizada, na distribuição do tecido adiposo abdominal, após desmame de ratos desnutridos durante a lactação. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Ratas lactantes submetidas a restrição alimentar (RA em 50%, de acordo com o consumo das lactantes controles (C. Após o desmame, filhotes desnutridos receberam ração contendo 19% de óleo de soja (RA-soja 19% ou óleo de canola (RA-canola 19%. Os filhotes do grupo controle receberam ração contendo 7% de óleo de soja (C-soja 7%. Aos 60 dias de idade, foram realizadas medidas corporais e das áreas de tecido adiposo abdominal por meio de tomografia computadorizada. Após sacrifício, tecido adiposo abdominal foi excisado e pesado. Os dados foram expressos como média ± erro-padrão da média, considerando o nível de significância de p OBJECTIVE: To study, by means of computed tomography, the repercussion of post-weaning dietary supplementation with soy oil or canola oil on the abdominal fat distribution in previously undernourished rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dams submitted to 50% food restriction (FR compared with dams receiving a standard diet (C. After weaning, undernourished rats received a diet supplemented with 19% soy oil (19% FR-soy or 19% canola oil (19% FR-canola. Rats in the control group received a diet with 7% soy oil (7% C-soy until the end of the experimental period. At the age of 60 days old, the rats were submitted to computed tomography for evaluation of total abdominal and visceral fat area. The rats' length and body mass were evaluated and, after their sacrifice, the abdominal fat depots were excised weighted. The data are reported as mean ± mean standard error, with p < 0.05 considered as significance level. RESULTS: Rats in the group 19% FR presented similar length, body weight and visceral fat mass. As a whole, the evaluations have shower results

  8. Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CCTA) Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) ... images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a ...

  9. Computed tomography prospective study of pleural-pulmonary changes after abdominal surgery : assessment of associated risk factors; Estudo prospectivo por tomografia computadorizada das alteracoes pleuro-pulmonares apos cirurgia abdominal: avaliacao dos fatores de risco associados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Luis Antonio [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Medicas e Biologicas]. E-mail: luizrossimd@uol.com.br; Bromberg, Sansom Henrique [Instituto de Assistencia Medica ao Servidor Publico Estadual de Sao Paulo (IAMSPE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Gastroenterologia Cirurgica

    2005-07-01

    Postoperative pleural-pulmonary changes (PPC) are very common following elective abdominal surgery, resolving without clinical manifestations in most patients. The incidence and risk factors associated are unknown. Objective: to determine the incidence of PPC and possible association with risk factors using computerized tomography (CT). Material and method: thirty seven patients submitted to elective abdominal surgery were prospectively analyzed using CT performed in the preoperative period and 48 hours after surgery. The PPC was scored from 0 to III. The risk factors evaluated were: age, sex, obesity, smoking history, alcoholism, comorbid conditions, cancer, ASA classification, duration of surgery, surgical incision type and number of days of hospitalization. Results: Pleura effusion was detected by CT in 70.3% (26/37) of the patients and pulmonary atelectasis in 75.5% (28/37). Grade I and II PPC was found in 59.5% (22/37) of the patients and grade III in 21.6% (8/37). Two (5.4%) of these patients developed serious pulmonary complications whereas one patient died. Surgery due to cancer, class ASA >2, longitudinal incision and > 15 cm showed statistical significance and were associated with pleural effusion. The hospitalization was over 2.4 longer for patients with PPC. Conclusion: PPC is frequently seen in patients submitted to abdominal surgery. The use of the CT for the detection of pulmonary atelectasis and pleural effusion proved to be effective. Most cases of PPC are self-limited, resolving without symptoms. (author)

  10. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) is a fast, painless exam that uses special x-ray equipment ... period of time. Modern CT scanners are so fast that they can scan through large sections of ...

  11. Systematic review: Use of ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis, assessment of activity and abdominal complications of Crohn?s disease

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Backgroud: Cross-sectional imaging techniques, including ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are increasingly used for evaluation of Crohn?s disease (CD). Aim: To perform an assessment of the diagnostic accuracy of cross-sectional imaging techniques for diagnosis of CD, evaluation of disease extension and activity, and diagnosis of complications, and to provide recommendations for their optimal use. Methods: Relevant ...

  12. Tomografia computadorizada de abdome normal: estudo retrospectivo das angulações dos hilos renais Normal abdominal computed tomography: a retrospective study of renal hila angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Sakate

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Obter valores da angulação média dos hilos renais em relação ao plano horizontal, traçado sobre músculos eretores da espinha direito e esquerdo, considerando como parâmetro de referência para as medidas das angulações o centro da coluna vertebral lombar. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 250 exames de tomografia computadorizada de abdomes considerados normais de indivíduos de ambos os sexos, sendo 128 masculinos (idade média de 52,45 ± 17,42 anos e 122 femininos (idade média de 54,39 ± 18,27 anos, totalizando 500 hilos renais estudados. A angulação média de cada hilo renal em relação ao plano horizontal foi obtida, sendo considerados sempre os ângulos agudos. RESULTADOS: O estudo comparativo entre os sexos mostrou que não houve diferença estatisticamente significante em relação aos ângulos agudos dos hilos renais. A análise estatística mostrou, com intervalo de confiança de 95%, para média do ângulo direito os limites de 40,40° e 44,54° e para o hilo renal esquerdo os limites de 39,91° e 43,23°. CONCLUSÃO: Os hilos renais, independentemente do sexo, apresentam angulações semelhantes. Valores angulares maiores terão anomalia de hiper-rotação ou hiper-rotação exagerada e valores menores terão anomalia de rotação incompleta ou rotação invertida.OBJECTIVE: To obtain mean angulation values for renal hila in relation to the horizontal plane traced over the right and left spinal erector muscles, considering the center of the lumbar vertebral spine as a parameter for measuring the renal hila angles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors have analyzed 250 abdominal computed tomography studies of both male and female healthy individuals (128 men with mean age 52.45 ± 17.42 years, and 122 women with mean age 54.39 ± 18.27 years, corresponding to 500 renal hila evaluated. The mean angulation of each hilum in relation to the horizontal plane was obtained taking acute angles into consideration

  13. Proton computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucciantonio, Martina; Sauli, Fabio

    2015-05-01

    Proton computed tomography (pCT) is a diagnostic method capable of in situ imaging the three-dimensional density distribution in a patient before irradiation with charged particle beams. Proposed long time ago, this technology has been developed by several groups, and may become an essential tool for advanced quality assessment in hadrontherapy. We describe the basic principles of the method, its performance and limitations as well as provide a summary of experimental systems and of results achieved.

  14. Computer processing of tomography data

    OpenAIRE

    Konečný, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Computer processing of tomography data Tomographs are one of the most important diagnostic devices, which are used in every hospital nowadays; they have already been so for a considerable period of time. The different types of tomographs and the processing of tomographic data and imaging of these data are the subject of this thesis. I have described the four most common types of tomography: X-ray Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Positron Emission Tomography and Single Photon E...

  15. Multiplanner spine computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H. K.; Jeon, H. J.; Hong, K. C.; Chung, K. B.; Suh, W. H. [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-06-15

    The computed tomography is useful in evaluation of bony structures and adjacent soft tissues of the spine. Recently, the multiplanar spine CT scan is highly superior than usual axial scan, because of easily demonstrable longitudinal dimension, level of spine and spinal canal. We evaluated 62 cases of spine CT, whom complains of spinal symptoms, from July, 1982 to January, 1983. The results were as follows: 1. The sex distribution of cases were 45 male and 17 female, ages were from 15 years to 76 years, and sites were 15 cervical spine, 7 thoracic spine, 42 lumbar spine and 21 sacral spine. 2. Sixty two cases of the CT diagnosis were reviewed and shows 19 cases of herniated intervertebral disc, 7 cases of spine fracture, 5 cases of degenerative disease, 4 cases of metastatic cancer, 2 cases of posterior longitudinal ligament ossification, 1 case of cord injury and 24 cases of normal. 3. The CT findings of herniated intervertebral disc were protruding disc, obliteration of anterior epidural fat, with or without indentation of dural sac and calcification within posterior disc margin. In cases of trauma, the multiplanar spine CT scan detects more specific extension of the fracture sites, and it is able to demonstrate relationship between fracture fragment and spinal cord, therefore operability can be decided. In case of posterior longitudinal ligament ossification, it is easy to demonstrate linear high density along posterior margin of vertebral bodies on sagittal reconstruction scan. 4. The computed tomography is diagnostic in detection of spinal disease. However, multiplanar spine CT is more diagnostic than axial computed tomography such as detecting the longitudinal dimension and demonstration of spinal canal.

  16. Stored Luminescence Computed Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Cong, Wenxiang; Wang, Ge

    2013-01-01

    The phosphor nanoparticles made of doped semiconductors, pre-excited by well-collimated X-ray radiation, were recently reported for their light emission upon NIR light stimulation. The characteristics of X-ray energy storage and NIR stimulated emission is highly desirable to design targeting probes and improve molecular and cellular imaging. Here we propose stored luminescence computed tomography (SLCT), perform realistic numerical simulation, and demonstrate a much-improved spatial resolution in a preclinical research context. The future opportunities are also discussed along this direction.

  17. Chest computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loeve, Martine; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Rosenfeld, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Clinical trials for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease are important to test and optimize new therapeutic interventions. To evaluate the effect of these interventions, sensitive and accurate outcome measures are needed. The most commonly used endpoints are spirometric variables...... are not suitable to study CF lung disease in young children. Chest computed tomography (CT) holds great promise for use as a sensitive surrogate endpoint in CF. A large body of evidence has been produced to validate the use of chest CT as primary endpoint to study CF lung disease. However, before chest CT can...

  18. Quando a fase de equilíbrio pode ser suprimida nos exames de tomografia computadorizada de abdome? What is the real role of the equilibrium phase in abdominal computed tomography?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Silveira Salvadori

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a necessidade de realização da fase de equilíbrio nos exames de tomografia computadorizada de abdome. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo retrospectivo, transversal e observacional, avaliando 219 exames consecutivos de tomografia computadorizada de abdome com contraste intravenoso, realizados num período de três meses, com diversas indicações clínicas. Para cada exame foram emitidos dois pareceres, um avaliando o exame sem a fase de equilíbrio (primeira análise e o outro avaliando todas as fases em conjunto (segunda análise. Ao final de cada avaliação, foi estabelecido se houve mudança nos diagnósticos principais e secundários, entre a primeira e a segunda análise. Foi utilizada a extensão do teste exato de Fisher para avaliar a modificação dos diagnósticos principais (p 0,999. Com relação aos diagnósticos secundários, cinco exames (2,3% foram modificados. CONCLUSÃO: Para indicações clínicas como estadiamento tumoral, abdome agudo e pesquisa de coleção abdominal, a fase de equilíbrio não acrescenta contribuição diagnóstica expressiva, podendo ser suprimida dos protocolos de exame.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of the equilibrium phase in abdominal computed tomography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study reviewed 219 consecutive contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography images acquired in a three-month period, for different clinical indications. For each study, two reports were issued - one based on the initial analysis of non-contrast-enhanced, arterial and portal phases only (first analysis, and a second reading of these phases added to the equilibrium phase (second analysis. At the end of both readings, differences between primary and secondary diagnoses were pointed out and recorded, in order to measure the impact of suppressing the equilibrium phase on the clinical outcome for each of the patients. The extension of the exact Fisher

  19. Forensic postmortem computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lykke Schrøder; Lundemose, Sissel; Banner, Jytte

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) images in estimating organ sizes and to examine the use of the cardiothoracic ratio (CTR). METHODS: We included 45 individuals (19 females), who underwent a medico-legal autopsy. Using...... the computer software program Mimics(®), we determined in situ heart and liver volumes derived from linear measurements (width, height and depth) on a whole body PMCT-scan, and compared the volumes with ex vivo volumes derived by CT-scan of the eviscerated heart and liver. The ex vivo volumes were also...... differences. CONCLUSIONS: Noninvasive in situ PMCT methods for organ measuring, as performed in this study, are not useful tools in forensic pathology. The best method to estimate organ volume is a CT-scan of the eviscerated organ. PMCT-determined CTR seems to be useless for ascertaining cardiomegaly...

  20. Ranking of magnetic resonance tomography of the infrarenal abdominal aorta aneurysms. Comparison with sonography, computed tomography, and angiography. Stellenwert der Kernspintomographie in der Diagnostik der infrarenalen Bauchaortenaneurysmen. Vergleich mit Sonographie, Computertomographie und Angiographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieber, A.; Wrazidlo, W.; Brambs, H.J. (Heidelberg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Radiologische Klinik); Allenberg, J.R. (Heidelberg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik)

    15 patients with asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging. The results were compared to the sonographic findings in 12, the computed tomographic in 14 and the angiographic findings in 14 cases. 14 patients were operated and the diagnostic results were verified. The advantage of MRI in comparison with the other diagnostic methods is the visualization of an infrarenal segment on the coronal images, which can be anastomized with the vascular prothesis. The evidence of this segment is important to know for the vascular surgeon to plan the operation technique. The disadvantage of MRI ist that thrombotic material and arterosclerotic plaques were bad or not visualized. We try to estimate, which importance the MRI will get in further times in the preoperative diagnosis of abdominal aortic aneurysms. (orig.).

  1. Computed tomography features of small intestinal obstruction caused by primary abdominal cocoon%原发性腹茧症致小肠梗阻的CT检查特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌; 冯联忠; 陈徐艰; 张斌忠; 陆忠烈; 沈文艳; 董来荣

    2016-01-01

    Objective To summarize the computed tomography (CT) features of small intestinal obstruction caused by primary abdominal cocoon and investigate the essentials of diagnosis and differential diagnosis.Methods The retrospective descriptive study was adopted.The clinical data of 1 patient with small intestinal obstruction caused by primary abdominal cocoon who was admitted to the Second Affiliated Hospital of Jiaxing University on October 6,2014 were collected.The patient underwent abdominal CT on admission and at 10 hours after admission.The patient received emergency exploratory laparotomy after preoperative preparation,and then postoperative regular symptomatic treatment and pathological examination.Results of abdominal CT were observed,including imaging features of abdominal masses,extent of small intestinal obstruction,situation of intestinal tube within the masses,vessel distribution in the mesentery and fibrous capsules around the mesentery.Situation of operation,routine blood test,biochemical indicator,blood coagulation indexes,postoperative recovery,complications,results of pathological examination and situation of patient during follow-up were recorded.The follow-up by telephone interview and outpatient examination was applied to the patient till October 31,2015,including detecting the dietary,with or without symptoms of abdominal pain and distension,haematemesis and hematochezia,routine blood retest,liver function,renal function and CT.Results Results of abdominal CT on admission:(1) coronal plain scan of abdominal CT showed that there were signs of incomplete intestinal obstruction,and local small intestinal dilatation and gas accumulation in left abdominal region without specific sign.(2) Plain scan of abdominal CT showed that there were the "coated sign" with thickened fibrous capsules around the intestinal tube," banana shape '" with agglomerate and expanding-distortion intestinal tube and aggregative,stretching and twisting mesentery with abnormal

  2. The use of dilute calogen[reg] as a fat density oral contrast medium in upper abdominal computed tomography, compared with the use of water and positive oral contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsay, Duncan W.; Markham, Derrian H.; Morgan, Bruno; Rodgers, Peter M.; Liddicoat, Amanda J

    2001-08-01

    AIM: Oral contrast media are commonly given prior to computed tomography (CT) examination of the upper abdomen. Although positive oral contrast media are normally used, there is increasing interest in using negative agents such as water and less commonly fat density products. The aim of this study was to compare a positive oral contrast medium, water, and a diluted emulsion of arachis oil (Calogen[reg], a fat density food supplement) for assessment of the upper abdomen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-one patients referred for upper abdominal CT were randomized to receive either 500 ml water, 2% sodium diatrizoate or a dilute suspension of Calogen[reg]. The CT images were scored independently by three radiologists. Distension and anatomical identification was assessed for the stomach, duodenum and jejunum; with anatomical identification recorded for the pancreas, retroperitoneum, liver, gallbladder and spleen. RESULTS: Dilute Calogen[reg] produced a significant improvement (P < 0.01) in distension and anatomical visualization of the stomach and proximal duodenum. Only minimal differences were demonstrated between the three contrast media for visualization of more distal small bowel or identification of the other upper abdominal viscera. Significantly more artifacts were caused by positive contrast media than with the Calogen[reg] mixture. CONCLUSION: A dilute suspension of Calogen[reg] as an oral contrast medium is recommended when disease is suspected within the stomach or proximal duodenum. Ramsay, D.W. et al. (2001)

  3. Metrizamide computed tomography in syringomyelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, T.; Tamakawa, Y.; Arii, H. (Akita Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Takahashi, M.; Hirota, K.

    1981-11-01

    Serial computed tomography of the cervical cord was performed following metrizamide myelography in five cases of clinically suspected syringomyelia. The syrinx filled with refluxed metrizamide was demonstrated in all of the cases. The reflux of metrizamide into the syrinx was most marked several hours following intrathecal injection of metrizamide. Computed tomography combined with metrizamide myelography is essential in the diagnosis of communicating syringomyelia.

  4. Lymphography and computed tomography of abdominal nodes in newly diagnosed patients with Hodgkin's disease in clinical stage I-III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, C.H.

    1986-10-01

    Between 1978 and 1983, 80 patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) in clinical Stage I-III had computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis and lymphography (LAG) prior to staging laparatomy with multiple lymph node biopsies at Stanford University Medical Center. There were 224 biopsied nodal sites. The sensitivity and specificity for CT to determine the status of biopsied paraortic and iliac nodes was .61 and .91 vs. .94 and .90 for LAG. CT appeared of even lower sensitivity (.13) in evaluating splenic hilar, celiac axis and portal nodes. Including all biopsy proven subdiaphragmatic nodal sites, CT's sensitivity to diagnose the presence of subdiaphragmatic adenopathy was .38 vs. .52 in LAG. Assessment of the final pathological stage was more successful by LAG (.61) than by CT (.49). Positive and negative predictive values of both tests indicate higher reliability of LAG results as regards individual intraabdominal nodes (LAG .71, .98 vs. CT .58, .86), the entire subdiaphragmatic nodal area (LAG .79, .77 vs. CT .61, .71) and prediction of final pathological stage. LAG appeared to be the more useful test during initial staging of newly diagnosed and untreated patients with HD. None of the test for itself or in combination can replace laparatomy when exact information is necessary for further clinical decisions.

  5. Through-Plane Movement at Multiple Aortic Levels on Dynamic Computed Tomography Angiography Is Limited in Patients With an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Jeroen C; Zandvoort, Herman J A; Vonken, Evert-Jan P A; Moll, Frans L; van Herwaarden, JA

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To analyze the movement of the aorta in the craniocaudal direction (through-plane movement) during the cardiac cycle at several levels to determine any potential impact on endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). METHODS: For this study, 30 patients (median ag

  6. [Computed tomography of the heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, T.S.; Kofoed, K.F.; der, Recke P. von;

    2009-01-01

    Noninvasive evaluation of the coronary arteries by multi-detector row computed tomography is a promising new alternative to conventional invasive coronary angiography. This article describes the technical background, methods, limitations and clinical applications and reviews current literature...

  7. Radiation dose and imaging quality of abdominal computed tomography before and scan protocol adjustment: Single-institution experience in three years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Hwi Young; Choi, Joon Il; Jung, Seung Eun; Rha, Seong Eun; Oh, Nam Soon; Lee, Young Joon; Byun, Jae Young [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    To compare radiation dose and image quality of abdominal CT for patients who underwent repeated CT examinations before and after adjustment of scan protocol. We compared radiation dose and image quality of repeated abdominal CT scans (at three-year-interval) of 50 patients with chronic liver disease, 50 patients with early gastric cancer, and 50 patients with uterine cancer. To reduce radiation dose, we optimized CT protocols by omitting unnecessary pre-contrast phase, reducing kVp, and setting higher noise index. Data of dose reports were collected. Objective image quality was evaluated for noise level, signal to noise ratio (SNR), and contrast noise ratio (CNR). For subjective image quality, we evaluated image noise, contrast, and overall diagnostic acceptability. The mean values of dose length product of 2011 CT scans compared to those of 2008 CT scans were 27.6% to 45.7%. The image noise level, SNR, and CNR were significantly (p < 0.05) worse in 2011 CT scans compared to 2008 CT scans. For subjective image quality, image noise was also significantly (p < 0.05) worse in 2011. However, CNR and diagnostic acceptability showed variable results. No CT scans were considered as unacceptable image.We modified abdominal CT protocols to reduce radiation exposure while trying to maintain diagnostic acceptability.

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like ... contrast materials and a metallic taste in your mouth that lasts for at most a minute or ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like ... contrast materials and a metallic taste in your mouth that lasts for at most a minute or ...

  10. Computed tomography of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Engelshoven, J M; Kreel, L

    1979-02-01

    The conventional anatomy of the prostate is reviewed and the computed tomography (CT) anatomy described and illustrated. The results of 55 "normal" cases were analyzed for size and relationship to the symphysis pubis, retropubic space, and bladder, as shown on CT sections correlating the features with age and possible urinary symptoms. Attention is also drawn to the differences between phleboliths and prostatic calcification. Computed tomography is an effective method of demonstrating the prostate and surrounding structures and of assessing prostatic enlargement.

  11. Improving the efficiency of abdominal aortic aneurysm wall stress computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelaya, Jaime E; Goenezen, Sevan; Dargon, Phong T; Azarbal, Amir-Farzin; Rugonyi, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a pathological dilation of the abdominal aorta, which carries a high mortality rate if ruptured. The most commonly used surrogate marker of rupture risk is the maximal transverse diameter of the aneurysm. More recent studies suggest that wall stress from models of patient-specific aneurysm geometries extracted, for instance, from computed tomography images may be a more accurate predictor of rupture risk and an important factor in AAA size progression. However, quantification of wall stress is typically computationally intensive and time-consuming, mainly due to the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the abdominal aortic aneurysm walls. These difficulties have limited the potential of computational models in clinical practice. To facilitate computation of wall stresses, we propose to use a linear approach that ensures equilibrium of wall stresses in the aneurysms. This proposed linear model approach is easy to implement and eliminates the burden of nonlinear computations. To assess the accuracy of our proposed approach to compute wall stresses, results from idealized and patient-specific model simulations were compared to those obtained using conventional approaches and to those of a hypothetical, reference abdominal aortic aneurysm model. For the reference model, wall mechanical properties and the initial unloaded and unstressed configuration were assumed to be known, and the resulting wall stresses were used as reference for comparison. Our proposed linear approach accurately approximates wall stresses for varying model geometries and wall material properties. Our findings suggest that the proposed linear approach could be used as an effective, efficient, easy-to-use clinical tool to estimate patient-specific wall stresses.

  12. COMPARATIVE ROLE AND EVALUATION OF ULTRASOUND AND MULTISLICE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE GRADING OF HEMOPERITONEUM IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE BLUNT ABDOMINAL TRAUMA AND ITS CORRELATION WITH THE GRADING OF ORGAN INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunwarpal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: 1. To assess the role of Ultrasound (US and Multislice Computed Tomography (MSCT in detecting hemoperitoneum in patients with acute blunt abdominal trauma. 2. To study the use of US and MSCT in grading of hemoperitoneum in blunt abdominal trauma patients. 3. To compare the US and MSCT grading of hemoperitoneum with the grading of organ injury. 4. To compare and statistically analyze the spectrum of findings observed in each modality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted at advanced diagnostics and institute of imaging , Amritsar. The study comprised of 50 patients who were stable enough to undergo both US and CT scans.US was preceded by MSCT in most of the patients and the time gap between the imaging modalities was less than 1 hour to make the study comparable. TECHNIQUES ADOPTED : 1. US was performed on Versa plus (Siemens and Xario (Toshiba with Cardiac , 3.5 - 5 Mhz - Convex and 5 - 7.5 Mhz - Line ar probes. Particular attention was paid to the amount of free fluid in the abdomen and pelvis. 2. MSCT was performed with MSCT Volume Zoom (Siemens Forchheim Germany AG. 500 - 1000cc of water orally or through nasogastric tube was given 15 - 20 minutes before the study , followed by 120cc I/V contrast at the rate of 2 - 3ml/second using power injector. Parameters used: Single breath hold ; A. 165 mAs . B. 120 kvp . C. Scan delay - 40 seconds . D. Collimation - 4x2.5mm . E. Pitch - 5mm . Following findings were observed : a. Presence of peritoneal fluid. B. Any tear or hematoma in the solid abdominal organs like spleen and liver. C. Status of hollow viscera like small bowel , large bowel and urinary bladder. Hemoperitoneum was scored on both US and MSCT. Visceral injuries were graded according to O.I.S grading system. Score was correlated with the underlying organ injury and the management of the patient. US scoring (Table A and MSCT quantification of hemoperitoneum was done. (Table B Location of hemoperitoneum . A

  13. Local diagnostic reference level based on size-specific dose estimates: Assessment of pediatric abdominal/pelvic computed tomography at a Japanese national children's hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, Rumi; Miyazaki, Osamu; Kurosawa, Hideo; Nosaka, Shunsuke [National Center for Child Health and Development, Department of Radiology, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Horiuchi, Tetsuya [Osaka University, Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Division of Medical Technology and Science, Course of Health Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2015-03-01

    A child's body size is not accurately reflected by volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and dose-length product (DLP). Size-specific dose estimation (SSDE) was introduced recently as a new index of radiation dose. However, it has not yet been established as a diagnostic reference level (DRL). To calculate the SSDE of abdominal/pelvic CT and compare the SSDE with CTDI{sub vol}. To calculate the DRLs of CTDI{sub vol} and SSDE. Our hypotheses are: SSDE values will be greater than CTDI{sub vol}, and our DRL will be smaller than the known DRLs of other countries. The CTDI{sub vol} and DLP of 117 children who underwent abdominal/pelvic CT were collected retrospectively. The SSDE was calculated from the sum of the lateral and anteroposterior diameters. The relationships between body weight and effective diameter and between effective diameter and CTDI{sub vol}/SSDE were compared. Further, the local DRL was compared with the DRLs of other countries. Body weight and effective diameter and effective diameter and SSDE were positively correlated. In children ages 1, 5 and 10 years, the SSDE is closer to the exposure dose of CTDI{sub vol} for the 16-cm phantom, while in children ages 15 years, the SSDE falls between CTDI{sub vol} for the 16-cm phantom and that for the 32-cm phantom. The local DRL was lower than those of other countries. With SSDE, the radiation dose increased with increasing body weight. Since SSDE takes body size into account, it proved to be a useful indicator for estimating the exposure dose. (orig.)

  14. Computed Tomography Features of Spontaneously Perforated Pyometra: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, K.S.; Tan, C.K.; Mak, C.W.; Chia, C.C.; Kuo, C.Y.; Yu, W.L. [Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan (China). Depts. of Intensive Care Medicine, Radiology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Surgery

    2006-03-15

    Spontaneous perforation of pyometra is an extremely rare emergent gynecologic disease. We report a 73-year-old woman with a spontaneously perforated pyometra presenting with acute abdomen in the emergency department. A dedicated computed tomography examination of the abdominal and pelvic regions revealed the diagnosis. The patient recovered well after surgical intervention and antibiotic treatment.

  15. Impact of contrast injection and stent-graft implantation on reproducibility of volume measurements in semiautomated segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysm on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morin-Roy, Florence; Hadjadj, Sofiane; Thomas, Olivier; Yang, Dan Yang [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CHUM), Hopital Notre-Dame, Department of Radiology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Kauffmann, Claude [University of Montreal, Centre de Recherche, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CRCHUM), Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Tang, An [University of Montreal, Centre de Recherche, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CRCHUM), Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CHUM), Hopital Saint-Luc, Department of Radiology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Piche, Nicolas [Object Research System, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Elkouri, Stephane [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CHUM), Hopital Hotel-Dieu, Department of Vascular surgery, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Therasse, Eric [University of Montreal, Centre de Recherche, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CRCHUM), Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CHUM), Hopital Hotel-Dieu, Department of Radiology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Soulez, Gilles [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CHUM), Hopital Notre-Dame, Department of Radiology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); University of Montreal, Centre de Recherche, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CRCHUM), Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    To assess the impact of contrast injection and stent-graft implantation on feasibility, accuracy, and reproducibility of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) volume and maximal diameter (D-max) measurements using segmentation software. CT images of 80 subjects presenting AAA were divided into four equal groups: with or without contrast enhancement, and with or without stent-graft implantation. Semiautomated software was used to segment the aortic wall, once by an expert and twice by three readers. Volume and D-max reproducibility was estimated by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), and accuracy was estimated between the expert and the readers by mean relative errors. All segmentations were technically successful. The mean AAA volume was 167.0 ± 82.8 mL and the mean D-max 55.0 ± 10.6 mm. Inter- and intraobserver ICCs for volume and D-max measurements were greater than 0.99. Mean relative errors between readers varied between -1.8 ± 4.6 and 0.0 ± 3.6 mL. Mean relative errors in volume and D-max measurements between readers showed no significant difference between the four groups (P ≥ 0.2). The feasibility, accuracy, and reproducibility of AAA volume and D-max measurements using segmentation software were not affected by the absence of contrast injection or the presence of stent-graft. (orig.)

  16. Comparison of ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging with intraoperative measurements in the evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysms Comparação entre ultrassonografia, tomografia computadorizada e ressonância nuclear magnética com medidas intra-operatórias na avaliação dos aneurismas de aorta abdominal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco das Chagas de Azevedo

    2005-02-01

    angioresonance provided measurements with no significant differences in the statistic view when compared to the intraoperative measures. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonography is a reliable method for the diagnosis and follow-up of the aorta abdominal aneurysms, but insufficient for endovascular surgery planning. The conventional computed tomography can provoke distortion in the length measurements of the aorta dilatation. Helical computed tomography and nuclear magnetic angioresonance provided precise measurements of all the studied parameters, being of great utility for surgical planning.OBJETIVO: Estudar os métodos mais freqüentemente empregados na avaliação dos aneurismas de aorta abdominal - ultrassonografia, tomografia computadorizada convencional, tomografia computadorizada helicoidal e angio-ressonância nuclear magnética - comparando as medidas fornecidas por estes exames radiológicos no pré-operatório com medidas realizadas durante a operação. MÉTODO: Foram incluídos no estudo pacientes portadores de aneurisma da aorta abdominal com indicação de tratamento cirúrgico eletivo por via transperitoneal. O diagnóstico inicial da dilatação aórtica foi feito com ultra-sonografia e, uma vez indicado o tratamento cirúrgico, era então solicitado um outro exame radiológico complementar, já que não é nossa rotina operar esses pacientes com base apenas na ultra-sonografia. Sessenta pacientes foram divididos em 3 grupos de acordo com o exame complementar realizado (tomografia computadorizada convencional, tomografia computadorizada helicoidal ou angio-ressonância nuclear magnética. As ultra-sonografias dos 20 primeiros pacientes foram incluídas em um 4° grupo. Analisamos neste estudo as medidas do colo proximal da aorta, o diâmetro transverso máximo e o comprimento do aneurisma, além do diâmetro transverso das artérias ilíacas comuns conseguidos a partir dos exames radiológicos. As mesmas medidas eram realizadas por ocasião da operação com o auxílio de

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a ... other in a ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a ... other in a ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT ... distinguished from one another on an x-ray film or CT electronic image. In a conventional x- ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT ... distinguished from one another on an x-ray film or CT electronic image. In a conventional x- ...

  1. Computed tomography:the details.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2007-07-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) is a well established technique, particularly in medical imaging, but also applied in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging. Basic CT imaging via back-projection is treated in many texts, but often with insufficient detail to appreciate subtleties such as the role of non-uniform sampling densities. Herein are given some details often neglected in many texts.

  2. Viewing Welds By Computer Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascua, Antonio G.; Roy, Jagatjit

    1990-01-01

    Computer tomography system used to inspect welds for root penetration. Source illuminates rotating welded part with fan-shaped beam of x rays or gamma rays. Detectors in circular array on opposite side of part intercept beam and convert it into electrical signals. Computer processes signals into image of cross section of weld. Image displayed on video monitor. System offers only nondestructive way to check penetration from outside when inner surfaces inaccessible.

  3. Cranial computed tomography in pediatrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltshauser, E. (Zuerich Univ. (Switzerland). Kinderklinik)

    1984-01-01

    This paper deals mainly with methodical aspects (such as sedation, intravenous and intrathecal application of contrast media) and with common difficulties in interpretation of computed tomography images. The indications for cranial CT are discussed in respect to probable therapeutic consequences and expected diagnostic yield. In the view of the author CT is, as a rule, not required in assessing chronic headache, generalised epileptic convulsions, non-specific mental retardation and cerebral palsy.

  4. Acute Calculous Cholecystitis Missed on Computed Tomography and Ultrasound but Diagnosed with Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Mari Aparici

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 69-year-old patient who underwent ascending aortic aneurysm repair with aortic valve replacement. On postsurgical day 12, he developed leukocytosis and low-grade fevers. The chest computed tomography (CT showed a periaortic hematoma which represents a postsurgical change from aortic aneurysm repair, and a small pericardial effusion. The abdominal ultrasound showed cholelithiasis without any sign of cholecystitis. Finally, a fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-positron emission tomography (PET/CT examination was ordered to find the cause of fever of unknown origin, and it showed increased FDG uptake in the gallbladder wall, with no uptake in the lumen. FDG-PET/CT can diagnose acute cholecystitis in patients with nonspecific clinical symptoms and laboratory results.

  5. Intraperitoneal tuberculous abscess: computed tomography features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng; Dong; Jing-Jing; Chen; Xi-Zhen; Wang; Ya-Qin; Wang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the computed tomography(CT) features of intraperitoneal tuberculous abscess(IPTA). METHODS: Eight patients with IPTA confirmed by pathology were analyzed retrospectively. The clinical symptoms, medical images, and surgical findings were evaluated. Involvement of the intestine, peritoneum, viscera, and lymph nodes was also assessed. RESULTS: All 8 patients had a history of abdominal discomfort for 1 to 6 mo. Physical examination revealed a palpable abdominal mass in 6 patients. Three patients had no evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis(TB). All IPTAs(11 abscesses) were seen as a multiseptated, peripherally enhanced, hypodense mass with enlarged, rim-enhanced lymph nodes. The largest abscess diameter ranged from 4.5 cm to 12.2 cm. CT showed 2 types of IPTA: Lymph node fusion and encapsulation. Of the 8 patients, one had liver tuberculosis and one had splenic and ovarian tuberculosis. Two cases showed involvement of the terminal ileum and ileocecal junction. Ascites were found in 4 cases. Three patients had peritonitis and mesenteritis. Three patients showed involvement of the omentum. Three patients had histological evidence of caseating granuloma, and 5 had histological evidence of acid-fast bacilli. CONCLUSION: CT is crucial in the detection and characterization of IPTA. Certain CT findings are necessary for correct diagnosis.

  6. Role of computed tomography in the study of vascular pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procacci, C.; Bicego, E.; Bergamo, I.A. and others

    1988-01-01

    The most important indications to the use of computed tomography (CT) in the study of vascular pathology are considered. They may be divided as follows: 1) demonstration of vascular involvement by thoraco-abdominal neoplasms; 2) differential diagnosis between primary vascular and extra-vascular pathology; 3) assessment of primary arterial pathology. For each group, those pathologies are considered, for which CT plays a fundamental role.

  7. Industrial applications of computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Carmignato, S.; Kruth, J. -P.;

    2014-01-01

    contains a survey of application examples from the manufacturing industry as well as from other industries, e.g., electrical and electronic devices, inhomogeneous materials, and from the food industry. Challenges as well as major national and international coordinated activities in the field of industrial......The number of industrial applications of Computed Tomography(CT) is large and rapidly increasing. After a brief market overview, the paper gives a survey of state of the art and upcoming CT technologies, covering types of CT systems, scanning capabilities, and technological advances. The paper...

  8. Computed Tomography in Forensic Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind

    2015-01-01

    Modern diagnostic imagining techniques are gaining popularity in forensic medicine. Denmark has been involved in the development of this use of imaging techniques from the beginning. The Institute of Forensic Medicine at the University of Southern Denmark acquired a helical computed tomography (CT...... AND METHODS: This thesis investigated 900 forensic cases that were CT-scanned and autopsied at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Southern Denmark, from 2006-2011. The scanner was a Siemens Somatom Spirit dual-slice CT-scanner with a Siemens Syngo MultiModality workstation. Contrast enhancement...

  9. Future of cardiac computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlo N De Cecco; U Joseph Schoepf

    2015-01-01

    Coronary computed tomography angiography(CCTA)has become an integral tool in the noninvasive diagnostic workup of patients with suspected coronary artery disease in both elective and emergency settings. Today, it represents a mature technique providing accurate, non-invasive morphological assessment of the coronary arteries and atherosclerotic plaque burden. Iterative reconstruction algorithms, low kV imaging, and single-heart beat acquisitions hold promise to further reduce dose requirements and improve the safety and robustness of the technique in several circumstances including imaging of heavily calcified vessels, patients with morbid obesity or irregular heart rates, and assessment in the emergency setting. However, it has become clear over recent years that cardiac radiologists need to take further steps towards the development and integration of functional imaging with morphological CCTA assessment to truly provide a comprehensive evaluation of the heart. Computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging, including both dynamic and static dual-energy approaches, has demonstrated the ability to directly assess and quantify myocardial ischemia with simultaneous CCTA acquisition with a reasonable contrast medium volume and radiation dose delivered to the patient. In order to promote CCTA in the clinical and research environments, radiologists should prepare to embrace the change from morphological to functional imaging, furnishing all the necessary resources and information to referring clinicians.

  10. Adaptive Computed Tomography Imaging Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The present proposal describes the development of an adaptive Computed Tomography Imaging Spectrometer (CTIS), or "Snapshot" spectrometer which can "instantaneously"...

  11. [Computer tomography of sports injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, M; Rupp, N

    1984-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) provides axial slices plane and shows excellent details of bones and different soft tissues, favoring its use in traumatic lesions caused by sporting activities. Complex anatomical structures such as the shoulder, the vertebral column, the pelvis, the knee, the tarsal and carpal bones are often better recognized in detail than by conventional radiography. Fracture lines, localization of bone fragments and involvement of soft tissues are clearly demonstrated. Luxations and bone changes leading to luxations can be shown. CT arthrography provides for the first time a direct visualization of joint cartilage and of cruciate ligaments in the knee joint, so traumatic lesions such as chondropathia patellae or rupture of the cruciate ligaments are shown with a high degree of reliability.

  12. Computed tomography in sport injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, M.; Rupp, N.

    1984-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) provides axial slices plane and shows excellent details of bones and different soft tissues, favoring its use in traumatic lesions caused by sporting activities. Complex anatomical structures such as the shoulder, the vertebral column, the pelvis, the knee, the tarsal and carpal bones are often better recognized in detail than by conventional radiography. Fracture lines, localization of bone fragments and involvement of soft tissues are clearly demonstrated. Luxations and bone changes leading to luxations can be shown. CT arthrography provides for the first time a direct visualization of joint cartilage and of cruciate ligaments in the knee joint, so traumatic lesions such as chondropathia patellae or rupture of the cruciate ligaments are shown with a high degree of reliability.

  13. Computed tomography of the gallbladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havrilla, T R; Reich, N E; Haaga, J R; Seidelmann, F E; Cooperman, A M; Alfidi, R J

    1978-06-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was used to study 79 patients with suspected gallbladder disease. First and second generation scanners were used to determine the efficacy of CT in detecting cholecystitis or cholelithiasis. Manifestations of gallbladder disease such as hydrops, opaque and nonopaque gallstones, chronic cholecystitis with thickened inflammatory walls, and secondary liver abscesses can be easily detected. It is a useful technique for individuals in whom the gallbladder has failed to opacity on oral cholecystography. The scanning method is described, and estimates of reliability are given including its accuracy, limitations, and place in the management of gallbladder disease, especially cholelithiasis. When conventional radiographic examinations or ultrasound fail to give definitive diagnostic information, CT can be a useful alternative with an overall diagnostic accuracy greater than 80%.

  14. Computed tomography of cryogenic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Gerd; Anderson, E.; Vogt, S.; Knochel, C.; Weiss, D.; LeGros, M.; Larabell, C.

    2001-08-30

    Due to the short wavelengths of X-rays and low numerical aperture of the Fresnel zone plates used as X-ray objectives, the depth of field is several microns. Within the focal depth, imaging a thick specimen is to a good approximation equivalent to projecting the specimen absorption. Therefore, computed tomography based on a tilt series of X-ray microscopic images can be used to reconstruct the local linear absorption coefficient and image the three-dimensional specimen structure. To preserve the structural integrity of biological objects during image acquisition, microscopy is performed at cryogenic temperatures. Tomography based on X-ray microscopic images was applied to study the distribution of male specific lethal 1 (MSL-1), a nuclear protein involved in dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster, which ensures that males with single X chromosome have the same amount of most X-linked gene products as females with two X chromosomes. Tomographic reconstructions of X-ray microscopic images were used to compute the local three-dimensional linear absorption coefficient revealing the arrangement of internal structures of Drosophila melanogaster cells. Combined with labelling techniques, nanotomography is a new technique to study the 3D distribution of selected proteins inside whole cells. We want to improve this technique with respect to resolution and specimen preparation. The resolution in the reconstruction can be significantly improved by reducing the angular step size to collect more viewing angles, which requires an automated data acquisition. In addition, fast-freezing with liquid ethane instead of cryogenic He gas will be applied to improve the vitrification of the hydrated samples. We also plan to apply cryo X-ray nanotomography in order to study different types of cells and their nuclear protein distributions.

  15. Cardiac Computed Tomography (Multidetector CT, or MDCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cardiac Computed Tomography (Multidetector CT, or MDCT) Updated:Sep 19, ... The ECG is also needed to help the computer that is connected to the CT scanner create ...

  16. Identification of rupture locations in patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysms using experimental and computational techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, Barry J.; Cloonan, Aidan J.; Walsh, Michael T.; Vorp, David A.; McGloughlin, Timothy M

    2010-01-01

    peer-reviewed In the event of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture, the outcome is often death. This paper aims to experimentally identify the rupture locations of in vitro AAA models and validate these rupture sites using finite element analysis (FEA). Silicone rubber AAA models were manufactured using two different materials (Sylgard 160 and Sylgard 170, Dow Corning) and imaged using computed tomography (CT). Experimental models were inflated until rupture with high speed photograp...

  17. Post trauma abdominal cocoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Supreet; Doley, Rudra Prasad; Chabbhra, Mohinish; Kapoor, Rajeev; Wig, Jaidev

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon or sclerosing peritonitis refers to a rare cause of intestinal obstruction due to formation of a membrane encasing the bowel. We report a case of abdominal cocoon post blunt trauma abdomen. The patient presented with a history of subacute intestinal obstruction and a mobile abdomen lump. Abdominal cocoon was diagnosed on computed tomography. He underwent adhesiolysis with excision of membrane.

  18. [Computed tomography and cranial paleoanthropology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanis, Emmanuel Alain; Badawi-Fayad, Jackie; Iba-Zizen, Marie-Thérèse; Istoc, Adrian; de Lumley, Henry; de Lumley, Marie-Antoinette; Coppens, Yves

    2007-06-01

    Since its invention in 1972, computed tomography (C.T.) has significantly evolved. With the advent of multi-slice detectors (500 times more sensitive than conventional radiography) and high-powered computer programs, medical applications have also improved. CT is now contributing to paleoanthropological research. Its non-destructive nature is the biggest advantage for studying fossil skulls. The second advantage is the possibility of image analysis, storage, and transmission. Potential disadvantages include the possible loss of files and the need to keep up with rapid technological advances. Our experience since the late 1970s, and a recent PhD thesis, led us to describe routine applications of this method. The main contributions of CT to cranial paleoanthropology are five-fold: --Numerical anatomy with rapid acquisition and high spatial resolution (helicoidal and multidetector CT) offering digital storage and stereolithography (3D printing). --Numerical biometry (2D and 3D) can be used to create "normograms" such as the 3D craniofacial reference model used in maxillofacial surgery. --Numerical analysis offers thorough characterization of the specimen and its state of conservation and/or restoration. --From "surrealism" to virtual imaging, anatomical structures can be reconstructed, providing access to hidden or dangerous zones. --The time dimension (4D imaging) confers movement and the possibility for endoscopic simulation and internal navigation (see Iconography). New technical developments will focus on data processing and networking. It remains our duty to deal respectfully with human fossils.

  19. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... internal organs, bones, soft tissues and blood vessels. It may be used to help diagnose abdominal pain ... evaluate blood vessels throughout the body. With CT, it is possible to obtain very detailed pictures of ...

  20. X-ray computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalender, Willi A [Institute of Medical Physics, University Erlangen-Nuernberg, Henkestr. 91, D-91052 Erlangen (Germany)

    2006-07-07

    X-ray computed tomography (CT), introduced into clinical practice in 1972, was the first of the modern slice-imaging modalities. To reconstruct images mathematically from measured data and to display and to archive them in digital form was a novelty then and is commonplace today. CT has shown a steady upward trend with respect to technology, performance and clinical use independent of predictions and expert assessments which forecast in the 1980s that it would be completely replaced by magnetic resonance imaging. CT not only survived but exhibited a true renaissance due to the introduction of spiral scanning which meant the transition from slice-by-slice imaging to true volume imaging. Complemented by the introduction of array detector technology in the 1990s, CT today allows imaging of whole organs or the whole body in 5 to 20 s with sub-millimetre isotropic resolution. This review of CT will proceed in chronological order focussing on technology, image quality and clinical applications. In its final part it will also briefly allude to novel uses of CT such as dual-source CT, C-arm flat-panel-detector CT and micro-CT. At present CT possibly exhibits a higher innovation rate than ever before. In consequence the topical and most recent developments will receive the greatest attention. (review)

  1. Computed tomography of arachnoid cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Min Gi; Bae, Weon Tae; Kim, Jae Kyu; Park, Jin Gyoon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Chung, Hyun De [College of Medicine, Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-02-15

    The preoperative diagnosis of intracranial arachnoid cysts has been simplified, and made more rapid and accurate with computed tomography (CT). Using CT cisternography, detailed anatomic and physiologic information of arachnoid cysts could be obtained. CT features of pathologically proven 21 arachnoid cysts that were examined at Chonnam National University Hospital from June 1983 to May 1987 were analyzed. The results were as follows: 1.Prevalent age group was the 1st decade (8 cases) and male to female ratio was 17:4. 2.Clinical features were related to the location of arachnoid cyst, common symptoms were headache (53.3%), convulsion, mental change and walking disturbance. 3.Location of the arachnoid cyst were in supratentorial region (15 cases) most in middle cranial fossa (12 cases), and infratentorial region (6 cases), common at the retrocerebellar cisternal space (3 cases). 4.Shapes of arachnoid cyst were biconvex with straight inner margin (8 cases), spherical (7 cases), simple biconvex (3 cases) and others (3 cases). 5.Size of the arachnoid cyst, in the greatest dimension, was ranged from 2cm to 9cm and commonly distributed between 3cm to 5cm (14 cases). 6.Of all 14 cases, who did CT cisternography using metrizamide (11 cases) and iopamidol (3 cases), 2 cases had communication with the subarachnoid space.

  2. Iterative Reconstruction for Cardiopulmonary Computed Tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemink, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The number of computed tomography (CT) examinations has increased rapidly since CT became commercially available. This resulted in growing concerns regarding the risk of malignancies induced by application of medical ionizing radiation. Therefore, radiation dose reduction strategies ar

  3. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like ... materials and a metallic taste in his/her mouth that lasts for a few minutes. Occasionally, a ...

  4. Examination of weld defects by computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jovanović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Defects in metal arc gas (MAG welds made in S235JR low carbon steel of 6 mm thickness were examined. A sample containing lack of fusion (LOF and pores was examined by computed tomography – CT. The computed tomography examination was performed in order to define LOF size and position as well as dimensions and distribution of accompanying pores in the weld metal.

  5. Computed tomography in abnormalities of the hip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, J.D.; Jonkers, A.; Klasen, H.J. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis); Hillen, B. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Lab. voor Anatomie en Embryologie)

    1982-06-26

    The value of computed tomography in the assessment of abnormalities of the hip is demonstrated with the aid of an anatomical preparation and in patients with, respectively, congenital dislocation of a hip, dislocation of the hip in spina bifida, an acetabular fracture and a Ewing tumour. The anteversion of the acetabulum and femur and the instability index of the hip joint can be measured by means of computed tomography.

  6. Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of the skull in malignant otitis externa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Dhritiman; Bhattacharya, Anish; Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Gupta, Ashok Kumar; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2012-01-01

    Malignant otitis externa is a severe, rare infective condition of the external auditory canal and skull base. The diagnosis is generally made from a range of clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings. Technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy is known to detect osteomyelitis earlier than computed tomography. The authors present a patient with bilateral malignant otitis externa where the extent of skull base involvement was determined on 3-phase bone scintigraphy with single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography.

  7. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to help diagnose abdominal pain or evaluate for injury after trauma. Tell your doctor about your child’s medications and ... diagnose a wide range of conditions due to injury or illness. In children, CT is typically used ...

  8. Computed Tomography evaluation of maxillofacial injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Natraj Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: The maxillofacial region, a complex anatomical structure, can be evaluated by conventional (plain films, Tomography, Multidetector Computed Tomography, Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography, Orthopantomogram and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The study was conducted with objective of describing various forms of maxillofacial injuries, imaging features of different types of maxillofacial fractures and the advantage of using Three- Dimensional Computed Tomography reconstructed image. Materials & Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted among 50 patients during April 2014 to September 2016 using Toshiba Aquilion Prime 160 slice Multi Detector Computed Tomography scanner.Results: The maxillofacial fractures were significantly higher in male population (88% than female population (12 %. Road traffic accidents were the most common cause of injury others being physical assault and fall from height. It was most common in 31-40 years (26% and 21-30 (24% years age group. Maxillary sinus was the commonest fracture (36% followed by nasal bone and zygomatic bone (30%, mandible and orbital bones (28%. Soft tissue swelling was the commonest associated finding. Three dimensional images (3 D compared to the axial scans missed some fractures. However, the extension of the complex fracture lines and degree of displacement were more accurately assessed. Complex fractures found were Le fort (6% and naso-orbito-ethmoid (4% fractures.Conclusion: The proper evaluation of complex anatomy of the facial bones requires Multidetector Computed Tomography which offers excellent spatial resolution enabling multiplanar reformations and three dimensional reconstructions for enhanced diagnostic accuracy and surgical planning.

  9. Fasciola Hepatica Mimicking Malignancy on 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sürücü, Erdem; Demir, Yusuf; Dülger, Ahmet C.; Batur, Abdüssamed; Ölmez, Şehmus; Kitapçı, Mehmet T.

    2016-01-01

    A 48-year-old female with complaints of gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, fatigue, vomiting, nausea, and weight loss was diagnosed with neuroendocrine tumor after removal of a 2 mm lesion from the stomach with endoscopic biopsy. Her magnetic resonance imaging that was performed due to on-going symptoms showed multiple linear hypointense lesions in the liver. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan was performed for differential diagnosis, which showed high fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in these lesions. Clinical and laboratory findings revealed the final diagnosis as Fasciola hepatica. The imaging features of this case is presented to aid in differentiating this infectious disease from malignancy and avoid misdiagnosis on FDG-PET/CT. PMID:27751978

  10. Fasciola Hepatica Mimicking Malignancy on 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Sürücü

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old female with complaints of gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, fatigue, vomiting, nausea, and weight loss was diagnosed with neuroendocrine tumor after removal of a 2 mm lesion from the stomach with endoscopic biopsy. Her magnetic resonance imaging that was performed due to on-going symptoms showed multiple linear hypointense lesions in the liver. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT scan was performed for differential diagnosis, which showed high fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG uptake in these lesions. Clinical and laboratory findings revealed the final diagnosis as Fasciola hepatica. The imaging features of this case is presented to aid in differentiating this infectious disease from malignancy and avoid misdiagnosis on FDG-PET/CT.

  11. Computed tomographic findings of abdominal complications of Crohn's disease - pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zissin, R. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel)]. E-mail: zisinrivka@clalit.org.il; Hertz, M. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Osadchy, A. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Novis, B. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Gastroenterology, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Gayer, G. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Assaf Harode Medical Center, Zrifin, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2005-02-15

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, transmural, inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract (CIT) most often affecting the terminal ileum and colon. Diarrhea, abdominal pain, anorexia, nausea, and weight loss are the most common clinical symptoms. Abdominal complications of CD, both intestinal and extraintestinal, are frequent and variable. The most common intestinal complications include ileocolitis with external or internal fistulas and abscess formation, strictures, and bowel obstruction. Less common are free perforation, intussusception, and malignancy. The extraintestinal complications include nephrolithiasis, cholelithiasis, fatty liver, portal vein gas, and thromboembolic events. Nowadays, computed tomography (CT) provides superb anatomic detail and diagnostic accuracy of various intra-abdominal pathological processes, and it thus has become an essential diagnostic tool in the evaluation and management of patients wit known CD for the assessment of bowel wall involvement, the mesenteric extent of the disease, and inn-abdominal complications. In addition, as CT is frequently performed to evaluate patients with acute abdomen, it may encounter clinically unsuspected complications in patients with CD. This article reviews the CT features of various intra-abdominal complications of CD. (author)

  12. Diffuse fatty infiltration of the liver: Pitfalls in computed tomography diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loh, Y.H.; Dunn, G.D. [Concord Repatriation Hospital, Sydney, NSW, (Australia). Department of Radiology

    1997-11-01

    The presence of a fatty liver often complicates the interpretation of abdominal computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities in or adjacent to the liver, including dilated bile ducts, liver masses and subphrenic collections, may be masked by the fatty liver. Furthermore, normal structures may simulate pathological conditions. Five cases are presented to illustrate some of these diagnostic pitfalls. (authors). 9 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  13. Proton computed tomography images with algebraic reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzi, M.; Civinini, C.; Scaringella, M.; Bonanno, D.; Brianzi, M.; Carpinelli, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Presti, D. Lo; Maccioni, G.; Pallotta, S.; Randazzo, N.; Romano, F.; Sipala, V.; Talamonti, C.; Vanzi, E.

    2017-02-01

    A prototype of proton Computed Tomography (pCT) system for hadron-therapy has been manufactured and tested in a 175 MeV proton beam with a non-homogeneous phantom designed to simulate high-contrast material. BI-SART reconstruction algorithms have been implemented with GPU parallelism, taking into account of most likely paths of protons in matter. Reconstructed tomography images with density resolutions r.m.s. down to 1% and spatial resolutions CT in hadron-therapy.

  14. 多层螺旋 CT 口服小肠造影与胶囊内镜对不明原因腹痛患者诊断价值的对比研究%Comparison of diagnostic value of multi-slice computer tomography enterography versus capsule endoscopy for unexplained abdominal pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晓燕; 伦伟健; 黄鹤; 贾柳萍

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare and evaluate the diagnositic value of multi-slice computer tomography enterography (MSCTE)versus capsule endoscopy for patients with unexplained abdominal pain.Methods twenty-nine cases of unknown abdominal pain were collected.8 cases of 29 cases received MSCTE examination,24 cases received the capsule endoscopy and 3 cases received both of the examinations.Results The detection rate for lesions was 62.5% by MSCTE and 75.0% by capsule endoscopy.There was no statistical difference between the two methods(P >0.05).The detection rate in cases undergoing both examinations was 1 00%. Conclusions MSCTE and capsule endoscopy have high diagnostic value in patients with unexplained abdominal pain.The detection rate can be increased if the two methods are combined to conduct examination.%目的:对比多层螺旋 CT 口服小肠造影(MSCTE)与胶囊内镜对不明原因腹痛患者的诊断价值。方法收集29例不明原因腹痛患者,其中 MSCTE 检查8例,胶囊内镜检查24例,同时接受两种方法检查3例。结果 MSCTE 病变检出率为62.5%,胶囊内镜为75.0%,两者差别无统计学意义(P >0.05),联合两者病变检出率为100%。结论 MSCTE 与胶囊内镜检查对不明原因腹痛患者具有较高的诊断价值,二者联合诊断意义更高。

  15. Acute pelvic inflammatory disease: pictorial essay focused on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Febronio, Eduardo Miguel; Rosas, George de Queiroz; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe_dr@uol.com.br [Department of Imaging Diagnosis, Escola Paulista de Medicina - Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPMUnifesp), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    The present study was aimed at describing key computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with acute abdominal pain derived from pelvic inflammatory disease. Two radiologists consensually selected and analyzed computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies performed between January 2010 and December 2011 in patients with proven pelvic inflammatory disease leading to presentation of acute abdomen. Main findings included presence of intracavitary fluid collections, anomalous enhancement of the pelvic excavation and densification of adnexal fat planes. Pelvic inflammatory disease is one of the leading causes of abdominal pain in women of childbearing age and it has been increasingly been diagnosed by means of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging supplementing the role of ultrasonography. It is crucial that radiologists become familiar with the main sectional imaging findings in the diagnosis of this common cause of acute abdomen (author)

  16. Ectopic pregnancy: pictorial essay focusing on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Febronio, Eduardo Miguel; Rosas, George de Queiroz; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe [Escola Paulista de Medicina - Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM-Unifesp), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Imaging Diagnosis; Cardia, Patricia Prando, E-mail: giuseppe_dr@uol.com.br [Centro Radiologico Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    The objective of the present study is to describe key computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with acute abdominal pain caused by ectopic pregnancy. For this purpose, two radiologists consensually selected and analyzed computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies performed in female patients with acute abdominal pain caused by proven ectopic pregnancy in the period between January 2010 and December 2011. The imaging diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy is usually obtained by ultrasonography, however, with the increasing use of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of patients with acute abdomen of gynecological origin it is necessary that the radiologist becomes familiar with the main findings observed at these diagnostic methods. (author)

  17. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a ... a gantry, which rotates around the patient. The computer that processes the imaging information and monitor are ...

  18. Role of F18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography in the management of Askin's tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Sampath; Kashyap, Raghava; Bhattacharya, Anish; Kumar Jindal, Surinder; Rai Mittal, Bhagwant

    2013-07-01

    A primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of the thoraco-abdominal region is one of a group of small round cell tumors usually found in children and young adults, originally described by Askin et al. Most cases arise in the soft-tissues of the thorax, but may rarely occur within the lung with the symptoms of chest wall pain, pleural effusion and dyspnea. The authors present two cases demonstrating the utility of F18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography in the staging and prognosis of PNET of the chest wall.

  19. Computed tomography versus invasive coronary angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Napp, Adriane E; Haase, Robert; Laule, Michael

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: More than 3.5 million invasive coronary angiographies (ICA) are performed in Europe annually. Approximately 2 million of these invasive procedures might be reduced by noninvasive tests because no coronary intervention is performed. Computed tomography (CT) is the most accurate noninva...... angiography (ICA) is the reference standard for detection of CAD. • Noninvasive computed tomography angiography excludes CAD with high sensitivity. • CT may effectively reduce the approximately 2 million negative ICAs in Europe. • DISCHARGE addresses this hypothesis in patients with low...

  20. 术前全腹CT检查对双气囊小肠镜诊断消化道出血的意义%Abdominal Computed Tomography for Double Balloon Enteroscopy Diagnosing Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵晓冬; 赵佳钧; 任丽楠; 梁振东; 郭道光; 郭晓钟

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨消化道出血患者在接受双气囊小肠镜(double balloon enteroscopy,DBE)检查前进行全腹电子计算机断层扫描(computed tomography,CT)检查的临床意义.方法 回顾分析2009-08/2014-08月在作者科室因消化道出血而接受DBE检查的患者资料.评估DBE检查前行全腹CT检查对最终诊断结果的影响.结果 203例患者因消化道出血在作者科室接受了DBE检查,其中94例患者在DBE检查前进行了全腹CT检查.对于消化道出血DBE诊断阳性率90.40%,而全腹CT的诊断阳性率为43.60%.与非肿瘤性消化道出血相比,全腹CT在肿瘤性消化道出血中的诊断阳性率明显增高,组间比较差异具有统计学意义(P=0.000).与CT检查结果阴性的患者相比,DBE术前CT检查结果阳性可以明显提高首次DBE检查路径选择的正确性(P=0.000).结论 全腹CT检查可有助于判断哪些患者会从DBE检查受益,也有利于选择正确的DBE检查人路.

  1. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... which are then displayed on a monitor. Special software can also generate three-dimensional (3-D) images ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT ... through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special image recording plate . Bones appear ...

  3. Computed tomography demonstration of cholecystogastric fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Kuao Chou, MD, MPH

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cholecystogastric fistula is a rare complication of chronic cholecystitis or long-standing cholelithiasis. It results from the gradual erosion of the approximated, chronically inflamed wall of the gall bladder and stomach with fistulous tract formation. The present case describes the direct visualization of a cholecystogastric fistula by computed tomography in a patient without prior biliary system complaints.

  4. Cone beam computed tomography in veterinary dentistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Thielen, B.; Siguenza, F.; Hassan, B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in imaging dogs and cats for diagnostic dental veterinary applications. CBCT scans of heads of six dogs and two cats were made. Dental panoramic and multi-planar reformatted (MPR) para-sagittal reconstruc

  5. Cervical diplomyelia revealed by computed tomography (CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, G.B.; Davidovits, P.; Cerisoli, M.; Giulioni, M.

    1982-05-01

    An unusual case of cervical diplomyelia diagnosed by Computed Tomography (CT) is reported. The usefulness of CT examination in the evaluation of spinal dysraphic defects is emphasized, though performed without CSF enhancement. Visualisation of spinal cord splitting in the absence of bony spicula allows the authors to differentiate between diplomyelia and diastematomyelia which have been often described by using both terms interchangeably.

  6. Neutron computed tomography of rat lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzke, R W; Wall, W A [Institute for Computational Mechanics at Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85747 Garching (Germany); Runck, H; Stahl, C A; Schneider, M; Guttmann, J [Department of Anesthesiology, Section for Experimental Anesthesiology, University Medical Center Freiburg, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Schillinger, B; Calzada, E; Muehlbauer, M; Schulz, M [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM-II) and Fakultaet fuer Physik E21 at Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Priebe, H-J, E-mail: metzke@lnm.mw.tum.d [Department of Anesthesiology, University Medical Center Freiburg, 79106 Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-01-07

    Using conventional methods, three-dimensional imaging of the lung is challenging because of the low contrast between air and tissue and the large differences in dimensions between various pulmonary structures. The small distal airway structures and the high air-to-tissue ratio of lung tissue require an imaging technique which reliably discriminates between air and water. The objective of this study was to assess whether neutron computed tomography would satisfy such a requirement. This method utilizes the unique characteristic of neutrons of directly interacting with the atomic nucleus rather than being scattered by the atomic shell. Neutron computed tomography was tested in rats and allowed differentiation of larger lung structures (e.g., lobes) and distal airways. Airways could be identified reliably down to the sixth bronchial generation, in some cases even down to the tenth generation. The lung could be stabilized for sufficiently long exposure times to achieve an image resolution of 50-60 {mu}m, which is the current physical resolution limit of the neutron computed tomography facility. Neutron computed tomography allowed excellent lung imaging without the need for additional tissue preparation or contrast media. The enhanced structural resolution obtained by applying this new research technique may improve understanding of lung physiology and respiratory therapy. (note)

  7. Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography for malignant otitis externa: lesion not shown on planar image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Hung; Hsieh, Hung-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Malignant otitis externa is a severe and rare infection of the external acoustic meatus. Triphasic bone and (67)Ga scintigraphies are used to initial detect and follow-up the response of therapy. With single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography images, the diagnostic sensitivity is higher. We presented a case with malignant otitis externa with initial negative planar scintigraphic finding. The lesion was detected by photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography images. We concluded that the photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography should be performed routinely for patients with suspected malignant otitis externa, even without evidence of lesion on planar images.

  8. Computed tomography of tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Noriko; Sato, Hiromi; Kawaguchi, Tetsuro; Fujita, Katsuzo; Tanaka, Makoto (Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-12-01

    Recently, tuberculous meningitis has become rather rare except in areas where tuberculosis is still endemic. Six adolescents and young adults with tuberculous meningitis were evaluated by means of serial computerized tomography (CT), and the results were correlated with the findings of surgical specimens or autopsies. All cases showed meningeal irritation and fever at onset. CSF cultures revealed the presence of tuberculous bacilli. Four cases advanced rapidly to the clinical stage III and expired in a short period-between two weeks to one month from onset. On initial CT scanning, the disappearance of the basal cistern was a characteristic finding in all these cases. With the progression, an enhancement of the basal cistern on contrast injection, a localized hypodensity in adjacent parenchyma, and symmetrical ventricular dilatation appeared. Two autopsied cases showed tuberculous granulomas with purulent materials, thickened meninges, and caseous necrosis in the parenchyma around the basal cistern. The other two cases progressed rather slowly. CT findings at Stage II showed multiple enhanced spots in the basal subcortical area following contrast injection. Tuberculous granulomas were identified in these parts by means of explorative craniotomy. The authors point out the pathognomonic CT findings of tuberculous meningitis and emphasize the necessity of serial CT for the early detection and management of tuberculous meningitis.

  9. Parallel Computing for the Computed-Tomography Imaging Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungwon

    2008-01-01

    This software computes the tomographic reconstruction of spatial-spectral data from raw detector images of the Computed-Tomography Imaging Spectrometer (CTIS), which enables transient-level, multi-spectral imaging by capturing spatial and spectral information in a single snapshot.

  10. Trip report: Marshall Space Center computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, J. R.; Andrews, M. K.

    BIR Inc. is a small company out of the Chicago area which sells equipment for producing images by tomography. They have built a relatively large instrument, called ACTIS, for NASA at the Marshall Space Center in Huntsville, Alabama and still gave access to this instrument. BIR has a grant from the Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the utility of computed tomography (CT) for characterization of nuclear and hazardous waste within the DOE complex. As part of this effort, the potential of this technique for obtaining images of canistered waste forms has been investigated. Funding for data acquisition was provided through this grant.

  11. Thermoluminescent dosimetry in computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara C, A.; Rivera M, T. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, Av. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Osorio V, M. [ISSSTE, Centro Medico Nacional 20 de Noviembre, Felix Cuevas 540, Col. del Valle, 03100 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Hernandez O, O., E-mail: armando_lara_cam@yahoo.com.mx [Hospital General de Mexico, Dr. Balmis 148, Col. Doctores, 06726 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    In this work we studied the dosimetry performed on CT scan in two different equipment, SOMATOM and Phillips, with 16 and 64 slice respectively. We used 51 pellets of lithium fluoride doped with magnesium and titanium (LiF: Mg, Ti) also knows as TLD-100 due to its physical properties and its easy of use, in this study, first analysis a batch of 56 pellets, but only 53 pellets were optimal for this study, cesium-137 was used as source irradiation, then proceeded to calibrate the batch with X-rays source, measuring the corresponding dose in a Farmers ionization chamber, then, we obtained a calibration curve, and we used as reference to calculation of the applied dose, finally designing ergonomic mesh, were it was deposited a TLD 100, placed in a regions of interest were made to each scan type. Once characterized our material proceeded to testing in 30 patients, which were irradiated with X-ray tube, whose operation was performed at 80, 120 kV with a current of 100, 300 and 400 m A according to scanning protocol. Overall we measured dose of 5 mGy to 53 mGy, these measurements reflect significant dose to can induced cancer, due previous reports published, that doses greater than 20 mGy there is a risk of developing cancer in the long term, but in practice when it assigned a medical diagnosis, there are no dose limits due to benefits patients, however, IAEA publish recommendations that allow us to carry out optimum handling of ionizing radiation, among these is the quality control of the tomography equipment that helps greatly reduce patient dose. (Author)

  12. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaabane, M.; Ladeb, M.F.; Bouhaouala, M.H.; Ben Hammouda, M.; Ataalah, R.; Gannouni, A.; Krifa, H.

    1989-07-01

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.).

  13. Computed tomography of the spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haughton, V.M.; Williams, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    The book describes the computed tomographic (CT) techniques for imaging the different elements comprising the spinal column and canal. The use of intravenous and intrathecal contrast enhancement and of xenon enhancement is briefly mentioned. Reconstruction techniques and special problems regarding CT of the spine are presented. CT of the spinal cord, meninges and subarachnoid space, epidural space, intervertebral discs, facet joints, and vertebrae present normal anatomy, and several common pathologic conditions. (KRM)

  14. Computed tomography of thymic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, P.; Candardjis, G.

    1987-05-01

    Computed tomographic examinations of 38 patients with surgically and histologically proven diagnosis were reviewed. Twenty subjects (52%) had an invasive thymoma and 16% an hyperplastic thymus. Myasthenia gravis was present in 6 cases (16%) of thymic abnormalities, four (10,5%) with invasive thymoma and two (5%) with thymic hyperplasia. Graves' disease was also present in one case of thymic hyperplasia. We emphasize the contribution of CT to the diagnosis and the prognosis.

  15. Computed tomography in mitochondrial cytopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, J.; Kendall, B.E.

    1981-10-01

    The clinical and computed tomographic (CT) findings in 11 proven cases of mitochondrial cytopathy (mitochondrial myopathy, Kearns Sayre syndrome, ophthalmoplegia plus) were studied. The CT changes included focal low density lesions in the basal ganglia and white matter and atrophy which could be slight or diffuse and severe. Calcification has been described in the basal ganglia, but did not occur in our series. Serial CT showed progression of the abnormalities. The differential diagnosis is discussed.

  16. Introducing Seismic Tomography with Computational Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, R.; Neves, M. L.; Teodoro, V.

    2011-12-01

    Learning seismic tomography principles and techniques involves advanced physical and computational knowledge. In depth learning of such computational skills is a difficult cognitive process that requires a strong background in physics, mathematics and computer programming. The corresponding learning environments and pedagogic methodologies should then involve sets of computational modelling activities with computer software systems which allow students the possibility to improve their mathematical or programming knowledge and simultaneously focus on the learning of seismic wave propagation and inverse theory. To reduce the level of cognitive opacity associated with mathematical or programming knowledge, several computer modelling systems have already been developed (Neves & Teodoro, 2010). Among such systems, Modellus is particularly well suited to achieve this goal because it is a domain general environment for explorative and expressive modelling with the following main advantages: 1) an easy and intuitive creation of mathematical models using just standard mathematical notation; 2) the simultaneous exploration of images, tables, graphs and object animations; 3) the attribution of mathematical properties expressed in the models to animated objects; and finally 4) the computation and display of mathematical quantities obtained from the analysis of images and graphs. Here we describe virtual simulations and educational exercises which enable students an easy grasp of the fundamental of seismic tomography. The simulations make the lecture more interactive and allow students the possibility to overcome their lack of advanced mathematical or programming knowledge and focus on the learning of seismological concepts and processes taking advantage of basic scientific computation methods and tools.

  17. Post trauma abdominal cocoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal cocoon or sclerosing peritonitis refers to a rare cause of intestinal obstruction due to formation of a membrane encasing the bowel. We report a case of abdominal cocoon post blunt trauma abdomen. The patient presented with a history of subacute intestinal obstruction and a mobile abdomen lump. Abdominal cocoon was diagnosed on computed tomography. He underwent adhesiolysis with excision of membrane.

  18. Complicated cholecystitis: the complementary roles of sonography and computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalel, Resmi A; Jeffrey, R Brooke; Shin, Lewis K

    2011-09-01

    Acute cholecystitis is a common cause of abdominal pain in the Western world. Unless treated promptly, patients with acute cholecystitis may develop complications such as gangrenous, perforated, or emphysematous cholecystitis. Because of the increased morbidity and mortality of complicated cholecystitis, early diagnosis and treatment are essential for optimal patient care. Nevertheless, complicated cholecystitis may pose significant challenges with cross-sectional imaging, including sonography and computed tomography (CT). Interpreting radiologists should be familiar with the spectrum of sonographic findings seen with complicated cholecystitis and as well as understand the complementary role of CT. Worrisome imaging findings for complicated cholecystitis include intraluminal findings (sloughed mucosa, hemorrhage, abnormal gas), gallbladder wall abnormalities (striations, asymmetric wall thickening, abnormal gas, loss of sonoreflectivity and contrast enhancement), and pericholecystic changes (echogenic fat, pericholecystic fluid, abscess formation). Finally, diagnosis of complicated cholecystitis by sonography and CT can guide alternative treatments including minimally invasive percutaneous and endoscopic options.

  19. Cone beam computed tomography in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durack, Conor; Patel, Shanon

    2012-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a contemporary, radiological imaging system designed specifically for use on the maxillo-facial skeleton. The system overcomes many of the limitations of conventional radiography by producing undistorted, three-dimensional images of the area under examination. These properties make this form of imaging particularly suitable for use in endodontics. The clinician can obtain an enhanced appreciation of the anatomy being assessed, leading to an improvement in the detection of endodontic disease and resulting in more effective treatment planning. In addition, CBCT operates with a significantly lower effective radiation dose when compared with conventional computed tomography (CT). The purpose of this paper is to review the current literature relating to the limitations and potential applications of CBCT in endodontic practice.

  20. [Pneumothorax revealed by postoperative computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Shizuka; Katori, Kiyoshi; Fujimoto, Minoru; Nitahara, Keiichi; Higa, Kazuo

    2005-11-01

    We report a case of pneumothorax revealed by postoperative computed tomography. A 39-year-old obese woman (height 153 cm, weight 70 kg) with fractures of the radius, ulna, clavicle, and femur in a traffic accident, was scheduled for osteosynthesis. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental and maintained with 50% nitrous oxide in oxygen and sevoflurane. The Spo2 decreased from 99% to 94% during the surgery. Bilateral chest sounds were symmetrical. The Spo2 increased to 100% after discontinuation of nitrous oxide. Pneumothorax was not evident on a postoperative chest X-ray, but computed tomography of the chest demonstrated right-sided pneumothorax. An ECG electrode had overlapped the fractured rib on the preoperative chest X-ray.

  1. Contrast-induced nephropathy after computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano da Silva Selistre

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Contrast induced nephropathy is the third most prevalent preventable cause of acute kidney injury in hospitalized patients. It defined as an absolute increase in serum creatinine ≥ 0.5 mg/dL and relative ≥ 25% increase. Objective: We studied the risk factors to intravenous injection contrast nephropathy after computed tomography. Methods: We studied 400 patients prospectively. Results: The incidence of contrast induced nephropathy, with an absolute or a relative increase were 4.0% and 13.9%, respectively. Diabetes and cardiac failure were independent risk factors for CIN a relative increase de serum creatinine (O.R.: 3.5 [95% CI: 1.92-6.36], p < 0.01, 2.61 [95% CI: 1.14-6.03%], p < 0.05, respectively. Conclusions: We showed association between uses of intravenous injection contrast after computed tomography with acute injury renal, notably with diabetes and heart failure.

  2. The Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Hüche; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Tilsted, Hans Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    -CCTR, showed that coronary CT angiographies accounted for only 23% of all nonregistered cardiac CTs, indicating >90% completeness of coronary CT angiographies in the WDHR-CCTR. The completeness of individual variables varied substantially (range: 0%-100%), but was >85% for more than 70% of all variables. Using......BACKGROUND: As a subregistry to the Western Denmark Heart Registry (WDHR), the Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry (WDHR-CCTR) is a clinical database established in 2008 to monitor and improve the quality of cardiac computed tomography (CT) in Western Denmark. OBJECTIVE: We...... expected numbers; and 4) positive predictive values as well as negative predictive values of 19 main patient and procedure variables. RESULTS: By December 31, 2012, almost 22,000 cardiac CTs with up to 40 variables for each procedure have been registered. Of these, 87% were coronary CT angiography...

  3. Cone beam computed tomography in endodontic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durack, Conor; Patel, Shanon, E-mail: conordurack1@hotmail.com [Unit of Endodontology, Department of Conservative Dentistry, King' s College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a contemporary, radiological imaging system designed specifically for use on the maxillofacial skeleton. The system overcomes many of the limitations of conventional radiography by producing undistorted, three-dimensional images of the area under examination. These properties make this form of imaging particularly suitable for use in endodontic. The clinician can obtain an enhanced appreciation of the anatomy being assessed, leading to an improvement in the detection of endodontic disease and resulting in more effective treatment planning. In addition, CBCT operates with a significantly lower effective radiation dose when compared with conventional computed tomography (CT). The purpose of this paper is to review the current literature relating to the limitations and potential applications of CBCT in endodontic practice. (author)

  4. Cone beam computed tomography use in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nervina, J M

    2012-03-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is widely used by orthodontists to obtain three-dimensional (3-D) images of their patients. This is of value as malocclusion results from discrepancies in three planes of space. This review tracks the use of CBCT in orthodontics, from its validation as an accurate and reliable tool, to its use in diagnosing and treatment planning, and in assessing treatment outcomes in orthodontics.

  5. Encapsulating peritonitis: computed tomography and surgical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadow, Juliana Santos; Fingerhut, Carla Jeronimo Peres; Fernandes, Vinicius de Barros; Coradazzi, Klaus Rizk Stuhr; Silva, Lucas Marciel Soares; Penachim, Thiago Jose, E-mail: vinicius.barros.fernandes@gmail.com [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Campinas (PUC-Campinas), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Hospital e Maternidade Celso Pierro

    2014-07-15

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis is a rare and frequently severe entity characterized by total or partial involvement of small bowel loops by a membrane of fibrous tissue. The disease presents with nonspecific clinical features of intestinal obstruction, requiring precise imaging diagnosis to guide the treatment. The present report emphasizes the importance of computed tomography in the diagnosis of this condition and its confirmation by surgical correlation. (author)

  6. Computed tomography of ancient Egyptian mummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood-Nash, D C

    1979-12-01

    This first report of the application of computed tomography (CT) to the study of ancient mummies, the desiccated brain of a boy and the body of a young woman within her cartonnage, shows that CT is uniquely suitable for the study of such antiquities, a study that does not necessitate destruction of the mummy or its cartonnage. Exquisite images result that are of great paleoanatomical, paleopathological, and archeological significance.

  7. Computed Tomography of Transverse Phase Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, A. [Fermilab; Johnstone, C. [Fermilab; Johnstone, J. [Fermilab

    2016-09-19

    Two computed tomography techniques are explored to reconstruct beam transverse phase space using both simulated beam and multi-wire profile data in the Fermilab Muon Test Area ("MTA") beamline. Both Filtered Back-Projection ("FBP") and Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique ("SART") algorithms [2] are considered and compared. Errors and artifacts are compared as a function of each algorithm’s free parameters, and it is shown through simulation and MTA beamline profiles that SART is advantageous for reconstructions with limited profile data.

  8. Computed tomography and obstructive biliary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havrilla, T R; Haaga, J R; Alfidi, R J; Reich, N E

    1977-05-01

    Forty-four patients with confirmed biliary diseases were studied to determine the value of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of biliary pathology. The results indicate that CT is useful and highly accurate in differentiating between obstructive (surgical) and nonobstructive (medical) disease entities. Of the cases with proved obstruction, 88% were correctly identified. All of the nonobstructive cases had positive CT correlation. In addition, the underlying cause of the occlusion was determined in the majority of cases.

  9. Cone Beam Computed Tomography - Know its Secrets

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Mohan; Shanavas, Muhammad; Sidappa, Ashwin; Kiran, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an advanced imaging modality that has high clinical applications in the field of dentistry. CBCT proved to be a successful investigative modality that has been used for dental and maxillofacial imaging. Radiation exposure dose from CBCT is 10 times less than from conventional CT scans during maxillofacial exposure. Furthermore, CBCT is highly accurate and can provide a three-dimensional volumetric data in axial, sagittal and coronal planes. This article...

  10. A review of computerized tomography in blunt abdominal trauma at Christchurch Hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohmer, R.D.; Cowan, I [Christchurch Hospital (New Zealand)

    1997-02-01

    A review was undertaken of computerized tomography (CT) of the abdomen, performed between March 1993 and December 1994 for blunt abdominal trauma at Christchurch Hospital. CT findings were correlated with the clinical outcome. The outcome was either recovery from an abdominal point of view with or without laparotomy, or post mortem. A total of 116 CTs were reviewed, of which 76 were normal. CT was highly sensitive and specific for a variety of abdominal traumatic lesions. there were 1 false positive and 4 false negatives (only 2 of these significant). There was 1 non-therapeutic laparotomy based on CT findings. There was only 1 case of delayed treatment based on CT results. Three patients had unexplained findings of pneumoperitoneum. Care should be taken when interpreting the presence of free intraperitoneal air on CT scan. The possibility of missed bowel perforation should be considered, especially in the presence of free intra-abdominal fluid and no solid organ injury to account for it. CT scans are useful in the conservative management of solid organ injuries. 15 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  11. Therapy response evaluation with positron emission tomography-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, George M

    2010-12-01

    Positron emission tomography-computed tomography with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose is widely used for evaluation of therapy response in patients with solid tumors but has not been as readily adopted in clinical trials because of the variability of acquisition and processing protocols and the absence of universal response criteria. Criteria proposed for clinical trials are difficult to apply in clinical practice, and gestalt impression is probably accurate in individual patients, especially with respect to the presence of progressive disease and complete response. Semiquantitative methods of determining tissue glucose metabolism, such as standard uptake value, can be a useful descriptor for levels of tissue glucose metabolism and changes in response to therapy if technical quality control measures are carefully maintained. The terms partial response, complete response, and progressive disease are best used in clinical trials in which the terms have specific meanings and precise definitions. In clinical practice, it may be better to use descriptive terminology agreed upon by imaging physicians and clinicians in their own practice.

  12. Radiological management of blunt polytrauma with computed tomography and angiography: an integrated approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurdziel, J.C.; Dondelinger, R.F.; Hemmer, M.

    1987-01-01

    107 polytraumatized patients, who had experienced blunt trauma have been worked up at admission with computed tomography of the thorax, abdomen and pelvis following computed tomography study of the brain: significant lesions were revealed in 98 (90%) patients. 79 (74%) patients showed trauma to the thorax, in 69 (64%) patients abdominal or pelvic trauma was evidenced. No false positive diagnosis was established. 5 traumatic findings were missed. Emergency angiography was indicated in 3 (3%) patients, following computed tomography examination. 3 other trauma patients were submitted directly to angiography without computed tomography examination during the time period this study was completed. Embolization was carried out in 5/6 patients. No thoracotomy was needed. 13 (12%) patients underwent laparotomy following computed tomography. Overall mortality during hospital stay was 14% (15/107). No patient died from visceral bleeding. Conservative management of blunt polytrauma patients can be advocated in almost 90% of visceral lesions. Computed tomography coupled with angiography and embolization represent an adequate integrated approach to the management of blunt polytrauma patients.

  13. Automatic individualized contrast medium dosage during hepatic computed tomography by using computed tomography dose index volume (CTDI{sub vol})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Anders; Cederlund, Kerstin; Aspelin, Peter; Brismar, Torkel B. [Intervention and Technology at Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Science, Division of Medical Imaging and Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska University Hospital in Huddinge, Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Bjoerk, Jonas [FoU-centrum Skaane Skaanes Universitetssjukhus i Lund, Lund (Sweden); Nyman, Ulf [University of Lund, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Lasarettet Trelleborg, Trelleborg (Sweden)

    2014-08-15

    To compare hepatic parenchymal contrast media (CM) enhancement during multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) and its correlation with volume pitch-corrected computed tomography dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and body weight (BW). One hundred patients referred for standard three-phase thoraco-abdominal MDCT examination were enrolled. BW was measured in the CT suite. Forty grams of iodine was administered intravenously (iodixanol 320 mg I/ml at 5 ml/s or iomeprol 400 mg I/ml at 4 ml/s) followed by a 50-ml saline flush. CTDI{sub vol} presented by the CT equipment during the parenchymal examination was recorded. The CM enhancement of the liver was defined as the attenuation HU of the liver parenchyma during the hepatic parenchymal phase minus the attenuation in the native phase. Liver parenchymal enhancement was negatively correlated to both CTDI{sub vol} (r = -0.60) and BW (r = -0.64), but the difference in correlation between those two was not significant. CTDI{sub vol} may replace BW when adjusting CM doses to body size. This makes it potentially feasible to automatically individualize CM dosage by CT. (orig.)

  14. Computed tomography to quantify tooth abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofmehl, Lukas; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Filippi, Andreas; Hotz, Gerhard; Berndt-Dagassan, Dorothea; Kramis, Simon; Beckmann, Felix; Müller, Bert

    2010-09-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography, also termed digital volume tomography, has become a standard technique in dentistry, allowing for fast 3D jaw imaging including denture at moderate spatial resolution. More detailed X-ray images of restricted volumes for post-mortem studies in dental anthropology are obtained by means of micro computed tomography. The present study evaluates the impact of the pipe smoking wear on teeth morphology comparing the abraded tooth with its contra-lateral counterpart. A set of 60 teeth, loose or anchored in the jaw, from 12 dentitions have been analyzed. After the two contra-lateral teeth were scanned, one dataset has been mirrored before the two datasets were registered using affine and rigid registration algorithms. Rigid registration provides three translational and three rotational parameters to maximize the overlap of two rigid bodies. For the affine registration, three scaling factors are incorporated. Within the present investigation, affine and rigid registrations yield comparable values. The restriction to the six parameters of the rigid registration is not a limitation. The differences in size and shape between the tooth and its contra-lateral counterpart generally exhibit only a few percent in the non-abraded volume, validating that the contralateral tooth is a reasonable approximation to quantify, for example, the volume loss as the result of long-term clay pipe smoking. Therefore, this approach allows quantifying the impact of the pipe abrasion on the internal tooth morphology including root canal, dentin, and enamel volumes.

  15. Positron Computed Tomography: Current State, Clinical Results and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelbert, H. R.; Phelps, M. E.; Kuhl, D. E.

    1980-09-01

    An overview is presented of positron computed tomography: its advantages over single photon emission tomography, its use in metabolic studies of the heart and chemical investigation of the brain, and future trends. (ACR)

  16. Isolated submucosal lipomatosis of appendix mimicking acute appendicitis: computed tomography findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükrü Şanlı

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute appendicitis is one of the more common surgical emergencies, and it is one of the most common causes of acute abdominal pain. Intestinal lipomatosis is a rare condition particularly the isolated form of lipomatosis of the appendix which may mimic or present as an acute appendicitis, that frequently requires the surgical exploration.In this paper, we report computed tomography findings of a case wıth isolated form of submucosal lipomatosis of appendix.

  17. EVALUATION OF THE LIVER METASTASIS BY 3D-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

    OpenAIRE

    Iuliana Eva; R.C. Tiutiuca

    2005-01-01

    Abdominal spiral computed tomography is the method of choice for the diagnosis of hepatic metastasis, evaluating lesions even under 10 mm. Treatment depends of the hepatic and extrahepatic spread of disease. Therapeutical options include surgical ablation (resection, enucleation, crioablation, radiofrequency, liver transplant) or non-surgical (embolization or chemoembolization, therapeutic aproach through the hepatic artery). Precise diagnostic and evaluation of the extension of the disease...

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography using lower doses of radiation for patients with Crohn's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Craig, Orla

    2012-08-01

    Magnetic resonance and ultrasonography have increasing roles in the initial diagnosis of Crohn\\'s disease, but computed tomography (CT) with positive oral contrast agents is most frequently used to identify those with acute extramural complications. However, CT involves exposure of patients to radiation. We prospectively compared the diagnostic accuracy of low-dose CT (at a dose comparable to that used to obtain an abdominal radiograph) with conventional-dose CT in patients with active Crohn\\'s disease.

  19. Tomography and spectroscopy as quantum computations

    CERN Document Server

    Miquel, C; Saraceno, M; Knill, E H; Laflamme, R; Negrevergne, C; Miquel, Cesar; Paz, Juan Pablo; Saraceno, Marcos; Knill, Emmanuel; Laflamme, Raymond; Negrevergne, Camille

    2001-01-01

    Determining the state of a system and measuring properties of its evolution are two of the most important tasks a physicist faces. For the first purpose one can use tomography, a method that after subjecting the system to a number of experiments determines all independent elements of the density matrix. For the second task, one can resort to spectroscopy, a set of techniques used to determine the spectrum of eigenvalues of the evolution operator. In this letter, we show that tomography and spectroscopy can be naturally interpreted as dual forms of quantum computation. We show how to adapt the simplest case of the well-known phase estimation quantum algorithm to perform both tasks, giving it a natural interpretation as a simulated scattering experiment. We show how this algorithm can be used to implement an interesting form of tomography by performing a direct measurement of the Wigner function of a quantum system. We present results of such measurements performed on a system of three qubits using liquid state...

  20. Computed tomography appearances of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, C. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: cheriangeorge@hotmail.com; Al-Zwae, K. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom); Nair, S. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom); Cast, J.E.I. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) characterized by thickened peritoneal membranes, which lead to decreased ultra-filtration and intestinal obstruction. Its early clinical features are nonspecific, and it is often diagnosed late following laparotomy and peritoneal biopsy, when the patient develops small bowel obstruction, which can be a life-threatening complication. However, this is changing with increasing awareness of computed tomography (CT) findings in SEP. CT can yield an early, non-invasive diagnosis that may improve patient outcome. We present a review of the CT appearances of SEP.

  1. Sparse Image Reconstruction in Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jakob Sauer

    In recent years, increased focus on the potentially harmful effects of x-ray computed tomography (CT) scans, such as radiation-induced cancer, has motivated research on new low-dose imaging techniques. Sparse image reconstruction methods, as studied for instance in the field of compressed sensing...... and limitations of sparse reconstruction methods in CT, in particular in a quantitative sense. For example, relations between image properties such as contrast, structure and sparsity, tolerable noise levels, suficient sampling levels, the choice of sparse reconstruction formulation and the achievable image...

  2. Computed tomography in neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valavanis, A.; Schubiger, O.; Hayek, J.; Friede, R.L

    1981-01-01

    The computed tomography (CT) findings in a verified case of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) are presented. CT revealed diffuse and severe cerebral atrophy, reflected by generalized subarachnoid space enlargement and symmetric ventricular dilatation. There was no evidence of abnormalities of the white matter. The CT features in our case of NCL correspond perfectly with the neuropathologic changes of the disease mentioned in the literature. Furthermore, CT is of considerable help in differentiating between those inherited metabolic brain diseases characterized primarily by white matter involvement and those presenting predominantly with changes of grey matter.

  3. Comparison on Computed Tomography using industrial items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In a comparison involving 27 laboratories from 8 countries, measurements on two common industrial items, a polymer part and a metal part, were carried out using X-ray Computed Tomography. All items were measured using coordinate measuring machines before and after circulation, with reference...... measurement uncertainties in the range 1.5–5.5 μm, showing a good stability over the 6 months of the circulation. The comparison has shown that CT measurements on the industrial parts used lie in the range 6–53 μm, with maximum values up to 158 μm....

  4. Electromagnetic tracking for abdominal interventions in computer aided surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Banovac, Filip; Lin, Ralph; Glossop, Neil; Wood, Bradford J; Lindisch, David; Levy, Elliot; Cleary, Kevin

    2006-05-01

    Electromagnetic tracking has great potential for assisting physicians in precision placement of instruments during minimally invasive interventions in the abdomen, since electromagnetic tracking is not limited by the line-of-sight restrictions of optical tracking. A new generation of electromagnetic tracking has recently become available, with sensors small enough to be included in the tips of instruments. To fully exploit the potential of this technology, our research group has been developing a computer aided, image-guided system that uses electromagnetic tracking for visualization of the internal anatomy during abdominal interventions. As registration is a critical component in developing an accurate image-guided system, we present three registration techniques: 1) enhanced paired-point registration (time-stamp match registration and dynamic registration); 2) orientation-based registration; and 3) needle shape-based registration. Respiration compensation is another important issue, particularly in the abdomen, where respiratory motion can make precise targeting difficult. To address this problem, we propose reference tracking and affine transformation methods. Finally, we present our prototype navigation system, which integrates the registration, segmentation, path-planning and navigation functions to provide real-time image guidance in the clinical environment. The methods presented here have been tested with a respiratory phantom specially designed by our group and in swine animal studies under approved protocols. Based on these tests, we conclude that our system can provide quick and accurate localization of tracked instruments in abdominal interventions, and that it offers a user-friendly display for the physician.

  5. SADMFR guidelines for the use of cone-beam computed tomography/ Digital Volume Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Dula, Karl; Bornstein, Michael M.; Buser, Daniel; Dagassan-Berndt, Dorothea; Ettlin, Dominik A; Filippi, Andreas; Gabioud, François; Katsaros, Christos; Krastl, Gabriel; Lambrecht, J. Thomas; Lauber, Roland; Luebbers, Heinz-Theo; Pazera, Pawel; Türp, Jens C.

    2014-01-01

    Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) has been introduced in 1998. This radiological imaging procedure has been provided for dentistry and is comparable to computed tomography (CT) in medicine. It is expected that CBCT will have the same success in dental diagnostic imaging as computed tomography had in medicine. Just as CT is responsible for a significant rise in radiation dose to the population from medical X-ray diagnostics, CBCT studies will be accompanied by a significant increase of the ...

  6. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY OF TOOTH RESORPTION IN CATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Linda G; Wilkinson, Thomas E; White, Tammy L; Farnsworth, Raelynn K; Potter, Kathleen A

    2016-09-01

    Tooth resorption is the most common dental disease in cats and can be a source of oral pain. The current clinical gold standard for diagnosis includes a combination of oral exam and dental radiography, however early lesions are not always detected. Computed tomography (CT) of the skull, including the dental arches, is a commonly performed diagnostic procedure, however the appearance of tooth resorption on CT and the diagnostic ability of CT to detect tooth resorption have not been evaluated. The purpose of this prospective, descriptive, diagnostic accuracy study was to characterize the CT appearance of tooth resorption in a sample of affected cats and to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of CT for tooth resorption compared to the clinical gold standard of oral exam and intraoral dental radiography. Twenty-eight cat cadaver specimens were recruited for inclusion. Each specimen was evaluated using oral exam, intraoral dental radiography, and computed tomography (four different slice thicknesses). Each tooth was evaluated for the presence or absence of tooth resorption. Teeth with lesions and a subset of normal teeth were evaluated with histopathology. On CT, tooth resorption appeared as irregularly marginated hypoattenuating defects in the mineral attenuating tooth components, most commonly involving the root or cementoenamel junction. Sensitivity for CT detection of tooth resorption was fair to poor (42.2-57.7%) and specificity was good to excellent (92.8-96.3%). Findings from this study indicated that CT has high specificity but low sensitivity for detection of tooth resorption in cats.

  7. Computed tomography in pelvic and acetabular fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Born, H.; Schmidt, C.

    1988-06-01

    In a retrospective study we analyzed the results of 127 patients, who were examined not only by means of conventional radiography but also by means of computed tomography after a trauma of the pelvic. Our investigations were based upon such patients, to whom a definite diagnostic procedure of plain radiography had been performed. Therefore all polytraumatized patients were inapplicable. They were only examined by computed tomography because of other more important accompanying injuries of other body regions. We compared the results of 127 patients with pelvic trauma. The results of the CT were in accordance with the results of the plain radiography for 103 patients. The results of the CT concerning the availability and the localization of the fractures were basically coincident with the plain radiography for 22 patients, but the CT showed a higher degree of trauma and additional intraarticular fragments. Two isolated lesions of the sacroiliac joint could not be recognized by both methods. They could only be diagnosed by bone scintigraphy on the third day after trauma.

  8. Computed Tomography Technology: Development and Applications for Defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheti, G. L.; Saxena, Nisheet; Tripathi, D. K.; Songara, K. C.; Meghwal, L. R.; Meena, V. L.

    2008-09-01

    Computed Tomography(CT) has revolutionized the field of Non-Destructive Testing and Evaluation (NDT&E). Tomography for industrial applications warrants design and development of customized solutions catering to specific visualization requirements. Present paper highlights Tomography Technology Solutions implemented at Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur (DLJ). Details on the technological developments carried out and their utilization for various Defence applications has been covered.

  9. Using Computed Tomography Scans and Patient Demographic Data to Estimate Thoracic Epidural Space Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Kosturakis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Previous studies have used varying methods to estimate the depth of the epidural space prior to placement of an epidural catheter. We aim to use computed tomography scans, patient demographics, and vertebral level to estimate the depth of the loss of resistance for placement of thoracic epidural catheters. Methods. The records of consecutive patients who received a thoracic epidural catheter were reviewed. Patient demographics, epidural placement site, and technique were collected. Preoperative computed tomography scans were reviewed to measure the skin to epidural space distance. Linear regression was used for a multivariate analysis. Results. The records of 218 patients were reviewed. The mean loss of resistance measurement was significantly larger than the mean computed tomography epidural space depth measurement by 0.79 cm (p<0.001. Our final multivariate model, adjusted for demographic and epidural technique, showed a positive correlation between the loss of resistance and the computed tomography epidural space depth measurement (R2=0.5692, p<0.0001. Conclusions. The measured loss of resistance is positively correlated with the computed tomography epidural space depth measurement and patient demographics. For patients undergoing thoracic or abdominal surgery, estimating the loss of resistance can be a valuable tool.

  10. Use of high-resolution computed tomography and positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the management of stage IA adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Yoshihiro; Tsutani, Yasuhiro; Okada, Morihito

    2012-01-01

    Preoperative determination of malignant behavior is critical in choosing suitable therapeutic strategies such as sublobar resection for patients with small lung cancers. The aim of present review was to evaluate high-resolution computed tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography as tools for management of clinical stage IA adenocarcinoma.

  11. Evaluation of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta diameters by computerized tomography; Avaliacao dos diametros normais da aorta toracica e abdominal pela tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucarelli, Claudio Luiz

    1995-07-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate, through computerized tomography, the diameters of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta, as well as they are connected to gender, age and body surface area; and the ratio between measurements obtained at the ascending and descending limbs of the thoracic aorta, and between the abdominal aortic diameters. For that reason, we measured the widest anteroposterior diameters of the thoracic aortas at the levels of the arch, the root, the pulmonary artery, and the thoracic-abdominal transition, as well as the level of the emergence of the superior mesenteric artery, of the renal hila and just cephalad to the bifurcation of the abdominal aortas of 350 patients without cardiovascular diseases who had undergone computerized tomography of the thorax and/or abdomen for any other reasons. Observation and statistic analyses led us to conclude that: 1) both the thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters are reduced from their proximal to their distal portions; 2) the body surface influences the size of the aorta, although only extreme variations alter the vessel's caliber; 3) vessel diameter was observed to gradually increase with age; 4) men were found to have larger diameters than age matched women; 5) the ratio between the ascending and descending aortic diameters varies according to gender and age; 6) the relations between abdominal aortic diameters measured at the level of renal hila and cephalad to the bifurcation are independent from gender and age. But the relation between those measured at the level of the superior mesenteric artery and cephalad to the bifurcation are linked to gender, but not to age. (author)

  12. Actinomycosis involving the liver. Computed tomography/ultrasound correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, S; Fishman, E K; Sanders, R

    1987-06-01

    The clinical profile of pelvic actinomycosis, which is being recognized with increased frequency in IUD users, can be misleading in such patients and lead to dangerous delays in diagnosis. The authors present a case in which an IUD user initially sought medical attention for multiple liver abscesses secondary to spread from unsuspected ovarian actinomycosis. The 43-year-old patient, who was admitted with right upper quadrant pain and fever, had a 15-year history of IUD use, although the device had been removed 1 year prior to admission for apparent infection in the left ovary. Ultrasound revealed mixed cystic and solid liver lesions as well as a complex subcapsular fluid collection. A solid left adnexal mass was demonstrated in the pelvis. Computed tomography scan indicated extension of 1 of the complex cystic liver lesions through the liver capsule and into the abdominal wall. Needle aspirations of the liver lesions yielded thick pus that was later identified as Actinomyces israelii. Actinomycosis was evident in the ovarian lesion. Colonization of the vagina and uterus by actinomycosis has been reported by 1.6-5.3% of IUD users, and the risk appears to increase when the same IUD is used for a prolonged time period. In this case, neither the computed tomography scan nor ultrasound suggested an inflammatory process of the left ovary. Aspiration of a liver lesion under ultrasound guidance was necessary for the correct diagnosis. Since actinomycosis has the potential to spread to extrapelvic organs such as the peritoneum, liver, and brain, early diagnosis is essential.

  13. Spatiotemporal computed tomography of dynamic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Anders; Münch, Beat; Trtik, Pavel; Butler, Les

    2011-12-01

    Modern computed tomography (CT) equipment allowing fast 3-D imaging also makes it possible to monitor dynamic processes by 4-D imaging. Because the acquisition time of various 3-D-CT systems is still in the range of at least milliseconds or even hours, depending on the detector system and the source, the balance of the desired temporal and spatial resolution must be adjusted. Furthermore, motion artifacts will occur, especially at high spatial resolution and longer measuring times. We propose two approaches based on nonsequential projection angle sequences allowing a convenient postacquisition balance of temporal and spatial resolution. Both strategies are compatible with existing instruments, needing only a simple reprograming of the angle list used for projection acquisition and care with the projection order list. Both approaches will reduce the impact of artifacts due to motion. The strategies are applied and validated with cold neutron imaging of water desorption from originally saturated particles during natural air-drying experiments and with x-ray tomography of a polymer blend heated during imaging.

  14. Reconstructing cetacean brain evolution using computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Lori; Uhen, Mark D; Pyenson, Nicholas D; Frohlich, Bruno

    2003-05-01

    Until recently, there have been relatively few studies of brain mass and morphology in fossil cetaceans (dolphins, whales, and porpoises) because of difficulty accessing the matrix that fills the endocranial cavity of fossil cetacean skulls. As a result, our knowledge about cetacean brain evolution has been quite limited. By applying the noninvasive technique of computed tomography (CT) to visualize, measure, and reconstruct the endocranial morphology of fossil cetacean skulls, we can gain vastly more information at an unprecedented rate about cetacean brain evolution. Here, we discuss our method and demonstrate it with several examples from our fossil cetacean database. This approach will provide new insights into the little-known evolutionary history of cetacean brain evolution.

  15. Computed tomography in metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Nyree; Grant, Lee Alexander; Bharwani, Nishat; Sohaib, S Aslam

    2009-08-01

    Recent developments in chemotherapy have resulted in several new drug treatments for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). These therapies have shown improved progression-free survival and are applicable to many more patients than the conventional cytokine-based treatments for metastatic RCC. Consequently imaging is playing a greater part in the management of such patients. Computed tomography (CT) remains the primary imaging modality with other imaging modalities playing a supplementary role. CT is used in the diagnosis and staging of metastatic RCC. It is used in the follow-up of patients after nephrectomy, in assessing the extent of metastatic disease, and in evaluating response to treatment. This review looks at the role of CT in patients with metastatic RCC and describes the appearances of metastatic RCC before and following systemic therapy.

  16. Computed tomography findings of malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiota, Yutaro; Sato, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Ono, Tetsuya; Kaji, Masaro; Niiya, Harutaka (Kure Kyosai Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan))

    1994-04-01

    Computed tomography (CT) findings were assessed in 7 patients with malignant mesothelioma. CT findings were also reviewed in 9 patients with lung cancer and pleuritis carcinomatosa and in 11 patients with tuberculous pleuritis. Five patients with malignant mesothelioma underwent CT scans twice, on admission and from 1 to 7 months after admission. Tuberculous pleuritis could be distinguished from pleuritis carcinomatosa and malignant mesothelioma by the presence or absence of pleural nodularity and chest wall invasion. Although it was difficult to identify specific CT features clearly distinguishing malignant mesothelioma from pleuritis carcinomatosa, characteristic findings of malignant mesothelioma appeared to include the rapid development and progression of pleural rind and a tendency to spread directly into the chest wall. We divided the pleural into the four regions; upper anterior, upper posterior, lower anterior and lower posterior regions. Pleural changes were more frequently seen in the lower pleural regions than in the upper pleural regions in malignant mesothelioma. (author).

  17. Analysis of airways in computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is major cause of death and disability world-wide. It affects lung function through destruction of lung tissue known as emphysema and inflammation of airways, leading to thickened airway walls and narrowed airway lumen. Computed Tomography (CT) imaging...... have become the standard with which to assess emphysema extent but airway abnormalities have so far been more challenging to quantify. Automated methods for analysis are indispensable as the visible airway tree in a CT scan can include several hundreds of individual branches. However, automation...... of scan on airway dimensions in subjects with and without COPD. The results show measured airway dimensions to be affected by differences in the level of inspiration and this dependency is again influenced by COPD. Inspiration level should therefore be accounted for when measuring airways, and airway...

  18. Findings of computed tomography in intracranial tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, H. G.; Bae, K. S.; Lee, H. K.; Kwon, K. H.; Kim, K. J. [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-12-15

    In intracranial tuberculosis, the Computed Tomography (CT) is a new radiological technique which is helpful in diagnosis and determining the location, extents of the lesion. It can also make it possible to assess the presence and degree of the complications and to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. 25 cases of clinically proven intracranial tuberculosis were studied by CT, in Soonchunhyang hospital from Jun. 1980 to Jun. 1983. The result were as follows; 1. 4 cases were normal in CT finding, despite of the clinically proven tuberculous meningitis. 2. Total or partial obliteration of cisterns were observed in 13 cases. 3. Intense abnormal contrast enhancement of the cisterns were observed in 8 cases. 4. 19 cases show moderate to marked ventricular dilatation. 5. 2 cases of cerebral infarction were observed. 6. One case of tuberculoma was observed.

  19. Computed Tomography in the Modern Slaughterhouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Thomas Hammershaimb

    of technology. Recently, the use of X-ray computed tomography (CT) coupled with methods from image analysis has been introduced as a powerful means to optimise production, by providing detailed information on the raw materials. This thesis covers two aspects of the application of CT in the modern abattoir...... concerns measurements of each single carcass, to improve the raw material utilisation by individually adapted processing. Measurements performed online in the abattoir demand fast, robust and cost-effective imaging. We propose a tomographic reconstruction algorithm, enabling a substantial reduction...... of the subject-specific X-ray data needed to produce high quality images for accurate measurements. This is very beneficial for the abattoirs, as a reduction in acquired data translates directly into higher speed and a lower cost. The thesis demonstrates the great potential of CT as a technology for improving...

  20. Computed tomography of the abnormal thymus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, R.L.; Lee, J.K.T.; Sagel, S.S.; Levitt, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) should be the imaging method of choice following plain chest radiographs when a suspected thymic abnormality requires further evaluation. Based upon a six-year experience, including the evaluation of 25 patients with thymic pathology, CT was found useful in suggesting or excluding a diagnosis of thymoma and in distinguishing thymic hyperplasis from thymoma in patients with myasthenia gravis. The thickness of the thymic lobes determined by CT was found to be a more accurate indicator of infiltrative disease (thymic hyperplasia and lymphoma) than the width. CT was helpful in differentiating benign thymic cysts from solid tumors, and in defining the extent of a thymic neoplasms. On occasion, CT may suggest the specific histologic nature of a thymic lesion.

  1. Imaging of Cardiac Valves by Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Feuchtner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes “how to” examine cardiac valves with computed tomography, the normal, diseased valves, and prosthetic valves. A review of current scientific literature is provided. Firstly, technical basics, “how to” perform and optimize a multislice CT scan and “how to” interpret valves on CT images are outlined. Then, diagnostic imaging of the entire spectrum of specific valvular disease by CT, including prosthetic heart valves, is highlighted. The last part gives a guide “how to” use CT for planning of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI, an emerging effective treatment option for patients with severe aortic stenosis. A special focus is placed on clinical applications of cardiac CT in the context of valvular disease.

  2. Advanced proton imaging in computed tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Mattiazzo, S; Giubilato, P; Pantano, D; Pozzobon, N; Snoeys, W; Wyss, J

    2015-01-01

    In recent years the use of hadrons for cancer radiation treatment has grown in importance, and many facilities are currently operational or under construction worldwide. To fully exploit the therapeutic advantages offered by hadron therapy, precise body imaging for accurate beam delivery is decisive. Proton computed tomography (pCT) scanners, currently in their R&D phase, provide the ultimate 3D imaging for hadrons treatment guidance. A key component of a pCT scanner is the detector used to track the protons, which has great impact on the scanner performances and ultimately limits its maximum speed. In this article, a novel proton-tracking detector was presented that would have higher scanning speed, better spatial resolution and lower material budget with respect to present state-of-the-art detectors, leading to enhanced performances. This advancement in performances is achieved by employing the very latest development in monolithic active pixel detectors (to build high granularity, low material budget, ...

  3. Inter laboratory comparison on Industrial Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    An interlaboratory comparison on industrial X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) was organized by the Centre for Geometrical Metrology (CGM), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and carried out within the project “Centre for Industrial Application of CT scanning...... - CIA-CT”. In the comparison, 27 laboratories from 8 countries were involved, and CT scanned two items selected among common industrial parts: a polymer part and a metal part. Altogether, 27 sets of items were circulated in parallel to the participants. Different measurands are considered, encompassing...... influence from the surrounding wall thickness on the measurement of roundness was documented for the metal item. The comparison shows that CT scanning on small industrial parts, generally speaking, is connected with uncertainties in the range 8-53 μm, as compared to an uncertainty range of 1.5-5.5 μm using...

  4. Ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, Michael J. (Knoxville, TN); Sari-Sarraf, Hamed (Knoxville, TN); Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William (Harriman, TN); Gleason, Shaun S. (Knoxville, TN); Thomas, Jr., Clarence E. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A method for ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging, comprising the steps of: focusing a high energy particle beam, for example x-rays or gamma-rays, onto a target object; acquiring a 2-dimensional projection data set representative of the target object; generating a corrected projection data set by applying a deconvolution algorithm, having an experimentally determined a transfer function, to the 2-dimensional data set; storing the corrected projection data set; incrementally rotating the target object through an angle of approximately 180.degree., and after each the incremental rotation, repeating the radiating, acquiring, generating and storing steps; and, after the rotating step, applying a cone-beam algorithm, for example a modified tomographic reconstruction algorithm, to the corrected projection data sets to generate a 3-dimensional image. The size of the spot focus of the beam is reduced to not greater than approximately 1 micron, and even to not greater than approximately 0.5 microns.

  5. Segmental pneumatosis cystoides coli: computed tomography-facilitated diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Ksiadzyna

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal pneumatosis is a rare entity of unclear etiopathogenesis characterized by the presence of gaseous cystic or linear collections within the intestinal wall. Intestinal pneumatosis may be primary and idiopathic in origin or, more frequently, it accompanies various clinical conditions. Rarely, the development of intestinal pneumatosis is attributed to the pharmacotherapy with different drugs. Case report: This is a case report of cystic pneumatosis limited to the large intestine with predominant clinical presentation of chronic watery diarrhea in a 64-year-old man suffering from diabetes mellitus treated with metformin and acarbose. The patient had been referred to the outpatient gastroenterology clinic for further investigation of numerous polyp-like lesions found on colonoscopy. There was no history of cigarette smoking, drug abuse or extraintestinal complaints. The patient was in a good general condition and his laboratory tests were normal. No relevant abnormalities were found on chest X-ray, esophagogastroduodenoscopy or abdominal ultrasound, but computed tomography showed intramural gas-filled bubbles in the cecum and splenic flexure without signs of perforation or any other significant pathology in the abdominal cavity. The final diagnosis of pneumatosis cystoides coli (PCC, possibly related to treatment with acarbose, was established. On a follow-up visit after discontinuation of acarbose the patient reported no complaints and remained asymptomatic for the next 12 months. Discussion: To conclude, drug-related PCC should be considered in a differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal symptoms and/or polyp-like lesions disclosed on colonoscopy in diabetic patients treated with acarbose.

  6. Cone beam computed tomography in Endodontics - a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, S.; Durack, C.; Abella, F.; Shemesh, H.; Roig, M.; Lemberg, K.

    2015-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) produces undistorted three-dimensional information of the maxillofacial skeleton, including the teeth and their surrounding tissues with a lower effective radiation dose than computed tomography. The aim of this paper is to: (i) review the current literature on t

  7. Diagnosis of lumbar disc hernia with computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizumi, Atsuro; Ohira, Nobuhiro; Ojima, Tadashi; Oshida, Midori; Horaguchi, Mitsuru (Tohoku Rosai Hospital, Sendai (Japan))

    1982-07-01

    Results of computed tomography performed on patients with clinically diagnosed hernia were compared with those of myelography and operative findings. This comparative study suggested that computed tomography is quite different from other methods and very useful in diagnosis of hernia. Some cases of hernia were shown, and the characteristics of CT were reviewed.

  8. Computed tomography in traumatic defects of the diaphragm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, T C; Solomon, C; Posniak, H V; Flisak, M J

    1989-03-01

    Two patients with traumatic diaphragmatic defects visible on computed tomography are presented. The diagnosis was delayed for several years in both patients. The diagnosis of these acquired diaphragmatic defects is often difficult. Computed tomography can lead to earlier diagnosis by demonstrating the defect in some patients when radiographic studies are not diagnostic.

  9. Intravenous coronary angiography using electron beam computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensing, B J; Bongaerts, A H; van Geuns, R J; van Ooijen, P M; Oudkerk, M; de Feyter, P J

    1999-01-01

    Intravenous coronary angiography with electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) allows for the noninvasive visualisation of coronary arteries. With dedicated computer hardware and software, three-dimensional renderings of the coronary arteries, veins, and other cardiac structures can be constructed f

  10. Role of computed tomography in pancreatic trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Hee; Kim, Ki Whang; Lee, Jong Tae; Oh, Sei Jung [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-03-15

    At Yonsei University Hospital from January 1984 to August 1990, computed tomographic (CT) scans of 13 patients with surgically proven pancreatic injuries after blunt abdominal trauma, including 6 pancreatic lacerations or contusions, 6 pancreatic fractures, and one post-traumatic pseudocyst, were retrospectively reviewed to determine the role and accuracy of the CT in evaluating pancreatic injury. CT can document gross pancreatic injury by showing focal or diffuse enlargement (1), area of diminished attenuation (3), separation (5), focal hematoma (2), and peripancreatic change, including peripancreatic hematoma (2), fluid collection (11), perirenal fascial thickening (10), omental and mesenteric change (5), and bowel change (2). CT correctly diagnosed pancreatic fracture in 5 cases, post-raumatic pseudocyst in 1 case, and pancreatic laceration in 3 cases in 9 of these patients. There were 4 false negative diagnoses, including 3 pancreatic lacerations and 1 pancreatic fracture. A CT is of pancreatic trauma could be difficult to diagnosis in patients who are scanned within 24 hrs after an injury or to distinguish a motion or streak artifact caused by a nasogastric tube or air-oral contrast fluid level in the stomach.

  11. Computed tomography in the imaging of colonic diverticulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, O.; Geoghegan, T.; O' Riordain, D.S.; Lyburn, I.D.; Torreggiani, W.C. E-mail: william.torreggiani@amnch.ie

    2004-11-01

    Colonic diverticulitis occurs when diverticula within the colon become infected or inflamed. It is becoming an increasingly common cause for hospital admission, particularly in western society, where it is linked to a low fibre diet. Symptoms of diverticulitis include abdominal pain, diarrhoea and pyrexia, however, symptoms are often non-specific and the clinical diagnosis may be difficult. In addition, elderly patients and those taking corticosteroids may have limited findings on physical examination, even in the presence of severe diverticulitis. A high index of suspicion is required in such patients in order to avoid a significant delay in arriving at the correct diagnosis. Imaging plays an important role in establishing an early and correct diagnosis. In the past, contrast enema studies were the principal imaging test used to make the diagnosis. However, such studies lack sensitivity and have limited success in identifying abscesses that may require drainage. Conversely computed tomography (CT) is both sensitive and specific in making a diagnosis of diverticulitis. In addition, it is the imaging technique of choice in depicting complications such as perforation, abscess formation and fistulae. CT-guided drainage of diverticular abscesses helps to reduce sepsis and to permit a one-stage, rather than two-stage, surgical operation. The purpose of this review article is to discuss the role of CT in the imaging of diverticulitis, describe the CT imaging features and complications of this disease, as well as review the impact and rationale of CT imaging and intervention in the overall management of patients with diverticulitis.

  12. Effective dose estimates for cone beam computed tomography in interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, Y.M.; Irani, F.G.; Tay, K.H.; Yang, C.C.; Padre, C.G.; Tan, B.S. [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore (Singapore)

    2013-11-15

    To compare radiation doses in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with those of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) using manufacturers' standard protocols. Dose-levels in head and abdominal imaging were evaluated using a dosimetric phantom. Effective dose estimates were performed by placing thermoluminescent dosimeters in the phantom. Selected protocols for two CBCT systems and comparable protocols for one MDCT system were evaluated. Organ doses were measured and effective doses derived by applying the International Commission on Radiological Protection 2007 tissue weighting factors. Effective doses estimated for the head protocol were 4.4 and 5.4 mSv for the two CBCT systems respectively and 4.3 mSv for MDCT. Eye doses for one CBCT system and MDCT were comparable (173.6 and 148.4 mGy respectively) but significantly higher compared with the second CBCT (44.6 mGy). Two abdominal protocols were evaluated for each system; the effective doses estimated were 15.0 and 18.6 mSv, 25.4 and 37.0 mSv, and 9.8 and 13.5 mSv, respectively, for each of the CBCT and MDCT systems. The study demonstrated comparable dose-levels for CBCT and MDCT systems in head studies, but higher dose levels for CBCT in abdominal studies. There was a significant difference in eye doses observed between the CBCT systems. (orig.)

  13. Importance of defect detectability in Positron Emission Tomography imaging of abdominal lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shozo Yamashita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: This study was designed to assess defect detectability in positron emission tomography (PET imaging of abdominal lesions. Methods: A National Electrical Manufactures Association International Electrotechnical Commission phantom was used. The simulated abdominal lesion was scanned for 10 min using dynamic list-mode acquisition method. Images, acquired with scan duration of 1-10 min, were reconstructed using VUE point HD and a 4.7 mm full-width at half-maximum (FWHM Gaussian filter. Iteration-subset combinations of 2-16 and 2-32 were used. Visual and physical analyses were performed using the acquired images. To sequentially evaluate defect detectability in clinical settings, we examined two middle-aged male subjects. One had a liver cyst (approximately 10 mm in diameter and the other suffered from pancreatic cancer with an inner defect region (approximately 9 mm in diameter. Results: In the phantom study, at least 6 and 3 min acquisition durations were required to visualize 10 and 13 mm defect spheres, respectively. On the other hand, spheres with diameters ≥17 mm could be detected even if the acquisition duration was only 1 min. The visual scores were significantly correlated with background (BG variability. In clinical settings, the liver cyst could be slightly visualized with an acquisition duration of 6 min, although image quality was suboptimal. For pancreatic cancer, the acquisition duration of 3 min was insufficient to clearly describe the defect region. Conclusion: The improvement of BG variability is the most important factor for enhancing lesion detection. Our clinical scan duration (3 min/bed may not be suitable for the detection of small lesions or accurate tumor delineation since an acquisition duration of at least 6 min is required to visualize 10 mm lesions, regardless of reconstruction parameters. Improvements in defect detectability are important for radiation treatment planning and accurate PET-based diagnosis.

  14. Importance of Defect Detectability in Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of Abdominal Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shozo; Yokoyama, Kunihiko; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Yamamoto, Haruki; Nakaichi, Tetsu; Tsuji, Shiro; Nakajima, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): This study was designed to assess defect detectability in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of abdominal lesions. Methods: A National Electrical Manufactures Association International Electrotechnical Commission phantom was used. The simulated abdominal lesion was scanned for 10 min using dynamic list-mode acquisition method. Images, acquired with scan duration of 1-10 min, were reconstructed using VUE point HD and a 4.7 mm full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) Gaussian filter. Iteration-subset combinations of 2-16 and 2-32 were used. Visual and physical analyses were performed using the acquired images. To sequentially evaluate defect detectability in clinical settings, we examined two middle-aged male subjects. One had a liver cyst (approximately 10 mm in diameter) and the other suffered from pancreatic cancer with an inner defect region (approximately 9 mm in diameter). Results: In the phantom study, at least 6 and 3 min acquisition durations were required to visualize 10 and 13 mm defect spheres, respectively. On the other hand, spheres with diameters ≥17 mm could be detected even if the acquisition duration was only 1 min. The visual scores were significantly correlated with background (BG) variability. In clinical settings, the liver cyst could be slightly visualized with an acquisition duration of 6 min, although image quality was suboptimal. For pancreatic cancer, the acquisition duration of 3 min was insufficient to clearly describe the defect region. Conclusion: The improvement of BG variability is the most important factor for enhancing lesion detection. Our clinical scan duration (3 min/bed) may not be suitable for the detection of small lesions or accurate tumor delineation since an acquisition duration of at least 6 min is required to visualize 10 mm lesions, regardless of reconstruction parameters. Improvements in defect detectability are important for radiation treatment planning and accurate PET-based diagnosis. PMID:27408887

  15. Dedicated breast computed tomography: Basic aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarno, Antonio; Mettivier, Giovanni, E-mail: mettivier@na.infn.it; Russo, Paolo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Cintia, Napoli I-80126, Italy and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli I-80126 (Italy)

    2015-06-15

    X-ray mammography of the compressed breast is well recognized as the “gold standard” for early detection of breast cancer, but its performance is not ideal. One limitation of screening mammography is tissue superposition, particularly for dense breasts. Since 2001, several research groups in the USA and in the European Union have developed computed tomography (CT) systems with digital detector technology dedicated to x-ray imaging of the uncompressed breast (breast CT or BCT) for breast cancer screening and diagnosis. This CT technology—tracing back to initial studies in the 1970s—allows some of the limitations of mammography to be overcome, keeping the levels of radiation dose to the radiosensitive breast glandular tissue similar to that of two-view mammography for the same breast size and composition. This paper presents an evaluation of the research efforts carried out in the invention, development, and improvement of BCT with dedicated scanners with state-of-the-art technology, including initial steps toward commercialization, after more than a decade of R and D in the laboratory and/or in the clinic. The intended focus here is on the technological/engineering aspects of BCT and on outlining advantages and limitations as reported in the related literature. Prospects for future research in this field are discussed.

  16. REVIEW: X-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalender, Willi A.

    2006-07-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT), introduced into clinical practice in 1972, was the first of the modern slice-imaging modalities. To reconstruct images mathematically from measured data and to display and to archive them in digital form was a novelty then and is commonplace today. CT has shown a steady upward trend with respect to technology, performance and clinical use independent of predictions and expert assessments which forecast in the 1980s that it would be completely replaced by magnetic resonance imaging. CT not only survived but exhibited a true renaissance due to the introduction of spiral scanning which meant the transition from slice-by-slice imaging to true volume imaging. Complemented by the introduction of array detector technology in the 1990s, CT today allows imaging of whole organs or the whole body in 5 to 20 s with sub-millimetre isotropic resolution. This review of CT will proceed in chronological order focussing on technology, image quality and clinical applications. In its final part it will also briefly allude to novel uses of CT such as dual-source CT, C-arm flat-panel-detector CT and micro-CT. At present CT possibly exhibits a higher innovation rate than ever before. In consequence the topical and most recent developments will receive the greatest attention.

  17. Perfusion computed tomography in renal cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chandan; J; Das; Usha; Thingujam; Ananya; Panda; Sanjay; Sharma; Arun; Kumar; Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Various imaging modalities are available for the diagnosis, staging and response evaluation of patients with renal cell carcinoma(RCC). While contrast enhanced computed tomography(CT) is used as the standard of imaging for size, morphological evaluation and response assessment in RCC, a new functional imaging technique like perfusion CT(p CT), goes down to the molecular level and provides new perspectives in imaging of RCC. p CT depicts regional tumor perfusion and vascular permeability which are indirect parameters of tumor angiogenesis and thereby provides vital information regarding tumor microenvironment. Also response evaluation using p CT may predate the size criteria used in Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, as changes in the perfusion occurs earlier following tissue kinase inhibitors before any actual change in size. This may potentially help in predicting prognosis, better selection of therapy and more accurate and better response evaluation in patients with RCC. This article describes the techniques and role of p CT in staging and response assessment in patients with RCCs.

  18. Portable Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-11-01

    This user manual describes the function and use of the portable digital radiography and computed tomography (DRCT) scanner. The manual gives a general overview of x-ray imaging systems along with a description of the DRCT system. An inventory of the all the system components, organized by shipping container, is also included. In addition, detailed, step-by-step procedures are provided for all of the exercises necessary for a novice user to successfully collect digital radiographs and tomographic images of an object, including instructions on system assembly and detector calibration and system alignment. There is also a short section covering the limited system care and maintenance needs. Descriptions of the included software packages, the DRCT Digital Imager used for system operation, and the DRCT Image Processing Interface used for image viewing and tomographic data reconstruction are given in the appendixes. The appendixes also include a cheat sheet for more experienced users, a listing of known system problems and how to mitigate them, and an inventory check-off sheet suitable for copying and including with the machine for shipment purposes.

  19. Application of computed tomography in paleoanthropological research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiujie Wu; Lynne A.Schepartz

    2009-01-01

    Hominin fossils are the most important materials for exploring questions about human origins and evolution. Because human fossils are very rare, it is impossible to use highly destructive techniques in order to study their morphology. Traditional analyses can only rely on the information gained from the study of the external morphology of specimens, and these approaches limited the study of human evolution. The application of computed tomography (CT) has facilitated major developments in paleoanthropology. To date, few studies on Chinese hominin fossils have used CT scanning methodology, but this is rapidly changing. In order to better understand the appli-cation of CT methodology in paleoanthropology, we review the applications of CT scanning on hominin fossils throughout the world.Studies examined include virtual fossil reconstruction, the use of endocasts to elucidate brain morphology, biomechanical analyses of bone distribution, imaging of mummies and research on early human health, and skeletal and dental microanatomical research.2009 National Natural Science Foundation of China and Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Limited and Science in China Press. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiation doses from computed tomography in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, J.E.M.; Tingey, D.R.C

    1997-11-01

    Recent surveys in various countries have shown that computed tomography (CT) is a significant and growing contributor to the radiation dose from diagnostic radiology. Australia, with 332 CT scanners (18 per million people), is well endowed with CT equipment compared to European countries (6 to 13 per million people). Only Japan, with 8500 units (78 per million people), has a significantly higher proportion of CT scanners. In view of this, a survey of CT facilities, frequency of examinations, techniques and patient doses has been performed in Australia. It is estimated that there are 1 million CT examinations in Australia each year, resulting in a collective effective dose of 7000 Sv and a per caput dose of 0.39 mSv. This per caput dose is much larger than found in earlier studies in the UK and New Zealand but is less than 0.48 mSv in Japan. Using the ICRP risk factors, radiation doses from CT could be inducing about 280 fatal cancers per year in Australia. CT is therefore a significant, if not the major, single contributor to radiation doses and possible risk from diagnostic radiology. (authors) 28 refs., 11 tabs., 10 figs.

  1. Computed tomography characterisation of additive manufacturing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibb, Richard; Thompson, Darren; Winder, John

    2011-06-01

    Additive manufacturing, covering processes frequently referred to as rapid prototyping and rapid manufacturing, provides new opportunities in the manufacture of highly complex and custom-fitting medical devices and products. Whilst many medical applications of AM have been explored and physical properties of the resulting parts have been studied, the characterisation of AM materials in computed tomography has not been explored. The aim of this study was to determine the CT number of commonly used AM materials. There are many potential applications of the information resulting from this study in the design and manufacture of wearable medical devices, implants, prostheses and medical imaging test phantoms. A selection of 19 AM material samples were CT scanned and the resultant images analysed to ascertain the materials' CT number and appearance in the images. It was found that some AM materials have CT numbers very similar to human tissues, FDM, SLA and SLS produce samples that appear uniform on CT images and that 3D printed materials show a variation in internal structure.

  2. Micro computed tomography for vascular exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Zhen W

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vascular exploration of small animals requires imaging hardware with a very high spatial resolution, capable of differentiating large as well as small vessels, in both in vivo and ex vivo studies. Micro Computed Tomography (micro-CT has emerged in recent years as the preferred modality for this purpose, providing high resolution 3D volumetric data suitable for analysis, quantification, validation, and visualization of results. The usefulness of micro-CT, however, can be adversely affected by a range of factors including physical animal preparation, numerical quantification, visualization of results, and quantification software with limited possibilities. Exacerbating these inherent difficulties is the lack of a unified standard for micro-CT imaging. Most micro-CT today is aimed at particular applications and the software tools needed for quantification, developed mainly by imaging hardware manufacturers, lack the level of detail needed to address more specific aims. This review highlights the capabilities of micro-CT for vascular exploration, describes the current state of imaging protocols, and offers guidelines and suggestions aimed at making micro-CT more accurate, replicable, and robust.

  3. Computed Tomography Following Body Stuffing Heroin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P. Nordt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 37-year-old male presented to the emergency department (ED in police custody for “medical clearance” before being taken to jail. The patient was approached by police officers for suspicion of selling illicit drugs. When approached by police he ran away and was witnessed to swallow several small plastic baggies suspected to contain heroin. He was apprehended and brought to the ED. On arrival, he was asymptomatic with a blood pressure 144/83mmHg, heart rate 67bpm, respiratory rate of 19bpm, oxygen saturation of 99% on room air and afebrile. A Glasgow coma score was 15 and he was alert and oriented to person, place and time. Patient had a negative review of systems. On physical examination pupils were 4mm and reactive to light, lungs clear to auscultation and had normal respiratory rate with normal cardiovascular exam. Abdomen was soft, non-tender and non-distended with present bowel sounds. The patient admitted to ingesting approximately 20 packets of heroin to avoid being charged with possession. The patient declined activated charcoal and whole bowel irrigation (WBI with polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ELS. The patient declined a urine toxicology immunoassay screen. A computed tomography (CT of his abdomen with contrast was obtained and read as normal except for a cluster of foreign bodies within the distal stomach likely contained within a plastic bag.

  4. Application of computed tomography to spinal disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sha, N.; Kurihara, A.; Kataoka, O. (Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1980-08-01

    The axial tomographic examination of the spine and its soft tissues is now readily available for orthopaedic surgery. If the appropriate conditions are maintained, computed tomography (CT) can provide useful information concerning the diagnosis and the treatment of spinal diseases. There are, however, some pitfalls in interpreting CT scans: 1) the existence of the lesion may be masked, and 2) its extent and configuration may be over- or under-evaluated depending on such technical factors as the slicing level, the slicing angle, the window width, and the window level. Experimental studies were carried out on a plaster of Paris model of the spine and a cadaver spine to determine the appropriate technical factors by which the CT (EMI whole body CT scanner 5005) can be applied accurately to a diseased spine. The factors obtained were then applied in examining ninety-nine patients with various spinal disorders. Window levels ranging between 100 and 150 were found to be most appropriate. The slicing angle should be 90/sup 0/, or perpendicular to the long axis of the object under study. However, deviations of +10 or -10 degrees are acceptable. The CT view of the spine may be divided into two patterns at the cervical and thoracic levels and into three patterns at the lumbar level. In addition, the usefulness and the diagnostic value of CT for various spinal problems are discussed based on our clinical material.

  5. Computed tomography in acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevblad, Karl-Olof [HUG-Geneva University Hospital, Geneva University Medical School, Department of Neuroradiology, Department of Imaging and Medical Informatics, Geneva (Switzerland); Baird, Alison E. [SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Cerebrovascular Disease and Stroke, 450 Clarkson Avenue, Box 1213, Brooklyn, NY (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Stroke remains the third most important cause of mortality in industrialized countries; this has prompted research for improvements in both diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for patients with signs of acute cerebral ischemia. Over the last decade, there has been a parallel in progress in techniques in both diagnostic and therapeutic options. While previously only used for excluding hemorrhage, imaging now has the possibility to detect ischemia, vascular occlusion, as well as detect tissue at risk in one setting. It should also allow to monitor treatment and predict/exclude therapeutic complications. Parallel to advances in magnetic resonance imaging of stroke, computed tomography has improved immensely over the last decade due to the development of CT scanners that are faster and that allow to acquire studies such as CT perfusion or CT angiography in a reliable way. CT can detect many signs that might help us detect impending signs of massive infarction, but we still lack the experience to use these alone to prevent a patient from benefitting from possible therapy. (orig.)

  6. A Detector for Proton Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazey, G.; et al.

    2013-12-06

    Radiation therapy is a widely recognized treatment for cancer. Energetic protons have distinct features that set them apart from photons and make them desirable for cancer therapy as well as medical imaging. The clinical interest in heavy ion therapy is due to the fact that ions deposit almost all of their energy in a sharp peak – the Bragg peak- at the very end of their path. Proton beams can be used to precisely localize a tumor and deliver an exact dose to the tumor with small doses to the surrounding tissue. Proton computed tomography (pCT) provides direct information on the location on the target tumor, and avoids position uncertainty caused by treatment planning based on imaging with X-ray CT. The pCT project goal is to measure and reconstruct the proton relative stopping power distribution directly in situ. To ensure the full advantage of cancer treatment with 200 MeV proton beams, pCT must be realized.

  7. Computer tomography-aided ventriculography and cisternography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernoch, Z.; Sercl, M.; Heger, L.; Parizek, J. (Karlova Univ., Hradec Kralove (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta)

    1983-01-28

    Computer tomography was used in 42 patients for the exploration of ventricular and subarachnoidal spaces following intraventricular, lumbar or suboccipital injections of 3 to 5 ml Amipaque using the kind of manoeuvre to permit optimum filling of the region concerned. This type of CT ventriculo- or cisternography is a significant supplement to plain CT examination particularly because it supplies data on the causes of CSF passage blocks. Thus, in two female patients it proved possible to localize cysts in the 3rd ventricle, the density of which was no different from that of CSF. As regards benign stenoses of the aqueduct, it is likely to yield less information than conventional specific ventriculography. On the other hand, the technique gives perfect visualization of all possible communications between pathological intracranial cavities and the ventricular system. CT cisternography proved useful for the identification of small-size isodense growths in the region of the sella turcica, and brought convincing evidence of the causes of profuse liquorrhea by demonstrating the presence of nasal meningocele. It was also found helpful in the analysis of the craniocervical region, otherwise difficult to survey.

  8. Diffuse abnormalities of the trachea: computed tomography findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com; Pozes, Aline Serfaty [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Escuissato, Dante Luiz [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Irion, Klaus Loureiro [The Cardiothoracic Centre NHS Trust, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Araujo Neto, Cesar de [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Barillo, Jorge Luiz; Zanetti, Glaucia [Faculdade de Medicina de Petropolis (FMP), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Cirurgia Clinica; Souza, Carolina Althoff [University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2008-01-15

    The aim of this pictorial essay was to present the main computed tomography findings seen in diffuse diseases of the trachea. The diseases studied included amyloidosis, tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica, tracheobronchomegaly, laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis, lymphoma, neurofibromatosis, relapsing polychondritis, Wegener's granulomatosis, tuberculosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, and tracheobronchomalacia. The most common computed tomography finding was thickening of the walls of the trachea, with or without nodules, parietal calcifications, or involvement of the posterior wall. Although computed tomography allows the detection and characterization of diseases of the central airways, and the correlation with clinical data reduces the diagnostic possibilities, bronchoscopy with biopsy remains the most useful procedure for the diagnosis of diffuse lesions of the trachea. (author)

  9. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography has a clinical impact for patients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Rikke Mulvad; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Hendel, Helle W

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have found that positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) has a high sensitivity and specificity in the identification of metastasis in cervical cancer. Herlev Hospital, Denmark, has been performing PET-CTs in stage I-IV cervical cancer since 1 May 2006. The present...

  10. Assessment of coronary artery bypass graft patency by multidetector computed tomography and electron-beam tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piers, LH; Dorgelo, J; Tio, RA; Jessurun, GAJ; Oudkerk, M; Zijlstra, F

    2005-01-01

    This case report describes the use of retrospectively ECG-gated 16-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and electron-beam tomography (EBT) for assessing bypass graft patency in two patients with recurrent angina after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The results of each tomographic mo

  11. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography for optimized colon cancer staging and follow up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmann, Bodil Elisabeth; Loft, Annika; Kjær, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Optimal management of colon cancer (CC) requires detailed assessment of extent of disease. This study prospectively investigates the diagnostic accuracy of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for staging and detection of recurrence...

  12. Calcium score of small coronary calcifications on multidetector computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groen, J M; Kofoed, K F; Zacho, M;

    2013-01-01

    Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) underestimates the coronary calcium score as compared to electron beam tomography (EBT). Therefore clinical risk stratification based on MDCT calcium scoring may be inaccurate. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a new phantom which ena...

  13. Utilidad de la tomografía computada en pacientes con dolor en fosa iliaca derecha: Apendicitis aguda y su diagnóstico diferencial Usefulness of computed tomography in patients with right inferior abdominal quadrant pain: acute appendicitis and its alternative diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Atilio Rossini

    2009-03-01

    fosa iliaca derecha. Conclusión: La TCH posee una elevada sensibilidad y especificidad para el diagnóstico de apendicitis aguda y para la evaluación y manejo de los pacientes con un cuadro de abdomen agudo de fosa iliaca derecha.Purpose: To review the tomography findings of the acute appendicitis, their complications and alternative diagnosis. To value the use of helicoidal computed tomography (HCT in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis and in the study of patients with right inferior abdominal quadrant (RIQ pain and acute abdomen, for diagnosis and eventual complications, in order to decide treatment. Materials and method: For five months, the populations included in this retrospectively study were all patients delivered for presenting with RIQ pain for a HCT exam. These exams were made with oral and intravenous contrasts, when there were not contraindications. The HCT results were correlated with clinical follow up, surgery and histopathologic exams. Results: Over a total of 100 patients studied, 53 presented tomographic diagnosis of appendicitis, 22 of which presented perforation signs; 27 showed an alternative diagnosis (ovaries follicles, uretheral litiasis, tiphlitis, diverticulitis, colitis, salpingitis, 18 patients did not present tomographic findings to support the clinical symptoms and 2 presented indetermined results. These data represented a sensibility of 100%, specifity of 95,7%, positive predictiv value (PPV of 96,2% and negative predictiv value (NPV of 100% for the tomography diagnosis of acute appendicitis and a sensibility of 100%, specificity of 81,8%, PPV of 95,1% and NPV of 100% for the tomography diagnosis of the different etiology in patient with right inferior acute abdomen. Conclusion: HCT is extremely useful in the study of patients with acute abdomen with origin in the RIQ, not only to make a diagnosis, but also to evaluate the complications, so as to decide proper treatment.

  14. The Use of GPUs for Solving the Computed Tomography Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Kovtanyuk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography (CT is a widespread method used to study the internal structure of objects. The method has applications in medicine, industry and other fields of human activity. In particular, Electronic Imaging, as a species CT, can be used to restore the structure of nanosized objects. Accurate and rapid results are in high demand in modern science. However, there are computational limitations that bound the possible usefulness of CT. On the other hand, the introduction of high-performance calculations using Graphics Processing Units (GPUs provides improving quality and performance of computed tomography investigations. Moreover, parallel computing with GPUs gives significantly higher computation speeds when compared with (Central Processing Units CPUs, because of architectural advantages of the former. In this paper a computed tomography method of recovering the image using parallel computations powered by NVIDIA CUDA technology is considered. The implementation of this approach significantly reduces the required time for solving the CT problem.

  15. Optimisation of post mortem cardiac computed tomography compared to optical coherence tomography and histopathology - Technical note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Precht, Helle; Leth, Peter Mygind; Thygesen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Coronary atherosclerosis is a leading cause of mortality. New technological developments in computed tomography (CT), including dual energy, iterative reconstructions and high definition scanning, could significantly improve the non-invasive identification of atherosclerosis plaques...

  16. Time Domain Terahertz Axial Computed Tomography Non Destructive Evaluation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to demonstrate key elements of feasibility for a high speed automated time domain terahertz computed axial tomography (TD-THz CT) non destructive...

  17. Time Domain Terahertz Axial Computed Tomography Non Destructive Evaluation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase 2 project, we propose to develop, construct, and deliver to NASA a computed axial tomography time-domain terahertz (CT TD-THz) non destructive...

  18. Computed tomography (CT) and diastematomyelia's diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, M.B. dos; Luca, V. de; Ferreira, M.A.S. (Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina); Barros, A.P. de (Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Hospital Universitario)

    After a case of diastematomyelia observed at the University Hospital (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) a review is done of the pertaining literature, and the contribution of the computed tomography for the diagnosis of this disease is emphasized.

  19. Bilateral spontaneous urinary extravasation shown by computed tomography urography in a patient with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haopeng Pang, MD, PhD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous extravasation of urine (SUE is a rare urologic manifestation. Predisposing conditions of SUE include ureteric calculus, retrograde pyelography, pregnancy, abdominal aorta aneurysm, tumors, or enlargement of the prostate gland. Usually, SUE is a self-limiting condition that mandates differentiaton from other catastrophic conditions of pelviureteric ruptures. Most reported cases of SUE based on urograms are unilateral in presentation. Herein, we report a case of bilateral SUE evident on computed tomography urography in a patient with benign prostatic hyperplasia. We also review the literature briefly.

  20. Single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography in brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Orazio; Filippi, Luca; Manni, Carlo; Santoni, Riccardo

    2007-01-01

    Anatomic imaging procedures (computed tomography [CT] and magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) have become essential tools for brain tumor assessment. Functional images (positron emission tomography [PET] and single-photon emission computed tomography [SPECT]) can provide additional information useful during the diagnostic workup to determine the degree of malignancy and as a substitute or guide for biopsy. After surgery and/or radiotherapy, nuclear medicine examinations are essential to assess persistence of tumor, to differentiate recurrence from radiation necrosis and gliosis, and to monitor the disease. The combination of functional images with anatomic ones is of the utmost importance for a full evaluation of these patients, which can be obtained by means of imaging fusion. Despite the fast-growing diffusion of PET, in most cases of brain tumors, SPECT studies are adequate and provide results that parallel those obtained with PET. The main limitation of SPECT imaging with brain tumor-seeking radiopharmaceuticals is the lack of precise anatomic details; this drawback is overcome by the fusion with morphological studies that provide an anatomic map to scintigraphic data. In the past, software-based fusion of independently performed SPECT and CT or MRI demonstrated usefulness for brain tumor assessment, but this process is often time consuming and not practical for everyday nuclear medicine studies. The recent development of dual-modality integrated imaging systems, which allow the acquisition of SPECT and CT images in the same scanning session, and their co-registration by means of the hardware, has facilitated this process. In SPECT studies of brain tumors with various radiopharmaceuticals, fused images are helpful in providing the precise localization of neoplastic lesions, and in excluding the disease in sites of physiologic tracer uptake. This information is useful for optimizing diagnosis, therapy monitoring, and radiotherapy treatment planning, with a

  1. Comparison between conventional tomography and computer tomography in diseases of the sacroiliac joints. Vergleich von konventioneller Tomographie und Computertomographie bei Erkrankungen der Sakroiliakalgelenke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritz, J.D.; Ganter, H.; Winter, C. (Bundeswehrkrankenhaus, Giessen (Germany, F.R.). Roentgenabteilung Evangelisches Krankenhaus, Giessen (Germany, F.R.). Roentgenabteilung)

    1990-10-01

    16 patients with diseases of the sacroiliac joints were examined both with computer tomography and with conventional tomography. Both techniques were characterized by a high sensitivity. Computer tomography was superior in exactly delineating the extent of the pathologic changes. In conventional tomography the joint surface was more blurred, erosions were larger, and signs of ankylosis were more expanded, so that the joints seemed to be more altered in 8 cases than demonstrated by computer tomography. Very accurate changes like subchondral cysts were recognized only in the computer tomograms. In all cases in which anteroposterior radiographs revealed no clear result, the authors recommend to additionally employ computer tomography. (orig.).

  2. Cone beam computed tomography in Endodontics - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S; Durack, C; Abella, F; Shemesh, H; Roig, M; Lemberg, K

    2015-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) produces undistorted three-dimensional information of the maxillofacial skeleton, including the teeth and their surrounding tissues with a lower effective radiation dose than computed tomography. The aim of this paper is to: (i) review the current literature on the applications and limitations of CBCT; (ii) make recommendations for the use of CBCT in Endodontics; (iii) highlight areas of further research of CBCT in Endodontics.

  3. Computed tomography of the mediastinum in myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guertler, K.F.; Janzen, R.W.C.; Hagemann, J.; Otto, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography of the mediastinum was performed in 45 patients with myasthenia gravis. Surgery was carried out in fourteen. Amongst these, there were four thymomas, one thymolipoma, eight thymic hyperplasias and one normal thymus gland. A further patient, who did not have surgery, probably also had a thymic tumour. The normal thymus and thymic hyperplasia cannot be distinguished on computed tomography. Differentiation of small thymomas from normal thymus is not always possible. Invasion by thymomas can only be appreciated with large tumours.

  4. A Clinical Evaluation of Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    multidetector computed tomography and cone beam computed tomography in the assessment of dental implant site dimensions. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2011;40:67-75...submitted to the Faculty of the Endodontics Graduate Program Naval Postgraduate Dental School Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences...in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Master of Science in Oral Biology June 2013 Naval Postgraduate Dental

  5. Estimation of MSAD values in computed tomography scans using radiochromic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Bruno Beraldo; Teogenes Augusto da, E-mail: bbo@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mourao, Arnaldo Prata [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-03-15

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of using radiochromic films as an alternative dosimeter to estimate the multiple scan average dose on the basis on kerma profiles. Materials and Methods: The radiochromic films were distributed in cylinders positioned in the center and in four peripheral bores of a standard abdominal phantom utilized for computed tomography dosimetry. Results: Values for multiple scan average dose values corresponded to 13.6 {+-} 0.7, 13.5 {+-} 0.7 and 18.7 {+-} 1.0 mGy for pitch of 0.75, 1.00 and 1.50, respectively. Conclusion: In spite of results showing lower values than the reference level for radiodiagnosis (25 mGy) established by the Brazilian regulations for abdominal studies, it is suggested that there is room to optimize procedures and review the reference level for radiodiagnosis in Brazil. (author)

  6. Nutcracker or left renal vein compression phenomenon: multidetector computed tomography findings and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuellar i Calabria, Hug; Quiroga Gomez, Sergi; Sebastia Cerqueda, Carmen; Boye de la Presa, Rosa; Miranda, Americo; Alvarez-Castells, Agusti [Hospitals Universitaris Vall D' Hebron, Institut de Diagnostic Per La Imatge, Servei De Radiodiagnostic, Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-08-01

    The use of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in routine abdominal explorations has increased the detection of the nutcracker phenomenon, defined as left renal vein (LRV) compression by adjacent anatomic structures. The embryology and anatomy of the nutcracker phenomenon are relevant as a background for the nutcracker syndrome, a rare cause of hematuria as well as other symptoms. MDCT examples of collateral renal vein circulation (gonadal, ureteric, azygous, lumbar, capsular) and aortomesenteric (anterior) and retroaortic (posterior) nutcracker phenomena in patients with no urologic complaint are shown as well as studies performed on patients with gross hematuria of uncertain origin. Incidental observation of collateral veins draining the LRV in abdominal MDCT explorations of asymptomatic patients may be a sign of a compensating nutcracker phenomenon. Imbalance between LRV compression and development of collateral circulation may lead to symptomatic nutcracker syndrome. (orig.)

  7. Evaluation of left renal vein entrapment using multidetector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyraz, Ahmet K.; Onur, Mehmet R. [Dept. of Radiology, Firat Univ. School of Medicine, Elazig (Turkey)], e-mail: akursadpoyraz@yahoo.com.tr; Firdolas, Fatih [Dept. of Urology, Firat Univ. School of Medicine, Elazig (Turkey); Kocakoc, Ercan [Dept. of Radiology, Bezmialem Vakif Univ., School of Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2013-03-15

    Background: Nutcracker syndrome, also called left renal vein entrapment syndrome, is a cause of non-glomerular hematuria with difficulties in diagnosis. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is a powerful tool to prevent unnecessary diagnostic procedures. Purpose: To retrospectively determine the prevalence of nutcracker phenomenon and nutcracker syndrome seen in MDCT in consecutive patients. Material and Methods: The institutional review board approved the study and waived the requirement for informed consent. Abdominal contrast-enhanced MDCT scans were reviewed from 1000 consecutive patients. MDCT scan assessment included renal vein diameter measurements and evaluation for the presence of anterior or posterior left renal vein entrapment. Electronic medical records and urine analysis reports of patients with left renal vein entrapment were reviewed. Student's t test was used to assess differences in renal vein diameter in patients with left renal vein entrapment. Results: Left renal vein entrapment was observed in 10.9% (109), retroaortic left renal vein in 6.5% (65), entrapment of left renal vein between superior mesenteric artery and aorta in 4.1% (41), and circumaortic left renal vein in 0.3% (3) of patients. Mean diameters of right (8.8 {+-} 1.9 mm) and unentrapped left (8.9 {+-} 1.8 mm) renal veins were not significantly different (P = 0.1). The mean diameter of anterior entrapped left renal veins (10.3 {+-} 2 mm) was significantly greater (P = 0.04) than contralateral renal veins (8.6 {+-} 2.1 mm) in their widest portion. In 8.8% of patients with the left renal vein entrapment, urine analysis showed isomorphic hematuria or proteinuria with no other known cause. Varicocele and pelvic congestion were seen in 5.5% of patients with the left renal vein entrapment. Conclusion: Left renal vein entrapment is not a rare entity and renal nutcracker phenomenon might be underdiagnosed.

  8. The Impact of Iterative Reconstruction on Computed Tomography Radiation Dosimetry: Evaluation in a Routine Clinical Setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael E Moorin

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of introduction of iterative reconstruction as a mandated software upgrade on radiation dosimetry in routine clinical practice over a range of computed tomography examinations.Random samples of scanning data were extracted from a centralised Picture Archiving Communication System pertaining to 10 commonly performed computed tomography examination types undertaken at two hospitals in Western Australia, before and after the introduction of iterative reconstruction. Changes in the mean dose length product and effective dose were evaluated along with estimations of associated changes to annual cancer incidence.We observed statistically significant reductions in the effective radiation dose for head computed tomography (22-27% consistent with those reported in the literature. In contrast the reductions observed for non-contrast chest (37-47%; chest pulmonary embolism study (28%, chest/abdominal/pelvic study (16% and thoracic spine (39% computed tomography. Statistically significant reductions in radiation dose were not identified in angiographic computed tomography. Dose reductions translated to substantial lowering of the lifetime attributable risk, especially for younger females, and estimated numbers of incident cancers.Reduction of CT dose is a priority Iterative reconstruction algorithms have the potential to significantly assist with dose reduction across a range of protocols. However, this reduction in dose is achieved via reductions in image noise. Fully realising the potential dose reduction of iterative reconstruction requires the adjustment of image factors and forgoing the noise reduction potential of the iterative algorithm. Our study has demonstrated a reduction in radiation dose for some scanning protocols, but not to the extent experimental studies had previously shown or in all protocols expected, raising questions about the extent to which iterative reconstruction achieves dose reduction in real world clinical

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) Findings of a Diagnostic Dilemma: Atypically Located Acute Appendicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrimler, Sehnaz; Okumuser, Irfan; Unal, Nermin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Acute appendicitis is an emergent surgically treated disease generally represented by right lower abdominal pain. The most common location of the appendix is descending intraperitoneal. However, it can also show atypical locations such as inguinal canal, femoral canal, subhepatic, retrocecal, intraperitoneal abdominal midline and left side in situs inversus or intestinal malrotation patients. Atypical location can lead to atypical clinical presentations. Ultrasonography is the first choice modality for imaging. However, it can be insufficient for demonstration of the appendix. Therefore, computed tomography (CT) is needed for further examination. We aim to review the CT findings of atypically located acute appendicitis with cases and remind the clinicians and radiologists the importance of the prompt diagnosis. Case Report We presented five atypically-located appendix cases, including four with acute appendicitis that presented to our emergency department with acute abdominal pain. Two of the acute appendicitis cases had normal, the other two had elevated white blood cell count, but all of them had elevated CRP. Ultrasonography imaging was performed as a first-line imaging modality. Because of the inconclusive results of both clinical-laboratory findings and ultrasonography, CT imaging was performed. Abdominal CT demonstrated all of the atypically localised appendices successfully, which were left-sided in a malrotated patient, retrocecal, subhepatic, retrocecal ascending, intraperitoneal abdominal midline localised. Conclusıons Atypically located acute appendicitis can show atypical presentation and result in misdiagnosis. If ultrasonograpgy is inconclusive, we suggest abdominal CT in such confusing, complicated cases, because misdiagnosis or delay in the right diagnosis can result in complications and increased morbidity and mortality rates. PMID:28058072

  10. ABDOMINAL WALL DESMOID TUMOUR OVER APPENDICECTOMY SCAR

    OpenAIRE

    Vijaya; Sarbeshwar; Gogoi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Desmoid tumors are slow growing deep fibromatoses with aggressive infiltration of adjacent tissue but without any metastatic potential . (1,2,3) CASE PRESENTATION: We report a female patient with desmoid tumor of the abdominal wall over appendicectomy scar w ho underwent primary resection. Preoperative evaluation incl uded abdominal ultrasound, and computed tomography. The histology of this cases revealed a desmoid tumor. CONCLUSION: ...

  11. Foveola pharyngea - demonstration in conventional tomography and computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiegler, W.; Stolle, E.

    1980-08-01

    The foveola pharyngea is a cavity on the underside of the clivus, located before the tuberculum pharyngeum and, as a larger pit it was detectable in approx. 1% overall in approx. 4% of the personally examined X-rays (11/284) and computed tomograms (6/154) of the skull base. The canalis basilaris medianus inferior and canalis basilaris medianus bifurcatus almost always empties into one of the three forms of the foveola pharyngea (foveola pharyngea infundibuliformis posterior). The differential diagnosis to canalis basilaris medianus, canalis craniopharyngeus, sutura sphenooccipitalis and bone destruction is discussed.

  12. 彩色双功能超声与计算机断层扫描测量腹主动脉瘤最大径的比较%Comparison of computed tomography angiography with color duplex ultrasonography for measuring the maximal diameter of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炜淼; 陈斌; 郭大乔; 董智慧; 竺挺

    2013-01-01

    目的 采用不同的彩色双功能超声(CDU)测量方法及计算机断层扫描血管造影(CTA)测量腹主动脉瘤的最大径,并进行比较,评估其相关性及一致性,以期获得具有临床意义的最佳测量方法.方法 收集年4月 2011年6月初步诊断为腹主动脉瘤的77例患者,分别应用CDU及CTA测量腹主动脉瘤的最大径.CTA测得腹主动脉瘤的最大径记为CT_max;不同的CDU测量方法测得的腹主动脉瘤最大径包括最大截面的前后位内膜-内膜(DUAP_i)、前后位外膜-外膜(DUAP_a)、横径(DU_trans)及任意方向上的最大径(DU_max).将不同的CDU测量方法测得的结果分别与CTA测量的CT_max进行比较,采用线性回归分析评估其间相关性;采用Bland-Altman法评估其间的一致性,并以两者结果相差-5~5 mm内作为临床可接受范围.结果 CTA测得的CT_max值显著高于不同CDU测量方法测得DUAPi、DUAP_a、DU_trans、DU_max值(P值均<0.05).线性回归分析显示,CT_max与DUAP_i、DUAP_a、DU_trans、DU_max呈正相关(r值分别为0.968、0.969、0.947、0.990,P值均<0.05).Bland-Altman法显示,CT_max与DUAP_i、DUAP_a、DU_ trans、DU_max的一致性限度(LOA)分别为(-0.43~12.43)、(-3.80~8.70)、(-3.54~12.68)和(-3.08~4.10) mm,仅DU_max方法结果在临床可接受范围内.结论 CDU测量DU_max代替CTA测量是可行的,CDU测量DUAP_i、DUAP_a、DU_trans可能造成结果偏差太大而影响临床诊断.%Objective To assess the agreement of various color duplex ultrasonography (CDU) measurements with computed tomography angiography (CTA) for measuring the maximal diameter of abdominal aortic aneurysm.Methods From April 2010 to June 2011,77 patients were diagnosed as abdominal aortic aneurysm in our center.CDU and CTA were applied in all patients before intervention.Maximal aortic diameter was recorded from intimal to intimal in the anteroposterior plane (DUAP_ i),adventitia to adventitia in the anteroposterior plane

  13. Development of a proton Computed Tomography detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimuddin, Md.; Coutrakon, G.; Blazey, G.; Boi, S.; Dyshkant, A.; Erdelyi, B.; Hedin, D.; Johnson, E.; Krider, J.; Rukalin, V.; Uzunyan, S. A.; Zutshi, V.; Fordt, R.; Sellberg, G.; Rauch, J. E.; Roman, M.; Rubinov, P.; Wilson, P.

    2016-02-01

    Computer tomography is one of the most promising new methods to image abnormal tissues inside the human body. Tomography is also used to position the patient accurately before radiation therapy. Hadron therapy for treating cancer has become one of the most advantegeous and safe options. In order to fully utilize the advantages of hadron therapy, there is a necessity of performing radiography with hadrons as well. In this paper we present the development of a proton computed tomography system. Our second-generation proton tomography system consists of two upstream and two downstream trackers made up of fibers as active material and a range detector consisting of plastic scintillators. We present details of the detector system, readout electronics, and data acquisition system as well as the commissioning of the entire system. We also present preliminary results from the test beam of the range detector.

  14. Development of a proton Computed Tomography Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    Naimuddin, Md; Blazey, G; Boi, S; Dyshkant, A; Erdelyi, B; Hedin, D; Johnson, E; Krider, J; Rukalin, V; Uzunyan, S A; Zutshi, V; Fordt, R; Sellberg, G; Rauch, J E; Roman, M; Rubinov, P; Wilson, P

    2015-01-01

    Computer tomography is one of the most promising new methods to image abnormal tissues inside the human body. Tomography is also used to position the patient accurately before radiation therapy. Hadron therapy for treating cancer has become one of the most advantageous and safe options. In order to fully utilize the advantages of hadron therapy, there is a necessity of performing radiography with hadrons as well. In this paper we present the development of a proton computed tomography system. Our second-generation proton tomography system consists of two upstream and two downstream trackers made up of fibers as active material and a range detector consisting of plastic scintillators. We present details of the detector system, readout electronics, and data acquisition system as well as the commissioning of the entire system. We also present preliminary results from the test beam of the range detector.

  15. Lens dosimetry during examination of the sella turcica: comparison between conventional tomography and computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, O.; Bette, L.; Noseda, A.

    1986-01-01

    Lens irradiation measurements were performed with thermo-luminescent lithium fluoride dosimeters during tomographic examinations of the sella turcica, simulated on a phantom head. Lens dosimetry during linear or hypocycloidal conventional tomography was compared with that during computed tomography (CT). Results showed that CT involved much lower radiation exposure to the lens than did conventional tomography and that the major part of the irradiation delivered by CT was related to axial scanning. Therefore, the major finding was that lens irradiation during CT of the sella can be kept at a particularly low level (< 1 m Gy/8 sections) when only coronal scanning is performed.

  16. Multifocal sparganosis mimicking lymphoma involvement: Multimodal imaging findings of ultrasonography, CT, MRI, and position emission tomography-computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, So Young; Park, Ji Yeon; Park, Noh Hyuck; Park, Chan Sub; Kim, Tae Jung [Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Seong Yoon [Dev. of Hematology-Omcology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Hyun Jung [Dev. of Hematology-Omcology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Seoul Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Sparganosis is a rare parasitic disease caused by the migrating plerocercoid larva of Spirometra species tapeworms. The most frequent clinical manifestation is a subcutaneous nodule resembling a neoplasm. In this study, we presented multimodal findings of ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography-computed tomography and follow-up imagings on multifocal sparganosis, mimicking lymphoma involvement in a patient with lymphoma.

  17. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography has a clinical impact for patients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Rikke Mulvad; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Hendel, Helle Westergren;

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have found that positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) has a high sensitivity and specificity in the identification of metastasis in cervical cancer. Herlev Hospital, Denmark, has been performing PET-CTs in stage I-IV cervical cancer since 1 May 2006. The present...... study investigates the positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of PET-CT in stage I disease and the clinical impact of the scan results in all disease stages....

  18. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography has a clinical impact for patients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Rikke Mulvad; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Hendel, Helle W;

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have found that positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) has a high sensitivity and specificity in the identification of metastasis in cervical cancer. Herlev Hospital, Denmark, has been performing PET-CTs in stage I-IV cervical cancer since 1 May 2006. The present s...... study investigates the positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of PET-CT in stage I disease and the clinical impact of the scan results in all disease stages....

  19. Acute mediastinitis: multidetector computed tomography findings following cardiac surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, Clarissa Aguiar de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Instituto do Coracao (InCor)]. E-mail: clarissaaguiarm@yahoo.com.br; Baena, Marcos Eduardo da Silva [Instituto do Coracao (InCor), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Unit of Ultrasonography; Uezumi, Kiyomi Kato [Instituto do Coracao (InCor), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Unit of Computed Tomography; Castro, Claudio Campi de [Instituto do Coracao (InCor), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Unit of Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Lucarelli, Claudio Luiz [Instituto do Coracao (InCor), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Center of Diagnosis; Cerri, Giovanni Guido [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). School of Medicine. Dept. of Radiology

    2008-07-15

    Postoperative mediastinitis is defined as an infection of the organs and tissues in the mediastinal space, with an incidence ranging between 0.4% and 5% of cases. This disease severity varies from infection of superficial tissues in the chest wall to fulminant mediastinitis with sternal involvement. Diagnostic criterion for postoperative detection of acute mediastinitis at computed tomography is the presence of fluid collections and gas in the mediastinal space, which might or might not be associated with peristernal abnormalities such as edema of soft tissues, separation of sternal segments with marginal bone resorption, sclerosis and osteomyelitis. Other associated findings include lymphadenomegaly, pulmonary consolidation and pleural/ pericardial effusion. Some of these findings, such as mediastinal gas and small fluid collections can be typically found in the absence of infection, early in the period following thoracic surgery where the effectiveness of computed tomography is limited. After approximately two weeks, computed tomography achieves almost 100% sensitivity and specificity. Patients with clinical suspicion of mediastinitis should be submitted to computed tomography for investigating the presence of fluid collections to identify the extent and nature of the disease. Multidetector computed tomography allows 3D images reconstruction, contributing particularly to the evaluation of the sternum. (author)

  20. Shielding Calculations for Positron Emission Tomography - Computed Tomography Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baasandorj, Khashbayar [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Jeongseon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Integrated PET-CT has been shown to be more accurate for lesion localization and characterization than PET or CT alone, and the results obtained from PET and CT separately and interpreted side by side or following software based fusion of the PET and CT datasets. At the same time, PET-CT scans can result in high patient and staff doses; therefore, careful site planning and shielding of this imaging modality have become challenging issues in the field. In Mongolia, the introduction of PET-CT facilities is currently being considered in many hospitals. Thus, additional regulatory legislation for nuclear and radiation applications is necessary, for example, in regulating licensee processes and ensuring radiation safety during the operations. This paper aims to determine appropriate PET-CT shielding designs using numerical formulas and computer code. Since presently there are no PET-CT facilities in Mongolia, contact was made with radiological staff at the Nuclear Medicine Center of the National Cancer Center of Mongolia (NCCM) to get information about facilities where the introduction of PET-CT is being considered. Well-designed facilities do not require additional shielding, which should help cut down overall costs related to PET-CT installation. According to the results of this study, building barrier thicknesses of the NCCM building is not sufficient to keep radiation dose within the limits.

  1. Identification of rupture locations in patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysms using experimental and computational techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Barry J; Cloonan, Aidan J; Walsh, Michael T; Vorp, David A; McGloughlin, Timothy M

    2010-05-01

    In the event of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture, the outcome is often death. This paper aims to experimentally identify the rupture locations of in vitro AAA models and validate these rupture sites using finite element analysis (FEA). Silicone rubber AAA models were manufactured using two different materials (Sylgard 160 and Sylgard 170, Dow Corning) and imaged using computed tomography (CT). Experimental models were inflated until rupture with high speed photography used to capture the site of rupture. 3D reconstructions from CT scans and subsequent FEA of these models enabled the wall stress and wall thickness to be determined for each of the geometries. Experimental models ruptured at regions of inflection, not at regions of maximum diameter. Rupture pressures (mean+/-SD) for the Sylgard 160 and Sylgard 170 models were 650.6+/-195.1mmHg and 410.7+/-159.9mmHg, respectively. Computational models accurately predicted the locations of rupture. Peak wall stress for the Sylgard 160 and Sylgard 170 models was 2.15+/-0.26MPa at an internal pressure of 650mmHg and 1.69+/-0.38MPa at an internal pressure of 410mmHg, respectively. Mean wall thickness of all models was 2.19+/-0.40mm, with a mean wall thickness at the location of rupture of 1.85+/-0.33 and 1.71+/-0.29mm for the Sylgard 160 and Sylgard 170 materials, respectively. Rupture occurred at the location of peak stress in 80% (16/20) of cases and at high stress regions but not peak stress in 10% (2/20) of cases. 10% (2/20) of models had defects in the AAA wall which moved the rupture location away from regions of elevated stress. The results presented may further contribute to the understanding of AAA biomechanics and ultimately AAA rupture prediction.

  2. Computed tomography angiography and perfusion to assess coronary artery stenosis causing perfusion defects by single photon emission computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rochitte, Carlos E; George, Richard T; Chen, Marcus Y

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the diagnostic power of integrating the results of computed tomography angiography (CTA) and CT myocardial perfusion (CTP) to identify coronary artery disease (CAD) defined as a flow limiting coronary artery stenosis causing a perfusion defect by single photon emission computed ...

  3. Evaluation of myocardial ischemia by multiple detector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Fabio Vieira, E-mail: rccury@me.com [Hospital do Coracao (HCor), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cury, Roberto Caldeira [Hospital Samaritano, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    For years, cardiovascular diseases have been the leading cause of death worldwide, bringing on important social and economic consequences. Given this scenario, the search for a method capable of diagnosing coronary artery diseases in an early and accurate way is increasingly higher. The coronary computed tomography angiogram is already widely established for the stratification of coronary artery diseases, and, more recently, the computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging has been providing relevant information by correlating ischemia and the coronary anatomy. The objective of this review is to describe the evaluation of myocardial ischemia by multiple detector computed tomography. This study will resort to controlled clinical trials that show the possibility of a single method to identify the atherosclerotic load, presence of coronary artery luminal narrowing and possible myocardial ischemia, by means of a fast, practical and reliable method validated by a multicenter study. (author)

  4. Utility of the computed tomography indices on cone beam computed tomography images in the diagnosis of osteoporosis in women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Kwang Joon; Kim, Kyung A [School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    This study evaluated the potential use of the computed tomography indices (CTI) on cone beam CT (CBCT) images for an assessment of the bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Twenty-one postmenopausal osteoporotic women and 21 postmenopausal healthy women were enrolled as the subjects. The BMD of the lumbar vertebrae and femur were calculated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using a DXA scanner. The CBCT images were obtained from the unilateral mental foramen region using a PSR-9000N Dental CT system. The axial, sagittal, and coronal images were reconstructed from the block images using OnDemend3D. The new term 'CTI' on CBCT images was proposed. The relationship between the CT measurements and BMDs were assessed and the intra-observer agreement was determined. There were significant differences between the normal and osteoporotic groups in the computed tomography mandibular index superior (CTI(S)), computed tomography mandibular index inferior (CTI(I)), and computed tomography cortical index (CTCI). On the other hand, there was no difference between the groups in the computed tomography mental index (CTMI: inferior cortical width). CTI(S), CTI(I), and CTCI on the CBCT images can be used to assess the osteoporotic women.

  5. Computed tomography of sellar and parasellar lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, Mitsunori; Aoki, Hideo (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-06-01

    Neuroradiological modalities, particularly CT, for sellar and parasellar lesions were reviewed. Although accurate preoperative diagnosis is sometimes difficult, CT diagnosed 83% as far as pituitary adenoma, craniopharyngioma and meningioma were concerned and demonstrated abnormal findings in 95% of parasellar tumors. At the authors' department, CT visualized abnormalities in all cases, with the exception of suprasellar arachnoid cyst, but a histological diagnosis was possible only in 84%. Since lesions including tumors cannot be completely denied even if CT shows normal images, findings by modalities such as plain craniography, cerebral tomography, cerebral angiography and cisternography should be judged comprehensively.

  6. Low-dose computed tomography to detect body-packing in an animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, M.H., E-mail: martin.maurer@charite.de [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin (Germany); Niehues, S.M.; Schnapauff, D.; Grieser, C.; Rothe, J.H. [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin (Germany); Waldmueller, D. [Bildungs- und Wissenschaftszentrum der Bundesfinanzverwaltung, Berlin (Germany); Chopra, S.S. [Klinik fuer Allgemein-, Viszeral- und Transplantationschirurgie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin (Germany); Hamm, B.; Denecke, T. [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Objective: To assess the possible extent of dose reduction for low-dose computed tomography (CT) in the detection of body-packing (ingested drug packets) as an alternative to plain radiographs in an animal model. Materials and methods: Twelve packets containing cocaine (purity >80%) were introduced into the intestine of an experimental animal (crossbred pig), which was then repeatedly examined by abdominal CT with stepwise dose reduction (tube voltage, 80 kV; tube current, 10-350 mA). Three blinded readers independently evaluated the CT datasets starting with the lowest tube current and noted the numbers of packets detected at the different tube currents used. In addition, 1 experienced reader determined the number of packets detectable on plain abdominal radiographs and ultrasound. Results: The threshold for correct identification of all 12 drug packets was 100 mA for reader 1 and 125 mA for readers 2 and 3. Above these thresholds all 3 readers consistently identified all 12 packets. The effective dose of a low-dose CT scan with 125 mA (including scout view) was 1.0 mSv, which was below that of 2 conventional abdominal radiographs (1.2 mSv). The reader interpreting the conventional radiographs identified a total of 9 drug packets and detected 8 packets by abdominal ultrasound. Conclusions: Extensive dose reduction makes low-dose CT a valuable alternative imaging modality for the examination of suspected body-packers and might replace conventional abdominal radiographs as the first-line imaging modality.

  7. Investigation of a near-infrared-ray computed tomography scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Eiichi; Oda, Yasuyuki; Satoi, Yuichi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Ishii, Tomotaka; Hagiwara, Osahiko; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Manabu; Kusachi, Shinya

    2016-10-01

    In the near-infrared-ray computed tomography (NIR-CT) scanner, NIR rays are produced from a light-emitting diode (LED) and detected using an NIR phototransistor (PT). The wavelengths of the LED peak intensity and the PT high sensitivity in the data table are both 940 nm. The photocurrents flowing through the PTR are converted into voltages using an emitter-follower circuit, and the output voltages are sent to a personal computer through an analog-digital converter. The NIR projection curves for tomography are obtained by repeated linear scans and rotations of the object, and the scanning is conducted in both directions of its movement.

  8. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the pericardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, M C; Posniak, H V; McDonald, V; Wisniewski, R; Moncada, R

    1989-07-01

    Computed tomography is an established modality for the evaluation of the pericardium. It is used to evaluate complicated pericardial effusions, pericardial thickening, calcific pericarditis, pericardial cysts, postoperative changes and primary and metastatic neoplasms of the pericardium. Magnetic resonance imaging is being used with increasing frequency in the evaluation of pericardial disease. It offers advantages over computed tomography, including a potential for tissue characterization, absence of ionizing radiation or need for intravenous contrast medium, and the ability to scan in any plane. Disadvantages include greater cost, longer examination times and the inability to identify calcification positively.

  9. Direct sagital computed tomography of the temporomandibular joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzione, J.V. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA); Seltzer, S.E.; Katzberg, R.W.; Hammerschlag, S.B.; Chiango, B.F.

    1983-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint dysfunction is a common clinical problem that has been reported to affect 4%-28% of adults. Temporomandibular joint arthrography has shown that many of these patients have intraarticular abnormalities involving the meniscus. A noninvasive test that could demonstrate the meniscus as well as bony abnormalities of the joint would be an important advance. In an attempt to develop such a noninvasive test, we have performed direct sagittal computed tomography (CT) on cadaver temporomandibular joints and have correlated the images with anatomic sections. We are currently applying this technique clinically and report one representative example in which direct sagittal computed tomography of the temporomandibular joint accurately demonstrated an anteriorly displaced meniscus.

  10. Abdomen/pelvis computed tomography in staging of pediatric Hodgkin Lymphoma: is it always necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farruggia, Piero; Puccio, Giuseppe; Sala, Alessandra; Todesco, Alessandra; Terenziani, Monica; Mura, Rosamaria; D'Amico, Salvatore; Casini, Tommaso; Mosa, Clara; Pillon, Marta; Boaro, Maria Paola; Bottigliero, Gaetano; Burnelli, Roberta; Consarino, Caterina; Fedeli, Fausto; Mascarin, Maurizio; Perruccio, Katia; Schiavello, Elisabetta; Trizzino, Angela; Ficola, Umberto; Garaventa, Alberto; Rossello, Mario

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if abdomen/pelvis computed tomography (CT) can be safety omitted in the initial staging of a subgroup of children affected by Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL). Every participating center of A.I.E.O.P (Associazione Italiana di Ematologia ed Oncologia Pediatrica) sent local staging reports of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) and abdominal ultrasound (US) along with digital images of staging abdomen/pelvis CT to the investigation center where the CT scans were evaluated by an experienced pediatric radiologist. The local radiologist who performed the US was unaware of local CT and PET reports (both carried out after US), and the reviewer radiologist examining the CT images was unaware of local US, PET and CT reports. A new abdominal staging of 123 patients performed on the basis of local US report, local PET report, and centralized CT report was then compared to a simpler staging based on local US and PET. No additional lesion was discovered by CT in patients with abdomen/pelvis negativity in both US and PET or isolated spleen positivity in US (or US and PET), and so it seems that in the initial staging, abdomen/pelvis CT can be safety omitted in about 1/2 to 2/3 of children diagnosed with HL.

  11. Abdominal tuberculosis: Imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Jose M. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: jmpjesus@yahoo.com; Madureira, Antonio J. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Vieira, Alberto [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Ramos, Isabel [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)

    2005-08-01

    Radiological findings of abdominal tuberculosis can mimic those of many different diseases. A high level of suspicion is required, especially in high-risk population. In this article, we will describe barium studies, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) findings of abdominal tuberculosis (TB), with emphasis in the latest. We will illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis and describe imaging features that differentiate it from other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, particularly lymphoma and Crohn's disease. As tuberculosis can affect any organ in the abdomen, emphasis is placed to ileocecal involvement, lymphadenopathy, peritonitis and solid organ disease (liver, spleen and pancreas). A positive culture or hystologic analysis of biopsy is still required in many patients for definitive diagnosis. Learning objectives:1.To review the relevant pathophysiology of abdominal tuberculosis. 2.Illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis.

  12. Endocrine radionuclide scintigraphy with fusion single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ka-Kit Wong; Arpit Gandhi; Benjamin L Viglianti; Lorraine M Fig; Domenico Rubello; Milton D Gross

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To review the benefits of single photon emission computed tomography(SPECT)/computed tomography(CT) hybrid imaging for diagnosis of various endocrine disorders.METHODS: We performed MEDLINE and Pub Med searches using the terms: "SPECT/CT"; "functional anatomic mapping"; "transmission emission tomography"; "parathyroid adenoma"; "thyroid cancer"; "neuroendocrine tumor"; "adrenal"; "pheochromocytoma"; "paraganglioma"; in order to identify relevant articles published in English during the years 2003 to 2015. Reference lists from the articles were reviewed to identify additional pertinent articles. Retrieved manuscripts(case reports, reviews, meta-analyses and abstracts) concerning the application of SPECT/CT to endocrine imaging were analyzed to provide a descriptive synthesis of the utility of this technology.RESULTS: The emergence of hybrid SPECT/CT camera technology now allows simultaneous acquisition of combined multi-modality imaging, with seamless fusion of three-dimensional volume datasets. The usefulness of combining functional information to depict the biodistribution of radiotracers that map cellular processes of the endocrine system and tumors of endocrine origin, with anatomy derived from CT, has improved the diagnostic capability of scintigraphy for a range of disorders of endocrine gland function. The literature describes benefits of SPECT/CT for 99mTc-sestamibi parathyroid scintigraphy and 99mTc-pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy, 123I- or 131I-radioiodine for staging of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, 111In- and 99mTclabeled somatostatin receptor analogues for detection of neuroendocrine tumors, 131I-norcholesterol(NP-59) scans for assessment of adrenal cortical hyperfunction, and 123I- or 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging for evaluation of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.CONCLUSION: SPECT/CT exploits the synergism between the functional information from radiopharmaceutical imaging and anatomy from CT, translating to

  13. Industrial Computed Tomography using Proximal Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Zang, Guangming

    2016-04-14

    In this thesis, we present ProxiSART, a flexible proximal framework for robust 3D cone beam tomographic reconstruction based on the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (SART). We derive the proximal operator for the SART algorithm and use it for minimizing the data term in a proximal algorithm. We show the flexibility of the framework by plugging in different powerful regularizers, and show its robustness in achieving better reconstruction results in the presence of noise and using fewer projections. We compare our framework to state-of-the-art methods and existing popular software tomography reconstruction packages, on both synthetic and real datasets, and show superior reconstruction quality, especially from noisy data and a small number of projections.

  14. Position emission tomography with or without computed tomography in the primary staging of Hodgkin's lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Martin; Jakobsen, Annika Loft; Hansen, Mads;

    2006-01-01

    In order to receive the most appropriate therapy, patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) must be accurately stratified into different prognostic staging groups. Computed tomography (CT) plays a pivotal role in the conventional staging. The aim of the present study was to investigate the value...

  15. Fractional flow reserve derived from coronary computed tomography angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eftekhari, Ashkan; Min, James; Achenbach, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Fractional flow reserve (FFR) derived from coronary computed tomography (FFRCT) has high diagnostic performance in stable coronary artery disease (CAD). The diagnostic performance of FFRCT in patients with hypertension (HTN) and diabetes (DM), who are at risk of microvascular impairment, is...

  16. Coronary computed tomography - present status and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apfaltrer, P.; Schoepf, U. J.; Vliegenthart, R.; Rowe, G. W.; Spears, J. R.; Fink, C.; Nance, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    The use of coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA) is growing rapidly, in large part because of fast-paced technical innovations that have increased diagnostic accuracy while providing new opportunities for radiation dose reduction. cCTA using recent generation CT scanners has been repeatedl

  17. Use of Computed Tomography Scans for Cochlear Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Whiting, Bruce R.; Holden, Timothy A.; Brunsden, Barry S.; Finley, Charles C.; Skinner, Margaret W.

    2007-01-01

    While 3-dimensional (3D) imaging by computed tomography has long been desirable for research and treatment of cochlear-implant patients, technical challenges have limited its wide application. Recent developments in scanner hardware and image processing techniques now allow image quality improvements that make clinical applications feasible. Validation experiments were performed to characterize a new methodology and its imaging performance.

  18. Computed tomography diagnosis of partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posniak, H V; Dudiak, C M; Olson, M C

    1993-01-01

    A case of the rarely occurring partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage of the right upper lobe into the azygos arch is presented. Computed tomography (CT) clearly demonstrated the abnormal vessel coursing through the right upper lobe and draining into the azygos arch.

  19. Coronary artery fly-through using electron beam computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, P M; Oudkerk, M; van Geuns, R J; Rensing, B J; de Feyter, P J

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Virtual reality techniques have recently been introduced into clinical medicine. This study examines the possibility of coronary artery fly-through using a dataset obtained by noninvasive coronary angiography with contrast-enhanced electron-beam computed tomography. METHODS AND RESULTS:

  20. Computed tomography of the human developing anterior skull base

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Loosen (J.); A.I.J. Klooswijk (A. I J); D. van Velzen (D.); C.D.A. Verwoerd (Carel)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The ossification of the anterior skull base, especially the lamina cribrosa, has been studied by computed tomography and histopathology. Sixteen human fetuses, (referred to our laboratory for pathological examination after spontaneous abortion between 18 and 32 weeks of ge

  1. Computer tomography in Caisson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, F.; Csobaly, S.

    1981-07-01

    Computer tomography was performed on 20 patients with the early stages of Caisson osteoarthropathy, as well as in other patients with chronic bone infarcts. From their results the authors have formed the opinion that CT is valuable, not only in the diagnosis of early cases, but that it can provide significant information concerning the osteopathy and bone infarcts.

  2. Dimensional measurement of micro-moulded parts by computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ontiveros, S.; Yagüe-Fabra, J.A.; Jiménez, R.

    2012-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is progressively assuming an important role in metrology applications and great efforts are being made in order to turn it into a reliable and standardized measuring technology. CT is typically used for non-destructive tests, but it is currently becoming very popular for ...

  3. Paradigm of pretest risk stratification before coronary computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Møller; Øvrehus, Kristian; Nielsen, Lene H;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal method of determining the pretest risk of coronary artery disease as a patient selection tool before coronary multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the ability of 3 different clinical risk scores to predict the outcome of coronary ...

  4. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN HYDATID CYST OF THE ORBIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Abbassioun

    1982-07-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of hydatid cysts of the orbit causing unilateral exophthalmos are reported. Diagnosis were suspected by means of computed tomography (CT and confirmed at Operation. CT changes are described and its value in diagnosis of this lesion particularly in the endemic areas is stressed.

  5. Operator radiation exposure in cone-beam computed tomography guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, S.J.; Strijen Van, M. J L; Meijer, E.; Heesewijk Van, J. P M; Mali, W. P T M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Quantitative analysis of operator dose in cone-beam computed tomography guidance (CBCT-guidance) and the effect of protective shielding. Methods: Using a Rando phantom, a model was set-up to measure radiation dose for the operator hand, thyroid and gonad region. The effect of sterile rad

  6. Traceability investigation in Computed Tomography using industry-inspired workpieces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraemer, Alexandra; Stolfi, Alessandro; Schneider, Timm

    2017-01-01

    This paper concerns an investigation of the accuracy of Computed Tomography (CT) measurements using four industry-inspired workpieces. A total of 16 measurands were selected and calibrated using CMMs. CT measurements on industry-inspired workpieces were carried out using two CTs having different...

  7. Moulding process characterization of paper bottles using computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents an approach of evaluating the moulding process for production of paper bottlesusing Computed Tomography (CT). Moulded Pulp Products (MPP) are made of a formed, dewateredand dried mixture of pulp fibers and water. Modern industrial pulp moulding is datedback to the year 1903 whe...

  8. Computed Tomography characterization of the Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano

    The work carried out in this research aims at identifying suitable ways for thorough characterization of the quality of paper bottles. Industrial X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) is particularly advantageous in determining the quality of paper bottles and thus correlating it with the production pr...

  9. Tracheo-oesophageal fistula diagnosed with multidetector computed tomography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hodnett, Pa

    2009-04-01

    This case highlights important issues in investigation of patients with suspected tracheo-oesophageal fistula including the value of multidetector computed tomography, the importance of thorough imaging evaluation when high clinical suspicion of tracheo-oesophageal fistula exists and the value of close interaction between radiologists and intensive care physicians in the investigation of these patients.

  10. 3D artefact for concurrent scale calibration in Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolfi, Alessandro; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    A novel artefact for calibration of the scale in 3D X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is presented. The artefact comprises a carbon fibre tubular structure on which a number of reference ruby spheres are glued. The artefact is positioned and scanned together with the workpiece inside the CT scanner ...

  11. Tolerance Verification of an Industrial Assembly using Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolfi, Alessandro; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Regi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on results of tolerance verification of a multi-material assembly by using Computed Tomography (CT). The workpiece comprises three parts which are made out of different materials. Five different measurands were inspected. The calculation of measurement uncertainties was attempt...

  12. Abdominal separation in an adult male patient with acute abdominal pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We report a male patient with prolonged post-prandial abdominal distension and a sudden onset of epigastric pain initially diagnosed as acute abdomen. The patient had no history of surgery. Physical examination revealed peritonitis and abdominal computed tomography scan showed upper abdominal mesentery intorsion. The patient then underwent surgical intervention. It was found that the descending mesocolon dorsal root was connected to the ascending colon and formed a membrane encapsulating the small intestine...

  13. The role of multidetector computed tomography in evaluation of small bowel obstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih İnci

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate therole and additional diagnostic contribution of multi-detectorcomputed tomography (MDCT in patients with acuteabdominal pain caused by small bowel obstruction.Materials and methods: A total of 48 patients who admittedto our hospital with acute abdominal pain and underwentMDCT on suspicion of intestinal obstruction and hadabdominal surgery between January 2012 and October2012 were included to our study. MDCT images were interpretedby two experienced radiologist retrospectively.All clinical data and surgery notes also were evaluated.Patients had surgery due to penetrating or blunt abdominalinjury were excluded.Results: Of these 48 patients, 26 (54.1% were male and22 (45.9% were female. Patients’ ages ranged 25 to 71and mean age was 52±5.4 years. The causes of intestinalobstruction of patients were adhesions for 12 (46.1% patients,tumors for 7 (26.9% patients, external hernias for5 (19.2% patients, internal hernia for 1 (3.9% patient andintussusception for 1 (3.9% patient. A total concordancebetween the MDCT findings and definitive diagnosis wasfound in 26 of 23 cases and the sensitivity and specifityof MDCT in the diagnosis of small bowel obstruction werefound to be 88.5% and 90%, respectively.Conclusion: MDCT is a fast, effective and reliable imagingmethod for preoperative diagnosing small bowel obstructioncauses acute abdominal pain with the advantagesof MDCT such as multi-planar and three-dimensionalreformatted imaging.Key words: Acute abdominal pain, multi-detector computed tomography, small bowel obstruction

  14. Inter laboratory comparison on Industrial Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Larsen, Erik

    The ‘CIA-CT comparison - Inter laboratory comparison on industrial Computed Tomography” is organized by DTU Department of Mechanical Engineering within the Danish project “Centre for Industrial Application of CT scanning - CIA-CT”. The project is co-financed by the Danish Ministry of Science, Tec...

  15. Mycosis fungoides: manifestations on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapeero, L.G.; Young, S.W.

    1983-07-01

    Mtcosis fungoides is a malignant lymphoma of the skin that causes intense erythema, plaques, edema, and induration. The primary computed tomographic findings of mycosis fungoides, i.e., skin thickening, tumorous infiltration, edema of the soft tissues, and lymphadenopathy, are presented in two patients.

  16. Coordinate Metrology by Traceable Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Pavel

    metrology and coordinate metrology and is currently becoming more and more important measuring technique for dimensional measurements. This is mainly due to the fact that with CT, a complete three-dimensional model of the scanned part is in a relatively short time visualized using a computer...

  17. Assessment of asthmatic inflammation using hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography-x-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaopeng; Prakash, Jaya; Ruscitti, Francesca; Glasl, Sarah; Stellari, Fabio Franco; Villetti, Gino; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear imaging plays a critical role in asthma research but is limited in its readings of biology due to the short-lived signals of radio-isotopes. We employed hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and x-ray computed tomography (XCT) for the assessment of asthmatic inflammation based on resolving cathepsin activity and matrix metalloproteinase activity in dust mite, ragweed, and Aspergillus species-challenged mice. The reconstructed multimodal fluorescence distribution showed good correspondence with ex vivo cryosection images and histological images, confirming FMT-XCT as an interesting alternative for asthma research.

  18. Cranial computed tomography in psychiatry. Kraniale Computertomographie in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkai, P. (Rheinische Landes- und Hochschulklinik Duesseldorf, Psychiatrische Klinik der Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet (Germany)); Bogerts, B. (Rheinische Landes- und Hochschulklinik Duesseldorf, Psychiatrische Klinik der Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet (Germany))

    1993-08-13

    Computed tomography has gained importance as a diagnostic tool in psychiatry to exclude structural brain pathology, but has passed on its role in research to magnetic resonance tomography. It helps to distinguish between senile dementia of Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia. The enlargement of the ventricular system and cortical sulci is well established in schizophrenic and affective psychosis. Some alcohol addicts show a considerable degree of cerebral atrophy, only exceeded by demented patients, but this condition is potentially reversible. To screen psychiatric patients by CT is recommendable, as 2-10% of hospitalized psychiatric patients have structural brain disease. (orig.)

  19. Using computed tomography scans to develop an ex-vivo gastric model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jerome A Henry; Gerard O'Sullivan; Abhay S Pandit

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research was to use abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans to non-invasively quantify anthropometrical data of the human stomach and to concomitantly create an anatomically correct and distensible ex-vivo gastric model. Thirty-three abdominal CT scans of human subjects were obtained and were imported into reconstruction software to generate 3D models of the stomachs. Anthropometrical data such as gastric wall thickness, gastric surface area and gastric volume were subsequently quantified. A representative 3D computer model was exported into a selective laser sintering (SLS) rapid prototyping machine to create an anatomically correct solid gastric model. Subsequently,a replica wax template of the SLS model was created. A negative mould was offset around the wax template such that the offset distance was equivalent to that of the gastric wall thickness. A silicone with similar mechanical properties to the human stomach was poured into the offset. The lost wax manufacturing technique was employed to create a hollow distensible stomach model.3D computer gastric models were generated from the CT scans. A hollow distensible silicone ex-vivo gastric model with similar compliance to that of the human stomach was created. The anthropometrical data indicated that there is no significant relationship between BMI and gastric surface area or gastric volume. There were interand intra-group differences between groups with respect to gastric wall thickness. This study demonstrates that abdominal CT scans can be used to both non-invasively determine gastric anthropometrical data as well as create realistic ex-vivo stomach models.

  20. Clinical significance of visceral adiposity assessed by computed tomography: A Japanese perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miwa; Ryo; Ken; Kishida; Tadashi; Nakamura; Tohru; Yoshizumi; Tohru; Funahashi; Iichiro; Shimomura

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal obesity,rather than total amount of fat,is linked to obesity-related disorders.Visceral adiposity is an important component of obesity-related disorders in Japanese individuals with a mild degree of adiposity compared with Western subjects.In 1983,our group reported techniques for body fat analysis using computed tomography(CT)and established the concept of visceral fat obesity in which intra-abdominal fat accumulation is an important factor in the development of obesity-related complications,such as diabetes,lipid disorders,hypertension and atherosclerosis.Our group also established ideal imaging conditions for determining abdominal fat area at the umbilical level CT scan.Visceral fat area(VFA)measured in a single slice at L4level correlated significantly with the total abdominal visceral fat volume measured on multislice CT scan.In a large-scale study of a Japanese population,the mean number of obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors(hypertension,low high-density lipoprotein cholesterolemia and/or hypertriglyceridemia,and hyperglycemia)was greater than 1.0 at 100 cm2 of VFA,irrespective of gender,age and body mass index.Our group also demonstrated that reduction of visceral fat accumulation subsequent to voluntary lifestyle modification,"Hokenshido",correlated with a decrease in the number of obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors.It is important to select the most appropriate subjects from the general population(e.g.,non-obese subjects with a cluster of risk factors for the metabolic syndrome)that are most suitable for body weight reduction,with the goal of preventing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Case Report of Multimodality Imaging in Omental Cake: Plain Radiograph, Computed Tomography, and Ultrasonography: A Care-Compliant Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Yu-Hsiang; Cheung, Yun-Chung; Ng, Koon-Kwan; Ng, Shu-Hang; Huang, Jen-Seng; Chang, Liang-Che; Lin, Yu-Ching

    2015-11-01

    The imaging finding of omental cake has been demonstrated in other modalities, such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography. However, to the best of our knowledge, the image presentation of omental cake on a routine kidney-ureter-bladder film has not been reported before in the literature. We presented a unique case of a 61-year-old woman, with known advanced cecal colon mucinous adenocarcinoma, presented to our institution with abdominal fullness, poor appetite, and decreased stool passage for 20 days. Physical examination was unremarkable, except distended abdomen. Subsequent study revealed massive post-pigtail catheter drainage ascites with a prominent soft-tissue mass-causing centralization and tethering of focally distended small bowel gas, suggestive of omental cake on plain radiograph. The imaging finding in plain radiograph corresponds to the findings in other imaging modalities, including abdominal sonography and computed tomography. The patient underwent subtotal colectomy and ileostomy during later courses of chemotherapy due to adhesion ileus and possible intraabdominal abscess, and pathologic study confirmed the diagnosis of cecal mucinous adenocarcinoma and peritoneal carcinomatosis. Although the image finding of omental cake on plain radiograph has never been described, this image finding is unique and should be recognized, as it may suggest the presence of omental cake when first identified in the emergency department from patients with abdominal distension and warrant further evaluation to evaluate the underlying cause.

  2. Computed tomography of the acetabular fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ho Young; Suh, Jin Suck; Park, Chang Yun; Lee, Kil Woo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-04-15

    In a retrospective study of 21 patients, in whom the acetabular fractures were suspected on initial radiographs, we compared and analysed the computed tomographic findings and plain radiographic findings. The results were as follow: 1. In patients with multiple trauma, no further change in position was required during CT examinations. 2. CT showed intraarticular loose bodies, which were invisible on plain radiographs. 3. CT was useful in detecting the fractures of acetabular rims, medial wall of acetabulum, and femoral head. 4. CT permitted better evaluation of shape, extent, and degree of separation of fracture fragments. 5. CT was helpful in detecting the associated fractures and soft tissue injuries. 6. CT also demonstrated the adequacy of reduction, the position of metallic fixation devices, and the presence or absence of remaining intraarticular osseous fragments after surgery.

  3. Computed tomography of human joints and radioactive waste drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, E; Bernardi, R; Hollerbach, K; Logan, C; Martz, H; Roberson, G P

    1999-06-01

    X- and gamma-ray imaging techniques in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and assay (NDA) have been increasing use in an array of industrial, environmental, military, and medical applications. Much of this growth in recent years is attributed to the rapid development of computed tomography (CT) and the use of NDE throughout the life-cycle of a product. Two diverse examples of CT are discussed. (1) The computational approach to normal joint kinematics and prosthetic joint analysis offers an opportunity to evaluate and improve prosthetic human joint replacements before they are manufactured or surgically implanted. Computed tomography data from scanned joints are segmented, resulting in the identification of bone and other tissues of interest, with emphasis on the articular surfaces. (2) They are developing NDE and NDE techniques to analyze closed waste drums accurately and quantitatively. Active and passive computed tomography (A and PCT) is a comprehensive and accurate gamma-ray NDA method that can identify all detectable radioisotopes present in a container and measure their radioactivity.

  4. Initial water quantification results using neutron computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, A.K. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University (United States)], E-mail: axh174@psu.edu; Shi, L.; Brenizer, J.S.; Mench, M.M. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University (United States)

    2009-06-21

    Neutron computed tomography is an important imaging tool in the field of non-destructive testing and in fundamental research for many engineering applications. Contrary to X-rays, neutrons can be attenuated by some light materials, such as hydrogen, but can penetrate many heavy materials. Thus, neutron computed tomography is useful in obtaining important three-dimensional information about a sample's interior structure and material properties that other traditional methods cannot provide. The neutron computed tomography system at Pennsylvania State University's Radiation Science and Engineering Center is being utilized to develop a water quantification technique for investigation of water distribution in fuel cells under normal conditions. A hollow aluminum cylinder test sample filled with a known volume of water was constructed for purposes of testing the quantification technique. Transmission images of the test sample at different angles were easily acquired through the synthesis of a dedicated image acquisition computer driving a rotary table controller and an in-house developed synchronization software package. After data acquisition, Octopus (version 8.2) and VGStudio Max (version 1.2) were used to perform cross-sectional and three-dimensional reconstructions of the sample, respectively. The initial reconstructions and water quantification results are presented.

  5. NOTE: An algorithm for automatic determination of the respiratory phases in four-dimensional computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleshneva, T.; Muzik, J.; Alber, M.

    2006-08-01

    Recently, several techniques have been developed to improve the quality of computed tomography (CT) images of the thoracic and abdominal region that are degraded by the interference of the scanning process and respiration. Several devices for respiratory-correlated CT are available for clinical usage. They are based on the synchronization of the acquired CT image data with the respiratory motion using a signal from an external respiratory monitoring system. In this work, some practical aspects of clinical implementation of the multi-slice 4D CT scanner Somatom Sensation Open (Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany) equipped with a respiratory gating system (RGS) AZ-733V (Anzai Medical, Tokyo, Japan) are discussed. A new algorithm developed for automatic respiratory phase determination needed for the reconstruction of the 4D CT images is presented.

  6. 3-D reconstruction of an ancient Egyptian mummy using X-ray computer tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldock, C; Hughes, S W; Whittaker, D K; Taylor, J; Davis, R; Spencer, A J; Tonge, K; Sofat, A

    1994-12-01

    Computer tomography has been used to image and reconstruct in 3-D an Egyptian mummy from the collection of the British Museum. This study of Tjentmutengebtiu, a priestess from the 22nd dynasty (945-715 BC) revealed invaluable information of a scientific, Egyptological and palaeopathological nature without mutilation and destruction of the painted cartonnage case or linen wrappings. Precise details on the removal of the brain through the nasal cavity and the viscera from the abdominal cavity were obtained. The nature and composition of the false eyes were investigated. The detailed analysis of the teeth provided a much closer approximation of age at death. The identification of materials used for the various amulets including that of the figures placed in the viscera was graphically demonstrated using this technique.

  7. Bilateral Obturator Hernia Diagnosed by Computed Tomography: A Case Report with Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay M. Khaladkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obturator hernia is a rare form of abdominal hernia and a diagnostic challenge. It is commonly seen in elderly thin females. Its diagnosis is often delayed with resultant increased morbidity and mortality due to bowel ischemia/gangrene. It is mistakenly diagnosed as femoral or inguinal hernia on USG. Computed tomography is diagnostic and is a valuable tool for preoperative diagnosis. This report presents a case of 70-year-old thin female presenting with intestinal obstruction due to left sided obstructed obturator hernia. USG showed small bowel obstruction and an obstructed left sided femoral hernia. CT scan of abdomen and pelvis with inguinal and upper thigh region disclosed left sided obturator hernia. It also detected clinically occult right sided obturator hernia. Early diagnosis and surgical treatment contribute greatly in reducing the morbidity and mortality rate.

  8. Brain computed tomography of the hypertensive patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, W. K.; Park, C. K.; Cho, O. K.; Hahm, C. K. [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    Now a day, hypertension is more increasing in frequency and ranked the top of the causes of death in Korea and other nations. Most of cerebrovascular accidents in hypertensive patients are composed of vascular occlusive changes and hemorrhages. In cerebral angiogram, we can only detect occlusion of large artery and large mass effect from hematoma or cerebral infarction without identification of its entity. The computed tomogram, however, is the best way for evaluation of cerebrovascular diseases including detection of nature, location, amount, and associated changes. This study includes evaluation of computed tomograms of 106 patients with hypertension during the period of 17 months from Feb. 1979 to June 1980 in the department of radiology, college of Medicine, Hanyang University. The results were as follows. 1. Age distribution of the total 106 patients was broad ranging from 25 years to 76 years. 67.9% of patients were over the age of 50. The male and female sex ratio was 3:2. 2. 28 out of 106 patients were normal and 78 patients revealed abnormal on C. T. findings; those were intracranial hemorrhage (35 patients), cerebral infarction (32 patients) and brain atrophy (11 patients). 3. All of the intracranial hemorrhage except one were intracerebral hemorrhage; those were located in the cerebral hemisphere (19 patients), basal ganglia (15 patients) and brain stem (1 patient). The except one case of intracranial hemorrhage was subdural hematoma. 7 patients of intraventricular hemorrhage and 1 patient of subarachnoid hemorrhage were combined with intracerebral hemorrhage. 2/3 of patients who had hemorrhage in cerebral hemisphere revealed lesions in the parietal and temporal lobes. 4. In cases of cerebral infarction, the cerebral hemisphere was most common site of lesion (20 cases), and the next was basal ganglia (11 cases). Most of the infarcts in cerebral hemisphere were located in the parietal and temporal lobes. The left basal ganglia was more commonly involved

  9. Didactics and training in cardiovascular computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojraj, Sanjay D; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H

    2009-01-01

    As the role of cardiovascular computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is further expanded through research, the use of this technology will expand as a result of demand both from medical professionals and the public. To ensure a standardized quality of interpretation of these scans in the face of an increased demand for physicians qualified to interpret these studies, the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, along with several other professional societies, has proposed a didactic curriculum for the study of CCTA. This review highlights the currently proposed didactic curriculum for the study of CCTA, examines current trends in training for both medical trainees and physicians in practice, and proposes future directions for the study of CCTA.

  10. High Resolution Muon Computed Tomography at Neutrino Beam Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Suerfu, Burkhant

    2015-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has an indispensable role in constructing 3D images of objects made from light materials. However, limited by absorption coefficients, X-rays cannot deeply penetrate materials such as copper and lead. Here we show via simulation that muon beams can provide high resolution tomographic images of dense objects and of structures within the interior of dense objects. The effects of resolution broadening from multiple scattering diminish with increasing muon momentum. As the momentum of the muon increases, the contrast of the image goes down and therefore requires higher resolution in the muon spectrometer to resolve the image. The variance of the measured muon momentum reaches a minimum and then increases with increasing muon momentum. The impact of the increase in variance is to require a higher integrated muon flux to reduce fluctuations. The flux requirements and level of contrast needed for high resolution muon computed tomography are well matched to the muons produced in the pio...

  11. Mandibular condyle position in cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Hyoung Joo; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Kyung Hee Univ. School of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    To evaluate position of the mandibular condyle within articular fossa in an asymptomatic population radiographically by a cone beam computed tomography. Cone beam computed tomography of 60 temporomandibular joints was performed on 15 males and 15 females with no history of any temporomandibular disorders, or any other orthodontic or photoconductors treatments. Position of mandibular condyle within articular fossa at centric occlusion was evaluated. A statistical evaluation was done using a SPSS. In the sagittal views, mandibular condyle within articular fossa was laterally located at central section. Mandibular condyles in the right and left sides were showed asymmetric positional relationship at medial, central, and lateral sections. Mandibular condyle within articular fossa in an asymptomatic population was observed non-concentric position in the sagittal and coronal views.

  12. Common findings and pseudolesions at computed tomography colonography: pictorial essay

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto Castelli von Atzingen; Dario Ariel Tiferes; Carlos Alberto Matsumoto; Thiago Franchi Nunes; Marcos Vinicius Alvim Soares Maia; Giuseppe D'Ippolito

    2012-01-01

    Computed tomography colonography is a minimally invasive method for screening for polyps and colorectal cancer, with extremely unusual complications, increasingly used in the clinical practice. In the last decade, developments in bowel preparation, imaging, and in the training of investigators have determined a significant increase in the method sensitivity. Images interpretation is accomplished through a combined analysis of two-dimensional source images and several types of three-dimensiona...

  13. Use of Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Endodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Scarfe, William C.; Martin D. Levin; David Gane; Farman, Allan G.

    2009-01-01

    Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is a diagnostic imaging modality that provides high-quality, accurate three-dimensional (3D) representations of the osseous elements of the maxillofacial skeleton. CBCT systems are available that provide small field of view images at low dose with sufficient spatial resolution for applications in endodontic diagnosis, treatment guidance, and posttreatment evaluation. This article provides a literature review and pictorial demonstration of CBCT as an imagin...

  14. Soil Macropore Structure Characterized by X-Ray Computed Tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jie; ZHANG Jia-Bao; ZHU An-Ning; BI Jing-Wei

    2003-01-01

    Undisturbed soil core with many macropores and disturbed soil core with only one macropore (diameter is 10 mm) were probed by x-ray computed tomography (CT). The size, number, shape and continuity of macropores in the transverse and vertical sections of soil were characterized using CT scanning images. The probability densities of macropores in the transverse section of soil core exhibited a logarithmic Γ distribution.Results indicated that CT scanning was a promising nondestructive method for characterizing macropores in soils.

  15. Ureterolithiasis: classical and atypical findings on unenhanced helical computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaswani, Kuldeep K; El-Dieb, Adam; Vitellas, Kenneth M; Bennett, William F; Bova, James G

    2002-03-01

    Evaluation of patients with acute flank pain using helical computed tomography (CT) is a well-accepted, rapid, and safe procedure in the emergency setting. Various primary and secondary signs are described in the literature for evaluation of these patients. Our purpose is to demonstrate both the classical findings associated with ureteral calculi on unenhanced helical CT and atypical findings and potential pitfalls. We also provide readers with a systematic approach to interpreting unenhanced helical CT scans performed for acute flank pain.

  16. Computed tomography of partial unilateral agenesis of the pectoralis muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, T C; Johnson, C; Love, L; Posniak, H

    1985-01-01

    The most common congenitally absent muscles are the pectoralis major and minor. Absence is usually incomplete. This anomaly is often one component of a syndrome associated with other hand (Poland syndrome) and thoracic anomalies. Computed tomography can identify partial absence of the pectoralis muscle and exactly define the altered anatomy. A patient with myasthenia gravis and isolated partial agenesis of the pectoralis muscle is presented.

  17. Computed tomography of common congenital lesions of the temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuen, H.Y. E-mail: drhyyuen@doctors.org.uk; Ahuja, A.T.; Wong, K.T.; Yue, V.; Hasselt, A.C. van

    2003-09-01

    This pictorial review describes the application of high-resolution computed tomography to the investigation and pre-operative work-up of the common lesions of congenital hearing loss, including congenital aural dysplasia, various congenital ossicular anomalies, inner ear dysmorphology, large vestibular aqueduct syndrome, and congenital absence of cochlear nerve and labyrinthitis ossificans from previous infection. The aim is to help radiologists to provide a more accurate diagnosis of underlying aetiology and assist in surgical planning.

  18. Computed tomography of the pathological temporal bone. Malformations. Otospongiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azais, O.; Drouineau, J.; Vandermarcq, P.; Barret, D.; Gasquet, C.

    1988-01-01

    The authors evaluate the value of computed tomography in the investigation of malformations and otospongiosis of the ear. Although the CT scan appears to be essential in the preoperative of malformations of the ear, especially as otological examination frequently contributes little to the evaluation of the middle ear, otospongiosis seems to be a less formal indication, except in the predominantly cochlear forms of the disease.

  19. Geometrical metrology on silicone rubber by computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Pavel; Pacurar, Ramona Alexandra; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) represents a suitable measuring technique for investigation of deformable materials, since no forces are developed on the part during scanning. As for any other measuring instruments, the traceability of the CT scanners needs to be assured. An investigation on geometrical...... measurements on silicone rubber using CT was carried out. Measurements performed on a CT scanner were compared to measurements on a coordinate measuring machine (CMM), being used as reference....

  20. Analysis of Multilayered Printed Circuit Boards using Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    resistors harder to identify as Carbon is lower in the periodic table than Aluminium Oxide . Sample 2: Colour Bar Appendix D.2...Aluminium Al2O3 Aluminium Oxide BGA Ball Grid Array Coronal XZ Plane COTS Commercial Off The Shelf C Carbon CT Computed Tomography DC Direct Current...encapsulated in steel housing. Red Circle: Thin film resistors harder to identify as Carbon is lower in the periodic table than Aluminium Oxide . Sample 2

  1. Predicting Neck Abscess with Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Neck abscesses are difficult to diagnose and treat. Currently, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) is the imaging modality of choice. The study aims to determine the predictive value of CECT findings in diagnosing neck abscess, causes of neck abscess and the most common neck space involved in the local population. 84 consecutive patients clinically suspected to have neck abscess who underwent CECT and surgical confirmation of pus were included. Demographic and clinical data were reco...

  2. The role of computed tomography in modern paediatric uroradiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maudgil, D.D.; McHugh, K. E-mail: kmchugh@gosh.nhs.uk

    2002-08-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has developed a well-recognised role within paediatric uroradiology, especially in imaging of trauma, malignancy (in particular Wilms' tumour), atypical infection, and congenital urogenital abnormalities. CT can also be used for problem solving in nephrolithiasis and renal transplant assessment. These applications are illustrated and discussed, with an emphasis on particular information that can be gained from the CT study.

  3. Hypoplasia of the parotid gland: computed tomography sialography diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lisha; Sun, Zhipeng; Ma, Xuchen

    2013-10-01

    We report two unusual cases of non-syndromic hypoplasia of the parotid gland. The hypoplastic parotid gland mimicked a preauricular parotid tumor in one case and presented as an incidental image finding in the other case. Absence of the deep lobe and isthmus of the parotid parenchyma could be determined on axial computed tomography (CT) by revealing fat tissue composition of the parotid space. The underdeveloped superficial lobe of the gland was observed on three-dimensional CT sialography.

  4. Contraindications to lumbar puncture as defined by computed cranial tomography.

    OpenAIRE

    Gower, D. J.; Baker, A. L.; Bell, W O; Ball, M R

    1987-01-01

    Papilloedema is not always an adequate predictor of potential complications from lumbar puncture, and many clinicians are using computed tomography (CT) before lumbar puncture in an effort to identify more accurately the "at risk" patient. This paper identifies the following anatomical criteria defined by CT scanning that correlate with unequal pressures between intracranial compartments and predispose a patient to herniation following decompression of the spinal compartment: lateral shift of...

  5. Computed tomography changes following cryotherapy for hepatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.; Morris, D. L. [University of NSW, Sydney (Australia). Department of Surgery; Glenn, D. [St George Hospital, Kogarah, Sydney (Australia). Department of Radiology

    1997-05-01

    Encouraging survival and tumour marker results have been described in patients where the focally destructive technique, hepatic cryotherapy, is used to treat primary and secondary hepatic malignancy. Radiology allows assessment of the cryotherapy procedure and follow-up treatment. This paper aims to review and describe the appearance of hepatic cryotherapy by computed tomography which allows assessment of the adequacy of surgical technique and offers the ability to identify recurrences that may be suitable for further treatment. 11 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  6. SADMFR guidelines for the use of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/ Digital Volume Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dula, Karl; Bornstein, Michael M; Buser, Daniel; Dagassan-Berndt, Dorothea; Ettlin, Dominik A; Filippi, Andreas; Gabioud, François; Katsaros, Christos; Krastl, Gabriel; Lambrecht, J Thomas; Lauber, Roland; Luebbers, Heinz-Theo; Pazera, Pawel; Türp, Jens C

    2014-01-01

    Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) has been introduced in 1998. This radiological imaging procedure has been provided for dentistry and is comparable to computed tomography (CT) in medicine. It is expected that CBCT will have the same success in dental diagnostic imaging as computed tomography had in medicine. Just as CT is responsible for a significant rise in radiation dose to the population from medical X-ray diagnostics, CBCT studies will be accompanied by a significant increase of the dose to our patients by dentistry. Because of the growing concern for an uncritical and consequently rapidly increasing use of CBCT the Swiss Society of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology convened a first consensus conference in 2011 to formulate indications for CBCT, which can be used as guidelines. In this meeting, oral and maxillofacial surgery, orthodontics and temporomandibular joint disorders and diseases were treated and the most important and most experienced users of DVT in these areas were asked to participate. In general, a highly restrictive use of CBCT is required. Justifying main criterion for CBCT application is that additional, therapy-relevant information is expected that should lead to a significant benefit in patient care. All users of CBCT should have completed a structured, high-level training, just like that offered by the Swiss Society of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology.

  7. Efficacy of multislice computed tomography for gastroenteric and hepatic surgeries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroshi Ohtani; Mitsuo Tsubakimoto; Hidemi Kawajiri; Yuichi Arimoto; Koichi Ohno; Yasuhisa Fujimoto; Hiroko Oba; Kenji Adachi; Masaya Hirano; Shoichi Terakawa

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine the efficacy of multislice CT for gastroenteric and hepatic surgery.METHODS: Dual-phase helical computed tomography was performed in 50 of 51 patients who underwent gastroenteric and hepatic surgeries. Twenty-eight, eighteen and four patients suffering from colorectal cancer, gastric cancer,and liver cancer respectively underwent colorectal surgery (laparoscopic surgery: 6 cases), gastrectomy, and hepatectomy. Three-dimensional computed tomography imaging of the inferior mesenteric artery, celiac artery and hepatic artery was performed. And in the follow-up examination of postoperative patients, multiplanar reconstruction image was made in case of need.RESULTS: Scans in 50 patients were technically satisfactory and included in the analysis. Depiction of major visceral arteries, which were important for surgery and other treatments, could be done in all patients.Preoperative visualization of the left colic artery and sigmoidal arteries, the celiac artery and its branches, and hepatic artery was very useful to lymph node dissection,the planning of a reservoir and hepatectomy. And multiplanar reconstruction image was helpful to diagnosis for the postoperative follow-up of patients.CONCLUSION: Three-dimensional volume rendering or multiplanar reconstruction imaging performed by multislice computed tomography was very useful for gastroenteric and hepatic surgeries.

  8. Multidetector computed tomography in the preoperative staging of gastric adenocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Ricardo Hoelz de Oliveira; Penachim, Thiago Jose; Martins, Daniel Lahan; Andreollo, Nelson Adami; Caserta, Nelson Marcio Gomes, E-mail: rhobarros@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    Objective: To evaluate the role of multidetector computed tomography in the preoperative investigation of tumor invasion depth and lymph node and metastatic involvement according to the TNM classification, in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four patients with biopsy-confirmed gastric cancer underwent preoperative staging with 64-channel multidetector computed tomography. Two independent radiologists analyzed the images and classified the findings. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and overall accuracy were calculated for each observer. The interobserver agreement was also evaluated. Results: The accuracy in the classification of categories T ranged from 74% to 96% for observer 1 and from 80% to 92% for observer 2. The overall accuracy was 70% for both observers. The weighted kappa index was 0.75, consistent with a significant interobserver agreement. The accuracy in the classification of lymph node involvement (category N) ranged from 55% to 79% for observer 1 and from 73% to 82% for observer 2. The evaluation of metastatic involvement showed an overall accuracy of 89.6% for both observers. Conclusion: 64-channel multidetector computed tomography demonstrated clinically relevant accuracy in the preoperative staging of gastric adenocarcinoma as regards invasion depth (T category) and metastatic involvement (M category). (author)

  9. Anatomical structure of lingual foramen in cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ki, Min Woo; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-15

    To evaluate whether cone beam computed tomography can depict the distribution, position, frequency, relative vertical dimension, and the diameter of the lingual foramen and direction of lingual bone canal. Cone beam computed tomography of mandible was performed on 25 males and 25 females with no history of any orthodontic treatments or any other dental surgeries. A statistical comparison was done on the mean values of males and females. In the location and distribution of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was found in all subjects and lateral lingual foramen in 58%. In the lateral lingual foramen, bilateral type was found in 28% and unilateral type in 30%. In the number of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen had two foramina and lateral lingual foramen had one foramen, mostly. In the relative mean vertical dimension of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was 0.03 {+-} 0.08, and both lateral lingual foramina was 0.20 {+-} 0.04. The mean diameter of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was 0.9 mm {+-} 0.28, right lateral lingual foramen was 0.92 mm {+-} 0.23, and left lateral lingual foramen was 0.88 mm {+-} 0.27. The most frequent direction of the lingual bone canals, median lingual bone canal proceeded in anteroinferior direction and lateral lingual bone canal in anterosuperolateral direction. Cone beam computed tomography can be helpful for surgery and implantation on the mandibular area. Radiologist should be aware of this anatomical feature and its possible implications.

  10. Clinical utility of dental cone-beam computed tomography: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaju PP

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Prashant P Jaju,1 Sushma P Jaju21Oral Medicine and Radiology, 2Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Rishiraj College of Dental Sciences and Research Center, Bhopal, IndiaAbstract: Panoramic radiography and computed tomography were the pillars of maxillofacial diagnosis. With the advent of cone-beam computed tomography, dental practice has seen a paradigm shift. This review article highlights the potential applications of cone-beam computed tomography in the fields of dental implantology and forensic dentistry, and its limitations in maxillofacial diagnosis.Keywords: dental implants, cone-beam computed tomography, panoramic radiography, computed tomography

  11. Multi-scale analysis of lung computed tomography images

    CERN Document Server

    Gori, I; Fantacci, M E; Preite Martinez, A; Retico, A; De Mitri, I; Donadio, S; Fulcheri, C

    2007-01-01

    A computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the identification of lung internal nodules in low-dose multi-detector helical Computed Tomography (CT) images was developed in the framework of the MAGIC-5 project. The three modules of our lung CAD system, a segmentation algorithm for lung internal region identification, a multi-scale dot-enhancement filter for nodule candidate selection and a multi-scale neural technique for false positive finding reduction, are described. The results obtained on a dataset of low-dose and thin-slice CT scans are shown in terms of free response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curves and discussed.

  12. Computed Tomography and Computed Radiography of late Bronze Age Cremation Urns from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvig, Lise Lock; Lynnerup, Niels; Amsgaard Ebsen, Jannie

    2012-01-01

    To improve methods used to study prehistoric cremation rituals, cremation urns from the Danish late Bronze Age were examined using Computed Tomography and Computed Radiography (Digital X-ray). During microexcavation, the digital images were used as registration tool. Our results suggest...

  13. [Role of cone-beam computed tomography in diagnostic otorhinolaryngological imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perényi, Ádám; Bella, Zsolt; Baráth, Zoltán; Magyar, Péter; Nagy, Katalin; Rovó, László

    2016-01-10

    Accurate diagnosis and preoperative planning in modern otorhinolaryngology is strongly supported by imaging with enhanced visualization. Computed tomography is often used to examine structures within bone frameworks. Given the hazards of ionizing radiation, repetitive imaging studies exponentially increase the risk of damages to radiosensitive tissues. The authors compare multislice and cone-beam computed tomography and determine the role, advantages and disadvantages of cone-beam computed tomography in otorhinolaryngological imaging. They summarize the knowledge from the international literature and their individual imaging studies. They conclude that cone-beam computed tomography enables high-resolution imaging and reconstruction in any optional plane and in space with considerably lower effective radiation dose. Cone-beam computed tomography with appropriate indications proved to be an excellent diagnostic tool in otorhinolaryngological imaging. It makes an alternative to multislice computed tomography and it is an effective tool in perioperative and postoperative follow-up, especially in those cases which necessitate repetitive imaging with computed tomography.

  14. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography evaluation of subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma and treatment response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodetskiy, Vadim R; Mukhortova, Olga V; Aslanidis, Irakli P; Klapper, Wolfram; Probatova, Natalya A

    2016-01-01

    Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma (SPTCL) is a very rare variant of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Currently, there is no standard imaging method for staging of SPTCL nor for assessment of treatment response. Here, we describe our use of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for staging and monitoring of treatment response in 3 cases of SPTCL. Primary staging by PET/CT showed that all 3 patients had multiple foci in the subcutaneous fat tissue, with SUVmax from 10.5 to 14.6. Involvement of intra-abdominal fat with high SUVmax was identified in 2 of the patients. Use of the triple drug regimen of gemcitabine, cisplatin and methylprednisolone (commonly known as “GEM-P”) as first-line therapy or second-line therapy facilitated complete metabolic response for all 3 cases. FDG PET/CT provides valuable information for staging and monitoring of treatment response and can reveal occult involvement of the intra-abdominal visceral fat. High FDG uptake on pre-treatment PET can identify patients with aggressive disease and help in selection of first-line therapy. PMID:27672640

  15. An exceptional cause of left lower quadrant abdominal pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bassam Abboud; Ronald Daher

    2009-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is an exceptional cause of left lower quadrant abdominal pain. Computed tomography scan is the key to its diagnosis and helps to establish its early treatment. We present a case of a 35-year-old male patient who presented acute appendicitis with redundant and loosely attached cecum which was diagnosed based on his left lower quadrant abdominal pain.

  16. Comparison between ultrasound and noncontrast helical computed tomography for identification of acute ureterolithiasis in a teaching hospital setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Ronan Marquez Ferreira de Souza

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have shown noncontrast computed tomography (NCT to be more effective than ultrasound (US for imaging acute ureterolithiasis. However, to our knowledge, there are few studies directly comparing these techniques in an emergency teaching hospital setting. The objectives of this study were to compare the diagnostic accuracy of US and NCT performed by senior radiology residents for diagnosing acute ureterolithiasis; and to assess interobserver agreement on tomography interpretations by residents and experienced abdominal radiologists. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study of 52 consecutive patients, who underwent both US and NCT within an interval of eight hours, at Hospital São Paulo. METHODS: US scans were performed by senior residents and read by experienced radiologists. NCT scan images were read by senior residents, and subsequently by three abdominal radiologists. The interobserver variability was assessed using the kappa statistic. RESULTS: Ureteral calculi were found in 40 out of 52 patients (77%. US presented sensitivity of 22% and specificity of 100%. When collecting system dilatation was associated, US demonstrated 73% sensitivity, 82% specificity. The interobserver agreement in NCT analysis was very high with regard to identification of calculi, collecting system dilatation and stranding of perinephric fat. CONCLUSIONS: US has limited value for identifying ureteral calculi in comparison with NCT, even when collecting system dilatation is present. Residents and abdominal radiologists demonstrated excellent agreement rates for ureteral calculi, identification of collecting system dilatation and stranding of perinephric fat on NCT.

  17. Data set for renal sinus fat volume and visceral adipose tissue volume on computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yoko; Nagatani, Yukihiro; Takahashi, Masashi; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Miyazawa, Itsuko; Morino, Katsutaro; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Nitta, Norihisa; Sakai, Hiroshi; Nota, Hiromitsu; Ushio, Noritoshi; Murata, Kiyoshi

    2016-06-01

    Renal sinus fat is partially characteristic of peri-vascular adipose tissue, however, RSF volume (RSFV) is associated with visceral adipose tissue (VATV). Therefore, the ratio of RSFV to VATV (RSFV/VATV ratio) can distinguish the importance of RSF as an extension of VAT versus its perivascular effects. We assessed the association of RSFV/VATV ratio with coronary artery calcification score (CACS) in 189 patients with suspected coronary artery disease. RSFV of the right kidney and VATV were quantified by using image data of unenhanced abdominal CT. CACS were measured on unenhanced ECG-gated CT images. This article contains data on explanatory scheme of how to measure RSFV on unenhanced abdominal CT, CT indication and exclusion criteria of study population, sex-adjusted association between RSFV with risk factors of coronary vascular diseases and metabolic indices, multivariate linear regression analysis with CACS as the dependent variable in the total study population. The data are supplemental to our original research article describing detailed association between RSFV/VATV ratio and CACS including sub-groups analyses classified by the age of 70 "Renal sinus fat volume on computed tomography in middle-aged patients at risk for cardiovascular disease and its association with coronary artery calcification" Murakami et al. [1].

  18. Computed tomography and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography findings in adrenal candidiasis and histoplasmosis: two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinmakas, Emre; Guo, Ming; Kundu, Uma R; Habra, Mouhammed Amir; Ng, Chaan

    2015-01-01

    We report the contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography findings in adrenal histoplasmosis and candidiasis. Both demonstrated bilateral hypermetabolic heterogeneous adrenal masses with limited wash-out on delayed CT. Adrenal candidiasis has not been previously reported, nor have the CT wash-out findings in either infection. The adrenal imaging findings are indistinguishable from malignancy, which is more common; but in this setting, physicians should be alert to the differential diagnosis of fungal infections, since it can be equally deadly.

  19. [Spiral computed tomography in the diagnosis of limb osteomyelitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, A Iu; Bulanova, T V; Onishchenko, M P

    2003-01-01

    The results of radiation studies in 121 patients of different age (4 to 75 years) examined for limb osteomyelitis are analyzed. All the patients underwent routine X-ray study and computed tomography (CT), 26 patients had X-ray fistulography; 8, linear tomography; 10, CT fistulography; 6, scintigraphy, and 15, ultrasound study. Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHO), chronic hematogenous osteomyelitis (CHO), and atypical (here Garre's sclerosing osteomyelitis and Brodie's abscess) osteomyelitis were ascertained in 10.6, 26.4, and 10.1% of cases, respectively. Posttraumatic osteomyelitis was diagnosed in almost 50% of the patients. CT defined the phase of chronic limb osteomyelitis. Spiral CT has proven to be the most effective technique for diagnosing limb osteomyelitis as compared with routine X-ray study: the accuracy of X-ray study was 81.8%, its sensitivity, 84.9%, and specificity, 60.0% and those of computed tomography were 96.7, 99.1, and 80.0%, respectively.

  20. Quantitative cone beam X-ray luminescence tomography/X-ray computed tomography imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dongmei; Zhu, Shouping, E-mail: zhusp2009@gmail.com; Chen, Xueli; Chao, Tiantian; Cao, Xu; Zhao, Fengjun; Huang, Liyu; Liang, Jimin [Engineering Research Center of Molecular and Neuro Imaging of Ministry of Education and School of Life Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710071 (China)

    2014-11-10

    X-ray luminescence tomography (XLT) is an imaging technology based on X-ray-excitable materials. The main purpose of this paper is to obtain quantitative luminescence concentration using the structural information of the X-ray computed tomography (XCT) in the hybrid cone beam XLT/XCT system. A multi-wavelength luminescence cone beam XLT method with the structural a priori information is presented to relieve the severe ill-posedness problem in the cone beam XLT. The nanophosphors and phantom experiments were undertaken to access the linear relationship of the system response. Then, an in vivo mouse experiment was conducted. The in vivo experimental results show that the recovered concentration error as low as 6.67% with the location error of 0.85 mm can be achieved. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can accurately recover the nanophosphor inclusion and realize the quantitative imaging.

  1. Reconstruction Algorithms for Positron Emission Tomography and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography and their Numerical Implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Fokas, A S; Marinakis, V

    2004-01-01

    The modern imaging techniques of Positron Emission Tomography and of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography are not only two of the most important tools for studying the functional characteristics of the brain, but they now also play a vital role in several areas of clinical medicine, including neurology, oncology and cardiology. The basic mathematical problems associated with these techniques are the construction of the inverse of the Radon transform and of the inverse of the so called attenuated Radon transform respectively. We first show that, by employing mathematical techniques developed in the theory of nonlinear integrable equations, it is possible to obtain analytic formulas for these two inverse transforms. We then present algorithms for the numerical implementation of these analytic formulas, based on approximating the given data in terms of cubic splines. Several numerical tests are presented which suggest that our algorithms are capable of producing accurate reconstruction for realistic phanto...

  2. Right parietal stroke with Gerstmann's syndrome. Appearance on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and single-photon emission computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M R; Saver, J L; Johnson, K A; Romero, J A

    1991-04-01

    We examined a patient who exhibited Gerstmann's syndrome (left-right disorientation, finger agnosia, dyscalculia, and dysgraphia) in association with a perioperative stroke in the right parietal lobe. This is the first description of the Gerstmann tetrad occurring in the setting of discrete right hemisphere pathologic findings. A well-localized vascular lesion was demonstrated by computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and single-photon emission computed tomographic studies. The patient had clinical evidence of reversed functional cerebral dominance and radiologic evidence of reversed anatomic cerebral asymmetries.

  3. Discriminatory power of indicators predictors of visceral adiposity evaluated by computed tomography in adults and elderly individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Karla Cameiro Roriz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Identifying anthropometric methods of abdominal adiposity, predictors of excess area of visceral adipose tissue (VAT allows rapid and low cost evaluation for the risk of cardiovascular diseases in the elderly. Objective: To evaluate the discriminatory power of anthropometric indicators for detection of excess of the area of VAT. Methods: Cross-sectional study comprising 194 adults and elderly individuals for comparison of both sexes and age groups. Anthropometric variables: waist-to-height Ratio (WHtR, waist-to-thigh Ratio (WTR, Abdominal Diameter Index (ADI and Sagittal Abdominal Diameter Height Index (SAD/Height. The VAT area was identified by computed tomography (CT. Analysis with the ROC curve. Results: There was a high correlation between the VAT area and most of the anthropometric indicators (p ≤ 0.001. Among elderly men, WHtR showed areas under the ROC curve over 0.90 and cutoff of 0.55 (sens: 85.7%; spec: 82.4%, PPV: 99.9%. For older women, the WHtR cutoff was 0.58 (sens: 81.0%; spec: 78.6%. For the SAD/Height, the areas under the ROC curve were ≥ 0.83 (p ≤ 0.01, with cutoffs of 0.12 for men and 0.13 for women. Conclusion: There was a strong discriminatory power of the anthropometric indicators abdominal visceral obesity. The WHtR and SAD/Height showed better performance to predict the VAT area of risk in elderly, without the need of measuring it by computed tomography.

  4. F-18 Fluorodeoxy Glucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Findings in a Rare Case of Penile Leiomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuruva Manohar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile cancer is a rare entity accounting for only 0.4% all male malignancies. Penile leiomyosarcomas are even rarer with only around 35 cases reported in literature. We report a rare case of penile leiomyosarcoma illustrating F-18 Fluorodeoxy glucose (FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT features and histopathology correlation.

  5. Evaluation of preoperative computed tomography angiography in association with conventional angiography versus computed tomography angiography only, in the endovascular treatment of aortic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, Patrick Bastos; Novero, Eduardo Rafael; Rossi, Fabio Henrique; Moreira, Samuel Martins; Linhares, Frederico Augusto; Almeida, Bruno Lorencao de; Barbato, Heraldo Antonio; Izukawa, Nilo Mitsuru; Kambara, Antonio Massamitsu, E-mail: patrickvascular@gmail.com [Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Objective: to evaluate the association of conventional angiography (AG) with computed tomography angiography (CTA) as compared with CTA only, preoperatively, in the treatment of aortic diseases. Materials and methods: retrospective study involving patients submitted to endovascular treatment of aortic diseases, in the period from January 2009 to July 2010, with use of preoperative CTA + conventional AG or CTA only. The patients were divided into two groups, namely: G1 - thoracic aortic diseases; and G2 - abdominal aortic diseases. G1 was subdivided into 1A (preoperative AG + CTA) and 1B (preoperative CTA). G2 was subdivided into 2C (CTA + AG) and 2D (CTA only). Results: the authors evaluated 156 patients. In subgroups 1A and 1B, the rate of technical success was, respectively, 100% and 94.7% (p = 1.0); and the rate of therapeutic success was, respectively, 81% and 58% (p = 0.13). A higher number of complications were observed in subgroup 1B (p = 0.057). The accuracy in the calculation of the prosthesis was higher in subgroup 1A (p = 0.065). In their turn, the rate of technical success in subgroups 2C and 2D was, respectively, 92.3% and 98.6% (p = 0.17). The rate of therapeutic success was 73% and 98.6% (p = 0.79). Conclusion: preoperative conventional AG should be reserved for cases where CTA cannot provide all the information in the planning of a therapeutic intervention. (author)

  6. Position emission tomography with or without computed tomography in the primary staging of Hodgkin's lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Martin; Loft, Annika; Hansen, Mads

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In order to receive the most appropriate therapy, patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) must be accurately stratified into different prognostic staging groups. Computed tomography (CT) plays a pivotal role in the conventional staging. The aim of the present study...... standard limits the reliability of accuracy calculations. RESULTS: FDG-PET would have upstaged 19% of patients and downstaged 5% of patients, leading to a different treatment in 9% of patients. For FDG-PET/CT, the corresponding figures are 17%, 5%, and 7%. In nodal regions, the sensitivity of FDG...

  7. Benign breast lesions detected by positron emission tomography-computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benveniste, Ana P., E-mail: apbenveniste@mdanderson.org [Department of Diagnostic Radiology,The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Yang, Wei, E-mail: wyang@mdanderson.org [Department of Diagnostic Radiology,The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Benveniste, Marcelo F., E-mail: mfbenveniste@mdanderson.org [Department of Diagnostic Radiology,The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mawlawi, Osama R., E-mail: omawlawi@mdanderson.org [Department of imaging physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Marom, Edith M., E-mail: emarom@mdanderson.org [Department of Diagnostic Radiology,The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission computed tomography (FDG PET-CT) is widely used in the initial staging and response evaluation of patients with malignancy. This review describes a spectrum of benign breast findings incidentally detected by FDG PET-CT at staging that may be misinterpreted as malignancy. We describe the pattern of distribution and intensity of FDG uptake in a spectrum of benign breast diseases with their corresponding typical morphological imaging characteristics to help the nuclear medicine physician and/or general radiologist identify benign lesions, avoiding unnecessary breast imaging work-up and biopsies.

  8. The clinical significance of incidental intra-abdominal findings on positron emission tomography performed to investigate pulmonary nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Richdeep S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is a common cause of cancer-related death. Staging typically includes positron emission tomography (PET scanning, in which18F-fluoro-2-dexoy-D-glucose (FDG is taken up by cells proportional to metabolic activity, thus aiding in differentiating benign and malignant pulmonary nodules. Uptake of FDG can also occur in the abdomen. The clinical significance of incidental intraabdominal FDG uptake in the setting of pulmonary nodules is not well established. Our objective was to report on the clinical significance of incidental intra-abdominal FDG activity in the setting of lung cancer. Methods Fifteen hundred FDG-PET reports for studies performed for lung cancer were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of incidental FDG-positive intraabdominal findings. Patient charts with positive findings were then reviewed and information extracted. Results Twenty-five patients (25/1500 demonstrated incidental intraabdominal FDG uptake thought to be significant (1.7% with a mean patient age of 71 years. Colonic uptake was most common (n = 17 with 9 (52% being investigated further. Of these 9 cases, a diagnosis of malignancy was made in 3 patients, pre-malignant adenomas in 2 patients, a benign lipoma in 1 patient and no abnormal findings in the remaining patients. 8 patients were not investigated further (3 diagnosed with metastatic lung cancer and 2 were of advanced age secondary to poor prognosis. Conclusion Incidental abdominal findings in the colon on FDG-PET scan for work-up of pulmonary nodules need to be further investigated by colonoscopy.

  9. Laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis: findings on computed tomography scans of the chest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Araujo Neto, Cesar de [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Meirelles, Gustavo Souza Portes [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil); Irion, Klaus Loureiro [The Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Zanetti, Glaucia [Faculdade de Medicina de Petropolis (FMP), RJ (Brazil); Missrie, Israel [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem; Sato, Juliana [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia de Cabeca e Pescoco

    2008-12-15

    Objectives: To present the findings of computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest in patients with laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed CT scans of eight patients, five males and three females, ranging from 5 to 18 years of age with a mean age of 10.5 years. Images were independently reviewed by two radiologists. In discrepant cases, a consensus was reached. Results: The most common CT findings were intratracheal polypoid lesions and pulmonary nodules, many of which were cavitated. Conclusions: In patients with laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis, the most common tomographic finding was the combination of intratracheal polypoid lesions and multiple pulmonary nodules, many of which were cavitated. (author)

  10. Computed tomography in the evaluation of thyroid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, P.M.; Newman, G.E.; Korobkin, M.; Workman, J.B.; Moore, A.V.; Coleman, R.E.

    1984-05-01

    Traditionally, thyroid imaging has been performed primarily using radionuclide scanning. High-resolution computed tomography (CT) was performed in 18 patients to evaluate the CT appearance of various thyroid abnormalities including diffuse toxic goiter, multinodular goiter, Hashimoto thyroiditis, thyroid adenoma, and malignant thyroid tumors. CT images of the thyroid were correlated with radionuclide scanning, surgical findings, and clinical and laboratory results. CT provided a complementary method for evaluation of the thyroid by defining the morphology of the thyroid gland and more precisely defining the anatomic extent of thyroid abnormalities in relation to the normal structures of the neck and mediastinum.

  11. Cone-beam computed tomography: A miracle for orthodontics!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevan M Khatri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The branch of oral medicine and radiology has always played a role of back stage worker for the branch of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopaedics. It would have been difficult for an orthodontist to gift the bright smiles to his/her patients without the 2D and 3D black and white pictures provided by the oral radiologist. Moreover, the series of advances in the various imaging modalities are playing the role of a magician for the branch of orthodontia. The present article provides valuable information about one such miracle for the field of orthodontics-cone beam computed tomography (CBCT.

  12. PRaVDA: High Energy Physics towards proton Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, T., E-mail: t.price@bham.ac.uk

    2016-07-11

    Proton radiotherapy is an increasingly popular modality for treating cancers of the head and neck, and in paediatrics. To maximise the potential of proton radiotherapy it is essential to know the distribution, and more importantly the proton stopping powers, of the body tissues between the proton beam and the tumour. A stopping power map could be measured directly, and uncertainties in the treatment vastly reduce, if the patient was imaged with protons instead of conventional x-rays. Here we outline the application of technologies developed for High Energy Physics to provide clinical-quality proton Computed Tomography, in so reducing range uncertainties and enhancing the treatment of cancer.

  13. Computed Tomography Appearances of Various Complications Associated with Pancreatic Pseudocysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheol Kim, Hyun; Mo Yang, Dal; Jung Kim, Hyoung; Ho Lee, Dong; Tae Ko, Young; Won Lim, Joo (Dept. of Radiology, East-West Neo Medical Center, Kyung-Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea))

    2008-09-15

    Most pancreatic pseudocysts are common complications of acute or chronic pancreatitis. They usually occur within the pancreas or in peripancreatic tissues, and are visualized as round or oval fluid collections with thin or thick walls on computed tomography (CT) scans. However, pancreatic pseudocysts are often combined with various complications, e.g., various organ involvements, infection, hemorrhage with pseudoaneurysm formation, rupture with fistula formation, or gastrointestinal or biliary obstruction, which may necessitate prompt intervention or surgery. This review illustrates the CT appearances of various complications associated with pancreatic pseudocysts

  14. X-ray computed tomography investigations of Cucuteni ceramic statuettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pavel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Deciphering the internal structure of prehistoric artefacts can provide spectacular insights that might help us understand the people who made them. In order to preserve the integrity of these relics of past civilisations, it is desirable to make such investigations using non-destructive techniques. Recent decades have witnessed a growth in the X-ray computed tomography (CT applications in the study of cultural heritage objects. This paper presents and discusses tomographic investigations of two Cucuteni ceramic statuettes discovered in Romania. The study was made with a CT device specially designed for archaeometric applications.

  15. Unusual causes of colonic wall thickening on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D.R.; Markose, G.; Arends, M.J.; Ng, C.S.; Freeman, A.H

    2003-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) appearances in 'colitis' are often non-specific, and include mural thickening and mesenteric fat stranding. In the western world, the majority of cases will have, or be subsequently diagnosed with, inflammatory bowel disease, pseudomembranous colitis or ischaemic colitis. However, other rare conditions may also produce these rather non-specific signs. We present a number of cases demonstrating colonic wall thickening on CT due to rarer diagnoses, which are correlated with the histopathological features. Some of these CT appearances have not been described previously in the literature.

  16. Incidental findings on cone beam computed tomography: Relate and relay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhas P Pande

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the presence of incidental findings on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT images and to recognize their clinical importance. Materials and Methods: A total of 700 CBCT scans between January 2013 to August 2014 at Government Dental College and Hospital were evaluated retrospectively. Results: 459 incidental findings (65.57% were observed in 700 patients. Most common individual incidental finding was mucosal thickening (119 followed by pineal/habenula calcification (99 and choroid plexus (77. Conclusion: The oral and maxillofacial radiologist should carefully interpret all scans and should not ignore the incidental findings and hence avoid untoward snowballing effects.

  17. Aortic valve area assessed with 320-detector computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Linnea Hornbech; Kofoed, Klaus Fuglsang; Carstensen, Helle Gervig;

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of aortic valve area (AVA) assessment with 320-detector Computed Tomography (MDCT) compared to transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in a population with mild to severe aortic valve stenosis. AVA was estimated in 169 patients by planimetry on MDCT images (AVAMDCT......) and by the continuity equation with TTE (AVATTE). To generate a reference AVA (AVAREF) we used the stroke volume from MDCT divided by the velocity time integral from CW Doppler by TTE (according to the continuity equation: stroke volume in LVOT = stroke volume passing the aortic valve). AVAREF was used as the reference...

  18. Urologic applications of multiplanar and three-dimensional computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, M C; Posniak, H V

    1995-01-01

    The introduction of helical computed tomography (CT) has resulted in improved quality of multiplanar reformations and three-dimensional reconstructions in the chest and abdomen and has made CT angiography a clinical reality. These imaging techniques are useful for evaluating the urinary tract, adding a new dimension to its display, resulting in improved diagnosis of renal and perirenal disease. This article reviews the indications and techniques utilized for multiplanar and three-dimensional CT for urology. The advantages and limitations are discussed, and normal and pathologic findings in the urinary tract illustrated.

  19. Multidetector Computer Tomography: Evaluation of Blunt Chest Trauma in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Palas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging plays an essential part of chest trauma care. By definition, the employed imaging technique in the emergency setting should reach the correct diagnosis as fast as possible. In severe chest blunt trauma, multidetector computer tomography (MDCT has become part of the initial workup, mainly due to its high sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of the technique for the detection and characterization of thoracic injuries and also due to its wide availability in tertiary care centers. The aim of this paper is to review and illustrate a spectrum of characteristic MDCT findings of blunt traumatic injuries of the chest including the lungs, mediastinum, pleural space, and chest wall.

  20. Precision Medicine and PET/Computed Tomography: Challenges and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Rathan M

    2017-01-01

    Precision Medicine is about selecting the right therapy for the right patient, at the right time, specific to the molecular targets expressed by disease or tumors, in the context of patient's environment and lifestyle. Some of the challenges for delivery of precision medicine in oncology include biomarkers for patient selection for enrichment-precision diagnostics, mapping out tumor heterogeneity that contributes to therapy failures, and early therapy assessment to identify resistance to therapies. PET/computed tomography offers solutions in these important areas of challenges and facilitates implementation of precision medicine.

  1. Material reconstruction for spectral computed tomography with detector response function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiulong; Gao, Hao

    2016-11-01

    Different from conventional computed tomography (CT), spectral CT using energy-resolved photon-counting detectors is able to provide the unprecedented material compositions. However accurate spectral CT needs to account for the detector response function (DRF), which is often distorted by factors such as pulse pileup and charge-sharing. In this work, we propose material reconstruction methods for spectral CT with DRF. The simulation results suggest that the proposed methods reconstructed more accurate material compositions than the conventional method without DRF. Moreover, the proposed linearized method with linear data fidelity from spectral resampling had improved reconstruction quality from the nonlinear method directly based on nonlinear data fidelity.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of PET and PET/Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerke, Oke; Hermansson, Ronnie; Hess, Søren

    2015-01-01

    measure by means of incremental cost-effectiveness ratios when considering the replacement of the standard regimen by a new diagnostic procedure. This article discusses economic assessments of PET and PET/computed tomography reported until mid-July 2014. Forty-seven studies on cancer and noncancer......The development of clinical diagnostic procedures comprises early-phase and late-phase studies to elucidate diagnostic accuracy and patient outcome. Economic assessments of new diagnostic procedures compared with established work-ups indicate additional cost for 1 additional unit of effectiveness...

  3. Computed tomography of the thymus gland in myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorvinger, B.; Lyttkens, K.; Samuelsson, L.

    Sixteen consecutive patients with myasthenia gravis were examined by computed tomography (CT) before thymectomy. Surgical and histologic findings were compared with those obtained at CT. The results, like those of most other recent studies, indicate that CT is a reliable method for identifying thymoma. In all three patients with thymoma, and in five out of eight patients with hyperplasia, the lesion was observed at CT, giving an overall accuracy of 80%. Although tymic hyperplasia is a basically histological diagnosis an enlarged gland may give a correct diagnosis of this abnormality.

  4. The value of computed tomography in myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.R.; Muhm, J.R.; Sheedy, P.F. II; Unni, K.K.; Bernatz, P.E.; Hermann, R.C. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    In a 5 year study, 19 patients with myasthenia gravis were studied by computed tomography (CT) and underwent thymectomy. CT was accurate in detecting the nine true thymic masses but could not differentiate thymomas from nonthymomatous masses, including thymic cysts. No thymoma was found in a patient under 25 years of age. In one case, the 18 sec scanner could not differentiate a large gland from a thymoma. In eight cases, glands with histologic thymic hyperplasia and histologically normal thymus appeared to be similar and could not be differentiated by CT.

  5. Multidetector computer tomography: evaluation of blunt chest trauma in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palas, João; Matos, António P; Mascarenhas, Vasco; Herédia, Vasco; Ramalho, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Imaging plays an essential part of chest trauma care. By definition, the employed imaging technique in the emergency setting should reach the correct diagnosis as fast as possible. In severe chest blunt trauma, multidetector computer tomography (MDCT) has become part of the initial workup, mainly due to its high sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of the technique for the detection and characterization of thoracic injuries and also due to its wide availability in tertiary care centers. The aim of this paper is to review and illustrate a spectrum of characteristic MDCT findings of blunt traumatic injuries of the chest including the lungs, mediastinum, pleural space, and chest wall.

  6. PET/Computed Tomography in Renal, Bladder, and Testicular Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Choyke, Peter L

    2015-07-01

    Imaging plays an important role in the clinical management of cancer patients. Hybrid imaging with PET/computed tomography (CT) is having a broad impact in oncology, and in recent years PET/CT is beginning to have an impact in urooncology. In both bladder and renal cancers, there is a need to study the efficacy of other tracers than F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), particularly tracers with limited renal excretion. Thus, new tracers are being introduced. This review focuses on the clinical role of FDG and other PET agents in renal, bladder, and testicular cancers.

  7. Improved proton computed tomography by dual modality image reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, David Christoffer; Bassler, Niels; Petersen, Jørgen B.B.;

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Proton computed tomography (CT) is a promising image modality for improving the stopping power estimates and dose calculations for particle therapy. However, the finite range of about 33 cm of water of most commercial proton therapy systems limits the sites that can be scanned from a full...... nonlinear conjugate gradient algorithm, minimizing total variation and the x-ray CT prior while remaining consistent with the proton projection data. The proton histories were reconstructed along curved cubic-spline paths. Results: The spatial resolution of the cone beam CT prior was retained for the fully...

  8. Nontraumatic abdominal emergencies: acute abdominal pain: diagnostic strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marincek, B. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2002-09-01

    Common causes of acute abdominal pain include appendicitis, cholecystitis, bowel obstruction, urinary colic, perforated peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, diverticulitis, and nonspecific, nonsurgical abdominal pain. The topographic classification of acute abdominal pain (pain in one of the four abdominal quadrants, diffuse abdominal pain, flank or epigastric pain) facilitates the choice of the imaging technique. The initial radiological evaluation often consists of plain abdominal radiography, despite significant diagnostic limitations. The traditional indications for plain films - bowel obstruction, pneumoperitoneum, and the search of ureteral calculi - are questioned by helical computed tomography (CT). Although ultrasonography (US) is in many centers the modality of choice for imaging the gallbladder and the pelvis in children and women of reproductive age, CT is considered to be one of the most valued tools for triaging patients with acute abdominal pain. CT is particularly beneficial in patients with marked obesity, unclear US findings, bowel obstruction, and multiple lesions. The introduction of multidetector row CT (MDCT) has further enhanced the utility of CT in imaging patients with acute abdominal pain. (orig.)

  9. Computed tomography angiography in patients with active gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Fatima Regina Silva; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: fatima.rsreis@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Cardia, P.P. [Hospital Vera Cruz, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    Gastrointestinal bleeding represents a common medical emergency, with considerable morbidity and mortality rates, and a prompt diagnosis is essential for a better prognosis. In such a context, endoscopy is the main diagnostic tool; however, in cases where the gastrointestinal hemorrhage is massive, the exact bleeding site might go undetected. In addition, a trained professional is not always present to perform the procedure. In an emergency setting, optical colonoscopy presents limitations connected with the absence of bowel preparation, so most of the small bowel cannot be assessed. Scintigraphy cannot accurately demonstrate the anatomic location of the bleeding and is not available at emergency settings. The use of capsule endoscopy is inappropriate in the acute setting, particularly in the emergency department at night, and is a highly expensive method. Digital angiography, despite its high sensitivity, is invasive, presents catheterization-related risks, in addition to its low availability at emergency settings. On the other hand, computed tomography angiography is fast, widely available and minimally invasive, emerging as a promising method in the diagnostic algorithm of these patients, being capable of determining the location and cause of bleeding with high accuracy. Based on a critical literature review and on their own experience, the authors propose a computed tomography angiography protocol to assess the patient with gastrointestinal bleeding. (author)

  10. Quantitative analysis of cholesteatoma using high resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Shigeru; Yamasoba, Tatsuya (Kameda General Hospital, Chiba (Japan)); Iinuma, Toshitaka

    1992-05-01

    Seventy-three cases of adult cholesteatoma, including 52 cases of pars flaccida type cholesteatoma and 21 of pars tensa type cholesteatoma, were examined using high resolution computed tomography, in both axial (lateral semicircular canal plane) and coronal sections (cochlear, vestibular and antral plane). These cases were classified into two subtypes according to the presence of extension of cholesteatoma into the antrum. Sixty cases of chronic otitis media with central perforation (COM) were also examined as controls. Various locations of the middle ear cavity were measured in terms of size in comparison with pars flaccida type cholesteatoma, pars tensa type cholesteatoma and COM. The width of the attic was significantly larger in both pars flaccida type and pars tensa type cholesteatoma than in COM. With pars flaccida type cholesteatoma there was a significantly larger distance between the malleus and lateral wall of the attic than with COM. In contrast, the distance between the malleus and medial wall of the attic was significantly larger with pars tensa type cholesteatoma than with COM. With cholesteatoma extending into the antrum, regardless of the type of cholesteatoma, there were significantly larger distances than with COM at the following sites: the width and height of the aditus ad antrum, and the width, height and anterior-posterior diameter of the antrum. However, these distances were not significantly different between cholesteatoma without extension into the antrum and COM. The hitherto demonstrated qualitative impressions of bone destruction in cholesteatoma were quantitatively verified in detail using high resolution computed tomography. (author).

  11. Proton Computed Tomography: iterative image reconstruction and dose evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civinini, C.; Bonanno, D.; Brianzi, M.; Carpinelli, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Maccioni, G.; Pallotta, S.; Randazzo, N.; Scaringella, M.; Romano, F.; Sipala, V.; Talamonti, C.; Vanzi, E.; Bruzzi, M.

    2017-01-01

    Proton Computed Tomography (pCT) is a medical imaging method with a potential for increasing accuracy of treatment planning and patient positioning in hadron therapy. A pCT system based on a Silicon microstrip tracker and a YAG:Ce crystal calorimeter has been developed within the INFN Prima-RDH collaboration. The prototype has been tested with a 175 MeV proton beam at The Svedberg Laboratory (Uppsala, Sweden) with the aim to reconstruct and characterize a tomographic image. Algebraic iterative reconstruction methods (ART), together with the most likely path formalism, have been used to obtain tomographies of an inhomogeneous phantom to eventually extract density and spatial resolutions. These results will be presented and discussed together with an estimation of the average dose delivered to the phantom and the dependence of the image quality on the dose. Due to the heavy computation load required by the algebraic algorithms the reconstruction programs have been implemented to fully exploit the high calculation parallelism of Graphics Processing Units. An extended field of view pCT system is in an advanced construction stage. This apparatus will be able to reconstruct objects of the size of a human head making possible to characterize this pCT approach in a pre-clinical environment.

  12. Incidental cardiac findings on computed tomography imaging of the thorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Gendi Hossam

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigation of pulmonary pathology with computed tomography also allows visualisation of the heart and major vessels. We sought to explore whether clinically relevant cardiac pathology could be identified on computed tomography pulmonary angiograms (CTPA requested for the exclusion of pulmonary embolism (PE. 100 consecutive CT contrast-enhanced pulmonary angiograms carried out for exclusion of PE at a single centre were assessed retrospectively by two cardiologists. Findings Evidence of PE was reported in 5% of scans. Incidental cardiac findings included: aortic wall calcification (54%, coronary calcification (46%, cardiomegaly (41%, atrial dilatation (18%, mitral annulus calcification (15%, right ventricular dilatation (11%, aortic dilatation (8% and right ventricular thrombus (1%. Apart from 3 (3% reports describing cardiomegaly, no other cardiac findings were described in radiologists' reports. Other reported pulmonary abnormalities included: lung nodules (14%, lobar collapse/consolidation (8%, pleural effusion (2%, lobar collapse/consolidation (8%, emphysema (6% and pleural calcification (4%. Conclusions CTPAs requested for the exclusion of PE have a high yield of cardiac abnormalities. Although these abnormalities may not have implications for acute clinical management, they may, nevertheless, be important in long-term care.

  13. Estimation of feline renal volume using computed tomography and ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Reid; Logsdon, Stacy A; Werre, Stephen R; Daniel, Gregory B

    2013-01-01

    Renal volume estimation is an important parameter for clinical evaluation of kidneys and research applications. A time efficient, repeatable, and accurate method for volume estimation is required. The purpose of this study was to describe the accuracy of ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) for estimating feline renal volume. Standardized ultrasound and CT scans were acquired for kidneys of 12 cadaver cats, in situ. Ultrasound and CT multiplanar reconstructions were used to record renal length measurements that were then used to calculate volume using the prolate ellipsoid formula for volume estimation. In addition, CT studies were reconstructed at 1 mm, 5 mm, and 1 cm, and transferred to a workstation where the renal volume was calculated using the voxel count method (hand drawn regions of interest). The reference standard kidney volume was then determined ex vivo using water displacement with the Archimedes' principle. Ultrasound measurement of renal length accounted for approximately 87% of the variability in renal volume for the study population. The prolate ellipsoid formula exhibited proportional bias and underestimated renal volume by a median of 18.9%. Computed tomography volume estimates using the voxel count method with hand-traced regions of interest provided the most accurate results, with increasing accuracy for smaller voxel sizes in grossly normal kidneys (-10.1 to 0.6%). Findings from this study supported the use of CT and the voxel count method for estimating feline renal volume in future clinical and research studies.

  14. Computed tomography of intra - and extramural ethmoid cells: iconographic essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Fabricio Guimaraes [McGill University Health Centre (MUHC), Montreal, QC (Canada). Montreal General Hospital; Jovem, Cassio Lemos [Med Imagem, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Moura, Leonardo de Oliveira [Centro de Treinamento em Imagenologia (CETRIM), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    The development of the paranasal sinuses is an intricate process that begins in the intrauterine life and terminates in early adulthood. Among the paranasal sinuses, the ethmoid cells or labyrinth are probably the most complex structures, being associated with the highest number of normal variants. Variations in the pattern of pneumatization of the ethmoid cells can be divided into intra - and extramural cells. Intramural cells are those which develop within the ethmoid labyrinth. Extramural cells are those that develop isolatedly. Computed tomography is the most useful tool in the evaluation of inflammatory processes of the paranasal sinuses. Computed tomography also plays a relevant role in the preoperative planning as well as in the postoperative follow-up, since it demonstrates exact anatomical details of normal structures with accuracy in the detection of variants. In the present pictorial essay, the authors describe the most common anatomical variants of the ethmoid labyrinth and their relationship with adjacent structures. Endoscopic sinonasal surgery has become increasingly less invasive, requiring more detailed anatomical imaging of this region. (author)

  15. Computed tomography findings of paracoccidiodomycosis in musculoskeletal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Junior, Francisco Valtenor Araujo; Savarese, Leonor Garbin; Monsignore, Lucas Moretti; Martinez, Roberto; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique, E-mail: fvaltenor@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina

    2015-01-15

    Objective: to evaluate musculoskeletal involvement in paracoccidioidomycosis at computed tomography. Materials and methods: development of a retrospective study based on a review of radiologic and pathologic reports in the institution database. Patients with histopathologically confirmed musculoskeletal paracoccidioidomycosis and submitted to computed tomography were included in the present study. The imaging findings were consensually described by two radiologists. In order to avoid bias in the analysis, one patient with uncountable bone lesions was excluded from the study. Results: a total of seven patients were included in the present study. A total of 18 bone lesions were counted. The study group consisted of 7 patients. A total number of 18 bone lesions were counted. Osteoarticular lesions were the first manifestation of the disease in four patients (57.14%). Bone lesions were multiple in 42.85% of patients. Appendicular and axial skeleton were affected in 85.71% and 42.85% of cases, respectively. Bone involvement was characterized by well-demarcated osteolytic lesions. Marginal osteosclerosis was identified in 72.22% of the lesions, while lamellar periosteal reaction and soft tissue component were present in 5.55% of them. One patient showed multiple small lesions with bone sequestra. Conclusion: paracoccidioidomycosis can be included in the differential diagnosis of either single or multiple osteolytic lesions in young patients even in the absence of a previous diagnosis of pulmonary or visceral paracoccidioidomycosis. (author)

  16. Limited-data computed tomography algorithms for the physical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, D

    1993-07-10

    Five limited-data computed tomography algorithms are compared. The algorithms used are adapted versions of the algebraic reconstruction technique, the multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique, the Gerchberg-Papoulis algorithm, a spectral extrapolation algorithm descended from that of Harris [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 931-936 (1964)], and an algorithm based on the singular value decomposition technique. These algorithms were used to reconstruct phantom data with realistic levels of noise from a number of different imaging geometries. The phantoms, the imaging geometries, and the noise were chosen to simulate the conditions encountered in typical computed tomography applications in the physical sciences, and the implementations of the algorithms were optimized for these applications. The multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique algorithm gave the best results overall; the algebraic reconstruction technique gave the best results for very smooth objects or very noisy (20-dB signal-to-noise ratio) data. My implementations of both of these algorithms incorporate apriori knowledge of the sign of the object, its extent, and its smoothness. The smoothness of the reconstruction is enforced through the use of an appropriate object model (by use of cubic B-spline basis functions and a number of object coefficients appropriate to the object being reconstructed). The average reconstruction error was 1.7% of the maximum phantom value with the multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique of a phantom with moderate-to-steep gradients by use of data from five viewing angles with a 30-dB signal-to-noise ratio.

  17. Use of cone beam computed tomography in periodontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Buket; Kamburoğlu, Kıvanç

    2014-05-28

    Diagnosis of periodontal disease mainly depends on clinical signs and symptoms. However, in the case of bone destruction, radiographs are valuable diagnostic tools as an adjunct to the clinical examination. Two dimensional periapical and panoramic radiographs are routinely used for diagnosing periodontal bone levels. In two dimensional imaging, evaluation of bone craters, lamina dura and periodontal bone level is limited by projection geometry and superpositions of adjacent anatomical structures. Those limitations of 2D radiographs can be eliminated by three-dimensional imaging techniques such as computed tomography. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) generates 3D volumetric images and is also commonly used in dentistry. All CBCT units provide axial, coronal and sagittal multi-planar reconstructed images without magnification. Also, panoramic images without distortion and magnification can be generated with curved planar reformation. CBCT displays 3D images that are necessary for the diagnosis of intra bony defects, furcation involvements and buccal/lingual bone destructions. CBCT applications provide obvious benefits in periodontics, however; it should be used only in correct indications considering the necessity and the potential hazards of the examination.

  18. Denoising Message Passing for X-ray Computed Tomography Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Perelli, Alessandro; Can, Ali; Davies, Mike E

    2016-01-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) reconstruction from sparse number of views is becoming a powerful way to reduce either the radiation dose or the acquisition time in CT systems but still requires a huge computational time. This paper introduces an approximate Bayesian inference framework for CT reconstruction based on a family of denoising approximate message passing (DCT-AMP) algorithms able to improve both the convergence speed and the reconstruction quality. Approximate Message Passing for Compressed Sensing has been extensively analysed for random linear measurements but there are still not clear solutions on how AMP should be modified and how it performs with real world problems. In particular to overcome the convergence issues of DCT-AMP with structured measurement matrices, we propose a disjoint preconditioned version of the algorithm tailored for both the geometric system model and the noise model. In addition the Bayesian DCT-AMP formulation allows to measure how the current estimate is close to the pr...

  19. Temporomandibular joint computed tomography: development of a direct sagittal technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Kuijl, B.; Vencken, L.M.; de Bont, L.G.; Boering, G. (Univ. of Groningen, (Netherlands))

    1990-12-01

    Radiology plays an important role in the diagnosis of temporomandibular disorders. Different techniques are used with computed tomography offering simultaneous imaging of bone and soft tissues. It is therefore suited for visualization of the articular disk and may be used in patients with suspected internal derangements and other disorders of the temporomandibular joint. Previous research suggests advantages to direct sagittal scanning, which requires special positioning of the patient and a sophisticated scanning technique. This study describes the development of a new technique of direct sagittal computed tomographic imaging of the temporomandibular joint using a specially designed patient table and internal light visor positioning. No structures other than the patient's head are involved in the imaging process, and misleading artifacts from the arm or the shoulder are eliminated. The use of the scanogram allows precise correction of the condylar axis and selection of exact slice level.

  20. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Abdomen and Pelvis Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen ... and Pelvis? What is CT Scanning of the Abdomen/Pelvis? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ...

  1. A Systematic Review of Protocols for the Three-Dimensional Morphologic Assessment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Using Computed Tomographic Angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatwary, Tamer M. H.; Patterson, Benjamin O.; Karthikesalingam, Alan; Hinchliffe, Robert J.; Loftus, Ian M. [St. George' s Vascular Institute, St. George' s Hospital, Department of Outcomes Research (United Kingdom); Morgan, Robert [St. George' s Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Thompson, Matt M.; Holt, Peter J. E., E-mail: pholt@sgul.ac.uk [St. George' s Vascular Institute, St. George' s Hospital, Department of Outcomes Research (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    The morphology of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) directly influences the perioperative outcome and long-term durability of endovascular aneurysm repair. A variety of methods have been proposed for the characterization of AAA morphology using reconstructed three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) images. At present, there is lack of consensus as to which of these methods is most applicable to clinical practice or research. The purpose of this review was to evaluate existing protocols that used 3D CT images in the assessment of various aspects of AAA morphology. An electronic search was performed, from January 1996 to the end of October 2010, using the Embase and Medline databases. The literature review conformed to PRISMA statement standards. The literature search identified 604 articles, of which 31 studies met inclusion criteria. Only 15 of 31 studies objectively assessed reproducibility. Existing published protocols were insufficient to define a single evidence-based methodology for preoperative assessment of AAA morphology. Further development and expert consensus are required to establish a standardized and validated protocol to determine precisely how morphology relates to outcomes after endovascular aneurysm repair.

  2. Evaluation of external beam hardening filters on image quality of computed tomography and single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Nivedita; Rawat, Dinesh; Parmar, Madan; Dhawan, Devinder Kumar; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of external metal filters on the image quality of computed tomography (CT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT images. Images of Jaszack phantom filled with water and containing iodine contrast filled syringes were acquired using CT (120 kV, 2.5 mA) component of SPECT/CT system, ensuring fixation of filter on X-ray collimator. Different thickness of filters of Al and Cu (1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm, and 4 mm) and filter combinations Cu 1 mm, Cu 2 mm, Cu 3 mm each in combination with Al (1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm, and 4 mm), respectively, were used. All image sets were visually analyzed for streak artifacts and contrast to noise ratio (CNR) was derived. Similar acquisition was done using Philips CT quality control (QC) phantom and CNR were calculated for its lexan, perspex, and teflon inserts. Attenuation corrected SPECT/CT images of Jaszack phantom filled with 444-555 MBq (12-15 mCi) of (99m)Tc were obtained by applying attenuation correction map generated by hardened X-ray beam for different filter combination, on SPECT data. Uniformity, root mean square (rms) and contrast were calculated in all image sets. Less streak artifacts at iodine water interface were observed in images acquired using external filters as compared to those without a filter. CNR for syringes, spheres, and inserts of Philips CT QC phantom was almost similar to Al 2 mm, Al 3 mm, and without the use of filters. CNR decreased with increasing copper thickness and other filter combinations. Uniformity and rms were lower, and value of contrast was higher for SPECT/CT images when CT was acquired with Al 2 mm and 3 mm filter than for images acquired without a filter. The study suggests that for Infinia Hawkeye 4, SPECT/CT system, Al 2 mm, and 3 mm are the optimum filters for improving image quality of SPECT/CT images of Jaszack or Philips CT QC phantom keeping other parameters of CT constant.

  3. Is there a role for the use of volumetric cone beam computed tomography in periodontics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bois, A H; Kardachi, B; Bartold, P M

    2012-03-01

    Volumetric computed cone beam tomography offers a number of significant advantages over conventional intraoral and extraoral panoramic radiography, as well as computed tomography. To date, periodontal diagnosis has relied heavily on the assessment of both intraoral radiographs and extraoral panoramic radiographs. With emerging technology in radiology there has been considerable interest in the role that volumetric cone beam computed tomography might play in periodontal diagnostics. This narrative reviews the current evidence and considers whether there is a role for volumetric cone beam computed tomography in periodontics.

  4. Celiac plexus block: an anatomical study and simulation using computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Gabriela Augusta Mateus; Lopes, Paulo Tadeu Campos; Santos, Ana Maria Pujol Vieira dos, E-mail: pclopes@ulbra.br [Universidade Luterana do Brasil (Ulbra), Canoas, RS (Brazil); Pozzobon, Adriane [Centro Universitario Univates, Lajeado, RS (Brazil); Duarte, Rodrigo Dias; Cima, Alexandre da Silveira; Massignan, Angela [Fundacao Serdil/Saint Pastous, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Objective: to analyze anatomical variations associated with celiac plexus complex by means of computed tomography simulation, assessing the risk for organ injury as the transcrural technique is utilized. Materials and Methods: one hundred eight transaxial computed tomography images of abdomen were analyzed. The aortic-vertebral, celiac trunk (CeT)-vertebral, CeT-aortic and celiac-aortic-vertebral topographical relationships were recorded. Two needle insertion pathways were drawn on each of the images, at right and left, 9 cm and 4.5 cm away from the midline. Transfixed vital organs and gender-related associations were recorded. Results: aortic-vertebral - 45.37% at left and 54.62% in the middle; CeT-vertebral - T12, 36.11%; T12-L1, 32.4%; L1, 27.77%; T11-T12, 2.77%; CeT-aortic - 53.7% at left and 46.3% in the middle; celiac-aortic-vertebral - L-l, 22.22%; M-m, 23.15%; L-m, 31.48%; M-l, 23.15%. Neither correspondence on the right side nor significant gender-related associations were observed. Conclusion: considering the wide range of abdominal anatomical variations and the characteristics of needle insertion pathways, celiac plexus block should not be standardized. Imaging should be performed prior to the procedure in order to reduce the risks for injuries or for negative outcomes to patients. Gender-related anatomical variations involved in celiac plexus block should be more deeply investigated, since few studies have addressed the subject. (author)

  5. Celiac plexus block: an anatomical study and simulation using computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Augusta Mateus Pereira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze anatomical variations associated with celiac plexus complex by means of computed tomography simulation, assessing the risk for organ injury as the transcrural technique is utilized. Materials and Methods: One hundred eight transaxial computed tomography images of abdomen were analyzed. The aortic-vertebral, celiac trunk (CeT-vertebral, CeT-aortic and celiac-aortic-vertebral topographical relationships were recorded. Two needle insertion pathways were drawn on each of the images, at right and left, 9 cm and 4.5 cm away from the midline. Transfixed vital organs and gender-related associations were recorded. Results: Aortic-vertebral - 45.37% at left and 54.62% in the middle; CeT-vertebral - T12, 36.11%; T12-L1, 32.4%; L1, 27.77%; T11-T12, 2.77%; CeT-aortic - 53.7% at left and 46.3% in the middle; celiac-aortic-vertebral - L-l, 22.22%; M-m, 23.15%; L-m, 31.48%; M-l, 23.15%. Neither correspondence on the right side nor significant gender-related associations were observed. Conclusion: Considering the wide range of abdominal anatomical variations and the characteristics of needle insertion pathways, celiac plexus block should not be standardized. Imaging should be performed prior to the procedure in order to reduce the risks for injuries or for negative outcomes to patients. Gender-related anatomical variations involved in celiac plexus block should be more deeply investigated, since few studies have addressed the subject.

  6. CT appearances of abdominal tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.-K., E-mail: leewk33@hotmail.com [Department of Medical Imaging, St Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Van Tonder, F.; Tartaglia, C.J.; Dagia, C. [Department of Medical Imaging, St Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Cazzato, R.L. [Department of Radiology, Universita Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome (Italy); Duddalwar, V.A. [Department of Radiology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Chang, S.D. [Department of Medical Imaging, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, British Columbia (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this article is to review and illustrate the spectrum of computed tomography (CT) appearances of abdominal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can affect any organ or tissue in the abdomen, and can be mistaken for other inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. The most common sites of tuberculosis in the abdomen include lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal tract. The liver, spleen, biliary tract, pancreas and adrenals are rarely affected, but are more likely in HIV-seropositive patients and in miliary tuberculosis. This article should alert the radiologist to consider abdominal tuberculosis in the correct clinical setting to ensure timely diagnosis and enable appropriate treatment.

  7. Small-Animal Imaging Using Clinical Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Super-Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank P. DiFilippo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the high cost of dedicated small-animal positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT, an acceptable alternative in many situations might be clinical PET/CT. However, spatial resolution and image quality are of concern. The utility of clinical PET/CT for small-animal research and image quality improvements from super-resolution (spatial subsampling were investigated. National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA NU 4 phantom and mouse data were acquired with a clinical PET/CT scanner, as both conventional static and stepped scans. Static scans were reconstructed with and without point spread function (PSF modeling. Stepped images were postprocessed with iterative deconvolution to produce super-resolution images. Image quality was markedly improved using the super-resolution technique, avoiding certain artifacts produced by PSF modeling. The 2 mm rod of the NU 4 phantom was visualized with high contrast, and the major structures of the mouse were well resolved. Although not a perfect substitute for a state-of-the-art small-animal PET/CT scanner, a clinical PET/CT scanner with super-resolution produces acceptable small-animal image quality for many preclinical research studies.

  8. Virtual positron emission tomography/computed tomography-bronchoscopy: possibilities, advantages and limitations of clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemann, Marcus D. [University of Magdeburg, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Magdeburg (Germany); Schaefer, Juergen F. [Eberhard-Karls University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Englmeier, Karl-Hans [Institute of Medical Informatics, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the possibilities, advantages and limitations of virtual bronchoscopy using data sets from positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT). Twelve consecutive patients with lung cancer underwent PET/CT. PET was performed with F-18-labelled 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG). The tracheobronchial system was segmented with a volume-growing algorithm, using the CT data sets, and visualized with a shaded-surface rendering method. The primary tumours and the lymph node metastases were segmented for virtual CT-bronchoscopy using the CT data set and for virtual PET/CT-bronchoscopy using the PET/CT data set. Virtual CT-bronchoscopy using the low-dose or diagnostic CT facilitates the detection of anatomical/morphological structure changes of the tracheobronchial system. Virtual PET/CT-bronchoscopy was superior to virtual CT-bronchoscopy in the detection of lymph node metastases (P=0.001), because it uses the CT information and the molecular/metabolic information from PET. Virtual PET/CT-bronchoscopy with a transparent colour-coded shaded-surface rendering model is expected to improve the diagnostic accuracy of identification and characterization of malignancies, assessment of tumour staging, differentiation of viable tumour tissue from atelectases and scars, verification of infections, evaluation of therapeutic response and detection of an early stage of recurrence that is not detectable or is misjudged in comparison with virtual CT-bronchoscopy. (orig.)

  9. Use of Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Radiation Treatment Planning for Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezban Berberoğlu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy (RT plays an important role in the treatment of lung cancer. Accurate diagnosis and staging are crucial in the delivery of RT with curative intent. Target miss can be prevented by accurate determination of tumor contours during RT planning. Currently, tumor contours are determined manually by computed tomography (CT during RT planning. This method leads to differences in delineation of tumor volume between users. Given the change in RT tools and methods due to rapidly developing technology, it is now more significant to accurately delineate the tumor tissue. F18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT (F18 FDG PET/CT has been established as an accurate method in correctly staging and detecting tumor dissemination in lung cancer. Since it provides both anatomic and biologic information, F18 FDG PET decreases interuser variability in tumor delineation. For instance, tumor volumes may be decreased as atelectasis and malignant tissue can be more accurately differentiated, as well as better evaluation of benign and malignant lymph nodes given the difference in FDG uptake. Using F18 FDG PET/CT, the radiation dose can be escalated without serious adverse effects in lung cancer. In this study, we evaluated the contribution of F18 FDG PET/CT for RT planning in lung cancer.

  10. Positron emission tomography/computer tomography in guidance of extrahepatic hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common primary cancers in the world. Surgery is the gold standard for treatment of patients with HCC. Recurrence and metastasis are the major obstacles to further improve the prognosis of HCC. Most recurrences are intrahepatic. However, 30% of the recurrences are extrahepatic. The role of resection in intrahepatic recurrences is widely accepted. The role of resection in extrahepatic HCC recurrence and metastasis is not well established. 18F fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computer tomography (PET/CT) is useful in detecting distant metastasis from a variety of malignancies and shows superior accuracy to conventional imaging modalities in identification of intrahepatic and extrahepatic metastasis. We present one patient with one new isolated omental lymph node metastasis, who had a history of huge HCC resected six years ago. The metastatic focus was identified with 18 F-FDG PET/CT and resected. The follow-up revealed good prognosis with a long-term survival potential after resection of the omental lymphatic metastasis.

  11. Computed tomography image reconstruction from only two projections

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammad-Djafari, Ali

    2007-01-01

    English: This paper concerns the image reconstruction from a few projections in Computed Tomography (CT). The main objective of this paper is to show that the problem is so ill posed that no classical method, such as analytical methods based on inverse Radon transform, nor the algebraic methods such as Least squares (LS) or regularization theory can give satisfactory result. As an example, we consider in detail the case of image reconstruction from two horizontal and vertical projections. We then show how a particular composite Markov modeling and the Bayesian estimation framework can possibly propose satisfactory solutions to the problem. For demonstration and educational purpose a set of Matlab programs are given for a live presentation of the results. ----- French: Ce travail, \\`a but p\\'edagogique, pr\\'esente le probl\\`eme inverse de la reconstruction d'image en tomographie X lorsque le nombre des projections est tr\\`es limit\\'e. voir le texte en Anglais et en Fran\\c{c}ais.

  12. Quantifying the debonding of inclusions through tomography and computational homology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei-Yang; Johnson, George C. (University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA); Mota, Alejandro; Foulk, James W., III; Jin, Huiqing

    2010-09-01

    This report describes a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to use of synchrotron-radiation computed tomography (SRCT) data to determine the conditions and mechanisms that lead to void nucleation in rolled alloys. The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has provided SRCT data of a few specimens of 7075-T7351 aluminum plate (widely used for aerospace applications) stretched to failure, loaded in directions perpendicular and parallel to the rolling direction. The resolution of SRCT data is 900nm, which allows elucidation of the mechanisms governing void growth and coalescence. This resolution is not fine enough, however, for nucleation. We propose the use statistics and image processing techniques to obtain sub-resolution scale information from these data, and thus determine where in the specimen and when during the loading program nucleation occurs and the mechanisms that lead to it. Quantitative analysis of the tomography data, however, leads to the conclusion that the reconstruction process compromises the information obtained from the scans. Alternate, more powerful reconstruction algorithms are needed to address this problem, but those fall beyond the scope of this project.

  13. Demonstration of the route of embryo migration in retroperitoneal ectopic pregnancy using contrast-enhanced computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Changhu; Li, Xueli; Zhao, Bin; Du, Yinglin; Xu, Shifeng

    2014-03-01

    Retroperitoneal abdominal pregnancy is exceptionally rare. An unusual retroperitoneal pregnancy has a high risk of severe bleeding. Abdominal ultrasonography and whole abdominal computerized tomography scanning should be performed for the early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. A case of retroperitoneal ectopic pregnancy located very close to large retroperitoneal blood vessels and treated with resection is presented. Many unusual features of retroperitoneal ectopic pregnancy were highlighted as providing further evidence in support of the main proposed embryo migration mechanism via lymphatic vessels.

  14. Simulation of emission tomography using grid middleware for distributed computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, M G; Longton, R F; Gregor, J; Smith, G T; Hutson, R K

    2004-09-01

    SimSET is Monte Carlo simulation software for emission tomography. This paper describes a simple but effective scheme for parallel execution of SimSET using NetSolve, a client-server system for distributed computation. NetSolve (version 1.4.1) is "grid middleware" which enables a user (the client) to run specific computations remotely and simultaneously on a grid of networked computers (the servers). Since the servers do not have to be identical machines, computation may take place in a heterogeneous environment. To take advantage of diversity in machines and their workloads, a client-side scheduler was implemented for the Monte Carlo simulation. The scheduler partitions the total decay events by taking into account the inherent compute-speeds and recent average workloads, i.e., the scheduler assigns more decay events to processors expected to give faster service and fewer decay events to those expected to give slower service. When compute-speeds and sustained workloads are taken into account, the speed-up is essentially linear in the number of equivalent "maximum-service" processors. One modification in the SimSET code (version 2.6.2.3) was made to ensure that the total number of decay events specified by the user is maintained in the distributed simulation. No other modifications in the standard SimSET code were made. Each processor runs complete SimSET code for its assignment of decay events, independently of others running simultaneously. Empirical results are reported for simulation of a clinical-quality lung perfusion study.

  15. Enhancement of photoacoustic tomography in the tissue with speed-of-sound variance using ultrasound computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程任翔; 陶超; 刘晓峻

    2015-01-01

    The speed-of-sound variance will decrease the imaging quality of photoacoustic tomography in acoustically inhomo-geneous tissue. In this study, ultrasound computed tomography is combined with photoacoustic tomography to enhance the photoacoustic tomography in this situation. The speed-of-sound information is recovered by ultrasound computed to-mography. Then, an improved delay-and-sum method is used to reconstruct the image from the photoacoustic signals. The simulation results validate that the proposed method can obtain a better photoacoustic tomography than the conventional method when the speed-of-sound variance is increased. In addition, the influences of the speed-of-sound variance and the fan-angle on the image quality are quantitatively explored to optimize the image scheme. The proposed method has a good performance even when the speed-of-sound variance reaches 14.2%. Furthermore, an optimized fan angle is revealed, which can keep the good image quality with a low cost of hardware. This study has a potential value in extending the biomedical application of photoacoustic tomography.

  16. Survey of patient dose in computed tomography in Syria 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharita, M H; Khazzam, S

    2010-09-01

    The radiation doses to patient in computed tomography (CT) in Syria have been investigated and compared with similar studies in different countries. This work surveyed 30 CT scanners from six different manufacturers distributed all over Syria. Some of the results in this paper were part of a project launched by the International Atomic Energy Agency in different regions of the world covering Asia, Africa and Eastern Europe. The dose quantities covered are CT dose index (CTDI(w)), dose-length product (DLP), effective dose (E) and collective dose. It was found that most CTDI(w) and DLP values were similar to the European reference levels and in line with the results of similar surveys in the world. The results were in good agreement with the UNSCEAR Report 2007. This study concluded a recommendation for national diagnostic reference level for the most common CT protocols in Syria. The results can be used as a base for future optimisation studies in the country.

  17. Software innovations in computed tomography for structural heart disease interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hell, Michaela; Marwan, Mohamed; Gaede, Luise; Achenbach, Stephan

    2016-05-17

    Computed tomography (CT) provides high, isotropic spatial resolution and has become firmly established in pre-procedural imaging for structural heart disease interventions. It allows determination of the exact dimensions of the target structure, provides information regarding the access route and permits identification of fluoroscopic projection angles to provide optimal visualisation for device placement. Several software solutions are available and have been systematically evaluated in the context of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The use of software products to perform automated measurements can be useful, especially when the experience and expertise regarding evaluation of CT in the context of structural heart disease are limited. In scientific studies, software has been demonstrated to provide accurate support for annulus sizing and prosthesis selection, to aid in reliably identifying patients in whom a transfemoral access may be problematic, and to suggest suitable angulations for fluoroscopic imaging to achieve an orthogonal view onto the aortic valve during implantation.

  18. Application of cone beam computed tomography in facial imaging science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zacharias Fourie; Janalt Damstra; Yijin Ren

    2012-01-01

    The use of three-dimensional (3D) methods for facial imaging has increased significantly over the past years.Traditional 2D imaging has gradually being replaced by 3D images in different disciplines,particularly in the fields of orthodontics,maxillofacial surgery,plastic and reconstructive surgery,neurosurgery and forensic sciences.In most cases,3D facial imaging overcomes the limitations of traditional 2D methods and provides the clinician with more accurate information regarding the soft-tissues and the underlying skeleton.The aim of this study was to review the types of imaging methods used for facial imaging.It is important to realize the difference between the types of 3D imaging methods as application and indications thereof may differ.Since 3D cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging will play an increasingly importanl role in orthodontics and orthognathic surgery,special emphasis should be placed on discussing CBCT applications in facial evaluations.

  19. Computed tomography dose optimisation in cystic fibrosis: A review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ferris, Helena

    2016-04-28

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal recessive disease of the Caucasian population worldwide, with respiratory disease remaining the most relevant source of morbidity and mortality. Computed tomography (CT) is frequently used for monitoring disease complications and progression. Over the last fifteen years there has been a six-fold increase in the use of CT, which has lead to a growing concern in relation to cumulative radiation exposure. The challenge to the medical profession is to identify dose reduction strategies that meet acceptable image quality, but fulfil the requirements of a diagnostic quality CT. Dose-optimisation, particularly in CT, is essential as it reduces the chances of patients receiving cumulative radiation doses in excess of 100 mSv, a dose deemed significant by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. This review article explores the current trends in imaging in CF with particular emphasis on new developments in dose optimisation.

  20. Dose reduction with adaptive bolus chasing computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhijun; Bai, Er-Wei; Wang, Ge; Sharafuddin, Melhem J; Abada, Hicham T

    2010-01-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) has become an effective diagnosis and evaluating tool in clinical; however, its radiation exposure has drawn great attention as more and more CT scans are performed every year. How to reduce the radiation dose and meanwhile keep the resultant CT images diagnosable becomes an important research topic. In this paper, we propose a dose reduction approach along with the adaptive bolus chasing CT Angiography (CTA) techniques, which are capable of tracking the contrast bolus peak over all the blood vessel segments during the CTA scan. By modulating the tube current (and collimator width) online, we can reduce the total radiation dose and maintain the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) of the blood vessel. Numerical experiments on reference DSA data sets show that by using the proposed dose reduction method, the effective radiation dose can be saved about 39%.

  1. Basal ganglia calcification on computed tomography in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Shohei; Tani, Kenji; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki and others

    1988-09-01

    The development of basal ganglia calcification was studied in 85 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by computed tomography (CT). Bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia was found to occur in 5 patients (5.9 %) with SLE, but was not seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and progressive systemic sclerosis. All were female with a mean age of 42 years (range 29 - 49). The patients with calcification of the basal ganglia had neurological symptoms, such as psychiatric problems (3 cases), grand mal seizures (1 case), CSF abnormalities (2 cases), and EEG changes (4 cases). There were significantly higher incidences of alopecia, cutaneous vasculitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia in the group with calcifications than those in the group with normal CT findings. Circulating immune complexes were detected and LE tests were positive in 2 patients. Endocrinological examination showed no abnormality in any. We suggest that basal ganglia calcification in SLE might be related to cerebral vasculitis.

  2. Building a 3D Computed Tomography Scanner From Surplus Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidekker, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanners are expensive imaging devices, often out of reach for small research groups. Designing and building a CT scanner from modular components is possible, and this article demonstrates that realization of a CT scanner from components is surprisingly easy. However, the high costs of a modular X-ray source and detector limit the overall cost savings. In this article, the possibility of building a CT scanner with available surplus X-ray parts is discussed, and a practical device is described that incurred costs of less than $16,000. The image quality of this device is comparable with commercial devices. The disadvantage is that design constraints imposed by the available components lead to slow scan speeds and a resolution of 0.5 mm. Despite these limitations, a device such as this is attractive for imaging studies in the biological and biomedical sciences, as well as for advancing CT technology itself.

  3. Cholecystocolonic fistula mimicking acute cholecystitis diagnosed unequivocally by computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chick, Jeffrey Forris Beecham; Chauhan, Nikunj Rashmikant; Paulson, Vera Ashley; Adduci, Alexander J

    2013-12-01

    Cholecystocolonic fistula is an uncommon potential complication of cholecystitis found intraoperatively in 0.06-0.14 % of patients undergoing cholecystectomy and 0.1-0.5 % of autopsy series. Although cholecystocolonic fistula is the second most common cholecystoenteric fistula, second only to cholecystoduodenal fistula, it is diagnosed preoperatively in only 7.9 % of patients. Failure to preoperatively diagnose cholecystocolonic fistula places surgeons in precarious positions, as they may be forced to convert a seemingly routine cholecystectomy to a more sophisticated procedure coupled with adhesiolysis, colonic suturing, or colonic resection. We report a young patient who presented to the emergency department with complaints indicative of acute cholecystitis; however, preoperative ultrasound was suggestive of a cholecystoenteric fistula. Computed tomography and pathology were pathognomonic with clear visualization of the cholecystocolonic fistulous tract.

  4. Systematic Errors in Dimensional X-ray Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the measurement. As a consequence, there is a high risk that on the basis of defective measurement results, a manufactured product is wrongly rejected in conformance testing. According to guidelines and standards, systematic error influences on a final measurand must be avoided or at least known so......A result of a measurement is usually affected by a measurement error which cannot be avoided in practice. Particularly in production metrology, systematic errors from, e.g, temperature influences, drift effects, etc., may lead to high measurement deviation in respect to the true value...... that it is possible to compensate them. In dimensional X-ray computed tomography (CT), many physical quantities influence the final result. However, it is important to know which factors in CT measurements potentially lead to systematic errors. In this talk, typical error sources in dimensional X-ray CT are discussed...

  5. Temporal bone trauma and complications: computed tomography findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Ana Maria Doffemond; Gaiotti, Juliana Oggioni; Couto, Caroline Laurita Batista; Gomes, Natalia Delage; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira; Motta, Emilia Guerra Pinto Coelho, E-mail: anadoffemond@yahoo.com.br [Hospital Mater Dei, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Unit of Radiology and Imaging Diagnosis

    2013-03-15

    Most temporal bone fractures result from high-energy blunt head trauma, and are frequently related to other skull fractures or to polytrauma. Fractures and displacements of ossicular chain in the middle ear represent some of the main complications of temporal bone injury, and hence they will be more deeply approached in the present article. Other types of injuries include labyrinthine fractures, dural fistula, facial nerve paralysis and extension into the carotid canal. Computed tomography plays a fundamental role in the initial evaluation of polytrauma patients, as it can help to identify important structural injuries that may lead to severe complications such as sensorineural hearing loss, conductive hearing loss, dizziness and balance dysfunction, perilymphatic fistulas, facial nerve paralysis, vascular injury and others. (author)

  6. Computed tomography of the retroperitoneum in patients with femoral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustace, S; McCarthy, C; O'Byrne, J; Breatnach, E; Fitzgerald, E

    1994-08-01

    The authors illustrate the value of computed tomography (CT) of the retroperitoneum in patients presenting with femoral nerve signs. They describe 28 such patients, examined at a tertiary-care hospital between June 1990 and January 1993, in whom CT of the retroperitoneum contributed significantly to the diagnosis. The patients, 19 males and 9 females, ranged in age from 11 to 81 years. CT showed disease of the psoas compartment in 17 cases; the condition was due to a malignant lesion in 9 cases and was secondary to infection in 5 and to other causes in 3. Disease of the iliacus compartment was shown in 11 cases; it was due to a malignant lesion in 6 cases and was secondary to hemorrhage in 2, to infection in 1 and to a bursa in 1. The diagnostic features of the diseases encountered are discussed, and the importance of performing CT early is stressed.

  7. Cone Beam Computed Tomography Evaluation of Inverted Mesiodentes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sehaibany, Fares S; Marzouk, Hazem M; Salama, Fouad S

    2016-01-01

    A mesiodens is the most common type of supernumerary teeth. The purpose of this report is to present a rare occurrence of non-syndromic impacted inverted mesiodentes in an 8.5-year-old boy who presented with a chief complaint of delayed eruption of his permanent maxillary left central incisor. Occlusal and panoramic radiographs, as well as cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with a three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction image, confirmed that one supernumerary tooth had perforated the nasal fossa floor and the other was in close approximation to the to the same site. Surgical removal of both mesiodentes was indicated. Radiographic evidence of complete healing was observed 12 months following surgical removal. The use of CBCT with a 3-D reconstruction image as a tool in diagnosis and evaluation of healing after surgical removal is recommended.

  8. Experimental determination of the segregation process using computer tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Beckmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Modelling methods such as DEM and CFD are increasingly used for developing high efficient combine cleaning systems. For this purpose it is necessary to verify the complex segregation and separation processes in the combine cleaning system. One way is to determine the segregation and separation function using 3D computer tomography (CT. This method makes it possible to visualize and analyse the movement behaviour of the components of the mixture during the segregation and separation process as well as the derivation of descriptive process parameters. A mechanically excited miniature test rig was designed and built at the company CLAAS Selbstfahrende Erntemaschinen GmbH to achieve this aim. The investigations were carried out at the Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS. Through the evaluation of the recorded images the segregation process is described visually. A more detailed analysis enabled the development of segregation and separation function based on the different densities of grain and material other than grain.

  9. Non-diffusing photochromic gel for optical computed tomography phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, K.

    2013-06-01

    This study examines photochromic response in radiation sensitive hydrogels. Genipin, crosslinked, gelatin gel can support high resolution images because the chromophores do not diffuse. A low power, 633 nm He-Ne laser was used to write lines into the gels by a photobleaching reaction. Optical cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans mapped the high resolution images in 3D with 0.25 mm voxel resolution. A straight line was written into a deformed gel and then readout in its relaxed, initial shape. The curved, photo-bleached line demonstrated deformable 3D dosimetry is possible with this system to the balloon edge. High resolution, photochromic images provide key information for characterizing optical CT scanners and 3D dosimeters. Many, ionizing radiation, dosimeter materials demonstrate either a photochromic or photothermal response, allowing this approach to be widely used in quantitative 3D scanning.

  10. Meningitis tuberculosa: Clinical findings and results of cranial computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautmann, M.; Loddenkemper, R.; Hoffmann, H.G.

    1982-10-01

    Guided by 9 own observations between 1977 and 1981, new diagnostic facilities in tuberculous meningitis are discussed. For differentiation from viral meningitis, measurement of CSF lactic acid concentration in addition to that of CSF glucose has proved to be of value in recent years. In accordance with the literature, two cases of this series which were examined for CSF lactic acid concentration showed markedly elevated levels of 8,4 rsp. 10,4 mmol/l. In contrast to this, in viral meningitis usually values of less than 3.5 mmol/l are found. Additionally, the presence of hypochlor- and hyponatremia, which could be demonstrated in 6 of our 9 patients, may raise the suspicion of tuberculous etiology. In the series presented, cranial computed tomography was of greatest diagnostic value, enabling the diagnosis of hydrocephalus internus in 5, and basal arachnoiditis in 2 cases.

  11. Use and impact of positron computed tomography scanning in epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazziotta, J.C.; Engel, J. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Through the effective combination of instrumentation, tracer kinetic principles, and radiopharmaceuticals, positron computed tomography (PET) allows for the analytic, noninvasive measurement of local tissue physiology in humans. A large number of studies have already been performed in patients with epilepsy using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to measure local cerebral glucose utilization. In patients with complex partial epilepsy who are candidates for surgery, hypometabolic zones have been seen consistently (70%) in the interictal state. The complex anatomical and pathophysiological investigation of these hypometabolic zones is discussed. Ictal studies of patients with partial seizures have demonstrated a much more variable metabolic pattern which usually consists of hypermetabolism relative to baseline or interictal studies. Generalized epilepsy produced by electroconvulsive shock and petit mal epilepsy have been studied using FDG to estimate glucose metabolism.

  12. Dacryocystography using computed tomography prior to external dacryocystorhinostomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Ikue; Chijiiwa, Taeko [National Kyushu Medical Center, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2002-01-01

    We performed dacryocystography using computed tomography in 47 eyes of 45 patients of chronic dacryocystitis prior to external dacryocystorhinostomy. The radiopaque agent was injected into the lower canaliculus. The findings were useful in estimating the thickness of the bony wall of lacrimal fossa. The ethmoidal sinus was located adjacent and nasal to the lacrimal fossa in 11 eyes (23%). Care was needed in these cases not to create an anastomosis between the lacrimal sac and the ethmoidal sinus. The contrast medium was located in the nasolacrimal duct in 14 eyes (30%), suggesting that the obstruction was located in the lower nasolacrimal duct. Intraoperative irrigation-aspiration appeared to be indicated in these cases. Traumatic bony fracture with hypertrophy was present in one case, suggesting that nasolacrimal obstruction may be induced by facial trauma. (author)

  13. Initial results of finger imaging using Photoacoustic Computed Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    van Es, Peter; Moens, Hein J Bernelot; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang

    2014-01-01

    We present a photoacoustic computed tomography investigation on a healthy human finger, to image blood vessels with a focus on vascularity across the interphalangeal joints. The cross-sectional images were acquired using an imager specifically developed for this purpose. The images show rich detail of the digital blood vessels with diameters between 100 $\\mu$m and 1.5 mm in various orientations and at various depths. Different vascular layers in the skin including the subpapillary plexus could also be visualized. Acoustic reflections on the finger bone of photoacoustic signals from skin were visible in sequential slice images along the finger except at the location of the joint gaps. Not unexpectedly, the healthy synovial membrane at the joint gaps was not detected due to its small size and normal vascularization. Future research will concentrate on studying digits afflicted with rheumatoid arthritis to detect the inflamed synovium with its heightened vascularization, whose characteristics are potential marke...

  14. Quality Criteria Implementation for Brain Computed Tomography Examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzado, A.; Rodriguez, R.; Munoz, A

    1998-07-01

    The main aim of this study was to implement the quality criteria proposed by the European Commission for brain computed tomography (CT) examinations. The proposed criteria were evaluated for 102 brain CT examinations, with a special emphasis on the diagnostic and radiation dose requirements. The examinations were selected at random from brain examinations performed over a period of a month at eight scanners of the CT Pace range. Achievement of image criteria was evaluated by two independent observers. The most important preliminary findings concerning image criteria fulfilment or lack of it and disagreements between observers are presented and discussed. The mean values of the proposed dosimetric quantities are compared to the reference values. The examinations performed with and without injection of a contrast agent are also analysed in relation to dosimetric quantities and criteria fulfilment. (author)

  15. Gamma-ray computed tomography to characterize soil surface sealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, L.F.Luiz F. E-mail: lfpires@cena.usp.br; Macedo, Jose R. de; Souza, Manoel D. de; Bacchi, Osny O.S.; Reichardt, Klaus

    2002-09-01

    The application of sewage sludge as a fertilizer on soils may cause compacted surface layers (surface sealing), which can promote changes on soil physical properties. The objective of this work was to study the use of gamma-ray computed tomography, as a diagnostic tool for the evaluation of this sealing process through the measurement of soil bulk density distribution of the soil surface layer of samples subjected to sewage sludge application. Tomographic images were taken with a first generation tomograph with a resolution of 1 mm. The image analysis opened the possibility to obtain soil bulk density profiles and average soil bulk densities of the surface layer and to detect the presence of soil surface sealing. The sealing crust thickness was estimated to be in the range of 2-4 mm.

  16. Inspection of a Medieval Wood Sculpture Using Computer Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitany, K.; Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.

    2016-06-01

    Computer tomography (CT) is an excellent technique for obtaining accurate 3D information about the human body. It allows to visualize the organs, bones and blood vessels, furthermore it enables to diagnose anomalies and diseases. Its spatial reconstruction capability supports other interesting applications, such as inspecting different, even valuable objects like ancient sculptures. Current paper presents a methodology of evaluating CT and video imagery through the example of investigating a wood Madonna with infant Jesus sculpture from the 14th century. The developed techniques extract the outer boundary of the statue, which has been triangulated to derive the surface model. The interior of the sculpture has also been revealed: the iron bolts and rivets as well as the woodworm holes can be mapped. By merging the interior and outer data (geometry and texture) interesting visualizations (perspective views, sections etc.) have been created.

  17. The possibilities of computer tomography in paecilomycosis of lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdusalom Ashurov

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed computed tomography (CT results of chest in 56 patients with lung injures caused by paecilomycosis fungus at the age from 17 to 59 years. In our investigations, the perverted lung pattern due to pathology of interstitial tissue was observed in 52 (93% patients of 56 (with chronic bronchitis - 100%, exogenous-allergic alveolitis - 93%, recurrent pneumonia - 100% and with bronchial asthma - 80%. Analysis showed that CT provides wide opportunities in visualization of all spectrum of symptoms in lung tissue injury and could allow to increase the accuracy of determining the character and degree of injury, and also it could allow to determine localization and spreading of the pathological process.

  18. Fossa navicularis magna detection on cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, Ali Z. [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland(United States); Mupparapu, Mel [Div. of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine, Philadelphia (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Herein, we report and discuss the detection of fossa navicularis magna, a close radiographic anatomic variant of canalis basilaris medianus of the basiocciput, as an incidental finding in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. The CBCT data of the patients in question were referred for the evaluation of implant sites and to rule out pathology in the maxilla and mandible. CBCT analysis showed osseous, notch-like defects on the inferior aspect of the clivus in all four cases. The appearance of fossa navicularis magna varied among the cases. In some, it was completely within the basiocciput and mimicked a small rounded, corticated, lytic defect, whereas it appeared as a notch in others. Fossa navicularis magna is an anatomical variant that occurs on the inferior aspect of the clivus. The pertinent literature on the anatomical variations occurring in this region was reviewed.

  19. Lung cancer screening: Computed tomography or chest radiographs?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edwin; JR; van; Beek; Saeed; Mirsadraee; John; T; Murchison

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, lung cancer is the leading cause of mortalitydue to malignancy. The vast majority of cases of lung cancer are smoking related and the most effective way of reducing lung cancer incidence and mortality is by smoking cessation. In the Western world, smoking cessation policies have met with limited success. The other major means of reducing lung cancer deaths is to diagnose cases at an earlier more treatable stage employing screening programmes using chest radiographs or low dose computed tomography. In many countries smoking is still on the increase, and the sheer scale of the problem limits the affordability of such screening programmes. This short review article will evaluate the current evidence and potential areas of research which may benefit policy making across the world.

  20. Glasses for 3D ultrasound computer tomography: phase compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapf, M.; Hopp, T.; Ruiter, N. V.

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound Computer Tomography (USCT), developed at KIT, is a promising new imaging system for breast cancer diagnosis, and was successfully tested in a pilot study. The 3D USCT II prototype consists of several hundreds of ultrasound (US) transducers on a semi-ellipsoidal aperture. Spherical waves are sequentially emitted by individual transducers and received in parallel by many transducers. Reflectivity volumes are reconstructed by synthetic aperture focusing (SAFT). However, straight forward SAFT imaging leads to blurred images due to system imperfections. We present an extension of a previously proposed approach to enhance the images. This approach includes additional a priori information and system characteristics. Now spatial phase compensation was included. The approach was evaluated with a simulation and clinical data sets. An increase in the image quality was observed and quantitatively measured by SNR and other metrics.

  1. Cysticercosis of the brain. The value of computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida-Pinto, J.; Veiga-Pires, J.A.; Stocker, A.; Coelho, T.; Monteiro, L.

    Incidence and radiologic findings of neurocysticercosis were investigated in a series of 23 800 consecutive head examinations using computed tomography (CT). The condition was diagnosed in 168 case (0.7%). The parenchymatous form was the most common presentation (96.3%), while the meningeal form corresponded to only 11.9% of cases. These two forms coexisted in some cases. These findings reversed the knowledge on the condition based on conventional radiography. The different CT appearances in the brain are described and a new radiologic protocol for the CT evaluation of the condition is advocated, which includes a follow-up after a trial cure with Praziquantel in the presence of cysts not associated with suggestive brain calcifications. CT were more sensitive than conventional radiography in the differentiation between dead and living larvae, thus having an impact on the therapeutic management of the patients.

  2. Micro-computed tomography for small animal imaging: Technological details

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Li; Hui Zhang; Zhiwei Tang; Guangshu Hu

    2008-01-01

    The high-resolution micro-computed tomography(micro-CT)system has now become an important tool for biological research.The micro-CT system enables a non-invasive inspection to screen anatomical changes in small animals.The promising advantages include high-spatial resolution,high sensitivity to bone and lung,short scan time and cost-effectiveness.The dose received by the small animal might be a critical concern in the research.In this article,the choice of the components,fundamental physical problems,the image reconstruction algorithm and the representative applications of micro-CT are summarized.Some results from our research group are also presented to show high-resolution images obtained by the micro-CT system.

  3. Experimental determination of the segregation process using computer tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Beckmann

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Modelling methods such as DEM and CFD are increasingly used for developing high efficient combine cleaning systems. For this purpose it is necessary to verify the complex segregation and separation processes in the combine cleaning system. One way is to determine the segregation and separation function using 3D computer tomography (CT. This method makes it possible to visualize and analyse the movement behaviour of the components of the mixture during the segregation and separation process as well as the derivation of descriptive process parameters. A mechanically excited miniature test rig was designed and built at the company CLAAS Selbstfahrende Erntemaschinen GmbH to achieve this aim. The investigations were carried out at the Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS. Through the evaluation of the recorded images the segregation process is described visually. A more detailed analysis enabled the development of segregation and separation function based on the different densities of grain and material other than grain.

  4. Low-dose computed tomography to diagnose fetal bone dysplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya Filardi, A; Guasp Vizcaíno, M; Gómez Fernández-Montes, J; Llorens Salvador, R

    We present a case of cleidocranial dysplasia diagnosed by low-dose fetal computed tomography (CT) in the 25th week of gestation. Severe bone dysplasia was suspected because of the fetus' low percentile in long bones length and the appearance of craniosynostosis on sonography. CT found no abnormalities incompatible with life. The effective dose was 5 mSv, within the recommended range for this type of examination. Low-dose fetal CT is a new technique that makes precision study of the bony structures possible from the second trimester of pregnancy. In Spain, abortion is legal even after the 22nd week of gestation in cases of severe fetal malformations. Therefore, in cases in which severe bone dysplasia is suspected, radiologists must know the strategies for reducing the dose of radiation while maintaining sufficient diagnostic quality, and they must also know which bony structures to evaluate.

  5. Common findings and pseudolesions at computed tomography colonography: pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atzingen, Augusto Castelli von [Clinical Radiology, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tiferes, Dario Ariel; Matsumoto, Carlos Alberto; Nunes, Thiago Franchi; Maia, Marcos Vinicius Alvim Soares [Abdominal Imaging Section, Department of Imaging Diagnosis - Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe_dr@uol.com.br [Department of Imaging Diagnosis, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-05-15

    Computed tomography colonography is a minimally invasive method for screening for polyps and colorectal cancer, with extremely unusual complications, increasingly used in the clinical practice. In the last decade, developments in bowel preparation, imaging, and in the training of investigators have determined a significant increase in the method sensitivity. Images interpretation is accomplished through a combined analysis of two-dimensional source images and several types of three-dimensional renderings, with sensitivity around 96% in the detection of lesions with dimensions equal or greater than 10 mm in size, when analyzed by experienced radiologists. The present pictorial essay includes examples of diseases and pseudolesions most frequently observed in this type of imaging study. The authors present examples of flat and polypoid lesions, benign and malignant lesions, diverticular disease of the colon, among other conditions, as well as pseudolesions, including those related to inappropriate bowel preparation and misinterpretation. (author)

  6. Three-dimensional computed tomography of the acetabulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi Mucelli, R.S.; Muner, G.; Pozzi Mucelli, F.; Pozzi Mucelli, M.; Marotti, F.; Dalla Palma, L.

    1986-08-01

    Acetabular fractures represent a complex variety that are classified in different types. Conventional radiology is often inadequate to demonstrate and classify the fractures. Computed tomography (CT) has already been shown to be superior in this field. A further advantage of CT is represented by the recent availability of three-dimensional (3D) images that are realized from axial CT scans by means of a new software. The Authors report the applications of this new software to the study of the normal acetabulum and in patients with fractures. 3D images allows an effective demonstration of the fracture, its irradiation and the dislocation of bone fragments. The information is contained in one or few images rather than many axial images. Therefore the role of 3D images may be considered complementary to axial CT scans.

  7. Malignant uveal melanoma and similar lesions studied by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mafee, M.F.; Peyman, G.A.; McKusick, M.A.

    1985-08-01

    Forty-four patients with intraocular disease were studied by computed tomography (CT); in 19 cases malignant uveal melanoma was considered the likely diagnosis. CT proved to be accurate in determining the location and size of uveal melanomas, demonstrating scleral invasion, and differentiating melanoma from choroidal detachment or angioma, toxocariasis, and senile macular degeneration. On CT, uveal melanomas appeared as hyperdense lesions with slight to moderate contrast enhancement. Tumors thinner than 2 mm could not be seen. Using dynamic CT, the authors noted moderate peak amplitude, normal or delayed tissue transit time, and persistently elevated washout phase (downslope), indicating increased permeability as the result of an impaired tumor blood barrier. Histological types of uveal melanoma could not be differentiated on the basis of circulatory patterns. Dynamic CT may be useful in distinguishing uveal melanoma from choroidal hemangioma or hematoma.

  8. Recent Developments in Computed Tomography for Urolithiasis: Diagnosis and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Mc Laughlin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To critically evaluate the current literature in an effort to establish the current role of radiologic imaging, advances in computed tomography (CT and standard film radiography in the diagnosis, and characterization of urinary tract calculi. Conclusion. CT has a valuable role when utilized prudently during surveillance of patients following endourological therapy. In this paper, we outline the basic principles relating to the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation as a result of CT scanning. We discuss the current developments in low-dose CT technology, which have resulted in significant reductions in CT radiation doses (to approximately one-third of what they were a decade ago while preserving image quality. Finally, we will discuss an important recent development now commercially available on the latest generation of CT scanners, namely, dual energy imaging, which is showing promise in urinary tract imaging as a means of characterizing the composition of urinary tract calculi.

  9. 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography improves the diagnostic accuracy of osteoid osteoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squier, Samuel Brian; Lewis, Jacob Ian; Accurso, Joseph Matthew; Jain, Manoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 17-year-old football player who had previously received multiple facet joint injections for presumed secondary osteoarthritis. 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging of the cervical spine demonstrated focal increased radiopharmaceutical activity in the right C2 lamina, which was associated with an osteolytic lesion with a central irregular sclerotic nidus. Surgical pathology confirmed an osteoid osteoma. PMID:27833319

  10. Risk of small field of view in lumbar spine computed tomography for assumed lumbar disc herniation: beware contained aortic aneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsman, J.W.P. [Gooi-Noord Hospital, Blaricum (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology

    1995-05-01

    Among several other atypical clinical presentations, back and leg pain may ensue from a contained ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. The present case concerns a patient whose back and leg pain were primarily thought to be orthopaedic or neurologic in origin. Computed tomography with small field of view, performed for the detection of a possible lumbar disc herniation, only partially showed a paraspinal soft tissue mass. Subsequently, recognition of this mass as a contained ruptured aortic aneurysm was delayed. The literature is reviewed concerning comparable cases and it is concluded that computed tomograms performed for possible lumbar disc herniation should also be screened for paraspinal disease and consequently, the applied field of view should be large enough to include at least the paraspinal psoas regions. 25 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  11. Contrast-enhanced fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/contrast-enhanced computed tomography in mediastinal T-cell lymphoma with superior vena cava syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Sampath; Gorla, Arun Kumar Reddy; Bhattacharya, Anish; Varma, Subhash Chander; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) is a routine investigation for the staging of lymphomas. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography is mandatory whenever parenchymal lesions, especially in the liver and spleen are suspected. We report a rare case of primary mediastinal T-cell lymphoma evaluated with contrast-enhanced PET/CT that showed features of superior vena cava syndrome.

  12. Multiscale and multimodality computed tomography for cortical bone analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostertag, A.; Peyrin, F.; Gouttenoire, P. J.; Laredo, J. D.; DeVernejoul, M. C.; Cohen Solal, M.; Chappard, C.

    2016-12-01

    In clinical studies, high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) is used to separately evaluate cortical bone and trabecular bone with an isotropic voxel of 82 µm3, and typical cortical parameters are cortical density (D.comp), thickness (Ct.Th), and porosity (Ct.Po). In vitro, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is used to explore the internal cortical bone micro-structure with isotropic voxels and high resolution synchrotron radiation (SR); micro-CT is considered the ‘gold standard’. In 16 tibias and 8 femurs, HR-pQCT measurements were compared to conventional micro-CT measurements. To test modality effects, conventional micro-CT measurements were compared to SR micro-CT measurements at 7.5 µm3 SR micro-CT measurements were also tested at different voxel sizes for the femurs, specifically, 7.5 µm3 versus 2.8 µm3. D.comp (r  =  -0.88, p  images provided consistent results compared to those obtained using conventional micro-CT at the distal tibia. D.comp was highly correlated to Po.V/TV because it considers both the micro-porosity (Haversian systems) and macro-porosity (resorption lacunae) of cortical bone. The complexity of canal organization, (including shape, connectivity, and surface) are not fully considered in conventional micro-CT in relation to beam hardening and cone beam reconstruction artifacts. With the exception of Po.V/TV measurements, morphological and topological measurements depend on the characteristics of the x-ray beam, and to a lesser extent, on image resolution.

  13. Sex estimation from sternal measurements using multidetector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekizoglu, Oguzhan; Hocaoglu, Elif; Inci, Ercan; Bilgili, Mustafa Gokhan; Solmaz, Dilek; Erdil, Irem; Can, Ismail Ozgur

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to show the utility and reliability of sternal morphometric analysis for sex estimation.Sex estimation is a very important step in forensic identification. Skeletal surveys are main methods for sex estimation studies. Morphometric analysis of sternum may provide high accuracy rated data in sex discrimination. In this study, morphometric analysis of sternum was evaluated in 1 mm chest computed tomography scans for sex estimation. Four hundred forty 3 subjects (202 female, 241 male, mean age: 44 ± 8.1 [distribution: 30-60 year old]) were included the study. Manubrium length (ML), mesosternum length (2L), Sternebra 1 (S1W), and Sternebra 3 (S3W) width were measured and also sternal index (SI) was calculated. Differences between genders were evaluated by student t-test. Predictive factors of sex were determined by discrimination analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Male sternal measurement values are significantly higher than females (P < 0.001) while SI is significantly low in males (P < 0.001). In discrimination analysis, MSL has high accuracy rate with 80.2% in females and 80.9% in males. MSL also has the best sensitivity (75.9%) and specificity (87.6%) values. Accuracy rates were above 80% in 3 stepwise discrimination analysis for both sexes. Stepwise 1 (ML, MSL, S1W, S3W) has the highest accuracy rate in stepwise discrimination analysis with 86.1% in females and 83.8% in males. Our study showed that morphometric computed tomography analysis of sternum might provide important information for sex estimation.

  14. Evaluation of computer tomography in cerebro-vascular disease (Strokes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Sik; Baek, Seung Yon; Rhee, Chung Sik; Kim, Hee Seup [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-06-15

    Most of cerebrovascular disease are composed of vascular occulusive changes and hemorrhage. Now a day, the computed tomography is the best way for evaluation of cerebrovascular disease including detection of nature, location, and associated changes. This study includes evaluation of computed tomography of 70 patients with cerebrovascular disease during the period of 10 months from April. 1983 to Feb. 1984 in Department of Radiology, Ewha Womans University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. Age distribution of the total 70 patients was broad ranging from 25 years to 79 years. 78.6% of patients were over the age of 50. The male and female sex ratio was 1.4:1. 2. 4 out of 70 patients were normal and 66 patients revealed abnormal on C.T. findings; those were intracranial hemorrhage (28 patients), cerebral infarction (34 patients) and brain atrophy (4 patients). 3. In cases of cerebral infarction, the cerebral hemisphere was most common site of lesion (28 cases), and next was basal ganglia (2 cases). Most of the infarcts in cerebral hemisphere were located in the parietal and temporal lobes. 4. In cases of intracranial hemorrhage, the basal ganglia was most common site of lesion (15 cases). The next common site was cerebral hemisphere (9 cases). 6 patients of all intracranial hemorrhage were combined with intraventricular hemorrhage. Ratio of right and left was 2:3. 5. In patients with motor weakness or hemiparesis, more common findings on CT scan were cerebral infarction. In case with hemiplegia, more common CT findings were intracerebral hemorrhage. 6. Of the 40 cases thought to be cerebral infarction initially by clinical findings and spinal tap. 8 cases (20.0%) were proved to be cerebral hemorrhage by the CT scan. However, of the 22 cases thought to be cerebral hemorrhage, initially, only two cases (9.0%) were cerebral infarction.

  15. Computed tomography guided needle biopsy: experience from 1,300 procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chojniak, Rubens; Isberner, Rony Klaus; Viana, Luciana Marinho; Yu, Liao Shin; Aita, Alessandro Amorim; Soares, Fernando Augusto [Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia e Patologia

    2006-01-15

    Context and objective: computed tomography (CT) guided biopsy is widely accepted as effective and safe for diagnosis in many settings. Accuracy depends on target organ and needle type. Cutting needles present advantages over fine needles. This study presents experience from CT guided biopsies performed at an oncology center. Design and setting: retrospective study at Hospital do Cancer A. C. Camargo, Sao Paulo.Methods: 1,300 consecutive CT guided biopsies performed between July 1994 and February 2000 were analyzed. Nodules or masses were suspected as primary malignancy in 845 cases (65%) or metastatic lesion in 455 (35%). 628 lesions were thoracic, 281 abdominal, 208 retroperitoneal, 134 musculoskeletal and 49 head/neck. All biopsies were performed by one radiologist or under his supervision: 765 (59%) with 22-gauge fine-needle/aspiration technique and 535 (41%) with automated 16 or 18-gauge cutting-needle biopsy. Results: adequate samples were obtained in 70-92% of fine-needle and 93-100% of cutting-needle biopsies. The specific diagnosis rates were 54-67% for fine-needle and 82-100% for cutting-needle biopsies, according to biopsy site. For any site, sample adequacy and specific diagnosis rate were always better for cutting-needle biopsy. Among 530 lung biopsies, there were 84 pneumothorax (16%) and two hemothorax (0.3%) cases, with thoracic drainage in 24 (4.9%). Among abdominal and retroperitoneal biopsies, there were two cases of major bleeding and one of peritonitis. Conclusion: both types of needle showed satisfactory results, but cutting-needle biopsy should be used when specific diagnosis is desired without greater incidence of complications. (author)

  16. Free air on plain film: Do we need a computed tomography too?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina V Solis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Standard teaching is that patients with pneumoperitoneum on plain X-ray and clinical signs of abdominal pathology should undergo urgent surgery. It is unknown if abdominal computed tomography (CT provides additional useful information in this scenario. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine whether or not CT scanning after identification of pneumoperitoneum on plain X-ray changes clinical management or outcomes. Settings and Design: Retrospective study carried out over 4 years at a tertiary care academic medical center. All patients in our acute care surgery database with pneumoperitoneum on plain X-ray were included. Patients who underwent subsequent CT scanning (CT group were compared with patients who did not (non-CT group. Statistical Analysis Used: The Wilcoxon rank-sum test, t-test and Fisher′s exact test were used as appropriate to compare the groups. Results: There were 25 patients in the non-CT group and 18 patients in the CT group. There were no differences between the groups at presentation. All patients in the non-CT group underwent surgery, compared with 83% (n = 15 of patients in the CT group (P = 0.066. 16 patients in the non-CT and 11 patients in the CT group presented with peritonitis and all underwent surgery regardless of group. For patients undergoing surgery, there were no differences in outcomes between the groups. After X-ray, patients undergoing CT required 328.0 min to arrive in the operating room compared with 136.0 min in the non-CT group (P = 0.007. Conclusions: In patients with pneumoperitoneum on X-ray and peritonitis on physical exam, CT delays surgery without providing any measurable benefit.

  17. Multi-slice computed tomography for diagnosis of combined thoracoabdominal injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the diagnostic value of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT for combined thoracoabdominal injury. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to analyze the clinical data and MSCT images of 68 patients who sustained a combined thoracoabdominal injury associated with diaphragm rupture, and 18 patients without diaphragm rupture. All the patients were admitted and treated in the Chongqing Emergency Medical Center (a level I trauma center between July 2005 and February 2014. There were 71 males and 15 females with a mean age of 39.1 years (range 13e88 years. Among the 86 patients, 40 patients suffered a penetrating injury, 46 suffered a blunt injury as a result of road traffic accident in 21 cases, fall from a height in 16, and crushing injury in 9. The MSCT images were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists. The results of CT diagnosis were compared with surgical findings and/or follow-up results. Results: Among the 86 cases, diaphragm discontinuity was found in 29 cases, segmental nonrecognition of the diaphragm in 14, diaphragmatic hernia in 21, collar sign in 14, dependent viscera sign in 18, elevated abdominal organs in 21, bowel wall thickening and/or hematoma in 6, and pneumoperitoneum in 8. CT diagnostic accuracy for diaphragm rupture was 88.4% in the right side and 90.7% in the left side. CT diagnostic accuracy for hemopneumothorax, pulmonary contusion, mediastinal hemorrhage, kidney and adrenal gland injuries was 100%, while for liver, spleen and pancreas injuries was 96.5%, 96.5%, 94.2% respectively. Conclusion: To reach an early diagnosis of combined thoracoabdominal injury, surgeons and radiologists should be familiar with all kinds of images which might show signs of diaphragm rupture, such as diaphragm discontinuity, segmental nonrecognition of the diaphragm, dangling diaphragm sign, diaphragm herniation, collar sign, dependent viscera sign, and elevated abdominal organs.

  18. Perception of radiation dose and potential risks of computed tomography in emergency department medical personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Hee; Kim, Kyuseok; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Kim, Yu Jin; Park, Chanjong; Kang, Changwoo; Lee, Soo Hoon; Jeong, Jin Hee; Rhee, Joong Eui

    2015-01-01

    Objective Use of computed tomography (CT) continues to increase, but the relatively high radiation doses associated with CT have raised health concerns such as future risk of cancer. We investigated the level of awareness regarding radiation doses and possible risks associated with CT in medical personnel (MP). Methods This study was conducted from April to May 2012 and included physicians and nurses who worked in the emergency department of 17 training hospitals. The questionnaire included measurement of the effect of CT or radiography on health using a 10-point numerical rating scale, estimation of the radiation dose of one abdominal CT scan compared with one chest radiograph, and perception of the increased lifetime risk of cancer associated with CT. Results A total of 354 MP participated in this study: 142 nurses, 87 interns, 86 residents, and 39 specialists. Interns were less aware of the effects of CT or radiography on health than other physicians or nurses (mean±SD of 4.8±2.7, 5.9±2.7, 6.1±2.7, and 6.0±2.2 for interns, residents, specialists, and nurses, respectively; P<0.05). There was a significant difference in knowledge about the relative radiation dose of one abdominal CT scan compared with one chest radiograph between physicians and nurses (48.6% vs. 28.9% for physicians vs. nurses, P<0.05). MP perceived an increased risk of cancer from radiation associated with CT. Conclusion MP perceive the risk of radiation associated with CT, but their level of knowledge seems to be insufficient.

  19. Centre of Rotation Determination Using Projection Data in X-ray Micro Computed Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Olander, Birger

    1994-01-01

    There are several methods available to determine the Centre Of Rotation, COR, and align detectors and X-ray focus to COR in X-ray computed tomography. Some methods use narrow rods/needles or specially made alignment objects or phantoms. In X-ray Micro Computed Tomography (or Computerized Micro Tomography), μCT (CMT), methods using sample projection data for COR measurements are preferred since the replacement of alignment objects with samples often displace translation stages and make the ali...

  20. Artifacts in computed tomography scanning of moving objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, George T Y; Kung, Jong H; Beaudette, Kevin P

    2004-01-01

    Target volumes in the thorax and abdomen are commonly computed tomography (CT) scanned during light respiration. In this article, we analyze the distortions introduced in helical scanning of moving objects. Objects of known geometry are placed on a moving sled and scanned in a multirow helical CT scanner. The motion of the sled approximates the magnitude and velocity of organ movement in patients during light respiration (amplitude 1 cm, period 4 seconds). Scans of the phantom are obtained in high speed mode at incremental phases of respiration, and the resulting images are compared with scans obtained when the phantom is static. Computer simulations of the scan process are also performed to interpret the results and extend the analysis to a greater range of parameters in scanning, motion, and object size. Resulting scans show that spherical test objects can be shortened by as much as 2 cm or twice the periodic motion amplitude. Object shape was significantly distorted, and the geometric center of the object was displaced by as much as +/-0.8 cm. Computer simulation results qualitatively agree with the experimentally observed phantom images. These simulations predict that the effect is clearly observable even if the amplitude is decreased to 0.5 cm. Implications of scanning moving objects on treatment planning are discussed.

  1. Time-Domain Terahertz Computed Axial Tomography NDE System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimdars, David

    2012-01-01

    NASA has identified the need for advanced non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods to characterize aging and durability in aircraft materials to improve the safety of the nation's airline fleet. 3D THz tomography can play a major role in detection and characterization of flaws and degradation in aircraft materials, including Kevlar-based composites and Kevlar and Zylon fabric covers for soft-shell fan containment where aging and durability issues are critical. A prototype computed tomography (CT) time-domain (TD) THz imaging system has been used to generate 3D images of several test objects including a TUFI tile (a thermal protection system tile used on the Space Shuttle and possibly the Orion or similar capsules). This TUFI tile had simulated impact damage that was located and the depth of damage determined. The CT motion control gan try was designed and constructed, and then integrated with a T-Ray 4000 control unit and motion controller to create a complete CT TD-THz imaging system prototype. A data collection software script was developed that takes multiple z-axis slices in sequence and saves the data for batch processing. The data collection software was integrated with the ability to batch process the slice data with the CT TD-THz image reconstruction software. The time required to take a single CT slice was decreased from six minutes to approximately one minute by replacing the 320 ps, 100-Hz waveform acquisition system with an 80 ps, 1,000-Hz waveform acquisition system. The TD-THZ computed tomography system was built from pre-existing commercial off-the-shelf subsystems. A CT motion control gantry was constructed from COTS components that can handle larger samples. The motion control gantry allows inspection of sample sizes of up to approximately one cubic foot (.0.03 cubic meters). The system reduced to practice a CT-TDTHz system incorporating a COTS 80- ps/l-kHz waveform scanner. The incorporation of this scanner in the system allows acquisition of 3D

  2. Multi-dimensional visualization of coronary aberrancies using multi detector computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, P; Dorgelo, J; Tukker, W; Willemsen, H; Oudkerk, M; Lewis, BS; Halon, DA; Flugelman, MY; Gensini, GF

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of three and four dimensional visualization of multi detector computed tomography datasets for the evaluation of coronary aberrancies. Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) datasets were obtained in thirteen patients following a standard p

  3. Quantitative computed tomography measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness are related to respiratory symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grydeland, Thomas B; Dirksen, Asger; Coxson, Harvey O

    2010-01-01

    There is limited knowledge about the relationship between respiratory symptoms and quantitative high-resolution computed tomography measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness.......There is limited knowledge about the relationship between respiratory symptoms and quantitative high-resolution computed tomography measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness....

  4. Just Scan It!-Weapon Reconstruction in Computed Tomography on Historical and Current Swiss Military Guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franckenberg, Sabine; Binder, Thomas; Bolliger, Stephan; Thali, Michael J; Ross, Steffen G

    2016-09-01

    Cross-sectional imaging, such as computed tomography, has been increasingly implemented in both historic and recent postmortem forensic investigations. It aids in determining cause and manner of death as well as in correlating injuries to possible weapons. This study illuminates the feasibility of reconstructing guns in computed tomography and gives a distinct overview of historic and recent Swiss Army guns.

  5. Role of computed tomography and radionuclide scintigraphy in the localization of osteomyelitis in flat bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, R.J.; Conway, J.J.; Poznanski, A.K.; Tachdjian, M.O.; Dias, L.S.; Kelikian, A.S.

    1985-03-01

    The combined use of radionuclide scintigraphy and computed tomography is recommended for evaluating children with laboratory and clinical data suggestive of flat bone osteomyelitis despite normal conventional radiographs. In addition, computed tomography may be helpful in the presence of abnormal radiographs in determining the exact location of the focus of osteomyelitis and the most suitable route for appropriate drainage or to obtain culture material.

  6. Lower Abdominal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, David J; Lee, Stephen D; Dubin, Jeffrey S

    2016-05-01

    Although most frequently presenting with lower abdominal pain, appendicitis, colitis, and diverticulitis can cause pain throughout the abdomen and can cause peritoneal and retroperitoneal symptoms. Evaluation and management of lower intestinal disease requires a nuanced approach by the emergency physician, sometimes requiring computed tomography, ultrasonography, MRI, layered imaging, shared decision making, serial examination, and/or close follow-up. Once a presumed or confirmed diagnosis is made, appropriate treatment is initiated, and may include surgery, antibiotics, and/or steroids. Appendicitis patients should be admitted. Diverticulitis and inflammatory bowel disease can frequently be managed on an outpatient basis, but may require admission and surgical consultation.

  7. Value of computer tomography and sonography in the investigation of the pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, K.; Frommhold, H.; Grauthoff, H.; Moedder, U.; Heuser, L. Braun, G.; Buurman, R.; Scherer, K. (Bonn Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Radiologische Klinik; Hamburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Radiologische Klinik und Strahleninstitut; Koeln Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Radiologisches Inst. und Poliklinik)

    1980-05-01

    Three hundred and five patients were examined by computer tomography and sonography. In 117 patients no abnormalities were found in the pancreas. The accuracy of computer tomography was 87%, of sonography 85%. In 41 patients the presence of a carcinoma of the pancreas was confirmed histologically. In this group the sensitivity of computer tomography was 83%, of sonography 85%. Thirty-four patients suffered from acute pancreatitis. In this group sensitivity of the two methods was equal at 79%. 113 patients had changes of chronic pancreatitis. Sensitivity of computer tomography was 84%, of sonography 70%. Computer tomography is better at demonstrating calcification in the pancreas. Atrophy of the pancreas cannot be diagnosed by sonography.

  8. Comparison of Adsorbed Skin Dose Received by Patients in Cone Beam Computed Tomography, Spiral and Conventional Computed Tomography Scanninng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The evaluation of absorbed dose received by patients could give useful information for radiation risk estimation. This study was performed to compare the entrance skin dose received by patients in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT, conventional and spiral computed tomography (CT.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 81 calibrated TLD chips were used. the TLD chips were placed on facial, thyroid and end of sternum skin surface in patients referred for CT of the paranasal sinuses(3 TLD chips for each area to estimate the absorbed dose received by central part of radiation field, thyroid and out of field areas, respectively. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: The dose delivered to the center of irradiated field was about 0.79±0.09 mGy in CBCT technique compared with 16.31±3.71 and 18.84±4.12 mGy for spiral and conventional CT, respectively. The received dose by the out of field areas was about 54 percent of central area dose. There was statistical significant relationship between the imaging modalities and absorbed dose received by patients (P=0.016. The least absorbed dose was for CBCT and the greatest dose was for conventional CT imaging technique.Conclusion: The dose delivered to central area of irradiated field in conventional and spiral CT imaging modalities was about 24 times greater than of that in CBCT. Also, the highest received dose was for central area of radiated field and the lowest dose was for the out of field areas.

  9. Costs and role of ultrasound follow-up of polytrauma patients after initial computed tomography; Kosten und Stellenwert von Ultraschallverlaufskontrollen bei polytraumatisierten Patienten nach initialer Computertomografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, M.H.; Winkler, A.; Powerski, M.J.; Elgeti, F.; Huppertz, A.; Roettgen, R.; Marnitz, T. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Wichlas, F. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Centrum fuer Muskuloskeletale Chirurgie

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: To assess the costs and diagnostic gain of abdominal ultrasound follow-up of polytrauma patients initially examined by whole-body computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods: A total of 176 patients with suspected multiple trauma (126 men, 50 women; age 43.5 {+-} 17.4 years) were retrospectively analyzed with regard to supplementary and new findings obtained by ultrasound follow-up compared with the results of exploratory FAST (focused assessment with sonography for trauma) at admission and the findings of whole-body CT. A process model was used to document the staff, materials, and total costs of the ultrasound follow-up examinations. Results: FAST yielded 26 abdominal findings (organ injury and/or free intra-abdominal fluid) in 19 patients, while the abdominal scan of whole-body CT revealed 32 findings in 25 patients. FAST had 81 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity. Follow-up ultrasound examinations revealed new findings in 2 of the 25 patients with abdominal injuries detected with initial CT. In the 151 patients without abdominal injuries in the initial CT scan, ultrasound follow-up did not yield any supplementary or new findings. The total costs of an ultrasound follow-up examination were EUR 28.93. The total costs of all follow-up ultrasound examinations performed in the study population were EUR 5658.23. Conclusion: Follow-up abdominal ultrasound yields only a low overall diagnostic gain in polytrauma patients in whom initial CT fails to detect any abdominal injuries but incurs high personnel expenses for radiological departments. (orig.)

  10. Dynamic 3D computed tomography scanner for vascular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mark K.; Holdsworth, David W.; Fenster, Aaron

    2000-04-01

    A 3D dynamic computed-tomography (CT) scanner was developed for imaging objects undergoing periodic motion. The scanner system has high spatial and sufficient temporal resolution to produce quantitative tomographic/volume images of objects such as excised arterial samples perfused under physiological pressure conditions and enables the measurements of the local dynamic elastic modulus (Edyn) of the arteries in the axial and longitudinal directions. The system was comprised of a high resolution modified x-ray image intensifier (XRII) based computed tomographic system and a computer-controlled cardiac flow simulator. A standard NTSC CCD camera with a macro lens was coupled to the electro-optically zoomed XRII to acquire dynamic volumetric images. Through prospective cardiac gating and computer synchronized control, a time-resolved sequence of 20 mm thick high resolution volume images of porcine aortic specimens during one simulated cardiac cycle were obtained. Performance evaluation of the scanners illustrated that tomographic images can be obtained with resolution as high as 3.2 mm-1 with only a 9% decrease in the resolution for objects moving at velocities of 1 cm/s in 2D mode and static spatial resolution of 3.55 mm-1 with only a 14% decrease in the resolution in 3D mode for objects moving at a velocity of 10 cm/s. Application of the system for imaging of intact excised arterial specimens under simulated physiological flow/pressure conditions enabled measurements of the Edyn of the arteries with a precision of +/- kPa for the 3D scanner. Evaluation of the Edyn in the axial and longitudinal direction produced values of 428 +/- 35 kPa and 728 +/- 71 kPa, demonstrating the isotropic and homogeneous viscoelastic nature of the vascular specimens. These values obtained from the Dynamic CT systems were not statistically different (p less than 0.05) from the values obtained by standard uniaxial tensile testing and volumetric measurements.

  11. Prognostic value of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in resectable colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jang Eun Lee; Sang Woo Kim; Jin Su Kim; Kyu Yong Choi; Won Kyung Kang; Seong Taek Oh; Ie Ryung Yoo

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To assess the prognostic value of preoperative 18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) in patients with resectable colorectal cancer.METHODS:One hundred sixty-three patients with resectable colorectal cancer who underwent FDG-PET/CT before surgery were included.Patient data including pathologic stage at presentation,histology,treatment,disease-free survival and the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the primary tumor on FDGPET/CT were retrospectively analyzed.Median follow up duration was 756 (range,419-1355).The primary end point was disease-free survival.RESULTS:Twenty-five of 163 patients (15.3%) had recurrences.The median SUVmax values of the recurrence and no-recurrence groups were 8.9 (range,5-24) and 8.2 (range,0-23,P =0.998).Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed no significant association between SUVmax and recurrence (area under the curve =0.5,P =0.998,95%CI:0.389-0.611).Because a statistically significant value was not found,SUVmax was dichotomized at its median of 8.6.The disease-free survival curve was analyzed using the median SUVmax (8.6) as the cut off.Univariate and multivariate analysis did not provide evidence that disease-free survival rates for the subgroups defined by the median SUVmax were significantly different (P =0.52,P =0.25).CONCLUSION:Our study suggests that the high FDG uptake of primary mass in resectable colorectal cancer doesn't have a significant relationship with tumor recurrence and disease-free survival.

  12. Diagnostic value for extrahepatic metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma in positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Eun Lee; Jae Young Jang; Soung Won Jeong; Sae Hwan Lee; Sang Gyune Kim; Sang-Woo Cha; Young Seok Kim

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluated the value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scan in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and extrahepatic metastases.METHODS:A total of 138 patients with HCC who had both conventional imaging modalities and 18F-FDG PET/CT scan done between November 2006 and March 2011 were enrolled.Diagnostic value of each imaging modality for detection of extrahepatic metastases was evaluated.Clinical factors and tumor characteristics including PET imaging were analyzed as indicative factors for metastases by univariate and multivariate methods.RESULTS:The accuracy of chest CT was significantly superior compared with the accuracy of PET imaging for detecting lung metastases.The detection rate of metastatic pulmonary nodule ≥ 1 cm was 12/13(92.3%),when < 1 cm was 2/10 (20%) in PET imaging.The accuracy of PET imaging was significantly superior compared with the accuracy of bone scan for detecting bone metastases.In multivariate analysis,increased tumor size (≥ 5 cm) (P =0.042) and increased average standardized uptake value (SUV)uptake (P =0.028) were predictive factors for extrahepatic metastases.Isometabolic HCC in PET imaging was inversely correlated in multivariate analysis (P =0.035).According to the receiver operating characteristic curve,the optimal cutoff of average SUV to predict extrahepatic metastases was 3.4.CONCLUSION:18F-FDG PET/CT scan is invaluable for detection of lung metastases larger than 1 cm and bone metastases.Primary HCC having larger than 5 cm and increased average SUV uptake more than 3.4should be considered for extrahepatic metastases.

  13. Pitfalls in Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Imaging: Causes and Their Classifications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-ran Li; Jia-he Tian; Hui Wang; Zi-qian Chen; Chun-lei Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe the pitfalls in positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging and classify them according to the principles of their generation. Methods We summarized retrospectively the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDP) PET/CT imaging pitfalls through reviewing the PET/CT images of 872 patients. The pitfalls were divided into artifacts and infrequent physiological uptake, and the artifacts were further classified according to their causes. Meanwhile, we calculated the incidences of various pitfalls. Whether the PET/CT pitfalls influenced the diagnostic decision was analyzed. The appearances of pitfalls in PET were also described. Results Pitfalls could be found in PET/CT images of 684 (78.4%) patients. Artifacts were found in 664 (76.15%) patients, and could be classified into self-factor artifacts and equipment- or technology- related artifacts. Among self-factor artifacts, respiratory motion (57.5%), postprandial or hyperglycemia artifacts (2.41%), and metal or high density matter artifacts (1.38%) were frequent. As for equipment- or technology-related factors, injection point outleakage or radiotracer contamination (13.88%) and truncation artifacts (1.83%) were most common ones. Infrequent physiological FDG uptakes, including fatty uptake, endometrial uptake, and bilateral breast feeding period uptake, were found in 20 (2.29%) patients. Among all pitfalls, the artifacts in 92 (13.4%) patients and infrequent physiological uptakes in 6 (0.88%) patients affected the diagnostic results. Artifact images in PET could be described as hot or cold area and the images of infrequent physiological uptake were always shown as hot area. Conclusions The incidence of pitfall in PET/CT imaging was high and the causes of pitfalls are various. Among all causes that artifacts generated, respiratory motion is the most common. Some pitfalls may disturb clinical physicians' decision, so it is important to recognize artifacts and physiological uptake, and

  14. Single-photon emission computed tomography and positron-emission tomography assays for tissue oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, J D; Schneider, R F; Urbain, J L; Hanks, G E

    2001-01-01

    Radiotherapy prescription can now be customized to target the major mechanism(s) of resistance of individual tumors. In that regard, functional imaging techniques should be exploited to identify the dominant mechanism(s). Tumor biology research has identified several mechanisms of tumor resistance that may be unique to radiation treatments. These fall into 3 broad areas associated with (1) tumor hypoxic fraction, (2) tumor growth rate, (3) and the intrinsic radiosensitivity of tumor clonogens. Imaging research has markers in various stages of development for quantifying relevant information about each of these mechanisms, and those that measure tumor oxygenation and predict for radioresistance are the most advanced. Positron-emission tomography (PET) measurement of oxygen 15 has yielded important information, particularly about brain tissue perfusion, metabolism, and function. Indirect markers of tumor hypoxia have exploited the covalent binding of bioreductive intermediates of azomycin-containing compounds whose uptakes are inversely proportional to intracellular oxygen concentrations. Pilot clinical studies with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and PET detection of radiolabeled markers to tumor hypoxia have been reported. Recently, other studies have attempted to exploit the reduction properties of both technetium and copper chelates for the selective deposition of radioactive metals in hypoxic tissues. A growing number of potentially useful isotopes are now available for labeling several novel chemicals that could have the appropriate specificity and sensitivity. Preclinical studies with "microSPECT" and "microPET" will be important to define the optimal radiodiagnostic(s) for measuring tissue oxygenation and for determining the time after their administration for optimal hypoxic signal acquisition. Radiolabeled markers of growth kinetics and intrinsic radiosensitivity of cells in solid tumors are also being developed. We conclude that

  15. Relationship of computed tomography perfusion and positron emission tomography to tumour progression in malignant glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeung, Timothy P C [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5C1 (Canada); Yartsev, Slav [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5C1 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, London Regional Cancer Program, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Lee, Ting-Yim [Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5C1 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, London Regional Cancer Program, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, Victoria Hospital, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5W9 (Australia); Lawson Health Research Institute, St. Joseph' s Health Care London, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4V2 (Canada); Wong, Eugene [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, London Regional Cancer Program, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, N6A 3K7 (Canada); He, Wenqing [Department of Statistical and Actuarial Sciences, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Fisher, Barbara; VanderSpek, Lauren L [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, London Regional Cancer Program, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Macdonald, David [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, London Regional Cancer Program, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, University Hospital, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5A5 (Canada); Bauman, Glenn, E-mail: glenn.bauman@lhsc.on.ca [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5C1 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, London Regional Cancer Program, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada)

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: This study aimed to explore the potential for computed tomography (CT) perfusion and 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in predicting sites of future progressive tumour on a voxel-by-voxel basis after radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Methods: Ten patients underwent pre-radiotherapy magnetic resonance (MR), FDG-PET and CT perfusion near the end of radiotherapy and repeated post-radiotherapy follow-up MR scans. The relationships between these images and tumour progression were assessed using logistic regression. Cross-validation with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the value of these images in predicting sites of tumour progression. Results: Pre-radiotherapy MR-defined gross tumour; near-end-of-radiotherapy CT-defined enhancing lesion; CT perfusion blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and permeability-surface area (PS) product; FDG-PET standard uptake value (SUV); and SUV:BF showed significant associations with tumour progression on follow-up MR imaging (P < 0.0001). The mean sensitivity (±standard deviation), specificity and area under the ROC curve (AUC) of PS were 0.64 ± 0.15, 0.74 ± 0.07 and 0.72 ± 0.12 respectively. This mean AUC was higher than that of the pre-radiotherapy MR-defined gross tumour and near-end-of-radiotherapy CT-defined enhancing lesion (both AUCs = 0.6 ± 0.1, P ≤ 0.03). The multivariate model using BF, BV, PS and SUV had a mean AUC of 0.8 ± 0.1, but this was not significantly higher than the PS only model. Conclusion: PS is the single best predictor of tumour progression when compared to other parameters, but voxel-based prediction based on logistic regression had modest sensitivity and specificity.

  16. Motion management in positron emission tomography/computed tomography for radiation treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettinardi, Valentino; Picchio, Maria; Di Muzio, Nadia; Gilardi, Maria Carla

    2012-09-01

    Hybrid positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scanners combine, in a unique gantry, 2 of the most important diagnostic imaging systems, a CT and a PET tomograph, enabling anatomical (CT) and functional (PET) studies to be performed in a single study session. Furthermore, as the 2 scanners use the same spatial coordinate system, the reconstructed CT and PET images are spatially co-registered, allowing an accurate localization of the functional signal over the corresponding anatomical structure. This peculiarity of the hybrid PET/CT system results in improved tumor characterization for oncological applications, and more recently, it was found to be also useful for target volume definition (TVD) and treatment planning in radiotherapy (RT) applications. In fact, the use of combined PET/CT information has been shown to improve the RT treatment plan when compared with that obtained by a CT alone. A limiting factor to the accuracy of TVD by PET/CT is organ and tumor motion, which is mainly due to patient respiration. In fact, respiratory motion has a degrading effect on PET/CT image quality, and this is also critical for TVD, as it can lead to possible tumor missing or undertreatment. Thus, the management of respiratory motion is becoming an increasingly essential component in RT treatment planning; indeed, it has been recognized that the use of personalized motion information can improve TVD and, consequently, permit increased tumor dosage while sparing surrounding healthy tissues and organs at risk. This review describes the methods used for motion management in PET/CT for radiation treatment planning. The article covers the following: (1) problems caused by organ and lesion motion owing to respiration, and the artifacts generated on CT, PET, and PET/CT images; (2) data acquisition and processing techniques used to manage respiratory motion in PET/CT studies; and (3) the use of personalized motion information for TVD and radiation treatment planning.

  17. 3D ultrasound computer tomography: update from a clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, T.; Zapf, M.; Kretzek, E.; Henrich, J.; Tukalo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Kaiser, C.; Knaudt, J.; Ruiter, N. V.

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound Computer Tomography (USCT) is a promising new imaging method for breast cancer diagnosis. We developed a 3D USCT system and tested it in a pilot study with encouraging results: 3D USCT was able to depict two carcinomas, which were present in contrast enhanced MRI volumes serving as ground truth. To overcome severe differences in the breast shape, an image registration was applied. We analyzed the correlation between average sound speed in the breast and the breast density estimated from segmented MRIs and found a positive correlation with R=0.70. Based on the results of the pilot study we now carry out a successive clinical study with 200 patients. For this we integrated our reconstruction methods and image post-processing into a comprehensive workflow. It includes a dedicated DICOM viewer for interactive assessment of fused USCT images. A new preview mode now allows intuitive and faster patient positioning. We updated the USCT system to decrease the data acquisition time by approximately factor two and to increase the penetration depth of the breast into the USCT aperture by 1 cm. Furthermore the compute-intensive reflectivity reconstruction was considerably accelerated, now allowing a sub-millimeter volume reconstruction in approximately 16 minutes. The updates made it possible to successfully image first patients in our ongoing clinical study.

  18. Compensation for air voids in photoacoustic computed tomography image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Thomas P.; Li, Lei; Wang, Lihong V.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2016-03-01

    Most image reconstruction methods in photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) assume that the acoustic properties of the object and the surrounding medium are homogeneous. This can lead to strong artifacts in the reconstructed images when there are significant variations in sound speed or density. Air voids represent a particular challenge due to the severity of the differences between the acoustic properties of air and water. In whole-body small animal imaging, the presence of air voids in the lungs, stomach, and gastrointestinal system can limit image quality over large regions of the object. Iterative reconstruction methods based on the photoacoustic wave equation can account for these acoustic variations, leading to improved resolution, improved contrast, and a reduction in the number of imaging artifacts. However, the strong acoustic heterogeneities can lead to instability or errors in the numerical wave solver. Here, the impact of air voids on PACT image reconstruction is investigated, and procedures for their compensation are proposed. The contributions of sound speed and density variations to the numerical stability of the wave solver are considered, and a novel approach for mitigating the impact of air voids while reducing the computational burden of image reconstruction is identified. These results are verified by application to an experimental phantom.

  19. Iterative image reconstruction and its role in cardiothoracic computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarabjeet; Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Pourjabbar, Sarvenaz; Padole, Atul; Lira, Diego; Kalra, Mannudeep K

    2013-11-01

    Revolutionary developments in multidetector-row computed tomography (CT) scanner technology offer several advantages for imaging of cardiothoracic disorders. As a result, expanding applications of CT now account for >85 million CT examinations annually in the United States alone. Given the large number of CT examinations performed, concerns over increase in population-based risk for radiation-induced carcinogenesis have made CT radiation dose a top safety concern in health care. In response to this concern, several technologies have been developed to reduce the dose with more efficient use of scan parameters and the use of "newer" image reconstruction techniques. Although iterative image reconstruction algorithms were first introduced in the 1970s, filtered back projection was chosen as the conventional image reconstruction technique because of its simplicity and faster reconstruction times. With subsequent advances in computational speed and power, iterative reconstruction techniques have reemerged and have shown the potential of radiation dose optimization without adversely influencing diagnostic image quality. In this article, we review the basic principles of different iterative reconstruction algorithms and their implementation for various clinical applications in cardiothoracic CT examinations for reducing radiation dose.

  20. Computed tomography findings of hepatic veno-occlusive disease caused by Sedum aizoon with histopathological correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, H.; Chen, H. Z., E-mail: chenhz@enzemed.com; Zhu, J. S. [Department of Infectious Diseases, Taizhou Hospital Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical College, Linhai (China); Ruan, B. [State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Disease, the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou (China); Zhang, Z. Q. [Department of Infectious Disease, Xianju Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Xianju (China); Lin, X.; Gan, M. F. [Department of Infectious Diseases, Taizhou Hospital Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical College, Linhai (China)

    2015-11-23

    This study investigated the value of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis and treatment of hepatic veno-occlusive disease (HVOD) caused by Sedum aizoon (SA). The clinical manifestations, treatment results, imaging findings, and histological findings of the liver were analyzed in 39 patients with HVOD caused by SA. Hepatomegaly, liver dysfunction, abdominal effusion, and geographic density changes on liver CT scans were found in all 39 patients. The pathological findings of histological liver examination included swelling and point-like necrosis of liver cells, significant expansion and congestion of the sinuses, endothelial swelling, and wall thickening with incomplete lumen occlusion of small liver vessels. CT geographic density changes were confirmed by histological examination of the liver in 18 patients. Sixteen patients with small amounts of ascites that started within 4 weeks of treatment recovered completely or significantly improved after symptomatic and supportive treatment. However, only 43.75% of the patients with larger amounts of ascites improved following symptomatic and supportive treatment. In conclusion, liver CT examination is a valuable, safe, and noninvasive tool for the diagnosis of HVOD caused by SA. In selected cases, liver CT examination may replace liver biopsy and histological analysis.

  1. Computed tomography of diseases involving the iliopsoas compartment; Tomografia computadorizada das patologias acometendo o compartimento iliopsoas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montandon, Cristiano; Maeda, Lucimara; Bianchessi, Susana Trigo; Turi, Fabiano; Torriani, Martin [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: torr@unicamp.br

    2001-02-01

    Our aim is to review the most common pathologic processes involving the iliopsoas compartment. We retrospectively reviewed the computed tomography (CT) scans performed at the Radiology Dept. of the Medical Sciences Faculty from Universidade Estadual de Campinas, in the last 10 years, of patients who presented with abnormalities of the iliopsoas compartment that were confirmed by surgical or percutaneous biopsy. The most common findings involving the iliopsoas compartment included neoplasms, abscesses and hematomas. CT findings were based on the extension of the involvement of the psoas muscle, focal areas of low or high attenuation, lesion margins, presence of gas or calcification within the lesion, bone destruction, infiltration of of surrounding fat and involvement of adjacent abdominal structures. CT is the method of choice for the detection of iliopsoas disorders, and its findings can be used to guide diagnostic aspiration, biopsy or drainage, when appropriate. However, the efficacy of CT in differentiating iliopsoas disorders is low when scans are interpreted without knowledge of clinical history. (author)

  2. Spontaneous Acute Mesenteroaxial Gastric Volvulus Diagnosed by Computed Tomography Scan in a Young Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Gaby; Afifi, Ibrahim; Ellabib, Mohamed; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 23 Final Diagnosis: Acute spontaneous gastric volvulus Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Laparotomy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Acute gastric volvulus is a surgical emergency that requires early recognition and treatment. Acute idiopathic mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus is a rare sub-type and there are few cases reported in children and there are even fewer reports in adults. Case Report: We report a rare case of a 23-year-old man who presented with a 1-day history of vomiting, epigastric pain, distention, and constipation. The diagnosis for mesenteroaxial type gastric volvulus was confirmed by abdominal radiography and computed tomography. The patient was successfully treated by laparotomy with resection of the ischemic stomach wall and anastomosis. Acute spontaneous mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus is rare in adults and early diagnosis is challenging due to non-specific symptoms. A missed or delayed diagnosis may result in serious complications due to gastric obstruction. Conclusions: A patient presenting with severe epigastric pain and clinical evidence of gastric outlet obstruction should be considered as a surgical emergency to rule out gastric volvulus. High index of suspicion, early diagnosis and prompt surgical management are important for favorable outcome in patients with acute spontaneous gastric volvulus. PMID:27112797

  3. Fine focal spot size improves image quality in computed tomography abdomen and pelvis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Yin P.; Low, Keat; Kuganesan, Ahilan [Monash Health, Diagnostic Imaging Department, 246, Clayton Road, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Lau, Kenneth K. [Monash Health, Diagnostic Imaging Department, 246, Clayton Road, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Monash University, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Victoria (Australia); Buchan, Kevin [Philips Healthcare, Clinical Science, PO Box 312, Mont Albert, Victoria (Australia); Oh, Lawrence Chia Wei [Flinders Medical Centre, Division of Medical Imaging, Bedford Park South (Australia); Huynh, Minh [Swinburne University, Department of Statistics, Data Science and Epidemiology, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Arts and Design, Hawthorn (Australia)

    2016-12-15

    To compare the image quality between fine focal spot size (FFSS) and standard focal spot size (SFSS) in computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis (CTAP) This retrospective review included all consecutive adult patients undergoing contrast-enhanced CTAP between June and September 2014. Two blinded radiologists assessed the margin clarity of the abdominal viscera and the detected lesions using a five-point grading scale. Cohen's kappa test was used to examine the inter-observer reliability between the two reviewers for organ margin clarity. Mann-Whitney U testing was utilised to assess the statistical difference of the organ and lesion margin clarity. 100 consecutive CTAPs were recruited. 52 CTAPs were examined with SFSS of 1.1 x 1.2 mm and 48 CTAPs were examined with FFSS of 0.6 x 0.7 mm. Results showed that there was substantial agreement for organ margin clarity (mean κ = 0.759, p < 0.001) among the reviewers. FFSS produces images with clearer organ margins (U = 76194.0, p < 0.001, r = 0.523) and clearer lesion margins (U = 239, p = 0.052, r = 0.269). FFSS CTAP improves image quality in terms of better organ and lesion margin clarity. Fine focus CT scanning is a novel technique that may be applied in routine CTAP imaging. (orig.)

  4. Underdiagnosis of Vertebral Collapse on Routine Multidetector Computed Tomography Scan of the Abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obaid, H.; Husamaldin, Z.; Bhatt, R. (Doncaster Royal Infirmary, Doncaster (United Kingdom))

    2008-09-15

    Background: Vertebral fractures are commonly associated with osteoporosis and have significant morbidity and mortality rates. Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are presently considered as a treatable and preventable condition, and early detection is vital for further management. The evaluation of vertebral compression on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scans of the abdomen has, to our knowledge, not been reported before. Purpose: To assess the prevalence of vertebral collapse on routine abdominal CT scans, and to evaluate the usefulness of the multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) capability of MDCT scans in accurately identifying vertebral abnormalities such as vertebral collapse, spondylolisthesis, and retrolisthesis. Material and Methods: A retrospective review of 307 MDCT scans of the abdomen was carried out at a university teaching hospital. Identifiable patient information was anonymized for data protection. All images were reviewed on a picture archiving and communications system (PACS) using sagittal MPR and bone window for the assessment of the vertebrae. Data were collected from the Computerized Radiology Information System (CRIS). Results: Vertebral collapse was seen in 42 (13.6%) of the 307 patients undergoing routine MDCT of the abdomen. Multilevel and single-level collapses were seen in 24 and 18 patients, respectively. Spondylolisthesis was identified in 5.5% (n=17), and retrolisthesis was seen in 0.6% (n=2). All patients with vertebral fracture were older than 50 years. Women were more commonly affected than men. Conclusion: A significant number of patients with vertebral collapse were diagnosed using MPR on MDCT routine scans of the abdomen

  5. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous catheter drainage of primary and secondary iliopsoas abscesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantasdemir, M. E-mail: cantas1@yahoo.com; Kara, B.; Cebi, D.; Selcuk, N.D.; Numan, F

    2003-10-01

    AIM: To report our experience with computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) of iliopsoas abscesses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-two iliopsoas abscesses in 21 patients (11 women, 10 men) aged between 18 and 66 years (mean 36 years) were treated with PCD. Abdominal CT demonstrated the iliopsoas abscesses, which were definitively determined by Gram staining and aspirate cultures. Twenty of the 22 iliopsoas abscesses were primary and two were secondary. All PCD procedures were performed under local anaesthesia using a single-step trocar technique (n=19) or Seldinger technique (n=3). RESULTS: PCD was an effective treatment in 21 out of the 22 iliopsoas abscesses. Recurrence was seen in three abscesses as minimal residual collections. Two of them resolved spontaneously with anti-tuberculous regimen. One required percutaneous needle aspiration. The procedure failed in a diabetic patient with a secondary abscess, who died due to sepsis. The length of time that catheters remained in place ranged from 21 to 75 days (mean 59.7 days). Complications included catheter dislocation in four abscesses, which required removal of dislocated catheters and indwelling new ones. CONCLUSION: CT-guided PCD is a safe and effective front-line treatment of iliopsoas abscesses. Surgery should be reserved for failure of PCD and presence of contraindications to PCD.

  6. A Review of Computational Methods to Predict the Risk of Rupture of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejas Canchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational methods have played an important role in health care in recent years, as determining parameters that affect a certain medical condition is not possible in experimental conditions in many cases. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD methods have been used to accurately determine the nature of blood flow in the cardiovascular and nervous systems and air flow in the respiratory system, thereby giving the surgeon a diagnostic tool to plan treatment accordingly. Machine learning or data mining (MLD methods are currently used to develop models that learn from retrospective data to make a prediction regarding factors affecting the progression of a disease. These models have also been successful in incorporating factors such as patient history and occupation. MLD models can be used as a predictive tool to determine rupture potential in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA along with CFD-based prediction of parameters like wall shear stress and pressure distributions. A combination of these computer methods can be pivotal in bridging the gap between translational and outcomes research in medicine. This paper reviews the use of computational methods in the diagnosis and treatment of AAA.

  7. Diagnostic value of high resolutional computed tomography of spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S. M.; Im, S. K.; Sohn, M. H.; Lim, K. Y.; Kim, J. K.; Choi, K. C. [Jeonbug National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-03-15

    Non-enhanced high resolution computed tomography provide clear visualization of soft tissue in the canal and bony details of spine, particularly of the lumbar spine. We observed 70 cases of spine CT using GE CT/T 8800 scanner during the period from Dec. 1982 to Sep. 1983 at Jeonbug National University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. The sex distribution of cases were 55 males and 15 females : age was from 17 years to 67 years; sites were 11 cervical spine, 5 thoracic spine and 54 lumbosacral spine. 2. CT diagnosis showed 44 cases of lumbar disc herniation, 7 cases of degenerative disease, 3 cases of spine fracture and each 1 cases of cord tumor, metastatic tumor, spontaneous epidural hemorrhage, epidural abscess, spine tbc., meningocele with diastematomyelia. 3. Sites of herniated nucleus pulposus were 34 cases (59.6%) between L4-5 interspace and 20 cases (35.1%) between L5-S1 interspace. 13 cases (29.5%) of lumbar disc herniation disclosed multiple lesions. Location of herniation were central type in 28 cases(49.1%), right-central type in 12 cases(21.2%), left-central type in 11 cases (19.2%) and far lateral type in 6 cases(10.5%). 4. CT findings of herniated nucleus pulposus were as follows : focal protrusion of posterior disc margin and obliteration of anterior epidural fat in all cases, dural sac indentation in 26 cases(45.6%), soft tissue mass in epidural fat in 21 cases(36.8%), displacement or compression of nerve root sheath in 12 cases(21%). 5. Multiplanar reformatted images and Blink mode provide more effective evaluation about definite level and longitudinal dimension of lesion, such as obscure disc herniation, spine fracture, cord tumor and epidural abscess. 6. Non-enhanced and enhanced high resolutional computed tomography were effectively useful in demonstrating compression or displacement of spinal cord and nerve root, examing congenital anomaly such as meningocele and primary or metastatic spinal lesions.

  8. CASAD -- Computer-Aided Sonography of Abdominal Diseases - the concept of joint technique impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Deserno

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound image is the primary (input information for every ultrasonic examination. Since being used in ultrasound images analysis the both knowledge-base decision support and content-based image retrieval techniques have their own restrictions, the combination of these techniques looks promissory for covering the restrictions of one by advances of another. In this work we have focused on implementation of the proposed combination in the frame of CASAD (Computer-Aided Sonography of Abdominal Diseases system for supplying the ultrasound examiner with a diagnostic-assistant tool based on a data warehouse of standard referenced images. This warehouse serves: to manifest the diagnosis when the ecographist specifies the pathology and then looks through corresponding images to verify his opinion; to suggest a second opinion by automatic analysis of the annotation of relevant images that were assessed from the repository using content-based image retrieval.

  9. Computer-aided classification of lung nodules on computed tomography images via deep learning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Kai-Lung; Hsu, Che-Hao; Hidayati, Shintami Chusnul; Cheng, Wen-Huang; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer has a poor prognosis when not diagnosed early and unresectable lesions are present. The management of small lung nodules noted on computed tomography scan is controversial due to uncertain tumor characteristics. A conventional computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme requires several image processing and pattern recognition steps to accomplish a quantitative tumor differentiation result. In such an ad hoc image analysis pipeline, every step depends heavily on the performance of the previous step. Accordingly, tuning of classification performance in a conventional CAD scheme is very complicated and arduous. Deep learning techniques, on the other hand, have the intrinsic advantage of an automatic exploitation feature and tuning of performance in a seamless fashion. In this study, we attempted to simplify the image analysis pipeline of conventional CAD with deep learning techniques. Specifically, we introduced models of a deep belief network and a convolutional neural network in the context of nodule classification in computed tomography images. Two baseline methods with feature computing steps were implemented for comparison. The experimental results suggest that deep learning methods could achieve better discriminative results and hold promise in the CAD application domain.

  10. Hepatic angiomyolipoma: Dynamic computed tomography features and clinical correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Yang; Wen-Hui Chen; Qiao-Yun Li; Jing-Jing Xiang; Ru-Jun Xu

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To study the dynamic computed tomography (CT) features of hepatic angiomyolipoma (AML) in patients with or without tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). METHODS: The clinical information, CT findings and histopathological results of hepatic AML were analyzed retrospectively in 10 patients. RESULTS: Hepatic AML was prone to occur in female patients (7/10), and most of the patients (8/10) had no specific symptoms. All tumors presented as welldefined, unenveloped nodules in the liver. Six patients with sporadic hepatic AML had a solitary hepatic nodule with a definite fat component. Non-fat components of the hepatic lesions were enhanced earlier and persistently. Prominent central vessels were noted in the portal venous phase in three patients. In four patients with hepatic AML and TSC, most of the nodules were within the peripheral liver. Seven fatdeficient nodules were found with earlier contrast enhancement and rapid contrast material washout in two patients. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis was found in one patient.CONCLUSION: Imaging features of hepatic AML are characteristic. Correct diagnosis preoperatively can be made in combination with clinical features.

  11. X-ray computed tomography for additive manufacturing: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A.; Maskery, I.; Leach, R. K.

    2016-07-01

    In this review, the use of x-ray computed tomography (XCT) is examined, identifying the requirement for volumetric dimensional measurements in industrial verification of additively manufactured (AM) parts. The XCT technology and AM processes are summarised, and their historical use is documented. The use of XCT and AM as tools for medical reverse engineering is discussed, and the transition of XCT from a tool used solely for imaging to a vital metrological instrument is documented. The current states of the combined technologies are then examined in detail, separated into porosity measurements and general dimensional measurements. In the conclusions of this review, the limitation of resolution on improvement of porosity measurements and the lack of research regarding the measurement of surface texture are identified as the primary barriers to ongoing adoption of XCT in AM. The limitations of both AM and XCT regarding slow speeds and high costs, when compared to other manufacturing and measurement techniques, are also noted as general barriers to continued adoption of XCT and AM.

  12. Thyroid lymphography-computed tomography (TLG-CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Koukichi (Kansai Medical Univ., Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan))

    1992-10-01

    There are several useful diagnostic examinations for thyroid disease. The diagnostic value of CT in thyroid disease is still controvertial, although CT has become a routine clinical examination, since the plain CT does not always identify tumors accurately. In this paper, we introduce for the first time thyroid lymphography-computed tomography (TLG-CT) which may improve the diagnostic value of CT. The technique combines CT with thyroid lymphography. We performed TLG-CT in 92 patients with various thyroid diseases and 20 normal controls and classified the radiological features into the following 6 types: entire (normal thyroid); moth-eaten (Hashimoto's thyroiditis); defect (follicular adenoma and adenomatous goiter); lobate (papillary carcinoma); localized (various thyroid diseases); and extrathyroid defect (parathyroid tumor). In addition, we examined the relationship between TLG-CT type and the macroscopic appearance of the cut surface of the thyroid and lymph node metastasis in 20 patients with papillary carcinoma. The results suggest that papillary TLG-CT type carcinomas have a high incidence of lymph node metastasis. Our preliminary results suggest that TLG-CT is a potentially valuable diagnostic tool in the detection of thyroid disease and the assessment of the pathologic diagnosis as well as lymph node metastasis. (author).

  13. Evaluation of myocardial bridging by coronary computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Marcio Vinicius Lins; Rabelo, Daniel Rocha; Siqueira, Maria Helena Albernaz, E-mail: marciovlbarros@uol.com.br [Hospital Mater Dei, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Garretto, Luiza Samarane; Paula, Marcela Mascarenhas De; Carvalho, Marina Oliveira; Alves, Marina Rangel Moreira Barros [Faculdade de Saude e Ecologia Humana (FASEH), Vespasiano, MG (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    The myocardial bridge (MB) is defined as a segment of an epicardial coronary artery that has an intramural course in the myocardium. Although MB is clinically silent in most cases, has been associated with myocardial ischemia, arrhythmias and sudden death. Coronary conventional angiography is the gold standard for detection of MB, but is invasive and cannot be sufficiently sensitive compared to autopsy studies. Recently, multislice computed tomography of coronary arteries (MCTCA) has allowed the detection of coronary artery course, including PM. Objectives: to evaluate MB prevalence in patients with suspected coronary artery disease undergoing MCTCA and to evaluate the predictive value of this method at medium term. Methods: during the period 2008 to 2011, 498 consecutive patients were examined by TMC for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, being conducted to evaluate the presence of BM and followed for a mean follow-up of 23 months for the occurrence of cardiovascular hard events (death, hospitalization or revascularization). Results: patients mean age was 55.3 ± 14.2, being male 71.1%. Among the patients, 7.6% (38 patients) showed MB. Main findings included angina pectoris in 40% and a positive stress test in 34%. 34.2% had atherosclerotic disease, and one patient had significant coronary stenosis. During follow-up, no patients showed adverse events. Conclusion: MCTCA is a noninvasive technique with high accuracy in anatomical evaluation of the coronary arteries and may be particularly useful to assess the incidence, location and morphology of myocardial bridging in vivo. (author)

  14. Reproducibility of aortic annulus measurements by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuhbaeck, Annika; Achenbach, Stephan [University of Erlangen, Department of Cardiology, Erlangen (Germany); University of Giessen, Department of Cardiology, Giessen (Germany); Pflederer, Tobias; Marwan, Mohamed; Schmid, Jasmin; Arnold, Martin [University of Erlangen, Department of Cardiology, Erlangen (Germany); Nef, Holger; Rixe, Johannes; Hecker, Franziska [University of Giessen, Department of Cardiology, Giessen (Germany); Schneider, Christian [University of Giessen, Department of Radiology, Giessen (Germany); Lell, Michael; Uder, Michael [University of Erlangen, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    To evaluate a systematic approach for measurement of aortic annulus dimensions by cardiac computed tomography. CT data sets of 64 patients were evaluated. An oblique cross-section aligned with the aortic root was created by systematically identifying the caudal insertion points of the three aortic cusps and sequentially aligning them in a double oblique plane. Aortic annulus dimensions, distances of coronary ostia and a suitable fluoroscopic projection angle were independently determined by two observers. Interobserver intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for aortic annulus diameters were excellent (ICC 0.89-0.93). Agreement for prosthesis size selection was excellent (k = 0.86 for mean, k = 0.84 for area-derived and k = 0.91 for circumference-derived diameter). Mean distances of the left/right coronary ostium were 13.4 ± 2.4/14.4 ± 2.8 mm for observer 1 and 13.2 ± 2.7/13.5 ± 3.2 mm for observer 2 (p = 0.30 and p = 0.0001, respectively; ICC 0.76/0.77 for left/right coronary artery). A difference of less than 10 for fluoroscopic projection angle was achieved in 84.3 % of patients. A systematic approach to generate a double oblique imaging plane exactly aligned with the aortic annulus demonstrates high interobserver and intraobserver agreements for derived measurements which are not influenced by aortic root calcification. (orig.)

  15. Compressing industrial computed tomography images by means of contour coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haina; Zeng, Li

    2013-10-01

    An improved method for compressing industrial computed tomography (CT) images is presented. To have higher resolution and precision, the amount of industrial CT data has become larger and larger. Considering that industrial CT images are approximately piece-wise constant, we develop a compression method based on contour coding. The traditional contour-based method for compressing gray images usually needs two steps. The first is contour extraction and then compression, which is negative for compression efficiency. So we merge the Freeman encoding idea into an improved method for two-dimensional contours extraction (2-D-IMCE) to improve the compression efficiency. By exploiting the continuity and logical linking, preliminary contour codes are directly obtained simultaneously with the contour extraction. By that, the two steps of the traditional contour-based compression method are simplified into only one. Finally, Huffman coding is employed to further losslessly compress preliminary contour codes. Experimental results show that this method can obtain a good compression ratio as well as keeping satisfactory quality of compressed images.

  16. Dual-energy computed tomography for gout diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbeth, Nicola; Choi, Hyon K

    2013-01-01

    The central feature of gout is deposition of monosodium urate crystals. Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is a recently developed advanced imaging method that enables visualisation of urate deposits by analysis of the chemical composition of the scanned materials. This review summarises recent research describing the use of DECT in gout management. This technology may assist in both diagnosis and monitoring of the disease. Studies of patients with established disease indicate diagnostic accuracy for gout is high. Excellent inter-reader agreement has been reported for detection of urate deposits by use of DECT. Automated volume assessment software also enables rapid and reproducible measurement of urate deposits within tophi, suggesting that this modality may be useful for monitoring the disease. Although several case reports indicate DECT can be used to reveal reduction in the size of urate deposits, the sensitivity to change in response to urate-lowering therapy has not yet been systematically reported. DECT images reveal variable urate deposition within tophi of the same physical size. The ability to visualise urate deposits in tissue may provide new insights into the pathology and mechanisms of gout.

  17. Computed tomography perfusion imaging denoising using Gaussian process regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan; Carpenter, Trevor; Rodriguez Gonzalez, David; Atkinson, Malcolm; Wardlaw, Joanna

    2012-06-01

    Brain perfusion weighted images acquired using dynamic contrast studies have an important clinical role in acute stroke diagnosis and treatment decisions. However, computed tomography (CT) images suffer from low contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) as a consequence of the limitation of the exposure to radiation of the patient. As a consequence, the developments of methods for improving the CNR are valuable. The majority of existing approaches for denoising CT images are optimized for 3D (spatial) information, including spatial decimation (spatially weighted mean filters) and techniques based on wavelet and curvelet transforms. However, perfusion imaging data is 4D as it also contains temporal information. Our approach using Gaussian process regression (GPR), which takes advantage of the temporal information, to reduce the noise level. Over the entire image, GPR gains a 99% CNR improvement over the raw images and also improves the quality of haemodynamic maps allowing a better identification of edges and detailed information. At the level of individual voxel, GPR provides a stable baseline, helps us to identify key parameters from tissue time-concentration curves and reduces the oscillations in the curve. GPR is superior to the comparable techniques used in this study.

  18. Quantitative Computed Tomography and image analysis for advanced muscle assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Joseph Edmunds

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging is of particular interest in the field of translational myology, as extant literature describes the utilization of a wide variety of techniques to non-invasively recapitulate and quantity various internal and external tissue morphologies. In the clinical context, medical imaging remains a vital tool for diagnostics and investigative assessment. This review outlines the results from several investigations on the use of computed tomography (CT and image analysis techniques to assess muscle conditions and degenerative process due to aging or pathological conditions. Herein, we detail the acquisition of spiral CT images and the use of advanced image analysis tools to characterize muscles in 2D and 3D. Results from these studies recapitulate changes in tissue composition within muscles, as visualized by the association of tissue types to specified Hounsfield Unit (HU values for fat, loose connective tissue or atrophic muscle, and normal muscle, including fascia and tendon. We show how results from these analyses can be presented as both average HU values and compositions with respect to total muscle volumes, demonstrating the reliability of these tools to monitor, assess and characterize muscle degeneration.

  19. A framework of modeling detector systems for computed tomography simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, H.; Kim, D.; Kim, S. H.; Kam, S.; Jeon, H.; Nam, J.; Kim, H. K.

    2016-01-01

    Ultimate development in computed tomography (CT) technology may be a system that can provide images with excellent lesion conspicuity with the patient dose as low as possible. Imaging simulation tools have been cost-effectively used for these developments and will continue. For a more accurate and realistic imaging simulation, the signal and noise propagation through a CT detector system has been modeled in this study using the cascaded linear-systems theory. The simulation results are validated in comparisons with the measured results using a laboratory flat-panel micro-CT system. Although the image noise obtained from the simulations at higher exposures is slightly smaller than that obtained from the measurements, the difference between them is reasonably acceptable. According to the simulation results for various exposure levels and additive electronic noise levels, x-ray quantum noise is more dominant than the additive electronic noise. The framework of modeling a CT detector system suggested in this study will be helpful for the development of an accurate and realistic projection simulation model.

  20. Necrotic stercoral colitis: Importance of computed tomography findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Hsien Wu; Li-Jen Wang; Yon-Cheong Wong; Chen-Chih Huang; Chien-Cheng Chen; Chao-Jan Wang; Jen-Feng Fang; Chuen Hsueh

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To study the computed tomography (CT) signs in facilitating early diagnosis of necrotic stercoral colitis(NSC).METHODS: Ten patients with surgically and pathologically confirmed NSC were recruited from the Clinico-Pathologic-Radiologic conference at Chang Gung MemorialHospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan. Their CT images and medical records were reviewed retrospectively to correlate CT findings with clinical presentation.RESULTS: All these ten elderly patients with a mean age of 77.1 years presented with acute abdomen at our Emergency Room. Nine of them were with systemic medmedical disease and 8 with chronic constipation. Seven were with leukocytosis, two with low-grade fever, two with peritoneal sign, and three with hypotensive shock. Only one patient was with radiographic detected abnormal gas. Except the crux of fecal impaction, the frequency of the CT signs of NSC were, proximal colon dilatation (20%),colon wall thickening (60%), dense mucosa (62.5%),mucosal sloughing (10%), perfusion defect (70%),pericolonic stranding (80%), abnormal gas (50%) with pneumo-mesocolon (40%) in them, pericolonic abscess(20%). The most sensitive signs in decreasing order were pericolonic stranding, perfusion defect, dense mucosal,detecting about 80%, 70%, and 62.5% of the cases, respectively.CONCLUSION: Awareness of NSC and familiarity with the CT diagnostic signs enable the differential diagnosis between NSC and benign stool impaction.