WorldWideScience

Sample records for abdominal clutter reduction

  1. Cluttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they do have a significant speech problem. Also, motivation is a key element; they have good reason ... entirely to cluttering containing an annotated bibliography, case studies, research investigations, and commentaries by several well-known ...

  2. Mine detection using SF-GPR: A signal processing approach for resolution enhancement and clutter reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Brian; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne; Larsen, Jan;

    2001-01-01

    Proper clutter reduction is essential for Ground Penetrating Radar data since low signal-to-clutter ratio prevent correct detection of mine objects. A signal processing approach for resolution enhancement and clutter reduction used on Stepped-Frequency Ground Penetrating Radar (SF-GPR) data...... is presented, and the effects of combining clutter reduction with resolution enhancement are examined using simulated SF-GPR data examples. The resolution enhancement method is based on methods from optical signal processing and is largely carried out in the frequency domain to reduce the computational burden....... The clutter reduction method is based on basis function decomposition of the SF-GPR time-series from which the clutter and the signal are separated....

  3. A model and regularization scheme for ultrasonic beamforming clutter reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byram, Brett; Dei, Kazuyuki; Tierney, Jaime; Dumont, Douglas

    2015-11-01

    Acoustic clutter produced by off-axis and multipath scattering is known to cause image degradation, and in some cases these sources may be the prime determinants of in vivo image quality. We have previously shown some success addressing these sources of image degradation by modeling the aperture domain signal from different sources of clutter, and then decomposing aperture domain data using the modeled sources. Our previous model had some shortcomings including model mismatch and failure to recover B-Mode speckle statistics. These shortcomings are addressed here by developing a better model and by using a general regularization approach appropriate for the model and data. We present results with L1 (lasso), L2 (ridge), and L1/L2 combined (elastic-net) regularization methods. We call our new method aperture domain model image reconstruction (ADMIRE). Our results demonstrate that ADMIRE with L1 regularization, or weighted toward L1 in the case of elastic-net regularization, have improved image quality. L1 by itself works well, but additional improvements are seen with elastic-net regularization over the pure L1 constraint. On in vivo example cases, L1 regularization showed mean contrast improvements of 4.6 and 6.8 dB on fundamental and harmonic images, respectively. Elastic net regularization (α = 0.9) showed mean contrast improvements of 17.8 dB on fundamental images and 11.8 dB on harmonic images. We also demonstrate that in uncluttered Field II simulations the decluttering algorithm produces the same contrast, contrast-tonoise ratio, and speckle SNR as normal B-mode imaging, demonstrating that ADMIRE preserves typical image features.

  4. Clutter Reduction Based on Principal Component Analysis Technique for Hidden Objects Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kabourek

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings a brief overview of the statistical method called Principal Component Analysis (PCA. It is used for clutter reduction in detection of hidden objects, targets hidden behind walls, buried landmines, etc. Since the measured data, imaged in time domain, suffer from the hyperbolic character of objects’ reflections, utilization of the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR method is briefly described. Besides, the mathematical basics of PCA as well as its comparison with Singular Value Decomposition are presented. The principles of ground and clutter subtraction from image are then demonstrated using training data set and SAR processed measured data.

  5. Demonstration of clutter reduction and aircraft detection in multispectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Lawrence E.; Winter, Edwin M.

    1992-08-01

    The DARPA multi-spectral infrared camera (MUSIC) was used for a series of experiments in Australia and Maui, Hawaii in 1991. The Maui experiments, conducted from a high mountain, concentrated on the detection of aircraft. The detection of air vehicles without the use of temporal motion (such as the case of a head-on approaching air vehicle) is a challenging problem when background clutter is present. The technique investigated was not dependent upon either the angular motion or the spectral signature of the aircraft. This approach exploits the differential transmission of the atmosphere in neighboring long wave infrared bands. This differential transmission between the target and background `colors' the background relative to the target and allows its removal. This technique was demonstrated on many examples of MUSIC data collected in Maui, Hawaii. Targets approaching the sensor head-on were successfully detected against clouds and other backgrounds using spectral along with spatial techniques. Several different algorithms were investigated and results are compared.

  6. Comparison of PCA and ICA based clutter reduction in GPR systems for anti-personal landmine detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Brian; Larsen, Jan; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing;

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents statistical signal processing approaches for clutter reduction in stepped-frequency ground penetrating radar (SF-GPR) data. In particular, we suggest clutter/signal separation techniques based on principal and independent component analysis (PCA/ICA). The approaches are succes...

  7. Clutter Reduction Based on Principal Component Analysis Technique for Hidden Objects Detection

    OpenAIRE

    V. Kabourek; P. Cerny; Mazanek, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper brings a brief overview of the statistical method called Principal Component Analysis (PCA). It is used for clutter reduction in detection of hidden objects, targets hidden behind walls, buried landmines, etc. Since the measured data, imaged in time domain, suffer from the hyperbolic character of objects’ reflections, utilization of the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) method is briefly described. Besides, the mathematical basics of PCA as well as its comparison with Singular Value D...

  8. Photoacoustic clutter reduction by inversion of a linear scatter model using plane wave ultrasound measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Hans-Martin; Beckmann, Martin F.; Schmitz, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging aims to visualize light absorption properties of biological tissue by receiving a sound wave that is generated inside the observed object as a result of the photoacoustic effect. In clinical applications, the strong light absorption in human skin is a major problem. When high amplitude photoacoustic waves that originate from skin absorption propagate into the tissue, they are reflected back by acoustical scatterers and the reflections contribute to the received signal. The artifacts associated with these reflected waves are referred to as clutter or skin echo and limit the applicability of photoacoustic imaging for medical applications severely. This study seeks to exploit the acoustic tissue information gained by plane wave ultrasound measurements with a linear array in order to correct for reflections in the photoacoustic image. By deriving a theory for clutter waves in k-space and a matching inversion approach, photoacoustic measurements compensated for clutter are shown to be recovered. PMID:27446669

  9. Photoacoustic clutter reduction by inversion of a linear scatter model using plane wave ultrasound measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Hans-Martin; Beckmann, Martin F; Schmitz, Georg

    2016-04-01

    Photoacoustic imaging aims to visualize light absorption properties of biological tissue by receiving a sound wave that is generated inside the observed object as a result of the photoacoustic effect. In clinical applications, the strong light absorption in human skin is a major problem. When high amplitude photoacoustic waves that originate from skin absorption propagate into the tissue, they are reflected back by acoustical scatterers and the reflections contribute to the received signal. The artifacts associated with these reflected waves are referred to as clutter or skin echo and limit the applicability of photoacoustic imaging for medical applications severely. This study seeks to exploit the acoustic tissue information gained by plane wave ultrasound measurements with a linear array in order to correct for reflections in the photoacoustic image. By deriving a theory for clutter waves in k-space and a matching inversion approach, photoacoustic measurements compensated for clutter are shown to be recovered.

  10. Negative pressure device for intra-abdominal pressure reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, M; Geido, D; Pracca, F; Sanchez, G; Simini, F; Zoppolo, C [Nucleo de Ingenierfa Biomedica, Universidad de la Republica O. del Uruguay, Hospital de ClInicas, Av. Italia S/N, 11600, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2007-11-15

    A device that generates negative extra-abdominal pressure (ABDOPRE) for treatment of patients with high intra-abdominal pressure was developed. It includes pressure sensors for transducing intra-abdominal pressure through an intra-vesical catheter and negative pressure in the vacuum bell which is placed over the abdomen. By means of a control system, a pattern for reducing IAP is set, according to a clinical protocol. The external negative pressure is generated using a vacuum pump connected to the bell. The system registers the values of interest for the medical history. The system is being tested over ICU patients, registering a satisfactory IAP reduction.

  11. The reverse abdominal reduction and the 'waistcoating' procedure for the correction of the fixated Pfannenstiel incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Douglas H

    2016-05-01

    The principles of a standard abdominal reduction are well understood; this technique has been used for many years. However, a reverse abdominal reduction may be considered in some cases, for example, continued weight loss, and thus skin redundancy on the upper abdomen in patients who have already undergone abdominal reduction and upper abdomen improvement in patients requiring a mastopexy or breast reduction simultaneously. Reverse abdominal reduction is rarely mentioned in the medical literature, but it can prove successful; although the scar across the lower sternum has often been considered to be unsatisfactory, often it does not prove to be so. Thus, this procedure can be proven to be successful in suitable cases. Secondly, the Pfannenstiel incision, if not satisfactorily repaired in the first instance, can become fixated to the abdominal wall; this fixation along with the inevitable migration of skin and fat at its cephalic edge causes a rather displeasing contour defect when wearing tight-fitting swimwear. The principle of the waistcoating procedure is essentially to chamfer the fat cephalically; this procedure is employed for removing the Pfannenstiel scar from the abdominal wall. The principle is simple and effective and can be applied in cases with fixated scars. These two aforementioned principles are not commonly used, but they can prove particularly effective in suitable cases. We illustrate the principles.

  12. Abdominal Respiration Induces Hemodilution and Related Reduction in ADH Concentration of Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Yoshiko; Ajima, Kumiko; Nagai, Takashi; Yokoyama, Yumiko; Kaidoh, Maki; Seto, Emi; Honda, Takayuki; Ohhashi, Toshio

    2015-09-01

    To establish effective lymph drainage methods and develop concise and accurate clinical techniques for evaluating lymph drainage in healthy individuals and patients with cancer treatment-related lymph edema, we investigated the numbers of red (RBC) and white (WBC) blood cells, and platelets (PLT) in blood, hematocrit (Ht), and the blood concentrations of total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), and anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) before and after 5 min manual lymph drainage, followed by 30 min rest with or without abdominal respiration in the supine or sitting position in 48 healthy volunteers. The 5 min facial, upper and lower extremities lymph drainage, followed by 30 min rest in the supine position induced significant reductions of the TP and Alb in all subjects, and their RBC and Ht levels in some subjects. The 30 min rest only in the supine position without lymph drainage produced also significant reductions of blood TP and Alb. In addition, abdominal respiration in the supine position without manual lymph drainage caused more significant hemodilution, being significant reductions of TP, Alb, RBC, Ht, and ADH in all volunteers. These findings may be related to effective lymph drainage from the chylocyst. Furthermore, it also resulted in a significantly increased micturition desire. In conclusion, abdominal respiration during 30 min rest in the supine position is effective at inducing lymph drainage, and the associated induction of hemodilution and lowering of the blood ADH concentration (and increased micturition desire in some cases) can be used to accurately assess the extent of lymph drainage.

  13. Dose reduction in pediatric abdominal CT: use of iterative reconstruction techniques across different CT platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Singh, Sarabjeet; Otrakji, Alexi; Padole, Atul; Lim, Ruth; Nimkin, Katherine; Westra, Sjirk; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Gee, Michael S. [MGH Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Dose reduction in children undergoing CT scanning is an important priority for the radiology community and public at large. Drawbacks of radiation reduction are increased image noise and artifacts, which can affect image interpretation. Iterative reconstruction techniques have been developed to reduce noise and artifacts from reduced-dose CT examinations, although reconstruction algorithm, magnitude of dose reduction and effects on image quality vary. We review the reconstruction principles, radiation dose potential and effects on image quality of several iterative reconstruction techniques commonly used in clinical settings, including 3-D adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR-3D), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), iDose, sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). We also discuss clinical applications of iterative reconstruction techniques in pediatric abdominal CT. (orig.)

  14. Detection of Weather Radar Clutter

    OpenAIRE

    Bøvith, Thomas; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    Weather radars provide valuable information on precipitation in the atmosphere but due to the way radars work, not only precipitation is observed by the weather radar. Weather radar clutter, echoes from non-precipitating targets, occur frequently in the data, resulting in lowered data quality. Especially in the application of weather radar data in quantitative precipitation estimation and forecasting a high data quality is important. Clutter detection is one of the key components in achieving...

  15. Detection of Weather Radar Clutter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøvith, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Weather radars provide valuable information on precipitation in the atmosphere but due to the way radars work, not only precipitation is observed by the weather radar. Weather radar clutter, echoes from non-precipitating targets, occur frequently in the data, resulting in lowered data quality...

  16. Respiratory motion reduction in PET/CT using abdominal compression for lung cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzung-Chi Huang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Respiratory motion causes substantial artifacts in reconstructed PET images when using helical CT as the attenuation map in PET/CT imaging. In this study, we aimed to reduce the respiratory artifacts in PET/CT images of patients with lung tumors using an abdominal compression device. METHODS: Twelve patients with lung cancer located in the middle or lower lobe of the lung were recruited. The patients were injected with 370 MBq of 18F-FDG. During PET, the patients assumed two bed positions for 1.5 min/bed. After conducting free-breathing imaging, we obtained images of the patients with abdominal compression by applying the same setup used in the free-breathing scan. The differences in the standardized uptake value (SUVmax, SUVmean, tumor volume, and the centroid of the tumors between PET and various CT schemes were measured. RESULTS: The SUVmax and SUVmean derived from PET/CT imaging using an abdominal compression device increased for all the lesions, compared with those obtained using the conventional approach. The percentage increases were 18.1% ±14% and 17% ±16.8% for SUVmax and SUVmean, respectively. PET/CT imaging combined with abdominal compression generally reduced the tumor mismatch between CT and the corresponding attenuation corrected PET images, with an average decrease of 1.9±1.7 mm over all the cases. CONCLUSIONS: PET/CT imaging combined with abdominal compression reduces respiratory artifacts and PET/CT misregistration, and enhances quantitative SUV in tumor. Abdominal compression is easy to set up and is an effective method used in PET/CT imaging for clinical oncology, especially in the thoracic region.

  17. Effects of a multidisciplinary body weight reduction program on static and dynamic thoraco-abdominal volumes in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoMauro, Antonella; Cesareo, Ambra; Agosti, Fiorenza; Tringali, Gabriella; Salvadego, Desy; Grassi, Bruno; Sartorio, Alessandro; Aliverti, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize static and dynamic thoraco-abdominal volumes in obese adolescents and to test the effects of a 3-week multidisciplinary body weight reduction program (MBWRP), entailing an energy-restricted diet, psychological and nutritional counseling, aerobic physical activity, and respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET), on these parameters. Total chest wall (VCW), pulmonary rib cage (VRC,p), abdominal rib cage (VRC,a), and abdominal (VAB) volumes were measured on 11 male adolescents (Tanner stage: 3-5; BMI standard deviation score: >2; age: 15.9 ± 1.3 years; percent body fat: 38.4%) during rest, inspiratory capacity (IC) maneuver, and incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer at baseline and after 3 weeks of MBWRP. At baseline, the progressive increase in tidal volume was achieved by an increase in end-inspiratory VCW (p hyperinflating VRC,a (p hyperinflation was delayed and associated with 15% increased performance and reduced dyspnea at high workloads (p hyperinflation as a form of lung recruitment during incremental cycle exercise. Additionally, a short period of MBWRP including RMET is associated with improved exercise performance, lung and chest wall volume recruitment, unloading of respiratory muscles, and reduced dyspnea. PMID:27175804

  18. Clutter Moves in Old Age Homecare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This chapter introduces the notion of clutter moves as an experimental heuristic for tracing how movement threads together a range of cluttered entities in old age homecare ecologies. In particular it is concerned with older people and their cluttered technologies. It is based on empirical data...... originating from an ethnographic study of old age homecare in the United States. Here the category of home clutter was revealed as more complex than it is commonly portrayed in popular or scholarly accounts, especially gerontology and geriatric–related literature on falling risks. This literature frequently...... not always readily apparent. The chapter ends with reflections on the notion of clutter technology to extend the heuristic of clutter moves. This is offered to help to rethink new technologies in relation to old age homecare ecologies....

  19. Dynamic Singularity Spectrum Distribution of Sea Clutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Gang; Yu, Wenxian; Zhang, Shuning

    2015-12-01

    The fractal and multifractal theory have provided new approaches for radar signal processing and target-detecting under the background of ocean. However, the related research mainly focuses on fractal dimension or multifractal spectrum (MFS) of sea clutter. In this paper, a new dynamic singularity analysis method of sea clutter using MFS distribution is developed, based on moving detrending analysis (DMA-MFSD). Theoretically, we introduce the time information by using cyclic auto-correlation of sea clutter. For transient correlation series, the instantaneous singularity spectrum based on multifractal detrending moving analysis (MF-DMA) algorithm is calculated, and the dynamic singularity spectrum distribution of sea clutter is acquired. In addition, we analyze the time-varying singularity exponent ranges and maximum position function in DMA-MFSD of sea clutter. For the real sea clutter data, we analyze the dynamic singularity spectrum distribution of real sea clutter in level III sea state, and conclude that the radar sea clutter has the non-stationary and time-varying scale characteristic and represents the time-varying singularity spectrum distribution based on the proposed DMA-MFSD method. The DMA-MFSD will also provide reference for nonlinear dynamics and multifractal signal processing.

  20. Subaperture clutter filter with CFAR signal detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormesher, Richard C.; Naething, Richard M.

    2016-08-30

    The various technologies presented herein relate to the determination of whether a received signal comprising radar clutter further comprises a communication signal. The communication signal can comprise of a preamble, a data symbol, communication data, etc. A first portion of the radar clutter is analyzed to determine a radar signature of the first portion of the radar clutter. A second portion of the radar clutter can be extracted based on the radar signature of the first portion. Following extraction, any residual signal can be analyzed to retrieve preamble data, etc. The received signal can be based upon a linear frequency modulation (e.g., a chirp modulation) whereby the chirp frequency can be determined and the frequency of transmission of the communication signal can be based accordingly thereon. The duration and/or bandwidth of the communication signal can be a portion of the duration and/or the bandwidth of the radar clutter.

  1. Clutter Management for Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kalina, J. Tamar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although there is substantial anecdotal evidence that clutter is common among people with multiple sclerosis (MS), the literature contains no reports of studies on the actual prevalence of the problem or its impact on functional performance in this population. Clutter promotes confusion and places individuals in potentially dangerous situations by increasing their risks of falling, losing medications, and misplacing important documents. In addition, it may negatively affect activi...

  2. Sea clutter scattering, the K distribution and radar performance

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Keith; Watts, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Sea Clutter: Scattering, the K Distribution and Radar Performance, 2nd Edition gives an authoritative account of our current understanding of radar sea clutter. Topics covered include the characteristics of radar sea clutter, modelling radar scattering by the ocean surface, statistical models of sea clutter, the simulation of clutter and other random processes, detection of small targets in sea clutter, imaging ocean surface features, radar detection performance calculations, CFAR detection, and the specification and measurement of radar performance. The calculation of the performance of pract

  3. Bumblebee flight performance in cluttered environments: effects of obstacle orientation, body size and acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crall, James D; Ravi, Sridhar; Mountcastle, Andrew M; Combes, Stacey A

    2015-09-01

    Locomotion through structurally complex environments is fundamental to the life history of most flying animals, and the costs associated with movement through clutter have important consequences for the ecology and evolution of volant taxa. However, few studies have directly investigated how flying animals navigate through cluttered environments, or examined which aspects of flight performance are most critical for this challenging task. Here, we examined how body size, acceleration and obstacle orientation affect the flight of bumblebees in an artificial, cluttered environment. Non-steady flight performance is often predicted to decrease with body size, as a result of a presumed reduction in acceleration capacity, but few empirical tests of this hypothesis have been performed in flying animals. We found that increased body size is associated with impaired flight performance (specifically transit time) in cluttered environments, but not with decreased peak accelerations. In addition, previous studies have shown that flying insects can produce higher accelerations along the lateral body axis, suggesting that if maneuvering is constrained by acceleration capacity, insects should perform better when maneuvering around objects laterally rather than vertically. Our data show that bumblebees do generate higher accelerations in the lateral direction, but we found no difference in their ability to pass through obstacle courses requiring lateral versus vertical maneuvering. In sum, our results suggest that acceleration capacity is not a primary determinant of flight performance in clutter, as is often assumed. Rather than being driven by the scaling of acceleration, we show that the reduced flight performance of larger bees in cluttered environments is driven by the allometry of both path sinuosity and mean flight speed. Specifically, differences in collision-avoidance behavior underlie much of the variation in flight performance across body size, with larger bees

  4. HF radar sea clutter rejection by nonlinear projections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Gongjian; Jin Yonggao; Dong Huachun; Quan Taifan

    2005-01-01

    In the background of signal detection for high frequency (HF) radar, the sea clutter is quite significant and can mask some weak target signals. A new clutter rejection method named "nonlinear projection" is given to improve the SNR of the target. This approach is based on the recent observation that HF sea clutter may be modeled as a nonlinear deterministic dynamical system. After approximating the multidimensional reconstruction of the clutter by a low-dimensional attractor, projections onto this attractor can separate the clutter from other components. Real sea clutter, simulated target data and real target data are used to show that a nonlinear clutter rejection method is a promising technique to suppress sea clutter and enhances target detection.

  5. 3D modeling of large targets and clutter utilizing Ka band monopulse SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Jerry A.; Barr, Doug; Shurtz, Ric; Channell, Rob

    2006-05-01

    The U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama have developed a dual mode, Ka Band Radar and IIR system for the purpose of data collection and tracker algorithm development. The system is comprised of modified MMW and IIR sensors and is mounted in a stabilized ball on a UH-1 helicopter operated by Redstone Technical Test Center. Several missile programs under development require MMW signatures of multiple target and clutter scenes. Traditionally these target signatures have been successfully collected using static radars and targets mounted on a turntable to produce models from ISAR images; clutter scenes have been homogeneously characterized using information on various classes of clutter. However, current and future radar systems require models of many targets too large for turntables, as well as high resolution 3D scattering characteristics of urban and other non-homogenous clutter scenes. In partnership with industry independent research and development (IRAD) activities the U.S. Army RDEC has developed a technique for generating 3D target and clutter models using SAR imaging in the MMW spectrum. The purpose of this presentation is to provide an overview of funded projects and resulting data products with an emphasis on MMW data reduction and analysis, especially the unique 3D modeling capabilities of the monopulse radar flying SAR profiles. Also, a discussion of lessons learned and planned improvements will be presented.

  6. Patterns of Brain Activation and Meal Reduction Induced by Abdominal Surgery in Mice and Modulation by Rikkunshito.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Wang

    Full Text Available Abdominal surgery inhibits food intake and induces c-Fos expression in the hypothalamic and medullary nuclei in rats. Rikkunshito (RKT, a Kampo medicine improves anorexia. We assessed the alterations in meal microstructure and c-Fos expression in brain nuclei induced by abdominal surgery and the modulation by RKT in mice. RKT or vehicle was gavaged daily for 1 week. On day 8 mice had no access to food for 6-7 h and were treated twice with RKT or vehicle. Abdominal surgery (laparotomy-cecum palpation was performed 1-2 h before the dark phase. The food intake and meal structures were monitored using an automated monitoring system for mice. Brain sections were processed for c-Fos immunoreactivity (ir 2-h after abdominal surgery. Abdominal surgery significantly reduced bouts, meal frequency, size and duration, and time spent on meals, and increased inter-meal interval and satiety ratio resulting in 92-86% suppression of food intake at 2-24 h post-surgery compared with control group (no surgery. RKT significantly increased bouts, meal duration and the cumulative 12-h food intake by 11%. Abdominal surgery increased c-Fos in the prelimbic, cingulate and insular cortexes, and autonomic nuclei, such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, central amygdala, hypothalamic supraoptic (SON, paraventricular and arcuate nuclei, Edinger-Westphal nucleus (E-W, lateral periaqueduct gray (PAG, lateral parabrachial nucleus, locus coeruleus, ventrolateral medulla and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS. RKT induced a small increase in c-Fos-ir neurons in the SON and E-W of control mice, and in mice with surgery there was an increase in the lateral PAG and a decrease in the NTS. These findings indicate that abdominal surgery inhibits food intake by increasing both satiation (meal duration and satiety (meal interval and activates brain circuits involved in pain, feeding behavior and stress that may underlie the alterations of meal pattern and food intake inhibition

  7. MODELING AND SIMULATION OF COMPOUND CLUTTER FOR COASTAL ENVIRONMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Bin; Wang Hongqiang; He Xiang; Guo Guirong

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel clutter power model of coastal compound and deduces the statistic characteristics and the arithmetics of model parameter estimation algorithm. Then, a novel coastal compound distributed model of the clutter amplitude is proposed and its statistic characteristics are studied. Subsequently, the nonlinear relation of autocorrelation function is deduced between the coastal compound clutter random sequences and the correlated Gaussian random sequences, which is the important prerequisite for the clutter simulation based on the ZMNL (Zero Memory NonLinearity). Lastly, the advantage of the algorithm is demonstrated by a feasible simulation of the generation of the random coastal compound clutter sequences.

  8. Comparison of diagnostic performance between single- and multiphasic contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic computed tomography in patients admitted to the emergency department with abdominal pain: potential radiation dose reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Shin Hye; You, Je Sung; Choi, Jin-Young; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Chung, Yong Eun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Mi Kyong [Yonsei University, Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate feasibility of radiation dose reduction by optimal phase selection of computed tomography (CT) in patients who visited the emergency department (ED) for abdominal pain. We included 253 patients who visited the ED for abdominal pain. They underwent multiphasic CT including precontrast, late arterial phase (LAP), and hepatic venous phase (HVP). Three image sets (HVP, precontrast + HVP, and precontrast + LAP + HVP) were reviewed. Two reviewers determined the most appropriate diagnosis with five-point confidence scale. Diagnostic performances were compared among image sets by weighted-least-squares method or DeLong's method. Linear mixed model was used to assess changes of diagnostic confidence and radiation dose. There was no difference in diagnostic performance among three image sets, although diagnostic confidence level was significantly improved after review of triphasic images compared with both HVP images only or HVP with precontrast images (confidence scale, 4.64 ± 0.05, 4.66 ± 0.05, and 4.76 ± 0.04 in the order of the sets; overall P = 0.0008). Similar trends were observed in the subgroup analysis for diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease and cholecystitis. There is no difference between HVP-CT alone and multiphasic CT for the diagnosis of causes of abdominal pain in patients admitted to the ED without prior chronic disease or neoplasia. (orig.)

  9. Abdominal Adhesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adhesions? Abdominal adhesions can cause intestinal obstruction and female infertility—the inability to become pregnant after a year of trying. Abdominal adhesions can lead to female infertility by preventing fertilized eggs from reaching the uterus, ...

  10. Wideband Radar Target Detection Theory in Coherent K Distributed Clutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiandong Meng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of neglecting K distributed clutter texture on wideband radar distributed targets detection. At first, the texture and the speckle of K clutter are researched and the Probability Density Function (PDF of K clutter and its texture are derived, then the optimal detector by Neyman-Pearson (NP is proposed, by contrast, another detector-Suboptimum Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test (GLRT neglecting the clutter texture is given. Next, the estimation of covariance matrix is introduced. Finally, the numerical results are presented by means of Monte Carlo simulation strategy and the simulation results highlight that the performance loss of the 2 detectors in different shaping parameter, the result shows that the performance loss of the detector in K distributed clutter less than 1 db due to the texture is neglected and adaptively estimating the covariance matrix and the K clutter texture can be neglected on wideband radar targets detection.

  11. Performance Analysis of Two CFAR Detectors in Clutter Edge Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the performance of the GOSGO and GOSSO CFAR detectors [1] in clutter edge situation. The authors derive the analytic expressions of the false alarm probabilities in that situation, analyze their performances against clutter edge, and compare them with the OS, CA, GO and SO detectors. The results show that GOSGO possesses better performance than GO for countering clutter, but the performance of GOSSO is very unideal.

  12. Application of phase coherent transform to cloud clutter suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, L.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    This paper describes a tracking algorithm using frame-to-frame correlation with frequency domain clutter suppression. Clutter suppression was mechanized via a `Phase Coherent Transform` (PCT) approach. This approach was applied to explore the feasibility of tracking a post-boost rocket from a low earth orbit satellite with real cloud background data. Simulation results show that the PCT/correlation tracking algorithm can perform satisfactorily at signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) as low as 5 or 7 dB.

  13. Classification of radar clutter using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haykin, S; Deng, C

    1991-01-01

    A classifier that incorporates both preprocessing and postprocessing procedures as well as a multilayer feedforward network (based on the back-propagation algorithm) in its design to distinguish between several major classes of radar returns including weather, birds, and aircraft is described. The classifier achieves an average classification accuracy of 89% on generalization for data collected during a single scan of the radar antenna. The procedures of feature selection for neural network training, the classifier design considerations, the learning algorithm development, the implementation, and the experimental results of the neural clutter classifier, which is simulated on a Warp systolic computer, are discussed. A comparative evaluation of the multilayer neural network with a traditional Bayes classifier is presented.

  14. Abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdominal injury is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. Ten percent of trauma-related deaths are due to abdominal injury. Thousands of children are involved in auto accidents annually; many suffer severe internal injury. Child abuse is a second less frequent but equally serious cause of internal abdominal injury. The descriptions of McCort and Eisenstein and their associates in the 1960s first brought to attention the frequency and severity of visceral injury as important manifestations of the child abuse syndrome. Blunt abdominal trauma often causes multiple injuries; in the past, many children have been subjected to exploratory surgery to evaluate the extent of possible hidden injury. Since the advent of noninvasive radiologic imaging techniques including radionuclide scans and ultrasound and, especially, computed tomography (CT), the radiologist has been better able to assess (accurately) the extent of abdominal injury and thus allow conservative therapy in many cases. Penetrating abdominal trauma occurs following gunshot wounds, stabbing, and other similar injury. This is fortunately, a relatively uncommon occurrence in most pediatric centers and will not be discussed specifically here, although many principles of blunt trauma diagnosis are valid for evaluation of penetrating abdominal trauma. If there is any question that a wound has extended intraperitonelly, a sinogram with water-soluble contrast material allows quick, accurate diagnosis. The presence of large amounts of free intraperitoneal gas suggests penetrating injury to the colon or other gas-containing viscus and is generally considered an indication for surgery

  15. Clutter in the GMTI range-velocity map.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2009-04-01

    Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar maps echo data to range and range-rate, which is a function of a moving target's velocity and its position within the antenna beam footprint. Even stationary clutter will exhibit an apparent motion spectrum and can interfere with moving vehicle detections. Consequently it is very important for a radar to understand how stationary clutter maps into radar measurements of range and velocity. This mapping depends on a wide variety of factors, including details of the radar motion, orientation, and the 3-D topography of the clutter.

  16. Maximum Likelihood Joint Tracking and Association in Strong Clutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid I. Perlovsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a maximum likelihood formulation for a joint detection, tracking and association problem. An efficient non‐combinatorial algorithm for this problem is developed in case of strong clutter for radar data. By using an iterative procedure of the dynamic logic process “from vague‐to‐crisp” explained in the paper, the new tracker overcomes the combinatorial complexity of tracking in highly‐cluttered scenarios and results in an orders‐of‐magnitude improvement in signal‐ to‐clutter ratio.

  17. Development of Abdominal Compression Belt and Evaluation of the Efficiency for the Reduction of Respiratory Motion in SBRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It's essential to minimize the tumor motion and identify the exact location of the lesions to achieve the improvement in radiation therapy efficiency during SBRT. In this study, we made the established compression belt to reduce respiratory motion and evaluated the usefulness of clinical application in SBRT. We analyzed the merits and demerits of the established compression belt to reduce the respiratory motion and improved the reproducibility and precision in use. To evaluate the usefulness of improved compression belt for respiratory motion reduction in SBRT, firstly, we reviewed the spiral CT images acquired in inspiration and expiration states of 8 lung cancer cases, respectively, and analyzed the three dimensional tumor motion related to respiration. To evaluate isodose distribution, secondly, we also made the special phantom using EBT2 film (Gafchronic, ISP, USA) and we prepared the robot (Cartesian Robot-2 Axis, FARARCM4H, Samsung Mechatronics, Korea) to reproduce three dimensional tumor motion. And analysis was made for isodose curves and two dimensional isodose profiles with reproducibility of respiratory motion on the basis of CT images. A respiratory motion reduction compression belt (Velcro type) that has convenient use and good reproducibility was developed. The moving differences of three dimensional tumor motion of lung cancer cases analyzed by CT images were mean 3.2 mm, 4.3 mm and 13 mm each in LR, AP and CC directions. The result of characteristic change in dose distribution using the phantom and rectangular coordinates robot showed that the distortion of isodose has great differences, mean length was 4.2 mm; the differences were 8.0% and 16.8% each for cranio-caudal and 8.1% and 10.9% each for left-right directions in underdose below the prescribed dose. In this study, we could develop the convenient and efficient compression belt that can make the organs' motion minimize. With this compression belt, we confirmed that underdose due to respiration

  18. Abdominal sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during sleep. They also occur normally for a short time after the use of certain medicines and after abdominal surgery. Decreased or absent bowel sounds often indicate constipation. Increased ( hyperactive ) bowel sounds ...

  19. Desk Congest Desktop Congesting Software for Desktop Clutter Congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon A. Adepoju

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The computer desktop environment is a working environment which can be likened unto a users desk in homes and offices. Often times the computer desktop get cluttered with files either as shortcuts used for quick links files stored temporarily to be accessed later or just being dumped there for no vivid reasons. However previous researches have shown that cluttered desktop affects users productivity and getting these files organized is a laborious task for most users. To be able to conveniently alleviate the effect clutters have on users performances and productivity there is need for third party software that will help get the desktop environment organized in a logical and efficient manner. It is to this end that desktop decongesting software is being designed and implemented to help curb clutter problems which existing tools have only partially addressed. The system is designed using Visual Basic .Net and it proves to be effective in tackling desktop congestion problem.

  20. Detecting weather radar clutter using satellite-based nowcasting products

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Thomas B. S.; Gill, Rashpal S.; Overgaard, Søren; Hansen, Lars Kai; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents the initial results from experiments with detection of weather radar clutter by information fusion with satellite based nowcasting products. Previous studies using information fusion of weather radar data and first generation Meteosat imagery have shown promising results for the detecting and removal of clutter. Naturally, the improved spatio-temporal resolution of the Meteosat Second Generation sensors, coupled with its increased number of spectral bands, is expect...

  1. Novel clutter map CFAR algorithm with amplitude limiter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单涛; 陶然; 王越; 周思永

    2004-01-01

    The traditional clutter map constant false alarm rate (CM-CFAR) detector is affected by interference and selfmasking[1] which will cause the low probability of detection. To solve these problems, a novel algorithm named clutter map CFAR with amplitude limiter (ALCM-CFAR) is proposed, in which the amplitude of the input signal is limited by a filter. The simulation results prove the effectiveness of ALCM-CFAR algorithm.

  2. Limits to Clutter Cancellation in Multi-Aperture GMTI Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bickel, Douglas L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Multi-aperture or multi-subaperture antennas are fundamental to Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar systems in order to detect slow-moving targets with Doppler characteristics similar to clutter. Herein we examine the performance of several subaperture architectures for their clutter cancelling performance. Significantly, more antenna phase centers isn’t always better, and in fact is sometimes worse, for detecting targets.

  3. Endurance training-induced increase in circulating irisin levels is associated with reduction of abdominal visceral fat in middle-aged and older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Miyamoto-Mikami

    Full Text Available To elucidate the effects of endurance training on circulating irisin levels in young and middle-aged/older adults, and to determine the association between endurance training-induced alteration of irisin and reduction in body fat. Twenty-five healthy young (age 21 ± 1 years; 16 men, 9 women and 28 healthy middle-aged/older adults (age 67 ± 8 years; 12 men, 16 women participated in the study. Each age cohort was divided into two groups: the endurance-training group (14 young, 14 middle-aged/older and the control group. Subjects in the training groups completed an 8-week endurance-training program (cycling at 60-70% peak oxygen uptake [V̇O2peak] for 45 min, 3 days/week. Before and after the intervention, we evaluated serum irisin level, V̇O2peak, and body composition. The increase in V̇O2peak in the young and middle-aged/older training groups after the intervention period was significantly greater than those in the young and middle-aged/older control groups (P < 0.05. Serum irisin level was significantly increased in the middle-aged/older training group after the intervention period (P < 0.01, but not in the young training group. Furthermore, in the middle-aged/older training group, the endurance training-induced reduction in visceral adipose tissue area was negatively correlated with the change in serum irisin level (r = -0.54, P < 0.05. These results suggest a possible role for secreted irisin in the exercise-induced alteration of abdominal visceral fat in middle-aged and older adults.

  4. Fractal-based weak target detection within sea clutter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yang; LV Xiaowen; LIU Kuisheng; ZHAO Shangzhuo

    2014-01-01

    The target on the sea surface is complex and difficult to detect due to the interference of backscattered returns from the sea surface illuminated by the radar pulse. Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) has been used successfully to extract the time-domain Hurst exponent of sea-clutter series. Since the frequency of the sea clutter mainly concentrates around Doppler center so that we consider to extract frequency-do-main fractal characterization and then detect a weak target within sea clutter by using the difference of frequency-domain fractal characterization. The generalized detrended fluctuation analysis (GDFA) is more flexible than traditional DFA owing to its smoothing action for the clutters. In this paper, we apply the GDFA to evaluate the generalized Hurst exponent of sea-clutter series in the frequency domain. The difference of generalized Hurst exponents between different sea-clutter range bins would be used to determine whether the target exists. Moreover, some simulations with the real IPIX radar data have also been demonstrated in order to support this conclusion.

  5. Calibrated and geocoded clutter from an airborne multispectral scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Markus; Bruehlmann, Ralph; John, Marc-Andre; Schmid, Konrad J.; Hueppi, Rudolph; Koenig, Reto

    1999-07-01

    Robustness of automatic target recognition (ATR) to varying observation conditions and countermeasures is substantially increased by use of multispectral sensors. Assessment of such ATR systems is performed by captive flight tests and simulations (HWIL or complete modeling). Although the clutter components of a scene can be generated with specified statistics, clutter maps directly obtained from measurement are required for validation of a simulation. In addition, urban scenes have non-stationary characteristics and are difficult to simulate. The present paper describes a scanner, data acquisition and processing system used for the generation of realistic clutter maps incorporating infrared, passive and active millimeter wave channels. The sensors are mounted on a helicopter with coincident line-of-sight, enabling us to measure consistent clutter signatures under varying observation conditions. Position and attitude data from GPS and an inertial measurement unit, respectively, are used to geometrically correct the raw scanner data. After sensor calibration the original voltage signals are converted to physical units, i.e. temperatures and reflectivities, describing the clutter independently of the scanning sensor, thus allowing us the use of the clutter maps in tests of a priori unknown multispectral sensors. The data correction procedures are described and results are presented.

  6. LANE MARKING DETECTION IN CLUTTERED ENVIRONMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青; 郑南宁; 程洪

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine the positions of marking in the presence of distracting shadows, highlight, pavement cracks, etc. Methods RGB color space is transformed into I1I2I3 color space and I2 component was used to form a new image with less effect of the clutter. Using an improved edge detection operator, an edge strength map was produced, and binarilized by adaptive thresholds. The binary image was labeled and circularity of all connected components is calculated. The Self-Organizing Mapping is adopted to extract regions which imply potential marking. Finally the position of marking was obtained by curve fitting. Results Color information was utilized fully, all thresholds were set adaptively and lane marking could be detected in challenging images with shadows, highlight or other cars. Conclusion The method based on circularity of connected components shows its outstanding robustness to lane marking detection and has a wide variety of applications in the areas of vehicle autonomous navigation and driver assistance system.

  7. Abdominal Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy. PMID:27363829

  8. Global Infrasound Association Based on Probabilistic Clutter Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, N. S.; Mialle, P.

    2015-12-01

    The IDC collects waveforms from a global network of infrasound sensors maintained by the IMS, and automatically detects signal onsets and associates them to form event hypotheses. However, a large number of signal onsets are due to local clutter sources such as microbaroms (from standing waves in the oceans), waterfalls, dams, gas flares, surf (ocean breaking waves) etc. These sources are either too diffuse or too local to form events. Worse still, the repetitive nature of this clutter leads to a large number of false event hypotheses due to the random matching of clutter at multiple stations. Previous studies, for example [1], have worked on categorization of clutter using long term trends on detection azimuth, frequency, and amplitude at each station. In this work we continue the same line of reasoning to build a probabilistic model of clutter that is used as part of NET-VISA [2], a Bayesian approach to network processing. The resulting model is a fusion of seismic, hydro-acoustic and infrasound processing built on a unified probabilistic framework. Notes: The attached figure shows all the unassociated arrivals detected at IMS station I09BR for 2012 distributed by azimuth and center frequency. (The title displays the bandwidth of the kernel density estimate along the azimuth and frequency dimensions).This plot shows multiple micro-barom sources as well as other sources of infrasound clutter. A diverse clutter-field such as this one is quite common for most IMS infrasound stations, and it highlights the dangers of forming events without due consideration of this source of noise. References: [1] Infrasound categorization Towards a statistics-based approach. J. Vergoz, P. Gaillard, A. Le Pichon, N. Brachet, and L. Ceranna. ITW 2011 [2] NET-VISA: Network Processing Vertically Integrated Seismic Analysis. N. S. Arora, S. Russell, and E. Sudderth. BSSA 2013.

  9. Opdic (optimized Peak, Distortion and Clutter) Detection Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Gregory Philip

    1995-01-01

    Detection is considered. This involves determining regions of interest (ROIs) in a scene: the locations of multiple object classes in a scene in clutter when object distortions and contrast differences are present. High probability of detection P_{D} is essential and low P_{FA } is desirable since subsequent stages in the full system will only decrease P_{FA } and cannot increase P_{D }. Low resolution blob objects and objects with more internal detail are considered with both 3-D aspect view and depression angle distortions present. Extensive tests were conducted on 56 scenes with object classes not present in the training set. A modified MINACE (Minimum Noise and Correlation Energy) distortion-invariant filter was used. This minimizes correlation plane energy due to distortions and clutter while satisfying correlation peak constraint values for various object-aspect views. The filter was modified with a new object model (to give predictable output peak values) and a new correlated noise clutter model; a white Gaussian noise model of distortion was used; and a new techniques to increase the number of training set images (N _{T}) included in the filter were developed. Excellent results were obtained. However, the correlation plane distortion and clutter energy functions were found to become worse as N_{T } was increased and no rigorous method exists to select the best N_{T} (when to stop filter synthesis). A new OPDIC (Optimized Peak, Distortion, and Clutter) filter was thus devised. This filter retained the new object, clutter and distortion models noted. It minimizes the variance of the correlation peak values for all training set images (not just the N_{T} images). As N _{T} increases, the peak variance and the objective functions (correlation plane distortion and clutter energy) are all minimized. Thus, this new filter optimizes the desired functions and provides an easy way to stop filter synthesis (when the objective function is minimized). Tests show

  10. Study on Clutter Model and Characteristics of Airborne Radar with Parabolic Conformal Phased Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Jiang; Nini Rao; Xingbo Chen; Jiabin Zhou; Chaoyang Qiu; Wen Zhai; Zhimei Hao

    2016-01-01

    The studies on clutter modeling and suppression of airborne radar with a parabolic conformal array are uncommon due to the complexity of this type of antenna array configuration. The correct understanding of clutter characteristics for airborne radar with a parabolic conformal antenna array is the prerequisite and foundation of optimal suppression of this type of clutter. This paper establishes the model of clutter echo of airborne parabolic conformal phased array radar and analyzes the structure characteristics and the distribution features of this type of clutter. The simulation results show that this type of clutter has the following characteristics: 1) The main lobe on the azimuth is seriously broadened, 2) the power spectrum presents strong heterogeneity, and 3) the freedom degrees are high. Based on the existing related clutter suppression methods, we verified the correctness of the constructed clutter model. This work has an important guidance to further study on clutter suppression methods in airborne parabolic conformal array radar.

  11. Abdominal Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... relaxation. Guided imagery for abdominal pain About self-hypnosis and kids See YourChild : Pain and Your Child or Teen for more detail ... how to help your baby cope with the pain of medical procedures, circumcision, and teething. ... Helping Kids YourChild : A Look at Biofeedback YourChild : ...

  12. Non-contact radiofrequency-induced reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat correlates with initial cardiovascular autonomic balance and fat tissue hormones: safety analysis [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4pj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Pumprla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The non-invasive reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat became popular in the last decade. Radiofrequency (RF, non-contact, selective-field device Vanquish® has been developed to selectively induce deep fat tissue heating to reduce waist circumference. Our analysis evaluates immediate and sustained effects of this treatment on cardiovascular autonomic function and on selected metabolic parameters. Study design/patients and methods: A retrospective proof-of-concept analysis of RF treatment effects was conducted in 20 individuals with metabolic syndrome, to reduce the subcutaneous abdominal fat. Four 30-minutes treatment sessions (manufacturer´s standard protocol were performed in 1-week intervals. Vital signs, ECG, lab screening, body composition, subcutaneous fat thickness and spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV have been examined before, after the 1st and 4th treatment, and at follow-up visits 1 month and 3 months after the treatment. Results: The RF treatment led to a significant reduction of abdominal circumference after the 4th session (p0.59, p<0.04. Conclusions: Our analysis shows that the selective-field RF treatment is safe and efficient for reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat. While the treatment increases the immediate sympathetic response of the body to deep tissue heating, no sustained change in autonomic function could be recorded at 1 month follow-up. The observed correlation between initial VLF spectral power and waist circumference reduction at follow-up, as well as the association of initial adiponectin values and immediate autonomic response to the treatment might be instrumental for decisions on body contouring strategies.

  13. Ultrawideband radar clutter measurements of forested terrain, 1991--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, D.M.; Severtsen, R.H.; Prince, J.M.; Davis, K.C.; Collins, H.D.

    1993-06-01

    The ultrawideband (UWB) radar clutter measurements project was conducted to provide radar clutter data for new ultrawideband radar systems which are currently under development. A particular goal of this project is to determine if conventional narrow band clutter data may be extrapolated to the UWB case. This report documents measurements conducted in 1991 and additional measurements conducted in 1992. The original project consisted of clutter measurements of forested terrain in the Olympic National Forest near Sequim, WA. The impulse radar system used a 30 kW peak impulse source with a 2 Gigasample/second digitizer to form a UHF (300--1000 MHz) ultrawideband impulse radar system. Additional measurements were conducted in parallel using a Systems Planning Corporation (SPC) step-chirp radar system. This system utilized pulse widths of 1330 nanoseconds over a bandwidth of 300--1000 MHz to obtain similar resolution to the impulse system. Due to the slow digitizer data throughput in the impulse radar system, data collection rates were significantly higher using the step-chirp system. Additional forest clutter measurements were undertaken in 1992 to increase the amount of data available, and especially to increase the amount of data from the impulse radar system.

  14. Reflectivity Model of Low Grazing Angle Radar Sea Clutter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Sheng; CHEN Jie; CAI Tao; TU Xu-yan

    2005-01-01

    The commonly used reflectivity models of radar sea clutter are summarized. Among these models, the adjusted Barton model and the adjusted Morchin model are compared. From the analysis result, the γ-p reflectivity model is presented for low grazing angle radar sea clutter by the adjustment of the original Barton reflectivity model. The model takes into account radar frequency, grazing angle, sea condition, and polarization property. The influences of these factors on the proposed model are analyzed. The model absorbs the merits from commonly used reflectivity models for sea clutter. It introduces several researchers' opinions, and extends them. And it accounts for the reflectivity at arbitrary radar frequency from VHF to X-band, arbitrary low grazing angle, arbitrary sea condition and different polarization property. One of the main results is the proposed γ-p reflectivity model can reflect the influence of polarization on sea clutter reflectivity to some extent. The proposed γ-p reflectivity model of low-angle radar-sea clutter is validated by comparing the simulated and statistically experimental data.

  15. Waveform design for cognitive radar: target detection in heavy clutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Benjamin H.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Martone, Anthony F.; Sherbondy, Kelly D.

    2016-05-01

    In many applications of radar systems, detection of targets in environments with heavy clutter and interference can be difficult. It is desired that a radar system should detect targets at a further range as well as be able to detect these targets with very few false positive or negative readings. In a cognitive radar system, there are ways that these negative effects can be mitigated and target detection can be significantly improved. An important metric to focus on for increasing target detectability is the signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR). Cognitive radar offers solutions to issues such as this with the use of a priori knowledge of targets and environments as well as real time adaptations. A feature of cognitive radar that is of interest is the ability to adapt and optimize transmitted waveforms to a given situation. A database is used to hold a priori and dynamic knowledge of the operational environment and targets to be detected, such as clutter characteristics and target radar cross-section (RCS) estimations. Assuming this knowledge is available or can be estimated in real-time, the transmitted waveform can be tailored using methods such as transmission of a spectrum corresponding to the target-to-clutter ratio (TCR). These methods provide significant improvement in distinguishing targets from clutter or interference.

  16. Knowledge-based adaptive polarimetric detection in heterogeneous clutter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinan Zhao,Fengcong Li,; Xiaolin Qiao

    2014-01-01

    The detection performance and the constant false alarm rate behavior of the conventional adaptive detectors are severely degraded in heterogeneous clutter. This paper designs and analy-ses a knowledge-based (KB) adaptive polarimetric detector in het-erogeneous clutter. The proposed detection scheme is composed of a data selector using polarization knowledge and an adaptive polarization detector using training data. A polarization data se-lector based on the maximum likelihood estimation is proposed to remove outliers from the heterogeneous training data. This selector can remove outliers effectively, thus the training data is purified for estimating the clutter covariance matrix. Consequently, the performance of the adaptive detector is improved. We assess the performance of the KB adaptive polarimetric detector and the adaptive polarimetric detector without a data selector using sim-ulated data and IPIX radar data. The results show that the KB adaptive polarization detector outperforms its non-KB counter-parts.

  17. Detecting weather radar clutter using satellite-based nowcasting products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas B.S.; Gill, Rashpal S.; Overgaard, Søren;

    2006-01-01

    by the resolution of the radar data. Subsequently, a supervised classifier was developed based on training data selected by a weather radar expert. Results of classification of data from several different meteorological events are shown. Cases of widespread sea clutter caused by anomalous propagation are especially......This contribution presents the initial results from experiments with detection of weather radar clutter by information fusion with satellite based nowcasting products. Previous studies using information fusion of weather radar data and first generation Meteosat imagery have shown promising results...... for the detecting and removal of clutter. Naturally, the improved spatio-temporal resolution of the Meteosat Second Generation sensors, coupled with its increased number of spectral bands, is expected to yield even better detection accuracies. Weather radar data from three C-band Doppler weather radars...

  18. Inference-Based Surface Reconstruction of Cluttered Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Biggers, K.

    2012-08-01

    We present an inference-based surface reconstruction algorithm that is capable of identifying objects of interest among a cluttered scene, and reconstructing solid model representations even in the presence of occluded surfaces. Our proposed approach incorporates a predictive modeling framework that uses a set of user-provided models for prior knowledge, and applies this knowledge to the iterative identification and construction process. Our approach uses a local to global construction process guided by rules for fitting high-quality surface patches obtained from these prior models. We demonstrate the application of this algorithm on several example data sets containing heavy clutter and occlusion. © 2012 IEEE.

  19. 缩唇腹式呼吸预防骨科术后并发症的效果观察%Lip reduction of abdominal breathing effect observation on prevention of complications after surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金果; 沈红英; 王燕

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨缩唇腹式呼吸对骨科术后病人并发症的预防效果.方法:选择骨科手术病人202例,随机分为观察组102例和对照组100例,观察组术前实施缩唇腹式呼吸训练,术后每天坚持缩唇腹式呼吸锻炼;对照组实施常规护理.结果:观察组肺部感染、便秘的发生率均明显低于对照组.结论:缩唇腹式呼吸锻炼可有效预防骨科术后病人并发症的发生.%Objective:To explore lip reduction of abdominal breathing on prevention of complications of patients after orthopedic surgery. Methods: Selected 202 cases of patients with orthopaedic surgery, randomly divided into observation group(102 cases) and control group (100 cases) .observation group was implemented with lip reduction of abdominal breathing every day,control group was treated with routine nursing. Results:The pulmonary infection,the incidence of constipation in observation group were significantly lower than the control group. Conclusion: lip abdominal respiration exercises can prevent complications of postoperative patients.

  20. Reduction of abdominal fat accumulation in rats by 8-week ingestion of a newly developed sweetener made from high fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Tetsuo; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Ishii, Reika; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown that ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) may cause an increase in body weight and abdominal fat. We recently developed a new sweetener containing rare sugars (rare sugar syrup; RSS) by slight isomerization of HFCS. Here, the functional effects of RSS on body weight and abdominal fat, and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats were examined. Rats (n=30) were randomly divided into three groups and maintained for 8-weeks on starch, starch+HFCS (50:50), and starch+RSS (50:50) diets. Rats in the Starch and HFCS groups gained significantly more body weight and abdominal fat than the RSS group. Fasting serum insulin in the RSS group was significantly lower than in the Starch and HFCS groups, although serum glucose in the HFCS and RSS groups was significantly lower than that in the Starch group. Thus, the substitution of HFCS with RSS prevents obesity induced by the consumption of HFCS.

  1. Reduction of abdominal fat accumulation in rats by 8-week ingestion of a newly developed sweetener made from high fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Tetsuo; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Ishii, Reika; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown that ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) may cause an increase in body weight and abdominal fat. We recently developed a new sweetener containing rare sugars (rare sugar syrup; RSS) by slight isomerization of HFCS. Here, the functional effects of RSS on body weight and abdominal fat, and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats were examined. Rats (n=30) were randomly divided into three groups and maintained for 8-weeks on starch, starch+HFCS (50:50), and starch+RSS (50:50) diets. Rats in the Starch and HFCS groups gained significantly more body weight and abdominal fat than the RSS group. Fasting serum insulin in the RSS group was significantly lower than in the Starch and HFCS groups, although serum glucose in the HFCS and RSS groups was significantly lower than that in the Starch group. Thus, the substitution of HFCS with RSS prevents obesity induced by the consumption of HFCS. PMID:23411176

  2. Statistical Analysis of SAR Sea Clutter for Classification Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Martín-de-Nicolás

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Statistical analysis of radar clutter has always been one of the topics, where more effort has been put in the last few decades. These studies were usually focused on finding the statistical models that better fitted the clutter distribution; however, the goal of this work is not the modeling of the clutter, but the study of the suitability of the statistical parameters to carry out a sea state classification. In order to achieve this objective and provide some relevance to this study, an important set of maritime and coastal Synthetic Aperture Radar data is considered. Due to the nature of the acquisition of data by SAR sensors, speckle noise is inherent to these data, and a specific study of how this noise affects the clutter distribution is also performed in this work. In pursuit of a sense of wholeness, a thorough study of the most suitable statistical parameters, as well as the most adequate classifier is carried out, achieving excellent results in terms of classification success rates. These concluding results confirm that a sea state classification is not only viable, but also successful using statistical parameters different from those of the best modeling distribution and applying a speckle filter, which allows a better characterization of the parameters used to distinguish between different sea states.

  3. Spectral polarimetric radar clutter suppression to enhance atmospheric echoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unal, C.M.H.

    2009-01-01

    The clutter present in the Doppler spectra of atmospheric targets can be removed by using polarimetry. The purpose is to suppress the Doppler velocity bins where spectral polarimetric parameters have atypical values. This procedure largely improves profiles of moments and polarimetric parameters of

  4. [ENDOVASCULAR ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURISM REPAIR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maĭstrenko, D N; Generalov, M I; Tarazov, P G; Zherebtsov, F K; Osovskikh, V V; Ivanov, A S; Oleshchuk, A N; Granov, D A

    2015-01-01

    The authors analyzed the single-center experience of treatment of 72 patients with abdominal aortic aneurisms and severe accompanied pathology. The aneurisms were repaired by stent-grafts. All the patients had abdominal aortic aneurisms with the diameters from 41 to 84 mm against the background of severe somatic pathology. It was a contraindication to planned open surgery. An installation of stent-graft was successful in all 72 follow-ups. It wasn't necessary to use a conversion to open surgery. The follow-up period consisted of 44,6?2,1 months. Control ultrasound and computer tomography studies hadn't revealed an increase of aneurism sack sizes or "eakages". A reduction of abdominal aortic aneurism sizes was noted in 37 patients on 4-5% during first year after operation. The stent-graft implantation extends the possibilities of abdominal aortic aneurism treatment for patients from a high surgical risk group. PMID:26234059

  5. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... access catheters Vertebroplasty Women and vascular disease Women's health Social Media Facebook Twitter ... Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Interventional Radiologists Treat Abdominal Aneurysms Nonsurgically Interventional radiologists are vascular ...

  6. Motion Geometric Active Contours: Tracking Nonrigid Objects in Clutter Background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cen Feng (岑峰); Qi Feihu

    2003-01-01

    MGAC (Motion Geometric Active Contours), a new variational framework of geometric active contours to track multiple nonrigid moving objects in the clutter background in image sequences is presented. This framework, incorporating with the motion edge information, consists of motion detection and tracking stages. At the motion detection stage, the motion edge map provides an approximate edge map of the moving objects. Then, a tracking stage, merely using the static edge information, is considered to improve the motion detection result. Force field regularization method is used to extend the capture range of the edge attraction force field in both stages. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed framework is valid for tracking multiple nonrigid objects in the clutter background.

  7. Modelling of microwave propagation and clutter in a maritime environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, M. H.

    1994-07-01

    For a radar system in a maritime environment, the probability of detection of a target at a low altitude is strongly dependent on the conditions of the atmosphere and the sea surface. In order to determine the detection probability of a target at low altitude, these conditions should be taken into account. This paper presents numerical methods to calculate electromagnetic propagation in an evaporation duct and to calculate sea clutter returns.

  8. Statistical estimation and tracking of refractivity from radar clutter

    OpenAIRE

    Yardim, Caglar

    2007-01-01

    In many maritime regions of the world, such as the Mediterranean, Persian Gulf, East China Sea, and the Californian Coast, atmospheric ducts are common occurrences. They result in various anomalies such as significant variations in the maximum operational radar range, creation of regions where the radar is practically blind (radar holes) and increased sea clutter. Therefore, it is important to predict the real-time 3-D environment in which the radar is operating so that the radar operator wil...

  9. Clutter Loss Modelling for Low Elevation Link Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Valtr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the accuracy of several deterministic and semideterministic propagation models related to calculating clutter loss for low elevation links is presented. Predictions are compared with measurements carried out at 2 GHz over three locations. By comparing prediction and measurement techniques, improved predictive capabilities of deterministic models are demonstrated and quantified in cases where a description of the propagation environment exists and an air-to-ground scenario is considered.

  10. Sea clutter scattering, the K distribution and radar performance

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Keith D; Watts, Simon

    2006-01-01

    This book examines the statistics of radar scattering from the sea surface in terms of their relevance to radar operating in a maritime environment; including remote sensing , surveillance and targeting appliances. A lot of the work in the book iss based on the compound K-distribution model for the amplitude statistics of sea clutter. In addition, the book addresses the specification of performance required by customers and the measurement of performance of systems supplied to customers.

  11. A Framework for Symmetric Part Detection in Cluttered Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Lee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of symmetry in computer vision has waxed and waned in importance during the evolution of the field from its earliest days. At first figuring prominently in support of bottom-up indexing, it fell out of favour as shape gave way to appearance and recognition gave way to detection. With a strong prior in the form of a target object, the role of the weaker priors offered by perceptual grouping was greatly diminished. However, as the field returns to the problem of recognition from a large database, the bottom-up recovery of the parts that make up the objects in a cluttered scene is critical for their recognition. The medial axis community has long exploited the ubiquitous regularity of symmetry as a basis for the decomposition of a closed contour into medial parts. However, today’s recognition systems are faced with cluttered scenes and the assumption that a closed contour exists, i.e., that figure-ground segmentation has been solved, rendering much of the medial axis community’s work inapplicable. In this article, we review a computational framework, previously reported in [1–3], that bridges the representation power of the medial axis and the need to recover and group an object’s parts in a cluttered scene. Our framework is rooted in the idea that a maximally-inscribed disc, the building block of a medial axis, can be modelled as a compact superpixel in the image. We evaluate the method on images of cluttered scenes.

  12. Polarimetric synthetic-aperture inversion for extended targets in clutter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an analytic inversion method for a polarimetric synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) in the case of an extended target embedded in clutter. The measurements are also contaminated by thermal noise. We use microlocal analysis in a statistical setting to develop a filtered-backprojection-type reconstruction method. The inversion method accommodates arbitrary waveforms and arbitrary flight paths. We model the antennas and scatterers as dipoles; scatterers are thus characterized by a spatially varying scattering matrix. We include directional scattering assumptions to distinguish a curve-like extended target from clutter, which is assumed to scatter isotropically. For the inversion we choose the backprojection filter which minimizes the mean-square error between the reconstructed image and the actual target scattering matrix. Our work differs from standard polarimetric SAR imaging in that we do not perform channel-by-channel image reconstruction. We find that it is preferable to use a coupled reconstruction scheme in which we use all sets of collected data to form each element of the scattering matrix. We show in our numerical experiments that the coupled reconstruction not only minimizes the mean-square error but also improves the image target-to-clutter ratio in certain scenarios. (paper)

  13. Sensitivity analysis and performance estimation of refractivity from clutter techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardim, Caglar; Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S.

    2009-02-01

    Refractivity from clutter (RFC) refers to techniques that estimate the atmospheric refractivity profile from radar clutter returns. A RFC algorithm works by finding the environment whose simulated clutter pattern matches the radar measured one. This paper introduces a procedure to compute RFC estimator performance. It addresses the major factors such as the radar parameters, the sea surface characteristics, and the environment (region, time of the day, season) that affect the estimator performance and formalizes an error metric combining all of these. This is important for applications such as calculating the optimal radar parameters, selecting the best RFC inversion algorithm under a set of conditions, and creating a regional performance map of a RFC system. The performance metric is used to compute the RFC performance of a non-Bayesian evaporation duct estimator. A Bayesian estimator that incorporates meteorological statistics in the inversion is introduced and compared to the non-Bayesian estimator. The performance metric is used to determine the optimal radar parameters of the evaporation duct estimator for six scenarios. An evaporation duct inversion performance map for a S band radar is created for the larger Mediterranean/Arabian Sea region.

  14. Visuomotor crowding: the resolution of grasping in cluttered scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulakowski, Paul F; Post, Robert B; Whitney, David

    2009-01-01

    Reaching toward a cup of coffee while reading the newspaper becomes exceedingly difficult when other objects are nearby. Although much is known about the precision of visual perception in cluttered scenes, relatively little is understood about acting within these environments - the spatial resolution of visuomotor behavior. When the number and density of objects overwhelm visual processing, crowding results, which serves as a bottleneck for object recognition. Despite crowding, featural information of the ensemble persists, thereby supporting texture perception. While texture is beneficial for visual perception, it is relatively uninformative for guiding the metrics of grasping. Therefore, it would be adaptive if the visual and visuomotor systems utilized the clutter differently. Using an orientation task, we measured the effect of crowding on vision and visually guided grasping and found that the density of clutter similarly limited discrimination performance. However, while vision integrates the surround to compute a texture, action discounts this global information. We propose that this dissociation reflects an optimal use of information by each system. PMID:19949462

  15. Visuomotor crowding: the resolution of grasping in cluttered scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul F Bulakowski

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Reaching toward a cup of coffee while reading the newspaper becomes exceedingly difficult when other objects are nearby. Although much is known about the precision of visual perception in cluttered scenes, relatively little is understood about acting within these environments—the spatial resolution of visuomotor behavior. When the number and density of objects overwhelm visual processing, crowding results, which serves as a bottleneck for object recognition. Despite crowding, featural information of the ensemble persists, thereby supporting texture perception. While texture is beneficial for visual perception, it is relatively uninformative for guiding the metrics of grasping. Therefore, it would be adaptive if the visual and visuomotor systems utilized the clutter differently. Using an orientation task, we measured the effect of crowding on vision and visually guided grasping and found that the density of clutter similarly limited discrimination performance. However, while vision integrates the surround to compute a texture, action discounts this global information. We propose that this dissociation reflects an optimal use of information by each system.

  16. Adaptive Robust Waveform Selection for Unknown Target Detection in Clutter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu-Lu Wang; Hong-Qiang Wang; Yu-Liang Qin; Yong-Qiang Cheng

    2014-01-01

    @@@A basic assumption of most recently proposed waveform design algorithms is that the target impulse response is a known deterministic function or a stochastic process with a known power spectral density (PSD). However, it is well-known that a target impulse response is neither easily nor accurately obtained; besides it changes sharply with attitude angles. Both of the aforementioned cases complicate the waveform design process. In this paper, an adaptive robust waveform selection method for unknown target detection in clutter is proposed. The target impulse response is considered to be unknown but belongs to a known uncertainty set. An adaptive waveform library is devised by using a signal-to-clutter-plus-noise ratio (SCNR)- based optimal waveform design method. By applying the minimax robust waveform selection method, the optimal robust waveform is selected to ensure the lowest performance bound of the unknown target detection in clutter. Results show that the adaptive waveform library outperforms the predefined linear frequency modulation (LFM) waveform library on the SCNR bound.

  17. The depth of distractor processing in search with clutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Mary J; Farid, Hany

    2007-01-01

    Some search tasks involve looking for a category target in clutter. This is the task faced, for example, by a baggage screener looking for weapons in a suitcase. Such tasks presumably involve the segmentation and recognition of the target object, but it is unknown whether they also involve the segmentation and recognition of the distractor objects. To examine the depth of distractor processing in this task, we had observers search through cluttered displays composed of normal and chimerical distractors. The normal distractors were photographs of recognizable objects, while the chimerical distractors were created by interchanging parts between the normal objects. The obsever's task was to identify the display quadrant that contained an animal or a vehicle target. We varied the difficulty of the search task by varying target and distractor discriminability, target uncertainty, and target occlusion. Only when the target was partially occluded did we find an effect of distractor type. In this case, observers may have found the target through a process of mentally eliminating whole distractor objects. When the target was unoccluded, we found no evidence that observers selected and rejected whole distractors during search. This second result supports our previous claim that often the items for search in clutter are not whole objects. PMID:17718361

  18. An adaptive clutter and interference suppression with a minimum residue noise power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwag, Young Kil

    The author presents an adaptive technique for the suppression of clutter and interference in environments where no a priori knowledge about the target or the clutter and interference statistics is available. The adaptive processor generates the average weight vector, in the sense of minimum-residue-noise power, on the basis of the injected noise-level vector in the weight control algorithm. The set of weight vectors generated in a particular range-azimuth space can be stored and switched to the same sector for the unwanted-noise rejection. The adaptation rate is significantly increased when the residue noise is removed from the combiner output. The system improvement factor in suppressing the clutter and interference is not sensitive to the strength of the input CSR (clutter suppression rate) and is largely dependent on the residue clutter and interference. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in improving the clutter and interference rejection capability.

  19. Robust ionospheric clutter mitigation method for high frequency surface wave radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lei; XU RongQing; LI GaoPeng

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the characteristics of ionospheric clutter, which has proven to be the greatest impediment in high frequency surface wave radar (HFSWR). Ionospheric clutter influences most range bins, all Doppler binsand beams, and exhibits a high directivity. A robust adaptive side-lobe cancellation algorithm based on orthogonal auxiliary beams, which use the difference beams to estimate the ionospheric clutter information, is introduced to suppress the ionospheric clutter. Training data was selected by excluding the sea clutter and probable target unit; and diagonal loading was added to enhance the robustness of the algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithm is able to suppress the ionospheric clutter whilst preserving the desired characteristics of the target echoes and is suitable for practical implementation.

  20. Ultra-low dose abdominal MDCT: Using a knowledge-based Iterative Model Reconstruction technique for substantial dose reduction in a prospective clinical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali, E-mail: rkhawaja@mgh.harvard.edu [MGH Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Singh, Sarabjeet; Blake, Michael; Harisinghani, Mukesh; Choy, Gary; Karosmangulu, Ali; Padole, Atul; Do, Synho [MGH Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Brown, Kevin; Thompson, Richard; Morton, Thomas; Raihani, Nilgoun [CT Research and Advanced Development, Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH (United States); Koehler, Thomas [Philips Technologie GmbH, Innovative Technologies, Hamburg (Germany); Kalra, Mannudeep K. [MGH Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Limited abdominal CT indications can be performed at a size specific dose estimate of (SSDE) 1.5 mGy (∼0.9 mSv) in smaller patients (BMI less than or equal to 25 kg/m{sup 2}) using a knowledge based Iterative Model Reconstruction (IMR) technique. • Evaluation of liver tumors and pathologies is unacceptable at this reduced dose with IMR technique especially in patients with a BMI greater than 25 kg/m{sup 2}. • IMR body soft tissue and routine settings perform substantially better than IMR sharp plus setting in reduced dose CT images. • At SSDE of 1.5 mGy, objective image noise in reduced dose IMR images is 8–56% less than compared to standard dose FBP images, with lowest image noise in IMR body-soft tissue images. - Abstract: Purpose: To assess lesion detection and image quality parameters of a knowledge-based Iterative Model Reconstruction (IMR) in reduced dose (RD) abdominal CT examinations. Materials and methods: This IRB-approved prospective study included 82 abdominal CT examinations performed for 41 consecutive patients (mean age, 62 ± 12 years; F:M 28:13) who underwent a RD CT (SSDE, 1.5 mGy ± 0.4 [∼0.9 mSv] at 120 kV with 17–20 mAs/slice) immediately after their standard dose (SD) CT exam (10 mGy ± 3 [∼6 mSv] at 120 kV with automatic exposure control) on 256 MDCT (iCT, Philips Healthcare). SD data were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP). RD data were reconstructed with FBP and IMR. Four radiologists used a five-point scale (1 = image quality better than SD CT to 5 = image quality unacceptable) to assess both subjective image quality and artifacts. Lesions were first detected on RD FBP images. RD IMR and RD FBP images were then compared side-by-side to SD-FBP images in an independent, randomized and blinded fashion. Friedman's test and intraclass correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. Objective measurements included image noise and attenuation as well as noise spectral density (NSD) curves

  1. Ground-Vegetation Clutter Affects Phyllostomid Bat Assemblage Structure in Lowland Amazonian Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Marciente; Bobrowiec, Paulo Estefano D.; Magnusson, William E

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation clutter is a limiting factor for bats that forage near ground level, and may determine the distribution of species and guilds. However, many studies that evaluated the effects of vegetation clutter on bats have used qualitative descriptions rather than direct measurements of vegetation density. Moreover, few studies have evaluated the effect of vegetation clutter on a regional scale. Here, we evaluate the influence of the physical obstruction of vegetation on phyllostomid-bat assem...

  2. Comparative Study of Four Different Types of MTI Filters for Radar Clutter Rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyabrata Karmakar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper MTI filter based clutter rejection technique is presented. How clutter rejection ability increases with the increase in Delay line canceleres in the MTI filter structure is shown here. Feedback path increases the response of a MTI filter and using feedback path four different types of MTI recursive filters are designed and tested for Radar clutter rejection. Matlab (7.9 is used as the simulation platform.

  3. Removing interfering clutter associated with radar pulses that an airborne radar receives from a radar transponder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormesher, Richard C.; Axline, Robert M.

    2008-12-02

    Interfering clutter in radar pulses received by an airborne radar system from a radar transponder can be suppressed by developing a representation of the incoming echo-voltage time-series that permits the clutter associated with predetermined parts of the time-series to be estimated. These estimates can be used to estimate and suppress the clutter associated with other parts of the time-series.

  4. Improved Multistage Wiener Filters in Nonhomogeneous Clutter Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Tang; Xue-Gang Wang; Ke-Song Chen

    2008-01-01

    A new method combining space-time preprocessing with multistage Wiener filters (STPMWF) is proposed to improve the performance of space-time adaptive processing (STAP) in nonhomogeneous clutter scenario. The new scheme only requires the data from the primary range bin, thus it can suppress discrete interferers efficiently, without calculating the inverse of covariance matrix. Comparing to the original MWF approach, the proposed scheme can be regarded as practical solutions for robust and effective STAP of nonhomogeneous radar data. The theoretical analysis shows that our STPMWF is simple in implementation and fast in convergence. The numeric results by using simulated data exhibit a good agreement with the proposed theory.

  5. Abdominal Pain or Cramping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Body & lifestyle changes > Abdominal pain or cramping Abdominal pain or cramping E-mail to a friend Please ... signs of severe pain. What causes mild belly pain in pregnancy? There are different causes for mild ...

  6. Mitigating ground clutter effects with lightweight artificial dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Carey M.; Beihold, Fred; Linnehan, Robert

    2001-10-01

    The problem of scattered and transmitted electromagnetic wave distortion by random rough ground surfaces can be reduced by using a lightweight dielectric matching layer. For mine detection applications, it is essential for this layer to be lightweight, low loss, readily conformable, and adaptable to different soil types. Arrays of metal-coated plastic spheres act as lossless artificial dielectrics with impedance determined by the volume packing fraction. By controlling the thickness of insulator surrounding each sphere, a close-packed array with the dielectric properties of soil can be created inside a compliant rolling bag that will conform to the rough surface of the ground. Since this artificial dielectric is matched to the soil, the ground surface interface is 'softened', without an abrupt transition from soil to air. Signals transmitted and received by GPR antennas immersed in the artificial dielectric within the bag will not be corrupted by ground surface clutter. Alternatively, an artificial dielectric layer on the ground with a planar air interface could be used to ensure that the surface reflection is a constant, well-calibrated signal. Computational models indicate complete removal of the ground clutter, even with occasional gaps between the artificial dielectric and the ground. Experimental studies with swept-frequency measurements and impulse GPR indicate that using this dielectric layer matching to a rough loamy soil ground surface is results in signals that are practically indistinguishable from those of an equivalent layer of the same type of soil.

  7. Insect detection of small targets moving in visual clutter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Nordström

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Detection of targets that move within visual clutter is a common task for animals searching for prey or conspecifics, a task made even more difficult when a moving pursuer needs to analyze targets against the motion of background texture (clutter. Despite the limited optical acuity of the compound eye of insects, this challenging task seems to have been solved by their tiny visual system. Here we describe neurons found in the male hoverfly, Eristalis tenax, that respond selectively to small moving targets. Although many of these target neurons are inhibited by the motion of a background pattern, others respond to target motion within the receptive field under a surprisingly large range of background motion stimuli. Some neurons respond whether or not there is a speed differential between target and background. Analysis of responses to very small targets (smaller than the size of the visual field of single photoreceptors or those targets with reduced contrast shows that these neurons have extraordinarily high contrast sensitivity. Our data suggest that rejection of background motion may result from extreme selectivity for small targets contrasting against local patches of the background, combined with this high sensitivity, such that background patterns rarely contain features that satisfactorily drive the neuron.

  8. Inversion for atmosphere duct parameters using real radar sea clutter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Zheng; Fang Han-Xian

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of estimating the lower atmospheric refractivity (M profile) under nonstandard propagation conditions frequently encountered in low altitude maritime radar applications.The vertical structure of the refractive environment is modeled using five parameters and the horizontal structure is modeled using five parameters.The refractivity model is implemented with and without a priori constraint on the duct strength as might be derived from soundings or numerical weather-prediction models.An electromagnetic propagation model maps the refractivity structure into a replica field.Replica fields are compared with the observed clutter using a squared-error objective function.A global search for the 10 environmental parameters is performed using genetic algorithms.The inversion algorithm is implemented on the basis of S-band radar sea-clutter data from Wallops Island,Virginia (SPANDAR).Reference data are from range-dependent refractivity profiles obtained with a helicopter. The inversion is assessed (i) by comparing the propagation predicted from the radar-inferred refractivity profiles with that from the helicopter profiles,(ii) by comparing the refractivity parameters from the helicopter soundings with those estimated.This technique could provide near-real-time estimation of ducting effects.

  9. Object Recognition in Clutter: Cortical Responses Depend on the Type of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay eHegdé

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical studies suggest that the visual system uses prior knowledge of visual objects to recognize them in visual clutter, and posit that the strategies for recognizing objects in clutter may differ depending on whether or not the object was learned in clutter to begin with. We tested this hypothesis using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of human subjects. We trained subjects to recognize naturalistic, yet novel objects in strong or weak clutter. We then tested subjects’ recognition performance for both sets of objects in strong clutter. We found many brain regions that were differentially responsive to objects during object recognition depending on whether they were learned in strong or weak clutter. In particular, the responses of the left fusiform gyrus reliably reflected, on a trial-to-trial basis, subjects’ object recognition performance for objects learned in the presence of strong clutter. These results indicate that the visual system does not use a single, general-purpose mechanism to cope with clutter. Instead, there are two distinct spatial patterns of activation whose responses are attributable not to the visual context in which the objects were seen, but to the context in which the objects were learned.

  10. Research on Gaussian distribution preprocess method of infrared multispectral image background clutter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 武春风; 邓盼; 范宁

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a sliding-window mean removal high pass filter by which background clutter of infrared multispectral image is obtained. The method of selecting the optimum size of the sliding-window is based on the skewness-kurtosis test. In the end, a multivariate Gaussian distribution mathematical expression of background clutter image is given.

  11. Coherent Surface Clutter Suppression Techniques with Topography Estimation for Multi-Phase-Center Radar Ice Sounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik; Dall, Jørgen; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup;

    2012-01-01

    Radar ice sounding enables measurement of the thickness and internal structures of the large ice sheets on Earth. Surface clutter masking the signal of interest is a major obstacle in ice sounding. Algorithms for surface clutter suppression based on multi-phase-center radars are presented...

  12. Optimal waveform-based clutter suppression algorithm for recursive synthetic aperture radar imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Binqi; Gao, Yesheng; Wang, Kaizhi; Liu, Xingzhao

    2016-04-01

    A computational method for suppressing clutter and generating clear microwave images of targets is proposed in this paper, which combines synthetic aperture radar (SAR) principles with recursive method and waveform design theory, and it is suitable for SAR for special applications. The nonlinear recursive model is introduced into the SAR operation principle, and the cubature Kalman filter algorithm is used to estimate target and clutter responses in each azimuth position based on their previous states, which are both assumed to be Gaussian distributions. NP criteria-based optimal waveforms are designed repeatedly as the sensor flies along its azimuth path and are used as the transmitting signals. A clutter suppression filter is then designed and added to suppress the clutter response while maintaining most of the target response. Thus, with fewer disturbances from the clutter response, we can generate the SAR image with traditional azimuth matched filters. Our simulations show that the clutter suppression filter significantly reduces the clutter response, and our algorithm greatly improves the SINR of the SAR image based on different clutter suppression filter parameters. As such, this algorithm may be preferable for special target imaging when prior information on the target is available.

  13. Designing clutter rejection filters with complex coefficients for airborne pulsed Doppler weather radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamora, Dennis A.

    1993-01-01

    Ground clutter interference is a major problem for airborne pulse Doppler radar operating at low altitudes in a look-down mode. With Doppler zero set at the aircraft ground speed, ground clutter rejection filtering is typically accomplished using a high-pass filter with real valued coefficients and a stopband notch centered at zero Doppler. Clutter spectra from the NASA Wind Shear Flight Experiments of l991-1992 show that the dominant clutter mode can be located away from zero Doppler, particularly at short ranges dominated by sidelobe returns. Use of digital notch filters with complex valued coefficients so that the stopband notch can be located at any Doppler frequency is investigated. Several clutter mode tracking algorithms are considered to estimate the Doppler frequency location of the dominant clutter mode. From the examination of night data, when a dominant clutter mode away from zero Doppler is present, complex filtering is able to significantly increase clutter rejection over use of a notch filter centered at zero Doppler.

  14. Effect of the dose and route of administration of butylscopolamine on the reduction of the artifacts associated with intestinal peristalsis in abdominal magnetic resonance; Efecto de la dosis y la via de administracion de butilescopolamina en la disminucion de los artefactors asociados al peristaltismo intestinal en la RM abdominal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosda, R.; Marti-Bonmati, L. [Hospital Universitario Dr Peset. Valencia. Clinica Quiron. Valencia (Spain); Ronchera-Oms, C. [Hospital San Pablo-CEU. Moncada Valencia (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    To compare the effect of the route of administration (intravenous and oral) and the dose (40 mg and 80 mg) of butylscopolamine, determining its efficacy in reducing the noise associated with gastrointestinal movement in magnetic resonance (MR) images and the incidence and severity of associated adverse reactions. The present prospective, controlled, double-blind study included 80 patients who underwent abdominal MR. All the patients were given oral, high-density barium sulfate and were divided randomly into 4 groups of 20 patients each: a control group and 3 groups treated with 40 mg or 80 mg of oral butylscopolamine or 40 mg of intravenous butylscopolamine. Both the barium and the oral solutions were administered 25 to 30 minutes before the examination. the MR images were obtained with a STIR sequence (1487/100/44), and qualitative analysis of the noise was carried out using regions of interest situated in the background. The gastrointestinal noise was defined both by the mean and the standard deviation of the signal intensity of the air front of an behind the patient. The standard deviation of the air beside the patient was determined to confirm the absence of variations in noise inherent to MR. The adverse reactions to MR after 2 hours (immediate) and one day (late) were recorded. There were no significant differences among the groups with respect to sex, age or time interval between administration of the oral solution and the start of the sequence. The noise inherent to MR was not significantly different from one group to another (Student-Newman-Keuls test, p=0.71). Both the mean and the standard deviation of the intensity of the air situated in anteroposterior phase-encoding direction were significantly lower in the butylscopolamine groups than in the control group (Student-Newman-Keuls test, p=0.008). The most marked reduction was observed after the oral dose of 80 mg, followed by intravenous injection of 40 mg and the oral dose of 40 mg. Adverse reaction

  15. Nonuniform Three-dimensional Configuration Distributed SAR Signal Reconstruction Clutter Suppression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Mei; ZHANG Lei; LI Chenlei

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of clutter suppression in spaceborne distributed synthetic aperture radar (D-SAR) with nonuniform three-dimensional (3D) configuration geometry.In order to make a breakthrough of the configuration limitation of the traditional space time adaptive processing (STAP) based on uniform array and improve the inhomogeneous clutter suppression performance,this paper considers signal reconstruction technique using array interpolation to process the D-SAR signal.An array interpolation signal reconstruction method based on pitching-partition is derived then a signal reconstruction 3D-STAP clutter suppression method applied to nonuniform 3D configuration is proposed.In particular,the proposed method is compared with conventional methods and the performance analysis is carried out based on simulations.The improvement factor (IF) for clutter suppression is imported and reported as a benchmark on the clutter suppression effect.

  16. The hardness of the independence and matching clutter of a graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasun Hambardzumyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A clutter (or antichain or Sperner family \\(L\\ is a pair \\((V,E\\, where \\(V\\ is a finite set and \\(E\\ is a family of subsets of \\(V\\ none of which is a subset of another. Usually, the elements of \\(V\\ are called vertices of \\(L\\, and the elements of \\(E\\ are called edges of \\(L\\. A subset \\(s_e\\ of an edge \\(e\\ of a clutter is called recognizing for \\(e\\, if \\(s_e\\ is not a subset of another edge. The hardness of an edge \\(e\\ of a clutter is the ratio of the size of \\(e\\'s smallest recognizing subset to the size of \\(e\\. The hardness of a clutter is the maximum hardness of its edges. We study the hardness of clutters arising from independent sets and matchings of graphs.

  17. Adaptive clutter rejection filters for airborne Doppler weather radar applied to the detection of low altitude windshear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, Byron M.

    1989-01-01

    An optimum adaptive clutter rejection filter for use with airborne Doppler weather radar is presented. The radar system is being designed to operate at low-altitudes for the detection of windshear in an airport terminal area where ground clutter returns may mask the weather return. The coefficients of the adaptive clutter rejection filter are obtained using a complex form of a square root normalized recursive least squares lattice estimation algorithm which models the clutter return data as an autoregressive process. The normalized lattice structure implementation of the adaptive modeling process for determining the filter coefficients assures that the resulting coefficients will yield a stable filter and offers possible fixed point implementation. A 10th order FIR clutter rejection filter indexed by geographical location is designed through autoregressive modeling of simulated clutter data. Filtered data, containing simulated dry microburst and clutter return, are analyzed using pulse-pair estimation techniques. To measure the ability of the clutter rejection filters to remove the clutter, results are compared to pulse-pair estimates of windspeed within a simulated dry microburst without clutter. In the filter evaluation process, post-filtered pulse-pair width estimates and power levels are also used to measure the effectiveness of the filters. The results support the use of an adaptive clutter rejection filter for reducing the clutter induced bias in pulse-pair estimates of windspeed.

  18. Clutter removal techniques for GPR images in structure inspection tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuksanovic, Branislav; Bostanudin, Nurul Jihan Farhah

    2012-04-01

    This document analyses the performance of subspace signal processing techniques applied to ground penetrating radar (GPR) images in order to reduce the amount of clutter and noise in the measured GPR image. Two methods considered in this work are Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA). An approach to combine those two techniques to improve their effectiveness when applied to GPR data is proposed in this paper. The experiments performed to gather GPR data and evaluate proposed algorithms are also described. The aim of undertaken experiments is to replicate conditions found in water reservoirs where cracks and holes in the reservoir foundations and joints cause excessive water leakages and losses to water companies and the UK economy in general. Performance of implemented algorithms is discussed and compared to the results achieved by a highly skilled human - GPR image analyst.

  19. Observer detection and discrimination performance as a function of clutter: a signal detection approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Archana; Aggarwal, Tarun; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of signal detection theory (SDT) in predicting target detection and discrimination in disorganized clutter. Two normal observers performed monocular visual search experiments at 25 cm, in the dark. They detected Gabor gratings on an achromatic background cluttered with 2000 or 500 random dots. The targets were displayed at pseudorandom locations from 0-20° and 20-47°, by method of constant stimuli. A contrast-based detection and orientation-based discrimination task was completed in a yes/no or 2-alternative-forced-choice (2AFC) task. The hit rate, false alarm rate, detectability, criterion and bias were analysed. The psychometric function indicated low detection and discrimination thresholds in low clutter that increased in high clutter. Increased clutter showed high hit rates and a false alarm rate that increased with low detectability and liberal criterion. In the detection task, low clutter showed high hit rates and low false alarm rates in the central field. Therefore, SDT proves useful to predict observer performance in visual scenes with disorganized clutter.

  20. Study of clutter origin in in-vivo epi-optoacoustic imaging of human forearms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisser, Stefan; Held, Gerrit; Akarçay, Hidayet G.; Jaeger, Michael; Frenz, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Epi-optoacoustic (OA) imaging offers flexible clinical diagnostics of the human body when the irradiation optic is attached to or directly integrated into the acoustic probe. Epi-OA images, however, encounter clutter that deteriorates contrast and significantly limits imaging depth. This study elaborates clutter origin in clinical epi-optoacoustic imaging using a linear array probe for scanning the human forearm. We demonstrate that the clutter strength strongly varies with the imaging location but stays stable over time, indicating that clutter is caused by anatomical structures. OA transients which are generated by strong optical absorbers located at the irradiation spot were identified to be the main source of clutter. These transients obscure deep in-plane OA signals when detected by the transducer either directly or after being acoustically scattered in the imaging plane. In addition, OA transients generated in the skin below the probe result in acoustic reverberations, which cause problems in image interpretation and limit imaging depth. Understanding clutter origin allows a better interpretation of clinical OA imaging, helps to design clutter compensation techniques and raises the prospect of contrast optimization via the design of the irradiation geometry.

  1. Weak Target Detection within the Nonhomogeneous Ionospheric Clutter Background of HFSWR Based on STAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High Frequency Surface Wave Radar (HFSWR can perform the functions of ocean environment monitoring, target detection, and target tracking over the horizon. However, its system's performance is always limited by the severe ionospheric clutter environment, especially by the nonhomogeneous component. The nonhomogeneous ionospheric clutter generally can cover a few Doppler shift units and a few angle units. Consequently, weak targets masked by the nonhomogeneous ionospheric clutter are difficult to be detected. In this paper, a novel algorithm based on angle-Doppler joint eigenvector which considers the angle-Doppler map of radar echoes is adopted to analyze the characteristics of the nonhomogeneous ionospheric clutter. Given the measured data set, we first investigate the correlation between the signal of interest (SOI and the nonhomogeneous ionospheric clutter and then the correlation between the nonhomogeneous ionospheric clutters in different two ranges. Finally, a new strategy of training data selection is proposed to improve the joint domain localised (JDL algorithm. Simulation results show that the improved-JDL algorithm is effective and the performance of weak target detection within nonhomogeneous ionospheric clutter is improved.

  2. [Abdominal pregnancy, institutional experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Bolaños Ancona, R; Simón Pereyra, L; Juárez García, L; García-Benitez, C Q

    1998-07-01

    Abdominal pregnancy is a rare entity, which has been classified as primary or secondary by Studiford criteria. A retrospective study, between January 1989 and December 1994, realized at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, found 35,080 pregnancies, from which 149 happened to be ectopic, and 6 of them were abdominal. All patients belonged to a low income society class, age between 24 and 35 years, and average of gestations in 2.6. Gestational age varied from 15 weeks to 32.2 weeks having only one delivery at term with satisfactory postnatal evolution. One patient had a recurrent abdominal pregnancy, with genital Tb as a conditional factor. Time of hospitalization varied from 4 to 5 days, and no further patient complications were reported. Fetal loss was estimated in 83.4%. Abdominal pregnancy is often the sequence of a tubarian ectopic pregnancy an when present, it has a very high maternal mortality reported in world literature, not found in this study. The stated frequency of abdominal pregnancy is from 1 of each 3372, up to 1 in every 10,200 deliveries, reporting in the study 1 abdominal pregnancy in 5846 deliveries. The study had two characteristic entities one, the recurrence and two, the delivery at term of one newborn. Abdominal pregnancy accounts for 4% of all ectopic pregnancies. Clinical findings in abdominal pregnancies are pain, transvaginal bleeding and amenorrea, being the cardinal signs of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:9737070

  3. [Abdominal compartment syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottecher, T; Segura, P; Launoy, A

    2001-04-01

    French physicians dealing with abdominal emergencies are not very familiar with the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Increased abdominal pressure has deleterious consequences on local (intestine, liver, kidney) circulation, leading to death in the absence of correct treatment. Abdominal trauma and ruptured aortic aneurism are the main causes of ACS. Clinical presentation may be misleading: respiratory failure, oliguria or circulatory symptoms are often predominant. Abdominal palpation is inefficient for evaluating intra-abdominal pressure (IAP); only measurement of cystic pressure allows precise evaluation of IAP. Abdominal decompression is the treatment of choice. It must be performed as soon as IAP exceeds 25 mmHg. The procedure may be risky with a high incidence of severe complications when ischaemic territories are reperfused. Recent data underline the importance of compensation of hypovolemia before decompression. Abdominal closure may necessitate various techniques (aponevrotomy, Bogota bags, etc.). At any rate, IAP must remain low at the end of the procedure. In case of suspicion of ACS, early measurement of IAP is mandatory. If pressure is over 25 mmHg, a decompressive procedure must be initiated. PMID:11340703

  4. Intermittent Clutter Removal Approac for wind Profiler Data Based on Fractional Fourier Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Lei; AN Jian-ping; BU Xiang-yuan

    2009-01-01

    Through the analysis of the target characteristics and according to the intermittent clutter bursting and short duration characteristics, a new method for the clutter recognition based on the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is proposed. This method is predicated on the fact that the FRFT perfectly localizes a chirp signal as an impulse when the angle parameter of the transform matches the chirp rate of the chirp signal. The method involves detecting the presence of the intermittent clutter and correctly estimating its orientation in the time-frequency plane, removing the intermittent clutter in the fractional domain, and completing wind estimation by the power spectrum. By testing the artificial WPR-like signal and data measured from the field, we verify that the FRFT-based method is very effective.

  5. Clutter attenuation using the Doppler effect in standoff electromagnetic quantum sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Jitrik, Oliverio; Uhlmann, Jeffrey; Venegas, Salvador

    2016-05-01

    In the context of traditional radar systems, the Doppler effect is crucial to detect and track moving targets in the presence of clutter. In the quantum radar context, however, most theoretical performance analyses to date have assumed static targets. In this paper we consider the Doppler effect at the single photon level. In particular, we describe how the Doppler effect produced by clutter and moving targets modifies the quantum distinguishability and the quantum radar error detection probability equations. Furthermore, we show that Doppler-based delayline cancelers can reduce the effects of clutter in the context of quantum radar, but only in the low-brightness regime. Thus, quantum radar may prove to be an important technology if the electronic battlefield requires stealthy tracking and detection of moving targets in the presence of clutter.

  6. Estimation of the Bandpass Clutter Rank for Space-Time Adaptive Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Junhao; YUAN Yeshu; LIU Yongtan

    2001-01-01

    A simple formula for estimating thebandpass clutter rank in the case of linear array isderived. Differences between the definition of clutterrank for theoretical analysis and practical applicationare also pointed out, which are verified by calculations.

  7. An Adaptive Clutter Suppression Technique for Moving Target Detector in Pulse Doppler Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mandal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive system performs the processing by using an architecture having time-varying parameters on the received signals which accompanies with clutters. In this paper, an adaptive moving target detector has been designed to meet the challenges of target detection amidst various levels of clutter environments. The approach has been used that is able to overcome the inherent limitations of conventional systems (e.g. Moving Target Indicator, Fast Fourier Transform etc. having predefined coefficients. In this purpose an optimal design of transversal filter is being proposed along with various weight selection Maps to improve probability of detection in ground based surveillance radar. A modified LMS algorithm based adaptive FIR filter has been implemented utilizing modular CORDIC unit as a main processing element for filtering as well as weight updatation to suppress clutter of various intensity. Extensive MATLAB simulations have been done using various levels of clutter input to show the effectiveness of adaptive moving target detector (AMTD.

  8. Ground-based SAR imaging basics and land clutter effects on the focused image

    OpenAIRE

    Lort Cuenca, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Remote Sensing is the science and art of obtaining information about an object, area, or phenomenon through the analysis of data acquired by a device that is not in contact with the object, area, or phenomenon under investigation. SAR is a form of radar whose defining characteristic is the use of the relative motion between its antenna and the target region. The basic principles of radar imaging are recalled and the effects of some specific land clutter (such as windblown radar ground clutter...

  9. Subspace Compressive GLRT Detector for MIMO Radar in the Presence of Clutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Karteek Bolisetti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of optimising the target detection performance of MIMO radar in the presence of clutter is considered. The increased false alarm rate which is a consequence of the presence of clutter returns is known to seriously degrade the target detection performance of the radar target detector, especially under low SNR conditions. In this paper, a mathematical model is proposed to optimise the target detection performance of a MIMO radar detector in the presence of clutter. The number of samples that are required to be processed by a radar target detector regulates the amount of processing burden while achieving a given detection reliability. While Subspace Compressive GLRT (SSC-GLRT detector is known to give optimised radar target detection performance with reduced computational complexity, it however suffers a significant deterioration in target detection performance in the presence of clutter. In this paper we provide evidence that the proposed mathematical model for SSC-GLRT detector outperforms the existing detectors in the presence of clutter. The performance analysis of the existing detectors and the proposed SSC-GLRT detector for MIMO radar in the presence of clutter are provided in this paper.

  10. Clutter effects on airborne tracking resolution requirements for urban vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Aaron L.; Miller, Brian; Richardson, Phillip; Ra, Chun

    2010-04-01

    This paper details the development, experimentation, collected data and the results of research designed to gain an understanding of the effects of clutter on the temporal and spatial image collection guidelines for tracking urban vehicles. More specifically, a quantitative understanding of the relationship between human observer performance and the spatial and temporal resolution is sought. Performance is measured as a function of the number of video frames per second, imager spatial resolution and the ability of the observer to accurately determine the destination of a moving vehicle target as it encounters vehicles with similar infrared signatures. The research is restricted to data and imagery collected from altitudes typical of modern low to mid altitude persistent surveillance platforms using a wide field of view. The ability of the human observer to perform an unaided track of the vehicle was determined by their completion of carefully designed perception experiments. In these experiments, the observers were presented with simulated imagery from Night Vision's EOSim urban terrain simulator. The details of the simulated targets and backgrounds, the design of the experiments and their associated results are included in this treatment.

  11. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaja, K; Sedlak, L; Urbanek, T; Kostyra, J; Ludyga, T

    2000-01-01

    The reported incidence of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is from 2% to 14% of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and the etiology of this disease is still discussed--according to the literature several pathogenic theories have been proposed. From 1992 to 1997 32 patients with IAAA were operated on. The patients were mostly symptomatic--abdominal pain was present in 68.75% cases, back pain in 31.25%, fever in 12.5% and weight loss in 6.25% of the operated patients. In all the patients ultrasound examination was performed, in 4 patients CT and in 3 cases urography. All the patients were operated on and characteristic signs of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm like: thickened aortic wall, perianeurysmal infiltration or retroperitoneal fibrosis with involvement of retroperitoneal structures were found. In all cases surgery was performed using transperitoneal approach; in three cases intraoperatively contiguous abdominal organs were injured, which was connected with their involvement into periaortic inflammation. In 4 cases clamping of the aorta was done at the level of the diaphragmatic hiatus. 3 patients (9.37%) died (one patient with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm). Authors present diagnostic procedures and the differences in the surgical tactic, emphasizing the necessity of the surgical therapy in patients with inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  12. Abdominal tuberculosis: Imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Jose M. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: jmpjesus@yahoo.com; Madureira, Antonio J. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Vieira, Alberto [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Ramos, Isabel [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)

    2005-08-01

    Radiological findings of abdominal tuberculosis can mimic those of many different diseases. A high level of suspicion is required, especially in high-risk population. In this article, we will describe barium studies, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) findings of abdominal tuberculosis (TB), with emphasis in the latest. We will illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis and describe imaging features that differentiate it from other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, particularly lymphoma and Crohn's disease. As tuberculosis can affect any organ in the abdomen, emphasis is placed to ileocecal involvement, lymphadenopathy, peritonitis and solid organ disease (liver, spleen and pancreas). A positive culture or hystologic analysis of biopsy is still required in many patients for definitive diagnosis. Learning objectives:1.To review the relevant pathophysiology of abdominal tuberculosis. 2.Illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis.

  13. Abdominal Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inspection of a drop of urine), and urine culture for bacterial infection. Stools can be analyzed for ... Hepatitis C Inflammatory Bowel Disease Irritable Bowel Syndrome Obesity Digestive Health Topics Abdominal Pain Syndrome Belching, Bloating, ...

  14. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  15. Ground-Vegetation Clutter Affects Phyllostomid Bat Assemblage Structure in Lowland Amazonian Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Marciente

    Full Text Available Vegetation clutter is a limiting factor for bats that forage near ground level, and may determine the distribution of species and guilds. However, many studies that evaluated the effects of vegetation clutter on bats have used qualitative descriptions rather than direct measurements of vegetation density. Moreover, few studies have evaluated the effect of vegetation clutter on a regional scale. Here, we evaluate the influence of the physical obstruction of vegetation on phyllostomid-bat assemblages along a 520 km transect in continuous Amazonian forest. We sampled bats using mist nets in eight localities during 80 nights (3840 net-hours and estimated the ground-vegetation density with digital photographs. The total number of species, number of animalivorous species, total number of frugivorous species, number of understory frugivorous species, and abundance of canopy frugivorous bats were negatively associated with vegetation clutter. The bat assemblages showed a nested structure in relation to degree of clutter, with animalivorous and understory frugivorous bats distributed throughout the vegetation-clutter gradient, while canopy frugivores were restricted to sites with more open vegetation. The species distribution along the gradient of vegetation clutter was not closely associated with wing morphology, but aspect ratio and wing load differed between frugivores and animalivores. Vegetation structure plays an important role in structuring assemblages of the bats at the regional scale by increasing beta diversity between sites. Differences in foraging strategy and diet of the guilds seem to have contributed more to the spatial distribution of bats than the wing characteristics of the species alone.

  16. Imaging in Tuberculosis abdominal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article we illustrate and discuss imaging features resulting from Tuberculosis abdominal affectation. We present patients evaluated with several imaging modalities who had abdominal symptoms and findings suggestive of granulomatous disease. Diagnosis was confirm including hystopatology and clinical outgoing. Cases involved presented many affected organs such as lymphatic system, peritoneum, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, ureters, adrenal glands and pelvic organs Tuberculosis, Tuberculosis renal, Tuberculosis hepatic, Tuberculosis splenic Tomography, x-ray, computed

  17. Main sea clutter characteristics impacting small slow moving targets detection by marine radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Mrachkovskiy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Searching of the sea clutter mathematical model is carried out in this paper. It is suitable to create based on it algorithm for small slow moving targets detection by marine radars. The compound Gaussian model for modeling sea clutter amplitude stochastic distribution is selected as a result of the sources analysis, because it was confirmed by most of researches. The discussed in the literature model based on chaos theory is choosen as perspective alternative for stochastic model; its advantage of using it for such problems solution must be definitively proved or denied. It was proposed many different distributions for high resolution sea clutter amplitude data modeling. The most frequently reported in the literature are K, Log-Normal and Weibull distributions. K distribution belonging to a compound-Gaussian model has the most significant theoretical and experimental background. This distribution choice is physically explained basing on the processes taking place when electromagnetic waves scattered from capillarity and gravity sea waves create a composed echo. Signal representing this echo is the product of two random components, called texture and speckle. Texture is the result of scattering from gravity waves, has a Gamma pdf (in case of K distribution and corresponds to slow-varying large-scale structure. Speckle is the result of scattering from isolated scatterers (capillarity waves, has a Rayleigh pdf and corresponds to rapid varying small-scale structure. So, K distribution envelope is a compound distribution consisting of a locally Rayleigh distribution speckle whose mean is modulated by a gamma distribution texture. All researches consider Rayleigh pdf for speckle. The lognormal, generalized Gaussian, inverse gamma and some other distributions were proposed for the texture. Due to literature analyses it is seen that texture distribution depends on radar range resolution, but strong dependence is not proved. Some scientists modified K

  18. Correlation analysis of X-band sea clutter in complex domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaolong; Ji, Tingting; Wang, Guoyu; Ji, Guangrong

    2016-08-01

    The correlation analysis of sea clutter data in a complex domain is conducted in this study. Specific to X-band sea clutter, the statistical characteristics of the complex correlation, particularly the phase characteristics which are closely related to the phase difference of the sea clutter and the Doppler properties, are analyzed in detail based on the experimental data, recorded by the McMaster University IPIX radar in 1993. That the phase term of the complex correlation presents linear change means that there exists the linearity of phase differences between different time intervals in the X-band sea clutter. This investigation explores the regularities about the effect of wind on the complex correlation with similar patterns for different polarization modes. The regularities indicate that the wind direction can be inferred from the distribution pattern of the complex correlation. Moreover, a model describing the relationships between the statistics of the complex correlation and wind parameters is proposed. The application for target detection based on the differences of characteristics of complex correlations between the sea clutter and the target are also investigated and the proposed features have been confirmed. The principle of the method is fundamental for broader future applications.

  19. Radar cross sections of ground clutter at 95 GHz for summer and fall conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, R. J.; Hutchins, D. R.; Silvious, J. L.; Dropkin, H.; Goldman, G.; Nemarich, J.; Wikner, D. A.; Dahlstrom, R. K.

    1993-11-01

    Radar cross section (RCS) measurements were made on an extensively instrumented ground-clutter patch over a period of one month from late summer to early fall. The instrumentation allowed collection of a full set of data on meteorological conditions, solar flux, and soil moisture content. The RCS measurements were made using a 95-GHz, polarimetric, monopulse instrumentation radar. The radar is all solid-state, coherent, frequency steppable over a 640-MHz bandwidth, and completely polarimetric for linearly or circularly polarized radiation. The clutter area measured was located in Grayling, Michigan, and consisted of a rectangular patch of ground, 50 by 100 m in area, at a range of about 100 to 250 m from the radar. The clutter patch included areas of bare sandy ground, short grass, low shrubs, evergreen trees, and deciduous trees and was similar to a NATO European environment. A wide range of atmospheric conditions were observed over the measurement period, including a few days of measurable snowfall. The paper describes analysis of the effects of different clutter types and different atmospheric conditions on the measured RCS of the clutter patch.

  20. Abdominal emergencies in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca Robinot, D; Liébana de Rojas, C; Aguirre Pascual, E

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal symptoms are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department visits, and abdominal pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Thorough history taking and physical examination can often reach the correct diagnosis. Knowing the abdominal conditions that are most common in each age group can help radiologists narrow the differential diagnosis. When imaging tests are indicated, ultrasonography is usually the first-line technique, enabling the diagnosis or adding relevant information with the well-known advantages of this technique. Nowadays, plain-film X-ray studies are reserved for cases in which perforation, bowel obstruction, or foreign body ingestion is suspected. It is also important to remember that abdominal pain can also occur secondary to basal pneumonia. CT is reserved for specific indications and in individual cases, for example, in patients with high clinical suspicion of abdominal disease and inconclusive findings at ultrasonography. We review some of the most common conditions in pediatric emergencies, the different imaging tests indicated in each case, and the imaging signs in each condition.

  1. Impact of atmospheric clutter on Doppler-limited gas sensors in the submillimeter/terahertz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Ivan R; Neese, Christopher F; Plummer, Grant M; De Lucia, Frank C

    2011-06-20

    It is well known that clutter (spectral interference) from atmospheric constituents can be a severe limit for spectroscopic point sensors, especially where high sensitivity and specificity are required. In this paper, we will show for submillimeter/terahertz (SMM/THz) sensors that use cw electronic techniques the clutter limit for the detection of common target gases with absolute specificity (probability of false alarm ≪ 10⁻¹⁰) is in the ppt (1 part in 10¹²) range or lower. This is because the most abundant atmospheric gases are either transparent to SMM/THz radiation (e.g., CO₂) or have spectra that are very sparse relative to the 10⁵ Doppler-limited resolution elements available (e.g., H₂O). Moreover, the low clutter limit demonstrated for cw electronic systems in the SMM/THz is independent of system size and complexity.

  2. Direction-of-Arrival Estimation for Radar Ice Sounding Surface Clutter Suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik; Dall, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    recent surface clutter suppression techniques are based on multi-phase-center systems combined with sophisticated coherent postprocessing. The performance of the techniques can be improved by accurate direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimates of the surface clutter. This paper deals with data-driven DOA...... estimation for surface clutter signals, which includes a formulation of the mathematical foundation of spatial aliasing. DOA estimation is applied to data acquired with the P-band POLarimetric Airborne Radar Ice Sounder at the Jutulstraumen Glacier, Antarctica. The effects of spatial aliasing related to a...... large phase center spacing are analyzed, and an unwrapping procedure is presented and applied to the data. Finally, DOA estimation of full-scene data is analyzed and used to show an along-track and incidence (off-nadir) angle dependent variation of the effective scattering center of the surface return...

  3. Spatiotemporal Clutter Filtering of Ultrafast Ultrasound Data Highly Increases Doppler and fUltrasound Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demené, Charlie; Deffieux, Thomas; Pernot, Mathieu; Osmanski, Bruno-Félix; Biran, Valérie; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Sieu, Lim-Anna; Bergel, Antoine; Franqui, Stéphanie; Correas, Jean-Michel; Cohen, Ivan; Baud, Olivier; Tanter, Mickael

    2015-11-01

    Ultrafast ultrasonic imaging is a rapidly developing field based on the unfocused transmission of plane or diverging ultrasound waves. This recent approach to ultrasound imaging leads to a large increase in raw ultrasound data available per acquisition. Bigger synchronous ultrasound imaging datasets can be exploited in order to strongly improve the discrimination between tissue and blood motion in the field of Doppler imaging. Here we propose a spatiotemporal singular value decomposition clutter rejection of ultrasonic data acquired at ultrafast frame rate. The singular value decomposition (SVD) takes benefits of the different features of tissue and blood motion in terms of spatiotemporal coherence and strongly outperforms conventional clutter rejection filters based on high pass temporal filtering. Whereas classical clutter filters operate on the temporal dimension only, SVD clutter filtering provides up to a four-dimensional approach (3D in space and 1D in time). We demonstrate the performance of SVD clutter filtering with a flow phantom study that showed an increased performance compared to other classical filters (better contrast to noise ratio with tissue motion between 1 and 10mm/s and axial blood flow as low as 2.6 mm/s). SVD clutter filtering revealed previously undetected blood flows such as microvascular networks or blood flows corrupted by significant tissue or probe motion artifacts. We report in vivo applications including small animal fUltrasound brain imaging (blood flow detection limit of 0.5 mm/s) and several clinical imaging cases, such as neonate brain imaging, liver or kidney Doppler imaging. PMID:25955583

  4. Echolocating Big Brown Bats, Eptesicus fuscus, Modulate Pulse Intervals to Overcome Range Ambiguity in Cluttered Surroundings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Alyssa R; Fulton, Kara A; Gaudette, Jason E; Simmons, Ryan A; Matsuo, Ikuo; Simmons, James A

    2016-01-01

    Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) emit trains of brief, wideband frequency-modulated (FM) echolocation sounds and use echoes of these sounds to orient, find insects, and guide flight through vegetation. They are observed to emit sounds that alternate between short and long inter-pulse intervals (IPIs), forming sonar sound groups. The occurrence of these strobe groups has been linked to flight in cluttered acoustic environments, but how exactly bats use sonar sound groups to orient and navigate is still a mystery. Here, the production of sound groups during clutter navigation was examined. Controlled flight experiments were conducted where the proximity of the nearest obstacles was systematically decreased while the extended scene was kept constant. Four bats flew along a corridor of varying widths (100, 70, and 40 cm) bounded by rows of vertically hanging plastic chains while in-flight echolocation calls were recorded. Bats shortened their IPIs for more rapid spatial sampling and also grouped their sounds more tightly when flying in narrower corridors. Bats emitted echolocation calls with progressively shorter IPIs over the course of a flight, and began their flights by emitting shorter starting IPI calls when clutter was denser. The percentage of sound groups containing 3 or more calls increased with increasing clutter proximity. Moreover, IPI sequences having internal structure become more pronounced when corridor width narrows. A novel metric for analyzing the temporal organization of sound sequences was developed, and the results indicate that the time interval between echolocation calls depends heavily on the preceding time interval. The occurrence of specific IPI patterns were dependent upon clutter, which suggests that sonar sound grouping may be an adaptive strategy for coping with pulse-echo ambiguity in cluttered surroundings. PMID:27445723

  5. Numerical simulation of radar surveillance for the ship target in oceanic clutters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A fast iterative approach of generalized forward-backward method with the spectrum acceleration algorithm (GFBM/SAA) is developed for solving electromagnetic field integral equation and is applied to numerical simulation of radar surveillance of the ship target in oceanic clutters. Randomly rough surface is realized by the Monte Carlo method using the Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum. Numerical results of bistatic and back-scattering from the ship target and oceanic clutters demonstrate the functional dependencies upon the situation of radar surveillance such as the incidence and observation angles, radar altitude, ship RCS and other oceanic conditions.

  6. Childhood abdominal cystic lymphangioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Abdominal lymphangioma is a rare benign congenital malformation of the mesenteric and/or retroperitoneal lymphatics. Clinical presentation is variable and may be misleading; therefore, complex imaging studies are necessary in the evaluation of this condition. US and CT have a major role in the correct preoperative diagnosis and provide important information regarding location, size, adjacent organ involvement, and expected complications. Objective: To evaluate the clinical and imaging findings of seven children with proven abdominal cystic lymphangioma. Materials and methods: Clinical and imaging files of seven children with pathologically proven abdominal lymphangioma, from three university hospitals, were retrospectively evaluated. Patient's ages ranged from 1 day to 6 years (mean, 2.2 years). Symptoms and signs included evidence of inflammation, abnormal prenatal US findings, chronic abdominal pain, haemorrhage following trauma, clinical signs of intestinal obstruction, and abdominal distension with lower extremities lymphoedema. Plain films of five patients, US of six patients and CT of five patients were reviewed. Sequential imaging examinations were available in two cases. Results: Abdominal plain films showed displacement of bowel loops by a soft tissue mass in five of six patients, two of them with dilatation of small bowel loops. US revealed an abdominal multiloculated septated cystic mass in five of six cases and a single pelvic cyst in one which changed in appearance over 2 months. Ascites was present in three cases. CT demonstrated a septated cystic mass of variable sizes in all available five cases. Sequential US and CT examinations in two patients showed progressive enlargement of the masses, increase of fluid echogenicity, and thickening of walls or septa in both cases, with multiplication of septa in one case. At surgery, mesenteric lymphangioma was found in five patients and retroperitoneal lymphangioma in the other two. Conclusions: US

  7. Abdominal Dual Energy Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, F. Graham; Brody, William R.; Cassel, Douglas M.; Macovski, Albert

    1981-11-01

    Dual energy scanned projection radiography of the abdomen has been performed using an experimental line-scanned radiographic system. Digital images simultaneously obtained at 85 and 135 kVp are combined, using photoelectric/Compton decomposition algorithms to create images from which selected materials are cancelled. Soft tissue cancellation images have proved most useful in various abdominal imaging applications, largely due to the elimination of obscuring high-contrast bowel gas shadows. These techniques have been successfully applied to intravenous pyelography, oral cholecystography, intravenous abdominal arteriog-raphy and the imaging of renal calculi.

  8. Childhood abdominal cystic lymphangioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konen, Osnat; Rathaus, Valeria; Shapiro, Myra [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Meir General Hospital, Sapir Medical Centre, Kfar Saba (Israel); Dlugy, Elena [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Schneider Medical Centre, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University (Israel); Freud, Enrique [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Sapir Medical Centre, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University (Israel); Kessler, Ada [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sourasky Medical Centre, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Horev, Gadi [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Schneider Medical Centre, Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2002-02-01

    Background: Abdominal lymphangioma is a rare benign congenital malformation of the mesenteric and/or retroperitoneal lymphatics. Clinical presentation is variable and may be misleading; therefore, complex imaging studies are necessary in the evaluation of this condition. US and CT have a major role in the correct preoperative diagnosis and provide important information regarding location, size, adjacent organ involvement, and expected complications. Objective: To evaluate the clinical and imaging findings of seven children with proven abdominal cystic lymphangioma. Materials and methods: Clinical and imaging files of seven children with pathologically proven abdominal lymphangioma, from three university hospitals, were retrospectively evaluated. Patient's ages ranged from 1 day to 6 years (mean, 2.2 years). Symptoms and signs included evidence of inflammation, abnormal prenatal US findings, chronic abdominal pain, haemorrhage following trauma, clinical signs of intestinal obstruction, and abdominal distension with lower extremities lymphoedema. Plain films of five patients, US of six patients and CT of five patients were reviewed. Sequential imaging examinations were available in two cases. Results: Abdominal plain films showed displacement of bowel loops by a soft tissue mass in five of six patients, two of them with dilatation of small bowel loops. US revealed an abdominal multiloculated septated cystic mass in five of six cases and a single pelvic cyst in one which changed in appearance over 2 months. Ascites was present in three cases. CT demonstrated a septated cystic mass of variable sizes in all available five cases. Sequential US and CT examinations in two patients showed progressive enlargement of the masses, increase of fluid echogenicity, and thickening of walls or septa in both cases, with multiplication of septa in one case. At surgery, mesenteric lymphangioma was found in five patients and retroperitoneal lymphangioma in the other two

  9. Dolor abdominal recurrente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo De Vivero

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent abdominal pain, is a common pediatric problem encountered by primary care physicians, medical subspecialists and surgical specialists. Chronic abdominal pain in children is usually functional-that is, without objective evidence of an underlying organic disorder. The presence of weight loss, gastrointestinal bleeding, persistent fever, chronic severe diarrhea and significant vomiting is associated with a higher prevalence of organic disease. In this article, it examined the diagnostic and therapeutic value of a medical and psychologic history, diagnostic tests, and pharmacological and behavioral therapy.

  10. Lexical Access, Story Re-Telling and Sequencing Skills in Adults Who Clutter and Those Who Do Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton-Furness, Jessica; Ward, David

    2012-01-01

    Cluttering is a rate-based disorder of fluency, the scope of whose diagnostic criteria currently remains unclear. This paper reports preliminary findings from a larger study which aims to determine whether cluttering can be associated with language disturbances as well as motor and rate based ones. Subtests from the Mt Wilga High Level Language…

  11. Modified GIT model for predicting wind-speed behavior of low-grazing-angle radar sea clutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Shi; Zhang, Jin-Peng; Li, Xin; Wu, Zhen-Sen

    2014-10-01

    A modified GIT model for describing the variational trend of mean clutter reflectivity as a function of wind speed is proposed. It uses two slope adjustment factors and two critical wind-speed factors to define and adjust the increasing slope of reflectivity with respect to wind speed. In addition, it uses a constant factor to compensate the overall amplitude of clutter reflectivity. The performance of the modified GIT model has been verified on the basis of the L-band low-grazing-angle radar sea clutter data. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data, indicating that the model is more effective in predicting the wind-speed behavior of clutter reflectivity than the conventional GIT model, especially for lower and higher wind speeds. We believe that the proposed model can provide deeper insights into the relationship between radar sea clutter reflectivity and sea state conditions.

  12. Adult abdominal hernias.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Kevin P

    2014-06-01

    Educational Objectives and Key Points. 1. Given that abdominal hernias are a frequent imaging finding, radiologists not only are required to interpret the appearances of abdominal hernias but also should be comfortable with identifying associated complications and postrepair findings. 2. CT is the imaging modality of choice for the assessment of a known adult abdominal hernia in both elective and acute circumstances because of rapid acquisition, capability of multiplanar reconstruction, good spatial resolution, and anatomic depiction with excellent sensitivity for most complications. 3. Ultrasound is useful for adult groin assessment and is the imaging modality of choice for pediatric abdominal wall hernia assessment, whereas MRI is beneficial when there is reasonable concern that a patient\\'s symptoms could be attributable to a hernia or a musculoskeletal source. 4. Fluoroscopic herniography is a sensitive radiologic investigation for patients with groin pain in whom a hernia is suspected but in whom a hernia cannot be identified at physical examination. 5. The diagnosis of an internal hernia not only is a challenging clinical diagnosis but also can be difficult to diagnose with imaging: Closed-loop small-bowel obstruction and abnormally located bowel loops relative to normally located small bowel or colon should prompt assessment for an internal hernia.

  13. Physicians' Abdominal Auscultation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    John, Gade; Peter, Kruse; Andersen, Ole Trier;

    1998-01-01

    Background: Abdominal auscultation has an important position in the physical examination of the abdomen. Little is known about rater agreement. The aim of this study was to describe rater agreement and thus, indirectly, the value of the examination. Methods: In a semi-virtual setup 12 recordings...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Children’s (pediatric) ultrasound imaging of the abdomen ... limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? What is Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...

  15. Breaking through the Advertising Clutter: A Qualitative Analysis of Broken Stereotypes in Print and Television Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Charles U.

    As a result of the overwhelming amount of print and electronic advertisements which compete for consumer attention, advertisers must find effective methods to get through the ad clutter and capture their audience's interest. Several tactics can accomplish this strategy, including the tactic of breaking or reversing audience expectations or…

  16. Breaking through the clutter : Benefits of advertisement originality and familiarity for brand attention and memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, R; Warlop, L; Wedel, M

    2002-01-01

    Rising levels of advertising competition have made it increasingly difficult to attract and hold consumers' attention and to establish strong memory traces for the advertised brand. A common communication strategy to break through this competitive clutter is to increase ad originality However, ad or

  17. Simulation and Prediction of Weather Radar Clutter Using a Wave Propagator on High Resolution NWP Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Bovith, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    a high-resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model. The wave propagator is based on the parabolic equation approximation to the electromagnetic wave equation. The parabolic equation is solved using the well-known Fourier split-step method. Finally, the radar clutter prediction technique is used...

  18. Detecting Weather Radar Clutter by Information Fusion With Satellite Images and Numerical Weather Prediction Model Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøvith, Thomas; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Hansen, Lars Kai;

    2006-01-01

    A method for detecting clutter in weather radar images by information fusion is presented. Radar data, satellite images, and output from a numerical weather prediction model are combined and the radar echoes are classified using supervised classification. The presented method uses indirect...

  19. Centroid Tracker Aim Point Estimation In The Presence Of Sensor Noise And Clutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rheeden, Don R.; Jones, Richard A.

    1986-03-01

    The development of automatic target tracking systems has enabled more accurate determination of target position, velocity, acceleration, and other parameters needed for weapons guidance and target designation. With the advent of low cost, high speed digital computers and image processing hardware, it has become more and more feasible to incorporate digital image processing techniques in target tracking systems. When computing target position ( aim point) from discrete images, several problems can arise. A major problem is caused by noise. In target tracking noise originates from two sources. The first source is system and sensor noise. This is usually modeled by additive white Gaussian noise. Another type of noise is caused by clutter near the target. Clutter objects can make it more difficult for the tracker to separate the target from its surrounding background. The result is target pixels can be classified as background pixels and visa versa. This, in turn, causes errors in computing the target aim point. An investigation of the effects of system and sensor noise on target tracking is presented. Two statistical models are derived and simulation results are presented showing the accuracy of the models. The results obtained are applicable to the clutter noise case when clutter causes pixel classification errors which are random in nature.

  20. Detection of dim point targets in cluttered maritime backgrounds through multisensor image fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.

    2002-01-01

    Multispectral IR imaging techniques are frequently deployed in maritime operations, for instance to detect floating mines or to find small dinghies and swimmers during search and rescue operations. However, maritime backgrounds usually contain a large amount of clutter that severely hampers the dete

  1. Surface return direction-of-arrival analysis for radar ice sounding surface clutter suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik; Dall, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    with coherent signal processing techniques can improve the suppression, in particular if the direction of arrival (DOA) of the clutter signal is estimated accurately. This paper deals with data-driven DOA estimation. By using P-band data from the ice shelf in Antarctica it is demonstrated that a...... varying penetration depth influences the DOA....

  2. Human factors of target detection tasks within heavily cluttered video scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Samuel; Wellig, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Background: Algorithms show difficulties in distinguishing weak signals of a target from a cluttered background, a task that humans tend to master relatively easily. We conducted two studies to identify how various degrees of clutter influence operator performance and search patterns in a visual target detection task. Methods: First, 8 male subjects had to look for specific female targets within a heavily cluttered public area. Subjects were supported by differing amounts of markings that helped them to identify females in general. We presented video clips and analyzed the search patterns. Second, 18 subject matter experts had to identify targets on a heavily frequented motorway intersection. We presented them with video material from a UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) surveillance mission. The video image was subdivided in three zones: The central zone (CZ), a circle area of 10°. The peripheral zone (PZ) corresponding to a 4:3 format and the hyper peripheral zone (HPZ) which represented the lateral region specific to the 16:9 format. We analyzed fixation densities and task performance. Results: We found an approximately U-shaped correlation between the number of markings in a video and the degree of structure in search patterns as well as performance. For the motorway surveillance task we found a difference in mean detection time for CZ vs. HPZ (p=0.01) and PZ vs. HPZ (p=0.003) but no difference for CZ vs. PZ (p=0.491). There were no differences in detection rate for the respective zones. We found the highest fixation density in CZ decreasing towards HPZ. Conclusion: We were able to demonstrate that markings could increase surveillance operator performance in a cluttered environment as long as their number is kept in an optimal range. When performing a search task within a heavily cluttered environment, humans tend to show rather erratic search patterns and spend more time watching central picture areas.

  3. Component separation in abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawstorne, Edward; Smart, Christopher J; Fallis, Simon A; Suggett, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Component separation is established for complex hernia repairs. This case presents early component separation and release of the anterior and posterior sheath to facilitate closure of the abdominal wall following emergency laparotomy, reinforcing the repair with a biological mesh. On Day 11 following an emergency laparotomy for penetrating trauma, this patient underwent component separation and release of the anterior and posterior sheath. An intra-abdominal biological mesh was secured, and the fascia and skin closed successfully. Primary abdominal closure can be achieved in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma with the use of component separation and insertion of intra-abdominal biological mesh, where standard closure is not possible. PMID:24876334

  4. Small Infrared Target Detection by Region-Adaptive Clutter Rejection for Sea-Based Infrared Search and Track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a region-adaptive clutter rejection method for small target detection in sea-based infrared search and track. In the real world, clutter normally generates many false detections that impede the deployment of such detection systems. Incoming targets (missiles, boats, etc. can be located in the sky, horizon and sea regions, which have different types of clutters, such as clouds, a horizontal line and sea-glint. The characteristics of regional clutter were analyzed after the geometrical analysis-based region segmentation. The false detections caused by cloud clutter were removed by the spatial attribute-based classification. Those by the horizontal line were removed using the heterogeneous background removal filter. False alarms by sun-glint were rejected using the temporal consistency filter, which is the most difficult part. The experimental results of the various cluttered background sequences show that the proposed region adaptive clutter rejection method produces fewer false alarms than that of the mean subtraction filter (MSF with an acceptable degradation detection rate.

  5. Obesity-Associated Abdominal Elephantiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Kohli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal elephantiasis is a rare entity. Abdominal elephantiasis is an uncommon, but deformative and progressive cutaneous disease caused by chronic lymphedema and recurrent streptococcal or Staphylococcus infections of the abdominal wall. We present 3 cases of patients with morbid obesity who presented to our hospital with abdominal wall swelling, thickening, erythema, and pain. The abdominal wall and legs were edematous, with cobblestone-like, thickened, hyperpigmented, and fissured plaques on the abdomen. Two patients had localised areas of skin erythema, tenderness, and increased warmth. There was purulent drainage from the abdominal wall in one patient. They were managed with antibiotics with some initial improvement. Meticulous skin care and local keratolytic treatment for the lesions were initiated with limited success due to their late presentation. All three patients refused surgical therapy. Conclusion. Early diagnosis is important for the treatment of abdominal elephantiasis and prevention of complications.

  6. The abdominal circulatory pump.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Aliverti

    Full Text Available Blood in the splanchnic vasculature can be transferred to the extremities. We quantified such blood shifts in normal subjects by measuring trunk volume by optoelectronic plethysmography, simultaneously with changes in body volume by whole body plethysmography during contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Trunk volume changes with blood shifts, but body volume does not so that the blood volume shifted between trunk and extremities (Vbs is the difference between changes in trunk and body volume. This is so because both trunk and body volume change identically with breathing and gas expansion or compression. During tidal breathing Vbs was 50-75 ml with an ejection fraction of 4-6% and an output of 750-1500 ml/min. Step increases in abdominal pressure resulted in rapid emptying presumably from the liver with a time constant of 0.61+/-0.1SE sec. followed by slower flow from non-hepatic viscera. The filling time constant was 0.57+/-0.09SE sec. Splanchnic emptying shifted up to 650 ml blood. With emptying, the increased hepatic vein flow increases the blood pressure at its entry into the inferior vena cava (IVC and abolishes the pressure gradient producing flow between the femoral vein and the IVC inducing blood pooling in the legs. The findings are important for exercise because the larger the Vbs the greater the perfusion of locomotor muscles. During asystolic cardiac arrest we calculate that appropriate timing of abdominal compression could produce an output of 6 L/min. so that the abdominal circulatory pump might act as an auxiliary heart.

  7. The Abdominal Circulatory Pump

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Aliverti; Dario Bovio; Irene Fullin; Dellacà, Raffaele L.; Antonella Lo Mauro; Antonio Pedotti; Macklem, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Blood in the splanchnic vasculature can be transferred to the extremities. We quantified such blood shifts in normal subjects by measuring trunk volume by optoelectronic plethysmography, simultaneously with changes in body volume by whole body plethysmography during contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Trunk volume changes with blood shifts, but body volume does not so that the blood volume shifted between trunk and extremities (Vbs) is the difference between changes in trunk ...

  8. Abdominal Radical Trachelectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Căpîlna, Mihai Emil; Ioanid, Nicolae; Scripcariu, Viorel; Gavrilescu, Madalina Mihaela; Szabo, Bela

    2014-01-01

    Objective Abdominal radical trachelectomy (ART) is one of the fertility-sparing procedures in women with early-stage cervical cancer. The published results of ART, in comparison with vaginal radical trachelectomy, so far are limited. Materials and Methods This retrospective study comprises all cases of female patients referred to ART with early-stage cervical cancer from 2 gynecologic oncology centers in Romania. Results A total of 29 women were referred for ART, but subsequently, fertility c...

  9. Abdominal aspergillosis: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Suk Keu, E-mail: pagoda20@hanmail.net [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hye Jin, E-mail: kimhyejin@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jae Ho, E-mail: jhbyun@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ah Young, E-mail: aykim@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Moon-Gyu, E-mail: mglee@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Hyun Kwon, E-mail: hkha@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Objective: In order to retrospectively evaluate the CT findings of abdominal aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Materials and methods: CT scans were reviewed with regard to the sites, number, morphologic appearance, attenuation, and the contrast enhancement patterns of the lesions in six patients (5 women, 1 man; mean age, 43.4 years; range, 23-59 years) with pathologically proved abdominal aspergillosis by two gastrointestinal radiologists in consensus. Medical records were also reviewed to determine each patient's clinical status and outcome. Results: All patients were immunocompromised state: 4 patients received immunosuppressive therapy for solid organ transplantation and 2 patients received chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. Aspergillosis involved blood vessels (n = 3), liver (n = 2), spleen (n = 2), gastrointestinal tract (n = 2), native kidney (n = 1), transplanted kidney (n = 1), peritoneum (n = 1), and retroperitoneum (n = 1). CT demonstrated solid organ or bowel infarction or perforation secondary to vascular thrombosis or pseudoaneurysm, multiple low-attenuating lesions of solid organs presenting as abscesses, concentric bowel wall thickening mimicking typhlitis, or diffuse or nodular infiltration of the peritoneum and retroperitoneum. Conclusion: Familiarity with findings commonly presenting as angioinvasive features or abscesses on CT, may facilitate the diagnosis of rare and fatal abdominal aspergillosis.

  10. Abdominal aspergillosis: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: In order to retrospectively evaluate the CT findings of abdominal aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Materials and methods: CT scans were reviewed with regard to the sites, number, morphologic appearance, attenuation, and the contrast enhancement patterns of the lesions in six patients (5 women, 1 man; mean age, 43.4 years; range, 23-59 years) with pathologically proved abdominal aspergillosis by two gastrointestinal radiologists in consensus. Medical records were also reviewed to determine each patient's clinical status and outcome. Results: All patients were immunocompromised state: 4 patients received immunosuppressive therapy for solid organ transplantation and 2 patients received chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. Aspergillosis involved blood vessels (n = 3), liver (n = 2), spleen (n = 2), gastrointestinal tract (n = 2), native kidney (n = 1), transplanted kidney (n = 1), peritoneum (n = 1), and retroperitoneum (n = 1). CT demonstrated solid organ or bowel infarction or perforation secondary to vascular thrombosis or pseudoaneurysm, multiple low-attenuating lesions of solid organs presenting as abscesses, concentric bowel wall thickening mimicking typhlitis, or diffuse or nodular infiltration of the peritoneum and retroperitoneum. Conclusion: Familiarity with findings commonly presenting as angioinvasive features or abscesses on CT, may facilitate the diagnosis of rare and fatal abdominal aspergillosis.

  11. [Differential diagnosis of abdominal pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Pascal

    2015-09-01

    Despite the frequency of functional abdominal pain, potentially dangerous causes of abdominal pain need to be excluded. Medical history and clinical examination must focus on red flags and signs for imflammatory or malignant diseases. See the patient twice in the case of severe and acute abdominal pain if lab parameters or radiological examinations are normal. Avoid repeated and useless X-ray exposure whenever possible. In the case of subacute or chronic abdominal pain, lab tests such as fecal calprotectin, helicobacter stool antigen and serological tests for celiac disease are very useful. Elderly patients may show atypical or missing clinical signs. Take care of red herrings and be skeptical whether your initial diagnosis is really correct. Abdominal pain can frequently be an abdominal wall pain. PMID:26331201

  12. Abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gefke, K; Schroeder, T V; Thisted, B;

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify patients who need longer care in the ICU (more than 48 hours) following abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery and to evaluate the influence of perioperative complications on short- and long-term survival and quality of life. AAA surgery was performed in 553......, 78% stated that their quality of life had improved or was unchanged after surgery and had resumed working. These data justify a therapeutically aggressive approach, including ICU therapy following AAA surgery, despite failure of one or more organ systems....

  13. Dolor abdominal recurrente .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo De Vivero

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available El dolor abdominal recurrente (DAR es un problema frecuente en la consulta médica y en la subespecialidad médica y quirúrgica. El DAR es frecuentemente funcional, es decir, sin una causa orgánica aparente. El diagnóstico diferencial debe incluir pérdida de peso, sangrado gastrointestinal, fiebre persistente, diarrea crónica y vómito importante. En este artículo se revisa el diagnóstico y tratamiento, pruebas diagnósticas y manejo farmacológico y ambiental.

  14. Detection of Ground Clutter from Weather Radar Using a Dual-Polarization and Dual-Scan Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Golbon-Haghighi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel dual-polarization and dual-scan (DPDS classification algorithm is developed for clutter detection in weather radar observations. Two consecutive scans of dual-polarization radar echoes are jointly processed to estimate auto- and cross-correlation functions. Discriminants are then defined and estimated in order to separate clutter from weather based on their physical and statistical properties. An optimal Bayesian classifier is used to make a decision on clutter presence from the estimated discriminant functions. The DPDS algorithm is applied to the data collected with the KOUN polarimetric radar and compared with the existing detection methods. It is shown that the DPDS algorithm yields a higher probability of detection and lower false alarm rate in clutter detection.

  15. Capturing dynamics on multiple timescales: a hybrid approach for cluttered electromagnetic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawley, Norma H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Myers, Kary L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Galbraith, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brumby, Steven P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Many problems in electromagnetic signal analysis exhibit dynamics on a wide range of time scales against nonstationary clutter and noise. We consider a problem in which the relevant time scales can range from nanoseconds to hours or days (12 or 13 orders of magnitude). We present a hybrid algorithm currently designed to capture the dynamic behavior at scales from nanoseconds to milliseconds (6 orders of magnitude) while remaining robust to clutter and noise. We draw from techniques of adaptive feature extraction, statistical machine learning, and discrete process modeling and present results on a simulated multimode problem. Our goals are to find a representation of the signal that allows us to identify which pulses were produced by a target emitter and to determine the operational mode of the target.

  16. An Improved Sequential Initiation Method for Multitarget Track in Clutter with Large Noise Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daxiong Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an improved sequential method for underwater multiple objects tracks initiation in clutter, estimating the initial position for the trajectory. The underwater environment is complex and changeable, and the sonar data are not very ideal. When the detection distance is far, the error of measured data is also great. Besides that, the clutter has a grave effect on the tracks initiation. So it is hard to initialize a track and estimate the initial position. The new tracks initiation is that when at least six of ten points meet the requirements, then we determine that there is a new track and the initial states of the parameters are estimated by the linear least square method. Compared to the conventional tracks initiation methods, our method not only considers the kinematics information of targets, but also regards the error of the sonar sensors as an important element. Computer simulations confirm that the performance of our method is very nice.

  17. Demonstration of radar reflector detection and ground clutter suppression using airborne weather and mapping radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. J.; Bull, J. S.; Chisholm, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    A navigation system which utilizes minimum ground-based equipment is especially advantageous to helicopters, which can make off-airport landings. Research has been conducted in the use of weather and mapping radar to detect large radar reflectors overland for navigation purposes. As initial studies have not been successful, investigations were conducted regarding a new concept for the detection of ground-based radar reflectors and eliminating ground clutter, using a device called an echo processor (EP). A description is presented of the problems associated with detecting radar reflectors overland, taking into account the EP concept and the results of ground- and flight-test investigations. The echo processor concept was successfully demonstrated in detecting radar reflectors overland in a high-clutter environment. A radar reflector target size of 55 dBsm was found to be adequate for detection in an urban environment.

  18. Hypnosis for functional abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottsegen, David

    2011-07-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is a common pediatric condition affecting 20% of the pediatric population worldwide. Most children with this disorder are found to have no specific organic etiology and are given the diagnosis of functional abdominal pain. Well-designed clinical trials have found hypnotherapy and guided imagery to be the most efficacious treatments for this condition. Hypnotic techniques used for other somatic symptoms are easily adaptable for use with functional abdominal pain. The author discusses 2 contrasting hypnotic approaches to functional abdominal pain and provides implications for further research. These approaches may provide new insights into this common and complex disorder. PMID:21922712

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Children's (pediatric) abdominal ultrasound imaging produces pictures ...

  20. Techniques for Clutter Suppression in the Presence of Body Movements during the Detection of Respiratory Activity through UWB Radars

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Lazaro; David Girbau; Ramon Villarino

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the feasibility of tracking the chest wall movement of a human subject during respiration from the waveforms recorded using an impulse-radio (IR) ultra-wideband radar. The paper describes the signal processing to estimate sleep apnea detection and breathing rate. Some techniques to solve several problems in these types of measurements, such as the clutter suppression, body movement and body orientation detection are described. Clutter suppression is achieved using a movi...

  1. Detecting Weather Radar Clutter by Information Fusion With Satellite Images and Numerical Weather Prediction Model Output

    OpenAIRE

    Bøvith, Thomas; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Hansen, Lars Kai; Gill, Rashpal S.; Overgaard, Søren

    2006-01-01

    A method for detecting clutter in weather radar images by information fusion is presented. Radar data, satellite images, and output from a numerical weather prediction model are combined and the radar echoes are classified using supervised classification. The presented method uses indirect information on precipitation in the atmosphere from Meteosat-8 multispectral images and near-surface temperature estimates from the DMI-HIRLAM-S05 numerical weather prediction model. Alternatively, an opera...

  2. NUMERICAL PERFORMANCES OF LOW RANK STAP BASED ON DIFFERENT HETEROGENEOUS CLUTTER SUBSPACE ESTIMATORS

    OpenAIRE

    Breloy, A; Ginolhac, G; Pascal, F; Forster, P.

    2014-01-01

    Space time Adaptive Processing (STAP) for airborne RADAR fits the context of a disturbance composed of a Low Rank (LR) clutter, here modeled by a Compound Gaussian (CG) process, plus a white Gaussian noise (WGN). In such context, the corresponding LR adaptive filters used to detect a target require less training vectors than classical methods to reach equivalent performance. Unlike the classical filter which is based on the Covariance Matrix (CM) of the noise, the LR filter is based on the cl...

  3. Remote retuning of X-band mini weather radar using ground clutter echoes

    OpenAIRE

    Rorato, Oscar; Bertoldo, Silvano; Lucianaz, Claudio; Perona, Giovanni Emilio; Allegretti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The magnetron of a X-band mini weather radar could drift mainly due to external factors such as temperatures, humidity etc. The central frequency of the radar receiver filter must remain perfectly aligned with the magnetron generated frequency in order to receive the maximum power and avoid rain underestimation problems. This work describe a simple and cheap technique developed to remote retuning a X-band weather radar using ground clutter echoes acquired during clear sky days. By statistical...

  4. Rainfall estimation and ground clutter rejection with dual polarization weather radar

    OpenAIRE

    F Lombardo; F. Napolitano; Russo, F.; Scialanga, G.; Baldini, L.; E. Gorgucci

    2006-01-01

    Conventional radars, used for atmospheric remote sensing, usually operate at a single polarization and frequency to estimate storm parameters such as rainfallrate and water content. Because of the high variability of the drop size distribution conventional radars do not succeed in obtaining detailed information because they just use horizontal reflectivity. The potentiality of the dual-polarized weather radar is investigated, in order to reject the ground-clutter, using differential reflect...

  5. Practical pediatric abdominal CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This course is designed to help the radiologist in a hospital setting successfully approach abdominal CT in the infant and child. Emphasis is placed on techniques necessary for a high-quality examination of the upper abdomen, as applied to common pediatric problems such as trauma, tumor, and infection. Material is presented on technical considerations, including patient sedation, preparation, and potential pitfalls and helpful hints for imaging. An emphasis is placed on dynamic scanning with table incrementation. The section on trauma focuses on an approach to imaging the abdomen in the injured child, typical injuries, patterns of injury in the upper abdomen, and why CT is the best imaging modality for blunt upper abdominal trauma. The discussion of tumor imaging reviews the appearance of typical childhood neoplasia including Wilms tumor, neuroblastoma, non-Hodgkin and Burkitt lymphoma, and disseminated solid tumors such as rhabdomyosarcoma. The authors emphasize what to look for and where, both on initial and on later (for recurrences) examinations. The discussion of infection addresses detection of abscesses and occult infections in children, as well as imaging of abscesses prior to intervention

  6. SAR Imagery Simulation of Ship Based on Electromagnetic Calculations and Sea Clutter Modelling for Classification Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ship detection and classification with space-borne SAR has many potential applications within the maritime surveillance, fishery activity management, monitoring ship traffic, and military security. While ship detection techniques with SAR imagery are well established, ship classification is still an open issue. One of the main reasons may be ascribed to the difficulties on acquiring the required quantities of real data of vessels under different observation and environmental conditions with precise ground truth. Therefore, simulation of SAR images with high scenario flexibility and reasonable computation costs is compulsory for ship classification algorithms development. However, the simulation of SAR imagery of ship over sea surface is challenging. Though great efforts have been devoted to tackle this difficult problem, it is far from being conquered. This paper proposes a novel scheme for SAR imagery simulation of ship over sea surface. The simulation is implemented based on high frequency electromagnetic calculations methods of PO, MEC, PTD and GO. SAR imagery of sea clutter is modelled by the representative K-distribution clutter model. Then, the simulated SAR imagery of ship can be produced by inserting the simulated SAR imagery chips of ship into the SAR imagery of sea clutter. The proposed scheme has been validated with canonical and complex ship targets over a typical sea scene

  7. High Speed Dim Air Target Detection Using Airborne Radar under Clutter and Jamming Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Almslmany

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The challenging potential problems associated with using airborne radar in detection of high Speed Maneuvering Dim Target (HSMDT are the highly noise, jamming and clutter effects. The problem is not only how to remove clutter and jamming as well as the range migration and Doppler ambiguity estimation problems due to high relative speed between the targets and airborne radar. Some of the recently published works ignored the range migration problems, while the others ignored the Doppler ambiguity estimation. In this paper a new hybrid technique using Optimum Space Time Adaptive Processing (OSTAP, Second Order Keystone Transform (SOKT, and the Improved Fractional Radon Transform (IFrRT was proposed. The OSTAP was applied as anti-jamming and clutter rejection method, the SOKT corrects the range curvature and part of the range walk, then the IFrRT estimates the target’ radial acceleration and corrects the residual range walk. The simulation demonstrates the validity and effectiveness of the proposed technique, and its advantages over the previous researches by comparing its probability of detection with the traditional methods. The new approach increases the probability of detection, and also overcomes the limitation of Doppler frequency ambiguity.

  8. Improved Shape Parameter Estimation in K Clutter with Neural Networks and Deep Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raúl Fernández Machado

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The discrimination of the clutter interfering signal is a current problem in modern radars’ design, especially in coastal or offshore environments where the histogram of the background signal often displays heavy tails. The statistical characterization of this signal is very important for the cancellation of sea clutter, whose behavior obeys a K distribution according to the commonly accepted criterion. By using neural networks, the authors propose a new method for estimating the K shape parameter, demonstrating its superiority over the classic alternative based on the Method of Moments. Whereas both solutions have a similar performance when the entire range of possible values of the shape parameter is evaluated, the neuronal alternative achieves a much more accurate estimation for the lower Fig.s of the parameter. This is exactly the desired behavior because the best estimate occurs for the most aggressive states of sea clutter. The final design, reached by processing three different sets of computer generated K samples, used a total of nine neural networks whose contribution is synthesized in the final estimate, thus the solution can be interpreted as a deep learning approximation. The results are to be applied in the improvement of radar detectors, particularly for maintaining the operational false alarm probability close to the one conceived in the design.

  9. Frequency-space prediction filtering for acoustic clutter and random noise attenuation in ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Junseob; Huang, Lianjie

    2016-04-01

    Frequency-space prediction filtering (FXPF), also known as FX deconvolution, is a technique originally developed for random noise attenuation in seismic imaging. FXPF attempts to reduce random noise in seismic data by modeling only real signals that appear as linear or quasilinear events in the aperture domain. In medical ultrasound imaging, channel radio frequency (RF) signals from the main lobe appear as horizontal events after receive delays are applied while acoustic clutter signals from off-axis scatterers and electronic noise do not. Therefore, FXPF is suitable for preserving only the main-lobe signals and attenuating the unwanted contributions from clutter and random noise in medical ultrasound imaging. We adapt FXPF to ultrasound imaging, and evaluate its performance using simulated data sets from a point target and an anechoic cyst. Our simulation results show that using only 5 iterations of FXPF achieves contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) improvements of 67 % in a simulated noise-free anechoic cyst and 228 % in a simulated anechoic cyst contaminated with random noise of 15 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Our findings suggest that ultrasound imaging with FXPF attenuates contributions from both acoustic clutter and random noise and therefore, FXPF has great potential to improve ultrasound image contrast for better visualization of important anatomical structures and detection of diseased conditions.

  10. Nontraumatic abdominal emergencies: acute abdominal pain: diagnostic strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marincek, B. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2002-09-01

    Common causes of acute abdominal pain include appendicitis, cholecystitis, bowel obstruction, urinary colic, perforated peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, diverticulitis, and nonspecific, nonsurgical abdominal pain. The topographic classification of acute abdominal pain (pain in one of the four abdominal quadrants, diffuse abdominal pain, flank or epigastric pain) facilitates the choice of the imaging technique. The initial radiological evaluation often consists of plain abdominal radiography, despite significant diagnostic limitations. The traditional indications for plain films - bowel obstruction, pneumoperitoneum, and the search of ureteral calculi - are questioned by helical computed tomography (CT). Although ultrasonography (US) is in many centers the modality of choice for imaging the gallbladder and the pelvis in children and women of reproductive age, CT is considered to be one of the most valued tools for triaging patients with acute abdominal pain. CT is particularly beneficial in patients with marked obesity, unclear US findings, bowel obstruction, and multiple lesions. The introduction of multidetector row CT (MDCT) has further enhanced the utility of CT in imaging patients with acute abdominal pain. (orig.)

  11. Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation after EVAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Stefanie; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode; Navab, Nassir

    2009-02-01

    Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation is an important requirement for the evaluation of endovascular stenting procedures and the further refinement of stent graft design. During endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment, the aortic shape is subject to severe deformation that is imposed by medical instruments such as guide wires, catheters, and, the stent graft. This deformation can affect the flow characteristics and morphology of the aorta which have been shown to be elicitors for stent graft failures and be reason for reappearance of aneurysms. We present a method for quantifying the deformation of an aneurysmatic aorta imposed by an inserted stent graft device. The outline of the procedure includes initial rigid alignment of the two abdominal scans, segmentation of abdominal vessel trees, and automatic reduction of their centerline structures to one specified region of interest around the aorta. This is accomplished by preprocessing and remodeling of the pre- and postoperative aortic shapes before performing a non-rigid registration. We further narrow the resulting displacement fields to only include local non-rigid deformation and therefore, eliminate all remaining global rigid transformations. Finally, deformations for specified locations can be calculated from the resulting displacement fields. In order to evaluate our method, experiments for the extraction of aortic deformation fields are conducted on 15 patient datasets from endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment. A visual assessment of the registration results and evaluation of the usage of deformation quantification were performed by two vascular surgeons and one interventional radiologist who are all experts in EVAR procedures.

  12. [Abdominal aortic aneurysm: an uncommon presentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborda, Lúcia; Pereira, Laurinda; Amona, Eurides; Pinto, Erique Guedes; Rodrigues, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Most abdominal aortic aneurysms are asymptomatic, being accidentally found on physical examination or in routinely performed imaging studies. They only require surveillance (which is variable according to the aneurism size) and medical therapy in order to achieve risk factor reduction. However, in certain situations, according to the risk of aneurism rupture, elective surgery or endovascular procedure may be necessary. About 80% of the cases of aneurism rupture occur into the retroperitoneal space, with a high mortality rate. There are uncommon presentations of aneurism rupture as the aorto-caval fistula, which also require fast diagnosis and intervention. The authors present the case of a 71-year-old man, with the previous diagnosis of hypertension, acute myocardial infarction 2 months earlier (undergone primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) and tabagism, who was admitted at the emergency department with intense 24-hour-evolution epigastric pain. On physical examination, the Blood Pressure values measured at the lower limbs were about half the ones measured at the upper limbs and there was an abdominal pulsatile mass, with a high-intensity murmur. As the authors suspected aortic dissection, aneurysm, coarctation or thrombosis, it was done a Computed Tomography scanning with intravenous contrast, which revealed a ruptured abdominal aorta aneurysm with a mural thrombus. The doppler ultrasound confirmed the presence of a high debit aorto-caval fistula. The patient was immediately transferred to the Vascular Surgery. However he died 2 hours later, during surgery. PMID:22525642

  13. Penetrating abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, P L

    1989-08-01

    The management of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma is outlined in Figure 1. Patients with hemodynamic instability, evisceration, significant gastrointestinal bleeding, peritoneal signs, gunshot wounds with peritoneal violation, and type 2 and 3 shotgun wounds should undergo emergency laparotomy. The initial ED management of these patients includes airway management, monitoring of cardiac rhythm and vital signs, history, physical examination, and placement of intravenous lines. Blood should be obtained for initial hematocrit, type and cross-matching, electrolytes, and an alcohol level or drug screen as needed. Initial resuscitation should utilize crystalloid fluid replacement. If more than 2 liters of crystalloid are needed to stabilize an adult (less in a child), blood should be given. Group O Rh-negative packed red blood cells should be immediately available for a patient in impending arrest or massive hemorrhage. Type-specific blood should be available within 15 minutes. A patient with penetrating thoracic and high abdominal trauma should receive a portable chest x-ray, and a hemo- or pneumothorax should be treated with tube thoracostomy. An unstable patient with clinical signs consistent with a pneumothorax, however, should receive a tube thoracostomy prior to obtaining roentgenographic confirmation. If time permits, a nasogastric tube and Foley catheter should be placed, and the urine evaluated for blood (these procedures can be performed in the operating room). If kidney involvement is suspected because of hematuria or penetrating trauma in the area of a kidney or ureter in a patient requiring surgery, a single-shot IVP should be performed either in the ED or the operating room. An ECG is important in patients with possible cardiac involvement and in patients over the age of 40 going to the operating room. Tetanus status should be updated, and appropriate antibiotics covering bowel flora should be given. Operative management should rarely be delayed

  14. Economics of abdominal wall reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Curtis; Roth, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    The economic aspects of abdominal wall reconstruction are frequently overlooked, although understandings of the financial implications are essential in providing cost-efficient health care. Ventral hernia repairs are frequently performed surgical procedures with significant economic ramifications for employers, insurers, providers, and patients because of the volume of procedures, complication rates, the significant rate of recurrence, and escalating costs. Because biological mesh materials add significant expense to the costs of treating complex abdominal wall hernias, the role of such costly materials needs to be better defined to ensure the most cost-efficient and effective treatments for ventral abdominal wall hernias. PMID:24035086

  15. Micromanaging Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Maegdefessel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA disease to human morbidity and mortality has increased in the aging, industrialized world. In response, extraordinary efforts have been launched to determine the molecular and pathophysiological characteristics of the diseased aorta. This work aims to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to limit AAA expansion and, ultimately, rupture. Contributions from multiple research groups have uncovered a complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory milieu, which is believed to be essential for maintaining aortic vascular homeostasis. Recently, novel small noncoding RNAs, called microRNAs, have been identified as important transcriptional and post-transcriptional inhibitors of gene expression. MicroRNAs are thought to “fine tune” the translational output of their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs by promoting mRNA degradation or inhibiting translation. With the discovery that microRNAs act as powerful regulators in the context of a wide variety of diseases, it is only logical that microRNAs be thoroughly explored as potential therapeutic entities. This current review summarizes interesting findings regarding the intriguing roles and benefits of microRNA expression modulation during AAA initiation and propagation. These studies utilize disease-relevant murine models, as well as human tissue from patients undergoing surgical aortic aneurysm repair. Furthermore, we critically examine future therapeutic strategies with regard to their clinical and translational feasibility.

  16. Abdominal aortic feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-01-01

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer.

  17. Abdominal irradiation modulates 5-Fluorouracil pharmacokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shueng Pei-Wei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concurrent chemoradiation with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU is widely accepted for treatment of abdominal malignancy. Nonetheless, the interactions between radiation and 5-FU remain unclear. We evaluated the influence of abdominal irradiation on the pharmacokinetics of 5-FU in rats. Methods The radiation dose distributions of cholangiocarcinoma patients were determined for the low dose areas, which are generously deposited around the intrahepatic target volume. Then, corresponding single-fraction radiation was delivered to the whole abdomen of Sprague-Dawley rats from a linear accelerator after computerized tomography-based planning. 5-FU at 100 mg/kg was intravenously infused 24 hours after radiation. A high-performance liquid chromatography system equipped with a UV detector was used to measure 5-FU in the blood. Ultrafiltration was used to measure protein-unbound 5-FU. Results Radiation at 2 Gy, simulating the daily human treatment dose, reduced the area under the plasma concentration vs. time curve (AUC of 5-FU by 31.7% compared to non-irradiated controls. This was accompanied by a reduction in mean residence time and incremental total plasma clearance values, and volume of distribution at steady state. Intriguingly, low dose radiation at 0.5 Gy, representing a dose deposited in the generous, off-target area in clinical practice, resulted in a similar pharmacokinetic profile, with a 21.4% reduction in the AUC. This effect was independent of protein binding capacity. Conclusions Abdominal irradiation appears to significantly modulate the systemic pharmacokinetics of 5-FU at both the dose level for target treatment and off-target areas. This unexpected and unwanted influence is worthy of further investigation and might need to be considered in clinical practice.

  18. Simplified formulae for the estimation of offshore wind turbines clutter on marine radars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Olatz; Cañizo, Josune; Angulo, Itziar; Jenn, David; Danoon, Laith R; Guerra, David; de la Vega, David

    2014-01-01

    The potential impact that offshore wind farms may cause on nearby marine radars should be considered before the wind farm is installed. Strong radar echoes from the turbines may degrade radars' detection capability in the area around the wind farm. Although conventional computational methods provide accurate results of scattering by wind turbines, they are not directly implementable in software tools that can be used to conduct the impact studies. This paper proposes a simple model to assess the clutter that wind turbines may generate on marine radars. This method can be easily implemented in the system modeling software tools for the impact analysis of a wind farm in a real scenario.

  19. Intra-abdominal tuberculous peritonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, G.; Ahlhelm, F.; Altmeyer, K.; Kramann, B. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Homburg (Germany); Hennes, P. [Dept. of Pediatrics, University Hospital, Homburg (Germany); Pueschel, W. [Dept. of Pathology, University Hospital, Homburg (Germany); Karadiakos, N. [Dept. of Pediatric Surgery, University Hospital, Homburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    We report the case of a 15-year-old boy suffering from progressive dyspnea on exertion and painful abdominal protrusion. Final diagnosis of intra-abdominal tuberculosis (TB), including lymphadenopathy and abdominal abscess formation, was made following elective laparotomy. This type of disease is a rare manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The imaging findings in unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MRI and laparoscopic images are presented. Differential diagnosis of abdominal abscess formation and other fungal or bacteriological infections, as well as the imaging findings of this type of lesion, are discussed. This case demonstrates that atypical manifestation of TB may remain unrecognized; thus, awareness of this kind of manifestation of tuberculosis may prevent patients from being subjected to inappropriate therapies. (orig.)

  20. JAMA Patient Page: Abdominal Hernia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an operation. Umbilical hernia Abdominal wall Intestinal loop Peritoneum Skin Peritoneum Umbilical annulus SYMPTOMS The first symptom of a ... vomiting, or constipation. Inguinal hernia Indirect inguinal hernia Peritoneum Deep inguinal ring Inguinal canal Superficial inguinal ring ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... located within a child's abdomen. A Doppler ultrasound study may be part of a child's abdominal ultrasound ... pain from the procedure. If a Doppler ultrasound study is performed, your child may actually hear pulse- ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... technique that allows the physician to see and evaluate blood flow through arteries and veins in the ... the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed to evaluate the: appendix stomach/ pylorus liver gallbladder spleen pancreas ...

  3. FIBRINOLYTIC-ACTIVITY IN THE ABDOMINAL-CAVITY OF RATS WITH FECAL PERITONITIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Harry; de Graaf, JS; Sluiter, WJ; van der Meer, J; Bom, VJJ; Bleichrodt, RP

    1994-01-01

    Generalized peritonitis causes a reduction in abdominal fibrinolytic activity, resulting in persistence of intraabdominal fibrin with subsequent adhesion and abscess formation. The activities of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) were measured in the periton

  4. Updates on abdominal desmoid tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Desmoid tumor is a monoclonal, fibroblastic proliferation arising in musculoaponeurotic structures. This connective tissue hyperplasia infiltrates locally, recurs frequentiy after resection but does not metastasize. Abdominal desmoid occurs sporadically, in association with some familial syndromes and often represents a clinical dilemma for surgeons. The enigmatic biology and anatomical location of abdominal desmoids make treatment recommendations difficult. This distinct pathological entity is reviewed with a specific focus on aetiology and management.

  5. Component separation in abdominal trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Rawstorne, Edward; Smart, Christopher J.; Fallis, Simon A.; Suggett, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Component separation is established for complex hernia repairs. This case presents early component separation and release of the anterior and posterior sheath to facilitate closure of the abdominal wall following emergency laparotomy, reinforcing the repair with a biological mesh. On Day 11 following an emergency laparotomy for penetrating trauma, this patient underwent component separation and release of the anterior and posterior sheath. An intra-abdominal biological mesh was secured, and t...

  6. Imaging of gastrointestinal and abdominal tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhoenacker, FM; De Backer, AI; Op de Beeck, B; Maes, M; Van Altena, R; Van Beckevoort, D; Kersemans, P; De Schepper, AM

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the abdomen, including involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, the peritoneum, mesentery, omentum, abdominal lymph nodes, solid abdominal organs, the genital system and the abdominal aorta. Abdominal TB is a diagnostic cha

  7. Tracking a maneuvering target in clutter with out-of-sequence measurements for airborne radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weihua Wu; Jing Jiang; Yang Wan

    2015-01-01

    There are many proposed optimal or suboptimal al-gorithms to update out-of-sequence measurement(s) (OoSM(s)) for linear-Gaussian systems, but few algorithms are dedicated to track a maneuvering target in clutter by using OoSMs. In order to address the nonlinear OoSMs obtained by the airborne radar located on a moving platform from a maneuvering target in clut-ter, an interacting multiple model probabilistic data association (IMMPDA) algorithm with the OoSM is developed. To be practical, the algorithm is based on the Earth-centered Earth-fixed (ECEF) coordinate system where it considers the effect of the platform’s attitude and the curvature of the Earth. The proposed method is validated through the Monte Carlo test compared with the perfor-mance of the standard IMMPDA algorithm ignoring the OoSM, and the conclusions show that using the OoSM can improve the track-ing performance, and the shorter the lag step is, the greater degree the performance is improved, but when the lag step is large, the performance is not improved any more by using the OoSM, which can provide some references for engineering application.

  8. Spatial memory and stereotypy of flight paths by big brown bats in cluttered surroundings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchi, Jonathan R; Knowles, Jeffrey M; Simmons, James A

    2013-03-15

    The big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, uses echolocation for foraging and orientation. The limited operating range of biosonar implies that bats must rely upon spatial memory in familiar spaces with dimensions larger than a few meters. Prior experiments with bats flying in obstacle arrays have revealed differences in flight and acoustic emission patterns depending on the density and spatial extent of the obstacles. Using the same method, combined with acoustic microphone array tracking, we flew big brown bats in an obstacle array that varied in density and distribution in different locations in the flight room. In the initial experiment, six bats learned individually stereotyped flight patterns as they became familiar with the space. After the first day, the repetition rate of sonar broadcasts dropped to a stable level, consistent with low-density clutter. In a second experiment, after acquiring their stable paths, each bat was released from each of two unfamiliar locations in the room. Each bat still followed the same flight path it learned originally. In a third experiment, performed 1 month after the first two experiments, three of the bats were re-flown in the same configuration of obstacles; these three resumed flying in their accustomed path. The other three bats were flown in a mirror-image reconfiguration of the obstacles; these bats quickly found stable flight paths that differed from their originally learned paths. Overall, the flight patterns indicate that the bats perceive the cluttered space as a single scene through which they develop globally organized flight paths.

  9. Target shape perception and clutter rejection use the same mechanism in bat sonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnecke, Michaela; Simmons, James A

    2016-05-01

    Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) emit frequency-modulated (FM) biosonar sounds containing two or more harmonic sweeps. Echoes from frontally located targets arrive with first and second harmonics intact, leading to focused delay images. Echoes from offside or distant objects arrive with the second harmonic relatively weaker (lowpass-filtered), leading to defocused images, which prevents their clutter interference effects (Bates et al. J Exp Biol 214:394-401, 2011). Realistic targets contain several glints at slightly different distances and reflect several echoes at correspondingly different delays. The bat registers the delay of the nearest glint's echoes in the time domain. The delays of echoes from the farther glints are registered in the frequency domain, from interference nulls in the spectrum. Lowpass-filtering of echoes directly affects the image of the nearest glint by defocusing the delay image. However, lowpass-filtering also is superimposed on the interference spectrum used to register the farther glints, which distorts the pattern of interference nulls, defocusing the farther glints inversely, in the spectral domain, before they are perceived as delays. Differences in blurring between time-domain and frequency-domain parts of images identifies separate computational paths to perceptually reconstruct objects and prevent interference from off-side or distant clutter.

  10. Robot navigation in cluttered 3-D environments using preference-based fuzzy behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dongqing; Collins, Emmanuel G; Dunlap, Damion

    2007-12-01

    Autonomous navigation systems for mobile robots have been successfully deployed for a wide range of planar ground-based tasks. However, very few counterparts of previous planar navigation systems were developed for 3-D motion, which is needed for both unmanned aerial and underwater vehicles. A novel fuzzy behavioral scheme for navigating an unmanned helicopter in cluttered 3-D spaces is developed. The 3-D navigation problem is decomposed into several identical 2-D navigation subproblems, each of which is solved by using preference-based fuzzy behaviors. Due to the shortcomings of vector summation during the fusion of the 2-D subproblems, instead of directly outputting steering subdirections by their own defuzzification processes, the intermediate preferences of the subproblems are fused to create a 3-D solution region, representing degrees of preference for the robot movement. A new defuzzification algorithm that steers the robot by finding the centroid of a 3-D convex region of maximum volume in the 3-D solution region is developed. A fuzzy speed-control system is also developed to ensure efficient and safe navigation. Substantial simulations have been carried out to demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can smoothly and effectively guide an unmanned helicopter through unknown and cluttered urban and forest environments.

  11. PMHT Approach for Multi-Target Multi-Sensor Sonar Tracking in Clutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-sensor sonar tracking has many advantages, such as the potential to reduce the overall measurement uncertainty and the possibility to hide the receiver. However, the use of multi-target multi-sensor sonar tracking is challenging because of the complexity of the underwater environment, especially the low target detection probability and extremely large number of false alarms caused by reverberation. In this work, to solve the problem of multi-target multi-sensor sonar tracking in the presence of clutter, a novel probabilistic multi-hypothesis tracker (PMHT approach based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF and unscented Kalman filter (UKF is proposed. The PMHT can efficiently handle the unknown measurements-to-targets and measurements-to-transmitters data association ambiguity. The EKF and UKF are used to deal with the high degree of nonlinearity in the measurement model. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can improve the target tracking performance in a cluttered environment greatly, and its computational load is low.

  12. Radar signatures of indoor clutter for through-the-wall radar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufler, Travis D.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Dogaru, Traian

    2014-05-01

    In through-the-wall radar (TTWR) applications, scattering by indoor clutter elements can greatly confound the detection of humans. This paper analyzes the spectral and azimuthal scattering characteristics of various types of individual furniture targets and compares these to humans. Radar cross section (RCS) values of furniture and humans are obtained using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique over the 1-5 GHz frequency range and the 0-360 azimuth angle range for both co- and cross-polarized scattering. In the case of furniture, RCS responses show to the highest returns when viewing the planar surfaces of the clutter objects. Objects consisting primarily of smaller planar surfaces with more complex geometrical features showed a more uniform response with no preferred orientation showing a larger response. Human RCS produced from the biological models showed a more constant RCS when viewing the co-polarized response, where the back produced the highest response due to the more planar surface. The cross-polarized response was more varied providing for a wider range of RCS values.

  13. A clinical dilemma: abdominal tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oya Uygur-Bayramicli; G(u)l Dabak; Resat Dabak

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the clinical, radiological and microbiological properties of abdominal tuberculosis (TB) and to discuss methods needed to get the diagnosis.METHODS: Thirty-one patients diagnosed as abdominal TB between March 1998 and December 2001 at the Gastroenterology Department of Kartal State Hospital,Istanbul, Turkey were evaluated prospectively. Complete physical examination, medical and family history, blood count erythrocyte sedimentation rate, routine biochemical tests,Mantoux skin test, chest X-ray and abdominal ultrasonography (USG) were performed in all cases, whereas microbiological examination of ascites, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, colonoscopy or barium enema, abdominal tomography, mediastinoscopy, laparoscopy or laparotomy were done when needed.RESULTS: The median age of patients (14 females, 17males) was 34.2 years (range 15-65 years). The most frequent symptoms were abdominal pain and weight loss.Eleven patients had active pulmonary TB. The most common abdominal USG findings were ascites and hepatomegaly. Ascitic fluid analysis performed in 13 patients was found to be exudative and acid resistant bacilli were present in smear and cultured only in one patient with BacTec (3.2 %). Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy yielded nonspecific findings in 16 patients. Colonoscopy performed in 20 patients showed ulcers in 9 (45 %), nodules in 2 (10 %)and, stricture, polypoid lesions, granulomatous findings in terminal ileum and rectal fistula each in one patient (5 %).Laparoscopy on 4 patients showed dilated bowel loops,thickening in the mesentery, multiple ulcers and tubercles on the peritoneum. Patients with abdominal TB were divided into three groups according to the type of involvement.Fifteen patients (48 %) had intestinal TB, L1 patients (35.2 %) had tuberculous peritonitis and 5 (16.8 %)tuberculous lymphadenitis. The diagnosis of abdominal TB was confirmed microbiologically in 5 (16 %) and histopathologically in 19 patients (60.8 %). The

  14. Uso da peritoneostomia na sepse abdominal Laparostomy in abdominal sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Juvenal da Rocha Torres Neto; Adonai Pinheiro Barreto; Ana Carolina Lisboa Prudente; Allisson Mário dos Santos; Rodrigo Rocha Santiago

    2007-01-01

    Dentre as modalidades terapêuticas da sepse abdominal, a peritoneostomia tem papel decisivo permitindo explorações e lavagens da cavidade de forma facilitada. Observamos pacientes com diagnóstico clínico de sepse abdominal internados no Serviço de Coloproctologia do Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Sergipe, e que foram submetidos a peritoneostomia de janeiro de 2004 a janeiro de 2006. Foram avaliados quanto ao diagnóstico primário e secundário, tipo de peritonite secundária, ...

  15. Abdominal aortic grafting for spontaneous infrarenal abdominal aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Hiroto; Shibuya, Takashi; Shintani, Takashi; Uenaka, Hisazumi; Suehiro, Shigefumi; Satoh, Hisashi

    2010-02-01

    This case report concerns a 62-year-old woman with spontaneous infrarenal abdominal aortic dissection, which developed into claudication and rest pain in the lower extremity. Multi-row detector computed tomography showed the entry site of the abdominal aortic dissection at the second lumbar artery, while the reentry site was found intraoperatively at the median sacral artery, indicating that the false lumen had progressed and compressed the true lumen. A direct approach involving grafting appears to be an effective procedure for resolving mesenteric and lower extremity hypoperfusion due to aortic dissection with a dilated false channel, even during the acute period. PMID:19879731

  16. Abdominal wall hernia and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K K; Henriksen, N A; Jorgensen, L N

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is no consensus as to the treatment strategy for abdominal wall hernias in fertile women. This study was undertaken to review the current literature on treatment of abdominal wall hernias in fertile women before or during pregnancy. METHODS: A literature search was undertaken in Pub......Med and Embase in combination with a cross-reference search of eligible papers. RESULTS: We included 31 papers of which 23 were case reports. In fertile women undergoing sutured or mesh repair, pain was described in a few patients during the last trimester of a subsequent pregnancy. Emergency surgery...... of incarcerated hernias in pregnant women, as well as combined hernia repair and cesarean section appears as safe procedures. No major complications were reported following hernia repair before or during pregnancy. The combined procedure of elective cesarean section and abdominal wall hernia repair was reported...

  17. Abdominal actinomycosis mimicking acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Robert Joseph; Riela, Steven; Patel, Ravi; Misra, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old Hispanic woman presented to the emergency department, reporting worsening sharp lower right quadrant abdominal pain for 3 days. CT of the abdomen and pelvis showed evidence of inflammation in the peritoneal soft tissues adjacent to an enlarged and thick-walled appendix, an appendicolith, no abscess formation and a slightly thickened caecum consistent with acute appendicitis. During laparoscopic appendectomy, the caecum was noted to be firm, raising suspicion of malignancy. Surgical oncology team was consulted and open laparotomy with right hemicolectomy was performed. Pathology reported that the ileocaecal mass was not a malignancy but was, rather, actinomycosis. The patient was discharged after 10 days of intravenous antibiotics in the hospital, with the diagnosis of abdominal actinomycosis. Although the original clinical and radiological findings in this case were highly suggestive of acute appendicitis, abdominal actinomycosis should be in the differential for right lower quadrant pain as it may be treated non-operatively.

  18. Contemporary imaging in abdominal emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivit, Carlos J. [Rainbow Babies and Children' s Hospital, Case Western Reserve School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Imaging is often a fundamental part in the evaluation of an injured or ill child. A variety of imaging modalities (radiography, angiography/fluoroscopy, sonography, CT, magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphy) are among the options. CT is worth focused attention because of its usefulness in a variety of emergency department settings, its increasing use, and its potential radiation risks. CT plays an important role in the evaluation of traumatic and nontraumatic abdominal emergencies in children. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to review current imaging approaches and controversies in the evaluation of common acute abdominal emergencies. Through discussion of various modalities, especially CT in evaluation of abdominal pain and trauma, the relative advantages and disadvantages including radiation risk will be reviewed. (orig.)

  19. A positioning system with no line-of-sight restrictions for cluttered environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigge, Eric A.

    Accurate sensing of vehicle location and attitude is a fundamental requirement in many mobile-robot applications, but is a very challenging problem in the cluttered and unstructured environment of the real world. Many existing indoor positioning systems are limited in workspace and robustness because they require clear lines of sight or do not provide absolute, drift-free measurements. Examples include overhead vision systems, where an unobstructed view must be maintained between robot and camera, and inertial systems, where the measurements drift over time. The research presented in this dissertation provides a new location- and attitude-sensing system designed specifically to meet the challenges of operation in a realistic, cluttered indoor environment, such as that of an office building or warehouse. The system is not limited by line-of-sight restrictions and produces drift-free measurements throughout a three-dimensional operating volume that can span a large building. Accuracy of several centimeters and a few degrees is delivered at 10 Hz, and any number of the small sensor units can be in operation, all providing estimates in a common reference frame. This positioning system is based on extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields, which have excellent characteristics for penetrating line-of-sight obstructions. Beacons located throughout the workspace create the low-level fields. A sensor unit on the mobile robot samples the local magnetic field and processes the measurements to determine its location and attitude. This research overcomes limitations in existing magnetic-based systems. The design of the signal structure, based on pseudorandom codes, enables the use of multiple, distributed L-beacons and greatly expands coverage volume. The development of real-time identification and correction methods mitigates the impact of distortions caused by materials in the environment. A novel solution algorithm combats both challenges, providing increased coverage volume

  20. Surface Clutter Suppression Techniques Applied to P-band Multi-Channel SAR Ice Sounder Data from East Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Chung-Chi; Bekaert, David; Gebert, Nicolas;

    Radar ice sounding allows for the retrieval of ice depth and provides information on ba-sal topography, basal conditions, flow, and layering. In the prospect of a possible future satellite ice sounding mission, surface clutters are expected to severely hamper measurement of radar ech-oes from the...

  1. Heritability and Genetic Relationship of Adult Self-Reported Stuttering, Cluttering and Childhood Speech-Language Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagnani, Corrado; Fibiger, Steen; Skytthe, Axel;

    2011-01-01

    Genetic influence and mutual genetic relationship for adult self-reported childhood speech-language disorders, stuttering, and cluttering were studied. Using nationwide questionnaire answers from 34,944 adult Danish twins, a multivariate biometric analysis based on the liability-threshold model w...

  2. A novel imaging technique based on the spatial coherence of backscattered waves: demonstration in the presence of acoustical clutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Jeremy J.; Pinton, Gianmarco F.; Lediju, Muyinatu; Trahey, Gregg E.

    2011-03-01

    In the last 20 years, the number of suboptimal and inadequate ultrasound exams has increased. This trend has been linked to the increasing population of overweight and obese individuals. The primary causes of image degradation in these individuals are often attributed to phase aberration and clutter. Phase aberration degrades image quality by distorting the transmitted and received pressure waves, while clutter degrades image quality by introducing incoherent acoustical interference into the received pressure wavefront. Although significant research efforts have pursued the correction of image degradation due to phase aberration, few efforts have characterized or corrected image degradation due to clutter. We have developed a novel imaging technique that is capable of differentiating ultrasonic signals corrupted by acoustical interference. The technique, named short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) imaging, is based on the spatial coherence of the received ultrasonic wavefront at small spatial distances across the transducer aperture. We demonstrate comparative B-mode and SLSC images using full-wave simulations that include the effects of clutter and show that SLSC imaging generates contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) that are significantly better than B-mode imaging under noise-free conditions. In the presence of noise, SLSC imaging significantly outperforms conventional B-mode imaging in all image quality metrics. We demonstrate the use of SLSC imaging in vivo and compare B-mode and SLSC images of human thyroid and liver.

  3. Secondary abdominal appendicular ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nama, Vivek; Gyampoh, Bright; Karoshi, Mahantesh; McRae, Reynold; Opemuyi, Isaac

    2007-01-01

    Although the case fatality rate for ectopic pregnancies has decreased to 0.08% in industrialized countries, it still represents 3.8% of maternal mortality in the United States alone. In developing countries, the case fatality rate varies from 3% to 27%. Laparoscopic management of tubal pregnancies is now the standard form of treatment where this technology is available. Abdominal pregnancies are rare, and secondary implantation of tubal ectopic pregnancies is the most common cause of abdominal gestations. We present an interesting case of secondary implantation of a tubal ectopic pregnancy to highlight the appendix as a possible secondary implantation site after a tubal ectopic pregnancy. PMID:17630175

  4. CT appearances of abdominal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this article is to review and illustrate the spectrum of computed tomography (CT) appearances of abdominal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can affect any organ or tissue in the abdomen, and can be mistaken for other inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. The most common sites of tuberculosis in the abdomen include lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal tract. The liver, spleen, biliary tract, pancreas and adrenals are rarely affected, but are more likely in HIV-seropositive patients and in miliary tuberculosis. This article should alert the radiologist to consider abdominal tuberculosis in the correct clinical setting to ensure timely diagnosis and enable appropriate treatment.

  5. Blunt abdominal trauma in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifat, Sami F; Gilvydis, Rimas P

    2003-04-01

    Abdominal injuries are rare in sports, but when they do occur it is important that the physician recognize the warning signs of potentially life-threatening injury to the liver, spleen, or hollow abdominal viscera. Though the sports medicine physician may not always provide definitive treatment of many of these conditions, he or she should be familiar with the preferred diagnostic modalities and latest treatment options. This information is not only essential to appropriately participate in treatment decisions, but is also important in order to make return-to-play determinations.

  6. CT appearances of abdominal tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.-K., E-mail: leewk33@hotmail.com [Department of Medical Imaging, St Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Van Tonder, F.; Tartaglia, C.J.; Dagia, C. [Department of Medical Imaging, St Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Cazzato, R.L. [Department of Radiology, Universita Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome (Italy); Duddalwar, V.A. [Department of Radiology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Chang, S.D. [Department of Medical Imaging, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, British Columbia (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this article is to review and illustrate the spectrum of computed tomography (CT) appearances of abdominal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can affect any organ or tissue in the abdomen, and can be mistaken for other inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. The most common sites of tuberculosis in the abdomen include lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal tract. The liver, spleen, biliary tract, pancreas and adrenals are rarely affected, but are more likely in HIV-seropositive patients and in miliary tuberculosis. This article should alert the radiologist to consider abdominal tuberculosis in the correct clinical setting to ensure timely diagnosis and enable appropriate treatment.

  7. Radar Constant-Modulus Waveform Design with Prior Information of the Extended Target and Clutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Wenzhen; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Yimin; Xie, Jingwen

    2016-06-17

    Radar waveform design is of great importance for radar system performances and has drawn considerable attention recently. Constant modulus is an important waveform design consideration, both from the point of view of hardware realization and to allow for full utilization of the transmitter's power. In this paper, we consider the problem of constant-modulus waveform design for extended target detection with prior information about the extended target and clutter. At first, we propose an arbitrary-phase unimodular waveform design method via joint transmitter-receiver optimization. We exploit a semi-definite relaxation technique to transform an intractable non-convex problem into a convex problem, which can then be efficiently solved. Furthermore, quadrature phase shift keying waveform is designed, which is easier to implement than arbitrary-phase waveforms. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  8. 24 GHz cmWave Radio Propagation Through Vegetation: Suburban Tree Clutter Attenuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Ignacio; Abreu, Renato; Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika;

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a measurement-based analysis of cm-wave radio propagation through vegetation at 24 GHz. A set of dedicated directional measurements were performed with horn antennas located close to street level inside a densely-vegetated area illuminated from above. The full azimuth was...... examined for the elevation range from +10 to +30 degrees at each of the measurement positions in order to explore the directional characteristics of the channel. The detailed analysis of the spatial multipath components scattered from the trees suggests, in average, the presence of 5 strong tree......-scattered components per location with an azimuthal deviation of approximately 20 degrees between the strongest and the direct transmitter-receiver components. A diversity gain of approximately 7 dB is estimated, plus 2 dB extra in the case of considering multi-beam combining techniques. Tree clutter attenuation was...

  9. Door recognition in cluttered building interiors using imagery and lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Vilariño, L.; Martínez-Sánchez, J.; Lagüela, S.; Armesto, J.; Khoshelham, K.

    2014-06-01

    Building indoors reconstruction is an active research topic due to the importance of the wide range of applications to which they can be subjected, from architecture and furniture design, to movies and video games editing, or even crime scene investigation. Among the constructive elements defining the inside of a building, doors are important entities in applications like routing and navigation, and their automated recognition is advantageous e.g. in case of large multi-storey buildings with many office rooms. The inherent complexity of the automation of the recognition process is increased by the presence of clutter and occlusions, difficult to avoid in indoor scenes. In this work, we present a pipeline of techniques used for the reconstruction and interpretation of building interiors using information acquired in the form of point clouds and images. The methodology goes in depth with door detection and labelling as either opened, closed or furniture (false positive)

  10. Plain abdominal film and abdominal ultrasound in intestine occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plain film of the abdomen is widely used in the diagnostic evaluation of intestinal occlusion. Even though this technique can yield a panoramic and high-resolution view of gas-filled intestinal loops, several factors, such as type and duration of occlusion, neurovascular status of the intestine and general patient condition, may reduce the diagnostic specificy of the plain film relative to the organic or functional nature of the occlusion. From 1987 to 1989, fifty-four patients with intestinal occlusion were studied combining plain abdominal film with abdominal ultrasound (US). This was done in order to evaluate whether the additional information obtained from US could be of value in better determining the nature of the ileus. US evaluation was guided by the information already obtained from plain film which better demonstrates gas-filled loops. The results show that in all 27 cases of dynamic ileus (intestinal ischemia, acute appendicitis, acute cholecistis, acute pancreatitis or blunt abdominal trauma) US demonstrates: intestinal loops slightly increased in caliber, with liquid content, or loops containing rare hyperechoic particles, intestinal wall thickening and no peristalsis. In 27 cases of acute, chronic or complicated mechanical ileus (adhesions, internal hernia, intestinal neoplasm, peritoneal seedings) US shows: 1) in acute occlusion: hyperperistaltic intestinal loops containing inhomogeneous liquid; 2) in chronic occlusion: liquid content with a solid echigenic component; 3) in complicated occlusion: liquid stasis, frequent increase in wall thickness, moderate peritoneal effusion and inefficient peristalsis. In conclusion, based on the obtained data, the authors feel that the combination of plain abdominal film and abdominal US can be useful in the work-up of patient with intestinal occlusion. The information provided by US allows a better definition of the nature of the ileus

  11. Detection and Tracking of Moving Targets Behind Cluttered Environments Using Compressive Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Vinh Quang

    Detection and tracking of moving targets (target's motion, vibration, etc.) in cluttered environments have been receiving much attention in numerous applications, such as disaster search-and-rescue, law enforcement, urban warfare, etc. One of the popular techniques is the use of stepped frequency continuous wave radar due to its low cost and complexity. However, the stepped frequency radar suffers from long data acquisition time. This dissertation focuses on detection and tracking of moving targets and vibration rates of stationary targets behind cluttered medium such as wall using stepped frequency radar enhanced by compressive sensing. The application of compressive sensing enables the reconstruction of the target space using fewer random frequencies, which decreases the acquisition time. Hardware-accelerated parallelization on GPU is investigated for the Orthogonal Matching Pursuit reconstruction algorithm. For simulation purpose, two hybrid methods have been developed to calculate the scattered fields from the targets through the wall approaching the antenna system, and to convert the incoming fields into voltage signals at terminals of the receive antenna. The first method is developed based on the plane wave spectrum approach for calculating the scattered fields of targets behind the wall. The method uses Fast Multiple Method (FMM) to calculate scattered fields on a particular source plane, decomposes them into plane wave components, and propagates the plane wave spectrum through the wall by integrating wall transmission coefficients before constructing the fields on a desired observation plane. The second method allows one to calculate the complex output voltage at terminals of a receiving antenna which fully takes into account the antenna effects. This method adopts the concept of complex antenna factor in Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) community for its calculation.

  12. An X-ray scatter system for material identification in cluttered objects: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmanan, Manu N. [Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Dept. of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Kapadia, Anuj J., E-mail: anuj.kapadia@duke.edu [Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Dept. of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Sahbaee, Pooyan [Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Dept. of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Dept. of Physics, NC State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Wolter, Scott D. [Dept. of Physics, Elon University, Elon, NC (United States); Harrawood, Brian P. [Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Dept. of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Brady, David [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Samei, Ehsan [Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Dept. of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-09-15

    The analysis of X-ray scatter patterns has been demonstrated as an effective method of identifying specific materials in mixed object environments, for both biological and non-biological applications. Here we describe an X-ray scatter imaging system for material identification in cluttered objects and investigate its performance using a large-scale Monte Carlo simulation study of one-thousand objects containing a broad array of materials. The GEANT4 Monte Carlo source code for Rayleigh scatter physics was modified to model coherent scatter diffraction in bulk materials based on experimentally measured form factors for 33 materials. The simulation was then used to model coherent scatter signals from a variety of targets and clutter (background) materials in one thousand randomized objects. The resulting scatter images were used to characterize four parameters of the imaging system that affected its ability to identify target materials: (a) the arrangement of materials in the object, (b) clutter attenuation, (c) type of target material, and (d) the X-ray tube current. We found that the positioning of target materials within the object did not significantly affect their detectability; however, a strong negative correlation was observed between the target detectability and the clutter attenuation of the object. The imaging signal was also found to be relatively invariant to increases in X-ray tube current above 1 mAs for most materials considered in the study. This work is the first Monte Carlo study to our knowledge of a large population of cluttered object of an X-ray scatter imaging system for material identification and lays the foundation for large-scale studies of the effectiveness of X-ray scatter imaging systems for material identification in complex samples.

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gallbladder spleen pancreas intestines kidneys bladder testicles ovaries uterus Abdominal ultrasound images can be used to help ... that is being examined to the transducer (the device used to examine the patient), as well ... is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical ...

  14. Economic costs of abdominal obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Betina; Olsen, Kim Rose; Søgaard, Jes;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the relationship between waist circumference and future health care costs across a broad range of waist circumference values based on individual level data. METHOD: A prospective cohort of 31,840 subjects aged 50-64 years at baseline had health status, lifestyle and socio-e...... be a potential for significant resource savings through prevention of abdominal obesity....

  15. Clinical management of abdominal trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Guo-en; LUO Tian-hang; DU Cheng-hui; BI Jian-wei; XUE Xu-chao; WEI Guo; WENG Zhao-zhang; MA Li-ye; HUA Ji-de

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To improve the prognosis of patients with abdominal trauma. Methods: Between January 1993 and December 2005, 415 patients were enrolled in this research. The patients consisted of 347 males and 68 females with mean age of 36 years ranging from 3-82 years. All abdominal traumas consisted of closed traumas 360 cases, 86.7% and open traumas 55 cases, 13.3%. Results: Atotal of 407 cases 98.1% were fully recovered from trauma and the other 8 cases 1.9% died of multiple injuries. The mean injury severity score ISS of all patients was 22 while the mean ISS of the patients who died in hospital was 42. Postoperative complications were seen in 9 patients such as infection of incisional wounds 6 cases, pancreatic fistula 2 cases and intestinal fistula 1 case. All these postoperative complications were cured by the conservative treatment. Conclusion: Careful case history inquisition and physical examination are the basic methods to diagnose abdomi- nal trauma. Focused abdominal ultrasonography is always the initial imaging examination because it is non-invasive and can be performed repeatedly with high accuracy. The doctors should consider the severity of local injuries and the general status of patients during the assessment of abdominal trauma. The principle of treatment is to save lives at first, then to cure the injuries. Unnecessary laparotomy should be avoided to reduce additional surgical trauma.

  16. Preoperative steroid in abdominal wall reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim; Brøndum, Tina Lee; Belhage, Bo;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Preoperative administration of high-dose glucocorticoid leads to improved recovery and decreased length of stay after abdominal surgery. Even so, studies on administration of glucocorticoids for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR) for giant ventral hernia repair ...

  17. ADULT ABDOMINAL WALL HERNIA IN IBADAN

    OpenAIRE

    Ayandipo, O.O; Afuwape, O.O.; Irabor, D. O.; Abdurrazzaaq, A.I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abdominal wall hernias are very common diseases encountered in surgical practice. Groin hernia is the commonest type of abdominal wall hernias. There are several methods of hernia repair but tension-free repair (usually with mesh) offers the least recurrent rate. Aim: To describe the clinical profile of anterior abdominal wall hernias and our experience in the surgical management of identified hernias Method: The project was a retrospective study of all patients with abdominal wal...

  18. Abdominal shotgun trauma: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Toutouzas, Konstantinos G; Larentzakis, Andreas; Drimousis, Panagiotis; Riga, Maria; Theodorou, Dimitrios; Katsaragakis, Stylianos

    2008-01-01

    Introduction One of the most lethal mechanisms of injury is shotgun wound and particularly the abdominal one. Case presentation We report a case of a 45 years old male suffering abdominal shotgun trauma, who survived his injuries. Conclusion The management of the abdominal shotgun wounds is mainly dependent on clinical examination and clinical judgment, while requires advanced surgical skills.

  19. A Real-Time Nowcast/Forecast System for Radar Electrojet Clutter Driven by Global Assimilative Models of the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrano, C. S.; Alcala, C. M.; Liang, P.; Groves, K. M.; Donatelli, D. E.; Daniell, R. E.

    2006-12-01

    The Space-Based Radar Ionospheric Effects Simulation (SBR-IES) tool was developed to predict the degrading effects of the ionosphere on the performance of space-based radar systems. This presentation focuses on the technique used by the SBR-IES to predict radar electrojet clutter. The term electrojet clutter refers to backscatter from electron density irregularities that develop in response to unstable (two-stream) current systems in the auroral and equatorial electrojets. The two-stream instability is a dominant mechanism for the generation of electrojet clutter for radars operating in and above the VHF frequency band. The effects of these irregularities on the performance of ground- and space-based radars are discussed. The ionospheric clutter predictions are made using the approach developed for the Comprehensive E-Region Auroral Clutter (CERAC) model by SRI International and Rome Laboratory. The threshold velocity required for the generation of ionospheric irregularities by the two-stream instability is computed using nonlinear plasma wave theory. The streaming velocity, or the relative velocity between the electrons and ions, is calculated based on the ExB drift. When the streaming velocity exceeds the threshold, the clutter strength is estimated using an empirical relationship involving the radar frequency, electron density, magnetic aspect angle, and flow angle. A uniformly distributed layer of scattering irregularities is assumed. The ionospheric clutter predictions provided by the initial version of the SBR-IES tool were based on a climatological, or average, description of ionospheric conditions at the time of observation, driven by Kp, Ap, and the 10.7 cm solar flux. This approach, while having the advantage of requiring only a few geophysical input parameters to run, is limited by the use of overly simplified (smoothed) climatological models for the electric field, as well as electron, ion, and neutral densities and temperatures within the E

  20. Alveolar recruitment maneuver and perioperative ventilatory support in obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgiarini Júnior, Luiz Alberto; Rezende, Juliana Castilhos; Forgiarini, Soraia Genebra Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The development of abdominal surgery represents an alternative therapy for the morbidly obese; however, patients undergoing this surgical procedure often experience postoperative pulmonary complications. The use of alveolar recruitment maneuvers and/or perioperative ventilatory strategies is a possible alternative to reduce these complications, focusing on the reduction of postoperative pulmonary complications. In this review, the benefits of perioperative ventilatory strategies and the implementation of alveolar recruitment maneuvers in obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery are described. PMID:24553513

  1. Acupuncture Treatment of Abdominal Pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡金生

    2002-01-01

    @@ Case History Mr. Li, a university student aged 23 years, paid his first visit on July 16, 2001, with the chief complaint of abdominal pain for one day. The patient stated that one day before when it happened to be the weekend, he got abdominal pain after supper, which went worse gradually and caused him to roll all over in bed. The pain was slightly alleviated half an hour later after he had taken some pain killers. Upon inquiry, the patient said that because of their newly graduation from the university, he and his classmates were so excited that they went to have a sumptuous lunch with alcoholic drinks. And in the evening he ate again a delicious supper cooked for him by his mother, after which he continued to have some fruit and dessert.

  2. Subtotal versus total abdominal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Ottesen, Bent; Alling Møller, Lars Mikael;

    2015-01-01

    , constipation, pain, sexuality, quality of life (Short Form-36 questionnaire), hospital contacts, and vaginal bleeding. RESULTS: The questionnaire was answered by 197 of 304 women (64.8%) (subtotal hysterectomy [n = 97] [63.4%]; total hysterectomy [n = 100] [66.2%]). Mean follow-up time was 14 years and mean...... hysterectomy. All women enrolled in the trial from 1996 to 2000 who were still alive and living in Denmark (n = 304) were invited to answer the validated questionnaire used in prior 1 and 5 year follow-ups. Hospital contacts possibly related to hysterectomy from 5 to 14 years postoperatively were registered......, randomized clinical trial without blinding. Eleven gynecological departments in Denmark contributed participants to the trial. Women referred for benign uterine diseases who did not have contraindications to subtotal abdominal hysterectomy were randomized to subtotal (n = 161) vs total (n = 158) abdominal...

  3. [A case of abdominal wall actinomycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Jin Soo; Cho, Hyeong Jun; Choi, Seung Bong; Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Jin Il; Lee, In Kyu

    2015-04-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative granulomatous infectious disease caused by actinomyces species that is characterized by formation of characteristic clumps called as sulfur granules. Abdominal actinomycosis is a rare disease and is often difficult to diagnose before operation. Abdominal actinomycosis infiltrating into the abdominal wall and adhering to the colon is even rarer. Most abdominal actinomycosis develops after operation, trauma or inflammatory bowel disease, and is also considered as an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patient with underlying malignancy, diabetes mellitus, human immunodeficiency virus infection, etc. Actinomycosis is diagnosed based on histologic demonstration of sulfur granules in surgically resected specimen or pus, and treatment consists of long-term penicillin based antibiotics therapy with or without surgical resection. Herein, we report an unusual case of abdominal wall actinomycosis which developed in a patient after acupuncture and presented as abdominal wall mass that was first mistaken for abdominal wall invasion of diverticulum perforation. PMID:25896158

  4. Acute Abdominal Pain in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reust, Carin E; Williams, Amy

    2016-05-15

    Acute abdominal pain accounts for approximately 9% of childhood primary care office visits. Symptoms and signs that increase the likelihood of a surgical cause for pain include fever, bilious vomiting, bloody diarrhea, absent bowel sounds, voluntary guarding, rigidity, and rebound tenderness. The age of the child can help focus the differential diagnosis. In infants and toddlers, clinicians should consider congenital anomalies and other causes, including malrotation, hernias, Meckel diverticulum, or intussusception. In school-aged children, constipation and infectious causes of pain, such as gastroenteritis, colitis, respiratory infections, and urinary tract infections, are more common. In female adolescents, clinicians should consider pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy, ruptured ovarian cysts, or ovarian torsion. Initial laboratory tests include complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein, urinalysis, and a pregnancy test. Abdominal radiography can be used to diagnose constipation or obstruction. Ultrasonography is the initial choice in children for the diagnosis of cholecystitis, pancreatitis, ovarian cyst, ovarian or testicular torsion, pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy-related pathology, and appendicitis. Appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdominal pain requiring surgery, with a peak incidence during adolescence. When the appendix is not clearly visible on ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging can be used to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:27175718

  5. Abdominal wound closure: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams ZF

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Zachary F Williams, William W Hope Department of Surgery, South East Area Health Education Center, New Hanover Regional Medical Center, Wilmington, NC, USA Abstract: This review examines both early and late wound complications following laparotomy closure, with particular emphasis on technical aspects that reduce hernia formation. Abdominal fascial closure is an area of considerable variation within the field of general surgery. The formation of hernias following abdominal wall incisions continues to be a challenging problem. Ventral hernia repairs are among the most common surgeries performed by general surgeons, and despite many technical advances in the field, incisional hernia rates remain high. Much attention and research has been directed to the surgical management of hernias. Less focus has been placed on prevention of hernia formation despite its obvious importance. This review examines the effects of factors such as the type of incision, suture type and size, closure method, patient risk factors, and the use of prophylactic mesh. Keywords: incisional, abdominal, hernia, prevention, wound closure techniques 

  6. Urgent Abdominal Re-Explorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peskersoy Mustafa

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of a number of complications that occur after abdominal surgeries may require that Urgent Abdominal Re-explorations (UARs, the life-saving and obligatory operations, are performed. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reasons for performing UARs, outcomes of relaparotomies (RLs and factors that affect mortality. Methods Demographic characteristics; initial diagnoses; information from and complications of the first surgery received; durations and outcomes of UAR(s performed in patients who received early RLs because of complicated abdominal surgeries in our clinic between 01.01.2000 and 31.12.2004 were investigated retrospectively. Statistical analyses were done using the chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Results Early UAR was performed in 81 out of 4410 cases (1.8%. Average patient age was 50.46 (13–81 years with a male-to-female ratio of 60/21. Fifty one (62.96% patients had infection, 41 (50.61% of them had an accompanying serious disease, 24 (29.62% of them had various tumors and 57 (70.37% patients were operated under emergency conditions during first operation. Causes of urgent abdominal re-explorations were as follows: leakage from intestinal repair site or from anostomosis (n:34; 41.97%; hemorrhage (n:15; 18.51%; intestinal perforation (n:8; 9.87%; intraabdominal infection or abscess (n:8; 9.87%; progressive intestinal necrosis (n:7; 8.64%; stomal complications (n:5; 6.17%; and postoperative ileus (n:4; 4.93%. Two or more UARs were performed in 18 (22.22% cases, and overall mortality was 34.97% (n:30. Interval between the first laparotomy and UAR averaged as 6.95 (1–20 days, and average hospitalization period was 27.1 (3–78 days. Mortality rate was found to be higher among the patients who received multiple UARs. The most common (55.5% cause of mortality was sepsis/multiple organ failure (MOF. The rates for common mortality and sepsis/MOF-dependent mortality that occured following UAR were

  7. Image-based ATR utilizing adaptive clutter filter detection, LLRT classification, and Volterra fusion with application to side-looking sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aridgides, Tom; Fernández, Manuel

    2010-04-01

    An improved automatic target recognition (ATR) processing string has been developed. The overall processing string consists of pre-processing, subimage adaptive clutter filtering, detection, feature extraction, optimal subset feature selection, feature orthogonalization and classification processing blocks. The objects that are classified by three distinct ATR strings are fused using the classification confidence values and their expansions as features, and using "summing" or log-likelihood-ratio-test (LLRT) based fusion rules. These three ATR processing strings were individually developed and tuned by researchers from different companies. The utility of the overall processing strings and their fusion was demonstrated with an extensive side-looking sonar dataset. In this paper we describe a new processing improvement: six additional classification features are extracted, using primarily target shadow information and a feature extraction window whose length is now made variable as a function of range. This new ATR processing improvement resulted in a 3:1 reduction in false alarms. Two advanced fusion algorithms are subsequently applied: First, a nonlinear Volterra expansion (2nd order) feature-LLRT fusion algorithm is employed. Second, a repeated application of a subset Volterra feature selection / feature orthogonalization / LLRT fusion block is utilized. It is shown that cascaded Volterra feature- LLRT fusion of the ATR processing strings outperforms baseline "summing" and single-stage Volterra feature-LLRT fusion algorithms, yielding significant improvements over the best single ATR processing string results, and providing the capability to correctly call the majority of targets while maintaining a very low false alarm rate.

  8. Dynamic EMI sensor platform for digital geophysical mapping and automated clutter rejection for CONUS and OCONUS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudato, Stephen J.; Schultz, Gregory; Keranen, Joe; Miller, Jonathan S.

    2016-05-01

    The implementation of new advanced electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor surveys at sites containing unexploded ordnance (UXO) and explosive remnants of war (ERW) is an effective method for accurate mapping and for discriminating clutter from targets of interest. We present development and integration of a next generation advanced EMI sensor onto a cart-based sensing platform to combine the mapping capability of previous digital geophysical survey instruments with the high-resolution discrimination capability of advanced characterization arrays. The EMI sensor employs a multi-axis receiver configuration to produce data sufficient for anomaly discrimination. We discuss platform design and development, data acquisition and post-processing software development, and results from field tests demonstrating the detection and discrimination capability of the cart-based system. Platform development and design focused on navigation and EMI sensor integration onto a custom, low-noise, metal-free platform. Data acquisition is via an Android application with emphasis on ease-of-use and real-time quality control (QC) of collected data. Post-processing methods emphasize QC, inversion-based anomaly location estimation, and automated or supervised polarizability-based discrimination methods to produce a prioritized dig list. Integration of the detection, clutter rejection and QC methods into the post-processing software module reduces the time required between sensor data collection and generation of a prioritized dig list. System concept of operations (CONOPs), data collection, QC, data processing procedures, and performance against various clutter objects and targets of interest will also be discussed.

  9. Techniques for Clutter Suppression in the Presence of Body Movements during the Detection of Respiratory Activity through UWB Radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lazaro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the feasibility of tracking the chest wall movement of a human subject during respiration from the waveforms recorded using an impulse-radio (IR ultra-wideband radar. The paper describes the signal processing to estimate sleep apnea detection and breathing rate. Some techniques to solve several problems in these types of measurements, such as the clutter suppression, body movement and body orientation detection are described. Clutter suppression is achieved using a moving averaging filter to dynamically estimate it. The artifacts caused by body movements are removed using a threshold method before analyzing the breathing signal. The motion is detected using the time delay that maximizes the received signal after a clutter removing algorithm is applied. The periods in which the standard deviations of the time delay exceed a threshold are considered macro-movements and they are neglected. The sleep apnea intervals are detected when the breathing signal is below a threshold. The breathing rate is determined from the robust spectrum estimation based on Lomb periodogram algorithm. On the other hand the breathing signal amplitude depends on the body orientation respect to the antennas, and this could be a problem. In this case, in order to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio, multiple sensors are proposed to ensure that the backscattered signal can be detected by at least one sensor, regardless of the direction the human subject is facing. The feasibility of the system is compared with signals recorded by a microphone.

  10. Reinforcement Learning with Autonomous Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Cluttered Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Loc; Cross, Charles; Montague, Gilbert; Motter, Mark; Neilan, James; Qualls, Garry; Rothhaar, Paul; Trujillo, Anna; Allen, B. Danette

    2015-01-01

    We present ongoing work in the Autonomy Incubator at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) exploring the efficacy of a data set aggregation approach to reinforcement learning for small unmanned aerial vehicle (sUAV) flight in dense and cluttered environments with reactive obstacle avoidance. The goal is to learn an autonomous flight model using training experiences from a human piloting a sUAV around static obstacles. The training approach uses video data from a forward-facing camera that records the human pilot's flight. Various computer vision based features are extracted from the video relating to edge and gradient information. The recorded human-controlled inputs are used to train an autonomous control model that correlates the extracted feature vector to a yaw command. As part of the reinforcement learning approach, the autonomous control model is iteratively updated with feedback from a human agent who corrects undesired model output. This data driven approach to autonomous obstacle avoidance is explored for simulated forest environments furthering autonomous flight under the tree canopy research. This enables flight in previously inaccessible environments which are of interest to NASA researchers in Earth and Atmospheric sciences.

  11. Great expectations: top-down attention modulates the costs of clutter and eccentricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, Kelly S; McCarley, Jason S; Wickens, Christopher D

    2013-12-01

    An experiment and modeling effort examined interactions between bottom-up and top-down attentional control in visual alert detection. Participants performed a manual tracking task while monitoring peripheral display channels for alerts of varying salience, eccentricity, and spatial expectancy. Spatial expectancy modulated the influence of salience and eccentricity; alerts in low-probability locations engendered higher miss rates, longer detection times, and larger costs of visual clutter and eccentricity, indicating that top-down attentional control offset the costs of poor bottom-up stimulus quality. Data were compared to the predictions of a computational model of scanning and noticing that incorporates bottom-up and top-down sources of attentional control. The model accounted well for the overall pattern of miss rates and response times, predicting each of the observed main effects and interactions. Empirical results suggest that designers should expect the costs of poor bottom-up visibility to be greater for low expectancy signals, and that the placement of alerts within a display should be determined based on the combination of alert expectancy and response priority. Model fits suggest that the current model can serve as a useful tool for exploring a design space as a precursor to empirical data collection and for generating hypotheses for future experiments.

  12. Audio-visual speech timing sensitivity is enhanced in cluttered conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warrick Roseboom

    Full Text Available Events encoded in separate sensory modalities, such as audition and vision, can seem to be synchronous across a relatively broad range of physical timing differences. This may suggest that the precision of audio-visual timing judgments is inherently poor. Here we show that this is not necessarily true. We contrast timing sensitivity for isolated streams of audio and visual speech, and for streams of audio and visual speech accompanied by additional, temporally offset, visual speech streams. We find that the precision with which synchronous streams of audio and visual speech are identified is enhanced by the presence of additional streams of asynchronous visual speech. Our data suggest that timing perception is shaped by selective grouping processes, which can result in enhanced precision in temporally cluttered environments. The imprecision suggested by previous studies might therefore be a consequence of examining isolated pairs of audio and visual events. We argue that when an isolated pair of cross-modal events is presented, they tend to group perceptually and to seem synchronous as a consequence. We have revealed greater precision by providing multiple visual signals, possibly allowing a single auditory speech stream to group selectively with the most synchronous visual candidate. The grouping processes we have identified might be important in daily life, such as when we attempt to follow a conversation in a crowded room.

  13. Mixture-Tuned, Clutter Matched Filter for Remote Detection of Subpixel Spectral Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David R.; Mandrake, Lukas; Green, Robert O.

    2013-01-01

    Mapping localized spectral features in large images demands sensitive and robust detection algorithms. Two aspects of large images that can harm matched-filter detection performance are addressed simultaneously. First, multimodal backgrounds may thwart the typical Gaussian model. Second, outlier features can trigger false detections from large projections onto the target vector. Two state-of-the-art approaches are combined that independently address outlier false positives and multimodal backgrounds. The background clustering models multimodal backgrounds, and the mixture tuned matched filter (MT-MF) addresses outliers. Combining the two methods captures significant additional performance benefits. The resulting mixture tuned clutter matched filter (MT-CMF) shows effective performance on simulated and airborne datasets. The classical MNF transform was applied, followed by k-means clustering. Then, each cluster s mean, covariance, and the corresponding eigenvalues were estimated. This yields a cluster-specific matched filter estimate as well as a cluster- specific feasibility score to flag outlier false positives. The technology described is a proof of concept that may be employed in future target detection and mapping applications for remote imaging spectrometers. It is of most direct relevance to JPL proposals for airborne and orbital hyperspectral instruments. Applications include subpixel target detection in hyperspectral scenes for military surveillance. Earth science applications include mineralogical mapping, species discrimination for ecosystem health monitoring, and land use classification.

  14. A Low-Complexity Algorithm for Static Background Estimation from Cluttered Image Sequences in Surveillance Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Vikas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For the purposes of foreground estimation, the true background model is unavailable in many practical circumstances and needs to be estimated from cluttered image sequences. We propose a sequential technique for static background estimation in such conditions, with low computational and memory requirements. Image sequences are analysed on a block-by-block basis. For each block location a representative set is maintained which contains distinct blocks obtained along its temporal line. The background estimation is carried out in a Markov Random Field framework, where the optimal labelling solution is computed using iterated conditional modes. The clique potentials are computed based on the combined frequency response of the candidate block and its neighbourhood. It is assumed that the most appropriate block results in the smoothest response, indirectly enforcing the spatial continuity of structures within a scene. Experiments on real-life surveillance videos demonstrate that the proposed method obtains considerably better background estimates (both qualitatively and quantitatively than median filtering and the recently proposed "intervals of stable intensity" method. Further experiments on the Wallflower dataset suggest that the combination of the proposed method with a foreground segmentation algorithm results in improved foreground segmentation.

  15. Bistatic, above-critical angle scattering measurements of fully buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) and clutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Z J; Simpson, H J; Sarkissian, A; Dey, S; Houston, B H; Bucaro, J A; Yoder, T J

    2012-11-01

    Laboratory grade bistatic scattering measurements are conducted in order to examine the acoustic response of realistic fully buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) from above-critical angle insonification, between 2 and 40 kHz. A 127 mm diameter rocket UXO, a 155 mm diameter artillery shell, a natural rock of approximately the same size, and a cinder block are fully buried in water-saturated medium grained sand (mean grain diameter, 240 μm) at depths of 10 cm below the water-sediment interface. A two-dimensional array of bistatic scattering measurements is generated synthetically by scanning a single hydrophone in steps of 3 cm over a 1 m × 1 m patch directly above the targets at a height of 20 cm above the water-sediment interface. Three-dimensional volumetric acoustic images generated from the return waveforms reveal scattering components attributed to geometric and elastic scattering, as well as multiple-scattering interactions of returns between the sediment-water interface and the buried objects. The far-field target strength of the objects is estimated through extrapolation of the angular spectrum. Agreement is found between experimental data and simulated data generated from a finite-element-based, three-dimensional time-harmonic model (2-25 kHz). Separation of the measured UXO from the clutter objects is demonstrated through exploitation of structural-acoustics-based features.

  16. Non-traumatic abdominal emergencies: imaging and intervention in sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross-sectional imaging, in particular CT, has become the main method of detecting abdominal collections. Indium-labelled white-cell scintigraphy and gallium scintigraphy are reserved for patients in whom there is a high clinical suspicion of abdominal sepsis but CT has not revealed a source of sepsis. Scintigraphy is also used in patients with suspected vascular graft infections or suspected infected hip prostheses. Percutaneous abscess drainage (PAD) has revolutionised the treatment of abdominal abscesses over the past 20 years, with repeat laparotomy for postoperative abscesses becoming a rare event. Ultrasound or CT can be used to guide PAD. Choosing an access route that does not cross intervening organs is of crucial importance to the safe performance of PAD. The Trocar or Seldinger techniques can be used with equal success. The cavity should be aspirated until dry and irrigated with saline. Repeat imaging after drainage is helpful to detect any undrained locules. PAD endpoints include patient defervescence, reduction in white blood cell count and catheter drainage of less than 10 ml per day. Details regarding PAD in specific abdominal regions are discussed. Success rates for PAD are high (close to 90%) in most abdominal organs. Slightly lower success rates are seen with PAD of pancreatic abscesses and abscesses associated with fistulas (60-85% success rates). Complication rates lie between 0% and 10%. Complications can be minimised by ensuring that the patient has broad spectrum antibiotic coverage before drainage, by carefully planning the access route and by ensuring diligent post-procedure care by radiology staff. (orig.)

  17. Postoperative intussusception in pediatric abdominal malignancies: early diagnosis and management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maged M. Elshafiey; Gehad T. Meselhy; Amal Refaat; Alaa A. Younes

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to review the incidence of postoperative intussusception (POI) in our patients with pediatric abdominal malignancies and the end result of management of these cases. Methods: From November2007 till the end of December 2011, a total of 538 patients with different abdominal malignancies were operated upon by laparotomies in our hospital. Reoperations were required in 12 patients for post operative intestinal obstruction developed in the 1st postoperative month. Review of the identified cases focused on patient's characteristics, the primary tumor type, the primary surgical procedure, clinical and imaging features of the intussusceptions, timing and findings at the 2nd laparotomy and the end result of subsequent interventions. Results: Early post operative intestinal obstruction (within 1 month) developed in 12 patients of whom 8 patients had POI. Five patients had adhesive intestinal obstruction (one patient developed POI then adhesive obstruction). The median duration between the primary surgery and the onset of intestinal obstruction symptoms was 5 days (range 4-12 days) in the POI group and 24 days (range 10-30 days) in the adhesion group. Abdominal CT was done in all cases and it could properly diagnose POI and detect its site in the POI group while in the adhesion group it showed evidence of complete obstruction. Plain radiograph failed to detect signs of intestinal obstruction in 3 cases (two in the POI group and one in the adhesion group). In POI group simple reduction was done in 7 cases while resection anastmosis was done in 1 case due to gangrene of the ileocecal region. Adhesiolysis was done in the 5 cases of intestinal adhesion group.Conclusion: Early POI in pediatric abdominal cancer is a rare complication; however it should be kept in mind with high index of suspicion. Early diagnosis and intervention is essential for successful management. Abdominal CT is very helpful as it can detect the level and possible cause of

  18. Non-traumatic abdominal emergencies: imaging and intervention in sepsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.J. [Department of Radiology, Beaumont Hospital and the Royal College of Surgeons Medical, Beaumont Road, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2002-09-01

    Cross-sectional imaging, in particular CT, has become the main method of detecting abdominal collections. Indium-labelled white-cell scintigraphy and gallium scintigraphy are reserved for patients in whom there is a high clinical suspicion of abdominal sepsis but CT has not revealed a source of sepsis. Scintigraphy is also used in patients with suspected vascular graft infections or suspected infected hip prostheses. Percutaneous abscess drainage (PAD) has revolutionised the treatment of abdominal abscesses over the past 20 years, with repeat laparotomy for postoperative abscesses becoming a rare event. Ultrasound or CT can be used to guide PAD. Choosing an access route that does not cross intervening organs is of crucial importance to the safe performance of PAD. The Trocar or Seldinger techniques can be used with equal success. The cavity should be aspirated until dry and irrigated with saline. Repeat imaging after drainage is helpful to detect any undrained locules. PAD endpoints include patient defervescence, reduction in white blood cell count and catheter drainage of less than 10 ml per day. Details regarding PAD in specific abdominal regions are discussed. Success rates for PAD are high (close to 90%) in most abdominal organs. Slightly lower success rates are seen with PAD of pancreatic abscesses and abscesses associated with fistulas (60-85% success rates). Complication rates lie between 0% and 10%. Complications can be minimised by ensuring that the patient has broad spectrum antibiotic coverage before drainage, by carefully planning the access route and by ensuring diligent post-procedure care by radiology staff. (orig.)

  19. FULL TERM EXTRAUTERINE ABDOMINAL PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extrauterine abdominal pregnancy is extremely rare and is frequently missed during antenatal care, despite the routine use of obstetrics ultrasound. A 23 year old primigravida at 39 weeks of gestation was admitted to the department on December 2 , 2012, in routine hour with transverse lie with oligohydramnios. On examination her vitals and laboratory investigation were within normal limits . One of the ultrasonographic scanning done by radiologist at 35 wk. 3 days gestation demonstrated a single live intrauterine fetus of CGA 33 wk. 1 day with transverse lie , fundal gr II placenta and AFI - 10 cm. Ultrasonography done at the department on the day of admission demonstrated single live intrauterine fetus with transverse lie and AFI - 3.8 cm and EFW 2.4 Kg and placenta was right anterior.. She was planned for elective caesarean section on account of transverse lie and oligohydramnios at term. At laparotomy the following findings were made: Secondary abdominal pregnancy arising from right tubal ectopic rupture and making pseudogesta tional sac with meconium stained liquor. Omentum , right tube and ovary were adhered to sac. The uterus and left tube and ovary were healthy and normal . Other abdominal organs were normal. A 1.5 Kg live male baby with good Apgar score and incompletely formed mandible extracted from pseudo gestational sac. There was significant bleeding from pseudogestational sac and patient went in shock during intraoperative period. One unit whole blood transfused during intraoperative period. Placenta was adherent to the pseudogestational sac so Psudogestational sac was removed with placenta in situ and right sided salpingo - o ophrectomy was also done due to their adherence. Hemostasis was secured. The patient and baby progressed well and were discharged on the seventh postoperative day

  20. Peritoneoscopy of the liver after abdominal surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawaguchi,Kenji

    1983-02-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of intraperitoneal adhesion after abdominal surgery was studied. Peritoneoscopy was performed in 933 patients with liver diseases over the 6 year 5 month period from March 1974 to July 1980. Of the patients, 352 (37.7% had undergone an abdominal operation, and intraperitoneal adhesion was detected in 205 (58.2% of these patients. The liver was not observable in 5 out of 61 patients with adhesions after upper abdominal operations. Whereas, the liver was clearly observable in patients with lower abdominal operations in spite of adhesions. Out of the 581 patients without any abdominal operations, 30 patients (5.2% had adhesions in the abdominal cavity, and 6 of them had extensive adhesions that partially obscured the observation of liver surface. In all patients, peritoneoscopy was performed without complications by avoiding the surgical scar for puncture sites and ensuring a free air lumen before trocar puncture.

  1. Abdominal acupuncture reduces laser-evoked potentials in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazzaglia, C.; Liguori, S.; Minciotti, I.;

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Acupuncture is known to reduce clinical pain, although the exact mechanism is unknown. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of acupuncture on laser-evoked potential amplitudes and laser pain perception. Methods: In order to evaluate whether abdominal acupuncture...... is able to modify pain perception, 10 healthy subjects underwent a protocol in which laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) and laser pain perception were collected before the test (baseline), during abdominal acupuncture, and 15. min after needle removal. The same subjects also underwent a similar protocol...... in which, however, sham acupuncture without any needle penetration was used. Results: During real acupuncture, both N1 and N2/P2 amplitudes were reduced, as compared to baseline (p . < 0.01). The reduction lasted up to 15. min after needle removal. Furthermore, laser pain perception was reduced during...

  2. Abdominal manifestations of autoimmune disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Immunoglobulin G4-related disease was recognized as a systemic disease since various extrapancreatic lesions were observed in patients with autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). The real etiology and pathogenesis of IgG4-RD is still not clearly understood. Moreover the exact role of IgG4 or IgG4-positive plasma cells in this disease has not yet been elucidated. only some inconsistent biological features such as hypergammaglobulinemia or hypocomplementemia support the autoimmune nature of the disease process. various names have been ascribed to this clinicopathological entity including IgG4-related sclerosing disease, IgG4-related systemic sclerosing disease, IgG4-related disease, IgG4-related autoimmune disease, hyper-IgG4 disease and IgG4-related systemic disease. The extrapancreatic lesions of IgG4-RD also exhibit the same characteristic histologic features including dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, massive storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis as seen in IgG4-related pancreatitis. Abdominal manifestations include the following organs/systems: Bile ducts: Sclerosing cholangitis; Gallbladder and liver: Acalculous sclerosis cholecytitis with diffuse wall thickening; hepatic inflammatory pseudotumorts; Kidneys: round or wedge-shaped renal cortical nodules, peripheral cortical; lesions, mass like lesions or renal pelvic involvement; Prostate, urethra, seminal vesicle, vas deferens, uterine cervix; Autoimmune prostatitis; Retroperitoneum: Retroperitoneal fibrosis. thin or mildly thick homogeneous soft tissue lesion surrounding the abdominal aorta and its branches but also bulky masses causing hydronephroureterosis; Mesentery: Sclerosing mesenteritis usually involving the root of the mesentery; Bowel: Inflammatory bowel diseases mimicking Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis. various types of sclerosing nodular lesions of the bowel wall; Stomach: Gastritis, gastric ulcers and focal masses mimicking submucosal tumor; omentum: Infiltration mimicking

  3. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Linné, Anneli

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) is a common disease with a prevalence of 1.5-2.0% in 65-year old men in Sweden. The risk of having AAA is increased with smoking, high age, family history of AAA and cardiovascular disease. Women have a lower prevalence (0.5%) and develop AAA later in life. An AAA seldom gives any symptom prior to rupture. Untreated rupture is associated with 100% mortality, while surgically treated rupture is associated with 25-70% mortality. Prophylactic sur...

  4. On the abdominal pressure volume relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Mulier, Jan Paul; Dillemans, Bruno; Crombach, Mark; Missant, Carlo; Sels, Annabel

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: During insufflation of the abdomen to create a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopy, both intra abdominal pressure and insufflated volume can be measured and are used to calculate the abdominal pressure-volume relationship. First, an accurate, linear relationship was identified using a mathematical model with an elastance, E, or its reciprocal the compliance C and with a pressure at zero volume, PV0. This function was stable and could be used to describe the abdominal characteristics of...

  5. [Internationalization and innovation of abdominal acupuncture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Zhou

    2013-09-01

    Characteristics of abdominal acupuncture are analyzed through three aspects of inheriting and innovation, collaborated research as well as international visual field. It is pointed that abdominal acupuncture is based on clinical practice, focuses on enhancing the therapeutic effect and expending the clinical application. It also promots the thinking on how to recall the tradition and how to inherit tradition availably. The modern medical problems should be studied and innovation resolutions should be searched, which can help the internationalization and modernization of abdominal acupuncture.

  6. Different Anti-Contractile Function and Nitric Oxide Production of Thoracic and Abdominal Perivascular Adipose Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorio, Jamaira A; Fontes, Milene T; Rossoni, Luciana V; Davel, Ana P

    2016-01-01

    Divergent phenotypes between the perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounding the abdominal and the thoracic aorta might be implicated in regional aortic differences, such as susceptibility to atherosclerosis. Although PVAT of the thoracic aorta exhibits anti-contractile function, the role of PVAT in the regulation of the vascular tone of the abdominal aorta is not well defined. In the present study, we compared the anti-contractile function, nitric oxide (NO) availability, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in PVAT and vessel walls of abdominal and thoracic aorta. Abdominal and thoracic aortic tissue from male Wistar rats were used to perform functional and molecular experiments. PVAT reduced the contraction evoked by phenylephrine in the absence and presence of endothelium in the thoracic aorta, whereas this anti-contractile effect was not observed in the abdominal aorta. Abdominal PVAT exhibited a reduction in endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) expression compared with thoracic PVAT, without differences in eNOS expression in the vessel walls. In agreement with this result, NO production evaluated in situ using 4,5-diaminofluorescein was less pronounced in abdominal compared with thoracic aortic PVAT, whereas no significant difference was observed for endothelial NO production. Moreover, NOS inhibition with L-NAME enhanced the phenylephrine-induced contraction in endothelial-denuded rings with PVAT from thoracic but not abdominal aorta. ROS formation and lipid peroxidation products evaluated through the quantification of hydroethidine fluorescence and 4-hydroxynonenal adducts, respectively, were similar between PVAT and vessel walls from the abdominal and thoracic aorta. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression was similar between the vessel walls and PVAT of the abdominal and thoracic aorta. However, Mn-SOD levels were reduced, while CuZn-SOD levels were increased in abdominal PVAT compared with thoracic aortic PVAT. In conclusion, our results

  7. Abdominal migraine in childhood: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scicchitano B

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Beatrice Scicchitano,1 Gareth Humphreys,1 Sally G Mitton,2 Thiagarajan Jaiganesh1 1Children's Emergency Department, 2Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology, St Georges Hospital, St Georges Healthcare NHS Trust, Tooting, London, United Kingdom Abstract: The childhood condition of abdominal migraine has been described under many different synonyms, including "abdominal epilepsy", "recurrent abdominal pain", "cyclical vomiting syndrome", and "functional gastrointestinal disorder". In the early literature, abdominal migraine is included in the "childhood periodic syndrome", first described by Wyllie and Schlesinger in 1933. Abdominal migraine has emerged over the last century as a diagnostic entity in its own right thanks to the development of well defined diagnostic criteria and its recent inclusion in the International Headache Society's Classification of Headache disorders. Despite this progress, little is known about the pathophysiology of the condition, and the treatment options are poorly defined. Here we summarize the recent literature, with particular focus on establishing the diagnosis of abdominal migraine and its pathophysiology, and suggest an approach to management. Keywords: abdominal migraine, recurrent abdominal pain, abdominal epilepsy, cyclical vomiting

  8. MR angiography in abdominal neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squillaci, E. [Dept. of Radiology, Rome-2 Univ., Hospital S. Eugenio, Rome (Italy); Crecco, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Cancer Research Inst. (Regina Elena), Rome (Italy); Grandinetti, M.L. [Dept. of Radiology, Cancer Research Inst. (Regina Elena), Rome (Italy); Maspes, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Rome-2 Univ., Hospital S. Eugenio, Rome (Italy); Lo Presti, G. [Dept. of Radiology, Rome-2 Univ., Hospital S. Eugenio, Rome (Italy); Squillaci, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Cancer Research Inst. (Regina Elena), Rome (Italy); Simonetti, G. [Dept. of Radiology, Rome-2 Univ., Hospital S. Eugenio, Rome (Italy)

    1994-10-01

    The role of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in the evaluation of vascular involvement was studied in 55 patients with abdominal neoplasms. A 2-D time-of-flight (TOF) technique was used in all patients. All patients underwent CT and MR examinations before MRA. Also, MR angiograms were compared with digital subtraction angiography in 22 cases, with Doppler US in 13 cases, and with surgical findings in 20 cases. In all patients with liver neoplasms (n=29) MRA demonstrated the absence of flow in the infiltrated segments. Pericapsular neovascularization was observed in 12 patients. Portal vein involvement was correctly detected in 27 patients. In all cases MRA demonstrated in relationship between the tumor and venous structures. Portosystemic shunts were visualized in 20 of 21 patients with portal hypertension. Vena cava thrombosis (3 cases), compression (5 cases), and displacement (2 cases) were correctly demonstrated. In renal (n=6) and adrenal gland (n=3) tumors renal vein compression was correctly detected in 2 cases, displacement in 1 case, and thrombosis in 3 cases, with only 1 false-positive finding. In 7 patients with pancreatic tumors MRA demonstrated splenic vein thrombosis in 2 cases and compression in 2 cases, with one false-positive finding. Our results indicate that MRA provides precise information regarding venous vascular involvement in abdominal neoplasms, but preoperative arterial mapping is still problematic. (orig.)

  9. The Neonate with Abdominal Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bajoghli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal abdominal masses have broad spectrum of pathology, ranging from small lesions found incidentally to large masses occupying the entire of peritoneal cavity. These tumors are benign to malignant, and from unilocular cysts to complex solid lesions. Many of these lesions identified and will treat before delivery. Others are discovered during routine examination. These lesions may be life threatening, or cause persistent morbidity. Some of these have no sequel."nDiagnosis began with history. Characteristic of the mass which must be note include location, size, shape, texture, mobility and tenderness. Other findings should be in mind to find out nature of mass, for example hypoplasia of chest wall with oligohydramnios due to GU tract obstruction (potter sequwnce, a bulging hymen due to hydrometrocolpus, skin metastasis due to neuroblastoma. Radiography is the next step that shows organomegaly and calcification. Next step is US which is an excellent screening tool. CT and MRI are occasionally indicated."nThe purpose of this presentation is to review the diagnosis of abdominal masses in neonates.

  10. Enabling UAV Navigation with Sensor and Environmental Uncertainty in Cluttered and GPS-Denied Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, Fernando; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2016-05-10

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) can navigate with low risk in obstacle-free environments using ground control stations that plan a series of GPS waypoints as a path to follow. This GPS waypoint navigation does however become dangerous in environments where the GPS signal is faulty or is only present in some places and when the airspace is filled with obstacles. UAV navigation then becomes challenging because the UAV uses other sensors, which in turn generate uncertainty about its localisation and motion systems, especially if the UAV is a low cost platform. Additional uncertainty affects the mission when the UAV goal location is only partially known and can only be discovered by exploring and detecting a target. This navigation problem is established in this research as a Partially-Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP), so as to produce a policy that maps a set of motion commands to belief states and observations. The policy is calculated and updated on-line while flying with a newly-developed system for UAV Uncertainty-Based Navigation (UBNAV), to navigate in cluttered and GPS-denied environments using observations and executing motion commands instead of waypoints. Experimental results in both simulation and real flight tests show that the UAV finds a path on-line to a region where it can explore and detect a target without colliding with obstacles. UBNAV provides a new method and an enabling technology for scientists to implement and test UAV navigation missions with uncertainty where targets must be detected using on-line POMDP in real flight scenarios.

  11. Channel probe measurements for the American sector clutter experiment, January, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, T.J.

    1994-05-20

    The ionospheric phenomenon called Equatorial Spread F encompasses a variety of effects associated with plasma irregularities occurring in the post-sunset and nighttime ionosphere near the magnetic equator. These irregularities can seriously degrade the performance of systems which involve either of necessity or inadvertently radio propagation through the equatorial ionosphere. One such system is Over-the-Horizon (OTH) radars which operate in the high-frequency (hf) band and use ionospheric reflection for forward and backscatter propagation to ranges of thousands of kilometers. When such radars are directed towards the equator, Spread F irregularities can cause scintillation effects which may be aliased into the ranges of interest and have the effect of causing, excess clutter in which targets may be hidden. In January, 1994 Los Alamos participated in a campaign to measure Spread F effects on OTH propagation from the United States looking towards South America in conjunction with local diagnostics in Peru. During the campaign Los Alamos fielded a 1600 km bistatic path between Piura, Peru, and Arequipa, Peru-, the one-hop reflection region for this path was near the magnetic equator, We obtained four types of measurements: an oblique ionogram between Piura and Arequipa every three minutes; Doppler spread and spatial correlation for a single frequency cw path between Piura and Arequipa; Doppler spread, time-delay spread, and spatial coherence for a 10 kHz bandwidth path between Piura and Arequipa-, and Doppler spread and time-delay spread for the one-way path between the AVA radar in New York and Arequipa, Peru. This report describes the diagnostic experiments that we carried out and gives a brief description of some of the data we obtained.

  12. Enabling UAV Navigation with Sensor and Environmental Uncertainty in Cluttered and GPS-Denied Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, Fernando; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) can navigate with low risk in obstacle-free environments using ground control stations that plan a series of GPS waypoints as a path to follow. This GPS waypoint navigation does however become dangerous in environments where the GPS signal is faulty or is only present in some places and when the airspace is filled with obstacles. UAV navigation then becomes challenging because the UAV uses other sensors, which in turn generate uncertainty about its localisation and motion systems, especially if the UAV is a low cost platform. Additional uncertainty affects the mission when the UAV goal location is only partially known and can only be discovered by exploring and detecting a target. This navigation problem is established in this research as a Partially-Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP), so as to produce a policy that maps a set of motion commands to belief states and observations. The policy is calculated and updated on-line while flying with a newly-developed system for UAV Uncertainty-Based Navigation (UBNAV), to navigate in cluttered and GPS-denied environments using observations and executing motion commands instead of waypoints. Experimental results in both simulation and real flight tests show that the UAV finds a path on-line to a region where it can explore and detect a target without colliding with obstacles. UBNAV provides a new method and an enabling technology for scientists to implement and test UAV navigation missions with uncertainty where targets must be detected using on-line POMDP in real flight scenarios. PMID:27171096

  13. Enabling UAV Navigation with Sensor and Environmental Uncertainty in Cluttered and GPS-Denied Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vanegas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV can navigate with low risk in obstacle-free environments using ground control stations that plan a series of GPS waypoints as a path to follow. This GPS waypoint navigation does however become dangerous in environments where the GPS signal is faulty or is only present in some places and when the airspace is filled with obstacles. UAV navigation then becomes challenging because the UAV uses other sensors, which in turn generate uncertainty about its localisation and motion systems, especially if the UAV is a low cost platform. Additional uncertainty affects the mission when the UAV goal location is only partially known and can only be discovered by exploring and detecting a target. This navigation problem is established in this research as a Partially-Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP, so as to produce a policy that maps a set of motion commands to belief states and observations. The policy is calculated and updated on-line while flying with a newly-developed system for UAV Uncertainty-Based Navigation (UBNAV, to navigate in cluttered and GPS-denied environments using observations and executing motion commands instead of waypoints. Experimental results in both simulation and real flight tests show that the UAV finds a path on-line to a region where it can explore and detect a target without colliding with obstacles. UBNAV provides a new method and an enabling technology for scientists to implement and test UAV navigation missions with uncertainty where targets must be detected using on-line POMDP in real flight scenarios.

  14. Uso da peritoneostomia na sepse abdominal Laparostomy in abdominal sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvenal da Rocha Torres Neto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as modalidades terapêuticas da sepse abdominal, a peritoneostomia tem papel decisivo permitindo explorações e lavagens da cavidade de forma facilitada. Observamos pacientes com diagnóstico clínico de sepse abdominal internados no Serviço de Coloproctologia do Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Sergipe, e que foram submetidos a peritoneostomia de janeiro de 2004 a janeiro de 2006. Foram avaliados quanto ao diagnóstico primário e secundário, tipo de peritonite secundária, antibioticoterapia, esquema de lavagens, tempo de peritoneostomia, complicações e desfecho. Estudamos 12 pacientes, com idade de 15 a 57, média de 39,3 anos. Diagnóstico primário: abdome agudo inflamatório em 6(50%, abdome agudo obstrutivo em 2(16,7%, abdome agudo perfurativo em 2(16,7%, fístula enterocutânea em 1(8,3% e abscesso intra-cavitário em 1(8,3%. Diagnóstico secundário: perfuração de cólon em 4(33,3%, abscessos intra-cavitários em 3(25%, deiscências de anastomoses em 3(25%, 1(8,3% com tumor perfurado de sigmóide e 1(8,3% com necrose de cólon abaixado. Peritonite fecal em 10(83,3% e purulenta em 2(16,7%. A antibioticoterapia teve duração média de 19 dias. Lavagens de demanda em 6(50%, programadas em 4(33,3% e regime misto em 2(16,7%. O tempo médio de peritoneostomia foi de 10,9 dias (1-36. Como complicações: evisceração em 2(16,7% e fistulização em 1(8,3%. Quatro pacientes evoluíram com óbito.Among the therapeutics approach form of abdominal sepsis, the laparostomy has a decisive role allowing cavity explorations and lavages in an easier way. We study patients with abdominal sepsis diagnoses admitted to our surgical service of Coloproctology form Sergipe´s Federal University Hospital who underwent a Bogotá Bag laparostomy associated or not with polypropylene mesh from January 2004 to January 2006. These patients were assessed as: first and second diagnosis; secondary peritonitis type; antibiotic

  15. Actinomycosis mimicking abdominal neoplasm. Case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaddegaard, P; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    1988-01-01

    In a patient with a 6-month history of nonspecific abdominal complaints, preoperative examination indicated malignant disease involving the right ovary, rectum and sigmoid, but laparotomy revealed abdominal actinomycosis. Removal of the ovary and low anterior colonic resection followed by penicil...

  16. Abdominal Wall Modification for the Difficult Ostomy

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, David E.

    2008-01-01

    A select group of patients with major stomal problems may benefit from operative modification of the abdominal wall. Options may include a modified abdominoplasty (abdominal wall contouring), localized flaps, or liposuction. Although frequently successful, these techniques have the potential for significant morbidity.

  17. Live secondary abdominal pregnancy- by chance!!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Sood

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal pregnancy though rare but is a life threatening situation, if not recognized and managed properly. We are hereby presenting a rare successful outcome in a case of ruptured live Secondary Abdominal pregnancy with placental implants over intestines. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 251-253

  18. Hypoxia inhibits abdominal expiratory nerve activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregosi, R F; Knuth, S L; Ward, D K; Bartlett, D

    1987-07-01

    Our purpose was to examine the influence of steady-state changes in chemical stimuli, as well as discrete peripheral chemoreceptor stimulation, on abdominal expiratory motor activity. In decerebrate, paralyzed, vagotomized, and ventilated cats that had bilateral pneumothoraces, we recorded efferent activity from a phrenic nerve and from an abdominal nerve (cranial iliohypogastric nerve, L1). All cats showed phasic expiratory abdominal nerve discharge at normocapnia [end-tidal PCO2 38 +/- 2 Torr], but small doses (2-6 mg/kg) of pentobarbital sodium markedly depressed this activity. Hyperoxic hypercapnia consistently enhanced abdominal expiratory activity and shortened the burst duration. Isocapnic hypoxia caused inhibition of abdominal nerve discharge in 11 of 13 cats. Carotid sinus nerve denervation (3 cats) exacerbated the hypoxic depression of abdominal nerve activity and depressed phrenic motor output. Stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors with NaCN increased abdominal nerve discharge in 7 of 10 cats, although 2 cats exhibited marked inhibition. Four cats with intact neuraxis, but anesthetized with ketamine, yielded qualitatively similar results. We conclude that when cats are subjected to steady-state chemical stimuli in isolation (no interference from proprioceptive inputs), hypercapnia potentiates, but hypoxia attenuates, abdominal expiratory nerve activity. Mechanisms to explain the selective inhibition of expiratory motor activity by hypoxia are proposed, and physiological implications are discussed. PMID:3624126

  19. Pediatric Abdominal Pain: An Emergency Medicine Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremiah; Fox, Sean M

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal pain is a common complaint that leads to pediatric patients seeking emergency care. The emergency care provider has the arduous task of determining which child likely has a benign cause and not missing the devastating condition that needs emergent attention. This article reviews common benign causes of abdominal pain as well as some of the cannot-miss emergent causes. PMID:27133248

  20. Thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm branched repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, E. L. G.; Tielliu, I. F. J.; Ferreira, M.; Zipfel, B.; Adam, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    Open thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is a demanding procedure with high impact on the patient and the operating team. Results from expert centres show mortality rates between 3-21%, with extensive morbidity including renal failure and paraplegia. Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneu

  1. Puerperal endometritis after abdominal twin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suonio, S; Huttunen, M

    1994-04-01

    The infectious complications of 122 consecutive abdominal twin deliveries over the period 1984-1989 were analyzed in a prospective clinical study, comparing them with 761 singleton abdominal deliveries over the period 1984-1986. The incidence of endometritis was nearly three-fold after twin deliveries and the incidence of abdominal wound infections nearly two-fold compared with singleton abdominal pregnancies (13.1/4.7% and 5.6/3.0%). The risk of amnionitis was increased ten-fold, 6 hours after rupture of the membranes in abdominal twin delivery, but no connection was found between amnionitis and endometritis, as in singleton abdominal deliveries. Multiple regression analysis indicated only two risk factors as regards puerperal endometritis after abdominal twin delivery: age under 25 years (odds ratio 6.9, 95% confidence limits 1.9-24.8), an association also seen in singleton abdominal deliveries, and a period of more than 6 hours from rupture of membranes to delivery (odds ratio 7.8, 95% confidence limits 2.1-28.5). Multiple pregnancy appears to be associated with an increased risk of endometritis. The etiological factors remain unknown, but a large placental bed and/or immunological factors may be implicated. PMID:8160537

  2. Effect of abdominal irradiation on growth in boys treated for a Wilms' tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.H.; Shalet, S.M.; Morris-Jones, P.H.; Swindell, R.; Gattamaneni, H.R. (Christie Hospital, Manchester (England))

    1990-01-01

    To study the effect of abdominal irradiation on spinal growth in childhood we have measured final height, sitting height, and leg length in 30 male survivors of a Wilms' tumor. Twenty-one patients received whole abdominal irradiation by either megavoltage therapy (MV: n = 11) or orthovoltage therapy (OV: n = 10); the remainder received flank irradiation. To examine the effect of the adolescent growth spurt on the irradiated spine we have followed prospectively seven patients who received whole abdominal irradiation and nine patients who received flank irradiation through puberty. Compared to a normal population there is a modest reduction in median final standing height SDS (H.SDS: -1.15) accompanied by a marked reduction in median final sitting height SDS (S.HT SDS: -2.41) with no apparent effect on median subischial leg length SDS (SILL.SDS: 0.04). This reduction in spinal growth is reflected by a strongly positive disproportion score (DPS; (SILL SDS-S.HT SDS) + 2.81). The incidence of scoliosis after abdominal irradiation has been low (10%). During puberty there is a significant fall in median sitting height SDS after both whole abdominal (median fall: -0.9, P = 0.02) and flank irradiation (median fall: -1.85, P = 0.01), and this is reflected in a significant increase in disproportion (DPS: whole abdominal; median rise +1.4, P = 0.02: flank, median rise +1.34, P = 0.01). After MV irradiation there is a significant correlation between the degree of disproportion and the age at treatment (P less than 0.0005). The younger the patient is at treatment the more severe is the restriction on spinal growth and the shorter and more disproportionate they become as an adult. The estimated eventual loss in potential height from abdominal irradiation at the age of one is 10 cm and at five years is 7 cm.

  3. Fetal abdominal magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review deals with the in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the human fetal abdomen. Imaging findings are correlated with current knowledge of human fetal anatomy and physiology, which are crucial to understand and interpret fetal abdominal MRI scans. As fetal MRI covers a period of more than 20 weeks, which is characterized not only by organ growth, but also by changes and maturation of organ function, a different MR appearance of the fetal abdomen results. This not only applies to the fetal intestines, but also to the fetal liver, spleen, and adrenal glands. Choosing the appropriate sequences, various aspects of age-related and organ-specific function can be visualized with fetal MRI, as these are mirrored by changes in signal intensities. Knowledge of normal development is essential to delineate normal from pathological findings in the respective developmental stages

  4. Acute spontaneous isolated dissection of abdominal aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar beigi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    • Aortic dissection occurs when the layers of the aorta separate as a result of extra luminal cavity of blood through an intimal tear. Dissection limited to the abdominal aorta is rare. Unfortunately, the appropriate management of dissecting aneurysm of abdominal aorta is not documented yet. A 43 years old man was admitted to Al-zahra hospital in Isfahan with sudden onset of periumbilical abdominal pain. CT scan confirmed infrarenal dissection of abdominal aorta. Performing laparotomy, aorta was repaired using bifurcate collagen-coated Dacron graft. Surgical intervention with synthetic graft is recommended in patients with dissecting aortic aneurysm of infrarenal segments where the extent of dissection is limited and accessible.
    • Keywords: Aneurysm, Aortic dissection, Aortic aneurysm abdominal surgery.

  5. A fibromatosis case mimicking abdominal aorta aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir, Arzu; Kahraman, Cemal; Tasdemir, Kutay; Mavili, Ertugrul

    2013-01-01

    Retroperitoneal fibrosis is a rare fibrosing reactive process that may be confused with mesenteric fibromatosis. Abdominal aorta aneurysm is rare too and mostly develops secondary to Behcet's disease, trauma, and infection or connective tissue diseases. Incidence of aneurysms occurring as a result of atherosclerotic changes increases in postmenopausal period. Diagnosis can be established with arteriography, tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging associated with clinical findings. Tumors and cysts should be considered in differential diagnosis. Abdominal ultrasound and contrast-enhanced computerized tomography revealed an infrarenal abdominal aorta aneurysm in a 41-year-old woman, but, on surgery, retroperitoneal fibrosis surrounding the aorta was detected. We present this interesting case because retroperitoneal fibrosis encircling the abdominal aorta can mimic abdominal aorta aneurysm radiologically.

  6. Effect of hemodialysis on intra-abdominal pressure Efeito da hemodiálise sobre a pressão intra-abdominal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Fernandes Bonfim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of hemodialysis on intra-abdominal pressure. METHODS: Five patients admitted between July and November of 2003 were evaluated in the intensive care unit. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured before and after hemodialysis, maintaining the ventilatory parameters except for PEEP (positive-end expiratory pressure. RESULTS: Intra-abdominal pressure was significantly reduced by hemodialysis in all the 5 patients. CONCLUSION: Hemodialysis significantly reduced intra-abdominal pressure in the 5 patients, an effect which could have influence over other organic systems. This reduction is related to the weight variation before and after hemodialysis, as well as to the loss of volume caused by this procedure.OBJETIVO: Pesquisar o efeito da hemodiálise sobre a pressão intra-abdominal. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados cinco pacientes internados entre julho e novembro de 2003, na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva do Serviço de Nefrologia do Hospital das Clínicas de São Paulo. Mensurou-se a pressão intra-abdominal antes e após a hemodiálise, mantendo os parâmetros ventilatórios exceto a PEEP (positive end expiratory pressure. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se que a hemodiálise foi capaz de reduzir significativamente a PIA em cinco pacientes na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva CONCLUSÃO: A hemodiálise reduziu a pressão intra-abdominal numa amostra de cinco pacientes, de maneira significativa, o que poderia influenciar os demais sistemas orgânicos. Essa redução está relacionada com a variação de peso pré e pós-hemodiálise, e com a perda de volume promovida pelo procedimento.

  7. Abdominal Burkitt lymphoma in children : CT finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jae Uoo; Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In One; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Ahn, Hyo Seop; Shin, Hee Young [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Chi Sung [Seoul City Boramae Hospital Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    To evaluate the CT findings of Burkitt's lymphoma involving the abdomen in children We retrospectively analyzed the abdominal CT of ten children who presented with abdominal symptom. They were confirmed by operation in two cases and by fine needle aspiration biopsy in eight to be suffering from Burkitt's lymphoma. We also abdominal ultrasonography(USG)(n=10) and carried out small bowel follow-through examination(SBS)(n=5). Analyses focused on features of the abdominal mass : bowel wall thickening, ascites, lymphadenopathy, and the involvement of intra-abdominal solid organ. Abdominal CT at the time of presentation showed a huge conglomerated mass encasing segments of small bowel and also peripherally displacing bowel loops(n=9), bowel wall thickening(n=10), and ascites(n=10). In three of these cases, we were able to see tumor necrosis and cavity formation. Extensive infiltration into mesenteric fat and obliteration of tissue plane made it impossible to identify on CT the margin of the tumor and the presence of mesenteric lymphadenopathy. In four patients, sonography showed enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes(15-20mm), and in three, retroperitoneal lymph nodes(5mm, 10mm, 12mm in long dimension) were detected on CT and USG. Abdominal CT can reveal the characteristic imaging features of Burkitt's lymphoma in children. These are a huge conglomerate mass with or without cavity formation, that encases the small bowel and infiltrates the mesentery, ascites, and the relatively spared retroperitoneal lymph nodes.

  8. Alveolar recruitment maneuver and perioperative ventilatory support in obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Forgiarini Júnior, Luiz Alberto; Rezende, Juliana Castilhos; Forgiarini, Soraia Genebra Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The development of abdominal surgery represents an alternative therapy for the morbidly obese; however, patients undergoing this surgical procedure often experience postoperative pulmonary complications. The use of alveolar recruitment maneuvers and/or perioperative ventilatory strategies is a possible alternative to reduce these complications, focusing on the reduction of postoperative pulmonary complications. In this review, the benefits of perioperative ventilatory strategies and the imple...

  9. [Internationalization and innovation of abdominal acupuncture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Zhou

    2013-09-01

    Characteristics of abdominal acupuncture are analyzed through three aspects of inheriting and innovation, collaborated research as well as international visual field. It is pointed that abdominal acupuncture is based on clinical practice, focuses on enhancing the therapeutic effect and expending the clinical application. It also promots the thinking on how to recall the tradition and how to inherit tradition availably. The modern medical problems should be studied and innovation resolutions should be searched, which can help the internationalization and modernization of abdominal acupuncture. PMID:24298780

  10. Combined subcutaneous, intrathoracic and abdominal splenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadrashid, Reza; Paak, Neda; Salehi, Ahad

    2010-09-01

    We report a case of combined subcutaneous, intrathoracic, and abdominal splenosis who presented with attacks of flushing, tachycardia and vague abdominal pain. The patient's past medical history included a splenectomy due to abdominal trauma and years later, a lung lobectomy due to recurrent pneumonia. An enhancing solid mass adjacent to the upper pole of the left kidney and nodular pleural based lesions in the left hemi-thorax along with nodular lesions in subcutaneous tissue of the left chest wall suggested possible adrenal malignancy with multiple metastases. Histopathologic examination demonstrated benign lesions of ectopic splenic tissue. PMID:20804314

  11. Chylous Ascites after Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohki, Shinichi; Kurumisawa, Soki; Misawa, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    A 73-year-old man was transferred for treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm. He had no history of abdominal surgeries. Grafting between the infra-renal abdominal aorta and the bilateral common iliac arteries was performed. Proximal and distal cross clamps were applied for grafting. He developed chylous ascites on the 5th post-operative day, 2 days after initiation of oral intake. Fortunately, he responded to treatment with total parenteral hyper-alimentation for 10 days, followed by a low-fat diet. There was no recurrence of ascites. PMID:27087873

  12. Analisa Penggunaan Sinyal Radar Bentuk Pulsa dan Gelombang Kontinyu untuk Target Bergerak dengan Model Clutter Terdistribusi Rayleigh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fery Gustomo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Radar (Radio, Detection, and Ranging mampu mendeteksi target untuk mendapatkan informasi berupa jarak, azimuth, dan kecepatan. Sinyal Radar ada dua jenis, yaitu pulsa (Pulsed Radar dan gelombang kontinyu (Continuous Wave Radar. Pulsed Radar mempunyai prinsip kerja memancarkan sinyal pulsa dengan PRI (Pulse Repetition Interval dan PRF (Pulse Repetition Frequency tertentu dipancarkan dengan modulasi ke dalam sinyal sinusoidal dengan frekuensi yang lebih tinggi serta memanfaatkan delay dari setiap pulsanya untuk mendapatkan informasi dari target. Sedangkan Continuous Wave Radar mempunyai prinsip kerja memancarkan sinyal sinusoidal secara terus menerus dan memanfaatkan sinyal echo yang terdiri dari beberapa variasi frekuensi akibat adanya efek Doppler untuk mendeteksi target. Terdapat pengaruh jenis gelombang sinyal radar terhadap kemampuan deteksi radar. Model distribusi Rayleigh dipilih untuk dapat mewakili suatu kondisi lingkungan (clutter yang bergerak dan mempunyai parameter kecepatan angin. Hasil simulasi dari kedua jenis sinyal menunjukkan bahwa pada model clutter terdistribusi Rayleigh, radar CW mempunyai kemampuan deteksi yang lebih baik pada kecepatan target yang lebih tinggi, karena mampu mendeteksi target dengan kecepatan 20-60 knots. Sedangkan radar pulsa mempunyai kemampuan deteksi yang lebih baik pada kecepatan target rendah yaitu pada kecepatan 15-55 knots. Untuk Probabilitas deteksi minimum 90%, Radar CW mempunyai ketahanan yang lebih baik terhadap noise daripada radar pulsa karena kemampuan radar pulsa terbatas pada nilai SNR 20 dB. Sedangkan radar CW mampu mendeteksi target dengan baik sampai SNR bernilai 15 dB. Sedangkan untuk deteksi terhadap kecepatan target, radar CW mempunyai hasil yang lebih akurat daripada radar pulsa.

  13. Joint statistical correction of clutters, spokes and beam height for a radar derived precipitation climatology in southern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wagner

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available First results of radar derived climatology have emerged over the last years, as datasets of appropriate extent are becoming available. Usually, these statistics are based on time series lasting up to ten years as continuous storage of radar data was often not achieved before. This kind of climatology demands a high level of data quality. Small deviations or minor systematic under- or overestimations in single radar images become a major cause of error in statistical analysis. Extensive corrections of radar data are a crucial prerequisite for radar derived climatology. We present a new statistical post-correction scheme based on a climatological analysis of seven years of radar data of the Munich weather radar (2000–2006 operated by DWD (German Weather Service. Original radar products are used subject only to corrections within the signal processor without any further corrections on single radar images. The aim of this statistical correction is to make up for the average systematic errors caused by clutter, propagation, or measuring effects but to conserve small-scale natural variations in space.

    The statistical correction is based on a thorough analysis of the different causes of possible errors for the Munich weather radar. This analysis revealed the following basic effects: the decrease of rain amount as a function of height and distance from the radar, clutter effects such as clutter remnants after filtering, holes by eliminated clutter or shading effects from obstacles near the radar, visible as spokes, as well as the influence of the bright band. The correction algorithm is correspondingly based on these results. It consists of three modules. The first one is an altitude correction which minimises measuring effects. The second module corrects clutter effects and disturbances and the third one realises a mean adjustment to selected rain gauges. Two different sets of radar products are used. The statistical analysis as well as

  14. [Churg-Strauss abdominal manifestation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Moreno, Roberto; Ponce-Pérez, Luis Virgilio; Margain-Paredes, Miguel Angel; Garza-de la Llave, Heriberto; Madrazo-Navarro, Mario; Espinosa-Álvarez, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la enfermedad de Churg-Strauss es poco común, idiopática, caracterizada por hipereosinofilia en sangre y tejidos, aunada a vasculitis sistémica en pacientes con antecedentes de asma o rinitis alérgica. Las manifestaciones gastrointestinales del síndrome de Churg Strauss se caracterizan por dolor abdominal, seguido de diarrea y hemorragia en 31-45% de los casos. Caso clínico: paciente masculino con antecedente de asma que acudió a consulta por abdomen agudo con probable apendicitis aguda; durante el protocolo de estudio se diagnosticó síndrome de Churg Strauss, con manifestaciones intestinales. Conclusión: el síndrome de Churg Strauss es una vasculitis poco frecuente que puede manifestarse con síntomas intestinales, como en este caso; es importante tenerlo en mente a la hora de los diagnósticos diferenciales. Existen pocos reportes con este síndrome asociado con abdomen agudo, todos ellos con mal pronóstico.

  15. SU-E-J-190: Development of Abdominal Compression & Respiratory Guiding System Using Gas Pressure Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T; Kim, D; Kang, S; Cho, M; Kim, K; Shin, D; Suh, T [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Abdominal compression is known to be effective but, often makes external-marker-based monitoring of breathing motion not feasible. In this study, we developed and evaluated a system that enables both abdominal compression and monitoring of residual abdominal motion simultaneously. The system can also provide visual-biofeedback capability. Methods: The system developed consists of a compression belt, an abdominal motion monitoring sensor (gas pressure sensor) and a visual biofeedback device. The compression belt was designed to be able to compress the frontal side of the abdomen. The pressure level of the belt is controlled by air volume and monitored in real time using the gas pressure sensor. The system displays not only the real-time monitoring curve but also a guiding respiration model (e.g., a breath hold or shallow breathing curve) simultaneously on the head mounted display to help patients keep their breathing pattern as consistent as possible. Three healthy volunteers were enrolled in this pilot study and respiratory signals (pressure variations) were obtained both with and without effective abdominal compression to investigate the feasibility of the developed system. Two guidance patterns, breath hold and shallow breathing, were tested. Results: All volunteers showed smaller abdominal motion with compression (about 40% amplitude reduction compared to without compression). However, the system was able to monitor residual abdominal motion for all volunteers. Even under abdominal compression, in addition, it was possible to make the subjects successfully follow the guide patterns using the visual biofeedback system. Conclusion: The developed abdominal compression & respiratory guiding system was feasible for residual abdominal motion management. It is considered that the system can be used for a respiratory motion involved radiation therapy while maintaining the merit of abdominal compression. This work was supported by the Radiation Technology R

  16. SU-E-J-190: Development of Abdominal Compression & Respiratory Guiding System Using Gas Pressure Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Abdominal compression is known to be effective but, often makes external-marker-based monitoring of breathing motion not feasible. In this study, we developed and evaluated a system that enables both abdominal compression and monitoring of residual abdominal motion simultaneously. The system can also provide visual-biofeedback capability. Methods: The system developed consists of a compression belt, an abdominal motion monitoring sensor (gas pressure sensor) and a visual biofeedback device. The compression belt was designed to be able to compress the frontal side of the abdomen. The pressure level of the belt is controlled by air volume and monitored in real time using the gas pressure sensor. The system displays not only the real-time monitoring curve but also a guiding respiration model (e.g., a breath hold or shallow breathing curve) simultaneously on the head mounted display to help patients keep their breathing pattern as consistent as possible. Three healthy volunteers were enrolled in this pilot study and respiratory signals (pressure variations) were obtained both with and without effective abdominal compression to investigate the feasibility of the developed system. Two guidance patterns, breath hold and shallow breathing, were tested. Results: All volunteers showed smaller abdominal motion with compression (about 40% amplitude reduction compared to without compression). However, the system was able to monitor residual abdominal motion for all volunteers. Even under abdominal compression, in addition, it was possible to make the subjects successfully follow the guide patterns using the visual biofeedback system. Conclusion: The developed abdominal compression & respiratory guiding system was feasible for residual abdominal motion management. It is considered that the system can be used for a respiratory motion involved radiation therapy while maintaining the merit of abdominal compression. This work was supported by the Radiation Technology R

  17. Component Separation for Complex Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available COMPONENT SEPARATION FOR COMPLEX ABDOMINAL WALL RECONSTRUCTION ALBANY MEDICAL CENTER ALBANY, NY April 30, 2008 00:00: ... Koumanis. The surgery comes to you from Albany Medical Center in Albany, New York. In just moments, ...

  18. An Unusual Case of Abdominal Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby Desai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal calyceal rupture is a usual etiology of abdominal pain in the emergency department. We present a case of unexpected renal calyx rupture in a patient with symptomatology of renal colic. A discussion and review are provided.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: abdominal wall defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... size and can usually be diagnosed early in fetal development, typically between the tenth and fourteenth weeks of ... organs at the abdominal wall opening late in fetal development may also contribute to organ injury. Intestinal damage ...

  20. Abdominal separation in an adult male patient with acute abdominal pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We report a male patient with prolonged post-prandial abdominal distension and a sudden onset of epigastric pain initially diagnosed as acute abdomen. The patient had no history of surgery. Physical examination revealed peritonitis and abdominal computed tomography scan showed upper abdominal mesentery intorsion. The patient then underwent surgical intervention. It was found that the descending mesocolon dorsal root was connected to the ascending colon and formed a membrane encapsulating the small intestine...

  1. [Intestinal occlusion and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnitti, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal occlusion is defined as an independent predictive factor of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) which represents an independent predictor of mortality. Baggot in 1951 classified patients operated with intestinal occlusion as being at risk for IAH ("abdominal blow-out"), recommending them for open abdomen surgery proposed by Ogilvie. Abdominal surgery provokes IAH in 44.7% of cases with mortality which, in emergency, triples with respect to elective surgery (21.9% vs 6.8%). In particular, IAH is present in 61.2% of ileus and bowel distension and is responsible for 52% of mortality (54.8% in cases with intra-abdominal infection). These patients present with an increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) which, over 20-25 mmHg, triggers an Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (ACS) with altered functions in some organs arriving at Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS). The intestine normally covers 58% of abdominal volume but when there is ileus distension, intestinal pneumatosis develops (third space) which can occupy up to 90% of the entire cavity. At this moment, Gastro Intestinal Failure (GIF) can appear, which is a specific independent risk factor of mortality, motor of "Organ Failure". The pathophysiological evolution has many factors in 45% of cases: intestinal pneumatosis is associated with mucosal and serous edema, capillary leakage with an increase in extra-cellular volume and peritoneal fluid collections (fourth space). The successive loss of the mucous barrier permits a bacterial translocation which includes bacteria, toxins, pro-inflammatory factors and oxygen free radicals facilitating the passage from an intra-abdominal to inter-systemic vicious cyrcle. IAH provokes the raising of the diaphragm, and vascular and visceral compressions which induce hypertension in the various spaces with compartmental characteristics. These trigger hypertension in the renal, hepatic, pelvic, thoracic, cardiac, intracranial, orbital and lower extremity areas, giving

  2. Recurrent abdominal pain in paediatric patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mak, VWY; Ng, WM; Chan, KL

    1999-01-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain is a common problem in the paediatric population. While functional abdominal pain accounts for the majority of cases, an organic cause for pain may be found in about 5% to 10% of children. Diagnostic evaluation depends on the clinical presentation and the presence of specific findings. Excessive testing should be avoided as this may increase parental anxiety and put the child through unnecessary stress.

  3. Surveillance intervals for small abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bown, Matthew J; Sweeting, Michael J; Brown, Louise C;

    2013-01-01

    Small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs [3.0 cm-5.4 cm in diameter]) are monitored by ultrasound surveillance. The intervals between surveillance scans should be chosen to detect an expanding aneurysm prior to rupture.......Small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs [3.0 cm-5.4 cm in diameter]) are monitored by ultrasound surveillance. The intervals between surveillance scans should be chosen to detect an expanding aneurysm prior to rupture....

  4. Using abdominal massage in bowel management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Michelle; Hunt, Catherine; Lindley, Alison; Adams, John

    2014-07-15

    This article describes the introduction of abdominal massage techniques by a community team as part of a total bowel management programme for people with learning disabilities. A trust-wide audit of prescribed laxative use by this client group raised concerns, and led to a more systematic approach to managing constipation in people with learning disabilities. An education programme for carers proved to be successful. Some reported that adopting abdominal massage provided further opportunity to develop the therapeutic relationship. PMID:25005415

  5. Asymptomatic torsion of intra-abdominal testis

    OpenAIRE

    M. Amin El-Gohary

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of intra-abdominal testicular torsion, of eight years old boy who presented with asymptomatic left impalpable testis. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed a twisted small intra-abdominal testis in which the spermatic cord twisted 3 times over a band attached to the internal ring. The cord was long enough to bring the small testis into the scrotal sac. This case highlights the pole of laparoscopy in the management of impalpable testes.

  6. Traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the abdominal aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchiche, R; Bové, T; Demanet, H; Goldstein, J P; Deuvaert, F E

    1999-08-01

    A traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the abdominal aorta is a rare entity, occurring as the result of a missed aortic lesion at the time of the initial injury. Therefore, clinical suspicion and careful abdominal exploration at first laparotomy is mandatory to prevent aortic pseudoaneurysm formation and its risk of delayed rupture. We present a case of successful surgical treatment of a suprarenal aortic false aneurysm, presenting 4 weeks after a life-threatening gunshot wound in a 13-year-old child. PMID:10499389

  7. Abdominal integument atrophy after operative procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Lubiński, Jan; Bojko, Stefania; Gałdyńska, Maria; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze clinical material concerning postoperative atrophy of abdominal integument. Material and methods The evaluated group consisted of 29 patients with sonographically revealed atrophy of the abdominal wall. Those changes were observed after various surgical procedures: mainly after long, anterolateral laparotomies or several classical operations. Ultrasound examinations up to the year 2000 were performed with analog apparatus, in the latter years only with digi...

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of expanding haematoma of the lateral abdominal wall after blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a rare case of an expanding post-traumatic lateral abdominal wall haematoma. A superselective arteriogram of the deep circumflex iliac artery showed extravasation from the ascending branch, urging emergency therapy. Microcoil and Gelfoam embolisation was successfully performed. Haematomas of the abdominal wall can be divided in the common rectus sheath haematomas and the rare haematomas of the lateral abdominal wall. Differentiating both entities is essential, since there is a strong difference in their vascular supply. The typical vascular supply of the lateral abdominal wall is discussed, with emphasis on the ascending branch of the deep circumflex iliac artery. (orig.)

  9. Readjustment of abdominal computed tomography protocols in a university hospital: impact on radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Ricardo Francisco Tavares; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Torres, Lucas Rios; Bretas, Elisa Almeida Sathler; Bekhor, Daniel; Medeiros, Regina Bitelli; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: ricardo.romano@unifesp.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Caldana, Rogerio Pedreschi [Fleury Medicina e Saude, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Objective: To assess the reduction of estimated radiation dose in abdominal computed tomography following the implementation of new scan protocols on the basis of clinical suspicion and of adjusted images acquisition parameters. Materials and Methods: Retrospective and prospective review of reports on radiation dose from abdominal CT scans performed three months before (group A - 551 studies) and three months after (group B - 788 studies) implementation of new scan protocols proposed as a function of clinical indications. Also, the images acquisition parameters were adjusted to reduce the radiation dose at each scan phase. The groups were compared for mean number of acquisition phases, mean CTDI{sub vol} per phase, mean DLP per phase, and mean DLP per scan. Results: A significant reduction was observed for group B as regards all the analyzed aspects, as follows: 33.9%, 25.0%, 27.0% and 52.5%, respectively for number of acquisition phases, CTDI{sub vol} per phase, DLP per phase and DLP per scan (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The rational use of abdominal computed tomography scan phases based on the clinical suspicion in conjunction with the adjusted images acquisition parameters allows for a 50% reduction in the radiation dose from abdominal computed tomography scans. (author)

  10. DIEP breast reconstruction following multiple abdominal liposuction procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Farid, Mohammed; Nicholson, Simon; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Akali, Augustine

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Previous abdominal wall surgery is viewed as a contraindication to abdominal free tissue transfer. We present two patients who underwent multiple abdominal liposuction procedures, followed by successful free deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap. We review the literature pertaining to reliability of abdominal free flaps in those with previous abdominal surgery. Methods: Review of case notes and radiological investigations of two patients, and a PubMed search using the ter...

  11. 协方差矩阵结构的广义杂波分组估计方法%Generalized Clutter-Clustered Estimation of Covariance Matrix Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾新锋; 简涛; 何友; 郝晓琳

    2012-01-01

    针对球不变随机向量建模的相关复合高斯杂波背景下雷达目标自适应检测的协方差矩阵结构估计问题,将均匀杂波分组方法进行推广和改进,提出了杂波协方差矩阵结构的广义迭代杂波分组估计(GRCCE)方法.首先,在广义杂波分组背景下利用最大似然方法推导了协方差矩阵结构估计的迭代过程;其次,基于杂波分组思想,给出了广义杂波分组估计(GCCE),利用GCCE作为初始化估计矩阵进行迭代,得到协方差矩阵结构的GRCCE;最后,通过仿真对方法的有效性进行了检测,结果表明,GRCCE只需要一次迭代就能达到收敛,估计精度随着杂波一阶相关系数的增大而提高,而不受纹理分量参数变化的影响.与现有方法相比GRCCE适应杂波环境更广,估计精度更高,而且计算量更小.%The problem of covariance matrix structure estimation is addressed for radar target adaptive detection in correlated compound-Gaussian clutter environment modeled as spherically invariant random vector. The method of clutter-clustered estimation is generalized and modified, and a generalized recursive clutter-clustered estimation (GRCCE) is proposed. The recursive process of covariance matrix structure estimation is derived in generalized clutter-clustered environment based on the method of maximum likelihood estimation. A generalized clutter-clustered estimation (GCCE) is proposed based on the idea of clutter-clustered estimation. And then GRCCE is obtained by recursion with GCCE as the initialized estimation matrix. The simulation results show that one recursion is sufficient to obtain the desired goals. The estimation accuracy of the GRCCE is improved as first order correlation coefficient becomes bigger, and it is independent of the clutter texture components. Compared with the existing methods, the GRCCE is shown to be better adaptability, higher estimation accuracy and lower computational burden.

  12. Modeling and Simulation of High Resolution Radar Clutter on SIRV%基于SIRV高分辨率雷达杂波建模与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢洪森; 周鹏; 栾宝宽; 邹鲲

    2012-01-01

    Modeling and simulation of the high resolution radar clutter is the most important method to evaluate the radar performance. The generalized compound (GO probability density function(PDF) is used to describe the high resolution radar clutter statistics. The GC PDF is formed using the generalized gamma PDF to describe the speckle and modulation components of the radar clutter. The advantageous of radar clutter modeling by use of spherically invariant random vector (SIRV) is that the correlation matrix and marginal PDF of random vectors can be control respectively and independently. In this paper, the GC PDF radar clutter and SIRV modeling methods are discussed, and the SIRV model of the GC PDF radar clutter is proposed. The computer simulation is used to validate the model, and the statistics of the simulated GC-PDF clutter is compared with the theoretical results. The simulation results are identical with the theoretical results, which proves that the SIRV model is of availability and universality.%高分辨率雷达杂波建模与仿真是评估雷达性能的重要手段.广义复合概率密度通常用来描述高分辨率雷达杂波.在广义复合分布中,将散斑分量和调制分量均采用广义伽马(GΓ)分布来表示.采用球不变随机矢量(SIRV)进行杂波建模的优点在于能够独立控制其相关性和一维边缘概率密度.对广义复合分布和SIRV建模方法进行了讨论,在此基础上,给出了相干相关的广义复合分布的SIRV模型,利用计算机进行了广义复合分布的杂波仿真,并对杂波仿真的统计特性与理论值进行了比较.仿真结果与理论分析相吻合,说明了该模型的有效性和普适性.

  13. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome and Intra-abdominal Ischemia in Patients with Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.; Buddingh, K. T.; Bosma, B; Nieuwenhuijs, V B; Hofker, H.S.; Zijlstra, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Severe acute pancreatitis may be complicated by intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS), and intestinal ischemia. The aim of this retrospective study is to describe the incidence, treatment, and outcome of patients with severe acute pancreatitis and ACS

  14. Abdominal binders may reduce pain and improve physical function after major abdominal surgery - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothman, Josephine Philip; Gunnarsson, Ulf; Bisgaard, Thue

    2014-01-01

    . The PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched for studies on the use of abdominal binders after abdominal surgery or abdominoplasty. All types of clinical studies were included. Two independent assessors evaluated the scientific quality of the studies. The primary outcomes were pain, seroma...

  15. Postoperative abdominal complications after cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Guohua

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To summarize the diagnostic and therapeutic experiences on the patients who suffered abdominal complications after cardiovascular surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB. Methods A total of 2349 consecutive patients submitted to cardiovascular surgery with CPB in our hospital from Jan 2004 to Dec 2010 were involved. The clinical data of any abdominal complication, including its incidence, characters, relative risks, diagnostic measures, medical or surgical management and mortality, was retrospectively analyzed. Results Of all the patients, 33(1.4% developed abdominal complications postoperatively, including 11(33.3% cases of paralytic ileus, 9(27.3% of gastrointestinal haemorrhage, 2(6.1% of gastroduodenal ulcer perforation, 2(6.1% of acute calculus cholecystitis, 3(9.1% of acute acalculus cholecystitis, 4(12.1% of hepatic dysfunction and 2(6.1% of ischemia bowel diseases. Of the 33 patients, 26 (78.8% accepted medical treatment and 7 (21.2% underwent subsequent surgical intervention. There were 5(15.2% deaths in this series, which was significantly higher than the overall mortality (2.7%. Positive history of peptic ulcer, advanced ages, bad heart function, preoperative IABP support, prolonged CPB time, low cardiac output and prolonged mechanical ventilation are the risk factors of abdominal complications. Conclusions Abdominal complications after cardiovascular surgery with CPB have a low incidence but a higher mortality. Early detection and prompt appropriate intervention are essential for the outcome of the patients.

  16. Abdominal tuberculosis, clinical-radiological revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We retrospectively evaluated the clinical charts and diagnostic images of hospitalised patients with histological or bacteriologic demonstration of abdominal tuberculosis (TB) including those with probable abdominal TB, who had pulmonary TB and radiologic findings highly suggestive of abdominal TB with favourable response to treatment. Cases with genitourinary TB were excluded. We found 24 patients with an average age of 25 yrs. In some cases this entity was not suspected on the imaging studies, and diagnosis was made on surgery. The most frequent symptoms were: abdominal pain, diarrhoea, fever, vomiting, weight loss and abdominal mass. Active pulmonary TB was demonstrated on 8 cases (33%) Peritoneal presentation was the most frequent (54%) with septated or simple ascites, cystic ascites or pseudocysts within bowel loops. Mesenteric involvement (21 %) showed adenopathy or masses identified with CT. Intestinal forms (17%) showed pseudo-polyps on terminal ileum and ulcers on ileum, cecum and colon. We found one case with diffuse ulcerative involvement of the colon. Two cases showed hepatic involvement, one with an abscess and a tuberculosis Cole cystitis, with pyloric syndrome due to fibrosis

  17. Intra-Abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Association with Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in the Endovascular Era: Vigilance Remains Critical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C. Bozeman

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we describe published experience with IAH and ACS complicating abdominal vascular catastrophes, experience with ACS complicating endovascular repair of rAAAs, and techniques for management of the abdominal wound. Vigilance and appropriate management of IAH and ACS remains critically important in decreasing morbidity and optimizing survival following catastrophic intra-abdominal vascular events.

  18. Thoracic and abdominal blastomycosis in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toribio, R E; Kohn, C W; Lawrence, A E; Hardy, J; Hutt, J A

    1999-05-01

    A 5-year-old Quarter Horse mare was examined because of lethargy, fever, and weight loss of 1 month's duration. Thoracic auscultation revealed decreased lung sounds cranioventrally. Thoracic ultrasonography revealed bilateral anechoic areas with hyperechoic strands, consistent with pleural effusion and fibrin tags. A large amount of free fluid was evident during abdominal ultrasonography. Abnormalities included anemia, hyperproteinemia, hyperglobulinemia, hyperfibrinogenemia, and hypoalbuminemia. Thoracic radiography revealed alveolar infiltrates in the cranial and caudoventral lung fields. A cavitary mass, consistent with an abscess, could be seen caudodorsal to the crura of the diaphragm. Ultrasonographic evaluation of this area revealed a hypoechoic mass with septations. Bilateral thoracocentesis was performed. Bacterial culture of the pleural fluid did not yield growth, but Blastomyces dermatitidis was isolated from pleural fluid, abdominal fluid, and an aspirate of the abscess. The mare was euthanatized, and a diagnosis of thoracic and abdominal blastomycosis was confirmed at necropsy. PMID:10319179

  19. Psychosocial factors and childhood recurrent abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boey, Christopher Chiong-Meng; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2002-12-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain in children is not a single condition but a description of a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, some of which fit into a definite pattern, such as the irritable bowel syndrome, while others do not. Organic disorders may be present, but in the majority of children they cannot be detected. Although children with recurrent abdominal pain do not generally have psychological or psychiatric illness, there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that psychosocial stress plays an important role in this condition. This review will look into some of this evidence. The precise pathophysiology that results in abdominal pain is still not clearly understood, but the current belief is that visceral hypersensitivity or hyperalgesia and changes in the brain-gut axis linking the central and enteric nervous systems are important mechanisms. PMID:12423267

  20. [Pediatric Abdominal Pain – Harmless or Harmful?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlano, Raoul Ivano

    2016-04-27

    Abdominal pain is a very common pediatric complaint. In the majority of cases there is no life-threatening pathology behind this symptom, but a functional disease. However, all-day activities of children and adolescents are often limited, frequent absences from school, and general physician/ pediatrician office visits with often unnecessary diagnostic and therapies are registered. Once an organic etiology of the abdominal pain is excluded by a thoroughly medical history taking and physical examination, the first steps for a successful alleviation of the pain is the reassurance of the patients and their family that there is no life-threatening pathology. There is evidence that cognitive-behavioral therapy may be useful in improving pain and disability outcome in the short term. There is no evidence for pharmacological, dietetic, or complementary intervention in the treatment of chronic functional abdominal pain. PMID:27120211

  1. Indium 111 leucocyte scintigraphy in abdominal sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the clinical utility of indium 111 autologous leucocyte scintigraphy retrospectively in 45 patients presenting with suspected intra-abdominal sepsis. The sensitivity was 95% (21/22) and the specificity was 91% (21/23). Some 34 of the studies (17 positive and 17 negative) were considered helpful in furthering patient management (76%) and 8, unhelpful (18%). In 3, the study results were misleading and led to inappropriate treatment. Indium 111 scintigraphy, whether positive or negative, provides information in patients with suspected intra-abdominal sepsis upon which therapeutic decisions can be based. (orig.)

  2. Damage control resuscitation for abdominal war injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-wei DING

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the concept of comprehensive treatment for military trauma has been comprehensively updated. The application of damage control surgery has significantly improved the clinical outcome of severe abdominal injury. With appropriate surgical intervention, post-trauma fluid resuscitation plays an increasingly important role in the treatment of abdominal injury. The damage control resuscitation strategy addresses the importance of permissive hypotension and haemostatic resuscitation for patients with severe trauma, under the guidance of damage control surgical principle. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.03.02

  3. Penetrating abdominal injuries in children in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameh, E A; Nmadu, P T

    1999-09-01

    This is a report of a retrospective study of 24 children managed for penetrating abdominal injury over 10 years, and it represents 34% of all abdominal injuries in children in that period. Falls onto sharp objects within and around the home were responsible for ten of the injuries, seven were injured by animal horns and four were sporting injuries. Violence and road traffic accidents were uncommon. Most patients (67%) had evisceration of omentum or intestine, and one of these was found at laparotomy to have a jejuno-jejunal intussusception. Seven children had injury to hollow viscera. There were three deaths, one each from overwhelming sepsis, tetanus and haemorrhage.

  4. Aggressive malignant abdominal mesothelioma: Clinical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 32-year-old Filipino female, working as an x-ray technician, presented to the Emergency Room (ER) with acute abdominal pain for one day. The pain was mainly on the left side and left hypochondrium. She had recurring abdominal pain before but not significant to worry her. She also complained of abdominal distension, which she noticed one week ago. Abdominal examination revealed fullness in the left hypochondrium with marked tenderness but negative rebound. Abdominal ultrasound (US) showed a huge mass mainly in the left hypochondrium. The origin of the mass cannot be identified by US. A computerized tomography scan showed a mass in the left side of the abdomen crossing the midline with a necrotic centre. The hospital course of the patient runs smoothly, and she was discharged after 7-days and referred to an Oncology Center. Abdominal mesothelioma is a neoplasm arising from the mesothelial surface lining the abdominal cavity. It is less frequent than that of the pleura. It is a rapidly growing and fatal malignancy with a median survival of less than 1-year. The relation between pleural malignant mesothelioma and asbestos is well recognized since it was described in 19602 but implication of asbestos exposure in the etiology of the peritoneal type is less obvious. This patient history is giving no obvious exposure to asbestos but as she is working in the Radiology Department as an x-ray technician she is well exposed to x-ray, but the effect of radioactivity on induction of mesothelioma is still disputed.4 There are several reports linking malignant mesothelioma to radioactivity due to radiation therapy.The fibrous mesothelioma (sarcomatous), as in this case, which is difficult to diagnose microscopically, looks like a fibroma, unless helped by tissue culture. The treatment options of malignant mesothelioma include surgery, intraperitoneal chemotherapy and whole abdominal radiation or multimodality therapy, which were suggested that might prolong the survival in

  5. [Penetrating abdominal wounds. Apropos of 330 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejjar, M; Bennani, S; Zerouali, O N

    1991-01-01

    Penetrating abdominal wounds are frequent and serious. 330 cases have been treated in the Department of Emergencies and visceral Surgery at Averroes Hospital of Casablanca from 1980 to 1990. The predominance of male sex is noted, and these wounds are always the result of aggression by white arm. All patients have been operated, the white laparotomy rate is of 36%. The classic interventionist attitude is still recommended in spite of this high rate, because our present conditions can't permit us a rigorous watching. According to abdominal lesions, the different interventions are reviewed, and their indications are detailed.

  6. An unusual cause of abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terneu, S; Verhelst, D; Thys, F; Ketelslegers, E; Hantson, P; Wittebole, X

    2003-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman presented to the Emergency Room because of abdominal pain associated with hematuria and red blood blending to stool. On admission, the physical examination revealed abdominal tenderness and diffuse cutaneous hematoma. The laboratory findings showed abnormal clotting tests with high International Normalised Ratio (INR) and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time. Hemoperitoneum and ureteral hematoma were noted on the abdomen computed tomography. The patient confessed she had ingested difenacoum for several weeks. All the symptoms resolved with fresh frozen plasma perfusion and vitamin K. PMID:14635532

  7. ABDOMINAL SCAR ENDOMETRIOSIS: REPORT OF 28 CASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向阳; 郎景和; 王友芳; 黄荣丽; 连丽娟

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-eight cases of abdominal scar endometriosis from Janurary,1989 to December,1993 are reported.Of these patients,twenty-four underwent term cesarean section,and four underwent a midtrimester abortion by abdominal hysterotomy.The majority of patients manifested symptoms 1 year after the operation.The most common was a painful mass of scar tissue that became swollen and tender during menstruation.The pathogenesis,diagnosis and treatment are discussed.In correlation with the pathological findings,the effects of drug therapy are evaluated.It was found that surgical excision is the best method of treatment.

  8. Systemic lupus erythematosus : abdominal radiologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Cheon; Cho, On Koo; Lee, Yong Joo; Bae, Jae Ik; Kim, Yong Soo; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Ko, Byung Hee [Hanyang Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus(SLE) is a systemic disease of unknown etiology. Its main pathology is vasculitis and serositis, due to deposition of the immune complex or antibodies. Most findings are nonspecific ; abdominal manifestations include enteritis, hepatomegaly, pancreatic enlargement, serositis, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, nephritis, interstitial cystitis, and thrombophlebitis. We described radiologic findings of various organ involvement of SLE; digestive system, serosa, reticuloendothelial system, urinary system, and venous system. Diagnosis of SLE was done according to the criteria of American Rheumatism Association. Understanding of the variable imaging findings in SLE may be helpful for the early detection of abdominal involvement and complications.

  9. Abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training: fat burning or hydrocarbon source redistribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chia-Hua; Harris, M Brennan

    2016-07-01

    Fat burning, defined by fatty acid oxidation into carbon dioxide, is the most described hypothesis to explain the actual abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training. This hypothesis is strengthened by evidence of increased whole-body lipolysis during exercise. As a result, aerobic training is widely recommended for obesity management. This intuition raises several paradoxes: first, both aerobic and resistance exercise training do not actually elevate 24 h fat oxidation, according to data from chamber-based indirect calorimetry. Second, anaerobic high-intensity intermittent training produces greater abdominal fat reduction than continuous aerobic training at similar amounts of energy expenditure. Third, significant body fat reduction in athletes occurs when oxygen supply decreases to inhibit fat burning during altitude-induced hypoxia exposure at the same training volume. Lack of oxygen increases post-meal blood distribution to human skeletal muscle, suggesting that shifting the postprandial hydrocarbons towards skeletal muscle away from adipose tissue might be more important than fat burning in decreasing abdominal fat. Creating a negative energy balance in fat cells due to competition of skeletal muscle for circulating hydrocarbon sources may be a better model to explain the abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise than the fat-burning model. PMID:27152424

  10. A diagnostic approach to abdominal tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eser Vardareli; Baybora Kircali

    2005-01-01

    @@ TO THE EDITOR We read with interest the article by Uzunkoy et al[1]. about diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis. In this article authors concluded that PCR for mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is a noninvasive method which can provide the diagnosis in most cases. If this tests negative or not feasible, laparotomy should be performed.

  11. Unusual Differential Diagnosis of Upper Abdominal Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanthaler Monika

    2009-01-01

    The peculiarity of this case is the rarity of toothpick ingestion and gastric perforation in a young and healthy white Caucasian followed by development of a liver abscess after primary uneventful endoscopic removal. In light of this case, gastric perforation due to ingested foreign bodies such as toothpicks can be considered a rare cause of upper abdominal pain.

  12. [Albert Einstein and his abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes Castro, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The interesting case of Albert Einstein's abdominal aortic aneurysm is presented. He was operated on at age 69 and, finding that the large aneurysm could not be removed, the surgeon elected to wrap it with cellophane to prevent its growth. However, seven years later the aneurysm ruptured and caused the death of the famous scientist.

  13. CT features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monill, J.; Pernas, J.; Montserrat, E.; Perez, C.; Clavero, J.; Martinez-Noguera, A.; Guerrero, R.; Torrubia, S. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the CT features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms. We reviewed CT imaging findings in 11 patients (seven men, four women; mean age 62 years) with plasma cell neoplasms and abdominal involvement. Helical CT of the entire abdomen and pelvis was performed following intravenous administration of contrast material. Images were analyzed in consensus by two radiologists. Diagnoses were made from biopsy, surgery and/or clinical follow-up findings. Multiple myeloma was found in seven patients and extramedullary plasmacytoma in four patients. All patients with multiple myeloma had multifocal disease with involvement of perirenal space (4/7), retroperitoneal and pelvic lymph nodes (3/7), peritoneum (3/7), liver (2/7), subcutaneous tissues (2/7) and kidney (1/7). In three of the four patients with extramedullary plasmacytoma, a single site was involved, namely stomach, vagina and retroperitoneum. In the fourth patient, a double site of abdominal involvement was observed with rectal and jejunal masses. Plasma cell neoplasm should be considered in the differential diagnosis of single or multiple enhancing masses in the abdomen or pelvis. Abdominal plasma cell neoplasms were most frequently seen as well-defined enhancing masses (10/11). (orig.)

  14. Abdominal CT in acute arterial pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The abdominal arterial pathology as studied by CT imagings is reviewed. The illustrated morphology of aortic aneurysms complications (arterial embolism, dissection and arteriosclerotic ulcer ) are studied. The signs that lead to diagnosis are assessed and the major points on which to base a correct radiological study are reviewed

  15. CT features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to describe the CT features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms. We reviewed CT imaging findings in 11 patients (seven men, four women; mean age 62 years) with plasma cell neoplasms and abdominal involvement. Helical CT of the entire abdomen and pelvis was performed following intravenous administration of contrast material. Images were analyzed in consensus by two radiologists. Diagnoses were made from biopsy, surgery and/or clinical follow-up findings. Multiple myeloma was found in seven patients and extramedullary plasmacytoma in four patients. All patients with multiple myeloma had multifocal disease with involvement of perirenal space (4/7), retroperitoneal and pelvic lymph nodes (3/7), peritoneum (3/7), liver (2/7), subcutaneous tissues (2/7) and kidney (1/7). In three of the four patients with extramedullary plasmacytoma, a single site was involved, namely stomach, vagina and retroperitoneum. In the fourth patient, a double site of abdominal involvement was observed with rectal and jejunal masses. Plasma cell neoplasm should be considered in the differential diagnosis of single or multiple enhancing masses in the abdomen or pelvis. Abdominal plasma cell neoplasms were most frequently seen as well-defined enhancing masses (10/11). (orig.)

  16. Connective tissue alteration in abdominal wall hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, N A; Yadete, D H; Sørensen, Lars Tue;

    2011-01-01

    The aetiology and pathogenesis of abdominal wall hernia formation is complex. Optimal treatment of hernias depends on a full understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in their formation. The aim of this study was to review the literature on specific collagen alterations in abdom...

  17. Case series of abdominal sacral colpopexy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Dhama

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Abdominal sacral colpopexy with polypropylene mesh is a safe, effective treatment in patients having post hysterectomy vaginal vault proplase. When done by experienced gynecologist, major post-operative complications seem to be very few in patients having normal BMI and no major systemic illnesses. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 1992-1995

  18. Intra-abdominal tumors in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to observe the histopathological pattern of intra-abdominal tumors in children less than 16 years. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Department of Histopathology, Children's Hospital and the Institute of Child Health and King Edward Medical College, Lahore, over a period of 5 years, from January 1997 to December 2002. Subjects and Methods: The histopathological and demographic data of 264 intra-abdominal tumors of both the sexes under 16 years of age was collected and analyzed to determine the various morphological types of intra- abdominal tumors in relation to age and sex. Results: Neuroblastoma was the most common tumor constituting 29.6% of all cases, followed by Wilms' tumor (25.1%). Others were non-Hodgkins Iymphomas (15.5%), germ cell tumors and hepatoblastoma (9%) each, rhabdomyosarcoma (4.4%), hepatocellular carcinoma (1.4%) and miscellaneous (6%). Majority of the patients (77.2%) were under 5 years of age. The male to female ratio was 1.1 :0.9. Conclusion: Intra-abdominal tumors are more common in males. Most of the tumors were noted in children less than 5 years of age. (author)

  19. The Principles of Abdominal Wound Closure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E. -T.; Timmermans, L.; Jeekel, J.; Lange, J. F.; Muysoms, F. E.

    2013-01-01

    Background : Incisional hernia (IH) is a common complication of abdominal surgery. Its incidence has been reported as high as 39.9%. Many factors influence IH rates. Of these, surgical technique is the only factor directly controlled by the surgeon. There is much evidence in the literature on the op

  20. Nutritional and metabolic changes due the abdominal radiation: experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the effects on nutritional status and energetic metabolism due the abdominal irradiation were analysed. Adult male wistar rats (48), were divided in two groups Control (C) and radiated (R). The rats were maintained all time in metabolic cages. the study was done in two periods: period 1 begun at 0 day, were rats adapted to cages and oral diet, had food and water ad libitum. At the day four indirect calorimetric measurements were performed (calorimetry 1). At period 2, group R rats abdominal radiation at a 300 c Gy/day rate, for 5 consecutive days, and group C started a pair-feeding process linked individually to R rats and suffered application to simulated-irradiation. Two other calorimetric measurements (II,III) were performing during period 2. After radiation the last calorimetry was performed (IV). At sacrifice (day 14) blood was collected for determination of hemoglobin, hematocrit, albumin and transferrin. There were no statistical differences among groups C and R during period 1 (p < 0.05). Great reduction in food intake and weight variation were found in period 2, but weight loss was significantly higher in R rats. Nitrogen balance decrease in period 2, but without difference among the groups (p < 0.05). Serum albumin was significantly lower in R rats. Respiratory quotient decreased in both groups during period 2, but rats kept it lower (p < 0.05). The energy expenditure level decreased after radiation in group R. During period 2 total substrate oxidation decreased in R rats. Radiation decrease glucose and protein oxidation. In conclusion, in this study's conditions, radiation produced malnutrition by reducing food intake by bringing weight loss, hypoalbuminemia and decrease nitrogen balance. Radiation was also responsible for a reduction of metabolism, by promoting the fall of energy expenditure. These changes are not only due the anorexia, undoubtful a main factor. (author)

  1. Fever and abdominal tumoral masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin C. Dima

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available 49 year-old man presented to our clinic for pain in the right hypochondrium, diarrhea, and fever. The clinical examination highlights a tumoral formation in the right side of the abdomen, with firm consistency, poorly defined margins, and present mobility in the deep structures. On biological exams, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, inflammatory syndrome, and hypoalbuminaemia were identified. The first computed tomography exam described parietal thickening of the ascending colon, with infiltrative aspect, and multiple local adenopathies, lomboaortic and interaortocave. Moreover, four nodular liver tumors, with hypodense image in native examination, were identified. The lab tests for infectious diseases were all inconclusives: three hemocultures, three stool samples, and three coproparasitological exams were all negatives. Interdisciplinary examinations, internal medicine and infectious diseases, sustained the diagnosis of colonic neoplasm with peritumoral abscess and liver pseudo-tumoral masses. The colonoscopy did not revealed any bowel lesions relevant for neoplasia. This result as well as the bio-clinical context imposed abstention from surgical intervention. Wide spectrum antibiotics and symptomatic treatment were initiated. But, ten days after hospitalization, the second computed tomography exam showed reduction of the ascending colon wall thickness associated with significant increases of the liver tumors is so revealed. The investigations for other possible etiologies were so continued.

  2. Splenic trauma during abdominal wall liposuction: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Harnett, Paul; Koak, Yashwant; Baker, Daryl

    2008-01-01

    A 35-year-old woman collapsed 18 hours after undergoing abdominal wall liposuction. Abdominal CT scan revealed a punctured spleen. She underwent an emergency splenectomy and made an uneventful recovery.

  3. Evaluation of abdominal CT in the initial treatment of abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last four years 102 patients with abdominal trauma were examined by CT for preoperative evaluation in our hospital. In 35 patients (34 %), the CT scans revealed no abnormal findings. They were all managed conservatively except for one case of perforated small bowel. In 67 patients (66 %) CT revealed evidences of substantial abdominal or retroperitoneal trauma. In 30 of them CT findings were confirmed by surgery. Hepatic injury is usually easily recognized by CT. CT is also useful for the detection of renal or splenic injuries. The majority of those parenchymatous organ injuries were successfully managed with conservative therapy, despite apparent traumatic lesions revealed by CT. Repeat CT scans is proved to be very useful to follow the changes of these traumatic lesions. In conclusion, application of abdominal CT is extremely useful for the initial decision making in treatment of patients with abdominal trauma and for the follow-up observation of injured lesions. (author)

  4. Isolated duodenal rupture due to blunt abdominal trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celik Atilla

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal rupture following blunt abdominal trauma is rare and it usually seen with other abdominal organ injuries. It represents approximately 2% to 20% of patients with blunt abdominal injury and often occurs after blows to the upper abdomen, or abdominal compression from high-riding seat belts. Two cases of blunt duodenal rupture successfully treated surgically, are presented with their preoperative diagnosis and final out comes.

  5. Abdominal fedme og fedmerelaterede sygdomme hos patienter i almen praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugan, Ketil; Rost, Dan; Knudsen, Nils;

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal obesity is associated with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia and hypertension. The prevalence of abdominal obesity and its relationship with these comorbidities have not previously been examined in Danish primary care patients.......Abdominal obesity is associated with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia and hypertension. The prevalence of abdominal obesity and its relationship with these comorbidities have not previously been examined in Danish primary care patients....

  6. Effects of ovariohysterectomy on intra-abdominal pressure and abdominal perfusion pressure in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, L; Rivera del Álamo, M M; Andaluz, A; Monreal, L; Torrente, C; García-Arnas, F; Fresno, L

    2012-12-15

    Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal perfusion pressure (APP) have shown clinical relevance in monitoring critically ill human beings submitted to abdominal surgery. Only a few studies have been performed in veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to assess how pregnancy and abdominal surgery may affect IAP and APP in healthy cats. For this purpose, pregnant (n=10) and non-pregnant (n=11) queens undergoing elective spaying, and tomcats (n=20, used as controls) presented for neutering by scrotal orchidectomy were included in the study. IAP, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), APP, heart rate and rectal temperature (RT) were determined before, immediately after, and four hours after surgery. IAP increased significantly immediately after abdominal surgery in both female groups when compared with baseline (P<0.05) and male (P<0.05) values, and returned to initial perioperative readings four hours after surgery. Tomcats and pregnant females (P<0.05) showed an increase in MAP and APP immediately after surgery decreasing back to initial perioperative values four hours later. A significant decrease in RT was appreciated immediately after laparotomy in both pregnant and non-pregnant queens. IAP was affected by abdominal surgery in this study, due likely to factors, such as postoperative pain and hypothermia. Pregnancy did not seem to affect IAP in this population of cats, possibly due to subjects being in early stages of pregnancy. PMID:23118052

  7. Abdominal wall paresis as a complication of laparoscopic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H. van Ramshorst (Gabrielle); G.J. Kleinrensink (Gert Jan); J.J. Hermans (John); T. Terkivatan (Türkan); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Abdominal wall nerve injury as a result of trocar placement for laparoscopic surgery is rare. We intend to discuss causes of abdominal wall paresis as well as relevant anatomy. Methods: A review of the nerve supply of the abdominal wall is illustrated with a rare case of a patie

  8. 2013 WSES guidelines for management of intra-abdominal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sartelli Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite advances in diagnosis, surgery, and antimicrobial therapy, mortality rates associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections remain exceedingly high. The 2013 update of the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES guidelines for the management of intra-abdominal infections contains evidence-based recommendations for management of patients with intra-abdominal infections.

  9. Primary abdominal pregnancy following intra-uterine insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Sujata Kar

    2011-01-01

    Primary abdominal pregnancy is an extremely rare type of extrauterine pregnancy. It has been reported from many unusual intra-abdominal sites. We report a case of primary abdominal pregnancy following intra-uterine insemination (not reported earlier to our knowledge). Implanted on the anterior surface of the uterus possibly related to an endometriotic foci. Early diagnosis enabled laparoscopic management of this case.

  10. Can release of urinary retention trigger abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Andreas; Powell-Bowns, Matilda; Elseedawy, Emad

    2013-04-04

    Only 50% of abdominal aortic aneurysms present with the classic triad of hypotension, back pain and a pulsatile abdominal mass. This variability in symptoms can delay diagnosis and treatment. We present the case of a patient presenting with a unique combination of symptoms suggesting that decompression of urinary retention can lead to abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture.

  11. Increased long-term mortality after a high perioperative inspiratory oxygen fraction during abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyhoff, Christian Sylvest; Jorgensen, Lars N; Wetterslev, Jørn;

    2012-01-01

    A high perioperative inspiratory oxygen fraction (80%) has been recommended to prevent postoperative wound infections. However, the most recent and one of the largest trials, the PROXI trial, found no reduction in surgical site infection, and 30-day mortality was higher in patients given 80% oxygen....... In this follow-up study of the PROXI trial we assessed the association between long-term mortality and perioperative oxygen fraction in patients undergoing abdominal surgery....

  12. Bats coordinate sonar and flight behavior as they forage in open and cluttered environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Benjamin; Jakobsen, Lasse; Surlykke, Annemarie;

    2014-01-01

    . In this study, we examined the relationship between active sonar sampling and flight motor output as bats changed environments from open space to an artificial forest in a laboratory flight room. Using high-speed video and audio recordings, we reconstructed and analyzed 3D flight trajectories, sonar beam aim...... and acoustic sonar emission patterns as the bats captured prey. We found that big brown bats adjusted their sonar call structure, temporal patterning and flight speed in response to environmental change. The sonar beam aim of the bats predicted the flight turn rate in both the open room and the forest. However......, the relationship between sonar beam aim and turn rate changed in the forest during the final stage of prey pursuit, during which the bat made shallower turns. We found flight stereotypy developed over multiple days in the forest, but did not find evidence for a reduction in active sonar sampling with experience...

  13. An abdominal aortic calcification as a RISK FACTOR FOR cardio -cerebral events in patients with peripheral arterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Zelinskiy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The patients with abdominal aortic calcification have a high risk of cardiocerebral events, but the pathways of them have not been reported so far. The goal of our study was to assess the structure and function of myocardium and to determine the morphological features of carotid artery atherosclerosis in patients with abdominal aortic calcification.Materials and methods. A total of 167 executive patients with peripheral arterial disease were enrolled in study. The study group included 85 patients with abdominal aortic calcification (men – 95.3 %; age median was – 66.6 ± 12. Control group included 82 patients without objective signs of abdominal aortic calcification. Abdominal aortic calcification was detected by CT imaging. All patients have undergone echocardiography and duplex scanning of carotid arteries.Results. Prevalence and severity of ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease were statistically significant higher in patients with abdominal aortic calcification (91.7, 65.8 % vs. 67, 37.3 % (р < 0.01. We have found statistically significant differences between groupsin heart structure and function. A high left ventricular wall thickness (р < 0.01, left atrium dilation (р < 0.01 and enhanced of left ventricular mass (р < 0.05, ejection fraction reduction (р < 0.05 and more common diastolic dysfunction (р < 0.05 were determined inpatients with abdominal aortic calcification. An intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery was significantly higher in study group patients (1.38 ± 0.07 mm vs. 1.14 ± 0.06 mm (р < 0.001.Conclusion. Our findings suggested that abdominal aortic calcification is main reason of hypertrophy and dilation in the left heart due to enhanced peripheral resistance. Hypertrophy and dilation in the left heart is provided a high risk of cardiovascular events in patients withabdominal aortic calcification.

  14. Role of plasma ammonia level in detecting intra-abdominal hemorrhage following blunt abdominal trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Farsi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blunt abdominal injury is a leading cause of death in trauma patients. A reliable test predicting intra-abdominal hemorrhage would be a novel method. The study objective was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of plasma ammonia in detection of intra-abdominal bleeding in patients with blunt abdominal trauma (BAT. Materials and Methods: In this observational study, all patients suffering from BAT, referred to our university teaching hospital included. The levels of ammonia were measured at the time of emergency department admission and 1 h after initial treatment. Demographic data, vital signs, and venous blood gas reports were recorded. Findings of contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic computed tomography scan and laparotomy were assumed as a gold standard for abdominal injuries. Results: A total of 104 patients was enrolled in the study. 15 patients (14.4% had intra-abdominal hemorrhage and the mean plasma ammonia level in this group was significantly higher than the other patients on admission time (101.73 ± 5.41 μg/dL vs. 47.36 ± 26.31 μg/dL, P < 0.001. On receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis, in cutoff point of 89 μg/dL, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 79.6-100, 93.26% (95% CI, 86-96.8, 14.83 (95% CI, 6.84-32.12, and 0, respectively. Conclusion: The study findings suggest the measurement of ammonia level at the time of admission in the patients with BAT would be a useful test predicting intra-abdominal hemorrhage. Furthermore, decrease in the ammonia level could be a useful marker for monitoring response to treatment in these patients.

  15. Atrophic coarctation of the abdominal aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiest, J W; Traverso, L W; Dainko, E A; Barker, W F

    1980-01-01

    Two cases illustrate the clinical manifestations and angiographic findings associated with segmental stenosis of the abdominal aorta. Such lesions represent the chronic occlusive stage of Takayasu's disease, a nonspecific inflammatory arteritis of uncertain etiology. While the disease is considered autoimmune, an infectious process may be involved. Complications typically associated with stenotic lesions of the abdominal aorta are secondary renal hypertension and ischemic symptoms secondary to vascular insufficiency. Surgical correction, the treatment of choice, has achieved excellent results for these well-localized lesions. Secondary renal hypertension was relieved by a spenorenal shunt and the disease has since been controlled with conservative management in the first patient. An aortofemoral bypass graft successfully alleviated the vascular insufficiency in the second patient, although the patient unfortunately expired from a refractory postoperative cardiac complication. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6102453

  16. [Traumatic and iatrogenic lesions of abdominal vessels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, I; Tarabula, P; Voirin, L; Magne, J L; Delannoy, P; Gattaz, F; Guidicelli, H

    1997-01-01

    Gravity of abdominal vessels traumatisms is secondary to multiple factors. It depends on the type of injured vessels, aetiology and associated lesions. Between September 1984 and March 1995, 22 abdominal vessel traumatisms in 16 patients (mean age: 39 years) were treated. At surgical exploration, 4 aortic and 2 renal vein lesions, 7 iliac artery and 3 renal artery contusions, 2 superior mesenteric artery dissections; 3 infra-renal vena cava ruptures and 1 superior mesenteric vein dilaceration were found. All lesions were caused by penetrant wounds secondary to firearm or blade injury or secondary to injuries due to ski or traffic accidents. In 5 cases, lesions were iatrogenic. There was no mortality in the post-operative period, 14 patients out of the 16 patients operated on have been followed during a period from 1 to 120 months.

  17. Drug Therapy for Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Meenakshisundaram

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal aortic aneurysm is often asymptomatic, less recognized, and causes considerable mortalityand morbidity, if missed. The incidence varies from country to country and the occurrence is influencedby modifiable (smoking, coronary heart disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and prolonged steroid therapyand non-modifiable risk factors (increasing age, male gender, and positive family history. Most ofthe patients with such aneurysm do not exhibit symptoms and the diagnosis is made accidentally duringroutine medical investigations, abdominal ultrasonography, or by an astute surgeon during an abdominalprocedure. Sometimes the diagnosis is made in an emergency room, if the attending resident/doctor isaware of it. Despite good diagnosis and effective management, the outcomes of complicated cases arepoor and the treatment cost is prohibitive. Hence, we reviewed the literature to find out the pathogenesisof such aneurysms and the usefulness of available drugs in its prevention.

  18. Abdominal pregnancy as a cause of hemoperitoneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafi Sheikh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The coexistence of intrauterine and extrauterine pregnancy, the heterotopic pregnancy, is a rare obstetric phenomenon. The preoperative diagnosis of this condition is very difficult; leading to a higher maternal morbidity and fetal loss. We experienced a case of intrauterine pregnancy and ruptured abdominal pregnancy implanted on the illeocaecal region in a 26-year-old primiparous woman. She was clinically misdiagnosed as a case of ruptured ectopic pregnancy, but ultrasonography showed it to be a case of heterotopic pregnancy. Subsequently, the patient was subjected to laparotomy and the ruptured abdominal pregnancy was evacuated. She continued with the intrauterine pregnancy till term and delivered a healthy female baby. Although this condition is unusual, any general surgeon in the emergency department must be aware of this complication and its management, which is often initially misdiagnosed.

  19. Abdominal leiomyosarcomas: radiologic appearances at various locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurugoglu, Sebuh; Ogut, Gunduz; Mihmanli, Ismail; Korman, Ugur [Department of Radiology, Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, 34300 Istanbul (Turkey); Durak, Haydar [Department of Pathology, Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, 34300 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2002-12-01

    Leiomyosarcomas are soft tissue tumors that account for approximately 15% of all soft tissue sarcomas. Leiomyosarcomas may be located at almost any part of the abdomen but especially are more common in the retroperitoneum, followed by gastrointestinal tract and genital system. They develop mainly in adult life and are very rare in children. In this article, imaging findings of leiomyosarcomas in various abdominal locations are presented. Radiologic studies are capable of providing useful information on the localization, size, changes in the internal structure of the tumor, its extension and invasion. Leiomyosarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis in case of detection of a large, circumscribed, and heterogenous abdominal mass. Histopathologically, diagnosis of malignancy depends particularly on mitotic counts, size, rate of necrosis, and infiltrating margins. (orig.)

  20. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis: Abdominal cocoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jenny N Tannoury; Bassam N Abboud

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon,the idiopathic form of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis,is a rare condition of unknown etiology that results in an intestinal obstruction due to total or partial encapsulation of the small bowel by a fibrocollagenous membrane.Preoperative diagnosis re quires a high index of clinical suspicion.The early clinical features are nonspecific,are often not recognized and it is difficult to make a definite pre-operative diagnosis.Clinical suspicion may be generated by the recurrent episodes of small intestinal obstruction combined with relevant imaging findings and lack of other plausible etiologies.The radiological diagnosis of abdominal cocoon may now be confidently made on computed tomography scan.Surgery is important in the management of this disease.Careful dissection and excision of the thick sac with the release of the small intestine leads to complete recovery in the vast majority of cases.

  1. [Adrenal injury in blunt abdominal trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakumov, M M; Smoliar, A N; Barmina, T G; Boĭko, A V; Shalimova, I G

    2009-01-01

    10 patients with adrenal damage were observed during 2.5 years. It amounted 0.93% of all patients with closed abdominal injuries. The right adrenal gland was traumatized in all cases evidently due to it's compression between right lobe of liver and vertebral column. Adrenal damage is observed quite often in combination with injuries of right liver lobe, right kidney and retroperitoneal hematoma formation. 5 patients underwent laparotomy on account of intra-abdominal bleeding, but adrenal damage was never revealed. Ultrasound and tomographic semiotics of adrenal damage was worked out, which allowed ascertaining diagnosis in 80% on application of ultrasound study and in 100% at computer tomography. Injury of one adrenal gland was not accompanied by adrenal failure and did not require hormonal replacement therapy.

  2. Child abdominal tumour in tropical context: Think about schistosomiasis!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Napon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis presenting as an abdominal mass with chronic pain in a child is not common. This report presents case of child presenting with schistosomiasis presenting as an abdominal mass with chronic pain. Abdominal ultrasonography did not particularly contribute to definitive pre-operative diagnosis. However, pathological examination of surgical specimen confirmed Schistosoma mansoni eggs in the biospy. A decrease in the mass volume was noticed under medical treatment (Biltricide. The aim of this report was to intimate clinicians on possible abdominal schistosomiasis as differential diagnosis of childhood abdominal mass. This is a clarion call for a high index of suspicion of childhood abdominal schistosomiasis in children presenting with abdominal mass in a tropical setting.

  3. 蒸发波导环境中雷达二维海杂波仿真%Simulation of 2-D Radar Sea Clutter in Evaporation Ducts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹仲晴; 康士峰; 王红光; 孙方

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a method of simulation of 2-D radar sea clutter in evaporation ducts is proposed. Ray tracing is used to calculate the grazing angle and parabolic equation ( PE) is used to calculate the loss for different ranges, the parameters of the K-dis-tributed sea clutter was then calculated by radar equation and SIRP has been used to generate K-distributed clutter series. One dimension of the series is time, the other is range. The series are simulated within the correlation time with Gauss spectrums and independent between the range bins. It can satisfy the assumption of independent identically distribution as the K-distribution parameters change slowly between the range bins. It can be used in radar signal simulation and can be used as the signal of sea clutter in the refractivity estimation from sea clutter. It can also be used to evaluate the over-the-horizon detecting performance in different duct environments.%提出了一种大气波导环境下的K分布雷达海杂波仿真方法,仿真了二维海杂波序列.该方法采用射线描迹和抛物方程模拟蒸发波导中电磁波的传播过程,结合雷达方程计算K分布参数,利用球不变随机过程仿真产生K分布海杂波.该二维序列一维为时间,另一维为距离,时间为相关时间,频谱为高斯谱;相邻距离单元之间独立,K分布参数在距离上慢变化,可以认为距离上符合独立同分布假设.文中的二维海杂波序列可应用于雷达海杂波信号模拟中,作为海杂波反演大气波导中的杂波信号,亦可用以分析雷达在不同波导环境中的超视距探测性能.

  4. [Surgical criteria for reoperation in abdominal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricot, R

    1975-07-01

    Analysis of the surgical criteria for reintervention in Abdominal Surgery led to the accentuation of a certain number of pictures of occlusion, general infectious syndromes, postoperative peritonitis, gastro-intestinal fistula and hemorrhagic syndrome. In all cases, the clinical examination can be misleading in particular in the case of peritonitis, and the history and non-surgical criteria must be strongly borne in mind. PMID:2036

  5. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma after remote abdominal radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peritoneal mesothelioma in a 61-year-old man, occurred 26 years after abdominal radiotherapy for a testicular seminoma. The patient had no history of asbestos exposure. After asbestos, radiation is the second most frequent defined cause of mesothelioma in North America, but the number of well-documented cases is small; this case represents only the fifth example of peritoneal mesothelioma after therapeutic irradiation of the abdomen. 16 references

  6. Mycobacterium fortuitum abdominal wall abscesses following liposuction

    OpenAIRE

    Al Soub, Hussam; Al-Maslamani, Eman; Al-Maslamani, Mona

    2008-01-01

    We describe here a case of abdominal abscesses due to Mycobacterium fortuitum following liposuction. The abscesses developed three months after the procedure and diagnosis was delayed for five months. The clues for diagnosis were persistent pus discharge in spite of broad spectrum antibiotics and failure to grow any organisms on routine culture. This condition has been rarely reported; however, the increasing number of liposuction procedures done and awareness among physicians will probably r...

  7. Computed tomography of pediatric abdominal masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kook, Shin Ho; Ko, Eun Joo; Chung, Eun Chul; Suh, Jung Soo; Rhee, Chung Sik [College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-02-15

    Ultrasonography is a very useful diagnostic modality for evaluation of the pediatric abdominal masses, due to faster, cheaper, and no radiation hazard than CT. But CT has more advantages in assessing precise anatomic location, and extent of the pathologic process, and also has particular value in defining the size, relation of the mass to surrounding organs and detection of lymphadenopathy. We analyzed CT features of 35 cases of pathologically proven pediatric abdominal masses for recent 2 years at Ewha Woman's University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1.The most common originating site was kidney (20 cases, 57.1%); followed by gastrointestinal (5 cases, 14.3%), nonrenal retroperitoneal (4 cases, 11.4%), hepatobiliary (3 cases, 8.6%), and genital (3 cases, 8.6%) in order of frequency. 2.The most common mass was hydronephrosis (11 cases, 31.4%), Wilms' tumor (7 cases, 20.0%), neuroblastoma, choledochal cyst, periappendiceal abscess (3 cases, 8.6%, respectively), ovarian cyst (2 cases, 5.7%) were next in order of frequency. 3.Male to female ratio was 4:5 and choledochal cyst and ovarian cyst were found only in females. The most prevalent age group was 1-3 year old (12 cases, 34.3%). 4.With CT, the diagnosis of hydronephrosis was easy in all cases and could evaluate of its severity, renal function and obstruction site with high accuracy. 5.Wilms' tumor and neuroblastoma were relatively well differentiated by their characteristic CT features; such as location, shape, margin, middle cross, calyceal appearance and calcification, etc. 6.Ovarian and mensentric cysts had similar CT appearance. 7.In other pediatric abdominal masses, CT provided excellent information about anatomic detail, precise extent of tumor and differential diagnostic findings. So, CT is useful imaging modality for the demonstration and diagnosis of abdominal mass lesions in pediatric patients.

  8. Abdominal pregnancy as a cause of hemoperitoneum

    OpenAIRE

    Shafi Sheikh; Malla Misbha; Salaam Parvaiz; Kirmani Omer

    2009-01-01

    The coexistence of intrauterine and extrauterine pregnancy, the heterotopic pregnancy, is a rare obstetric phenomenon. The preoperative diagnosis of this condition is very difficult; leading to a higher maternal morbidity and fetal loss. We experienced a case of intrauterine pregnancy and ruptured abdominal pregnancy implanted on the illeocaecal region in a 26-year-old primiparous woman. She was clinically misdiagnosed as a case of ruptured ectopic pregnancy, but ultrasonography showed it to ...

  9. Reconstruction of chest, abdominal walls and perineum

    OpenAIRE

    Vijaykumar D; Vijayaraghavan Sundeep

    2007-01-01

    The structural integrity of the chest and abdominal walls and perineum is frequently altered by cancer extirpation. Advances in reconstructive surgery and the availability of innovative techniques have helped the cancer surgeon to proceed with radical excisions with minimum morbidity. The ability to harvest flaps from distant sites and the availability of good prosthetic materials have now become part of the routine armamentarium of the plastic surgeon engaged in reconstructive surgery of the...

  10. Sagittal Abdominal Diameter: Application in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Da Silva-Ferreira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Excess visceral fat is associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD has recently been highlighted as an indicator of abdominal obesity, and also may be useful in predicting cardiovascular risk. The purpose of the present study was to review the scientific literature on the use of SAD in adult nutritional assessment. A search was conducted for scientific articles in the following electronic databases: SciELO , MEDLINE (PubMed and Virtual Health Library. SAD is more associated with abdominal fat (especially visceral, and with different cardiovascular risk factors, such as, insulin resistance, blood pressure, and serum lipoproteins than the traditional methods of estimating adiposity, such as body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. SAD can also be used in association with other anthropometric measures. There are still no cut-off limits established to classify SAD as yet. SAD can be an alternative measure to estimate visceral adiposity. However, the few studies on this diameter, and the lack of consensus on the anatomical site to measure SAD, are obstacles to establish cut-off limits to classify it.

  11. Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaoutakis, Dean J; Zammert, Martin; Karthikesalingam, Alan; Belkin, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms is an important technique in the vascular surgeon's armamentarium, which has created a seismic shift in the management of aortic pathology over the past two decades. In comparison to traditional open repair, the endovascular approach is associated with significantly improved perioperative morbidity and mortality. The early survival benefit of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is sustained up to 3 years postoperatively, but longer-term life expectancy remains poor regardless of operative modality. Nonetheless, most abdominal aortic aneurysms are now repaired using endovascular stent grafts. The technology is not perfect as several postoperative complications, namely endoleak, stent-graft migration, and graft limb thrombosis, can develop and therefore lifelong imaging surveillance is required. In addition, a postoperative inflammatory response has been documented after endovascular repair of aortic aneurysms; the clinical significance of this finding has yet to be determined. Subsequently, the safety and applicability of endovascular stent grafts are likely to improve and expand with the introduction of newer-generation devices and with the simplification of fenestrated systems. PMID:27650343

  12. Endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarac Momir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is a potentially lethal state. Only half of patients with ruptured AAA reach the hospital alive. The alternative for open reconstruction of this condition is endovascular repair (EVAR. We presented a successful endovascular reapir of ruptured AAA in a patient with a number of comorbidities. Case report. A 60-year-old man was admitted to our institution due to diffuse abdominal pain with flatulence and belching. Initial abdominal ultrasonography showed an AAA that was confirmed on multislice computed tomography scan angiography which revealed a large retroperitoneal haematoma. Because of patient’s comorbidites (previous surgery of laryngeal carcinoma and one-third laryngeal stenosis, arterial hypertension and cardiomyopathy with left ventricle ejection fraction of 30%, stenosis of the right internal carotid artery of 80% it was decided that endovascular repair of ruptured AAA in local anaesthesia and analgosedation would be treatment of choice. Endovascular grafting was achieved with aorto-bi-iliac bifurcated excluder endoprosthesis with complete exclusion of the aneurysmal sac, without further enlargment of haemathoma and no contrast leakage. The postoperative course of the patient was eventless, without complications. On recall examination 3 months after, the state of the patient was well. Conclusion. The alternative for open reconstruction of ruptured AAA in haemodynamically stable patients with suitable anatomy and comorbidities could be emergency EVAR in local anesthesia. This technique could provide greater chances for survival with lower intraoperative and postoperative morbidity and mortality, as shown in the presented patient.

  13. Multidetector CT of blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Jorge A; Anderson, Stephan W

    2012-12-01

    The morbidity, mortality, and economic costs resulting from trauma in general, and blunt abdominal trauma in particular, are substantial. The "panscan" (computed tomographic [CT] examination of the head, neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis) has become an essential element in the early evaluation and decision-making algorithm for hemodynamically stable patients who sustained abdominal trauma. CT has virtually replaced diagnostic peritoneal lavage for the detection of important injuries. Over the past decade, substantial hardware and software developments in CT technology, especially the introduction and refinement of multidetector scanners, have expanded the versatility of CT for examination of the polytrauma patient in multiple facets: higher spatial resolution, faster image acquisition and reconstruction, and improved patient safety (optimization of radiation delivery methods). In this article, the authors review the elements of multidetector CT technique that are currently relevant for evaluating blunt abdominal trauma and describe the most important CT signs of trauma in the various organs. Because conservative nonsurgical therapy is preferred for all but the most severe injuries affecting the solid viscera, the authors emphasize the CT findings that are indications for direct therapeutic intervention. PMID:23175542

  14. [Hereditary angioedema: strange cause of abdominal pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Lozano, Nereo Guillermo; Meza-Cardona, Javier; González-Fernández, Coty; Pineda-Figueroa, Laura; de Ariño-Suárez, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el angioedema hereditario es un trastorno inflamatorio episódico, que se hereda de manera autosómica dominante y se caracteriza por episodios de edema periférico. Los pacientes pueden tener edema de la pared de cualquier víscera hueca, incluido el intestino. Caso clínico: se comunica el caso de un paciente masculino de 33 años de edad, sin antecedentes de importancia, con dolor abdominal, localizado en el epigastrio, irradiado al cuadrante inferior derecho, acompañado de 5 vómitos. La tomografía abdominal mostró engrosamiento de la pared de la segunda y tercera porción del duodeno, con infiltración de grasa y líquido libre. Los exámenes de laboratorio mostraron: concentraciones bajas del complemento C4 (5.5 mg/dL) y actividad del inhibidor de C1 del complemento de 30%. Conclusiones: el angioedema hereditario es consecuencia de la deficiencia (tipo I) o disfunción (tipo II) del inhibidor C1 del complemento. El dolor abdominal asociado con angioedema es de inicio súbito, como dolor cólico, recurrente y de intensidad moderada. En la actualidad existen dos medicamentos aprobados por la Food and Drug Administration para el tratamiento de pacientes con esta afección.

  15. Risk factors of thrombosis in abdominal veins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amit Kumar Durra; Ashok Chacko; Biju George; Joseph Anjilivelil Joseph; Sukesh Chandran Nair; Vikram Mathews

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence of inherited and acquired thrombophilic risk factors in patients with abdominal venous thrombosis and to compare the risk factor profiles between Budd-Chiari syndromes (BCS) and splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT).METHODS: In this retrospective study, 36 patients with abdominal venous thrombosis were studied.The patients were divided into Budd-Chiari group (hepatic vein, IVC thrombosis) and splanchnic venous thrombosis group (portal, splenic, superior mesenteric veins) based on the veins involved. Hereditary and acquired thrombophilic risk factors were evaluated in all patients.RESULTS: Twenty patients had SVT, 14 had BCS,and 2 had mixed venous thrombosis. Ten patients (28%) had hereditary and 10 patients (28%) acquired thrombophilic risk factors. The acquired risk factors were significantly more common in the SVT group (SVT vs BCS:45% vs 7%,x2=5.7,P=0.02) while hereditary risk factors did not show significant differences between the two groups (SVT vs BCS: 25%vs 36%, x2=0.46,P=0.7). Multiple risk factors were present in one (7%) patient with BCS and in 3 patients (15%) with SVT. No risk factors were identified in 57% of patients with BCS and in 45% of patients with SVT.CONCLUSION: Hereditary and acquired risk factors play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of abdominal venous thrombosis. Acquired risk factors are significantly more common in SVT patients while hereditary factors are similar in both groups.

  16. [Abdominal multi-organ transplantation in dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagae, T

    1988-07-01

    Abdominal multi-organ transplantation including the liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, adrenal glands and gastrointestinal tract was attempted in 8 dogs. Each experiment was discontinued when the recipient deteriorated. Immersion hypothermia was introduced in both the donor and recipient until the esophageal temperature reached 27-30 degrees C. Whole abdominal organs of the donor were removed in an en-bloc fashion at 20 degrees C of the graft temperature after additional cooling by ice slush scattering into the abdominal cavity. Transplantation was carried out orthotopically in the following sequence: (1) the proximal aorta, (2) suprahepatic vena cava, (3) distal aorta, (4) infrahepatic vena cava. The alimentary tract was reconstructed by gastro-gastrostomy and colo-colostomy. The ureters were implanted in the bladder. Cold ischemic time of the graft was about 40 minutes. Heparin was not used throughout the procedure. Five out of eight dogs were alive for more than 24 hours and two of them survived for 60 hours with good recovery. No immunosuppressant was given. Though the result in the present study was far from satisfaction, the experiment may provide a possibility of a new experimental model for transplantation, especially regarding pathophysiology and interrelationship of the transplanted complex organs.

  17. Significance of residual abdominal masses in children with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the natural history of children with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma who had complete clinical remission and residual abdominal mass after treatment. Material and methods: The charts and imaging findings of all children with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma treated and followed at our medical center between 1988 and 1999 were reviewed for the presence, management, clinical course, and prognosis of residual mass. Results: Only children who achieved complete clinical remission were included. The study group consisted of 33 children (20 boys and 13 girls) aged 2.6-17.6 years (mean 7.2 years). Of these, seven (20.6 %) were found to have a residual abdominal mass. Two underwent second-look operation with no evidence of viable tumor on histology. The remaining five were followed by imaging studies for 2.2-9.1 years (mean 6.1 years); none relapsed. Conclusion: Residual mass is not uncommon in children with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma. The presence of residual mass in a child with complete clinical remission does not alter the long-term prognosis. Therefore, in children with Burkitt's lymphoma and residual mass with no other signs of disease activity, expectant watching may be appropriate. (orig.)

  18. Significance of residual abdominal masses in children with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmazyn, B.; Horev, G.; Kornreich, L. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Schneider Children' s Medical Center of Israel, Petah-Tikva (Israel); Ash, S.; Goshen, Y.; Yaniv, I. [Dept. of Hematology and Oncology, Schneider Children' s Medical Center of Israel, Petah-Tikva (Israel)

    2001-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the natural history of children with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma who had complete clinical remission and residual abdominal mass after treatment. Material and methods: The charts and imaging findings of all children with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma treated and followed at our medical center between 1988 and 1999 were reviewed for the presence, management, clinical course, and prognosis of residual mass. Results: Only children who achieved complete clinical remission were included. The study group consisted of 33 children (20 boys and 13 girls) aged 2.6-17.6 years (mean 7.2 years). Of these, seven (20.6 %) were found to have a residual abdominal mass. Two underwent second-look operation with no evidence of viable tumor on histology. The remaining five were followed by imaging studies for 2.2-9.1 years (mean 6.1 years); none relapsed. Conclusion: Residual mass is not uncommon in children with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma. The presence of residual mass in a child with complete clinical remission does not alter the long-term prognosis. Therefore, in children with Burkitt's lymphoma and residual mass with no other signs of disease activity, expectant watching may be appropriate. (orig.)

  19. Intra-abdominal pressure and abdominal compartment syndrome in acute general surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sugrue, Michael

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is a harbinger of intra-abdominal mischief, and its measurement is cheap, simple to perform, and reproducible. Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), especially grades 3 and 4 (IAP > 18 mmHg), occurs in over a third of patients and is associated with an increase in intra-abdominal sepsis, bleeding, renal failure, and death. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Increased IAP reading may provide an objective bedside stimulus for surgeons to expedite diagnostic and therapeutic work-up of critically ill patients. One of the greatest challenges surgeons and intensivists face worldwide is lack of recognition of the known association between IAH, ACS, and intra-abdominal sepsis. This lack of awareness of IAH and its progression to ACS may delay timely intervention and contribute to excessive patient resuscitation. CONCLUSIONS: All patients entering the intensive care unit (ICU) after emergency general surgery or massive fluid resuscitation should have an IAP measurement performed every 6 h. Each ICU should have guidelines relating to techniques of IAP measurement and an algorithm for management of IAH.

  20. 基于回声状态网络的 OTHR 海杂波抑制方法%Sea Clutter Suppression Method of Over-the-Horizon Radar Based on Echo State Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何漫; 张亚璇; 解洪文; 胡进峰; 李会勇; 谢菊兰

    2015-01-01

    In the case of short coherent integration time(CIT),it is difficult for over-the-horizon radar (OTHR)to detect low speed targets:low speed targets are close to the strong sea clutter spectrum;short CIT leads to low Doppler resolution and make it harder to distinguish the target signal from sea clutter.Tra-ditional methods generally use the different time-frequency characteristics between sea clutter and target sig-nal to suppress sea clutter,it is very effective for high speed target.However,in short CIT and low speed situation,the time-frequency characteristics of target and sea clutter signal have small discrimination;tradi-tional methods cannot effectively suppress sea clutter.In response to these issues,taking into account the sea clutter and target signals with different dynamic characteristics,this paper presents an OTHR sea clutter suppression method based on echo state network.Firstly,the sea clutter reference signal is used to train echo state network,so that the neural network can “remember”the chaotic dynamic characteristic of sea clutter. Then the trained network is used to reconstruct and predict OTHR sea clutter.Subtracting the reconstructed sea clutter from the radar echo can achieve sea clutter suppression.The processing results of the measured data show that the proposed method has better sea clutter suppression performance than the traditional cycle cancellation method and SVD method.%在短相干积累时间(CIT)情况下,天波超视距雷达(OTHR)中低速目标检测很困难:低速目标靠近强大的海杂波频谱;短 CIT 导致多普勒分辨率低,使目标信号与海杂波更难区分。传统方法一般利用海杂波与目标信号的时频特征不同来抑制海杂波,目标速度较高时这些方法很有效,然而在短 CIT、低速目标情况下目标与海杂波信号的时频特征的区分度很小,使得传统方法难以有效抑制海杂波。针对上述问题,考虑到海杂波与目标信号具

  1. Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviews poverty trends and measurements, poverty reduction in historical perspective, the poverty-inequality-growth debate, national poverty reduction strategies, criticisms of the agenda and the need for redistribution, international policies for poverty reduction, and ultimately understanding poverty at a global scale. It belongs to a series of backgrounders developed at Joseph Stiglitz's Initiative for Policy Dialogue.

  2. Evaluation of Forty-Nine Patients with Abdominal Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kilic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Abdominal tuberculosis is an uncommon form of extrapulmonary infection. In this study, we aimed to highlight the nonspecific clinical presentations and diagnostic difficulties of abdominal tuberculosis. Material and Method: Clinical features, diagnostic methods, and the therapeutic outcomes of 49 patients diagnosed as abdominal tuberculosis between 2003 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The patients were classified into four subgroups including peritoneal (28, nodal (14, intestinal (5, and solid organ tuberculosis (2. The most frequent symptoms were abdominal pain, abdominal distention and fatique. Ascites appeared to be the most frequent clinical finding. Ascites and enlarged abdominal lymph nodes were the most frequent findings on ultrasonography and tomography. Diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis was mainly depended on histopathology of ascitic fluid and biopsies from peritoneum, abdominal lymph nodes or colonoscopic materials. Forty patients healed with standart 6-month therapy while extended treatment for 9-12 months was needed in 8 whom had discontinued drug therapy and had persistent symptoms and signs. One patient died within the treatment period due to disseminated infection. Discussion: The diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis is often difficult due to diverse clinical presentations. The presence of ascites, personal/familial/contact history of tuberculosis, and coexisting active extraabdominal tuberculosis are the most significant marks in diagnosis. Diagnostic laparoscopy and tissue sampling seem to be the best diagnostic approach for abdominal tuberculosis.

  3. Remote revascularization of abdominal wall transplants using the forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giele, H; Bendon, C; Reddy, S; Ramcharan, R; Sinha, S; Friend, P; Vaidya, A

    2014-06-01

    Primary abdominal wall closure following small bowel transplantation is frequently impossible due to contraction of the abdominal domain. Although abdominal wall transplantation was reported 10 years ago this, technique has not been widely adopted, partly due to its complexity, but largely because of concerns that storing the abdominal allograft until the end of a prolonged intestinal transplant procedure would cause severe ischemia-reperfusion injury. We report six cases of combined small bowel and abdominal wall transplantation where the ischemic time was minimized by remotely revascularizing the abdominal wall on the forearm vessels, synchronous to the intestinal procedure. When the visceral transplant was complete, the abdominal wall was removed from the forearm and revascularized on the abdomen (n = 4), or used to close the abdomen while still vascularized on the forearm (n = 2). Primary abdominal wall closure was achieved in all. Mean cold ischemia was 305 min (300-330 min), and revascularization on the arm was 50 min (30-60 min). Three patients had proven abdominal wall rejection, all treated successfully. Immediate revascularization of the abdominal wall allograft substantially reduces cold ischemia without imposing constraints on the intestinal transplant. Reducing storage time may also have benefits with respect to ischemia-reperfusion-related graft immunogenicity. PMID:24797611

  4. Denoising and Back Ground Clutter of Video Sequence using Adaptive Gaussian Mixture Model Based Segmentation for Human Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugapriya. K

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The human action recognition system first gathers images by simply querying the name of the action on a web image search engine like Google or Yahoo. Based on the assumption that the set of retrieved images contains relevant images of the queried action, we construct a dataset of action images in an incremental manner. This yields a large image set, which includes images of actions taken from multiple viewpoints in a range of environments, performed by people who have varying body proportions and different clothing. The images mostly present the “key poses” since these images try to convey the action with a single pose. In existing system to support this they first used an incremental image retrieval procedure to collect and clean up the necessary training set for building the human pose classifiers. There are challenges that come at the expense of this broad and representative data. First, the retrieved images are very noisy, since the Web is very diverse. Second, detecting and estimating the pose of humans in still images is more difficult than in videos, partly due to the background clutter and the lack of a foreground mask. In videos, foreground segmentation can exploit motion cues to great benefit. In still images, the only cue at hand is the appearance information and therefore, our model must address various challenges associated with different forms of appearance. Therefore for robust separation, in proposed work a segmentation algorithm based on Gaussian Mixture Models is proposed which is adaptive to light illuminations, shadow and white balance is proposed here. This segmentation algorithm processes the video with or without noise and sets up adaptive background models based on the characteristics also this method is a very effective technique for background modeling which classifies the pixels of a video frame either background or foreground based on probability distribution.

  5. Echolocation in the bat, Rhinolophus capensis: the influence of clutter, conspecifics and prey on call design and intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayleigh Fawcett

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Echolocating bats are exposed not only to the echoes of their own calls, but often the signals of conspecifics and other bats. For species emitting short, frequency modulated signals e.g. vespertilionoids, adjustments in both the frequency and time domain have been observed in such situations. However, bats using long duration, constant frequency calls may confront special challenges, since these bats should be less able to avoid temporal and frequency overlap. Here we investigated echolocation call design in the highduty cycle bat, Rhinolophus capensis, as bats flew with either a conspecific or heterospecific in a large outdoor flight-room. We compared these recordings to those made of bats flying alone in the same flight-room, and in a smaller flight room, alone, and hunting tethered moths. We found no differences in duty cycle or peak frequency of the calls of R. capensis across conditions. However, in the presence of a conspecific or the vespertilionoid, Miniopterus natalensis, R. capensis produced longer frequency-modulated downward sweeps at the terminus of their calls with lower minimum frequencies than when flying alone. In the presence of the larger high-duty cycle bat, R. clivosus, R. capensis produced shorter calls than when flying alone or with a conspecific. These changes are similar to those of vespertilionoids when flying from open to more cluttered environments. They are not similar to those differences observed in vespertilionoids when flying with other bats. Also unlike vespertilinoids, R. capensis used calls 15 dB less intense in conspecific pairs than when alone.

  6. Functional Abdominal Pain: "Get" the Function, Loose the Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draeger-Muenke, Reinhild

    2015-07-01

    Functional abdominal pain is a mind-body, psychosocial, and self-reinforcing experience with significant consequences for the sufferer and the surrounding support network. The occurrence of unpredictable symptoms and their severity add an element of dread and feeling out-of-control to daily life and often reduce overall functioning in a downward spiral. Two clinical presentations of functional abdominal pain are offered in this article (composites to protect confidentiality) dealing with abdominal pain syndrome and abdominal migraines. The treatment demonstrates the use of hypnotic principles for self-regulation, exploration, and meaning-making. Hypnosis treatment is conducted in combination with mindfulness-based interventions and Traditional Chinese Medicine's (TCM) teachings regarding abdominal health and illness. The clinical examples illustrate medical findings that suggest children with early life stress and an early onset of gastrointestinal somatization may not simply outgrow their functional abdominal pain but may suffer into adulthood. PMID:26046716

  7. A Rare Cause of Abdominal Pain; Celiac Truncus Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfu Birkan

    2016-01-01

    In this case we presented a patient who were admitted to surgery department with complaints of abdominal pain and nausea. There were no pathological findings on physical examination, direct abdominal x-ray, chest radiograph and biochemical parameters. At proximal of the celiac trunk, it was shown approximately 3x2 cm in size fusiform aneurysmal dilatation on the patient%u2019s abdominal ultrasonography and turbulence, arterial flow on the patient%u2019s abdominal doppler ultrasonography subsequently. In abdominal computed tomography we detected dense calcifications, dilatation and hypodensities that may belong to a thrombus in the lumen superior mesenteric vein (SMV. At the same time, approximately 3.5 cm segment of trunk celiak we observed aneurysm dilatation which reaching 2 cm at the widest point. Celiac trunk aneurysm is a rare cause of abdominal pain and often noticed after the complicated, thus it must always be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis.

  8. Simulation-Based Abdominal Ultrasound Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Ewertsen, C; Konge, L;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim is to provide a complete overview of the different simulation-based training options for abdominal ultrasound and to explore the evidence of their effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This systematic review was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines and Medline, Embase, Web....... CONCLUSION: The included studies were heterogeneous in the choice of simulator, study design, participants, and outcome measures, and the level of evidence for effect was inadequate. In all studies simulation training was equally or more beneficial than other instructions or no instructions. Study designs...

  9. Mycobacterium fortuitum abdominal wall abscesses following liposuction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Soub Hussam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe here a case of abdominal abscesses due to Mycobacterium fortuitum following liposuction. The abscesses developed three months after the procedure and diagnosis was delayed for five months. The clues for diagnosis were persistent pus discharge in spite of broad spectrum antibiotics and failure to grow any organisms on routine culture. This condition has been rarely reported; however, the increasing number of liposuction procedures done and awareness among physicians will probably result in the identification of more cases. Combination antibiotic therapy with surgical drainage in more extensive diseases is essential for cure.

  10. Chylous complications after abdominal aortic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, E S; Saether, O D; Odegaard, A; Johnsen, G; Myhre, H O

    1998-12-01

    Two patients developed chylous complications following abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. One patient had chylous ascitis and was successfully treated by a peritoneo-caval shunt. The other patient developed a lymph cyst, which gradually resorbed after puncture. Chylous complications following aortic surgery are rare. Patients in bad a general condition should be treated by initial paracentesis and total parenteral nutrition, supplemented by medium-chain triglyceride and low-fat diet. If no improvement is observed on this regimen, the next step should be implementation of a peritoneo-venous shunt, whereas direct ligation of the leak should be reserved for those who are not responding to this treatment. PMID:10204656

  11. Exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Darren; Callister, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP), commonly referred to as 'stitch', is an ailment well known in many sporting activities. It is especially prevalent in activities that involve repetitive torso movement with the torso in an extended position, such as running and horse riding. Approximately 70% of runners report experiencing the pain in the past year and in a single running event approximately one in five participants can be expected to suffer the condition. ETAP is a localized pain that is most common in the lateral aspects of the mid abdomen along the costal border, although it may occur in any region of the abdomen. It may also be related to shoulder tip pain, which is the referred site from tissue innervated by the phrenic nerve. ETAP tends to be sharp or stabbing when severe, and cramping, aching, or pulling when less intense. The condition is exacerbated by the postprandial state, with hypertonic beverages being particularly provocative. ETAP is most common in the young but is unrelated to sex or body type. Well trained athletes are not immune from the condition, although they may experience it less frequently. Several theories have been presented to explain the mechanism responsible for the pain, including ischemia of the diaphragm; stress on the supportive visceral ligaments that attach the abdominal organs to the diaphragm; gastrointestinal ischemia or distension; cramping of the abdominal musculature; ischemic pain resulting from compression of the celiac artery by the median arcuate ligament; aggravation of the spinal nerves; and irritation of the parietal peritoneum. Of these theories, irritation of the parietal peritoneum best explains the features of ETAP; however, further investigations are required. Strategies for managing the pain are largely anecdotal, especially given that its etiology remains to be fully elucidated. Commonly purported prevention strategies include avoiding large volumes of food and beverages for at least 2 hours

  12. Report of a Case of Primary Abdominal Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Sh Beigi

    2006-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy (EP) is a potentially life-threatening condition in which the embryo implants outside the uterine endometrial cavity. Abdominal pregnancy is an atypical site wherein the product of conception lies totally outside the reproductive tract. Primary abdominal pregnancy is a very rare condition with a high mortality rate. Diagnosis is often late or misdiagnosed. The aim of introducing this case report is to present a new case of early primary abdominal pregnancy. Despite regular m...

  13. A large abdominal desmoid tumour associated with pregnancy and puerperium

    OpenAIRE

    Setu Rathod; Sunil Kumar Samal; Purna Chandra Mahapatra

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of huge abdominal desmoid tumour first detected during pregnancy. The patient delivered vaginally and the size of the tumour increased during puerperium for which resection was done. Most of these tumours occur in the abdominal muscles particularly right rectus abdominis, perhaps related to trauma from abdominal stretching and movement. These tumours are known to regress spontaneously after delivery which was not in our case. Subsequent pregnancies do not appear to resul...

  14. A prospective study on geriatric abdominal surgical emergencies

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak R. Chavan; Shailesh Kannur; B. B. Metan; Girish Kullolli

    2014-01-01

    Background: Geriatric population is a special subgroup of population undergoing emergency abdominal surgeries. Both higher age group and emergency surgical procedure are considered as high risk factors. In this study, we study the most common cause for geriatric population to undergo an emergency abdominal surgery and the therapeutic outcomes. Methods: All the patients aged more than 60 years coming to surgical department, BLDEU's hospital with acute abdominal conditions. Study period was ...

  15. Abdominal Computed Tomography Findings of Malaria Infection with Plasmodium vivax

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eun Mi; Cho, Hyeon Je; Cho, Chong Rae; Kwak, Yee Gyung; Kim, Mi Young; Cho, Yun Ku

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal computed tomography (CT) findings of malaria are not well-known even though malaria is a serious infectious disease. To identify abdominal CT findings, we selected 34 of 405 patients who had a positive peripheral blood smear for Plasmodium vivax and had underwent abdominal CT as the malaria group. We also selected 80 patients who had fever and a negative peripheral blood smear as the control group and 120 healthy people as the normal group. We reviewed and analyzed their medical rec...

  16. Primary abdominal pregnancy following intra-uterine insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Kar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary abdominal pregnancy is an extremely rare type of extrauterine pregnancy. It has been reported from many unusual intra-abdominal sites. We report a case of primary abdominal pregnancy following intra-uterine insemination (not reported earlier to our knowledge. Implanted on the anterior surface of the uterus possibly related to an endometriotic foci. Early diagnosis enabled laparoscopic management of this case.

  17. Endovascular Exclusion of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Patients with Concomitant Abdominal Malignancy: Early Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, You Ri; Chang, Nam Kyu [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyo Hyun; Oh, Hyun Jun; Kim, Jae Kyu; Choi, Soo Jin Na; Chung, Sang Young [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Nam Yeol [Armed Forces Yangju Hospital, Yangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    To assess the outcomes of endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) for the treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm in patients undergoing curative surgical treatment for concomitant abdominal malignancy. The study included 12 patients with abdominal neoplasia and an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), which was treated by surgery and stent EVAR. The neoplasm consisted of the gastric, colorectal, pancreas, prostate, and gall bladder. The follow up period was 3-21 months (mean 11.8 months). All medical records and imaging analyses were reviewed by CTA and/or color Doppler US, retrospectively. Successful endoluminal repair was accomplished in all twelve patients. The mean interval time between EVAR and surgery was 58.6 days. Small amounts of type 2 endoleaks were detected in two patients (17%). One patient developed adult respiratory distress syndrome after Whipple's operation 20 days after surgery, which led to hopeless discharge. No procedure-related mortality, morbidity, or graft-related infection was noted. Exclusion of AAA in patients with accompanying malignancy show with a relatively low procedure morbidity and mortality. Hence, endoluminal AAA repair in patients with synchronous neoplasia may allow greater flexibility in the management of an offending malignancy

  18. Prevalence of abdominal migraine and recurrent abdominal pain in a Japanese clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikita, Toshiyuki

    2016-07-01

    Prevalence of abdominal migraine (AM) and recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) was evaluated in patients who visited Hikita Pediatric Clinic between May 2010 and April 2015. Patient data were collected prospectively using a questionnaire. Out of a total of 3611 cases, observed prevalence was 2.44% for repeated abdominal pain over a period of ≥3 months, 1.47% for RAP, and 0.19% for AM. Duration of abdominal pain was longer for AM than for non-AM RAP. Certain clinical features were significantly different between AM and non-AM RAP. No correlations were found among age at onset, frequency of attack, and duration of attack for various types of RAP. It was difficult to determine useful diagnostic criteria for distinguishing between AM and non-AM RAP. They did not appear to be separate disease entities but, instead, lie on a disease spectrum. The present prevalence of AM (0.19%) was lower than that in many previous studies from countries other than Japan. PMID:27460403

  19. Unsaturated Oral Fat Load Test Improves Glycemia, Insulinemia and Oxidative Stress Status in Nondiabetic Subjects with Abdominal Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Hervas, Sergio; Navarro, Inmaculada; Real, Jose T.; Artero, Ana; Peiro, Marta; Gonzalez-Navarro, Herminia; Carmena, Rafael; Ascaso, Juan F.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the changes in glycemia, insulinemia, and oxidative stress markers during an oral fat load test in nondiabetic subjects with abdominal obesity and to analyze the association between postprandial oxidative stress markers and postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Methods We included 20 subjects with abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women) and 20 healthy lean controls (waist circumference < 102 cm for men and < 88 cm for women). After 12 hours of fasting we performed a standardized fat load test (0–8 hours) with supracal® (50 g/m2). We determined metabolic parameters, oxidized and reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde. Results In both groups, insulin, HOMA, oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, and malondialdehyde significantly decreased in the postprandial state after the OFLT. All these parameters were significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group at baseline and during all the postprandial points, but the reduction from the baseline levels was significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group. Conclusion Unsaturated fat improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress status. It is possible that a consumption of unsaturated fat could be beneficial even in subjects with abdominal obesity in postprandial state. PMID:27537847

  20. Abdominal alterations in disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis: computed tomography findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermelho, Marli Batista Fernandes; Correia, Ademir Silva; Michailowsky, Tania Cibele de Almeida; Suzart, Elizete Kazumi Kuniyoshi; Ibanes, Aline Santos; Almeida, Lanamar Aparecida; Khoury, Zarifa; Barba, Mario Flores, E-mail: marlivermelho@globo.com [Instituto de Infectologia Emilio Ribas (IIER), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    Objective: to evaluate the incidence and spectrum of abdominal computed tomography imaging findings in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Materials and methods: retrospective analysis of abdominal computed tomography images of 26 patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. Results: abnormal abdominal tomographic findings were observed in 18 patients (69.2%), while no significant finding was observed in the other 8 (30.8%) patients. Conclusion: computed tomography has demonstrated to play a relevant role in the screening and detection of abdominal abnormalities in patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. (author)

  1. Abdominal alterations in disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis: computed tomography findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: to evaluate the incidence and spectrum of abdominal computed tomography imaging findings in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Materials and methods: retrospective analysis of abdominal computed tomography images of 26 patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. Results: abnormal abdominal tomographic findings were observed in 18 patients (69.2%), while no significant finding was observed in the other 8 (30.8%) patients. Conclusion: computed tomography has demonstrated to play a relevant role in the screening and detection of abdominal abnormalities in patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. (author)

  2. Treatment of infrarenal abdominal aortic dissection concomitant with an aneurysm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-xin; ZHU Ting; FU Wei-guo; WANG Yu-qi; XI Xun; GUO Da-qiao; CHEN Bin; JIANG Jun-hao; YANG Ju; SHI Zhen-yu

    2007-01-01

    @@ Aortic dissection occurs when layers of the aortic walls are separated by the blood flow through an intimal tear. Dissection of the aorta most frequently originates in the ascending aorta (70%), followed by the descending aorta (22%), the aortic arch (7%) and the abdominal aorta (1/%).1 The dissection limited to the abdominal aorta is rare.2 An isolated abdominal aortic dissection (IAAD) concomitant with an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is uncommon. We present here one patient with IAAD and AAA treated by endovascular therapy.

  3. [Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. A rare form of presentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettedal, E A; Vennesland, O

    1993-05-10

    In most cases a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurism is dramatic, with rapid deterioration of the clinical condition of the patient. With abdominal and back pain, pulsatile tumour, and development of bleeding shock the diagnosis is obvious. In some cases the symptoms are not clear and the condition can be misinterpreted. The authors describe a case to illustrate this. A 74 year-old male was admitted to hospital with vague abdominal pain and left inguinal hernia. It later turned out that a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurism was the reason for his symptoms and signs. 14 similar cases are reported in the literature. PMID:8332976

  4. 改进的杂波协方差矩阵结构估计方法%Improved Estimation Method of Clutter Covariance Matrix Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何友; 顾新锋; 简涛

    2012-01-01

    In the non-Gaussian clutter modeled as spherically invariant random vectors, for the problems that existing methods of covariance matrix estimation are not fully adaptive and higher computational complexity, an adaptive estimator is devised based on experience (E-AR). Moreover, with E-AR as the initialization matrix for the recursive, the E-ARE is proposed. The E-AR and the E-ARE are only need to implement real number operation, and have lower computational complexity. The constant false alarm rate property to both of the clutter texture components and the normalized clutter covariance matrix of corresponding adaptive normalized matched filters ( ANMFs) are proved theoretically, and are also validated by simulation. Finally, the effectiveness of proposed methods are evaluated and compared with the exiting method for the signal to clutter ratio (SCR) loss and the performance of corresponding ANMFs. The results show that proposed methods have the characteristic of faster convergence rate, fewer second data, smaller SCR loss and better performance of corresponding ANMFs.%在球不变随机向量建模的非高斯杂波背景下,针对现有协方差矩阵结构估计方法对杂波不具备完全自适应性以及计算复杂度高等问题,本文利用经验信息,提出了基于经验的自适应估计方法(E-AE),并将其作为初始化矩阵,再次利用经验信息进行迭代估计,得到了基于经验的自适应迭代估计方法(E-ARE).E-AE和E-ARE只需要进行实数运算,减小了计算复杂度.从理论上证明了所提方法对应的ANMF对杂波纹理分量和协方差矩阵结构都具有CFAR特性,并通过仿真实验对其有效性进行了验证.最后,利用匹配滤波器的输出信杂比损失及相应的ANMF检测性能,对所提方法和已有方法进行效果评估,结果表明,本文方法具有收敛速度快、所需的辅助单元数少、信杂比损失小和对应的ANMF检测性能优等特点.

  5. Ocean clutter suppression for a bistatic HF ground wave radar%双基地高频地波雷达海杂波抑制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇永斌; 张宁; 张树春

    2012-01-01

    由于地貌、双基角和洋流等因素的影响,双基地海杂波形成的目标检测盲区会导致杂波被当作目标来检测和跟踪,形成大量的虚假目标.针对这一问题,提出一种快速抑制杂波方法:利用双基地海杂波频率特征的先验知识,结合海面的平稳特性,在距离多普勒(RD)谱上获取海杂波抑制的频率范围;应用Clean算法,先对通道时域数据进行海杂波抑制,之后进行数字波束形成,得到能够正常进行目标检测的谱数据.实际处理结果表明,该方法快速有效,能够实时进行数据处理.%For a bistatic HF radar,the bistatic angle,ocean current and physiognomy of receiver location will bring about the Bragg lines' spreading,peak split and peak shift,so that the first order ocean clutter will be detected and tracked as a false target in some cases.To solve this problem,a fast method is proposed to suppress the ocean clutter.Based on some priori knowledge and stationary properties of the ocean surface,the ocean clutter frequency range to be suppressed was obtained on the Range-Doppler(RD) spectra.Then the Clean algorithm was applied to suppress the ocean clutter on the un-beam-formed channel data,after that the digital beam forming was performed and the obtained data were more helpful for target detection.The results show that this method is valid and can be implemented for real-time operation.

  6. Value of abdominal CT in the emergency department for patients with abdominal pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of our study is to demonstrate the value of CT in the emergency department (ED) for patients with non-traumatic abdominal pain. Between August 1998 and April 1999, 536 consecutive patients with non-traumatic abdominal pain were entered into our study. Using a computer order entry system, physicians were asked to identify: (a) their most likely diagnosis; (b) their level of certainty in their diagnosis; (c) if they thought CT would be normal or abnormal; (d) their treatment plan (prior to knowledge of the CT results); and (e) their role in deciding to order CT. This information was correlated with each patient's post-CT diagnosis and subsequent management. Pre- and post-CT diagnoses were concordant in 200 of 536 (37%) patients. The physicians' certainty in the accuracy of their pre-CT diagnosis was less than high in 88% of patients. Prior to CT, the management plan included hospital admission for 402 patients. Following CT, only 312 patients were actually admitted; thus, the net impact of performing CT was to obviate the need for hospital admission in 90 of 536 (17%) of patients with abdominal pain. Prior to CT, 67 of 536 (13%) of all patients would have undergone immediate surgery; however, following CT only 25 (5%) actually required immediate surgery. Among patients with the four most common pre-CT diagnoses (appendicitis, abscess, diverticulitis, and urinary tract stones) CT had the greatest impact on hospital admission and surgical management for patients with suspected appendicitis. For patients with suspected appendicitis, CT reduced the hospital admission rate in 28% (26 of 91) of patients and changed the surgical management in 40% (39 of 91) of patients. Our study demonstrates the advantage of performing abdominal CT in the ED for patients with non-traumatic abdominal pain. (orig.)

  7. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legakis Nikolaos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction, especially in adult population. Diagnosis is usually incidental at laparotomy. We discuss one such rare case, outlining the fact that an intra-operative surprise diagnosis could have been facilitated by previous investigations. Case presentation A 56 year-old man presented in A&E department with small bowel ileus. He had a history of 6 similar episodes of small bowel obstruction in the past 4 years, which resolved with conservative treatment. Pre-operative work-up did not reveal any specific etiology. At laparotomy, a fibrous capsule was revealed, in which small bowel loops were encased, with the presence of interloop adhesions. A diagnosis of abdominal cocoon was established and extensive adhesiolysis was performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery and follow-up. Conclusion Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, although rare, may be the cause of a common surgical emergency such as small bowel ileus, especially in cases with attacks of non-strangulating obstruction in the same individual. A high index of clinical suspicion may be generated by the recurrent character of small bowel ileus combined with relevant imaging findings and lack of other plausible etiologies. Clinicians must rigorously pursue a preoperative diagnosis, as it may prevent a "surprise" upon laparotomy and result in proper management.

  8. [Endometriosis in the abdominal wall (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligaris, P; Masselot, R; Ducassou, M J; Le Treut, Y; Bricot, R

    1981-01-01

    The authors give 9 case histories of endometriosis localised to the abdominal wall : 3 of them in the umbilicus, 3 in laparotomy incisions (2 of those were Caesareans), 2 of them in the round ligaments at the external opening of the inguinal canal and 1 of them in the right rectus muscle sheath in the abdomen. The functional symptomatology is rhythmical according to menstruation; it is associated with a burning type of pain, a tumour and blood loss. Over and above the theories of aetiology that are now classical, namely tubal retrograde spill, and lymphatic or venous spread, it would seem that prostaglandins and in particular the ratio of P.G.E. divided by P.D.F2 alpha can play a big role. Although Danazol is an effective treatment for endometriosis, the treatment of choice is, in these lesions that are superficial in localisation and easily accessible, to cut them out surgically. This makes it possible on the one hand to look for other intra-abdominal lesions and also on the other hand to confirm the anatomy and pathology (this was done in 7 out of 9 of our cases). PMID:6459361

  9. Hepatic infarction following abdominal interventional procedures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujiwara H

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the incidence, background, and progress of hepatic infarction following interventional procedures, cases of hepatic infarction following interventional procedures at our department during the last decade were identified by reviewing the clinical records of 1982 abdominal angiography and interventional procedures and records of abdominal CT. Nine episodes (0.5% in 8 patients were identified as hepatic infarction following an interventional procedure. Five episodes were preceded by embolization of the hepatic or celiac artery at emergency angiography for postoperative bleeding with hemorrhagic shock. Three episodes followed the elected interventional procedure for hepatocellular carcinoma, and the remaining episode occurred after 12 months of chemoinfusion through an indwelling catheter in the hepatic artery and portal vein. Hepatic arterial occlusion in all episodes and portal venous flow abnormality in 5 episodes were observed on angiography. Four patients whose liver function was initially impaired died of hepatic infarction, although the extent of the disease on CT did not appear to be related to the mortality. Multiple risk factors, including arterial insufficiency, were observed in each patient. The incidence of hepatic infarction following interventional procedures in this series was low but sometimes fatal, and occurred most frequently in emergency embolization in hemorrhagic shock.

  10. Fatigue and cardiorespiratory function following abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, T; Bendix, T; Kehlet, H

    1982-07-01

    Subjective feelings of fatigue were assessed before operation and 10, 20 and 30 days after uncomplicated elective abdominal surgery in 16 otherwise healthy patients, using a constructed fatigue scale model. In addition, all patients had an orthostatic stress test performed at the same times. Six of the patients also underwent a bicycle ergometer test measuring heart rate and oxygen consumption. Subjective feelings of fatigue were increased (P less than 0.01) at all three postoperative observations, and only 5 of 16 patients returned to their preoperative level. The increased subjective feeling of fatigue correlated positively (RS = 0.53, P less than 0.001) with the increased pulse rate seen during orthostatic stress after operation. Heart rate was about 5 per cent higher (n.s.) after operation when bicycling at the same work loads, while oxygen consumption decreased by about 2 per cent (P less than 0.01) at all three postoperative bicycle tests. It is concluded that even electric uncomplicated abdominal surgery is followed by a pronounced feeling of fatigue, which may persist 1 month after surgery in about one-third of patients. The fatigue scale model seems applicable for future studies on the pathogenesis and treatment of the postoperative fatigue syndrome.

  11. Volumetric analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Kevin M.; Kusnick, Catherine A.; Shamsolkottabi, Susanne; Lang, Elvira V.; Corson, J. D.; Stanford, William; Thompson, Brad H.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid, reliable and accurate system of measurement of abdominal aortic aneurysms, using volumetric analysis of x-ray computed tomographic data. This study evaluates illustrative cases, and compares measurements of AAA phantoms, using standard 2D versus volumetric methods. To validate the volumetric analysis, four phantom aneurysms were constructed in a range of diameters (4.5 - 7.0 cm) which presents the greatest management challenge to the clinician. These phantoms were imaged using a Toshiba Xpress SX helical CT. Separate scans were obtained at conventional (10 mm X 10 mm) and thin slice (5 mm X 5 mm) collimations. The thin slices were reconstructed at 2 mm intervals. Data from each of the 96 scans were interpreted using a standard 2D approach, then analyzed using task-oriented volumetric software. We evaluate patient assessments, and compare greatest outer diameters of phantoms, by standard versus volumetric methods. Qualitative differences between solutions based on standard versus volumetric analysis of illustrative patient cases are substantial. Expert radiologists' standard measurements of phantom aneurysms are highly reliable (r2 equals 0.901 - 0.958; p aneurysm diameters in the range of clinical interest. For the same phantoms, volumetric analysis was both more reliable (r2 equals 0.986 - 0.996; p abdominal aortic aneurysms. It is particularly valuable in the presence of aortic tortuosity, vessel eccentricity, and uncertain involvement of critical vessels.

  12. Abdominal-Pelvic Actinomycosis Mimicking Malignant Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Pusiol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal-pelvic actinomycosis is often mistaken for other conditions, presenting a preoperative diagnostic challenge. In a 46-year-old female, computed tomography showed an abdominal-pelvic retroperitoneal mass extending from the lower pole of the right kidney to the lower pelvis. The patient had a 3-year history of intrauterine device. The mass appeared to involve the ascending colon, cecum, distal ileum, right Fallopian tube and ovary, and ureter anteriorly and the psoas muscle posteriorly. The resection of retroperitoneal mass, distal ileum appendicectomy, right hemicolectomy, and right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. The postoperative period was uneventful. Penicillin therapy was given for six months without any complication. The retroperitoneal mass measured 4.5 × 3.5 × 3 cm, surrounded adjacent organs and histologically showed inflammatory granulomatous tissue, agglomeration of filaments, and sulfur granules of Actinomyces, with positive reaction with periodic acid Schiff. Right tubo-ovarian abscess was present. Abdominalpelvic actinomycosis should always be considered in patients with a pelvic mass especially in ones using intrauterine device.

  13. Abdominal manifestations of cystic fibrosis in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudry, Gulraiz; Navarro, Oscar M.; Levine, Daniel S.; Oudjhane, Kamaldine [University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-03-15

    Pulmonary complications remain the main cause of mortality in cystic fibrosis, but the presenting symptoms in children are often related to gastrointestinal or pancreaticobiliary disease. Furthermore, abdominal manifestations are now seen throughout childhood, from infancy to adolescence. The child might present in the neonatal period with meconium ileus or its attendant complications. The older child might present with distal intestinal obstruction syndrome or colonic stricture secondary to high doses of pancreatic enzyme replacement. Less-common gastrointestinal manifestations include intussusception, duodenitis and fecal impaction of the appendix. Most children also show evidence of exocrine pancreatic deficiency. Radiologically, the combination of fat deposition and pancreatic fibrosis leads to varying CT and MR appearances. A higher than normal incidence of pancreatic cysts and calcification is also seen. Decreased transport of water and chloride also increases the viscosity of bile, with subsequent obstruction of the biliary ductules. If extensive, this can progress to obstructive cirrhosis, portal hypertension and esophageal varices. Diffuse fatty infiltration, hypersplenism and gallstones are also commonly seen in these patients. We present a pictorial review of the radiological appearance of these abdominal manifestations. The conditions are dealt with individually, together with typical appearances in various imaging modalities. (orig.)

  14. Abdominal manifestations of cystic fibrosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary complications remain the main cause of mortality in cystic fibrosis, but the presenting symptoms in children are often related to gastrointestinal or pancreaticobiliary disease. Furthermore, abdominal manifestations are now seen throughout childhood, from infancy to adolescence. The child might present in the neonatal period with meconium ileus or its attendant complications. The older child might present with distal intestinal obstruction syndrome or colonic stricture secondary to high doses of pancreatic enzyme replacement. Less-common gastrointestinal manifestations include intussusception, duodenitis and fecal impaction of the appendix. Most children also show evidence of exocrine pancreatic deficiency. Radiologically, the combination of fat deposition and pancreatic fibrosis leads to varying CT and MR appearances. A higher than normal incidence of pancreatic cysts and calcification is also seen. Decreased transport of water and chloride also increases the viscosity of bile, with subsequent obstruction of the biliary ductules. If extensive, this can progress to obstructive cirrhosis, portal hypertension and esophageal varices. Diffuse fatty infiltration, hypersplenism and gallstones are also commonly seen in these patients. We present a pictorial review of the radiological appearance of these abdominal manifestations. The conditions are dealt with individually, together with typical appearances in various imaging modalities. (orig.)

  15. Ultrasonographic findings of pediatric abdominal masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhng, Seon Kwan; Kim, Jae Gyu; Park, Jin Gyoon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Chung, Hyun De [Chonnam University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-02-15

    Ultrasonography is a very useful diagnostic modality for the evaluation of clinically suspicious abdominal masses in infants and children, especially in assessing their existence, size, location, origin and internal consistency. Authors analyzed and present ultrasonographic findings of 92 pathologically and/or clinically proven pediatric abdominal masses that were studied and treated in Chonnam University Hospital during recent 4 years. The results were as follows: 1. The most common originating site was kidney (26 cases: 28.3%), followed by gastrointestinal tract (21 cases: 22.8%), genital organ (17 cases: 18.5%), non-renal retroperitoneum (13 cases: 18.5%), hepatobiliary tract (12 cases: 13.0%), and anterior abdominal wall (3 cases: 3.3%) in order to frequency. 2. The most common mass was hydronephrosis (18 cases: 19.6%). Neuroblastoma (7 cases: 7.6%), hepatoblatoma, ovarian teratoma, periappendiceal abscess and abdominal tuberculosis (6 cases: 6.5%, respectively), Wilms tumor (5 cases: 5.4%) were next in order of frequency. 3. The sex distribution is rather similar, that is, male 42 (45.7%) and female 50 (54.3%), but characteristically choledochal cyst (2 cases) and genital mass (17 cases) were found only in females. Considering age distribution, 78 cases (84.8%) were found within the range of one to 15 years of age. The rest, 14 cases (15.2%), were under the age of one year. 4. With ultrasonography, the diagnosis of hydronephrosis could be made easily in every case and we could evaluate its severity and level of obstruction with high accuracy. 5. All Wilms tumor were large, round or oval, sharply marinated and relatively homogeneous solid masses. 6. All neuroblastomas were irregular shaped, poorly defined, heterogeneous solid masses. Tumor calcification and extension across the midline were noted in 6 cases (85.7%) and 5 cases (71.4%), respectively. 7. All periappendiceal abscess had irregular thickened wall and posterior acoustic enhancement; 4 cases (66

  16. Abdominal tuberculosis. On-going challenge to gastroenterologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to record the observations and experience on the diagnosis and management of abdominal tuberculosis (TB) and to highlight the difficulties in the diagnosis and management of this condition. Two hundred consecutive patients attending the Gastroenterology Department of the King Khalid National Guard Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between May 1991 and May 2001, suspected with abdominal TB were investigated. A detailed clinical history and physical examination were obtained. Data of 75 confirmed cases of abdominal TB were analyzed. The most common presenting symptoms were anorexia (84%), abdominal pain (84%) and weight loss (72%). Abdominal tenderness was the most common clinical finding, followed by ascites and abdominal mass (42%). The chest radiograph suggestive of pulmonary TB was diagnosed in 24 patients (32%). Computed tomographic (CT) scanning revealed abnormalities in all 51 patients who underwent the procedure, while positive findings were observed by abdominal ultrasound in 66% of the tested patients. Histopathological examination of patients showed tuberculosis granuloma, while acid fast bacilli were seen in 34%. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was identified by microbiological methods in 60% of patients. The most common presenting symptoms were anorexia (84%), abdominal pain (84%) and weight loss (72%). Abdominal tenderness was the most common clinical finding, followed by ascites and abdominal mass (42%). The chest radiograph suggestive of pulmonary TB was diagnosed in 24 patients (32%). Computed tomographic (CT) scanning revealed abnormalities in all 51 patients who underwent the procedure, while positive findings were observed by abdominal ultrasound in 66% of the tested patients. Histopathological examination of patients showed tuberculous granuloma, while acid fast bacilli were seen in 34%. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was identified by microbiological methods in 60% of patients. A high index of clinical suspicion is

  17. Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms Rastreamento de aneurismas da aorta abdominal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telmo Pedro Bonamigo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms may be useful to decrease mortality related to rupture. We conducted a study to assess the prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysms in southern Brazil and to define risk factors associated with high prevalence of this disorder. The screening was conducted using abdominal ultrasound. Three groups were studied: Group 1 - cardiology clinic patients; Group 2 - individuals with severe ischemic disease and previous coronary surgery, or important lesions on cardiac catheterism; Group 3 - individuals without cardiac disease selected from the general population. All individuals were male and older than 54 years of age. The ultrasonographic diagnosis of aneurysm was based on an anteroposterior abdominal aorta diameter of 3 cm, or on an abdominal aorta diameter 0.5 cm greater than that of the supra-renal aorta. RESULTS: A total of 2.281 people were screened for abdominal aortic aneurysms in all groups: Group 1 - 768 individuals, Group 2 - 501 individuals, and Group 3 - 1012 individuals. The prevalence of aneurysms was 4.3%, 6.8% and 1.7%, respectively. Age and cigarette smoking were significantly associated with increased prevalence of aneurysms, as was the diagnosis of peripheral artery disease. DISCUSSION: We concluded that screening may be an important tool to prevent the mortality associated with abdominal aortic aneurysms surgery. Additionally, the cost of screening can be decreased if only individuals presenting significant risk factors, such as coronary and peripheral artery disease, smokers and relatives of aneurysm patients, are examined.OBJETIVO E MÉTODOS: O rastreamento de aneurisma da aorta abdominal infra-renal é importante pois pode diminuir a mortalidade relacionada à ruptura. Realizamos um estudo para definir a prevalência desses aneurismas em diversos segmentos da população em nossa região do Brasil. O rastreamento foi realizado utilizando-se a ecografia de abdômen. Tr

  18. Tabagismo e obesidade abdominal em doadores de sangue Smoking and abdominal fat in blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia da Silva Faria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a associação entre tabagismo e obesidade abdominal em doadores de sangue. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal com 1.235 homens adultos doadores de sangue (idade: 20-59 anos em Cuiabá (MT. Foram coletados dados socioeconômicos, demográficos e antropométricos, bem como informações sobre o estilo de vida dos participantes. Neste estudo, a circunferência da cintura e a relação cintura/quadril foram utilizadas como marcadores de obesidade abdominal. A associação desses dois marcadores com o tabagismo foi analisada por meio de regressão linear múltipla em modelos distintos, ajustados para potenciais fatores de confusão. RESULTADOS: Dos 1.235 entrevistados, 273 (22,1% declararam ser fumantes e, desses, 99 (36,3% relataram fumar mais de 15 cigarros por dia. A média do índice de massa corpórea nos fumantes foi menor que nos não fumantes (p 11 cigarros/dia. CONCLUSÕES: Nesta amostra, o tabagismo associou-se positivamente com indicadores de obesidade abdominal, independentemente de potenciais fatores de confusão, inclusive o consumo de bebidas alcoólicas.OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between smoking and abdominal fat among male blood donors. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 1,235 adult male blood donors (age, 20-59 years in the city of Cuiabá, Brazil. Socioeconomic, demographic, and anthropometric data, as well as information on the lifestyle of the participants, were collected. In this study, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio were used as markers of abdominal fat. The association between these two markers and smoking was analyzed by multiple linear regression in separate models, adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Of the 1,235 respondents, 273 (22.1% reported being smokers, and, of those, 99 (36.3% reported smoking more than 15 cigarettes per day. The average body mass index was lower among smokers than among nonsmokers (p 11 cigarettes/day. CONCLUSIONS: In our sample

  19. 机载共形相控阵雷达二维杂波建模与分析%Space-Time Clutter Model and Analysis for Airborne Radar With Conformal Phased Array Antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤子跃; 王永良; 蒋兴舟

    2001-01-01

    分析了机载预警(AEW)雷达可能采用的横柱型和竖柱型这两种基本的共形相控阵的方向图特性,提出了其阵元的放置规律,对这两种机载侧视共形相控阵雷达的杂波进行了建模,并依此模型对这两种机载共形相控阵雷达的杂波数据进行了计算机仿真,通过杂波协方差矩阵的估计求得其空-时二维杂波谱,检验了杂波模型的准确性,所做工作将对实际的共形阵具有重要的指导意义,也为进一步研究机载共形相控阵雷达信号处理和杂波抑制的技术和方法奠定了基础。%The space-time clutter model and simulation of AEW (airborneearly warning) radar with conformal phased array are studied. The patterns of the two types of conformal are investigated, the principle of element placement is presented, a space-time clutter model is developed, and the characteristics of the space-time clutter are analyzed. The computer simulating of generating the space-time clutter data for a conformal phased array radar is discussed. Finally, the space-time clutter power-spectra are given by estimating the covariance matrix of space-time clutter, and the simulation result shows that the model is creditable. These results are available for further researching the space-time adaptive processing for practical conformal phased array radar.

  20. Children with abdominal pain in Dutch general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieteling, M.; Wouden, H. van der; Schellevis, F.; Berger, M.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Abdominal pain in children is a challenging complaint for general practitioners. After ruling out an acute organic reason for the pain he has to manage the non-specific or non-organic abdominal pain. From research performed in secondary and tertiary care and from cross-sectional surve

  1. Hemoperitoneum in cirrhotic patients without abdominal trauma or tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Ji Ma; En-Qiang Chen; Jia-Jie Lu; Ming-Zhen Tan; Hong Tang

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hemoperitoneum is associated with several emergency conditions and is especially evident when it occurs in patients with liver cirrhosis. This study aimed to assess the clinical characteristics of cirrhotic patients who did not have abdominal trauma or tumor but who developed hemoperitoneum. METHODS: Wereviewedtheclinicalrecordsof1276consecutive cirrhotic patients with hemoperitoneum at our center between January 2007 and December 2009. Hemoperitoneum was confirmed by abdominal paracentesis. RESULTS: Of the 1276 cirrhotic patients, 19 were found to have hemoperitoneum, but only 6 did not have abdominal trauma or tumor. The occurrence of spontaneous hemoperitoneum in the cirrhotic patients was therefore 0.5%. Hemoperitoneum can occur spontaneously in severely decompensated cirrhotic patients with intra-abdominal collateral vessels and high scores on the model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Pugh-Turcotte test. Most patients presented with abdominal distension, abdominal pain, increased abdominal girth and hemodynamic instability with a significant drop in the hemoglobin level. Three patients died of hemorrhagic shock within 24 hours, and the other 3 died of hepatic encephalopathy or spontaneous bacterial peritonitis after 5 to 10 days because of further decompensation of the liver. CONCLUSIONS: Hemoperitoneum can occur in cirrhotic patients who do not have abdominal trauma or tumor. It mainly occurs in severely decompensated end-stage cirrhotic patients. Cirrhotic patients with hemoperitoneum have a poor prognosis.

  2. Abdominal aortic aneurysms : clinical insights and outcome after endovascular repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvoort, H.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a focal dilatation of the abdominal aorta. The pathophysiology of AAA is a complex multifactorial process and much is still unknown. Histologic and biochemical analysis of AAA wall characteristics can contribute to a better insight in AAA pathophysiology. To make t

  3. Increased Auditory Startle Reflex in Children with Functional Abdominal Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Mirte J.; Boer, Frits; Benninga, Marc A.; Koelman, Johannes H. T. M.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders have a general hypersensitivity for sensory stimuli. Study design Auditory startle reflexes were assessed in 20 children classified according to Rome III classifications of abdominal pain

  4. Surgery of gigantic infrarenal aneurysm of abdominal aorta

    OpenAIRE

    N. Rustempašić; I. Arslani; D. Totić; A. Hadžimehmedagić; H. Vranić; E. Solaković

    2005-01-01

    The case shows gigantic aneurysm of abdominal aorta, localized infrarenally, as well as aneurysms of bilateral iliac arteries, which were solved successfully by resection of aneurism of abdominal aorta, closure of iliac arteries near aortic bifurcation, and interposition of aorta-bifemural vascular graft. There were no postoperative complications,and final outcome was fully satisfactory.

  5. Decreased mortality of abdominal aortic aneurysms in a peripheral county

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Henneberg, E W; Fasting, H

    1995-01-01

    To analyse the effect on the mortality associated with abdominal aortic aneurysms, due to the establishment of a decentralised vascular surgical unit in the county of Viborg.......To analyse the effect on the mortality associated with abdominal aortic aneurysms, due to the establishment of a decentralised vascular surgical unit in the county of Viborg....

  6. Mesenteric ischemia after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair : a systemic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggink, J. L. M.; Tielliu, I. F. J.; Zeebregts, C. J.; Pol, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Mesenteric ischemia after abdominal aneurysm repair is a devastating complication with mortality rates up to 70%. Incidence however is relatively low. The aim of this review was to provide an overview on current insights, diagnostic modalities and on mesenteric ischemia after abdominal aortic aneury

  7. Statin use and rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wemmelund, H; Høgh, A; Hundborg, H H;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) is associated with high mortality. Research suggests that statins may reduce abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) growth and improve rAAA outcomes. However, the clinical impact of statins remains uncertain in relation to both the risk and prognosis...

  8. A comparative study of iliac and abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vammen, Sten; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Henneberg, E W;

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to compare the epidemiology, risk factors and manifestations of iliac and abdominal aortic aneurysms.......The aim of the paper is to compare the epidemiology, risk factors and manifestations of iliac and abdominal aortic aneurysms....

  9. Surgery of gigantic infrarenal aneurysm of abdominal aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rustempašić

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The case shows gigantic aneurysm of abdominal aorta, localized infrarenally, as well as aneurysms of bilateral iliac arteries, which were solved successfully by resection of aneurism of abdominal aorta, closure of iliac arteries near aortic bifurcation, and interposition of aorta-bifemural vascular graft. There were no postoperative complications,and final outcome was fully satisfactory.

  10. Small Bowel Injury in Peritoneal Encapsulation following Penetrating Abdominal Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Naidoo, K.; Mewa Kinoo, S.; Singh, B.

    2013-01-01

    Small bowel encapsulation is a rare entity which is usually found incidentally at autopsy. We report the first case of peritoneal encapsulation encountered serendipitously at laparotomy undertaken for penetrating abdominal trauma and review the literature on peritoneal encapsulation. We also compare this phenomenon to abdominal cocoon and sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis.

  11. Small Bowel Injury in Peritoneal Encapsulation following Penetrating Abdominal Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Naidoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small bowel encapsulation is a rare entity which is usually found incidentally at autopsy. We report the first case of peritoneal encapsulation encountered serendipitously at laparotomy undertaken for penetrating abdominal trauma and review the literature on peritoneal encapsulation. We also compare this phenomenon to abdominal cocoon and sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis.

  12. Practical Approaches to Definitive Reconstruction of Complex Abdominal Wall Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Rifat

    2016-04-01

    With advances in abdominal surgery and the management of major trauma, complex abdominal wall defects have become the new surgical disease, and the need for abdominal wall reconstruction has increased dramatically. Subsequently, how to reconstruct these large defects has become a new surgical question. While most surgeons use native abdominal wall whenever possible, evidence suggests that synthetic or biologic mesh needs to be added to large ventral hernia repairs. One particular group of patients who exemplify "complex" are those with contaminated wounds, enterocutaneous fistulas, enteroatmospheric fistulas, and/or stoma(s), where synthetic mesh is to be avoided if at all possible. Most recently, biologic mesh has become the new standard in high-risk patients with contaminated and dirty-infected wounds. While biologic mesh is the most common tissue engineered used in this field of surgery, level I evidence is needed on its indication and long-term outcomes. Various techniques for reconstructing the abdominal wall have been described, however the long-term outcomes for most of these studies, are rarely reported. In this article, I outline current practical approaches to perioperative management and definitive abdominal reconstruction in patients with complex abdominal wall defects, with or without fistulas, as well as those who have lost abdominal domain. PMID:26585951

  13. An exceptional cause of left lower quadrant abdominal pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bassam Abboud; Ronald Daher

    2009-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is an exceptional cause of left lower quadrant abdominal pain. Computed tomography scan is the key to its diagnosis and helps to establish its early treatment. We present a case of a 35-year-old male patient who presented acute appendicitis with redundant and loosely attached cecum which was diagnosed based on his left lower quadrant abdominal pain.

  14. [Abdominal ischemia and lesions of the pancreas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myshanych, T V; Moskal', O M; Arkhiĭ, E Ĭ; Sozoniuk, O V

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of the results of 50 patients with diseases of coronary heart disease (25 pers.) And chronic pancreatitis (25 people) are submitted. Along with the standard test from these patients underwent Doppler-ultrasonography of abdominal aorta and its visceral branches. Conclusions: A characteristic feature of Doppler indices in AIC is to reduce Vps and Ved, and PI BbA, increase Vps, Ved, IR and PI after exercise in chBA, chC and BbA. At patients with CP with IHD feature is the increase in Ved and IR in the chC, and Ved and PI in BbA under act of loading Bleed a feature at CP with IHD must be taken into account for optimization of treatment of IHD at CP.

  15. Abdominal muscle function and incisional hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K K; Kjaer, M; Jorgensen, L N

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Although ventral incisional hernia (VIH) repair in patients is often evaluated in terms of hernia recurrence rate and health-related quality of life, there is no clear consensus regarding optimal operative treatment based on these parameters. It was proposed that health-related quality...... of life depends largely on abdominal muscle function (AMF), and the present review thus evaluates to what extent AMF is influenced by VIH and surgical repair. METHODS: The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for articles following a systematic strategy for inclusion. RESULTS: A total of seven...... studies described AMF in relation to VIH. Five studies examined AMF using objective isokinetic dynamometers to determine muscle strength, and two studies examined AMF by clinical examination-based muscle tests. CONCLUSION: Both equipment-related and functional muscle tests exist for use in patients...

  16. Abdominal vascular syndromes: characteristic imaging findings*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli-Leite, Leandro; Velloni, Fernanda Garozzo; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Lemos, Marcelo Delboni; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal vascular syndromes are rare diseases. Although such syndromes vary widely in terms of symptoms and etiologies, certain imaging findings are characteristic. Depending on their etiology, they can be categorized as congenital-including blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome)-or compressive-including "nutcracker" syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome, Cockett syndrome (also known as May-Thurner syndrome), and superior mesenteric artery syndrome. In this article, we aimed to illustrate imaging findings that are characteristic of these syndromes, through studies conducted at our institution, as well as to perform a brief review of the literature on this topic. PMID:27777480

  17. An unusual cause of abdominal pain.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mc Cabe, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    A 26-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with abdominal pain, diarrhoea, anorexia and haematemesis. The patient was previously diagnosed with latent tuberculosis (TB). On examination, his abdomen was diffusely tender, with localised guarding in the right iliac fossa. CT imaging of his abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a low volume of ascites, diffuse studding of the peritoneum, omental caking and several bulky low-density lymph nodes in the retroperitoneum. A laparoscopy was performed to obtain a peritoneal biopsy. Histology demonstrated fragments of peritoneum with necrotising granulomatous inflammatory infiltrate in keeping with an infectious process, favouring TB. He was commenced on rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol and pyridoxine under the direct observed therapy by the infectious diseases team. In view of his extensive peritoneal involvement, he was empirically started on high-dose prednisolone for symptomatic control and to reduce complications related to peritoneal adhesions.

  18. [Abdominal ischemia and lesions of the pancreas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myshanych, T V; Moskal', O M; Arkhiĭ, E Ĭ; Sozoniuk, O V

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of the results of 50 patients with diseases of coronary heart disease (25 pers.) And chronic pancreatitis (25 people) are submitted. Along with the standard test from these patients underwent Doppler-ultrasonography of abdominal aorta and its visceral branches. Conclusions: A characteristic feature of Doppler indices in AIC is to reduce Vps and Ved, and PI BbA, increase Vps, Ved, IR and PI after exercise in chBA, chC and BbA. At patients with CP with IHD feature is the increase in Ved and IR in the chC, and Ved and PI in BbA under act of loading Bleed a feature at CP with IHD must be taken into account for optimization of treatment of IHD at CP. PMID:25796868

  19. A New Etiology for the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome: Pseudomyxoma Peritonei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Sabbagh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP is a rare diagnosis with an incidence of 1-2 per million. Most cases originate from an appendix which ruptures and releases mucin into the peritoneal cavity. The progression of the disease results in obstruction and cutaneous leak. Abdominal compartment syndrome is an uncommon complication of peritoneal pseudomyxoma. In the present article, we report the case of a patient with PMP and abdominal compartment syndrome. A laparotomy to decrease the abdominal pressure was performed. Three months later, a peritonectomy with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy was performed. The patient was still alive 1 year after the procedure without any recurrence. In conclusion, acute abdominal pain and respiratory failure in patients with peritoneal PMP should lead to the measurement of the abdominal pressure but are not a contra indication for curative treatment of PMP.

  20. Abdominal compartment syndrome following abdominoplasty: A case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Izadpanah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominoplasty is among the most commonly performed aesthetic procedures in plastic surgery. Despite high complication rate, abdominal contouring procedures are expected to rise in popularity with the advent of bariatric surgery. Patients with a history of gastric bypass surgery have an elevated incidence of small bowel obstruction from internal herniation, which is associated with non-specific upper abdominal pain, nausea, and a decrease in appetite. Internal hernias, when subjected to elevated intra-abdominal pressures, have a high-risk of developing ischemic bowel. We present a case report of patient with previous laparoscopic Roux-en-y gastric bypass who developed acute ischemic bowel leading to abdominal compartment syndrome following abdominoplasty. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the literature. We herein emphasise on the subtle symptoms and signs that warrant further investigations in prospective patients for an abdominal contouring procedure with a prior history of gastric bypass surgery.

  1. Laparoscopic Bullet Removal in a Penetrating Abdominal Gunshot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Stefanou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Penetrating abdominal trauma has been traditionally treated by exploratory laparotomy. Nowadays laparoscopy has become an accepted practice in hemodynamically stable patient without signs of peritonitis. We report a case of a lower anterior abdominal gunshot patient treated laparoscopically. A 32-year-old male presented to the Emergency Department with complaint of gunshot penetrating injury at left lower anterior abdominal wall. The patient had no symptoms or obvious bleeding and was vitally stable. On examination we identified 1 cm diameter entry wound at the left lower abdominal wall. The imaging studies showed the bullet in the peritoneal cavity but no injured intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal viscera. We decided to remove the bullet laparoscopically. Twenty-four hours after the intervention the patient was discharged. The decision for managing gunshot patients should be based on clinical and diagnostic findings. Anterior abdominal injuries in a stable patient without other health problems can be managed laparoscopically.

  2. Abdominal compartment syndrome successfully treated with neuromuscular blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris T Chiles

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48 year old male admitted to the intensive care unit after a cardiac arrest complicated by a stroke intra-operatively during automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator placement. He post-operatively developed a rigid abdomen, elevated peak and plateau pressures, hypoxia and renal insufficiency. He was diagnosed with abdominal compartment syndrome with an intra-abdominal compartment pressure of 40mmHg. The patient was administered 10 mg of intravenous cisatracuriumbesylate in preparation for bedside surgical abdominal decompression. Cisatracurium eliminated the patients need for surgical intervention by reducing his abdominal compartment pressures to normal and improving his hypoxia and renal function. This case illustrates that neuromuscular blockade should be attempted in patients with abdominal compartment syndrome prior to surgical intervention.

  3. Fraccionamiento de la grasa abdominal de pollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotero Solis, Victor

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine physical and chemical properties of the products from the abdominal chicken fat fractionation. Melting point, consistency, solid fat content, fatty acid composition, iodine and saponification values were determined. Results showed that chicken fat has 67.2 % of unsaturated fatty acids. Chicken fat at 10 ºC was plastic and spreadable. A linear relationship between consistency and solid fat content was obtained. Oleins high yield (> 84 % suggest that these fractions can be used as frying oils. Stearins can be applied as components in the fat manufacturing, in pastry and in puff-pastry margarines.En este trabajo, se realizó la evaluación de las propiedades físicas y químicas de los productos del fraccionamiento de la grasa abdominal de pollo. Los análisis realizados fueron: punto de fusión, consistencia, contenido de grasa sólida, composición de los ácidos grasos e índices de iodo y de saponificación. De acuerdo a los resultados se observa que la grasa de pollo presenta 67.2 % de ácidos grasos insaturados. La grasa de pollo se presentó plástica y de buen esparcimiento a la temperatura de 10 ºC. Se obtuvo una relación lineal entre la consistencia y el contenido de grasa sólida. La alta concentración de oleínas (> 84 % sugiere la posibilidad de su aplicación como aceite de fritura. La estearina podría ser usada como base en la preparación de margarinas para pastelería.

  4. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  5. Routine abdominal X-rays in the emergency department: a thing of the past?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigas Martín, J M; Martí de Gracia, M; Rodríguez Torres, C; Marquina Martínez, D; Parrilla Herranz, P

    2015-01-01

    The large number of abdominal X-ray examinations done in the emergency department is striking considering the scant diagnostic yield of this imaging test in urgent disease. Most of these examinations have normal or nonspecific findings, bringing into question the appropriateness of these examinations. Abdominal X-ray examinations are usually considered a routine procedure or even a "defensive" screening tool, whose real usefulness is unknown. For more than 30 years, the scientific literature has been recommending a reduction in both the number of examinations and the number of projections obtained in each examination to reduce the dose of radiation, unnecessary inconvenience for patients, and costs. Radiologists and clinicians need to know the important limitations of abdominal X-rays in the diagnostic management of acute abdomen and restrict the use of this technique accordingly. This requires the correct clinical selection of patients that can benefit from this examination, which would allow better use of alternative techniques with better diagnostic yield, such as ultrasonography or computed tomography.

  6. Long-term abdominal adiposity activates several parameters of cardiac energy function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourmoura, Evangelia; Rigaudière, Jean-Paul; Couturier, Karine; Hininger, Isabelle; Laillet, Brigitte; Malpuech-Brugère, Corinne; Azarnoush, Kasra; Demaison, Luc

    2016-09-01

    Abdominal obesity increases the incidence of cardiac events but reduces mortality when one of these events occurs. The phenomenon called obesity paradox might be related to myocardial energetics. This study was aimed at determining whether long-term abdominal adiposity alters cardiac energy function. Two groups of male Wistar rats were fed a standard or a Western-type (WD) diet for 8 months. The ex vivo coronary reactivity and mechanical function as well as the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (mOxPhos) and hydrogen peroxide release (mH2O2r) were determined. Abdominal adiposity was augmented by the WD. This was also the case for the coronary reactivity to acetylcholine, but the rate pressure product remained roughly stable despite a reduction of the left ventricle-developed pressure partly compensated by a slight increase in heart rate. The prolonged WD administration resulted in an improvement of mOxPhos, but the mH2O2r was exaggerated which was confirmed in the whole cell by a reduced aconitase to fumarase ratio. This did not modify the plasma oxidative stress due to an increased plasma antioxidant status. In conclusion, long-term WD administration improved the cardiac fitness and might predispose the organism to the obesity paradox. Conversely, the increased mitochondrial mH2O2r can precipitate the heart toward cardiomyopathy if the WD is maintained for a longer duration. PMID:26255304

  7. Aneurisma de aorta abdominal na infância Abdominal aortic aneurism in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Abdo Farret Neto; Jeancarlo Fernandes Cavalcante; Renato Vilar Furtado

    1998-01-01

    The authors report a case of an abdominal aortic aneurism involving all visceral branches minus the Inferior Mesenteric artery in a 4-year-old girl. There was sugestive evidence that the arterial disease had an inflamatory or infectious etiologic factor. The most probable etiological factors could be salmonelas infection of the arterial wall or Takayasu's disease secondary to tuberculosis. The treatment with antibiotic to salmonelas infection during ten days, followed by tuberculostatic thera...

  8. Management of penetrating abdominal and thoraco-abdominal wounds: A retrospective study of 186 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbois, S; Abba, J; Guigard, S; Quesada, J L; Pirvu, A; Waroquet, P A; Reche, F; Risse, O; Bouzat, P; Thony, F; Arvieux, C

    2016-08-01

    This is a single center retrospective review of abdominal or abdomino-thoracic penetrating wounds treated between 2004 and 2013 in the gastrointestinal and emergency unit of the university hospital of Grenoble, France. This study did not include patients who sustained blunt trauma or non-traumatic wounds, as well as patients with penetrating head and neck injury, limb injury, ano-perineal injury, or isolated thoracic injury above the fifth costal interspace. In addition, we also included cases that were reviewed in emergency department morbidity and mortality conferences during the same period. Mortality was 5.9% (11/186 patients). Mean age was 36 years (range: 13-87). Seventy-eight percent (145 patients) suffered stab wounds. Most patients were hemodynamically stable or stabilized upon arrival at the hospital (163 patients: 87.6%). Six resuscitative thoracotomies were performed, five for gunshot wounds, one for a stab wound. When abdominal exploration was necessary, laparotomy was chosen most often (78/186: 41.9%), while laparoscopy was performed in 46 cases (24.7%), with conversion to laparotomy in nine cases. Abdominal penetration was found in 103 cases (55.4%) and thoracic penetration in 44 patients (23.7%). Twenty-nine patients (15.6%) had both thoracic and abdominal penetration (with 16 diaphragmatic wounds). Suicide attempts were recorded in 43 patients (23.1%), 31 (72.1%) with peritoneal penetration. Two patients (1.1%) required operation for delayed peritonitis, one who had had a laparotomy qualified as "negative", and another who had undergone surgical exploration of his wound under general anesthesia. In conclusion, management of clear-cut or suspected penetrating injury represents a medico-surgical challenge and requires effective management protocols. PMID:27318585

  9. Temporary abdominal closure with zipper-mesh device for management of intra-abdominal sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edivaldo Massazo Utiyama

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to present our experience with scheduled reoperations in 15 patients with intra-abdominal sepsis. METHODS: we have applied a more effective technique consisting of temporary abdominal closure with a nylon mesh sheet containing a zipper. We performed reoperations in the operating room under general anesthesia at an average interval of 84 hours. The revision consisted of debridement of necrotic material and vigorous lavage of the involved peritoneal area. The mean age of patients was 38.7 years (range, 15 to 72 years; 11 patients were male, and four were female. RESULTS: forty percent of infections were due to necrotizing pancreatitis. Sixty percent were due to perforation of the intestinal viscus secondary to inflammation, vascular occlusion or trauma. We performed a total of 48 reoperations, an average of 3.2 surgeries per patient. The mesh-zipper device was left in place for an average of 13 days. An intestinal ostomy was present adjacent to the zipper in four patients and did not present a problem for patient management. Mortality was 26.6%. No fistulas resulted from this technique. When intra-abdominal disease was under control, the mesh-zipper device was removed, and the fascia was closed in all patients. In three patients, the wound was closed primarily, and in 12 it was allowed to close by secondary intent. Two patients developed hernia; one was incisional and one was in the drain incision. CONCLUSION: the planned reoperation for manual lavage and debridement of the abdomen through a nylon mesh-zipper combination was rapid, simple, and well-tolerated. It permitted effective management of severe septic peritonitis, easy wound care and primary closure of the abdominal wall.

  10. Evaluating clinical abdominal scoring system in predict- ing the necessity of laparotomy in blunt abdominal trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erfantalab-Avini Peyman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objectives: Trauma is among the lead- ing causes of death. Medical management of blunt abdomi- nal trauma (BAT relies on judging patients for whom lap- arotomy is mandatory. This study aimed to determine BAT patients’ signs, as well as paraclinical data, and to clarify the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of clinical abdominal scoring system (CASS, a new scoring system based on clinical signs, in predicting whether a BAT patient needs laparotomy or not. Methods: Totally 400 patients suspected of BAT that arrived at the emergency department of two university hos- pitals in Tehran from March 20, 2007 to March 19, 2009 were included in this study. They were evaluated for age, sex, type of trauma, systolic blood pressure, Glasgow coma scale (GCS, pulse rate, time of presentation after trauma, abdomi- nal clinical findings, respiratory rate, temperature, hemoglo- bin (Hb concentration, focused abdominal sonography in trauma (FAST and CASS. Results: Our measurements showed that CASS had an accuracy of 94%, sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 88%, positive predictive value of 90% and negative predictive value of 100% in determining the necessity of laparotomy in BAT patients. Moreover, in our analysis, systolic blood pressure, GCS, pulse rate, Hb concentration, time of presen- tation after trauma, abdominal clinical findings and FAST were also shown to be helpful in confirming the need for laparotomy (P<0.05. Conclusion: CASS is a promising scoring system in rapid detection of the need for laparotomy as well as in minimizing auxiliary expense for further evaluation in BAT patients, thus to promote the cost-benefit ratio and accu- racy of diagnosis. Key words: Abdominal injuries; Laparotomy; Patients; Wounds, nonpenetrating

  11. Advanced modelled iterative reconstruction for abdominal CT: Qualitative and quantitative evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To determine qualitative and quantitative image-quality parameters in abdominal imaging using advanced modelled iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE) with third-generation dual-source 192 section CT. Materials and methods: Forty patients undergoing abdominal portal-venous CT at different tube voltage levels (90, 100, 110, and 120 kVp, n = 10 each) and 10 consecutive patients undergoing abdominal non-enhanced low-dose CT (100 kVp, 60 mAs) using a third-generation dual-source 192 section CT machine in the single-source mode were included. Images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and ADMIRE (strength levels 1–5). Two blinded, independent readers subjectively determined image noise, artefacts, visibility of small structures, and image contrast, and measured attenuation in the liver, spleen, kidney, muscle, fat, and urinary bladder, and objective image noise. Results: Subjective noise was significantly lower and image contrast significantly higher for each increasing ADMIRE strength level and also for ADMIRE 1 compared to FBP (all, p < 0.001). No significant differences were found for artefact and visibility ratings among image sets (all, p > 0.05). Attenuation was similar across tube voltage-image datasets in all anatomical regions (all, p > 0.05). Objective noise was significantly lower for each increasing ADMIRE strength level, and for ADMIRE 1 compared to FBP (all, p < 0.001, maximal reduction 53%). Independent predictors of noise were tube voltage (p < 0.05) and current (p < 0.001), diameter (p < 0.05), and reconstruction algorithm (p<0.001); the amount of noise reduction was related only to the reconstruction algorithm (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Abdominal CT using ADMIRE results in an improved image quality with lower image noise as compared with FBP, while the attenuation of various anatomical regions remains constant among reconstruction algorithms. - Highlights: • Advanced modeled iterative reconstruction results in an

  12. Abdominal circumference contributes to absence of wasting in Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    César, J A; Victora, C G; Morris, S S; Post, C A

    1996-11-01

    A number of population groups in Latin America show high prevalences of stunting (low height-for-age) despite very low rates of wasting (weight-for-height deficits). One possible explanation for this phenomenon is an increase in abdominal circumference, which would affect children's weights but not their heights. This study was designed to describe the abdominal circumferences of a group of poor children from Northeast Brazil, and to relate these to their weight-for-weight z-score. Children (n = 252) participating in a government growth monitoring program were studied. The prevalence of stunting (below -2 SD) was 26.2%, but only 1.2% were wasted. Abdominal circumferences increased with age up to 36 mo, followed by a slight decline after 48 mo. Abdominal circumference was the anthropometric measurement most closely associated with weight-for-height, with a coefficient of determination of 41%. Even after adjusting for arm circumference, abdominal circumference continued to explain 16% of the variation in weight-for-height. Despite slight differences in measurement techniques, the study children had consistently larger abdominal girths than a sample of North American children. These findings must be verified by replication but highlight a possible contribution of abdominal circumference in the determination of levels of wasting.

  13. A comparison of abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies in Benghazi, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnaeber, K; Bodalal, Z

    2013-08-01

    We performed a comparative study between abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies using clinical data from Al-Jamhouria hospital (one of the largest maternity hospitals in Eastern Libya). Various parameters were taken into consideration: the rates of each type (and their subtypes); average age of patients; indications; causes; postoperative complications; and duration of stay in the hospital afterwards. Conclusions and recommendations were drawn from the results of this study. In light of the aforementioned parameters, it was found that: (1) abdominal hysterectomies were more common than vaginal hysterectomies (p < 0.001); (2) patients admitted for abdominal hysterectomies are younger than those admitted for vaginal hysterectomies (p < 0.001); (3) the most common indication for an abdominal hysterectomy was menstrual disturbances, while for vaginal hysterectomies it was vaginal prolapse; (4) the histopathological cause for abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies were observed and the most common were found to be leiomyomas and atrophic endometrium; (5) there was no significant difference between the two routes in terms of postoperative complications; (6) patients who were admitted for abdominal hysterectomies spent a longer amount of time in the hospital (p < 0.01). It was concluded that efforts should be made to further pursue vaginal and laparoscopic hysterectomies as a viable option to the more conventional abdominal route.

  14. Abdominal injuries in communal crises: The Jos experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Olorundare Ojo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abdominal injuries contribute significantly to battlefield trauma morbidity and mortality. This study sought to determine the incidence, demographics, clinical features, spectrum, severity, management, and outcome of abdominal trauma during a civilian conflict. Materials and Methods: A prospective analysis of patients treated for abdominal trauma during the Jos civil crises between December 2010 and May 2012 at the Jos University Teaching Hospital. Results: A total of 109 victims of communal conflicts with abdominal injuries were managed during the study period with 89 (81.7% males and 20 (18.3% females representing about 12.2% of the total 897 combat related injuries. The peak age incidence was between 21 and 40 years (range: 3–71 years. The most frequently injured intra-abdominal organs were the small intestine 69 (63.3%, colon 48 (44%, and liver 41 (37.6%. Forty-four (40.4% patients had extra-abdominal injuries involving the chest in 17 (15.6%, musculoskeletal 12 (11%, and the head in 9 (8.3%. The most prevalent weapon injuries were gunshot 76 (69.7%, explosives 12 (11%, stab injuries 11 (10.1%, and blunt abdominal trauma 10 (9.2%. The injury severity score varied from 8 to 52 (mean: 20.8 with a fatality rate of 11 (10.1% and morbidity rate of 29 (26.6%. Presence of irreversible shock, 3 or more injured intra-abdominal organs, severe head injuries, and delayed presentation were the main factors associated with mortality. Conclusion: Abdominal trauma is major life-threatening injuries during conflicts. Substantial mortality occurred with loss of nearly one in every 10 hospitalized victims despite aggressive emergency room resuscitation. The resources expenditure, propensity for death and expediency of timing reinforce the need for early access to the wounded in a concerted trauma care systems.

  15. Abdominal pain in long-term spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnerup, Nanna Brix; Faaborg, Pia Møller; Krogh, Klaus;

    2008-01-01

    /discomfort. There was no relation of abdominal pain to other types of pain.Conclusion:Chronic pain located in the abdomen is frequent in patients with long-term SCI. The delayed onset following SCI and the relation to constipation suggest that constipation plays an important role for this type of pain in the spinal cord injured.......Objectives:To describe the prevalence and character of chronic abdominal pain in a group of patients with long-term spinal cord injury (SCI) and to assess predictors of abdominal pain.Study design:Postal survey.Setting:Members of the Danish Paraplegic Association.Methods:We mailed a questionnaire...

  16. Fetal weight estimation by ultrasonic measurement of abdominal circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, K; Vigneron, N; Frischman, P; Johnson, J W

    1978-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare ultrasonic measurements of fetal abdominal circumference to ultrasonic measurements of fetal biparietal diameter, as a means of estimating fetal body weight. Of 58 fetuses who had abdominal circumferences measured, 48 (82%) of the predicted weights were within 15% of the actual birth weights. Forty-four of the same 58 fetuses had satisfactory biparietal diameter measurements, but only 21 (48%) of the predicted weights were within 15% of the actual birthweights. Ultrasonic measurement of abdominal circumference appears to be a more reliable index of fetal body weight than other currently available techniques.

  17. Actinomicosis abdominal. Presentación de tres casos

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo Olvera-Reynada; Marco Antonio Calzada-Ramos; Xavier Espinoza-Guerrero; Cuauhtémoc Molotla-Xolalpa; Pedro de Jesús Cervantes-Miramontes

    2005-01-01

    Objetivo: informar tres casos de actinomicosis abdominal, uno que se presenta como tumor abdominal y dos que se intervienen de urgencia por abdomen agudo con diagnóstico de apendicitis aguda complicada. Casos clínicos: Caso 1. Mujer de 36 años con masa abdominal en fosa iliaca izquierda dependiente de colon, observada en la tomografía axial computarizada de abdomen. Se llevó a cabo resección del tumor. Casos 2 y 3. Mujeres de 37 y 39 años, respectivamente, que acudieron a urgencias por dolor ...

  18. Bullhorn hernia: A rare traumatic abdominal wall hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimaljot Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH is rare despite the high prevalence of blunt abdominal trauma. Bullhorn hernia occurs as a result of a direct blow to the abdominal wall by the horn of a bull, which disrupts the muscles and fascia and leads to hernia formation. We report a rare case of bullhorn TAWH in a 70-year-old patient who presented with swelling at the left lumbar region. The patient was managed by immediate surgical intervention. A surgeon must have high index of suspicion for the diagnosis of this condition as missed hernias in this setting pose a high risk of strangulation and gangrene.

  19. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging of thoracic and abdominal malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of fetal thoracic and abdominal malformations. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In cases of suspected pathologies based on fetal ultrasound MRI can be used for more detailed examinations and can be of assistance in the differential diagnostic process. Improved imaging of anatomical structures and of the composition of different tissues by the use of different MRI sequences. Fetal MRI has become a part of clinical routine in thoracic and abdominal malformations and is the basis for scientific research in this field. In cases of thoracic or abdominal malformations fetal MRI provides important information additional to ultrasound to improve diagnostic accuracy, prognostic evaluation and surgical planning. (orig.)

  20. Synovial sarcoma of the abdominal wall: An unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag J Karkera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Synovial sarcoma (SS is a malignant mesenchymal neoplasm which commonly occurs in the extremities in close association with tendon sheaths, bursae, joint capsules, and fascial structures. Rarely, SS may be present in unexpected location such as the abdominal wall. Surgical resection with wide margins is the initial standard treatment; however, a multimodal approach including radiotherapy and chemotherapy is often favored. Here, we present a case of SS of the anterior abdominal wall in a 14-year-old patient with a right upper abdominal lump. He underwent wide surgical excision and has received adjuvant chemotherapy. He is doing well on follow-up of six months.

  1. In Subfertile Couple, Abdominal Fat Loss in Men Is Associated with Improvement of Sperm Quality and Pregnancy: A Case-Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Céline; Dupont, Charlotte; Baraibar, Martin A.; Ladouce, Romain; Cedrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Wolf, Jean Philippe; Lévy, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of overweight among men of reproductive-age may affect fertility. Abdominal fat, more than body mass index, is an indicator of higher metabolic risk, which seems to be involved in decreasing sperm quality. This study aims to assess the relationship between abdominal fat and sperm DNA fragmentation and the effect of abdominal fat loss, among 6 men in subfertile couples. Methods Sperm DNA fragmentation, abdominal fat and metabolic and hormonal profiles were measured in the 6 men before and after dietary advices. Seminal oxidative stress and antioxidant markers were determined. Results After several months of a lifestyle program, all 6 men lost abdominal fat (patient 1: loss of 3 points of abdominal fat, patient 2: loss of 3 points, patient 3: loss of 2 points, patient 4: loss of 1 point, patient 5: loss of 4 points and patient 6: loss of 13 points). At the same time, their rate of sperm DNA fragmentation decreased: 9.5% vs 31%, 24% vs 43%, 18% vs 47%, 26.3% vs 66%, 25.4% vs 35% and 1.7% vs 25%. Also, an improvement in both metabolic (significant decrease in triglycerides and total cholesterol; p = 0.0139) and hormonal (significant increase in testosterone/oestradiol ratio; p = 0.0139) blood profiles was observed after following the lifestyle program. In seminal plasma, the amount of SOD2 has significantly increased (p = 0.0139) while in parallel carbonylated proteins have decreased. Furthermore, all spouses got pregnant. All pregnancies were brought to term. Conclusion This study shows specifically that sperm DNA fragmentation among men in subfertile couples could be affected by abdominal fat, but improvement of lifestyle factor may correct this alteration. The effect of specific abdominal fat loss on sperm quality needs further investigation. The reduction of oxidative stress may be a contributing factor. PMID:24520319

  2. In subfertile couple, abdominal fat loss in men is associated with improvement of sperm quality and pregnancy: a case-series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Faure

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of overweight among men of reproductive-age may affect fertility. Abdominal fat, more than body mass index, is an indicator of higher metabolic risk, which seems to be involved in decreasing sperm quality. This study aims to assess the relationship between abdominal fat and sperm DNA fragmentation and the effect of abdominal fat loss, among 6 men in subfertile couples. METHODS: Sperm DNA fragmentation, abdominal fat and metabolic and hormonal profiles were measured in the 6 men before and after dietary advices. Seminal oxidative stress and antioxidant markers were determined. RESULTS: After several months of a lifestyle program, all 6 men lost abdominal fat (patient 1: loss of 3 points of abdominal fat, patient 2: loss of 3 points, patient 3: loss of 2 points, patient 4: loss of 1 point, patient 5: loss of 4 points and patient 6: loss of 13 points. At the same time, their rate of sperm DNA fragmentation decreased: 9.5% vs 31%, 24% vs 43%, 18% vs 47%, 26.3% vs 66%, 25.4% vs 35% and 1.7% vs 25%. Also, an improvement in both metabolic (significant decrease in triglycerides and total cholesterol; p = 0.0139 and hormonal (significant increase in testosterone/oestradiol ratio; p = 0.0139 blood profiles was observed after following the lifestyle program. In seminal plasma, the amount of SOD2 has significantly increased (p = 0.0139 while in parallel carbonylated proteins have decreased. Furthermore, all spouses got pregnant. All pregnancies were brought to term. CONCLUSION: This study shows specifically that sperm DNA fragmentation among men in subfertile couples could be affected by abdominal fat, but improvement of lifestyle factor may correct this alteration. The effect of specific abdominal fat loss on sperm quality needs further investigation. The reduction of oxidative stress may be a contributing factor.

  3. Analysis of Influence of Sea Clutter on Detection in Evaporation Duct%蒸发波导下海杂波对雷达探测的影响分析∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春杰; 王鹏

    2015-01-01

    In order to analyze the influence of sea clutter on radar detection in evaporation duct, the method of spherically invariant random process was proposed to simulate K-distributed sea clutter in evaporation duct. The simulation result shows the relations among the K-dis-tributed sea clutter shape parameter, the evaporation duct height and the detecting range. The result shows higher evaporation duct makes sea clutter influence more on radar detection. The results provide guidance for design of new radar system and practical application.%为了分析蒸发波导下海杂波对雷达探测的影响,以K-分布模型作为研究对象,采用基于球不变随机过程( SIRP)法对其进行仿真;通过分析仿真结果确定了K-分布海杂波形状参数、蒸发波导高度和雷达探测距离之间的关系。结果表明,蒸发波导高度越高,海杂波降低雷达的探测性能越明显。相关结果可以为新型雷达系统的设计及实际应用起到指导性作用。

  4. Percutaneous Zenith endografting for abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Kamaldeep S; Resnick, Scott A; Matsumura, Jon S; Amaranto, Daniel; Eskandari, Mark K

    2009-03-01

    A completely percutaneous approach to infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) endografting has the theoretic benefits of being minimally invasive and more expedient. Our goal was to demonstrate the utility of this approach using a suprarenal fixation device and a suture-mediated closure system. We conducted a single-institution, retrospective review of 14 patients who underwent percutaneous AAA repair with the Zenith device between August 2003 and March 2007. Immediate and delayed access-related outcomes were examined over a mean follow-up of 12.1+/-2.0 months. Mean AAA size was 5.6 cm. Immediate arterial closure and technical success rate was 96% (27/28 vessels). One immediate hemostatic failure required open surgical repair. Over follow-up, one vessel required operative repair for new-onset claudication. No other immediate or delayed complications (thrombosis, pseudoaneurysm, infection, or deep venous thrombosis) were detected. A percutaneous approach for the treatment of AAA has several advantages over femoral artery cutdown but also has its own unique set of risks in the immediate and late postoperative period. Ultimately, the "preclose technique" can be safely applied for the Zenith device despite its large-bore delivery system.

  5. Diode laser for abdominal tissue cauterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durville, Frederic M.; Rediker, Robert H.; Connolly, Raymond J.; Schwaitzberg, Steven D.; Lantis, John

    1999-06-01

    We have developed a new device to effectively and quickly stop bleeding. The new device uses a small, 5 W diode laser to heat-up the tip of a modified medical forceps. The laser beam is totally contained within a protective enclosure, satisfying the requirements for a Class I laser system, which eliminates the need to protective eyewear. The new device is used in a manner similar to that of a bipolar electrocautery device. After visual location, the bleeding site or local vessel(s) is grabbed and clamped with the tips of the forceps-like instrument. The laser is then activated for a duration of typically 5 sec or until traditional visual or auditory clues such as local blubbling and popping indicate that the targeted site is effectively cauterized. When the laser is activated, the tip of the instrument, thus providing hemostasis. The new device was evaluated in animal models and compared with the monopolar and bipolar electrocautery, and also with the recently developed ultrasound technology. It has new been in clinical trials for abdominal surgery since September 1997.

  6. Diabetes and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hisato; Umemoto, Takuya

    2016-07-01

    We performed a systematic literature search and a meta-analysis to assess the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) growth. Databases including MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched through June 2015 using PubMed and OVID. For each study, data regarding AAA growth rates in both the DM and the non-DM groups were used to generate standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Our search identified 19 relevant studies including data on 9777 patients with AAA. Pooled analyses demonstrated a statistically significant slower growth rates in DM patients than in non-DM patients (unadjusted SMD, -0.32; 95% CI, -0.40 to -0.24; P plot asymmetry, even adjustment of the asymmetry did not alter the beneficial effect of DM. In conclusion, on the basis of a meta-analysis of data on a total of 9777 patients (19 studies) identified through a systematic literature search, we confirmed the association of DM with slower growth rates of AAA. PMID:26311742

  7. Pulsatile blood flow in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Lasheras, Juan C.; Singel, Soeren; Varga, Chris

    2001-11-01

    We discuss the results of combined in-vitro laboratory measurements and clinical observations aimed at determining the effect that the unsteady wall shear stresses and the pressure may have on the growth and eventual rupturing of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA), a permanent bulging-like dilatation occurring near the aortic bifurcation. In recent years, new non-invasive techniques, such as stenting, have been used to treat these AAAs. However, the development of these implants, aimed at stopping the growth of the aneurysm, has been hampered by the lack of understanding of the effect that the hemodynamic forces have on the growth mechanism. Since current in-vivo measuring techniques lack the precision and the necessary resolution, we have performed measurements of the pressure and shear stresses in laboratory models. The models of the AAA were obtained from high resolution three-dimensional CAT/SCANS performed in patients at early stages of the disease. Preliminary DPIV measurements show that the pulsatile blood flow discharging into the cavity of the aneurysm leads to large spikes of pressure and wall shear stresses near and around its distal end, indicating a possible correlation between the regions of high wall shear stresses and the observed location of the growth of the aneurysm.

  8. Trauma abdominal em grávidas Abdominal trauma in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Pereira Fraga

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar os fatores indicativos (parâmetros clínicos e índices de gravidade fisiológicos e anatômicos da evolução materna e fetal entre gestantes vítimas de trauma abdominal submetidas à laparotomia e discutir as particularidades do atendimento nesta situação. MÉTODOS: análise retrospectiva dos prontuários de 245 mulheres com trauma abdominal e tratamento operatório, atendidas entre 1990 e 2002. Foram identificadas 13 gestantes com lesão abdominal submetidas à laparotomia. Para registro e análise estatística dos dados foram utilizados o protocolo Epi-Info 6.04 e o teste exato de Fisher, com intervalo de confiança de 95%. Foram relacionados com a mortalidade fetal: escore na escala de coma de Glasgow, pressão arterial sistólica, índices de trauma (RTS, ATI, ISS e lesão uterina. RESULTADOS: a idade variou de 13 a 34 anos (média de 22,5. Seis mulheres (46,2% estavam no terceiro trimestre de gestação. O trauma penetrante correspondeu a 53,8% das lesões e em seis dessas pacientes o mecanismo de trauma foi ferimento por projétil de arma de fogo. Três pacientes tiveram lesões uterinas, associadas com óbito fetal. Não houve óbito materno e a mortalidade fetal foi de 30,7%. Não houve associação entre os índices de trauma e a mortalidade materna e fetal. A lesão uterina foi o único fator preditivo de risco para perda fetal (p=0,014. CONCLUSÕES: apesar da casuística pequena e de se tratar de estudo retrospectivo de gestantes com trauma grave, os achados deste estudo mostram que não há indicadores com boa acurácia para indicação da evolução materna e fetal.PURPOSE: to evaluate the predictors (clinical findings and physiological and anatomical scores of the maternal and fetal outcomes among pregnant women victims of abdominal trauma who were submitted to laparotomy and to discuss particularities of assessment in this situation. METHODS: retrospective analysis of the medical records of 245 women with

  9. [Abdominal pregnancy: hormon concentrations during the postpartal period with placenta remaining intra-abdominal (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gethmann, U; Mönkemeier, D

    1977-07-01

    It is reported of an abdominal pregnancy at term. The placenta was left in situ because of the high risk of intraabdominal bleedings. Thereby it was possible to measure hormon concentrations of the fetoplacental unit without the fetal compartment. Within 10 days after delivery we determined the plasma levels of estradiol-17 beta, estriol, progesterone, HCS, alpha1fetoprotein, and the excretion of the total estrogens in the urines. There was near the same decrease of hormon concentrations in the post partal time comparable with that of a normal pregnancy. Only the HCS concentrations didn't change in the first 9 days after delivery.

  10. [Ultrasound screening of abdominal aortic aneurysm: Lessons from Vesale 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, J P; Becker, F; Baud, J M; Miserey, G; Jaussent, A; Picot, M C; Bura-Rivière, A; Quéré, I

    2015-12-01

    Although aneurysm of the abdominal infra-renal aorta (AAA) meets criteria warranting B mode ultrasound screening, the advantages of mass screening versus selective targeted opportunistic screening remain a subject of debate. In France, the French Society of Vascular Medicine (SFMV) and the Health Authority (HAS) published recommendations for targeted opportunistic screening in 2006 and 2013 respectively. The SFMV held a mainstream communication day on November 21, 2013 in France involving participants from metropolitan France and overseas departments that led to a proposal for free AAA ultrasound screening: the Vesalius operation. Being a consumer operation, the selection criteria were limited to age (men and women between 60 and 75 years); the age limit was lowered to 50 years in case of direct family history of AAA. More than 7000 people (as many women as men) were screened in 83 centers with a 1.70% prevalence of AAA in the age-based target population (3.12% for men, 0.27% for women). The median diameter of detected AAA was 33 mm (range 20 to 74 mm). The prevalence of AAA was 1.7% in this population. Vesalius data are consistent with those of the literature both in terms of prevalence and for cardiovascular risk factors with the important role of smoking. Lessons from Vesalius to take into consideration are: screening is warranted in men 60 years and over, especially smokers, and in female smokers. Screening beyond 75 years should be discussed. Given the importance of screening, the SFMV set up a year of national screening for AAA (Vesalius operation 2014/2015) in order to increase public and physician awareness about AAA detection, therapeutic management, and monitoring. AAA is a serious, common, disease that kills 6000 people each year. The goal of screening is cost-effective reduction in the death toll.

  11. Pylephlebitis: a rare complication of an intra-abdominal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Wong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pylephlebitis is defined as an inflamed thrombosis of the portal vein. It is a rare complication of an intra-abdominal infection, and the diagnosis is often missed due to its nonspecific clinical presentation. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, fever, chills, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. It is important to consider this differential when a patient presents with signs of abdominal sepsis since it has a high mortality rate and is often diagnosed postmortem. Pylephlebitis can be diagnosed via abdominal ultrasound or CT demonstrating a thrombus in the portal vein, and it must be treated early and aggressively with broad-spectrum antibiotics. We are presenting a case of pylephlebitis as well as discussing the diagnosis and treatment of this potentially lethal condition.

  12. Subtle Radiological Features of Splenic Avulsion following Abdominal Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Rehim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Splenic trauma in children following blunt abdominal injury is usually treated by nonoperative management (NOM. Splenectomy following abdominal trauma is rare in children. NOM is successful as in the majority of instances the injury to the spleen is contained within its capsule or a localised haematoma. Rarely, the spleen may suffer from an avulsion injury that causes severe uncontrollable bleeding and necessitates an emergency laparotomy and splenectomy. We report two cases of children requiring splenectomy following severe blunt abdominal injury. In both instances emergency laparotomy was undertaken for uncontrollable bleeding despite resuscitation. The operating team was unaware of the precise source of bleeding preoperatively. Retrospective review of the computed tomography (CT scans revealed subtle radiological features that indicate splenic avulsion. We wish to highlight these radiological features of splenic avulsion as they can help to focus management decisions regarding the need/timing for a laparotomy following blunt abdominal trauma in children.

  13. The potential participation of abdominal pressure in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Andy K

    2015-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Regardless of susceptibility or predisposing conditions and risk factors, the degree of increase in abdominal pressure is directly related to the severity of preeclampsia, particularly in women with hydatidiform mole. When increased abdominal pressure is normalized by delivery, preeclampsia is cured. Recent genetic studies highlighted two leading risk factors for preeclampsia: chronic renal disease and T235 homozygosity for the AGT gene. Thus, while there is increased abdominal pressure in pregnancy, an imbalanced renin angiotensin system and renal injuries lead to a vicious cycle of increasing abdominal pressure and further renal injuries. A hypothesis for the potential participation of pressure in preeclampsia is described and the amelioration of preeclampsia through postural intervention and the possible therapeutic effect of angiotensin is suggested.

  14. Lower urinary tract symptoms after subtotal versus total abdominal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Møller, Lars Mikael Alling; Gimbel, Helga

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common after hysterectomy and increase after menopause. We aimed to compare subtotal with total abdominal hysterectomy regarding LUTS, including urinary incontinence (UI) subtypes, 14 years after hysterectomy. Main results from ...

  15. Functional abdominal pain causing Scurvy, Pellagra, and Hypovitaminosis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Edith Y; Mathy, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Severe vitamin deficiency disease is rarely seen in developed countries. We present an atypical case of a young man with scurvy, pellagra, and hypovitaminosis A, caused by longstanding functional abdominal pain that severely limited his ability to eat. PMID:24715978

  16. Functional abdominal pain causing Scurvy, Pellagra, and Hypovitaminosis A

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Edith Y.; Christian Mathy

    2014-01-01

    Severe vitamin deficiency disease is rarely seen in developed countries. We present an atypical case of a young man with scurvy, pellagra, and hypovitaminosis A, caused by longstanding functional abdominal pain that severely limited his ability to eat.

  17. 杂波估计合成孔径雷达RFI抑制方法%An RFI suppressing method of synthetic aperture radar based on clutter estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Radio frequency interference (RFI) has been known to deteriorate imaging quality of the low frequency band synthetic aperture radar (SAR), which effects correct interpretation. For SAR using linear frequency modula⁃tion (LFM) signals, a new RFI suppressing method based on clutter estimation in range frequency domain was pro⁃posed in this paper. The method uses Eigen-decomposition to complete RFI detection and gets maximum likelihood (ML) estimation of clutter intensity for imaging scene by using statistics of the averaged periodogram and the histo⁃gram. After determining spectrum intervals of RFI signals by the judging method of threshold, Wiener filter was ap⁃plied to filter the RFI signals in the range frequency domain. The processing results of L-band SAR data verify the effectiveness of this method.%  射频干扰(RFI)会造成低频段合成孔径雷达(SAR)成像质量恶化,影响正确解译和判读.针对线性调频(LFM)信号的SAR,提出了一种基于距离频谱域杂波估计的RFI抑制方法,采用特征分解完成RFI检测,利用平均周期图和直方图统计得到成像场景杂波强度的最大似然(ML)估计,通过阈值判断方法确定RFI信号的频谱区间后,在距离频域采用维纳滤波器进行RFI信号的滤除.L波段SAR数据的处理结果验证了该方法的有效性.

  18. Clutter Modeling of Airborne MIMO Radar Based on CUDA%基于CUDA的机载MIMO雷达杂波建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王占广; 罗忠涛; 李军; 孙颖

    2011-01-01

    针对机载MIMO雷达杂波模型运算量大的问题,建立了基于CUDA的模型,利用图形处理器的并行运算能力来加速运算。为了符合CUDA的通用计算架构特性,该模型在算法上优先设计并行运算,在编程上尽量引入并行线程,实现图形处理器的浮点运算、存储器以及带宽资源的有效利用。最后测试了加速效果与模型结构、数据规模的关系。实验结果表明,与CPUInteli5750比较。图形处理器Grrx465的建模运算结果准确.效率提升教十倍.能麦特委大的运算号.%Considering big operand problem of clutter model for airborne MIMO radar, a clutter based on Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) is established and operation is speeded up by using parallel operational capa- bility of Graphic Processing Unit(GPU). In order to accord with general computation architecture characteristic of CUPD, the new model prefers designing parallel computing in algorithm and introducing parallel threads in programming to implement effective usage of floating point operation, storage and wideband resources of GPU. And finally, relation between the speedup effect and model architecture and data size is tested. The tested results prove that modeling computation result of GPU based on GTX 465 is accurate in computing result, and efficiency is increased by tens of times and bigger operand can be supported comparing with CPUIntel i5 750.

  19. Effects of dietary coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Monica L; Ferreira, Haroldo S; dos Santos, Aldenir F; Cabral, Cyro R; Florêncio, Telma M M T

    2009-07-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation with coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting waist circumferences (WC) >88 cm (abdominal obesity) were investigated. The randomised, double-blind, clinical trial involved 40 women aged 20-40 years. Groups received daily dietary supplements comprising 30 mL of either soy bean oil (group S; n = 20) or coconut oil (group C; n = 20) over a 12-week period, during which all subjects were instructed to follow a balanced hypocaloric diet and to walk for 50 min per day. Data were collected 1 week before (T1) and 1 week after (T2) dietary intervention. Energy intake and amount of carbohydrate ingested by both groups diminished over the trial, whereas the consumption of protein and fibre increased and lipid ingestion remained unchanged. At T1 there were no differences in biochemical or anthropometric characteristics between the groups, whereas at T2 group C presented a higher level of HDL (48.7 +/- 2.4 vs. 45.00 +/- 5.6; P = 0.01) and a lower LDL:HDL ratio (2.41 +/- 0.8 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.8; P = 0.04). Reductions in BMI were observed in both groups at T2 (P coconut oil does not cause dyslipidemia and seems to promote a reduction in abdominal obesity.

  20. Efficacy of 'fine' focal spot imaging in CT abdominal angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Lawrence Chia Wei; Devapalasundaram, Ashwini; Ardley, Nicholas [Monash Health, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Lau, Kenneth K. [Monash Health, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Monash University, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing, and Health Sciences, Victoria (Australia); Buchan, Kevin [Phillips Healthcare, Clinical Science, PO Box 312, Mont Albert, Victoria (Australia); Huynh, Minh [RMIT University, School of Mathematical and Geospatial Sciences, Victoria (Australia)

    2014-12-15

    To assess the efficacy of fine focal spot imaging in calcification beam-hardening artefact reduction and vessel clarity on CT abdominal angiography (CTAA). Adult patients of any age and gender who presented for CTAA were included. Thirty-nine patients were examined with a standard focal spot size (SFSS) of 1 x 1 mm in the first 3 months while 31 consecutive patients were examined with a fine focal spot size (FFSS) of 1 x 0.5 mm in the following 3 months. Vessel clarity and calcification beam-hardening artefacts of the abdominal aorta, celiac axis, superior mesenteric artery, inferior mesenteric artery, renal arteries, and iliac arteries were assessed using a 5-point grading scale by two blinded radiologists randomly. Cohen's Kappa test indicated that on average, there was substantial agreement among reviewers for vessel wall clarity and calcification artefact grading. Mann-Whitney test showed that there was a significant difference between the two groups, with FFSS performing significantly better for vessel clarity (U, 6481.50; p < 0.001; r, 0.73) and calcification artefact reduction (U, 1916; p < 0.001; r, 0.77). Fine focus CT angiography produces images with better vessel wall clarity and less vessel calcification beam-hardening artefact. (orig.)

  1. 蒸发波导条件下海杂波强度仿真与应用%Simulation and Application of Sea Clutter in the Condition of Evaporation Duct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小光; 王英; 左雷; 徐文利

    2011-01-01

    蒸发波导是海洋大气环境中经常发生的一种异常折射现象,其能将电磁波捕获在波导内形成波导传播,使电磁波以较小的损耗传播到较远的距离,但同时也增大了雷达接收到的海杂波强度.从海杂波的后向散射系数模型和抛物方程法(PE)计算蒸发波导中的传播损耗两方面考虑,利用雷达方程详细推导海杂波仿真原理并实施仿真,最后介绍此仿真方法在海杂波反演大气折射率剖面中的应用.%Evaporation duct is one of anomalous refractivity structure which ofen occur at ocean atmosphere. When a duct is present ;it can increase the electromagnetic wave's propagation length with less propagation loss than a stand atmosphere;but boost up the received radar sea clutter at the same time. This paper deduces the processes of simulating sea clutter in theory detailedly;which include the modeling of sea-clutter backscattering cofficient and using the PE to calculate propagation loss in the condition of evaporation duct;and then implement the simulation. At last introduce the application of simulating sea clutter to the " rafractivity-from-clutter".

  2. Congenital giant hydroureter presenting as abdominal mass in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraj Harohally

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Herein we present a case of a 7–month–old baby girl, with left single system ectopic ureter, in whom the ureter was dilated to such an extent that it presented as an abdominal mass. Diagnosis was established by means of computed tomography. Work up was completed with renal scan and micturating cystourethrography. The patient was operated and left nephorureterectomy was performed. Hydroureter has to be considered in differential diagnosis of abdominal mass in an infant.

  3. Circumaortic Left Renal Vein Associated with Juxtarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Hashizume, Koji; Taniguchi, Shinichiro; Ariyoshi, Tsuneo; Hisata, Yoichi; Tanigawa, Kazuyoshi; Miura, Takashi; Sumi, Mizuki; Eishi, Kiyoyuki

    2013-01-01

    The patient was an 82-year-old man who was found to have a juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm accompanied by a circumaortic left renal vein (CLRV). During dissection of the proximal anastomosis site the CLRV was injured, but was successfully repaired. A graft implantation was performed below the renal arteries. The incidence of CLRV is thought to be rare, however it is found in 7% of cadavers donated for anatomy. CLRV may cause unexpected bleeding by inadvertent dissection of the abdominal ...

  4. EMERGENCY SURGICAL ABDOMINAL PATHOLOGY IN REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    OpenAIRE

    E. Maloman, ,; Gh. Ghidirim; V. Cazacov

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the abdominal surgical emergencies. Methods: We made a retrospective study during 1982 – 2004. We encountered 586 patients. From these, 98 patients had acute surgical pathology with peritonitis and were admitted into the hospital in the first 24 hours from the debut. We studied the type of diagnosis and the surgical procedure. Results: The incidence of some of the acute abdominal pathology is encreasing: intestinal obstruction with 49.3%, the haemorrhagic com...

  5. Abdominal assessment in the home: from A to Zzz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, J C

    1998-01-01

    Conducting a through abdominal assessment in the home setting is an important part of the home care nurse's role. By using every letter of the alphabet, the tool presented in this article helps the nurse conduct a thorough health history in a concise manner. In addition, reviewing the procedure outlined in the article and using the documentation form presented, the nurse can conduct a through abdominal assessment in the home in a cost-effective manner. PMID:9469074

  6. Use of omental pedicles in mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    OpenAIRE

    Alibhai, M.K.; Samee, A; Ahmed, M.; Duffield, R.

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of a sixty year old man with a mycotic infra-renal abdominal aortic aneurysm complicated by a left psoas abscess. After treatment with parenteral antibiotics he underwent early aortic reconstruction with an in-situ prosthetic graft wrapped in an omental pedicle. Mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysms can be treated in this way despite the potential for graft infection from persisting retroperitoneal sepsis.

  7. Abdominal Wall Endometrioma after Laparoscopic Operation of Uterine Endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Vukšić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is presence of functional endometrium outside of uterine cavum. As a pluripotent tissue, endometrium has the possibility of implanting itself almost everywhere; even implantation in abdominal wall was described, but it is not common site. This case report presents implantation of functional endometrium in abdominal wall, inside scar tissue, and after insertion of a laparoscopic trocar port. Final diagnosis was confirmed by pathohistological examination.

  8. Is screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm acceptable to the population?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Juul, Søren; Henneberg, E W;

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse whether the selection and recruitment for hospital-based mass screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is acceptable for the population according to the criteria from the Council of Europe.......The aim of the study was to analyse whether the selection and recruitment for hospital-based mass screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is acceptable for the population according to the criteria from the Council of Europe....

  9. Abdominal pain and hyperamylasaemia—not always pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Slack, Sally; Abbey, Ianthe; Smith, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    A raised serum amylase concentration, at least four times the upper limit of normal (ULN), is used to support the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in a patient presenting with abdominal pain. The authors report a case of toxic shock syndrome complicated by a raised serum amylase concentration that peaked at 50 times the ULN in a patient with recurrent abdominal pain. The commonest cause of hyperamylasaemia is pancreatic; however, further investigation of serum lipase and amylase isoenzyme stud...

  10. Extra-Abdominal Desmoid Tumors Associated with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George T. Calvert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extra-abdominal desmoid tumors are a significant cause of morbidity in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome. Understanding of the basic biology and natural history of these tumors has increased substantially over the past decade. Accordingly, medical and surgical management of desmoid tumors has also evolved. This paper analyzes recent evidence pertaining to the epidemiology, molecular biology, histopathology, screening, and treatment of extra-abdominal desmoid tumors associated with familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome.

  11. Abdominal candidiasis is a hidden reservoir of echinocandin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Ryan K; Nguyen, M Hong; Press, Ellen G; Clancy, Cornelius J

    2014-12-01

    FKS mutant Candida isolates were recovered from 24% (6/25) of abdominal candidiasis patients exposed to echinocandin. Candida glabrata (29%) and Candida albicans (14%) mutants were identified. Multidrug-resistant bacteria were recovered from 83% of FKS mutant infections. Mutations were associated with prolonged echinocandin exposure (P = 0.01), breakthrough infections (P = 0.03), and therapeutic failures despite source control interventions (100%). Abdominal candidiasis is a hidden reservoir for the emergence of echinocandin-resistant Candida.

  12. Clinicopathological Profile of Childhood Primary Abdominal Tumours in Kashmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Parwez Sajad; Akhter, Zahida; Majeed, Showkat; Wani, Mohd Yousuf; Hayat, Humera

    2015-12-01

    Primary abdominal tumours attract considerable notice because of their serious prognosis, high cost of treatment and the emotional and psychological trauma. Abdominal tumours can present with pain, vomiting, constipation or less commonly intestinal obstruction. The presentation of cancer in children mimic those of childhood conditions like infections particularly viral infections, urinary tract infections, gastro-oesophageal reflux, malnutrition, constipation, lymphadnenitis, glomerulonephritis and congenital urinary tract anomalies. PMID:26730026

  13. [Blunt abdominal trauma.--analysis of 201 cases (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannenborg, G; Wolf, O; Voigtsberger, P

    1978-01-01

    201 blunt abdominal traumata treated clinically at the surgical department of the Medical Academy in Erfurt from 1967 to 1976 are reported: No increase of blunt abdominal traumata within the period of the report in spite of considerable growth of trafficdensity and industrialization could be observed.--The percentage of severe secundary injuries remained approximately constant, too.--Intestinal lesions, combined hepatolienal ruptures caused the highest mortality especially in combination with severe craniocerebral lesions. PMID:685552

  14. Actinomycosis Presenting as an Abdominal Mass in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahsan Özcan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal actinomycosis in childhood period is very rare and a relation to trauma is not well established. Herein we report a case that appeared subsequent to abdominal trauma. A 17 years old boy presented with left lower quadrant abdominal mass and signs of acute abdomen. The symptoms of abdominal discomfort began after a fall from height 3 months before admission. There were signs of acute abdomen at physical examination. Ultrasound of abdomen demonstrated a mass; CT scan findings pointed to a suspicious “internal hernia”. An emergency laparotomy was performed. During surgery, a mass located over sigmoid colon and infiltrating the lateral abdominal wall was found. It was removed en bloc with the adjacent omentum. Except for the thickened sigmoid colon, no other pathologies were present at laparotomy. The pathology specimen revealed the actinomyces infection. The patient was treated with oral penicillin after discharge and the follow-up was uneventful. We advocate, keeping the actinomyces infection in mind in cases presenting with abdominal mass of unknown origin in childhood period.

  15. Analysis of closed abdominal injury in pregnant women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Chang-di; WANG Shao-juan; ZHOU Ri-guang; WEI Yang-yi; TAN Qiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the characteristics of closed abdominal injury in pregnancy women and its treatment.Methods: The clinical data of 37 pregnancy patients with closed abdominal injury treated in our hospital from June 1993 to June 2003 were collected and analyzed.Results: All the 37 patients were treated with operation. Among them 2 early pregnancy patients with intestinal rupture and 1 patient with retroperitoneal hematoma were treated under laparoscope; in other 34 pregnancy patients laparotomy was performed. Of the 34 patients 8 used cesarean section because premature separation of placenta and enlarged womb interrupted the management of intra-abdominal organ injury. In the 37 patients 33 (89.1%) were cured, 4 (10.8%) die, postoperative complication rate was 16.2% (6/37). Two patients (5.4%) suffered from abdominal cavity infection, 3 (8.1%) from pulmonary infection, and 1 (2.7%) had multi-organ failure.Conclusions: For pregnancy patients with closed abdominal injury, besides obsteric diseases intra-abdominal injury should be given much attention. Accurate diagnosis and timely treatment can gain the time to save the life of both mother and fetus.

  16. Common Functional Gastroenterological Disorders Associated With Abdominal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharucha, Adil E; Chakraborty, Subhankar; Sletten, Christopher D

    2016-08-01

    Although abdominal pain is a symptom of several structural gastrointestinal disorders (eg, peptic ulcer disease), this comprehensive review will focus on the 4 most common nonstructural, or functional, disorders associated with abdominal pain: functional dyspepsia, constipation-predominant and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, and functional abdominal pain syndrome. Together, these conditions affect approximately 1 in 4 people in the United States. They are associated with comorbid conditions (eg, fibromyalgia and depression), impaired quality of life, and increased health care utilization. Symptoms are explained by disordered gastrointestinal motility and sensation, which are implicated in various peripheral (eg, postinfectious inflammation and luminal irritants) and/or central (eg, stress and anxiety) factors. These disorders are defined and can generally be diagnosed by symptoms alone. Often prompted by alarm features, selected testing is useful to exclude structural disease. Identifying the specific diagnosis (eg, differentiating between functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome) and establishing an effective patient-physician relationship are the cornerstones of therapy. Many patients with mild symptoms can be effectively managed with limited tests, sensible dietary modifications, and over-the-counter medications tailored to symptoms. If these measures are not sufficient, pharmacotherapy should be considered for bowel symptoms (constipation or diarrhea) and/or abdominal pain; opioids should not be used. Behavioral and psychological approaches (eg, cognitive behavioral therapy) can be helpful, particularly in patients with chronic abdominal pain who require a multidisciplinary pain management program without opioids. PMID:27492916

  17. Long-term Outcomes Following Abdominal Sacrocolpopexy for Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Ingrid; Brubaker, Linda; Zyczynski, Halina M.; Cundiff, Geoffrey; Richter, Holly; Gantz, Marie; Fine, Paul; Menefee, Shawn; Ridgeway, Beri; Visco, Anthony; Warren, Lauren Klein; Zhang, Min; Meikle, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Importance Over 225,000 surgeries are performed annually in the U.S. for pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Abdominal sacrocolpopexy is considered the most durable POP surgery, but little is known about long-term effectiveness and adverse events. Objective To describe anatomic and symptomatic outcomes up to 7 years after abdominal sacrocolpopexy, and to determine whether these are affected by concomitant anti-incontinence surgery (Burch urethropexy). Design, setting, participants Long-term follow-up of the randomized, masked 2-year CARE trial (Colpopexy And urinary Reduction Efforts). Participants were stress continent women undergoing abdominal sacrocolpopexy between 2002–5 for symptomatic POP randomized to concomitant urethropexy or not. 92% (215/233) of eligible 2-year CARE trial completers enrolled into this extended study with 181 (84%) and 126 (59%) completing 5 and 7 years follow-up, respectively. Median follow-up was 7 years. Main Outcome Measures POP: Symptomatic failure: POP retreatment or reporting bulge on Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI); Anatomic failure: POP retreatment or Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification demonstrating descent of the vaginal apex descend below upper third of the vagina or anterior or posterior vaginal wall prolapse beyond the hymen. Urinary incontinence (UI): Stress UI: more than 1 stress urinary incontinence symptom on PFDI or interval treatment; Overall UI: score ≥ 3 on Incontinence Severity Index. Results By year 7, the estimated probabilities of failure (POP, SUI, UI) from parametric survival modeling for the urethropexy and no urethropexy groups respectively were were 0.27 and 0.22 for anatomic POP (difference 0.050; 95% CI −0.161, 0.271), 0.29 and 0.24 for symptomatic POP (0.049; −0.060, 0.162), 0.48 and 0.34 for composite POP (0.134; −0.096, 0.322), 0.62 and 0.77 for SUI (−0.153; −0.268, 0.030) 0.75 and 0.81 for overall UI (−0.064; −0.161, 0.032). Mesh erosion probability estimated by Kaplan-Meier method

  18. The transversus abdominis plane block provides effective postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carney, John

    2008-12-01

    Patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy suffer significant postoperative pain. The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a recently described approach to providing analgesia to the anterior abdominal wall. We evaluated the analgesic efficacy of the TAP block in patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy via a transverse lower abdominal wall incision, in a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

  19. Biologic mesh for abdominal wall reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King KS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Kathryn S King,1 Frank P Albino,2 Parag Bhanot3 1School of Medicine, Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC, USA; 2Department of Plastic Surgery, 3Department of General Surgery, Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC, USA Background: Mesh reinforcement significantly decreases rates of recurrence following ventral hernia repair. Historically, biologic mesh was touted as superior in the setting of infection; however, selecting the appropriate mesh for a given clinical scenario is often a matter of debate. The purpose of this review is to highlight a number of the more commonly used biologic mesh products with a review of outcomes from the current literature. Methods: Outcomes following abdominal wall reconstruction using biologic mesh were reviewed for acellular cadaveric human dermis, cross-linked porcine dermis, non-cross-linked porcine dermis, porcine small intestine submucosa, acellular bovine pericardial, and acellular bovine dermal mesh. Studies with rigorous methods, adequate patient samples, and sufficient follow-up were selected for review. Results: Hernia recurrence rates following biologic mesh reinforcement vary widely. Porcine small intestine submucosa and bovine pericardium were associated with the lowest hernia recurrence rates. Porcine cross-linked dermal mesh products resulted in higher rates of adhesion formation and lower rates of tissue incorporation compared to non-cross-linked porcine mesh. Conclusion: Successful ventral hernia repair can be achieved with acceptable complications rates for each of the reviewed mesh products. Biologic meshes have an advantage over synthetic mesh in contaminated wounds but their use may not be cost-effective in all patient populations. Those with and/or at high risk for wound complications may also undergo repair with biologic mesh. Keywords: biologic mesh, ventral hernia repair, acellular dermal matrix 

  20. Complications of transcatheteral occlusion of abdominal arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H.; Belz, Buecheler, E.

    1981-09-01

    The number of transcatheteral occulsion of abdominal arteries reported so far enables us to differentiate between complications, which are specific for the methods used, or which are organ-specific and material-specific. Among the complications specific for the methods concerned are: complications occuring in angiography; tumour embolism in the lung; transport of embolic material into the lung; transport of embolic material into the arteries of the lower half of the body; renal insufficiency; necrosis; and, finally, abscess formation. Among the organ-specific complications are: necrosis (especially of the spleen and in the operated upper gastro-intestinal tract); abscess formation (spleen, kidneys, liver); retroperitoneal phlegmones (kidney); relapsing haemorrhages (gastro-intestinal tract, kidneys); renal insufficiency (in case of pre-existing renal damage); hypertension (described so far as transient blood pressure increase only); hypertensive crisis (after renal artery occulsion for malignant hypertension); hepatic insufficiency and gallbladder infarction (in embolisation of the liver); transport of embolic material into adjacent arteris (in case of embolisation, into the vessels of the truncus coeliacus); and, finally, hypoglycaemia (in embolisation of the liver). Among the material-specific complications are: adhesion of the catheter tip to the vascular wall (Bucrylate); dislocation of Gianturco's spiral; allergic (anaphylactic) reaction to the embolic material (not described so far); recanalisation (in case of absorbable substances such as Fibrospum and Gelfoam); substitutive blood supply via the formation or extension of collaterals; necrosis in peripherally (capillary) occluding substances such as Bucrylate and Ethibloc; and, finally, abscess formation (in case of non-sterile embolic material). Some of these complications can be classified under more than one category.

  1. A cost-effectiveness analysis of fistula treatment in the abdominal region using a new integrated fistula and wound management system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Skovgaard, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate wear time and costs of a new fistula and wound management system (FWMS) compared to standard fistula treatments. METHODS: Data were collected from 22 patients with an abdominal fistula recruited from 5 sites in the United States. This economic evaluation was based on a cost......, the sensitivity analysis showed that 77% of patients achieved a cost reduction when changing to the FWMS. CONCLUSION: The FWMS was less costly than traditional methods for managing abdominal fistula, probably due to longer wear time and less time spent on each pouching session....

  2. Jejunal perforation caused by abdominal angiostrongyliasis Perfuração jejunal causada por angiostrongilíase abdominal

    OpenAIRE

    Jaques WAISBERG; Carlos Eduardo CORSI; Marisa Valente REBELO; Vilma Therezinha Trench VIEIRA; Sansom Henrique BROMBERG; Paulo Amaral dos SANTOS; Monteiro, Rodrigo

    1999-01-01

    The authors describe a case of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in an adult patient presenting acute abdominal pain caused by jejunal perforation. The case was unusual, as this affliction habitually involves the terminal ileum, appendix, cecum or ascending colon. The disease is caused by the nematode Angiostrongylus costaricensis, whose definitive hosts are forest rodents while snails and slugs are its intermediate hosts. Infection in humans is accidental and occurs via the ingestion of snail or ...

  3. Nutritional and metabolic changes due the abdominal radiation: experimental study; Alteracoes nutricionais e do metabolismo energetico na irradiacao abdominal: estudo experimental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mucerino, Donato R.; Waitzberg, Dan L.; Campos, Fabio G. de; Melo Auricchio, Maria T. de; Gama-Rodrigues, Joaquim J.; Lima-Goncalves, Ernesto L. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Div. de Clinica Cirurgica II

    1995-01-01

    In this study the effects on nutritional status and energetic metabolism due the abdominal irradiation were analysed. Adult male wistar rats (48), were divided in two groups Control (C) and radiated (R). The rats were maintained all time in metabolic cages. the study was done in two periods: period 1 begun at 0 day, were rats adapted to cages and oral diet, had food and water ad libitum. At the day four indirect calorimetric measurements were performed (calorimetry 1). At period 2, group R rats abdominal radiation at a 300 c Gy/day rate, for 5 consecutive days, and group C started a pair-feeding process linked individually to R rats and suffered application to simulated-irradiation. Two other calorimetric measurements (II,III) were performing during period 2. After radiation the last calorimetry was performed (IV). At sacrifice (day 14) blood was collected for determination of hemoglobin, hematocrit, albumin and transferrin. There were no statistical differences among groups C and R during period 1 (p < 0.05). Great reduction in food intake and weight variation were found in period 2, but weight loss was significantly higher in R rats. Nitrogen balance decrease in period 2, but without difference among the groups (p < 0.05). Serum albumin was significantly lower in R rats. Respiratory quotient decreased in both groups during period 2, but rats kept it lower (p < 0.05). The energy expenditure level decreased after radiation in group R. During period 2 total substrate oxidation decreased in R rats. Radiation decrease glucose and protein oxidation. In conclusion, in this study`s conditions, radiation produced malnutrition by reducing food intake by bringing weight loss, hypoalbuminemia and decrease nitrogen balance. Radiation was also responsible for a reduction of metabolism, by promoting the fall of energy expenditure. These changes are not only due the anorexia, undoubtful a main factor. (author). 60 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Rich Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Managing and, ideally, explaining phonetic variation has ever since been a key issue in the speech sciences. In this context, the major contribution of Lindblom's H&H theory was to replace the futile search for invariance by an explainable variance based on the tug-of-war metaphor. Recent empirical...... evidence on articulatory prosodies and the involvement of reduction in conveying communication functions both suggest the next steps along the line of argument opened up by Lindblom. Specifically, we need to supplement Lindblom's explanatory framework and revise the speaker-listener conflict that lies...

  5. Gene-Gene Interaction between PPARδ and PPARγ Is Associated with Abdominal Obesity in a Chinese Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Ding; Zhi-Rong Guo; Ming Wu; Qiu Chen; Hao Yu; Wen-Shu Luo

    2012-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) -α,-δ/β and -γ are the ligand-activated transcription factors that function as the master regulators of glucose,fatty acid and lipoprotein metabolism,energy balance,cell proliferation and differentiation,inflammation,and atherosclerosis.The objective of the current study was to examine the main and interactive effect of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PPARδ/γ in contribution to abdominal obesity.A total of 820 subjects were randomly selected and no individuals were related.The selected SNPs in PPARδ (rs2016520 and rs9794) and PPARγ (rs10865710,rs1805192,rs709158,rs3856806,and rs4684847) were genotyped.Mean difference and 95% confident interval were calculated.Interactions were explored by the method of generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction.After adjustment for gender,age,and smoking status,it was found that the carriers of the C allele (TC + CC) of rs2016520 were associated with a decreased risk of abdominal obesity compared to the carriers of the TT genotype (mean difference =-2.63,95% CI =-3.61--1.64,P < 0.0001).A significant two-locus model (P =0.0107) involving rs2016520 and rs10865710 and a significant three-locus model (P =0.0107) involving rs2016520,rs9794,and rs1805192 were observed.Overall,the three-locus model had the highest level of testing accuracy (59.85%) and showed a better cross-validation consistency (9/10) than two-locus model.Therefore,for abdominal obesity defined by waist circumference,we chose the three-locus model as the best interaction model.In conclusion,the C allele in rs2016520 was significantly associated with a lower abdominal obesity.Moreover,an interaction among rs2016520,rs1805192,and rs9794 on incident abdominal obesity could be demonstrated.

  6. Abdominal wall repair with human acellular dermal autograft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel E. Genders

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Repair of abdominal wall defects in the presence of contamination or infection is a significant problem. The loss of tissue warrants enforcement of the abdominal wall, preferably by autologous material. However, autologous repair often requires extensive surgery. This paper presents a review of available literature of placement of an acellular human dermis to repair an abdominal fascia defect, in contaminated as well as in non-contaminated surgical fields. It is illustrated with a case report that describes the successful reconstruction of an infected abdominal wall defect with a human acellular dermis allograft. A systematic literature review was undertaken with searches performed in the Pubmed and Cochrane databases for the period up till March 2009, using the search terms Alloderm [Substance Name], Hernia [Mesh] and the key words acellular dermis, acellular dermal matrix, human acellular dermal allograft and abdominal wall defect. To assess methodological quality, each article was subjected to a modification of the methodological index for non-randomized studies (MINORS according to Slim et al. Two items from the original index were not included because none of the studies selected had an unbiased assessment of the study end points and in none of the studies was a prospective calculation of the study size performed. Seventeen studies were included in the review. Data were extracted regarding study design, number of patients, surgical technique, followup period, contaminated or non-contaminated area of the fascia defect, mortality and morbidity (hemorrhage, seroma, wound dehiscence, infection of the operative procedure, the longterm results (removal of the graft, reherniation and bulging and level of evidencey. A total of 169 short-term complications and 151 longterm complications occurred after 643 surgical procedures reconstructing both contaminated and clean abdominal wall defects by implantation of an HADA. Human acellular dermal allograft

  7. The best breathing command for abdominal PETCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate the best breathing command for combined PETCT scanning on a in-line system (Discovery LS, GEMS). Material and Methods: Eight patients underwent FDG PET and CT for attenuation correction and image co-registration on a combined PETCT scanner. CT was acquired during maximum inspiration (MaxInsp) with a starting point at the level of the head. Patients kept their breath for approximately 20 seconds. Then, a CT scan was acquired during normal expiration (NormExp), which corresponded to the respiratory level reached when the patient first inhaled and then exhaled without forcing expiration. Again, CT started at the head and patients kept their breath for approximately 20 seconds. In a third run, patients performed again the NormExp breathing manoeuvre but the breathing command was given after the start of the CT scan. Using this respiration protocol, the hold on time for the patients was between 10 and 15 seconds. All PET images were corrected for attenuation using the CT-based attenuation maps acquired with these three respiration protocols and then were reconstructed using an iterative algorithm. Results: In all patients, attenuation correction of the PET image using the CT scan acquired during MaxInsp caused mis-correction, which mimicked a decrease of FDG concentration in the base of the lungs. During MaxInsp the upper abdominal organs change their position and air filling of the lower lung zone is increased, thus, causing an underestimation of correction values. Subtraction images of the CT scans acquired during MaxInsp and NormExp illustrate the range of organ movements. Subtraction images of the attenuation corrected PET scans illustrate the deterioration of the final PET image. CT acquisition during NormExp provides better PET and co-registered PET/CT images. Using the shorter breath hold time the visual image quality was good in all patients. Conclusion: CT based attenuation correction can severely deteriorate PET image quality, if the CT scan

  8. Open abdomen procedure in managing abdominal compartment syndrome in a child with severe fungal peritonitis and sepsis after gastric perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal compartment syndrome with increased abdominal pressure resulted in multi-organ dysfunctions can be lethal in children. The open abdomen procedure intentionally leaves the abdominal cavity open in patients with severe abdominal sepsis and abdominal compartment syndrome by temporarily relieving the abdominal pressure. We reported our experience of open abdomen procedure in successfully treating a 4-year old boy with abdominal compartment syndrome caused by severe fungal peritonitis and sepsis after gastric perforation.

  9. Aneurisma de aorta abdominal na infância Abdominal aortic aneurism in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdo Farret Neto

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of an abdominal aortic aneurism involving all visceral branches minus the Inferior Mesenteric artery in a 4-year-old girl. There was sugestive evidence that the arterial disease had an inflamatory or infectious etiologic factor. The most probable etiological factors could be salmonelas infection of the arterial wall or Takayasu's disease secondary to tuberculosis. The treatment with antibiotic to salmonelas infection during ten days, followed by tuberculostatic therapy for six months was chosen. Concerning the age, the arteries involved and the inflamatory aspect of the aneurysm, the surgical option became an alternative to the clinic treatment in case of any future evidence of the aneurysm enlargement. The patient became asymptomatic as soon as the antibiotic has been started. The control of the aneurysm evolution will be made by ecography each three months.

  10. Abdominal Aortic Diameter Is Increased in Males with a Family History of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejnert Jørgensen, Trine; Houlind, K; Green, A;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate, at a population level, whether a family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is independently related to increased aortic diameter and prevalence of AAA in men, and to elucidate whether the mean aortic diameter and the prevalence of AAA are different between...... participants with male and female relatives with AAA. DESIGN: Observational population-based cross-sectional study. MATERIALS: 18,614 male participants screened for AAA in the VIVA-trial 2008-2011 with information on both family history of AAA and maximal aortic diameter. METHODS: Standardized ultrasound scan...... measurement of maximum antero-posterior aortic diameter. Family history obtained by questionnaire. Multivariate regression analysis was used to test for confounders: age, sex, smoking, comorbidity and medication. RESULTS: From the screened cohort, 569 participants had at least one first degree relative...

  11. 基于K分布舰载雷达海杂波仿真方法研究%Study on Simulation Method of Ship-Borne Radar Sea Clutter Based on K Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹艳霞; 李国君

    2016-01-01

    海杂波的仿真对杂波环境下舰载雷达性能的研究具有重要意义。介绍了海杂波仿真的有关概念,研究了基于 K 分布海杂波的建模及实现方法,建立了一个较为准确的舰载雷达海杂波幅度分布模型和功率谱模型,最后以 Matlab 为平台给予了仿真实现,仿真数据与理论曲线吻合较好,仿真算法有效可行。结果表明,该方法可以有效地模拟舰载雷达海杂波特性,为雷达信号处理器的设计奠定了基础,该方法具有较高的估计精度和很好的工程实用性,对于雷达海杂波建模与仿真及其背景下目标检测研究具有现实意义。%Simulation of sea clutter will benefit the research on ship-borne radar performance in the clut-ter environment.The essential of simulation of the sea clutter is introduced,and the modeling and realizing methods of ship borne radar sea clutter based on K-distribution are researched.The amplitude distribution model and power spectrum model are exactly established.At last,the simulation is performed with Matlab. The simulation data tallies with the theory curve well,and the simulation algorithm is feasible.The results demonstrate that this method can simulate sea clutter of ship-borne radar effectively,and lay a foundation for designing radar signal processor.This method is of high estimation precision and perfect engineering practica-bility.This conclusion is quite reasonable and applicable in the research on target detection under sea clutter background.

  12. Radon reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a radon gas screening program, elevated levels of radon gas were detected in homes on Mackinac Island, Mich. Six homes on foundations with crawl spaces were selected for a research project aimed at reducing radon gas concentrations, which ranged from 12.9 to 82.3 pCi/l. Using isolation and ventilation techniques, and variations thereof, radon concentrations were reduced to less than 1 pCi/l. This paper reports that these reductions were achieved using 3.5 mil cross laminated or 10 mil high density polyethylene plastic as a barrier without sealing to the foundation or support piers, solid and/or perforated plastic pipe and mechanical fans. Wind turbines were found to be ineffective at reducing concentrations to acceptable levels. Homeowners themselves installed all materials

  13. Management of stab wounds to the anterior abdominal wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Baptista Rezende-Neto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The meeting of the Publication "Evidence Based Telemedicine - Trauma and Emergency Surgery" (TBE-CiTE, through literature review, selected three recent articles on the treatment of victims stab wounds to the abdominal wall. The first study looked at the role of computed tomography (CT in the treatment of patients with stab wounds to the abdominal wall. The second examined the use of laparoscopy over serial physical examinations to evaluate patients in need of laparotomy. The third did a review of surgical exploration of the abdominal wound, use of diagnostic peritoneal lavage and CT for the early identification of significant lesions and the best time for intervention. There was consensus to laparotomy in the presence of hemodynamic instability or signs of peritonitis, or evisceration. The wound should be explored under local anesthesia and if there is no injury to the aponeurosis the patient can be discharged. In the presence of penetration into the abdominal cavity, serial abdominal examinations are safe without CT. Laparoscopy is well indicated when there is doubt about any intracavitary lesion, in centers experienced in this method.

  14. Practical human abdominal fat imaging utilizing electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental cause of metabolic syndrome is thought to be abdominal obesity. Accurate diagnosis of abdominal obesity can be done by an x-ray computed tomography (CT) scan. But CT is expensive, bulky and entails the risks involved with radiation. To overcome such disadvantages, we attempted to develop a measuring device that could apply electrical impedance tomography to abdominal fat imaging. The device has 32 electrodes that can be attached to a subject's abdomen by a pneumatic mechanism. That way, electrode position data can be acquired simultaneously. An applied alternating current of 1.0 mArms was used at a frequency of 500 kHz. Sensed voltage data were carefully filtered to remove noise and processed to satisfy the reciprocal theorem. The image reconstruction software was developed concurrently, applying standard finite element methods and the Marquardt method to solve the mathematical inverse problem. The results of preliminary experiments showed that abdominal subcutaneous fat and the muscle surrounding the viscera could be imaged in humans. While our imaging of visceral fat was not of sufficient quality, it was suggested that we will be able to develop a safe and practical abdominal fat scanner through future improvements

  15. Acute abdominal pain: emergency diagnosis and treatment (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Cristoni

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute abdominal pain is a medical challenge for emergency physician due to the variety of possible diagnosis, lack of diagnostic and treatment standard in emergency department and the need of a rapid patient management. It is of paramount importance to quickly rule out or diagnose life threatening clinical conditions as acute myocardial infarction or aortic abdominal aneurism rupture. A few more time is allowed to confirm other diseases that lead to major complications if left untreated as acute appendicitis, testicular torsion and acute pyelonefritis. While acute abdominal pain in the elderly reflect often surgical conditions, it has a benign origin in the majority of young patients who can be generally managed as out patient, after a short clinical observation, with a diagnosis at discharge of non specific abdominal pain. The reason for the development of practical clinical pathways for patient with acute abdominal pain is to facilitate physician in differentiating patient who need hospital admission or a short intensive observation from those who can be safely discharged home.

  16. Acute abdominal pain: emergency diagnosis and managing (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Cristoni

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute abdominal pain is a medical challenge for emergency physician due to the variety of possible diagnosis, lack of diagnostic and treatment standard in emergency department and the need of a rapid patient management. It is of paramount importance to quickly rule out or diagnose life threatening clinical conditions as acute myocardial infarction or aortic abdominal aneurism rupture. A few more time is allowed to confirm other diseases that lead to major complications if left untreated as acute appendicitis, testicular torsion and acute pyelonefritis. While acute abdominal pain in the elderly reflect often surgical conditions, it has a benign origin in the majority of young patients who can be generally managed as out patient, after a short clinical observation, with a diagnosis at discharge of non specific abdominal pain. The reason for the development of practical clinical pathways for patient with acute abdominal pain is to facilitate physician in differentiating patient who need hospital admission or a short intensive observation from those who can be safely discharged home.

  17. Traumatic abdominal wall hernia in two adults: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Nitin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Traumatic hernia of the abdominal wall is a rare entity. A large proportion of reported cases are in children with a particular type of injury, i.e. from a handlebar injury. In adults, the presentation can vary substantially and the diagnosis is difficult. We present two cases in adults, with widely varying presentations and management. Case presentations A 40-year-old woman from rural north India presented with a low-velocity blunt injury to the lower abdomen. She was attacked by a bull. She had a clinically evident abdominal fascial disruption with intact skin, and was hemodynamically stable. An emergency mesh repair of the defect was performed, and she recovered well. A 38-year-old man from rural north India presented with blunt trauma to the abdomen following a motor vehicle accident. He was stable, with a central abdominal parietal wall swelling and bruising. A computed tomography scan revealed herniation of bowel loops in the area with minor intra-abdominal injuries. A laparotomy, resection-anastomosis of the ischemic bowel, and primary repair of the defect was performed and he recovered well. Conclusion Following blunt abdominal trauma, particularly high-velocity injuries, a high index of suspicion must be reserved for parietal wall swellings, as missed hernias in this setting have a high risk of strangulation. Computed tomography is the best aid to diagnosis. Management of each case needs to be individualized.

  18. Abdominal contributions to cardiorenal dysfunction in congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugge, Frederik H; Dupont, Matthias; Steels, Paul; Grieten, Lars; Malbrain, Manu; Tang, W H Wilson; Mullens, Wilfried

    2013-08-01

    Current pathophysiological models of congestive heart failure unsatisfactorily explain the detrimental link between congestion and cardiorenal function. Abdominal congestion (i.e., splanchnic venous and interstitial congestion) manifests in a substantial number of patients with advanced congestive heart failure, yet is poorly defined. Compromised capacitance function of the splanchnic vasculature and deficient abdominal lymph flow resulting in interstitial edema might both be implied in the occurrence of increased cardiac filling pressures and renal dysfunction. Indeed, increased intra-abdominal pressure, as an extreme marker of abdominal congestion, is correlated with renal dysfunction in advanced congestive heart failure. Intriguing findings provide preliminary evidence that alterations in the liver and spleen contribute to systemic congestion in heart failure. Finally, gut-derived hormones might influence sodium homeostasis, whereas entrance of bowel toxins into the circulatory system, as a result of impaired intestinal barrier function secondary to congestion, might further depress cardiac as well as renal function. Those toxins are mainly produced by micro-organisms in the gut lumen, with presumably important alterations in advanced heart failure, especially when renal function is depressed. Therefore, in this state-of-the-art review, we explore the crosstalk between the abdomen, heart, and kidneys in congestive heart failure. This might offer new diagnostic opportunities as well as treatment strategies to achieve decongestion in heart failure, especially when abdominal congestion is present. Among those currently under investigation are paracentesis, ultrafiltration, peritoneal dialysis, oral sodium binders, vasodilator therapy, renal sympathetic denervation and agents targeting the gut microbiota. PMID:23747781

  19. Conservative management of post-appendicectomy intra-abdominal abscesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaou Mahdi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Appendicitis is the most common abdominal inflammatory process in children which were sometimes followed by complications including intra-abdominal abscess. This later needs classically a surgical drainage. We evaluated the efficacy of antibiotic treatment and surgical drainage. Methods Hospital records of children treated in our unit for intra-abdominal post appendectomy abscesses over a 6 years period were reviewed retrospectively. Results This study investigates a series of 14 children from 2 to 13 years of age with one or many abscesses after appendectomy, treated between 2002 and 2007. Seven underwent surgery and the others were treated with triple antibiotherapy. The two groups were comparable. For the 7 patients who receive medical treatment alone, it was considered efficient in 6 cases (85% with clinical, biological and radiological recovery of the abscess. There was one failure (14%. The duration of hospitalization from the day of diagnosis of intra-abdominal abscess was approximately 10.28 days (range 7 to 14 days. In the other group, the efficacy of treatment was considered satisfactory in all cases. The duration of hospitalization was about 13 days (range: 9 to 20. Conclusion Compared to surgical drainage, antibiotic management of intra-abdominal abscesses was a no invasive treatment with shorter hospitalization.

  20. Reducing abdominal CT radiation dose with the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction technique in children: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm has been shown to reduce radiation doses in adults undergoing abdominal CT studies while preserving image quality. To our knowledge, no studies have been done to validate the use of ASIR in children. To retrospectively evaluate differences in radiation dose and image quality in pediatric CT abdominal studies utilizing 40% ASIR compared with filtered-back projection (FBP). Eleven patients (mean age 8.5 years, range 2-17 years) had separate 40% ASIR and FBP enhanced abdominal CT studies on different days between July 2009 and October 2010. The ASIR studies utilized a 38% mA reduction in addition to our pediatric protocol mAs. Study volume CT dose indexes (CTDIvol) and dose-length products (DLP) were recorded. A consistent representative image was obtained from each study. The images were independently evaluated by two radiologists in a blinded manner for diagnostic utility, image sharpness and image noise. The average CTDIvol and DLP for the 40% ASIR studies were 4.25 mGy and 185.04 mGy-cm, compared with 6.75 mGy and 275.79 mGy-cm for the FBP studies, representing 37% and 33% reductions in both, respectively. The radiologists' assessments of subjective image quality did not demonstrate any significant differences between the ASIR and FBP images. In our experience, the use of 40% ASIR with a 38% decrease in mA lowers the radiation dose for children undergoing enhanced abdominal examinations by an average of 33%, while maintaining diagnostically acceptable images. (orig.)