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Sample records for abcd ring structure

  1. Acoustic focusing by metal circular ring structure

    Xia, Jian-Ping; Sun, Hong-Xiang

    2015-02-01

    We report an exotic acoustic focusing effect through a simple brass circular ring structure immersed in water. The acoustic waves can be focused on a prefect point at the centre of the ring structure. This exotic acoustic focusing phenomenon arises from the intrinsic modes in the ring structure at some special eigenfrequencies, which is essentially distinct from the previous studies originating from the negative refraction. The focusing effect is closely related to the size and shape of the ring structure. Interesting applications of the focusing mechanism in black box detectors in the sea and medical ultrasound treatment are further discussed.

  2. A Kind of Graph Structure of Rings

    Pengwei Chen

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a kind of graph structure of a ring R is defined and studied. The interplay between the ring-theoretic properties of R and the graphtheoretic properties of R is investigated, and a subgraph Γ(R) of R is studied.

  3. Primitive Near-rings-Some Structure Theorems

    Gerhard Wendt

    2007-01-01

    We show that any zero symmetric 1-primitive near-ring with descending chain condition on left ideals can be described as a centralizer near-ring in which the multipli-cation is not the function composition but sandwich multiplication.This result follows from a more general structure theorem on 1-primitive near-rings with multiplicative right identity,not necessarily having a chain condition on left ideals.We then use our results to investigate more closely the multiplicative semigroup of a 1-primitive near-ring.In par-ticular,we show that the set of regular elements forms a right ideal of the multiplicative semigroup of the near-ring.

  4. Bifurcation structure of an optical ring cavity

    Kubstrup, C.; Mosekilde, Erik

    1996-01-01

    One- and two-dimensional continuation techniques are applied to determine the basic bifurcation structure for an optical ring cavity with a nonlinear absorbing element (the Ikeda Map). By virtue of the periodic structure of the map, families of similar solutions develop in parameter space. Within...

  5. Generalized Double Ring Network Structures

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Patel, A.; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip;

    2004-01-01

    ) structures. Results on the Generalized Petersen Graphs provide necessary and sufficient conditions for a N2R(p; q) structure to be node or edge symmetric, and a table free routing scheme always determining a shortest path between any pair of nodes is presented. Next, the performance in terms of average...... of these structures are shown, indicating that they forma suitable base for future access network infrastructures. The first result is that every N2R(p; q; r) structure is isomorphic to a N2R(p; q) structure N2R(p; q'), and it is shown how q' is determined. Consequently, the rest of the paper focuses on the N2R(p; q...

  6. A UNIMARC Bibliographic Format Database for ABCD

    Megnigbeto, Eustache

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: ABCD is a web-based open and free software suite for library management derived from the UNESCO CDS/ISIS software technology. The first version was launched officially in December 2009 with a MARC 21 bibliographic format database. This paper aims to detail the building of the UNIMARC bibliographic format database for ABCD.…

  7. Structural basis of enzymatic benzene ring reduction.

    Weinert, Tobias; Huwiler, Simona G; Kung, Johannes W; Weidenweber, Sina; Hellwig, Petra; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Biskup, Till; Weber, Stefan; Cotelesage, Julien J H; George, Graham N; Ermler, Ulrich; Boll, Matthias

    2015-08-01

    In chemical synthesis, the widely used Birch reduction of aromatic compounds to cyclic dienes requires alkali metals in ammonia as extremely low-potential electron donors. An analogous reaction is catalyzed by benzoyl-coenzyme A reductases (BCRs) that have a key role in the globally important bacterial degradation of aromatic compounds at anoxic sites. Because of the lack of structural information, the catalytic mechanism of enzymatic benzene ring reduction remained obscure. Here, we present the structural characterization of a dearomatizing BCR containing an unprecedented tungsten cofactor that transfers electrons to the benzene ring in an aprotic cavity. Substrate binding induces proton transfer from the bulk solvent to the active site by expelling a Zn(2+) that is crucial for active site encapsulation. Our results shed light on the structural basis of an electron transfer process at the negative redox potential limit in biology. They open the door for biological or biomimetic alternatives to a basic chemical synthetic tool.

  8. Structured LDPC Codes over Integer Residue Rings

    Mo Elisa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a new class of low-density parity-check (LDPC codes over represented by regular, structured Tanner graphs. These graphs are constructed using Latin squares defined over a multiplicative group of a Galois ring, rather than a finite field. Our approach yields codes for a wide range of code rates and more importantly, codes whose minimum pseudocodeword weights equal their minimum Hamming distances. Simulation studies show that these structured codes, when transmitted using matched signal sets over an additive-white-Gaussian-noise channel, can outperform their random counterparts of similar length and rate.

  9. Structured LDPC Codes over Integer Residue Rings

    Marc A. Armand

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new class of low-density parity-check (LDPC codes over ℤ2a represented by regular, structured Tanner graphs. These graphs are constructed using Latin squares defined over a multiplicative group of a Galois ring, rather than a finite field. Our approach yields codes for a wide range of code rates and more importantly, codes whose minimum pseudocodeword weights equal their minimum Hamming distances. Simulation studies show that these structured codes, when transmitted using matched signal sets over an additive-white-Gaussian-noise channel, can outperform their random counterparts of similar length and rate.

  10. The Structure of gr-simple Rings

    朱彬

    2003-01-01

    A characterization of gr-simple rings is given by using the notion of componentwise-dense subrings of a full matrix ring over a division ring. As a conse-quence, any G-graded full matrix ring over a division ring is isomorphic to a dense subring of a full matrix ring with a good G-grading. Some conditions for a grading of a full matrix ring to be isomorphic to a good one are given, which generalize some results in: Dáscáscu, S., Lon, B., Niǎstǎsescu, C. and Montes, J. R., Group gradingson full matrix rings, J. Algebra, 220(1999), 709-728.

  11. Ring and Volcano Structures Formed by a Metal Dipyrromethene Complex

    Son, Seung Bae; Hahn, Jae Ryang [Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Miao, Qing; Shin, Jiyoung; Dolphin, David [Univ. of British Columbia, Columbia (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Dichloromethane liquid droplets containing a cobalt dipyrromethene trimer deposited on a graphite surface were found to form coffee ring, toroid ring, or volcano dot structures due to the redistribution of the solute during solvent evaporation. The shapes and size distributions of the ring structures depended on the drying temperature. The shape differences were attributed to the fact that the solvent evaporation rate controlled the self-assembly process that yielded the coffee stain and pinhole structures.

  12. Optical system defect propagation in ABCD systems

    McKinley, W.G.; Yura, H.T.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    1988-01-01

    We describe how optical system defects (tilt/jitter, decenter, and despace) propagate through an arbitrary paraxial optical system that can be described by an ABCD ray transfer matrix. A pedagogical example is given that demonstrates the effect of alignment errors on a typical optical system....... © 1988 Optical Society of America...

  13. Radiation from structured-ring resonators

    Maling, B; Craster, R V

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the scalar-wave resonances of systems composed of identical Neumann-type inclusions arranged periodically around a circular ring. Drawing on natural similarities with the undamped Rayleigh-Bloch waves supported by infinite linear arrays, we deduce asymptotically the exponentially small radiative damping in the limit where the ring radius is large relative to the periodicity. In our asymptotic approach, locally linear Rayleigh-Bloch waves that attenuate exponentially away from the ring are matched to a ring-scale WKB-type wave field. The latter provides a descriptive physical picture of how the mode energy is transferred via tunnelling to a circular evanescent-to-propagating transition region a finite distance away from the ring, from where radiative grazing rays emanate to the far field. Excluding the zeroth-order standing-wave modes, the position of the transition circle bifurcates with respect to clockwise and anti-clockwise contributions, resulting in striking spiral wavefronts.

  14. Electronic structure of heterocyclic ring chain polymers

    Brocks, Geert; Tol, Arie

    1999-01-01

    The band gaps, ionization potentials and electron affinities of conjugated chain polymers comprising heterocyclic aromatic rings are studied systematically as a function of atomic substitutions with N, O and S using first principles density functional calculations.

  15. Control of slow light in a ring-out-ring structure

    Wang Nan; Zhang Yun-Dong; Yuan Ping

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a ring-out-ring structure of coupled optical resonators to yield coupled-resonator-induced transparency(GRIT). Considering the insertion loss of the coupler, it theoretically deduces the transmission and the effective phase shift. The influences of the insertion loss of the coupler on the transmittance, the effective phase shift,the group index and the CRIT linewidth are fully studied. We find that the increase in multiple m can effectively enhance the normal dispersion and the group index of the proposed structure. Moreover, the specific expression of the group index at resonance is theoretically deduced and discussed for the proposed structure with two rings. The result shows that the multiple m between the lengths of ring 1 and ring 2 can enhance the group index to m times that of the structure with two equal-sized rings at resonance. The control of slow light in the proposed structure is important for applications of highly sensitivity gyroscopes, optical delay lines and optical buffers, etc.

  16. Kinetics of tracheid development explain conifer tree-ring structure.

    Cuny, Henri E; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K; Frank, David; Fonti, Patrick; Fournier, Meriem

    2014-09-01

    Conifer tree rings are generally composed of large, thin-walled cells of light earlywood followed by narrow, thick-walled cells of dense latewood. Yet, how wood formation processes and the associated kinetics create this typical pattern remains poorly understood. We monitored tree-ring formation weekly over 3 yr in 45 trees of three conifer species in France. Data were used to model cell development kinetics, and to attribute the relative importance of the duration and rate of cell enlargement and cell wall deposition on tree-ring structure. Cell enlargement duration contributed to 75% of changes in cell diameter along the tree rings. Remarkably, the amount of wall material per cell was quite constant along the rings. Consequently, and in contrast with widespread belief, changes in cell wall thickness were not principally attributed to the duration and rate of wall deposition (33%), but rather to the changes in cell size (67%). Cell enlargement duration, as the main driver of cell size and wall thickness, contributed to 56% of wood density variation along the rings. This mechanistic framework now forms the basis for unraveling how environmental stresses trigger deviations (e.g. false rings) from the normal tree-ring structure.

  17. How Prometheus creates structure in Saturn's F ring.

    Murray, Carl D; Chavez, Carlos; Beurle, Kevin; Cooper, Nick; Evans, Michael W; Burns, Joseph A; Porco, Carolyn C

    2005-10-27

    Images of Saturn's narrow and contorted F ring returned by the Cassini spacecraft have revealed phenomena not previously detected in any planetary ring system. The perturbing effect of the inner shepherding satellite, Prometheus, seems to introduce channels through the F ring and a 'streamer'--a line of particles that link the ring to the satellite. The detailed mechanism for the formation of these features has been lacking an explanation. Here we show that these phenomena can be understood in terms of a simple gravitational interaction as Prometheus approaches and recedes from the F ring every 14.7 hours. Our numerical models show that as Prometheus recedes from its closest approach to the F ring, it draws out ring material; one orbital period later, this affected region has undergone keplerian shear and is visible as a channel, in excellent agreement with structures seen in the Cassini images. Prometheus' periodic disruption of the F ring will become more pronounced as the two orbits approach their minimum separation in 2009. The model predicts that the appearance of streamers and the associated channels will vary in a regular fashion on a timescale of one orbital period.

  18. Unicell structure for superconducting storage rings

    Danby, G.; DeVito, B.; Jackson, J.; Keohane, G.; Lee, Y.Y.; Phillips, R.; Plate, S.; Repeta, L.; Skaritka, J.; Smith, L.

    1985-01-01

    Mechanically integrated, magnetically decoupled storage rings were designed for a heavy ion collider for 100 GeV/amu Au, at B = 2.7T. New concepts were developed, including detailed engineering design and cost estimates. A ''unicell'' contains a half-cell of both rings within a single He vessel. The unicell design is optimized for economical mass production. Survey pads welded to the laminations provide external fiducials to locate the magnet cores. Roller bearing self aligning supports accommodate cool-down shrinkage. The design tolerates relative motion of components resulting from longitudinal shrinkage in the approx.15 m long unicell without affecting performance. Magnetic and physical lengths are the same, eliminating waste space. ''Achromatic'' quadrupoles with sextupoles at both ends are located on a common precision beam tube which aligns and supports a pick-up electrode. The unicell accommodates longer dipoles compared to conventional designs, reducing B/sub max/, stored energy, and the volume of iron and superconductor. Applications to future machines will be discussed.

  19. Unicell structure for superconducting storage rings

    Danby, G.; DeVito, B.; Jackson, J.; Keohane, G.; Lee, Y.Y.; Phillips, R.; Plate, S.; Repeta, L.; Skaritka, J.; Smith, L.

    1985-10-01

    Mechanically integrated, magnetically decoupled storage rings were designed for a heavy ion collider for 100 GeV/amu Au, at B=2.7T. New concepts were developed, including detailed engineering design and cost estimates. A ''unicell'' contains a half-cell of both rings within a single He vessel. The unicell design is optimized for economical mass production. Survey pads welded to the laminations provide external fiducials to locate the magnet cores. Roller bearing self aligning supports accommodate cool-down shrinkage. The design tolerates relative motion of components resulting from longitudinal shrinkage in the about15 m long unicell without affecting performance. Magnetic and physical lengths are the same, eliminating waste space. ''Achromatic'' quadrupoles with sextupoles at both ends are located on a common precision beam tube which aligns and supports a pick-up electrode. The unicell accommodates longer dipoles compared to conventional designs, reducing B /SUB max'/ stored energy, and the volume of iron and superconductor. Applications to future machines will be discussed.

  20. ABCD matrices for non-rectilinear propagation of light

    Ornigotti, Marco

    2013-01-01

    We present a generalization of the ABCD matrix formalism of paraxial optics, showing that the usual ABCD matrix is a 2x2 sub-matrix of a more general infinite matrix describing the full nonlinear dynamics of a curvilinear ray of light

  1. Quantum optical ABCD theorem in two-mode case

    Fan Hong-Yi; Hu Li-Yun

    2008-01-01

    By introducing the entangled Fresnel operator (EFO) this paper demonstrates that there exists ABCD theorem for two-mode entangled case in quantum optics.The canonical operator method as mapping of ray-transfer ABCD matrix is explicitly shown by EFO's normally ordered expansion through the coherent state representation and the technique of integration within an ordered product of operators.

  2. Homeotic Genes and the ABCDE Model for Floral Organ Formation in Wheat

    Koji Murai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Floral organ formation has been the subject of intensive study for over 20 years, particularly in the model dicot species Arabidopsis thaliana. These studies have led to the establishment of a general model for the development of floral organs in higher plants, the so-called ABCDE model, in which floral whorl-specific combinations of class A, B, C, D, or E genes specify floral organ identity. In Arabidopsis, class A, B, C, D, E genes encode MADS-box transcription factors except for the class A gene APETALA2. Mutation of these genes induces floral organ homeosis. In this review, I focus on the roles of these homeotic genes in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, particularly with respect to the ABCDE model. Pistillody, the homeotic transformation of stamens into pistil-like structures, occurs in cytoplasmic substitution (alloplasmic wheat lines that have the cytoplasm of the related wild species Aegilops crassa. This phenomenon is a valuable tool for analysis of the wheat ABCDE model. Using an alloplasmic line, the wheat ortholog of DROOPING LEAF (TaDL, a member of the YABBY gene family, has been shown to regulate pistil specification. Here, I describe the current understanding of the ABCDE model for floral organ formation in wheat.

  3. Affine Structures on a Ringed Space and Schemes

    Fengwen AN

    2011-01-01

    The author first introduces the notion of affine structures on a ringed space and then obtains several related properties. Affine structures on a ringed space, arising from complex analytical spaces of algebraic schenes, behave like differential structures on a smooth nanifold.As one does for differential manifolds, pseudogroups of affine transformations are used to define affine atlases on a ringed space. An atlas on a space is said to be an affine structure if it is maximal. An affine structure is said to be admissible if there is a sheaf on the underlying space such that they are coincide on all affine charts, which are in deed affine open sets of a scheme. In a rigour manner, a scheme is defined to be a ringed space with a specified affine structure if the affine structures make a contribution to the cases such as analytical spaces of algebraic schemes. Particularly, by the whole of affine structures on a pace, two necessary and sufficient conditions, that two spaces are homeomorphic and that two schemes are isomorphic, coming from the main theorems of the paper, are obtained respectively. A conclusion is drawn that the whole of affine structures on a space and a scheme, as local data, encode and reflect the global properties of the space and the scheme,respectively.

  4. Commutativity and structure of rings with commuting nilpotents

    Hazar Abu-Khuzam

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Let R be a ring and let N denote the set of nilpotent elements of R. Let Z denote the center of R. Suppose that (i N is commutative, (ii for every x in R there exists x′ϵ such that x−x2x′ϵN, where denotes the subring generated by x, (iii for every x,y in R, there exists an integer n=n(x,y≥1 such that both (xyn−(yxn and (xyn+1−(yxn+1 belong to Z. Then R is commutative and, in fact, R is isomorphic to a subdirect sum of nil commutative rings and local commutative rings. It is further shown that both conditions in hypothesis (iii are essential. The proof uses the structure theory of rings along with some earlier results of the authors.

  5. Tandem ring-opening/ring-closing metathesis polymerization: relationship between monomer structure and reactivity.

    Park, Hyeon; Lee, Ho-Keun; Choi, Tae-Lim

    2013-07-24

    Monomers containing either cycloalkenes with low ring strain or 1-alkynes are poor monomers for olefin metathesis polymerization. Ironically, keeping two inactive functional groups in proximity within one molecule can make it an excellent monomer for metathesis polymerization. Recently, we demonstrated that monomer 1 having cyclohexene and propargyl moieties underwent rapid tandem ring-opening/ring-closing metathesis (RO/RCM) polymerization via relay-type mechanism. Furthermore, living polymerization was achieved when a third-generation Grubbs catalyst was used. Here, we present a full account on this tandem polymerization by investigating how various structural modifications of the monomers affected the reactivity of the tandem polymerization. We observed that changing the ring size of the cycloalkene moieties, the length of the alkynes, and linker units influenced not only the polymerization rates but also the reactivities of Diels-Alder reaction, which is a post-modification reaction of the resulting polymers. Also, the mechanism of tandem polymerization was studied by conducting end-group analysis using (1)H NMR analysis, thereby concluding that the polymerization occurred by the alkyne-first pathway. With this mechanistic conclusion, factors responsible for the dramatic structure-reactivity relationship were proposed. Lastly, tandem RO/RCM polymerization of monomers containing sterically challenging trisubstituted cycloalkenes was successfully carried out to give polymer repeat units having tetrasubstituted cycloalkenes.

  6. Analysis of regular structures third degree based on chordal rings

    Bujnowski, Slawomir; Dubalski, Bozydar; Pedersen, Jens Myrup;

    2009-01-01

      This paper presents an analysis of modified chordal rings third degree (CR3m) and modified double ring structure (N2Rm), which can be used as models of real networks. The proposed solutions are novel and different from the ones currently used since they have two chords of different lengths....... In the first part of paper, formulas for the basic parameters diameter and average path length were derived using optimal/ideal graphs, and used for indicating transmission properties of the structures. These analytical results were confirmed by comparison to a large number of computations on real graphs.  In...

  7. Fresnel-Transform's Quantum Correspondence and Quantum Optical ABCD Law

    FAN Hong-Yi; HU Li-Yun

    2007-01-01

    @@ Corresponding to the Fresnel transform there exists a unitary operator in quantum optics theory, which could be known the Fresnel operator (FO). We show that the multiplication rule of the FO naturally leads to the quantum optical ABCD law. The canonical operator methods as mapping of ray-transfer ABCD matrix is explicitly shown by the normally ordered expansion of the FO through the coherent state representation and the technique of integration within an ordered product of operators. We show that time evolution of the damping oscillator embodies the quantum optical ABCD law.

  8. Planetary gear train ring gear and support structure investigation

    Valco, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    Most helicopter transmissions utilize a planetary gear train as the final speed reduction stage. Due to weight constraints these transmissions have high power-to-weight ratios and relatively flexible structures. This investigation addresses the analysis of planetary gear trains with the ring gear mounted on a flexible support structure. The approach utilizes recent advances in automated contact methods for nonlinear finite element analysis. Rather than using a line of action spring to model gear pair mesh stiffness, finite element models of complete gears are developed, and the elastic gear members are engaged and rolled through mesh. The procedure includes detailed gear tooth geometry with profile modifications. A nonlinear approach is required due to large displacements associated with gear rotation and nonlinear boundary conditions associated with the gear tooth surface contact. The updated Lagrangian formulation and the MARC K-4.1 automated contact features are applied in the analysis. The ring gear support structure is modeled by an elastic foundation linking the ring gear to a rigid support. Calculation of gear pair deflections, stresses, transmission error, and mesh stiffness through the gear meshing cycle are demonstrated for external and internal spur gear pairs and a planetary gear train. Issues relating to the accuracy of the nonlinear finite element contact method, gear mesh stiffness, transmission error, and the planetary gear train elastic support structure are discussed.

  9. Longitudinal mode structure in a non-planar ring resonator

    M Jaberi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  The structure of longitudinal modes of a passively Q-switched, non-planar unidirectional ring-resonator,with Nd:YAG active medium is described in this article. Two different techniques are used to study the longitudinal mode structure of the laser resonator. At first, the fast-fourier transform technique is applied for analyzing the mode beating of the optical fields by intensity frequency structure of the laser pulses to determine the number of longitudinal modes. Then, an analyzer etalon is used to observe Fabry-Perot fringes to compute the numbers of the resonator longitudinal modes. The results of two techniques are in good agreement with each other. Under the proper conditions, a reliable single longitudinal mode of the non-planar ring-resonator can be achieved with a good spatial mode profile that originates from the unidirectional travelling optical field propagation in the resonator having a very low sensitivity of the non-planar ring resonator to the optical elements misalignment.

  10. Results from a geophysical investigation of Lake Superior's ring structures

    Wattrus, N. J.; Gustafson, D.

    2010-12-01

    Ring shaped depressions are widely developed on the lake floor of Lake Superior. They have not been widely reported elsewhere. The rings are typically between 200 and 300 m across and up to 5 m deep. The width of the depression ranges between 10 to 30 m. They often occur in closely spaced groups or networks but can also occur as isolated features. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the formation of these features; they include syneresis of the fine-grained lake floor sediments, polygonal faulting and dewatering of the lake floor sediments. High resolution bathymetric surveying with a multibeam sonar has revealed that they are comprised of pockmarks arranged in irregular polygonal patterns. Sidescan sonar images of the pockmarks often exhibit increased backscatter about the pock which could be interpreted as evidence of a lag-surface. High-resolution CHIRP sub-bottom profiling across the pocks occasionally reveal chimney-like structures below the lake floor pock. This evidence suggests that the rings were produced by the expulsion of fluid from the lake floor. This appears to have been a basin-wide event. The timing, duration and origin of this are not well known. Neither is the structure of the subsurface plumbing below these features. Here we present results from a geophysical survey conducted in northwestern Lake Superior off the western coast of Isle Royale where both isolated and grouped lake floor rings are well developed. The objectives of the survey were to define the geometry of the sub-surface plumbing below the rings and to possibly gain some insight into how these systems develop. The data collected included two high-resolution pseudo-3D single-channel seismic reflection datasets, one acquired with a small airgun and a second acquired with a CHIRP profiler. Multibeam and sidescan sonar data were also acquired as part of the survey. A 9 m piston core was collected in close proximity to a ring feature. This is used to determine the physical

  11. The Vertical Structure of the F Ring of Saturn from Ring-Plane Crossings

    Scharringhausen, Britt R

    2013-01-01

    We present a photometric model of the rings of Saturn which includes the main rings and an F ring, inclined to the main rings, with a Gaussian vertical profile of optical depth. This model reproduces the asymmetry in brightness between the east and west ansae of the rings of Saturn that was observed by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) within a few hours after the Earth ring-plane crossing (RPX) of 10 August 1995. The model shows that during this observation the inclined F ring unevenly blocked the east and west ansae of the main rings. The brightness asymmetry produced by the model is highly sensitive to the vertical thickness and radial optical depth of the F ring. The F ring model that best matches the observations has a vertical full width at half maximum of 13 +/- 7 km and an equivalent depth of 10 +/- 4 km. The model also reproduces the shape of the HST profiles of ring brightness vs. distance from Saturn, both before and after the time of ring-plane crossing. Smaller asymmetries observed before the RPX,...

  12. Solar system history as recorded in the Saturnian ring structure

    Alfven, H.

    1983-01-01

    Holberg's analysis of the Voyager Saturn photographs in reflected and transparent light, and occultation data of stars seen through the rings are discussed. A hyperfine structure, with 10,000 ringlets can be explained by the Baxter-Thompson negative diffusion. This gives the ringlets a stability which makes it possible to interpret them as fossils, which originated at cosmogonic times. It is shown that the bulk structure can be explained by the combined cosmogonic shadows of the satellites Mimas, Janus and the Shepherd satellites. This structure originated at the transition from the plasma phase to the planetesimal phase. The shadows are not simple void regions but exhibit a characteristic signature. Parts of the fine structure, explained by Holberg as resonances with satellites, are interpreted as cosmogonic shadow effects. However, there are a number of ringlets which can neither be explained by cosmogonic nor by resonance effects. Analysis of ring data can reconstruct the plasma-planetesimal transition with an accuracy of a few percent.

  13. Graphical linking of MO multicenter bond index and VB structures. II-5-c rings and 6-c heterocyclic rings

    Bollini, C G; Giambiagi, M

    2001-01-01

    Through the graphical method proposed it is possible to set a link between an MO multicenter bond index and VB structures. The value of the index depends on the order of the atoms involved if they are more than three. For 5-c rings three basic structures are required; the eventually different values are 12. Unlike the 6-c case it may happen that different pairs of basic structures are used to build the same polygon. For the 6-c rings including heteroatoms the original degeneracy of benzene splits leading eventually to 60 different I sub r sub i sub n sub g values.

  14. Complex-Valued ABCD Matrices and Speckle Metrology

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Yura, Harold T.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that within the paraxial ray approximation the propagation of light through a complex optical system can be formulated in terms of a Huygens principle expressed with the complete system’s ABCD-matrix elements. As such, propagation through an optical system reduces to that of calcul...

  15. The structure of the tautological ring in genus one

    Petersen, Dan

    2012-01-01

    We prove Getzler's claims about the tautological ring of stable curves of genus one, i.e. that the tautological ring coincides with the even cohomology ring, and that all relations between generators follow from the WDVV relation and Getzler's relation.

  16. On Embedding N2R Structures in Optical Fiber OMS-SP Ring

    Riaz, Muhammad Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose methods for embedding N2R structures in optical fiber OMS-SP rings. The OMS-SP ring supports full mesh structure and restoration on the optical level. The N2R structures have been proven to be superior to other degree 3 network structures. Two main mapping...

  17. Chariklo's ring system 1. Structure of the ring system from stellar occultations

    Berard, Diane; Sicardy, Bruno; Braga-Ribas, Felipe; camargo, julio; Vieira-Martins, Roberto; Assafin, Marcelo; Sickafoose, Amanda A.; Colas, François; Dauvergne, Jean-Luc; Bath, Karl-Ludwig; Maquet, Lucie; Tancredi, Gonzalo; Richichi, Andrea; Puji, Irawati; Ivanov, Valentin; Bradshaw, Jonathan; Broughton, John; Meza, Erick; Ortiz, Jose-Luis; Duffard, Rene; Leiva, Rodrigo

    2016-10-01

    Two dense and narrow rings around Chariklo (the largest centaur object known to date) were discovered by stellar occultation on June 3, 2013 (Braga-Ribas et al., Nature 508, 72, 2014). The main and larger ring is called C1R, while the faintest one is called C2R.Here we report six others occultations by Chariklo's ring system observed on February 16, March 16, April 29, June 28, 2014 and April 26, May 12, 2015. They provide a total of fifteen ring profiles, among which are four resolved profiles of C1R.The latter exhibits a W-shape profile that is essentially opaque at the edges. Its width varies from 4.8 to 7.7 km over the available longitude range. Those caracteristics have been detected in Uranus elliptic rings. The equivalent width We (normal opacity x physical radial width) of C1R is 2 km with typical rms of 1 km, while C2R has We of 0.2 km (rms ~ 0.1 km). None of the rings exhibits variation of We with longitude.Assuming the rings are circular, we can exhibit a pole which is compatible with the two multi-chord ring detections (June 3, 2013 and April 29, 2014): αp=151.4° and δp=41.5°. We will then estimate an upper limit of a possible ring eccentricity based on those two observations.Part of the research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Community's H2020 (2014-2020/ ERC Grant Agreement n 669416 "LUCKY STAR").

  18. On the tree-like structure of rings in dense solutions.

    Michieletto, D

    2016-11-28

    One of the most challenging problems in polymer physics is providing a theoretical description for the behaviour of rings in dense solutions and melts. Although it is nowadays well established that the overall size of a ring in these conditions scales like that of a collapsed globule, there is compelling evidence that rings may exhibit ramified and tree-like conformations. In this work I show how to characterise these local tree-like structures by measuring the local writhing of the rings' segments and by identifying the patterns of intra-chain contacts. These quantities reveal two major topological structures: loops and terminal branches which strongly suggest that the strictly double-folded "lattice animal" picture for rings in the melt may be replaced by a more relaxed tree-like structure accommodating loops. In particular, I show that one can identify hierarchically looped structures whose degree increases linearly with the size of a ring, and that terminal branches are found to store about 30% of the whole ring mass, irrespectively of its length. Finally, I draw an analogy between rings in the melt and slip-linked chains, where contact points are enforced by mobile slip-links and for which a field-theoretic treatment can be employed to get some insight into their typical conformations. These findings are ultimately discussed in the light of recent works on the static structure of rings and on the existence of inter-ring threadings.

  19. Runaway Stars as a Possible Source of the Elliptical Ring Structure in NGC 7538

    Arakawa, Jason; Fallscheer, Cassandra; Di Francesco, James

    2016-01-01

    A large, approximately 500 M⊙ elliptical ring structure has been identified in the high-mass star-forming region, NGC 7538. The origin of this ring structure is unknown. We investigate the possibility that a runaway O- or B-type star may have originated in or passed through the region and created the ring structure from its stellar winds or other mechanisms. In testing this hypothesis, we identify one candidate star, TYC-4279-2210-1, that may have formed the ring. TYC-4279-2210-1 is a B1 III star, with a mass of ~ 20 M⊙, and has a surface temperature of ~ 25000 K. Its position, motions, timescale, and spectral type are all consistent with the star being a candidate for having formed the ring structure in NGC 7538. The timescale for the ring formation was calculated to be ~ 106 to 107 yrs.

  20. Dissecting the space-time structure of tree-ring datasets using the partial triadic analysis.

    Rossi, Jean-Pierre; Nardin, Maxime; Godefroid, Martin; Ruiz-Diaz, Manuela; Sergent, Anne-Sophie; Martinez-Meier, Alejandro; Pâques, Luc; Rozenberg, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Tree-ring datasets are used in a variety of circumstances, including archeology, climatology, forest ecology, and wood technology. These data are based on microdensity profiles and consist of a set of tree-ring descriptors, such as ring width or early/latewood density, measured for a set of individual trees. Because successive rings correspond to successive years, the resulting dataset is a ring variables × trees × time datacube. Multivariate statistical analyses, such as principal component analysis, have been widely used for extracting worthwhile information from ring datasets, but they typically address two-way matrices, such as ring variables × trees or ring variables × time. Here, we explore the potential of the partial triadic analysis (PTA), a multivariate method dedicated to the analysis of three-way datasets, to apprehend the space-time structure of tree-ring datasets. We analyzed a set of 11 tree-ring descriptors measured in 149 georeferenced individuals of European larch (Larix decidua Miller) during the period of 1967-2007. The processing of densitometry profiles led to a set of ring descriptors for each tree and for each year from 1967-2007. The resulting three-way data table was subjected to two distinct analyses in order to explore i) the temporal evolution of spatial structures and ii) the spatial structure of temporal dynamics. We report the presence of a spatial structure common to the different years, highlighting the inter-individual variability of the ring descriptors at the stand scale. We found a temporal trajectory common to the trees that could be separated into a high and low frequency signal, corresponding to inter-annual variations possibly related to defoliation events and a long-term trend possibly related to climate change. We conclude that PTA is a powerful tool to unravel and hierarchize the different sources of variation within tree-ring datasets.

  1. Dissecting the space-time structure of tree-ring datasets using the partial triadic analysis.

    Jean-Pierre Rossi

    Full Text Available Tree-ring datasets are used in a variety of circumstances, including archeology, climatology, forest ecology, and wood technology. These data are based on microdensity profiles and consist of a set of tree-ring descriptors, such as ring width or early/latewood density, measured for a set of individual trees. Because successive rings correspond to successive years, the resulting dataset is a ring variables × trees × time datacube. Multivariate statistical analyses, such as principal component analysis, have been widely used for extracting worthwhile information from ring datasets, but they typically address two-way matrices, such as ring variables × trees or ring variables × time. Here, we explore the potential of the partial triadic analysis (PTA, a multivariate method dedicated to the analysis of three-way datasets, to apprehend the space-time structure of tree-ring datasets. We analyzed a set of 11 tree-ring descriptors measured in 149 georeferenced individuals of European larch (Larix decidua Miller during the period of 1967-2007. The processing of densitometry profiles led to a set of ring descriptors for each tree and for each year from 1967-2007. The resulting three-way data table was subjected to two distinct analyses in order to explore i the temporal evolution of spatial structures and ii the spatial structure of temporal dynamics. We report the presence of a spatial structure common to the different years, highlighting the inter-individual variability of the ring descriptors at the stand scale. We found a temporal trajectory common to the trees that could be separated into a high and low frequency signal, corresponding to inter-annual variations possibly related to defoliation events and a long-term trend possibly related to climate change. We conclude that PTA is a powerful tool to unravel and hierarchize the different sources of variation within tree-ring datasets.

  2. Coupled quantum dot-ring structures by droplet epitaxy

    Somaschini, C; Bietti, S; Koguchi, N; Sanguinetti, S, E-mail: stefano.sanguinetti@unimib.it [L-NESS and Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Milano Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy)

    2011-05-06

    The fabrication, by pure self-assembly, of GaAs/AlGaAs dot-ring quantum nanostructures is presented. The growth is performed via droplet epitaxy, which allows for the fine control, through As flux and substrate temperature, of the crystallization kinetics of nanometer scale metallic Ga reservoirs deposited on the surface. Such a procedure permits the combination of quantum dots and quantum rings into a single, multi-functional, complex quantum nanostructure.

  3. Efficient substructure searching of large chemical libraries: the ABCD chemical cartridge.

    Agrafiotis, Dimitris K; Lobanov, Victor S; Shemanarev, Maxim; Rassokhin, Dmitrii N; Izrailev, Sergei; Jaeger, Edward P; Alex, Simson; Farnum, Michael

    2011-12-27

    Efficient substructure searching is a key requirement for any chemical information management system. In this paper, we describe the substructure search capabilities of ABCD, an integrated drug discovery informatics platform developed at Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development, L.L.C. The solution consists of several algorithmic components: 1) a pattern mapping algorithm for solving the subgraph isomorphism problem, 2) an indexing scheme that enables very fast substructure searches on large structure files, 3) the incorporation of that indexing scheme into an Oracle cartridge to enable querying large relational databases through SQL, and 4) a cost estimation scheme that allows the Oracle cost-based optimizer to generate a good execution plan when a substructure search is combined with additional constraints in a single SQL query. The algorithm was tested on a public database comprising nearly 1 million molecules using 4,629 substructure queries, the vast majority of which were submitted by discovery scientists over the last 2.5 years of user acceptance testing of ABCD. 80.7% of these queries were completed in less than a second and 96.8% in less than ten seconds on a single CPU, while on eight processing cores these numbers increased to 93.2% and 99.7%, respectively. The slower queries involved extremely generic patterns that returned the entire database as screening hits and required extensive atom-by-atom verification.

  4. Immunohistological Analysis of ABCD3 Expression in Caucasian and African American Prostate Tumors

    R. Renee Reams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previously published study, we showed that expression of the ABCD3 gene increased with increasing metastatic potential in a panel of prostate cancer cell lines derived from African American and Caucasian American men. Given importance of identifying biomarker(s that can distinguish indolent versus aggressive prostate tumors, we conducted an immunohistochemical analysis of ABCD3 expression Caucasian and African American prostate tumors. ABCD3 expression in each patient population was compared with clinicopathologic characteristics, Gleason score, and age. ABCD3 expression increased with increasing Gleason score (P=0.0094, age (P=0.0014, and pathology grade (P=0.0007 in Caucasian patients. Interestingly, in the AA patients, ABCD3 expression highly increased to the same degree in both low and high Gleason score tumors. Similarly, ABCD3 expression was elevated to the same degree in BPH derived from AA. Our findings demonstrate that increased ABCD3 expression correlates with Gleason Score in CA prostate tumors. However, in AA prostate tumors, ABCD3 expression was higher and was sustained in both low Gleason and high Gleason AA tumors. While the functional role of ABCD3 in prostate cancer is not completely elucidated, this gene warrants further study as a potential biomarker for aggressive prostate.

  5. Structures in the D ring and Roche division tied to asymmetries in Saturn's magnetosphere

    Chancia, Robert O.; Hedman, Matthew M.; Carter, Brian

    2016-10-01

    Saturn's dusty rings contain multiple patterns that appear to be rotating around the planet at about the same rate as Saturn itself, and so are probably generated by resonances with asymmetries in the planet's gravitational or magnetic fields. These structures are found in the D ring (which lies interior to the main rings) and in the Roche Division (which is located just outside the main rings, between the A and F rings). In 2007 the strongest patterns in both of these regions appeared to track magnetospheric anomalies associated with the Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR). This implied that these rings were responding to structures in the planet's magnetosphere, which is not unreasonable since the particles in both these ring regions are very small and therefore sensitive to non-gravitational forces. Over the last few years, the frequencies of the SKR and related magnetospheric asymmetries have shifted, and we have observed some changes in the ring patterns that might be connected with these shifts. However, there are also patterns in these rings that appear to have more stable rotation rates and so could reflect more persistent asymmetries in Saturn's magnetosphere. These patterns can therefore provide novel insights into the structure and evolution of Saturn's magnetosphere.

  6. On the structure of Stanley-Reisner rings associated to cyclic polytopes

    Boehm, Janko

    2009-01-01

    We study the structure of Stanley-Reisner rings associated to cyclic polytopes, using ideas from unprojection theory. Consider the boundary simplicial complex Delta(d,m) of the d-dimensional cyclic polytope with m vertices. We show how to express the Stanley-Reisner ring of Delta(d,m+1) in terms of the Stanley-Reisner rings of Delta(d,m) and Delta(d-2,m-1). As an application, we use the Kustin-Miller complex construction to identify the minimal graded free resolutions of these rings. In particular, we recover results of Schenzel, Terai and Hibi about their graded Betti numbers.

  7. Concentric-ring structures in an atmospheric pressure helium dielectric barrier discharge

    Shang Wan-Li; Zhang Yuan-Tao; Wang De-Zhen; Sang Chao-Feng; Jiang shao-En; Yang Jia-Min; Liu shen-Ye; M.G.Kong

    2011-01-01

    This paper performs a numerical simulation of concentric-ring discharge structures within the scope of a two-dimensional diffusion-drift model at atmospheric pressure between two parallel circular electrodes covered with thin dielectric layers. With a relative high frequency the discharge structures present different appearances of ring structures within different radii in time due to the evolvement of the filaments. The spontaneous electron density distributions help understanding the formation and development of seff-organized discharge structures. During a cycle the electron avalanches are triggered by the electric field strengthened by the feeding voltage and the residual charged particles on the barrier surface deposited in the previous discharges. The accumulation of charges is shown to play a dominant role in the generation and annihilation of the discharge structures. Besides, the rings split and unify to bring and annihilate rings which form a new discharge structure.

  8. Origin of Symmetry Breaking and Confinement in Conducting Polymers with Ring Structures

    2007-01-01

    A model to describe the main features of conjugated polymers with ring structures, such as polythiophene and polypyrrole, is constructed. It is shown that the origin of the symmetry breaking and confinement of a soliton and anti-soliton pair is branch hopping in the polymer rings.

  9. A No-Reference Sharpness Metric Based on Structured Ringing for JPEG2000 Images

    Zhipeng Cao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a no-reference image sharpness metric based on human blur perception for JPEG2000 compressed image. The metric mainly uses a ringing measure. And a blurring measure is used for compensation when the blur is so severe that ringing artifacts are concealed. We used the anisotropic diffusion for the preliminary ringing map and refined it by considering the property of ringing structure. The ringing detection of the proposed metric does not depend on edge detection, which is suitable for high degraded images. The characteristics of the ringing and blurring measures are analyzed and validated theoretically and experimentally. The performance of the proposed metric is tested and compared with that of some existing JPEG2000 sharpness metrics on three widely used databases. The experimental results show that the proposed metric is accurate and reliable in predicting the sharpness of JPEG2000 images.

  10. A Voltage Controlled Oscillator using Ring Structure in CMOS Technology

    Mrs. Devendra Rani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-Controlled Ring Oscillators are crucial components in many wireless communication systems. The goal of this project is to design a high speed and lower power consumption, a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO, based on ring oscillators in 250nm CMOS technology, which provides a frequency of 2.4GHz. This CMOS based VCO is used for high speed wireless communication applications. A design of VCO includes delay cell, bias circuitry, and tuning circuitry using Tanner 13.0v software.

  11. Design of delay insensitive circuits using multi-ring structures

    Sparsø, Jens; Staunstrup, Jørgen; Dantzer-Sørensen, Michael

    1992-01-01

    The design and VLSI implementation of a delay insensitive circuit that computes the inner product of two vec·tors is described. The circuit is based on an iterative serial-parallel multiplication algorithm. The design is based on a data flow approach using pipelines and rings that are combined...

  12. Sclerotic rings in mosasaurs (Squamata: Mosasauridae: structures and taxonomic diversity.

    Momo Yamashita

    Full Text Available Mosasaurs (Squamata: Mosasauridae were a highly diverse, globally distributed group of aquatic lizards in the Late Cretaceous (98-66 million years ago that exhibited a high degree of adaptation to life in water. To date, despite their rich fossil record, the anatomy of complete mosasaur sclerotic rings, embedded in the sclera of the eyeball, has not been thoroughly investigated. We here describe and compare sclerotic rings of four mosasaur genera, Tylosaurus, Platecarpus, Clidastes, and Mosasaurus, for the first time. Two specimens of Tylosaurus and Platecarpus share an exact scleral ossicle arrangement, excepting the missing portion in the specimen of Platecarpus. Furthermore, the exact arrangement and the total count of 14 ossicles per ring are shared between Tylosaurus and numerous living terrestrial lizard taxa, pertaining to both Iguania and Scleroglossa. In contrast, two species of Mosasaurus share the identical count of 12 ossicles and the arrangement with each other, while no living lizard taxa share exactly the same arrangement. Such a mosaic distribution of these traits both among squamates globally and among obligatorily aquatic mosasaurs specifically suggests that neither the ossicle count nor their arrangement played major roles in the aquatic adaptation in mosasaur eyes. All the mosasaur sclerotic rings examined consistently exhibit aperture eccentricity and the scleral ossicles with gently convex outer side. Hitherto unknown to any squamate taxa, one specimen of Platecarpus unexpectedly shows a raised, concentric band of roughened surface on the inner surface of the sclerotic ring. It is possible that one or both of these latter features may have related to adaptation towards aquatic vision in mosasaurs, but further quantitative study of extant reptilian clades containing both terrestrial and aquatic taxa is critical and necessary in order to understand possible adaptive significances of such osteological features.

  13. Sclerotic Rings in Mosasaurs (Squamata: Mosasauridae): Structures and Taxonomic Diversity

    Yamashita, Momo; Konishi, Takuya; Sato, Tamaki

    2015-01-01

    Mosasaurs (Squamata: Mosasauridae) were a highly diverse, globally distributed group of aquatic lizards in the Late Cretaceous (98–66 million years ago) that exhibited a high degree of adaptation to life in water. To date, despite their rich fossil record, the anatomy of complete mosasaur sclerotic rings, embedded in the sclera of the eyeball, has not been thoroughly investigated. We here describe and compare sclerotic rings of four mosasaur genera, Tylosaurus, Platecarpus, Clidastes, and Mosasaurus, for the first time. Two specimens of Tylosaurus and Platecarpus share an exact scleral ossicle arrangement, excepting the missing portion in the specimen of Platecarpus. Furthermore, the exact arrangement and the total count of 14 ossicles per ring are shared between Tylosaurus and numerous living terrestrial lizard taxa, pertaining to both Iguania and Scleroglossa. In contrast, two species of Mosasaurus share the identical count of 12 ossicles and the arrangement with each other, while no living lizard taxa share exactly the same arrangement. Such a mosaic distribution of these traits both among squamates globally and among obligatorily aquatic mosasaurs specifically suggests that neither the ossicle count nor their arrangement played major roles in the aquatic adaptation in mosasaur eyes. All the mosasaur sclerotic rings examined consistently exhibit aperture eccentricity and the scleral ossicles with gently convex outer side. Hitherto unknown to any squamate taxa, one specimen of Platecarpus unexpectedly shows a raised, concentric band of roughened surface on the inner surface of the sclerotic ring. It is possible that one or both of these latter features may have related to adaptation towards aquatic vision in mosasaurs, but further quantitative study of extant reptilian clades containing both terrestrial and aquatic taxa is critical and necessary in order to understand possible adaptive significances of such osteological features. PMID:25692667

  14. G345.45+1.50: An expanding ring-like structure with massive star formation

    Lopez-Calderon, Cristian; Nyman, Lars-Ake; Garay, Guido; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar; Bergman, Per

    2016-01-01

    Ring-like structures in the ISM are commonly associated with high-mass stars. Kinematic studies of large structures in GMCs toward these ring-like structures may help us to understand how massive stars form. The origin and properties of the ring-like structure G345.45+1.50 is investigated through observations of the 13CO(3-2) line. The aim of the observations is to determine the kinematics in the region and to compare physical characteristics estimated from gas emission with those previously determined using dust continuum emission. The 13CO(3-2) line was mapped toward the whole ring using the APEX telescope. The ring is found to be expanding with a velocity of 1.0 km/s, containing a total mass of 6.9e3 Msun, which agrees well with that determined using 1.2 mm dust continuum emission. An expansion timescale of 3e6 yr and a total energy of 7e46 erg are estimated. The origin of the ring might have been a supernova explosion, since a 35.5 cm source, J165920-400424, is located at the center of the ring without an...

  15. Laser pulse induced multiple exciton kinetics in molecular ring structures

    Hou, Xiao; Wang, Luxia

    2016-11-01

    Multiple excitons can be formed upon strong optical excitation of molecular aggregates and complexes. Based on a theoretical approach on exciton-exciton annihilation dynamics in supramolecular systems (May et al., 2014), exciton interaction kinetics in ring aggregates of two-level molecules are investigated. Excited by the sub-picosecond laser pulse, multiple excitons keep stable in the molecular ring shaped as a regular polygon. If the symmetry is destroyed by changing the dipole of a single molecule, the excitation of different molecules becomes not identical, and the changed dipole-dipole interaction initiates subsequent energy redistribution. Depending on the molecular distance and the dipole configuration, the kinetics undergo different types of processes, but all get stable within some hundreds of femtoseconds. The study of exciton kinetics will be helpful for further investigations of the efficiency of optical devices based on molecular aggregates.

  16. Guard Ring Width Impact on Impact Parameter Performances and Structure Simulations

    Gouldwell, A; Rahman, M; Bates, R; Wemyss, M; Murphy, G; Turner, P; Biagi, S F

    2003-01-01

    The 1 mm guard ring structure of the VELO sensors has been simulated. The performance of the baseline design is considered and a design which improves the electric field characteristics proposed. Designs which would permit a reduced guard ring width, to 0.5 mm or better, are also discussed and shown to also have similarly good electric field performances. The effect of implementing these designs on the impact parameter resolution of LHCb is found to be better than 5 %. This design is currently being fabricated. Finally, a very different structure, the trench guard ring, is considered which would then allow an impact parameter resolution improvement of approximately 7 %.

  17. Two phenomena: Honji instability, and ringing of offshore structures

    2011-01-01

    Honji instability and ringing of offshore structrures are two different phenomena. Honji instability occurs at a circular cylinder in transverse periodic finite motion in a water tank. It is superposed on the streaming flow induced by the cylinder's boundary layer. Its oscillation period is half of the period of the cylinder oscillation. Finite volume calculations of the filtered Navier-Stokes equations visualize the three-dimensional instability, where fluid particles transported by the circumferencial rol...

  18. Structure and assembly of the essential RNA ring component of a viral DNA packaging motor

    Ding, Fang; Lu, Changrui; Zhao, Wei; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Anderson, Dwight L.; Jardine, Paul J.; Grimes, Shelley; Ke, Ailong (Cornell); (UMM)

    2011-07-25

    Prohead RNA (pRNA) is an essential component in the assembly and operation of the powerful bacteriophage {psi}29 DNA packaging motor. The pRNA forms a multimeric ring via intermolecular base-pairing interactions between protomers that serves to guide the assembly of the ring ATPase that drives DNA packaging. Here we report the quaternary structure of this rare multimeric RNA at 3.5 {angstrom} resolution, crystallized as tetrameric rings. Strong quaternary interactions and the inherent flexibility helped rationalize how free pRNA is able to adopt multiple oligomerization states in solution. These characteristics also allowed excellent fitting of the crystallographic pRNA protomers into previous prohead/pRNA cryo-EM reconstructions, supporting the presence of a pentameric, but not hexameric, pRNA ring in the context of the DNA packaging motor. The pentameric pRNA ring anchors itself directly to the phage prohead by interacting specifically with the fivefold symmetric capsid structures that surround the head-tail connector portal. From these contacts, five RNA superhelices project from the pRNA ring, where they serve as scaffolds for binding and assembly of the ring ATPase, and possibly mediate communication between motor components. Construction of structure-based designer pRNAs with little sequence similarity to the wild-type pRNA were shown to fully support the packaging of {psi}29 DNA.

  19. Matrix vaccination guidelines : 2015 ABCD recommendations for indoor/outdoor cats, rescue shelter cats and breeding catteries

    Hosie, Margaret J; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Hartmann, Katrin; Horzinek, Marian C; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin

    2015-01-01

    OVERVIEW: In 2013, the ABCD published 'Matrix vaccination guidelines: ABCD recommendations for indoor/outdoor cats, rescue shelter cats and breeding catteries' in a Special Issue of the Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (Volume 15, Issue 7, pages 540-544). The ABCD's vaccination recommendations

  20. Upper-ocean velocity structure of Gulf Stream warm-core ring 82B

    Joyce, T. M.; Kennelly, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Acoustic-Doppler current profiling of warm-core ring (WCR) 82B revealed changes in the velocity structure over much of the ring's 7-month lifespan. As ring diameter decreased, peak speeds in the high-velocity region decreased from 0.8 m/s in April 1982 to 0.5 m/s in August 1982. Azimuthally averaged velocities revealed the core of WCR 82B to be in near solid-body rotation, with little measurable horizontal divergence at 100 m. In addition, potential vorticity was conserved in the ring core despite interactions with the Gulf Stream and large changes in ring size. Deviations from symmetry in WCR 82B were caused by superposition with the shelf-slope front, small cyclonic eddies, and upper-layer mean flow.

  1. Reliability in Single, Double and N2R Ring Network Structures

    Jørgensen, T.; Pedersen, L.; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    This paper studies the properties of single, double and N2R ring network structures during link errors. The structure of the network infrastructure must be redesigned in order to fulfil the requirements of services using the Internet in the future; hence, N2R structures have been suggested. N2R...

  2. Reliability in single, double and N2R ring network structures

    Jørgensen, T.; Pedersen, L.; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the properties of single, double and N2R ring network structures during link errors. The structure of the network infrastructure must be redesigned in order to fulfil the requirements of services using the Internet in the future; hence, N2R structures have been suggested. N2R...

  3. ABCD, an Open Source Software for Modern Libraries

    Sangeeta Namdev Dhamdhere

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, librarians are using various kinds of open source software for different purposes such as library automation, digitization, institutional repository, content management. ABCD, acronym for Automatisación de Bibliotécas y Centros de Documentación, is one of such software. It caters to almost all present needs of modern libraries of any sizes. It offers a solution to library automation with ISBD as well as local formats. It has excellent indexing and retrieval features based on UNESCO’s ISIS technology, a web OPAC, and a library Portal with integrated meta-search and content management system to manage online as well as offline digital resources and physical documents and media.

  4. Unique genomic structure and distinct mitotic behavior of ring chromosome 21 in two unrelated cases.

    Zhang, H Z; Xu, F; Seashore, M; Li, P

    2012-01-01

    A ring chromosome replacing a normal chromosome could involve variable structural rearrangements and mitotic instability. However, most previously reported cases lacked further genomic characterization. High-resolution oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization with single-nucleotide polymorphism typing (aCGH+SNP) was used to study 2 unrelated cases with a ring chromosome 21. Case 1 had severe myopia, hypotonia, joint hypermobility, speech delay, and dysmorphic features. aCGH detected a 1.275-Mb duplication of 21q22.12-q22.13 and a 6.731-Mb distal deletion at 21q22.2. Case 2 showed severe growth and developmental retardations, intractable seizures, and dysmorphic features. aCGH revealed a contiguous pattern of a 3.612- Mb deletion of 21q22.12-q22.2, a 4.568-Mb duplication of 21q22.2-q22.3, and a 2.243-Mb distal deletion at 21q22.3. Mitotic instability was noted in 13, 30, and 76% of in vitro cultured metaphase cells, interphase cells, and leukocyte DNA, respectively. The different phenotypes of these 2 cases are likely associated with the unique genomic structure and distinct mitotic behavior of their ring chromosome 21. These 2 cases represent a subtype of ring chromosome 21 probably involving somatic dicentric ring breakage and reunion. A cytogenomic approach is proposed for characterizing the genomic structure and mitotic instability of ring chromosome abnormalities.

  5. Optimization of optical filter using triple coupler ring resonators structure based on polyimide substrate

    Mahmudin, D.; Estu, T. T.; Fathnan, A. A.; Maulana, Y. Y.; Daud, P.; Sugandhi, G.; Wijayanto, Y. N.

    2016-11-01

    Optical filter is very important components in WDM network. MRR is a basic structure to design the optical filter because of easy to design for improving its performance. This paper discusses an innovative structure of the MRR, which is Triple Coupler Ring Resonators (TCRR) for optical filter applications. Values of width between bus and ring and values of radius of the ring in the structure TCRR were analyzed and optimized for several variations for obtaining coupling coefficient values. Therefore, wide Free Spectral Range (FSR) and high crosstalk suppression bandwidth can be obtained. As results, at the optimized width of gap of 100 nm and the optimized radiation of 8 μm, FSR of 2.85 THz and crosstalk suppression bandwidth of 60 GHz were achieved. Based on the results, this structure can be used for filtering optical signals in optical fiber communication.

  6. Structural variations in aromatic 2-electron three-membered rings of the main group elements

    Dibyendu Mallick; Eluvathingal D Jemmis

    2015-02-01

    Structural variations of different 2-aromatic three-membered ring systems of main group elements, especially group 14 and 13 elements as compared to the classical description of cyclopropenyl cation has been reviewed in this article. The structures of heavier analogues as well as group 13 analogues of cyclopropenyl cation showed an emergence of dramatic structural patterns which do not conform to the generalnorms of carbon chemistry. Isolobal analogies between the main group fragments have been efficiently used to explain the peculiarities observed in these three-membered ring systems.

  7. A Salmonella type three secretion effector/chaperone complex adopts a hexameric ring-like structure.

    Roblin, Pierre; Dewitte, Frédérique; Villeret, Vincent; Biondi, Emanuele G; Bompard, Coralie

    2015-02-15

    Many bacterial pathogens use type three secretion systems (T3SS) to inject virulence factors, named effectors, directly into the cytoplasm of target eukaryotic cells. Most of the T3SS components are conserved among plant and animal pathogens, suggesting a common mechanism of recognition and secretion of effectors. However, no common motif has yet been identified for effectors allowing T3SS recognition. In this work, we performed a biochemical and structural characterization of the Salmonella SopB/SigE chaperone/effector complex by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Our results showed that the SopB/SigE complex is assembled in dynamic homohexameric-ring-shaped structures with an internal tunnel. In this ring, the chaperone maintains a disordered N-terminal end of SopB molecules, in a good position to be reached and processed by the T3SS. This ring dimensionally fits the ring-organized molecules of the injectisome, including ATPase hexameric rings; this organization suggests that this structural feature is important for ATPase recognition by T3SS. Our work constitutes the first evidence of the oligomerization of an effector, analogous to the organization of the secretion machinery, obtained in solution. As effectors share neither sequence nor structural identity, the quaternary oligomeric structure could constitute a strategy evolved to promote the specificity and efficiency of T3SS recognition.

  8. RT-ABCDE Strategy for Management and Prevention of Human Diseases

    HU Chun-song

    2008-01-01

    In this article,the authors summarized the RT-ABCDE strategy for the management and prevention of human diseases,which includes ReTrO-ABCDE(Examination regularity,Disease and risk factor control,Changing lifestyrle and reducing pathways of infection and spread,Biochemical and Antagonistic index control and therapeutic treatment as well as RT-Routine and Right Treatment).The RT-ABCDE strategy,a novel concept and an essential method,should be a routine strategy for disease control and prevention.It should be proposed and applied in both clinical and preventive medicine.

  9. Vortex rings

    Akhmetov, D.G. [Lavrentiev Institute of Hydrodynamics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    This book presents a comprehensive coverage of the wide field of vortex rings. The book presents the results of systematic experimental investigations, theoretical foundation, as well as the practical applications of vortex rings, such as the extinction of fires at gushing gas and oil wells. All the basic properties of vortex rings as well as their hydrodynamic structures are presented. Special attention is paid to the formation and motion of turbulent vortex rings. (orig.)

  10. Cobalt double-ring and double-dot structures: Magnetic properties

    López-Urías, F., E-mail: flo@ipicyt.edu.mx [Advanced Materials Department, IPICYT, Camino a la presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a sección, 78216, San Luis Potosí S.L.P., México (Mexico); Torres-Heredia, J.J. [Instituto Tecnológico Superior de Las Choapas, Col. J. M. Rosa do, 96980, Las Choapas, Veracruz (Mexico); Muñoz-Sandoval, E. [Advanced Materials Department, IPICYT, Camino a la presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a sección, 78216, San Luis Potosí S.L.P., México (Mexico)

    2016-02-15

    The magnetization reversal mechanism of nanostructures of cobalt double-rings (D-rings) and double-dots (D-dots) is investigated in the framework of micromagnetic simulations. The arrays contain two identical coupled rings (wide and narrow) or dots with outer diameter of 200 nm and thicknesses ranging from 2–20 nm. Hysteresis loops, dipole–dipole and exchange energies are systematically calculated for the cases of the structures touching and the structures with a 50-nm inter-magnet separation; moreover, magnetization states along the hysteresis curve are analyzed. The results of both dot and ring D-magnets are compared with the corresponding individual magnets. Our results reveal that all D-ring (in contact and separated) arrays containing narrow rings exhibit non-null remanent magnetization; furthermore, higher coercive fields are promoted when the magnet thickness is increased. It is observed that the magnetization reversal is driven mainly by a clockwise rotation of onion-states, followed by states of frustrated vortices. Our results could help improve the understanding of the magnetic interactions in nanomagnet arrays.

  11. Structure of a RING E3 ligase and ubiquitin-loaded E2 primed for catalysis

    Plechanovová, Anna; Jaffray, Ellis; Tatham, Michael H.; Naismith, James H.; Hay, Ronald T.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Ubiquitin modification is mediated by a large family of specificity determining ubiquitin E3 ligases. To facilitate ubiquitin transfer, RING E3 ligases bind both substrate and a ubiquitin E2 conjugating enzyme linked to ubiquitin via a thioester bond, but the mechanism of transfer has remained elusive. Here we report the crystal structure of the dimeric RING of RNF4 in complex with E2 (UbcH5a) linked by an isopeptide bond to ubiquitin. While the E2 contacts a single protomer of the RING, ubiquitin is folded back onto the E2 by contacts from both RING protomers. The C-terminal tail of ubiquitin is locked into an active site groove on the E2 by an intricate network of interactions, resulting in changes at the E2 active site. This arrangement is primed for catalysis as it can deprotonate the incoming substrate lysine residue and stabilise the consequent tetrahedral transition state intermediate. PMID:22842904

  12. Strain distributions and electronic structure of three-dimensional InAs/GaAs quantum rings

    Liu Yu-Min; Yu Zhong-Yuan; Jia Bo-Yong; Xu Zi-Huan; Yao Wen-Jie; Chen Zhi-Hui; Lu Peng-Fei

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a finite element calculation for the electronic structure and strain distribution of self-organized InAs/GaAs quantum rings, The strain distribution calculations are based on the continuum elastic theory. An ideal three-dimensional circular quantum ring model is adopted in this work. The electron and heavy-hole energy levels of the InAs/GaAs quantum rings are calculated by solving the three-dimensional effective mass Schrodinger equation including the deformation potential and piezoelectric potential up to the second order induced by the strain. The calculated results show the importance of strain and piezoelectric effects, and these effects should be taken into consideration in analysis of the optoelectronic characteristics of strain quantum rings.

  13. Structure of the Mimas 5:3 Bending Wave in Saturn's Rings

    Sega, Daniel D.; Colwell, Josh E.

    2016-10-01

    Saturn's moon Mimas is on an inclined orbit with several strong vertical orbital resonances in Saturn's rings. The 5:3 inner vertical resonance with Mimas lies in the outer A ring and produces a prominent spiral bending wave (BW) that propagates away from Mimas. While dozens of density waves in Saturn's rings have been analyzed to determine local surface mass densities and viscosities, the number of bending waves is limited by the requirement for a moon on an inclined orbit and because, unlike the Lindblad resonances that excite density waves, there can be no first order vertical resonances. The Mimas 5:3 BW is the most prominent in the ring system. Bending wave theory was initially developed by Shu et al. (1983, Icarus, 53, 185-206) following the Voyager encounters with Saturn. Later, Gresh et al. (1986, Icarus, 68, 481-502) modeled radio science occultation data of the Mimas 5:3 BW with an imperfect fit to the theory. The multitude of high resolution stellar occultations observed by Cassini UVIS provides an opportunity to reconstruct the full three-dimensional structure of this wave and learn more about local ring properties. Occultations at high elevation angles out of the ring plane are insensitive to the wave structure due to the small angles of the vertical warping of the rings in the wave. They thus reveal the underlying structure in the wave region. There is a symmetric increase in optical depth throughout the Mimas 5:3 BW region. This may be due to an increase in the abundance of small particles without a corresponding increase in surface mass density. We include this feature in a ray-tracing model of the vertical structure of the wave and fit it to multiple UVIS occultations. The observed amplitude of the wave and its damping behavior of are not well-described by the Shu et al. model, which assumes a fluid-like damping mechanism. A different damping behavior of the ring, perhaps radially varying across the wave region due to differences in the particle

  14. Focusing and imaging properties of diffractive optical elements with star-ring topological structure

    Ke, Jie; Zhang, Junyong; Zhang, Yanli; Sun, Meizhi

    2015-08-01

    A kind of diffractive optical elements (DOE) with star-ring topological structure is proposed and their focusing and imaging properties are studied in detail. The so-called star-ring topological structure denotes that a large number of pinholes distributed in many specific zone orbits. In two dimensional plane, this structure can be constructed by two constrains, one is a mapping function, which yields total potential zone orbits, corresponding to the optical path difference (OPD); the other is a switching sequence based on the given encoded seed elements and recursion relation to operate the valid zone orbits. The focusing and imaging properties of DOE with star-ring topological structure are only determined by the aperiodic sequence, and not relevant to the concrete geometry structure. In this way, we can not only complete the traditional symmetrical DOE, such as circular Dammam grating, Fresnel zone plates, photon sieves, and their derivatives, but also construct asymmetrical elements with anisotropic diffraction pattern. Similarly, free-form surface or three dimensional DOE with star-ring topological structure can be constructed by the same method proposed. In consequence of smaller size, lighter weight, more flexible design, these elements may allow for some new applications in micro and nanphotonics.

  15. Incomplete cooling down of Saturn's A ring at solar equinox: Implication for seasonal thermal inertia and internal structure of ring particles

    Morishima, Ryuji; Brooks, Shawn; Deau, Estelle; Pilorz, Stu

    2015-01-01

    At the solar equinox in August 2009, the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) onboard Cassini showed the lowest Saturn's ring temperatures ever observed. Detailed radiative transfer models show that the observed equinox temperatures of Saturn's A ring are much higher than model predictions as long as only the flux from Saturn is taken into account. This indicates that the A ring was not completely cooled down at the equinox. We develop a simple seasonal model for ring temperatures and first assume that the internal density and the thermal inertia of a ring particle are uniform with depth. The particle size is estimated to be 1-2 m. The seasonal thermal inertia is found to be 30-50 Jm$^{-2}$K$^{-1}$s$^{-1/2}$ in the middle A ring whereas it is $\\sim$ 10 Jm$^{-2}$K$^{-1}$s$^{-1/2}$ or as low as the diurnal thermal inertia in the inner and outermost regions of the A ring. An additional internal structure model, in which a particle has a high density core surrounded by a fluffy regolith mantle, shows that the c...

  16. Geometric and electronic structures of (BeO)(N) (N = 2-12, 16, 20, and 24): rings, double rings, and cages.

    Ren, Lei; Cheng, Longjiu; Feng, Yan; Wang, Xuemei

    2012-07-07

    The structure of (BeO)(N) clusters (N = 2-12, 16, 20, and 24) are investigated using the method combining the genetic algorithm with density function theory. Benchmark calculation indicates that THSSh functional is reliable to predict the structures of (BeO)(N) cluster. The global minimum structures of (BeO)(N) clusters are rings up to N = 5, double rings at N = 6 and 7 and cages at N ≥ 8. Besides, almost all of the structures of (BeO)(N) cluster are aromatic according to the NICS criterion. Adaptive natural density partitioning analysis reveals that C(6), (BN)(3), and (BeO)(3) rings (C(24) and (BeO)(12) fullerenes) are similar in bonding patterns. The building-up principle of (BeO)(N) is different from that of covalent (BN) and ionic (LiF and MgO) clusters.

  17. Traffic Load on Interconnection Lines of Generalized Double Ring Network Structures

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Riaz, Muhammad Tahir; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2005-01-01

    consists of two planar rings, which are easily embedded by fiber or other wired solutions. It is shown that for large N2R structures, the interconnection lines carry notably lower loads than the other lines if shortest-path routing is used, and the effects of two other routing schemes are explored, leading...

  18. Irradiation tests of double-sided silicon strip detectors with a special guard ring structure

    Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Andricek, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Bauer, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Baumann, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Fox, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Halley, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Knoepfle, K.T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Kroha, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Richter, R.H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Riechmann, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Rietz, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Ruebsam, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Seywerd, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); St Denis, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    The results of the first irradiation tests of newly designed silicon microstrip detectors performed with 21 MeV protons at the Max-Planck-Institut in Heidelberg are presented. The detectors were developed and produced by the semiconductor laboratory of the Max-Planck-Institut in Munich. Novel guard ring structures allow operation of the detectors at voltages exceeding 300 V. (orig.)

  19. Body-insensitive Multi-Mode MIMO Terminal Antenna of Double-Ring Structure

    Zhao, Kun; Zhang, Shuai; Ishimiya, Katsunori;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel multimode multi-input multi-output (MIMO) antenna system composed of a dual-element MIMO cellular antenna and dual-element MIMO Wi-Fi antenna for mobile terminal applications. The antenna system has a double-ring structure and can be integrated with the metal fra...

  20. Reducing support loss in micromechanical ring resonators using phononic band-gap structures

    Hsu, Feng-Chia; Hsu, Jin-Chen; Huang, Tsun-Che; Wang, Chin-Hung; Chang, Pin

    2011-09-01

    In micromechanical resonators, energy loss via supports into the substrates may lead to a low quality factor. To eliminate the support loss, in this paper a phononic band-gap structure is employed. We demonstrate a design of phononic-crystal (PC) strips used to support extensional wine-glass mode ring resonators to increase the quality factor. The PC strips are introduced to stop elastic-wave propagation by the band-gap and deaf-band effects. Analyses of resonant characteristics of the ring resonators and the dispersion relations, eigenmodes, and transmission properties of the PC strips are presented. With the proposed resonator architecture, the finite-element simulations show that the leaky power is effectively reduced and the stored energy inside the resonators is enhanced simultaneously as the operating frequencies of the resonators are within the band gap or deaf bands. Realization of a high quality factor micromechanical ring resonator with minimized support loss is expected.

  1. Reducing support loss in micromechanical ring resonators using phononic band-gap structures

    Hsu, Feng-Chia; Huang, Tsun-Che; Wang, Chin-Hung; Chang, Pin [Industrial Technology Research Institute-South, Tainan 709, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Jin-Chen, E-mail: fengchiahsu@itri.org.t, E-mail: hsujc@yuntech.edu.t [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliou, Yunlin 64002, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-21

    In micromechanical resonators, energy loss via supports into the substrates may lead to a low quality factor. To eliminate the support loss, in this paper a phononic band-gap structure is employed. We demonstrate a design of phononic-crystal (PC) strips used to support extensional wine-glass mode ring resonators to increase the quality factor. The PC strips are introduced to stop elastic-wave propagation by the band-gap and deaf-band effects. Analyses of resonant characteristics of the ring resonators and the dispersion relations, eigenmodes, and transmission properties of the PC strips are presented. With the proposed resonator architecture, the finite-element simulations show that the leaky power is effectively reduced and the stored energy inside the resonators is enhanced simultaneously as the operating frequencies of the resonators are within the band gap or deaf bands. Realization of a high quality factor micromechanical ring resonator with minimized support loss is expected.

  2. Rings and spots in the structure of the cosmic background radiation

    Argueeso, F.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Sanz, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of a large-scale spherical mass concentration (or void) on the microwave and X-ray backgrounds is studied. Rings and spots in the sky patterns appear due to focusing of the photons, once the monopole and dipole amplitude have been subtracted to avoid contamination by local structures. It is shown how maps over the whole sky can help to identify such a dominant structure. 23 references.

  3. Combined Structural and Compositional Evolution of Planetary Rings Due to Micrometeoroid Impacts and Ballistic Transport

    Estrada, Paul R.; Durisen, Richard H.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Morgan, Demitri A.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce improved numerical techniques for simulating the structural and compositional evolution of planetary rings due to micrometeoroid bombardment and subsequent ballistic transport of impact ejecta. Our current, robust code is capable of modeling structural changes and pollution transport simultaneously over long times on both local and global scales. In this paper, we describe the methodology based on the original structural code of Durisen et al. (1989, Icarus 80, 136-166) and on the pollution transport code of Cuzzi and Estrada (1998, Icarus 132, 1-35). We provide demonstrative simulations to compare with, and extend upon previous work, as well as examples of how ballistic transport can maintain the observed structure in Saturn's rings using available Cassini occultation optical depth data. In particular, we explicitly verify the claim that the inner B (and presumably A) ring edge can be maintained over long periods of time due to an ejecta distribution that is heavily biased in the prograde direction through a balance between the sharpening effects of ballistic transport and the broadening effects of viscosity. We also see that a "ramp"-like feature forms over time just inside that edge. However, it does not remain linear for the duration of the runs presented here unless a less steep ejecta velocity distribution is adopted. We also model the C ring plateaus and find that their outer edges can be maintained at their observed sharpness for long periods due to ballistic transport. We hypothesize that the addition of a significant component of a retrograde-biased ejecta distribution may help explain the linearity of the ramp and is probably essential for maintaining the sharpness of C ring plateau inner edges. This component would arise for the subset of micrometeoroid impacts which are destructive rather than merely cratering. Such a distribution will be introduced in future work.

  4. ABCD2 identifies a subclass of peroxisomes in mouse adipose tissue.

    Liu, Xiaoxi; Liu, Jingjing; Lester, Joshua D; Pijut, Sonja S; Graf, Gregory A

    2015-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter D2 (D2) is an ABC half transporter that is thought to promote the transport of very long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs into peroxisomes. Both D2 and peroxisomes increase during adipogenesis. Although peroxisomes are essential to both catabolic and anabolic lipid metabolism, their function, and that of D2, in adipose tissues remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the D2 localization and the proteome of D2-containing organelles, in adipose tissue. Centrifugation of mouse adipose homogenates generated a fraction enriched with D2, but deficient in peroxisome markers including catalase, PEX19, and ABCD3 (D3). Electron microscopic imaging of this fraction confirmed the presence of D2 protein on an organelle with a dense matrix and a diameter of ∼ 200 nm, the typical structure and size of a microperoxisome. D2 and PEX19 antibodies recognized distinct structures in mouse adipose. Immunoisolation of the D2-containing compartment confirmed the scarcity of PEX19 and proteomic profiling revealed the presence of proteins associated with peroxisome, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and mitochondria. D2 is localized to a distinct class of peroxisomes that lack many peroxisome proteins, and may associate physically with mitochondria and the ER.

  5. G345.45+1.50: an expanding ring-like structure with massive star formation

    López-Calderón, Cristian; Bronfman, Leonardo; Nyman, Lars-Åke; Garay, Guido; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar; Bergman, Per

    2016-11-01

    Context. Ring-like structures in the interstellar medium (ISM) are commonly associated with high-mass stars. Kinematic studies of large structures in giant molecular clouds (GMCs) toward these ring-like structures may help us to understand how massive stars form. Aims: The origin and properties of the ring-like structure G345.45+1.50 is investigated through observations of the 13CO(3-2) line. The aim of the observations is to determine the kinematics in the region and to compare physical characteristics estimated from gas emission with those previously determined using dust continuum emission. This area in the sky is well suited for studies like this because the ring is located 1.5° above the Galactic plane at 1.8 kpc from the Sun, thus molecular structures are rarely superposed on our line of sight, which minimizes confusion effects that might hinder identifying of individual molecular condensations. Methods: The 13CO(3-2) line was mapped toward the whole ring using the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope. The observations cover 17' × 20' in the sky with a spatial resolution of 0.2 pc and an rms of 1 K at a spectral resolution of 0.1 km s-1. Results: The ring is found to be expanding with a velocity of 1.0 km s-1, containing a total mass of 6.9 × 103M⊙, which agrees well with that determined using 1.2 mm dust continuum emission. An expansion timescale of 3 × 106 yr and a total energy of 7 × 1046 erg are estimated. The origin of the ring might have been a supernova explosion, since a 35.5 cm source, J165920-400424, is located at the center of the ring without an infrared counterpart. The ring is fragmented, and 104 clumps were identified with diameters of between 0.3 and 1.6 pc, masses of between 2.3 and 7.5 × 102M⊙, and densities of between 102 and 104 cm-3. At least 18% of the clumps are forming stars, as is shown in infrared images. Assuming that the clumps can be modeled as Bonnor-Ebert spheres, 13 clumps are collapsing, and the rest of

  6. Traffic Load on Interconnection Lines of Generalized Double Ring Network Structures

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Riaz, Muhammad Tahir; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2004-01-01

    Generalized Double Ring (N2R) network structures possess a number of good properties, but being not planar they are hard to physically embed in communication networks. However, if some of the lines, the interconnection lines, are implemented by wireless technologies, the remaining structure...... consists of two planar rings, which are easily embedded by fiber or other wired solutions. It is shown that for large N2R structures, the interconnection lines carry notably lower loads than the other lines if shortest-path routing is used, and the effects of two other routing schemes are explored, leading...... to lower load on interconnection lines at the price of larger efficient average distance and diameter....

  7. Correlation between magnetic spin structure and the three-dimensional geometry in chemically synthesized nanoscale magnetite rings

    Eltschka, M.; Klaui, M.; Rudiger, U;

    2008-01-01

    The correlation between magnetic spin structure and geometry in nanoscale chemically synthesized Fe3O4 rings has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy. We find primarily the flux closure vortex states but in rings with thickness variations, an effective stray field occurs. Using....... The interaction between exchange coupled rings leads to antiparallel vortex states and extended onion states. (c) 2008 American Institute of Physics....

  8. Asymmetric ring structure of Vps4 required for ESCRT-III disassembly

    Caillat, Christophe; Macheboeuf, Pauline; Wu, Yuanfei; McCarthy, Andrew A.; Boeri-Erba, Elisabetta; Effantin, Gregory; Göttlinger, Heinrich G.; Weissenhorn, Winfried; Renesto, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    The vacuolar protein sorting 4 AAA-ATPase (Vps4) recycles endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT-III) polymers from cellular membranes. Here we present a 3.6-Å X-ray structure of ring-shaped Vps4 from Metallosphera sedula (MsVps4), seen as an asymmetric pseudohexamer. Conserved key interface residues are shown to be important for MsVps4 assembly, ATPase activity in vitro, ESCRT-III disassembly in vitro and HIV-1 budding. ADP binding leads to conformational changes within the protomer, which might propagate within the ring structure. All ATP-binding sites are accessible and the pseudohexamer binds six ATP with micromolar affinity in vitro. In contrast, ADP occupies one high-affinity and five low-affinity binding sites in vitro, consistent with conformational asymmetry induced on ATP hydrolysis. The structure represents a snapshot of an assembled Vps4 conformation and provides insight into the molecular motions the ring structure undergoes in a concerted action to couple ATP hydrolysis to ESCRT-III substrate disassembly.

  9. Time structure measurement of the SSRF storage ring using TRXEOL method

    张招红; 姜政; 薛松; 郑丽芳

    2015-01-01

    In order to do alignment between the timing signal and the synchrotron X-ray pulse on the sample spot in the time domain, measuring time structure of the storage ring on the sample spot inside the experimental hutch is a foundational step during the time-resolved experiments using the pulsed synchrotron X-rays with the time structure defined by the storage ring. In this work, the method of time-resolved X-ray excited optical luminescence (TRXEOL) was designed and implemented to do the measurement. It is based on the principle of time-correlated single photon counting techniques. The measurement system consists of a spectrometer with a detector of photomultiplier tube, a timing system, a set of nuclear instrument modules and a luminescent material of zinc oxide. The measurement was performed on the X-ray absorbed fine structure spectrum beamline at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The results show that this method can be used to measure the time structure of the storage ring with a precision of less than 1 ns. The measurement system can also be used for the time-resolved research for the optical luminescent materials.

  10. Electronic structures of GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs quantum double rings

    Li Shu-Shen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn the framework of effective mass envelope function theory, the electronic structures of GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs quantum double rings (QDRs are studied. Our model can be used to calculate the electronic structures of quantum wells, wires, dots, and the single ring. In calculations, the effects due to the different effective masses of electrons and holes in GaAs and AlxGa1-xAs and the valence band mixing are considered. The energy levels of electrons and holes are calculated for different shapes of QDRs. The calculated results are useful in designing and fabricating the interrelated photoelectric devices. The single electron states presented here are useful for the study of the electron correlations and the effects of magnetic fields in QDRs.

  11. Comparison of Ring Current and Radiation Belt Responses during Transient Solar Wind Structures

    Mulligan, T. L.; Roeder, J. L.; Lemon, C.; Fennell, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    The analysis of radiation belt dynamics provides insight into the physical mechanisms of trapping, energization, and loss of energetic particles in the magnetosphere. It is well known that the storm-time ring current response to solar wind drivers changes the magnetic field in the inner magnetosphere, which modifies radiation belt particle trajectories as well as the magnetopause and geomagnetic cutoff locations. What is not well known is the detailed space-time structure of solar wind transient features that drive the dynamics of the ring-current and radiation belt response. We compare observed responses of the ring current and radiation belts during two geomagnetic storms of similar intensity on 15 November 2012 and 29 June 2013. Using the self-consistent ring current model RCM-Equilibrium (RCM-E), which ensures a force-balanced ring-current response at each time step, we generate a simulated ring current in response to the changing conditions as the storm evolves on a timescale of hours. Observations of the plasma sheet particles, fields, and solar wind parameters are used to specify the dynamic boundary conditions as the storm evolves. This allows more realistic magnetospheric field and plasma dynamics during solar wind transients than can be obtained from existing empirical models. Using a spatial mapping algorithm developed by Mulligan et al., (2012) we create two-dimensional contour maps of the solar wind bulk plasma parameters using ACE, Wind, Geotail, and THEMIS data to quantitatively follow upstream spatial variations in the radial and azimuthal dimensions driving the storm. We perform a comparison of how the structure and impact angle of the solar wind transients affect the intensity and duration of energization of the ring current and radiation belt at various energies. We also investigate how the varying geomagnetic conditions determined by the solar wind affect dominant loss mechanisms such as magnetopause shadowing. Comparison of energetic particle

  12. Design Low Crosstalk Ring-Slot Array Structure for Label-Free Multiplexed Sensing

    Lijun Huang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We theoretically demonstrate a low crosstalk ring-slot array structure used for label-free multiplexed sensing. The proposed sensors array is based on an array of three ring-slot and input/output line defect coupling waveguides. Each ring-slot cavity has slightly different cavity spacing and different resonant frequency. Results obtained using two dimensional finite-difference time-domain (2D-FDTD simulation indicate that the resonant frequencies of each sensor unit in response to the refractive index variations are independent. The refractive index sensitivity is 134 ~ 145.5 nm/RIU (refractive index unit and the Q factors more than 104 can be achieved. The calculated detect limit lower than 1.13 × 10−4 RIU is obtained. In addition, an extremely small crosstalk lower than −25.8 dB is achieved among the array of three ring-slot cavities. The results demonstrate that this multiplexed sensor array is a promising platform for integrated optical devices and enables highly parallel label-free detection.

  13. Ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases involved in PAH biodegradation : structure, function, biodiversity

    Jouanneau, Yves; Martin, Florence; Krivobok, Serge; Willison, John Christopher

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The first step in the biodegradation of PAHs by aerobic bacteria is catalyzed by metalloenzymes known as ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (RHDs). Because of the hydrophobic nature and chemical resistance of PAHs, their initial attack by RHDs is a difficult reaction, which is critical to the whole degradation process. This chapter gives an overview of the current knowledge on the genetics, structure, catalytic mechanism and diversity of RHDs involved in PAH degradation. ...

  14. Formation of irregular rings in silica aerogel structure during the sintering process

    Hinić Ivana I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of low-density, highly disordered silica aerogel with initial bulk density of 0.16 g/cm3, were sintered isothermally in different time intervals at 1000ºC. Structural changes during the sintering process have been investigated by Raman spectroscopy. Defect modes of irregular three and four membered rings were observed in the Raman spectra of sintered samples.

  15. Synchronization of Coupled Chaotic Systems with Ring Connection Based on Special Antisymmetric Structure

    Xiangyong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the complete synchronization problem for coupled chaotic systems with ring connections. First, we use a direct design method to design a synchronization controller. It transforms the error system into a stable system with special antisymmetric structure. And then, we get some simple stability criteria of achieving the complete synchronization. These criteria are not only easily verified but also improve and generalize previous known results. Finally, numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis.

  16. Design summary of the magnet support structures for the proton storage ring injection line upgrade

    Bernardin, J.D.; Ledford, J.E.; Smith, B.G.

    1997-05-01

    This report summarizes the technical engineering and design issues associated with the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) Injection Line upgrade of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). The main focus is on the engineering design calculations of several magnet support structures. The general procedure based upon a set number of design criteria is outlined, followed by a case-by-case summary of the engineering design analyses, reutilization or fabrication callouts and design safety factors.

  17. A hetero-structured ring discovered by CAS nano-scientists

    2007-01-01

    @@ Teaming up with co-workers,researchers from the CAS-affiliated National Center for Nanoscience and Technology(NCNST) recently succeeded in fabricating a hetero-structured nano-ring in their laboratory. The feat, scientist believe, would be valuable for developing new optical or electronic nano-elements and related devices in the near future.The work was recently reported by Advanced Materials (Vol. 19, 2319-2323, 2007).

  18. A mathematical analysis of the ABCD criteria for diagnosing malignant melanoma

    Lee, Hyunju; Kwon, Kiwoon

    2017-03-01

    The medical community currently employs the ABCD (asymmetry, border irregularity, color variegation, and diameter of the lesion) criteria in the early diagnosis of a malignant melanoma. Although many image segmentation and classification methods are used to analyze the ABCD criteria, it is rare to see a study containing mathematical justification of the parameters that are used to quantify the ABCD criteria. In this paper, we suggest new parameters to assess asymmetry, border irregularity, and color variegation, and explain the mathematical meaning of the parameters. The suggested parameters are then tested with 24 skin samples. The parameters suggested for the 24 skin samples are displayed in three-dimensional coordinates and are compared to those presented in other studies (Ercal et al 1994 IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 41 837–45, Cheerla and Frazier 2014 Int. J. Innovative Res. Sci., Eng. Technol. 3 9164–83) in terms of Pearson correlation coefficient and classification accuracy in determining the malignancy of the lesions.

  19. Structural basis for the RING catalyzed synthesis of K63 linked ubiquitin chains

    Branigan, Emma; Plechanovová, Anna; Jaffray, Ellis; Naismith, James H.; Hay, Ronald T.

    2015-01-01

    The RING E3 ligase catalysed formation of lysine 63 linked ubiquitin chains by the Ube2V2–Ubc13 E2 complex is required for many important biological processes. Here we report the structure of the RING domain dimer of rat RNF4 in complex with a human Ubc13~Ub conjugate and Ube2V2. The structure has captured Ube2V2 bound to the acceptor (priming) ubiquitin with Lys63 in a position that could lead to attack on the linkage between the donor (second) ubiquitin and Ubc13 that is held in the active “folded back” conformation by the RING domain of RNF4. The interfaces identified in the structure were verified by in vitro ubiquitination assays of site directed mutants. This represents the first view of the synthesis of Lys63 linked ubiquitin chains in which both substrate ubiquitin and ubiquitin-loaded E2 are juxtaposed to allow E3 ligase mediated catalysis. PMID:26148049

  20. Molecular structure, interatomic interactions and vibrational analysis of 1,4-diazabicyclo[3.2.1]octane parent ring system

    Britvin, Sergey N.; Rumyantsev, Andrey M.; Zobnina, Anastasia E.; Padkina, Marina V.

    2017-02-01

    Molecular structure of 1,4-diazabicyclo[3.2.1]octane, a parent ring of TAN1251 family of alkaloids, is herein characterized for the first time in comparison with the structure of nortropane (8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane), the parent framework of tropane ring system. The methods of study involve X-ray structural analysis, DFT geometry optimizations with infrared frequency calculations followed by natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis, and vibrational analysis of infrared spectrum.

  1. Ringed Structures of the HD 163296 Protoplanetary Disk Revealed by ALMA

    Isella, Andrea; Guidi, Greta; Testi, Leonardo; Liu, Shangfei; Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai; Weaver, Erik; Boehler, Yann; Carperter, John M.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar; Manara, Carlo F.; Natta, Antonella; Pérez, Laura M.; Ricci, Luca; Sargent, Anneila; Tazzari, Marco; Turner, Neal

    2016-12-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter and Submillimeter Array observations of the protoplanetary disk around the Herbig Ae star HD 163296 that trace the spatial distribution of millimeter-sized particles and cold molecular gas on spatial scales as small as 25 astronomical units (A.U.). The image of the disk recorded in the 1.3 mm continuum emission reveals three dark concentric rings that indicate the presence of dust depleted gaps at about 60, 100, and 160 A.U. from the central star. The maps of the 12CO, 13CO, and C 18O J =2 -1 emission do not show such structures but reveal a change in the slope of the radial intensity profile across the positions of the dark rings in the continuum image. By comparing the observations with theoretical models for the disk emission, we find that the density of CO molecules is reduced inside the middle and outer dust gaps. However, in the inner ring there is no evidence of CO depletion. From the measurements of the dust and gas densities, we deduce that the gas-to-dust ratio varies across the disk and, in particular, it increases by at least a factor 5 within the inner dust gap compared to adjacent regions of the disk. The depletion of both dust and gas suggests that the middle and outer rings could be due to the gravitational torque exerted by two Saturn-mass planets orbiting at 100 and 160 A.U. from the star. On the other hand, the inner dust gap could result from dust accumulation at the edge of a magnetorotational instability dead zone, or from dust opacity variations at the edge of the CO frost line. Observations of the dust emission at higher angular resolution and of molecules that probe dense gas are required to establish more precisely the origins of the dark rings observed in the HD 163296 disk.

  2. Ringed Structures of the HD 163296 Protoplanetary Disk Revealed by ALMA.

    Isella, Andrea; Guidi, Greta; Testi, Leonardo; Liu, Shangfei; Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai; Weaver, Erik; Boehler, Yann; Carperter, John M; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar; Manara, Carlo F; Natta, Antonella; Pérez, Laura M; Ricci, Luca; Sargent, Anneila; Tazzari, Marco; Turner, Neal

    2016-12-16

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter and Submillimeter Array observations of the protoplanetary disk around the Herbig Ae star HD 163296 that trace the spatial distribution of millimeter-sized particles and cold molecular gas on spatial scales as small as 25 astronomical units (A.U.). The image of the disk recorded in the 1.3 mm continuum emission reveals three dark concentric rings that indicate the presence of dust depleted gaps at about 60, 100, and 160 A.U. from the central star. The maps of the ^{12}CO, ^{13}CO, and C^{18}O J=2-1 emission do not show such structures but reveal a change in the slope of the radial intensity profile across the positions of the dark rings in the continuum image. By comparing the observations with theoretical models for the disk emission, we find that the density of CO molecules is reduced inside the middle and outer dust gaps. However, in the inner ring there is no evidence of CO depletion. From the measurements of the dust and gas densities, we deduce that the gas-to-dust ratio varies across the disk and, in particular, it increases by at least a factor 5 within the inner dust gap compared to adjacent regions of the disk. The depletion of both dust and gas suggests that the middle and outer rings could be due to the gravitational torque exerted by two Saturn-mass planets orbiting at 100 and 160 A.U. from the star. On the other hand, the inner dust gap could result from dust accumulation at the edge of a magnetorotational instability dead zone, or from dust opacity variations at the edge of the CO frost line. Observations of the dust emission at higher angular resolution and of molecules that probe dense gas are required to establish more precisely the origins of the dark rings observed in the HD 163296 disk.

  3. Eight novel mutations in theABCD1 gene and clinical characteristics of 25 Chinese patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy

    Shan-Shan Chu; Jun Ye; Hui-Wen Zhang; Lian-Shu Han; Wen-Juan Qiu; Xiao-Lan Gao; Xue-Fan Gu

    2015-01-01

    Background: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette D1 (ABCD1) gene. This study aimed to retrospectively investigate the clinical characteristics of 25 patients with X-ALD including members of large pedigrees, to analyzeABCD1 gene mutations, the effect of gene novel variants on ALD protein (ALDP) structure and function, and to expand gene mutation spectrum of Chinese patients. Methods: Twenty-five male patients diagnosed with X-ALD were enrolled in this study. The clinical characteristics of the patients were retrospectively summarized by reviewing medical records or telephone consultation.ABCD1 gene mutations were analyzed. The pathogenicity of novel missense variants was analyzed using cobalt constraint-based multiple protein alignment tool, polymorphism phenotyping, sorting intolerant from tolerant, Align-Grantham variation and Grantham deviation, and Swiss-Program Database Viewer 4.04 software, respectively. Results: Childhood cerebral form ALD (CCALD) is the most common phenotype (64%) in the 25 patients with X-ALD. The progressive deterioration of neurological and cognitive functions is the main clinical feature. The demyelination of the brain white matter and elevated plasma very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) were found in all patients. Different phenotypes were also presented within family members of the patients. Twenty-two different mutations including 8 novel mutations in theABCD1 gene were identifi ed in the 25 patients. Of the mutations, 63.6% were missense mutations and 34.8% located in exon 1. The amino acid residues of three novel missense mutations in eight species were highly conserved, and were predicted to be "probably" damaging to ALDP function. The other five novel mutations were splice, nonsense, deletion or duplication mutations. Conclusions: CCALD is the most common phenotype (64%) in our patients with X-ALD. Eight novel mutations in theABCD

  4. Stereochemical basis for a unified structure activity theory of aromatic and heterocyclic rings in selected opioids and opioid peptides.

    Goldberg, Joel S

    2010-02-18

    This paper presents a novel unified theory of the structure activity relationship of opioids and opioid peptides. It is hypothesized that a virtual or known heterocyclic ring exists in all opioids which have activity in humans, and this ring occupies relative to the aromatic ring of the drug, approximately the same plane in space as the piperidine ring of morphine. Since the rings of morphine are rigid, and the aromatic and piperidine rings are critical structural components for morphine's analgesic properties, the rigid morphine molecule allows for approximations of the aromatic and heterocyclic relationships in subsequent drug models where bond rotations are common. This hypothesis and five propositions are supported by stereochemistry and experimental observations.Proposition #1 The structure of morphine provides a template. Proposition #2 Steric hindrance of some centric portion of the piperidine ring explains antagonist properties of naloxone, naltrexone and alvimopam. Proposition #3 Methadone has an active conformation which contains a virtual heterocyclic ring which explains its analgesic activity and racemic properties. Proposition #4 The piperidine ring of fentanyl can assume the morphine position under conditions of nitrogen inversion. Proposition #5 The first 3 amino acid sequences of beta endorphin (l-try-gly-gly) and the active opioid dipeptide, l-tyr-pro, (as a result of a peptide turn and zwitterion bonding) form a virtual piperazine-like ring which is similar in size, shape and location to the heterocyclic rings of morphine, meperidine, and methadone. Potential flaws in this theory are discussed.This theory could be important for future analgesic drug design.

  5. Remote sensing observations of the coherent and non-coherent ring structures in the vicinity of Lesser Antilles

    R. C. Cruz Gómez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The North Brazil Current Rings (NBCR penetration into the Caribbean Sea is being investigated by employing a merged altimeter-derived sea height anomaly (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and ERS-1, 2, the ocean surface color data (SeaWiFS and Global Drifter Program information. Four strategies are being applied to process the data: (1 calculations of the Okubo-Weiss parameter for NBCR identification, (2 longitude-time plots (also known as Hovmöller diagrams, (3 two-dimensional Radon transforms and (4 two-dimensional Fourier transforms.

    A twofold NBCR structure has been detected in the region under investigation. The results have shown that NBC rings mainly propagate into the Caribbean Sea along two principal pathways (near 12° N and 17° N in the ring translation corridor. Thus, rings following the southern pathway in the fall-winter period can enter through very shallow southern straits as non-coherent structures. A different behavior is observed near the northern pathway (~17° N, where NBC rings are thought to have a coherent structure during their squeezing into the eastern Caribbean, i.e. conserving the principal characteristics of the incident rings. We attribute this difference in the rings' behavior to the vertical scales of the rings and to the bottom topography features in the vicinity of the Lesser Antilles.

  6. A "diamond-ring" star: the unusual morphologic structure of a young (multiple?) object

    Yun, Joao L; Santos-Nuño C

    2007-01-01

    We have observed IRAS06468-0325 obtaining optical and infrared images through IJHKs and L' filters, K-band low-resolution spectroscopy, together with millimetre line observations of CO and CS. IRAS06468-0325 has a very unusual and enigmatic morphology with two components: a bright, close to point-like source (the diamond) and a sharp-edge ring-like structure (the ring). The source is not detected in the optical, at wavelengths shorter than the I-band. The diamond is seen in all the imaging bands observed. The ring-like structure in IRAS06468-0325 is clearly seen in the I, J, H, and Ks. It is not detected in the L'-band image. Infrared colours of the diamond are compatible with excess circumstellar emission and a young stellar nature. A strongly non-gaussian and moderately bright CO(1-0) and {13}CO(2-1) lines are seen towards IRAS06468-0325, at v_{LSR} of 30.5 km s{-1} (corresponding to a kinematic distance of 3 kpc). Very weak C{18}O(2-1) and CS(2-1) lines were detected. K-band spectra of the diamond and of t...

  7. Electron correlation in C (4N+2) carbon rings aromatic vs. dimerized structures

    Torelli, T; Torelli, Tommaso; Mitas, Lubos

    2000-01-01

    The electronic structure of C_(4N+2) carbon rings exhibits competing many-body effects of Huckel aromaticity, second-order Jahn-Teller and Peierls instability at large sizes. This leads to possible ground state structures with aromatic, bond angle or bond length alternated geometry. Highly accurate quantum Monte Carlo results indicate the existence of a crossover between C_10 and C_14 from bond angle to bond length alternation. The aromatic isomer is always a transition state. The driving mechanism is the second-order Jahn-Teller effect which keeps the gap open at all sizes.

  8. Conformational transformations of sulfur-containing rings: 2-methyltetrahydrothiophene gas-phase structures.

    Van, Vinh; Dindic, Christina; Nguyen, Ha Vinh Lam; Stahl, Wolfgang

    2015-02-02

    Stable conformations of five-member rings with the prototype cyclopentane are well-known to exist as twist or envelope structures and are of general interest in chemistry. Here, we report on the conformational analysis of the sulfur-containing ring 2-methyltetrahydrothiophene studied by a combination of molecular beam Fourier transform microwave (MB-FTMW) spectroscopy and quantum chemistry. Two twist conformers were observed, whereby highly accurate molecular parameters could be determined. In addition, the (34) S-isotopologue of the most stable conformer was assigned in natural abundances. Geometry optimizations were performed at different levels of theory and the calculated rotational constants were compared with experimental values. Two transition states optimized at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level using the Berny algorithm could illustrate the intramolecular conversion between both conformers.

  9. Radiation effects on floating rings of voltage terminating structure in Si p-on-n detectors

    Eremin, V. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Egorov, N. [Research Institute of Material Science and Technology, 124460 Zelenograd, Moscow (Russian Federation); Eremin, I. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Fadeeva, N. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Saint Petersburg Electrotechnical University “LETI”, 197376 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Verbitskaya, E., E-mail: elena.verbitskaya@cern.ch [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-01

    In the 1990s a suggestion was put forward that the space charge limited current mechanism is responsible for stabilization of the I–V characteristics in irradiated Si p-on-n detectors. This mechanism is switched on in the case of high concentration of radiation induced deep traps which via holes accumulation will reduce the electric field in the regions of breakdown. The present study shows that voltage terminating structure (VTS) consisting of the floating p{sup +} rings as a main element for stabilization of I–V characteristics in nonirradiated detectors is still active being irradiated to the fluence beyond space charge sign inversion. This characteristic of VTS can be accounted for by the double peak electric field distribution in heavily irradiated detectors and the punch-through mechanism of current flow between the floating p{sup +} rings in the silicon bulk with high concentration of deep traps. It is shown that VTS operates as a potential divider up to the fluence of 1×10{sup 15} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} and it is at higher fluences that the detector stability is maintained only by the space charge limited current mechanism. -- Highlights: •Voltage terminating structure (VTS) operation in Si irradiated detector is studied. •Ring potentials and interring I–V characteristics are measured up to 1×10{sup 15} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. •Double peak electric field maintains VTS action after space charge sign inversion. •VTS operates as a potential divider up to fluence 5×10{sup 14} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. •At fluence 1×10{sup 15} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} VTS operation fails and it operates as a single ring.

  10. Multi-cell disk-and-ring tapered structure for compact RF linacs

    Smirnov, A. V.; Boucher, S.; Kutsaev, S.; Hartzell, J.; Savin, E.

    2016-09-01

    A tubular disk-and-ring, tapered accelerating structure for small electron linacs and MicroLinacs is considered. It consists of metal and dielectric elements inserted into a metallic tube to eliminate multi-cell, multi-step brazing. The structure enables a wide range of phase velocities (including non-relativistic), a wide bandwidth allowing large number of cells (for standing wave mode) or short filling time (for traveling wave mode), combination of compensated and purely π-mode cells, alternative periodic focusing built-in to the RF structure (the disks), and combining of RF and vacuum windows. RF and accelerating performance of such a long structure having up to four dozens cells is analyzed. Some of beam dynamics, thermal, and vacuum aspects of the structure and MicroLinac performance are considered as well.

  11. Structural design of 3m class ground based telescope elevation ring

    Tan, Yufeng; Wang, Jihong; Ren, Ge; Xie, Zongliang; Zhu, Fuyin; Jiang, Chuan

    2016-10-01

    In order to improve the dynamic stiffness of telescope mount, the accuracy of aiming and stability of optical system, a topology optimization method based on the theory of variable density and taking maximum stiffness as objective function is studied. In the topology optimization analysis of elevation ring, one of the most important members of the telescope mount, two kinds of structural are designed: one is a traditional plate welding structure and the other is a combination of plate welding and truss welding. Furthermore, the stiffness and modal performance of the elevation ring in different performances are analyzed and compared. The results show that in meeting the strength and stiffness of the premise, the mass of elevation ring with plate welding and truss welding is 7.00T and the moment of inertia is 11.94 t•m2. What`s more, the total deformation in the horizontal direction and the zenith direction are 6.70μm and 55.86μm, respectively; the stress is within stress range of material's promise; the modal is 105.9Hz.Compared with the traditional structural with plate welding, this new structural design approached to ensure the dynamic stiffness while effectively reducing its own weight with reduction rate 10.7% and moments of inertia with reduction rate 12.3%. This new structural of plate welding and truss welding has obvious advantages in lightweight design. This new design method based on topology optimization will provide efficient help to later components design of the telescope mount.

  12. ABCD2 identifies a subclass of peroxisomes in mouse adipose tissue

    Liu, Xiaoxi, E-mail: xiaoxi.liu@uky.edu; Liu, Jingjing, E-mail: jingjing.liu0@gmail.com; Lester, Joshua D., E-mail: joshua.lester@uky.edu; Pijut, Sonja S., E-mail: srhee2@uky.edu; Graf, Gregory A., E-mail: Gregory.Graf@uky.edu

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • We examined the D2 localization and the proteome of D2-containing compartment in mouse adipose tissue. • We confirmed the presence of D2 on a subcellular compartment that has typical structure as a microperoxisome. • We demonstrated the scarcity of peroxisome markers on D2-containing compartment. • The D2-containing compartment may be a subpopulation of peroxisome in mouse adipose tissue. • Proteomic data suggests potential association between D2-containing compartment and mitochondria and ER. - Abstract: ATP-binding cassette transporter D2 (D2) is an ABC half transporter that is thought to promote the transport of very long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs into peroxisomes. Both D2 and peroxisomes increase during adipogenesis. Although peroxisomes are essential to both catabolic and anabolic lipid metabolism, their function, and that of D2, in adipose tissues remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the D2 localization and the proteome of D2-containing organelles, in adipose tissue. Centrifugation of mouse adipose homogenates generated a fraction enriched with D2, but deficient in peroxisome markers including catalase, PEX19, and ABCD3 (D3). Electron microscopic imaging of this fraction confirmed the presence of D2 protein on an organelle with a dense matrix and a diameter of ∼200 nm, the typical structure and size of a microperoxisome. D2 and PEX19 antibodies recognized distinct structures in mouse adipose. Immunoisolation of the D2-containing compartment confirmed the scarcity of PEX19 and proteomic profiling revealed the presence of proteins associated with peroxisome, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and mitochondria. D2 is localized to a distinct class of peroxisomes that lack many peroxisome proteins, and may associate physically with mitochondria and the ER.

  13. Neutrosophic LA-Semigroup Rings

    Mumtaz Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrosophic LA-semigroup is a midway structure between a neutrosophic groupoid and a commutative neutrosophic semigroup. Rings are the old concept in algebraic structures. We combine the neutrosophic LA-semigroup and ring together to form the notion of neutrosophic LA-semigroup ring. Neutrosophic LAsemigroup ring is defined analogously to neutrosophic group ring and neutrosophic semigroup ring.

  14. UWB Band-notched Adjustable Antenna Using Concentric Split-ring Slots Structure

    Yin, Y.; Hong, J. S.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a kind of concentric split-ring slots structure is utilized to design a novel triple-band-notched UWB antenna. Firstly, a concentric split-ring slots structure that has a higher VSWR than that of a single slot at notch frequency is presented. What's more, the structure is very simple and feasible to obtain notched-band at different frequency by adjustment of the length of slot. Secondly, a triple-band-notched antenna, whose notched bands are at 3.52-3.81 GHz for WiMAX and 5.03-5.42 GHz and 5.73-56.17 GHz for WLAN, is designed by using this structure. At last, a compact size of 24 × 30 mm2 of the proposed antenna has been fabricated and measured and it is shown that the proposed antenna has a broadband matched impedance (3.05-14 GHz, VSWR < 2), relatively stable gain and good omnidirectional radiation patterns at low bands.

  15. Static and dynamic properties of polymer brush with topological ring structures: Molecular dynamic simulation

    Wan, Wu-Bing; Lv, Hong-Hong; Merlitz, Holger; Wu, Chen-Xu

    2016-10-01

    By defining a topological constraint value (rn), the static and dynamic properties of a polymer brush composed of moderate or short chains with different topological ring structures are studied using molecular dynamics simulation, and a comparison with those of linear polymer brush is also made. For the center-of-mass height of the ring polymer brush scaled by chain length h ˜ N ν , there is no significant difference of exponent from that of a linear brush in the small topological constraint regime. However, as the topological constraint becomes stronger, one obtains a smaller exponent. It is found that there exists a master scaling power law of the total stretching energy scaled by chain length N for moderate chain length regime, F ene ˜ Nρ ν , for ring polymer brushes, but with a larger exponent ν than 5/6, indicating an influence of topological constraint to the dynamic properties of the system. A topological invariant of free energy scaled by 5/4 is found. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374243 and 11574256).

  16. Reusable Solid Rocket Motor - V(RSRMV)Nozzle Forward Nose Ring Thermo-Structural Modeling

    Clayton, J. Louie

    2012-01-01

    During the developmental static fire program for NASAs Reusable Solid Rocket Motor-V (RSRMV), an anomalous erosion condition appeared on the nozzle Carbon Cloth Phenolic nose ring that had not been observed in the space shuttle RSRM program. There were regions of augmented erosion located on the bottom of the forward nose ring (FNR) that measured nine tenths of an inch deeper than the surrounding material. Estimates of heating conditions for the RSRMV nozzle based on limited char and erosion data indicate that the total heat loading into the FNR, for the new five segment motor, is about 40-50% higher than the baseline shuttle RSRM nozzle FNR. Fault tree analysis of the augmented erosion condition has lead to a focus on a thermomechanical response of the material that is outside the existing experience base of shuttle CCP materials for this application. This paper provides a sensitivity study of the CCP material thermo-structural response subject to the design constraints and heating conditions unique to the RSRMV Forward Nose Ring application. Modeling techniques are based on 1-D thermal and porous media calculations where in-depth interlaminar loading conditions are calculated and compared to known capabilities at elevated temperatures. Parameters such as heat rate, in-depth pressures and temperature, degree of char, associated with initiation of the mechanical removal process are quantified and compared to a baseline thermo-chemical material removal mode. Conclusions regarding postulated material loss mechanisms are offered.

  17. Application of ABCD Formalism in Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Actively Modelocked Fiber Laser

    2002-01-01

    Time domain ABCD matrix formalism is a useful model for analyzing the characteristics of actively modelocked fiber laser. Based on this model and given more consideration on the influences of optical fiber dispersion and optical fiber nonlinearity, the laser characteristic of actively modelocked fiber laser is analyzed, and the comparision of the theoretical analysis results with experimental ones is given.

  18. Initial assessment and treatment with the Airway, Breathing, Circulation, Disability, Exposure (ABCDE approach

    Thim T

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Troels Thim1,2, Niels Henrik Vinther Krarup1,4, Erik Lerkevang Grove1, Claus Valter Rohde3, Bo Løfgren1,41Department of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Regional Hospital of Randers, Randers, 3Department of Anestesiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 4Research Center for Emergency Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, DenmarkAbstract: The Airway, Breathing, Circulation, Disability, Exposure (ABCDE approach is applicable in all clinical emergencies for immediate assessment and treatment. The approach is widely accepted by experts in emergency medicine and likely improves outcomes by helping health care professionals focusing on the most life-threatening clinical problems. In an acute setting, high-quality ABCDE skills among all treating team members can save valuable time and improve team performance. Dissemination of knowledge and skills related to the ABCDE approach are therefore needed. This paper offers a practical “how-to” description of the ABCDE approach.Keywords: emergency medicine, general medicine, internal medicine, multiple trauma, multiple injury

  19. Special Features of the Advanced Loans Module of the ABCD Integrated Library System

    de Smet, Egbert

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The "advanced loans" module of the relatively new library software, ABCD, is an addition to the normal loans module and it offers a "generic transaction decision-making engine" functionality. The module requires extra installation effort and parameterisation, so this article aims to explain to the many potentially interested libraries,…

  20. Ring blowers. Ring blower

    Nakahara, Y.; Okamura, T.; Takahashi, M. (Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-06-10

    Features, structures and several products of ring blowers were outlined. The ring blower is featured by its medium characteristics because it is higher in air pressure than a turboblower and larger in airflow than a vane blower, and it is applicable flexibly to not only air blasting but various industrial fields such as suction transfer. As several products corresponding to various fields, the followings were outlined: the low noise type with optimum shapes of inlet, outlet and casing cover for reducing noises by 10 dB or more, the heat resistant, water-tight and explosion-proof types suitable for severe environmental conditions, the multi-voltage type for every country served at different voltages, the high air pressure type with two pressure rise stages, and the large airflow type with a wide impeller. In addition, as special use products, the glass fiber reinforced unsatulated polyester ring blower for respiration apparatus, and the variable speed blushless DC motor-driven one for medical beds were outlined. 2 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Effects of molecular structure parameters on ring-openingreaction of benzoxazines

    2001-01-01

    A colorless monoclinic crystal of dichloro-benzoxazine was obtained and examined bysingle crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. At the same time, molecular modeling analysis of ninebenzoxazine compounds with different substituting groups was performed. Both single crystalX-ray diffraction analysis and molecular modeling analysis provide a detailed picture of molecularstructure on molecular level and show good consistence with each other. On the basis of structuralanalysis, the effects of molecular structure parameters on ring-opening polymerization of ben-zoxazines have been explored.

  2. Dynamical stability analysis of delayed recurrent neural networks with ring structure

    Zhang, Huaguang; Huang, Yujiao; Cai, Tiaoyang; Wang, Zhanshan

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, multistability is discussed for delayed recurrent neural networks with ring structure and multi-step piecewise linear activation functions. Sufficient criteria are obtained to check the existence of multiple equilibria. A lemma is proposed to explore the number and the cross-direction of purely imaginary roots for the characteristic equation, which corresponds to the neural network model. Stability of all of equilibria is investigated. The work improves and extends the existing stability results in the literature. Finally, two examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained results.

  3. Hamiltonian optics formalism for microring resonator structures with varying ring resonances.

    Sun, Xiaolan; Yang, Zhenshan; Liu, Xiaohong; Li, Chao; Dong, Yanhua; Xie, Libin; Sipe, J E

    2011-04-11

    We develop a Hamiltonian optics formalism to quantitatively analyze a recently proposed scheme for increasing the delay-time-bandwidth product for microring resonator structures with varying ring resonances [Yang and Sipe, Opt. Lett. 32, 918 (2007)]. This theory is formally compact, simple and physically intuitive. We compare this formalism with the more rigorous transfer matrix method, and conclude that the Hamiltonian optics formalism correctly gives the average dispersion, which essentially determines the group delay as well as the dispersive distortion for pulses in the ps regime or longer.

  4. High-resolution structure of the rotor ring of a proton-dependent ATP synthase.

    Pogoryelov, Denys; Yildiz, Ozkan; Faraldo-Gómez, José D; Meier, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    The crystal structure of the c-ring from the proton-coupled F1Fo ATP synthase from Spirulina platensis is shown at 2.1-A resolution. The ring includes 15 membrane-embedded c subunits forming an hourglass-shaped assembly. The structure demonstrates that proton translocation across the membrane entails protonation of a conserved glutamate located near the membrane center in the c subunit outer helix. The proton is locked in this site by a precise hydrogen bond network reminiscent of that in Na+-dependent ATP synthases. However, the structure suggests that the different coordination chemistry of the bound proton and the smaller curvature of the outer helix drastically enhance the selectivity of the H+ site against other cations, including H3O+. We propose a model for proton translocation whereby the c subunits remain in this proton-locked state when facing the membrane lipid. Proton exchange would occur in a more hydrophilic and electrostatically distinct environment upon contact with the a subunit interface.

  5. Synthesis, insecticidal activity, and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of anthranilic diamides analogs containing oxadiazole rings.

    Li, Yuhao; Zhu, Hongjun; Chen, Kai; Liu, Rui; Khallaf, Abdalla; Zhang, Xiangning; Ni, Jueping

    2013-06-28

    A series of anthranilic diamides analogs (3–11, 16–24) containing 1,2,4- or 1,3,4-oxadiazole rings were synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, MS and elemental analyses. The structure of 3-bromo-N-(2-(3-(4-bromophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)-4-chloro-6-methylphenyl)-1-(3-chloropyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide (18, CCDC-) was determined by X-ray diffraction crystallography. The insecticidal activities against Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera exigua were evaluated. The results showed that most of title compounds displayed good larvicidal activities against P. xylostella, especially compound 3-bromo-N-(4-chloro-2-methyl-6-(5-(methylthio)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)phenyl)-1-(3-chloropyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide (6), which displayed 71.43% activity against P. xylostella at 0.4 μg mL(-1) and 33.33% against S. exigua at 1 μg mL(-1). The structure-activity relationship showed that compounds decorated with a 1,3,4-oxadiazole were more potent than compounds decorated with a 1,2,4-oxadiazole, and different substituents attached to the oxadiazole ring also affected the insecticidal activity. This work provides some hints for further structure modification and the enhancement of insecticidal activity.

  6. Actin Rings of Power.

    Schwayer, Cornelia; Sikora, Mateusz; Slováková, Jana; Kardos, Roland; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2016-06-20

    Circular or ring-like actin structures play important roles in various developmental and physiological processes. Commonly, these rings are composed of actin filaments and myosin motors (actomyosin) that, upon activation, trigger ring constriction. Actomyosin ring constriction, in turn, has been implicated in key cellular processes ranging from cytokinesis to wound closure. Non-constricting actin ring-like structures also form at cell-cell contacts, where they exert a stabilizing function. Here, we review recent studies on the formation and function of actin ring-like structures in various morphogenetic processes, shedding light on how those different rings have been adapted to fulfill their specific roles.

  7. Community Structure of Urban Forest and Disposition Characteristics of Trees in Hefei Ring Park

    WUZemin; WANGYuan; ZHANGShaojie; YANGHaiyan; XUYinbi

    2004-01-01

    The methods of vegetation ecology were used to analyze the community structure of Hefei Ring Park, and species composition, distribution pattern of tree height and DBH were described. Through calculation of tree growth index and association correlation of component species, the community structures were analyzed. The results showed that community structures are complex, there are 22 pairs of species with positive association, and tree individual in the following communities grow well and are more stable, the major are Platycladus orientalis-Prunus cerasifera fatropurpurea-Osmanthus fragrans, Robinia pseduacacia-Ligustrum lucidum, Robinia pseudoacacia-Ginkgo biloba-Photinia serrulata, Populus cadadensis-Ligustrum lucidum-Osmanthus fragrans, Sophora japonica-Ligustrum lucidum-Buxus sinica, Cyclobalanopsis glauca-Distylium racemosum.

  8. Electronic Structure of Pure Selenium and Tellurium Chains and Selenium Rings and with Impurities

    Maharjan, N. B.; Cho, Hwa-Suck; Scheicher, R. H.

    2005-03-01

    We have studied the electronic structures of pure chain-structured Selenium and Tellurium and with chalcogen impurities as well as ring-structured Selenium both pure and with Tellurium impurity atoms. The Hartree-Fock Cluster Theory procedure combined with many-body perturbation theory procedure has been used. The accuracy of the calculated electronic wave functions is tested by the investigation of ^77Se and ^125Te nuclear quadrupole interaction parameters. Good agreement is found with experiment for the pure systems. For the impurity systems, the agreement is reasonable but suggests the need for inclusion of more extensive relaxation around the impurity atoms. (*) Current Address: Dept. of Physics, Uppsala University, Sweden (**) Also: Dept. of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida

  9. Molecular cell biology and immunobiology of mammalian rod/ring structures.

    Carcamo, Wendy C; Calise, S John; von Mühlen, Carlos A; Satoh, Minoru; Chan, Edward K L

    2014-01-01

    Nucleotide biosynthesis is a highly regulated process necessary for cell growth and replication. Cytoplasmic structures in mammalian cells, provisionally described as rods and rings (RR), were identified by human autoantibodies and recently shown to include two key enzymes of the CTP/GTP biosynthetic pathways, cytidine triphosphate synthetase (CTPS) and inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH). Several studies have described CTPS filaments in mammalian cells, Drosophila, yeast, and bacteria. Other studies have identified IMPDH filaments in mammalian cells. Similarities among these studies point to a common evolutionarily conserved cytoplasmic structure composed of a subset of nucleotide biosynthetic enzymes. These structures appear to be a conserved metabolic response to decreased intracellular GTP and/or CTP pools. Antibodies to RR were found to develop in some hepatitis C patients treated with interferon-α and ribavirin. Additionally, the presence of anti-RR antibodies was correlated with poor treatment outcome.

  10. Streptococcus agalactiae capsule polymer length and attachment is determined by the proteins CpsABCD.

    Toniolo, Chiara; Balducci, Evita; Romano, Maria Rosaria; Proietti, Daniela; Ferlenghi, Ilaria; Grandi, Guido; Berti, Francesco; Ros, Immaculada Margarit Y; Janulczyk, Robert

    2015-04-10

    The production of capsular polysaccharides (CPS) or secreted exopolysaccharides is ubiquitous in bacteria, and the Wzy pathway constitutes a prototypical mechanism to produce these structures. Despite the differences in polysaccharide composition among species, a group of proteins involved in this pathway is well conserved. Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus; GBS) produces a CPS that represents the main virulence factor of the bacterium and is a prime target in current vaccine development. We used this human pathogen to investigate the roles and potential interdependencies of the conserved proteins CpsABCD encoded in the cps operon, by developing knock-out and functional mutant strains. The mutant strains were examined for CPS quantity, size, and attachment to the cell surface as well as CpsD phosphorylation. We observed that CpsB, -C, and -D compose a phosphoregulatory system where the CpsD autokinase phosphorylates its C-terminal tyrosines in a CpsC-dependent manner. These Tyr residues are also the target of the cognate CpsB phosphatase. An interaction between CpsD and CpsC was observed, and the phosphorylation state of CpsD influenced the subsequent action of CpsC. The CpsC extracellular domain appeared necessary for the production of high molecular weight polysaccharides by influencing CpsA-mediated attachment of the CPS to the bacterial cell surface. In conclusion, although having no impact on cps transcription or the synthesis of the basal repeating unit, we suggest that these proteins are fine-tuning the last steps of CPS biosynthesis (i.e. the balance between polymerization and attachment to the cell wall).

  11. A new level-shifting structure with multiply metal rings by divided RESURF technique

    Liu Jizhi; Chen Xingbi

    2009-01-01

    A new structure of a lateral n-MOST and a new level-shifting structure with multiply metal rings(MMRs) by divided RESURF technique have been proposed.The device and electrical performances of the structure are analyzed and simulated by MEDICI.In comparison to the level-shifting structure with multiply floating field plates (MFFPs)used before,the structure stated here improves the reliability and diminishes the voltage difference between the voltage of the power supply of the high-side gate driver and the voltage of the output terminal of the level-shifting structure,which is also that of the input terminal of the high-side gate driver.The maximal voltage difference of the level-shifting structure in this paper is 30%lower than that used before.Therefore,good voltage isolation and current isolation are obtained.The structure can be used in the level-shifting circuit of various applications.

  12. Radical theory of rings

    Gardner, JW

    2003-01-01

    Radical Theory of Rings distills the most noteworthy present-day theoretical topics, gives a unified account of the classical structure theorems for rings, and deepens understanding of key aspects of ring theory via ring and radical constructions. Assimilating radical theory's evolution in the decades since the last major work on rings and radicals was published, the authors deal with some distinctive features of the radical theory of nonassociative rings, associative rings with involution, and near-rings. Written in clear algebraic terms by globally acknowledged authorities, the presentation

  13. A novel high-voltage device structure with an N+ ring in substrate and the breakdown voltage model

    Li Qi; Zhu Jinluan; Wang Weidong; Yue Hongwei; Jin Liangnian

    2011-01-01

    A novel high-voltage device structure with a floating heavily doped N+ ring embedded in the substrate is reported,which is called FR LDMOS.When the N+ ring is introduced in the device substrate,the electric field peak of the main junction is reduced due to the transfer of the voltage from the main junction to the N+ ring junction,and the vertical breakdown characteristic is improved significantly.Based on the Poisson equation of cylindrical coordinates,a breakdown voltage model is developed.The numerical results indicate that the breakdown voltage of the proposed device is increased by 56% in comparison to conventional LDMOS.

  14. Crystal structure of the S. solfataricus archaeal exosome reveals conformational flexibility in the RNA-binding ring.

    Changrui Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The exosome complex is an essential RNA 3'-end processing and degradation machinery. In archaeal organisms, the exosome consists of a catalytic ring and an RNA-binding ring, both of which were previously reported to assume three-fold symmetry. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report an asymmetric 2.9 A Sulfolobus solfataricus archaeal exosome structure in which the three-fold symmetry is broken due to combined rigid body and thermal motions mainly within the RNA-binding ring. Since increased conformational flexibility was also observed in the RNA-binding ring of the related bacterial PNPase, we speculate that this may reflect an evolutionarily conserved mechanism to accommodate diverse RNA substrates for degradation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study clearly shows the dynamic structures within the RNA-binding domains, which provides additional insights on mechanism of asymmetric RNA binding and processing.

  15. The neural ring: an algebraic tool for analyzing the intrinsic structure of neural codes.

    Curto, Carina; Itskov, Vladimir; Veliz-Cuba, Alan; Youngs, Nora

    2013-09-01

    Neurons in the brain represent external stimuli via neural codes. These codes often arise from stereotyped stimulus-response maps, associating to each neuron a convex receptive field. An important problem confronted by the brain is to infer properties of a represented stimulus space without knowledge of the receptive fields, using only the intrinsic structure of the neural code. How does the brain do this? To address this question, it is important to determine what stimulus space features can--in principle--be extracted from neural codes. This motivates us to define the neural ring and a related neural ideal, algebraic objects that encode the full combinatorial data of a neural code. Our main finding is that these objects can be expressed in a "canonical form" that directly translates to a minimal description of the receptive field structure intrinsic to the code. We also find connections to Stanley-Reisner rings, and use ideas similar to those in the theory of monomial ideals to obtain an algorithm for computing the primary decomposition of pseudo-monomial ideals. This allows us to algorithmically extract the canonical form associated to any neural code, providing the groundwork for inferring stimulus space features from neural activity alone.

  16. Structure Formation in Gas-Rich Galactic Discs with Finite Thickness: From Discs to Rings

    Behrendt, Manuel; Schartmann, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Gravitational instabilities play an important role in structure formation of gas-rich high-redshift disc galaxies. In this paper, we revisit the axisymmetric perturbation theory and the resulting growth of structure, by taking the realistic thickness of the disc into account. In the unstable regime, which corresponds for thick discs to a Toomre parameter below the critical value Q=0.696, we find a fastest growing perturbation wavelength that is always a factor 1.93 times larger than in the classical razor-thin disc approximation. This result is independent of the adopted disc scale height and by this independent of temperature and surface density. In order to test the analytical theory, we compare it with a high resolution hydrodynamical simulation of an isothermal gravitationally unstable gas disc with the typical vertical sech density profile and study its break-up into rings that subsequently fragment into dense clumps. In the first phase rings form, that organise themselves discretely, with distances corr...

  17. Design and performance analysis of delay insensitive multi-ring structures

    Sparsø, Jens; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1993-01-01

    A set of simple design and performance analysis techniques that have been successfully used to design a number of nontrivial delay insensitive circuits is described. Examples are building blocks for digital filters and a vector multiplier using a serial-parallel multiply and accumulate algorithm....... The vector multiplier circuit has been laid out, submitted for fabrication and successfully tested. Throughout the analysis elements from this design are used to illustrate the design and performance analysis techniques. The design technique is based on a data flow approach using pipelines and rings...... that are composed into larger multiring structures by joining and forking of signals. By limiting to this class of structures, it is possible, even for complex designs, to analyze the performance and establish an understanding of the bottlenecks....

  18. Structure of ring-shaped Aβ42 oligomers determined by conformational selection

    Tran, Linh; Basdevant, Nathalie; Prévost, Chantal; Ha-Duong, Tâp

    2016-02-01

    The oligomerization of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides into soluble non-fibrillar species plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. However, it has been challenging to characterize the tertiary and quaternary structures of Aβ peptides due to their disordered nature and high aggregation propensity. In this work, replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations were used to explore the conformational space of Aβ42 monomer. Among the most populated transient states, we identified a particular conformation which was able to generate ring-shaped pentamers and hexamers, when docked onto itself. The structures of these aggregates were stable during microsecond all-atom MD simulations in explicit solvent. In addition to high resolution models of these oligomers, this study provides support for the conformational selection mechanism of Aβ peptide self-assembly.

  19. Synthesis, Structure and Properties of Two Photochromic Compounds Containing A Pyrazolone-ring

    2000-01-01

    Two photochromic compounds with the pyrazolone-ring as the photochromic functional structure, 2-(1'-phenyl-3'-methyl-4'-benzoformyl-pyrazolone-5')-thiosemicarbazone(PMBP-TSC) and 2-(1'-phenyl-3'-methyl-4'-benzoformyl-pyrazolone-5')-S-methylthiosemicarbazone(PMBP-MTSC), were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, MS, IR spectra, NMR spectra. The crystal structure of the photocolored product of PMBP-TSC was determined by single crystal XRD analysis. The results show that the photochromic phenomenon is due to the photoisomerization from enol form to keto form. Their photochromic properties were studied by powder-UV reflectance spectra under the irradiation of 200-380 nm light. The first-order rate constants of the photocoloring reaction were found to be 7.80×10-3 s-1 for compound 1A and 1.03×10-3 s-1 for compound 2A.

  20. Moisture Management Behaviour of Knitted Fabric from Structurally Modified Ring and Vortex Spun Yarn

    Sharma, Navendu; Kumar, Pawan; Bhatia, Dinesh; Sinha, Sujit Kumar

    2016-10-01

    The acceptability of a new product is decided by its performance, level of improvement in quality and economy of production. The basic aim of generating micro pores in a textile structure is to provide better thermo-physiological comfort by enhancing the breathability and hence improving moisture management behaviour. In the present study, an attempt has been made to create a relatively more open structure through removal of a component. A comparative assessment with a homogeneous and parent yarn was also made. Yarns of two linear densities, each from ring and vortex spinning systems were produced using 100 % polyester and 80:20 polyester/cotton blend. The modified yarn was produced by removing a component, viz; cotton, by treatment with sulphuric acid from the blended yarn. The knitted fabric from modified yarn was found to show significant improvement in air permeability, water vapour permeability and total absorbency while the wicking characteristic was found to decline.

  1. ABC transporter FtsABCD of Streptococcus pyogenes mediates uptake of ferric ferrichrome

    McClure Michael J

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Streptococcus pyogenes or Group A Streptococcus (GAS genome encodes three ABC transporters, namely, FtsABCD, MtsABC, and HtsABC, which share homology with iron transporters. MtsABC and HtsABC are believed to take up ferric (Fe3+ and manganese ions and heme, respectively, while the specificity of FtsABCD is unknown. Results Recombinant FtsB, the lipoprotein component of FtsABCD, was found to bind Fe3+ ferrichrome in a 1:1 stoichiometry. To investigate whether FtsABCD transports Fe3+ ferrichrome, GAS isogenic strains defective in lipoprotein gene ftsB and permease gene ftsC were generated, and the effects of the mutations on uptake of Fe3+ ferrichrome were examined using radioactive 55Fe3+ ferrichrome. FtsB was produced in the wild-type strain but not in the ftsB mutant, confirming the ftsB inactivation. While wild-type GAS took up 3.6 × 104 Fe3+ ferrichrome molecules per bacterium per min at room temperature, the ftsB and ftsC mutants did not have a detectable rate of Fe3+ ferrichrome uptake. The inactivation of ftsB or ftsC also decreased 55Fe3+ ferrichrome uptake by >90% under growth conditions in the case of limited uptake time. Complementation of the ftsB mutant with a plasmid carrying the ftsB gene restored FtsB production and 55Fe3+ ferrichrome association at higher levels compared with the parent strain. The inactivation of mtsA and htsA and Fe-restricted conditions enhanced the production of FtsB and Fe3+ ferrichrome uptake. Conclusion The FtsB protein bound Fe3+ ferrichrome, and inactivation of ftsB or ftsC, but not htsA or mtsA, diminished Fe3+ ferrichrome uptake, indicating that FtsABCD, but not HtsABC and MtsABC, is the transporter that takes up Fe3+ ferrichrome in GAS. Fe acquisition systems are virulence factors in many bacterial pathogens and are attractive vaccine candidates. The elucidation of the FtsABCD specificity advances the understanding of Fe acquisition processes in GAS and may help evaluating the

  2. Vortex ring formation in the left ventricle of the heart: analysis by 4D flow MRI and Lagrangian coherent structures.

    Töger, Johannes; Kanski, Mikael; Carlsson, Marcus; Kovács, Sándor J; Söderlind, Gustaf; Arheden, Håkan; Heiberg, Einar

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that vortex ring formation during left ventricular (LV) rapid filling is an optimized mechanism for blood transport, and that the volume of the vortex ring is an important measure. However, due to lack of quantitative methods, the volume of the vortex ring has not previously been studied. Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS) is a new flow analysis method, which enables in vivo quantification of vortex ring volume. Therefore, we aimed to investigate if vortex ring volume in the human LV can be reliably quantified using LCS and magnetic resonance velocity mapping (4D PC-MR). Flow velocities were measured using 4D PC-MR in 9 healthy volunteers and 4 patients with dilated ischemic cardiomyopathy. LV LCS were computed from flow velocities and manually delineated in all subjects. Vortex volume in the healthy volunteers was 51 ± 6% of the LV volume, and 21 ± 5% in the patients. Interobserver variability was -1 ± 13% and interstudy variability was -2 ± 12%. Compared to idealized flow experiments, the vortex rings showed additional complexity and asymmetry, related to endocardial trabeculation and papillary muscles. In conclusion, LCS and 4D PC-MR enables measurement of vortex ring volume during rapid filling of the LV.

  3. The Structure of gr-simple Rings%分次单环的结构

    朱彬

    2003-01-01

    A characterization of gr-simple rings is given by using the notion of componentwise-dense subrings of a full matrix ring over a division ring. As a consequence, any G-graded full matrix ring over a division ring is isomorphic to a dense subring of a full matrix ring with a good G-grading. Some conditions for a grading of a full matrix ring to be isomorphic to a good one are given, which generalize some results in: D(a)sc(a)scu, S., Lon, B., N(a)st(a)sescu, C. and Montes, J. R., Group gradingson full matrix rings, J. Algebra, 220(1999), 709-728.

  4. Determinantal rings

    Bruns, Winfried

    1988-01-01

    Determinantal rings and varieties have been a central topic of commutative algebra and algebraic geometry. Their study has attracted many prominent researchers and has motivated the creation of theories which may now be considered part of general commutative ring theory. The book gives a first coherent treatment of the structure of determinantal rings. The main approach is via the theory of algebras with straightening law. This approach suggest (and is simplified by) the simultaneous treatment of the Schubert subvarieties of Grassmannian. Other methods have not been neglected, however. Principal radical systems are discussed in detail, and one section is devoted to each of invariant and representation theory. While the book is primarily a research monograph, it serves also as a reference source and the reader requires only the basics of commutative algebra together with some supplementary material found in the appendix. The text may be useful for seminars following a course in commutative ring theory since a ...

  5. Insect-inspired wing actuation structures based on ring-type resonators

    Bolsman, Caspar T.; Goosen, Johannes F. L.; van Keulen, Fred

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, we illustrate and study the opportunities of resonant ring type structures as wing actuation mechanisms for a flapping wing Micro Air Vehicle (MAV). Various design alternatives are presented and studied based on computational and physical models. Insects provide an excellent source of inspiration for the development of the wing actuation mechanisms for flapping wing MAVs. The insect thorax is a structure which in essence provides a mechanism to couple the wing muscles to the wings while offering weight reduction through application of resonance, using tailored elasticity. The resonant properties of the thorax are a very effective way to reducing the power expenditure of wing movement. The wing movement itself is fairly complex and is guided by a set of control muscles and thoracic structures which are present in proximity of the wing root. The development of flapping wing MAVs requires a move away from classical structures and actuators. The use of gears and rotational electric motors is hard to justify at the small scale. Resonant structures provide a large design freedom whilst also providing various options for actuation. The move away from deterministic mechanisms offers possibilities for mass reduction.

  6. Improved optical amplification using metamaterial based split ring structures in optical fibres

    Prakash, Geetha; Nigam, Raaghvam; Das, Sovan; Chellappa, Sharath

    2016-04-01

    Optical fibres provide the best solutions for transmitting high speed, large amounts of data with good power efficiency. However such transmission would also need amplification for transmission over large distances. Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifiers(EDFAs) are currently being used for optical amplification. But good amplification is achievable with multiple stages and considerable length of EDFA fibres. In this paper we compare the use of Silver Split Ring Resonators(SRRs) , Gold Nano Rods and Silver Fishnet structures which give metamaterial properties to be used in optical fibres to give better amplification than EDFA based fibres. Metamaterials belong to a new class of materials with negative values for permittivity and permeability. Such materials would exhibit negative refractive index leading to these materials being called as left handed media.If such left handed media have an internal structure made of dimensions much smaller than the wavelength but sufficiently thick to exhibit bulk properties, using other optical domains such as plasmonics, it is possible to control light interactions and propagation. Artificial structures smaller than the wavelength of light can be used to enhance electric and magnetic fields. Surface plasmons can be excited on a metal and this can enhance the electric field at the surface. Our paper proposes the use of this phenomenon of achieving gain at optical frequencies by using SRRs, Fishnet structures , Nano Rods. We compare the performance of these structures and observe that they provide gain which is much more than that provided by EDFAs.

  7. Histone deacetylase inhibitor upregulates peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and inhibits apoptotic cell death in abcd1-deficient glial cells.

    Jaspreet Singh

    Full Text Available In X-ALD, mutation/deletion of ALD gene (ABCD1 and the resultant very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA derangement has dramatically opposing effects in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. While loss of Abcd1 in astrocytes produces a robust inflammatory response, the oligodendrocytes undergo cell death leading to demyelination in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD. The mechanisms of these distinct pathways in the two cell types are not well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of Abcd1-knockdown and the subsequent alteration in VLCFA metabolism in human U87 astrocytes and rat B12 oligodendrocytes. Loss of Abcd1 inhibited peroxisomal β-oxidation activity and increased expression of VLCFA synthesizing enzymes, elongase of very long chain fatty acids (ELOVLs (1 and 3 in both cell types. However, higher induction of ELOVL's in Abcd1-deficient B12 oligodendrocytes than astrocytes suggests that ELOVL pathway may play a prominent role in oligodendrocytes in X-ALD. While astrocytes are able to maintain the cellular homeostasis of anti-apoptotic proteins, Abcd1-deletion in B12 oligodendrocytes downregulated the anti-apototic (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and cell survival (phospho-Erk1/2 proteins, and upregulated the pro-apoptotic proteins (Bad, Bim, Bax and Bid leading to cell loss. These observations provide insights into different cellular signaling mechanisms in response to Abcd1-deletion in two different cell types of CNS. The apoptotic responses were accompanied by activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 suggesting the involvement of mitochondrial-caspase-9-dependent mechanism in Abcd1-deficient oligodendrocytes. Treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA corrected the VLCFA derangement both in vitro and in vivo, and inhibited the oligodendrocytes loss. These observations provide a proof-of principle that HDAC inhibitor SAHA may have a therapeutic potential for X-ALD.

  8. Some ISIS-Software History and Technical Background on the new FOSS Integrated Library System ABCD

    Egbert de Smet

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available While free and open source software is gaining momentum in library automation, it is still not a trivial event to launch a full-blown integrated library system (ILS, given today's high demands on such library systems. In this article we describe the ISIS-software origins of the newly launched ABCD-software for which there is a morethan-average interest in many parts of the libraries and information communities in the developing world. Many — especially younger — librarians in the West have never heard about ISIS, its relevance and its technological concepts, so we will try to shed some light on this in order for librarians to better judge the meaning of the ABCD software for international librarianship and — why not — perhaps even for their own purposes.

  9. Influence of chemical structure on skin reactions induced by antiepileptic drugs--the role of the aromatic ring.

    Wang, Xiang-Qing; Shi, Xiao-Bing; Au, Ran; Chen, Fu-Shun; Wang, Fang; Lang, Sen-Yang

    2011-05-01

    Here we assessed whether the presence of an aromatic ring as a commonality in chemical structures of AEDs can explain skin reaction. We found that 164 cases of skin reactions associated with the use of AEDs were reported. Aromatic AEDs were suspected in 88.41% (145/164) of patients with skin reactions versus 59.80% (2316/3873) of patients without skin reactions. The presence of an aromatic ring in the chemical structure was associated with a significant increased risk of skin reactions (adjusted ROR 3.50; 95% CI 2.29, 5.35). Among the aromatic AEDs, skin reactions were significantly associated with carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and oxarbazepine. These results confirm that the presence of an aromatic ring as a common feature in chemical structures of AEDs partly explains AED-skin reactions. Skin reactions were reported triple as frequently with aromatic AEDs than with non-aromatic AEDs.

  10. Initial assessment and treatment with the Airway, Breathing, Circulation, Disability, Exposure (ABCDE) approach

    2012-01-01

    Troels Thim1,2, Niels Henrik Vinther Krarup1,4, Erik Lerkevang Grove1, Claus Valter Rohde3, Bo Løfgren1,41Department of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Regional Hospital of Randers, Randers, 3Department of Anestesiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 4Research Center for Emergency Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, DenmarkAbstract: The Airway, Breathing, Circulation, Disability, Exposure (ABCDE) approach is applicab...

  11. Instrument validation for assessing critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation according to the ABCDE

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate the content of an instrument aimed at guiding the nursing care provided to patients on artificial respiration. An instrument was created with five indicators, inspired on the mnemonic ABCDE method, used in the Advanced Trauma Life Support course, namely: A – Airway maintenance, with 38 items; B – Breathing and ventilation, 11 items; C – Circulation with hemorrhage control, 16 items; D – Disability/neurologic assessment, 08 items; and E – Exposure an...

  12. Study on ABCD Analysis Technique for Business Models, business strategies, Operating Concepts & Business Systems

    Aithal, Sreeramana

    2016-01-01

    Studying the implications of a business model, choosing success strategies, developing viable operational concepts or evolving a functional system, it is important to analyse it in all dimensions. For this purpose, various analysing techniques/frameworks are used. This paper is a discussion on how to use an innovative analysing framework called ABCD model on a given business model, or on a business strategy or a operational concept/idea or business system. Based on four constructs Advantages,...

  13. Contiguous ABCD1 DXS1357E deletion syndrome: report of an autopsy case.

    Iwasa, Mitsuaki; Yamagata, Takanori; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Itoh, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Ayumi; Hironaka, Mitsugu; Honda, Ayako; Momoi, Mariko Y; Shimozawa, Nobuyuki

    2013-06-01

    Contiguous ABCD1 DXS1357E deletion syndrome (CADDS) is a contiguous deletion syndrome involving the ABCD1 and DXS1357E/BAP31 genes on Xq28. Although ABCD1 is responsible for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), its phenotype differs from that of CADDS, which manifests with many features of Zellweger syndrome (ZS), including severe growth and developmental retardation, liver dysfunction, cholestasis and early infantile death. We report here the fourth case of CADDS, in which a boy had dysmorphic features, including a flat orbital edge, hypoplastic nose, micrognathia, inguinal hernia, micropenis, cryptorchidism and club feet, all of which are shared by ZS. The patient achieved no developmental milestones and died of pneumonia at 8 months. Biochemical studies demonstrated abnormal metabolism of very long chain fatty acids, which was higher than that seen in X-ALD. Immunocytochemistry and Western blot showed the absence of ALD protein (ALDP) despite the presence of other peroxisomal proteins. Pathological studies disclosed a small brain with hypomyelination and secondary hypoxic-ischemic changes. Neuronal heterotopia in the white matter and leptomeningeal glioneuronal heterotopia indicated a neuronal migration disorder. The liver showed fibrosis and cholestasis. The thymus and adrenal glands were hypoplastic. Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis suggested that the deletion was a genomic rearrangement in the 90-kb span starting in DXS1357E/BACP31 exon 4 and included ABCD1, PLXNB3, SRPK3, IDH3G and SSR4, ending in PDZD4 exon 8. Thus, the absence of ALDP, when combined with defects in the B-cell antigen receptor associated protein 31 (BAP31) and other factors, severely affects VLCFA metabolism on peroxisomal functions and produces ZS-like pathology.

  14. Interobserver agreement in ABCD scoring between non-stroke specialists and vascular neurologists following suspected TIA is only fair.

    Kinsella, Justin A

    2012-02-01

    The appropriateness of use and accuracy of age, blood pressure, clinical features and duration of symptoms (ABCD) scoring by non-stroke specialists while risk-stratifying patients with suspected transient ischaemic attack (TIA) are unknown. We reviewed all available ABCD data from referrals to a specialist neurovascular clinic. ABCD scoring was defined as \\'appropriate\\' in this study if an experienced vascular neurologist subsequently confirmed a clinical diagnosis of possible, probable or definite TIA, and \\'inappropriate\\' if the patient had an alternative diagnosis or stroke. Interobserver agreement between the referring physician and the neurologist was calculated. One hundred and four patients had completed ABCD referral proformas available for analysis. Forty-five (43%) were deemed appropriate, and 59 (57%) inappropriate. In the entire dataset, the neurologist agreed with the referring physician\\'s total ABCD score in only 42% of cases [kappa = 0.28]. The two most unreliable components of the scoring system were clinical features [kappa = 0.51], and duration of symptoms [kappa = 0.48]. ABCD scoring by non-stroke specialists is frequently inappropriate and inaccurate in routine clinical practice, emphasising the importance of urgent specialist assessment of suspected TIA patients.

  15. Theoretical studies on the structures and detonation properties of nitramine explosives containing benzene ring.

    Zhao, GuoZheng; Lu, Ming

    2012-06-01

    The nitramine compounds containing benzene ring were optimized to obtain their molecular geometries and electronic structures at DFT-B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level. The theoretical molecular density (ρ), heat of formation (HOF), energy gap (ΔE(LUMO-HOMO)), charge on the nitro group (-Q(NO2)), detonation velocity (D) and detonation pressure (P), estimated using Kamlet-Jacobs equations, showed that the detonation properties of these compounds were excellent. It is found that there are good linear relationships between density, heat of formation, detonation velocity, detonation pressure and the number of nitro group. The simulation results reveal that molecule G performs similarly to famous explosive HMX, and molecule H outperforms HMX. According to the quantitative standard of energetics as an HEDC (high energy density compound), molecule H essentially satisfies this requirement. These results provide basic information for molecular design of novel high energetic density compounds.

  16. Electron states in quantum rings with structural distortions under axial or in-plane magnetic fields

    Planelles, J [Departament de Quimica Fisica i Analitica, Universitat Jaume I, Box 224, E-12080 Castello (Spain); Rajadell, F [Departament de Quimica Fisica i Analitica, Universitat Jaume I, Box 224, E-12080 Castello (Spain); Climente, J I [Departament de Quimica Fisica i Analitica, Universitat Jaume I, Box 224, E-12080 Castello (Spain)

    2007-09-19

    A comprehensive study of anisotropic quantum rings, QRs, subject to axial and in-plane magnetic field, both aligned and transverse to the anisotropy direction, is carried out. Elliptical QRs for a wide range of eccentricity values and also perfectly circular QRs including one or more barriers disturbing the QR current are considered. These models mimic anisotropic geometry deformations and mass diffusion occurring in the QR fabrication process. Symmetry considerations and simplified analytical models supply physical insight into the obtained numerical results. Our study demonstrates that, except for unusual extremely large eccentricities, QR geometry deformations only appreciably influence a few low-lying states, while the effect of barriers disturbing the QR current is stronger and affects all studied states to a similar extent. We also show that the response of the electron states to in-plane magnetic fields provides accurate information on the structural anisotropy.

  17. A Study of Structural Stress Technique for Fracture Prediction of an Auto-Mobile Clutch Snap-Ring

    Kim, Ju Hee [Korea Military Academy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Myeong, Man Sik [Samsung Display, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Chang Sik [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun Jae [Korea Univ., Sejong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The endurance reliability assessment of a highly complex mechanism is generally predicted by the fatigue life based on simple stress analysis. This study discusses various fatigue life assessment techniques for an automobile clutch snap ring. Finite element analyses were conducted to determine the structural stress on the snap ring. Structural stress that is insensitive in regards to the mesh size and type definition is presented in this study. The structural stress definition is consistent with elementary structural mechanics theory and provides an effective measure of a stress state that pertains to fatigue behavior of welded joints in the form of both membrane and bending components. Numerical procedures for both solid models and shell or plate element models are presented to demonstrate the mesh-size insensitivity when extracting the structural stress parameters. Conventional finite element models can be used with the structural stress calculations as a post-processing procedure. The two major implications from this research were: (a) structural stresses pertaining to fatigue behavior can be consistently calculated in a mesh-insensitive manner regardless of the types of finite element models; and (b) by comparing with the clutch snap-ring fatigue test data, we should predict the fatigue fractures of an automobile clutch snap ring using this method.

  18. Effects of molecular structure parameters on ring-openingreaction of benzoxazines

    LIU; Xin

    2001-01-01

    [1]Cope, C., Holly, E W., Condensation products of aldehydes and ketones with o-aminobenzyl alcohol and hydroxybenzylamine, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1944, 66: 1875-1879.[2]Burke, W. J., 3,4-dihydro-l,3,2H-benzoxazines: Reaction of p-substituted phenols with N, N-dimethylolamines, J. Am.Chem. Soc., 1949, 71: 609-612.[3]Burke, W. J., Mortensen, E. L., Condensation of halophenols with formaldehyde and primary amines, J. Org. Chem., 1964,29:909-912.[4]Schreiber, H., German Offen, 2 555 504, 1973.[5]Schreiber, H., German Offen, 2 323 936, 1973.[6]Kopf, P. W, Wanger, E. R., Formation and cure of novolacs: NMR study of transient molecules, J. Polym. Sci., PartA:Chem. Ed., 1973, 11: 939-960.[7]Culbertson, M., McGratn, J. E., Advances in Polymer Synthesis, New York and London: Plenum Press, 1985, 27.[8]Gu, Y., Lu, Z., Chinese Patent: CN1l15772A.[9]Ning, X., Ishida, H., Phenolic materials via ring-opening polymerization synthesis and characterization of bisphenol-A based benzoxazines and their polymers, J. Polym. Sci., PartA: Chem. Ed., 1994, 32:1121-1129.[10]Gu, Y., Xie, M., Liu, X. et al., Progress in the study of phenolic resin using ring-opening polymerization of benzoxazines,Progress in Chemical Engineering, 1998, 2: 43-47.[11]Pei, D., Gu, Y., Li, Z., Kinetics of curing reaction of dibenzoxazine precursors based on bisphenol A, Polymeric Materials Science & Engineering, 1997, 3: 41-44.[12]Pei, D., Gu, Y., Cai, X., Structure and curing behavior of a new dibenzoxazinc precursor containing allyl group, Acta Polym. Sinica, 1998, 5: 595-598.[13]Liu, X., Gu, Y., Study on the volumetric change during ring-opening polymerization of benzoxazines, Acta Polym. Sinica,2000, 5: 612-619.[14]Andrew, P. R., Cody, V., Culbis, J. M. et al., Structure and conformations of GABA-transaminase inhibitors, Ⅱ. Transi-tion state analogues, Aust. J. Chem., 1986, 39: 1575-1585.

  19. Domain wall spin structures in mesoscopic Fe rings probed by high resolution SEMPA

    Krautscheid, Pascal; Reeve, Robert M.; Lauf, Maike; Krüger, Benjamin; Kläui, Mathias

    2016-10-01

    We present a combined theoretical and experimental study of the energetic stability and accessibility of different domain wall spin configurations in mesoscopic magnetic iron rings. The evolution is investigated as a function of the width and thickness in a regime of relevance to devices, while Fe is chosen as a material due to its simple growth in combination with attractive magnetic properties including high saturation magnetization and low intrinsic anisotropy. Micromagnetic simulations are performed to predict the lowest energy states of the domain walls, which can be either the transverse or vortex wall spin structure, in good agreement with analytical models, with further simulations revealing the expected low temperature configurations observable on relaxation of the magnetic structure from saturation in an external field. In the latter case, following the domain wall nucleation process, transverse domain walls are found at larger widths and thicknesses than would be expected by just comparing the competing energy terms demonstrating the importance of metastability of the states. The simulations are compared to high spatial resolution experimental images of the magnetization using scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis to provide a phase diagram of the various spin configurations. In addition to the vortex and simple symmetric transverse domain wall, a significant range of geometries are found to exhibit highly asymmetric transverse domain walls with properties distinct from the symmetric transverse wall. Simulations of the asymmetric walls reveal an evolution of the domain wall tilting angle with ring thickness which can be understood from the thickness dependencies of the contributing energy terms. Analysis of all the data reveals that in addition to the geometry, the influence of materials properties, defects and thermal activation all need to be taken into account in order to understand and reliably control the experimentally accessible

  20. Extending the ABCDE bundle to the post-intensive care unit setting.

    Balas, Michele; Buckingham, Rose; Braley, Tami; Saldi, Sarah; Vasilevskis, Eduard E

    2013-08-01

    A recently proposed interprofessional, evidence-based, multicomponent approach to mitigating the effects of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired delirium and weakness has the potential to radically transform the way care is delivered to older adults requiring sedation, mechanical ventilation, or both. The Awakening and Breathing Coordination, Delirium Monitoring and Management, and Early Mobility (ABCDE) bundle empowers members of the interdisciplinary ICU team to implement the best available evidence regarding mechanical ventilation, sedation, weakness, and delirium in a safe, effective, and patient-centered manner. Considering that critically ill older adults are cared for in a number of different settings during the course of hospitalization and recovery, the purpose of this article is to explore the rationale and possible benefits of extending the ABCDE bundle into the post-ICU setting. We provide a case study that illustrates how ABCDE bundle adoption could be the key to improving the quality of care provided to seriously ill older adults in the ICU and beyond.

  1. Alternative loop rings

    Goodaire, EG; Polcino Milies, C

    1996-01-01

    For the past ten years, alternative loop rings have intrigued mathematicians from a wide cross-section of modern algebra. As a consequence, the theory of alternative loop rings has grown tremendously. One of the main developments is the complete characterization of loops which have an alternative but not associative, loop ring. Furthermore, there is a very close relationship between the algebraic structures of loop rings and of group rings over 2-groups. Another major topic of research is the study of the unit loop of the integral loop ring. Here the interaction between loop rings and group ri

  2. Influence of FtsZ GTPase activity and concentration on nanoscale Z-ring structure in vivo revealed by three-dimensional Superresolution imaging.

    Lyu, Zhixin; Coltharp, Carla; Yang, Xinxing; Xiao, Jie

    2016-10-01

    FtsZ is an essential bacterial cytoskeletal protein that assembles into a ring-like structure (Z-ring) at midcell to carry out cytokinesis. In vitro, FtsZ exhibits polymorphism in polymerizing into different forms of filaments based on its GTPase activity, concentration, and buffer condition. In vivo, the Z-ring appeared to be punctate and heterogeneously organized, although continuous, homogenous Z-ring structures have also been observed. Understanding how the Z-ring is organized in vivo is important because it provides a structural basis for the functional role of the Z-ring in cytokinesis. Here, we assess the effects of both GTPase activity and FtsZ concentration on the organization of the Z-ring in vivo using three-dimensional (3D) superresolution microscopy. We found that the Z-ring became more homogenous when assembled in the presence of a GTPase-deficient mutant, and upon overexpression of either wt or mutant FtsZ. These results suggest that the in vivo organization of the Z-ring is largely dependent on the intrinsic polymerization properties of FtsZ, which are significantly influenced by the GTPase activity and concentration of FtsZ. Our work provides a unifying theme to reconcile previous observations of different Z-ring structures, and supports a model in which the wt Z-ring comprises loosely associated, heterogeneously distributed FtsZ clusters. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 725-734, 2016.

  3. ¿Sirve la escala ABCD2 del AIT para predecir y prevenir Ictus?

    Laura Castelo Corral

    2015-09-01

    Resultados: Incluimos 172 pacientes ( edad media 71 años, 51% mujeres con un nuevo diagnostico de AIT. La puntuación media de la escala ABCD2 fue de 4.2 ± 1.4. Se produjeron 12 nuevos AIT, 21 Ictus no fatales y 3 ictus fatales durante el seguimiento. La mortalidad intrahospitalaria fue del 1.7% y la total durante el seguimiento de 1 año del 12 %. Una puntuación en la escala de ABCD2 de ≥ 4 tenia una sensibilidad del 88% y del 82% para predecir un ictus a los 7 y 30 días respectivamente, con una pobre especificidad del 30%.El valor predictivo negativo a 7 dias fue del 98%. Una puntuación ABCD2 ≥ 4 no tuvo valor predictivo significativo de ictus a los 7 días (hazard ratio [HR], 3.49; 95%CI, 0.42 to 27.93 ni a 30 días (HR, 1.97; 95%CI, 0.43 to 9.13. Como componente individual, solo la diabetes predijo la probabilidad de desarrollar un ictus en la primera semana (HR, 5.47; 95%IC 1.43 to 20.95 y durante el primer mes (HR, 3.60; 95%IC 1.08 to 12. Conclusiones: El poder discriminativo de la escala ABCD2 no ayuda a tomar decisiones de tratamiento salvo por su valor predictivo negativo del 98%. Solo la variable diabetes de la escala se asocio con una probabilidad relevante de tener un ictus.Probablemente cualquier tipo de presentación de AIT justifica la búsqueda rápida de la etiologia subyacente. Consideramos que en el AIT, independientemente de la escala ABCD2 , se debe realizar en menos de 24 horas un TAC cerebral, ECG, e imagen de carótida, mientras al mismo tiempo se inicia tratamiento preventivo urgente.

  4. The Legal Structure of Ring-Fenced Bodies in the United Kingdom - A Response to Consultation Paper CP19/14 on the Implementation of Ring-fencing: on Legal Structure, Governance and the continuity of Services and Facilities

    K. Heine (Klaus); V.L.E. Cedeno-Brea (Enmanuel)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper is submitted by Prof. Dr. Klaus Heine1 and Enmanuel Cedeño-Brea2, in response to the Prudential Regulatory Authority’s (PRA) Consultation Paper CP19/14 on “The Implementation of Ring-fencing: consultation on legal structure, governance and the continuity of s

  5. On semi ring bornologies

    Imran, A. N.; Rakhimov, I. S.; Husain, Sh. K. Said

    2016-06-01

    Our main focus in this work is to introduce new structure bornological semi rings. This generalizes the theory of algebraic semi rings from the algebraic setting to the framework of bornological sets. We give basic properties for this new structure. As well as, We study the fundamental construction of bornological semi ring as product, inductive limits and projective limits and their extensions on bornological semi ring. Additionally, we introduce the category of bornological semi rings and study product and pullback (fiber product) in the category of bornological semi rings.

  6. A giant ring-like structure at 0.78 < z < 0.86 displayed by GRBs

    Balázs, L. G.; Bagoly, Z.; Hakkila, J. E.; Horváth, I.; Kóbori, J.; Rácz, I. I.; Tóth, L. V.

    2015-09-01

    According to the cosmological principle (CP), Universal large-scale structure is homogeneous and isotropic. The observable Universe, however, shows complex structures even on very large scales. The recent discoveries of structures significantly exceeding the transition scale of 370 Mpc pose a challenge to the CP. We report here the discovery of the largest regular formation in the observable Universe; a ring with a diameter of 1720 Mpc, displayed by 9 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), exceeding by a factor of 5 the transition scale to the homogeneous and isotropic distribution. The ring has a major diameter of 43° and a minor diameter of 30° at a distance of 2770 Mpc in the 0.78 rate. Evidence suggests that this feature is the projection of a shell on to the plane of the sky. Voids and string-like formations are common outcomes of large-scale structure. However, these structures have maximum sizes of 150 Mpc, which are an order of magnitude smaller than the observed GRB ring diameter. Evidence in support of the shell interpretation requires that temporal information of the transient GRBs be included in the analysis. This ring-shaped feature is large enough to contradict the CP. The physical mechanism responsible for causing it is unknown.

  7. Local loop near-rings

    Franetič, Damir

    2015-01-01

    We study loop near-rings, a generalization of near-rings, where the additive structure is not necessarily associative. We introduce local loop near-rings and prove a useful detection principle for localness.

  8. Tests of a niobium split-ring superconducting heavy ion accelerating structure

    Benaroya, R.; Bollinger, L.M.; Jaffey, A.H.; Khoe, T.K.; Olesen, M.C.; Scheibelhut, C.H.; Shepard, K.W.; Wesolowski, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    A niobium split-ring accelerating structure designed for use in the Argonne superconducting heavy-ion energy booster was successfully tested. The superconducting resonator has a resonant frequency of 97 MHz and an optimum particle velocity ..beta.. = 0.11. Ultimate performance is expected to be limited by peak surface fields, which in this structure are 4.7 E/sub a/ electric and 170 E/sub a/ (Gauss) magnetic, where E/sub a/ is the effective accelerating gradient in MV/m. The rf losses in two demountable superconducting joints severely limited performance in initial tests. Following independent measurements of the rf loss properties of several types of demountable joints, one demountable joint was eliminated and the other modified. Subsequently, the resonator could be operated continuously at E/sub a/ = 3.6 MV/m (corresponding to an energy gain of 1.3 MeV per charge) with 10W rf input power. Maximum field level was limited by electron loading. The mechanical stability of the resonator under operating conditions is excellent: vibration induced eigenfrequency noise is less than 120 Hz peak to peak, and the radiation pressure induced frequency shift is ..delta..f/f = 1.6 x 10/sup -6/ E/sub a//sup 2/.

  9. Gaps, rings, and non-axisymmetric structures in protoplanetary disks - Emission from large grains

    Ruge, J P; Wolf, S; Dzyurkevich, N; Fromang, S; Henning, Th; Klahr, H; Meheut, H

    2016-01-01

    Dust grains with sizes around (sub)mm are expected to couple only weakly to the gas motion in regions beyond 10 au of circumstellar disks. In this work, we investigate the influence of the spatial distribution of such grains on the (sub)mm appearance of magnetized protoplanetary disks. We perform non-ideal global 3D magneto-hydrodynamic stratified disk simulations including particles of different sizes (50 micron to 1 cm), using a Lagrangian particle solver. We calculate the spatial dust temperature distribution, including the dynamically coupled submicron-sized dust grains, and derive ideal continuum re-emission maps of the disk through radiative transfer simulations. Finally, we investigate the feasibility to observe specific structures in the thermal re-emission maps with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The pressure bump close to the outer edge of the dead-zone leads to particle trapping in ring structures. More specifically, vortices in the disk concentrate the dust and create an ...

  10. Frequent inaccuracies in ABCD(2) scoring in non-stroke specialists' referrals to a daily Rapid Access Stroke Prevention service.

    Bradley, David

    2013-09-15

    The \\'accuracy\\' of age, blood pressure, clinical features, duration and diabetes (ABCD(2)) scoring by non-stroke specialists referring patients to a daily Rapid Access Stroke Prevention (RASP) service is unclear, as is the accuracy of ABCD(2) scoring by trainee residents. In this prospective study, referrals were classified as \\'confirmed TIAs\\' if the stroke specialist confirmed a clinical diagnosis of possible, probable or definite TIA, and \\'non-TIAs\\' if patients had a TIA mimic or completed stroke. ABCD(2) scores from referring physicians were compared with scores by experienced stroke specialists and neurology\\/geriatric medicine residents at a daily RASP clinic; inter-observer agreement was examined. Data from 101 referrals were analysed (mean age=60.0years, 58% male). The median interval between referral and clinic assessment was 1day. Of 101 referrals, 52 (52%) were \\'non-TIAs\\': 45 (86%) of 52 were \\'TIA mimics\\' and 7 (14%) of 52 were completed strokes. There was only \\'fair\\' agreement in total ABCD(2) scoring between referring physicians and stroke specialists (κ=0.37). Agreement was \\'excellent\\' between residents and stroke specialists (κ=0.91). Twenty of 29 patients scored as \\'moderate to high risk\\' (score 4-6) by stroke specialists were scored \\'low risk\\' (score 0-3) by referring physicians. ABCD(2) scoring by referring doctors is frequently inaccurate, with a tendency to underestimate stroke risk. These findings emphasise the importance of urgent specialist assessment of suspected TIA patients, and that ABCD(2) scores by non-stroke specialists cannot be relied upon in isolation to risk-stratify patients. Inter-observer agreement in ABCD(2) scoring was \\'excellent\\' between residents and stroke specialists, indicating short-term training may improve accuracy.

  11. Influence of chemical structure on hypersensitivity reactions induced by antiepileptic drugs: the role of the aromatic ring.

    Handoko, K.B.; Puijenbroek, E.P. van; Bijl, A.H.; Hermens, W.A.; Rijkom, JE Zwart-van; Hekster, Y.A.; Egberts, T.C.G.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) can cause various 'idiosyncratic' hypersensitivity reactions, i.e. the mechanism by which AEDs induce hypersensitivity is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess whether the presence of an aromatic ring as a commonality in chemical structures of AEDs can ex

  12. Influence of chemical structure on hypersensitivity reactions induced by antiepileptic drugs : the role of the aromatic ring

    Handoko, Kim B; van Puijenbroek, Eugène P; Bijl, Annemarie H; Hermens, Walter A J J; Zwart-van Rijkom, Jeannette E F; Hekster, Yechiel A; Egberts, Toine C G

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) can cause various 'idiosyncratic' hypersensitivity reactions, i.e. the mechanism by which AEDs induce hypersensitivity is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess whether the presence of an aromatic ring as a commonality in chemical structures of AEDs can ex

  13. An Origin of Multiple Ring Structure and Hidden Planets in HL Tau: A Unified Picture by Secular Gravitational Instability

    Takahashi, Sanemichi Z.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2016-12-01

    Recent ALMA observation has revealed multiple ring structures formed in a protoplanetary disk around HL Tau. Prior to the ALMA observation of HL Tau, theoretical analysis of secular gravitational instability (GI) described a possible formation of multiple ring structures with separations of 13 au around a radius of 100 au in protoplanetary disks under certain conditions. In this article, we reanalyze the viability of secular GI by adopting the physical values inferred from the observations. We derive the radial distributions of the most unstable wavelength and the growth timescale of secular GI and verify that secular GI can form the ring structures observed in HL Tau. When a turbulent viscosity coefficient α remains small in the inner region of the disk, secular GI grows in the whole disk. Thus, the formation of planetary mass objects should occur first in the inner region as a result of gravitational fragmentation after the nonlinear growth of secular GI. In this case, the resulting objects are expected to create gaps at r ∼ 10 au and ∼30 au. As a result, all ring structures in HL Tau can be created by secular GI. If this scenario is realized in HL Tau, the outer region corresponds to the earlier growth phase of the most unstable mode of secular GI, and the inner region corresponds to the outcome of the nonlinear growth of secular GI. Therefore, this interpretation suggests that we are possibly witnessing both the beginning and the end of planet formation in HL Tau.

  14. A radial velocity survey of low Galactic latitude structures: II. The Monoceros Ring behind the Canis Major dwarf galaxy

    Conn, B C; Lewis, G F; Ibata, R A; Bellazzini, M; Irwin, M J; Conn, Blair C.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Bellazzini, Michele; Irwin, Mike J.

    2005-01-01

    An AAT/2dF Spectrograph Survey of low Galactic latitudes targeting the putative Canis Major dwarf galaxy, and the (possibly) associated tidal debris of stars known as the Monoceros Ring, covering Galactic coordinates 231.5$^{\\circ}< ${\\it l} $<$ 247.5$^{\\circ}$ and -11.8$^{\\circ}<${\\it b}$<-3.8^{\\circ}$, has revealed the presence of the Monoceros Ring in the background of the Canis Major dwarf galaxy. This detection resides at a galactocentric distance of $\\sim18.9\\pm$0.3\\kpc (13.5$\\pm$0.3\\kpc heliocentric), exhibiting a velocity of $\\sim132.8\\pm$1.3 $\\kms$ with a dispersion of $\\sim22.7\\pm1.7\\kms$; both of these comparable with previous measurements of the Monoceros Ring in nearby fields. This detection highlights the increasing complexity of structure being revealed in recent surveys of the Milky Way thick disk and Halo.

  15. Radical aryl migration enables diversity-oriented synthesis of structurally diverse medium/macro- or bridged-rings

    Li, Lei; Li, Zhong-Liang; Wang, Fu-Li; Guo, Zhen; Cheng, Yong-Feng; Wang, Na; Dong, Xiao-Wu; Fang, Chao; Liu, Jingjiang; Hou, Chunhui; Tan, Bin; Liu, Xin-Yuan

    2016-12-01

    Medium-sized and medium-bridged rings are attractive structural motifs in natural products and therapeutic agents. Due to the unfavourable entropic and/or enthalpic factors with these ring systems, their efficient construction remains a formidable challenge. To address this problem, we herein disclose a radical-based approach for diversity-oriented synthesis of various benzannulated carbon- and heteroatom-containing 8-11(14)-membered ketone libraries. This strategy involves 1,4- or 1,5-aryl migration triggered by radical azidation, trifluoromethylation, phosphonylation, sulfonylation, or perfluoroalkylation of unactivated alkenes followed by intramolecular ring expansion. Demonstration of this method as a highly flexible tool for the construction of 37 synthetically challenging medium-sized and macrocyclic ring scaffolds including bridged rings with diverse functionalities and skeletons is highlighted. Some of these products showed potent inhibitory activity against the cancer cell or derivative of human embryonic kidney line in preliminary biological studies. The mechanism of this novel strategy is investigated by control experiments and DFT calculations.

  16. Evaluation of a multi-guard ring (MGR) structure diode as diagnostic X-ray dosimeter

    Camargo, F.; Khoury, H. J.; Nascimento, C. R.; Asfora, V. K.; Bueno, C. C.

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we describe the results obtained for the evaluation of a multi-guard ring (MGR) structure diode as diagnostic X-ray dosimeter. This device was developed in the framework of R&D programs for the future CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with high radiation hardness to fulfill the requirements from this accelerator environment. In order to use the MGR diode as a dosimeter, it was connected in the photovoltaic mode to the input of an integrating electrometer and positioned at the center of an X-ray beam, beside a previously calibrated ionization chamber. The dependence of the diode response on the X-ray beam doses was evaluated for 35-90 kV X-ray generator bias supply, with doses in the range of 50 μGy-5 mGy. The good linearity of the dose-response curve obtained showed the MGR diode dosimeter to be a reliable alternative method for diagnostic X-ray dosimetry.

  17. Structural, electrochemical and theoretical study of a new chalcone derivative containing 3-thiophene rings

    Baggio, Ricardo; Brovelli, Francisco; Moreno, Yanko; Pinto, Marcela; Soto-Delgado, Jorge

    2016-11-01

    The title chalcone, 1,3-di(thiophene-3-yl)prop-2-en-1-one (C11H8OS2) is an essentially planar molecular with its terminal thiophene rings subtending an angle of 8.9°. The crystal structure consists in the π··π stacking of molecules defining columns along [010], further linked along c by non conventional Csbnd H⋯O bonds, thus determining broad planar arrays parallel to (100). In addition, there are weak S⋯S contacts connecting these weakly interacting 2D substructures. The experimental results obtained from single crystal X-ray diffraction data and the theoretical geometry calculated by molecular mechanics are in good agreement. Electrochemical records reveal an anodic profile with an unsymmetrical irreversible peak at 1.77 V and a shoulder at 1.62 V vs SCE, a behavior interpretable as due to the oxidation of reactive sites present in the molecule. On the other hand, the electrochemical reduction shows a narrow peak at -1.58 V vs SCE, a fact attributable to the carbonyl group. Finally, the values for the energy involved in the departure/arrival of electrons from border orbitals, as calculated using DFT, is compared with experimental data from cyclic voltammetry.

  18. Towards Model Diagnosis in Hydrologic Models: Evaluation of the abcd Water Balance Model Using the HCDN Dataset

    Martinez Baquero, G. F.; Gupta, H. V.

    2006-12-01

    Increasing model complexity demands the development of new methods able to mine larger amounts of information from model results and available data. Measures commonly used to compare models with data typically lack diagnostic "power". This work therefore explores the design of more powerful strategies to identify the causes of discrepancy between models and hydrologic phenomena, as well as to increase the knowledge about the input-output relationship of the system. In this context, we evaluate how the abcd monthly water balance model, used to infer soil moisture conditions or groundwater recharge, performs in 764 watersheds of the conterminous United States. Work done under these guidelines required the integration of the Hydro-Climatic Data Network dataset with spatial information to summarize the results and relate the performance with the model assumptions and specific conditions of the basins. The diagnostic process is implemented by the definition of appropriate hydrologic signatures to measure the capability of watersheds to transform environmental inputs and propose equivalent modeling structures. Knowledge acquired during this process is used to test modifications of the model in hydrologic regions where the performance is poor.

  19. ABCD-Type Law for Charged-Particle Beam Transport in Paraxial Approximation

    陈宝信; 孙别和

    2003-01-01

    Based on the similarity between charged-particle beam transversal transport and transmission of ellipse Gaussian light beam in paraxial approximation, it is shown that charged-particle beam transversal transport in real space is governed by the ABCD-type law for a complex curvature radius of the charged-particle beam in which the beam transverse emittance plays the role of wavelength; from this, a novel technique for characterizing charged-particle beam is proposed. Finally, this analogy provides an insight observation that it is hopeful to attain possible coherent charged-particle beam in favourable accelerator environment.

  20. Coherence and Polarization of Polarization Speckle Generated by Depolarizers and Their Changes through Complex ABCD Matrix

    Ma, Ning; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Lee, Tim K.;

    2015-01-01

    of special depolarizer: the random roughness birefringent screen (RRBS) is introduced to meet this requirement. The statistical properties of the field generated by the depolarizer is investigated and illustrated in terms of the 2x2 beam coherence and polarization matrix (BCPM) with the corresponding degree...... of coherence (DoC). and degree of polarization (DoP) P. The changes of the coherence and polarization when the speckle field propagates through any optical system are analysed within the framework of the complex ABCD-matrix theory....

  1. Synthesis, Structure and Antimicrobial Properties of Novel Benzalkonium Chloride Analogues with Pyridine Rings.

    Brycki, Bogumił; Małecka, Izabela; Koziróg, Anna; Otlewska, Anna

    2017-01-13

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are a group of compounds of great economic significance. They are widely used as emulsifiers, detergents, solubilizers and corrosion inhibitors in household and industrial products. Due to their excellent antimicrobial activity QACs have also gained a special meaning as antimicrobials in hospitals, agriculture and the food industry. The main representatives of the microbiocidal QACs are the benzalkonium chlorides (BACs), which exhibit biocidal activity against most bacteria, fungi, algae and some viruses. However, the misuses of QACs, mainly at sublethal concentrations, can lead to an increasing resistance of microorganisms. One of the ways to avoid this serious problem is the introduction and use of new biocides with modified structures instead of the biocides applied so far. Therefore new BAC analogues P13-P18 with pyridine rings were synthesized. The new compounds were characterized by NMR, FT-IR and ESI-MS methods. PM3 semiempirical calculations of molecular structures and the heats of formation of compounds P13-P18 were also performed. Critical micellization concentrations (CMCs) were determined to characterize the aggregation behavior of the new BAC analogues. The antimicrobial properties of novel QACs were examined by determining their minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values against the fungi Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Penicillium chrysogenum and bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The MIC values of N,N-dimethyl-N-(4-methylpyridyl)-N-alkylammonium chlorides for fungi range from 0.1 to 12 mM and for bacteria, they range from 0.02 to 6 mM.

  2. Synthesis, Structure and Antimicrobial Properties of Novel Benzalkonium Chloride Analogues with Pyridine Rings

    Bogumił Brycki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs are a group of compounds of great economic significance. They are widely used as emulsifiers, detergents, solubilizers and corrosion inhibitors in household and industrial products. Due to their excellent antimicrobial activity QACs have also gained a special meaning as antimicrobials in hospitals, agriculture and the food industry. The main representatives of the microbiocidal QACs are the benzalkonium chlorides (BACs, which exhibit biocidal activity against most bacteria, fungi, algae and some viruses. However, the misuses of QACs, mainly at sublethal concentrations, can lead to an increasing resistance of microorganisms. One of the ways to avoid this serious problem is the introduction and use of new biocides with modified structures instead of the biocides applied so far. Therefore new BAC analogues P13–P18 with pyridine rings were synthesized. The new compounds were characterized by NMR, FT-IR and ESI-MS methods. PM3 semiempirical calculations of molecular structures and the heats of formation of compounds P13–P18 were also performed. Critical micellization concentrations (CMCs were determined to characterize the aggregation behavior of the new BAC analogues. The antimicrobial properties of novel QACs were examined by determining their minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values against the fungi Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Penicillium chrysogenum and bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The MIC values of N,N-dimethyl-N-(4-methylpyridyl-N-alkylammonium chlorides for fungi range from 0.1 to 12 mM and for bacteria, they range from 0.02 to 6 mM.

  3. Allenylphosphonates with a 1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinane ring: Synthesis, structures, stability and utility

    N N Bhuvan Kumar; Manab Chakravarty; N Satish Kumar; K V Sajna; K C Kumara Swamy

    2009-01-01

    Synthesis, structures and stability (thermal and air) of allenylphosphonates of the type (OCH2CMe2CH2O)P(O)C(R)=C=CR'R" and [R"R'C=C=C(R)P(O)(OCH2)2]2C are discussed. Thermally activated dimerization (cycloaddition) of (OCH2CMe2CH2O)P(O)C(H)=C=CMe2 leads to the phosphonocyclobutane [(OCH2CMe2CH2O)P(O)C(H)=]2[C-CMe2]2 (18). Many of these allenes undergo addition of diethylamine to lead to enaminophosphonates that are readily hydrolysed by water to lead to -ketophosphonates. The latter compounds are useful as Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) reagents. Molecular structures of (OCH2CMe2CH2O)P(O)C(CH2OH)=C=CH2 (6), [H2C=C=C(H)P(O)(OCH2)2]2C (9), (OCH2CMe2CH2O)P(O)CH=C=CH2 (12), [(OCH2CMe2CH2O)P(O)C(H)=]2[C-CMe2]2 (18), and the -ketophosphonate (OCH2CMe2CH2O)P(O)CH2)-C(O)CHMe2 (24) have been determined. In compound 6, intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the phosphoryl oxygen and the hydroxyl group leading to an infinite chain is observed. In 6, there is a significant deviation (ca 7°) from the orthogonality expected between the planes containing 4 atoms of (a) H2C=C and (b) C=C(H)P in the allene part. In 9, weak C-H…O interaction between the phosphoryl oxygen atom and a CH2 proton of the six-membered ring is present.

  4. Study on Tonghaosu and Its Analogs:Isolation, Structure Identification and Synthesis of Antifeedant B-ring-homo-tonghaosu

    CHEN,Li(陈立); YIN,Biao-Lin(尹标林); XU,Han-Hong(徐汉虹); CHIU,Ming-Hua(邱明华); WU,Yu-Lin(吴毓林)

    2004-01-01

    The methanolic extract from a Chinese endemic Chrysanthemum plant, Dendranthema indicum var. aromaticum, was found to show high antifeeding activity against Pieris brassicae L., and by bioassay-guided separation, the active component, B-ring-homo-tonghaosu, 2-(2',4'-hexadiynylidene)-1,6-dioxaspiro-[4,5]-dec-3-ene (2) was isolated. Its structure was elucidated by comparing its spectroscopic data with those of 2 reported in the literatures. Furthermore new convenient total synthesis methods of B-ring-homo-tonghaosu were also developed to confirm its structure and make its further application in crop protection available. In addition, extensive comparison of spectroscopic data showed that the structure of compound 21 reported in literature should be revised to 2.

  5. Conformational Transformation of Five-Membered Rings: the Gas Phase Structure of 2-METHYLTETRAHYDROFURAN

    Van, Vinh; Nguyen, Ha Vinh Lam; Stahl, Wolfgang

    2015-06-01

    2-Methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MeTHF) is a promising environmentally friendly solvent and biofuel component which is derived from renewable resources. Following the principles of Green Chemistry, 2-MeTHF has been evaluated in various fields like organometallics, metathesis, and biosynthesis on the way to more eco-friendly syntheses. Cyclopentane as the prototype of five-membered rings is well-known to exist as twist or envelope structures. However, the conformational analysis of its heterocyclic derivative 2-methyl-tetrahydrothiophene (MTTP) yielded two stable twist conformers and two envelope transition states. Here, we report on the heavy atom r_s structure of the oxygen-analog of MTTP, 2-MeTHF, studied by a combination of molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy and quantum chemistry. One conformer of 2-MeTHF was observed and highly accurate molecular parameters were determined using the XIAM program. In addition, all 13C-isotopologues were assigned in natural abundance of 1%. A structural determination based on the r_s positions of all carbon atoms was achieved via Kraitchman's equations. The methyl group in 2-MeTHF undergoes internal rotation and causes A-E splittings of the rotational lines. The barrier was calculated to be 1142 wn at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory, which is rather high. Accordingly, narrow A-E splittings could be observed for only a few transitions. However, the barrier height could be fitted while the angles between the internal rotor axis and the principal axes of inertia were taken from the experimental geometry. V. Pace, P. Hoyos, L. Castoldi, P. Domínguez de María, A. R. Alcántara, ChemSusChem 5 (2012), 1369-1379. a) D. F. Aycock, Org. Process Res. Dev. 11 (2007),156-159. b) M. Smoleń, M. Kȩdziorek, K. Grela, Catal. Commun. 44 (2014), 80-84. V. Van, C. Dindic, H.V.L. Nguyen, W. Stahl, ChemPhysChem 16 (2015), 291-294. H. Hartwig, H. Dreizler, Z. Naturforsch. A 51 (1996), 923-932. J. Kraitchman, Am. J. Phys. 21

  6. Population-based study of ABCD2 score, carotid stenosis, and atrial fibrillation for early stroke prediction after transient ischemic attack: the North Dublin TIA study.

    Sheehan, Orla C

    2010-05-01

    Transient ischemic attack (TIA) etiologic data and the ABCD(2) score may improve early stroke risk prediction, but studies are required in population-based cohorts. We investigated the external validity of the ABCD(2) score, carotid stenosis, and atrial fibrillation for prediction of early recurrent stroke after TIA.

  7. Nitrogen-in-the-ring pyranoses and furanoses: structural basis of inhibition of mammalian glycosidases.

    Asano, N; Oseki, K; Kizu, H; Matsui, K

    1994-10-28

    Seven pyranoses and three furanoses with a nitrogen in the ring were prepared by chemical synthesis, microbial conversion, and isolation from plants to investigate the contribution of epimerization, deoxygenation, and conformation to the potency of inhibition and specificity of mammalian glycosidases. The seven pyranoses are 1-deoxynojirimycin (1), the D-manno (2), D-allo (3), and D-galacto (4) isomers of 1, fagomine (1,2-dideoxynojirimycin, 5), and the D-allo (6) and D-galacto (7) isomers of 5, while the three furanoses are 2,5-dideoxy-2,5-imino-D-mannitol (8), 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol (9), and 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-ribitol (10). The 2-deoxygenation and/or 3-epimerization of 1 enhanced the potency for rat intestinal lactase and bovine liver cytosolic beta-galactosidase. Especially compound 6 showed a potent inhibitory activity against both enzymes, and compound 8, a mimic of beta-D-fructofuranose, was a potent inhibitor of both beta-galactosidases as well. Compound 4, which has been known as a powerful alpha-galactosidase inhibitor, exhibited no significant inhibitory activity for most of mammalian beta-galactosidases. In addition, compound 6 fairly retained a potency of 1 toward rat intestinal isomaltase. In this study, compound 8, known as a processing alpha-glucosidase I inhibitor in cell culture, has been found to have no effect on processing alpha-glucosidase II, whereas 9 has been shown to be a good nonspecific inhibitor of intestinal isomaltase, processing alpha-glucosidase II, Golgi alpha-mannosidases I and II, and porcine kidney trehalase. It has been speculated that glycosidase inhibitors have structures which resemble those of the respective glycosyl cations. This Broad inhibitory activity of 9 toward various glycosidases suggest that it superimposes well on the various glycosyl cations.

  8. THE EFFECTS OF MONOMER STRUCTURE OF CYCLIC KETENE ACETALS ON THE BEHAVIOR OF CONTROLLED RADICAL RING-OPENING POLYMERIZATION

    Jin-ying Yuan; Cai-yuan Pana

    2002-01-01

    Polymerization of three cyclic ketene acetals: i.e., 5,6-benzo-2-methylene-1,3-dioxepane (BMDO), 2-methylene-4-phenyl-1,3-dioxolane (MPDO) and 4,7-dimethyl-2-methylene-1,3-dioxepane (DMMDO) were carried out in the presence of ethyl α-bromobutyrate/CuBr/2,2'-bipyridine respectively. The structures ofpoly(BMDO), poly(MPDO) and poly(DMMDO)were characterized by 1H and 13C-NMR spectra. The effects of monomer structure on the behavior of atom transfer free radical ring-opening polymerization were investigated and the mechanism of controlled free radical ring-opening polymerization was discussed.

  9. Strain distribution and electronic structures of the InAs/GaAs quantum ring molecule in an applied electric field

    2010-01-01

    The strain distribution and electronic structures of the InAs/GaAs quantum ring molecule are calculated via the finite element method.In our model,three identical InAs quantum rings are aligned vertically and embedded in the cubic GaAs barrier.Considering the band edge modification induced by the strain,the electronic ground state and the dependence of ground state energy on geometric parameters of the quantum ring molecule are investigated.The change of localization of the wavefunction resulting from the applied electric field along the growth direction is observed.The ground state energy decreases as the electric field intensity increases in a parabolic-like mode.The electric field changes the monotonic dependence of the energy level on the inter-ring distance into a non-monotonic one.However,the electric field has no effect on the relationships between the energy level and other geometric parameters such as the inner radius and outer radius.

  10. Interaction of Al-induced peptide backbone ring structure with the sidechains of His, Phe, Trp and Tyr

    吴清雷; 宋波

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium is widely used as an antimicrobial coagulant, food additive, and cookware. However, many reports indicate that aluminium may be a critical factor in many amyloid diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Unfortunately, the underlying mechanism is still poorly understood, which limits efforts to prevent and treat these diseases. In this paper, using an ab initio method, we studied the interaction of Al-backbone ring structure with theπ-electron-rich sidechains of His, Phe, Trp, and Tyr. We found that in the absence of water, the Al-backbone ring can stably bind with those sidechains. In the presence of water, the Al-backbone ring can bind to the His sidechain and cannot bind to the other sidechains. As revealed by further investigations, this could be attributed to the fact that there was a coordinate bond of the Al-backbone ring with the His sidechain, while there were theπ-πstacking and cation-π-like interactions with the other sidechains. These findings potentially provide a molecular understanding of Al-related toxicity, and may be helpful in designing drugs for those aforementioned aluminum-linked diseases and encourage treatment of Al-polluted water.

  11. Peak-ring structure and kinematics from a multi-disciplinary study of the Schrödinger impact basin

    Kring, David A.; Kramer, Georgiana Y.; Collins, Gareth S.; Potter, Ross W. K.; Chandnani, Mitali

    2016-10-01

    The Schrödinger basin on the lunar farside is ~320 km in diameter and the best-preserved peak-ring basin of its size in the Earth-Moon system. Here we present spectral and photogeologic analyses of data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument on the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) on the LRO spacecraft, which indicates the peak ring is composed of anorthositic, noritic and troctolitic lithologies that were juxtaposed by several cross-cutting faults during peak-ring formation. Hydrocode simulations indicate the lithologies were uplifted from depths up to 30 km, representing the crust of the lunar farside. Through combining geological and remote-sensing observations with numerical modelling, we show that a Displaced Structural Uplift model is best for peak rings, including that in the K-T Chicxulub impact crater on Earth. These results may help guide sample selection in lunar sample return missions that are being studied for the multi-agency International Space Exploration Coordination Group.

  12. Self-assembled GaAs/AlGaAs coupled quantum ring-disk structures by droplet epitaxy

    Somaschini, C; Bietti, S; Sanguinetti, S; Koguchi, N [L-NESS and Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali dell' Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Fedorov, A, E-mail: stefano.sanguinetti@mater.unimib.it [CNISM, L-NESS and Dipartimento di Fisica del Politecnico di Milano, Via Anzani 42, I-22100 Como (Italy)

    2010-03-26

    The fabrication, by droplet epitaxy, of a class of quantum nanostructures characterized by a regular, nanometres high, flat disks with a diameter of hundreds of nanometres and a hole at the centre encircled by a ring a few nanometres high, is presented here. A detailed analysis of the growth kinetics performed via in situ and ex situ probes allows us to propose a working model for the formation of these structures.

  13. An Origin of Multiple Ring Structure and Hidden Planets in HL Tau: A Unified Picture by Secular Gravitational Instability

    Takahashi, Sanemichi Z

    2016-01-01

    Recent ALMA observation has revealed multiple ring structures formed in a protoplanetary disk around HL Tau. Prior to the ALMA observation of HL Tau, theoretical analysis of secular gravitational instability (GI) described a possible formation of multiple ring structures with separations of 13 AU around a radius of 100 AU in protoplanetary disks under certain conditions. In this article, we reanalyze the viability of secular GI by adopting the physical values inferred from the observations. We derive the radial distributions of the most unstable wavelength and the growth timescale of secular GI and verify that secular GI can form the ring structures observed in HL Tau. When a turbulent viscosity coefficient $\\alpha$ remains to be small in inner region of the disk, secular GI grows in the whole disk. Thus, the formation of planetary mass objects should occur first in the inner region as a result of gravitational fragmentation after the non-linear growth of secular GI. In this case, resulting objects are expect...

  14. Self assembly of microparticles in stable ring structures in an optical trap

    Haldar, Arijit; Roy, Basudev; Gupta, S Dutta; Banerjee, Ayan

    2011-01-01

    Micro-particle self assembly under the influence of optical forces produced by higher order optical beams or by projection of a hologram into the trapping volume is well known. In this paper, we report the spontaneous formation of a ring of identical microspheres (each with diameter 1.1 um in conventional single beam optical tweezers having standing wave geometry with the sample chamber consisting of a cover slip and glass slide, and a usual TEM00 Gaussian beam. The effects of different experimental parameters on the ring formation are studied extensively. The experimental observations are backed by theoretical simulations based on a plane wave decomposition of the forward and backward propagating Gaussian beams. The ring patterns are shown to be caused due to geomterical aberrations produced by focusing the Gaussian beam using a high numerical aperture microscope objective into stratified media. It is found that the thickness of the stratified media and the standing wave geometry itself play a critical role ...

  15. Study of the Molecular Geometry, Electronic Structure, and Thermal Stability of Phosphazene and Heterophosphazene Rings with ab Initio Molecular Orbital Calculations

    Jaeger, C.R.; Debowski, M.A.; Manners, I.; Vancso, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    Ab initio molecular orbital calculations at the MP2/6-31G* level of theory have been used to study the molecular geometry, electronic structure, and the thermal stability of six-membered phosphazene and heterophosphazene rings. The studies included the phosphazene ring [NPCl2]3, the carbophosphazene

  16. The roles of ABCD2 score in the evaluation of the transient ischemic attack%ABCD2量表在短暂性脑缺血发作预后评估中的作用

    刘宣; 孙晓培; 曹华; 常庚; 李明

    2012-01-01

    部分短暂性脑缺血发作(transient ischemic attack,TIA)患者可能会进展为缺血性卒中,部分患者因合并心血管病而死亡.近年来的研究显示,ABCD2量表在TIA预后评估中有着重要价值.文章概述了ABCD2量表的来源和应用,重点阐述了该量表在TIA预后评估中的作用.%Part of the patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) may develop ischemic stroke.Some of them may die because of complicating cardiovascular disease.Studies in recent years have shown that the ABCD2 score has an important value in the evaluation of the prognosis of TIA.This article summarizes the source and application of the ABCD2 score,and focuses on the roles of the score in the evaluation of the prognosis of TIA.

  17. Multi-resonance split ring resonator structures at sub-terahertz frequencies

    Galal, Hossam

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the computational development of novel architectures of multi-resonance Split Ring Resonators (SRRs), for efficient manipulation of Terahertz (THz) frequency beams. The conceived resonators are based on both a capacitive and inductive scheme. Simulation results have been obtained for a 60 GHz to 240 GHz operational bandwidth.

  18. Linkage of Aromatic Ring Structures in Saturates, Aromatics, Resins and Asphaltenes Fractions of Vacuum Residues Determined by Collision-Induced Dissociation Technology

    Wang Wei; Liu Yingrong; Liu Zelong; Hou Huandi; Tian Songbai

    2016-01-01

    The linkage of aromatic ring structures in vacuum residues was important for the reifning process. The Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) combined with collision-induced dissociation (CID) is a powerful method to characterize the molecular structure of petroleum fractions. In this work, model compounds with differ-ent aromatic ring structures were measured by CID FT-ICR MS. The cracking of the parent ions and the generated fragment ions were able to distinguish different linkage of the model compounds. Then, vacuum residues were separated into saturates, aromat-ics, resins and asphaltenes fractions (SARA), and each fraction was characterized by CID technology. According to the experi-mental results, the aromatic rings in saturates and aromatics fractions were mainly of the island-type structures, while the aromatic rings in resins and asphaltenes fractions had a signiifcant amount of archipelago-type structures.

  19. 基于环结构的可靠检测机制%Reliable detection mechanism based on ring structure

    李俊锋; 杨英杰; 张国强

    2013-01-01

    为了解决层次式失效检测方法中检测点单点失效问题,为系统提供一种可靠检测点,提出基于环结构的可靠检测机制(BR_RD).该机制采用环检测算法迅速发现可疑失效节点,利用随机半元确认算法定位出环内的失效节点,通过选举算法产生新的可靠节点来替代失效节点以保持环结构完整性.其有效性和可靠性在失效注入实验中得到验证.%To solve the single failure point in hierarchical failure detection model and supply a reliable detecting point for the detection system, reliable detection mechanism based on ring structure (BR_ RD) is presented, which consists of multiple points. The loop detection algorithm is to find suspect failure points, then random semi-confirmation algorithm is to locate the failure points in the ring, and election algorithm is to maintenance the integrity of the ring structure by updating the failed points. Its validity and reliability is verified by failure injection experiments.

  20. Of Chains and Rings: Synthetic Strategies and Theoretical Investigations for Tuning the Structure of Silver Coordination Compounds and Their Applications

    Tünde Vig Slenters

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Varying the polyethyleneglycol spacer between two (iso-nicotinic groups of the ligand systems, a large structural variety of silver coordination compounds was obtained, starting with zero-dimensional ring systems, via one-dimensional chains, helices and double-helices to two-dimensional polycatenanes. Theoretical calculations help to understand their formation and allow predictions in some cases. These structures can be tuned by careful design of the ligand, the use of solvent and the counter ions, influencing also other important properties such as light stability and solubility. The latter is important in the context of biomedical applications, using silver compounds as antimicrobial agents.

  1. Shedding Light on Structure-Property Relationships for Conjugated Microporous Polymers: The Importance of Rings and Strain.

    Zwijnenburg, Martijn A; Cheng, Ge; McDonald, Tom O; Jelfs, Kim E; Jiang, Jia-Xing; Ren, Shijie; Hasell, Tom; Blanc, Frédéric; Cooper, Andrew I; Adams, Dave J

    2013-10-08

    The photophysical properties of insoluble porous pyrene networks, which are central to their function, differ strongly from those of analogous soluble linear and branched polymers and dendrimers. This can be rationalized by the presence of strained closed rings in the networks. A combined experimental and computational approach was used to obtain atomic scale insight into the structure of amorphous conjugated microporous polymers. The optical absorption and fluorescence spectra of a series of pyrene-based materials were compared with theoretical time-dependent density functional theory predictions for model clusters. Comparison of computation and experiment sheds light on the probable structural chromophores in the various materials.

  2. A family of structurally related RING finger proteins interacts specifically with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UbcM4.

    Martinez-Noel, G; Niedenthal, R; Tamura, T; Harbers, K

    1999-07-01

    The ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UbcM4 was previously shown to be necessary for normal mouse development. As a first step in identifying target proteins or proteins involved in the specificity of UbcM4-mediated ubiquitylation, we have isolated seven cDNAs encoding proteins that specifically interact with UbcM4 but with none of the other Ubcs tested. This interaction was observed in yeast as well as in mammalian cells. With one exception, all UbcM4-interacting proteins (UIPs) belong to a family of proteins that contain a RING finger motif. As they are structurally related to RING finger proteins that have recently been shown to play an essential role in protein ubiquitylation and degradation, the possibility is discussed that UIPs are involved in the specific recognition of substrate proteins of UbcM4.

  3. Crystal structure of the Z-ring associated cell division protein ZapC from Escherichia coli.

    Ortiz, Cristina; Kureisaite-Ciziene, Danguole; Schmitz, Florian; McLaughlin, Stephen H; Vicente, Miguel; Löwe, Jan

    2015-12-21

    Bacterial cell division involves a contractile ring that organises downstream proteins at the division site and which contains the tubulin homologue FtsZ. ZapC has been discovered as a non-essential regulator of FtsZ. It localises to the septal ring and deletion of zapC leads to a mild phenotype, while overexpression inhibits cell division. Interference with cell division is facilitated by an interaction with FtsZ. Here, we present the 2.9 Å crystal structure of ZapC from Escherichia coli. ZapC forms a dimer and comprises two domains that belong to the Royal superfamily of which many members bind methylated arginines or lysines. ZapC contains an N-terminal chromo-like domain and a Tudor-like C-terminal domain. We show by ITC that ZapC binds the C-terminal tail of FtsZ.

  4. Something old, something new : Update of the 2009 and 2013 ABCD guidelines on prevention and management of feline infectious diseases

    Möstl, Karin; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Hartmann, Katrin; Hosie, Margaret J; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Horzinek, Marian C

    2015-01-01

    OVERVIEW: The ABCD has published 34 guidelines in two Special Issues of the Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (JFMS): the first in July 2009 (Volume 11, Issue 7, pages 527-620) and the second in July 2013 (Volume 15, Issue 7, pages 528-652). The present article contains updates and new informat

  5. Optimization of a guard ring structure in Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes fabricated at National NanoFab Center

    Lim, K. T.; Kim, H.; Cho, M.; Kim, Y.; Kim, C.; Kim, M.; Lee, D.; Kang, D.; Yoo, H.; Park, K.; Sul, W. S.; Cho, G.

    2016-01-01

    A typical Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (G-APD) contains a guard ring that protects the structure from having an edge breakdown due to the lowering of electric fields at junction curvatures. In this contribution, G-APDs with a virtual guard ring (vGR) merged with n-type diffused guard ring (nGR) in various sizes were studied to find the optimal design for G-APDs fabricated at National NanoFab Center (NNFC) . The sensors were fabricated via a customized CMOS process with a micro-cell size of 65× 65 μm2 on a 200 mm p-type epitaxial layer wafer. I-V characteristic curves for proposed structures were measured on a wafer-level with an auto probing system and plotted together to compare their performance. A vGR width of 1.5 μm and a nGR width of 1.5 μm with an overlapping between vGR and nGR of 1.5 μm showed the lowest leakage current before the breakdown voltage while suppressing the edge breakdown. Furthermore, the current level of the lowest-leakage-current structure was as low as that of only vGR with a width of 2.0 μm, indicating that the structure is also area efficient. Based on these results, the design with vGR, nGR, and OL with width of 1.5 μm is determined to be the optimal structure for G-APDs fabricated at NNFC.

  6. Impact of the ABCDE triage on the number of patient visits to the emergency department

    Menezes Ricardo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Finnish emergency departments (ED serve both primary and secondary health care patients and are therefore referred to as combined emergency departments. Primary care specialists are responsible for the initial assessment and treatment. They, thereby, also regulate referral and access to tertiary care. Primary health care EDs are easy for the public to access, leading to non-acute patient visits to the emergency department. This has caused increased queues and unnecessary difficulties in providing immediate treatment for those patients who need it the most. Methods A face-to-face triage system based on the letters A (patient directly to secondary care, B (to be examined within 10 min, C (to be examined within 1 h, D (to be examined within 2 h and E (no need for immediate treatment for assessing the urgency of patients' treatment needs was applied in the main ED in the City of Vantaa, Finland (Peijas Hospital as an attempt to provide immediate treatment for the most acute patients. The first step was an initial patient assessment by a health care professional (triage nurse. If the patient was not considered to be in need of immediate care (i.e. A-D he was allocated to group E and examined after the more urgent patients were treated. The introduction of this triage system was combined with information to the public on the "correct" use of emergency services. The primary aim of this study was to assess whether the flow of patients was changed by implementing the ABCDE-triage system in the combined ED. To study the effect of the intervention on patient flow, numbers monthly visits to doctors were recorded before and after intervention in Peijas ED and, simultaneously, in control EDs (Myyrmäki in Vantaa, Jorvi and Puolarmetsä in Espoo. To study does the implementation of the triage system redirect patients to other health services, numbers of monthly visits to doctors were also scored in the private health care and public

  7. Instrument validation for assessing critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation according to the ABCDE

    Percival Vitorino Guimarães

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to validate the content of an instrument aimed at guiding the nursing care provided to patients on artificial respiration. An instrument was created with five indicators, inspired on the mnemonic ABCDE method, used in the Advanced Trauma Life Support course, namely: A – Airway maintenance, with 38 items; B – Breathing and ventilation, 11 items; C – Circulation with hemorrhage control, 16 items; D – Disability/neurologic assessment, 08 items; and E – Exposure and environmental control, 08 items. The Content Validity Index (CVI was used to calculate the degree of agreement among the experts for the general analysis of the instrument and the analysis of the set of items. In conclusion, this instrument works as an assessment tool for patients on artificial respiration, especially when they are in adapted environments to intensive care, as it guides the nurse to observe aspects that may cause harm to the patient.

  8. Comultiplication in ABCD algebra and scalar products of bethe wave functions

    Mikhailov, A.

    1994-07-01

    The representation of scalar products of Bethe wave functions in terms of dual fields, proved by A. G. Izergin and V. E. Korepin in 1987, plays an important role in the theory of completely integrable models. The proof in [A. G. Izergin, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 297, No. 2, 331 (1987)] and [V. E. Korepin, Commun. Math. Phys., 113, 177 190 (1978)] is based on the explicit expression for the “senior” coefficient, which was guessed in the Izergin paper and then proved to satisfy some recurrent relations, which determine it unambiguously. In this paper we present an alternative proof based on direct computation. It uses the operation of comultiplication in the ABCD-algebra.

  9. Extraction of ABCD rule features from skin lesions images with smartphone.

    Rosado, Luís; Castro, Rui; Ferreira, Liliana; Ferreira, Márcia

    2012-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in dermatology today is the early detection of melanoma since the success rates of curing this type of cancer are very high if detected during the early stages of its development. The main objective of the work presented in this paper is to create a prototype of a patient-oriented system for skin lesion analysis using a smartphone. This work aims at implementing a self-monitoring system that collects, processes, and stores information of skin lesions through the automatic extraction of specific visual features. The selection of the features was based on the ABCD rule, which considers 4 visual criteria considered highly relevant for the detection of malignant melanoma. The algorithms used to extract these features are briefly described and the results achieved using images taken from the smartphone camera are discussed.

  10. Promoting competence in undergraduate medical students through the humanities: The ABCDE paradigm

    Upreet Dhaliwal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholders, including patients and employers, find that skills pertaining to professionalism, humanism, diversity, communication, and ethics are as important for patient care as the doctor’s ability to diagnose and treat illness. Practitioners should be able to demonstrate these skills in real time, yet they are not explicitly taught in the medical course – students are expected to learn them through observation of role models. Some students may never witness such role modeling. Research suggests that the creative instincts of medical students could be utilized through exposure to the humanities to explicitly develop these skills. Medical educators worldwide are examining newer ways to actively train and assess learners in professionalism and related competencies. Using Rudyard Kipling’s “Five Ws and One H” guide to writing a scientific paper, we propose the ABCDE paradigm and demonstrate why it is most appropriate to use the medical humanities to teach professionalism and humanism.

  11. Development of Cone Wedge Ring Expansion Test to Evaluate Mechanical Properties of Clad Tubing Structure

    Wang, Jy-An John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    To determine the hoop tensile properties of irradiated fuel cladding in a hot cell, a cone wedge ring expansion test method was developed. A four-piece wedge insert was designed with tapered angles matched to the cone shape of a loading piston. The ring specimen was expanded in the radial direction by the lateral expansion of the wedges under the downward movement of the piston. The advantages of the proposed method are that implementation of the test setup in a hot cell is simple and easy, and that it enables a direct strain measurement of the test specimen from the piston’s vertical displacement soon after the wedge-clad contact resistance is initiated.

  12. Metabolic Flux Analysis of the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 ΔnrtABCD Mutant Reveals a Mechanism for Metabolic Adaptation to Nitrogen-Limited Conditions.

    Nakajima, Tsubasa; Yoshikawa, Katsunori; Toya, Yoshihiro; Matsuda, Fumio; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Metabolic flux redirection during nitrogen-limited growth was investigated in the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 glucose-tolerant (GT) strain under photoautotrophic conditions by isotopically non-stationary metabolic flux analysis (INST-MFA). A ΔnrtABCD mutant of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was constructed to reproduce phenotypes arising during nitrogen starvation. The ΔnrtABCD mutant and the wild-type GT strain were cultured under photoautotrophic conditions by a photobioreactor. Intracellular metabolites were labeled over a time course using NaH13CO3 as a carbon source. Based on these data, the metabolic flux distributions in the wild-type and ΔnrtABCD cells were estimated by INST-MFA. The wild-type GT and ΔnrtABCD strains displayed similar distribution patterns, although the absolute levels of metabolic flux were lower in ΔnrtABCD. Furthermore, the relative flux levels for glycogen metabolism, anaplerotic reactions and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway were increased in ΔnrtABCD. This was probably due to the increased expression of enzyme genes that respond to nitrogen depletion. Additionally, we found that the ratio of ATP/NADPH demand increased slightly in the ΔnrtABCD mutant. These results indicated that futile ATP consumption increases under nitrogen-limited conditions because the Calvin-Benson cycle and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway form a metabolic futile cycle that consumes ATP without CO2 fixation and NADPH regeneration.

  13. Sling-on-a-Ring: Structure for an elevator to LEO

    Meulenberg, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Various proposed space elevators may bypass the financial and environmental limits on rocket technology, but all have their own problems. A Low-Earth-Orbit, LEO, rotovator-based space-elevator version called 'sling-on-a-ring' may overcome them. This mass-lifting system uses the spatial stability of an orbital ring, accessorized for transfer and storage of momentum and electrical power. A high-tensile-strength equatorial circum-terra loop of colossal-carbon tube, CCT, fiber has solar-power and station-keeping units and rotating sling modules. Long sling assemblies, ~600 km, periodically descend into the atmosphere to ~13 km. At perigee, the sling rotational tip velocity almost cancels the orbital-ring velocity relative to Earth surface. Split-second timing detaches a ~10 ton payload from an ordinary aircraft and jerks it into space by sling momentum, with the proven specific strength of CCTs now under development. This system eliminates the immense mass in space of other space-elevator systems, but needs extre...

  14. A giant ring-like structure at 0.78

    Balazs, L G; Hakkila, J E; Horvath, I; Kobori, J; Racz, I; Toth, L V

    2015-01-01

    According to the cosmological principle, Universal large-scale structure is homogeneous and isotropic. The observable Universe, however, shows complex structures even on very large scales. The recent discoveries of structures significantly exceeding the transition scale of 370 Mpc pose a challenge to the cosmological principle. We report here the discovery of the largest regular formation in the observable Universe; a ring with a diameter of 1720 Mpc, displayed by 9 gamma ray bursts (GRBs), exceeding by a factor of five the transition scale to the homogeneous and isotropic distribution. The ring has a major diameter of $43^o$ and a minor diameter of $30^o$ at a distance of 2770 Mpc in the 0.78structure. However, these...

  15. Ring Structure Formation in Protoplanetary Disks due to the Two-Fluid Secular Gravitational Instability: An Indicator of Dust Concentration

    Takahashi, Sanemichi Z

    2013-01-01

    The instability in protoplanetary disks due to gas-dust friction and self-gravity of gas and dust is investigated by linear analysis. For conditions typical of protoplanetaly disks, the instability grows, even in gravitationally stable disks, on a timescale of order $10^{4-5}$yr at a radius of order 100AU. If we ignore the dynamical feedback from dust grains in the gas equation of motion, the instability reduces to the so-called "secular gravitational instability", that was investigated previously as the instability of dust in a fixed background gas flow. In this work, we solve the equation of motion for both gas and dust consistently and find that long-wavelength perturbations are stable, in contrast to the secular gravitational instability in the simplified treatment. The instability is expected to form ring structures in protoplanetary disks. The width of the ring formed at a radius of 100 AU is a few tens of AU. Therefore, the instability is a candidate for the formation mechanism of observed ring-like st...

  16. Avaliação do aprendizado dos pacientes sobre a regra do ABCD: um estudo randomizado no sul do Brasil Evaluation of patients’ learning about the ABCD rule: a randomized study in southern Brazil

    Karen Reetz Müller

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A regra do ABCD é utilizada para orientar médicos, profissionais da saúde e pacientes quanto ao reconhecimento das principais características de lesões cutâneas suspeitas de melanoma. Não há, no Brasil,estudos que validem a utilização da regra do ABCD pelos pacientes após orientações realizadas por dermatologistas. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o aprendizado da regra do ABCD por pacientes atendidos em centro dermatológico de referência no sul do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo randomizado com 80 pacientes ambulatoriais de ambos os sexos, com 12 anos ou mais. Foram avaliados: grau de escolaridade, renda mensal e acesso aos meios de comunicação. O grupo de intervenção recebeu orientações sobre o emprego da regra do ABCD, ao passo que o grupo-controle não recebeu. Ambos os grupos foram avaliados quanto às suas respostas em três momentos (basal, fora do consultório e no consultório, 15 dias após em painel de fotografias. O nível de significância utilizado foi o p Background: the ABCD rule is used to guide physicians, health care professionals and patients to recognize the main characteristics of suspicious skin lesions for melanoma. In Brazil there are no studies to validate the use of the ABCD rule by patients after instructions given by dermatologists. Objectives: to evaluate the learning of the ABCD rule by patients at a dermatology center of reference in the Southern region of Brazil. Methods: a randomized study, with 80 outpatients. The following were evaluated: sex, age, level of schooling, monthly income and access to means of communication. The intervention group received instructions regarding the use of the ABCD rule and the control group did not. Both groups were evaluated at three points in time (baseline; outside the office; and in the doctor's office, 15 days later regarding their answers about a panel of photographs. The level of significance used was p < 0.05 and a power of 0.80. Results: the group that

  17. Induction of cytoplasmic rods and rings structures by inhibition of the CTP and GTP synthetic pathway in mammalian cells.

    Wendy C Carcamo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cytoplasmic filamentous rods and rings (RR structures were identified using human autoantibodies as probes. In the present study, the formation of these conserved structures in mammalian cells and functions linked to these structures were examined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Distinct cytoplasmic rods (∼3-10 µm in length and rings (∼2-5 µm in diameter in HEp-2 cells were initially observed in immunofluorescence using human autoantibodies. Co-localization studies revealed that, although RR had filament-like features, they were not enriched in actin, tubulin, or vimentin, and not associated with centrosomes or other known cytoplasmic structures. Further independent studies revealed that two key enzymes in the nucleotide synthetic pathway cytidine triphosphate synthase 1 (CTPS1 and inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase 2 (IMPDH2 were highly enriched in RR. CTPS1 enzyme inhibitors 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine and Acivicin as well as the IMPDH2 inhibitor Ribavirin exhibited dose-dependent induction of RR in >95% of cells in all cancer cell lines tested as well as mouse primary cells. RR formation by lower concentration of Ribavirin was enhanced in IMPDH2-knockdown HeLa cells whereas it was inhibited in GFP-IMPDH2 overexpressed HeLa cells. Interestingly, RR were detected readily in untreated mouse embryonic stem cells (>95%; upon retinoic acid differentiation, RR disassembled in these cells but reformed when treated with Acivicin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: RR formation represented response to disturbances in the CTP or GTP synthetic pathways in cancer cell lines and mouse primary cells and RR are the convergence physical structures in these pathways. The availability of specific markers for these conserved structures and the ability to induce formation in vitro will allow further investigations in structure and function of RR in many biological systems in health and diseases.

  18. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma with a sarcomatoid growth pattern and signet-ring-like structure in a female f344 rat.

    Ohnuma-Koyama, Aya; Yoshida, Toshinori; Takahashi, Naofumi; Akema, Satoshi; Takeuchi-Kashimoto, Yukiko; Kuwahara, Maki; Nagaike, Mika; Inui, Kosei; Nakashima, Nobuaki; Harada, Takanori

    2013-06-01

    We report a biphasic malignant mesothelioma in an aged female F344/DuCrlCrlj rat. Macroscopically, multiple pale brown nodules were observed in the abdominal cavity with retention of bloody ascites. Histopathologically, the tumor cells spread over the peritoneum and formed masses on the surface and underlying adipose tissues. The tumor cells dominantly proliferated in a solid, nodular or nest-like pattern with modest amount of fibrillar connective tissues, which contained hyaluronan. The tumor consisted of ovoid, polygonal or spindle-shaped cells that possessed eosinophilic cytoplasms including glycogen; some tumor cells showed a signet-ring-like structure. Multinucleated cells and mitosis were found frequently, and direct invasion to intra-abdominal organs and intravascular metastasis to the liver were observed. Immunohistochemically, keratin and mesothelin were strongly positive in most of tumor cells, while vimentin was mainly positive in spindle-shaped cells. Podoplanin was also positive, particularly in the cell membrane of tumor cells. Electron microscopically, tumor cells showed an intercellular desmosome-like structure, basement membrane and microvillus. We diagnosed the case as a malignant peritoneal mesothelioma with a sarcomatoid growth pattern and signet-ring-like structure.

  19. Ultra-Sensitive Chip-Based Photonic Temperature Sensor Using Ring Resonator Structures

    Xu, Haitan; Fan, J; Taylor, J M; Strouse, G F; Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2013-01-01

    Resistance thermometry provides a time-tested method for taking temperature measurements. However, fundamental limits to resistance-based approaches has produced considerable interest in developing photonic temperature sensors to leverage advances in frequency metrology and to achieve greater mechanical and environmental stability. Here we show that silicon-based optical ring resonator devices can resolve temperature differences of 1 mK using the traditional wavelength scanning methodology. An even lower noise floor of 80 microkelvin for measuring temperature difference is achieved in the side-of-fringe, constant power mode measurement.

  20. Lorentz resonances and the vertical structure of dusty rings - Analytical and numerical results

    Schaffer, Les; Burns, Joseph A.

    1992-03-01

    The Schaffer and Burns (1987) linear theory of Lorentz resonances (LRs) in planetary rings is extended in order to accurately compute LR locations and to elucidate the nature of grain trajectories within the LR zones. Using the perturbation theory and energy arguments, it is shown that an increase in the inclination or eccentricity of a grain must be accompanied by a shift in the mean orbital radius of the particle. This shift alters the epicyclic frequencies in such a way that the infinite response of the linear resonance theory is suppressed. Chaotic motion is found for the range of charge-to-mass ratios that cause the vertical and horizontal LRs to overlap.

  1. Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on microbial community structure and PAH ring hydroxylating dioxygenase gene abundance in soil.

    Sawulski, Przemyslaw; Clipson, Nicholas; Doyle, Evelyn

    2014-11-01

    Development of successful bioremediation strategies for environments contaminated with recalcitrant pollutants requires in-depth knowledge of the microorganisms and microbial processes involved in degradation. The response of soil microbial communities to three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenanthrene (3-ring), fluoranthene (4-ring) and benzo(a)pyrene (5-ring), was examined. Profiles of bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities were generated using molecular fingerprinting techniques (TRFLP, ARISA) and multivariate statistical tools were employed to interpret the effect of PAHs on community dynamics and composition. The extent and rate of PAH removal was directly related to the chemical structure, with the 5-ring PAH benzo(a)pyrene degraded more slowly than phenathrene or fluoranthene. Bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities were all significantly affected by PAH amendment, time and their interaction. Based on analysis of clone libraries, Actinobacteria appeared to dominate in fluoranthene amended soil, although they also represented a significant portion of the diversity in phenanthrene amended and unamended soils. In addition there appeared to be more γ-Proteobacteria and less Bacteroidetes in soil amended with either PAH compared to the control. The soil bacterial community clearly possessed the potential to degrade PAHs as evidenced by the abundance of PAH ring hydroxylating (PAH-RHDα) genes from both gram negative (GN) and gram positive (GP) bacteria in PAH-amended and control soils. Although the dioxygenase gene from GP bacteria was less abundant in soil than the gene associated with GN bacteria, significant (p PAH-RHDα gene were observed during phenanthrene and fluoranthene degradation, whereas there was no significant difference in the abundance of the GN PAH-RHDα gene during the course of the experiment. Few studies to-date have examined the effect of pollutants on more than one microbial community in soil. The current study provides

  2. Use of silica-encapsulated Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4 in biodegradation of novel hydrocarbon ring structures found in hydraulic fracturing waters.

    Aukema, Kelly G; Kasinkas, Lisa; Aksan, Alptekin; Wackett, Lawrence P

    2014-08-01

    The most problematic hydrocarbons in hydraulic fracturing (fracking) wastewaters consist of fused, isolated, bridged, and spiro ring systems, and ring systems have been poorly studied with respect to biodegradation, prompting the testing here of six major ring structural subclasses using a well-characterized bacterium and a silica encapsulation system previously shown to enhance biodegradation. The direct biological oxygenation of spiro ring compounds was demonstrated here. These and other hydrocarbon ring compounds have previously been shown to be present in flow-back waters and waters produced from hydraulic fracturing operations. Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4, containing naphthalene dioxygenase, was selected for its broad substrate specificity, and it was demonstrated here to oxidize fundamental ring structures that are common in shale-derived waters but not previously investigated with this or related enzymes. Pseudomonas sp. NCIB 9816-4 was tested here in the presence of a silica encasement, a protocol that has previously been shown to protect bacteria against the extremes of salinity present in fracking wastewaters. These studies demonstrate the degradation of highly hydrophobic compounds by a silica-encapsulated model bacterium, demonstrate what it may not degrade, and contribute to knowledge of the full range of hydrocarbon ring compounds that can be oxidized using Pseudomonas sp. NCIB 9816-4.

  3. A field investigation of the basaltic ring structures of the Channeled Scabland and the relevance to Mars

    Kestay, Laszlo P.; Jaeger, Windy L.

    2015-01-01

    The basaltic ring structure (BRS) is a class of peculiar features only reported in the Channeled Scabland of eastern Washington State. They have been suggested to be good analogs, however, for some circular features on Mars. BRSs are found where Pleistocene floods scoured the Columbia River Basin, stripping off the uppermost part of the Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group and exposing structures that were previously embedded in the lava. The “Odessa Craters,” near Odessa, WA, are 50–500-m-wide BRSs that are comprised of discontinuous, concentric outcrops of subvertically-jointed basalt and autointrusive dikes. Detailed field investigation of the Odessa Craters in planform and a cross-sectional exposure of a similar structure above Banks Lake, WA, lead us to propose that BRSs formed by concurrent phreatovolcanism and lava flow inflation. In this model, phreatovolcanic (a.k.a., “rootless”) cones formed on a relatively thin, active lava flow; the lava flow inflated around the cones, locally inverting topography; tensile stresses caused concentric fracturing of the lava crust; lava from within the molten interior of the flow exploited the fractures and buried the phreatovolcanic cones; and subsequent erosive floods excavated the structures. Another population of BRSs near Tokio Station, WA, consists of single-ringed, raised-rimmed structures that are smaller and more randomly distributed than the Odessa Craters. We find evidence for a phreatovolcanic component to the origin as well, and hypothesize that they are either flood-eroded phreatovolcanic cones or Odessa Crater-like BRSs. This work indicates that BRSs are not good analogs to the features on Mars because the martian features are found on the uneroded surfaces. Despite this, the now superseded concepts for BRS formation are useful for understanding the formation of the martian features.

  4. Token Ring Project

    Adela Ionescu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ring topology is a simple configuration used to connect processes that communicate among themselves. A number of network standards such as token ring, token bus, and FDDI are based on the ring connectivity. This article will develop an implementation of a ring of processes that communicate among themselves via pipe links. The processes are nodes in the ring. Each process reads from its standard input and writes in its standard output. N-1 process redirects the its standard output to a standard input of the process through a pipe. When the ring-structure is designed, the project can be extended to simulate networks or to implement algorithms for mutual exclusion

  5. Fano resonance and wave transmission through a chain structure with an isolated ring composed of defects

    Zhang Cun-Xi; Ding Xiu-Huan; Wang Rui; Zhou Yun-Qing; Kong Ling-Min

    2012-01-01

    We consider a discrete model that describes a linear chain of particles coupled to an isolated ring composed of N defects.This simple system can be regarded as a generalization of the familiar Fano-Anderson model.It can be used to model discrete networks of coupled defect modes in photonic crystals and simple waveguide arrays in two-dimensional lattices.The analytical result of the transmission coefficient is obtained,along with the conditions for perfect reflections and transmissions due to either destructive or constructive interferences.Using a simple example,we further investigate the relationship between the resonant frequencies and the number of defects N,and study how to affect the numbers of perfect reflections and transmissions.In addition,we demonstrate how these resonance transmissions and refections can be tuned by one nonlinear defect of the network that possesses a nonlinear Kerr-like response.

  6. Electronic structure of GaAs/AlGaAs quantum double rings in lateral electric field

    Y.Yao; T.Ochiai; T.Mano; T.Kuroda; T.Noda; N.Koguchi; K.Sakoda

    2009-01-01

    A three-dimensional model of GaAs/A1GaAs quantum double rings in the lateral static electric field is investigated theoretically.The eigenvalue problem with the effective-mass approximation is solved by means of the finite-element method.The energy levels and wave functions of quantum-confined electrons and heavy holes are obtained and show an agreement with our previous theoretical and experimental studies.It is shown in the approximation of neglecting the Coulomb attraction between the electron and heavy hole that a relatively large Stark shift of exciton emission of 4 meV is attainable with an applied electric field of 0.7 kV/cm.

  7. Ring-Shaped Phosphinoamido-Magnesium-Hydride Complexes: Syntheses, Structures, Reactivity, and Catalysis.

    Fohlmeister, Lea; Stasch, Andreas

    2016-07-11

    A series of magnesium(II) complexes bearing the sterically demanding phosphinoamide ligand, L(-) =Ph2 PNDip(-) , Dip=2,6-diisopropylphenyl, including heteroleptic magnesium alkyl and hydride complexes are described. The ligand geometry enforces various novel ring and cluster geometries for the heteroleptic compounds. We have studied the stoichiometric reactivity of [(LMgH)4 ] towards unsaturated substrates, and investigated catalytic hydroborations and hydrosilylations of ketones and pyridines. We found that hydroborations of two ketones with pinacolborane using various Mg precatalysts is very rapid at room temperature with very low catalyst loadings, and ketone hydrosilylation using phenylsilane is rapid at 70 °C. Our studies point to an insertion/σ-bond metathesis catalytic cycle of an in situ formed "MgH2 " active species.

  8. Monte Carlo simulation for thermal assisted reversal process of micro-magnetic torus ring with bistable closure domain structure

    Terashima, Kenichi; Suzuki, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Katsuhiko, E-mail: yama@sss.fukushima-u.ac.jp

    2016-04-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were performed for temperature dependences of closure domain parameter for a magnetic micro-torus ring cluster under magnetic field on limited temperature regions. Simulation results show that magnetic field on tiny limited temperature region can reverse magnetic closure domain structures when the magnetic field is applied at a threshold temperature corresponding to intensity of applied magnetic field. This is one of thermally assisted switching phenomena through a self-organization process. The results show the way to find non-wasteful pairs between intensity of magnetic field and temperature region for reversing closure domain structure by temperature dependence of the fluctuation of closure domain parameter. Monte Carlo method for this simulation is very valuable to optimize the design of thermally assisted switching devices.

  9. Study protocol: Audit and Best Practice for Chronic Disease Extension (ABCDE Project

    Thompson Sandra

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of international literature points to the importance of a system approach to improve the quality of care in primary health care settings. Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI concepts and techniques provide a theoretically coherent and practical way for primary care organisations to identify, address, and overcome the barriers to improvements. The Audit and Best Practice for Chronic Disease (ABCD study, a CQI-based quality improvement project conducted in Australia's Northern Territory, has demonstrated significant improvements in primary care service systems, in the quality of clinical service delivery and in patient outcomes related to chronic illness care. The aims of the extension phase of this study are to examine factors that influence uptake and sustainability of this type of CQI activity in a variety of Indigenous primary health care organisations in Australia, and to assess the impact of collaborative CQI approaches on prevention and management of chronic illness and health outcomes in Indigenous communities. Methods/design The study will be conducted in 40–50 Indigenous community health centres from 4 States/Territories (Northern Territory, Western Australia, New South Wales and Queensland over a five year period. The project will adopt a participatory, quality improvement approach that features annual cycles of: 1 organisational system assessment and audits of clinical records; 2 feedback to and interpretation of results with participating health centre staff; 3 action planning and goal setting by health centre staff to achieve system changes; and 4 implementation of strategies for change. System assessment will be carried out using a System Assessment Tool and in-depth interviews of key informants. Clinical audit tools include two essential tools that focus on diabetes care audit and preventive service audit, and several optional tools focusing on audits of hypertension, heart disease, renal

  10. Natural and Engineered Hydroxyectoine Production Based on the Pseudomonas stutzeri ectABCD-ask Gene Cluster▿ †

    Seip, Britta; Galinski, Erwin A.; Kurz, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    We report on the presence of a functional hydroxyectoine biosynthesis gene cluster, ectABCD-ask, in Pseudomonas stutzeri DSM5190T and evaluate the suitability of P. stutzeri DSM5190T for hydroxyectoine production. Furthermore, we present information on heterologous de novo production of the compatible solute hydroxyectoine in Escherichia coli. In this host, the P. stutzeri gene cluster remained under the control of its salt-induced native promoters. We also noted the absence of trehalose when...

  11. Time structure measurement of the storage ring with the time-resolved X-ray excited optical luminescence method at SSRF

    Zhaohong, Zhang; Song, Xue; Lifang, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the time structure of the storage ring on the sample spot inside the experimental hutch is a foundational step during the time-resolved experiments using the pulsed synchrotron X-rays with the time structure defined by the storage ring. In this work, the method of time-resolved X-ray excited optical luminescence was designed and implemented to do the measurement. This method is based on the principle of time-correlated single photon counting techniques. The measurement system consists of a spectrometer with a detector of photomultiplier tube, a timing system, a set of Nuclear Instrument Modules and a luminescent material of Zinc Oxide. The measurement was performed on the X-ray absorbed fine structure spectrum beamline at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The results show that this system can be used to measure the time structure of the storage ring with a precision of less than 1 ns.

  12. Ring theory

    Rowen, Louis H

    1991-01-01

    This is an abridged edition of the author's previous two-volume work, Ring Theory, which concentrates on essential material for a general ring theory course while ommitting much of the material intended for ring theory specialists. It has been praised by reviewers:**""As a textbook for graduate students, Ring Theory joins the best....The experts will find several attractive and pleasant features in Ring Theory. The most noteworthy is the inclusion, usually in supplements and appendices, of many useful constructions which are hard to locate outside of the original sources....The audience of non

  13. The addition of E (Empowerment and Economics) to the ABCD algorithm in diabetes care.

    Khazrai, Yeganeh Manon; Buzzetti, Raffaella; Del Prato, Stefano; Cahn, Avivit; Raz, Itamar; Pozzilli, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The ABCD (Age, Body weight, Complications, Duration of disease) algorithm was proposed as a simple and practical tool to manage patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes treatment, as for all chronic diseases, relies on patients' ability to cope with daily problems concerning the management of their disease in accordance with medical recommendations. Thus, it is important that patients learn to manage and cope with their disease and gain greater control over actions and decisions affecting their health. Healthcare professionals should aim to encourage and increase patients' perception about their ability to take informed decisions about disease management and to improve patient self-esteem and feeling of self-efficacy to become agents of their own health. E for Empowerment is therefore an additional factor to take into account in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes. E stands also for Economics to be considered in diabetes care. Attention should be paid to public health policies as well as to the physician faced with the dilemma of delivering the best possible care within the problem of limited resources. The financial impact of the new treatment modalities for diabetes represents an issue that needs to be addressed at multiple strata both globally and nationally.

  14. Structural characterization and molecular order of rodlike mesogens with three- and four-ring core by XRD and 13C NMR spectroscopy.

    Reddy, M Kesava; Reddy, K Subramanyam; Yoga, K; Prakash, M; Narasimhaswamy, T; Mandal, A B; Lobo, Nitin P; Ramanathan, K V; Rao, D S Shankar; Prasad, S Krishna

    2013-05-09

    Structural characterizations using XRD and (13)C NMR spectroscopy of two rodlike mesogens consisting of (i) three phenyl ring core with a polar cyano terminal and (ii) four phenyl ring core with flexible dodecyl terminal chain are presented. The three-ring-core mesogen with cyano terminal exhibits enantiotropic smectic A phase while the four-ring mesogen reveals polymesomorphism and shows enantiotropic nematic, smectic C, and tilted hexatic phases. The molecular organization in the three-ring mesogen is found to be partial bilayer smectic Ad type, and the interdigitation of the molecules in the neighboring layers is attributed to the presence of the polar terminal group. For the four-ring mesogen, the XRD results confirm the existence of the smectic C and the tilted hexatic mesophases. A thermal variation of the layer spacing across the smectic C phase followed by a discrete jump at the transition to the tilted hexatic phase is also observed. The tilt angles have been estimated to be about 45° in the smectic C phase and about 40° in tilted hexatic phase. (13)C NMR results indicate that in the mesophase the molecules are aligned parallel to the magnetic field. From the (13)C-(1)H dipolar couplings determined from the 2D experiments, the overall order parameter for the three-ring mesogen in its smectic A phase has been estimated to be 0.72 while values ranging from 0.88 to 0.44 have been obtained for the four-ring mesogen as it passes from the tilted hexatic to the nematic phase. The orientations of the different rings of the core unit with respect to each other and also with respect to the long axis of the molecule have also been obtained.

  15. Solvent micro-evaporation and concentration gradient synergistically induced crystallization of poly(L-lactide) and ring banded supra-structures with radial periodic variation of thickness

    Huang, Shaoyong; Li, Hongfei; Wen, Huiying

    2014-01-01

    The crystalline morphology and structure of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) in a PLLA film-chloroform system were investigated by means of wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), polarized optical microscopy (POM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Birefringent and nonbirefringent ring banded supra-structure...

  16. Station on the SR beam of the VEPP-3 storage ring for the study of macromolecular crystal structure (abstract)

    Popov, A. N.; Antson, A. A.; Bondarenko, K. P.; Belyaev, V. V.; Harutunyan, E. G.; Kheiker, D. M.; Sheromov, M. A.; Mytnytchenko, S. V.

    1989-07-01

    The station designed to speed up the collection of integral intensity data from protein and virus crystals is constructed on the SR beam of the VEPP-3 storage ring. A flat triangular Si crystal cut at 8° relative to the (111) plane is used to monochromatize the radiation. The monochromator is placed on the automatic goniometer which allows us to obtain the necessary energy of radiation, to make the adjusting turns and displacements, and to bend the crystal in order to achieve focusing in the horizontal plane. All the mechanical drive units are supplied with position sensors based on multiturn potentiometers. A conventional Arndt-Wonacott rotation camera is used to collect structure information. The station also includes an optical bench which can turn about the axis coinciding with that of the monochromator, and a set of slits to cut the background and to form the beam. The ionization camera serves to adjust the monochromator and to monitor the beam.

  17. Polar alicyclic rings: synthesis and structure of all cis-1,2,3,4-tetrafluorocyclopentane.

    Fang, Zeguo; Al-Maharik, Nawaf; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Bühl, Michael; O'Hagan, David

    2016-04-14

    The all-cis isomer of 1,2,3,4-tetrafluorocyclopentane is prepared and characterised by NMR and X-ray crystallography and the experimental structure compared with theory. The structure has a similarly high polarity to all-cis tetrafluorocyclohexanes despite the increased conformational flexibility of a cyclopentane.

  18. The Effect of Ring Substitution Position on the Structural Conformation of Mercaptobenzoic Acid Self-Assembled Monolayers on Au(111)

    Lee, J; Willey, T; Nilsson, J; Terminello, L; De Yoreo, J; van Buuren, T

    2006-04-12

    Near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEX-AFS) spectroscopy, photoemission spectroscopy (PES) and contact angle measurements have been used to examine the structure and bonding of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) prepared on Au(111) from the positional isomers of mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA). The isomer of MBA and solvent chosen in SAM preparation has considerable bearing upon film morphology. Carbon K-edge NEXAFS measurements indicate that the monomers of 2-, 3- and 4-MBA have well-defined orientations within their respective SAMs. Monomers of 3- and 4-MBA assume an upright orientation on the Au substrates in monolayers prepared using an acetic acid in ethanol solvent. The aryl ring and carboxyl group of these molecules are tilted from the surface normal by a colatitudal angle of {approx} 30{sup o}. Preparation of 4-MBA SAMs using pure ethanol solvent, a more traditional means of synthesis, had no appreciable effect upon the monomer orientation. Nonetheless, S(2p) PES measurements illustrate that it results in extensive bilayer formation via carboxyl group hydrogen-bonding between 4-MBA monomers. In 2-MBA monolayers prepared using acetic acid/ethanol solvent, the monomers adopt a more prostrate orientation on the Au substrates, in which the aryl ring and carboxyl group of the molecules are tilted {approx} 50{sup o} from the surface normal. This configuration is consistent with an interaction between both the mercaptan sulfur and carboxyl group of 2-MBA with the underlying substrate. S(2p) and C(1s) PES experiments provide supporting evidence for a bidentate interaction between 2-MBA and Au(111).

  19. Planetary Rings

    Tiscareno, Matthew S

    2011-01-01

    Planetary rings are the only nearby astrophysical disks, and the only disks that have been investigated by spacecraft. Although there are significant differences between rings and other disks, chiefly the large planet/ring mass ratio that greatly enhances the flatness of rings (aspect ratios as small as 1e-7), understanding of disks in general can be enhanced by understanding the dynamical processes observed at close-range and in real-time in planetary rings. We review the known ring systems of the four giant planets, as well as the prospects for ring systems yet to be discovered. We then review planetary rings by type. The main rings of Saturn comprise our system's only dense broad disk and host many phenomena of general application to disks including spiral waves, gap formation, self-gravity wakes, viscous overstability and normal modes, impact clouds, and orbital evolution of embedded moons. Dense narrow rings are the primary natural laboratory for understanding shepherding and self-stability. Narrow dusty...

  20. Non-Commutative Ring Theory

    López-Permouth, Sergio

    1990-01-01

    The papers of this volume share as a common goal the structure and classi- fication of noncommutative rings and their modules, and deal with topics of current research including: localization, serial rings, perfect endomorphism rings, quantum groups, Morita contexts, generalizations of injectivitiy, and Cartan matrices.

  1. Time structure measurement of the storage ring with the time-resolved X-ray excited optical luminescence method at SSRF

    Zhaohong, Zhang; Zheng, Jiang; Song, Xue; Lifang, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the time structure of the storage ring on the sample spot inside the experimental hutch is a foundational step during the time-resolved experiments using the pulsed synchrotron X-rays with the time structure defined by the storage ring. In this work, the method of time-resolved X-ray excited optical luminescence was designed and implemented to do the measurement. This method is based on the principle of time-correlated single photon counting techniques. The measurement system consis...

  2. Out-of-plane (SH) soil-structure interaction: a shear wall with rigid and flexible ring foundation

    Le, Thang; Lee, Vincent W.; Luo, Hao

    2016-02-01

    Soil-structure interaction (SSI) of a building and shear wall above a foundation in an elastic half-space has long been an important research subject for earthquake engineers and strong-motion seismologists. Numerous papers have been published since the early 1970s; however, very few of these papers have analytic closed-form solutions available. The soil-structure interaction problem is one of the most classic problems connecting the two disciplines of earthquake engineering and civil engineering. The interaction effect represents the mechanism of energy transfer and dissipation among the elements of the dynamic system, namely the soil subgrade, foundation, and superstructure. This interaction effect is important across many structure, foundation, and subgrade types but is most pronounced when a rigid superstructure is founded on a relatively soft lower foundation and subgrade. This effect may only be ignored when the subgrade is much harder than a flexible superstructure: for instance a flexible moment frame superstructure founded on a thin compacted soil layer on top of very stiff bedrock below. This paper will study the interaction effect of the subgrade and the superstructure. The analytical solution of the interaction of a shear wall, flexible-rigid foundation, and an elastic half-space is derived for incident SH waves with various angles of incidence. It found that the flexible ring (soft layer) cannot be used as an isolation mechanism to decouple a superstructure from its substructure resting on a shaking half-space.

  3. Ring Around a Galaxy

    1999-01-01

    Space Telescope Science Institute astronomers are giving the public chances to decide where to aim NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Guided by 8,000 Internet voters, Hubble has already been used to take a close-up, multi-color picture of the most popular object from a list of candidates, the extraordinary 'polar-ring' galaxy NGC 4650A. Located about 130 million light-years away, NGC 4650A is one of only 100 known polar-ring galaxies. Their unusual disk-ring structure is not yet understood fully. One possibility is that polar rings are the remnants of colossal collisions between two galaxies sometime in the distant past, probably at least 1 billion years ago. What is left of one galaxy has become the rotating inner disk of old red stars in the center. Meanwhile, another smaller galaxy which ventured too close was probably severely damaged or destroyed. The bright bluish clumps, which are especially prominent in the outer parts of the ring, are regions containing luminous young stars, examples of stellar rebirth from the remnants of an ancient galactic disaster. The polar ring appears to be highly distorted. No regular spiral pattern stands out in the main part of the ring, and the presence of young stars below the main ring on one side and above on the other shows that the ring is warped and does not lie in one plane. Determining the typical ages of the stars in the polar ring is an initial goal of our Polar Ring Science Team that can provide a clue to the evolution of this unusual galaxy. The HST exposures were acquired by the Hubble Heritage Team, consisting of Keith Noll, Howard Bond, Carol Christian, Jayanne English, Lisa Frattare, Forrest Hamilton, Anne Kinney and Zolt Levay, and guest collaborators Jay Gallagher (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Lynn Matthews (National Radio Astronomy Observatory-Charlottesville), and Linda Sparke (University of Wisconsin-Madison).

  4. Features of the Masonry Structure Calculation with Vertical Ring Beams based on the European Standards

    Zejak Danijela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of masonry structures should remain a combination of traditional and modern knowledge. The Eurocodes in the field of the design of earthquake-resistant masonry structures, carry mostly acceptable and expected recommendations and requirements. This paper shows that they contain less acceptable principles, which require further experimental and analytical studies. Particularly it should be noted that Eurocode knows only a shearing mechanism by the horizontal coupling, although during the seismic load, the fracture usually occurs due to exceeding the main tensile stress, which manifests by opening diagonal cracks. The mechanism of the horizontal shearing by Eurocode is treated as critical for the seismic resistance of most masonry buildings, thus the masonry structure is attributed as sufficiently secure, although its actual seismic resistance would be far below from the required.

  5. Black Hole or MECO? Decided by a Thin Luminous Ring Structure Deep Within Quasar Q0957

    Schild, Rudolph E

    2008-01-01

    Optical, Infrared, X-ray, and radio wavelength studies of quasars are beginning to define the luminous quasar structure from techniques of reverberation and microlensing. An important result is that the inner quasar structure of the first identified gravitational lens, Q0957+561 A,B seems not to show the kind of structure expected for a supermassive black hole, but instead show a clean-swept interior region as due to the action of a magnetic propeller, just as expected for a MECO (Magnetic Eternally Collapsing Object) structure. Given the present state of the observations, the strongest model discriminant seems to be the existence of a thin luminous band around the inner edge of the accretion disc, at a distant radius ~ 70 R_g from the ~ 4 x 10^9 Mo central object. Since the existence of a clean magnetic propeller swept inner region ~70 R_g surrounded by a sharp ~ 1 R_g disc edge are the low-hard state spectral properties associated with a highly redshifted central MECO object, we are led to the conclusion th...

  6. 楔环连接结构密封的试验研究%Experimental Study of Tightness of Wedged Ring Connection Structure

    马震宇; 孙云龙

    2014-01-01

    针对一种无人水下航行器镁合金圆筒舱段楔环连接和密封结构,分析比较其连接处O形密封圈材料及密封圈表面润滑脂的选择,并通过密封性试验和相容性试验,考察选定的橡胶密封圈的密封性能及选定的润滑脂与橡胶密封圈的相容性。结果表明,三元乙丙橡胶密封圈对该楔环连接结构连接处的气密效果最好,而7608液压系统合成润滑脂与三元乙丙橡胶密封圈相容性优良。%Aimed at the wedged ring connection and seal structure of the Magnesium alloy cylindrical cabins for an un-manned underwater vehicle,the selecting of the O-ring sealing materials in the connection place,and the lubricating grea-ses used in the seal ring surface was analyzed and compared.By the experiments of tightness and compatibility,the tight-ness performance of selected rubber seal and the compatibility of selected lubricating grease with rubber seal rings were in-vestigated.The results show that EPDM rubber seal ring has best air tightness for the wedged ring connection structure, and the 7608 synthetic lubricating grease of hydraulic system has excellent compatibility with the EPDM rubber seal ring.

  7. A ring-distortion strategy to construct stereochemically complex and structurally diverse compounds from natural products

    Huigens, Robert W., III; Morrison, Karen C.; Hicklin, Robert W.; Flood, Timothy A., Jr.; Richter, Michelle F.; Hergenrother, Paul J.

    2013-03-01

    High-throughput screening is the dominant method used to identify lead compounds in drug discovery. As such, the makeup of screening libraries largely dictates the biological targets that can be modulated and the therapeutics that can be developed. Unfortunately, most compound-screening collections consist principally of planar molecules with little structural or stereochemical complexity, compounds that do not offer the arrangement of chemical functionality necessary for the modulation of many drug targets. Here we describe a novel, general and facile strategy for the creation of diverse compounds with high structural and stereochemical complexity using readily available natural products as synthetic starting points. We show through the evaluation of chemical properties (which include fraction of sp3 carbons, ClogP and the number of stereogenic centres) that these compounds are significantly more complex and diverse than those in standard screening collections, and we give guidelines for the application of this strategy to any suitable natural product.

  8. Synthesis, structure and ring-opening polymerization of macrocyclic arylates containing phthalic unit

    姜洪焱; 陈天禄; 邢彦; 林永华; 徐纪平

    1997-01-01

    A series of maerocyclic arylate diraers have been selectively synthesized by an interfacial polyconden-sation of o-phthaloyldichloride with bisphenols A combination of GPC,FAB-MS,1H and 13C NMR unambiguously confirmed the cyclic nature Although single-crystal X-ray analysis of two such macrocycles reveals no severe strain on the cyclic structures,these macrocycles can undergo facile melt polymerization to give high molecular weight polyary-lates.

  9. Observations on the flow structures and transport in a warm-core ring in the Gulf of Mexico

    Lipinski, Doug

    2013-01-01

    This study presents several new observations from the study of a warm-core ring (WCR) in the Gulf of Mexico based on the ECCO2 global ocean simulation. Using Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) techniques to investigate this flow reveals a pattern of transversely intersecting LCS in the mixed layer of the WCR which experiences consistent stretching behavior over a large region of space and time. A detailed analysis of this flow region leads to an analytical model velocity field which captures the essential elements that generate the transversely intersecting LCS. The model parameters are determined from the WCR and the resulting LCS show excellent agreement with those observed in the WCR. The three-dimensional transport behavior which creates these structures relies on the small radial outflow which is present in the mixed layer and is not seen below the pycnocline, leading to a sharp change in the character of the LCS at the bottom of the mixed layer. The flow behavior revealed by the LCS limits fluid excha...

  10. Primary and secondary interactions between CK2alpha and CK2beta lead to ring-like structures in the crystals of the CK2 holoenzyme

    Niefind, Karsten; Issinger, Olaf-Georg

    2005-01-01

    a distinct aggregation propensity of CK2. We demonstrate here that in the CK2 holoenzyme crystals contacts between different CK2 tetramers exists which provide structural details of the secondary CK2alpha/CK2beta interactions. These mainly ionic interactions lead to trimeric rings of CK2 holoenzymes...

  11. Novel wideband microwave polarization network using a fully-reconfigurable photonic waveguide interleaver with a two-ring resonator-assisted asymmetric Mach-Zehnder structure

    Zhuang, Leimeng; Beeker, Willem; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René; Dijk, van Paulus; Roeloffzen, Chris

    2013-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel wideband microwave photonic polarization network for dual linear-polarized antennas. The polarization network is based on a waveguide-implemented fully-reconfigurable optical interleaver using a two-ring resonator-assisted asymmetric Mach-Zehnder structure. For mic

  12. Structural transitions in a ring stain created at the contact line of evaporating nanosuspension sessile drops

    Askounis, Alexandros; Sefiane, Khellil; Koutsos, Vasileios; Shanahan, Martin E. R.

    2013-01-01

    Monodisperse nanosuspension droplets, placed on a flat surface, evaporated following the stick-slip motion of the three-phase contact line. Unexpectedly, a disordered region formed at the exterior edge of a closely packed nanocolloidal crystalline structure during the “stick” period. In order to assess the role of particle velocity on particle structuring, we did experiments in a reduced pressure environment which allowed the enhancement of particle velocity. These experiments revealed the promotion of hexagonal packing at the very edge of the crystallite with increasing velocity. Quantification of particle velocity and comparison with measured deposit shape for each case allowed us to provide a tentative description of the underlying mechanisms that govern particle deposition of nanoparticles at the triple line of an evaporating droplet. Behavior is governed by an interplay between the fluid, and hence particle, flow velocity (main ordering parameter) and wedge constraints, and consequently disjoining pressure (main disordering parameter). Furthermore, the formation of a second disordered particle region at the interior edge of the deposit (towards bulk fluid) was found and attributed to the rapid motion of the triple line during the “slip” regime. Additionally, the magnitude of the pinning forces acting on the triple line of the same drops was calculated. These findings provide further insight into the mechanisms of the phenomenon and could facilitate its exploitation in various nanotechnological applications.

  13. Intra-annual variability of anatomical structure and delta(13)C values within tree rings of spruce and pine in alpine, temperate and boreal Europe.

    Vaganov, Eugene A; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Skomarkova, Marina V; Knohl, Alexander; Brand, Willi A; Roscher, Christiane

    2009-10-01

    Tree-ring width, wood density, anatomical structure and (13)C/(12)C ratios expressed as delta(13)C-values of whole wood of Picea abies were investigated for trees growing in closed canopy forest stands. Samples were collected from the alpine Renon site in North Italy, the lowland Hainich site in Central Germany and the boreal Flakaliden site in North Sweden. In addition, Pinus cembra was studied at the alpine site and Pinus sylvestris at the boreal site. The density profiles of tree rings were measured using the DENDRO-2003 densitometer, delta(13)C was measured using high-resolution laser-ablation-combustion-gas chromatography-infra-red mass spectrometry and anatomical characteristics of tree rings (tracheid diameter, cell-wall thickness, cell-wall area and cell-lumen area) were measured using an image analyzer. Based on long-term statistics, climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation, solar radiation and vapor pressure deficit, explained tree-ring width and wood density over consecutive years, while 29-58% of the variation in tree-ring width were explained by autocorrelation between tree rings. An intensive study of tree rings between 1999 and 2003 revealed that tree ring width and delta(13)C-values of whole wood were significantly correlated with length of the growing season, net radiation and vapor pressure deficit. The delta(13)C-values were not correlated with precipitation or temperature. A highly significant correlation was also found between delta(13)C of the early wood of one year and the late wood of the previous year, indicating a carry-over effect of the growing conditions of the previous season on current wood production. This latter effect may explain the high autocorrelation of long-term tree-ring statistics. The pattern, however, was complex, showing stepwise decreases as well as stepwise increases in the delta(13)C between late wood and early wood. The results are interpreted in the context of the biochemistry of wood formation and its

  14. Exciton interference revealed by energy dependent exciton transfer rate for ring-structured molecular systems

    Yan, Yun-An, E-mail: yunan@gznc.edu.cn [Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Computational Nanomaterial Science, Guizhou Education University, Guiyang, Guizhou 550018 (China)

    2016-01-14

    The quantum interference is an intrinsic phenomenon in quantum physics for photon and massive quantum particles. In principle, the quantum interference may also occur with quasi-particles, such as the exciton. In this study, we show how the exciton quantum interference can be significant in aggregates through theoretical simulations with hierarchical equations of motion. The systems under investigation are generalized donor-bridge-acceptor model aggregates with the donor consisting of six homogeneous sites assuming the nearest neighbor coupling. For the models with single-path bridge, the exciton transfer time only shows a weak excitation energy dependence. But models with double-path bridge have a new short transfer time scale and the excitation energy dependence of the exciton transfer time assumes clear peak structure which is detectable with today’s nonlinear spectroscopy. This abnormality is attributed to the exciton quantum interference and the condition for a clear observation in experiment is also explored.

  15. Tunable plasmon resonance in the nanobars and split ring resonator(SRR) composite structure

    Xu, Haiqing; Li, Hongjian; Xiao, Gang; Chen, Qiao

    2016-10-01

    We have proposed a multi-band metamaterials composed of bars and planer SRR. There are three sharp peaks in the transmission spectra in the visible and near-infrared region, we find that the transmission spectra are highly tunable as the coupling and geometric parameters modifying, especially the third peak in the near-infrared region. When the gap distance between the two nanobar g1<14 nm, the original first peak will split, a new dip and peak will exist, which is results from the high-order plasmon resonance. When introducing asymmetry to the planer SRR, a new sharp peak accompany with a new sharp dip exists in the original second peak, which is originated from the strong electric field resonance. We also find that the proposed structures with sensing sensitivity of ~467 nm/RIU, which can be used for plasmonic sensor.

  16. Use of RF quadrupole structures to enhance stability in accelerator rings

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2091303; Grudiev, Alexej; Li, Kevin Shing Bruce; Papke, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The beams required for the high luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) at CERN call for efficient mechanisms to suppress transverse collective instabilities. In addition to octupole magnets installed for the purpose of Landau damping, we propose to use radio frequency (rf) quadrupole structures to considerably enhance the aforementioned stabilising effect. By means of the PyHEADTAIL macroparticle tracking code, the stabilising mechanism introduced by an rf quadrupole is studied and discussed. As a specific example, the performance of an rf quadrupole system in presence of magnetic octupoles is demonstrated for HL-LHC. Furthermore, potential performance limitations such as the excitation of synchro-betatron resonances are pointed out. Finally, efforts towards possible measurements with the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) are discussed aiming at studying the underlying stabilising mechanisms experimentally.

  17. Computational studies of carbodiimide rings.

    Damrauer, Robert; Lin, Hai; Damrauer, Niels H

    2014-05-02

    Computational studies of alicyclic carbodiimides (RN═C═NR) (rings five through twelve) at the MP2/6-31G(d,p)//MP2/6-31G(d,p) level of theory were conducted to locate the transition states between carbodiimides isomers. Transition states for rings six through twelve were found. The RNCNR dihedral angle is ∼0° for even-numbered rings, but deviates from 0° for rings seven, nine, eleven, and twelve. The even- and odd-numbered ring transition states have different symmetry point groups. Cs transition states (even rings) have an imaginary frequency mode that transforms as the asymmetric irreducible representation of the group. C2 transition states (odd rings) have a corresponding mode that transforms as the totally symmetric representation. Intrinsic reaction coordinate analyses followed by energy minimization along the antisymmetric pathways led to enantiomeric pairs. The symmetric pathways give diastereomeric isomers. The five-membered ring carbodiimide is a stable structure, possibly isolable. A twelve-membered ring transition state was found only without applying symmetry constraints (C1). Molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics studies of the seven-, eight-, and nine-membered rings gave additional structures, which were then minimized using ab initio methods. No structures beyond those found from the IRC analyses described were found. The potential for optical resolution of the seven-membered ring is discussed.

  18. CYCLIC CODES OVER FORMAL POWER SERIES RINGS

    Dougherty Steven T.; Liu Hongwei

    2011-01-01

    In this article, cyclic codes and negacyclic codes over formal power series rings are studied. The structure of cyclic codes over this class of rings is given, and the relationship between these codes and cyclic codes over finite chain rings is obtained. Using an isomorphism between cyclic and negacyclic codes over formal power series rings, the structure of negacyclic codes over the formal power series rings is obtained.

  19. Earth: A Ringed Planet?

    Hancock, L. O.; Povenmire, H.

    2010-12-01

    Among the most beautiful findings of the Space Age have been the discoveries of planetary rings. Not only Saturn but also Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune have rings; Saturn’s ring system has structures newly discovered; even Saturn's moon Rhea itself has a ring. All these are apparently supplied by material from the planetary moons (Rhea's ring by Rhea itself). The question naturally arises, why should the Earth not have a ring, and on the other hand, if it does, why has it not been observed? No rings have yet been observed in the inner solar system, but after all, rings in the inner solar system might simply tend to be fainter and more transient than those of the outer solar system: the inner solar system is more affected by the solar wind, and the Sun’s perturbing gravitational influence is greater. J.A. O’Keefe first suggested (1980) that Earth might have a ring system of its own. An Earth ring could account for some climate events. O’Keefe remarked that formation or thickening of a ring system in Earth’s equatorial plane could drive glaciation by deepening the chill of the winter hemisphere. (It is very well established that volcanic dust is an effective agent for the extinction of sunlight; this factor can be overwhelmingly apparent in eclipse observations.) O’Keefe died in 2000 and the speculation was not pursued, but the idea of an Earth ring has a prima facie reasonableness that calls for its renewed consideration. The program of this note is to hypothesize that, as O’Keefe proposed: (a) an Earth ring system exists; (b) it affects Earth's weather and climate; (c) the tektite strewn fields comprise filaments of the ring fallen to Earth's surface on various occasions of disturbance by comets or asteroids. On this basis, and drawing on the world's weather records, together with the Twentieth Century Reanalysis by NCEP/CIRES covering the period 1870-2010 and the geology of the tektite strewn fields, we herein propose the hypothesized Earth ring

  20. Organization into Higher Ordered Ring Structures Counteracts Membrane Binding of IM30, a Protein Associated with Inner Membranes in Chloroplasts and Cyanobacteria.

    Heidrich, Jennifer; Wulf, Verena; Hennig, Raoul; Saur, Michael; Markl, Jürgen; Sönnichsen, Carsten; Schneider, Dirk

    2016-07-15

    The IM30 (inner membrane-associated protein of 30 kDa), also known as the Vipp1 (vesicle-inducing protein in plastids 1), has a crucial role in thylakoid membrane biogenesis and maintenance. Recent results suggest that the protein binds peripherally to membranes containing negatively charged lipids. However, although IM30 monomers interact and assemble into large oligomeric ring complexes with different numbers of monomers, it is still an open question whether ring formation is crucial for membrane interaction. Here we show that binding of IM30 rings to negatively charged phosphatidylglycerol membrane surfaces results in a higher ordered membrane state, both in the head group and in the inner core region of the lipid bilayer. Furthermore, by using gold nanorods covered with phosphatidylglycerol layers and single particle spectroscopy, we show that not only IM30 rings but also lower oligomeric IM30 structures interact with membranes, although with higher affinity. Thus, ring formation is not crucial for, and even counteracts, membrane interaction of IM30.

  1. ABCD3评分法指导内囊预警综合征分层抗栓治疗%Application of ABCD3 score in stratifying the antithrombotic treatment strategy in patients with capsular warning syndrome

    吕辉; 许波; 王萍; 袁海成; 汪东; 房雷; 薛承景

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the application of ABCD3 score on stratifying the antithrombotic treatment strategy in patients with capsular warning syndrome (CWS).Methods The clinical features of 15 patients with CWS were analyzed retrospectively,and the risk of stroke were evaluated by ABCD3 score and to guide the treatment of Stratifying antithrombotic therapy.The status of patients hospitalized,discharged and discharged after 90 d were evaluated.Results The frequency of patients with CWS accounted for 2.51% (15/ 597) of all patients with transient ischemic attack(TIA),and the mean age in patients with CWS was (70.27 ±8.29) years old.The duration of the first onset was (10-30) min,the mean time was (17.33±1.53) min,and ABCD2 score was 5.0-9.0 points,mean score was 7.00±0.26 points,and the total episodes of CWS were 51 times during 24 hours,the mean duration was (18.13 ± 15.36) minutes ((3.0-60.0) min).All 15 cases presented with limb hemiparesis.Of them,9 cases had dysarthria,5 case with ipsilateral facial palsy.All 15 cases CWS patients showed no signs of cortical deficit.The mean NIHSS score at onset was 1.0-6.0 points,mean scores was 3.20±0.31 points.Fourtheen patients were treated with clopidogrel plus aspirin,and 2 cases with administration of the loading dose 300 mg of clopidogrel,1 case was treated with clopidogrel plus aspirin orally followed by intravenous rt-PA thrombolysis.The average hospital periods of all 15 patients was (7.67±0.29) days.The NIHSS score were 0 point at discharge.There was no symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage or death within 90 days follow-up periods.Conclusion CWS is prone to develop a completed stroke.Stratified antithrombotic therapy guiding by ABCD3 score may decrease the risk of ischemic stroke.%目的 观察采用ABCD3评分法指导内囊预警综合征(CWS)分层抗栓治疗的临床效果.方法 回顾性分析15例CWS患者的临床特征,采用ABCD3评分法进行卒中危险分层,并指导抗栓治疗.分别对患者

  2. SUPRAMITRAL RING

    Rajesh G

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Supra mitral ring is a rare cause for congenital mitral valve obstr uction. The reported incidence of supramitral ring is 0.2-0.4% in general population and 8% in patients with congenital mitral valve disease. The condition is characterized by an abnormal ridge of connective tissue often circumferential in shape ,on the atrial side of the mitral valve encroaching on the orifice of the mitral valve. It may adhere to the leaflets of the valve and restrict their movements. Although a supramitral ring may be rarely nonobstructive, it often results in mitral valve inflow obstruction.

  3. Structure and tautomerism of cyclopentadiene derivatives. I. Reversible migrations of a nitro group in the cyclopentadiene ring

    Mikhailov, I.E.; Kompan, O.E.; Struchkov, Yu.T.; Minkin, V.I.; Dushenko, G.A.; Klenkin, A.A.; Olekhnovich, L.P.

    1987-10-20

    Intramolecular migrations of the nitro group around the perimeter of the five-membered ring, which take place during the mutual transformations of 5-nitro-5-alkyl-1,2,3,4- and 5-nitro-2-alkyl-1,3,4,5-tetramethoxycarbonylcyclopentadienes with a free energy of activation (..delta..G/sup= //sub 298/) of 100.2-111.2 kJ/mole, were detected and investigated by PMR spectroscopy. The effect of steric and electronic factors on the activation parameters of the rearrangements of the nitro group and also on the position of equilibrium between the isomers formed during the rearrangements was studied. The structure of such isomers was proved by x-ray crystallographic analysis for the case of 5-nitro-5-methyl-1,2,3,4- and 5-nitro-2-methyl-1,3,4,5-tetramethoxycarbonylcyclopentadienes and also 5-nitro-1,2,3,4,5-pentamethoxycarbonylcyclopentadiene. The /sup 1/H NMR spectra were obtained on a Tesla BS-487C spectrometer at 80 MHz with adiabatic signal transmission in chlorobenzene solutions.

  4. Structure-activity relationships for the hypertensinogenic activity of ouabain: role of the sugar and lactone ring.

    Manunta, P; Hamilton, B P; Hamlyn, J M

    2001-02-01

    Elevated levels of an endogenous ouabain circulate in many patients with essential hypertension. However, in contrast to ouabain, digoxin does not induce hypertension. This study investigated the hypothesis that within a single cardiac glycoside, the structural elements that induce hypertension differ from those responsible for high potency as a sodium pump inhibitor. Normal male Sprague-Dawley rats received infusions of vehicle (VEH), rhamnose (RHA), ouabain (OUA), ouabagenin (OGN), dihydro-ouabain (DHO), iso-ouabain (ISO), and a lactone ring opened analog (ORO) at 30 microgram. kg(-1). 24 h(-1) for 5 weeks via subcutaneous osmotic pumps. Cuff pressures were taken weekly. At the end of the study, trunk blood was harvested, extracted by C18 column, and subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography. Fractions were analyzed for OUA, OGN, and DHO by immunoassay. In OUA-, OGN-, and DHO-infused rats, 1 main peak of immunoreactivity corresponding to the infused agent was found. No evidence of in vivo conversion to OUA or DHO was found for any analog except ORO. At 5 weeks, systolic blood pressures in VEH, RHA, OUA, OGN, DHO, ISO, and ORO were 132+/-2.5, 133+/-1.5, 159+/-2.6,* 154+/-4,* 167+/-4,* 171+/-2.2,* and 169+/-2.4* mm Hg, respectively (*Pmechanism of action independent of the sodium pump.

  5. A season in Saturn's rings: Cycling, recycling and ring history

    Esposito, L. W.; Meinke, B. K.; Albers, N.; Sremcevic, M.

    2012-04-01

    Cassini experiments have watched Saturn's ring system evolve before our eyes. Images and occultations show changes and transient events. The rings are a dynamic and complex geophysical system, incompletely modeled as a single-phase fluid. Key Cassini observations: High resolution images show straw, propellers, embedded moonlets, and F ring objects. Multiple UVIS, RSS and VIMS occutlations indicate multimodal ringlet and edge structure, including free and forced modes along with stochastic perturbations that are most likely caused by nearby mass concentrations. Vertical excursions are evident at ring edges and in other perturbed regions. The rings are occasionally hit by meteorites that leave a signature that may last centuries; meteoritic dust pollutes the rings. Temperature, reflectance and transmission spectra are influenced by the dynamical state of the ring particles. Saturn's Equinox 2009: Oblique lighting exposed vertical structure and embedded objects. The rings were the coldest ever. Images inspired new occultation and spectral analysis that show abundant structure in the perturbed regions. The rings are more variable and complex than we had expected prior to this seasonal viewing geometry. Sub-kilometer structure in power spectral analysis: Wavelet analysis shows features in the strongest density waves and at the shepherded outer edge of the B ring. Edges are variable as shown by multiple occultations and occultations of double stars. F ring kittens: 25 features seen in the first 102 occultations show a weak correlation with Prometheus location. We interpret these features as temporary aggregations. Simulation results indicate that accretion must be enhanced to match the kittens' size distribution. Images show that Prometheus triggers the formation of transient objects. Propellers and ghosts: Occulations and images provide evidence for small moonlets in the A, B and C rings. These indicate accretion occurs inside the classical Roche limit. Implications

  6. Cave Rings

    2010-10-13

    hypothesis, that cave rings are formed in the same manner as coffee rings[3], that is, due to the enhanced deposition at the edges of sessile drops ...ring’ is the deposit formed when a sessile drop of a solution containing dissolved particles, such as coffee or salt, dries. This was investigated by...who expanded on Deegan et al.[3] to find an exact form for the evaporation flux over a sessile drop . It turns out that solving 179 for the flux is

  7. Architecture for an advanced biomedical collaboration domain for the European paediatric cancer research community (ABCD-4-E).

    Nitzlnader, Michael; Falgenhauer, Markus; Gossy, Christian; Schreier, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Today, progress in biomedical research often depends on large, interdisciplinary research projects and tailored information and communication technology (ICT) support. In the context of the European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents (ENCCA) project the exchange of data between data source (Source Domain) and data consumer (Consumer Domain) systems in a distributed computing environment needs to be facilitated. This work presents the requirements and the corresponding solution architecture of the Advanced Biomedical Collaboration Domain for Europe (ABCD-4-E). The proposed concept utilises public as well as private cloud systems, the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) framework and web-based applications to provide the core capabilities in accordance with privacy and security needs. The utility of crucial parts of the concept was evaluated by prototypic implementation. A discussion of the design indicates that the requirements of ENCCA are fully met. A whole system demonstration is currently being prepared to verify that ABCD-4-E has the potential to evolve into a domain-bridging collaboration platform in the future.

  8. Magnetic fields in ring galaxies

    Moss, D; Silchenko, O; Sokoloff, D; Horellou, C; Beck, R

    2016-01-01

    Many galaxies contain magnetic fields supported by galactic dynamo action. However, nothing definitive is known about magnetic fields in ring galaxies. Here we investigate large-scale magnetic fields in a previously unexplored context, namely ring galaxies, and concentrate our efforts on the structures that appear most promising for galactic dynamo action, i.e. outer star-forming rings in visually unbarred galaxies. We use tested methods for modelling $\\alpha-\\Omega$ galactic dynamos, taking into account the available observational information concerning ionized interstellar matter in ring galaxies. Our main result is that dynamo drivers in ring galaxies are strong enough to excite large-scale magnetic fields in the ring galaxies studied. The variety of dynamo driven magnetic configurations in ring galaxies obtained in our modelling is much richer than that found in classical spiral galaxies. In particular, various long-lived transients are possible. An especially interesting case is that of NGC 4513 where th...

  9. Live imaging of chloroplast FtsZ1 filaments, rings, spirals, and motile dot structures in the AtMinE1 mutant and overexpressor of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Fujiwara, Makoto T; Sekine, Kohsuke; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu Y; Abe, Tomoko; Sato, Naoki; Itoh, Ryuuichi D

    2009-06-01

    Chloroplast division involves the tubulin-related GTPase FtsZ that assembles into a ring structure (Z-ring) at the mid-chloroplast division site, which is where invagination and constriction of the envelope membranes occur. Z-ring assembly is usually confined to the mid-chloroplast site by a well balanced counteraction of the stromal proteins MinD and MinE. The in vivo mechanisms by which FtsZ nucleates at specific sites, polymerises into a protofilament and organizes a closed ring of filament bundles remain largely unknown. To clarify the dynamic aspects of FtsZ, we developed a living cell system for simultaneous visualisation of various FtsZ configurations, utilising the Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressor and mutant of the MinE (AtMinE1) gene, which were modified to weakly express green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to AtFtsZ1-1. Time-lapse observation in the chloroplasts of both plants revealed disorderly movement of the dots and short filaments of FtsZ. The short filaments often appeared to emanate from the dots and to converge with a long filament, producing a thick cable. In the AtMinE1 overexpressor, we also observed spirals along the longitudinal axis of the organelle that often rolled the closed rings together. In the atminE1 mutant, we visualised the 'isolated' rings with a maximum diameter of approximately 2 mum that did not encircle the organelle periphery, but appeared to be suspended in the stroma. Our observations further demonstrated heterogeneity in chloroplast shapes and concurrently altered configurations of FtsZ in the mutant.

  10. High-power test of annular-ring coupled structures for the J-PARC linac energy upgrade

    Tamura, Jun; Ao, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Yasuo; Asano, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takahiro

    2015-02-01

    Annular-ring coupled structures (ACSs) will increase the beam energy of the Japan proton accelerator research complex (J-PARC) linac from 181 to 400 MeV to achieve a beam power of 1 MW for a materials and life science experimental facility. The mass production of the ACS cavities commenced in March 2009. Before the installation, all cavities require power testing. High-power testing is essential not only for confirming the cavity's design performance but also for preventing delays in cavity conditioning schedule. However, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake damaged J-PARC facilities, including the ACS power-test area, and cavity conditioning was interrupted for two years. After the facility's restoration, two ACS cavities (M01 and M11) were conditioned. They performed 15-20% above the designed accelerating field of 4.2 MV/m. As M01 was initially conditioned six years ago, the most recent conditioning time required for M01 was drastically reduced. From this result, we confirmed that long-term stored ACS cavities purged with nitrogen gas do not produce critical cavity performance issues. During high-power operation of M11, which is a unique cavity equipped with a capacitive iris in a waveguide, no significant increases in the temperature and the discharge rate around the capacitive iris were observed. Even considering beam loss due to residual gas scattering, the vacuum pressure was sufficiently low (4 × 10-6 Pa). More stable operation can be expected following a month-long conditioning process before the beam is commissioned. M11's conditioning successfully demonstrated an auto-conditioning program, and we established the conditioning scheme using this auto-conditioning program for all ACS cavities in a limited time and with limited manpower.

  11. A simple model for approximate bandgap structure calculation of all-solid photonic bandgap fibre based on an array of rings

    Fang Hong; Lou Shu-Qin; Guo Tie-Ying; Yao Lei; Li nong-Lei; Jian ShuiSheng

    2008-01-01

    A simple model for approximate bandgap structure caculation of all-solid photonic bandgap fibre based on an array of rings is proposed.In this model calculated are only the potential modes of a unit cell,which is a high-index ring in the low-index background for this fibre,rather than the whole cladding periodic structure based on Bloch's theorem to find the bandgap.Its accuracy is proved by comparing its results with the results obtained by using the accurate full-vector plane-wave method.High speed in computation is its great advantage over the other exact methods,because it only needs to find the roots of one-dimensional analytical expressions.And the results of this model,mode plots,offer an ideal environment to explore the basic properties of photonic bandgap clearly.

  12. Saturn's ``Gossamer'' Ring: The F Ring's Inner Sheet

    Showalter, M. R.; Burns, J. A.; Hamilton, D. P.

    1998-09-01

    Recent Galileo and Earth-based images have revealed for the first time that Jupiter's ``gossamer'' ring is actually composed of two rings, one bounded at the outer edge by Amalthea and the other bounded by Thebe. Dynamical models suggest that these rings are composed of dust grains ejected off the surfaces of the two moons, which then evolve inward under Poynting-Robertson drag. A very faint sheet of material filling the region between Saturn's A and F Rings reported by Burns et al. (BAAS 15, 1013--1014, 1983) may be a dynamically analogous system, in which dust escapes from the F Ring and evolves inward to the A Ring. Unlike Jupiter's gossamer rings, however, the inner sheet of Saturn's F Ring has been well observed from a large range of phase angles and visual wavelengths by Voyager. Voyager images reveal that this faint ring shows a tenfold increase in brightness between phase angles of 125(deg) and 165(deg) , indicating that it is composed of fine dust microns in size. Preliminary estimates of the normal optical depth fall in the range 1--2*E(-4) , depending on the dust size distribution assumed. Initial spectrophotometry reveals that the ring is neutral in color. The ring is uniform in brightness over the entire region between the two rings, with no evidence for internal structure associated with Prometheus and Atlas, suggesting that neither of these embedded moons acts as either a source or a sink. We will refine the aforementioned measurements and develop photometric models to better constrain the properties of the dust in this ring. This will enable us to relate the dust population to that in the F Ring proper, and to better explore the dynamical processes at work.

  13. Structural disorder and transformation in crystal growth: direct observation of ring-opening isomerization in a metal-organic solid solution.

    Jiang, Ji-Jun; He, Jian-Rong; Lü, Xing-Qiang; Wang, Da-Wei; Li, Guo-Bi; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2014-09-01

    A rare example is reported in which discrete Ag2 L 2 ring and (AgL)∞ chain motifs [L = N,N'-bis(3-imidazol-1-yl-propyl)-pyromellitic diimide] co-crystallize in the same crystal lattice with varying ratios and degrees of disorder. Crystal structures obtained from representative crystals reveal compatible packing arrangements of the cyclic and polymeric isomers within the crystal lattice, which enables them to co-exist within a crystalline solid solution. A feasible pathway for transformation between the isomers is suggested via facile rotation of the coordinating imidazolyl groups. This chemical system could provide a chance for direct observation of ring-opening isomerization at the crystal surface. Mass spectrometry and (1)H NMR titration show a dynamic equilibrium between cyclic and oligomeric species in solution, and a potential crystallization process is suggested involving alignment of precursors directed by aromatic stacking interactions between pyromellitic diimide units, followed by ring-opening isomerization at the interface between the solid and the solution. Both cyclic and oligomeric species can act as precursors, with interconversion between them being facile due to a low energy barrier for rotation of the imidazole rings. Thermogravimetric analysis and variable-temperature powder X-ray diffraction indicate a transition to a different crystalline phase around 120°C, which is associated with loss of solvent from the crystal lattice.

  14. Topological rings

    Warner, S

    1993-01-01

    This text brings the reader to the frontiers of current research in topological rings. The exercises illustrate many results and theorems while a comprehensive bibliography is also included. The book is aimed at those readers acquainted with some very basic point-set topology and algebra, as normally presented in semester courses at the beginning graduate level or even at the advanced undergraduate level. Familiarity with Hausdorff, metric, compact and locally compact spaces and basic properties of continuous functions, also with groups, rings, fields, vector spaces and modules, and with Zorn''s Lemma, is also expected.

  15. ABCD2评分预测短暂性脑缺血发作后早期复发风险的价值%ABCD2 scores predicts risk of early recurrent events after transient ischemic attack: a hospital-based case series study

    方珉; 李强; 钟时颖; 刘学源

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨ABCD2评分系统对短暂性脑缺血发作(transient ischemic attack,TIA)的预测价值及存在的问题.方法 收集患者临床资料及磁共振弥散加权成像(difusion weighted imaging,DWI)、CT血管成像(CTangiography,CTA)的检查结果,按ABCD2评分标准完成评分.随访TIA后7 dTIA、小卒中和大卒中的发生率,分析ABCD2评分与TIA后短期再发事件的关系.ABCD2评分对于TIA后短期再发事件的预测用ROC曲线(area under the receiver operating characteristic curve)表达.结果 106例TIA患者中,再发TIA 24例(22.6%),再发卒中20例(18.9%).在TIA危险因素中,再发TIA与再发卒中两组间TIA持续时间差异有统计学意义(P=0.0068).ABCD2评分对大卒中预测价值高(AUROC=0.863,95% CI:0.799 ~ 0.926,P<0.001),对小卒中和TIA预测价值低(AUROC=0.590,95% CI:0.499 ~0.681,P=0.057; AUROC=0.444,95% CI:0.373~0.515,P=0.172).Cox风险分析发现,ABCD2评分与TIA后7d临床复发事件间具有相关性.ABCD2评分<3与ABCD2评分>3两组再发事件的风险比较差异有统计学意义(HR=15.98;95% CI:6.03,42.31;P<0.001).结论 ABCD2评分对于再发大卒中的预测价值高,可以作为急诊预测TIA患者7d再发大卒中的有效方法.

  16. Electrochemical performance and structure evolution of core-shell nano-ring α-Fe2O3@Carbon anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Sun, Yan-Hui; Liu, Shan; Zhou, Feng-Chen; Nan, Jun-Min

    2016-12-01

    Core-shell nano-ring α-Fe2O3@Carbon (CSNR) composites with different carbon content (CSNR-5%C and CSNR-13%C) are synthesized using a hydrothermal method by controlling different amounts of glucose and α-Fe2O3 nano-rings with further annealing. The CSNR electrodes exhibit much improved specific capacity, cycling stability and rate capability compared with that of bare nano-ring α-Fe2O3 (BNR), which is attributed to the core-shell nano-ring structure of CSNR. The carbon shell in the inner and outer surface of CSNR composite can increase electron conductivity of the electrode and inhibit the volume change of α-Fe2O3 during discharge/charge processes, and the nano-ring structure of CSNR can buffer the volume change too. The CSNR-5%C electrode shows super high initial discharge/charge capacities of 1570/1220 mAh g-1 and retains 920/897 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles at 500 mA g-1 (0.5C). Even at 2000 mA g-1 (2C), the electrode delivers the initial capacities of 1400/900 mAh g-1, and still maintains 630/610 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles. The core-shell nano-rings opened during cycling and rebuilt a new flower-like structure consisting of α-Fe2O3@Carbon nano-sheets. The space among the nano-sheet networks can further buffer the volume expansion of α-Fe2O3 and facilitate the transportation of electrons and Li+ ions during the charge/discharge processes, which increases the capacity and rate capability of the electrode. It is the first time that the evolution of core-shell α-Fe2O3@Carbon changing to flower-like networks during lithiation/de-lithiation has been reported.

  17. Ring interferometry

    Malykin, Grigorii B; Zhurov, Alexei

    2013-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the creation of a comprehensive formalism for quantitative description of polarized modes' linear interaction in modern single-mode optic fibers. The theory of random connections between polarized modes, developed in the monograph, allows calculations of the zero shift deviations for a fiber ring interferometer. The monograph addresses also the

  18. Effects of Agaricus lilaceps fairy rings on soil aggregation and microbial community structure in relation to growth stimulation of western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii) in Eastern Montana rangeland.

    Caesar-Tonthat, The Can; Espeland, Erin; Caesar, Anthony J; Sainju, Upendra M; Lartey, Robert T; Gaskin, John F

    2013-07-01

    Stimulation of plant productivity caused by Agaricus fairy rings has been reported, but little is known about the effects of these fungi on soil aggregation and the microbial community structure, particularly the communities that can bind soil particles. We studied three concentric zones of Agaricus lilaceps fairy rings in Eastern Montana that stimulate western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii): outside the ring (OUT), inside the ring (IN), and stimulated zone adjacent to the fungal fruiting bodies (SZ) to determine (1) soil aggregate proportion and stability, (2) the microbial community composition and the N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity associated with bulk soil at 0-15 cm depth, (3) the predominant culturable bacterial communities that can bind to soil adhering to wheatgrass roots, and (4) the stimulation of wheatgrass production. In bulk soil, macroaggregates (4.75-2.00 and 2.00-0.25 mm) and aggregate stability increased in SZ compared to IN and OUT. The high ratio of fungal to bacteria (fatty acid methyl ester) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity in SZ compared to IN and OUT suggest high fungal biomass. A soil sedimentation assay performed on the predominant isolates from root-adhering soil indicated more soil-binding bacteria in SZ than IN and OUT; Pseudomonas fluorescens and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates predominated in SZ, whereas Bacillus spp. isolates predominated in IN and OUT. This study suggests that growth stimulation of wheatgrass in A. lilaceps fairy rings may be attributed to the activity of the fungus by enhancing soil aggregation of bulk soil at 0-15 cm depth and influencing the amount and functionality of specific predominant microbial communities in the wheatgrass root-adhering soil.

  19. Orbital angular moment of a partially coherent beam propagating through an astigmatic ABCD optical system with loss or gain.

    Cai, Yangjian; Zhu, Shijun

    2014-04-01

    We derive the general expression for the orbital angular momentum (OAM) flux of an astigmatic partially coherent beam carrying twist phase [i.e., twisted anisotropic Gaussian-Schell model (TAGSM) beam] propagating through an astigmatic ABCD optical system with loss or gain. The evolution properties of the OAM flux of a TAGSM beam in a Gaussian cavity or propagating through a cylindrical thin lens are illustrated numerically with the help of the derived formula. It is found that we can modulate the OAM of a partially coherent beam by varying the parameters of the cavity or the orientation angle of the cylindrical thin lens, which will be useful in some applications, such as free-space optical communications and particle trapping.

  20. Natural and Engineered Hydroxyectoine Production Based on the Pseudomonas stutzeri ectABCD-ask Gene Cluster▿ †

    Seip, Britta; Galinski, Erwin A.; Kurz, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    We report on the presence of a functional hydroxyectoine biosynthesis gene cluster, ectABCD-ask, in Pseudomonas stutzeri DSM5190T and evaluate the suitability of P. stutzeri DSM5190T for hydroxyectoine production. Furthermore, we present information on heterologous de novo production of the compatible solute hydroxyectoine in Escherichia coli. In this host, the P. stutzeri gene cluster remained under the control of its salt-induced native promoters. We also noted the absence of trehalose when hydroxyectoine genes were expressed, as well as a remarkable inhibitory effect of externally applied betaine on hydroxyectoine synthesis. The specific heterologous production rate in E. coli under the conditions employed exceeded that of the natural producer Pseudomonas stutzeri and, for the first time, enabled effective hydroxyectoine production at low salinity (2%), with the added advantage of simple product processing due to the absence of other cosolutes. PMID:21169432

  1. On SAP-rings

    Zhixiang, Wu

    2006-01-01

    The rings whose simple right modules are absolutely pure are called right $SAP$-rings. We give a new characterization of right $SAP$ rings, right $V$ rings, and von Neumann regular rings. We also obtain a new decomposition theory of right selfinjective von Neumann regular rings. The relationships between $SAP$-rings, $V$-rings, and von Neumann regular rings are explored. Some recent results obtained by Faith are generalized and the results of Wu-Xia are strengthened.

  2. A c subunit with four transmembrane helices and one ion (Na+)-binding site in an archaeal ATP synthase: implications for c ring function and structure.

    Mayer, Florian; Leone, Vanessa; Langer, Julian D; Faraldo-Gómez, José D; Müller, Volker

    2012-11-16

    The ion-driven membrane rotors of ATP synthases consist of multiple copies of subunit c, forming a closed ring. Subunit c typically comprises two transmembrane helices, and the c ring features an ion-binding site in between each pair of adjacent subunits. Here, we use experimental and computational methods to study the structure and specificity of an archaeal c subunit more akin to those of V-type ATPases, namely that from Pyrococcus furiosus. The c subunit was purified by chloroform/methanol extraction and determined to be 15.8 kDa with four predicted transmembrane helices. However, labeling with DCCD as well as Na(+)-DCCD competition experiments revealed only one binding site for DCCD and Na(+), indicating that the mature c subunit of this A(1)A(O) ATP synthase is indeed of the V-type. A structural model generated computationally revealed one Na(+)-binding site within each of the c subunits, mediated by a conserved glutamate side chain alongside other coordinating groups. An intriguing second glutamate located in-between adjacent c subunits was ruled out as a functional Na(+)-binding site. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the c ring of P. furiosus is highly Na(+)-specific under in vivo conditions, comparable with the Na(+)-dependent V(1)V(O) ATPase from Enterococcus hirae. Interestingly, the same holds true for the c ring from the methanogenic archaeon Methanobrevibacter ruminantium, whose c subunits also feature a V-type architecture but carry two Na(+)-binding sites instead. These findings are discussed in light of their physiological relevance and with respect to the mode of ion coupling in A(1)A(O) ATP synthases.

  3. Secondary Structures in a Freeze-Dried Lignite Humic Acid Fraction Caused by Hydrogen-Bonding of Acidic Protons with Aromatic Rings.

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Drosos, Marios; Leenheer, Jerry A; Mao, Jingdong

    2016-02-16

    A lignite humic acid (HA) was separated from inorganic and non-HA impurities (i.e., aluminosilicates, metals) and fractionated by a combination of dialysis and XAD-8 resin. Fractionation revealed a more homogeneous structure of lignite HA. New and more specific structural information on the main lignite HA fraction is obtained by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Quantitative (13)C multiple cross-polarization (multiCP) NMR indicated oxidized phenyl propane structures derived from lignin. MultiCP experiments, conducted on potassium HA salts titrated to pH 10 and pH 12, revealed shifts consistent with carboxylate and phenolate formation, but structural changes associated with enolate formation from aromatic beta keto acids were not detected. Two-dimensional (1)H-(13)C heteronuclear correlation (2D HETCOR) NMR indicated aryl-aliphatic ketones, aliphatic and aromatic carboxyl groups, phenol, and methoxy phenyl ethers. Acidic protons from carboxyl groups in both the lignite HA fraction and a synthetic HA-like polycondensate were found to be hydrogen-bonded with electron-rich aromatic rings. Our results coupled with published infrared spectra provide evidence for the preferential hydrogen bonding of acidic hydrogens with electron-rich aromatic rings rather than adjacent carbonyl groups. These hydrogen-bonding interactions likely result from stereochemical arrangements in primary structures and folding.

  4. Two-dimensional inorganic–organic hybrid semiconductors composed of double-layered ZnS and monoamines with aromatic and heterocyclic aliphatic rings: Syntheses, structures, and properties

    Wang, Sujing; Li, Jing, E-mail: jingli@rutgers.edu

    2015-04-15

    As an addition to the II–VI based inorganic–organic hybrid semiconductor family, five new two-dimensional (2D) double-layered structures have been synthesized employing monoamines with different aromatic or heterocyclic aliphatic rings. Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}(bza) (1), Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}(mbza) (2), Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}(fbza) (3), Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}(pca) (4), and Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}(thfa) (5) (bza=benzylamine, mbza=4-methoxybenzylamine, fbza=4-flurobenzylamine, pca=3-picolylamine, and thfa=tetrahydrofurfurylamine) are prepared by solvothermal reactions and characterized by different analytical methods, including powder X-ray diffraction, optical diffuse reflection, thermogravimetric analysis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns show that all five compounds adopt 2D double-layered structures. Optical diffuse reflectance spectra of these compounds suggest that they have notably lower band gaps than those of the similar compounds composed of aliphatic alkyl amines. Their photoluminescence properties and thermal stability are also analyzed. - Graphical abstract: Five new members of two-dimensional double-layered 2D-Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}(L) (L=Ligand) structures employing monoamines with different aromatic or heterocyclic aliphatic rings have been designed, synthesized, and characterized. - Highlights: • A new sub-family of II-VI based hybrid semiconductors are designed, synthesized, and structurally characterized using amines with aromatic or aliphatic cyclic rings. • These compounds have notably lower band gaps than those made of aliphatic alkyl amines, greatly broadening the range of band gaps of this material family. • They emit strongly with systematically tunable emission intensity and energy.

  5. Rab1 interacts with GOLPH3 and controls Golgi structure and contractile ring constriction during cytokinesis in Drosophila melanogaster

    Sechi, Stefano; Frappaolo, Anna; Fraschini, Roberta; Capalbo, Luisa; Gottardo, Marco; Belloni, Giorgio; Glover, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Cytokinesis requires a tight coordination between actomyosin ring constriction and new membrane addition along the ingressing cleavage furrow. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying vesicle trafficking to the equatorial site and how this process is coupled with the dynamics of the contractile apparatus are poorly defined. Here we provide evidence for the requirement of Rab1 during cleavage furrow ingression in cytokinesis. We demonstrate that the gene omelette (omt) encodes the Drosophila orthologue of human Rab1 and is required for successful cytokinesis in both mitotic and meiotic dividing cells of Drosophila melanogaster. We show that Rab1 protein colocalizes with the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex Cog7 subunit and the phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate effector GOLPH3 at the Golgi stacks. Analysis by transmission electron microscopy and 3D-SIM super-resolution microscopy reveals loss of normal Golgi architecture in omt mutant spermatocytes indicating a role for Rab1 in Golgi formation. In dividing cells, Rab1 enables stabilization and contraction of actomyosin rings. We further demonstrate that GTP-bound Rab1 directly interacts with GOLPH3 and controls its localization at the Golgi and at the cleavage site. We propose that Rab1, by associating with GOLPH3, controls membrane trafficking and contractile ring constriction during cytokinesis. PMID:28100664

  6. Effect of origin conditions on the anatomical structure of the annual ring of Pinus sylvestris L. in the taiga zone

    Kiсhshenko Ivan Tarasovich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The studies were conducted in South Karelia (middle taiga subzone in 2006. Objects of study were the following kinds of pine forest: bilberry, cowberry and wild rosemary-bog moss ones. The investigation has shown that with the advancement of the tree in the forest canopy the annual growth ring of the trunk increases significantly. Thus, in the bilberry pine forest in the trees of the growth class I this index is higher than in the trees of the growth classes II-III and IV-V by 4 and 97 %, respectively. In the bilberry pine forest the percentage of the participation of late wood in the formation of growth ring in the dominant trees is by 6-9% less than that of the rest of the stand. The width of the early tracheid shells in the trees of the growth class I-III is by 22% more than in the overtopped ones in the bilberry pine forest. Annual ring width and latewood percentage in the pine forest of Hylocomium group is higher than in the wild rosemary – bog moss one by 41-50 and 7-35%, respectively. The maximal thickness of the late tracheid shells was observed in the cowberry pine forest (6.8-7.4 microns.

  7. Modifcation of the Prolyl Ring of Val-Pro and the Impact of this Modification on b2 Ion Structure

    Bernier, Matthew C.; Wysocki, Vicki H.; Gucinski, Ashley; Chamot-Rooke, Julia

    2013-06-01

    Here we present b2 ion studies on one tripeptide (VPA) and show how the addition of a fluorine or a hydroxyl group on the 3rd position of the proline ring can affect the b2 ion formation. Action IRMPD results of ValHyp (Hyp=hydroxyproline), ValFlp (Flp=trans-fluoroproline), and Valflp (flp=cis-fluoroproline) all show the presence of a strong oxazolone band in the CO region at 1900 cm-1. The presence of peaks in the diketopiperazine region between 1700 and 1800 cm-1 varies depending on which substituent is placed on the prolyl ring. Recently published data from our group showed a pair of medium sized diketopiperazine bands at 1760 and 1701 cm-1 for ValPro and we observed similarly intense bands for Valflp at 1752 and 1689 cm-1. ValHyp and ValFlp fail to show any significant diketopiperazine bands, but if zoomed in x10 a small band can be observed at 1756 cm-1 for ValHyp. From this data it is apparent that substitution of the second position prolyl ring can alter the formation of the b2 diketopiperazine ion.

  8. Probing the Mass and Structure of the Ring Nebula in Lyra with SOFIA/GREAT Observations of the [CII] 158 micron line

    Sahai, R; Werner, M W; Güsten, R; Wiesemeyer, H; Sandell, G

    2012-01-01

    We have obtained new velocity-resolved spectra of the [CII] 158 micron line towards the Ring Nebula in Lyra (NGC 6720), one of the best-studied planetary nebulae, in order to probe its controversial 3-dimensional structure and to estimate the mass of circumstellar material in this object. We used the Terahertz receiver GREAT aboard the SOFIA airborne telescope to obtain the [CII] spectra at eight locations within and outside the bright optical ring of NGC 6720. Emission was detected at all positions except for the most distant position along the nebula's minor axis, and generally covers a broad velocity range, ~50 km/s (FWZI), except at a position along the major axis located just outside the optical ring, where it is significantly narrower (~25 km/s). The one narrow spectrum appears to be probing circumstellar material lying outside the main nebular shell that has not been accelerated by past fast wind episodes from the central star, and therefore most likely comes from equatorial and/or low-latitude regions...

  9. Structure-activity study on the spatial arrangement of the third aromatic ring of endomorphins 1 and 2 using an atypical constrained C terminus.

    Yu, Ye; Shao, Xuan; Cui, Yun; Liu, Hong-mei; Wang, Chang-ling; Fan, Ying-zhe; Liu, Jing; Dong, Shou-liang; Cui, Yu-xing; Wang, Rui

    2007-03-01

    The discovery of endomorphins (EMs) has opened the possibility of searching for new analgesics. However, the design of peptide analgesics has proven to be very difficult as a result of their conformational flexibility and a lack of clarity in structure-activity relationships (SAR). In EMs, the amino acid side chains exhibit considerable conformational flexibility, especially in the third aromatic ring, which is free to adopt a bioactive conformation. To resolve these problems, a series of C terminus EM analogues, [Xaa(4)-R]EMs, modified through the substitution of Phe(4) with nonaromatic residues and termination with benzyl groups, were designed to generate conformational constrains of the third aromatic ring by amide bond and torsion angles (phi(4) and psi(4)) of Xaa(4). Introduction of (S)-alpha-methyl or (S)/(R)-alpha-carboxamide on the methylene unit of the benzyl group was designed to produce an atypical topographical constraint (phi(5)) of the third aromatic ring rotation. Interestingly, some EM derivatives, with elimination of the C-terminal carboxamide group and significant changes in the address sequence (Phe(4)-NH(2)), still exhibited higher mu-opioid receptor (MOR) affinity than unmodified EMs. In contrast, some analogues with incorrectly constrained C termini displayed very low affinity and pharmacological activities. Thus, our results indicate that these EM analogues, with atypical constrained C termini, provide model compounds with potent MOR agonism. They also give evidence that the proper spatial orientation and conformational restriction of the third aromatic ring are crucial for the interaction of EMs with MOR.

  10. A Ring Construction Using Finite Directed Graphs

    Bardzell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an interesting class of noncommutative rings which can be constructed using finite directed graphs. This construction also creates a vector space. These structures provide undergraduate students connections between ring theory and graph theory and, among other things, allow them to see a ring unity element that looks quite…

  11. Vibrational circular dichroism analysis reveals a conformational change of the baccatin III ring of paclitaxel: visualization of conformations using a new code for structure-activity relationships.

    Izumi, Hiroshi; Ogata, Atsushi; Nafie, Laurence A; Dukor, Rina K

    2008-03-21

    The comparison between measured and conformer-weighted calculated VCD spectra of the baccatin III ring of paclitaxel and visualization of the conformations using the new code for structure-activity relationships are reported for the first time. The VCD spectrum of paclitaxel closely resembles that of the baccatin III ring. The large characteristic nuCO VCD bands with bisignate signs (1732 cm-1, Deltaepsilon = -1.6 x 10(-1); 1715 cm(-1), Deltaepsilon = 2.4 x 10(-1)) strongly reflect the structural property of the family of conformations bacc-ABC32F defined using the new code. The comparison with the conformation of the baccatin III core in the electron micrograph of the crystal structure of tubulin-paclitaxel (1JFF) suggests a conformational change of paclitaxel corresponding to a switch through the binding with beta-tublin and the intermolecular interactions involving the hydroxyl group (D) and carbonyl of acetoxy group (E). The representation of conformational codes allows complicated conformations to be very easily compared and facilitates future computational analyses such as those for the large-molecule calculations as well as genome analysis.

  12. Origami rings

    Buhler, Joe; de Launey, Warwick; Graham, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by a question in origami, we consider sets of points in the complex plane constructed in the following way. Let $L_\\alpha(p)$ be the line in the complex plane through $p$ with angle $\\alpha$ (with respect to the real axis). Given a fixed collection $U$ of angles, let $\\RU$ be the points that can be obtained by starting with $0$ and $1$, and then recursively adding intersection points of the form $L_\\alpha(p) \\cap L_\\beta(q)$, where $p, q$ have been constructed already, and $\\alpha, \\beta$ are distinct angles in $U$. Our main result is that if $U$ is a group with at least three elements, then $\\RU$ is a subring of the complex plane, i.e., it is closed under complex addition and multiplication. This enables us to answer a specific question about origami folds: if $n \\ge 3$ and the allowable angles are the $n$ equally spaced angles $k\\pi/n$, $0 \\le k < n$, then $\\RU$ is the ring $\\Z[\\zeta_n]$ if $n$ is prime, and the ring $\\Z[1/n,\\zeta_{n}]$ if $n$ is not prime, where $\\zeta_n := \\exp(2\\pi i/n)$ is ...

  13. Astrocytes and mitochondria from adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ABCD1)-deficient mice reveal that the adrenoleukodystrophy-associated very long-chain fatty acids target several cellular energy-dependent functions.

    Kruska, Nicol; Schönfeld, Peter; Pujol, Aurora; Reiser, Georg

    2015-05-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder resulting from defective ABCD1 transport protein. ABCD1 mediates peroxisomal uptake of free very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) as well as their CoA-esters. Consequently, VLCFA accumulate in patients' plasma and tissues, which is considered as pathogenic X-ALD triggering factor. Clinical symptoms are mostly manifested in neural tissues and adrenal gland. Here, we investigate astrocytes from wild-type control and a genetic X-ALD mouse model (Abcd1-knockout), exposed to supraphysiological VLCFA (C22:0, C24:0 and C26:0) concentrations. They exhibit multiple impairments of energy metabolism. Furthermore, brain mitochondria from Abcd1(-/-) mice and wild-type control respond similarly to VLCFA with increased ROS generation, impaired oxidative ATP synthesis and diminished Ca(2+) uptake capacity, suggesting that a defective ABCD1 exerts no adaptive pressure on mitochondria. In contrast, astrocytes from Abcd1(-/-) mice respond more sensitively to VLCFA than wild-type control astrocytes. Moreover, long-term application of VLCFA induces high ROS generation, and strong in situ depolarization of mitochondria, and, in Abcd1(-/-) astrocytes, severely diminishes the capability to revert oxidized pyridine nucleotides to NAD(P)H. In addition, observed differences in responses of mitochondria and astrocytes to the hydrocarbon chain length of VLCFA suggest that detrimental VLCFA activities in astrocytes involve defective cellular functions other than mitochondria. In summary, we clearly demonstrate that VLCFA increase the vulnerability of Abcd1(-/-) astrocytes.

  14. Nonlinear analysis of ring oscillator circuits

    Ge, Xiaoqing

    2010-06-01

    Using nonlinear systems techniques, we analyze the stability properties and synchronization conditions for ring oscillator circuits, which are essential building blocks in digital systems. By making use of its cyclic structure, we investigate local and global stability properties of an n-stage ring oscillator. We present a sufficient condition for global asymptotic stability of the origin and obtain necessity if the ring oscillator consists of identical inverter elements. We then give a synchronization condition for identical interconnected ring oscillators.

  15. Structure-function analysis and genetic interactions of the SmG, SmE, and SmF subunits of the yeast Sm protein ring.

    Schwer, Beate; Kruchten, Joshua; Shuman, Stewart

    2016-09-01

    A seven-subunit Sm protein ring forms a core scaffold of the U1, U2, U4, and U5 snRNPs that direct pre-mRNA splicing. Using human snRNP structures to guide mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we gained new insights into structure-function relationships of the SmG, SmE, and SmF subunits. An alanine scan of 19 conserved amino acids of these three proteins, comprising the Sm RNA binding sites or inter-subunit interfaces, revealed that, with the exception of Arg74 in SmF, none are essential for yeast growth. Yet, for SmG, SmE, and SmF, as for many components of the yeast spliceosome, the effects of perturbing protein-RNA and protein-protein interactions are masked by built-in functional redundancies of the splicing machine. For example, tests for genetic interactions with non-Sm splicing factors showed that many benign mutations of SmG, SmE, and SmF (and of SmB and SmD3) were synthetically lethal with null alleles of U2 snRNP subunits Lea1 and Msl1. Tests of pairwise combinations of SmG, SmE, SmF, SmB, and SmD3 alleles highlighted the inherent redundancies within the Sm ring, whereby simultaneous mutations of the RNA binding sites of any two of the Sm subunits are lethal. Our results suggest that six intact RNA binding sites in the Sm ring suffice for function but five sites may not.

  16. 前循环短暂性脑缺血发作患者血浆纤维蛋白原水平与ABCD2评分的关系%Relationship between the level of plasma fibrinogen and ABCD2 score in patients with anterior circulation transient ischemic attack

    叶子明; 刘莹; 秦超; 邓晓; 陈相任; 林翠婷

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨前循环短暂性脑缺血发作(TIA)患者血浆纤维蛋白原(Fg)水平与ABCD2评分的关系.方法 采用ABCD2评分对133例前循环TIA患者进行评估,并根据评分分为低危亚组、中危亚组和高危亚组.检测TIA患者及128名正常对照者的血浆Fg水平,并比较.结果 根据ABCD2评分将患者分为低危亚组32例,中危亚组72例,高危亚组29例.TIA组血浆Fg水平显著高于正常对照组(P<0.01).中危及高危亚组的血浆Fg水平显著高于低危亚组;高危亚组显著高于中危亚组(均P<0.05).Kruskal-Wallis H检验显示,高危亚组、中危亚组、低危亚组的血浆Fg水平差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).经Spearmen秩相关系数检验,血浆Fg平均水平与ABCD2评分呈正相关(r=0.548,P<0.001).结论 前循环TIA患者血浆Fg水平与ABCD2评分呈正相关.%Objective To investigate the relationship between the level of plasma fibrinogen (Fg) and ABCD2 score in patients with anterior circulation transient ischemic attack (TIA).Methods One hundred and thirty-three patients were evaluated by ABCD2 score,and they were divided into low-risk subgroup,mid-risk subgroup and high-risk subgroup.The level of plasma Fg was detected in TIA patients and 128 normal controls,and the results were compared.Results According to ABCD2 score,patients were divided into low-risk subgroup (32 cases),mid-risk subgroup (72 cases) and high-risk subgroup (29 cases).The level of plasma Fg in TIA group was significantly higher than that in normal control group (P < 0.01).The level of plasma Fg in mid-risk subgroup and high-risk subgroup were significantly higher than that in low-risk subgroup; and the level of plasma Fg in high-risk subgroup was significantly higher than that in mid-risk subgroup (all P < 0.05).Kruskal-Wallis H test demonstrated that there were significant differences of plasma Fg level among low-risk subgroup,mid-risk subgroup and high-risk subgroup (P <0.01).Spearman rank

  17. Use of a Novel Two Color PALM Method to Examine Structural Properties of Drp1 Helical Rings during Mammalian Mitochondrial Fission In Situ

    Rosenbloom, Alyssa Blair

    In this thesis, we accomplish two goals: 1) we develop a novel two color photoactivatable light microscopy (PALM) method for imaging in mammalian cells and 2) we explore our original biological question and discern the structural properties of the Drp1 helical ring during fission. We established that mitochondrial membranes can be distinguished with the available photoactivatable fluorescent protein mEos2. However, we were not able to use any of the published photoactivatable and photoswitchable green fluorescent proteins, predominantly because of an inability to identify individual fluorescent events due to rapidity of the photoswitiching. Based on published crystal structures, we created novel Dronpa variants with increasing steric hindrance around the chromophore, likely partially inhibiting the isomerization. We replaced Val157 with isoleucine, leucine, or phenyalanine. DronpaV157F showed no fluorescence and was discarded. DronpaV157I and DronpaV157L showed photoswitchable green fluorescence, with individual fluorescent events that were more easily discerned. DronpaV157L in particular had bright fluorescent events that were well separated when imaged in mammalian cells at 20 Hz. We named this new variant rsKame. Using PALM we successfully imaged rsKame expressed and localized to the mammalian mitochondrial inner membrane. With the novel photoswitchable fluorescent protein, rsKame, available, we returned to the development of a novel two color PALM method. We chose PAmCherry1 as the partner for rsKame since PAmCherry1 has distinct and well separated excitation/emission spectra from rsKame and is not activated by low 405 nm laser power density. We first imaged rsKame with 405 nm activation at (0.61 mW/mm2) and 488 nm activation/excitation (5.87 W/mm 2) to completion. We then imaged PAmCherry1 with increasing 405 nm activation (0.6-6.0 W/mm2) and 561 nm excitation (22 W/mm 2). With the novel PALM imaging method, we labeled the inner and outer mitochondrial

  18. The significance of compression wood in restoration of the leader in Pinus sihestris L. damaged by moose (Alces alces. II. Structure of growth rings in regenerating stems in relation to juvenile wood formation

    B. A. Molski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The corewood of pine ds very prone to compression wood formation, this changing the whole pattern of the tree ring structure and the siz.es of early and late wood. Compression wood always increases the formation of late wood at the expense of early wood. Tree rings with compression wood are generally wider than those without it, but there occur also tree rings wihout compression wood wider than those in which it is present, formed in the same year and in the same tree.

  19. Frailty and geography: should these two factors be added to the ABCDE contemporary guide to diabetes therapy?

    Maddaloni, Ernesto; D'Onofrio, Luca; Pozzilli, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    On the road towards personalized treatments for type 2 diabetes, we suggest here that two parameters could be added to the ABCDE algorithm, 'F' for frailty and 'G' for geography. Indeed, the progressive ageing of population is causing a simultaneous increase of frailty worldwide. The identification of the optimal therapeutic approach is often difficult in frail subjects because of the complexity of 'frailty syndrome'. Nevertheless, given the relevance of diabetes in the development and progression of frailty, a safe and effective cure of diabetes is extremely important to guarantee a good medical outcome. There are few data about diabetes treatment in this delicate category of patients, and the choice of the appropriate therapy mostly remains a challenge. Moreover, type 2 diabetes affects more than 382 million people of different countries, races and ethnicities. To face the lack of solid evidence-based medicine for the treatment of diabetes in different ethnic groups, it is extremely important to increase knowledge about the different pathophysiology of diabetes according to ethnicity. In this way, a tailored approach to treatment of various ethnic groups living in the same or different regions can eventually be developed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Socioeconomic inequalities in lipid and glucose metabolism in early childhood in a population-based cohort: the ABCD-Study

    van den Berg Gerrit

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease are pervasive, yet much remains to be understood about how they originate. The objective of this study was to explore the relations of socioeconomic status to lipid and glucose metabolism as indicators of cardiovascular health in 5–6 year olds. Additionally to explore the explanatory role of maternal factors, birth outcome, and child factors. Methods In 1308 5–6 year old ethnic Dutch children from the ABCD cohort study, lipids (cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, glucose and C-peptide were measured after an overnight-fast. Results There were no differences in cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides between socioeconomic groups, as indicated by maternal education and income adequacy. However, children of low educated mothers had on average a higher glucose (β = 0.15; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.03 – 0.27, logC-peptide (β = 0.07; 95% CI 0.04 – 0.09, and calculated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (β = 0.15; 95% CI 0.08 – 0.22 compared to children of high educated mothers. Only childhood BMI partly explained these differences (models controlled for age, height, and sex. Conclusions The socioeconomic gradient in cardiovascular risk factors seems to emerge in early childhood. In absence of underlying mechanisms these empirical findings are relevant for public health care and further explanatory research.

  1. On the Green's function of the partially diffusion-controlled reversible ABCD reaction for radiation chemistry codes

    Plante, Ianik; Devroye, Luc

    2015-09-01

    Several computer codes simulating chemical reactions in particles systems are based on the Green's functions of the diffusion equation (GFDE). Indeed, many types of chemical systems have been simulated using the exact GFDE, which has also become the gold standard for validating other theoretical models. In this work, a simulation algorithm is presented to sample the interparticle distance for partially diffusion-controlled reversible ABCD reaction. This algorithm is considered exact for 2-particles systems, is faster than conventional look-up tables and uses only a few kilobytes of memory. The simulation results obtained with this method are compared with those obtained with the independent reaction times (IRT) method. This work is part of our effort in developing models to understand the role of chemical reactions in the radiation effects on cells and tissues and may eventually be included in event-based models of space radiation risks. However, as many reactions are of this type in biological systems, this algorithm might play a pivotal role in future simulation programs not only in radiation chemistry, but also in the simulation of biochemical networks in time and space as well.

  2. On the Green's function of the partially diffusion-controlled reversible ABCD reaction for radiation chemistry codes

    Plante, Ianik, E-mail: ianik.plante-1@nasa.gov [Wyle Science, Technology & Engineering, 1290 Hercules, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Devroye, Luc, E-mail: lucdevroye@gmail.com [School of Computer Science, McGill University, 3480 University Street, Montreal H3A 0E9 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Several computer codes simulating chemical reactions in particles systems are based on the Green's functions of the diffusion equation (GFDE). Indeed, many types of chemical systems have been simulated using the exact GFDE, which has also become the gold standard for validating other theoretical models. In this work, a simulation algorithm is presented to sample the interparticle distance for partially diffusion-controlled reversible ABCD reaction. This algorithm is considered exact for 2-particles systems, is faster than conventional look-up tables and uses only a few kilobytes of memory. The simulation results obtained with this method are compared with those obtained with the independent reaction times (IRT) method. This work is part of our effort in developing models to understand the role of chemical reactions in the radiation effects on cells and tissues and may eventually be included in event-based models of space radiation risks. However, as many reactions are of this type in biological systems, this algorithm might play a pivotal role in future simulation programs not only in radiation chemistry, but also in the simulation of biochemical networks in time and space as well.

  3. First description of multivalent ring structures in eutherian mammalian meiosis: new chromosomal characterization of Cormura brevirostris (Emballonuridae, Chiroptera).

    de Araújo, Ramon Everton Ferreira; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; da Costa, Marlyson Jeremias Rodrigues; Noronha, Renata Coelho Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo Ribeiro; Pieczarka, Julio César

    2016-08-01

    Twelve specimens of the bat Cormura brevirostris (Emballonuridae: Chiroptera) were collected from four localities in the Brazilian Amazon region and analyzed by classical and molecular cytogenetics. The diploid number and autosomal fundamental number were as previously reported (2n = 22 and FNa = 40, respectively). Fluorescence in situ hybridization using rDNA probes and silver nitrate technique demonstrated the presence of two NOR sites and the presence of internal telomeric sequences at pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes with exception of Y. Based on meiotic studies and chromosome banding we suggest that the sex chromosome pair of C. brevirostris was equivocally identified as it appears in the literature. Meiotic analysis demonstrated that at diplotene-diakinesis the cells had a ring conformation involving four chromosome pairs. This suggests the occurrence of multiple reciprocal translocations among these chromosomes, which is a very rare phenomenon in vertebrates, and has never been described in Eutheria.

  4. Rings from Close Encounters

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    the centaur internal structure, its spin, and the distance of closest approach of the centaur to the giant planet. Blue and red represent icy and silicate material, respectively. [Hyodo et al. 2016]The outcomes of the close encounters are diverse, depending strongly on the internal structure and spin of the minor planet and the geometry of the encounter. But the team finds that, in many scenarios, the centaur is only partially destroyed by tidal forces from the giant as it passes close by.In these cases the icy mantle and even some of the centaurs core can be ripped away and scattered, becoming gravitationally bound to the largest remaining clump of the core. The particles travel in highly eccentric orbits, gradually damping as they collide with each other and forming a disk around the remaining core. Further dynamical evolution of this disk could easily shape the rings that we observe today around Chariklo and Chiron.If Hyodo and collaborators scenario is correct, then Chariklo and Chiron are differentiated bodies with dense silicate cores, and their rings are either pure water ice, or a mixture of water ice and a small amount of silicate. Future observations of these minor planets will help to test this model and observations of other centaurs may discover yet more ring systems hiding in our solar system!BonusCheck out this awesomeanimation from ESO showing an artists impression of thering system around Chariklo! [ESO/L. Calada/M. Kornmesser]CitationRyuki Hyodo et al 2016 ApJ 828 L8. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/828/1/L8

  5. Spectral energy distribution simulations of a possible ring structure around the young, red brown dwarf G 196-3 B

    Zakhozhay, Olga V.; Zapatero Osorio, María Rosa; Béjar, Víctor J. S.; Boehler, Yann

    2017-01-01

    The origin of the very red optical and infrared colours of intermediate-age (˜10-500 Myr) L-type dwarfs remains unknown. It has been suggested that low-gravity atmospheres containing large amounts of dust may account for the observed reddish nature. We explored an alternative scenario by simulating debris disc around G 196-3 B, which is an L3 young brown dwarf with a mass of ˜15 MJup and an age in the interval 20-300 Myr. The best-fit solution to G 196-3 B's photometric spectral energy distribution from optical wavelengths through 24 μm corresponds to the combination of an unreddened L3 atmosphere (Teff ≈ 1870 K) and a warm (≈1280 K), narrow (≈0.07-0.11 R⊙) debris disc located at very close distances (≈0.12-0.20 R⊙) from the central brown dwarf. This putative, optically thick, dusty belt, whose presence is compatible with the relatively young system age, would have a mass ≥7 × 10-10 M⊕ comprised of submicron/micron characteristic dusty particles with temperatures close to the sublimation threshold of silicates. Considering the derived global properties of the belt and the disc-to-brown dwarf mass ratio, the dusty ring around G 196-3 B may resemble the rings of Neptune and Jupiter, except for its high temperature and thick vertical height (≈6 × 103 km). Our inferred debris disc model is able to reproduce G 196-3 B's spectral energy distribution to a satisfactory level of achievement.

  6. Spectral energy distribution simulations of a possible ring structure around the young, red brown dwarf G 196-3 B

    Zakhozhay, Olga V.; Zapatero Osorio, María Rosa; Béjar, Víctor J. S.; Boehler, Yann

    2016-09-01

    The origin of the very red optical and infrared colours of intermediate-age (˜10-500 Myr) L-type dwarfs remains unknown. It has been suggested that low-gravity atmospheres containing large amounts of dust may account for the observed reddish nature. We explored an alternative scenario by simulating protoplanetary and debris discs around G 196-3 B, which is an L3 young brown dwarf with a mass of ˜15 MJup and an age in the interval 20-300 Myr. The best-fit solution to G 196-3 B's photometric spectral energy distribution from optical wavelengths through 24 μm corresponds to the combination of an unreddened L3 atmosphere (Teff ≈ 1870 K) and a warm (≈ 1280 K), narrow (≈ 0.07-0.11 R⊙) debris disc located at very close distances (≈ 0.12-0.20 R⊙) from the central brown dwarf. This putative, optically thick, dusty belt, whose presence is compatible with the relatively young system age, would have a mass ≥7 × 10-10 M⊕ comprised of sub-micron/micron characteristic dusty particles with temperatures close to the sublimation threshold of silicates. Considering the derived global properties of the belt and the disc-to-brown dwarf mass ratio, the dusty ring around G 196-3 B may resemble the rings of Neptune and Jupiter, except for its high temperature and thick vertical height (≈6 × 103 km). Our inferred debris disc model is able to reproduce G 196-3 B's spectral energy distribution to a satisfactory level of achievement.

  7. Method for mounting Gunn Diode in Active Tapered Slot-Ring Antenna

    Somnath Chatterjee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To find the optimum location of an active device i.e., Gunn diode in the Active tapered Slot-Ring Antenna (ASRA equivalent {ABCD} matrix parameters has been used, so that the best performance in antenna characteristics is realized in terms of power radiated and power received. Microstrip tapered slot-ring antenna was fabricated by using a 0.787mm thick Takonic TLY-5-0310-CH/CH substrate with $varepsilon_r$ = 2.2 and the active device used is commercially available low power MA/COM packaged Gunn diode (MA 49104 with typical dc to rf conversion efficiency of approximately 1.5% for experimental study. Radiation pattern and locking characteristics of the ASRA have been measure and presented in support of the analytical methods.

  8. Group 4 metal complexes of Trost's semi-crown ligand: synthesis, structural characterization and studies on the ring-opening polymerization of lactides and ε-caprolactone.

    Rajashekhar, Bijja; Roymuhury, Sagnik K; Chakraborty, Debashis; Ramkumar, Venkatachalam

    2015-10-07

    The synthesis of titanium(IV), zirconium(IV) and hafnium(IV) complexes of Trost's semi-crown ligand is described. All complexes were fully characterized by 1H and 13C NMR and mass spectroscopy. The molecular structures of the representative complexes 2, 3 and 4 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The X-ray diffraction studies reveal that complexes 2, 3 and 4 crystallized in an orthorhombic crystal system. Complexes 2 and 3 have a monomeric structure in the solid state with distorted octahedral geometry around the metal center, whereas complex 4 was found to crystallize in a trimeric structure bridging with an oxygen atom, where the geometry around the titanium is distorted trigonal bipyramidal. The activities and stereoselectivities of these complexes toward the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of lactides (L-LA and rac-LA) and ε-caprolactone (CL) have been investigated. Complexes 1–4 were found to be efficient single-component initiators for the ring-opening polymerization of cyclic esters and yielded high molecular weight polymers (Mn) with narrow molecular weight distributions (MWD).The microstructure of the resultant polylactides (PLAs) from rac-LA was determined. Complexes 2 and 3 afforded isotactic-enriched PLA (Pm = 0.78–0.71) with narrow MWD (1.07–1.04), on the other hand complexes 1 and 4 produced atactic PLA. Kinetic and post polymerization studies confirm that the polymerization proceeds through the coordination–insertion mechanism.

  9. Prime rings with PI rings of constants

    Kharchenko, V K; Rodríguez-Romo, S

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that if the ring of constants of a restricted differential Lie algebra with a quasi-Frobenius inner part satisfies a polynomial identity (PI) then the original prime ring has a generalized polynomial identitiy (GPI). If additionally the ring of constants is semiprime then the original ring is PI. The case of a non-quasi-Frobenius inner part is also considered.

  10. π-Electron ring-currents and bond-currents in [10,5]-Coronene and related structures conforming to the 'Annulene-Within-an-Annulene' model.

    Dickens, T K; Mallion, R B

    2013-06-01

    A series of hypothetical conjugated structures is defined; the series is called the p-Coronenes and the first four members of it are shown to respect the 'Annulene-Within-an-Annulene' (AWA) model when tested by means of Hückel-London-Pople-McWeeny (HLPM) π-electron ring-current and bond-current calculations. The first member of this series, 5-Coronene, is also a member of the regular [r,s]-Coronene series, where it is known as [10,5]-Coronene. It is shown that, as p is varied (with p always odd, and with p > 3) through the values 5, 7, 9, 11, etc., the resulting structures alternate between a '[4n + 2]-Annulene-Within-a-[4m]-Annulene' (if (p- 1) is divisible by 4) and a '[4n]-Annulene-Within-a-[4m + 2]-Annulene' (if (p- 1) is not divisible by 4). It is therefore claimed that the p-Coronenes constitute an ideal series for testing the AWA model. It is also remarked that each member of the p-Coronene series has only four Kekulé structures, and that the 'spokes' or 'transverse' bonds connecting the central [p(p- 3)]-membered ring to the outer [p(p- 1)]-membered periphery always have a Pauling bond-order of zero, ensuring that the outer and inner rings are 'decoupled'; such bonds also bear zero bond-current, by symmetry. It is argued that the former property of these transverse bonds, rather than the latter, determines that the p-Coronenes obey the AWA rule-which is in fact an exception, rather than a 'rule'per se. The paper concludes by explicitly stating our philosophy that a conceptually simple model depending on no subjective (or any other) parameters whatsoever can give intuitive chemical insight for certain systems equal to that available from far-more complex methods such as ab initio calculations-what Coulson once famously called 'primitive patterns of understanding'.

  11. Volumetric imaging of shark tail hydrodynamics reveals a three-dimensional dual-ring vortex wake structure.

    Flammang, Brooke E; Lauder, George V; Troolin, Daniel R; Strand, Tyson

    2011-12-22

    Understanding how moving organisms generate locomotor forces is fundamental to the analysis of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic flow patterns that are generated during body and appendage oscillation. In the past, this has been accomplished using two-dimensional planar techniques that require reconstruction of three-dimensional flow patterns. We have applied a new, fully three-dimensional, volumetric imaging technique that allows instantaneous capture of wake flow patterns, to a classic problem in functional vertebrate biology: the function of the asymmetrical (heterocercal) tail of swimming sharks to capture the vorticity field within the volume swept by the tail. These data were used to test a previous three-dimensional reconstruction of the shark vortex wake estimated from two-dimensional flow analyses, and show that the volumetric approach reveals a different vortex wake not previously reconstructed from two-dimensional slices. The hydrodynamic wake consists of one set of dual-linked vortex rings produced per half tail beat. In addition, we use a simple passive shark-tail model under robotic control to show that the three-dimensional wake flows of the robotic tail differ from the active tail motion of a live shark, suggesting that active control of kinematics and tail stiffness plays a substantial role in the production of wake vortical patterns.

  12. Two-dimensionally stacked heterometallic layers hosting a discrete chair dodecameric ring of water clusters: synthesis and structural study.

    Kenfack Tsobnang, Patrice; Wenger, Emmanuel; Biache, Coralie; Lambi Ngolui, John; Ponou, Siméon; Dahaoui, Slimane; Lecomte, Claude

    2014-10-01

    The stacked two-dimensional supramolecular compound catena-{Co(amp)3Cr(ox)3·6H2O} (amp = 2-picolylamine, ox = oxalate) has been synthesized from the bimolecular approach using hydrogen bonds. It is built from layers in which both Co(amp)(3+) (D) and Cr(ox)(3-) (A) ions are bonded in a repeating DADADA… pattern along the a and c axes by multiple hydrogen bonds. These layers host a well resolved R12 dodecameric discrete ring of water clusters built by six independent molecules located around the 2c centrosymmetric Wyckoff positions of the P21/n space group in which the compound crystallizes. These clusters are ranged along the [001] direction, occupy 733.5 Å(3) (22.0%) of the unit cell and have a chair conformation via 12 hydrogen bonds. The water molecules of the cluster are linked with stronger hydrogen bonds than those between the cluster and its host, which explains the single continuous step of the dehydration process of the compound.

  13. Nuclear Physics Experiments with Ion Storage Rings

    Litvinova, Yu A; Blaum, K; Bosch, F; Brandau, C; Chen, L X; Dillmann, I; Egelhof, P; Geissel, H; Grisenti, R E; Hagmann, S; Heil, M; Heinz, A; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Knöbel, R; Kozhuharov, C; Lestinsky, M; Ma, X W; Nilsson, T; Nolden, F; Ozawa, A; Raabe, R; Reed, M W; Reifarth, R; Sanjari, M S; Schneider, D; Simon, H; Steck, M; Stöhlker, T; Sun, B H; Tu, X L; Uesaka, T; Walker, P M; Wakasugi, M; Weick, H; Winckler, N; Woods, P J; Xu, H S; Yamaguchi, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Zhang, Y H

    2013-01-01

    In the last two decades a number of nuclear structure and astrophysics experiments were performed at heavy-ion storage rings employing unique experimental conditions offered by such machines. Furthermore, building on the experience gained at the two facilities presently in operation, several new storage ring projects were launched worldwide. This contribution is intended to provide a brief review of the fast growing field of nuclear structure and astrophysics research at storage rings.

  14. Early growth patterns and cardiometabolic function at the age of 5 in a multiethnic birth cohort: the ABCD study

    Vrijkotte Tanja GM

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relation between fetal growth retardation and cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life has been demonstrated in many studies. However, debate exists around the potential independent role of postnatal growth acceleration. Furthermore, it is unknown whether a potential effect of growth acceleration on cardiovascular and metabolic function is confined to certain timeframes. The present study assesses the (predictive role of prenatal and postnatal growth on 5 components of cardiovascular and metabolic function in children aged 5. The potential association of timing of postnatal growth acceleration with these outcomes will be explored. Methods and design Prospective multiethnic community-based cohort study of 8266 pregnancies (Amsterdam Born Children and their Development, ABCD study. Up till now, anthropometry of 5104 children from the original cohort was followed during the first 5 years of life, with additional information about birth weight, pregnancy duration, and various potential confounding variables. At age 5, various components of cardiovascular and metabolic function are being measured. Outcome variables are body size, body composition and fat distribution, insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, blood pressure and autonomic regulation of cardiovascular function. Discussion This study will be one of the first population-based prospective cohort studies to address the association between measures of both prenatal and postnatal growth and various components of cardiovascular and metabolic function. Specific attention is paid to the timing of acceleration in growth and its potential association with the outcome variables. Importantly, the longitudinal design of this study gives us the opportunity to gain more insight into growth trajectories associated with adverse outcomes in later life. If identified as an independent risk factor, this provides further basis for the hypothesis that accelerated growth during

  15. A randomised controlled trial of the efficacy of the ABCD Parenting Young Adolescents Program: rationale and methodology

    Burke Kylie

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transition to adolescence is a time of increased vulnerability for risk taking and poor health, social and academic outcomes. Parents have an important role in protecting their children from these potential harms. While the effectiveness of parenting programs in reducing problem behavior has been demonstrated, it is not known if parenting programs that target families prior to the onset of significant behavioral difficulties in early adolescence (9-14 years improve the wellbeing of adolescents and their parents. This paper describes the rationale and methodology of a randomised controlled trial testing the efficacy of a parenting program for the promotion of factors known to be associated with positive adolescent outcomes, such as positive parenting practices, parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent behavior. Methods/Design One hundred and eighty parents were randomly allocated to an intervention or wait list control group. Parents in the intervention group participated in the ABCD Parenting Young Adolescents Program, a 6-session behavioral family intervention program which also incorporates acceptance-based strategies. Participants in the Wait List control group did not receive the intervention during a six month waiting period. The study was designed to comply with recommendations of the CONSORT statement. The primary outcome measures were reduction in parent-adolescent conflict and improvements in parent-adolescent relationships. Secondary outcomes included improvements in parent psychosocial wellbeing, parenting self-efficacy and perceived effectiveness, parent-adolescent communication and adolescent behavior. Conclusions Despite the effectiveness of parenting programs in reducing child behavioral difficulties, very few parenting programs for preventing problems in adolescents have been described in the peer reviewed literature. This study will provide data which can be used to examine the efficacy of a

  16. 撞击构造的特征及对贵州息烽县环形构造的成因解释%Impact Structure Characters and Genetic Interpretation of the Ring Structure in Xifeng

    黄俊; 肖龙; 李德胜

    2009-01-01

    Impact structure is a kind of structural features,by the quick impact and shock in the process between meteorolite or comet-nucleus-like matter and planets.Impact process plays a vital role in the evolution and the surface-reshaping of planets in the solar system.Generally speaking,morphology and shock metamorphic rock can confirm impact structures on earth.There is almost no confirmed impact structures in China so far.Comparative research is carried on the impact-structure-like ring structure in Xifeng,Guizhou Province.Based on the study of present datum,field measuring and analysis of the samples, not any shock metamorphism is found in the samples.It is concluded that the ring structure is not an impact structure,but an old basin-like syncline changed into a swirl structure after several periods of tectonism.%对行星的撞击构造特征进行了总结.地球上的撞击构造,一般通过地貌以及冲击变质产生的岩石和矿物来确认.对贵州省息烽县境内的疑似撞击构造的环形构造进行了比较研究,通过对已有地质资料的详细调研、实地仔细的勘测和采样以及对样品的岩相学分析,并未观察到冲击变质特征,因此认为此处环形构造并非撞击成因,而是古老的盆状向斜经历了多期的构造作用形成的涡旋构造.

  17. Electric and magnetic properties computed for valence bond structures: is there a link between pauling resonance energy and ring current?

    Havenith, Remco W A

    2006-04-28

    To establish the link between the aromaticity descriptors based on the Pauling resonance energy and the molecular properties, the electric (polarizability) and magnetic (magnetizability) field response properties have been calculated using the valence bond approach for various molecules and their individual Kekulé resonance structures. The results show that there is no direct relationship between the Pauling resonance energy and the properties; the response properties are weighted averages of the properties of the individual structures. According to the aromaticity criteria based on molecular properties, one-structure benzene would be aromatic; thus, concerning molecular properties, spin-coupled bonds do not behave like localized bonds in Lewis structures, with which they are usually associated.

  18. Stirling engine piston ring

    Howarth, Roy B.

    1983-01-01

    A piston ring design for a Stirling engine wherein the contact pressure between the piston and the cylinder is maintained at a uniform level, independent of engine conditions through a balancing of the pressure exerted upon the ring's surface and thereby allowing the contact pressure on the ring to be predetermined through the use of a preloaded expander ring.

  19. Birth Control Ring

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Ring KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Ring A A A What's in this article? ... español Anillo vaginal anticonceptivo What Is It? The birth control ring is a soft, flexible, doughnut-shaped ring ...

  20. The role of water on the structure and mechanical properties of a thermoplastic natural block co-polymer from squid sucker ring teeth.

    Rieu, Clément; Bertinetti, Luca; Schuetz, Roman; Salinas-Zavala, Cesar Ca; Weaver, James C; Fratzl, Peter; Miserez, Ali; Masic, Admir

    2016-09-02

    Hard biological polymers exhibiting a truly thermoplastic behavior that can maintain their structural properties after processing are extremely rare and highly desirable for use in advanced technological applications such as 3D-printing, biodegradable plastics and robust composites. One exception are the thermoplastic proteins that comprise the sucker ring teeth (SRT) of the Humboldt jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas). In this work, we explore the mechanical properties of reconstituted SRT proteins and demonstrate that the material can be re-shaped by simple processing in water and at relatively low temperature (below 100 °C). The post-processed material maintains a high modulus in the GPa range, both in the dry and the wet states. When transitioning from low to high humidity, the material properties change from brittle to ductile with an increase in plastic deformation, where water acts as a plasticizer. Using synchrotron x-ray scattering tools, we found that water mostly influences nano scale structure, whereas at the molecular level, the protein structure remains largely unaffected. Furthermore, through simultaneous in situ x-ray scattering and mechanical tests, we show that the supramolecular network of the reconstituted SRT material exhibits a progressive alignment along the strain direction, which is attributed to chain alignment of the amorphous domains of SRT proteins. The high modulus in both dry and wet states, combined with their efficient thermal processing characteristics, make the SRT proteins promising substitutes for applications traditionally reserved for petroleum-based thermoplastics.

  1. 深基环梁支护体系内力的研究%Loading of ring-beam support structure system in deep foundation ditch

    丁克胜; 王沛; 杨宝珠

    2001-01-01

    Ring-beam support structure system is a new-type structure in deep foundation pit support structure.It may produre a hamonious load and gain a high bearing capacity.Its calculation model is elast ic multi-support.when using the saper 93 progvam with plane and overall calcula tion,the results are rather identical with the real condition,so it is a simple and effeetive method.%深基环梁支护体系是深基支护的一种新型结构,它受力均衡,承载力高,计算模型为多向弹性支座,利用Saper 93 程序进行平面整体设计计算的结果与实际比较相符,是一种非常简捷、有效的计算方法,但其水平支撑系统的内力受多方面因素的影响较大.

  2. Liquid level sensor based on fiber ring laser with single-mode-offset coreless-single-mode fiber structure

    Wang, Zixiao; Tan, Zhongwei; Xing, Rui; Liang, Linjun; Qi, Yanhui; Jian, Shuisheng

    2016-10-01

    A novel reflective liquid level sensor based on single-mode-offset coreless-single-mode (SOCS) fiber structure is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Theory analyses and experimental results indicate that offset fusion can remarkably enhance the sensitivity of sensor. Ending-reflecting structure makes the sensor compact and easy to deploy. Meanwhile, we propose a laser sensing system, and the SOCS structure is used as sensing head and laser filter simultaneously. Experimental results show that laser spectra with high optical signal-to-noise ratio (-30 dB) and narrow 3-dB bandwidth (<0.15 nm) are achieved. Various liquids with different indices are used for liquid level sensing, besides, the refractive index sensitivity is also investigated. In measurement range, the sensing system presents steady laser output.

  3. The effect of β-saturated pyrrolic rings on the electronic structures and aromaticity of magnesium porphyrin derivatives: a density functional study.

    Wan, Liang; Qi, Dongdong; Zhang, Yuexing

    2011-09-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculation on the molecular structures, molecular orbitals, electronic absorption spectra, and magnetic properties of magnesium porphyrin (MgPor) and a series of five hydrogenated magnesium porphyrin complexes with different number of β-saturated pyrrolic rings, namely MgPor-β-1Hy, MgPor-β-opp-2Hy, MgPor-β-adj-2Hy, MgPor-β-3Hy, and MgPor-β-4Hy, clarifies the red-shift of the lowest energy absorption band from chlorophyll a to bacteriochlorophyll and reveals the strong chemical stability for both of them. The energy levels of highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMO) and HOMO-1 for MgPor are reversed upon hydrogenation at β-positions (2 and 3, 7 and 8, 12 and 13, and 17 and 18) of porphyrin ring. Along with the increase of β-saturated pyrrolic rings from 1, 2, 3, to 4, the HOMO energy increases from -4.78 eV to -3.10 eV in a regular manner. In contrast, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMO) energy levels of MgPor, MgPor-β-1Hy, and MgPor-β-opp-2Hy are very similar with each other. As a result, the lowest energy absorption band involving main transition from HOMO to LUMO is red-shifted from MgPor-β-1Hy to MgPor-β-opp-2Hy which is representative of chlorophyll a and bacteriochlorophyll, respectively. Natural hydroporphyrins represented by MgPor, MgPor-β-1Hy, and MgPor-β-opp-2Hy have turned out to be aromatic and stable enough, in good accordance with the ubiquity of their derivatives in the nature. In contrast, MgPor-β-adj-2Hy, MgPor-β-3Hy, and MgPor-β-4Hy with relatively weak aromaticity seem to be unstable and therefore were not found in nature.

  4. Propagation of Single-Mode Fibre Laser Beams through an Optical ABCD System with Circular Aperture at the Fibre Output End

    DUAN Sai-Liang; LI Jian-Feng; ZHAO Wei; WANG Yi-Shan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Based on the expansion expression of the fundamental mode of a single-mode fibre in terms of Laguerre-Gauss modes, the propagation of a beam of a weakly guiding fibre laser through an optical ABCD system with a circular aperture at the fibre end is studied. The results show that there is much difference between the propagation of the laser beam described by the expansion expression and by the Gaussian mode approximation. The depth of focus of the laser beam is longer than that of the Gaussian modes.

  5. 下颈椎损伤ABCD分类系统介绍和解读%INTRODUCTION AND INTERPRETATION OF ABCD CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR SUBAXIAL CERVICAL SPINE INJURY

    陈志达; 林斌; 余志毅; 李炳文

    2014-01-01

    目的 介绍和解读下颈椎损伤ABCD分类系统.方法 广泛查阅与下颈椎损伤分类系统相关的文献,对目前存在的脊柱损伤分类系统进行分析总结,并介绍新的ABCD分类系统.结果 下颈椎损伤ABCD分类系统分为三部分:第1部分是对损伤进行解剖学描述,提供是否有骨和/或韧带损伤的信息;第2部分是对神经功能、椎管狭窄及脊柱不稳程度进行分级;第3部分代表用来定义损伤类型的影像学检查方法.通过简单的字母提供了下颈椎损伤情况的最大信息量,并基于该分类系统提出了治疗原则.结论 下颈椎损伤ABCD分类系统简化了对下颈椎损伤的描述,但需进一步临床观察与实践以明确其可信度.%Objective To introduce and interpret ABCD classification system for subaxial cervical spine injury.Methods The literature related to subaxial cervical spine injury classification system was extensively reviewed,analyzed,and summarized so as to introduce the ABCD classification system.Results The ABCD classification system for subaxial cervical spine injury consists of 3 parts.The first part of the proposed classification is an anatomical description of the injury; it delivers the information whether injury is bony,ligamentous,or a combined one.The second part is the classification of nerve function,spinal stenosis,and spinal instability.The last part is optional and denotes radiological examination which is used to define injury type.Several letters have been used for simplicity to deliver the largest amount of information.And a treatment algorithm based on the proposed classification is suggested.Conclusion The ABCD classification system is proposed for simplification.However further evaluation of this classification is needed.

  6. Impact of the ABCDE triage in primary care emergency department on the number of patient visits to different parts of the health care system in Espoo City

    Kantonen Jarmo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Finnish emergency departments (ED serve both primary and secondary health care patients and are therefore referred to as combined emergency departments. Primary care doctors are responsible for the initial assessment and treatment. They, thereby, also regulate referral and access to secondary care. Primary health care EDs are easy for the public to access, leading to non-acute patient visits to the emergency department. This has caused increased queues and unnecessary difficulties in providing immediate treatment for urgent patients. The primary aim of this study was to assess whether the flow of patients was changed by implementing the ABCDE-triage system in the EDs of Espoo City, Finland. Methods The numbers of monthly visits to doctors were recorded before and after intervention in Espoo primary care EDs. To study if the implementation of the triage system redirects patients to other health services, the numbers of monthly visits to doctors were also scored in the private health care, the public sector health services of Espoo primary care during office hours and local secondary health care ED (Jorvi hospital. A face-to-face triage system was applied in the primary care EDs as an attempt to provide immediate treatment for the most acute patients. It is based on the letters A (patient sent directly to secondary care, B (to be examined within 10 min, C (to be examined within 1 h, D (to be examined within 2 h and E (no need for immediate treatment for assessing the urgency of patients' treatment needs. The first step was an initial patient assessment by a health care professional (triage nurse. The introduction of this triage system was combined with information to the public on the "correct" use of emergency services. Results After implementation of the ABCDE-triage system the number of patient visits to a primary care doctor decreased by up to 24% (962 visits/month as compared to the three previous years in the EDs

  7. Clinical study of ABCD2 score combined with LDL-C in Stroke risk prediction in patients with transient ische-mic attack(TIA)%ABCD2评分联合检测 LDL-C 水平预测短暂性脑缺血发作患者短期脑卒中风险的临床价值

    刘红; 薛新红; 刘佳; 亓立峰; 苏江利; 张锐

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the clinical significance of ABCD2 score combined with LDL-C in stroke risk prediction in patients with TIA .Methods Totally 112 patients with TIA were divided into the cerebral infarction group (n=28) and the non-cerebral infarction group(n=84) depending on whether cerebral infarction occurred within 7days ,ABCD2 score and LDL-C were contrasted between the two groups ;and Patients were divided into LDL-C≤3.1 mmol/L group(n=78) and LDL-C>3.1 mmol/L group(n=34) according to the LDL-C levels ,then the incidence of cerebral infarction were contrasted ;and the in-cidence of cerebral infarction were contrasted in different risk stratification (50 cases of low-risk group ,middle-risk group 47 cases ,15 cases of high-risk group) patients based on ABCD2+LDL-C composite score .Results ABCD2 score ,LDL-C level , and ABCD2+LDL-C composite score were significantly higher in the cerebral infarction group than those in the non-cerebral in-farction group(P<0.01);the incidence of cerebral infarction of the high-risk group was significantly higher than that of the middle-risk group(P<0.01) ,and significantly higher than that in the low-risk group(P<0.01);The incidence of cerebral in-farction in the LDL-C<3.1 mmol/L group was significantly lower than that of the LDL-C≥3.1 mmol/L group(P<0.01). Conclusion ABCD2 score and LDL-C levels are all able to predict the risk of cerebral infarction in patients with TIA ,but the combination of both has a higher meaning.%目的:探讨ABCD2评分与LDL-C联合用于短暂性脑缺血发作(T IA )患者短期脑卒中风险预测中的临床价值。方法112例TIA患者根据是否发生早期脑梗死分为脑梗死组(n=28)与非脑梗死组(n=84),对比2组患者ABCD2评分、LDL-C水平;根据患者LDL-C水平分为LDL-C≤3.1 mmol/L(n=78)组及LDL-C>3.1 mmol/L组(n=34),对比2组早期脑梗死发生率;根据2组ABCD2+LDL-C综合评分进行危险分层(低危组50

  8. DYNAMICAL BALANCE STUDY OF RING REDUCER

    2003-01-01

    The basic structure of epicyclical gear transmission with inner teeth of single-ring, double-ring, three-ring and four-ring reducer are analyzed. The force analysis model of ring reducer is built. Following this, it is concluded that the present ring reducers have the problem that the inertia force or the inertia moment is lopsided. On the base of analysis and calculation the balanced ring reducer which can realize the balance of inertia force and inertia moment is brought forward, and so is its concrete realizing step. The specimen of the balanced ring reducer is designed and manufactured; the experiment is carried out on the gear transmission test bench. Compared with other ring reducer of the same power, the balanced ring reducer has many advantages, such as low vibration noise, low cost and less production difficulty and less heat. It is the substitute of other ring reducer of the same kind. Therefore, it has important theoretic significance and highly practical engineering value.

  9. Braided rings a scattering billiard model

    Bénet, L

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a billiard scattering model consisting of two non-overlapping rotating discs in the context of the formation and structural properties of planetary rings. We show that due to the arrangement of the symmetric periodic orbits, stable orbits are found which in the configuration space lead to the appearance of patterns qualitatively similar to planetary rings. Rings associated with different stability regions are naturally braided; different braids may overlap displaying features similar to clumps. Erosion mechanisms within the model are discussed.

  10. Synthesis and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of novel 4-acyloxypodophyllotoxin derivatives modified in the A and C rings as insecticidal agents.

    He, Shuzhen; Shao, Yonghua; Fan, Lingling; Che, Zhiping; Xu, Hui; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Wang, Juanjuan; Yao, Xiaojun; Qu, Huan

    2013-01-23

    In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural-product-based insecticidal agents, we have synthesized three series of novel 4-acyloxy compounds derived from podophyllotoxin modified in the A and C rings, which is isolated as the main secondary metabolite from the roots and rhizomes of Podophyllum hexandrum . Their insecticidal activity was preliminarily evaluated against the pre-third-instar larvae of Mythimna separata in vivo. Compound 9g displayed the best promising insecticidal activity. It revealed that cleavage of the 6,7-methylenedioxy group of podophyllotoxin will lead to a less active compound and that the C-4 position of podophyllotoxin was the important modification location. A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model was developed by genetic algorithm combined with multiple linear regression (GA-MLR). For this model, the squared correlation coefficient (R(2)) is 0.914, the leave-one-out cross-validation correlation coefficient (Q(2)(LOO)) is 0.881, and the root-mean-square error (RMSE) is 0.024. Five descriptors, BEHm2, Mor14v, Wap, G1v, and RDF020e, are likely to influence the biological activity of these compounds. Among them, two important ones are BEHm2 and Mor14v. This study will pave the way for further design, structural modification, and development of podophyllotoxin derivatives as insecticidal agents.

  11. On JB-Rings

    Huanyin CHEN

    2007-01-01

    A ring R is a QB-ring provided that aR + bR = R with a, b ∈ R implies that there exists a y ∈ R such that a+by ∈ R-1q. It is said that a ring R is a JB-ring provided that R/J(R) is a QB-ring, where J(R) is the Jacobson radical of R. In this paper, various necessary and sufficient conditions, under which a ring is a JB-ring, are established. It is proved that JB-rings can be characterized by pseudo-similarity. Furthermore, the author proves that R is a J B-ring iff so is R/J(R)2.

  12. Feedbacks between earlywood anatomy and non-structural carbohydrates affect spring phenology and wood production in ring-porous oaks

    Pérez-de-Lis, Gonzalo; García-González, Ignacio; Rozas, Vicente; Olano, José Miguel

    2016-10-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) play a central role in the construction and maintenance of a tree's vascular system, but feedbacks between the NSC status of trees and wood formation are not fully understood. We aimed to evaluate multiple dependencies among wood anatomy, winter NSC, and phenology for coexisting temperate (Quercus robur) and sub-Mediterranean (Q. pyrenaica) oaks along a water-availability gradient in the NW Iberian Peninsula. Sapwood NSC concentrations were quantified at three sites in December 2012 (N = 240). Leaf phenology and wood anatomy were surveyed in 2013. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the interplay among hydraulic diameter (Dh), winter NSC, budburst date, and earlywood vessel production (EVP), while the effect of Dh and EVP on latewood width was assessed by using a mixed-effects model. NSC and wood production increased under drier conditions for both species. Q. robur showed a narrower Dh and lower soluble sugar (SS) concentration (3.88-5.08 % dry matter) than Q. pyrenaica (4.06-5.57 % dry matter), but Q. robur exhibited larger EVP and wider latewood (1403 µm) than Q. pyrenaica (667 µm). Stem diameter and Dh had a positive effect on SS concentrations, which were related to an earlier leaf flushing in both species. Sapwood sugar content appeared to limit EVP exclusively in Q. pyrenaica. In turn, Dh and EVP were found to be key predictors of latewood growth. Our results confirm that sapwood SS concentrations are involved in modulating growth resumption and xylem production in spring. Q. pyrenaica exhibited a tighter control of carbohydrate allocation to wood formation than Q. robur, which would play a role in protecting against environmental stress in the sub-Mediterranean area.

  13. Novel wideband microwave polarization network using a fully-reconfigurable photonic waveguide interleaver with a two-ring resonator-assisted asymmetric Mach-Zehnder structure.

    Zhuang, Leimeng; Beeker, Willem; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René; van Dijk, Paulus; Roeloffzen, Chris

    2013-02-11

    We propose and demonstrate a novel wideband microwave photonic polarization network for dual linear-polarized antennas. The polarization network is based on a waveguide-implemented fully-reconfigurable optical interleaver using a two-ring resonator-assisted asymmetric Mach-Zehnder structure. For microwave photonic signal processing, this structure is able to serve as a wideband 2 × 2 RF coupler with reconfigurable complex coefficients, and therefore can be used as a polarization network for wideband antennas. Such a device can equip the antennas with not only the polarization rotation capability for linear-polarization signals but also the capability to operate with and tune between two opposite circular polarizations. Operating together with a particular modulation scheme, the device is also able to serve for simultaneous feeding of dual-polarization signals. These photonic-implemented RF functionalities can be applied to wideband antenna systems to perform agile polarization manipulations and tracking operations. An example of such a interleaver has been realized in TriPleX waveguide technology, which was designed with a free spectral range of 20 GHz and a mask footprint of smaller than 1 × 1 cm. Using the realized device, the reconfigurable complex coefficients of the polarization network were demonstrated with a continuous bandwidth from 2 to 8 GHz and an in-band phase ripple of smaller than 5 degree. The waveguide structure of the device allows it to be further integrated with other functional building blocks of a photonic integrated circuit to realize on-chip, complex microwave photonic processors. Of particular interest, it can be included in an optical beamformer for phased array antennas, so that simultaneous wideband beam and polarization trackings can be achieved photonically. To our knowledge, this is the first-time on-chip demonstration of an integrated microwave photonic polarization network for dual linear-polarized antennas.

  14. Chemistry, photophysics, and ultrafast kinetics of two structurally related Schiff bases containing the naphthalene or quinoline ring

    Fita, P.; Luzina, E.; Dziembowska, T.; Radzewicz, Cz.; Grabowska, A.

    2006-11-01

    The two structurally related Schiff bases, 2-hydroxynaphthylidene-(8-aminoquinoline) (HNAQ) and 2-hydroxynaphthylidene-1'-naphthylamine (HNAN), were studied by means of steady-state and time resolved optical spectroscopies as well as time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations. The first one, HNAQ, is stable as a keto tautomer in the ground state and in the excited state in solutions, therefore it was used as a model of a keto tautomer of HNAN which exists mainly in its enol form in the ground state at room temperature. Excited state intramolecular proton transfer in the HNAN molecule leads to a very weak (quantum yield of the order of 10-4) strongly Stokes-shifted fluorescence. The characteristic time of the proton transfer (about 30fs) was estimated from femtosecond transient absorption data supported by global analysis and deconvolution techniques. Approximately 35% of excited molecules create a photochromic form whose lifetime was beyond the time window of the experiment (2ns). The remaining ones reach the relaxed S1 state (of a lifetime of approximately 4ps), whose emission is present in the decay associated difference spectra. Some evidence for the back proton transfer from the ground state of the keto form with the characteristic time of approximately 13ps was also found. The energies and orbital characteristics of main electronic transitions in both molecules calculated by TDDFT method are also discussed.

  15. Reactivity and acid-base behavior of ring-methoxylated arylalkanoic acid radical cations and radical zwitterions in aqueous solution. Influence of structural effects and pH on the benzylic C-H deprotonation pathway.

    Bietti, Massimo; Capone, Alberto

    2006-07-07

    A product and time-resolved kinetic study of the one-electron oxidation of ring-methoxylated phenylpropanoic and phenylbutanoic acids (Ar(CH2)nCO2H, n = 2, 3) has been carried out at different pH values. Oxidation leads to the formation of aromatic radical cations (Ar.+(CH2)nCO2H) or radical zwitterions (Ar.+(CH2)nCO2-) depending on pH, and pKa values for the corresponding acid-base equilibria have been measured. In the radical cation, the acidity of the carboxylic proton decreases by increasing the number of methoxy ring substituents and by increasing the distance between the carboxylic group and the aromatic ring. At pH 1.7 or 6.7, the radical cations or radical zwitterions undergo benzylic C-H deprotonation as the exclusive side-chain fragmentation pathway, as clearly shown by product analysis results. At pH 1.7, the first-order deprotonation rate constants measured for the ring-methoxylated arylalkanoic acid radical cations are similar to those measured previously in acidic aqueous solution for the alpha-C-H deprotonation of structurally related ring-methoxylated alkylaromatic radical cations. In basic solution, the second-order rate constants for reaction of the radical zwitterions with (-)OH (k-OH)) have been obtained. These values are similar to those obtained previously for the (-)OH-induced alpha-C-H deprotonation of structurally related ring-methoxylated alkylaromatic radical cations, indicating that under these conditions the radical zwitterions undergo benzylic C-H deprotonation. Very interestingly, with 3,4-dimethoxyphenylethanoic acid radical zwitterion, that was previously observed to undergo exclusive decarboxylation up to pH 10, competition between decarboxylation and benzylic C-H deprotonation is observed above pH 11.

  16. Highest Weight Categories For Number Rings

    Pilkington, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of a stratified exact category in the context of number rings and corresponding Galois groups. BGG reciprocity and duality are proven for these categories making them highest weight categories. The strong connections between the structure of the category and ramification in the ring are explored.

  17. On Hochschild cohomology rings of Fibonacci algebras

    FAN Jinmei; XU Yunge

    2006-01-01

    Let A be a Fibonacci algebra over a field k.The multiplication of Hochschild cohomology ring of A induced by the Yoneda product is described explicitly.As a consequence,the multiplicative structure of Hochschild cohomology ring of A is proved to be trivial.

  18. Structure–Activity Relationship of Oligomeric Flavan-3-ols: Importance of the Upper-Unit B-ring Hydroxyl Groups in the Dimeric Structure for Strong Activities

    Yoshitomo Hamada

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins, which are composed of oligomeric flavan-3-ol units, are contained in various foodstuffs (e.g., fruits, vegetables, and drinks and are strongly biologically active compounds. We investigated which element of the proanthocyanidin structure is primarily responsible for this functionality. In this study, we elucidate the importance of the upper-unit of 4–8 condensed dimeric flavan-3-ols for antimicrobial activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae and cervical epithelioid carcinoma cell line HeLa S3 proliferation inhibitory activity. To clarify the important constituent unit of proanthocyanidin, we synthesized four dimeric compounds, (−-epigallocatechin-[4,8]-(+-catechin, (−-epigallocatechin-[4,8]-(−-epigallocatechin, (−-epigallocatechin-[4,8]-(−-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, and (+-catechin-[4,8]-(−-epigallocatechin and performed structure–activity relationship (SAR studies. In addition to antimicrobial activity against S. cerevisiae and proliferation inhibitory activity on HeLa S3 cells, the correlation of 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity with the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups was low. On the basis of the results of our SAR studies, we concluded that B-ring hydroxyl groups of the upper-unit of the dimer are crucially important for strong and effective activity.

  19. Enolate chelating N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of Fe(Ⅱ): Synthesis, structure and their catalytic activity for ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone

    2007-01-01

    The reaction of anhydrous FeBr2 with two equivalents of anionic N-heterocyclic carbene (NaL1 and NaL2), which are generated in situ by the reaction of the corresponding salt [4-R-C6H4COCH2{CH- (NCHCHNiPr)}Br] (R = OCH3, H2L1Br, 1; R = F, H2L2Br, 2) with two equivalents of NaN(SiMe3)2, affords bis-ligand Fe(Ⅱ) complexes of L21Fe (3) and L22Fe (4) in high yield, respectively. Attempt to synthesize mono-ligand Fe(Ⅱ) bromide by the 1:1 molar ratio of NaL to FeBr2 is unsuccessful, and the same complexes of 3 and 4 were obtained. Both 3 and 4 have been depicted by elemental analysis and X-ray structure determination. Preliminary studies show that both 3 and 4 can be used as single-component catalyst for the ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone, and the catalytic activity of 3 is higher than that of 4.

  20. Development of highly potent phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors with anti-neuroinflammation potential: Design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship study of catecholamides bearing aromatic rings.

    Zhou, Zhong-Zhen; Ge, Bing-Chen; Zhong, Qiu-Ping; Huang, Chang; Cheng, Yu-Fang; Yang, Xue-Mei; Wang, Hai-Tao; Xu, Jiang-Ping

    2016-11-29

    In this study, catecholamides (7a-l) bearing different aromatic rings (such as pyridine-2-yl, pyridine-3-yl, phenyl, and 2-chlorophenyl groups) were synthesized as potent phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 inhibitors. The inhibitory activities of these compounds were evaluated against the core catalytic domains of human PDE4 (PDE4CAT), full-length PDE4A4, PDE4B1, PDE4C1, and PDE4D7 enzymes, and other PDE family members. Eight of the synthesized compounds were identified as having submicromolar IC50 values in the mid-to low-nanomolar range. Careful analysis on the structure-activity relationship of compounds 7a-l revealed that the replacement of the 4-methoxy group with the difluoromethoxy group improved inhibitory activities. More interesting, 4-difluoromethoxybenzamides 7i and 7j exhibited preference for PDE4 with higher selectivities of about 3333 and 1111-fold over other PDEs, respectively. In addition, compound 7j with wonderful PDE4D7 inhibitory activities inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α production in microglia.

  1. Addressing Structural Flexibility at the A-Ring on Salvinorin A: Discovery of a Potent Kappa Opioid Agonist with Enhanced Metabolic Stability.

    Sherwood, Alexander M; Crowley, Rachel Saylor; Paton, Kelly F; Biggerstaff, Andrew; Neuenswander, Benjamin; Day, Victor W; Kivell, Bronwyn M; Prisinzano, Thomas E

    2017-04-04

    Previous structure-activity studies on the neoclerodane diterpenoid salvinorin A have demonstrated the importance of the acetoxy functionality on the A-ring in its activity as a kappa opioid receptor agonist. Few studies have focused on understanding the role of conformation in these interactions. Herein we describe the synthesis and evaluation of both flexible and conformationally restricted compounds derived from salvinorin A. One such compound, spirobutyrolactone (14), was synthesized in a single step from salvinorin B and had similar potency and selectivity to salvinorin A (EC50 = 0.6 ± 0.2 nM at κ >10,000 nM at μ and δ). Microsomal stability studies demonstrated that 14 was more metabolically resistant than salvinorin A. Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties revealed similar in vivo effects between 14 and salvinorin A. To our knowledge, this study represents the first example of bioisosteric replacement of an acetate group by a spirobutyrolactone to produce a metabolically resistant derivative.

  2. Steroids excreted in urine by neonates with 21-hydroxylase deficiency: characterization, using GC-MS and GC-MS/MS, of the D-ring and side chain structure of pregnanes and pregnenes.

    Christakoudi, Sofia; Cowan, David A; Taylor, Norman F

    2010-01-01

    Steroid metabolites in urine from neonates with 21-hydroxylase deficiency are predominantly polyhydroxylated 17-hydroxyprogesterone and androgen metabolites, and most have incompletely defined structure. This study forms part of a comprehensive project to characterize and identify these in order to enhance diagnosis and to further elucidate neonatal types of steroid metabolism. Steroids were analyzed, after extraction and enzymatic conjugate hydrolysis, as methyloxime-trimethylsilyl ether derivatives on gas-chromatographs coupled to quadrupole and ion-trap mass-spectrometers. GC-MS and GC-MS/MS spectra, obtained with constant excitation conditions, were used together to determine the structure of the D-ring and the side chain of 20-oxo and 20-hydroxy pregnane(ene)s without oxo groups on the A-, B-, and C-ring. All possible combinations of D-ring and side chain configuration were considered. Most fragmentations could be interpreted as partial or complete D-ring cleavages with loss of the side chain, aided by comparison with spectra of deuterated derivatives and of borohydride reduced metabolites. Possible rearrangement ions are also discussed. More than 140 endogenous metabolites were characterized. GC-MS/MS was especially beneficial for characterization of compounds with 16,17-dihydroxy-20-oxo structure, interpreted as markers of intra-uterine enzyme induction. It also assisted the differentiation of 16-hydroxy-20-oxo metabolites, present in urine of non-affected neonates, from the diagnostic 17-hydroxy-20-oxosteroids and enabled the detection of 15,17-dihydroxy-20-oxo compounds in low concentrations. The presence of 17,21-dihydroxylated pregnane(ene)s despite the deficit in CYP21A2 is discussed. We conclude that GC-MS combined with GC-MS/MS allows reliable identification of the structure of the D-ring and side chain of pregnane(ene)s without prior isolation, even when in low concentrations in urine.

  3. Groups, rings, modules

    Auslander, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    This classic monograph is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students. The treatment presupposes some familiarity with sets, groups, rings, and vector spaces. The four-part approach begins with examinations of sets and maps, monoids and groups, categories, and rings. The second part explores unique factorization domains, general module theory, semisimple rings and modules, and Artinian rings. Part three's topics include localization and tensor products, principal ideal domains, and applications of fundamental theorem. The fourth and final part covers algebraic field extensions

  4. Structural effects on the beta-scission reaction of alkoxyl radicals. Direct measurement of the absolute rate constants for ring opening of benzocycloalken-1-oxyl radicals.

    Bietti, Massimo; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Salamone, Michela

    2005-02-18

    [reaction: see text] The absolute rate constants for beta-scission of a series of benzocycloalken-1-oxyl radicals and of the 2-(4-methylphenyl)-2-butoxyl radical have been measured directly by laser flash photolysis. The benzocycloalken-1-oxyl radicals undergo ring opening with rates which parallel the ring strain of the corresponding cycloalkanes. In the 1-X-indan-1-oxyl radical series, ring opening is observed when X = H, Me, whereas exclusive C-X bond cleavage occurs when X = Et. The factors governing the fragmentation regioselectivity are discussed.

  5. On Weakly Semicommutative Rings*

    CHEN WEI-XING; CUI SHU-YING

    2011-01-01

    A ring R is said to be weakly scmicommutative if for any a, b ∈ R,ab = 0 implies aRb C_ Nil(R), where Nil(R) is the set of all nilpotcnt elements in R.In this note, we clarify the relationship between weakly semicommutative rings and NI-rings by proving that the notion of a weakly semicommutative ring is a proper generalization of NI-rings. We say that a ring R is weakly 2-primal if the set of nilpotent elements in R coincides with its Levitzki radical, and prove that if R is a weakly 2-primal ring which satisfies oα-condition for an endomorphism α of R (that is, ab = 0 (←→) aα(b) = 0 where a, b ∈ R) then the skew polynomial ring R[π; αα]is a weakly 2-primal ring, and that if R is a ring and I is an ideal of R such that I and R/I are both weakly semicommutative then R is weakly semicommutative.Those extend the main results of Liang et al. 2007 (Taiwanese J. Math., 11(5)(2007),1359-1368) considerably. Moreover, several new results about weakly semicommutative rings and NI-rings are included.

  6. Crystal structures of resorcin[4]arene and pyrogallol[4]arene complexes with DL-pipecolinic acid. Model compounds for the recognition of the pipecolinyl ring, a key fragment of FK506, through C-H⋯π interaction

    Fujisawa, Ikuhide; Kitamura, Yuji; Kato, Ryo; Murayama, Kazutaka; Aoki, Katsuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Resorcin[4]arene (resorcinol cyclic tetramer, abbreviated as RCT) or pyrogallol[4]arene (pyrogallol cyclic tetramer, PCT) form host-guest 1:1 complexes with DL-pipecolinic acid (DL-pipeH), RCT·DL-pipeH·EtOH·8H2O (1), PCT DL-pipeH·EtOH·4H2O (2), and PCT·DL-pipeH·3H2O (3), whose crystal structures have been determined. In each complex, the pipeH ligand is incorporated into the bowl-shaped cavity of the RCT or PCT host molecules through C-H⋯π interactions between alkyl protons of the piperidine ring of pipeH and π-rings of RCT or PCT, forming an [(RCT/PCT)·pipeH] structural fragment. In 1 and 3, two [(RCT/PCT) pipeH] fragments self-associate across an inversion center to form a guest-mediated, obliquely declined dimeric structure [(RCT/PCT)·L-pipeH·D-pipeH (RCT/PCT)]. In 2, each PCT-capped pipeH ligand bridges to two adjacent PCT molecules to form guest-mediated, optically-discrete helical polymers [PCT·L-pipeH]n or [PCT·D-pipeH]n. An 1H NMR experiment shows that the complexation through C-H⋯π interaction between the piperidine ring of pipeH and π-rings of RCT or PCT occurs also in solution, with the binding constants of 9.7 ± 0.6 M-1 for RCT and 26.5 ± 1.5 M-1 for PCT. These complexes provide a synthetic model for the recognition of the pipecolinyl-ring moiety, a key constituent of immunosuppressant drugs such as FK506, FK520 or rapamycin, by their binding proteins through C-H⋯π interaction.

  7. Physics of quantum rings

    Fomin, Vladimir M

    2013-01-01

    This book deals with a new class of materials, quantum rings. Innovative recent advances in experimental and theoretical physics of quantum rings are based on the most advanced state-of-the-art fabrication and characterization techniques as well as theoretical methods. The experimental efforts allow to obtain a new class of semiconductor quantum rings formed by capping self-organized quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Novel optical and magnetic properties of quantum rings are associated with non-trivial topologies at the nanoscale. An adequate characterization of quantum rings is po

  8. Envelopes of Commutative Rings

    Rafael PARRA; Manuel SAOR(I)N

    2012-01-01

    Given a significative class F of commutative rings,we study the precise conditions under which a commutative ring R has an F-envelope.A full answer is obtained when.F is the class of fields,semisimple commutative rings or integral domains.When F is the class of Noetherian rings,we give a full answer when the Krull dimension of R is zero and when the envelope is required to be epimorphic.The general problem is reduced to identifying the class of non-Noetherian rings having a monomorphic Noetherian envelope,which we conjecture is the empty class.

  9. RING PROXY SIGNATURES

    2008-01-01

    Proxy signatures have been used to enable the transfer of digital signing power within some context and ring signatures can be used to provide the anonymity of a signer. By combining the functionalities of proxy signatures and ring signatures, this paper introduces a new concept, named ring proxy signature, which is a proxy signature generated by an anonymous member from a set of potential signers. The paper also constructs the first concrete ring proxy signature scheme based on the provably secure Schnorr's signatures and two ID-based ring proxy signature schemes. The security analysis is provided as well.

  10. Statistical Correlations Between Near-Infrared Luminosities and Ring Sizes in Field Ringed Galaxies

    Wu, Wentao

    2008-01-01

    Statistically complete samples of inner-pseudo-, inner-, and outer-ringed galaxies can be extracted from the Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies. Redshifts and near-infrared (NIR) photometric data are available for the samples, allowing the derivation of the statistical correlations between the total NIR luminosities (L NIR) and the projected ring major axes in the physical scale (D) for these galaxies. For any of the three types of rings, the correlations are approximately L NIR vprop D 1.2 among the early-type ringed galaxies (the most commonly observed ringed galaxies). The correlations among late-type ringed galaxies appear significantly different. The results contradict the previous suggestion by Kormendy (1979, ApJ, 227, 714), who gave LB vprop D 2 (LB : B-band galaxy luminosity). The relations can be used in future to test theoretical simulations of dynamical structures of ringed galaxies as well as those of ring formation under the framework of cosmological models. Currently the results indicate at most small differences in the relative contributions of disk components to total galaxy masses and in the initial disk velocity dispersions between commonly observed ringed galaxies of similar type. The correlations also suggest a new approach to effectively use ring sizes as tertiary cosmological distance indicators, to help enhance the reliability of the measurement of the Hubble Constant.

  11. An analysis of the binding of repressor protein ModE to modABCD (molybdate transport) operator/promoter DNA of Escherichia coli.

    Grunden, A M; Self, W T; Villain, M; Blalock, J E; Shanmugam, K T

    1999-08-20

    Expression of the modABCD operon in Escherichia coli, which codes for a molybdate-specific transporter, is repressed by ModE in vivo in a molybdate-dependent fashion. In vitro DNase I-footprinting experiments identified three distinct regions of protection by ModE-molybdate on the modA operator/promoter DNA, GTTATATT (-15 to -8; region 1), GCCTACAT (-4 to +4; region 2), and GTTACAT (+8 to +14; region 3). Within the three regions of the protected DNA, a pentamer sequence, TAYAT (Y = C or T), can be identified. DNA-electrophoretic mobility experiments showed that the protected regions 1 and 2 are essential for binding of ModE-molybdate to DNA, whereas the protected region 3 increases the affinity of the DNA to the repressor. The stoichiometry of this interaction was found to be two ModE-molybdate per modA operator DNA. ModE-molybdate at 5 nM completely protected the modABCD operator/promoter DNA from DNase I-catalyzed hydrolysis, whereas ModE alone failed to protect the DNA even at 100 nM. The apparent K(d) for the interaction between the modA operator DNA and ModE-molybdate was 0.3 nM, and the K(d) increased to 8 nM in the absence of molybdate. Among the various oxyanions tested, only tungstate replaced molybdate in the repression of modA by ModE, but the affinity of ModE-tungstate for modABCD operator DNA was 6 times lower than with ModE-molybdate. A mutant ModE(T125I) protein, which repressed modA-lac even in the absence of molybdate, protected the same region of modA operator DNA in the absence of molybdate. The apparent K(d) for the interaction between modA operator DNA and ModE(T125I) was 3 nM in the presence of molybdate and 4 nM without molybdate. The binding of molybdate to ModE resulted in a decrease in fluorescence emission, indicating a conformational change of the protein upon molybdate binding. The fluorescence emission spectra of mutant ModE proteins, ModE(T125I) and ModE(Q216*), were unaffected by molybdate. The molybdate-independent mutant Mod

  12. Saturn's largest ring.

    Verbiscer, Anne J; Skrutskie, Michael F; Hamilton, Douglas P

    2009-10-22

    Most planetary rings in the Solar System lie within a few radii of their host body, because at these distances gravitational accelerations inhibit satellite formation. The best known exceptions are Jupiter's gossamer rings and Saturn's E ring, broad sheets of dust that extend outward until they fade from view at five to ten planetary radii. Source satellites continuously supply the dust, which is subsequently lost in collisions or by radial transport. Here we report that Saturn has an enormous ring associated with its outer moon Phoebe, extending from at least 128R(S) to 207R(S) (Saturn's radius R(S) is 60,330 km). The ring's vertical thickness of 40R(S) matches the range of vertical motion of Phoebe along its orbit. Dynamical considerations argue that these ring particles span the Saturnian system from the main rings to the edges of interplanetary space. The ring's normal optical depth of approximately 2 x 10(-8) is comparable to that of Jupiter's faintest gossamer ring, although its particle number density is several hundred times smaller. Repeated impacts on Phoebe, from both interplanetary and circumplanetary particle populations, probably keep the ring populated with material. Ring particles smaller than centimetres in size slowly migrate inward and many of them ultimately strike the dark leading face of Iapetus.

  13. The contraceptive vaginal ring.

    Edwardson, Jill; Jamshidi, Roxanne

    2010-03-01

    The contraceptive vaginal ring offers effective contraception that is self-administered, requires less frequent dosing than many other forms of contraception, and provides low doses of hormones. NuvaRing (Organon, Oss, The Netherlands), the only contraceptive vaginal ring approved for use in the United States, contains etonogestrel and ethinyl estradiol. It is inserted into the vagina for 3 weeks, followed by a 1-week ring-free period, and works by inhibiting ovulation. Most women note a beneficial effect on bleeding profiles and are satisfied with NuvaRing. Commonly reported adverse events include vaginitis, leukorrhea, headaches, and device-related events such as discomfort. Serious adverse events are rare. In Chile and Peru, progesterone-only vaginal contraceptive rings are available for nursing women. Studies are ongoing examining new formulations of vaginal contraceptive rings.

  14. Certain near-rings are rings, II

    Howard E. Bell

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate distributively-generated near-rings R which satisfy one of the following conditions: (i for each x,y∈R, there exist positive integers m, n for which xy=ymxn; (ii for each x,y∈R, there exists a positive integer n such that xy=(yxn. Under appropriate additional hypotheses, we prove that R must be a commutative ring.

  15. Comparability for ideals of regular rings

    CHEN Huanyin

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we investigate necessary and sufficient conditions under which the ideals possess comparability structure. For regular rings, we prove that every square matrix over ideals satisfying general comparability admits a diagonal reduction by quasi invertible matrices.

  16. On Exchange QB∞-Rings

    Huanyin Chen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new class of rings, the QB∞-rings. We investigate necessary and sufficient conditions under which an exchange ring is a QB∞-ring. The modules over an exchange QB∞-ring are studied. Also, we prove that every regular square matrix over an exchange QB∞-ring admits a diagonal reduction by pseudo-invertible matrices.

  17. Recent progress of synthesis of slide-ring gel and its structure characterization%滑动轮凝胶的制备及其结构研究进展

    李美花; 谭玉梅; 邓国华

    2014-01-01

    Slide-ring gels are a new type of polymer gels,in which polymer networks are formed by topologically interlocking of polyrotaxane by figure-of-eight cross-links. Because these cross-links can pass along the polymer chains freely to equalize the tension of the threading polymer chains like pulleys,slide-ring gels reveal higher swellability,higher stretchability,and better mechanical strength than traditional chemical or physical gels. Hence,slide-ring gels have attracted considerable attention and become a very active research area. This review introduces the concept of slide-ring gel,and its topologically cross-linking method,superior performance and extensive application value. Proposition of a sliding-ring model and its achieving process by real molecules is also reviewed. Preparation methods,structure and physical properties of the slide-ring gels,as well as three main parameters that govern the pulley effect,moving phase,cross-linking density,and complexation degree between ring and main polymer chain,are discussed. However,the types of polyrotaxanes used to prepare the slide-ring gels are limited,and the corresponding application research is rarely reported.%滑动轮凝胶由于其聚合物网络是由8字形的交联结构将聚轮烷拓扑联锁而成,因而具有比传统聚合物凝胶更优越的溶胀性能、延展性以及机械强度,近年来已成为聚合物凝胶领域研究的热点。本文介绍了滑动轮凝胶的基本概念与拓扑交联方式,简述了其优越的性能和广泛的应用价值,回顾了滑动交联理论的提出及实现过程。重点综述了国内外各种滑动轮凝胶的制备方法,以及溶剂、交联密度和环糊精与PEG的包结复合率等因素对其滑轮效应的结构与性能的影响。指出目前滑动轮凝胶所用的聚轮烷骨架种类较少,应用研究有待加强。

  18. Aluminum Complexes Stabilized by Piperazidine-Bridged Bis(phenolate) Ligands: Syntheses, Structures, and Applica- tion in the Ring-Opening Polymerization of ε-Caprolactone

    李文艺; 姚英明; 张勇; 沈琪

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of aluminum alkoxide and alkyl complexes stabilized by piperazidine- bridged bis(phenolate) ligands are described. Treatment of ligand precursors Hz[ONNO]^1 {Hz[ONNO]^1= 1,4-bis(2-hydroxy-3-tert-butyl-5-methylbenzyl)piperazidine} and Hz[ONNO]2 {H2[ONNO]2=1,4-bis(2-hydroxy3,5-di-tert-butylbenzyl)piperazidine} with A1Et2(OCH2Ph) and A1Etz(OPr-i), which were generated in situ by the reactions of AIEt3 with equivalent of the corresponding alcohols, in a 1: 1 molar ratio in THF gave the corresponding aluminum alkoxide complexes [ONNO]IAI(OCH2Ph) (1) and [ONNO]2Al(OPr-i) (2), respectively. The reaction of H2[ONNO]^1 with A1Etz(OCHzPh) in a 1 : 2 molar ratio in THF afforded a mixture of monometallic aluminum ethyl complex [ONNO] 1A1Et (3) and complex 1, which can be isolated by stepwise crystallization. Similarly, Hz[ONNO]2 reacted with A1Etz(OPr-0 in a 1: 2 molar ratio in THF to give a mixture of aluminum ethyl complex [ONNO]2AlEt (4) and complex 2. Complexes 1 and 2 were also available via treatment of complexes 3 and 4 with 1 equiv, of benzyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol, respectively. All of these complexes were fully characterized including X-ray structural determination. It was found that complexes 1 to 4 can initiate the ring-opening polymerization of e-caprolactone, and complexes 1 and 2 showed higher catalytic activity in comparison with com- plexes 3 and 4.

  19. review of the archaeological evidence for food plants from the British Isles: an example of the use of the Archaeobotanical Computer Database (ABCD

    Philippa Tomlinson

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available The Archaeobotanical Computer Database is an electronic compilation of information about remains of plants from archaeological deposits throughout the British Isles. For the first time, this wealth of published data, much of it post-dating Godwin's (1975 History of the British Flora has been brought together in a form in which the user can explore the history of a particular species or group of plants, or investigate the flora and vegetation of a particular archaeological period or part of the British Isles. The database contains information about the sites, deposits and samples from which the remains in question have been recovered, together with details of the plant parts identified and their mode of preservation. It also provides some interpretative guidance concerning the integrity of contexts and the reliability of dating as an aid to judging the quality of the data available. In this paper the compilers of the ABCD make use of the database in order to review the archaeological evidence for food plants in the British Isles. The paper begins with a definition of its scope, examining the concept of a "food plant" and the taphonomy of plant remains on British archaeological sites. It then summarises the principal changes in food plants from the prehistoric period to post-medieval times. The body of the paper is a detailed discussion of the evidence for the use of berries, other fruits, vegetables, pulses, herbs and flavourings, oil plants, cereals and nuts. Finally, the paper compares the archaeological evidence with that known from documentary sources. Readers will be able to view the archaeological evidence as distribution maps and will be able to explore aspects of the database online, enabling queries by taxa, site or worker. Instructions on obtaining electronic copies of the database tables and registering as an ABCD user are also included.

  20. Structural optimization design for clip ring of carbon extrution press based on I-DEAS%基于I-DEAS的炭素挤压机卡环优化设计

    魏征宇; 赵国栋; 薛峰; 毛春燕; 孙成妮

    2011-01-01

    Based on the construction features of the clip ring of carbon extrution press, a finite element model has been established by using large - scale finite element analysis software I-DEAS, and the structural stress and displacement of the clip ring under maximum loads have been analyzed. The optimization design of clip ring part is made according to the results. Through optimizing, the weight of clip ring part is reduced greatly and meanwhile maximum stress is controlled in a reasonable range.%根据炭素挤压机卡环的结构和受力特点,利用有限元分析软件I-DEAS建立卡环零件有限元模型,并进行了静力学的有限元分析计算,分析了卡环零件在最大负荷工作状态下的应力和应变情况,根据结果对卡环零件进行了优化设计.通过优化,卡环零件的重量大大减轻,同时零件最大应力也被控制在一个合理范围内.

  1. Structures, Bonding, and One-Bond B-N and B-H Spin-Spin Coupling Constants for a Series of Neutral and Anionic Five-Membered Rings Containing BN Bonds.

    Yáñez, Manuel; Mó, Otilia; Alkorta, Ibon; Del Bene, Janet E

    2008-11-11

    The structures and bonding of a series of five-membered rings with BN bonds CxNyBzH5 (x + y + z = 5) and their most stable deprotonated anions CxNyBzH4(-) as well as anionic rings CxNyBzH5(-) have been investigated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. The great majority of these rings present BN bond orders close to that found in borazine, suggesting that there is substantial electron delocalization in these rings. This observation is also supported by both NBO and ELF analyses. Ab initio equation-of-motion coupled-cluster singles and doubles (EOM-CCSD) calculations have also been performed to obtain the (15)N-(11)B and (1)H-(11)B spin-spin coupling constants. For neutral systems, the former range from -10 to -35 Hz, thereby bracketing the value of (1)J(B-N) for borazine, which is -29 Hz. (1)J(B-N) spans an even greater range in the anions, from -3 to -36 Hz. The absolute value of (1)J(B-N) decreases upon deprotonation if coupling involves the deprotonated nitrogen or a boron atom bonded to the deprotonated N. (1)J(B-H) always decreases upon nitrogen deprotonation.

  2. The influence of water on visible-light initiated free-radical/cationic ring-opening hybrid polymerization of methacrylate/epoxy: Polymerization kinetics, crosslinking structure and dynamic mechanical properties

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of water on the polymerization kinetics, crosslinking structure and dynamic mechanical properties of methacrylate/epoxy polymers cured by visible-light initiated free-radical/cationic ring-opening hybrid polymerization. Water-containing formulations were prepared by adding ~4–7 wt% D2O depending on the water miscibility of monomer resins. The water-containing adhesives were compared with the adhesives photo-cured in the absence of wat...

  3. Gulf ring algae

    Although they rank among the tiniest of the microspcopic phytoplankton, coccolithophore algae aid oceanographers studying the Gulf Stream rings and the ring boundaries. The algal group could help to identify more precisely the boundary of the warm rings of water that spin off from the Gulf Stream and become independent pools of warm water in the colder waters along the northeastern U.S. coast.Coccolithophore populations in the Gulf Stream rings intrigue oceanographers for two reasons: The phytoplankton are subjected to an environment that changes every few days, and population explosions within one coccolithophore species seem to be associated with changes in the characteristics of ocean water, said Pat Blackwelder, an associate professor at the Nova Oceanographic Center in Dania, Fla. She is one of many studying the physics, chemistry, and biology of warm core rings. A special oceanography session on these rings was held at the recent AGU Fall Meeting/ASLO Winter Meeting.

  4. Structure-Activity Analysis of Gram-positive Bacterium-producing Lasso Peptides with Anti-mycobacterial Activity

    Inokoshi, Junji; Koyama, Nobuhiro; Miyake, Midori; Shimizu, Yuji; Tomoda, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Lariatin A, an 18-residue lasso peptide encoded by the five-gene cluster larABCDE, displays potent and selective anti-mycobacterial activity. The structural feature is an N-terminal macrolactam ring, through which the C-terminal passed to form the rigid lariat-protoknot structure. In the present study, we established a convergent expression system by the strategy in which larA mutant gene-carrying plasmids were transformed into larA-deficient Rhodococcus jostii, and generated 36 lariatin variants of the precursor protein LarA to investigate the biosynthesis and the structure-activity relationships. The mutational analysis revealed that four amino acid residues (Gly1, Arg7, Glu8, and Trp9) in lariatin A are essential for the maturation and production in the biosynthetic machinery. Furthermore, the study on structure-activity relationships demonstrated that Tyr6, Gly11, and Asn14 are responsible for the anti-mycobacterial activity, and the residues at positions 15, 16 and 18 in lariatin A are critical for enhancing the activity. This study will not only provide a useful platform for genetically engineering Gram-positive bacterium-producing lasso peptides, but also an important foundation to rationally design more promising drug candidates for combatting tuberculosis.

  5. Synthesis and structural studies of copper(II) complex supported by -ONNO- tetradentate ligand:Efficient catalyst for the ring-opening polymerization of lactide

    Anita Routaray; Nibedita Nath; Somanath Mantri; Tungabidya Maharan; Alekha Kumar Sutar

    2015-01-01

    The –ONNO– tetradentate Schiff base ligandN,N’-bis(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde)benzene-1,2-diamine (HMBBD) has been synthesized. The ligand was attached to copper (Cu-HMBBD) in methanol under N2 atmosphere to give a mononuclear complex. The reactivity of this complex in the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of lactide has been studied. The complex has a square planner geometry, as determined by X-ray diffraction studies. The copper complex is highly active towards the ring-opening polymerization of lactide, and the rate of polymerization is heavily dependent on the initiator used. The copper complex allows controlled ring-opening polymerization, as shown by the linear relationship between the percentage conversion and the number average molecular weight. Based on the literature, a mechanism for the ROP of lactide has been proposed.

  6. Token ring technology report

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. This report provides an overview of the IBM Token-Ring technology and products built by IBM and compatible vendors. It consists of two sections: 1. A summary of the design trade-offs for the IBM Token-Ring. 2. A summary of the products of the major token-ring compatible vendors broken down by adapters and components, wiring systems, testing, and new chip technology.

  7. Dusty plasma (Yukawa) rings

    Sheridan, T E

    2010-01-01

    One-dimensional and quasi-one-dimensional strongly-coupled dusty plasma rings have been created experimentally. Longitudinal (acoustic) and transverse (optical) dispersion relations for the 1-ring were measured and found to be in very good agreement with the theory for an unbounded straight chain of particles interacting through a Yukawa (i.e., screened Coulomb or Debye-H\\"uckel) potential. These rings provide a new system in which to study one-dimensional and quasi-one-dimensional physics.

  8. On -Coherent Endomorphism Rings

    Li-Xin Mao

    2008-11-01

    A ring is called right -coherent if every principal right ideal is finitely presented. Let $M_R$ be a right -module. We study the -coherence of the endomorphism ring of $M_R$. It is shown that is a right -coherent ring if and only if every endomorphism of $M_R$ has a pseudokernel in add $M_R; S$ is a left -coherent ring if and only if every endomorphism of $M_R$ has a pseudocokernel in add $M_R$. Some applications are given.

  9. Physics of quantum rings

    Fomin, Vladimir M. (ed.) [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Presents the new class of materials of quantum rings. Provides an elemental basis for low-cost high-performance devices promising for electronics, optoelectronics, spintronics and quantum information processing. Explains the physical properties of quantum rings to cover a gap in scientific literature. Presents the application of most advanced nanoengineering and nanocharacterization techniques. This book deals with a new class of materials, quantum rings. Innovative recent advances in experimental and theoretical physics of quantum rings are based on the most advanced state-of-the-art fabrication and characterization techniques as well as theoretical methods. The experimental efforts allow to obtain a new class of semiconductor quantum rings formed by capping self-organized quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Novel optical and magnetic properties of quantum rings are associated with non-trivial topologies at the nanoscale. An adequate characterization of quantum rings is possible on the basis of modern characterization methods of nanostructures, such as Scanning Tunneling Microscopy. A high level of complexity is demonstrated to be needed for a dedicated theoretical model to adequately represent the specific features of quantum rings. The findings presented in this book contribute to develop low-cost high-performance electronic, spintronic, optoelectronic and information processing devices based on quantum rings.

  10. Prometheus Induced Vorticity In Saturns F Ring

    Sutton, Phil J

    2016-01-01

    Saturns rings are known to show remarkable real time variability in their structure. Many of which can be associated to interactions with nearby moons and moonlets. Possibly the most interesting and dynamic place in the rings, probably in the whole Solar System, is the F ring. A highly disrupted ring with large asymmetries both radially and azimuthally. Numerically non zero components to the curl of the velocity vector field (vorticity) in the perturbed area of the F ring post encounter are witnessed, significantly above the background vorticity. Within the perturbed area rich distributions of local rotations is seen located in and around the channel edges. The gravitational scattering of ring particles during the encounter causes a significant elevated curl of the vector field above the background F ring vorticity for the first 1-3 orbital periods post encounter. After 3 orbital periods vorticity reverts quite quickly to near background levels. This new found dynamical vortex life of the ring will be of grea...

  11. New Horizons Imaging of Jupiter's Main Ring

    Throop, Henry B.; Showalter, Mark Robert; Dones, Henry C. Luke; Hamilton, D. P.; Weaver, Harold A.; Cheng, Andrew F.; Stern, S. Alan; Young, Leslie; Olkin, Catherine B.; New Horizons Science Team

    2016-10-01

    New Horizons took roughly 520 visible-light images of Jupiter's ring system during its 2007 flyby, using the spacecraft's Long-Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI). These observations were taken over nine days surrounding Jupiter close-approach. They span a range in distance of 30 - 100 RJ, and a phase angle range of 20 - 174 degrees. The highest resolution images -- more than 200 frames -- were taken at a resolution approaching 20 km/pix.We will present an analysis of this dataset, much of which has not been studied in detail before. Our results include New Horizons' first quantitative measurements of the ring's intrinsic brightness and variability. We will also present results on the ring's azimuthal and radial structure. Our measurements of the ring's phase curve will be used to infer properties of the ring's dust grains.Our results build on the only previous analysis of the New Horizons Jupiter ring data set, presented in Showalter et al (2007, Science 318, 232-234), which detected ring clumps and placed a lower limit on the population of undetected ring-moons.This work was supported by NASA's OPR program.

  12. Flow visualization of a vortex ring interaction with porous surfaces

    Hrynuk, John T.; Van Luipen, Jason; Bohl, Douglas

    2012-03-01

    The interaction of vortex rings of constant Reynolds number with porous surfaces composed of wire meshes of constant open area, i.e., surface porosity, but variable wire diameter is studied using flow visualization. The results indicate that several regimes of flow behavior exist in the parameter space investigated. The vortex ring passes through and immediately reforms downstream of the surface for porous surfaces with small wire mesh diameters. The transmitted vortex ring has the same diameter, but lower convection speed and circulation than the pre-interaction vortex ring. For these cases, secondary vortex rings are formed on the upstream side of the porous surface that convect upstream away from the screen. As the wire diameter of the porous surface is increased, smaller sub-scale vortical structures are formed on the transmitted vortex ring as it passes through the surface. The spatial scale of these structures is dependent on the diameter of the mesh wire. The vortex ring is disrupted but is able to reform downstream when these structures are small compared to the scale of the vortex ring. When these structures are large enough the transmitted vortex ring is disrupted and does not reform. The results indicate that the dynamics governing the vortex ring/mesh surface interaction are dependent not only on the strength of the vortex ring and the porosity of the surface, as previously thought, but also on the length scales (i.e., the diameter and spacing of the wire mesh) of the porous surface.

  13. Illustration of Saturn's Rings

    2001-01-01

    This illustration shows a close-up of Saturn's rings. These rings are thought to have formed from material that was unable to form into a Moon because of tidal forces from Saturn, or from a Moon that was broken up by Saturn's tidal forces.

  14. Birth Control Ring

    ... 5 of her menstrual cycle. It remains in place for 3 weeks in a row. At the end of the third week, on the same day of the week ... birth control until the ring has been in place for 7 days. If the ring is out for more than 3 hours during your third week wearing it, call your doctor to see ...

  15. Revocable Ring Signature

    Dennis Y. W. Liu; Joseph K. Liu; Yi Mu; Willy Susilo; Duncan S. Wong

    2007-01-01

    Group signature allows the anonymity of a real signer in a group to be revoked by a trusted party called group manager. It also gives the group manager the absolute power of controlling the formation of the group. Ring signature, on the other hand, does not allow anyone to revoke the signer anonymity, while allowing the real signer to forma group (also known as a ring) arbitrarily without being controlled by any other party. In this paper, we propose a new variant for ring signature, called Revocable Ring Signature. The signature allows a real signer to form a ring arbitrarily while allowing a set of authorities to revoke the anonymity of the real signer. This new variant inherits the desirable properties from both group signature and ring signature in such a way that the real signer will be responsible for what it has signed as the anonymity is revocable by authorities while the real signer still has the freedom on ring formation. We provide a formal security model for revocable ring signature and propose an efficient construction which is proven secure under our security model.

  16. EBT ring physics

    Uckan, N.A. (ed.)

    1980-04-01

    This workshop attempted to evaluate the status of the current experimental and theoretical understanding of hot electron ring properties. The dominant physical processes that influence ring formation, scaling, and their optimal behavior are also studied. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the 27 included papers. (MOW)

  17. The Fermilab recycler ring

    Martin Hu

    2001-07-24

    The Fermilab Recycler is a permanent magnet storage ring for the accumulation of antiprotons from the Antiproton Source, and the recovery and cooling of the antiprotons remaining at the end of a Tevatron store. It is an integral part of the Fermilab III luminosity upgrade. The following paper describes the design features, operational and commissioning status of the Recycler Ring.

  18. Steroidal contraceptive vaginal rings.

    Sarkar, N N

    2003-06-01

    The development of steroid-releasing vaginal rings over the past three decades is reviewed to illustrate the role of this device as an effective hormonal contraceptive for women. Vaginal rings are made of polysiloxane rubber or ethylene-vinyl-acetate copolymer with an outer diameter of 54-60 mm and a cross-sectional diameter of 4-9.5 mm and contain progestogen only or a combination of progestogen and oestrogen. The soft flexible combined ring is inserted in the vagina for three weeks and removed for seven days to allow withdrawal bleeding. Progesterone/progestogen-only rings are kept in for varying periods and replaced without a ring-free period. Rings are in various stages of research and development but a few, such as NuvaRing, have reached the market in some countries. Women find this method easy to use, effective, well tolerated and acceptable with no serious side-effects. Though the contraceptive efficacy of these vaginal rings is high, acceptability is yet to be established.

  19. Algorithms for finite rings

    Ciocanea Teodorescu I.,

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we are interested in describing algorithms that answer questions arising in ring and module theory. Our focus is on deterministic polynomial-time algorithms and rings and modules that are finite. The first main result of this thesis is a solution to the module isomorphism problem in

  20. Planetary rings - Theory

    Borderies, Nicole

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical models of planetary-ring dynamics are examined in a brief analytical review. The mathematical description of streamlines and streamline interactions is outlined; the redistribution of angular momentum due to collisions between particles is explained; and problems in the modeling of broad, narrow, and arc rings are discussed.

  1. Jupiter's Rings: Sharpest View

    2007-01-01

    The New Horizons spacecraft took the best images of Jupiter's charcoal-black rings as it approached and then looked back at Jupiter. The top image was taken on approach, showing three well-defined lanes of gravel- to boulder-sized material composing the bulk of the rings, as well as lesser amounts of material between the rings. New Horizons snapped the lower image after it had passed Jupiter on February 28, 2007, and looked back in a direction toward the sun. The image is sharply focused, though it appears fuzzy due to the cloud of dust-sized particles enveloping the rings. The dust is brightly illuminated in the same way the dust on a dirty windshield lights up when you drive toward a 'low' sun. The narrow rings are confined in their orbits by small 'shepherding' moons.

  2. Magnetic Bloch oscillations in nanowire superlattice rings.

    Citrin, D S

    2004-05-14

    The recent growth of semiconductor nanowire superlattices encourages hope that Bloch-like oscillations in such structures formed into rings may soon be observed in the presence of a time-dependent magnetic flux threading the ring. These magnetic Bloch oscillations are a consequence of Faraday's law; the time-dependent flux produces an electromotive force around the ring, thus leading to the Bloch-like oscillations. In the spectroscopic domain, generalized Wannier-Stark states are found that are manifestations of the emf-induced localization of the states.

  3. Heptaphyrins: Expanded porphyrins with seven heterocyclic rings

    Venkataramanarao G Anand; Simi K Pushpan; Sundararaman Venkatraman; Tavarekere K Chandrashekar

    2003-10-01

    Expanded porphyrins containing seven pyrrole/heterocyclic rings linked in a cyclic fashion are termed heptaphyrins. The number of -electrons in heptaphyrins depends on the number of meso carbon bridges used to link the heterocyclic rings, accordingly heptaphyrins with 28-electrons and 30 -electrons are reported to date. Both condensation reactions of the appropriate precursors and acid-catalysed oxidative coupling reactions have been utilized to synthesise the heptaphyrins. The 30 heptaphyrins exhibit rich structural diversity where some of the heterocyclic rings in the macrocycle undergo a 180° ring flipping. An overview of the synthetic methods employed for the synthesis of heptaphyrins, their spectroscopic properties, structural behaviour and aromatic properties are highlighted in this paper.

  4. The Enceladus Ring

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] The Enceladus Ring (labeled) This excellent view of the faint E ring -- a ring feature now known to be created by Enceladus -- also shows two of Saturn's small moons that orbit within the ring, among a field of stars in the background. The E ring extends from three to eight Saturn radii -- about 180,000 kilometers (118,000 miles) to 482,000 kilometers (300,000 miles). Its full extent is not visible in this view. Calypso (22 kilometers, or 14 miles across) and Helene (32 kilometers, or 20 miles across) orbit within the E ring's expanse. Helene skirts the outer parts of the E ring, but here it is projected in front of a region deeper within the ring. Calypso and Helene are trojan satellites, or moons that orbit 60 degrees in front or behind a larger moon. Calypso is a Tethys trojan and Helene is a trojan of Dione. An interesting feature of note in this image is the double-banded appearance of the E-ring, which is created because the ring is somewhat fainter in the ringplane than it is 500-1,000 kilometers (300-600 miles) above and below the ringplane. This appearance implies that the particles in this part of the ring have nonzero inclinations (a similar affect is seen in Jupiter's gossamer ring). An object with a nonzero inclination does not orbit exactly at Saturn's ringplane. Instead, its orbit takes it above and below the ringplane. Scientists are not entirely sure why the particles should have such inclinations, but they are fairly certain that the reason involves Enceladus. One possible explanation is that all the E ring particles come from the plume of icy material that is shooting due south out of the moon's pole. This means all of the particles are created with a certain velocity out of the ringplane, and then they orbit above and below that plane. Another possible explanation is that Enceladus produces particles with a range of speeds, but the moon gravitationally scatters any particles that lie very close to

  5. Is single-4-ring the most basic but elusive secondary building unit that transforms to larger structures in zinc phosphate chemistry?

    Dar, Aijaz A; Sharma, Sunil K; Murugavel, Ramaswamy

    2015-05-18

    (dmpp)(MeOH)]n (12), with a zigzag backbone, formed through an edge-to-edge to polymerization of S4R building units with P═O groups in trans-configuration. The isolation of four different structural types of zinc phosphates A-D in the present study can be rationalized in terms of fusion of S4R rings in a variety of ways to either produce discrete clusters or 1-D polymers.

  6. The use of electrostatic probes to characterize the discharge plasma structure and identify discharge cathode erosion mechanisms in ring-cusp ion thrusters

    Herman, Daniel Andrew

    The erosion of the discharge cathode assembly (DCA) is currently one of the lifetime limiting factors of ion thruster operation and will play an even more important role for more ambitious, future ion thruster applications requiring more throughput at higher-power. Erosion of the DCA has been observed throughout the ground-based wear testing of the 30-cm NSTAR ion thruster. Energetic ions have been detected near the DCA, from Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) measurements, that appear to be the cause of the DCA erosion, though a mechanism by which ions gain sufficient energy to sputter erode the DCA material has not been determined. This dissertation presents research aimed at characterizing the discharge chamber plasma near the DCA to determine the mechanism by which energetic ions are created and erode the DCA inside ring-cusp ion engines. A diagnostic technique is developed to interrogate the near-DCA regions of two ion thrusters: the 30-cm FMT2 NSTAR and 40-cm LM4 NEXT engines. Both engines contain similar plasma structures. Number densities are highest along cathode centerline as the axial magnetic field near the DCA effectively confines electrons to a narrow plume. Plasma potential mappings rule out the existence of a potential-hill that has been proposed as the cause of the DCA erosion. A free standing potential gradient structure is found to form the transition between the low-potential cathode plume and the high-potential bulk discharge plasma, termed a double layer. The field-aligned double layer accelerates ions from the bulk discharge plasma towards the DCA centerline. Measured plasma parameters and LIF velocimetry data are used to calculate an erosion rate utilizing near-threshold sputtering yield formulae. Singly-ionized xenon cannot solely account for the observed NSTAR erosion rates. Incorporation of double-ionized xenon from measured double-to-single current measurements in the plume of the 30-cm and 40-cm thrusters significantly increases the

  7. 基于Kriging模型的环形桁架可展天线结构参数优化方法%Parameters optimization algorithm for ring truss deployable antenna structures based on Kriging model

    何星星; 廖瑛

    2012-01-01

    The solution efficiency for the traditional structure dynamic optimization process is relatively low. Based on a discussion of the parameters optimization for the ring truss deployable antenna structures, this research chose the sample points by design of experiment method in the variable parameter space. The response values of the first order natural frequency, total mass, and the maximum deformation with specific loading for the ring truss deployable antenna structures were obtained by the finite element method. The Kriging models, which were established by the relationship between the sample points and response values, were used to find the optimum solution with optimization algorithm. It is required that the optimum solution should satisfy all the constrained conditions. The results showed that the response surfaces of the first order natural frequency, total mass, and the maximum deformation with specific loading for the ring truss deployable antenna structures were nonlinear relationship with the design variable. The structure optimization method with the Kriging approximate model can be used to find the optimum structural parameters of the ring truss deployable antennas accurately.%针对传统结构动力学优化过程中求解效率较低的问题,以环形桁架可展天线结构参数优化为研究背景,在环形桁架可展天线结构的参数变量空间中,以试验设计方法选取样本点,通过有限元方法得到各个样本点的第一阶固有频率、固定载荷最大变形等响应值,利用样本点和响应值的关系建立Kriging近似模型进行优化算法的寻优,得到满足所有约束条件的最优解.结果表明,所得到的环形桁架可展天线第一阶固有频率、固定载荷最大变形的响应面呈现比较明显的非线性关系,基于Kriging模型的结构优化方法能比较准确地对环形桁架可展天线进行寻优设计.

  8. Are there moonlets near Uranus' alpha and beta rings?

    Chancia, R O

    2016-01-01

    The Voyager 2 Radio Science Subsystem (RSS) occultations of Uranus' alpha and beta rings exhibit quasi-periodic optical depth variations with radial wavelengths that vary with longitude. These patterns may be wakes from small moonlets orbiting exterior to these rings. Based on the observed structures in the rings, we estimate that the moonlets would need to be located about 100 km exterior to the rings' semi-major axes and be 2-7 km in radius. Such moonlets could help keep the rings confined. Due to their small radii and presumed low albedo, the expected brightness of these moonlets is on the order of the noise in Voyager 2 images.

  9. Heavy ion storage rings

    Schuch, R.

    1987-01-01

    A brief overview of synchrotron storage rings for heavy ions, which are presently under construction in different accelerator laboratories is given. Ions ranging from protons up to uranium ions at MeV/nucleon energies will be injected into these rings using multiturn injection from the accelerators available or being built in these laboratories. After injection, it is planned to cool the phase space distribution of the ions by merging them with cold electron beams or laser beams, or by using stochastic cooling. Some atomic physics experiments planned for these rings are presented.

  10. Satellite And Propeller Migration In Saturn's Rings

    Crida, Aurelien; Charnoz, S.; Papaloizou, J.; Salmon, J.

    2009-09-01

    Saturn's rings host satellites like Pan and Daphnis, and smaller bodies like the recently discovered propellers (Tiscareno et al. 2006). These bodies interact gravitationally with the rings. Actually, the resulting perturbations on the ring system have revealed the presence of embedded objects (the Encke and Keeler gaps associated with Pan and Daphnis respectively, the little two-folded structures called propellers tracing the scattering of ring particles by some embedded small objects). Reciprocally, the rings must act on the embedded bodies, leading to their migration. Here, we study how the standard theory of planetary migration applies in Saturn's ring, where the pressure is negligible in contrast with standard protoplanetary disks. Pan and Daphnis should be in standard type II migration, governed by the global disk evolution. Therefore, their presence and position provide constraints on the history of the A-ring, which can be studied using numerical simulations of disk-satellite interactions. The propellers are fully embedded in the disc, and therefore should be subject to type I migration. The simple impulse approximation used by Lin and Papaloi zou (1979) to derive the one-sided torque is particularly suited to this case. Refining their calculation, taking density variations into account, and discussing the possibility for these bodies to enter the type III, runaway regime of migration, we aim at estimating a possible migration rate for these propellers, to be compared to the system life time.

  11. [Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopic Analysis of Aromatics from One Ring to Four Rings].

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Hai-feng; Yue, Zong-yu; Chen, Bei-ling; Yao, Ming-fa

    2015-06-01

    In order to distinguish small aromatics preferably, a Nd : YAG Laser was used to supply an excitation laser, which was adjusted to 0.085 J x cm(-2) at 266 nm. Benzene, toluene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene and chrysene were used as the representative of different rings aromatics. The fluorescence emission spectra were researched for each aromatic hydrocarbon and mixtures by Laser induced fluorescence (LIF). Results showed that the rings number determined the fluorescence emission spectra, and the structure with same rings number did not affect the emission fluorescence spectrum ranges. This was due to the fact that the absorption efficiency difference at 266 nm resulted in that the fluorescence intensities of each aromatic hydrocarbon with same rings number were different and the fluorescence intensities difference were more apparently with aromatic ring number increasing. When the absorption efficiency was similar at 266 nm and the concentrations of each aromatic hydrocarbon were same, the fluorescence intensities were increased with aromatic ring number increasing. With aromatic ring number increasing, the fluorescence spectrum and emission peak wavelength were all red-shifted from ultraviolet to visible and the fluorescence spectrum range was also wider as the absorption efficiency was similar. The fluorescence emission spectra from one to four rings could be discriminated in the following wavelengths, 275 to 320 nm, 320 to 375 nm, 375 to 425 nm, 425 to 556 nm, respectively. It can be used for distinguish the type of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as it exists in single type. As PAHs are usually exist in a variety of different rings number at the same time, the results for each aromatic hydrocarbon may not apply to the aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures. For the aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures, results showed that the one- or two-ring PAHs in mixtures could not be detected by fluorescence as three- or four-ring PAHs existed in mixture

  12. P,O-Phosphinophenolate zinc(II) species: synthesis, structure and use in the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of lactide, ε-caprolactone and trimethylene carbonate.

    Fliedel, Christophe; Rosa, Vitor; Alves, Filipa M; Martins, Ana M; Avilés, Teresa; Dagorne, Samuel

    2015-07-21

    The P,O-type phosphinophenol proligands (1·H, 2-PPh2-4-Me-6-Me-C6H2OH; 2·H, 2-PPh2-4-Me-6-(t)Bu-C6H2OH) readily react with one equiv. of ZnEt2 to afford in high yields the corresponding Zn(II)-ethyl dimers of the type [(κ(2)-P,O)Zn-Et]2 (3 and 4) with two μ-OPh bridging oxygens connecting the two Zn(II) centers, as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies in the case of 3. Based on diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY), both species 3 and 4 retain their dimeric structures in solution. The alcoholysis reaction of Zn(II) alkyls 3 and 4 with BnOH led to the high yield formation of the corresponding Zn(II) benzyloxide species [(κ(2)-P,O)Zn-OBn]2 (5 and 6), isolated in a pure form as colorless solids. The centrosymmetric and dimeric nature of Zn(II) alkoxides 5 and 6 in solution was deduced from DOSY NMR experiments and multinuclear NMR data. Though the heteroleptic species 5 is stable in solution, its analogue 6 is instable in CH2Cl2 solution at room temperature to slowly decompose to the corresponding homoleptic species 8via the transient formation of (κ(2)-P,O)2Zn2(μ-OBn)(μ–κ(1):κ(1)-P,O) (6′). Crystallization of compound 6 led to crystals of 6′, as established by XRD analysis. The reaction of ZnEt2 with two equiv. of 1·H and 2·H allowed access to the corresponding homoleptic species of the type [Zn(P,O)2] (7 and 8). All gathered data are consistent with compound 7 being a dinuclear species in the solid state and in solution. Data for species 8, which bears a sterically demanding P,O-ligand, are consistent with a mononuclear species in solution. The Zn(II) alkoxide species 5 and the [Zn(P,O)2]-type compounds 7 and 8 were evaluated as initiators of the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of lactide (LA), ε-caprolactone (ε-CL) and trimethylene carbonate (TMC). Species 5 is a well-behaved ROP initiator for the homo-, co- and ter-polymerization of all three monomers with the production of narrow disperse materials under living and immortal

  13. The g-2 ring

    1974-01-01

    The precise measurement of "g-2", the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, required a special muon storage ring with electrostatic focussing and very accurate knowledge of the magnetic bending field. For more details see under photo 7405430.

  14. Modified Newton's rings: II

    Chaitanya, T Sai; Krishna, V Sai; Anandh, B Shankar; Umesh, K S

    2010-01-01

    In an earlier work (Shankar kumar Jha, A Vyas, O S K S Sastri, Rajkumar Jain & K S Umesh, 'Determination of wavelength of laser light using Modified Newton's rings setup', Physics Education, vol. 22, no.3, 195-202(2005)) reported by our group, a version of Newton's rings experiment called Modified Newton's rings was proposed. The present work is an extension of this work. Here, a general formula for wavelength has been derived, applicable for a plane of observation at any distance. A relation between the focal length and the radius curvature is also derived for a plano-convex lens which is essentially used as a concave mirror. Tracker, a video analysis software, freely downloadable from the net, is employed to analyze the fringes captured using a CCD camera. Two beams which give rise to interference fringes in conventional Newton's rings and in the present setup are clearly distinguished.

  15. Ringed Seal Distribution Map

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains GIS layers that depict the known spatial distributions (i.e., ranges) of the five subspecies of ringed seals (Phoca hispida). It was produced...

  16. Anti-leishmanial and structure-activity relationship of ring substituted 3-phenyl-1-(1,4-di-N-oxide quinoxalin-2-yl-2-propen-1-one derivatives

    Asunción Burguete

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of ring substituted 3-phenyl-1-(1,4-di-N-oxide quinoxalin-2-yl-2-propen-1-one derivatives were synthesized and tested for in vitro leishmanicidal activity against amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis in axenical cultures and murine infected macrophages. Structure-activity relationships demonstrated the importance of a radical methoxy at position R3', R4' and R5'. (2E-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-phenyl-1-(3,6,7-trimethyl-1,4-dioxy-quinoxalin-2-yl-propenone was the most active. Cytotoxicity on macrophages revealed that this product was almost six times more active than toxic.

  17. 戊型肝炎:一种动物源性传染病%Hepatitis E: An Animal-borne Communicable Disease (ABCD, Zoonosis)

    杨正时

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis E is an important public health problem in many developing countries. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the aetiological agent. There are at least four major genotypes of HEV. Genotype 1 and 2 HEVs are found exclusively in humans. Genotype 3 has a worldwide distribution, while genotype 4 has been found only in Asia, both 3 and 4 can be isolated from humans and swine that are animal reservoirs for genotype 3 and 4 HEVs. Hepatitis E is now considered an animal-borne communicable disease (ABCD, Zoonosis).%戊型肝炎在许多发展中国家是一重要的公共卫生问题,戊型肝炎病毒是其病原,至少有4个基因型。基因1型和2型仅见于人类,3型呈世界分布,4型见于亚洲。3型与4型均能从人与猪分离到,猪是戊肝病毒的动物贮存宿主,目前被认为是一种动物源性传染病。

  18. Structure of a dinuclear cadmium complex with 2,2′-bipyridine, monodentate nitrate and 3-carboxy-6-methylpyridine-2-carboxylate ligands: intramolecular carbonyl(lone pair...π(ring and nitrate(π...π(ring interactions

    Juan Granifo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The centrosymmetric dinuclear complex bis(μ-3-carboxy-6-methylpyridine-2-carboxylato-κ3N,O2:O2;κ3O2:N,O2-bis[(2,2′-bipyridine-κ2N,N′(nitrato-κOcadmium] methanol monosolvate, [Cd2(C8H6NO42(NO32(C10H8N22]·CH3OH, was isolated as colourless crystals from the reaction of Cd(NO32·4H2O, 6-methylpyridine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (mepydcH2 and 2,2′-bipyridine in methanol. The asymmetric unit consists of a CdII cation bound to a μ-κ3N,O2:O2-mepydcH− anion, an N,N′-bidentate 2,2′-bipyridine group and an O-monodentate nitrate anion, and is completed with a methanol solvent molecule at half-occupancy. The Cd complex unit is linked to its centrosymmetric image through a bridging mepydcH− carboxylate O atom to complete the dinuclear complex molecule. Despite a significant variation in the coordination angles, indicating a considerable departure from octahedral coordination geometry about the CdII atom, the Cd—O and Cd—N distances in this complex are surprisingly similar. The crystal structure consists of O—H...O hydrogen-bonded chains parallel to a, further bound by C—H...O contacts along b to form planar two-dimensional arrays parallel to (001. The juxtaposed planes form interstitial columnar voids that are filled by the methanol solvent molecules. These in turn interact with the complex molecules to further stabilize the structure. A search in the literature showed that complexes with the mepydcH− ligand are rare and complexes reported previously with this ligand do not adopt the μ-κ3 coordination mode found in the title compound.

  19. Descent from the form ring and Buchsbaum rings

    Schenzel, P

    1996-01-01

    There is a spectral sequence technique in order to estimate the local cohomology of a ring by the local cohomology of a certain form ring. As applications there are information on the descent of homological properties (Cohen-Macaulay, Buchsbaum etc.) from the form ring to the ring itself. In the case of Buchsbaum ring there is a discussion of the descent of the surjectivity of a natural map into the local cohomology.

  20. Comparative structure analyses of cystine knot-containing molecules with eight aminoacyl ring including glycoprotein hormones (GPH alpha and beta subunits and GPH-related A2 (GPA2 and B5 (GPB5 molecules

    Combarnous Yves

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystine-knot (cys-knot structure is found in a rather large number of secreted proteins and glycoproteins belonging to the TGFbeta and glycoprotein hormone (GPH superfamilies, many of which are involved in endocrine control of reproduction. In these molecules, the cys-knot is formed by a disulfide (SS bridge penetrating a ring formed by 8, 9 or 10 amino-acid residues among which four are cysteine residues forming two SS bridges. The glycoprotein hormones Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH, Luteinizing Hormone (LH, Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH and Chorionic Gonadotropin (CG are heterodimers consisting of non-covalently associated alpha and beta subunits that possess cys-knots with 8-amino-acyl (8aa rings. In order to get better insight in the structural evolution of glycoprotein hormones, we examined the number and organization of SS bridges in the sequences of human 8-aa-ring cys-knot proteins having 7 (gremlins, 9 (cerberus, DAN, 10 (GPA2, GPB5, GPHα and 12 (GPHβ cysteine residues in their sequence. Discussion The comparison indicated that the common GPH-alpha subunit exhibits a SS bridge organization ressembling that of DAN and GPA2 but possesses a unique bridge linking an additional cysteine inside the ring to the most N-terminal cysteine residue. The specific GPHbeta subunits also exhibit a SS bridge organization close to that of DAN but it has two additional C-terminal cysteine residues which are involved in the formation of the "seat belt" fastened by a SS "buckle" that ensures the stability of the heterodimeric structure of GPHs. GPA2 and GPB5 exhibit no cys residue potentially involved in interchain SS bridge and GPB5 does not possess a sequence homologous to that of the seatbelt in GPH β-subunits. GPA2 and GPB5 are thus not expected to form a stable heterodimer at low concentration in circulation. Summary The 8-aa cys-knot proteins GPA2 and GPB5 are expected to form a heterodimer only at concentrations above 0

  1. Holomorphic Dynamics and Herman Rings

    Henriksen, Christian

    1997-01-01

    Existence theorem for Herman Rings of holomorphic mappings in a certain holomorphic family is given, using quasiconformal mappings. Proofs of topological properties of these Herman rings are given.......Existence theorem for Herman Rings of holomorphic mappings in a certain holomorphic family is given, using quasiconformal mappings. Proofs of topological properties of these Herman rings are given....

  2. Ringed accretion disks: equilibrium configurations

    Pugliese, D

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a model of ringed accretion disk, made up by several rings rotating around a supermassive Kerr black hole attractor. Each toroid of the ringed disk is governed by the General Relativity hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. Properties of the tori can be then determined by an appropriately defined effective potential reflecting the background Kerr geometry and the centrifugal effects. The ringed disks could be created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around supermassive black holes. Therefore, both corotating and counterrotating rings have to be considered as being a constituent of the ringed disk. We provide constraints on the model parameters for the existence and stability of various ringed configurations and discuss occurrence of accretion onto the Kerr black hole and possible launching of jets from the ringed disk. We demonstrate that various ringed disks can be characterized by a maximum number of rings. We pr...

  3. Thermodynamic black di-rings

    Iguchi, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    Previously the five dimensional $S^1$-rotating black rings have been superposed in concentric way by some solitonic methods and regular systems of two $S^1$-rotating black rings were constructed by the authors and then Evslin and Krishnan (we called these solutions black di-rings). In this place we show some characteristics of the solutions of five dimensional black di-rings, especially in thermodynamic equilibrium. After the summary of the di-ring expressions and their physical quantities, first we comment on the equivalence of the two different solution-sets of the black di-rings. Then the existence of thermodynamic black di-rings are shown, in which both iso-thermality and iso-rotation between the inner black ring and the outer black ring are realized. We also give detailed analysis of peculiar properties of the thermodynamic black di-ring including discussion about a certain kind of thermodynamic stability (instability) of the system.

  4. 应用ABCD2评分评估短暂性脑缺血发作预后%The application of ABED2 Score in evaluation of the prognosis in transient ischemic attack

    毕齐; 王力锋; 宋哲

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the incidence, types and risk factors of atherothrombotic events (AT) within 7 days after transient ischemic attack (TIA) with ABCD2 Score in Chinese patients. Methods With ABCD2 Score, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 198 TIA patients ,which met the inclusion criteria of our study. They were divided into a low risk group (ABCD2 ≤3) and a moderate-high risk group(ABCD2≥4) and the incidence, types and risk factors of AT within 7 days after TIA were evaluated and compared respectively with χ2 test between the two groups. Statistic significance was considered as P < 0.05. Results The order of the frequency of accompanying diseases was hypertension 68.18% (135/198), diabetes 23.74% (47/198), coronary artery disease 21.72% (43/198), ischemic stroke 15.66% (31/198) and hyperlipemia 12. 63% (25/198). AT within 7 days after TIA was observed in 6.19% (6/97) of the patients in the low risk group, all of them were suffering from TIA recurrence. In the moderate-high risk group, 14. 85% (15/101) of the patients experienced AT, including 2 eases of TIA recurrence, 10 cases of ischemic stroke, 1 case of both TIA recurrence and ischemic stroke, 1 case of angina pectoris and 1 case of myocardial infarction. There was no peripheral vascular disease or death from vascular disease. Incidence of AT within 7 days in the moderate-high risk group was significantly higher than that in the low risk group (51.70% vs 27. 27%, P < 0.05). Conclusion TIA patients with ABCD2 ≥4 are at higher risk of AT within 7 days after TIA onset.%目的 评估短暂性脑缺血发作(TIA)发病7 d内动脉粥样硬化性血栓性事件(AT).方法 应用ABCD2评分回顾性研究符合本研究人选标准的198例TIA临床资料,根据评分分为低危组(≤3分)和中-高危组(≥4分),分别统计TIA发病7 d内AT事件的发生率、种类及危险因素,并在两组间进行卡方检验.结果 既往病史依次为高血压病、糖尿病、冠心病、脑

  5. Saturn's Other Ring Current

    Crary, F. J.

    2014-04-01

    Saturn's main rings orbit the planet within an atmosphere and ionosphere of water, oxygen and hydrogen, produced by meteoritic impacts on and ultraviolet photodesorbtion of the ring particles [Johnson et al., 2006; Luhmann et al., 2006; Tseng et al., 2010]. The neutral atmosphere itself has only been tentatively detected through ultraviolet fluorescents of OH [Hall et al., 1996] while the ionosphere was observed in situ by the Cassini spacecraft shortly after orbital insertion [Coates et al.,2005; Tokar et al. 2005, Waite et al. 2005]. Although the plasma flow velocity of this ionosphere is not well-constrained, but the close association with the rings suggests that its speed would be couppled to the keplarian velocity of the rings themselves. As a result, the motion of the plasma through Saturn's magnetic field would produce an induced voltage, oriented away from the planet outside synchronous orbit and towards the planet inside synchronous orbit. Such a potential could result in currents flowing across the ring plane and closeing along magnetic field lines and through Saturn's ionosphere at latitudes between 36o and 48o. Cassini observations of whistler-mode plasma wave emissions [Xin et al.,2006] centered on synchronous orbit (1.76 Rs, mapping to 41o latitude) have been interpreted as a product of field-aligned electron beams associated with such a current. This presentation will investigate the magnitude of these currents and the resulting Joule heating of the ionosphere. An important constraint is that no auroral ultraviolet emissions have been observed at the relevant latitudes. In contrast, Joule heating could affect infrared emissions from H3+. Variations in H3+ emission associated with Saturn's rings have been reported by O'Donoghue et al., 2013, and interpreted as a result of ring "rain", i.e. precipitating water group species from the rings which alter ionosphereic chemistry and H3+ densities. As noted by O'Donoghue et al., this interpretation may be

  6. Electronic properties of superlattices on quantum rings

    da Costa, D. R.; Chaves, A.; Ferreira, W. P.; Farias, G. A.; Ferreira, R.

    2017-04-01

    We present a theoretical study of the one-electron states of a semiconductor-made quantum ring (QR) containing a series of piecewise-constant wells and barriers distributed along the ring circumference. The single quantum well and the superlattice cases are considered in detail. We also investigate how such confining potentials affect the Aharonov–Bohm like oscillations of the energy spectrum and current in the presence of a magnetic field. The model is simple enough so as to allow obtaining various analytical or quasi-analytical results. We show that the well-in-a-ring structure presents enhanced localization features, as well as specific geometrical resonances in its above-barrier spectrum. We stress that the superlattice-in-a-ring structure allows giving a physical meaning to the often used but usually artificial Born–von-Karman periodic conditions, and discuss in detail the formation of energy minibands and minigaps for the circumferential motion, as well as several properties of the superlattice eigenstates in the presence of the magnetic field. We obtain that the Aharonov–Bohm oscillations of below-barrier miniband states are reinforced, owing to the important tunnel coupling between neighbour wells of the superlattice, which permits the electron to move in the ring. Additionally, we analysis a superlattice-like structure made of a regular distribution of ionized impurities placed around the QR, a system that may implement the superlattice in a ring idea. Finally, we consider several random disorder models, in order to study roughness disorder and to tackle the robustness of some results against deviations from the ideally nanostructured ring system.

  7. Structure, vibrational spectra and DFT characterization of the intra- and inter-molecular interactions in 2-hydroxy-5-methylpyridine-3-carboxylic acid--normal modes of the eight-membered HB ring.

    Godlewska, P; Jańczak, J; Kucharska, E; Hanuza, J; Lorenc, J; Michalski, J; Dymińska, L; Węgliński, Z

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform IR and Raman spectra, XRD studies and DFT quantum chemical calculations have been used to characterize the structural and vibrational properties of 2-hydroxy-5-methylpyridine-3-carboxylic acid. In the unit-cell of this compound two molecules related by the inversion center interact via OH⋯N hydrogen bonds. The double hydrogen bridge system is spaced parallel to the (102) crystallographic plane forming eight-membered arrangement characteristic for pyridine derivatives. The six-membered ring is the second characteristic unit formed via the intramolecular OH⋯O hydrogen bond. The geometry optimization of the monomer and dimer have been performed applying the Gaussian03 program package. All calculations were performed in the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) basis set using the XRD data as input parameters. The relation between the molecular and crystal structures has been discussed in terms of the hydrogen bonds formed in the unit cell. The vibrations of the dimer have been discussed in terms of the resonance inside the system built of five rings coupled via hydrogen bonds.

  8. Phenyl-ring rotational disorder in the two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded structure of the 1:1 proton-transfer salt of the diazo-dye precursor 4-(phenyldiazenyl)aniline (aniline yellow) with L-tartaric acid.

    Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D; Young, David J

    2010-07-01

    In the structure of the 1:1 proton-transfer compound from the reaction of L-tartaric acid with the azo-dye precursor aniline yellow [4-(phenyldiazenyl)aniline], namely 4-(phenyldiazenyl)anilinium (2R,3R)-3-carboxy-2,3-dihydroxypropanoate, C(12)H(12)N(3)(+) x C(4)H(5)O(6)(-), the asymmetric unit contains two independent 4-(phenyldiazenyl)anilinium cations and two hydrogen L-tartrate anions. The structure is unusual in that all four phenyl rings of the two cations have identical rotational disorder with equal occupancy of the conformations. The two hydrogen L-tartrate anions form independent but similar chains through head-to-tail carboxyl-carboxylate O-H...O hydrogen bonds [graph set C(7)], which are then extended into a two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded sheet structure through hydroxy O-H...O hydrogen-bonded links. The anilinium groups of the 4-(phenyldiazenyl)anilinium cations are incorporated into the sheets and also provide internal hydrogen-bonded extensions, while their aromatic tails are layered in the structure without significant association except for weak pi-pi interactions [minimum ring centroid separation = 3.844 (3) A]. The hydrogen L-tartrate residues of both anions exhibit the common short intramolecular hydroxy-carboxylate O-H...O hydrogen bonds. This work provides a solution to the unusual disorder problem inherent in the structure of this salt, as well as giving another example of the utility of the hydrogen tartrate anion in the generation of sheet substructures in molecular assembly processes.

  9. Chromatin ring formation at plant centromeres

    Veit eSchubert

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We observed the formation of chromatin ring structures at centromeres of somatic rye and Arabidopsis chromosomes. To test whether this behavior is present also in other plant species and tissues we analyzed Arabidopsis, rye, wheat, Aegilops and barley centromeres during cell divisions and in interphase nuclei by immunostaining and FISH. Furthermore, structured illumination microscopy (super-resolution was applied to investigate the ultrastructure of centromere chromatin beyond the classical refraction limit of light. It became obvious, that a ring formation at centromeres may appear during mitosis, meiosis and in interphase nuclei in all species analyzed. However, varying centromere structures, as ring formations or globular organized chromatin fibers, were identified in different tissues of one and the same species. In addition, we found that a chromatin ring formation may also be caused by subtelomeric repeats in barley. Thus, we conclude that the formation of chromatin rings may appear in different plant species and tissues, but that it is not specific for centromere function. Based on our findings we established a model describing the ultrastructure of plant centromeres and discuss it in comparison to previous models proposed for animals and plants.

  10. Ring aggregation pattern of Human Travel Trips

    Wang, Zi-Yang; Zhu, Peng; Qin, Yong; Jia, Li-Min

    2015-01-01

    Although a lot of attentions have been paid to human mobility, the relationship between travel pattern with city structure is still unclear. Here we probe into this relationship by analyzing the metro passenger trip data.There are two unprecedented findings. One, from the average view a linear law exists between the individual's travel distance with his original distance to city center. The mechanism underlying is a travel pattern we called "ring aggregation", i.e., the daily movement of city passengers is just aggregating to a ring with roughly equal distance to city center.Interestingly, for the round trips the daily travel pattern can be regarded as a switching between the home ring at outer area with the office ring at the inner area. Second, this linear law and ring aggregation pattern seems to be an exclusive characteristic of the metro system. It can not be found in short distance transportation modes, such as bicycle and taxi, neither as multiple transportation modes. This means the ring aggregation p...

  11. Phase behaviour of polyethylene knotted ring chains

    Wen Xiao-Hui; Zhang Lin-Xi; Xia A-Gen; Chen Hong-Ping

    2011-01-01

    The phase behaviour of polyethylene knotted ring chains is investigated by using molecular dynamics simulations.In this paper, we focus on the collapse of the polyethylene knotted ring chain, and also present the results of linear and ring chains for comparison. At high temperatures, a fully extensive knot structure is observed. The mean-square radius of gyration per bond〈S2〉/(Nb2)and the shape factor(δ*)depend on not only the chain length but also the knot type.With temperature decreasing, chain collapse is observed, and the collapse temperature decreases with the chain length increasing. The actual collapse transition can be determined by the specific heat capacity Cv, and the knotted ring chain undergoes gas-liquid-solid-like transition directly. The phase transition of a knotted ring chain is only one-stage collapse, which is different from the polyethylene linear and ring chains. This investigation can provide some insights into the statistical properties of knotted polymer chains.

  12. On Simple Noetherian Rings

    Somyot Plubtieng

    2003-01-01

    A module M is called a CS-module (or extending module [5]) if every submodule of M is essential in a direct summand of M. It is shown that (i) a simple ring R is right noetherian if and only if every cyclic singular right R-module is either a CS-module or a noetherian module; (ii) for a prime ring R, if every proper cyclic right R-module is a direct sum of a quasi-injective module and a finitely cogenerated module, then R is either semisimple artinian or a right Ore domain; and (iii) a prime ring R is right noetherian if and only if every cyclic right R-module is a direct sum of a quasi-injective module and a noetherian module.

  13. Decay ring design

    Chancé, A; Bouquerel, E; Hancock, S; Jensen, E

    The study of the neutrino oscillation between its different flavours needs pureand very intense fluxes of high energy, well collimated neutrinos with a welldetermined energy spectrum. A dedicated machine seems to be necessarynowadays to reach the required flux. A new concept based on the β-decayof radioactive ions which were accelerated in an accelerator chain was thenproposed. After ion production, stripping, bunching and acceleration, the unstableions are then stored in a racetrack-shaped superconducting decay ring.Finally, the ions are accumulated in the decay ring until being lost. The incomingbeam is merged to the stored beam by using a specific RF system, whichwill be presented here.We propose here to study some aspects of the decay ring, such as its opticalproperties, its RF system or the management of the losses which occur in thering (mainly by decay or by collimation).

  14. Almost ring theory

    2003-01-01

    This book develops thorough and complete foundations for the method of almost etale extensions, which is at the basis of Faltings' approach to p-adic Hodge theory. The central notion is that of an "almost ring". Almost rings are the commutative unitary monoids in a tensor category obtained as a quotient V-Mod/S of the category V-Mod of modules over a fixed ring V; the subcategory S consists of all modules annihilated by a fixed ideal m of V, satisfying certain natural conditions. The reader is assumed to be familiar with general categorical notions, some basic commutative algebra and some advanced homological algebra (derived categories, simplicial methods). Apart from these general prerequisites, the text is as self-contained as possible. One novel feature of the book - compared with Faltings' earlier treatment - is the systematic exploitation of the cotangent complex, especially for the study of deformations of almost algebras.

  15. Deployable Fresnel Rings

    Kennedy, Timothy F.; Fink, Patrick W.; Chu, Andrew W.; Lin, Gregory Y.

    2014-01-01

    Deployable Fresnel rings (DFRs) significantly enhance the realizable gain of an antenna. This innovation is intended to be used in combination with another antenna element, as the DFR itself acts as a focusing or microwave lens element for a primary antenna. This method is completely passive, and is also completely wireless in that it requires neither a cable, nor a connector from the antenna port of the primary antenna to the DFR. The technology improves upon the previous NASA technology called a Tri-Sector Deployable Array Antenna in at least three critical aspects. In contrast to the previous technology, this innovation requires no connector, cable, or other physical interface to the primary communication radio or sensor device. The achievable improvement in terms of antenna gain is significantly higher than has been achieved with the previous technology. Also, where previous embodiments of the Tri-Sector antenna have been constructed with combinations of conventional (e.g., printed circuit board) and conductive fabric materials, this innovation is realized using only conductive and non-conductive fabric (i.e., "e-textile") materials, with the possible exception of a spring-like deployment ring. Conceptually, a DFR operates by canceling the out-of-phase radiation at a plane by insertion of a conducting ring or rings of a specific size and distance from the source antenna, defined by Fresnel zones. Design of DFRs follow similar procedures to those outlined for conventional Fresnel zone rings. Gain enhancement using a single ring is verified experimentally and through computational simulation. The experimental test setup involves a microstrip patch antenna that is directly behind a single-ring DFR and is radiating towards a second microstrip patch antenna. The first patch antenna and DFR are shown. At 2.42 GHz, the DFR improves the transmit antenna gain by 8.6 dB, as shown in Figure 2, relative to the wireless link without the DFR. A figure illustrates the

  16. Oligomeric ferrocene rings

    Inkpen, Michael S.; Scheerer, Stefan; Linseis, Michael; White, Andrew J. P.; Winter, Rainer F.; Albrecht, Tim; Long, Nicholas J.

    2016-09-01

    Cyclic oligomers comprising strongly interacting redox-active monomer units represent an unknown, yet highly desirable class of nanoscale materials. Here we describe the synthesis and properties of the first family of molecules belonging to this compound category—differently sized rings comprising only 1,1‧-disubstituted ferrocene units (cyclo[n], n = 5-7, 9). Due to the close proximity and connectivity of centres (covalent Cp-Cp linkages; Cp = cyclopentadienyl) solution voltammograms exhibit well-resolved, separated 1e- waves. Theoretical interrogations into correlations based on ring size and charge state are facilitated using values of the equilibrium potentials of these transitions, as well as their relative spacing. As the interaction free energies between the redox centres scale linearly with overall ring charge and in conjunction with fast intramolecular electron transfer (˜107 s-1), these molecules can be considered as uniformly charged nanorings (diameter ˜1-2 nm).

  17. Rings dominate western Gulf

    Vidal L., Francisco V.; Vidal L., Victor M. V.; Molero, José María Pérez

    Surface and deep circulation of the central and western Gulf of Mexico is controlled by interactions of rings of water pinched from the gulf's Loop Current. The discovery was made by Mexican oceanographers who are preparing a full-color, 8-volume oceanographic atlas of the gulf.Anticyclonic warm-core rings pinch off the Loop Current at a rate of about one to two per year, the scientists of the Grupo de Estudios Oceanográficos of the Instituto de Investigaciones Eléctricas (GEO-IIE) found. The rings migrate west until they collide with the continental shelf break of the western gulf, almost always between 22° and 23°N latitude. On their westward travel they transfer angular momentum and vorticity to the surrounding water, generating cyclonic circulations and vortex pairs that completely dominate the entire surface and deep circulation of the central and western gulf.

  18. Autocatalytic chemical smoke rings

    Rogers, M C; Rogers, Michael C.; Morris, Stephen W.

    2005-01-01

    Buoyant plumes, evolving free of boundary constraints, may develop well-defined mushroom shaped heads. In normal plumes, overturning flow in the head entrains less buoyant fluid from the surroundings as the head rises, robbing the plume of its driving force. We consider here a new type of plume in which the source of buoyancy is an autocatalytic chemical reaction. The reaction occurs at a sharp front which separates reactants from less dense products. In this type of plume, entrainment assists the reaction, producing new buoyancy which fuels an accelerating plume head. When the head has grown to a critical size, it detaches from the upwelling conduit, forming an accelerating, buoyant vortex ring. This vortex is analogous to a rising smoke ring. A second-generation head then develops at the point of detachment.Multiple generations of chemical vortex rings can detach from a single triggering event.

  19. Tunneling Through Black Rings

    ZHAO Liu

    2007-01-01

    Hawking radiation of black ring solutions to 5-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory is analyzed by use of the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling method. To get the correct tunneling amplitude and emission rate, we adopt and develop the Angheben-Nadalini-Vanzo-Zerbini covariant approach to cover the effects of rotation and electronic discharge all at once, and the effect of back reaction is also taken into account. This constitutes a unified approach to the tunneling problem. Provided the first law of thermodynamics for black rings holds, the emission rate is proportional to the exponential of the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. Explicit calculation for black ring temperatures agrees exactly with the results obtained via the classical surface gravity method and the quasi-local formalism.

  20. Atmospheric, Ionospheric, and Energetic Radiation Environments of Saturn's Rings

    Cooper, J. F.; Kollmann, P.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Johnson, R. E.; Sturner, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary magnetospheric and high-energy cosmic ray interactions with Saturn's rings were first explored in-situ during the Pioneer 11 flyby in 1979. The following Voyager flybys produced a wealth of new information on ring structure and mass, and on spatial structure of the radiation belts beyond the main rings. Next came the Cassini Orbiter flyover of the rings during Saturn Orbital Insertion in 2004 with the first in-situ measurements of the ring atmosphere and plasma ionosphere. Cassini has since fully explored the radiation belt and magnetospheric plasma region beyond the main rings, discovering how Enceladus acts as a source of water group neutrals and water ions for the ion plasma. But do the main rings also substantially contribute by UV photolysis to water group plasma (H+, O+, OH+, H2O+, H3O+, O2+) and neutrals inwards from Enceladus? More massive rings, than earlier inferred from Pioneer 11 and Voyager observations, would further contribute by bulk ring ice radiolysis from interactions of galactic cosmic ray particles. Products of these interactions include neutron-decay proton and electron injection into the radiation belts beyond the main rings. How does radiolysis from moon and ring sweeping of the radiation belt particles compare with direct gas and plasma sources from the main rings and Enceladus? Can the magnetospheric ion and electron populations reasonably be accounted for by the sum of the ring-neutron-decay and outer magnetospheric inputs? Pioneer 11 made the deepest radial penetration into the C-ring, next followed by Cassini SOI. What might Cassini's higher-inclination proximal orbits reveal about the atmospheric, ionospheric, and energetic radiation environments in the D-ring and the proximal gap region? Recent modeling predicts a lower-intensity innermost radiation belt extending from the gap to the inner D-ring. Other remaining questions include the lifetimes of narrow and diffuse dust rings with respect to plasma and energetic particle

  1. Prometheus Induced Vorticity in Saturn's F Ring

    Sutton, Phil J.; Kusmartsev, Feo V.

    2016-11-01

    Saturn's rings are known to show remarkable real time variability in their structure. Many of which can be associated to interactions with nearby moons and moonlets. Possibly the most interesting and dynamic place in the rings, probably in the whole Solar System, is the F ring. A highly disrupted ring with large asymmetries both radially and azimuthally. Numerically non-zero components to the curl of the velocity vector field (vorticity) in the perturbed area of the F ring post encounter are witnessed, significantly above the background vorticity. Within the perturbed area rich distributions of local rotations is seen located in and around the channel edges. The gravitational scattering of ring particles during the encounter causes a significant elevated curl of the vector field above the background F ring vorticity for the first 1-3 orbital periods post encounter. After 3 orbital periods vorticity reverts quite quickly to near background levels. This new found dynamical vortex life of the ring will be of great interest to planet and planetesimals in proto-planetary disks where vortices and turbulence are suspected of having a significant role in their formation and migrations. Additionally, it is found that the immediate channel edges created by the close passage of Prometheus actually show high radial dispersions in the order 20-50 cm/s, up to a maximum of 1 m/s. This is much greater than the value required by Toomre for a disk to be unstable to the growth of axisymmetric oscillations. However, an area a few hundred km away from the edge shows a more promising location for the growth of coherent objects.

  2. Prometheus Induced Vorticity in Saturn's F Ring

    Sutton, Phil J.; Kusmartsev, Feo V.

    2016-09-01

    Saturn's rings are known to show remarkable real time variability in their structure. Many of which can be associated to interactions with nearby moons and moonlets. Possibly the most interesting and dynamic place in the rings, probably in the whole Solar System, is the F ring. A highly disrupted ring with large asymmetries both radially and azimuthally. Numerically non-zero components to the curl of the velocity vector field (vorticity) in the perturbed area of the F ring post encounter are witnessed, significantly above the background vorticity. Within the perturbed area rich distributions of local rotations is seen located in and around the channel edges. The gravitational scattering of ring particles during the encounter causes a significant elevated curl of the vector field above the background F ring vorticity for the first 1-3 orbital periods post encounter. After 3 orbital periods vorticity reverts quite quickly to near background levels. This new found dynamical vortex life of the ring will be of great interest to planet and planetesimals in proto-planetary disks where vortices and turbulence are suspected of having a significant role in their formation and migrations. Additionally, it is found that the immediate channel edges created by the close passage of Prometheus actually show high radial dispersions in the order ~20-50 cm/s, up to a maximum of 1 m/s. This is much greater than the value required by Toomre for a disk to be unstable to the growth of axisymmetric oscillations. However, an area a few hundred km away from the edge shows a more promising location for the growth of coherent objects.

  3. Abrasion Resistance Comparison between Rotor and Ring Spun Yarn

    YANG Jian-ping; YU Chong-wen

    2002-01-01

    On the base of literature review and the analysis of yarn properties, yarn structure and some other facts, the abrasion resistance of both rotor spun yarn and ring spun yarns are discussed. The results show that with the same raw material and twist, the rotor spun yarn has lower abrasion resistance than that of ring spun yarn, because of the higher twist employed, the abrasion resistance of rotor spun yarn is higher than that of ring spun yarn.

  4. ANSYS 的生物质成型机环模结构分析%The Structure Analysis of Biomass Ring Die Based on ANSYS

    袁晓明; 徐静云; 韩秀荣; 葛翔; 王宏宇

    2015-01-01

    根据生物质压块环模成型机的成型过程和机理分析,研究了环模的受力状况,分析了物料变化对攫入角β选取的影响;建立了环模挤压力学模型,借助ANSYS 有限元分析软件对环模孔进行了力学分析。研究结果表明,环模锥形孔对生物质原料的成型影响较大,且在锥点处 y 向应力最大,减小应力的最佳开孔角度为9°~14°。该研究能够为改善生物质压块成型机环模的受力状况、降低环模的磨损、延长环模的使用寿命提供理论依据。%According to the molding process and mechanism of straw biomass briquetting , this paper studies the force conditions of ring die and analyzes the influence of the swoop angle (β) in the different materials .Then the finite ele-ment analyses based on the mechanical models are done by ANSYS .The results show that the conical holes have a grea-ter impact on molding of the biomass materials , and the maximum stress of Y axis locates at the cane point .The opening angle of 9°~14°is helpful to reduce stress at the cane point .It has provided a theoretical basis for improving force con-dition, reducing wearing and extending the service life of the ring die .

  5. Molecular Scale Dynamics of Large Ring Polymers

    Gooßen, S.; Brás, A. R.; Krutyeva, M.; Sharp, M.; Falus, P.; Feoktystov, A.; Gasser, U.; Pyckhout-Hintzen, W.; Wischnewski, A.; Richter, D.

    2014-10-01

    We present neutron scattering data on the structure and dynamics of melts from polyethylene oxide rings with molecular weights up to ten times the entanglement mass of the linear counterpart. The data reveal a very compact conformation displaying a structure approaching a mass fractal, as hypothesized by recent simulation work. The dynamics is characterized by a fast Rouse relaxation of subunits (loops) and a slower dynamics displaying a lattice animal-like loop displacement. The loop size is an intrinsic property of the ring architecture and is independent of molecular weight. This is the first experimental observation of the space-time evolution of segmental motion in ring polymers illustrating the dynamic consequences of their topology that is unique among all polymeric systems of any other known architecture.

  6. Lunar Rings In South Africa.

    Makarenko, G. F.

    Recently [1], when I have revealed the basic property of planet Earth's outer shell ­ its axial structural symmetry. Thus, it became clear that mobilistic models are void now. One can see W.Indic and E.Pacific ridges on thje same meridiane (60 E, 120 W). They stretch northward to Urals (variscan) and Cordilleras (laramian) with the edge of Bear zone (precambrian) in America. Other structures are obvious. The giant fault-ridge line Apsheron - N.Anatolia - Atlas - Mavritanians has as its twin on the other globe side the fracture zone Mendocino with the Mapmaker island chain. African Ugartha has Hawaiians as its twin, rifts Chad-Njassa have as their twin island chain Line in Pacific etc. We can compare the Earth with its permamnent structural symmetry with other planets. Lunar and earthen tectonic megaforms: Imbrium, Oriental Mare and other have identical positions on their planets. It is evident if planet's 0-meridians are matched [1]. Lunar big rings have their places on the African old blocks. Tanganjica massive coincides with risen lunar region. Rodezian block with parts of Kibara, Lomagundy, Limpopo zones coincides with lunar Maria Nectaris and with their nearest rings. SW edge of these rings coincides with lunar Rupes Altai. Young structure of basin Congo coincides with risen block, its center- crater Delambr. Young ocean earthen structures have lunar images also. NW edge of Fecundidatis Maria and its floor coincides with Somali abissal plane, Davie ridge - with lunar Montes Pyrenaeus etc. Resume. The matrix of earthen tectonic forms is drawn on the Moon . The arc forms are cyclic renovating all the time on their own planet places with extending, shortening along one or another of their sides. Mountain arcs give birth to rear basalts. Question. Why 0-meridians of the Moon (center of its disk) and of the Earth (the decision of astronomers, 1884) have the same position relative to tectonic structures of their planets? Why earthen 0-meridian is chosen so

  7. 剪刀机构环形阵列可展结构的运动学与动力学研究%Kinematics and Dynamics Analysis of Ring Array Deployable Structures Based on SLE

    袁茹; 王剑; 王三民; 刘国林

    2014-01-01

    Firstly,by analysing the geometric parameter relationship of SLE,the relationship among the element size,element number and the radius of the ring deployable structures was obtained in deployed and folded configurations.Secondly,according to the characteristics of the ring array de-ployable structure,a method was adopted,which was the combination of unit mechanism method and influence coefficient method,and the kinematics analysis method of the structure was established. Thirdly,the influence coefficient method and the principle of virtual work were combined to form the dynamatics analysis of the structure.At last,the effectiveness of the kinamatics and dynamics meth-ods was confirmed by an example.%通过分析剪刀单元之间几何参数的关系,得到单元尺寸和单元数量与展开和收拢半径之间的约束条件;针对可展结构的组成特点,提出将单元机构法与运动影响系数法相结合,建立可展结构的运动学分析方法;将运动影响系数法与虚功原理相结合,形成了可展结构的动力学分析方法。通过算例证实了所建立的运动学和动力学分析方法的有效性。

  8. Earth Rings for Planetary Environment Control

    Pearson, Jerome; Oldson, John; Levin, Eugene; Carroll, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    For most of its past, large parts of the Earth have experienced subtropical climates, with high sea levels and no polar icecaps. This warmer environment was punctuated 570, 280, and 3 million years ago with periods of glaciation that covered temperate regions with thick ice for millions of years. At the end of the current ice age, a warmer climate could flood coastal cities, even without human-caused global warming. In addition, asteroids bombard the Earth periodically, with impacts large enough to destroy most life on Earth, and the sun is warming inexorably. This paper proposes a concept to solve these problems simultaneously, by creating an artificial planetary ring about the Earth to shade it. Past proposals for space climate control have depended on gigantic engineering structures launched from Earth and placed in Earth orbit or at the Earth-Sun L1 libration point, requiring fabrication, large launch masses and expense, constant control, and repair. Our solution is to begin by using lunar material, and then mine and remove Earth-orbit-crossing asteroids and discard the tailings into Earth orbit, to form a broad, flat ring like those of Saturn. This solution is evaluated and compared with other alternatives. Such ring systems can persist for thousands of years, and can be maintained by shepherding satellites or by continual replenishment from new asteroids to replace the edges of the ring lost by diffusion. An Earth ring at R = 1.3-1.83 RE would shade only the equatorial regions, moderating climate extremes, and could reverse a century of global warming. It could also absorb particles from the radiation belts, making trips to high Earth orbit and GEO safer for humans and for electronics. It would also light the night many times as bright as the full moon. A preliminary design of the ring is developed, including its location, mass, composition, stability, and timescale required. A one-dimensional climate model is used to evaluate the Earth ring performance

  9. The Vibration Ring. Phase 1; [Seedling Fund

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Krantz, Timothy L.; Delap, Damon C.; Stringer, David B.

    2014-01-01

    The vibration ring was conceived as a driveline damping device to prevent structure-borne noise in machines. It has the appearance of a metal ring, and can be installed between any two driveline components like an ordinary mechanical spacer. Damping is achieved using a ring-shaped piezoelectric stack that is poled in the axial direction and connected to an electrical shunt circuit. Surrounding the stack is a metal structure, called the compression cage, which squeezes the stack along its poled axis when excited by radial driveline forces. The stack in turn generates electrical energy, which is either dissipated or harvested using the shunt circuit. Removing energy from the system creates a net damping effect. The vibration ring is much stiffer than traditional damping devices, which allows it to be used in a driveline without disrupting normal operation. In phase 1 of this NASA Seedling Fund project, a combination of design and analysis was used to examine the feasibility of this concept. Several designs were evaluated using solid modeling, finite element analysis, and by creating prototype hardware. Then an analytical model representing the coupled electromechanical response was formulated in closed form. The model was exercised parametrically to examine the stiffness and loss factor spectra of the vibration ring, as well as simulate its damping effect in the context of a simplified driveline model. The results of this work showed that this is a viable mechanism for driveline damping, and provided several lessons for continued development.

  10. Ring chromosome 13

    Brandt, C A; Hertz, Jens Michael; Petersen, M B;

    1992-01-01

    A stillborn male child with anencephaly and multiple malformations was found to have the karyotype 46,XY,r(13) (p11q21.1). The breakpoint at 13q21.1, determined by high resolution banding, is the most proximal breakpoint ever reported in patients with ring chromosome 13. In situ hybridisation...

  11. Planetary ring systems

    Miner, Ellis D; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N

    2007-01-01

    This is the most comprehensive and up-to-date book on the topic of planetary rings systems yet written. The book is written in a style that is easily accessible to the interested non expert. Each chapter includes notes, references, figures and tables.

  12. On topologies over rings

    Syed M. Fakhruddin

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available In this note, we show that if a topology F¯ over a ring A satisfies a certain finiteness condition, then the Gabriel topology G¯ generated by F¯ can be explicitly constructed and it also satisfies the same finiteness condition.

  13. Fusion Rings for Quantum Groups

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Stroppel, Catharina

    2012-01-01

    We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from [12] and give a similar description of the sp2n-fusion ring in terms of noncommutative symmetric...... functions. Moreover we give a presentation of all fusion rings in classical types as quotients of polynomial rings. Finally we also compute the fu- sion rings for type G2....

  14. Fusion Rings for Quantum Groups

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Stroppel, Catharina

    2014-01-01

    We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from Korff, C., Stroppel, C.: The sl(ˆn)k-WZNW fusion ring: a combinato-rial construction and a realis......We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from Korff, C., Stroppel, C.: The sl(ˆn)k-WZNW fusion ring: a combinato-rial construction...

  15. Technology, engages in ring theory、 matrix theory. PC-rings and Almost Excellent Extensions%PC-环与几乎优越扩张

    赵志新; 刘仲奎

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we consider that rings R are coherents and R is p-injective. We call such rings to be right PC-rings. The structure of these rings is examined and if S is PC-ring i f and only if R is PC-ring, where S is an almost excsllent extension of R.%本文我们讨论了这种环R的结构,R是凝聚环且 R作为R_模是P_内射,我们称此环为PC_环.并证明了在几乎优越扩张下的不变性.

  16. Ring-shaped velocity distribution functions in energy-dispersed structures formed at the boundaries of a proton stream injected into a transverse magnetic field: Test-kinetic results

    Voitcu, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the formation of ring-shaped and gyro-phase restricted velocity distribution functions (VDFs) at the edges of a cloud of protons injected into non-uniform distributions of the electromagnetic field. The velocity distribution function is reconstructed using the forward test-kinetic method. We consider two profiles of the electric field: (1) a non-uniform E-field obtained by solving the Laplace equation consistent with the conservation of the electric drift and (2) a constant and uniform E-field. In both cases, the magnetic field is similar to the solutions obtained for tangential discontinuities. The initial velocity distribution function is Liouville mapped along numerically integrated trajectories. The numerical results show the formation of an energy-dispersed structure due to the energy-dependent displacement of protons towards the edges of the cloud by the gradient-B drift. Another direct effect of the gradient-B drift is the formation of ring-shaped velocity distribution functio...

  17. Gorenstein Homological Dimensions and Change of Rings

    Xiaoyan YANG

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we shall be concerned with what happens of Gorenstein homological dimensions when certain modifications are made to a ring. The five structural operations addressed later are the formation of excellent extensions,localizations,Morita equivalences,polynomial extensions and power series extensions.

  18. Chiral Rings and Physical States in c<1 String Theory

    Govindarajan, S; John, V

    1993-01-01

    We show how the double cohomology of the String and Felder BRST charges naturally leads to the ring structure of $c<1$ strings. The chiral ring is a ring of polynomials in two variables modulo an equivalence relation of the form $x^p \\simeq y^{p+1}$ for the (p+1,p) model. We also study the states corresponding to the edges of the conformal grid whose inclusion is crucial for the closure of the ring. We introduce candidate operators that correspond to the observables of the matrix models. Their existence is motivated by the relation of one of the screening operators of the minimal model to the zero momentum dilaton.

  19. Role Of Computational Simulations In The Design Of Piston Rings

    Novotný Pavel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents computational approaches using modern strategies for a dynamic piston ring solution as a fluid structural problem. Computational model outputs can be used to understand design parameter influences on defined results of a primarily integral character. Piston ring dynamics incorporates mixed lubrication conditions, the influence of surface roughness on oil film lubrication, the influence of ring movement on gas dynamics, oil film formulation on a cylinder liner and other significant influences. The solution results are presented for several parameters of SI engine piston rings.

  20. Binding Energy of Excitons in a Quantum Ring

    XIE Wen-Fang

    2008-01-01

    The binding energy of excitons confined to a quantum ring under the influence of perpendicular homogeneous magnetic field is calculated as a function of the ring radius. Calculations are made by using the method of exact diagonalization within the effective-mass approximation. The feature of binding energy of the ground state as a function of the ring radius for several values of the magnetic field has been revealed. The interesting feature of our study is that, in a quantum ring, the geometric structure of excitons may reveal transition.

  1. Rapid evolution of a Gulf Stream warm-core ring

    Joyce, T.; Backus, R.; Cowles, T.; Baker, K.; Blackwelder, P.; Brown, O.; Evans, R.; Olson, D.; Fryxell, G.; Mountain, D.

    1984-01-01

    Satellite images are used to show that major alterations in the structure of Gulf Stream warm-core rings can occur during very short periods of two to five days when an interaction with the Gulf Stream is particularly intense. The role of these interactions in the evolution of a ring are discussed.

  2. Synthetic applications of gold-catalyzed ring expansions

    Cristina Nevado

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of new methodologies catalyzed by late transition metals involving cycloisomerizations of strained rings can open new venues for the synthesis of structurally complex molecules with interesting biological activities. Herein we summarize, from both a synthetic as well as a mechanistic point of view, the most recent developments in gold-catalyzed ring expansions.

  3. Extended analysis of closed-ring microstrip antenna

    Sultan, M. A.

    1989-02-01

    Gauss' hypergeometric function and Euler's transformation are employed to analyze the radiation characteristics of a closed-ring microstrip antenna. The method takes into account ohmic and dielectric losses, and it is used to determine relations between efficiency and bandwidth. It is found that at higher frequencies, narrower ring structures can have small Q-factors, high gain, and large bandwidth.

  4. Heterometallic Rings: Their Physics and use as Supramolecular Building Blocks.

    McInnes, Eric J L; Timco, Grigore A; Whitehead, George F S; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2015-11-23

    An enormous family of heterometallic rings has been made. The first were Cr7 M rings where M = Ni(II), Zn(II), Mn(II), and rings have been made with as many as fourteen metal centers in the cyclic structure. They are bridged externally by carboxylates, and internally by fluorides or a penta-deprotonated polyol. The size of the rings is controlled through templates which have included a range of ammonium or imidazolium ions, alkali metals and coordination compounds. The rings can be functionalized to act as ligands, and incorporated into hybrid organic-inorganic rotaxanes and into molecules containing up to 200 metal centers. Physical studies reported include: magnetic measurements, inelastic neutron scattering (including single crystal measurements), electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (including measurements of phase memory times), NMR spectroscopy (both solution and solid state), and polarized neutron diffraction. The rings are hence ideal for understanding magnetism in elegant exchange-coupled systems.

  5. Biopolymers and the fellowship of DNA rings.

    Wang, James C

    2013-12-01

    This article presents a brief account of the historical backdrop of the study of interlocked DNA rings (DNA catenanes), their formation in cells, and the importance of resolving the component rings of an intracellular DNA catenane if they are to be properly partitioned into a pair of progeny cells. In humans, for example, aberrant segregation of intertwined chromosomes is a major cause of birth defects, as well as termination of pregnancy in utero. Some yet unresolved issues of DNA catenation, including plausible structural and/or functional roles of DNA interlacing in chromosomes, are briefly mentioned.

  6. Computers in nonassociative rings and algebras

    Beck, Robert E

    1977-01-01

    Computers in Nonassociative Rings and Algebras provides information pertinent to the computational aspects of nonassociative rings and algebras. This book describes the algorithmic approaches for solving problems using a computer.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the concept of a symmetrized power of a group representation. This text then presents data structures and other computational methods that may be useful in the field of computational algebra. Other chapters consider several mathematical ideas, including identity processing in nonassociative algebras, str

  7. On Skew Triangular Matrix Rings

    Wang Wei-liang; Wang Yao; Ren Yan-li

    2016-01-01

    Letαbe a nonzero endomorphism of a ring R, n be a positive integer and Tn(R,α) be the skew triangular matrix ring. We show that some properties related to nilpotent elements of R are inherited by Tn(R,α). Meanwhile, we determine the strongly prime radical, generalized prime radical and Behrens radical of the ring R[x;α]/(xn), where R[x;α] is the skew polynomial ring.

  8. The Black Ring is Unstable

    Santos, Jorge E

    2015-01-01

    We study non-axisymmetric linearised gravitational perturbations of the Emparan-Reall black ring using numerical methods. We find an unstable mode whose onset lies within the "fat" branch of the black ring and continues into the "thin" branch. Together with previous results using Penrose inequalities that fat black rings are unstable, this provides numerical evidence that the entire black ring family is unstable.

  9. The Case for Massive and Ancient Rings of Saturn

    Esposito, Larry W.

    2016-10-01

    Analysis of Voyager and Pioneer 11 results give a mass for Saturn's rings, M = 5 x 10-8 Msat. This is about the mass of Saturn's small moon Mimas. This has been interpreted as a lower limit to the ring mass (Esposito et al 1983), since the thickest parts of the rings were not penetrated by the stellar occultstion, and this calculation assumes an unvarying particle size throughout the rings. Because the rings are constantly bombarded by micrometeroids, their current composition of nearly pure water ice implies such low mass rings must have formed recently. The case is particularly strong for Saturn's A ring, where the data are the best, implying the A ring is less than 10% of the age of the Saturn (Esposito 1986). Cassini results compound this problem. UVIS spectra are consistent with either young rings or rings about 10x as massive as the Voyager estimate (Elliott and Esposito (2011). CDA confirms the impacting mass flux is similar to that assumed for the pollution calculations (Kempf etal 2015). VIMS analysis of density wave signatures in the B ring gives a value of about 1/3 the Voyager value (Hedmann etal 2016). This VIMS result implies the rings are even younger! The problem is that young rings are very unlikely to be formed recently, meaning that we live in a very special epoch, following some unlikely recent origin… like disruption of a medium sized moon or capture of the fragments of a disrupted comet (Charnoz etal 2009).To take the VIMS results at face value, Saturn's low mass rings must be very young. The optically thick B ring must be made of small, porous or fractal particles. An alternative is that we accept the higher mass interpretation of the Pioneer 11 results (Esposito etal 2008) using the granola bar model of Colwell etal 2007. This would imply that the density wave structure seen by VIMS is not sensing all the mass in the rings, where structure near strong resonances is dominted by temporary aggregates, and where non-linear effects cause the

  10. Ring closure in actin polymers

    Sinha, Supurna; Chattopadhyay, Sebanti

    2017-03-01

    We present an analysis for the ring closure probability of semiflexible polymers within the pure bend Worm Like Chain (WLC) model. The ring closure probability predicted from our analysis can be tested against fluorescent actin cyclization experiments. We also discuss the effect of ring closure on bend angle fluctuations in actin polymers.

  11. RINGED ACCRETION DISKS: EQUILIBRIUM CONFIGURATIONS

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z., E-mail: d.pugliese.physics@gmail.com, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz [Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezručovo náměstí 13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-15

    We investigate a model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several rings rotating around a supermassive Kerr black hole attractor. Each toroid of the ringed disk is governed by the general relativity hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. Properties of the tori can then be determined by an appropriately defined effective potential reflecting the background Kerr geometry and the centrifugal effects. The ringed disks could be created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around supermassive black holes. Therefore, both corotating and counterrotating rings have to be considered as being a constituent of the ringed disk. We provide constraints on the model parameters for the existence and stability of various ringed configurations and discuss occurrence of accretion onto the Kerr black hole and possible launching of jets from the ringed disk. We demonstrate that various ringed disks can be characterized by a maximum number of rings. We present also a perturbation analysis based on evolution of the oscillating components of the ringed disk. The dynamics of the unstable phases of the ringed disk evolution seems to be promising in relation to high-energy phenomena demonstrated in active galactic nuclei.

  12. Integrated silicon optofluidic ring resonator

    Testa, G.; Huang, Y.; Sarro, P.M.; Zeni, L.; Bernini, R.

    2010-01-01

    The feasibility of an integrated silicon optofluidic ring resonator is demonstrated. Liquid core antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides are used to realize a rectangular ring resonator with a multimode interference liquid core coupler between the ring and the bus waveguide. In this configuration

  13. Assembly of 1D, 2D and 3D lanthanum(iii) coordination polymers with perchlorinated benzenedicarboxylates: positional isomeric effect, structural transformation and ring-opening polymerisation of glycolide.

    Chen, Sheng-Chun; Dai, An-Qi; Huang, Kun-Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Cui, Ai-Jun; He, Ming-Yang; Chen, Qun

    2016-02-28

    Utilizing a series of positional isomers of tetrachlorinated benzenedicarboxylic acid ligands, seven La(iii)-based coordination polymers were solvothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Their structural dimensionalities varying from 1D double chains, to the 2D 3,4,5-connected network, to 3D 6-connected pcu topological nets are only governed by the positions of carboxyl groups on the tetrachlorinated benzene ring. A comprehensive analysis and comparison reveals that the size of the carbonyl solvent molecules (DMF, DEF, DMA, and NMP) can affect the coordination geometries around the La(iii) ions, the coordination modes of carboxylate groups, the packing arrangements, and the void volumes of the overall crystal lattices. One as-synthesized framework further shows an unprecedented structural transformation from a 3D 6-connected network to a 3D 4,5-connected net through the dissolution and reformation pathway in water, suggesting that these easily hydrolyzed lanthanide complexes may serve as precursors to produce new high-dimensional frameworks. The bulk solvent-free melt polymerisation of glycolide utilizing these La(iii) complexes as initiators has been reported herein for the first time. All complexes were found to promote the polymerization of glycolide over a temperature range of 200 to 220 °C, producing poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) with a molecular weight up to 93,280. Under the same experimental conditions, the different catalytic activities for these complexes may result from their structural discrepancy.

  14. Commutative rings with homomorphic power functions

    David E. Dobbs

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A (commutative ring R (with identity is called m-linear (for an integer m≥2 if (a+bm=am+bm for all a and b in R. The m-linear reduced rings are characterized, with special attention to the finite case. A structure theorem reduces the study of m-linearity to the case of prime characteristic, for which the following result establishes an analogy with finite fields. For each prime p and integer m≥2 which is not a power of p, there exists an integer s≥m such that, for each ring R of characteristic p, R is m-linear if and only if rm=rps for each r in R. Additional results and examples are given.

  15. Research of microstrip square split ring structure and efficient terahertz wave absorber%微带方形开口环的高效太赫兹波吸收器研究

    程伟; 李九生; 孙超

    2013-01-01

    A terahertz wave absorber based on microstrip square split ring structure was designed. It consisted of a top square opening ring layer, an underlying metal plate layer, and a dielectric layer between them. An equivalent circuit model was used to design the terahertz wave absorber. We processed and tested the designed absorber as well and the experimental results showed that the absorber achieved an absorption peak at 0. 575 THz with an absorptivity of 0. 993. The component could be optimized to achieve high absorption of different frequencies of the incident electromagnetic wave by flexibly adjusting the physical dimensions and material parameters. The proposed absorber has a simple structure with small size and high absorptivity. It may play an important role in applications such as the spectrum imaging, thermal radiation detection and so on.%设计了一种基于微带方形开口环结构的太赫兹波吸收器,它由顶层方形开口环、中间电介质层基体和底层金属板组成.提出一种等效电路模型,利用该模型完成了对太赫兹波吸收器的设计、加工与测试.研究结果表明,吸收器在0.575 THz处吸收率高达0.993.通过对器件的物理尺寸及材料参数的灵活调节,经优化设计即可实现对不同频率入射电磁波的高吸收.该吸收器具有结构简单、体积小、吸收率高等优点,有望在频谱成像、热辐射探测等应用中发挥重要作用.

  16. Hybrid FDTD Analysis for Periodic On-Chip Terahertz (THZ) Structures

    Hussein, Yasser A.; Spencer, James E.; /SLAC

    2005-06-07

    We present electromagnetic analysis and radiation efficiency calculations for on-chip terahertz (THz) structures based on a hybrid, finite-difference, time-domain (HFDTD) technique. The method employs the FDTD technique to calculate S-parameters for one cell of a periodic structure. The transmission ABCD matrix is then estimated and multiplied by itself n times to obtain the n-cell periodic structure ABCD parameters that are then converted back to S-parameters. Validation of the method is carried out by comparing the results of the hybrid technique with FDTD calculations of the entire periodic structure as well as with HFSS which all agree quite well. This procedure reduces the CPU-time and allows efficient design and optimization of periodic THz radiation sources. Future research will involve coupling of Maxwell's equations with a more detailed, physics-based transport model for higher-order effects.

  17. Experimental observation of the collision of three vortex rings

    Hernández, R. H.; Monsalve, E.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate for the first time the motion, interaction and simultaneous collision between three initially stable vortex rings arranged symmetrically, making an angle of 120 degrees between their straight path lines. We report results with laminar vortex rings in air and water obtained through measurements of the ring velocity field with a hot-wire anemometer, both in free flight and during the entire collision. In the air experiment, our flow visualizations allowed us to identify two main collision stages. A first ring-dominated stage where the rings slowdown progressively, increasing their diameter rapidly, followed by secondary vortex structures resulting after the rings make contact. Local portions of the vortex tubes of opposite circulation are coupled together thus creating local arm-like vortex structures moving radially in outward directions, rapidly dissipating kinetic energy. From a similar water experiment, we provide detailed shadowgraph visualizations of both the ring bubble and the full size collision, showing clearly the final expanding vortex structure. It is accurately resolved that the physical contact between vortex ring tubes gives rise to three symmetric expanding vortex arms but also the vortex reconnection of the top and lower vortex tubes. The central collision zone was found to have the lowest kinetic energy during the entire collision and therefore it can be identified as a safe zone. The preserved collision symmetries leading to the weak kinematic activity in the safe zone is the first step into the development of an intermittent hydrodynamic trap for small and lightweight particles.

  18. Boron fullerenes B(32+8k) with four-membered rings and B32 solid phases: geometrical structures and electronic properties.

    Sheng, Xian-Lei; Yan, Qing-Bo; Zheng, Qing-Rong; Su, Gang

    2009-11-14

    Based on ab initio calculations, we have studied the geometrical, electronic properties and chemical bonding of boron fullerenes B(32+8k) (0 cubic (sc), face-centered cubic (fcc), body-centered cubic (bcc), and body-centered tetragonal (bct) structures, where the bct phase is observed to be the most stable. Electronic structure calculations reveal that the sc, fcc and bcc phases of B(32) solids are metallic, but the bct phase is a semimetal.

  19. Synthetic Approaches to Mono- and Bicyclic Perortho-Esters with a Central 1,2,4-Trioxane Ring as the Privileged Lead Structure in Antimalarial and Antitumor-Active Peroxides and Clarification of the Peroxide Relevance.

    Griesbeck, Axel G; Bräutigam, Maria; Kleczka, Margarethe; Raabe, Angela

    2017-01-11

    The synthesis of 4-styryl-substituted 2,3,8-trioxabicyclo[3.3.1]nonanes, peroxides with the core structure of the bioactive 1,2,4-trioxane ring, was conducted by a multistep route starting from the aryl methyl ketones 1a-1c. Condensation and reduction/oxidation delivered enals 4a-4c that were coupled with ethyl acetate and reduced to the 1,3-diol substrates 6a-6c. Highly diastereoselective photooxygenation delivered the hydroperoxides 7a-7c and subsequent PPTS (pyridinium-p-toluenesulfonic acid)-catalyzed peroxyacetalization with alkyl triorthoacetates gave the cyclic peroxides 8a-8e. These compounds in general show only moderate antimalarial activities. In order to extend the repertoire of cyclic peroxide structure, we aimed for the synthesis of spiro-perorthocarbonates from orthoester condensation of β-hydroxy hydroperoxide 9 but could only realize the monocyclic perorthocarbonate 10. That the central peroxide moiety is the key structural motif in anticancer active GST (glutathione S-transferase)-inhibitors was elucidated by the synthesis of a 1,3-dioxane 15-with a similar substitution pattern as the pharmacologically active peroxide 11-via a singlet oxygen ene route from the homoallylic alcohol 12.

  20. New Views of Jupiter's Rings

    Burns, J. A.

    1998-09-01

    Jupiter's rings are the archetype of ethereal planetary rings (very-low optical-depth bands containing micron-sized "dust"). As a result of much improved observations by Galileo (Ockert-Bell* -- most citations are et al. and Icarus in press* or this meeting) and Keck (de Pater*), we now understand the nature of such rings. The ring has three components: a 104 km-thick toroidal halo (1.4-1.7 RJ; normal optical depth t = 10-6), a thin main ring (1.7-1.8 RJ; t = 10-6), and a pair of exterior gossamer rings (1.8-3.5RJ; t = 10-7). The main ring has patchy ( 20-30 percent) brightness. The ring is reddish and its particles satisfy a -2.5 differential power-law size distribution. Because particle lifetimes are brief, the rings must be continually regenerated, by collisions into parent bodies, which may be unseen or may be the known small ring-moons (Thomas*, Simonelli). The gossamer ring seems to be collisional ejecta derived from the ring-moons Amalthea and Thebe, and evolving inward by Poynting-Robertson drag (Burns). The particles drift through many electromagnetic resonances, clustering around synchronous orbit, which produce jumps in the particles' inclinations (Hamilton). The main ring is probably debris from Adrastea and Metis, which orbit in the equatorial plane. The halo particles are driven vertically by electromagnetic forces, which may be resonant (Schaffer & Burns) or not (Horanyi & Cravens). When halo orbits become highly distorted, particles are lost into Jupiter. Similar faint rings may be attendant to all small, close-in satellites (Showalter).

  1. The effects of forming parameters on conical ring rolling process.

    Meng, Wen; Zhao, Guoqun; Guan, Yanjin

    2014-01-01

    The plastic penetration condition and biting-in condition of a radial conical ring rolling process with a closed die structure on the top and bottom of driven roll, simplified as RCRRCDS, were established. The reasonable value range of mandrel feed rate in rolling process was deduced. A coupled thermomechanical 3D FE model of RCRRCDS process was established. The changing laws of equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ) and temperature distributions with rolling time were investigated. The effects of ring's outer radius growth rate and rolls sizes on the uniformities of PEEQ and temperature distributions, average rolling force, and average rolling moment were studied. The results indicate that the PEEQ at the inner layer and outer layer of rolled ring are larger than that at the middle layer of ring; the temperatures at the "obtuse angle zone" of ring's cross-section are higher than those at "acute angle zone"; the temperature at the central part of ring is higher than that at the middle part of ring's outer surfaces. As the ring's outer radius growth rate increases at its reasonable value ranges, the uniformities of PEEQ and temperature distributions increase. Finally, the optimal values of the ring's outer radius growth rate and rolls sizes were obtained.

  2. Cassini RSS occultation observations of density waves in Saturn's rings

    McGhee, C. A.; French, R. G.; Marouf, E. A.; Rappaport, N. J.; Schinder, P. J.; Anabtawi, A.; Asmar, S.; Barbinis, E.; Fleischman, D.; Goltz, G.; Johnston, D.; Rochblatt, D.

    2005-08-01

    On May 3, 2005, the first of a series of eight nearly diametric occultations by Saturn's rings and atmosphere took place, observed by the Cassini Radio Science (RSS) team. Simultaneous high SNR measurements at the Deep Space Network (DSN) at S, X, and Ka bands (λ = 13, 3.6, and 0.9 cm) have provided a remarkably detailed look at the radial structure and particle scattering behavior of the rings. By virtue of the relatively large ring opening angle (B=-23.6o), the slant path optical depth of the rings was much lower than during the Voyager epoch (B=5.9o), making it possible to detect many density waves and other ring features in the Cassini RSS data that were lost in the noise in the Voyager RSS experiment. Ultimately, diffraction correction of the ring optical depth profiles will yield radial resolution as small as tens of meters for the highest SNR data. At Ka band, the Fresnel scale is only 1--1.5 km, and thus even without diffraction correction, the ring profiles show a stunning array of density waves. The A ring is replete with dozens of Pandora and Prometheus inner Lindblad resonance features, and the Janus 2:1 density wave in the B ring is revealed with exceptional clarity for the first time at radio wavelengths. Weaker waves are abundant as well, and multiple occultation chords sample a variety of wave phases. We estimate the surface mass density of the rings from linear density wave models of the weaker waves. For stronger waves, non-linear models are required, providing more accurate estimates of the wave dispersion relation, the ring surface mass density, and the angular momentum exchange between the rings and satellite. We thank the DSN staff for their superb support of these complex observations.

  3. B-B bond activation and NHC ring-expansion reactions of diboron(4) compounds, and accurate molecular structures of B2(NMe2)4, B2eg2, B2neop2 and B2pin2.

    Eck, Martin; Würtemberger-Pietsch, Sabrina; Eichhorn, Antonius; Berthel, Johannes H J; Bertermann, Rüdiger; Paul, Ursula S D; Schneider, Heidi; Friedrich, Alexandra; Kleeberg, Christian; Radius, Udo; Marder, Todd B

    2017-03-14

    In this detailed study we report on the structures of the widely employed diboron(4) compounds bis(pinacolato)diboron (B2pin2) and bis(neopentyl glycolato)diboron (B2neop2), as well as bis(ethylene glycolato)diboron (B2eg2) and tetrakis(dimethylamino)diboron (B2(NMe2)4), and their reactivity, along with that of bis(catecholato)diboron (B2cat2) with backbone saturated and backbone unsaturared N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) of different steric demand. Depending on the nature of the diboron(4) compound and the NHC used, Lewis-acid/Lewis-base adducts or NHC ring-expansion products stemming from B-B and C-N bond activation have been observed. The corresponding NHC adducts and NHC ring-expanded products were isolated and characterised via solid-state and solution NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. In general, we observed B-B bond and C-N bond activation at low temperature for B2eg2, at room temperature for B2neop2 and at higher temperature for B2cat2. The reactivity strongly depends on steric effects of the NHCs and the diboron(4) compounds, as well as on the corresponding Lewis-basicity and Lewis-acidity. Our results provide profound insight into the chemistry of these diboron(4) reagents with the nowadays ubiquitous NHCs, the stability of the corresponding NHC adducts and on B-B bond activation using Lewis-bases in general. We demonstrate that B-B bond activation may be triggered even at temperatures as low as -40 °C to -30 °C without any metal species involved. For example, the reactions of B2eg2 with sterically less demanding NHCs such as Me2Im(Me) and iPr2Im in solution led to the corresponding ring-expanded products at low temperatures. Furthermore, boronium [L2B(OR)2](+) and borenium [LB(OR)2](+) cations have been observed from the reaction of the bis-borate B2eg3 with the NHCs iPr2Im and Me2Im(Me), which led to the conclusion that the activation of bis-borates with NHCs (or Lewis-bases in general) might be a facile and simple route to access such species.

  4. Metal complexes with 2,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,4-diazadiene ligands: synthesis, structures, and an intramolecular metal-mediated [4 + 2] cycloaddition employing a benzene ring as a dienophile.

    Walther, Dirk; Liesicke, Stefan; Böttcher, Lars; Fischer, Reinald; Görls, Helmar; Vaughan, Gavin

    2003-01-27

    2,3-Bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,4-diazadienes RN=C(PPh2)-C(PPh2)=NR (1a, R = 4-tolyl; 1b, R = 4-tert-butylphenyl; 1c, R = mesityl) were used as novel ligands for transition metals. The metal complexes [(1c)Mo(CO)4] (2a), [(1c)[Mo(CO)4]2] (2b), [(1a)Cu(Cl)(PPh3)] (3), and [(1b)[(NiBr2(THF))]2] (4) were characterized by elemental analysis, MS, and 31P[1H], 1H, and 13C NMR spectra (except the paramagnetic complex 4). Additionally, the molecular structure of the complexes in the solid state was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In 2a and 2b the chelating ligand coordinates via the N,P donor set, whereas in 3 the chelating ligand coordinates via the two P atoms. 4 contains a square-planar (P,P)NiBr2 moiety on the one side of the bridging ligand 1b. On the opposite side the 1,2-dimine unit bonds to another Ni center having octahedral geometry. The bulkier ligand 1c reacts to form the mononuclear compound 5. X-ray diffraction analysis of single crystals shows that 5 contains a quinoxaline derivative with a cyclohexa-1,3-diene ring in the peripheral position. Furthermore, it contains a bis(diphenylphosphino)-ethylene unit coordinating the NiBr2. This arrangement is the result of an intramolecular [4 + 2] cycloaddition between the 1,2-diimine unit (as diheterodiene) and the benzene ring of the 4-tolyl-N substituent (as dieneophile). The same type of ring-closing reaction followed by a tautomerization reaction to form the mononuclear compound 6 occurred by dissolution of the binuclear complex 4 in methanol. This reaction can be used as a simple method for the synthesis of novel 1,2-bis(diarylphosphanyl)ethylenes containing a quinoxaline backbone.

  5. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings

    Esposito, L. W.

    2015-12-01

    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average: 2-10x is possible. Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like 'straw' that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; Surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km); We propose 'straw', as observed ny Cassini cameras. Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing. Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon-triggered clumping at perturbed regions in Saturn's rings creates both high velocity dispersion and large aggregates at these distances, explaining both small and large particles observed there. This confirms the triple architecture of ring particles: a broad size distribution of particles; these aggregate into temporary rubble piles; coated by a regolith of dust. We calculate the stationary size distribution using a cell-to-cell mapping procedure that converts the phase-plane trajectories to a Markov chain. Approximating the Markov chain as an asymmetric random walk with reflecting boundaries allows us to determine the power law index from

  6. Efficient Multi-Party Computation over Rings

    Cramer, Ronald; Fehr, Serge; Ishai, Yuval;

    2003-01-01

    by (boolean or arithmetic) circuits over finite fields. We are motivated by two limitations of these techniques: – Generality. Existing protocols do not apply to computation over more general algebraic structures (except via a brute-force simulation of computation in these structures). – Efficiency. The best...... known constant-round protocols do not efficiently scale even to the case of large finite fields. Our contribution goes in these two directions. First, we propose a basis for unconditionally secure MPC over an arbitrary ginite ring, an algebraic object with a much less nice structure than a field...... the usefulness of the above results by presenting a novel application of MPC over (non-field) rings to the round-efficient secure computation of the maximum function. Basic Research in Computer Science (www.brics.dk), funded by the Danish National Research Foundation....

  7. Tree Rings: Timekeepers of the Past.

    Phipps, R. L.; McGowan, J.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science issues, this booklet describes the uses of tree rings in historical and biological recordkeeping. Separate sections cover the following topics: dating of tree rings, dating with tree rings, tree ring formation, tree ring identification, sample collections, tree ring cross dating, tree…

  8. The Rings Characterized by Minimal Left Ideals

    Jun Chao WEI

    2005-01-01

    We study these rings with every minimal left ideal being a projective, direct summand and a p-injective module, respectively. Some characterizations of these rings are given, and the relations among them are obtained. With these rings, we characterize semisimple rings. Finally, we introduce MC2 rings, and give some characterizations of MC2 rings.

  9. Crystal structure of a ring-cleaving cyclohexane-1,2-dione hydrolase, a novel member of the thiamine diphosphate enzyme family.

    Steinbach, Alma; Fraas, Sonja; Harder, Jens; Warkentin, Eberhard; Kroneck, Peter M H; Ermler, Ulrich

    2012-04-01

    The thiamine diphosphate (ThDP) dependent flavoenzyme cyclohexane-1,2-dione hydrolase (CDH) (EC 3.7.1.11) catalyses a key step of a novel anaerobic degradation pathway for alicyclic alcohols by converting cyclohexane-1,2-dione (CDO) to 6-oxohexanoate and further to adipate using NAD(+) as electron acceptor. To gain insights into the molecular basis of these reactions CDH from denitrifying anaerobe Azoarcus sp. strain 22Lin was structurally characterized at 1.26 Å resolution. Notably, the active site funnel is rearranged in an unprecedented manner providing the structural basis for the specific binding and cleavage of an alicyclic compound. Crucial features include a decreased and displaced funnel entrance, a semi-circularly shaped loop segment preceding the C-terminal arm and the attachment of the C-terminal arm to other subunits of the CDH tetramer. Its structural scaffold and the ThDP activation is related to that observed for other members of the ThDP enzyme family. The selective binding of the competitive inhibitor 2-methyl-2,4-pentane-diol (MPD) to the open funnel of CDH reveals an asymmetry of the two active sites found also in the dimer of several other ThDP dependent enzymes. The substrate binding site is characterized by polar and non-polar moieties reflected in the structures of MPD and CDO and by three prominent histidine residues (His28, His31 and His76) that most probably play a crucial role in substrate activation. The NAD(+) dependent oxidation of 6-oxohexanoate remains enigmatic as the redox-active cofactor FAD seems not to participate in catalysis, and no obvious NAD(+) binding site is found. Based on the structural data both reactions are discussed.

  10. Ring-constrained Join

    Yiu, Man Lung; Karras, Panagiotis; Mamoulis, Nikos

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a novel spatial join operator, the ring-constrained join (RCJ). Given two sets P and Q of spatial points, the result of RCJ consists of pairs (p, q) (where p ε P, q ε Q) satisfying an intuitive geometric constraint: the smallest circle enclosing p and q contains no other points in P, Q...... R-tree based algorithms for computing RCJ, by exploiting the characteristics of the geometric constraint. We evaluate experimentally the efficiency of our methods on synthetic and real spatial datasets. The results show that our proposed algorithms scale well with the data size and have robust...

  11. Liesegang Rings in Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis: A Case Report

    Karla Laís Pegas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Liesegang rings are concentric noncellular lamellar structures, rarely seen in vivo, occurring as a consequence of the accumulation of insoluble products in a colloidal matrix. These characteristic structures are a rare phenomenon usually found in association with cystic or inflammatory lesions and may be mistaken for parasites. The authors examined Liesegang rings from an inflammatory kidney lesion identified previously as a tumoral lesion on computerized tomography. On microscopic evaluation, Liesegang rings can be mistaken for eggs and larvae of parasites, psammoma bodies and calcification. Special stains like PAS, Grocott, von Kossa and Masson's trichrome facilitate the diagnosis.

  12. Viscosity of ring polymer melts

    Pasquino, Rossana

    2013-10-15

    We have measured the linear rheology of critically purified ring polyisoprenes, polystyrenes, and polyethyleneoxides of different molar masses. The ratio of the zero-shear viscosities of linear polymer melts η0,linear to their ring counterparts η0,ring at isofrictional conditions is discussed as a function of the number of entanglements Z. In the unentangled regime η0,linear/η 0,ring is virtually constant, consistent with the earlier data, atomistic simulations, and the theoretical expectation η0,linear/ η0,ring = 2. In the entanglement regime, the Z-dependence of ring viscosity is much weaker than that of linear polymers, in qualitative agreement with predictions from scaling theory and simulations. The power-law extracted from the available experimental data in the rather limited range 1 < Z < 20, η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.2±0.3, is weaker than the scaling prediction (η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.6±0.3) and the simulations (η0,linear/ η0,ring ∼ Z2.0±0.3). Nevertheless, the present collection of state-of-the-art experimental data unambiguously demonstrates that rings exhibit a universal trend clearly departing from that of their linear counterparts, and hence it represents a major step toward resolving a 30-year-old problem. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  13. Mass transfer during ice particle collisions in planetary rings

    Mcdonald, J. S. B.; Hatzes, A.; Bridges, F.; Lin, D. N. C.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental results are presented from laboratory environment simulations of the ice particle collisional properties defining the structure and dynamical evolution of planetary rings. It is inferred from these data that there is a dependence of the interacting volume on the impact velocity. Although the volume fraction exchanged during a collision is small, the net amount of material transferred can be substantially smaller. Attention is given to the implications of these determinations for planetary ring structure and evolution.

  14. Continuum and discrete excitation spectrum of single quantum rings

    2005-01-01

    Photoluminescence and excitation of the photoluminescence spectroscopy has been performed in single InGaAs self-assembled quantum rings embedded in a field effect structure device. To determine their electronic structure, bias-dependent optical transitions have been analyzed both, for individual quantum rings, and for the averaged ensemble. Our results are compared with a theoretical model, and also with results reported by other authors studying similar nanostructures.

  15. Micro-photoluminescence of GaAs/AlGaAs triple concentric quantum rings.

    Abbarchi, Marco; Cavigli, Lucia; Somaschini, Claudio; Bietti, Sergio; Gurioli, Massimo; Vinattieri, Anna; Sanguinetti, Stefano

    2011-10-31

    A systematic optical study, including micro, ensemble and time resolved photoluminescence of GaAs/AlGaAs triple concentric quantum rings, self-assembled via droplet epitaxy, is presented. Clear emission from localized states belonging to the ring structures is reported. The triple rings show a fast decay dynamics, around 40 ps, which is expected to be useful for ultrafast optical switching applications.

  16. Natural occurrence, biological activities and synthesis of eight-, nine-, and eleven-membered ring lactones

    Helena M. C. Ferraz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural occurrence, biological activities and synthetic approaches to natural eight-, nine-, and eleven-membered lactones is reviewed. These medium ring lactones are grouped according to ring size, and their syntheses are discussed. The structures of some natural products early identified as medium-ring lactones were revised after total synthesis.

  17. Growth ring characteristics, growth pattern and age structure of warm temperate broadleaf forest in central Taiwan%台湾中部暖温带阔叶林年轮特征、生长与树龄结构

    詹明勋; 何坤益; 徐震骐; 陈沈佑

    2015-01-01

    Few studies focus on the growth ring of broadleaf trees in Taiwan at present, especially lack of researches in modeling growth rate of natural broadleaf forest. This study thus aims at studying the growth ring of typical warm temperate broadleaf forest in central Taiwan. The 18 long-term forest dynamics plots in shenmuhsi reserved forest were established since 2003 . Trees with DBH > 6 cm in 6 plots of 13--18 were coring at breast height. 448 cores in total from 39 species 33 genera 22 families were obtained based on the stand characteristics. Microscope and CCD were used for tree-ring analysis. The transition point between successive annual rings was ditermined and classified visually, and then was used as the basis for visual determination and calculation of growth ring. We measured ring width using Velmax system. The crown-class model ( CCM) , PAI regression model, and mixed model were used to describe a crown trend and to analyze the age structures of species, which could be served as the references for the stand management on most widely distributed Machiluscastanopsis and Quercus with largest area in Taiwan. Regarding the character of growth ring, 79% samples are diffuse-porous species, 18% semi-ring-porous and 3% ring-porous. Average growth rate for all species is 3.53 mm/a. The significant vertical difference happened in canopy level. The average growth rate is 4.47 mm/a in overstory ( upper) trees, which is the fast growing one, 2.95 mm/a in overstory ( main) trees, and 2.92 mm/a in understory trees. PAI model denotes that the ring width linearly increases over time in most of the species. With 3 models of crown-class, PAI and mixed the estimated average age was 55, 60 and 59 respectively. The use of mixed model could lower error percentage than using PAI mode and crown-class model. The distribution of age group from CCM, PAI and mixed model revealed that this area is full of shade-tolerant seedlings and shrubs, and then gradually typical multi

  18. Buoyant Norbury's vortex rings

    Blyth, Mark; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier; Salman, Hayder

    2014-11-01

    Norbury's vortices are a one-parameter family of axisymmetric vortex rings that are exact solutions to the Euler equations. Due to their relative simplicity, they are extensively used to model the behavior of real vortex rings found in experiments and in Nature. In this work, we extend the original formulation of the problem to include buoyancy effects for the case where the fluid that lies within the vortex has a different density to that of the ambient. In this modified formulation, buoyancy effects enter the problem through the baroclinic term of the vorticity equation. This permits an efficient numerical solution of the governing equation of motion in terms of a vortex contour method that tracks the evolution of the boundary of the vortex. Finally, we compare our numerical results with the theoretical analysis of the short-time evolution of a buoyant vortex. Funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through grant DPI2011-28356-C03-02 and by the London Mathematical Society.

  19. RE{sub 3}Au{sub 5}Zn (RE = Y, Sm, Gd-Ho). A new structure type with five- and six-membered rings as building units in a gold network

    Gerke, Birgit; Poettgen, Rainer [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie and NRW Graduate School of Chemistry

    2016-08-01

    RE{sub 3}Au{sub 5}Zn (RE = Y, Sm, Gd-Ho) intermetallic compounds were synthesized by melting the elements in sealed tantalum tubes. They exhibit a new structure type which was studied by X-ray diffraction on powders and refined from single crystal diffraction data: Cmcm, a = 736.9(2), b = 1489.4(2), c = 1330.4(3) pm, wR2 = 0.0371, 1184 F{sup 2} values and 55 variables for Y{sub 3}Au{sub 4.92}Zn{sub 1.08} and a = 739.0(1), b = 1495.8(2), c = 1339.2(2) pm, wR2 = 0.0325, 1410 F{sup 2} values and 54 variables for Tb{sub 3}Au{sub 5}Zn. The network consists of five- and six-membered gold rings in puckered conformations. Atoms of the rare earth elements are placed within the cavities of this network where every third cavity is filled by a Zn{sub 2} dumbbell. The structure is discussed in detail and compared with the gold substructure of Hf{sub 7}Au{sub 10}.

  20. Vortex formation in magnetic narrow rings

    Bland, J. A. C.

    2002-03-01

    Underlying the current interest in magnetic elements is the possibility such systems provide both for the study of fundamental phenomena in magnetism (such as domain wall trapping and spin switching) and for technological applications, such as high density magnetic storage or magnetic random access memories (MRAM). One key issue is to control the magnetic switching precisely. To achieve this one needs first to have a well defined and reproducible remanent state, and second the switching process itself must be simple and reproducible. Among the many studied geometries, rings are shown to exhibit several advantages over other geometries, in that they show relatively simple stable magnetic states at remanence, with fast and simple magnetisation switching mechanisms. This is borne out of our systematic investigation of the magnetic properties of epitaxial and polycrystalline Co rings, where both the static, dynamic and transport properties have been studied. Magnetic measurements and micromagnetic simulations show that for appropriate ring structures a two step switching process occurs at high fields, indicating the existence of two different stable states. In addition to the vortex state, which occurs at intermediate fields, we have identified a new bi-domain state, which we term the `onion state', corresponding to opposite circulation of the magnetisation in each half of the ring. The magnetic elements were fabricated using a new technique based on the pre-patterning of Si ring structures and subsequent epitaxial growth of Cu/Co/Cu sandwich films on top of the Si elements. This technique has allowed the growth of epitaxial fcc Co(001) structures and in contrast to conventional lithographic methods, no damage to the magnetic layer structure is introduced by the patterning process [1,2]. We have studied the magnetic switching properties of arrays of narrow Co(100) epitaxial ring magnets, with outer diameters between 1 μm and 2 μm, varying inner diameters and varying

  1. Moduli space of filtered λ-ringstructures over a filtered ring

    Donald Yau

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated in part by recent works on the genus of classifying spaces of compact Lie groups, here we study the set of filtered λ-ring structures over a filtered ring from a purely algebraic point of view. From a global perspective, we first show that this set has a canonical topology compatible with the filtration on the given filtered ring. For power series rings R[[x

  2. Magnetization of two coupled rings

    Avishai, Y [Department of Physics and Ilse Katz Center for Nanotechnology, Ben Gurion University, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Luck, J M [Institut de Physique Theorique, IPhT, CEA Saclay, and URA 2306, CNRS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)], E-mail: yshai@bgu.ac.il, E-mail: jean-marc.luck@cea.fr

    2009-05-01

    We investigate the persistent currents and magnetization of a mesoscopic system consisting of two clean metallic rings sharing a single contact point in a magnetic field. Many novel features with respect to the single-ring geometry are underlined, including the explicit dependence of wavefunctions on the Aharonov-Bohm fluxes, the complex pattern of two-fold and three-fold degeneracies, the key role of length and flux commensurability, and in the case of commensurate ring lengths the occurrence of idle levels which do not carry any current. Spin-orbit interactions, induced by the electric fields of charged wires threading the rings, give rise to a peculiar version of the Aharonov-Casher effect where, unlike for a single ring, spin is not conserved. Remarkably enough, this can only be realized when the Aharonov-Bohm fluxes in both rings are neither integer nor half-integer multiples of the flux quantum.

  3. Ring current and radiation belts

    Williams, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    Studies performed during 1983-1986 on the ring current, the injection boundary model, and the radiation belts are discussed. The results of these studies yielded the first observations on the composition and charge state of the ring current throughout the ring-current energy range, and strong observational support for an injection-boundary model accounting for the origins of radiation-belt particles, the ring current, and substorm particles observed at R less than about 7 earth radii. In addition, the results have demonstrated that the detection of energetic neutral atoms generated by charge-exchange interactions between the ring current and the hydrogen geocorona can provide global images of the earth's ring current and its spatial and temporal evolution.

  4. Burnside Rings of Fusion Systems

    Reeh, Sune Precht

    , and we produce a basis for the Burnside ring that shares properties with the transitive sets for a finite group. We construct a transfer map from the p-local Burnside ring of the underlying p-group S to the p-local Burnside ring of F. Using such transfer maps, we give a new explicit construction...... of Burnside rings given by multiplication with the characteristic idempotent, and we show that this map is the transfer map previously constructed. Applying these results, we show that for every saturated fusion system the ring generated by all (non-idempotent) characteristic elements in the p-local double...... of the characteristic idempotent of F { the unique idempotent in the p-local double Burnside ring of S satisfying properties of Linckelmann and Webb. We describe this idempotent both in terms of fixed points and as a linear combination of transitive bisets. Additionally, using fixed points we determine the map...

  5. Black di-ring and infinite nonuniqueness

    Iguchi, H; Iguchi, Hideo; Mishima, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    We show that the $S^1$-rotating black rings can be superposed by the solution generating technique. We analyze the black di-ring solution for the simplest case of multiple rings. There exists an equilibrium black di-ring where the conical singularities are cured by the suitable choice of physical parameters. Also there are infinite numbers of black di-rings with the same mass and angular momentum. These di-rings can have two different continuous limits of single black rings. Therefore we can transform the fat black ring to the thin ring with the same mass and angular momentum by way of the di-ring solutions.

  6. The formation of peak rings in large impact craters

    Morgan, Joanna V.; Gulick, Sean P. S.; Bralower, Timothy; Chenot, Elise; Christeson, Gail; Claeys, Philippe; Cockell, Charles; Collins, Gareth S.; Coolen, Marco J. L.; Ferrière, Ludovic; Gebhardt, Catalina; Goto, Kazuhisa; Jones, Heather; Kring, David A.; Le Ber, Erwan; Lofi, Johanna; Long, Xiao; Lowery, Christopher; Mellett, Claire; Ocampo-Torres, Rubén; Osinski, Gordon R.; Perez-Cruz, Ligia; Pickersgill, Annemarie; Poelchau, Michael; Rae, Auriol; Rasmussen, Cornelia; Rebolledo-Vieyra, Mario; Riller, Ulrich; Sato, Honami; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Smit, Jan; Tikoo, Sonia; Tomioka, Naotaka; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime; Whalen, Michael; Wittmann, Axel; Yamaguchi, Kosei E.; Zylberman, William

    2016-11-01

    Large impacts provide a mechanism for resurfacing planets through mixing near-surface rocks with deeper material. Central peaks are formed from the dynamic uplift of rocks during crater formation. As crater size increases, central peaks transition to peak rings. Without samples, debate surrounds the mechanics of peak-ring formation and their depth of origin. Chicxulub is the only known impact structure on Earth with an unequivocal peak ring, but it is buried and only accessible through drilling. Expedition 364 sampled the Chicxulub peak ring, which we found was formed from uplifted, fractured, shocked, felsic basement rocks. The peak-ring rocks are cross-cut by dikes and shear zones and have an unusually low density and seismic velocity. Large impacts therefore generate vertical fluxes and increase porosity in planetary crust.

  7. Potent Antiviral HIV-1 Protease Inhibitor GRL-02031 Adapts to the Structures of Drug Resistant Mutants with Its P1;#8242;-Pyrrolidinone Ring

    Chang, Yu-Chung E.; Yu, XiaXia; Zhang, Ying; Tie, Yunfeng; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Yashchuk, Sofiya; Ghosh, Arun K.; Harrison, Robert W.; Weber, Irene T. (GSU); (Purdue); (GSI); (CDC)

    2012-11-14

    GRL-02031 (1) is an HIV-1 protease (PR) inhibitor containing a novel P1' (R)-aminomethyl-2-pyrrolidinone group. Crystal structures at resolutions of 1.25-1.55 {angstrom} were analyzed for complexes of 1 with the PR containing major drug resistant mutations, PR{sub I47V}, PR{sub L76V}, PR{sub V82A}, and PR{sub N88D}. Mutations of I47V and V82A alter residues in the inhibitor-binding site, while L76V and N88D are distal mutations having no direct contact with the inhibitor. Substitution of a smaller amino acid in PR{sub I47V} and PR{sub L76V} and the altered charge of PR{sub N88D} are associated with significant local structural changes compared to the wild-type PR{sub WT}, while substitution of alanine in PR{sub V82A} increases the size of the S1' subsite. The P1' pyrrolidinone group of 1 accommodates to these local changes by assuming two different conformations. Overall, the conformation and interactions of 1 with PR mutants resemble those of PR{sub WT} with similar inhibition constants in good agreement with the antiviral potency on multidrug resistant HIV-1.

  8. Signatures of recent star formation in ring S0 galaxies

    Marino, A; Rampazzo, R; Thilker, D; Annibali, F; Bressan, A; Buson, L M; 10.1007/s10509-010-0588-3

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the stellar populations of ring and/or arm-like structures in a sample of S0 galaxies using GALEX far- and near-ultraviolet imaging and SDSS optical data. Such structures are prominent in the UV and reveal recent star formation. We quantitatively characterize these rejuvenation events, estimating the average age and stellar mass of the ring structures, as well as of the entire galaxy. The mass fraction of the UV-bright rings is a few percent of the total galaxy mass, although the UV ring luminosity reaches 70% of the galaxy luminosity. The integrated colors of these S0s locates them in the red sequence (NGC 2962) and in the so-called green valley. We suggest that the star formation episodes may be induced by different triggering mechanisms, such as the inner secular evolution driven by bars, and interaction episodes.

  9. ring og refleksion

    Wahlgren, B.; Rattleff, Pernille; Høyrup, S.

    State of the art inden for forskning om læring på arbejdspladsen samt gennemgang af læringsteori og refleksionsbegrebet hos Dewey, Dreyfus, Schön, Argyris, Kolb, Jarvis, Mezirow og Brookfield. Afsluttes med diskussion af syntetiseret model for læring på arbejdspladsen.......State of the art inden for forskning om læring på arbejdspladsen samt gennemgang af læringsteori og refleksionsbegrebet hos Dewey, Dreyfus, Schön, Argyris, Kolb, Jarvis, Mezirow og Brookfield. Afsluttes med diskussion af syntetiseret model for læring på arbejdspladsen....

  10. Why Are Ring Galaxies Interesting?

    Higdon, James L

    2010-01-01

    Compared with ordinary spirals, the ISM in ring galaxies experiences markedly different physical conditions and evolution. As a result, ring galaxies provide interesting perspectives on the triggering/quenching of large scale star formation and the destructive effects of massive stars on molecular cloud complexes. We use high resolution radio, sub-millimeter, infrared, and optical data to investigate the role of gravitational stability in star formation regulation, factors influencing the ISM's molecular fraction, and evidence of peculiar star formation laws and efficiencies in two highly evolved ring galaxies: Cartwheel and the Lindsay-Shapley ring.

  11. The quest for rings on bipolar scales

    Grabisch, Michel; Fodor, Janos

    2008-01-01

    We consider the interval $]{-1},1[$ and intend to endow it with an algebraic structure like a ring. The motivation lies in decision making, where scales that are symmetric w.r.t. 0 are needed in order to represent a kind of symmetry in the behaviour of the decision maker. A former proposal due to Grabisch was based on maximum and minimum. In this paper, we propose to build our structure on t-conorms and t-norms, and we relate this construction to uninorms. We show that the only way to build a group is to use strict t-norms, and that there is no way to build a ring. Lastly, we show that the main result of this paper is connected to the theory of ordered Abelian groups.

  12. Chemistry of HIV-1 virucidal Pt complexes having neglected bidentate sp2 N-donor carrier ligands with linked triazine and pyridine rings. synthesis, NMR spectral features, structure, and reaction with guanosine.

    Maheshwari, Vidhi; Bhattacharyya, Debadeep; Fronczek, Frank R; Marzilli, Patricia A; Marzilli, Luigi G

    2006-09-04

    Complexes of the types LPtCl2 and [L2Pt]X2 [L = substituted 3-(pyridin-2'-yl)-1,2,4-triazine] were synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy and, for the first time, by X-ray crystallography in an effort to determine the coordination properties of this novel class of inorganic medicinal agents possessing HIV-1 virucidal activity. The agents containing either one or two sp2 N-donor bidentate ligands are referred to as ptt (platinum triazine) agents. The X-ray structures of three LPtCl2 compounds revealed the expected pseudo-square-planar geometry. The X-ray structure of [(pyPh2t)2Pt](BF4)2 [pyPh2t = 3-(pyridin-2'-yl)-5,6-diphenyl-1,2,4-triazine] has the expected trans relationship of the unsymmetrical L and is essentially planar, an unusual property for a Pt(II) complex with two bidentate sp2 N donors. HIV-1 is an RNA virus; the guanosine ribonucleoside (Guo) binds (MepyMe2t)PtCl2 at both (inequivalent) available coordination sites to form [(MepyMe2t)Pt(Guo)2]2+ [MepyMe2t = 3-(4'-methylpyridin-2'-yl)-5,6-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazine]. This adduct has four nearly equally intense Guo H8 signals attributed to two pairs of head-to-tail (HT) and head-to-head (HH) conformers, which interchange rapidly within each pair. However, equilibration between pairs requires rotation of the Guo cis to the MepyMe2t pyridyl ring, and the H6' proton on this ring projects toward the Guo and hinders Guo rotation about the Pt-N7 bond. Thus, the HT/HH pairs do not interchange; such behavior is rare. Guo did not add to [(MepyMe2t)2Pt]2+, a result suggesting the possibility that the virucidal activity of LPtCl2 and [L2Pt]2+ ptt agents arises respectively from covalent and noncovalent (possibly intercalative interactions favored by [L2Pt]2+ planarity) binding to biomolecular targets.

  13. Monopole-antimonopole and vortex rings

    Teh, Rosy; Wong, Khai-Ming

    2005-08-01

    The SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs theory supports the existence of monopoles, antimonopoles, and vortex rings. In this paper, we would like to present new exact static antimonopole-monopole-antimonopole (A-M-A) configurations. The net magnetic charge of these configurations is always -1, while the net magnetic charge at the origin is always +1 for all positive integer values of the solution's parameter m. However, when m increases beyond 1, vortex rings appear coexisting with these AMA configurations. The number of vortex rings increases proportionally with the value of m. They are located in space where the Higgs field vanishes along rings. We also show that a single-point singularity in the Higgs field does not necessarily correspond to a structureless 1-monopole at the origin but to a zero-size monopole-antimonopole-monopole (MAM) structure when the solution's parameter m is odd. This monopole is the Wu-Yang-type monopole and it possesses the Dirac string potential in the Abelian gauge. These exact solutions are a different kind of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) solutions as they satisfy the first-order Bogomol'nyi equation but possess infinite energy due to a point singularity at the origin of the coordinate axes. They are all axially symmetrical about the z-axis.

  14. Electronic Aromaticity Index for Large Rings

    Matito, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new electronic aromaticity index, AV1245, consisting in the average of the 4-center MCI values along the ring that keep a positional relationship of 1,2,4,5. AV1245 measures the extent of transferability of the delocalized electrons between bonds 1-2 and 4-5, which is expected to be large in conjugated circuits and, therefore, in aromatic molecules. A new algorithm for the calculation of MCI for large rings is also introduced and used to produce the data for the calibration of the new aromaticity index. AV1245 does not rely on reference values, does not suffer from large numerical precision errors, and it does not present any limitation on the nature of atoms, the molecular geometry or the level of calculation. It is a size-extensive measure with a small computational cost that grows linearly with the number of ring members. Therefore, it is specially suitable to study the aromaticity of large molecular rings as those occurring in belt-shaped M\\"obius structures or porphyrins.

  15. Tesseral resonances in the rings of Saturn

    El Moutamid, Maryame; Nicholson, Philip D.; Hedman, Matthew M.; Gierasch, Peter J.; Burns, Joseph A.; French, Richard G.

    2016-05-01

    We will present a study of the behavior of the A, B, C and D rings using images and occultation data obtained by the Cassini spacecraft over a period of 8 years from 2006 to 2015. We have identified a variety of free and forced normal modes at the edge of the A ring, with values of ''m'' ranging from 3 to 18 and appropriate pattern speeds (El Moutamid et al, 2016). These modes may represent waves trapped in resonant cavities at the edge (Spitale and Porco 2010, Nicholson et al 2014). Moreover, Hedman et al. (2009) have identified structures in the D ring and the Roche division which appear to rotate with Saturn. These may represent Tesseral resonances associated with inhomogeneities in Saturn's interior.We are now searching for wave-like signatures in the main rings which are not associated with edges but also related to the rotation period of Saturn. We have identified several signatures consistent with other Tesseral resonances. These signatures may provide information about differential rotation in Saturn's interior.

  16. On Weakly P.P. Rings

    Xiang Yue-ming; Ouyang Lun-qun; Wang Shu-gui

    2015-01-01

    We introduce, in this paper, the right weakly p.p. rings as the generaliza-tion of right p.p. rings. It is shown that many properties of the right p.p. rings can be extended onto the right weakly p.p. rings. Relative examples are constructed. As applications, we also characterize the regular rings and the semisimple rings in terms of the right weakly p.p. rings.

  17. The eRHIC Ring-Ring Collider Design

    Wang, Fuhua; Beebe-Wang, Joanne; Deshpande, Abhay A; Farkhondeh, Manouchehr; Franklin, Wilbur; Graves, William; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; MacKay, William W; Milner, Richard; Montag, Christoph; Ozaki, Satoshi; Parker, Brett; Peggs, Steve; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Tepikian, Steven; Trbojevic, Dejan; Tschalär, C; Wang, Dong; Zolfaghari, Abbasali; Zwart, Townsend; van der Laan, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The eRHIC ring-ring collider is the main design option of the future lepton-ion collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. We report the revisions of the ring-ring collider design features to the baseline design presented in the eRHIC Zeroth Design Report (ZDR). These revisions have been made during the past year. They include changes of the interaction region which are required from the modifications in the design of the main detector. They also include changes in the lepton storage ring for high current operations as a result of better understandings of beam-beam interaction effects. The updated collider luminosity and beam parameters also take into account a more accurate picture of current and future operational aspects of RHIC.

  18. Structure-Guided Lead Optimization of Triazolopyrimidine-Ring Substituents Identifies Potent Plasmodium falciparum Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase Inhibitors with Clinical Candidate Potential

    Coteron, Jose M.; Marco, Maria; Esquivias, Jorge; Deng, Xiaoyi; White, Karen L.; White, John; Koltun, Maria; El Mazouni, Farah; Kokkonda, Sreekanth; Katneni, Kasiram; Bhamidipati, Ravi; Shackleford, David M.; Angulo-Barturen, Inigo; Ferrer, Santiago B.; Jimenez-Diaz, Maria Belen; Gamo, Francisco-Javier; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.; Charman, William N.; Bathurst, Ian; Floyd, David; Matthews, David; Burrows, Jeremy N.; Rathod, Pradipsinh K.; Charman, Susan A.; Phillips, Margaret A. (UWASH); (MMV, Switzerland); (GSK); (Monash); (UW); (UTSMC)

    2012-02-27

    Drug therapy is the mainstay of antimalarial therapy, yet current drugs are threatened by the development of resistance. In an effort to identify new potential antimalarials, we have undertaken a lead optimization program around our previously identified triazolopyrimidine-based series of Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH) inhibitors. The X-ray structure of PfDHODH was used to inform the medicinal chemistry program allowing the identification of a potent and selective inhibitor (DSM265) that acts through DHODH inhibition to kill both sensitive and drug resistant strains of the parasite. This compound has similar potency to chloroquine in the humanized SCID mouse P. falciparum model, can be synthesized by a simple route, and rodent pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated it has excellent oral bioavailability, a long half-life and low clearance. These studies have identified the first candidate in the triazolopyrimidine series to meet previously established progression criteria for efficacy and ADME properties, justifying further development of this compound toward clinical candidate status.

  19. Rings Research in the Next Decade

    Burns, J. A.; Tiscareno, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    The study of planetary ring systems forms a key component of planetary science for several reasons: 1) The evolution and current states of planets and their satellites are affected in many ways by rings, while 2) conversely, properties of planets and moons and other solar system populations are revealed by their effects on rings; 3) highly structured and apparently delicate ring systems may be bellwethers, constraining various theories of the origin and evolution of their entire planetary system; and finally, 4) planetary rings provide an easily observable analogue to other astrophysical disk systems, enabling real “ground truth” results applicable to disks much more remote in space and/or time, including proto-planetary disks, circum-stellar disks, and even galaxies. Significant advances have been made in rings science in the past decade. The highest-priority rings research recommendations of the last Planetary Science Decadal Survey were to operate and extend the Cassini orbiter mission at Saturn; this has been done with tremendous success, accounting for much of the progress made on key science questions, as we will describe. Important progress in understanding the rings of Saturn and other planets has also come from Earth-based observational and theoretical work, again as prioritized by the last Decadal Survey. However, much important work remains to be done. At Saturn, the Cassini Solstice Mission must be brought to a successful completion. Priority should also be placed on sending spacecraft to Neptune and/or Uranus, now unvisited for more than 20 years. At Jupiter and Pluto, opportunities afforded by visiting spacecraft capable of studying rings should be exploited. On Earth, the need for continued research and analysis remains strong, including in-depth analysis of rings data already obtained, numerical and theoretical modeling work, laboratory analysis of materials and processes analogous to those found in the outer solar system, and continued Earth

  20. Contraceptive vaginal rings: a review.

    Brache, Vivian; Faundes, Anibal

    2010-11-01

    Development efforts on contraceptive vaginal rings were initiated over 40 years ago based on two principles: the capacity of the vaginal epithelium to absorb steroids and the capacity of elastomers to release these hormones at a nearly constant rate. Numerous models of contraceptive vaginal rings (CVRs) have been studied, but only two have reached the market: NuvaRing, a combined ring that releases etonogestrel (ENG) and ethinylestradiol (EE), and Progering, a progesterone-releasing ring for use in lactating women. The main advantages of CVRs are their effectiveness (similar to or slightly better than the pill), ease of use without the need of remembering a daily routine, user's ability to control initiation and discontinuation, nearly constant release rate allowing for lower doses, greater bioavailability and good cycle control with the combined ring. The main disadvantages are related to the mode of delivery; CVRs may cause vaginal discharge and complaints, ring expulsion is not uncommon, the ring may be felt during coitus and vaginal insertion may be unpleasant for some women. The studies reviewed in this article provide evidence that CVRs are safe, effective and highly acceptable to women. There is no doubt that CVRs offer a new, effective contraceptive option to women, expanding their available choices of hormonal contraception.