Sample records for abcc8 dna variations

  1. Complex ABCC8 DNA variations in congenital hyperinsulinism: lessons from functional studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muzyamba, Morris; Farzaneh, Tabasum; Behe, Phillip


    singly or in combination led to intracellular retention of the channel complex and loss of function. By contrast, V1572I is trafficked appropriately and is functional, consistent with a mechanism of reduction to hemizygosity of paternal ABCC8 in focal disease. V1572I is likely to be a benign DNA variant...

  2. ABCC8 R1420H Loss-of-Function Variant in a Southwest American Indian Community: Association With Increased Birth Weight and Doubled Risk of Type 2 Diabetes. (United States)

    Baier, Leslie J; Muller, Yunhua Li; Remedi, Maria Sara; Traurig, Michael; Piaggi, Paolo; Wiessner, Gregory; Huang, Ke; Stacy, Alyssa; Kobes, Sayuko; Krakoff, Jonathan; Bennett, Peter H; Nelson, Robert G; Knowler, William C; Hanson, Robert L; Nichols, Colin G; Bogardus, Clifton


    Missense variants in KCNJ11 and ABCC8, which encode the KIR6.2 and SUR1 subunits of the β-cell KATP channel, have previously been implicated in type 2 diabetes, neonatal diabetes, and hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (HHI). To determine whether variation in these genes affects risk for type 2 diabetes or increased birth weight as a consequence of fetal hyperinsulinemia in Pima Indians, missense and common noncoding variants were analyzed in individuals living in the Gila River Indian Community. A R1420H variant in SUR1 (ABCC8) was identified in 3.3% of the population (N = 7,710). R1420H carriers had higher mean birth weights and a twofold increased risk for type 2 diabetes with a 7-year earlier onset age despite being leaner than noncarriers. One individual homozygous for R1420H was identified; retrospective review of his medical records was consistent with HHI and a diagnosis of diabetes at age 3.5 years. In vitro studies showed that the R1420H substitution decreases KATP channel activity. Identification of this loss-of-function variant in ABCC8 with a carrier frequency of 3.3% affects clinical care as homozygous inheritance and potential HHI will occur in 1/3,600 births in this American Indian population.

  3. Hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia and diabetes mellitus due to dominant ABCC8/KCNJ11 mutations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kapoor, R R


    Dominantly acting loss-of-function mutations in the ABCC8\\/KCNJ11 genes can cause mild medically responsive hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (HH). As controversy exists over whether these mutations predispose to diabetes in adulthood we investigated the prevalence of diabetes in families with dominantly inherited ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel mutations causing HH in the proband.

  4. Familial mild hyperglycemia associated with a novel ABCC8-V84I mutation within three generations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonsorcikova, Lucie; Vaxillaire, Martine; Pruhova, Stepanka;


    of the young genes (MODY1-4 and 6), we identified a novel ABCC8 V84I mutation, which segregated with autosomal dominant transmission of mild hyperglycemia within three generations. This mutation that is located in a conserved area of transmembrane domain TMD0 seems to be a rare cause of clinical phenotype...

  5. Next-Generation Sequencing Reveals Deep Intronic Cryptic ABCC8 and HADH Splicing Founder Mutations Causing Hyperinsulinism by Pseudoexon Activation (United States)

    Flanagan, Sarah E.; Xie, Weijia; Caswell, Richard; Damhuis, Annet; Vianey-Saban, Christine; Akcay, Teoman; Darendeliler, Feyza; Bas, Firdevs; Guven, Ayla; Siklar, Zeynep; Ocal, Gonul; Berberoglu, Merih; Murphy, Nuala; O’Sullivan, Maureen; Green, Andrew; Clayton, Peter E.; Banerjee, Indraneel; Clayton, Peter T.; Hussain, Khalid; Weedon, Michael N.; Ellard, Sian


    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) enables analysis of the human genome on a scale previously unachievable by Sanger sequencing. Exome sequencing of the coding regions and conserved splice sites has been very successful in the identification of disease-causing mutations, and targeting of these regions has extended clinical diagnostic testing from analysis of fewer than ten genes per phenotype to more than 100. Noncoding mutations have been less extensively studied despite evidence from mRNA analysis for the existence of deep intronic mutations in >20 genes. We investigated individuals with hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia and biochemical or genetic evidence to suggest noncoding mutations by using NGS to analyze the entire genomic regions of ABCC8 (117 kb) and HADH (94 kb) from overlapping ∼10 kb PCR amplicons. Two deep intronic mutations, c.1333-1013A>G in ABCC8 and c.636+471G>T HADH, were identified. Both are predicted to create a cryptic splice donor site and an out-of-frame pseudoexon. Sequence analysis of mRNA from affected individuals’ fibroblasts or lymphoblastoid cells confirmed mutant transcripts with pseudoexon inclusion and premature termination codons. Testing of additional individuals showed that these are founder mutations in the Irish and Turkish populations, accounting for 14% of focal hyperinsulinism cases and 32% of subjects with HADH mutations in our cohort. The identification of deep intronic mutations has previously focused on the detection of aberrant mRNA transcripts in a subset of disorders for which RNA is readily obtained from the target tissue or ectopically expressed at sufficient levels. Our approach of using NGS to analyze the entire genomic DNA sequence is applicable to any disease. PMID:23273570

  6. Lack of association between KCNJ11 (rs5219 and ABCC8 (rs757110 polymorphisms and sulphonylurea treatment response in type 2 diabetes patients in Novosibirsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Arkadyevna Bondar


    Full Text Available AimSulfonylureas (SU are widely used in everyday clinical practice in treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. There is a considerable variability in SU effects, which may be caused by psychological, social, biological and genetic factors. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between rs5219 KCNJ11 gene and rs757110 ABCC8 gene polymorphism and long-term response to SU-drugs of second and third generation in the Novosibirsk region.Materials and Methods326 patients with type 2 diabetes in the Novosibirsk region were examined. Patients were divided into 2 groups, depending on HbA1c level. The first group included patients with target HbA1c levels on SU monotherapy. The second group included patients who did not reach target HbA1c levels on the highest dose of SU. Genotyping of KCNJ11 (rs5219 and ABCC8 (rs757110 was performed by TaqMan real-time PCR (ICBFM SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia.ResultsPatients with type 2 diabetes with a good response to SU-therapy compared to the group of patients with a poor response to SU-therapy were older (65.8±9.1 years vs. 61.6±7.9 years, p<0.01, had later onset of type 2 diabetes (59.7±9.2 years vs. 48.3±9.3 years, p <0.01, shorter duration of type 2 diabetes (6.1±4.8 years vs. 13.2±7.3 years, p<0.01 and weak insulin resistance: fasting insulin 9.7±6.9 mU/ml vs. 13.6±12.7 mU/ml (p<0.05, HOMA-IR 3.1±2.2 vs. 6.2±6.0 (p<0.01, triglycerides 1.76±0.83 mmol/l vs. 2.42±1.97 mmol/l (p <0.01. Statistically significant differences between KCNJ11 (rs5219 and ABCC8 (rs757110 genotypes and response to SU-therapy was not found. The frequency of risk allele T polymorphism rs5219 KCNG11 gene in patients with a good response to SU was 0.38 and in the patients with a poor response to SU -0.38 (χ2=0.02, р=0.89. The frequency of the risk allele G polymorphism rs757110 ABCC8 gene in patients with a good response to SU was 0.40 and in the patients with poor response to SU -0.37 (χ2

  7. Physical activity modifies the effect of SNPs in the SLC2A2 (GLUT2) and ABCC8 (SUR1) genes on the risk of developing type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas; Lakka, T A; Laaksonen, D E;


    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in two genes regulating insulin secretion, SLC2A2 (encoding GLUT2) and ABCC8 (encoding SUR1), were associated with the conversion from impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS). We determined...... of genotype with change in PA, P = 0.022-0.027 for the SNPs in SLC2A2, and P = 0.007 for rs3758947). We conclude that moderate-to-vigorous PA may modify the risk of developing T2D associated with genes regulating insulin secretion (SLC2A2, ABCC8) in persons with IGT....

  8. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in Greeks. (United States)

    Kouvatsi, A; Karaiskou, N; Apostolidis, A; Kirmizidis, G


    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences were determined in 54 unrelated Greeks, coming from different regions in Greece, for both segments HVR-I and HVR-II. Fifty-two different mtDNA haplotypes were revealed, one of which was shared by three individuals. A very low heterogeneity was found among Greek regions. No one cluster of lineages was specific to individuals coming from a certain region. The average pairwise difference distribution showed a value of 7.599. The data were compared with that for other European or neighbor populations (British, French, Germans, Tuscans, Bulgarians, and Turks). The genetic trees that were constructed revealed homogeneity between Europeans. Median networks revealed that most of the Greek mtDNA haplotypes are clustered to the five known haplogroups and that a number of haplotypes are shared among Greeks and other European and Near Eastern populations.

  9. DNA template dependent accuracy variation of nucleotide selection in transcription. (United States)

    Mellenius, Harriet; Ehrenberg, Måns


    It has been commonly assumed that the effect of erroneous transcription of DNA genes into messenger RNAs on peptide sequence errors are masked by much more frequent errors of mRNA translation to protein. We present a theoretical model of transcriptional accuracy. It uses experimentally estimated standard free energies of double-stranded DNA and RNA/DNA hybrids and predicts a DNA template dependent transcriptional accuracy variation spanning several orders of magnitude. The model also identifies high-error as well a high-accuracy transcription motifs. The source of the large accuracy span is the context dependent variation of the stacking free energy of pairs of correct and incorrect base pairs in the ever moving transcription bubble. Our model predictions have direct experimental support from recent single molecule based identifications of transcriptional errors in the C. elegans transcriptome. Our conclusions challenge the general view that amino acid substitution errors in proteins are mainly caused by translational errors. It suggests instead that transcriptional error hotspots are the dominating source of peptide sequence errors in some DNA template contexts, while mRNA translation is the major cause of protein errors in other contexts.

  10. DNA template dependent accuracy variation of nucleotide selection in transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Mellenius

    Full Text Available It has been commonly assumed that the effect of erroneous transcription of DNA genes into messenger RNAs on peptide sequence errors are masked by much more frequent errors of mRNA translation to protein. We present a theoretical model of transcriptional accuracy. It uses experimentally estimated standard free energies of double-stranded DNA and RNA/DNA hybrids and predicts a DNA template dependent transcriptional accuracy variation spanning several orders of magnitude. The model also identifies high-error as well a high-accuracy transcription motifs. The source of the large accuracy span is the context dependent variation of the stacking free energy of pairs of correct and incorrect base pairs in the ever moving transcription bubble. Our model predictions have direct experimental support from recent single molecule based identifications of transcriptional errors in the C. elegans transcriptome. Our conclusions challenge the general view that amino acid substitution errors in proteins are mainly caused by translational errors. It suggests instead that transcriptional error hotspots are the dominating source of peptide sequence errors in some DNA template contexts, while mRNA translation is the major cause of protein errors in other contexts.

  11. Patterns of DNA barcode variation in Canadian marine molluscs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara K S Layton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molluscs are the most diverse marine phylum and this high diversity has resulted in considerable taxonomic problems. Because the number of species in Canadian oceans remains uncertain, there is a need to incorporate molecular methods into species identifications. A 648 base pair segment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene has proven useful for the identification and discovery of species in many animal lineages. While the utility of DNA barcoding in molluscs has been demonstrated in other studies, this is the first effort to construct a DNA barcode registry for marine molluscs across such a large geographic area. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study examines patterns of DNA barcode variation in 227 species of Canadian marine molluscs. Intraspecific sequence divergences ranged from 0-26.4% and a barcode gap existed for most taxa. Eleven cases of relatively deep (>2% intraspecific divergence were detected, suggesting the possible presence of overlooked species. Structural variation was detected in COI with indels found in 37 species, mostly bivalves. Some indels were present in divergent lineages, primarily in the region of the first external loop, suggesting certain areas are hotspots for change. Lastly, mean GC content varied substantially among orders (24.5%-46.5%, and showed a significant positive correlation with nearest neighbour distances. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: DNA barcoding is an effective tool for the identification of Canadian marine molluscs and for revealing possible cases of overlooked species. Some species with deep intraspecific divergence showed a biogeographic partition between lineages on the Atlantic, Arctic and Pacific coasts, suggesting the role of Pleistocene glaciations in the subdivision of their populations. Indels were prevalent in the barcode region of the COI gene in bivalves and gastropods. This study highlights the efficacy of DNA barcoding for providing insights into sequence variation

  12. Nonneutral mitochondrial DNA variation in humans and chimpanzees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachman, M.W.; Aquadro, C.F. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Brown, W.M. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others


    We sequenced the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 (ND3) gene from a sample of 61 humans, five common chimpanzees, and one gorilla to test whether patterns of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation are consistent with a neutral model of molecular evolution. Within humans and within chimpanzees, the ratio of replacement to silent nucleotide substitutions was higher than observed in comparisons between species, contrary to neutral expectations. To test the generality of this result, we reanalyzed published human RFLP data from the entire mitochondrial genome. Gains of restriction sites relative to a known human mtDNA sequence were used to infer unambiguous nucleotide substitutions. We also compared the complete mtDNA sequences of three humans. Both the RFLP data and the sequence data reveal a higher ratio of replacement to silent nucleotide substitutions within humans than is seen between species. This pattern is observed at most or all human mitochondrial genes and is inconsistent with a strictly neutral model. These data suggest that many mitochondrial protein polymorphisms are slightly deleterious, consistent with studies of human mitochondrial diseases. 59 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Analysis of sequence variation in Gnathostoma spinigerum mitochondrial DNA by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and DNA sequence. (United States)

    Ngarmamonpirat, Charinthon; Waikagul, Jitra; Petmitr, Songsak; Dekumyoy, Paron; Rojekittikhun, Wichit; Anantapruti, Malinee T


    Morphological variations were observed in the advance third stage larvae of Gnathostoma spinigerum collected from swamp eel (Fluta alba), the second intermediate host. Larvae with typical and three atypical types were chosen for partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequence analysis. A 450 bp polymerase chain reaction product of the COI gene was amplified from mitochondrial DNA. The variations were analyzed by single-strand conformation polymorphism and DNA sequencing. The nucleotide variations of the COI gene in the four types of larvae indicated the presence of an intra-specific variation of mitochondrial DNA in the G. spinigerum population.

  14. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in the Anatolian Peninsula (Turkey)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hatice Mergen; Reyhan Öner; Cihan Öner


    Throughout human history, the region known today as the Anatolian peninsula (Turkey) has served as a junction connecting the Middle East, Europe and Central Asia, and, thus, has been subject to major population movements. The present study is undertaken to obtain information about the distribution of the existing mitochondrial D-loop sequence variations in the Turkish population of Anatolia. A few studies have previously reported mtDNA sequences in Turks. We attempted to extend these results by analysing a cohort that is not only larger, but also more representative of the Turkish population living in Anatolia. In order to obtain a descriptive picture for the phylogenetic distribution of the mitochondrial genome within Turkey, we analysed mitochondrial D-loop region sequence variations in 75 individuals from different parts of Anatolia by direct sequencing. Analysis of the two hypervariable segments within the noncoding region of the mitochondrial genome revealed the existence of 81 nucleotide mutations at 79 sites. The neighbour-joining tree of Kimura’s distance matrix has revealed the presence of six main clusters, of which H and U are the most common. The data obtained are also compared with several European and Turkic Central Asian populations.

  15. Effects of Wolbachia on mitochondrial DNA variation in populations of Athetis lepigone (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in China (United States)

    Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria that infect arthropods and incompatibility among strains can affect gene flow within host insect populations, that can result in significant host mitochondrial DNA (MtD) variation. The effects of Wolbachia infection on mtDNA variation was studied in Athetis lepi...

  16. Mitochondrial DNA T4216C and A4917G variations in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andalib, Sasan; Talebi, Mahnaz; Sakhinia, Ebrahim;


    BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects the brain and spinal cord and long has been the topic of global research; yet there is no commonly accepted cause and no cure for the disease. Mounting evidence supports the role of genetics in susceptibility to MS. From this perspective, a current effort...... focuses on the neurogenetics of the complex pathogenesis of MS in relation to factors such as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variations. T4216C and A4917G are common mitochondrial gene variations associated with MS. The present study tested whether mtDNA T4216C variation in the NADH Dehydrogenase 1 (ND1) mtDNA...... gene and A4917G variation in the mtDNA NADH Dehydrogenase 2 (ND2) gene are associated with MS in an Iranian population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 100 patients with MS and 100 unrelated healthy controls, and DNA extraction was performed by salting-out. By means...

  17. Genomic profiling of plastid DNA variation in the Mediterranean olive tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorado Gabriel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Characterisation of plastid genome (or cpDNA polymorphisms is commonly used for phylogeographic, population genetic and forensic analyses in plants, but detecting cpDNA variation is sometimes challenging, limiting the applications of such an approach. In the present study, we screened cpDNA polymorphism in the olive tree (Olea europaea L. by sequencing the complete plastid genome of trees with a distinct cpDNA lineage. Our objective was to develop new markers for a rapid genomic profiling (by Multiplex PCRs of cpDNA haplotypes in the Mediterranean olive tree. Results Eight complete cpDNA genomes of Olea were sequenced de novo. The nucleotide divergence between olive cpDNA lineages was low and not exceeding 0.07%. Based on these sequences, markers were developed for studying two single nucleotide substitutions and length polymorphism of 62 regions (with variable microsatellite motifs or other indels. They were then used to genotype the cpDNA variation in cultivated and wild Mediterranean olive trees (315 individuals. Forty polymorphic loci were detected on this sample, allowing the distinction of 22 haplotypes belonging to the three Mediterranean cpDNA lineages known as E1, E2 and E3. The discriminating power of cpDNA variation was particularly low for the cultivated olive tree with one predominating haplotype, but more diversity was detected in wild populations. Conclusions We propose a method for a rapid characterisation of the Mediterranean olive germplasm. The low variation in the cultivated olive tree indicated that the utility of cpDNA variation for forensic analyses is limited to rare haplotypes. In contrast, the high cpDNA variation in wild populations demonstrated that our markers may be useful for phylogeographic and populations genetic studies in O. europaea.

  18. Mitochondrial DNA Variation in Southeastern Pre-Columbian Canids. (United States)

    Brzeski, Kristin E; DeBiasse, Melissa B; Rabon, David R; Chamberlain, Michael J; Taylor, Sabrina S


    The taxonomic status of the red wolf (Canis rufus) is heavily debated, but could be clarified by examining historic specimens from the southeastern United States. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 3 ancient (350-1900 year olds) putative wolf samples excavated from middens and sinkholes within the historic red wolf range. We detected 3 unique mtDNA haplotypes, which grouped with the coyote mtDNA clade, suggesting that the canids inhabiting southeastern North America prior to human colonization from Europe were either coyotes, which would vastly expand historic coyote distributions, an ancient coyote-wolf hybrid, or a North American evolved red wolf lineage related to coyotes. Should the red wolf prove to be a distinct species, our results support the idea of either an ancient hybrid origin for red wolves or a shared common ancestor between coyotes and red wolves.

  19. Interindividual variation in binding of benzo[a]pyrene to DNA in cultured human Bronchi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, C.C.; Autrup, Herman; Connor, R.


    The binding of benzo[a]pyrene to DNA in cultured human bronchus was measured in specimens from 37 patients. The binding values ranged from 2 to 151 picomoles of benzo[a]pyrene per milligram of DNA with an overall mean +/- standard error of 34.2 +/- 5.2. This 75-fold interindividual variation in t...

  20. Human longevity and variation in DNA damage response and repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debrabant, Birgit; Soerensen, Mette; Flachsbart, Friederike


    others. Data were applied on 592 SNPs from 77 genes involved in nine sub-processes: DNA-damage response, base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, non-homologous end-joining, homologous recombinational repair (HRR), RecQ helicase activities (RECQ), telomere functioning......DNA-damage response and repair are crucial to maintain genetic stability, and are consequently considered central to aging and longevity. Here, we investigate whether this pathway overall associates to longevity, and whether specific sub-processes are more strongly associated with longevity than...... and mitochondrial DNA processes. The study population was 1089 long-lived and 736 middle-aged Danes. A self-contained set-based test of all SNPs displayed association with longevity (P-value=9.9 × 10-5), supporting that the overall pathway could affect longevity. Investigation of the nine sub-processes using...

  1. Algorithm of detecting structural variations in DNA sequences (United States)

    Nałecz-Charkiewicz, Katarzyna; Nowak, Robert


    Whole genome sequencing enables to use the longest common subsequence algorithm to detect genetic structure variations. We propose to search position of short unique fragments, genetic markers, to achieve acceptable time and space complexity. The markers are generated by algorithms searching the genetic sequence or its Fourier transformation. The presented methods are checked on structural variations generated in silico on bacterial genomes giving the comparable or better results than other solutions.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA control region variation in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. (United States)

    Alshamali, Farida; Brandstätter, Anita; Zimmermann, Bettina; Parson, Walther


    249 entire mtDNA control region sequences were generated and analyzed in a population sample from Dubai, one of the seven United Arab Emirates. The control region was amplified in one piece and sequenced with different sequencing primers. Sequence evaluation was performed twice and validated by a third senior mtDNA scientist. Phylogenetic analyses were used for quality assurance purposes and for the determination of the haplogroup affiliation of the samples. Upon publication, the population data are going to be available in the EMPOP database (

  3. Mitochondrial DNA HV1 and HV2 variation in Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Martin; Sørensen, Erik; Rasmussen, Erik Michael;


    Sequences from the two hypervariable regions (HV1 and HV2) of the control region of the mitochondrial DNA were obtained from a total of 201 Danes and five individuals who later were recognized to be of non-West European origin. Two fractions of each region were amplified separately and sequenced ...

  4. Mitochondrial DNA variation in the Viking age population of Norway. (United States)

    Krzewińska, Maja; Bjørnstad, Gro; Skoglund, Pontus; Olason, Pall Isolfur; Bill, Jan; Götherström, Anders; Hagelberg, Erika


    The medieval Norsemen or Vikings had an important biological and cultural impact on many parts of Europe through raids, colonization and trade, from about AD 793 to 1066. To help understand the genetic affinities of the ancient Norsemen, and their genetic contribution to the gene pool of other Europeans, we analysed DNA markers in Late Iron Age skeletal remains from Norway. DNA was extracted from 80 individuals, and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms were detected by next-generation sequencing. The sequences of 45 ancient Norwegians were verified as genuine through the identification of damage patterns characteristic of ancient DNA. The ancient Norwegians were genetically similar to previously analysed ancient Icelanders, and to present-day Shetland and Orkney Islanders, Norwegians, Swedes, Scots, English, German and French. The Viking Age population had higher frequencies of K*, U*, V* and I* haplogroups than their modern counterparts, but a lower proportion of T* and H* haplogroups. Three individuals carried haplotypes that are rare in Norway today (U5b1b1, Hg A* and an uncommon variant of H*). Our combined analyses indicate that Norse women were important agents in the overseas expansion and settlement of the Vikings, and that women from the Orkneys and Western Isles contributed to the colonization of Iceland.

  5. Epigenetic Variation in Monozygotic Twins: A Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation in Buccal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny van Dongen


    Full Text Available DNA methylation is one of the most extensively studied epigenetic marks in humans. Yet, it is largely unknown what causes variation in DNA methylation between individuals. The comparison of DNA methylation profiles of monozygotic (MZ twins offers a unique experimental design to examine the extent to which such variation is related to individual-specific environmental influences and stochastic events or to familial factors (DNA sequence and shared environment. We measured genome-wide DNA methylation in buccal samples from ten MZ pairs (age 8–19 using the Illumina 450k array and examined twin correlations for methylation level at 420,921 CpGs after QC. After selecting CpGs showing the most variation in the methylation level between subjects, the mean genome-wide correlation (rho was 0.54. The correlation was higher, on average, for CpGs within CpG islands (CGIs, compared to CGI shores, shelves and non-CGI regions, particularly at hypomethylated CpGs. This finding suggests that individual-specific environmental and stochastic influences account for more variation in DNA methylation in CpG-poor regions. Our findings also indicate that it is worthwhile to examine heritable and shared environmental influences on buccal DNA methylation in larger studies that also include dizygotic twins.

  6. Microbial antigenic variation mediated by homologous DNA recombination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Vink (Cornelis); L. Rudenko (Larisa); H.S. Seifert (H. Steven)


    textabstractPathogenic microorganisms employ numerous molecular strategies in order to delay or circumvent recognition by the immune system of their host. One of the most widely used strategies of immune evasion is antigenic variation, in which immunogenic molecules expressed on the surface of a mic


    Adverse effects on more than 2000 species of fish in the U.S. and Canada are estimated by sensitvity results of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) acute toxicity tests. Whether survival and susceptibility to toxicants are influenced by genetic variation is still under question...

  8. Microbial antigenic variation mediated by homologous DNA recombination



    Pathogenic microorganisms employ numerous molecular strategies in order to delay or circumvent recognition by the immune system of their host. One of the most widely used strategies of immune evasion is antigenic variation, in which immunogenic molecules expressed on the surface of a microorganism are continuously modified. As a consequence, the host is forced to constantly adapt its humoral immune response against this pathogen. An antigenic change thus provides the microorganism with an opp...

  9. Mitochondrial DNA variations in ova and blastocyst: implications in assisted reproduction. (United States)

    Shamsi, Monis Bilal; Govindaraj, Periyasamy; Chawla, Latika; Malhotra, Neena; Singh, Neeta; Mittal, Suneeta; Talwar, Pankaj; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Dada, Rima


    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of oocyte is critical for its function, embryo quality and development. Analysis of complete mtDNA of 49 oocytes and 18 blastocysts from 67 females opting for IVF revealed 437 nucleotide variations. 40.29% samples had either disease associated or non-synonymous novel or pathogenic mutation in evolutionarily conserved regions. Samples with disease associated mtDNA mutations had low fertilization rate and poor embryo quality, however no difference in implantation or clinical pregnancy rate was observed. Screening mtDNA from oocyte/blastocyst is a simple, clinically reliable method for diagnostic evaluation of female infertility and may reduce risk of mtDNA disease transmission.

  10. Natural variation in DNA methylation in ribosomal RNA genes of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richards Eric J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA methylation is an important biochemical mark that silences repetitive sequences, such as transposons, and reinforces epigenetic gene expression states. An important class of repetitive genes under epigenetic control in eukaryotic genomes encodes ribosomal RNA (rRNA transcripts. The ribosomal genes coding for the 45S rRNA precursor of the three largest eukaryotic ribosomal RNAs (18S, 5.8S, and 25–28S are found in nucleolus organizer regions (NORs, comprised of hundreds to thousands of repeats, only some of which are expressed in any given cell. An epigenetic switch, mediated by DNA methylation and histone modification, turns rRNA genes on and off. However, little is known about the mechanisms that specify and maintain the patterns of NOR DNA methylation. Results Here, we explored the extent of naturally-occurring variation in NOR DNA methylation among accessions of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. DNA methylation in coding regions of rRNA genes was positively correlated with copy number of 45S rRNA gene and DNA methylation in the intergenic spacer regions. We investigated the inheritance of NOR DNA methylation patterns in natural accessions with hypomethylated NORs in inter-strain crosses and defined three different categories of inheritance in F1 hybrids. In addition, subsequent analysis of F2 segregation for NOR DNA methylation patterns uncovered different patterns of inheritance. We also revealed that NOR DNA methylation in the Arabidopsis accession Bor-4 is influenced by the vim1-1 (variant in methylation 1-1 mutation, but the primary effect is specified by the NORs themselves. Conclusion Our results indicate that the NORs themselves are the most significant determinants of natural variation in NOR DNA methylation. However, the inheritance of NOR DNA methylation suggests the operation of a diverse set of mechanisms, including inheritance of parental methylation patterns, reconfiguration of parental NOR DNA

  11. DNA Conformational Variations Induced by Stretching 3'5'-Termini Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Wen-Peng; LEI Xiao-Ling


    @@ Investigating the interaction between protein and stretched DNA molecules has become a new way to study the protein DNA interaction.The conformations from different stretching methods give us a further understanding of the interaction between protein and DNA.We study the conformational variations of a 22-mer DNA caused by stretching both 3'-and 5'-termini by molecular dynamics simulations.It requires 250kJ/mol to stretch the DNA molecule by 3'5'-termini for 3.5 run and the force plateau is at 123.8 pN.The stretching 3'5'-termini leads to large values of the angle opening and the dihedral propeller between bases in one base pair, the double helix untwists from 34°to 20°and the successive base pairs rolls to the side of the DNA major groove.The distances between successive base pairs increases from 3.2.(A) to 5.6(A).%Investigating the interaction between protein and stretched DNA molecules has become a new way to study the protein DNA interaction. The conformations from different stretching methods give us a further understanding of the interaction between protein and DNA. We study the conformational variations of a 22-met DNA caused by stretching both 3'- and 5'-termini by molecular dynamics simulations. It requires 250k J/mol to stretch the DNA molecule by 3'5'-termini for 3.5nm and the force plateau is at 123.8pN. The stretching 3'5'-termini leads to large values of the angle opening and the dihedral propeller between bases in one base pair, the double helix untwists from 34° to 20° and the successive base pairs rolls to the side of the DNA major groove. The distances between successive base pairs increases from 3.2 (A) to 5.6 (A).

  12. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in Finnish patients with matrilineal diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soini Heidi K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic background of type 2 diabetes is complex involving contribution by both nuclear and mitochondrial genes. There is an excess of maternal inheritance in patients with type 2 diabetes and, furthermore, diabetes is a common symptom in patients with mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. Polymorphisms in mtDNA have been reported to act as risk factors in several complex diseases. Findings We examined the nucleotide variation in complete mtDNA sequences of 64 Finnish patients with matrilineal diabetes. We used conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis and sequencing to detect sequence variation. We analysed the pathogenic potential of nonsynonymous variants detected in the sequences and examined the role of the m.16189 T>C variant. Controls consisted of non-diabetic subjects ascertained in the same population. The frequency of mtDNA haplogroup V was 3-fold higher in patients with diabetes. Patients harboured many nonsynonymous mtDNA substitutions that were predicted to be possibly or probably damaging. Furthermore, a novel m.13762 T>G in MTND5 leading to p.Ser476Ala and several rare mtDNA variants were found. Haplogroup H1b harbouring m.16189 T > C and m.3010 G > A was found to be more frequent in patients with diabetes than in controls. Conclusions Mildly deleterious nonsynonymous mtDNA variants and rare population-specific haplotypes constitute genetic risk factors for maternally inherited diabetes.

  13. Inter-laboratory variation in DNA damage using a standard comet assay protocol. (United States)

    Forchhammer, Lykke; Ersson, Clara; Loft, Steffen; Möller, Lennart; Godschalk, Roger W L; van Schooten, Frederik J; Jones, George D D; Higgins, Jennifer A; Cooke, Marcus; Mistry, Vilas; Karbaschi, Mahsa; Collins, Andrew R; Azqueta, Amaya; Phillips, David H; Sozeri, Osman; Routledge, Michael N; Nelson-Smith, Kirsty; Riso, Patrizia; Porrini, Marisa; Matullo, Giuseppe; Allione, Alessandra; Stępnik, Maciej; Steepnik, Maciej; Komorowska, Magdalena; Teixeira, João Paulo; Costa, Solange; Corcuera, Laura-Ana; López de Cerain, Adela; Laffon, Blanca; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Møller, Peter


    There are substantial inter-laboratory variations in the levels of DNA damage measured by the comet assay. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adherence to a standard comet assay protocol would reduce inter-laboratory variation in reported values of DNA damage. Fourteen laboratories determined the baseline level of DNA strand breaks (SBs)/alkaline labile sites and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG)-sensitive sites in coded samples of mononuclear blood cells (MNBCs) from healthy volunteers. There were technical problems in seven laboratories in adopting the standard protocol, which were not related to the level of experience. Therefore, the inter-laboratory variation in DNA damage was only analysed using the results from laboratories that had obtained complete data with the standard comet assay protocol. This analysis showed that the differences between reported levels of DNA SBs/alkaline labile sites in MNBCs were not reduced by applying the standard assay protocol as compared with the laboratory's own protocol. There was large inter-laboratory variation in FPG-sensitive sites by the laboratory-specific protocol and the variation was reduced when the samples were analysed by the standard protocol. The SBs and FPG-sensitive sites were measured in the same experiment, indicating that the large spread in the latter lesions was the main reason for the reduced inter-laboratory variation. However, it remains worrying that half of the participating laboratories obtained poor results using the standard procedure. This study indicates that future comet assay validation trials should take steps to evaluate the implementation of standard procedures in participating laboratories.

  14. Transforming single DNA molecules into fluorescent magnetic particles for detection and enumeration of genetic variations (United States)

    Dressman, Devin; Yan, Hai; Traverso, Giovanni; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Vogelstein, Bert


    Many areas of biomedical research depend on the analysis of uncommon variations in individual genes or transcripts. Here we describe a method that can quantify such variation at a scale and ease heretofore unattainable. Each DNA molecule in a collection of such molecules is converted into a single magnetic particle to which thousands of copies of DNA identical in sequence to the original are bound. This population of beads then corresponds to a one-to-one representation of the starting DNA molecules. Variation within the original population of DNA molecules can then be simply assessed by counting fluorescently labeled particles via flow cytometry. This approach is called BEAMing on the basis of four of its principal components (beads, emulsion, amplification, and magnetics). Millions of individual DNA molecules can be assessed in this fashion with standard laboratory equipment. Moreover, specific variants can be isolated by flow sorting and used for further experimentation. BEAMing can be used for the identification and quantification of rare mutations as well as to study variations in gene sequences or transcripts in specific populations or tissues. PMID:12857956

  15. Genetic Variation in DNA of Coho Salmon from the Lower Columbia River : Final Report 1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fobes, Stephen; Knudsen, Kathy; Allendorf, Fred


    The goal of this project was to develop techniques to provide the information needed to determine if Lower Columbia River coho salmon represent a 'species' under the Endangered Species Act. Our report features two new nuclear DNA approaches to the improved detection of genetic variation: (1) Studies of DNA-level genetic variation for two nuclear growth hormone genes; (2) Use of arbitrary DNA primers (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, or 'RAPD' primers) to detect variation at large numbers of nuclear genes. We used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify variable sections (introns) of two growth hormone genes (GH-I and G/f-Z) in several salmonid species. Coho salmon had three DNA length variants for G/-I intron C. Restriction analysis and sequencing provided valuable information about the mode of evolution of these DNA sequences. We tested segregation of the variants in captive broods of coho salmon, and demonstrated that they are alleles at a single Mendelian locus. Population studies using the GH-1 alleles showed highly significant frequency differences between Lower Columbia River and Oregon Coast coho salmon, and marginal differences among stocks within these regions. These new markers are adequately defined and tested to use in coho salmon population studies of any size. The nature of the variation at GH-1 (Variable Number Tandem Repeats, or 'VNTRs') suggests that more genetic variants will be found in coho salmon from other areas. GH-2 intron C also showed length variation in coho salmon, and this variation was found to be sex-linked. Because PCR methods require minute amounts of tissue, this discovery provides a technique to determine the gender of immature coho salmon without killing them. Chinook salmon had restriction patterns and sequence divergences similar to coho salmon. Thus, we expect that sex linkage of GH-2 alleles predates the evolutionary divergence of Pacific salmon species, and that gender testing with

  16. Inheritance and Variation of Genomic DNA Methylation in Diploid and Triploid Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea gigas). (United States)

    Jiang, Qun; Li, Qi; Yu, Hong; Kong, Lingfeng


    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism that could be responsive to environmental changes indicating a potential role in natural selection and adaption. In order to evaluate an evolutionary role of DNA methylation, it is essential to first gain a better insight into inheritability. To address this question, this study investigated DNA methylation variation from parents to offspring in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas using fluorescent-labeled methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (F-MSAP) analysis. Most of parental methylated loci were stably transmitted to offspring segregating following Medelian expectation. However, methylated loci deviated more often than non-methylated loci and offspring showed a few de novo methylated loci indicating DNA methylation changes from parents to offspring. Interestingly, some male-specific methylated loci were found in this study which might help to explore sex determination in oyster. Despite environmental stimuli, genomic stresses such as polyploidization also can induce methylation changes. This study also compared global DNA methylation level and individual methylated loci between diploid and triploid oysters. Results showed no difference in global methylation state but a few ploidy-specific loci were detected. DNA methylation variation during polyploidization was less than autonomous methylation variation from parents to offspring.

  17. Variation of DNA damage levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated in different laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godschalk, Roger W L; Ersson, Clara; Stępnik, Maciej;


    This study investigated the levels of DNA strand breaks and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) sensitive sites, as assessed by the comet assay, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy women from five different countries in Europe. The laboratory in each country (referred...... to as 'centre') collected and cryopreserved PBMC samples from three donors, using a standardised cell isolation protocol. The samples were analysed in 13 different laboratories for DNA damage, which is measured by the comet assay. The study aim was to assess variation in DNA damage in PBMC samples that were......%) by standardisation of the primary comet assay endpoint with calibration curve samples. The level of DNA strand breaks in the samples from two of the centres (0.56-0.61 lesions/10(6) bp) was significantly higher compared with the other three centres (0.41-0.45 lesions/10(6) bp). In contrast, there was no difference...

  18. Meta-Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Variation in the Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Barral-Arca, Ruth; Pischedda, Sara; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Pastoriza, Ana; Mosquera-Miguel, Ana; López-Soto, Manuel; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Salas, Antonio


    The Iberian Peninsula has been the focus of attention of numerous studies dealing with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation, most of them targeting the control region segment. In the present study we sequenced the control region of 3,024 Spanish individuals from areas where available data were still limited. We also compiled mtDNA haplotypes from the literature involving 4,588 sequences and 28 population groups or small regions. We meta-analyzed all these data in order to shed further light on patterns of geographic variation, taking advantage of the large sample size and geographic coverage, in contrast with the atomized sampling strategy of previous work. The results indicate that the main mtDNA haplogroups show primarily clinal geographic patterns across the Iberian geography, roughly along a North-South axis. Haplogroup HV0 (where haplogroup U is nested) is more prevalent in the Franco Cantabrian region, in good agreement with previous findings that identified this area as a climate refuge during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), prior to a subsequent demographic re-expansion towards Central Europe and the Mediterranean. Typical sub-Saharan and North African lineages are slightly more prevalent in South Iberia, although at low frequencies; this pattern has been shaped mainly by the transatlantic slave trade and the Arab invasion of the Iberian Peninsula. The results also indicate that summary statistics that aim to measure molecular variation, or AMOVA, have limited sensitivity to detect population substructure, in contrast to patterns revealed by phylogeographic analysis. Overall, the results suggest that mtDNA variation in Iberia is substantially stratified. These patterns might be relevant in biomedical studies given that stratification is a common cause of false positives in case-control mtDNA association studies, and should be also considered when weighting the DNA evidence in forensic casework, which is strongly dependent on haplotype frequencies. PMID

  19. Genetic variation in Phoca vitulina (the harbour seal) revealed by DNA fingerprinting and RAPDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappe, A.L.; van de Zande, L.; Vedder, E.J.; Bijlsma, R.; van Delden, Wilke


    Genetic variation in two harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) populations from the Dutch Wadden Sea and Scotland was examined by RAPD analysis and DNA fingerprinting. For comparison a population of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) was studied. The RAPD method revealed a very low number of polymorphic bands.

  20. Changes in neuronal DNA content variation in the human brain during aging. (United States)

    Fischer, Hans-Georg; Morawski, Markus; Brückner, Martina K; Mittag, Anja; Tarnok, Attila; Arendt, Thomas


    The human brain has been proposed to represent a genetic mosaic, containing a small but constant number of neurons with an amount of DNA exceeding the diploid level that appear to be generated through various chromosome segregation defects initially. While a portion of these cells apparently die during development, neurons with abnormal chromosomal copy number have been identified in the mature brain. This genomic alteration might to lead to chromosomal instability affecting neuronal viability and could thus contribute to age-related mental disorders. Changes in the frequency of neurons with such structural genomic variation in the adult and aging brain, however, are unknown. Here, we quantified the frequency of neurons with a more than diploid DNA content in the cerebral cortex of normal human brain and analyzed its changes between the fourth and ninth decades of life. We applied a protocol of slide-based cytometry optimized for DNA quantification of single identified neurons, which allowed to analyze the DNA content of about 500 000 neurons for each brain. On average, 11.5% of cortical neurons showed DNA content above the diploid level. The frequency of neurons with this genomic alteration was highest at younger age and declined with age. Our results indicate that the genomic variation associated with DNA content exceeding the diploid level might compromise viability of these neurons in the aging brain and might thus contribute to susceptibilities for age-related CNS disorders. Alternatively, a potential selection bias of "healthy aging brains" needs to be considered, assuming that DNA content variation above a certain threshold associates with Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Temporal stability of epigenetic markers: sequence characteristics and predictors of short-term DNA methylation variations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyang-Min Byun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that has been increasingly investigated in observational human studies, particularly on blood leukocyte DNA. Characterizing the degree and determinants of DNA methylation stability can provide critical information for the design and conduction of human epigenetic studies. METHODS: We measured DNA methylation in 12 gene-promoter regions (APC, p16, p53, RASSF1A, CDH13, eNOS, ET-1, IFNγ, IL-6, TNFα, iNOS, and hTERT and 2 of non-long terminal repeat elements, i.e., L1 and Alu in blood samples obtained from 63 healthy individuals at baseline (Day 1 and after three days (Day 4. DNA methylation was measured by bisulfite-PCR-Pyrosequencing. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs to measure the within-individual stability of DNA methylation between Day 1 and 4, subtracted of pyrosequencing error and adjusted for multiple covariates. RESULTS: Methylation markers showed different temporal behaviors ranging from high (IL-6, ICC = 0.89 to low stability (APC, ICC = 0.08 between Day 1 and 4. Multiple sequence and marker characteristics were associated with the degree of variation. Density of CpG dinucleotides nearby the sequence analyzed (measured as CpG(o/e or G+C content within ±200 bp was positively associated with DNA methylation stability. The 3' proximity to repeat elements and range of DNA methylation on Day 1 were also positively associated with methylation stability. An inverted U-shaped correlation was observed between mean DNA methylation on Day 1 and stability. CONCLUSIONS: The degree of short-term DNA methylation stability is marker-dependent and associated with sequence characteristics and methylation levels.

  2. Exploration of methods to identify polymorphisms associated with variation in DNA repair capacity phenotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, I M; Thomas, C B; Xi, T; Mohrenweiser, H W; Nelson, D O


    Elucidating the relationship between polymorphic sequences and risk of common disease is a challenge. For example, although it is clear that variation in DNA repair genes is associated with familial cancer, aging and neurological disease, progress toward identifying polymorphisms associated with elevated risk of sporadic disease has been slow. This is partly due to the complexity of the genetic variation, the existence of large numbers of mostly low frequency variants and the contribution of many genes to variation in susceptibility. There has been limited development of methods to find associations between genotypes having many polymorphisms and pathway function or health outcome. We have explored several statistical methods for identifying polymorphisms associated with variation in DNA repair phenotypes. The model system used was 80 cell lines that had been resequenced to identify variation; 191 single nucleotide substitution polymorphisms (SNPs) are included, of which 172 are in 31 base excision repair pathway genes, 19 in 5 anti-oxidation genes, and DNA repair phenotypes based on single strand breaks measured by the alkaline Comet assay. Univariate analyses were of limited value in identifying SNPs associated with phenotype variation. Of the multivariable model selection methods tested: the easiest that provided reduced error of prediction of phenotype was simple counting of the variant alleles predicted to encode proteins with reduced activity, which led to a genotype including 52 SNPs; the best and most parsimonious model was achieved using a two-step analysis without regard to potential functional relevance: first SNPs were ranked by importance determined by Random Forests Regression (RFR), followed by cross-validation in a second round of RFR modeling that included ever more SNPs in declining order of importance. With this approach 6 SNPs were found to minimize prediction error. The results should encourage research into utilization of multivariate

  3. Varietal tracing of virgin olive oils based on plastid DNA variation profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga Pérez-Jiménez

    Full Text Available Olive oil traceability remains a challenge nowadays. DNA analysis is the preferred approach to an effective varietal identification, without any environmental influence. Specifically, olive organelle genomics is the most promising approach for setting up a suitable set of markers as they would not interfere with the pollinator variety DNA traces. Unfortunately, plastid DNA (cpDNA variation of the cultivated olive has been reported to be low. This feature could be a limitation for the use of cpDNA polymorphisms in forensic analyses or oil traceability, but rare cpDNA haplotypes may be useful as they can help to efficiently discriminate some varieties. Recently, the sequencing of olive plastid genomes has allowed the generation of novel markers. In this study, the performance of cpDNA markers on olive oil matrices, and their applicability on commercial Protected Designation of Origin (PDO oils were assessed. By using a combination of nine plastid loci (including multi-state microsatellites and short indels, it is possible to fingerprint six haplotypes (in 17 Spanish olive varieties, which can discriminate high-value commercialized cultivars with PDO. In particular, a rare haplotype was detected in genotypes used to produce a regional high-value commercial oil. We conclude that plastid haplotypes can help oil traceability in commercial PDO oils and set up an experimental methodology suitable for organelle polymorphism detection in the complex olive oil matrices.

  4. Variation in Ribosomal DNA among Isolates of the Mycorrhizal Fungus Cenococcum Geophilum FR. (United States)

    Lobuglio, Katherine Frances


    Cenococcum geophilum Fr., a cosmopolitan mycorrhizal fungus, is well-known for its extremely wide host and habitat range. The ecological diversity of C. geophilum sharply contrasts its present taxonomic status as a monotypic form -genus. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was used to assess the degree of genetic variation among 72 isolates of C. geophilum. The probe used in this study was the rDNA repeat cloned from C. geophilum isolate A145 (pCG15). Length of the rDNA repeat was approximately 9 kb. The rDNA clone was mapped for 5 restriction endonucleases. Hybridization with cloned Saccharomyces cerevisiae rDNA (pSR118, and pSR125 containing the 18S, and 5.8-25S rRNA genes respectively), and alignment of restriction endonuclease sites conserved in the rDNA genes of other fungi, were used to position the corresponding rDNAs of C. geophilum. Southern hybridizations with EcoRI, HindIII, XhoI, and PstI digested DNAs indicated extensive variation among the C. geophilum isolates, greater than has been previously reported to occur within a fungal species. Most of the rDNA polymorphisms occurred in the IGS region. Restriction endonuclease site and length polymorphisms were also observed in the 5.8S-26S genic regions. Sixteen size categories of length mutations, 6 restriction endonuclease site additions, and 4 restriction endonuclease site deletions were determined using isolate A145 as a reference. The rDNA repeat length among the isolates varied from approximately 8.5 to 10.2 kb. RFLPs were also observed in the mitochondrial (mt) 24S rRNA gene and flanking regions of HindIII digested DNAs of C. geophilum isolates representing both geographically distinct and similar origins. Among the C. geophilum isolates analyzed there were fewer RFLPs in mt-DNA than in nuclear rDNA. EcoRI rDNA phenotypes between C. geophilum and Elaphomyces anthracinus, its proposed teleomorph or sexual state, did not correspond. In addition, the four

  5. Quality standards for DNA sequence variation databases to improve clinical management under development in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bennetts


    Full Text Available Despite the routine nature of comparing sequence variations identified during clinical testing to database records, few databases meet quality requirements for clinical diagnostics. To address this issue, The Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia (RCPA in collaboration with the Human Genetics Society of Australasia (HGSA, and the Human Variome Project (HVP is developing standards for DNA sequence variation databases intended for use in the Australian clinical environment. The outputs of this project will be promoted to other health systems and accreditation bodies by the Human Variome Project to support the development of similar frameworks in other jurisdictions.

  6. Nonmonotonous variation of DNA angular separation during asymmetric pulsed field electrophoresis. (United States)

    Nazemifard, Neda; Bhattacharjee, Subir; Masliyah, Jacob H; Harrison, D Jed


    Asymmetric pulsed field electrophoresis within crystalline arrays is used to generate angular separation of DNA molecules. Four regimes of the frequency response are observed, a low frequency rise in angular separation, a plateau, a subsequent decline, and a second plateau at higher frequencies. It is shown that the frequency response for different sized DNA is governed by the relation between pulse time and the reorientation time of DNA molecules. The decline in angular separation at higher frequencies has not previously been analyzed. Real-time videos of single DNA molecules migrating under high frequency-pulsed electric field show the molecules no longer follow the head to tail switching, ratchet mechanism seen at lower frequencies. Once the pulse period is shorter than the reorientation time, the migration mechanism changes significantly. The molecule reptates along the average direction of the two electric fields, which reduces the angular separation. A freely jointed chain model of DNA is developed where the porous structure is represented with a hexagonal array of obstacles. The model qualitatively predicts the variation of DNA angular separation with respect to frequency.

  7. Exome-wide somatic microsatellite variation is altered in cells with DNA repair deficiencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalman Vaksman

    Full Text Available Microsatellites (MST, tandem repeats of 1-6 nucleotide motifs, are mutational hot-spots with a bias for insertions and deletions (INDELs rather than single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. The majority of MST instability studies are limited to a small number of loci, the Bethesda markers, which are only informative for a subset of colorectal cancers. In this paper we evaluate non-haplotype alleles present within next-gen sequencing data to evaluate somatic MST variation (SMV within DNA repair proficient and DNA repair defective cell lines. We confirm that alleles present within next-gen data that do not contribute to the haplotype can be reliably quantified and utilized to evaluate the SMV without requiring comparisons of matched samples. We observed that SMV patterns found in DNA repair proficient cell lines without DNA repair defects, MCF10A, HEK293 and PD20 RV:D2, had consistent patterns among samples. Further, we were able to confirm that changes in SMV patterns in cell lines lacking functional BRCA2, FANCD2 and mismatch repair were consistent with the different pathways perturbed. Using this new exome sequencing analysis approach we show that DNA instability can be identified in a sample and that patterns of instability vary depending on the impaired DNA repair mechanism, and that genes harboring minor alleles are strongly associated with cancer pathways. The MST Minor Allele Caller used for this study is available at

  8. Common genetic variations in cell cycle and DNA repair pathways associated with pediatric brain tumor susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adel Fahmideh, Maral; Lavebratt, Catharina; Schüz, Joachim


    Knowledge on the role of genetic polymorphisms in the etiology of pediatric brain tumors (PBTs) is limited. Therefore, we investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), identified by candidate gene-association studies on adult brain tumors, and PBT risk.The study...... cycle and DNA repair pathways variations associated with susceptibility to adult brain tumors also seem to be associated with PBT risk, suggesting pediatric and adult brain tumors might share similar etiological pathways....

  9. Inter-laboratory variation in DNA damage using a standard comet assay protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Lykke; Ersson, Clara; Loft, Steffen;


    , which were not related to the level of experience. Therefore, the inter-laboratory variation in DNA damage was only analysed using the results from laboratories that had obtained complete data with the standard comet assay protocol. This analysis showed that the differences between reported levels...... poor results using the standard procedure. This study indicates that future comet assay validation trials should take steps to evaluate the implementation of standard procedures in participating laboratories....

  10. Application of the adductome approach to assess intertissue DNA damage variations in human lung and esophagus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaly, Robert A. [Department of Technology and Ecology, Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Department of Environmental Biosciences, International Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Yokohama City University, Yokohama 236-0027 (Japan); Matsui, Saburo [Department of Technology and Ecology, Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Hanaoka, Tomoyuki [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Matsuda, Tomonari [Department of Technology and Ecology, Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)], E-mail:


    Methods for determining the differential susceptibility of human organs to DNA damage have not yet been explored to any large extent due to technical constraints. The development of comprehensive analytical approaches by which to detect intertissue variations in DNA damage susceptibility may advance our understanding of the roles of DNA adducts in cancer etiology and as exposure biomarkers at least. A strategy designed for the detection and comparison of multiple DNA adducts from different tissue samples was applied to assess esophageal and peripherally- and centrally-located lung tissue DNA obtained from the same person. This adductome approach utilized LC/ESI-MS/MS analysis methods designed to detect the neutral loss of 2'-deoxyribose from positively ionized 2'-deoxynucleoside adducts transmitting the [M+H]{sup +} > [M+H-116]{sup +} transition over 374 transitions. In the final analyses, adductome maps were produced which facilitated the visualization of putative DNA adducts and their relative levels of occurrence and allowed for comprehensive comparisons between samples, including a calf thymus DNA negative control. The largest putative adducts were distributed similarly across the samples, however, differences in the relative amounts of putative adducts in lung and esophagus tissue were also revealed. The largest-occurring lung tissue DNA putative adducts were 90% similar (n = 50), while putative adducts in esophagus tissue DNA were shown to be 80 and 84% similar to central and peripheral lung tissue DNA respectively. Seven DNA adducts, N{sup 2}-ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (N{sup 2}-ethyl-dG), 1,N{sup 6}-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine ({epsilon}dA), {alpha}-S- and {alpha}-R-methyl-{gamma}-hydroxy-1,N{sup 2}-propano-2'-deoxyguanosine (1,N{sup 2}-PdG{sub 1}, 1,N{sup 2}-PdG{sub 2}), 3-(2'-deoxyribosyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-8-hydroxy-pyrimido[1,2-a] purine-(3H)-one (8-OH-PdG) and the two stereoisomers of 3-(2'-deoxyribosyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro

  11. Population structure of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation among humpback whales in the North Pacific. (United States)

    Baker, C S; Medrano-Gonzalez, L; Calambokidis, J; Perry, A; Pichler, F; Rosenbaum, H; Straley, J M; Urban-Ramirez, J; Yamaguchi, M; von Ziegesar, O


    The population structure of variation in a nuclear actin intron and the control region of mitochondrial DNA is described for humpback whales from eight regions in the North Pacific Ocean: central California, Baja Peninsula, nearshore Mexico (Bahia Banderas), offshore Mexico (Socorro Island), southeastern Alaska, central Alaska (Prince Williams Sound), Hawaii and Japan (Ogasawara Islands). Primary mtDNA haplotypes and intron alleles were identified using selected restriction fragment length polymorphisms of target sequences amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR-RFLP). There was little evidence of heterogeneity in the frequencies of mtDNA haplotypes or actin intron alleles due to the year or sex composition of the sample. However, frequencies of four mtDNA haplotypes showed marked regional differences in their distributions (phi ST = 0.277; P feeding grounds were selected for additional analyses of nuclear differentiation using allelic variation at four microsatellite loci. All four loci showed significant differences in allele frequencies (overall FST = 0.043; P feeding grounds were not panmictic for nuclear or mitochondrial loci, estimates of long-term migration rates suggested that male-mediated gene flow was several-fold greater than female gene flow. These results include and extend the range and sample size of previously published work, providing additional evidence for the significance of genetic management units within oceanic populations of humpback whales.

  12. Nuclear DNA content in Miscanthus sp. and the geographical variation pattern in Miscanthus lutarioriparius (United States)

    Sheng, Jiajing; Hu, Xiaohu; Zeng, Xiaofei; Li, Ye; Zhou, Fasong; Hu, Zhongli; Jin, Surong; Diao, Ying


    The genome sizes of five Miscanthus species, including 79 accessions of M. lutarioriparius, 8 of M. floridulus, 6 of M. sacchariflorus, 7 of M. sinensis, and 4 of M. × giganteus were examined using flow cytometry. The overall average nuclear DNA content were 4.256 ± 0.6 pg/2C in M. lutarioriparius, 5.175 ± 0.3 pg/2C in M. floridulus, 3.956 ± 0.2 pg/2C in M. sacchariflorus, 5.272 ± 0.2 pg/2C in M. sinensis, and 6.932 ± 0.1 pg/2C in M. × giganteus. Interspecific variation was found at the diploid level, suggesting that DNA content might be a parameter that can be used to differentiate the species. Tetraploid populations were found in M. lutarioriparius, M. sacchariflorus, and M. sinensis, and their DNA content were 8.34 ± 1.2, 8.52, and 8.355 pg, respectively. The association between the DNA content of M. lutarioriparius, collected from representative ranges across the Yangtze River, and its geographic distribution was statistically analyzed. A consistent pattern of DNA content variation in 79 M. lutarioriparius accessions across its entire geographic range was found in this study. Along the Yangtze River, the DNA content of M. lutarioriparius tended to increase from the upstream to the downstream areas, and almost all tetraploids gathered in the upstream area extended to coastal regions.

  13. Confocal 3D DNA Cytometry: Assessment of Required Coefficient of Variation by Computer Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennert S. Ploeger


    Full Text Available Background: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM provides the opportunity to perform 3D DNA content measurements on intact cells in thick histological sections. So far, sample size has been limited by the time consuming nature of the technology. Since the power of DNA histograms to resolve different stemlines depends on both the sample size and the coefficient of variation (CV of histogram peaks, interpretation of 3D CLSM DNA histograms might be hampered by both a small sample size and a large CV. The aim of this study was to analyze the required CV for 3D CLSM DNA histograms given a realistic sample size. Methods: By computer simulation, virtual histograms were composed for sample sizes of 20000, 10000, 5000, 1000, and 273 cells and CVs of 30, 25, 20, 15, 10 and 5%. By visual inspection, the histogram quality with respect to resolution of G0/1 and G2/M peaks of a diploid stemline was assessed. Results: As expected, the interpretability of DNA histograms deteriorated with decreasing sample sizes and higher CVs. For CVs of 15% and lower, a clearly bimodal peak pattern with well distinguishable G0/1 and G2/M peaks were still seen at a sample size of 273 cells, which is our current average sample size with 3D CLSM DNA cytometry. Conclusions: For unambiguous interpretation of DNA histograms obtained using 3D CLSM, a CV of at most 15% is tolerable at currently achievable sample sizes. To resolve smaller near diploid stemlines, a CV of 10% or better should be aimed at. With currently available 3D imaging technology, this CV is achievable.

  14. DNA break site at fragile subtelomeres determines probability and mechanism of antigenic variation in African trypanosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Glover


    Full Text Available Antigenic variation in African trypanosomes requires monoallelic transcription and switching of variant surface glycoprotein (VSG genes. The transcribed VSG, always flanked by '70 bp'-repeats and telomeric-repeats, is either replaced through DNA double-strand break (DSB repair or transcriptionally inactivated. However, little is known about the subtelomeric DSBs that naturally trigger antigenic variation in Trypanosoma brucei, the subsequent DNA damage responses, or how these responses determine the mechanism of VSG switching. We found that DSBs naturally accumulate close to both transcribed and non-transcribed telomeres. We then induced high-efficiency meganuclease-mediated DSBs and monitored DSB-responses and DSB-survivors. By inducing breaks at distinct sites within both transcribed and silent VSG transcription units and assessing local DNA resection, histone modification, G2/M-checkpoint activation, and both RAD51-dependent and independent repair, we reveal how breaks at different sites trigger distinct responses and, in 'active-site' survivors, different switching mechanisms. At the active site, we find that promoter-adjacent breaks typically failed to trigger switching, 70 bp-repeat-adjacent breaks almost always triggered switching through 70 bp-repeat recombination (∼60% RAD51-dependent, and telomere-repeat-adjacent breaks triggered switching through loss of the VSG expression site (25% of survivors. Expression site loss was associated with G2/M-checkpoint bypass, while 70 bp-repeat-recombination was associated with DNA-resection, γH2A-focus assembly and a G2/M-checkpoint. Thus, the probability and mechanism of antigenic switching are highly dependent upon the location of the break. We conclude that 70 bp-repeat-adjacent and telomere-repeat-adjacent breaks trigger distinct checkpoint responses and VSG switching pathways. Our results show how subtelomere fragility can generate the triggers for the major antigenic variation mechanisms in

  15. DNA break site at fragile subtelomeres determines probability and mechanism of antigenic variation in African trypanosomes. (United States)

    Glover, Lucy; Alsford, Sam; Horn, David


    Antigenic variation in African trypanosomes requires monoallelic transcription and switching of variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes. The transcribed VSG, always flanked by '70 bp'-repeats and telomeric-repeats, is either replaced through DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair or transcriptionally inactivated. However, little is known about the subtelomeric DSBs that naturally trigger antigenic variation in Trypanosoma brucei, the subsequent DNA damage responses, or how these responses determine the mechanism of VSG switching. We found that DSBs naturally accumulate close to both transcribed and non-transcribed telomeres. We then induced high-efficiency meganuclease-mediated DSBs and monitored DSB-responses and DSB-survivors. By inducing breaks at distinct sites within both transcribed and silent VSG transcription units and assessing local DNA resection, histone modification, G2/M-checkpoint activation, and both RAD51-dependent and independent repair, we reveal how breaks at different sites trigger distinct responses and, in 'active-site' survivors, different switching mechanisms. At the active site, we find that promoter-adjacent breaks typically failed to trigger switching, 70 bp-repeat-adjacent breaks almost always triggered switching through 70 bp-repeat recombination (∼60% RAD51-dependent), and telomere-repeat-adjacent breaks triggered switching through loss of the VSG expression site (25% of survivors). Expression site loss was associated with G2/M-checkpoint bypass, while 70 bp-repeat-recombination was associated with DNA-resection, γH2A-focus assembly and a G2/M-checkpoint. Thus, the probability and mechanism of antigenic switching are highly dependent upon the location of the break. We conclude that 70 bp-repeat-adjacent and telomere-repeat-adjacent breaks trigger distinct checkpoint responses and VSG switching pathways. Our results show how subtelomere fragility can generate the triggers for the major antigenic variation mechanisms in the African

  16. Lack of association between mitochondrial DNA G15257A and G15812A variations and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andalib, Sasan; Talebi, Mahnaz; Sakhinia, Ebrahim;


    DNA) variations to the pathogenesis of MS. G15257A and G15812A are variations of the mtDNA tRNA(Thr) gene in MS sufferers of different populations. The present study tested the hypothesis of an association of the G15257A and G15812A variations of the mtDNA tRNA(Thr) gene to the susceptibility to MS in an Iranian...... was not found in any of the 100 patients or 100 controls (0%) (P=1) (OR=1, 95% CI=0.0-79.2). CONCLUSION: The evidence from the present study is inconsistent with the hypothesis that the G15257A and G15812A variations in the mtDNA tRNA(Thr) gene are associated with susceptibility to MS in the selected population....... of genotyping procedure, sequencing of the mtDNA fragments was carried out in randomly selected samples. RESULTS: The mtDNA G15257A variation was found in one of the 100 patients and one of the 100 controls (P=0.637) (odds ratio [OR]=1, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]=0.0-79.2). The mtDNA G15812A variation...

  17. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation is associated with free-living activity energy expenditure in the elderly. (United States)

    Tranah, Gregory J; Lam, Ernest T; Katzman, Shana M; Nalls, Michael A; Zhao, Yiqiang; Evans, Daniel S; Yokoyama, Jennifer S; Pawlikowska, Ludmila; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Mooney, Sean; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Goodpaster, Bret H; Newman, Anne B; Harris, Tamara B; Manini, Todd M; Cummings, Steven R


    The decline in activity energy expenditure underlies a range of age-associated pathological conditions, neuromuscular and neurological impairments, disability, and mortality. The majority (90%) of the energy needs of the human body are met by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). OXPHOS is dependent on the coordinated expression and interaction of genes encoded in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. We examined the role of mitochondrial genomic variation in free-living activity energy expenditure (AEE) and physical activity levels (PAL) by sequencing the entire (~16.5 kilobases) mtDNA from 138 Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study participants. Among the common mtDNA variants, the hypervariable region 2 m.185G>A variant was significantly associated with AEE (p=0.001) and PAL (p=0.0005) after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Several unique nonsynonymous variants were identified in the extremes of AEE with some occurring at highly conserved sites predicted to affect protein structure and function. Of interest is the p.T194M, CytB substitution in the lower extreme of AEE occurring at a residue in the Qi site of complex III. Among participants with low activity levels, the burden of singleton variants was 30% higher across the entire mtDNA and OXPHOS complex I when compared to those having moderate to high activity levels. A significant pooled variant association across the hypervariable 2 region was observed for AEE and PAL. These results suggest that mtDNA variation is associated with free-living AEE in older persons and may generate new hypotheses by which specific mtDNA complexes, genes, and variants may contribute to the maintenance of activity levels in late life.

  18. mtDNA variation in caste populations of Andhra Pradesh, India. (United States)

    Bamshad, M; Fraley, A E; Crawford, M H; Cann, R L; Busi, B R; Naidu, J M; Jorde, L B


    Various anthropological analyses have documented extensive regional variation among populations on the subcontinent of India using morphological, protein, blood group, and nuclear DNA polymorphisms. These patterns are the product of complex population structure (genetic drift, gene flow) and a population history noted for numerous branching events. As a result, the interpretation of relationships among caste populations of South India and between Indians and continental populations remains controversial. The Hindu caste system is a general model of genetic differentiation among endogamous populations stratified by social forces (e.g., religion and occupation). The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule has unique properties that facilitate the exploration of population structure. We analyzed 36 Hindu men born in Andhra Pradesh who were unrelated matrilineally through at least 3 generations and who represent 4 caste populations: Brahmin (9), Yadava (10), Kapu (7), and Relli (10). Individuals from Africa (36), Asia (36), and Europe (36) were sampled for comparison. A 200-base-pair segment of hypervariable segment 2 (HVS2) of the mtDNA control region was sequenced in all individuals. In the Indian castes 25 distinct haplotypes are identified. Aside from the Cambridge reference sequence, only two haplotypes are shared between caste populations. Middle castes form a highly supported cluster in a neighbor-joining network. Mean nucleotide diversity within each caste is 0.015, 0.012, 0.011, and 0.012 for the Brahmin, Yadava, Kapu, and Relli, respectively. mtDNA variation is highly structured between castes (GST = 0.17; p caste populations of Andhra Pradesh cluster more often with Africans than with Asians or Europeans. This is suggestive of admixture with African populations.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA variation in Mauritania and Mali and their genetic relationship to other Western Africa populations. (United States)

    González, A M; Cabrera, V M; Larruga, J M; Tounkara, A; Noumsi, G; Thomas, B N; Moulds, J M


    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation was analyzed in Mauritania and Mali, and compared to other West African samples covering the considerable geographic, ethnic and linguistic diversity of this region. The Mauritanian mtDNA profile shows that 55% of their lineages have a west Eurasian provenance, with the U6 cluster (17%) being the best represented. Only 6% of the sub-Saharan sequences belong to the L3A haplogroup a frequency similar to other Berber speaking groups but significantly different to the Arabic speaking North Africans. The historic Arab slave trade may be the main cause of this difference. Only one HV west Eurasian lineage has been detected in Mali but 40% of the sub-Saharan sequences belong to cluster L3A. The presence of L0a representatives demonstrates gene flow from eastern regions. Although both groups speak related dialects of the Mande branch, significant genetic differences exist between the Bambara and Malinke groups. The West African genetic variation is well structured by geography and language, but more detailed ethnolinguistic clustering suggest that geography is the main factor responsible for this differentiation.

  20. Sequence-length variation of mtDNA HVS-IC-stretch in Chinese ethnic groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng CHEN; Yong-hui DANG; Chun-xia YAN; Yan-ling LIU; Ya-jun DENG; David J. R. FULTON; Teng CHEN


    The purpose of this study was to investigate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable segment-I (HVS-I) C-stretch variations and explore the significance of these variations in forensic and population genetics studies. The C-stretch sequence variation was studied in 919 unrelated individuals from 8 Chinese ethnic groups using both direct and clone sequencing ap-proaches. Thirty eight C-stretch haplotypes were identified, and some novel and population specific haplotypes were also detected. The C-stretch genetic diversity (GD) values were relatively high, and probability (P) values were low. Additionally, C-stretch length heteroplasmy was observed in approximately 9% of individuals studied. There was a significant correlation (r=-0.961, P<0.01) between the expansion of the cytosine sequence length in the C-stretch of HVS-I and a reduction in the number of up-stream adenines. These results indicate that the C-stretch could be a useful genetic maker in forensic identification of Chinese populations. The results from the Fst and dA genetic distance matrix, neighbor-joining tree, and principal component map also suggest that C-stretch could be used as a reliable genetic marker in population genetics.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA variation and HIV-associated sensory neuropathy in CHARTER. (United States)

    Holzinger, Emily R; Hulgan, Todd; Ellis, Ronald J; Samuels, David C; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Haas, David W; Kallianpur, Asha R; Bloss, Cinnamon S; Clifford, David B; Collier, Ann C; Gelman, Benjamin B; Marra, Christina M; McArthur, Justin C; McCutchan, J Allen; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David M; Franklin, Donald R; Rosario, Debralee; Selph, Doug; Letendre, Scott; Grant, Igor


    HIV-associated sensory neuropathy remains an important complication of combination antiretroviral therapy and HIV infection. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have previously been associated with symptomatic neuropathy in clinical trial participants. We examined associations between mitochondrial DNA variation and HIV-associated sensory neuropathy in CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER). CHARTER is a USA-based longitudinal observational study of HIV-infected adults who underwent a structured interview and standardized examination. HIV-associated sensory neuropathy was determined by trained examiners as ≥1 sign (diminished vibratory and sharp-dull discrimination or ankle reflexes) bilaterally. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing was performed and haplogroups were assigned by published algorithms. Multivariable logistic regression of associations between mitochondrial DNA SNPs, haplogroups, and HIV-associated sensory neuropathy were performed. In analyses of associations of each mitochondrial DNA SNP with HIV-associated sensory neuropathy, the two most significant SNPs were at positions A12810G [odds ratio (95 % confidence interval) = 0.27 (0.11-0.65); p = 0.004] and T489C [odds ratio (95 % confidence interval) = 0.41 (0.21-0.80); p = 0.009]. These synonymous changes are known to define African haplogroup L1c and European haplogroup J, respectively. Both haplogroups were associated with decreased prevalence of HIV-associated sensory neuropathy compared with all other haplogroups [odds ratio (95 % confidence interval) = 0.29 (0.12-0.71); p = 0.007 and odds ratio (95 % confidence interval) = 0.42 (0.18-1.0); p = 0.05, respectively]. In conclusion, in this cohort of mostly combination antiretroviral therapy-treated subjects, two common mitochondrial DNA SNPs and their corresponding haplogroups were associated with a markedly decreased prevalence of HIV-associated sensory neuropathy.

  2. Copy number variation of ribosomal DNA and Pokey transposons in natural populations of Daphnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eagle Shannon HC


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite their ubiquity and high diversity in eukaryotic genomes, DNA transposons are rarely encountered in ribosomal DNA (rDNA. In contrast, R-elements, a diverse group of non-LTR retrotransposons, specifically target rDNA. Pokey is a DNA transposon that targets a specific rDNA site, but also occurs in many other genomic locations, unlike R-elements. However, unlike most DNA transposons, Pokey has been a stable component of Daphnia genomes for over 100 million years. Here we use qPCR to estimate the number of 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes and Pokey elements in rDNA (rPokey, as well as other genomic locations (gPokey in two species of Daphnia. Our goals are to estimate the correlation between (1 the number of 18S and 28S rRNA genes, (2 the number of 28S genes and rPokey, and (3 the number of rPokey and gPokey. In addition, we ask whether Pokey number and distribution in both genomic compartments are affected by differences in life history between D. pulex and D. pulicaria. Results We found differences in 18S and 28S gene number within isolates that are too large to be explained by experimental variation. In general, Pokey number within isolates is modest (Pokey. There is no correlation between the number of rRNA genes and rPokey, or between rPokey and gPokey. However, we identified three isolates with unusually high numbers of both rPokey and gPokey, which we infer is a consequence of recent transposition. We also detected other rDNA insertions (rInserts that could be degraded Pokey elements, R- elements or the divergent PokeyB lineage recently detected in the Daphnia genome sequence. Unlike rPokey, rInserts are positively correlated with rRNA genes, suggesting that they are amplified by the same mechanisms that amplify rDNA units even though rPokey is not. Overall, Pokey frequency and distribution are similar in D. pulex and D. pulicaria suggesting that differences in life history have no impact on Pokey. Conclusions The

  3. [Genetic ecological monitoring in human populations: heterozygosity, mtDNA haplotype variation, and genetic load]. (United States)

    Balanovskiĭ, O P; Koshel', S M; Zaporozhchenko, V V; Pshenichnov, A S; Frolova, S A; Kuznetsova, M A; Baranova, E E; Teuchezh, I E; Kuznetsova, A A; Romashkina, M V; Utevskaia, O M; Churnosov, M I; Villems, R; Balanovskaia, E V


    Yu. P. Altukhov suggested that heterozygosity is an indicator of the state of the gene pool. The idea and a linked concept of genetic ecological monitoring were applied to a new dataset on mtDNA variation in East European ethnic groups. Haplotype diversity (an analog of the average heterozygosity) was shown to gradually decrease northwards. Since a similar trend is known for population density, interlinked changes were assumed for a set of parameters, which were ordered to form a causative chain: latitude increases, land productivity decreases, population density decreases, effective population size decreases, isolation of subpopulations increases, genetic drift increases, and mtDNA haplotype diversity decreases. An increase in genetic drift increases the random inbreeding rate and, consequently, the genetic load. This was confirmed by a significant correlation observed between the incidence of autosomal recessive hereditary diseases and mtDNA haplotype diversity. Based on the findings, mtDNA was assumed to provide an informative genetic system for genetic ecological monitoring; e.g., analyzing the ecology-driven changes in the gene pool.

  4. Extreme variation between blood and fibroblast DNA patterns in mosaic fragile X males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobkin, C.; Ding, S.; Nolin, S. [New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY (United States)] [and others


    The fragile X mutation is the expansion of a CGG repeat in the 5{prime} untranslated region of the FMR-1 gene to > 200 repeats. This expansion to the {open_quotes}full mutation{close_quotes} probably occurs during early embryogenesis in individuals who inherit a {open_quotes}premutation{close_quotes} allele containing >50 and <200 repeats. Analysis of blood samples from a series of 148 fragile X males showed that 40% were {open_quotes}mosaics{close_quotes} who carried a mixture of premutation and full mutation alleles. The proportion of the premutation allele varied widely which suggested that there may have been differences in the way the repeat expanded during development. We examined a subset of these affected {open_quotes}mosaic{close_quotes} males who exhibited very different mosaic DNA patterns. Southern blot analysis showed that these males had a range of approximately 10 to 80% premutation allele in their blood DNA. In fibroblast DNA, however, the premutation allele was present at less than 10% in all of these affected males. Since erythrocyte stem cell precursors appear to be established from a yolk sac lineage,earlier in development compared to skin fibroblasts, we hypothesize that this difference in the extent of mosaicism may reflect variation in the progression of the CGG expansion during development. The differences in the proportion of mosaic alleles in different tissues may also help explain the weak correlation between the mosaic DNA patterns of blood samples from mosaic males and their degree of mental retardation.

  5. High Sequence Variations in Mitochondrial DNA Control Region among Worldwide Populations of Flathead Mullet Mugil cephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Wade Jamandre


    Full Text Available The sequence and structure of the complete mtDNA control region (CR of M. cephalus from African, Pacific, and Atlantic populations are presented in this study to assess its usefulness in phylogeographic studies of this species. The mtDNA CR sequence variations among M. cephalus populations largely exceeded intraspecific polymorphisms that are generally observed in other vertebrates. The length of CR sequence varied among M. cephalus populations due to the presence of indels and variable number of tandem repeats at the 3′ hypervariable domain. The high evolutionary rate of the CR in this species probably originated from these mutations. However, no excessive homoplasic mutations were noticed. Finally, the star shaped tree inferred from the CR polymorphism stresses a rapid radiation worldwide, in this species. The CR still appears as a good marker for phylogeographic investigations and additional worldwide samples are warranted to further investigate the genetic structure and evolution in M. cephalus.

  6. Genetic variation in DNA repair pathways and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Rendleman

    Full Text Available Molecular and genetic evidence suggests that DNA repair pathways may contribute to lymphoma susceptibility. Several studies have examined the association of DNA repair genes with lymphoma risk, but the findings from these reports have been inconsistent. Here we provide the results of a focused analysis of genetic variation in DNA repair genes and their association with the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL. With a population of 1,297 NHL cases and 1,946 controls, we have performed a two-stage case/control association analysis of 446 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs tagging the genetic variation in 81 DNA repair genes. We found the most significant association with NHL risk in the ATM locus for rs227060 (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.13-1.43, p = 6.77×10(-5, which remained significant after adjustment for multiple testing. In a subtype-specific analysis, associations were also observed for the ATM locus among both diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL and small lymphocytic lymphomas (SLL, however there was no association observed among follicular lymphomas (FL. In addition, our study provides suggestive evidence of an interaction between SNPs in MRE11A and NBS1 associated with NHL risk (OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.34-0.77, p = 0.0002. Finally, an imputation analysis using the 1,000 Genomes Project data combined with a functional prediction analysis revealed the presence of biologically relevant variants that correlate with the observed association signals. While the findings generated here warrant independent validation, the results of our large study suggest that ATM may be a novel locus associated with the risk of multiple subtypes of NHL.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA variation of the common hippopotamus: evidence for a recent population expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okello, John Bosco A.; Nyakaana, Silvester; Masembe, C.;


    Mitochondrial DNA control region sequence variation was obtained and the population history of the common hippopotamus was inferred from 109 individuals from 13 localities covering six populations in sub-Saharan Africa. In all, 100 haplotypes were defined, of which 98 were locality specific...... was observed in the total data set (FST=0.138; P=0.001), and at the population level, patterns of differentiation support previously suggested hippopotamus subspecies designations (FCT=0.103; P=0.015). Evidence that the common hippopotamus recently expanded were revealed by: (i) lack of clear geographical...

  8. Bridging near and remote Oceania: mtDNA and NRY variation in the Solomon Islands. (United States)

    Delfin, Frederick; Myles, Sean; Choi, Ying; Hughes, David; Illek, Robert; van Oven, Mannis; Pakendorf, Brigitte; Kayser, Manfred; Stoneking, Mark


    Although genetic studies have contributed greatly to our understanding of the colonization of Near and Remote Oceania, important gaps still exist. One such gap is the Solomon Islands, which extend between Bougainville and Vanuatu, thereby bridging Near and Remote Oceania, and include both Austronesian-speaking and Papuan-speaking groups. Here, we describe patterns of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nonrecombining Y chromosome (NRY) variation in over 700 individuals from 18 populations in the Solomons, including 11 Austronesian-speaking groups, 3 Papuan-speaking groups, and 4 Polynesian Outliers (descended via back migration from Polynesia). We find evidence for ancient (pre-Lapita) colonization of the Solomons in old NRY paragroups as well as from M2-M353, which probably arose in the Solomons ∼9,200 years ago and is the most frequent NRY haplogroup there. There are no consistent genetic differences between Austronesian-speaking and Papuan-speaking groups, suggesting extensive genetic contact between them. Santa Cruz, which is located in Remote Oceania, shows unusually low frequencies of mtDNA and NRY haplogroups of recent Asian ancestry. This is in apparent contradiction with expectations based on archaeological and linguistic evidence for an early (∼3,200 years ago), direct colonization of Santa Cruz by Lapita people from the Bismarck Archipelago, via a migration that "leapfrogged" over the rest of the Solomons. Polynesian Outliers show dramatic island-specific founder events involving various NRY haplogroups. We also find that NRY, but not mtDNA, genetic distance is correlated with the geographic distance between Solomons groups and that historically attested spheres of cultural interaction are associated with the recent genetic structure of Solomons groups, as revealed by mtDNA HV1 sequence and Y-STR haplotype diversity. Our results fill an important lacuna in human genetic studies of Oceania and aid in understanding the colonization and genetic history of

  9. Regional Variation in mtDNA of the Lesser Prairie-Chicken (United States)

    Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James C.; Sandercock, Brett K.; Wolfe, Don H.; Robel, Robel J.; Applegate, Roger D.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.


    Cumulative loss of habitat and long-term decline in the populations of the Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) have led to concerns for the species' viability throughout its range in the southern Great Plains. For more efficient conservation past and present distributions of genetic variation need to be understood. We examined the distribution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in the Lesser Prairie-Chicken across Kansas, Colorado, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. Throughout the range we found little genetic differentiation except for the population in New Mexico, which was significantly different from most other publications. We did, however, find significant isolation by distance at the rangewide scale (r=0.698). We found no relationship between haplotype phylogeny and geography, and our analyses provide evidence for a post-glacial population expansion within the species that is consistent with the idea that speciation within Tympanuchus is recent. Conservation actions that increase the likelihood of genetically viable populations in the future should be evaluated for implementation.

  10. MtDNA T4216C variation in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Andalib, Sasan; Emamhadi, Mohammadreza; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Shahrokh; Salari, Arsalan; Sigaroudi, Abdolhosein Emami; Vafaee, Manouchehr Seyedi


    MtDNA T4216C variation has frequently been investigated in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients; nonetheless, controversy has existed about the evidence of association of this variation with susceptibility to MS. The present systematic review and meta-analysis converge the results of the preceding publications, pertaining to association of mtDNA T4216C variation with susceptibility to MS, into a common conclusion. A computerized literature search in English was carried out to retrieve relevant publications from which required data were extracted. Using a fixed effect model, pooled odds ratio (OR), 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI), and P value were calculated for association of mtDNA T4216C variation with susceptibility to MS. The pooled results showed that there was a significant association between mtDNA T4216C variation and MS (OR = 1.38, 95 % CI = 1.13-1.67, P = 0.001). The present systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that mtDNA T4216C variation is a contributory factor in susceptibility to MS.

  11. Simple binary segmentation frameworks for identifying variation in DNA copy number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tae Young


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation in DNA copy number, due to gains and losses of chromosome segments, is common. A first step for analyzing DNA copy number data is to identify amplified or deleted regions in individuals. To locate such regions, we propose a circular binary segmentation procedure, which is based on a sequence of nested hypothesis tests, each using the Bayesian information criterion. Results Our procedure is convenient for analyzing DNA copy number in two general situations: (1 when using data from multiple sources and (2 when using cohort analysis of multiple patients suffering from the same type of cancer. In the first case, data from multiple sources such as different platforms, labs, or preprocessing methods are used to study variation in copy number in the same individual. Combining these sources provides a higher resolution, which leads to a more detailed genome-wide survey of the individual. In this case, we provide a simple statistical framework to derive a consensus molecular signature. In the framework, the multiple sequences from various sources are integrated into a single sequence, and then the proposed segmentation procedure is applied to this sequence to detect aberrant regions. In the second case, cohort analysis of multiple patients is carried out to derive overall molecular signatures for the cohort. For this case, we provide another simple statistical framework in which data across multiple profiles is standardized before segmentation. The proposed segmentation procedure is then applied to the standardized profiles one at a time to detect aberrant regions. Any such regions that are common across two or more profiles are probably real and may play important roles in the cancer pathogenesis process. Conclusions The main advantages of the proposed procedure are flexibility and simplicity.

  12. HLA DNA sequence variation among human populations: molecular signatures of demographic and selective events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Buhler

    Full Text Available Molecular differences between HLA alleles vary up to 57 nucleotides within the peptide binding coding region of human Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC genes, but it is still unclear whether this variation results from a stochastic process or from selective constraints related to functional differences among HLA molecules. Although HLA alleles are generally treated as equidistant molecular units in population genetic studies, DNA sequence diversity among populations is also crucial to interpret the observed HLA polymorphism. In this study, we used a large dataset of 2,062 DNA sequences defined for the different HLA alleles to analyze nucleotide diversity of seven HLA genes in 23,500 individuals of about 200 populations spread worldwide. We first analyzed the HLA molecular structure and diversity of these populations in relation to geographic variation and we further investigated possible departures from selective neutrality through Tajima's tests and mismatch distributions. All results were compared to those obtained by classical approaches applied to HLA allele frequencies.Our study shows that the global patterns of HLA nucleotide diversity among populations are significantly correlated to geography, although in some specific cases the molecular information reveals unexpected genetic relationships. At all loci except HLA-DPB1, populations have accumulated a high proportion of very divergent alleles, suggesting an advantage of heterozygotes expressing molecularly distant HLA molecules (asymmetric overdominant selection model. However, both different intensities of selection and unequal levels of gene conversion may explain the heterogeneous mismatch distributions observed among the loci. Also, distinctive patterns of sequence divergence observed at the HLA-DPB1 locus suggest current neutrality but old selective pressures on this gene. We conclude that HLA DNA sequences advantageously complement HLA allele frequencies as a source of data used

  13. Sources of pre-analytical variations in yield of DNA extracted from blood samples: analysis of 50,000 DNA samples in EPIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Caboux

    Full Text Available The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC is a long-term, multi-centric prospective study in Europe investigating the relationships between cancer and nutrition. This study has served as a basis for a number of Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS and other types of genetic analyses. Over a period of 5 years, 52,256 EPIC DNA samples have been extracted using an automated DNA extraction platform. Here we have evaluated the pre-analytical factors affecting DNA yield, including anthropometric, epidemiological and technical factors such as center of subject recruitment, age, gender, body-mass index, disease case or control status, tobacco consumption, number of aliquots of buffy coat used for DNA extraction, extraction machine or procedure, DNA quantification method, degree of haemolysis and variations in the timing of sample processing. We show that the largest significant variations in DNA yield were observed with degree of haemolysis and with center of subject recruitment. Age, gender, body-mass index, cancer case or control status and tobacco consumption also significantly impacted DNA yield. Feedback from laboratories which have analyzed DNA with different SNP genotyping technologies demonstrate that the vast majority of samples (approximately 88% performed adequately in different types of assays. To our knowledge this study is the largest to date to evaluate the sources of pre-analytical variations in DNA extracted from peripheral leucocytes. The results provide a strong evidence-based rationale for standardized recommendations on blood collection and processing protocols for large-scale genetic studies.

  14. Genetic Variation Among Vegetative Compatibility Groups of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Analyzed by DNA Fingerprinting. (United States)

    Bentley, S; Pegg, K G; Moore, N Y; Davis, R D; Buddenhagen, I W


    ABSTRACT Genetic variation within a worldwide collection of 208 isolates of Fu-sarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, representing physiological races 1, 2, 3, and 4 and the 20 reported vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs), was analyzed using modified DNA amplification fingerprinting. Also characterized were 133 isolates that did not belong to any of the reported VCGs of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense including race 3 isolates from a Heliconia species and isolates from a symptomatic wild banana species growing in the jungle in peninsular Malaysia. The DNA fingerprint patterns were generally VCG specific, irrespective of geographic or host origin. A total of 33 different genotypes were identified within F. oxysporum f. sp. cu-bense; 19 genotypes were distinguished among the isolates that belonged to the 20 reported VCGs, and 14 new genotypes were identified among the isolates that did not belong to any of the existing VCGs. DNA fingerprinting analysis also allowed differentiation of nine clonal lineages within F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Five of these lineages each contained numerous closely related VCGs and genotypes, and the remaining four lineages each contained a single genotype. The genetic diversity and geographic distribution of several of these lineages of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense suggests that they have coevolved with edible bananas and their wild diploid progenitors in Asia. DNA fingerprinting analysis of isolates from the wild pathosystem provides further evidence for the coevolution hypothesis. The genetic isolation and limited geographic distribution of four of the lineages of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense suggests that the pathogen has also arisen independently, both within and outside of the center of origin of the host.

  15. Variation in the measurement of DNA damage by comet assay measured by the ECVAG dagger inter-laboratory validation trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Lykke; Johansson, Clara; Loft, Steffen;


    The comet assay has become a popular method for the assessment of DNA damage in biomonitoring studies and genetic toxicology. However, few studies have addressed the issue of the noted inter-laboratory variability of DNA damage measured by the comet assay. In this study, 12 laboratories analysed...... by the different laboratories as evidenced by an inter-laboratory coefficient of variation (CV) of 47%. Adjustment of the primary comet assay end points by a calibration curve prepared in each laboratory reduced the CV to 28%, a statistically significant reduction (P ... of the inter-laboratory variation originated from differences in image analysis, whereas the intra-laboratory variation was considerably smaller than the variation between laboratories. In summary, adjustment of primary comet assay results by reference standards reduces inter-laboratory variation in the level...

  16. The origin of Mosuo people as revealed by mtDNA and Y chromosome variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN; Bo; SHI; Hong; REN; Ling; XI; Huifeng; LI; Kaiyuan; ZHA


    The Mosuo, living in the Lugu Lake area in northwest Yunnan Province, China, is the only matriarchal population in China. The Mosuo was officially identified as Naxi nationality although its relationship with Naxi remains controversial. We studied the genetic relationship between the Mosuo and five other ethnic groups currently residing in northwest Yunnan, i.e. Naxi, Tibetan, Bai, Yi and Pumi, by typing the genetic variations in mtDNA HVS1 and 21 Y chromosome markers (13 SNPs & 8 STR markers). We showed that the maternal lineages of the Mosuo bear the strongest resemblance with those found in Naxi while its paternal lineages are more similar to those that are prevalent in Yunnan Tibetan. The marked difference between paternal and maternal lineages may be attributable to the genetic history, matriarchal structure, and visiting marriage.

  17. Variation in assessment of oxidatively damaged DNA in mononuclear blood cells by the comet assay with visual scoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Lykke; Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Folkmann, Janne Kjaersgaard;


    The comet assay is popular for assessments of genotoxicity, but the comparison of results between studies is challenging because of differences in experimental procedures and reports of DNA damage in different units. We investigated the variation of DNA damage in mononuclear blood cells (MNBCs......) measured by the comet assay with focus on the variation related to alkaline unwinding and electrophoresis time, number of cells scored, as well as the putative benefits of transforming the primary end points to common units by the use of reference standards and calibration curves. Eight experienced......-response relationships of cells exposed to gamma-radiation and it was possible to reduce the variation in oxidized purines in MNBCs from humans by adjusting the level of lesions with protocol-specific calibration curves. However, there was a difference in the level of DNA damage measured by different investigators...

  18. Statistical aspects of discerning indel-type structural variation via DNA sequence alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Richard K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural variations in the form of DNA insertions and deletions are an important aspect of human genetics and especially relevant to medical disorders. Investigations have shown that such events can be detected via tell-tale discrepancies in the aligned lengths of paired-end DNA sequencing reads. Quantitative aspects underlying this method remain poorly understood, despite its importance and conceptual simplicity. We report the statistical theory characterizing the length-discrepancy scheme for Gaussian libraries, including coverage-related effects that preceding models are unable to account for. Results Deletion and insertion statistics both depend heavily on physical coverage, but otherwise differ dramatically, refuting a commonly held doctrine of symmetry. Specifically, coverage restrictions render insertions much more difficult to capture. Increased read length has the counterintuitive effect of worsening insertion detection characteristics of short inserts. Variance in library insert length is also a critical factor here and should be minimized to the greatest degree possible. Conversely, no significant improvement would be realized in lowering fosmid variances beyond current levels. Detection power is examined under a straightforward alternative hypothesis and found to be generally acceptable. We also consider the proposition of characterizing variation over the entire spectrum of variant sizes under constant risk of false-positive errors. At 1% risk, many designs will leave a significant gap in the 100 to 200 bp neighborhood, requiring unacceptably high redundancies to compensate. We show that a few modifications largely close this gap and we give a few examples of feasible spectrum-covering designs. Conclusion The theory resolves several outstanding issues and furnishes a general methodology for designing future projects from the standpoint of a spectrum-wide constant risk.

  19. Variation on DNA microsatellite of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in Baturaden Dairy Cattle Breeding Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Sumantri


    Full Text Available Eight microsatellite loci of which the locations were three on chromosome 6 (BTA6 namely CSN 3, BM 143 and BM 415; two on chromosome 9 (BTA9 namely ETH 225 and BM 4208; and three on chromosome 10 (BTA10 namely BP 31, BM 1237 and BM 888 were used to investigate genotypic variation of Holstein-Friesian (HF dairy cows in Baturraden Dairy Cattle Breeding Centre. Research activities were carried out through some steps involving blood collection, DNA isolation, amplification on DNA fragments by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and separation by electrophoresis with silver staining. Frequency and heterozygosity of genes under consideration were calculated. The results showed that the eight microsatellite loci exhibited a total number of 33 alleles. Locations of those alleles were five in BM 143 and BM 4208 loci; four in BM 415, CSN 3, ETH 225, BM 1237, BM 888 loci; and three in BP 31 locus. A number of 14 out of 33 alleles might be specific alleles for HF dairy cattle in Baturraden Dairy Cattle Breeding Centre. The lowest heterozygosity per locus (ĥ was 0.6151 for BM 415 whilst the highest one was 0.7301 for BM 888. Additionally, the average heterozygosity for all loci (Ĥ detected in this study was 0.6768. The genotype BB on locus BM 143 and AC on locus CSN-3 significantly affected (P<0.05 the estimated breeding value of milk yield of HF cows in this location.

  20. mtDNA variation in Inuit populations of Greenland and Canada: migration history and population structure. (United States)

    Helgason, Agnar; Pálsson, Gísli; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Angulalik, Emily; Gunnarsdóttir, Ellen Dröfn; Yngvadóttir, Bryndís; Stefánsson, Kári


    We examined 395 mtDNA control-region sequences from Greenlandic Inuit and Canadian Kitikmeot Inuit with the aim of shedding light on the migration history that underlies the present geographic patterns of genetic variation at this locus in the Arctic. In line with previous studies, we found that Inuit populations carry only sequences belonging to haplotype clusters A2 and D3. However, a comparison of Arctic populations from Siberia, Canada, and Greenland revealed considerable differences in the frequencies of these haplotypes. Moreover, large sample sizes and regional information about birthplaces of maternal grandmothers permitted the detection of notable differences in the distribution of haplotypes among subpopulations within Greenland. Our results cast doubt on the prevailing hypothesis that contemporary Inuit trace their all of their ancestry to so-called Thule groups that expanded from Alaska about 800-1,000 years ago. In particular, discrepancies in mutational divergence between the Inuit populations and their putative source mtDNA pool in Siberia/Alaska for the two predominant haplotype clusters, A2a and A2b, are more consistent with the possibility that expanding Thule groups encountered and interbred with existing Dorset populations in Canada and Greenland.

  1. Intraspecific sequence variation of chloroplast DNA among the component species of deciduous broad-leaved forests in Japan. (United States)

    Iwasaki, Takaya; Aoki, Kyoko; Seo, Akihiro; Murakami, Noriaki


    To select appropriate plant materials for a phylogeography of deciduous broad-leaved forests in Japan, we surveyed intraspecific chloroplast DNA variation in 34 species found in these forests. A relatively large number of intraspecific cpDNA variations were detected in ten species: Carpinus japonica (nucleotide diversity pi=0.00083), C. laxiflora (pi=0.00221), Magnolia obovata (pi=0.00134), Lindera triloba (pi=0.00255), L. obtusiloba (pi=0.00289), Pourthiaea villosa var. leavis (pi=0.00263), Acer japonicum (pi=0.00170), A. micranthum (pi=0.00237), Euonymus oxyphyllus (pi=0.00322) and Styrax obassia (pi=0.00100).

  2. Genetic variation of the St. Lawrence beluga whale population assessed by DNA fingerprinting. (United States)

    Patenaude, N J; Quinn, J S; Beland, P; Kingsley, M; White, B N


    Recent surveys suggest that the endangered St. Lawrence beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) population is not recovering significantly despite 20 years of protection. Dead individuals that have been autopsied show high levels of tumours and infections. This situation could be a result of pollution, loss of genetic variation, inbreeding depression or a combination of these factors. Analyses of DNA fingerprints from St. Lawrence belugas with three minisatellite probes (Jeffreys 33.6, 33.15 and M13) indicate a reduced level of genetic variation compared to Beaufort Sea animals. The average band-sharing between individuals of the St. Lawrence beluga population for the three probes (0.534, 0.573 and 0.478, respectively) was significantly higher than that of the Beaufort Sea beluga population (0.343, 0.424, 0.314, respectively). Higher levels of mean allele frequency in the St. Lawrence belugas (0.33 vs. 0.21) suggest that this population is composed of individuals which are related. Inbreeding depression could therefore be a factor in the lack of recovery of the St. Lawrence beluga population.

  3. Genetic variation of the East Balkan Swine (Sus scrofa) in Bulgaria, revealed by mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomal DNA. (United States)

    Hirata, D; Doichev, V D; Raichev, E G; Palova, N A; Nakev, J L; Yordanov, Y M; Kaneko, Y; Masuda, R


    East Balkan Swine (EBS) Sus scrofa is the only aboriginal domesticated pig breed in Bulgaria and is distributed on the western coast of the Black Sea in Bulgaria. To reveal the breed's genetic characteristics, we analysed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y chromosomal DNA sequences of EBS in Bulgaria. Nucleotide diversity (πn ) of the mtDNA control region, including two newly found haplotypes, in 54 EBS was higher (0.014 ± 0.007) compared with that of European (0.005 ± 0.003) and Asian (0.006 ± 0.003) domestic pigs and wild boar. The median-joining network based on the mtDNA control region showed that the EBS and wild boar in Bulgaria comprised mainly two major mtDNA clades, European clade E1 (61.3%) and Asian clade A (38.7%). The coexistence of two mtDNA clades in EBS in Bulgaria may be the relict of historical pig translocation. Among the Bulgarian EBS colonies, the geographical differences in distribution of two mtDNA clades (E1 and A) could be attributed to the source pig populations and/or historical crossbreeding with imported pigs. In addition, analysis of the Y chromosomal DNA sequences for the EBS revealed that all of the EBS had haplotype HY1, which is dominant in European domestic pigs.

  4. Effects of a sex-ratio distorting endosymbiont on mtDNA variation in a global insect pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook James M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of mtDNA variation within a species reflect long-term population structure, but may also be influenced by maternally inherited endosymbionts, such as Wolbachia. These bacteria often alter host reproductive biology and can drive particular mtDNA haplotypes through populations. We investigated the impacts of Wolbachia infection and geography on mtDNA variation in the diamondback moth, a major global pest whose geographic distribution reflects both natural processes and transport via human agricultural activities. Results The mtDNA phylogeny of 95 individuals sampled from 10 countries on four continents revealed two major clades. One contained only Wolbachia-infected individuals from Malaysia and Kenya, while the other contained only uninfected individuals, from all countries including Malaysia and Kenya. Within the uninfected group was a further clade containing all individuals from Australasia and displaying very limited sequence variation. In contrast, a biparental nuclear gene phylogeny did not have infected and uninfected clades, supporting the notion that maternally-inherited Wolbachia are responsible for the mtDNA pattern. Only about 5% (15/306 of our global sample of individuals was infected with the plutWB1 isolate and even within infected local populations, many insects were uninfected. Comparisons of infected and uninfected isofemale lines revealed that plutWB1 is associated with sex ratio distortion. Uninfected lines have a 1:1 sex ratio, while infected ones show a 2:1 female bias. Conclusion The main correlate of mtDNA variation in P. xylostella is presence or absence of the plutWB1 infection. This is associated with substantial sex ratio distortion and the underlying mechanisms deserve further study. In contrast, geographic origin is a poor predictor of moth mtDNA sequences, reflecting human activity in moving the insects around the globe. The exception is a clade of Australasian individuals, which may

  5. Features of the Arabidopsis recombination landscape resulting from the combined loss of sequence variation and DNA methylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colomé Tatché, Maria; Cortijo, Sandra; Wardenaar, Rene; Monteiro Morgado, Lionel; Lahouze, Benoit; Sarazin, Alexis; Etcheverry, Mathilde; Martin, Antoine; Feng, Suhua; Duvernois-Berthet, Evelyne; Labadie, Karine; Wincker, Patrick; Jacobsen, Steven E.; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Colot, Vincent; Johannes, Frank


    The rate of meiotic crossing over (CO) varies considerably along chromosomes, leading to marked distortions between physical and genetic distances. The causes underlying this variation are being unraveled, and DNA sequence and chromatin states have emerged as key factors. However, the extent to whic

  6. Population structure of North American beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) based on nuclear DNA microsatellite variation and contrasted with the population structure revealed by mitochondrial DNA variation (United States)

    Gladden; Ferguson; Friesen; Clayton


    Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in North American waters migrate seasonally between wintering areas in broken pack ice and summering locations in estuaries and other open water areas in the Arctic and sub-Arctic. Results from our previous investigation of beluga whale mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) revealed genetic heterogeneity among beluga from different summering locations that was interpreted as representing a high degree of summering site philopatry. However, mtDNA is maternally inherited and does not reflect mating that may occur among beluga from different summering locations in wintering areas or during annual migrations. To test the possibility that breeding occurs among beluga from different summering locations, genetic variability at five nuclear DNA (nDNA) microsatellite loci was examined in the same animals tested in the mtDNA study. Beluga samples (n = 640) were collected between 1984 and 1994 from 24 sites across North America, mostly during the summer. Whales from the various sites were categorized into eight summering locations as identified by mtDNA analysis, as well as four hypothesized wintering areas: Bering Sea, Hudson Strait (Hudson Strait, Labrador Sea, southwest Davis Strait), Baffin Bay (North Water, east Davis Strait), and St Lawrence River. Microsatellite allele frequencies indicated genetic homogeneity among animals from summering sites believed to winter together but differentiation among whales from some of the wintering areas. In particular, beluga from western North America (Bering Sea) were clearly distinguished from beluga from eastern North America (Hudson Strait, Baffin Bay, and St Lawrence River). Based upon the combined data set, the population of North American beluga whales was divided into two evolutionarily significant units. However, the population may be further subdivided into management units to reflect distinct groups of beluga at summering locations.

  7. Sheep mitochondrial DNA variation in European, Caucasian, and Central Asian areas. (United States)

    Tapio, Miika; Marzanov, Nurbiy; Ozerov, Mikhail; Cinkulov, Mirjana; Gonzarenko, Galina; Kiselyova, Tatyana; Murawski, Maciej; Viinalass, Haldja; Kantanen, Juha


    Three distinct mitochondrial maternal lineages (haplotype Groups A, B, and C) have been found in the domestic sheep. Group B has been observed primarily in European domestic sheep. The European mouflon carries this haplotype group. This could suggest that European mouflon was independently domesticated in Europe, although archaeological evidence supports sheep domestication in the central part of the Fertile Crescent. To investigate this question, we sequenced a highly variable segment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in 406 unrelated animals from 48 breeds or local varieties. They originated from a wide area spanning northern Europe and the Balkans to the Altay Mountains in south Siberia. The sample included a representative cross-section of sheep breeds from areas close to the postulated Near Eastern domestication center and breeds from more distant northern areas. Four (A, B, C, and D) highly diverged sheep lineages were observed in Caucasus, 3 (A, B and C) in Central Asia, and 2 (A and B) in the eastern fringe of Europe, which included the area north and west of the Black Sea and the Ural Mountains. Only one example of Group D was detected. The other haplotype groups demonstrated signs of population expansion. Sequence variation within the lineages implied Group A to have expanded first. This group was the most frequent type only in Caucasian and Central Asian breeds. Expansion of Group C appeared most recently. The expansion of Group B involving Caucasian sheep took place at nearly the same time as the expansion of Group A. Group B expansion for the eastern European area started approximately 3,000 years after the earliest inferred expansion. An independent European domestication of sheep is unlikely. The distribution of Group A variation as well as other results are compatible with the Near East being the domestication site. Groups C and D may have been introgressed later into a domestic stock, but larger samples are needed to infer their geographical origin. The

  8. Fluorescent SSCP of overlapping fragments (FSSCP-OF): a highly sensitive method for the screening of mitochondrial DNA variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salas, A; Rasmussen, Erik Michael; Lareu, M V


    of mtDNA sequencing implies a great lab effort when a high number of samples must be analyzed.The present work introduces a novel and reliable method for the screening of mtDNA variation in the first and second hypervariables (HV1 and HV2) regions which we have denominated fluorescent single strand...... conformation polymorphism (SSCP) of overlapping fragments (FSSCP-OF). FSSCP-OF is based on the basic theory of SSCP analysis and combines two complementary strategies: the use of PCR amplified overlapping fragments and fluorescent detection technology. The overlap region contains a high percentage (50......%) of the d-loop mtDNA variation and for this reason, the probability to detect a polymorphic position by SSCP analysis is clearly increased in comparison to conventional SSCP methods due to the fact that the same polymorphic position is usually placed in a different "relative" position in the two overlapped...

  9. Mendelian breeding units versus standard sampling strategies: Mitochondrial DNA variation in southwest Sardinia (United States)

    Sanna, Daria; Pala, Maria; Cossu, Piero; Dedola, Gian Luca; Melis, Sonia; Fresu, Giovanni; Morelli, Laura; Obinu, Domenica; Tonolo, Giancarlo; Secchi, Giannina; Triunfo, Riccardo; Lorenz, Joseph G.; Scheinfeldt, Laura; Torroni, Antonio; Robledo, Renato; Francalacci, Paolo


    We report a sampling strategy based on Mendelian Breeding Units (MBUs), representing an interbreeding group of individuals sharing a common gene pool. The identification of MBUs is crucial for case-control experimental design in association studies. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible existence of bias in terms of genetic variability and haplogroup frequencies in the MBU sample, due to severe sample selection. In order to reach this goal, the MBU sampling strategy was compared to a standard selection of individuals according to their surname and place of birth. We analysed mitochondrial DNA variation (first hypervariable segment and coding region) in unrelated healthy subjects from two different areas of Sardinia: the area around the town of Cabras and the western Campidano area. No statistically significant differences were observed when the two sampling methods were compared, indicating that the stringent sample selection needed to establish a MBU does not alter original genetic variability and haplogroup distribution. Therefore, the MBU sampling strategy can be considered a useful tool in association studies of complex traits. PMID:21734814

  10. Mendelian breeding units versus standard sampling strategies: mitochondrial DNA variation in southwest Sardinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Sanna


    Full Text Available We report a sampling strategy based on Mendelian Breeding Units (MBUs, representing an interbreeding group of individuals sharing a common gene pool. The identification of MBUs is crucial for case-control experimental design in association studies. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible existence of bias in terms of genetic variability and haplogroup frequencies in the MBU sample, due to severe sample selection. In order to reach this goal, the MBU sampling strategy was compared to a standard selection of individuals according to their surname and place of birth. We analysed mitochondrial DNA variation (first hypervariable segment and coding region in unrelated healthy subjects from two different areas of Sardinia: the area around the town of Cabras and the western Campidano area. No statistically significant differences were observed when the two sampling methods were compared, indicating that the stringent sample selection needed to establish a MBU does not alter original genetic variability and haplogroup distribution. Therefore, the MBU sampling strategy can be considered a useful tool in association studies of complex traits.

  11. Genetic variation and population structure of the mushroom Pleurotusferulae in China inferred from nuclear DNA analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Meng-ran; HUANG Chen-yang; WU Xiang-li; CHEN Qiang; QU Ji-bin; LI Yan-chun; GAO Wei; ZHANG Jin-xia


    To investigate the genetic diversity of an edible fungusPleurotus ferulae, a total of 89 wild samples colected from six geographical locations in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China and two geographical locations in Italy, were analyzed using three DNA fragments including the translation elongation factor (EF1α), the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase II (RPB2) and the largest subunit of the RNA polymerase II (RPB1). The results indicated relatively abundant genetic variability in the wild resources ofP.ferulae.The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that the vast majority of the genetic variation was found within geographical populations. Both the Chinese populations and the Italian populations ofP. ferulaedisplayed a limited genetic differentiation. The degree of differentiation between the Chinese populations and the Italian populations was obviously higher than that between the populations from the same region, and moreover the genetic differentiation among al the tested populations was correlated to the geographical dis-tance. The phylogeny analyses conifrmed that samples from China and Italy belonged to another genetic group separated fromPleurotus eryngi. They were closely related to each other but were clustered according to their geographical origins, which implied the Chinese populations were highly differentiated from the Italian populations because of distance isolation, and the two populations from different regions might be stil in the process of alopatric divergence.

  12. Genetic Variation and Diversity of Japanese Loach Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA (United States)

    Koizumi, Noriyuki; Takemura, Takeshi; Watabe, Keiji; Mori, Atsushi

    We conducted a phylogenetic analysis of the cytochrome b gene sequences (1,131-bp) in mitochondrial DNA, to elucidate genetic variation and diversity of the loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus population in Japan. There were 147 haplotypes that were identified from 444 specimens collected from 123 sites. The phylogenetic tree based on the maximum parsimony method indicated three clades (A, B and C). Clade A resembled genetically the European loach M. fossilis, and the haplotypes were distributed from the North Kanto region northward. Clade B was closely related to the Chinese loach M. anguillicaudatus, and the haplotypes were distributed over the South Tohoku region westward. Clade C that composed of seven subclades seemed to be endemic to Japan, and the haplotypes of these subclades indicated regional or nationwide distribution. Distribution of Clade A and B in Japan appeared to derive from not only artificial release of individuals imported recently from China or Korea, but also diastrophism related to formation processes of the Japanese Islands. Also the estimated divergence time for evolutionary separations between clades was from the upper Miocene to the lower Pliocene (7.4 to 3.8 mya).

  13. Limited Contribution of DNA Methylation Variation to Expression Regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhe Meng


    Full Text Available The extent to which epigenetic variation affects complex traits in natural populations is not known. We addressed this question using transcriptome and DNA methylation data from a sample of 135 sequenced A. thaliana accessions. Across individuals, expression was significantly associated with cis-methylation for hundreds of genes, and many of these associations remained significant after taking SNP effects into account. The pattern of correlations differed markedly between gene body methylation and transposable element methylation. The former was usually positively correlated with expression, and the latter usually negatively correlated, although exceptions were found in both cases. Finally, we developed graphical models of causality that adapt to a sample with heavy population structure, and used them to show that while methylation appears to affect gene expression more often than expression affects methylation, there is also strong support for both being independently controlled. In conclusion, although we find clear evidence for epigenetic regulation, both the number of loci affected and the magnitude of the effects appear to be small compared to the effect of SNPs.

  14. Jagged1 DNA Copy Number Variation Is Associated with Poor Outcome in Liver Cancer. (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Kazunori; Honda, Masao; Yamashita, Taro; Okada, Hikari; Shirasaki, Takayoshi; Nishikawa, Masashi; Nio, Kouki; Arai, Kuniaki; Sakai, Yoshio; Yamashita, Tatsuya; Mizukoshi, Eishiro; Kaneko, Shuichi


    Notch signaling abnormalities are reported to be involved in the acceleration of malignancy in solid tumors and stem cell formation or regeneration in various organs. We analyzed specific genes for DNA copy number variations in liver cancer cells and investigated whether these factors relate to clinical outcome. Chromosome 20p, which includes the ligand for Notch pathways, Jagged1, was found to be amplified in several types of hepatoma cells, and its mRNA was up-regulated according to α-fetoprotein gene expression levels. Notch inhibition using Jagged1 shRNA and γ-secretase inhibitors produced significant suppression of cell growth in α-fetoprotein-producing cells with suppression of downstream genes. Using in vivo hepatoma models, the administration of γ-secretase inhibitors resulted in reduced tumor sizes and effective Notch inhibition with widespread apoptosis and necrosis of viable tumor cells. The γ-secretase inhibitors suppressed cell growth of the epithelial cell adhesion molecule-positive fraction in hepatoma cells, indicating that Notch inhibitors could suppress the stem cell features of liver cancer cells. Even in clinical liver cancer samples, the expression of α-fetoprotein and Jagged1 showed significant correlation, and amplification of the copy number of Jagged1 was associated with Jagged1 mRNA expression and poor survival after liver cancer surgical resection. In conclusion, amplification of Jagged1 contributed to mRNA expression that activates the Jagged1-Notch signaling pathway in liver cancer and led to poor outcome.

  15. Phylogenetic Relationships and Genetic Variation in Longidorus and Xiphinema Species (Nematoda: Longidoridae) Using ITS1 Sequences of Nuclear Ribosomal DNA. (United States)

    Ye, Weimin; Szalanski, Allen L; Robbins, R T


    Genetic analyses using DNA sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS1 were conducted to determine the extent of genetic variation within and among Longidorus and Xiphinema species. DNA sequences were obtained from samples collected from Arkansas, California and Australia as well as 4 Xiphinema DNA sequences from GenBank. The sequences of the ITS1 region including the 3' end of the 18S rDNA gene and the 5' end of the 5.8S rDNA gene ranged from 1020 bp to 1244 bp for the 9 Longidorus species, and from 870 bp to 1354 bp for the 7 Xiphinema species. Nucleotide frequencies were: A = 25.5%, C = 21.0%, G = 26.4%, and T = 27.1%. Genetic variation between the two genera had a maximum divergence of 38.6% between X. chambersi and L. crassus. Genetic variation among Xiphinema species ranged from 3.8% between X. diversicaudatum and X. bakeri to 29.9% between X. chambersi and X. italiae. Within Longidorus, genetic variation ranged from 8.9% between L. crassus and L. grandis to 32.4% between L. fragilis and L. diadecturus. Intraspecific genetic variation in X. americanum sensu lato ranged from 0.3% to 1.9%, while genetic variation in L. diadecturus had 0.8% and L. biformis ranged from 0.6% to 10.9%. Identical sequences were obtained between the two populations of L. grandis, and between the two populations of X. bakeri. Phylogenetic analyses based on the ITS1 DNA sequence data were conducted on each genus separately using both maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analysis. Among the Longidorus taxa, 4 subgroups are supported: L. grandis, L. crassus, and L. elongatus are in one cluster; L. biformis and L. paralongicaudatus are in a second cluster; L. fragilis and L. breviannulatus are in a third cluster; and L. diadecturus is in a fourth cluster. Among the Xiphinema taxa, 3 subgroups are supported: X. americanum with X. chambersi, X. bakeri with X. diversicaudatum, and X. italiae and X. vuittenezi forming a sister group with X. index. The relationships observed in this study

  16. Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA variation in Africa: evidence for sex-biased demographic processes. (United States)

    Wood, Elizabeth T; Stover, Daryn A; Ehret, Christopher; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Spedini, Gabriella; McLeod, Howard; Louie, Leslie; Bamshad, Mike; Strassmann, Beverly I; Soodyall, Himla; Hammer, Michael F


    To investigate associations between genetic, linguistic, and geographic variation in Africa, we type 50 Y chromosome SNPs in 1122 individuals from 40 populations representing African geographic and linguistic diversity. We compare these patterns of variation with those that emerge from a similar analysis of published mtDNA HVS1 sequences from 1918 individuals from 39 African populations. For the Y chromosome, Mantel tests reveal a strong partial correlation between genetic and linguistic distances (r=0.33, P=0.001) and no correlation between genetic and geographic distances (r=-0.08, P>0.10). In contrast, mtDNA variation is weakly correlated with both language (r=0.16, P=0.046) and geography (r=0.17, P=0.035). AMOVA indicates that the amount of paternal among-group variation is much higher when populations are grouped by linguistics (Phi(CT)=0.21) than by geography (Phi(CT)=0.06). Levels of maternal genetic among-group variation are low for both linguistics and geography (Phi(CT)=0.03 and 0.04, respectively). When Bantu speakers are removed from these analyses, the correlation with linguistic variation disappears for the Y chromosome and strengthens for mtDNA. These data suggest that patterns of differentiation and gene flow in Africa have differed for men and women in the recent evolutionary past. We infer that sex-biased rates of admixture and/or language borrowing between expanding Bantu farmers and local hunter-gatherers played an important role in influencing patterns of genetic variation during the spread of African agriculture in the last 4000 years.

  17. Ploidy distribution and DNA content variations of Lonicera caerulea (Caprifoliaceae) in Japan


    Miyashita, Tomomi; ARAKI, Hajime; Hoshino, Yoichiro


    Ploidy level and geographical distribution were investigated in Japanese Lonicera caerulea L. Flow cytometric analysis revealed the presence of DNA diploid and DNA tetraploid plants in Japan. Chromosome observation confirmed that diploid and tetraploid plants showed 2n = 2x = 18 and 2n = 4x = 36, respectively. The DNA diploid populations were found only in lowland mires, Betsukai, Bekanbeushi, Kushiro and Kiritappu located in eastern Hokkaido. On the other hand, DNA tetraploid populations wer...

  18. Fully Streched Single DNA Molecules in a Nanofluidic Chip Show Large-Scale Structural Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jonas Nyvold; Marie, Rodolphe; Bauer, D. L.


    When stretching and imaging DNA molecules in nanofluidic devices, it is important to know the relation between the physical length as measured in the lab and the distance along the contour of the DNA. Here a single DNA molecule longer than 1 Mbp is loaded into a nanofluidic device consisting of t...

  19. Mitochondrial DNA variation within P-type cytoplasmic male sterility of Plantago lanceolata L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, C.F.M.; Sandbrink, J.M.; Van Brederode, J.; Van Damme, J.M.M.


    MtDNA restriction fragment polymorphisms were found between cytoplasmic male-sterility types P and R of Plantago lanceolata with the homologous probe pPl311 and maize mtDNA fragments derived from the regions of atp1, cox1 and cox2. No mtDNA differences were observed between male-sterile and restored

  20. Cryptic intercontinental colonization in water fleas Daphnia pulicaria inferred from phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA variation. (United States)

    Marková, Silvia; Dufresne, France; Rees, David J; Cerný, Martin; Kotlík, Petr


    The water fleas of the Daphnia pulex complex play a key role in freshwater ecosystems throughout the northern hemisphere. Despite the fact that they have been the subject of study for numerous biological disciplines, their phylogeny and species delimitation remain controversial. We used DNA sequence variation of the mitochondrial ND5 gene to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of D. pulicaria Forbes, a widespread member of this complex from North America and Europe. Populations from the two continents respectively split into two evolutionary lineages, Eastern Nearctic and European, which each belong to another main clade within the D. pulex complex (the pulicaria and tenebrosa groups, respectively). Unexpectedly, melanin and carotenoid pigmented D. pulicaria populations from European high-mountain lakes were not allied with the transparent populations inhabiting the same lakes and the lowland ponds and reservoirs throughout Europe, but were included with the samples from Canada and Greenland in the Eastern Nearctic lineage. Until now populations belonging to this lineage were known only from Canada and North Atlantic islands, but not from mainland Europe. Independent data from microsatellite markers supported the genetic distinctiveness of the sympatric carotenoid pigmented and transparent populations and suggested that they may have undergone transition to obligate parthenogenesis, possibly as a consequence of past introgressive hybridization. Two different taxa are therefore confused under the name D. pulicaria in Europe. The close phylogenetic relationships of European populations with those from Canada and Greenland suggest that the Nearctic lineage is of recent origin in Europe via intercontinental dispersal from the North America. It has evolved melanin and carotenoid pigmentation as adaptations against the UV light stress, which enable it to share habitat occupied by the transparent European species. The Nearctic D. pulicaria thus provides a new model

  1. High variation and very low differentiation in wide ranging plains zebra (Equus quagga): insights from mtDNA and microsatellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Eline D; Arctander, Peter; Siegismund, Hans R


    Patterns of genetic differentiation in the plains zebra (Equus quagga) were analysed using mitochondrial DNA control region variation and seven microsatellites. The six morphologically defined subspecies of plains zebra lacked the population genetic structure indicative of distinct evolutionary...... units. Both marker sets showed high levels of genetic variation and very low levels of differentiation. There was no geographical structuring of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in the phylogenetic tree, and the plains zebra showed the lowest overall differentiation recorded in any African ungulate studied...... so far. Arid-adapted African ungulates have shown significant regional genetic structuring in support of the Pleistocene refuge theory. This was not the case in the zebra, and the data are discussed in relation to the impact of Pleistocene climate change on a nonbovid member of the savannah ungulate...

  2. Mitochondrial DNA variation in chinook salmon and chum salmon detected by restriction enzyme analysis of polymerase chain reaction products (United States)

    Cronin, M.; Spearman, R.; Wilmot, R.; Patton, J.; Bickman, J.


    We analyze intraspecific mitochondrial DNA variation in chinook salmon from drainages in the Yukon River, the Kenai River, and Oregon and California rivers; and chum salmon from the Yukon River and vancouver Island, and Washington rivers. For each species, three different portions of the mtDNA molecule were amplified seperately using the polymerase chain reaction and then digested with at least 19 restrictions enzymes. Intraspecific sequence divergences between haplotypes were less than 0.01 base subsitution per nucleotide. Nine chum salmon haplotypes were identified. Yukon River chum salmon stocks displayed more haplotypes (8) occurred in all areas. Seven chinook salmon haplotypes were identified. Four haplotypes occurred in the Yukon and Kenai rviers and four occured in the Oregon/California, with only one haplotype shared between the regions. Sample sizes were too small to quantify the degree of stock seperation among drainages, but the patterns of variation that we observed suggest utility of the technique in genetic stock identification.

  3. Seasonal variations of DNA damage in human lymphocytes: Correlation with different environmental variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannelli, Lisa [Dipartimento di Farmacologia Preclinica e Clinica, Universita di Firenze, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail:; Pitozzi, Vanessa [Dipartimento di Farmacologia Preclinica e Clinica, Universita di Firenze, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy); Moretti, Silvia [Department of Dermatological Sciences, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Boddi, Vieri [Department of Public Health, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Dolara, Piero [Dipartimento di Farmacologia Preclinica e Clinica, Universita di Firenze, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy)


    Several types of DNA damage, including DNA breaks and DNA base oxidation, display a seasonal trend. In the present work, a sample of 79 healthy subjects living in the city of Florence, Italy, was used to analyse this effect. Three possible causative agents were taken into consideration: solar radiation, air temperature and air ozone level. DNA damage was measured in isolated human lymphocytes at different times during the year and the observed damage was correlated with the levels of these three agents in the days preceding blood sampling. Three time windows were chosen: 3, 7 and 30 days before blood sampling. DNA strand breaks and the oxidized purinic bases cleaved by the formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG sites) were measured by means of the comet assay. The results of multivariate regression analysis showed a positive correlation between lymphocyte DNA damage and air temperature, and a less strong correlation with global solar radiation and air ozone levels.

  4. The use of high-throughput DNA sequencing in the investigation of antigenic variation: application to Neisseria species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K Davies

    Full Text Available Antigenic variation occurs in a broad range of species. This process resembles gene conversion in that variant DNA is unidirectionally transferred from partial gene copies (or silent loci into an expression locus. Previous studies of antigenic variation have involved the amplification and sequencing of individual genes from hundreds of colonies. Using the pilE gene from Neisseria gonorrhoeae we have demonstrated that it is possible to use PCR amplification, followed by high-throughput DNA sequencing and a novel assembly process, to detect individual antigenic variation events. The ability to detect these events was much greater than has previously been possible. In N. gonorrhoeae most silent loci contain multiple partial gene copies. Here we show that there is a bias towards using the copy at the 3' end of the silent loci (copy 1 as the donor sequence. The pilE gene of N. gonorrhoeae and some strains of Neisseria meningitidis encode class I pilin, but strains of N. meningitidis from clonal complexes 8 and 11 encode a class II pilin. We have confirmed that the class II pili of meningococcal strain FAM18 (clonal complex 11 are non-variable, and this is also true for the class II pili of strain NMB from clonal complex 8. In addition when a gene encoding class I pilin was moved into the meningococcal strain NMB background there was no evidence of antigenic variation. Finally we investigated several members of the opa gene family of N. gonorrhoeae, where it has been suggested that limited variation occurs. Variation was detected in the opaK gene that is located close to pilE, but not at the opaJ gene located elsewhere on the genome. The approach described here promises to dramatically improve studies of the extent and nature of antigenic variation systems in a variety of species.

  5. Developmental activity variations of DNA polymerase α,δ,ε in mouse forebrains and spleens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨荣武; 陆长德


    The levels of DNA polymerase α,δ,ε were examined in the neonatal mouse forebrains andspleens.The levels of DNA polymerase α were determined by the difference of polymerase activity in theabsence and the presence of α specific inhibitor,BuPdGTP,or its monoclonal antibody.The levels of DNApolymerase δ were determined in H · A fractions after separating it from the other two enzymes.The levelsof DNA polymerase ε were identified in H · A fractions by the use of α-monoclonal antibody or BuPdGTP.Results showed that in the mouse forebrain DNA polymerase α,δ,ε activities are the highest before birth,decline sharply following birth and are very low on the 8th day and hardly detectable on the 17th day;as forthe mouse spleen,however,DNA polymerase α,δ,ε activities are the lowest at birth,increase rapidly afterbirth and reach their maxima on the 8th day and then decline gradually but remain in higher levels.Theseresults not only prove that DNA polymerase α and δ take part in cell DNA replication but also suggest thatDNA polymerase ε is involved in DNA replication.

  6. Ureaplasma antigenic variation beyond MBA phase variation: DNA inversions generating chimeric structures and switching in expression of the MBA N-terminal paralogue UU172. (United States)

    Zimmerman, Carl-Ulrich R; Rosengarten, Renate; Spergser, Joachim


    Phase variation of the major ureaplasma surface membrane protein, the multiple-banded antigen (MBA), with its counterpart, the UU376 protein, was recently discussed as a result of DNA inversion occurring at specific inverted repeats. Two similar inverted repeats to the ones within the mba locus were found in the genome of Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3; one within the MBA N-terminal paralogue UU172 and another in the adjacent intergenic spacer region. In this report, we demonstrate on both genomic and protein level that DNA inversion at these inverted repeats leads to alternating expression between UU172 and the neighbouring conserved hypothetical ORF UU171. Sequence analysis of this phase-variable 'UU172 element' from both U. parvum and U. urealyticum strains revealed that it is highly conserved among both species and that it also includes the orthologue of UU144. A third inverted repeat region in UU144 is proposed to serve as an additional potential inversion site from which chimeric genes can evolve. Our results indicate that site-specific recombination events in the genome of U. parvum serovar 3 are dynamic and frequent, leading to a broad spectrum of antigenic variation by which the organism may evade host immune responses.

  7. GWAS of DNA Methylation Variation Within Imprinting Control Regions Suggests Parent-of-Origin Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renteria, M.E.; Coolen, M.W.; Statham, A.L.; Choi, R.S.; Qu, W.; Campbell, M.J.; Smith, S.; Henders, A.K.; Montgomery, G.W.; Clark, S. J.; Martin, N.G.; Medland, S.E.


    Imprinting control regions (ICRs) play a fundamental role in establishing and maintaining the non-random monoallelic expression of certain genes, via common regulatory elements such as non-coding RNAs and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of DNA. We recently surveyed DNA methylation levels wi

  8. A comparison of intraspecific patterns of DNA sequence variation in mitochondrial DNA, alpha-enolase, and MHC class II B loci in auklets (Charadriiformes: Alcidae). (United States)

    Walsh, Hollie E; Friesen, Vicki L


    Patterns of DNA sequence variation can be used to learn about mechanisms of organismal evolution, but only if mechanisms of sequence evolution are well understood. Although theories of molecular evolution are well developed, few empirical studies have addressed patterns and mechanisms of sequence evolution in nuclear genes within species. In the present study, we compared DNA sequences among three loci with different evolutionary constraints to determine the influences of effective population size, balancing selection, and linkage on intraspecific patterns of sequence variation. Specifically, we assessed the degree and nature of polymorphism in a 307-base pair (bp) fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, intron VIII of the gene for alpha-enolase (a presumably neutral nuclear gene), and an approximately 600-bp fragment of an MHC class II B gene, including 155 bp of the hypervariable peptide binding region (a nuclear locus thought to be under balancing selection) for least and crested auklets (Aethia pusilla and A. cristatella; Charadriiformes: Alcidae). Transspecies polymorphism was found in both alpha-enolase and the MHC but not cytochrome b and, given estimates of effective population size, probably represents retained ancestral variation. Biases in nucleotide composition suggested that mutational bias, tRNA availability, and the secondary structure of mRNA and/or DNA may influence base usage. Several lines of evidence indicated that balancing selection may be acting on the MHC II B exon 2. However, no evidence of balancing selection was observed in the intron and exon sequences immediately downstream of MHC II B exon 2.

  9. The erratic mitochondrial clock: variations of mutation rate, not population size, affect mtDNA diversity across birds and mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galtier Nicolas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last ten years, major advances have been made in characterizing and understanding the evolution of mitochondrial DNA, the most popular marker of molecular biodiversity. Several important results were recently reported using mammals as model organisms, including (i the absence of relationship between mitochondrial DNA diversity and life-history or ecological variables, (ii the absence of prominent adaptive selection, contrary to what was found in invertebrates, and (iii the unexpectedly large variation in neutral substitution rate among lineages, revealing a possible link with species maximal longevity. We propose to challenge these results thanks to the bird/mammal comparison. Direct estimates of population size are available in birds, and this group presents striking life-history trait differences with mammals (higher mass-specific metabolic rate and longevity. These properties make birds the ideal model to directly test for population size effects, and to discriminate between competing hypotheses about the causes of substitution rate variation. Results A phylogenetic analysis of cytochrome b third-codon position confirms that the mitochondrial DNA mutation rate is quite variable in birds, passerines being the fastest evolving order. On average, mitochondrial DNA evolves slower in birds than in mammals of similar body size. This result is in agreement with the longevity hypothesis, and contradicts the hypothesis of a metabolic rate-dependent mutation rate. Birds show no footprint of adaptive selection on cytochrome b evolutionary patterns, but no link between direct estimates of population size and cytochrome b diversity. The mutation rate is the best predictor we have of within-species mitochondrial diversity in birds. It partly explains the differences in mitochondrial DNA diversity patterns observed between mammals and birds, previously interpreted as reflecting Hill-Robertson interferences with the W

  10. Variations of Human DNA Polymerase Genes as Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer Progression (United States)


    analysis was done by single - strand conformation polymorphism , a technique that can miss muta- tions [Pearce et al., 2008]. We recently sequenced the complete...7) mice exhibit increased single - stranded DNA breaks, chromosomal aberrations, and mutagenicity compared to normal animals [Cabelof et al., 2003...a single -nucleotide gapped DNA template (the natural pol b substrate), and that this interaction is essential for pol b conformational activation

  11. Sequence-length variation of mtDNA HVS-I C-stretch in Chinese ethnic groups. (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Dang, Yong-hui; Yan, Chun-xia; Liu, Yan-ling; Deng, Ya-jun; Fulton, David J R; Chen, Teng


    The purpose of this study was to investigate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable segment-I (HVS-I) C-stretch variations and explore the significance of these variations in forensic and population genetics studies. The C-stretch sequence variation was studied in 919 unrelated individuals from 8 Chinese ethnic groups using both direct and clone sequencing approaches. Thirty eight C-stretch haplotypes were identified, and some novel and population specific haplotypes were also detected. The C-stretch genetic diversity (GD) values were relatively high, and probability (P) values were low. Additionally, C-stretch length heteroplasmy was observed in approximately 9% of individuals studied. There was a significant correlation (r=-0.961, Pexpansion of the cytosine sequence length in the C-stretch of HVS-I and a reduction in the number of upstream adenines. These results indicate that the C-stretch could be a useful genetic maker in forensic identification of Chinese populations. The results from the Fst and dA genetic distance matrix, neighbor-joining tree, and principal component map also suggest that C-stretch could be used as a reliable genetic marker in population genetics.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gjyli


    Full Text Available After isolation of phytoplankton DNA in coastal waters of Durres Bay, Albania, quantification and analysis of quality were investigated with spectrophotometric analysis. Analysis of UV absorption by the nucleotides provides a simple and accurate estimation of the concentration of nucleic acids in a sample. This method is however limited by the quantity of DNA and the purity of the preparation. Also biotic environment factors as Chlorophyll a and abiotic environment factors as temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate were investigated to assess DNA quantities in different environment conditions. The Chlorophyll a was studied also to access the level of trophy. The sample stations were: Golem Beach (GB, Channel of Plepa (ChP, Hekurudha Beach (HB, Ex-Fuel Quay in Marine Durres Harbour (EFQ, Water Channel of Durres City (WChDC and Currila Beach (CB. Samples are taken in one meter depth from the water surface. Water samples were collected monthly from April to October 2011. The most abundant stations with phytoplankton DNA are Channel of Plepa and Water Channel of Durres City. This confirms that there are spills of fresh waters, sewage or agricultural water spills, often discharge in coastal waters. Referring Mutliple Regression Analysis and single regression analysis, the association between phytoplankton DNA and environment factors was strong (R2 = 0.75. Basing in single correlation and statistically significance (p-value ≤ 0.05, the enviroment factors that correlated to phytoplankton DNA were pH, salinity and phosphate; explaining thus the variation of total phytoplankton in Durres Bay coastal waters.

  13. Probing the functional impact of sequence variation on p53-DNA interactions using a novel microsphere assay for protein-DNA binding with human cell extracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A Noureddine


    Full Text Available The p53 tumor suppressor regulates its target genes through sequence-specific binding to DNA response elements (REs. Although numerous p53 REs are established, the thousands more identified by bioinformatics are not easily subjected to comparative functional evaluation. To examine the relationship between RE sequence variation -- including polymorphisms -- and p53 binding, we have developed a multiplex format microsphere assay of protein-DNA binding (MAPD for p53 in nuclear extracts. Using MAPD we measured sequence-specific p53 binding of doxorubicin-activated or transiently expressed p53 to REs from established p53 target genes and p53 consensus REs. To assess the sensitivity and scalability of the assay, we tested 16 variants of the p21 target sequence and a 62-multiplex set of single nucleotide (nt variants of the p53 consensus sequence and found many changes in p53 binding that are not captured by current computational binding models. A group of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs was examined and binding profiles closely matched transactivation capability tested in luciferase constructs. The in vitro binding characteristics of p53 in nuclear extracts recapitulated the cellular in vivo transactivation capabilities for eight well-established human REs measured by luciferase assay. Using a set of 26 bona fide REs, we observed distinct binding patterns characteristic of transiently expressed wild type and mutant p53s. This microsphere assay system utilizes biologically meaningful cell extracts in a multiplexed, quantitative, in vitro format that provides a powerful experimental tool for elucidating the functional impact of sequence polymorphism and protein variation on protein/DNA binding in transcriptional networks.

  14. DNA Damage Follows Repair Factor Depletion and Portends Genome Variation in Cancer Cells after Pore Migration. (United States)

    Irianto, Jerome; Xia, Yuntao; Pfeifer, Charlotte R; Athirasala, Avathamsa; Ji, Jiazheng; Alvey, Cory; Tewari, Manu; Bennett, Rachel R; Harding, Shane M; Liu, Andrea J; Greenberg, Roger A; Discher, Dennis E


    Migration through micron-size constrictions has been seen to rupture the nucleus, release nuclear-localized GFP, and cause localized accumulations of ectopic 53BP1-a DNA repair protein. Here, constricted migration of two human cancer cell types and primary mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) increases DNA breaks throughout the nucleoplasm as assessed by endogenous damage markers and by electrophoretic "comet" measurements. Migration also causes multiple DNA repair proteins to segregate away from DNA, with cytoplasmic mis-localization sustained for many hours as is relevant to delayed repair. Partial knockdown of repair factors that also regulate chromosome copy numbers is seen to increase DNA breaks in U2OS osteosarcoma cells without affecting migration and with nucleoplasmic patterns of damage similar to constricted migration. Such depletion also causes aberrant levels of DNA. Migration-induced nuclear damage is nonetheless reversible for wild-type and sub-cloned U2OS cells, except for lasting genomic differences between stable clones as revealed by DNA arrays and sequencing. Gains and losses of hundreds of megabases in many chromosomes are typical of the changes and heterogeneity in bone cancer. Phenotypic differences that arise from constricted migration of U2OS clones are further illustrated by a clone with a highly elongated and stable MSC-like shape that depends on microtubule assembly downstream of the transcription factor GATA4. Such changes are consistent with reversion to a more stem-like state upstream of cancerous osteoblastic cells. Migration-induced genomic instability can thus associate with heritable changes.

  15. The hidden history of the snowshoe hare, Lepus americanus: extensive mitochondrial DNA introgression inferred from multilocus genetic variation. (United States)

    Melo-Ferreira, José; Seixas, Fernando A; Cheng, Ellen; Mills, L Scott; Alves, Paulo C


    Hybridization drives the evolutionary trajectory of many species or local populations, and assessing the geographic extent and genetic impact of interspecific gene flow may provide invaluable clues to understand population divergence or the adaptive relevance of admixture. In North America, hares (Lepus spp.) are key species for ecosystem dynamics and their evolutionary history may have been affected by hybridization. Here we reconstructed the speciation history of the three most widespread hares in North America - the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus), the white-tailed jackrabbit (L. townsendii) and the black-tailed jackrabbit (L. californicus) - by analysing sequence variation at eight nuclear markers and one mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) locus (6240 bp; 94 specimens). A multilocus-multispecies coalescent-based phylogeny suggests that L. americanus diverged ~2.7 Ma and that L. californicus and L. townsendii split more recently (~1.2 Ma). Within L. americanus, a deep history of cryptic divergence (~2.0 Ma) was inferred, which coincides with major speciation events in other North American species. While the isolation-with-migration model suggested that nuclear gene flow was generally rare or absent among species or major genetic groups, coalescent simulations of mtDNA divergence revealed historical mtDNA introgression from L. californicus into the Pacific Northwest populations of L. americanus. This finding marks a history of past reticulation between these species, which may have affected other parts of the genome and influence the adaptive potential of hares during climate change.

  16. Screening for K-Casein (CSN3 Gene Variation in Carpathian Goat Breed by Isoelectric focusing (IEF and DNA Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Valentin Balteanu


    Full Text Available In goats, k-casein (CSN3 locus is highly polymorphic with up to 16 allele currently characterized. They produce 13 protein variants (CSN3 that were classified in two groups (AIEF and BIEF, according to their isoelectric point. Isoelectric focusing (IEF of milk samples allows the detection of these two CSN3 groups, but for correct identification of CSN3 alleles DNA based genotyping methods are needed. Therefore the objective of this study was to identify the types of alleles occurring at the CSN3 locus in Carpathian goat breed by using a combined IEF and DNA sequencing approach. IEF analysis of milk samples collected from two Carpathian goat populations reared in Romania revealed two distinct CSN3 patterns. Amplification and sequencing of CSN3 cDNA obtained from these goats revealed four polymorphic sites located in the exon 4 that are responsible for amino acids substitutions, as compared with the reference sequence of A allele. By comparative analysis of IEF and cDNA sequencing data obtained from the two populations, we shown that AIEF alleles are represented by B allele, while BIEF alleles are represented by D allele. However, the variation of CSN3 locus in Carpathian goat breed could be more complex, therefore further studies are needed to characterize it.

  17. Multiple origins of cultivated radishes as evidenced by a comparison of the structural variations in mitochondrial DNA of Raphanus. (United States)

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Terachi, Toru


    Configurations of mitochondrial coxI and orfB gene regions were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in three wild and one cultivated species of Raphanus. A total of 207 individual plants from 60 accessions were used. PCR with five combinations of primers identified five different amplification patterns both in wild and cultivated radishes. While the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) type of Ogura male-sterile cytoplasm was distinguishable from the normal type, the mtDNAs of normal radishes were further classified into four types. The variations were common to wild and cultivated radishes, although contrasting features were found depending on the region of cultivation. These results provide evidence that cultivated radishes have multiple origins from various wild plants of Raphanus.

  18. ITS2-rDNA Sequence Variation of Phlebotomus sergenti s.l. (Dip: Psychodidae Populations in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Moin-Vaziri


    Full Text Available Background: Phlebotomus sergenti s.l. is considered the most likely vector of Leishmania tropica in Iran. Although two morphotypes- P. sergenti sergenti (A and P. sergenti similis (B-have been formally described, further morphologi­cal and a molecular analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtDNA-COI gene revealed inconsistencies and suggests that the variation between the morphotypes is intra-specific and the morphotypes might be identical species.Methods: We examined the sequence of the ITS2-rDNA of Iranian specimens of P. sergenti s.l., comprising P. cf ser­genti, P. cf similis, and intermediate morphotypes, together with available data in Genbank.Results: Sequence analysis showed 5.2% variation among P. sergenti s.l. morphotypes. Almost half of the variation was due to the number of an AT microsatellite repeats in the center of the spacer. Nine haplotypes were found in the spe­cies constructing three main lineages corresponding to the origin of the colonies located in southwest (SW, northeast (NE, and northwest-center-southeast (NCS. Lineages NCS and NE included both typical P. cf sergenti and P. cf similis and intermediate morphotypes.Conclusion: Phylogenetic sequence analysis revealed that, except for one Iranian sample, which was close to the European samples, other Iranian haplotypes were associated with the northeastern Mediterranean populations in­cluding Turkey, Cyprus, Syria, and Pakistan. Similar to the sequences of mtDNA COI gene, ITS2 sequences could not resolve P. sergenti from P. similis and did not support the possible existence of sibling species or subspecies within P. sergenti s.l..

  19. ITS2-rDNA Sequence Variation of Phlebotomus sergenti s.l. (Dip: Psychodidae) Populations in Iran (United States)

    Moin-Vaziri, Vahideh; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Derakhshandeh-Peykar, Pupak; Abaei, Mohammad Reza; Mohtarami, Fatemeh; Zahraei-Ramezani, Ali Reza; Nadim, Aboulhassan


    Background: Phlebotomus sergenti s.l. is considered the most likely vector of Leishmania tropica in Iran. Although two morphotypes- P. sergenti sergenti (A) and P. sergenti similis (B)-have been formally described, further morphological and a molecular analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtDNA-COI) gene revealed inconsistencies and suggests that the variation between the morphotypes is intraspecific and the morphotypes might be identical species. Methods: We examined the sequence of the ITS2-rDNA of Iranian specimens of P. sergenti s.l., comprising P. cf sergenti, P. cf similis, and intermediate morphotypes, together with available data in Genbank. Results: Sequence analysis showed 5.2% variation among P. sergenti s.l. morphotypes. Almost half of the variation was due to the number of an AT microsatellite repeats in the center of the spacer. Nine haplotypes were found in the species constructing three main lineages corresponding to the origin of the colonies located in southwest (SW), northeast (NE), and northwest-center-southeast (NCS). Lineages NCS and NE included both typical P. cf sergenti and P. cf similis and intermediate morphotypes. Conclusion: Phylogenetic sequence analysis revealed that, except for one Iranian sample, which was close to the European samples, other Iranian haplotypes were associated with the northeastern Mediterranean populations including Turkey, Cyprus, Syria, and Pakistan. Similar to the sequences of mtDNA COI gene, ITS2 sequences could not resolve P. sergenti from P. similis and did not support the possible existence of sibling species or subspecies within P. sergenti s.l.. PMID:28032098

  20. On the edge of Bantu expansions: mtDNA, Y chromosome and lactase persistence genetic variation in southwestern Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beleza Sandra


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current information about the expansion of Bantu-speaking peoples is hampered by the scarcity of genetic data from well identified populations from southern Africa. Here, we fill an important gap in the analysis of the western edge of the Bantu migrations by studying for the first time the patterns of Y-chromosome, mtDNA and lactase persistence genetic variation in four representative groups living around the Namib Desert in southwestern Angola (Ovimbundu, Ganguela, Nyaneka-Nkumbi and Kuvale. We assessed the differentiation between these populations and their levels of admixture with Khoe-San groups, and examined their relationship with other sub-Saharan populations. We further combined our dataset with previously published data on Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation to explore a general isolation with migration model and infer the demographic parameters underlying current genetic diversity in Bantu populations. Results Correspondence analysis, lineage sharing patterns and admixture estimates indicate that the gene pool from southwestern Angola is predominantly derived from West-Central Africa. The pastoralist Herero-speaking Kuvale people were additionally characterized by relatively high frequencies of Y-chromosome (12% and mtDNA (22% Khoe-San lineages, as well as by the presence of the -14010C lactase persistence mutation (6%, which likely originated in non-Bantu pastoralists from East Africa. Inferred demographic parameters show that both male and female populations underwent significant size growth after the split between the western and eastern branches of Bantu expansions occurring 4000 years ago. However, males had lower population sizes and migration rates than females throughout the Bantu dispersals. Conclusion Genetic variation in southwestern Angola essentially results from the encounter of an offshoot of West-Central Africa with autochthonous Khoisan-speaking peoples from the south. Interactions between the Bantus

  1. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation and haplogroup distribution in Chinese patients with LHON and m.14484T>C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON, MIM 535000 is one of the most common mitochondrial genetic disorders caused by three primary mtDNA mutations (m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A and m. 14484T>C. The clinical expression of LHON is affected by many additional factors, e.g. mtDNA background, nuclear genes, and environmental factors. Hitherto, there is no comprehensive study of Chinese LHON patients with m.14484T>C. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we analyzed the mtDNA sequence variations and haplogroup distribution pattern of the largest number of Chinese LHON patients with m.14484T>C to date. We first determined the complete mtDNA sequences in eleven LHON probands with m.14484T>C, to discern the potentially pathogenic mutations that co-segregate with m.14484T>C. We then dissected the matrilineal structure of 52 patients with m.14484T>C (including 14 from unrelated families and 38 sporadic cases and compared it with the reported Han Chinese from general populations. Complete mtDNA sequencing showed that the eleven matrilines belonged to nine haplogroups including Y2, C4a, M8a, M10a1a, G1a1, G2a1, G2b2, D5a2a1, and D5c. We did not identify putatively pathogenic mutation that was co-segregated with m.14484T>C in these lineages based on the evolutionary analysis. Compared with the reported Han Chinese from general populations, the LHON patients with m.14484T>C had significantly higher frequency of haplogroups C, G, M10, and Y, but a lower frequency of haplogroup F. Intriguingly, we also observed a lower prevalence of F lineages in LHON subjects with m.11778G>A in our previous study, suggesting that this haplogroup may enact similar role during the onset of LHON in the presence of m.14484T>C or m.11778G>A. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our current study provided a comprehensive profile regarding the mtDNA variation and background of Chinese patients with LHON and m.14484T>C. Matrilineal background might affect the expression of LHON

  2. AFLP and DNA sequence variation in an Andean domesticate, pepino (Solanum muricatum, Solanaceae): implications for evolution and domestication. (United States)

    Blanca, José M; Prohens, Jaime; Anderson, Gregory J; Zuriaga, Elena; Cañizares, Joaquín; Nuez, Fernando


    The pepino (Solanum muricatum) is a vegetatively propagated, domesticated native of the Andes, where it grows with wild relatives. We used AFLPs and a 1-kb sequence of the 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase gene to study variation of 27 accessions of S. muricatum and 35 collections of 10 species of wild relatives (Solanum section Basarthrum). A total of 298 AFLP fragments and 29 DNA sequence haplotypes were detected. Cluster and principal coordinate analyses and other genetic parameters estimated from both types of markers, show that S. muricatum is closely related to the species from one of the series (Caripensia) of section Basarthrum and that >90% of the variation of the cultigen is also represented in that series. Pepino is highly diverse, either because it is not monophyletic or it has been subjected to regular introgression with wild species, or both. Although a continuous distribution of the genetic variation occurred within the cultivated species, three genetic clusters were recognized. Cluster 1 is mostly centered in Ecuador, cluster 2 in Ecuador and Peru, and cluster 3 in Colombia and Ecuador. Cluster 3 also includes all modern cultivars studied. These results and other evidence suggest that northern Ecuador/southern Colombia is the main center of pepino diversity and the center of origin. The high genetic variation of this cultigen indicates that domestication does not always produce a genetic bottleneck.

  3. Flanking region variation of ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit STR and SNP loci in Yavapai Native Americans. (United States)

    Wendt, Frank R; King, Jonathan L; Novroski, Nicole M M; Churchill, Jennifer D; Ng, Jillian; Oldt, Robert F; McCulloh, Kelly L; Weise, Jessica A; Smith, David Glenn; Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan; Budowle, Bruce


    Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) offers advantages over current capillary electrophoresis-based analysis of short tandem repeat (STR) loci for human identification testing. In particular STR repeat motif sequence information can be obtained, thereby increasing the discrimination power of some loci. While sequence variation within the repeat region is observed relatively frequently in some of the commonly used STRs, there is an additional degree of variation found in the flanking regions adjacent to the repeat motif. Repeat motif and flanking region sequence variation have been described for major population groups, however, not for more isolated populations. Flanking region sequence variation in STR and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci in the Yavapai population was analyzed using the ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit and STRait Razor v2s. Seven and 14 autosomal STRs and identity-informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (iiSNPs), respectively, had some degree of flanking region variation. Three and four of these identity-informative loci, respectively, showed ≥5% increase in expected heterozygosity. The combined length- and sequence-based random match probabilities (RMPs) for 27 autosomal STRs were 6.11×10(-26) and 2.79×10(-29), respectively. When combined with 94 iiSNPs (a subset of which became microhaplotypes) the combined RMP was 5.49×10(-63). Analysis of length-based and sequence-based autosomal STRs in STRUCTURE indicated that the Yavapai are most similar to the Hispanic population. While producing minimal increase in X- and Y-STR discrimination potential, access to flanking region data enabled identification of one novel X-STR and three Y-STR alleles relative to previous reports. Five ancestry-informative SNPs (aiSNPs) and two phenotype-informative SNPs (piSNPs) exhibited notable flanking region variation.

  4. Discovery and genotyping of existing and induced DNA sequence variation in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitdewilligen, J.G.A.M.L.


    In this thesis natural and induced DNA sequence diversity in potato (Solanum tuberosum) for use in marker-trait analysis and potato breeding is assessed. The study addresses the challenges of reliable, high-throughput identification and genotyping of sequence variants in existing tetraploid potato c

  5. Methodological variations in the isolation of genomic DNA from Streptococcus bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Moreira


    Full Text Available In this work, genomic DNA of Streptococcus pyogenes, S. mutans and S. sobrinus was isolated using two methods: either using the detergent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB at 65ºC; or by applying ultrasound to a mixture of silica and celite in CTAB. The composite method that used ultrasound was the more efficient, allowing the straightforward extraction of genomic DNA from Gram-positive bacteria with good quality and reproducibility.O gênero Streptococcus encontra-se amplamente distribuído na natureza e algumas espécies constituem a microbiota humana da cavidade bucal, como Streptococcus pyogenes, que pode estar associado a importantes doenças humanas, Streptococcus mutans e Streptococcus sobrinus, relacionados à cárie dental. O DNA genômico destas três espécies foi isolado utilizando-se dois métodos, o primeiro utilizando o detergente brometo de cetiltrimetilamônio (CTAB à 65ºC e outro associando ultra-som a uma mistura de sílica e celite em CTAB. O método que possibilitou a extração do DNA genômico das bactérias Gram positivas, com qualidade, boa reprodutibilidade fácil execução foi aquele que utilizou ultra-som associado à sílica e celite em CTAB.

  6. Relationships in Ananas and other related genera using chloroplast DNA restriction site variation. (United States)

    Duval, M F; Buso, G S C; Ferreira, F R; Noyer, J L; Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge, G; Hamon, P; Ferreira, M E


    Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) diversity was examined using PCR-RFLP to study phylogenetic relationships in Ananas and related genera. One hundred fifteen accessions representing the seven Ananas species and seven other Bromelioideae including the neighboring monospecific genus Pseudananas, two Pitcairnioideae, and one Tillandsioideae were included in the study. Eight primers designed from cpDNA were used for generating fragments. Restriction by 18 endonucleases generated 255 variable fragments. Dissimilarities were calculated from the resulting matrix using the Sokal and Michener index and the neighbor-joining method was used to reconstruct the diversity tree. Phylogenetic reconstruction was attempted using Wagner parsimony. Phenetic and cladistic analyses gave consistent results. They confirm the basal position of Bromelia in the Bromelioideae. Ananas and Pseudananas form a monophyletic group, with three strongly supported sub-groups, two of which are geographically consistent. The majority of Ananas parguazensis accessions constitute a northern group restricted to the Rio Negro and Orinoco basins in Brazil. The tetraploid Pseudananas sagenarius joins the diploid Ananas fritzmuelleri to constitute a southern group. The third and largest group, which includes all remaining species plus some accessions of A. parguazensis and intermediate phenotypes, is the most widespread and its distribution overlaps those of the northern and southern groups. Ananas ananassoides is dominant in this sub-group and highly variable. Its close relationship to all cultivated species supports the hypothesis that this species is the wild ancestor of the domesticated pineapple. The data indicate that gene flow is common within this group and scarcer with both the first and second groups. Comparison of cpDNA data with published genomic DNA data point to the hybrid origin of Ananas bracteatus and support the autopolyploidy of Pseudananas. The Ananas-Pseudananas group structure and distribution are

  7. Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation in North Atlantic Long-Finned Pilot Whales, Globicephala melas (United States)


    australis) ( Schaeff et al. 1991), and spinner and spotted dolphins {Stenella longirostris and S. attenuata) (Dizon et al. 1991). Restriction enzyme...geographic scale, minke whale populations can be viewed as genetically distinct stocks. Schaeff et al. (1991) surveyed whole mtDNA from 10 northern and...San Diego. Ryder, O.A (1986). Species conservation and systematics: the dilemma of subspecies. Trends Ecol Evol 1: 9-10. Schaeff , C, Kraus, S

  8. Searching for the Optimal Sampling Solution: Variation in Invertebrate Communities, Sample Condition and DNA Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin M Gossner

    Full Text Available There is a great demand for standardising biodiversity assessments in order to allow optimal comparison across research groups. For invertebrates, pitfall or flight-interception traps are commonly used, but sampling solution differs widely between studies, which could influence the communities collected and affect sample processing (morphological or genetic. We assessed arthropod communities with flight-interception traps using three commonly used sampling solutions across two forest types and two vertical strata. We first considered the effect of sampling solution and its interaction with forest type, vertical stratum, and position of sampling jar at the trap on sample condition and community composition. We found that samples collected in copper sulphate were more mouldy and fragmented relative to other solutions which might impair morphological identification, but condition depended on forest type, trap type and the position of the jar. Community composition, based on order-level identification, did not differ across sampling solutions and only varied with forest type and vertical stratum. Species richness and species-level community composition, however, differed greatly among sampling solutions. Renner solution was highly attractant for beetles and repellent for true bugs. Secondly, we tested whether sampling solution affects subsequent molecular analyses and found that DNA barcoding success was species-specific. Samples from copper sulphate produced the fewest successful DNA sequences for genetic identification, and since DNA yield or quality was not particularly reduced in these samples additional interactions between the solution and DNA must also be occurring. Our results show that the choice of sampling solution should be an important consideration in biodiversity studies. Due to the potential bias towards or against certain species by Ethanol-containing sampling solution we suggest ethylene glycol as a suitable sampling solution when

  9. Variation of karyotype and nuclear DNA content among four species of Plectranthus L’ Héritier, 1788 (Lamiaceae) from Brazil (United States)

    Nani, Thaís Furtado; Mesquita, Amanda Teixeira; Bustamante, Fernanda de Oliveira; Barbosa, Sandro; Barbosa, João Vítor Calvelli; Davide, Lisete Chamma


    Abstract Plectranthus is a genus which includes species of ornamental and medicinal potential. It faces taxonomic problems due to aggregating species previously belonging to the genus Coleus, a fact that has contributed to the existence of various synonymies. The species Plectranthus amboinicus, Plectranthus barbatus, Plectranthus grandis and Plectranthus neochilus are included in this context. Some authors consider Plectranthus barbatus and Plectranthus grandis as synonyms. The present work was carried out with the aim of comparing plants of the above-mentioned species, originating from different localities in Brazil, with regards to chromosome number and karyotypic morphology, correlated to the nuclear DNA content. There was no variation in chromosome number among plants of the same species. Plectranthus amboinicus was the only species to exhibit 2n=34, whereas the others had 2n=30. No karyotypic differences were found among the plants of each species, except for Plectranthus barbatus. The plants of the Plectranthus species revealed little coincidence between chromosome pairs. The nuclear DNA content allowed grouping Plectranthus amboinicus and Plectranthus neochilus, with the highest mean values, and Plectranthus grandis and Plectranthus barbatus with the lowest ones. Differences in DNA amount among the plants were identified only for Plectranthus barbatus. These results allow the inference that the populations of Plectranthus amboinicus and Plectranthus neochilus present coincident karyotypes among their plants, and Plectranthus grandis is probably a synonym of Plectranthus barbatus. PMID:26753074

  10. Variation of karyotype and nuclear DNA content among four species of Plectranthus L' Héritier, 1788 (Lamiaceae) from Brazil. (United States)

    Nani, Thaís Furtado; Mesquita, Amanda Teixeira; Bustamante, Fernanda de Oliveira; Barbosa, Sandro; Barbosa, João Vítor Calvelli; Davide, Lisete Chamma


    Plectranthus is a genus which includes species of ornamental and medicinal potential. It faces taxonomic problems due to aggregating species previously belonging to the genus Coleus, a fact that has contributed to the existence of various synonymies. The species Plectranthus amboinicus, Plectranthus barbatus, Plectranthus grandis and Plectranthus neochilus are included in this context. Some authors consider Plectranthus barbatus and Plectranthus grandis as synonyms. The present work was carried out with the aim of comparing plants of the above-mentioned species, originating from different localities in Brazil, with regards to chromosome number and karyotypic morphology, correlated to the nuclear DNA content. There was no variation in chromosome number among plants of the same species. Plectranthus amboinicus was the only species to exhibit 2n=34, whereas the others had 2n=30. No karyotypic differences were found among the plants of each species, except for Plectranthus barbatus. The plants of the Plectranthus species revealed little coincidence between chromosome pairs. The nuclear DNA content allowed grouping Plectranthus amboinicus and Plectranthus neochilus, with the highest mean values, and Plectranthus grandis and Plectranthus barbatus with the lowest ones. Differences in DNA amount among the plants were identified only for Plectranthus barbatus. These results allow the inference that the populations of Plectranthus amboinicus and Plectranthus neochilus present coincident karyotypes among their plants, and Plectranthus grandis is probably a synonym of Plectranthus barbatus.

  11. Interindividual variation in DNA methylation at a putative POMC metastable epiallele is associated with obesity (United States)

    The estimated heritability of human BMI is close to 75%, but identified genetic variants explain only a small fraction of interindividual body-weight variation. Inherited epigenetic variants identified in mouse models named "metastable epialleles" could in principle explain this "missing heritabilit...

  12. Interaction between root-knot nematodes and Solanum spp. Variation in pathogenicity, cytology, proteins and DNA.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van der J.G.


    This thesis describes genetic variation in the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne hapla, M. chitwoodi and M. fallax, particularly with respect to their pathogenicity on Solanum spp. Significant differences in virulence and aggressiveness were shown to exist between and within these species. Evidence fo

  13. A pedigree-based study of mitochondrial D-loop DNA sequence variation among Arabian horses. (United States)

    Bowling, A T; Del Valle, A; Bowling, M


    Through DNA sequence comparisons of a mitochondrial D-loop hypervariable region, we investigated matrilineal diversity for Arabian horses in the United States. Sixty-two horses were tested. From published pedigrees they traced in the maternal line to 34 mares acquired primarily in the mid to late 19th century from nomadic Bedouin tribes. Compared with the reference sequence (GenBank X79547), these samples showed 27 haplotypes with altogether 31 base substitution sites within 397 bp of sequence. Based on examination of pedigrees from a random sampling of 200 horses in current studbooks of the Arabian Horse Registry of America, we estimated that this study defined the expected mtDNA haplotypes for at least 89% of Arabian horses registered in the US. The reliability of the studbook recorded maternal lineages of Arabian pedigrees was demonstrated by haplotype concordance among multiple samplings in 14 lines. Single base differences observed within two maternal lines were interpreted as representing alternative fixations of past heteroplasmy. The study also demonstrated the utility of mtDNA sequence studies to resolve historical maternity questions without access to biological material from the horses whose relationship was in question, provided that representatives of the relevant female lines were available for comparison. The data call into question the traditional assumption that Arabian horses of the same strain necessarily share a common maternal ancestry.

  14. Analysis of DNA methylation variation in wheat genetic background after alien chromatin introduction based on methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    During the process of alien germplasm introduced into wheat genome by chromosome engineering,extensive genetic variations of genome structure and gene expression in recipient could be induced.In this study,we performed GISH(genome in situ hybridization)and AFLP(amplified fragment length polymorphism) on wheat-rye chromosome transIocation lines and their parents to detect the identity in genomic structure of different translocation lines.The results showed that the genome primary structure variations were not obviously detected in different translocation lines except the same 1RS chromosome translocation.Methylation sensitive amplification polymorphism(MSAP)analyses on genomic DNA showed that the ratios of fully-methylated sites were significantly increased in translocation lines(CN12,20.15%;CN17,20.91%;CN18,22.42%),but the ratios of hemimethylated sites were significantly lowered(CN12,21.41%;CN17,23.43%;CN18,22.42%),whereas 16.37%were fully-methylated and 25.44%were hemimethylated in case of their wheat parent.Twenty-nine classes of methylation patterns were identified in a comparative assay of cytosine methylation patterns between wheat-rye translocation lines and their wheat parent,including 13 hypermethylation patterns(33.74%),9 demethylation patterns(22.76%)and 7 uncertain patterns(4.07%).In further sequence analysis,the alterations of methylation pattern affected both repetitive DNA sequences,such as retrotransposons and tandem repetitive sequences,and low-copy DNA.

  15. Low variation in ribosomal DNA and internal transcribed spacers of the symbiotic fungi of leaf-cutting ants (Attini: Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva-Pinhati A.C.O.


    Full Text Available Leaf-cutting ants of the genera Atta and Acromyrmex (tribe Attini are symbiotic with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Leucoagaricus (tribe Leucocoprineae, which they cultivate on vegetable matter inside their nests. We determined the variation of the 28S, 18S, and 5.8S ribosomal DNA (rDNA gene loci and the rapidly evolving internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2 of 15 sympatric and allopatric fungi associated with colonies of 11 species of leafcutter ants living up to 2,600 km apart in Brazil. We found that the fungal rDNA and ITS sequences from different species of ants were identical (or nearly identical to each other, whereas 10 GenBank Leucoagaricus species showed higher ITS variation. Our findings suggest that Atta and Acromyrmex leafcutters living in geographic sites that are very distant from each other cultivate a single fungal species made up of closely related lineages of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. We discuss the strikingly high similarity in the ITS1 and ITS2 regions of the Atta and Acromyrmex symbiotic L. gongylophorus studied by us, in contrast to the lower similarity displayed by their non-symbiotic counterparts. We suggest that the similarity of our L. gongylophorus isolates is an indication of the recent association of the fungus with these ants, and propose that both the intense lateral transmission of fungal material within leafcutter nests and the selection of more adapted fungal strains are involved in the homogenization of the symbiotic fungal stock.

  16. Random amplified polymorphic DNA and amplified fragment length polymorphism assessment of genetic variation in Nicaraguan populations of Pinus oocarpa. (United States)

    Díaz, V; Muñiz, L M; Ferrer, E


    Pinus oocarpa is the most widely distributed pine species of Mexico and Central America. The natural populations of Nicaragua have been affected by extensive human activities. As a consequence, their size has been reduced, and there is a serious threat to the development of mature woodland. Knowledge of population structures and the genetic diversity of the species is required for the design of sustainable use and conservation strategies. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to assess the genetic variation among 10 populations from three geographical regions of Nicaragua. Both markers revealed high levels of diversity in these populations. G(ST) values and analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA) found that most variation was within populations but there is still a significant differentiation between populations indicating that the populations sampled cannot be considered a single panmictic unit. The partitions created by AMOVA also showed that there was little differentiation between populations of different regions, although cluster analyses based on RAPDs and AFLPs indicated a closer relationship among most of the populations from a same geographical region. Management of P. oocarpa in Nicaragua should be aimed to maintain the high degree of genetic variation within individual populations that is still observed even in some of these highly degraded populations.

  17. DNA variation of the mammalian major histocompatibility complex reflects genomic diversity and population history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuhki, Naoya; O' Brien, S.J. (National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD (USA))


    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a multigene complex of tightly linked homologous genes that encode cell surface antigens that play a key role in immune regulation and response to foreign antigens. In most species, MHC gene products display extreme antigenic polymorphism, and their variability has been interpreted to reflect an adaptive strategy for accommodating rapidly evolving infectious agents that periodically afflict natural populations. Determination of the extent of MHC variation has been limited to populations in which skin grafting is feasible or for which serological reagents have been developed. The authors present here a quantitative analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism of MHC class I genes in several mammalian species (cats, rodents, humans) known to have very different levels of genetic diversity based on functional MHC assays and on allozyme surveys. When homologous class I probes were employed, a notable concordance was observed between the extent of MHC restriction fragment variation and functional MHC variation detected by skin grafts or genome-wide diversity estimated by allozyme screens. These results confirm the genetically depauperate character of the African cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, and the Asiatic lion, Panthera leo persica; further, they support the use of class I MHC molecular reagents in estimating the extent and character of genetic diversity in natural populations.

  18. DNA variation in myoMIRs of the 1, 133, and 208 families in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. Corao


    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNAs that bind to mRNAs and regulate gene expression. MyoMirs are miRNAs implicated in cardiogenesis. Some MyoMirs have been found deregulated in hearts from patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH. DNA variants at these miRNAs could contribute to the risk of developing hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM. To test this hypothesis we used single strand conformation analysis and direct sequencing to search for DNA variants in the mir-208a, miR-208b, miR-133a-1, miR-133a-2, miR-133b, miR-1-1, and miR-1-2 genes in patients with HCM (n=245, LVH secondary to hypertension (n=120, and healthy controls (n=250. We found several nucleotide variants. Genotyping of patients and healthy controls showed significantly associations between a 133a-1 polymorphism and HCM and a 133b polymorphism and hypertensive- LVH. We concluded that rare variants in these mature miRNAs would be rarely found among HCM patients, but miR-133a-1 and 133b polymorphisms could contribute to the risk of developing cardiac hypertrophy.

  19. Genetic structure of Xiphinema pachtaicum and X. index populations based on mitochondrial DNA variation. (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Carlos; Castillo, Pablo; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Carolina; Landa, Blanca B; Derycke, Sofie; Palomares-Rius, Juan E


    The dagger nematodes Xiphinema pachtaicum and X. index are two of the most widespread and frequently occurring Xiphinema spp. co-infesting vineyards and other crops and natural habitats worldwide. Sexual reproduction is rare in these species. The primary objective of this study was to determine the genetic structure of X. pachtaicum and X. index populations using eight and seven populations, respectively, from different "wine of denomination of origin (D.O.) zones" in Spain and Sardinia (Italy), by studying mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 or COI) and nuclear (D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rDNA) markers. Both Xiphinema spp. showed low intraspecific divergence among COI sequences, ranging from 0.2% (1 base substitution) to 2.3% (10 substitutions) in X. pachtaicum and from 0.2% (1 base substitution) to 0.4% (2 substitutions) in X. index. Population genetic structure was strong for both species. Nevertheless, molecular differences among grapevine-growing areas were not significant, and intrapopulation diversity was very low. It is hypothesized that this genetic homogeneity in the nematode populations reflects their predominant parthenogenetic reproduction mode and low dispersal abilities. Our results also show that X. pachtaicum populations in Spain have possibly been established from two different populations of origin. Results also demonstrated that the two DNA regions studied are suitable diagnostic markers for X. index and X. pachtaicum.

  20. A Bayesian Analysis for Identifying DNA Copy Number Variations Using a Compound Poisson Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiğiter Ayten


    Full Text Available To study chromosomal aberrations that may lead to cancer formation or genetic diseases, the array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH technique is often used for detecting DNA copy number variants (CNVs. Various methods have been developed for gaining CNVs information based on aCGH data. However, most of these methods make use of the log-intensity ratios in aCGH data without taking advantage of other information such as the DNA probe (e.g., biomarker positions/distances contained in the data. Motivated by the specific features of aCGH data, we developed a novel method that takes into account the estimation of a change point or locus of the CNV in aCGH data with its associated biomarker position on the chromosome using a compound Poisson process. We used a Bayesian approach to derive the posterior probability for the estimation of the CNV locus. To detect loci of multiple CNVs in the data, a sliding window process combined with our derived Bayesian posterior probability was proposed. To evaluate the performance of the method in the estimation of the CNV locus, we first performed simulation studies. Finally, we applied our approach to real data from aCGH experiments, demonstrating its applicability.

  1. Variation induced by DNA rearrangement in a transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In the development of transgenic Bt + CpTI cotton cultivars, one male and female sterile mutant has been found in a homozygous T4 strain in our laboratory. The mutant plant, as well as its leaves, buds and flowers, is only 1/2-1/3 as large as that of the wild transgenic Bt + CpTI bivalant cotton plants. Cytological observation found that the chromosome number of the mutant is 2n = 52; however, there are 4 - 8 univalents observed in meiosis Ⅰ of pollen mother cells. Laboratory bioassay indicated that the mutant was highly resistant to bollworm as the wild plants. PCR amplification revealed that Bt and CpTI genes in the mutant were still intactly inserted. However, small deletion of flanked area had been observed in the mutant by Southern blotting analysis. So it is proposed that the mutant phenotype might result from either the DNA deletion or T-DNA trans-ferring in plant genome. No such report has been presented that the rearrangement of chromosome structure in a homo-zygous transgenic line occurred. Further analysis is ongoing.

  2. Detection of genomic variation by selection of a 9 mb DNA region and high throughput sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I Nikolaev

    Full Text Available Detection of the rare polymorphisms and causative mutations of genetic diseases in a targeted genomic area has become a major goal in order to understand genomic and phenotypic variability. We have interrogated repeat-masked regions of 8.9 Mb on human chromosomes 21 (7.8 Mb and 7 (1.1 Mb from an individual from the International HapMap Project (NA12872. We have optimized a method of genomic selection for high throughput sequencing. Microarray-based selection and sequencing resulted in 260-fold enrichment, with 41% of reads mapping to the target region. 83% of SNPs in the targeted region had at least 4-fold sequence coverage and 54% at least 15-fold. When assaying HapMap SNPs in NA12872, our sequence genotypes are 91.3% concordant in regions with coverage > or = 4-fold, and 97.9% concordant in regions with coverage > or = 15-fold. About 81% of the SNPs recovered with both thresholds are listed in dbSNP. We observed that regions with low sequence coverage occur in close proximity to low-complexity DNA. Validation experiments using Sanger sequencing were performed for 46 SNPs with 15-20 fold coverage, with a confirmation rate of 96%, suggesting that DNA selection provides an accurate and cost-effective method for identifying rare genomic variants.

  3. Structural variation in the chicken genome identified by paired-end next-generation DNA sequencing of reduced representation libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okimoto Ron


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation within individual genomes ranges from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs to kilobase, and even megabase, sized structural variants (SVs, such as deletions, insertions, inversions, and more complex rearrangements. Although much is known about the extent of SVs in humans and mice, species in which they exert significant effects on phenotypes, very little is known about the extent of SVs in the 2.5-times smaller and less repetitive genome of the chicken. Results We identified hundreds of shared and divergent SVs in four commercial chicken lines relative to the reference chicken genome. The majority of SVs were found in intronic and intergenic regions, and we also found SVs in the coding regions. To identify the SVs, we combined high-throughput short read paired-end sequencing of genomic reduced representation libraries (RRLs of pooled samples from 25 individuals and computational mapping of DNA sequences from a reference genome. Conclusion We provide a first glimpse of the high abundance of small structural genomic variations in the chicken. Extrapolating our results, we estimate that there are thousands of rearrangements in the chicken genome, the majority of which are located in non-coding regions. We observed that structural variation contributes to genetic differentiation among current domesticated chicken breeds and the Red Jungle Fowl. We expect that, because of their high abundance, SVs might explain phenotypic differences and play a role in the evolution of the chicken genome. Finally, our study exemplifies an efficient and cost-effective approach for identifying structural variation in sequenced genomes.

  4. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation and phylogeography of Neotropic pumas (Puma concolor). (United States)

    Caragiulo, Anthony; Dias-Freedman, Isabela; Clark, J Alan; Rabinowitz, Salisa; Amato, George


    Pumas occupy the largest latitudinal range of any New World terrestrial mammal. Human population growth and associated habitat reduction has reduced their North American range by nearly two-thirds, but the impact of human expansion in Central and South America on puma populations is not clear. We examined mitochondrial DNA diversity of pumas across the majority of their range, with a focus on Central and South America. Four mitochondrial gene regions (1140 base pairs) revealed 16 unique haplotypes differentiating pumas into three geographic groupings: North America, Central America and South America. These groups were highly differentiated as indicated by significant pairwise FST values. North American samples were genetically homogenous compared to Central and South American samples, and South American pumas were the most diverse and ancestral. These findings support an earlier hypothesis that North America was recolonized by founding pumas from Central and South America.

  5. Uptake of copper ion by activated sludge and its bacterial community variation analyzed by 16S rDNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The effect and uptake of copper ion on SBR(sequence batch reactor) biological treatment system was studied in this paper. Special nutrient and powder activated carbon(PAC) additive were tested as uptake stimulation technique. Results showed that copper ion had higher effect on unacclimated activated sludge system than on acclimated one. The special nutrient adding could enhance the uptake of copper significantly, while PAC adding could improve the sludge settling and decrease the turbidity of effluent. The variation of bacterial community analyzed by 16S rDNA method showed the acclimation of copper could increase copper resistance species, and excess accumulation could cause some species diminish. It was confirmed that acclimation could improve the resistance and uptake ability of microorganism to heavy metal.

  6. History of click-speaking populations of Africa inferred from mtDNA and Y chromosome genetic variation. (United States)

    Tishkoff, Sarah A; Gonder, Mary Katherine; Henn, Brenna M; Mortensen, Holly; Knight, Alec; Gignoux, Christopher; Fernandopulle, Neil; Lema, Godfrey; Nyambo, Thomas B; Ramakrishnan, Uma; Reed, Floyd A; Mountain, Joanna L


    Little is known about the history of click-speaking populations in Africa. Prior genetic studies revealed that the click-speaking Hadza of eastern Africa are as distantly related to click speakers of southern Africa as are most other African populations. The Sandawe, who currently live within 150 km of the Hadza, are the only other population in eastern Africa whose language has been classified as part of the Khoisan language family. Linguists disagree on whether there is any detectable relationship between the Hadza and Sandawe click languages. We characterized both mtDNA and Y chromosome variation of the Sandawe, Hadza, and neighboring Tanzanian populations. New genetic data show that the Sandawe and southern African click speakers share rare mtDNA and Y chromosome haplogroups; however, common ancestry of the 2 populations dates back >35,000 years. These data also indicate that common ancestry of the Hadza and Sandawe populations dates back >15,000 years. These findings suggest that at the time of the spread of agriculture and pastoralism, the click-speaking populations were already isolated from one another and are consistent with relatively deep linguistic divergence among the respective click languages.

  7. Chloroplast DNA variation and phylogeography of Ligularia tongolensis (Asteraceae), a species endemic to the Hengduan Mountains region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Feng WANG; Yue-Zhi PAN; Xun GONG; Yu-Chung CHIANG; Chiaki KURODA


    In this research, we aimed to study the genetic variation and phylogeographic pattern of Ligularia tongolensis, a perennial herb endemic to the Hengduan Mountains region of China. We sequenced two chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) intergenic spacers (trnQ-5'rps 16, trnL-rpl32) in 140 individuals from 14 populations of three groups (Jinshajiang vs. Yalongjiang vs. Wumeng) within this species range. High levels of haplotype diversity (Hd= 0.814)and total genetic diversity (Ht = 0.862) were detected at the species level, based on a total of 12 haplotypes identified.Low levels of intrapopulation diversity (Hs = 0.349), high levels of genetic divergence (Gst = 0.595, Nst = 0.614,Fst = 0.597), and the absence of isolation by distance tests were also found in L. tongolensis. Furthermore, H2 and H5, the dominant haplotypes that located at internal nodes and deviated from extinct ancestral haplotype in the network, were found to be shared between Jinshajiang and Yalongjiang groups. These results indicate that past fragmentation may be the important factor responsible for the present phylogeographical pattern of L. tongolensis.Meanwhile, the locations occupied by each group might have served as independent refugia for L. tongolensis during the Quaternary glaciation. Unimodal mismatch distribution and star-like genealogies indicated this species underwent past demographic expansion events, with expansion ages of 274 ka BP.

  8. Application of DNA fingerprinting with digoxigenated oligonucleotide probe (CAC)5 to analysis of the genetic variation within Taenia taeniaeformis. (United States)

    Okamoto, M; Ueda, H; Hayashi, M; Oku, Y; Kurosawa, T; Kamiya, M


    DNA from T. taeniaeformis digested with the restriction endonuclease was hybridized with digoxigenated oligonucleotide probe (CAC)5. Metacestode and adult showed same clear multibanding patterns, which were characteristic of multilocus DNA fingerprinting. The fingerprinting patterns were quite different from those of the rodent hosts. Genetic variations in 4 laboratory-reared isolates of T. taeniaeformis, including 3 isolates which have been reported to be indistinguishable by infectivity, morphology and protein composition of metacestode, were investigated using this technique. Each of the 4 isolates exhibited isolate-specific fingerprinting patterns and were easily distinguished from one another, thus it was considered that (CAC)5 was a highly resolvable and informative probe for cestodes. However, it was also indicated that (CAC)5 was so sensitive that applying fingerprinting with (CAC)5 to taxonomical or phylogenetic analysis was limited where habitat of the host was restricted to the small area. In comparison to fingerprinting with 32P-labeled (CAC)5, fingerprinting with digoxigenated (CAC)5 represented more and sharper bands. It was considered that a digoxigenated probe was more useful for genetic analysis of cestodes.

  9. Phylogeography of Cyananthus delavayi (Campanulaceae) in Hengduan Mountains inferred from variation in nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Dong LI; Liang-Liang YUE; Hang SUN; Zi-Gang QIAN


    Phylogeographic studies on alpine plants endemic to the Hengduan Mountains of the southeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are still limited in number.In this study,we used sequence variation of one nuclear gene (ncpGS,which encodes the chloroplastic glutamine synthetase) and in two chloroplast DNA segments to investigate the phylogeographic structure and population demographic history of Cyananthus delavayi,a narrow-range species endemic to this region.We identified eight chlorotypes and 16 nuclear genotypes in a survey of 10 populations sampled throughout the range of the species.The results of both phylogenetic and network analyses suggested that the genealogical relationships of both chlorotypes and nuclear genotypes showed a clear geographical correlation.High total genetic diversity,low levels of within-population diversity,and strong population differentiation (chloroplast DNA:hT =0.827,hS =0.087,NST =0.899,GST =0.895; nuclear DNA:hT =0.910,hS =0.348,NST =0719,GST =0.618) were identified.Based on the mismatch distribution analyses,no evidence of recent demographic population expansion was found for this species.Nested clade analyses of both chlorotypes and nuclear genotypes indicated that restricted gene flow resulting from isolation by distance and allopatrc fragmentation were likely to have been the major processes that shaped their present-day spatial distribution.Our dating of the genetic divergences between three major geographic lineages suggested that the largest glaciation of the early Quaternary developed in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and mountainous isolation may have together led to deep intraspecific vicariance within this species.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA variation in space and time in the northeastern Pacific gastropod, Littorina keenae. (United States)

    Lee, Hyuk Je; Boulding, Elizabeth G


    The present population structure of a species reflects the influence of population history as well as contemporary processes. To examine the relative importance of these factors in shaping the current population structure of Littorina keenae, we sequenced 762 base pairs of the mitochondrial ND6 and cytochrome b genes in 584 snails from 13 sites along the northeastern Pacific coast. Haplotype network analysis revealed a 'star-like' genealogy indicative of a recent population expansion. Nested clade and mismatch analyses also supported the hypothesis of sudden population expansion following a population bottleneck during the Last Glacial Maximum. Analysis of molecular variance and pairwise Phi(ST) showed no significant spatial population differentiation from Mexico to Oregon - not even across the recognized biogeographic boundary at Point Conception. This is probably due to high contemporary gene flow during the free-swimming larval stage of this snail. Surprisingly, we found a highly significant temporal population differentiation between a San Pedro sample from 1996 and one from 2005, which gave an estimate of effective population size (N(e)) of only 135. Nearly statistically significant changes in the frequency of a particular haplotype in three other populations over 2-3 years further support Hedgecock's 'sweepstakes' hypothesis. When by chance nearly all of the progeny from an aggregation of highly fecund sisters that possess a rare haplotype successfully recruit to become the next generation, the rare haplotype can become temporarily common across the entire species' range. This modification of the sweepstakes hypothesis can explain why the temporal variation that we observed was much greater than the spatial variation.

  11. Identification of staphylococcal species based on variations in protein sequences (mass spectrometry) and DNA sequence (sodA microarray). (United States)

    Kooken, Jennifer; Fox, Karen; Fox, Alvin; Altomare, Diego; Creek, Kim; Wunschel, David; Pajares-Merino, Sara; Martínez-Ballesteros, Ilargi; Garaizar, Javier; Oyarzabal, Omar; Samadpour, Mansour


    This report is among the first using sequence variation in newly discovered protein markers for staphylococcal (or indeed any other bacterial) speciation. Variation, at the DNA sequence level, in the sodA gene (commonly used for staphylococcal speciation) provided excellent correlation. Relatedness among strains was also assessed using protein profiling using microcapillary electrophoresis and pulsed field electrophoresis. A total of 64 strains were analyzed including reference strains representing the 11 staphylococcal species most commonly isolated from man (Staphylococcus aureus and 10 coagulase negative species [CoNS]). Matrix assisted time of flight ionization/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC ESI MS/MS) were used for peptide analysis of proteins isolated from gel bands. Comparison of experimental spectra of unknowns versus spectra of peptides derived from reference strains allowed bacterial identification after MALDI TOF MS analysis. After LC-MS/MS analysis of gel bands bacterial speciation was performed by comparing experimental spectra versus virtual spectra using the software X!Tandem. Finally LC-MS/MS was performed on whole proteomes and data analysis also employing X!tandem. Aconitate hydratase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase served as marker proteins on focused analysis after gel separation. Alternatively on full proteomics analysis elongation factor Tu generally provided the highest confidence in staphylococcal speciation.

  12. Genetic variations of Lansium domesticum Corr. accessions from Java, Sumatra and Ceram based on Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA fingerprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Yulita KS (2011 Genetic variations of Lansium domesticum Corr. accessions from Java, Bengkulu and Ceram based on Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA fingerprints. Biodiversitas 12: 125-130. Duku (Lansium domesticum Corr. is one of popular tropical fruits in SE Asia. The spesies has three varieties, known as duku, langsat and kokosan; and duku is the most popular one for being the sweetiest fruit. Indonesia has several local varieties of duku, such as duku Condet, duku Sumber and duku Palembang. This present study aimed to assess genetic diversity of 47 accessions of duku from Java, Sumatra, and Ceram based on RAPD fingerprints. Ten RAPD’s primers were initially screened and five were selected for the analysis. These five primers (OPA 7, 13, 18, OPB 7, and OPN 12 generated 53 scorable bands with an average of 10.6 polymorphic fragment per primer. Percentage of polymorphism ranged from 16.89% (OPA 7 and OPN 12 to 24.54% (OPB 7 with an average of 20.16% polymorphism. OPB 7 at 450 bp was exclusively possessed by accession 20 (Java, OPA 18 at 500 bp was by accession 6 (Java, 550 bp by 3 clones from Bengkulu. While OPN 12 at 300 bp and OPA 13 at 450 bp were shared among the accessions. Clustering analysis was performed based on RAPD profiles using the UPGMA method. The range of genetic similarity value among accessions was 0.02-0.65 suggesting high variation of gene pool existed among accessions.

  13. Phylogenetic Relationships of the Mangalitsa Swine Breed Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Emil Georgescu


    Full Text Available The Mangalitsa pig, a swine breed belonging to the protected gene fund of original and primitive animal breeds of the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization, has been known to inhabit Romanian territories since the 19th century. The aim of this study was to compare the Mangalitsa breed with several European and Asiatic swine breeds in order to emphasize its uniqueness and to elucidate its origin. For this purpose, we analyzed a 613 bp mitochondrial DNA D-loop fragment and 1140 bp of the cytochrome b gene in a population of Mangalitsa pigs and the polymorphic sites were compared with sequences from GenBank originating from other swine breeds. Taking into account the total of 24 breeds and 5 different Wild Boar populations analyzed, 86 polymorphic sites representing 32 haplotypes were observed, with an average percentage of polymorphic sites of 4.9%. Three Neighbor-Joining phylogenetic trees were constructed based on Kimura 2-parameter distances, using D-loop, cytochrome b and mitochondrial reunited sequences. For the analyzed Mangalitsa population, four distinct haplotypes were identified, including one that was common to other breeds. Our study suggests that the Mangalitsa swine originate from primitive breeds which might be directly derived from the Wild Boar.

  14. Investigating the potential role of genetic and epigenetic variation of DNA methyltransferase genes in hyperplastic polyposis syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Drini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperplastic Polyposis Syndrome (HPS is a condition associated with multiple serrated polyps, and an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC. At least half of CRCs arising in HPS show a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP, potentially linked to aberrant DNA methyltransferase (DNMT activity. CIMP is associated with methylation of tumor suppressor genes including regulators of DNA mismatch repair (such as MLH1, MGMT, and negative regulators of Wnt signaling (such as WIF1. In this study, we investigated the potential for interaction of genetic and epigenetic variation in DNMT genes, in the aetiology of HPS. METHODS: We utilized high resolution melting (HRM analysis to screen 45 cases with HPS for novel sequence variants in DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, and DNMT3L. 21 polyps from 13 patients were screened for BRAF and KRAS mutations, with assessment of promoter methylation in the DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, DNMT3L MLH1, MGMT, and WIF1 gene promoters. RESULTS: No pathologic germline mutations were observed in any DNA-methyltransferase gene. However, the T allele of rs62106244 (intron 10 of DNMT1 gene was over-represented in cases with HPS (p<0.01 compared with population controls. The DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B promoters were unmethylated in all instances. Interestingly, the DNMT3L promoter showed low levels of methylation in polyps and normal colonic mucosa relative to matched disease free cells with methylation level negatively correlated to expression level in normal colonic tissue. DNMT3L promoter hypomethylation was more often found in polyps harbouring KRAS mutations (p = 0.0053. BRAF mutations were common (11 out of 21 polyps, whilst KRAS mutations were identified in 4 of 21 polyps. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic or epigenetic alterations in DNMT genes do not appear to be associated with HPS, but further investigation of genetic variation at rs62106244 is justified given the high frequency of the minor allele in this case series.

  15. mtDNA variation in East Africa unravels the history of Afro-Asiatic groups. (United States)

    Boattini, Alessio; Castrì, Loredana; Sarno, Stefania; Useli, Antonella; Cioffi, Manuela; Sazzini, Marco; Garagnani, Paolo; De Fanti, Sara; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata


    East Africa (EA) has witnessed pivotal steps in the history of human evolution. Due to its high environmental and cultural variability, and to the long-term human presence there, the genetic structure of modern EA populations is one of the most complicated puzzles in human diversity worldwide. Similarly, the widespread Afro-Asiatic (AA) linguistic phylum reaches its highest levels of internal differentiation in EA. To disentangle this complex ethno-linguistic pattern, we studied mtDNA variability in 1,671 individuals (452 of which were newly typed) from 30 EA populations and compared our data with those from 40 populations (2970 individuals) from Central and Northern Africa and the Levant, affiliated to the AA phylum. The genetic structure of the studied populations--explored using spatial Principal Component Analysis and Model-based clustering--turned out to be composed of four clusters, each with different geographic distribution and/or linguistic affiliation, and signaling different population events in the history of the region. One cluster is widespread in Ethiopia, where it is associated with different AA-speaking populations, and shows shared ancestry with Semitic-speaking groups from Yemen and Egypt and AA-Chadic-speaking groups from Central Africa. Two clusters included populations from Southern Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania. Despite high and recent gene-flow (Bantu, Nilo-Saharan pastoralists), one of them is associated with a more ancient AA-Cushitic stratum. Most North-African and Levantine populations (AA-Berber, AA-Semitic) were grouped in a fourth and more differentiated cluster. We therefore conclude that EA genetic variability, although heavily influenced by migration processes, conserves traces of more ancient strata.

  16. Tissue-specific variation in DNA methylation levels along human chromosome 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Bustos Cecilia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification important for regulating gene expression and suppressing spurious transcription. Most methods to scan the genome in different tissues for differentially methylated sites have focused on the methylation of CpGs in CpG islands, which are concentrations of CpGs often associated with gene promoters. Results Here, we use a methylation profiling strategy that is predominantly responsive to methylation differences outside of CpG islands. The method compares the yield from two samples of size-selected fragments generated by a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme. We then profile nine different normal tissues from two human donors relative to spleen using a custom array of genomic clones covering the euchromatic portion of human chromosome 1 and representing 8% of the human genome. We observe gross regional differences in methylation states across chromosome 1 between tissues from the same individual, with the most striking differences detected in the comparison of cerebellum and spleen. Profiles of the same tissue from different donors are strikingly similar, as are the profiles of different lobes of the brain. Comparing our results with published gene expression levels, we find that clones exhibiting extreme ratios reflecting low relative methylation are statistically enriched for genes with high expression ratios, and vice versa, in most pairs of tissues examined. Conclusion The varied patterns of methylation differences detected between tissues by our methylation profiling method reinforce the potential functional significance of regional differences in methylation levels outside of CpG islands.

  17. SeqAnt: A web service to rapidly identify and annotate DNA sequence variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Viren


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The enormous throughput and low cost of second-generation sequencing platforms now allow research and clinical geneticists to routinely perform single experiments that identify tens of thousands to millions of variant sites. Existing methods to annotate variant sites using information from publicly available databases via web browsers are too slow to be useful for the large sequencing datasets being routinely generated by geneticists. Because sequence annotation of variant sites is required before functional characterization can proceed, the lack of a high-throughput pipeline to efficiently annotate variant sites can act as a significant bottleneck in genetics research. Results SeqAnt (Sequence Annotator is an open source web service and software package that rapidly annotates DNA sequence variants and identifies recessive or compound heterozygous loci in human, mouse, fly, and worm genome sequencing experiments. Variants are characterized with respect to their functional type, frequency, and evolutionary conservation. Annotated variants can be viewed on a web browser, downloaded in a tab-delimited text file, or directly uploaded in a BED format to the UCSC genome browser. To demonstrate the speed of SeqAnt, we annotated a series of publicly available datasets that ranged in size from 37 to 3,439,107 variant sites. The total time to completely annotate these data completely ranged from 0.17 seconds to 28 minutes 49.8 seconds. Conclusion SeqAnt is an open source web service and software package that overcomes a critical bottleneck facing research and clinical geneticists using second-generation sequencing platforms. SeqAnt will prove especially useful for those investigators who lack dedicated bioinformatics personnel or infrastructure in their laboratories.

  18. Variations of 18S rDNA Loci Among Six Populations of Paeonia obovata Maxim. (Paeoniaceae) Revealed by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Luo; Chao Wang; Daming Zhang


    The localization of 18S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) had been performed for some species of Paeonia. However, the pattern of 18S rDNA loci among populations is indistinct. In the present study, we localized 18S rDNA loci on meiotic or mitotic chromosomes of six populations of Paeonia obovata Maxim. (Paeoniaceae). Different numbers of rDNA loci were found with different diploid (2n=10) populations, namely eight (Lushi and Mt. Jiuhua populations), 10 (Mt. Taibai population), and seven (Mt. Guandi population), whereas tetraploid (2n=20) populations were all found with 16 loci. All rDNA loci were mapped near telomeres of mitotic chromosomes and there was no chromosome with two loci. The present results show that molecular cytological polymorphism exists among P. obovata diploid populations, indicating that structural variations occurred frequently during the evolutionary history of this species, accompanied with differentiation among populations.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA Variation Among Populations of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) From Pakistan (United States)

    Yasin, Muhammad; Rugman-Jones, Paul F.; Wakil, Waqas; Stouthamer, Richard


    The Red Palm Weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) is a voracious pest of palm species. In recent decades its range has expanded greatly, particularly impacting the date palm industry in the Middle East. This has led to conjecture regarding the origins of invasive RPW populations. For example, in parts of the Middle East, RPW is commonly referred to as the “Pakistani weevil” in the belief that it originated there. We sought evidence to support or refute this belief. First reports of RPW in Pakistan were from the Punjab region in 1918, but it is unknown whether it is native or invasive there. We estimated genetic variation across five populations of RPW from two provinces of Pakistan, using sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Four haplotypes were detected; two (H1 and H5) were abundant, accounting for 88% of specimens across the sampled populations, and were previously known from the Middle East. The remaining haplotypes (H51 and H52) were newly detected (in global terms) and there was no geographic overlap in their distribution within Pakistan. Levels of haplotype diversity were much lower than those previously recorded in accepted parts of the native range of RPW, suggesting that the weevil may be invasive in Pakistan. The affinity of Pakistani haplotypes to those reported from India (and the geographical proximity of the two countries), make the latter a likely “native” source. With regards the validity of the name “Pakistani weevil”, we found little genetic evidence to justify it. PMID:27651423

  20. Familial mild hyperglycemia associated with a novel ABCC8-V84I mutation within three generations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonsorcikova, L.; Vaxillaire, M.; Pruhova, S.;


    -friendly sensibilities and ambiences of her audience, and portrayed the city in troublesome ways. The enduring success of the Little House for young audiences and commercially suggests that Burton struck a chord. Burton’s origins and upbringing probably also infused her depiction of a cosmopolitan rural idealism. Burton...

  1. The spectrum of ABCC8 mutations in Norwegian patients with congenital hyperinsulinism of infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, T; Laborie, L B; Brusgaard, K;


    Potassium channels in the plasma membrane of the pancreatic beta cells are critical in maintaining glucose homeostasis by responding to ATP and coupling metabolic changes to insulin secretion. These channels consist of subunits denoted the sulfonylurea receptor SUR1 and the inwardly rectifying ion...


    Two synthetic tandem repetitive DNA probes were used to compare genetic variation at variable-number-tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci among Rubus idaeus L. var. strigosus (Michx.) Maxim. (Rosaceae) individuals sampled at eight sites contaminated by pollutants (N = 39) and eight adjacent...

  3. DNA-sequence variation among Schistosoma mekongi populations and related taxa; phylogeography and the current distribution of Asian schistosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W Attwood

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis in humans along the lower Mekong River has proven a persistent public health problem in the region. The causative agent is the parasite Schistosoma mekongi (Trematoda: Digenea. A new transmission focus is reported, as well as the first study of genetic variation among S. mekongi populations. The aim is to confirm the identity of the species involved at each known focus of Mekong schistosomiasis transmission, to examine historical relationships among the populations and related taxa, and to provide data for use (a priori in further studies of the origins, radiation, and future dispersal capabilities of S. mekongi. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA sequence data are presented for four populations of S. mekongi from Cambodia and southern Laos, three of which were distinguishable at the COI (cox1 and 12S (rrnS mitochondrial loci sampled. A phylogeny was estimated for these populations and the other members of the Schistosoma sinensium group. The study provides new DNA sequence data for three new populations and one new locus/population combination. A Bayesian approach is used to estimate divergence dates for events within the S. sinensium group and among the S. mekongi populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The date estimates are consistent with phylogeographical hypotheses describing a Pliocene radiation of the S. sinensium group and a mid-Pleistocene invasion of Southeast Asia by S. mekongi. The date estimates also provide Bayesian priors for future work on the evolution of S. mekongi. The public health implications of S. mekongi transmission outside the lower Mekong River are also discussed.

  4. Seasonal changes in markers of oxidative damage to lipids and DNA; correlations with seasonal variation in diet. (United States)

    Smolková, Bozena; Dusinská, Mária; Raslová, Katarína; McNeill, Geraldine; Spustová, Viera; Blazícek, Pavol; Horská, Alexandra; Collins, Andrew


    We have addressed the question whether the relatively high incidence of cardiovascular disease and certain cancers in countries of central/eastern Europe might be associated with nutritional imbalance, in particular a lack of fresh fruit and vegetables in the diet in winter months. Nutritional parameters and markers of oxidative stress were studied in three Slovak population groups: 46 survivors of myocardial infarction (MI group) and 48 healthy, normolipidemic subjects (NL), living in or near Bratislava; and 70 rural controls (RC group) living a more traditional life style in a country town. Data were collected in February/March and September/October of two consecutive years, representing times of minimum and maximum local availability of fresh fruits and vegetables. Oxidative stress was monitored using two biomarkers; plasma malondialdehyde (MDA, a product of lipid peroxidation), and oxidation of lymphocyte DNA. Dietary antioxidants, folic acid, homocysteine, total antioxidant status (FRAP) and uric acid were measured in plasma. Food frequency questionnaires were administered. Vegetable consumption in summer/autumn was twice as high as in winter/spring. DNA damage did not vary consistently across the seasons. Mean plasma MDA levels for the MI and NL groups showed a clear pattern, with high levels in winter/spring and low levels in summer/autumn. Folic acid showed a reciprocal pattern, similar to the pattern of vegetable consumption. The RC group had the smallest seasonal variations in vegetable consumption, folic acid levels, and MDA. High winter MDA levels are seen in those individuals with relatively low folic acid; they never occur in subjects with high plasma folic acid, implying that folic acid might directly protect against lipid oxidation. This study illustrates the value of the molecular epidemiological approach, while emphasising the need for well characterised population groups and valid biomarkers.

  5. Genome-wide survey reveals predisposing diabetes type 2-related DNA methylation variations in human peripheral blood. (United States)

    Toperoff, Gidon; Aran, Dvir; Kark, Jeremy D; Rosenberg, Michael; Dubnikov, Tatyana; Nissan, Batel; Wainstein, Julio; Friedlander, Yechiel; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Glaser, Benjamin; Hellman, Asaf


    Inter-individual DNA methylation variations were frequently hypothesized to alter individual susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Sequence-influenced methylations were described in T2DM-associated genomic regions, but evidence for direct, sequence-independent association with disease risk is missing. Here, we explore disease-contributing DNA methylation through a stepwise study design: first, a pool-based, genome-scale screen among 1169 case and control individuals revealed an excess of differentially methylated sites in genomic regions that were previously associated with T2DM through genetic studies. Next, in-depth analyses were performed at selected top-ranking regions. A CpG site in the first intron of the FTO gene showed small (3.35%) but significant (P = 0.000021) hypomethylation of cases relative to controls. The effect was independent of the sequence polymorphism in the region and persists among individuals carrying the sequence-risk alleles. The odds of belonging to the T2DM group increased by 6.1% for every 1% decrease in methylation (OR = 1.061, 95% CI: 1.032-1.090), the odds ratio for decrease of 1 standard deviation of methylation (adjusted to gender) was 1.5856 (95% CI: 1.2824-1.9606) and the sensitivity (area under the curve = 0.638, 95% CI: 0.586-0.690; males = 0.675, females = 0.609) was better than that of the strongest known sequence variant. Furthermore, a prospective study in an independent population cohort revealed significant hypomethylation of young individuals that later progressed to T2DM, relative to the individuals who stayed healthy. Further genomic analysis revealed co-localization with gene enhancers and with binding sites for methylation-sensitive transcriptional regulators. The data showed that low methylation level at the analyzed sites is an early marker of T2DM and suggests a novel mechanism by which early-onset, inter-individual methylation variation at isolated non-promoter genomic sites predisposes to T2DM.

  6. Genetic characterization of Kenai brown bears (Ursus arctos): Microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA control region variation in brown bears of the Kenai Peninsula, south central Alaska (United States)

    Jackson, J.V.; Talbot, S.L.; Farley, S.


    We collected data from 20 biparentally inherited microsatellite loci, and nucleotide sequence from the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, to determine levels of genetic variation of the brown bears (Ursus arctos L., 1758) of the Kenai Peninsula, south central Alaska. Nuclear genetic variation was similar to that observed in other Alaskan peninsular populations. We detected no significant inbreeding and found no evidence of population substructuring on the Kenai Peninsula. We observed a genetic signature of a bottleneck under the infinite alleles model (IAM), but not under the stepwise mutation model (SMM) or the two-phase model (TPM) of microsatellite mutation. Kenai brown bears have lower levels of mtDNA haplotypic diversity relative to most other brown bear populations in Alaska. ?? 2008 NRC.

  7. Development of novel microsatellite DNA markers by cross-amplification and analysis of genetic variation in gerbils. (United States)

    Du, Xiaoyan; Chen, Zhenwen; Li, Wei; Tan, Yuanqing; Lu, Jing; Zhu, Xiangdong; Zhao, Taiyun; Dong, Gang; Zeng, Lin


    The objectives of this study are to establish microsatellite loci for the Mongolian gerbil based on mouse microsatellite DNA sequences and to investigate genetic variation in the laboratory gerbil (Capital Medical University, CMU) and 2 wild gerbil populations (from Yin Chuan city [YIN] and the Hohehot Municipality [HOH]). In total, 536 mouse microsatellite markers were chosen to identify polymorphic dinucleotide repeat loci in the gerbil by cross-amplification. Of these markers, 313 (58.39%) have been discretely amplified from the CMU laboratory gerbil and been sequenced. Of the 313 sequenced markers, 130 were confirmed as simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci in the gerbil. In total, 6 of those newly identified loci plus 6 identified in previous reports were used to estimate the genetic polymorphism for 30 laboratory gerbils and 54 wild gerbils (27 each of the HOH and YIN groups). A total of 29 alleles were observed in the 3 populations, and 11 of 12 loci (91.67%) are polymorphic markers. Nei's standard genetic distances of 0.0592 (CMU vs. HOH) and 0.1033 (CMU vs. YIN) were observed. The averages of observed versus expected heterozygosity are 0.5231/0.4008, 0.5051/0.3882, and 0.4825/0.3665 for the YIN, HOH, and CMU populations, respectively. These results show that cross-amplification using mouse microsatellite primers is an efficient way to identify gerbil SSR loci. By using these 12 selected markers, we have demonstrated that genetic variation level within the CMU population is higher than that has been reported previously and are comparable with the levels found in 2 wild populations.

  8. Next-Gen phylogeography of rainforest trees: exploring landscape-level cpDNA variation from whole-genome sequencing. (United States)

    van der Merwe, M; McPherson, H; Siow, J; Rossetto, M


    Standardized phylogeographic studies across codistributed taxa can identify important refugia and biogeographic barriers, and potentially uncover how changes in adaptive constraints through space and time impact on the distribution of genetic diversity. The combination of next-generation sequencing and methodologies that enable uncomplicated analysis of the full chloroplast genome may provide an invaluable resource for such studies. Here, we assess the potential of a shotgun-based method across twelve nonmodel rainforest trees sampled from two evolutionary distinct regions. Whole genomic shotgun sequencing libraries consisting of pooled individuals were used to assemble species-specific chloroplast references (in silicio). For each species, the pooled libraries allowed for the detection of variation within and between data sets (each representing a geographic region). The potential use of nuclear rDNA as an additional marker from the NGS libraries was investigated by mapping reads against available references. We successfully obtained phylogeographically informative sequence data from a range of previously unstudied rainforest trees. Greater levels of diversity were found in northern refugial rainforests than in southern expansion areas. The genetic signatures of varying evolutionary histories were detected, and interesting associative patterns between functional characteristics and genetic diversity were identified. This approach can suit a wide range of landscape-level studies. As the key laboratory-based steps do not require prior species-specific knowledge and can be easily outsourced, the techniques described here are even suitable for researchers without access to wet-laboratory facilities, making evolutionary ecology questions increasingly accessible to the research community.

  9. Genetic variation in scaly hair-fin anchovy Setipinna tenuifilis (Engraulididae) based on the mitochondrial DNA control region. (United States)

    Xu, Shengyong; Song, Na; Lu, Zhichuang; Wang, Jun; Cai, Shanshan; Gao, Tianxiang


    Scaly hair-fin anchovy (Setipinna tenuifilis) is a small, pelagic and economical species and widely distributed in Chinese coastal water. However, resources of S. tenuifilis have been reduced due to overfishing. For better fishery management, it is necessary to understand the pattern of S. tenuifilis's biogeography. Genetic analyses were taken place to detect their population genetic variation. A total of 153 individuals from 7 locations (Dongying, Yantai, Qingdao, Nantong, Wenzhou, Xiamen and Beibu Bay) were sequenced at the 5' end of mtDNA control region. A 39-bp tandem repeated sequence was found at the 5' end of the segment and a polymorphism of tandem repeated sequence was detected among 7 populations. Both mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests showed S. tenuifilis had experienced a recent population expansion. The topology of neighbor-joining tree and Bayesian evolutionary tree showed no significant genealogical branches or clusters of samples corresponding to sampling locality. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance and conventional pairwise population Fst value at group hierarchical level implied that there might have genetic divergence between southern group (population WZ, XM and BB) and northern group (population DY, YT, QD and NT). We concluded that there might have three different fishery management groups of S. tenuifilis and the late Pleistocene glacial event might have a crucial effect on present-day demography of S. tenuifilis in this region.

  10. Genetic Variation of Cassava Mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, Based on DNA Sequences from Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the genetic variation and genetic structure of the Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero, one of the most serious insect pests of cassava worldwide, in populations in Thailand, using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence based analysis. The samples of P. manihoti were collected from 28 major cassava-growing areas within 18 provinces in Thailand. Our field survey results showed that the northeastern and eastern regions of Thailand were widely and highly infested with P. manihoti. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 2 mitochondrial clades and a single nuclear clade, which corresponded to low genetic variability. This suggests that P. manihoti has a high potential to spread aggressively throughout the cassava-growing areas in Thailand that in which it was first found in 2008. In addition, the generally low genetic divergence observed may be due to the highly prevalent parthenogenetic reproduction of this insect pest species. Further research is therefore necessary to develop proportional prevention and surveillance programs for early detection and rapid response. In addition, the genetic structure and variability of P. manihoti populations from neighboring countries should be studied.

  11. Organization and variation analysis of 5S rDNA in different ploidy-level hybrids of red crucian carp × topmouth culter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo He

    Full Text Available Through distant crossing, diploid, triploid and tetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var., RCC♀, Cyprininae, 2n = 100 × topmouth culter (Erythroculter ilishaeformis Bleeker, TC♂, Cultrinae, 2n = 48 were successfully produced. Diploid hybrids possessed 74 chromosomes with one set from RCC and one set from TC; triploid hybrids harbored 124 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and one set from TC; tetraploid hybrids had 148 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and two sets from TC. The 5S rDNA of the three different ploidy-level hybrids and their parents were sequenced and analyzed. There were three monomeric 5S rDNA classes (designated class I: 203 bp; class II: 340 bp; and class III: 477 bp in RCC and two monomeric 5S rDNA classes (designated class IV: 188 bp, and class V: 286 bp in TC. In the hybrid offspring, diploid hybrids inherited three 5S rDNA classes from their female parent (RCC and only class IV from their male parent (TC. Triploid hybrids inherited class II and class III from their female parent (RCC and class IV from their male parent (TC. Tetraploid hybrids gained class II and class III from their female parent (RCC, and generated a new 5S rDNA sequence (designated class I-N. The specific paternal 5S rDNA sequence of class V was not found in the hybrid offspring. Sequence analysis of 5S rDNA revealed the influence of hybridization and polyploidization on the organization and variation of 5S rDNA in fish. This is the first report on the coexistence in vertebrates of viable diploid, triploid and tetraploid hybrids produced by crossing parents with different chromosome numbers, and these new hybrids are novel specimens for studying the genomic variation in the first generation of interspecific hybrids, which has significance for evolution and fish genetics.

  12. Organization and variation analysis of 5S rDNA in different ploidy-level hybrids of red crucian carp × topmouth culter. (United States)

    He, Weiguo; Qin, Qinbo; Liu, Shaojun; Li, Tangluo; Wang, Jing; Xiao, Jun; Xie, Lihua; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Yun


    Through distant crossing, diploid, triploid and tetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var., RCC♀, Cyprininae, 2n = 100) × topmouth culter (Erythroculter ilishaeformis Bleeker, TC♂, Cultrinae, 2n = 48) were successfully produced. Diploid hybrids possessed 74 chromosomes with one set from RCC and one set from TC; triploid hybrids harbored 124 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and one set from TC; tetraploid hybrids had 148 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and two sets from TC. The 5S rDNA of the three different ploidy-level hybrids and their parents were sequenced and analyzed. There were three monomeric 5S rDNA classes (designated class I: 203 bp; class II: 340 bp; and class III: 477 bp) in RCC and two monomeric 5S rDNA classes (designated class IV: 188 bp, and class V: 286 bp) in TC. In the hybrid offspring, diploid hybrids inherited three 5S rDNA classes from their female parent (RCC) and only class IV from their male parent (TC). Triploid hybrids inherited class II and class III from their female parent (RCC) and class IV from their male parent (TC). Tetraploid hybrids gained class II and class III from their female parent (RCC), and generated a new 5S rDNA sequence (designated class I-N). The specific paternal 5S rDNA sequence of class V was not found in the hybrid offspring. Sequence analysis of 5S rDNA revealed the influence of hybridization and polyploidization on the organization and variation of 5S rDNA in fish. This is the first report on the coexistence in vertebrates of viable diploid, triploid and tetraploid hybrids produced by crossing parents with different chromosome numbers, and these new hybrids are novel specimens for studying the genomic variation in the first generation of interspecific hybrids, which has significance for evolution and fish genetics.

  13. Prenatal famine and genetic variation are independently and additively associated with DNA methylation at regulatory loci within IGF2/H19.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar W Tobi

    Full Text Available Both the early environment and genetic variation may affect DNA methylation, which is one of the major molecular marks of the epigenome. The combined effect of these factors on a well-defined locus has not been studied to date. We evaluated the association of periconceptional exposure to the Dutch Famine of 1944-45, as an example of an early environmental exposure, and single nucleotide polymorphisms covering the genetic variation (tagging SNPs with DNA methylation at the imprinted IGF2/H19 region, a model for an epigenetically regulated genomic region. DNA methylation was measured at five differentially methylated regions (DMRs that regulate the imprinted status of the IGF2/H19 region. Small but consistent differences in DNA methylation were observed comparing 60 individuals with periconceptional famine exposure with unexposed same-sex siblings at all IGF2 DMRs (P(BH<0.05 after adjustment for multiple testing, but not at the H19 DMR. IGF2 DMR0 methylation was associated with IGF2 SNP rs2239681 (P(BH = 0.027 and INS promoter methylation with INS SNPs, including rs689, which tags the INS VNTR, suggesting a mechanism for the reported effect of the VNTR on INS expression (P(BH = 3.4 × 10(-3. Prenatal famine and genetic variation showed similar associations with IGF2/H19 methylation and their contributions were additive. They were small in absolute terms (<3%, but on average 0.5 standard deviations relative to the variation in the population. Our analyses suggest that environmental and genetic factors could have independent and additive similarly sized effects on DNA methylation at the same regulatory site.

  14. Cylindrotheca closterium Is a Species Complex as Was Evidenced by the Variations of rbcL Gene and SSU rDNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Haitao; YANG Guanpin; SUN Ying; WU Suihan; ZHANG Xiufang


    The genus Cylindrotheca consists of a small group of marine diatoms with a few species described. Eleven isolates of diatoms identified as Cylindrotheca closterium morphologically were obtained from Jiaozhou Bay with their nuclear-encoded small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rDNA) and chloroplast-encoded rbcL gene sequences determined in this study. Interestingly, very high sequence divergences of SSU rDNA and rbcL gene were found among these isolates, and numerous nucleotide variation of rbcL gene caused relatively few variation of deduced amino acid sequence. Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rDNA and rbcL gene, respectively, grouped the isolates into 6 clades. Phylogenetic tree of SSU rDNA placed all the Cylindrotheca isolates together, separating them into two lineages clearly. LineageⅠ was composed of the eleven C. closterium isolates obtained in this study together with another C. closterium isolate, but some clades were not well supported. LineageⅡ contained two C. closterium isolates and one C. fusiformis isolate. Phylogenetic analysis of rbcL gene also separated the Cylindrotheca isolates into two well-defined lineages. The eleven C. closterium isolates formed a lineage and all clades were supported strongly. Statistical comparisons of SSU rDNA indicated that the average distance within lineage Ⅰ was significantly higher than that of other microalgae species (P < 0.01). These results suggested the existence of cryptic species within C. closterium.

  15. Use of sequence variation in three highly variable regions of the mitochondrial DNA for the discrimination of allogeneic platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, JB; Bruin, EJ; Hannig, H; Hellenkamp, F; Horning, A; Mittmann, K; van der Steege, G; de Leij, LFMH; Garritsen, HSP


    BACKGROUND: Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms can be used to detect allogeneic transfused platelets. To increase the number of informative polymorphisms we investigated three hypervariable regions (HVR1, HVR2, and HVR3) within the displacement loop (D-loop) region of the mtDNA. STUDY DES

  16. Molecular phylogeography and evolutionary history of Picea likiangensis in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau inferred from mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA sequence variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Bin ZOU; Xiao-Li PENG; Long LI; Jian-Quan LIU; Georg MIEHE; Lars OPGENOORTH


    The aim of the present study was to examine the phylogeographic and evolutionary history of Picea likiangensis,a dominant species of the conifer forests in the eastern declivity of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.We collected 422 individuals from 42 natural populations of three major varieties classified under this species.In conifers,mitochondrial (mt) DNA and chloroplast (cp) DNA dispersed by seeds or pollen experience very different levels of gene flow.To this end,we examined the sequence variation of two mtDNA fragments (nad5 intron 1 and nadl intron b/c) and three cpDNA fragments (trnL-trnF,trnS-trnG and nadhK/C).We found that cpDNA probably introgressed from P.purpurea into remote populations of P.likiangensis through long-distance dispersal.Multiple refugia seem to have been maintained for P.likiangensis during the Last Glacial Maximum because the cpDNA and mtDNA haplotypes recovered were fixed in the different regions.Postglacial expansions were only detected at the distributional edges of this species where a single cpDNA or mtDNA haplotype was fixed in adjacent populations.However,genetic imprints of postglacial expansions from these two sets of markers were different in the western and southeastern regions,which may result from the long-distance dispersal of the cpDNA,as well as its fast lineage sorting during intraspecific divergences.Analysis of molecular variance further suggested that genetic differentiation between the three varieties is higher at cpDNA markers than at mtDNA markers,which supports the previous viewpoint that cpDNA markers with a high rate of gene flow may be more effective in delimitating closely related taxa.Together,the results of the present study highlight the evolutionary complexity of a widely distributed species owing to interactions among local and edge expansion,long-distance dispersal,and intraspecific divergences at two sets of DNA genomes with different rates of gene flow.

  17. Evaluation of Interindividual Human Variation in Bioactivation and DNA Adduct Formation of Estragole in Liver Predicted by Physiologically Based Kinetic/Dynamic and Monte Carlo Modeling. (United States)

    Punt, Ans; Paini, Alicia; Spenkelink, Albertus; Scholz, Gabriele; Schilter, Benoit; van Bladeren, Peter J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M


    Estragole is a known hepatocarcinogen in rodents at high doses following metabolic conversion to the DNA-reactive metabolite 1'-sulfooxyestragole. The aim of the present study was to model possible levels of DNA adduct formation in (individual) humans upon exposure to estragole. This was done by extending a previously defined PBK model for estragole in humans to include (i) new data on interindividual variation in the kinetics for the major PBK model parameters influencing the formation of 1'-sulfooxyestragole, (ii) an equation describing the relationship between 1'-sulfooxyestragole and DNA adduct formation, (iii) Monte Carlo modeling to simulate interindividual human variation in DNA adduct formation in the population, and (iv) a comparison of the predictions made to human data on DNA adduct formation for the related alkenylbenzene methyleugenol. Adequate model predictions could be made, with the predicted DNA adduct levels at the estimated daily intake of estragole of 0.01 mg/kg bw ranging between 1.6 and 8.8 adducts in 10(8) nucleotides (nts) (50th and 99th percentiles, respectively). This is somewhat lower than values reported in the literature for the related alkenylbenzene methyleugenol in surgical human liver samples. The predicted levels seem to be below DNA adduct levels that are linked with tumor formation by alkenylbenzenes in rodents, which were estimated to amount to 188-500 adducts per 10(8) nts at the BMD10 values of estragole and methyleugenol. Although this does not seem to point to a significant health concern for human dietary exposure, drawing firm conclusions may have to await further validation of the model's predictions.

  18. The resolution of aneuploid DNA stem lines by flow cytometry: limitations imposed by the coefficient of variation and the percentage of aneuploid nuclei. (United States)

    Cusick, E L; Milton, J I; Ewen, S W


    Factors important in the resolution of cell sub-populations with differing DNA contents were investigated using an EPICS C flow cytometer. Software is available for the EPICS C which permits data from any two histograms to be superimposed or added together before display. Samples of fresh and archival thyroid tissue, stained with propidium iodide, were analysed on the flow cytometer and the peak channel number noted. The photomultiplier (PMT) voltage was increased and the sample analysed again producing a second histogram with a higher peak channel number. The two histograms were added together to simulate a cell suspension with two sub-populations with a different DNA content. By systematically altering the PMT voltage and the number of nuclei included in each analysis, it was possible to examine the importance of DNA index and the percentage of tumor cells with an aneuploid DNA content for both fresh and paraffin-embedded thyroid nuclei. The crucial importance of achieving a low coefficient of variation (CV) was demonstrated and consequently the reservations that pertain when archival material is studied, particularly in tumours where DNA aneuploidy is frequently expressed with a low DNA index.

  19. Assessing Mitochondrial DNA Variation and Copy Number in Lymphocytes of ~2,000 Sardinians Using Tailored Sequencing Analysis Tools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ding


    Full Text Available DNA sequencing identifies common and rare genetic variants for association studies, but studies typically focus on variants in nuclear DNA and ignore the mitochondrial genome. In fact, analyzing variants in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequences presents special problems, which we resolve here with a general solution for the analysis of mtDNA in next-generation sequencing studies. The new program package comprises 1 an algorithm designed to identify mtDNA variants (i.e., homoplasmies and heteroplasmies, incorporating sequencing error rates at each base in a likelihood calculation and allowing allele fractions at a variant site to differ across individuals; and 2 an estimation of mtDNA copy number in a cell directly from whole-genome sequencing data. We also apply the methods to DNA sequence from lymphocytes of ~2,000 SardiNIA Project participants. As expected, mothers and offspring share all homoplasmies but a lesser proportion of heteroplasmies. Both homoplasmies and heteroplasmies show 5-fold higher transition/transversion ratios than variants in nuclear DNA. Also, heteroplasmy increases with age, though on average only ~1 heteroplasmy reaches the 4% level between ages 20 and 90. In addition, we find that mtDNA copy number averages ~110 copies/lymphocyte and is ~54% heritable, implying substantial genetic regulation of the level of mtDNA. Copy numbers also decrease modestly but significantly with age, and females on average have significantly more copies than males. The mtDNA copy numbers are significantly associated with waist circumference (p-value = 0.0031 and waist-hip ratio (p-value = 2.4×10-5, but not with body mass index, indicating an association with central fat distribution. To our knowledge, this is the largest population analysis to date of mtDNA dynamics, revealing the age-imposed increase in heteroplasmy, the relatively high heritability of copy number, and the association of copy number with metabolic traits.

  20. mtDNA G10398A variation provides risk to type 2 diabetes in population group from the Jammu region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Sharma


    Full Text Available Mitochondrion plays an integral role in glucose metabolism and insulin secretion. Mitochondrial electron-transport chain (ETC is involved in adenosine triphosphate (ATP generation and ATP mediated insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. β-cell dysfunction is a critical component in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D. The mtDNA G10398A variation (amino acid change: Alanine → Threonine within the NADH dehydrogenase (ND3 subunit of complex I of mtDNA ETC, has emerged as a variation of clinical significance in various disorders including T2D. This variation is supposed to result in altered complex I function, leading to an increased rate of electron leakage and reactive oxygen species (ROS production, which might cause β-cell damage and impaired insulin secretion. The aim of the study was to explore the association of mtDNA G10398A variation with T2D in a total of 439 samples (196 T2D cases and 243 healthy controls belonging to the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K. The candidate gene association analyses showed significant association of mtDNA G10398A variant with T2D and the estimated odds ratio (OR was 2.83 (1.64–4.90 at 95% CI in the studied population group. The extent of genetic heterogeneity in T2D and diversity of the Indian population groups, make such replication studies pertinent to understand the etiology of T2D in these population groups.

  1. A colony multiplex quantitative PCR-Based 3S3DBC method and variations of it for screening DNA libraries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang An

    Full Text Available A DNA library is a collection of DNA fragments cloned into vectors and stored individually in host cells, and is a valuable resource for molecular cloning, gene physical mapping, and genome sequencing projects. To take the best advantage of a DNA library, a good screening method is needed. After describing pooling strategies and issues that should be considered in DNA library screening, here we report an efficient colony multiplex quantitative PCR-based 3-step, 3-dimension, and binary-code (3S3DBC method we used to screen genes from a planarian genomic DNA fosmid library. This method requires only 3 rounds of PCR reactions and only around 6 hours to distinguish one or more desired clones from a large DNA library. According to the particular situations in different research labs, this method can be further modified and simplified to suit their requirements.

  2. Cytogenetic variation of repetitive DNA elements in Hoplias malabaricus (Characiformes - Erythrinidae) from white, black and clear water rivers of the Amazon basin. (United States)

    Santos, Fabíola Araújo Dos; Marques, Diego Ferreira; Terencio, Maria Leandra; Feldberg, Eliana; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo R


    Hoplias malabaricus is a common fish species occurring in white, black and clear water rivers of the Amazon basin. Its large distribution across distinct aquatic environments can pose stressful conditions for dispersal and creates possibilities for the emergence of local adaptive profiles. We investigated the chromosomal localization of repetitive DNA markers (constitutive heterochromatin, rDNA and the transposable element REX-3) in populations from the Amazonas river (white water), the Negro river (black water) and the Tapajós river (clear water), in order to address the variation/association of cytogenomic features and environmental conditions. We found a conserved karyotypic macrostructure with a diploid number of 40 chromosomes (20 metacentrics + 20 submetacentrics) in all the samples. Heteromorphism in pair 14 was detected as evidence for the initial differentiation of an XX/XY system. Minor differences detected in the amount of repetitive DNA markers are interpreted as possible signatures of local adaptations to distinct aquatic environments.

  3. Characterization of variation induced by low-energy N+ and cloning of differentially expressed cDNA of a mutant in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Using Arabidopsis thaliana as experimental materials, the variations induced by low-energy N+ have been investigated. Germination rate of the treated seeds is lower than that of the control, and it decreases with the intensification of the radiation. The phenotypic variations have been observed in M2 plants irradiated with higher doses, such as chlorisis, semilethality, plant morphology, and changes of blooming habit and fertility. In random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis on M2 seedlings, some differences including band deletions or additions are found in treated plants compared to the control and the differences are associated with the radiation doses. One of the M1 plants from the seeds irradiated with the dose of 80×1015 N+/cm2 is a dwarf variant. Its stable M6 generation, mutant T80II, is used to construct subtractive cDNA library and to clone differentially expressed cDNA. A 721 bp cDNA fragment is partly homologous with GRF7 gene.

  4. Congruence of microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA variation in acrobat ants (Crematogaster subgenus Decacrema, Formicidae: Myrmicinae) inhabiting Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) myrmecophytes. (United States)

    Ueda, Shouhei; Nagano, Yusuke; Kataoka, Yowsuke; Komatsu, Takashi; Itioka, Takao; Shimizu-Kaya, Usun; Inui, Yoko; Itino, Takao


    A previously reported mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogeny of Crematogaster (subgenus Decacrema) ants inhabiting Macaranga myrmecophytes indicated that the partners diversified synchronously and their specific association has been maintained for 20 million years. However, the mtDNA clades did not exactly match morphological species, probably owing to introgressive hybridization among younger species. In this study, we determined the congruence between nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR, also called microsatellite) genotyping and mtDNA phylogeny to confirm the suitability of the mtDNA phylogeny for inferring the evolutionary history of Decacrema ants. Analyses of ant samples from Lambir Hills National park, northeastern Borneo, showed overall congruence between the SSR and mtDNA groupings, indicating that mtDNA markers are useful for delimiting species, at least at the local level. We also found overall high host-plant specificity of the SSR genotypes of Decacrema ants, consistent with the specificity based on the mtDNA phylogeny. Further, we detected cryptic genetic assemblages exhibiting high specificity toward particular plant species within a single mtDNA clade. This finding, which may be evidence for rapid ecological and genetic differentiation following a host shift, is a new insight into the previously suggested long-term codiversification of Decacrema ants and Macaranga plants.

  5. Variation in PAH-related DNA adduct levels among non-smokers: the role of multiple genetic polymorphisms and nucleotide excision repair phenotype. (United States)

    Etemadi, Arash; Islami, Farhad; Phillips, David H; Godschalk, Roger; Golozar, Asieh; Kamangar, Farin; Malekshah, Akbar Fazel-Tabar; Pourshams, Akram; Elahi, Seerat; Ghojaghi, Farhad; Strickland, Paul T; Taylor, Philip R; Boffetta, Paolo; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Malekzadeh, Reza; van Schooten, Frederik J


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) likely play a role in many cancers even in never-smokers. We tried to find a model to explain the relationship between variation in PAH-related DNA adduct levels among people with similar exposures, multiple genetic polymorphisms in genes related to metabolic and repair pathways, and nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity. In 111 randomly selected female never-smokers from the Golestan Cohort Study in Iran, we evaluated 21 SNPs in 14 genes related to xenobiotic metabolism and 12 SNPs in eight DNA repair genes. NER capacity was evaluated by a modified comet assay, and aromatic DNA adduct levels were measured in blood by32P-postlabeling. Multivariable regression models were compared by Akaike's information criterion (AIC). Aromatic DNA adduct levels ranged between 1.7 and 18.6 per 10(8) nucleotides (mean: 5.8 ± 3.1). DNA adduct level was significantly lower in homozygotes for NAT2 slow alleles and ERCC5 non-risk-allele genotype, and was higher in the MPO homozygote risk-allele genotype. The sum of risk alleles in these genes significantly correlated with the log-adduct level (r = 0.4, p adduct levels. NER capacity was affected by polymorphisms in the MTHFR and ERCC1 genes. Female non-smokers in this population had PAH-related DNA adduct levels three to four times higher than smokers and occupationally-exposed groups in previous studies, with large inter-individual variation which could best be explained by a combination of Phase I genes and NER capacity.

  6. Spatiotemporal variations in metal accumulation, RNA/DNA ratio and energy reserve in Perna viridis transplanted along a marine pollution gradient in Hong Kong. (United States)

    Yeung, Jamius W Y; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Leung, Kenneth M Y


    We examined spatiotemporal variations of metal levels and three growth related biomarkers, i.e., RNA/DNA ratio (RD), total energy reserve (Et) and condition index (CI), in green-lipped mussels Perna viridis transplanted into five locations along a pollution gradient in the marine environment of Hong Kong over 120days of deployment. There were significant differences in metal levels and biomarker responses among the five sites and six time points. Mussels in two clean sites displayed better CI and significantly lower levels of Ag, Cu, Pb and Zn in their tissues than the other sites. Temporal patterns of RD in P. viridis were found to be site-specific. Across all sites, Et decreased in P. viridis over the deployment period, though the rate of decrease varied significantly among the sites. Therefore, temporal variation of biomarkers should be taken to consideration in mussel-watch programs because such information can help discriminate pollution-induced change from natural variation.

  7. Identification of mitochondrial DNA sequence variation and development of single nucleotide polymorphic markers for CMS-D8 in cotton. (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideaki; Yu, Jiwen; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Jinfa


    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), which is a maternally inherited trait and controlled by novel chimeric genes in the mitochondrial genome, plays a pivotal role in the production of hybrid seed. In cotton, no PCR-based marker has been developed to discriminate CMS-D8 (from Gossypium trilobum) from its normal Upland cotton (AD1, Gossypium hirsutum) cytoplasm. The objective of the current study was to develop PCR-based single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers from mitochondrial genes for the CMS-D8 cytoplasm. DNA sequence variation in mitochondrial genes involved in the oxidative phosphorylation chain including ATP synthase subunit 1, 4, 6, 8 and 9, and cytochrome c oxidase 1, 2 and 3 subunits were identified by comparing CMS-D8, its isogenic maintainer and restorer lines on the same nuclear genetic background. An allelic specific PCR (AS-PCR) was utilized for SNP typing by incorporating artificial mismatched nucleotides into the third or fourth base from the 3' terminus in both the specific and nonspecific primers. The result indicated that the method modifying allele-specific primers was successful in obtaining eight SNP markers out of eight SNPs using eight primer pairs to discriminate two alleles between AD1 and CMS-D8 cytoplasms. Two of the SNPs for atp1 and cox1 could also be used in combination to discriminate between CMS-D8 and CMS-D2 cytoplasms. Additionally, a PCR-based marker from a nine nucleotide insertion-deletion (InDel) sequence (AATTGTTTT) at the 59-67 bp positions from the start codon of atp6, which is present in the CMS and restorer lines with the D8 cytoplasm but absent in the maintainer line with the AD1 cytoplasm, was also developed. A SNP marker for two nucleotide substitutions (AA in AD1 cytoplasm to CT in CMS-D8 cytoplasm) in the intron (1,506 bp) of cox2 gene was also developed. These PCR-based SNP markers should be useful in discriminating CMS-D8 and AD1 cytoplasms, or those with CMS-D2 cytoplasm as a rapid, simple, inexpensive, and

  8. Ultraviolet cross-linking of helical oligonucleotides to two monoclonal MRL-1pr/1pr anti-DNA autoantibodies. Variations in H and L chain binding to DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Y.J.; Stollar, B.D. (Tufts Univ., Boston, MA (USA))


    Experiments were performed to determine whether both H and L chains of different anti-native DNA autoantibodies are uniformly involved in binding to DNA. Two purified monoclonal mouse (MRL-1pr/1pr) IgG autoantibodies, H241 and 2C10, were tested. They both bound synthetic helical oligonucleotides of 10 to 20 base pairs in a gel electrophoresis retardation assay but differed in their preferences for given base sequences. Exposure of antibody-radiolabeled oligonucleotide mixtures to UV light (254 nm) for 10 min led to specific covalent cross-linking of oligonucleotide to both the H and the L chains of H241 but only to the H chain of 2C10. Single labeling events were detected without higher aggregation. The oligonucleotides were not cross-linked to unrelated IgG, even after 2 h of irradiation. Cross-linked (radioactively labeled) H and L chains of H241 and 2C10 were isolated from denaturing electrophoresis gels and digested with lysyl endopeptidase and/or staphylococcal V8 protease. H241 and 2C10 H chains each yielded a major labeled peptide fragment, but the peptides from the two antibodies were different. These experiments measured only some of the antibody-DNA interactions, probably with bases in the major groove of the DNA. They indicated that two MRL-1pr/1pr IgG anti-native DNA antibodies differ in their H and L chain contacts with DNA and provide an approach to identifying affinity-labeled binding sites in the antibodies.

  9. Global Analysis of DNA Methylation Variation in Adipose Tissue from Twins Reveals Links to Disease-Associated Variants in Distal Regulatory Elements (United States)

    Grundberg, Elin; Meduri, Eshwar; Sandling, Johanna K.; Hedman, Åsa K.; Keildson, Sarah; Buil, Alfonso; Busche, Stephan; Yuan, Wei; Nisbet, James; Sekowska, Magdalena; Wilk, Alicja; Barrett, Amy; Small, Kerrin S.; Ge, Bing; Caron, Maxime; Shin, So-Youn; Ahmadi, Kourosh R.; Ainali, Chrysanthi; Barrett, Amy; Bataille, Veronique; Bell, Jordana T.; Buil, Alfonso; Deloukas, Panos; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Dimas, Antigone S.; Durbin, Richard; Glass, Daniel; Grundberg, Elin; Hassanali, Neelam; Hedman, Åsa K.; Ingle, Catherine; Knowles, David; Krestyaninova, Maria; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Lowe, Christopher E.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Meduri, Eshwar; di Meglio, Paola; Min, Josine L.; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Nestle, Frank O.; Nica, Alexandra C.; Nisbet, James; O’Rahilly, Stephen; Parts, Leopold; Potter, Simon; Sandling, Johanna; Sekowska, Magdalena; Shin, So-Youn; Small, Kerrin S.; Soranzo, Nicole; Spector, Tim D.; Surdulescu, Gabriela; Travers, Mary E.; Tsaprouni, Loukia; Tsoka, Sophia; Wilk, Alicja; Yang, Tsun-Po; Zondervan, Krina T.; Lathrop, Mark; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Spector, Timothy D.; Bell, Jordana T.; Deloukas, Panos


    Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation play a key role in gene regulation and disease susceptibility. However, little is known about the genome-wide frequency, localization, and function of methylation variation and how it is regulated by genetic and environmental factors. We utilized the Multiple Tissue Human Expression Resource (MuTHER) and generated Illumina 450K adipose methylome data from 648 twins. We found that individual CpGs had low variance and that variability was suppressed in promoters. We noted that DNA methylation variation was highly heritable (h2median = 0.34) and that shared environmental effects correlated with metabolic phenotype-associated CpGs. Analysis of methylation quantitative-trait loci (metQTL) revealed that 28% of CpGs were associated with nearby SNPs, and when overlapping them with adipose expression quantitative-trait loci (eQTL) from the same individuals, we found that 6% of the loci played a role in regulating both gene expression and DNA methylation. These associations were bidirectional, but there were pronounced negative associations for promoter CpGs. Integration of metQTL with adipose reference epigenomes and disease associations revealed significant enrichment of metQTL overlapping metabolic-trait or disease loci in enhancers (the strongest effects were for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and body mass index [BMI]). We followed up with the BMI SNP rs713586, a cg01884057 metQTL that overlaps an enhancer upstream of ADCY3, and used bisulphite sequencing to refine this region. Our results showed widespread population invariability yet sequence dependence on adipose DNA methylation but that incorporating maps of regulatory elements aid in linking CpG variation to gene regulation and disease risk in a tissue-dependent manner. PMID:24183450

  10. Mitochondrial DNA variation in the grasshopper Sinipta dalmani: application of long-PCR to the development of a homologous probe. (United States)

    Pensel, S M; Vilardi, J C; Remis, M I


    RFLP analysis of mtDNA in natural populations is a valuable tool for phylogeographic and population genetic studies. The amplification of long DNA fragments using universal primers may contribute to the development of novel homologous probes in species for which no previous genomic information is available. Here we report how we obtained the complete mtDNA genome of Sinipta dalmani (Orthoptera) in 2 fragments (7 and 9 kb) using primers of conserved regions. The specificity of the PCR reactions was ultimately confirmed by several lines of evidence. These fragments were used as a probe for a mtDNA RFLP study in S. dalmani that analyzed the pattern of haplotype distribution and nucleotide diversity within and among chromosomally differentiated natural populations. Our results suggest that the restriction in gene flow detected at the molecular level may explain the chromosome differentiation detected previously and the maintenance of chromosome polymorphism in some areas of S. dalmani geographic distribution.

  11. Possible conservation units of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) in Sarawak based on variation of mtDNA control region.


    ONUMA, Manabu; SUZUKI, Masatsugu; Ohtaishi, Noriyuki


    The mitochondrial DNA control region of the sun bear(Helarctos malayanus) was sequenced using 21DNA samples collected from confiscated sun bears to identify conservation units, such as evolutionarily significant units and management units, in Sarawak, Borneo Island. A total of 10 haplotypes were observed, indicating the presence of at least two lineages in the sun bear population in Sarawak. Presumably, these two lineages could represent evolutionarily significant units. How...

  12. Quantifying male-biased dispersal among social groups in the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) using analyses based on mtDNA variation. (United States)

    Cooper, J D; Vitalis, R; Waser, P M; Gopurenko, D; Hellgren, E C; Gabor, T M; DeWoody, J A


    Recent advances in the statistical analysis of microsatellite data permit calculation of sex-specific dispersal rates through sex- and age-specific comparisons of genetic variation. This approach, developed for the analysis of data derived from co-dominant autosomal markers, should be applicable to a sex-specific marker such as mitochondrial DNA. To test this premise, we amplified a 449 bp control region DNA sequence from the mitochondrial genome of the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), and estimated intra-class correlations among herds sampled from three Texas populations. Analyses on data partitioned by breeding group showed a clear signal of male-biased dispersal; sex-specific fixation indices associated with genetic variation among social groups within populations yielded values for females (F(GP)=0.91), which were significantly larger than values for males (F(GP)=0.24; P=0.0015). The same general pattern emerged when the analyses were conducted on age classes (albeit nonsignificantly), as well as categories of individuals that were predicted a posteriori to be dispersers (adult males) and philopatric (adult females and all immatures). By extending a previously published methodology based on biparentally inherited markers to matrilineally inherited haploid data, we calculated sex-specific rates of contemporary dispersal among social groups within populations (m(male symbol)=0.37). These results support the idea that mitochondrial DNA haplotype frequency data can be used to estimate sex-specific instantaneous dispersal rates in a social species.

  13. Tandem repeat sequence variation and length heteroplasmy in the mitochondrial DNA D-loop of the threatened Gulf of Mexico sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrhynchus desotoi. (United States)

    Miracle, A L; Campton, D E


    Genetic variability within the Suwannee River, Florida, population of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrhynchus desotoi, was assessed by examining sequence and length variation within the control region, or D-loop, of the mitochondrial genome. Although once abundant throughout the Gulf of Mexico, Gulf sturgeon are now listed as a threatened species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Mitochondrial DNA was analyzed for length variation from 168 individual Gulf sturgeon by PCR amplification and visualization of PCR products using ethidium bromide-stained agarose gels. Of the 168 individual Gulf sturgeon, 31 (18.5%) were heteroplasmic for one to four copies of an 81-base pair, tandemly repeated sequence in the D-loop region. However, no individuals homoplasmic for multiple copies of the repeat sequence were observed. The existence and nature of these tandem repeats in heteroplasmic individuals was confirmed by direct sequencing of the PCR products for a subset of 22 individuals. The results are consistent with the apparent nature and mechanism of heteroplasmy observed in a congeneric species, A. transmontanus. In addition, sequences for 187 base pairs outside of the tandem repeats were identical among all 16 individuals assayed for this region. Lack of variable sequences is concordant with earlier studies involving mtDNA restriction fragment length profiles of Gulf sturgeon found in the Suwannee River. The absence of sequence variation exclusive of the tandem repeats is consistent with the hypothesis that the subspecies has undergone a population or evolutionary bottleneck.

  14. A physiologically based in silico model for trans-2-hexenal detoxification and DNA adduct formation in human including interindividual variation indicates efficient detoxification and a negligible genotoxicity risk. (United States)

    Kiwamoto, R; Spenkelink, A; Rietjens, I M C M; Punt, A


    A number of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes are present in food both as natural constituents and as flavouring agents. Their reaction with DNA due to their electrophilic α,β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety may result in genotoxicity as observed in some in vitro models, thereby raising a safety concern. A question that remains is whether in vivo detoxification would be efficient enough to prevent DNA adduct formation and genotoxicity. In this study, a human physiologically based kinetic/dynamic (PBK/D) model of trans-2-hexenal (2-hexenal), a selected model α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, was developed to examine dose-dependent detoxification and DNA adduct formation in humans upon dietary exposure. The kinetic model parameters for detoxification were quantified using relevant pooled human tissue fractions as well as tissue fractions from 11 different individual subjects. In addition, a Monte Carlo simulation was performed so that the impact of interindividual variation in 2-hexenal detoxification on the DNA adduct formation in the population as a whole could be examined. The PBK/D model revealed that DNA adduct formation due to 2-hexenal exposure was 0.039 adducts/10⁸ nucleotides (nt) at the estimated average 2-hexenal dietary intake (0.04 mg 2-hexenal/kg bw) and 0.18 adducts/10⁸ nt at the 95th percentile of the dietary intake (0.178 mg 2-hexenal/kg bw) in the most sensitive people. These levels are three orders of magnitude lower than natural background DNA adduct levels that have been reported in disease-free humans (6.8-110 adducts/10⁸ nt), suggesting that the genotoxicity risk for the human population at realistic dietary daily intakes of 2-hexenal may be negligible.

  15. Genetic variation in DNMT3B and increased global DNA methylation is associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric patients. (United States)

    Murphy, T M; Mullins, N; Ryan, M; Foster, T; Kelly, C; McClelland, R; O'Grady, J; Corcoran, E; Brady, J; Reilly, M; Jeffers, A; Brown, K; Maher, A; Bannan, N; Casement, A; Lynch, D; Bolger, S; Buckley, A; Quinlivan, L; Daly, L; Kelleher, C; Malone, K M


    Recently, a significant epigenetic component in the pathology of suicide has been realized. Here we investigate candidate functional SNPs in epigenetic-regulatory genes, DNMT1 and DNMT3B, for association with suicide attempt (SA) among patients with co-existing psychiatric illness. In addition, global DNA methylation levels [5-methyl cytosine (5-mC%)] between SA and psychiatric controls were quantified using the Methylflash Methylated DNA Quantification Kit. DNA was obtained from blood of 79 suicide attempters and 80 non-attempters, assessed for DSM-IV Axis I disorders. Functional SNPs were selected for each gene (DNMT1; n = 7, DNMT3B; n = 10), and genotyped. A SNP (rs2424932) residing in the 3' UTR of the DNMT3B gene was associated with SA compared with a non-attempter control group (P = 0.001; Chi-squared test, Bonferroni adjusted P value = 0.02). Moreover, haplotype analysis identified a DNMT3B haplotype which differed between cases and controls, however this association did not hold after Bonferroni correction (P = 0.01, Bonferroni adjusted P value = 0.56). Global methylation analysis showed that psychiatric patients with a history of SA had significantly higher levels of global DNA methylation compared with controls (P = 0.018, Student's t-test). In conclusion, this is the first report investigating polymorphisms in DNMT genes and global DNA methylation quantification in SA risk. Preliminary findings suggest that allelic variability in DNMT3B may be relevant to the underlying diathesis for suicidal acts and our findings support the hypothesis that aberrant DNA methylation profiles may contribute to the biology of suicidal acts. Thus, analysis of global DNA hypermethylation in blood may represent a biomarker for increased SA risk in psychiatric patients.

  16. An ECVAG inter-laboratory validation study of the comet assay: inter-laboratory and intra-laboratory variations of DNA strand breaks and FPG-sensitive sites in human mononuclear cells. (United States)

    Ersson, Clara; Møller, Peter; Forchhammer, Lykke; Loft, Steffen; Azqueta, Amaya; Godschalk, Roger W L; van Schooten, Frederik-Jan; Jones, George D D; Higgins, Jennifer A; Cooke, Marcus S; Mistry, Vilas; Karbaschi, Mahsa; Phillips, David H; Sozeri, Osman; Routledge, Michael N; Nelson-Smith, Kirsty; Riso, Patrizia; Porrini, Marisa; Matullo, Giuseppe; Allione, Alessandra; Stepnik, Maciej; Ferlińska, Magdalena; Teixeira, João Paulo; Costa, Solange; Corcuera, Laura-Ana; López de Cerain, Adela; Laffon, Blanca; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Collins, Andrew R; Möller, Lennart


    The alkaline comet assay is an established, sensitive method extensively used in biomonitoring studies. This method can be modified to measure a range of different types of DNA damage. However, considerable differences in the protocols used by different research groups affect the inter-laboratory comparisons of results. The aim of this study was to assess the inter-laboratory, intra-laboratory, sample and residual (unexplained) variations in DNA strand breaks and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG)-sensitive sites measured by the comet assay by using a balanced Latin square design. Fourteen participating laboratories used their own comet assay protocols to measure the level of DNA strand breaks and FPG-sensitive sites in coded samples containing peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the level of DNA strand breaks in coded calibration curve samples (cells exposed to different doses of ionising radiation) on three different days of analysis. Eleven laboratories found dose-response relationships in the coded calibration curve samples on two or three days of analysis, whereas three laboratories had technical problems in their assay. In the coded calibration curve samples, the dose of ionising radiation, inter-laboratory variation, intra-laboratory variation and residual variation contributed to 60.9, 19.4, 0.1 and 19.5%, respectively, of the total variation. In the coded PBMC samples, the inter-laboratory variation explained the largest fraction of the overall variation of DNA strand breaks (79.2%) and the residual variation (19.9%) was much larger than the intra-laboratory (0.3%) and inter-subject (0.5%) variation. The same partitioning of the overall variation of FPG-sensitive sites in the PBMC samples indicated that the inter-laboratory variation was the strongest contributor (56.7%), whereas the residual (42.9%), intra-laboratory (0.2%) and inter-subject (0.3%) variations again contributed less to the overall variation. The results suggest that the

  17. Evaluation of Genetic Variations in Maize Seedlings Exposed to Electric Field Based on Protein and DNA Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma A. AL-Huqail


    Full Text Available The current study analyzed proteins and nuclear DNA of electric fields (ELF exposed and nonexposed maize seedlings for different exposure periods using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, isozymes, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, and comet assay, respectively. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed total of 46 polypeptides bands with different molecular weights ranging from 186.20 to 36.00 KDa. It generated distinctive polymorphism value of 84.62%. Leucine-aminopeptidase, peroxidase, and catalase isozymes showed the highest values of polymorphism (100% based on zymograms number, relative front (Rf, and optical intensity while esterase isozyme generated polymorphism value of 83.33%. Amino acids were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, which revealed the presence of 17 amino acids of variable contents ranging from 22.65% to 28.09%. RAPD revealed that 78 amplified DNA products had highly polymorphism value (95.08% based on band numbers, with variable sizes ranging from 120 to 992 base pairs and band intensity. Comet assay recorded the highest extent of nuclear DNA damage as percentage of tailed DNA (2.38% and tail moment unit (5.36 at ELF exposure of maize nuclei for 5 days. The current study concluded that the longer ELF exposing periods had genotoxic stress on macromolecules of maize cells and biomarkers used should be augmented for reliable estimates of genotoxicity after exposure of economic plants to ELF stressors.

  18. Possible conservation units of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) in Sarawak based on variation of mtDNA control region. (United States)

    Onuma, Manabu; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Ohtaishi, Noriyuki


    The mitochondrial DNA control region of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) was sequenced using 21 DNA samples collected from confiscated sun bears to identify conservation units, such as evolutionarily significant units and management units, in Sarawak, Borneo Island. A total of 10 haplotypes were observed, indicating the presence of at least two lineages in the sun bear population in Sarawak. Presumably, these two lineages could represent evolutionarily significant units. However, the geographical distributions of the two lineages remained unknown due to the lack of information regarding the exact capture locations of the confiscated sun bears. It is essential to elucidate the geographical distributions of these lineages in order to create a proper conservation plan for the sun bears in Sarawak. Therefore, further studies examining the haplotype distributions using DNA samples from known localities are essential.

  19. Variation in Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase I DNA Can Successfully Identify Culex (Melanoconion) pedroi (Diptera: Culicidae) and Culex (Melanoconion) ribeirensis (Diptera: Culicidae). (United States)

    Araki, A S; Maia, D A; Gil-Santana, H R; de Mello, C F; Martins, A de J; Alencar, J


    Culex (Melanoconion) pedroi Sirivanakarn & Belkin 1980 and Culex (Melanoconion) ribeirensis Forattini & Sallum 1985 are two morphologically very similar species of the Pedroi subgroup of mosquitoes in the Spissipes section of the subgenus Melanoconion of the genus Culex L. 1758. We carried out an analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) DNA variation between these two species. The recent observation of sympatric coexistence in a forested area of Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) triggered the need to validate these two species previously identified based on morphology. We concluded that the COI is a useful tool for identification of Cx. pedroi and Cx. ribeirensis.

  20. Assessment and reduction of comet assay variation in relation to DNA damage: studies from the European Comet Assay Validation Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter; Möller, Lennart; Godschalk, Roger W L


    The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay has become a widely used method for the detection of DNA damage and repair in cells and tissues. Still, it has been difficult to compare results from different investigators because of differences in assay conditions and because the data ...

  1. [Variation in mitochondrial DNA in Far Eastern mullet pilengas, Liza haematocheilus Temminck and Schlegel, acclimatized in the Azov-Black Sea basin]. (United States)

    Salmenkova, E A; Gordeeva, N V; Omel'chenko, V T; Makhotkin, M A; Dudkin, S I


    This study continues the investigation of genetic variation in the populations of native and acclimatized in the Azov-Black Sea basin pilengas from the Sea of Japan. The previous comparison based on allozyme analysis was supplemented by analysis of restriction polymorphism of a mitochondrial DNA fragment containing the cytochrome b gene and the D-loop. Five out of fifteen endonucleases tested detected polymorphic sites. In the samples of native and acclimatized pilengas, five common haplotypes were found; ten and three "population-specific" haplotypes were detected in the Far Eastern and the Azov populations, respectively. The differences in haplotype distributions between these populations were highly significant (P < 0.001). The mtDNA variation was lower in the Azov than in the Far Eastern population (haplotype diversity mu respectively 6.35 +/- 0.27 and 9.14 +/- 0.55), which is in good agreement with the decrease in the number of polymorphic loci and the mean number of alleles per locus, found earlier for allozyme markers in this population. The reasons for these differences in the acclimatized population are discussed.

  2. Restarting and recentering genetic algorithm variations for DNA fragment assembly: The necessity of a multi-strategy approach. (United States)

    Hughes, James Alexander; Houghten, Sheridan; Ashlock, Daniel


    DNA Fragment assembly - an NP-Hard problem - is one of the major steps in of DNA sequencing. Multiple strategies have been used for this problem, including greedy graph-based algorithms, deBruijn graphs, and the overlap-layout-consensus approach. This study focuses on the overlap-layout-consensus approach. Heuristics and computational intelligence methods are combined to exploit their respective benefits. These algorithm combinations were able to produce high quality results surpassing the best results obtained by a number of competitive algorithms specially designed and tuned for this problem on thirteen of sixteen popular benchmarks. This work also reinforces the necessity of using multiple search strategies as it is clearly observed that algorithm performance is dependent on problem instance; without a deeper look into many searches, top solutions could be missed entirely.

  3. Dynamic DNA cytosine methylation in the Populus trichocarpa genome: tissue-level variation and relationship to gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vining Kelly J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA cytosine methylation is an epigenetic modification that has been implicated in many biological processes. However, large-scale epigenomic studies have been applied to very few plant species, and variability in methylation among specialized tissues and its relationship to gene expression is poorly understood. Results We surveyed DNA methylation from seven distinct tissue types (vegetative bud, male inflorescence [catkin], female catkin, leaf, root, xylem, phloem in the reference tree species black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa. Using 5-methyl-cytosine DNA immunoprecipitation followed by Illumina sequencing (MeDIP-seq, we mapped a total of 129,360,151 36- or 32-mer reads to the P. trichocarpa reference genome. We validated MeDIP-seq results by bisulfite sequencing, and compared methylation and gene expression using published microarray data. Qualitative DNA methylation differences among tissues were obvious on a chromosome scale. Methylated genes had lower expression than unmethylated genes, but genes with methylation in transcribed regions ("gene body methylation" had even lower expression than genes with promoter methylation. Promoter methylation was more frequent than gene body methylation in all tissues except male catkins. Male catkins differed in demethylation of particular transposable element categories, in level of gene body methylation, and in expression range of genes with methylated transcribed regions. Tissue-specific gene expression patterns were correlated with both gene body and promoter methylation. Conclusions We found striking differences among tissues in methylation, which were apparent at the chromosomal scale and when genes and transposable elements were examined. In contrast to other studies in plants, gene body methylation had a more repressive effect on transcription than promoter methylation.

  4. Genetic variations in DNA repair genes, radiosensitivity to cancer and susceptibility to acute tissue reactions in radiotherapy-treated cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A. (Dept. of Pathology, Univ. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh (US)); Voronova, Natalia V. (Dept. of Molecular Diagnostics, National Research Center GosNIIgenetika, Moscow (RU)); Chistiakov, Pavel A. (Dept. of Radiology, Cancer Research Center, Moscow (RU))


    Ionizing radiation is a well established carcinogen for human cells. At low doses, radiation exposure mainly results in generation of double strand breaks (DSBs). Radiation-related DSBs could be directly linked to the formation of chromosomal rearrangements as has been proven for radiation-induced thyroid tumors. Repair of DSBs presumably involves two main pathways, non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). A number of known inherited syndromes, such as ataxia telangiectasia, ataxia-telangiectasia like-disorder, radiosensitive severe combined immunodeficiency, Nijmegen breakage syndrome, and LIG4 deficiency are associated with increased radiosensitivity and/or cancer risk. Many of them are caused by mutations in DNA repair genes. Recent studies also suggest that variations in the DNA repair capacity in the general population may influence cancer susceptibility. In this paper, we summarize the current status of DNA repair proteins as potential targets for radiation-induced cancer risk. We will focus on genetic alterations in genes involved in HR- and NHEJ-mediated repair of DSBs, which could influence predisposition to radiation-related cancer and thereby explain interindividual differences in radiosensitivity or radioresistance in a general population

  5. Variations in gene organization and DNA uptake signal sequence in the folP region between commensal and pathogenic Neisseria species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qvarnstrom Yvonne


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horizontal gene transfer is an important source of genetic variation among Neisseria species and has contributed to the spread of resistance to penicillin and sulfonamide drugs in the pathogen Neisseria meningitidis. Sulfonamide resistance in Neisseria meningitidis is mediated by altered chromosomal folP genes. At least some folP alleles conferring resistance have been horizontally acquired from other species, presumably from commensal Neisseriae. In this work, the DNA sequence surrounding folP in commensal Neisseria species was determined and compared to corresponding regions in pathogenic Neisseriae, in order to elucidate the potential for inter-species DNA transfer within this region. Results The upstream region of folP displayed differences in gene order between species, including an insertion of a complete Correia element in Neisseria lactamica and an inversion of a larger genomic segment in Neisseria sicca, Neisseria subflava and Neisseria mucosa. The latter species also had DNA uptake signal sequences (DUS in this region that were one base different from the DUS in pathogenic Neisseriae. Another interesting finding was evidence of a horizontal transfer event from Neisseria lactamica or Neisseria cinerea that introduced a novel folP allele to the meningococcal population. Conclusion Genetic recombination events immediately upstream of folP and horizontal transfer have resulted in sequence differences in the folP region between the Neisseria species. This variability could be a consequence of the selective pressure on this region exerted by the use of sulfonamide drugs.

  6. [Variation of the mitochondrial DNA control region in the populations of southern form of Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma krascheninnikovi) from Sakhalin]. (United States)

    Osinov, A G; Miuge, N S


    Analysis of a 551-bp segment of the mitochondrial DNA control region in 23 individuals from nine populations of Dolly Varden from Sakhalin and three individuals from the Shikaribetsu Lake (Hokkaido) revealed the presence of seven haplotypes of southern form, along with one haplotype of northern form of Dolly Varden. All seven haplotypes of southern Dolly Varden were earlier described in the populations from Hokkaido. Nested analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) based on the haplotype frequencies, performed using literature data, suggested that, during the glacial epoch, there were three regional population groups of Dolly Varden (from eastern and western coasts of Sakhalin, and from Southern Primorye). Population groups from Sakhalin and Primorye were clearly separated. The differences between two Sakhalin population groups in the mtDNA haplotype frequencies were not statistically significant. However, relative to the earlier obtained data on microsatellite loci, these differences were statistically significant. For the populations of Sakhalin Dolly Varden, the data on mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA variation supplement each other.

  7. Structural variation in the chicken genome identified by paired-end next-generation DNA sequencing of reduced representation libraries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, H.H.D.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Dibbits, B.W.; Vereijken, A.; Okimoto, R.; Groenen, M.A.M.


    Background Variation within individual genomes ranges from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to kilobase, and even megabase, sized structural variants (SVs), such as deletions, insertions, inversions, and more complex rearrangements. Although much is known about the extent of SVs in humans and

  8. The historical demography and genetic variation of the endangered Cycas multipinnata (Cycadaceae in the red river region, examined by chloroplast DNA sequences and microsatellite markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Qing Gong

    Full Text Available Cycas multipinnata C.J. Chen & S.Y. Yang is a cycad endemic to the Red River drainage region that occurs under evergreen forest on steep limestone slopes in Southwest China and northern Vietnam. It is listed as endangered due to habitat loss and over-collecting for the ornamental plant trade, and only several populations remain. In this study, we assess the genetic variation, population structure, and phylogeography of C. multipinnata populations to help develop strategies for the conservation of the species. 60 individuals from six populations were used for chloroplast DNA (cpDNA sequencing and 100 individuals from five populations were genotyped using 17 nuclear microsatellites. High genetic differentiation among populations was detected, suggesting that pollen or seed dispersal was restricted within populations. Two main genetic clusters were observed in both the cpDNA and microsatellite loci, corresponding to Yunnan China and northern Vietnam. These clusters indicated low levels of gene flow between the regions since their divergence in the late Pleistocene, which was inferred from both Bayesian and coalescent analysis. In addition, the result of a Bayesian skyline plot based on cpDNA portrayed a long history of constant population size followed by a decline in the last 50,000 years of C. multipinnata that was perhaps affected by the Quaternary glaciations, a finding that was also supported by the Garza-Williamson index calculated from the microsatellite data. The genetic consequences produced by climatic oscillations and anthropogenic disturbances are considered key pressures on C. multipinnata. To establish a conservation management plan, each population of C. multipinnata should be recognized as a Management Unit (MU. In situ and ex situ actions, such as controlling overexploitation and creating a germplasm bank with high genetic diversity, should be urgently implemented to preserve this species.

  9. The Historical Demography and Genetic Variation of the Endangered Cycas multipinnata (Cycadaceae) in the Red River Region, Examined by Chloroplast DNA Sequences and Microsatellite Markers (United States)

    Gong, Yi-Qing; Zhan, Qing-Qing; Nguyen, Khang Sinh; Nguyen, Hiep Tien; Wang, Yue-Hua; Gong, Xun


    Cycas multipinnata C.J. Chen & S.Y. Yang is a cycad endemic to the Red River drainage region that occurs under evergreen forest on steep limestone slopes in Southwest China and northern Vietnam. It is listed as endangered due to habitat loss and over-collecting for the ornamental plant trade, and only several populations remain. In this study, we assess the genetic variation, population structure, and phylogeography of C. multipinnata populations to help develop strategies for the conservation of the species. 60 individuals from six populations were used for chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequencing and 100 individuals from five populations were genotyped using 17 nuclear microsatellites. High genetic differentiation among populations was detected, suggesting that pollen or seed dispersal was restricted within populations. Two main genetic clusters were observed in both the cpDNA and microsatellite loci, corresponding to Yunnan China and northern Vietnam. These clusters indicated low levels of gene flow between the regions since their divergence in the late Pleistocene, which was inferred from both Bayesian and coalescent analysis. In addition, the result of a Bayesian skyline plot based on cpDNA portrayed a long history of constant population size followed by a decline in the last 50,000 years of C. multipinnata that was perhaps affected by the Quaternary glaciations, a finding that was also supported by the Garza-Williamson index calculated from the microsatellite data. The genetic consequences produced by climatic oscillations and anthropogenic disturbances are considered key pressures on C. multipinnata. To establish a conservation management plan, each population of C. multipinnata should be recognized as a Management Unit (MU). In situ and ex situ actions, such as controlling overexploitation and creating a germplasm bank with high genetic diversity, should be urgently implemented to preserve this species. PMID:25689828

  10. Natural variation in life history and aging phenotypes is associated with mitochondrial DNA deletion frequency in Caenorhabditis briggsae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Samson W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations that impair mitochondrial functioning are associated with a variety of metabolic and age-related disorders. A barrier to rigorous tests of the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in aging processes has been the lack of model systems with relevant, naturally occurring mitochondrial genetic variation. Toward the goal of developing such a model system, we studied natural variation in life history, metabolic, and aging phenotypes as it relates to levels of a naturally-occurring heteroplasmic mitochondrial ND5 deletion recently discovered to segregate among wild populations of the soil nematode, Caenorhabditis briggsae. The normal product of ND5 is a central component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and integral to cellular energy metabolism. Results We quantified significant variation among C. briggsae isolates for all phenotypes measured, only some of which was statistically associated with isolate-specific ND5 deletion frequency. We found that fecundity-related traits and pharyngeal pumping rate were strongly inversely related to ND5 deletion level and that C. briggsae isolates with high ND5 deletion levels experienced a tradeoff between early fecundity and lifespan. Conversely, oxidative stress resistance was only weakly associated with ND5 deletion level while ATP content was unrelated to deletion level. Finally, mean levels of reactive oxygen species measured in vivo showed a significant non-linear relationship with ND5 deletion level, a pattern that may be driven by among-isolate variation in antioxidant or other compensatory mechanisms. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the ND5 deletion may adversely affect fitness and mitochondrial functioning while promoting aging in natural populations, and help to further establish this species as a useful model for explicit tests of hypotheses in aging biology and mitochondrial genetics.

  11. FOX-superroots of Lotus corniculatus, overexpressing Arabidopsis full-length cDNA, show stable variations in morphological traits. (United States)

    Himuro, Yasuyo; Tanaka, Hidenori; Hashiguchi, Masatsugu; Ichikawa, Takanari; Nakazawa, Miki; Seki, Motoaki; Fujita, Miki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Matsui, Minami; Akashi, Ryo; Hoffmann, Franz


    Using the full-length cDNA overexpressor (FOX) gene-hunting system, we have generated 130 Arabidopsis FOX-superroot lines in bird's-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) for the systematic functional analysis of genes expressed in roots and for the selection of induced mutants with interesting root growth characteristics. We used the Arabidopsis-FOX Agrobacterium library (constructed by ligating pBIG2113SF) for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of superroots (SR) and the subsequent selection of gain-of-function mutants with ectopically expressed Arabidopsis genes. The original superroot culture of L. corniculatus is a unique host system displaying fast root growth in vitro, allowing continuous root cloning, direct somatic embryogenesis and mass regeneration of plants under entirely hormone-free culture conditions. Several of the Arabidopsis FOX-superroot lines show interesting deviations from normal growth and morphology of roots from SR-plants, such as differences in pigmentation, growth rate, length or diameter. Some of these mutations are of potential agricultural interest. Genomic PCR analysis revealed that 100 (76.9%) out of the 130 transgenic lines showed the amplification of single fragments. Sequence analysis of the PCR fragments from these 100 lines identified full-length cDNA in 74 of them. Forty-three out of 74 full-length cDNA carried known genes. The Arabidopsis FOX-superroot lines of L. corniculatus, produced in this study, expand the FOX hunting system and provide a new tool for the genetic analysis and control of root growth in a leguminous forage plant.

  12. Genetic variation between two Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) populations in the eastern China based on mitochondrial DNA control region sequences. (United States)

    Yao, Yongfang; Zhong, Lijing; Liu, Bofeng; Li, Jiayi; Ni, Qingyong; Xu, Huailiang


    Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) is a threatened primate species endemic to China. Population genetic and phylogenetic analyses were conducted in 66 Tibetan individuals from Sichuan (SC), Huangshan (HS), and Fujian (FJ) based on a 477-bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA control region. Four new haplotypes were defined, and a relatively high level of genetic diversity was first observed in FJ populations (Hd = 0.7661). Notably, a continuous approximately 10 bp-fragment deletion was observed near the 5' end of the mtDNA control region of both HS and FJ populations when compared with that of SC population, and a sharing haplotype was found between the two populations, revealing a closer genetic relationship. However, significant genetic differentiation (FST = 0.8700) and more poor gene exchange (Nm < 1) had occurred among three populations. This study mainly provide a further insight into the genetic relationship between HS and FJ Tibetan macaque populations, but it may be necessary to carry out further study with extra samples from other locations in the geographic coverage of the two subspecies (M. thibetana pullus and M. thibetana huangshanensis).

  13. Mitochondrial DNA variation in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea populations of swimming crab Ovalipes punctatus. (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Han, Zhiqiang; Chen, Guobao; Yu, Cungen; Gao, Tianxiang


    Swimming crab Ovalipes punctatus is a commercially important species in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea, but there is limited knowledge of its genetic population structure. The population genetic structure of O. punctatus in East China Sea and Yellow Sea was examined with a 658-bp segment of the mtDNA COI gene. A total of 60 individuals were collected from five locations and 48 haplotypes were obtained. Mean haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity for the five populations were 0.9876 ± 0.0068 and 0.0074 ± 0.0041, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) detected no significant differences at all hierarchical levels, and all FST values were non-significant, indicating that no significant population genetic structure exists in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea. These results supported the null hypothesis that O. punctatus within the East China Sea and Yellow Sea constitutes a panmictic mtDNA gene pool. Neutrality tests and mismatch distribution supported population expansion in this species, indicating that climate change could play an important role in affecting the demographic history of marine species. Strong dispersal capacity of larvae and adults, and ocean currents in the studied area could be the reasons for genetic homogeneity in this species in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea. Another explanation for the lack of phylogeographic structure in O. punctatus might reflect a recent range expansion after the last glacial maximum and insufficient time to attain migration-drift equilibrium.

  14. DNA variation and polymorphism in Tunisian plum species (Prunus spp): contribution of flow cytometry and molecular markers. (United States)

    Ben Tamarzizt, H; Walker, D; Ben Mustapha, S; Abdallah, D; Baraket, G; Salhi Hannachi, A; Zehdi Azzouzi, S


    Plums (Prunus spp) are among the most important stone fruit crops in the world. European (Prunus domestica) and Japanese (Prunus salicina) plums are characterized by different levels of ploidy. Because genetic variability is the prerequisite for any plant-breeding program, we aimed to establish the taxonomic status of Tunisian plums and study their genetic variability. The nuclear DNA content of 45 wild and cultivated Tunisian plums was determined by flow cytometry. Two arbitrary primers (AD10, AD17) were used to elaborate SCAR markers useful to identify plum species. Three wild trees, Zenou 1, Zenou 6, and Zenou 3, which had 2C nuclear DNA contents of 1.99, 2.05, and 2.13 pg, were shown to be hexaploid (2n = 6x = 48), whereas the others were diploid (2n = 2x = 16). These results suggest that the three hexaploid wild plums belong to Prunus insititia, and the others belong to Prunus salicina. No SCAR markers were revealed using the AD10 and AD17 RAPD primers in relation to the ploidy of plums. We note also that AD17 primer appears to be the most informative concerning the genetic diversity. Morphological and pomological traits revealed similarity between introduced and Tunisian plum cultivars. Despite the significant morphological differences found, all the cultivars studied belong to P. salicina. The information obtained in this analysis provided on local plum genetic resources will be helpful to establish a core collection, to evaluate genetic diversity, and to initiate an improvement and selection program.

  15. Investigation of the effect of ionizing radiation on gene expression variation by the 'DNA chips': feasibility of a biological dosimeter; Etude de l'effet des radiations ionisantes sur la variation d'expression genique par la methode des 'puces a ADN': faisabilite d'un dosimetre biologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruel, G.


    After having described the different biological effects of ionizing radiation and the different approaches to biological dosimetry, and introduced 'DNA chips' or DNA micro-arrays, the author reports the characterization of gene expression variations in the response of cells to a gamma irradiation. Both main aspects of the use DNA chips are investigated: fundamental research and diagnosis. This research thesis thus proposes an analysis of the effect of ionizing radiation using DNA chips, notably by comparing gene expression modifications measured in mouse irradiated lung, heart and kidney. It reports a feasibility study of bio-dosimeter based on expression profiles

  16. In vitro genotypic variation of Campylobacter coli documented by pulsed-field gel electrophoretic DNA profiling, implications for epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephen L.W.


    Six isolates of Campylobacter coli from different pig herds were subcultured up to 50 times over a 6-month period and DNA samples suitable for pulsed-field gel electrophoretic (PFGE) profiling prepared at regular (1, 20, 40 and 50 passages) intervals. In 5/6 strains, changes in the banding patterns...... of Sma1, Sal1 and/or BamH1 digests were observed. In one such strain the differences were considered artifactual. However, significant alterations in PFGE profiles between subcultures of four strains were seen, irrespective of the restriction enzyme used. Spontaneous intramolecular genomic rearrangements...... of spontaneous genetic change on PFGE profiles must be considered when evaluating strain relationships. Numerical techniques may aid data interpretation but results must be evaluated cautiously....

  17. Types of variation in DNA-A among isolates of East African cassava mosaic virus from Kenya, Malawi and Tanzania. (United States)

    Zhou, X; Robinson, D J; Harrison, B D


    Complete nucleotide sequences of the DNA-A-like molecules of three East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV) isolates from Kenya (-K, 2801 nt) and Malawi (-MH and -MK, both 2804 nt) were determined. These sequences were compared with that published for a Tanzanian isolate (-T, 2801 nt) and the partial sequence of a third Malawian isolate. Intergenic region sequences of all isolates, and deduced amino acid sequences of their AC1 (Rep) proteins, each formed a tightly related cluster that was distinct from the comparable components of other begomoviruses. Other complementary-sense genes (AC2, AC3, AC4) differed between EACMV isolates in a way consistent with the accumulation of point mutations. In contrast, virus-sense genes (CP, AV2) of isolates -MH and -MK differed (substantially for AV2) from those of other EACMV isolates but somewhat resembled those of tomato yellow leaf curl virus-Israel, suggesting they had been acquired by recombination with an unidentified begomovirus.

  18. Mitochondrial DNA variation of Triatoma infestans populations and its implication on the specific status of T. melanosoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A Monteiro


    Full Text Available DNA sequence comparison of 412 base-pairs fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome B gene was used to infer the genetic structure of nine geographical Triatoma infestans populations and their phylogenetic relationship with T. melanosoma and T. brasiliensis. T. infestans and T. melanosoma were compared by morphometry, allozyme and cytogenetic analyses, as well as subjected to reciprocal crosses, in order to clarify the taxonomic status of the latter. No differences were found to distinguish the two species and the crosses between them yielded progeny. T. infestans populations presented four haplotypes that could be separated in two clusters: one formed by the samples from Bolivia (Andes and Chaco and the other formed by samples from Argentina and Brazil. Silvatic and domestic T. infestans populations from Bolivia (Andes were genetically identical.

  19. Migration and interaction in a contact zone: mtDNA variation among Bantu-speakers in Southern Africa. (United States)

    Barbieri, Chiara; Vicente, Mário; Oliveira, Sandra; Bostoen, Koen; Rocha, Jorge; Stoneking, Mark; Pakendorf, Brigitte


    Bantu speech communities expanded over large parts of sub-Saharan Africa within the last 4000-5000 years, reaching different parts of southern Africa 1200-2000 years ago. The Bantu languages subdivide in several major branches, with languages belonging to the Eastern and Western Bantu branches spreading over large parts of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa. There is still debate whether this linguistic divide is correlated with a genetic distinction between Eastern and Western Bantu speakers. During their expansion, Bantu speakers would have come into contact with diverse local populations, such as the Khoisan hunter-gatherers and pastoralists of southern Africa, with whom they may have intermarried. In this study, we analyze complete mtDNA genome sequences from over 900 Bantu-speaking individuals from Angola, Zambia, Namibia, and Botswana to investigate the demographic processes at play during the last stages of the Bantu expansion. Our results show that most of these Bantu-speaking populations are genetically very homogenous, with no genetic division between speakers of Eastern and Western Bantu languages. Most of the mtDNA diversity in our dataset is due to different degrees of admixture with autochthonous populations. Only the pastoralist Himba and Herero stand out due to high frequencies of particular L3f and L3d lineages; the latter are also found in the neighboring Damara, who speak a Khoisan language and were foragers and small-stock herders. In contrast, the close cultural and linguistic relatives of the Herero and Himba, the Kuvale, are genetically similar to other Bantu-speakers. Nevertheless, as demonstrated by resampling tests, the genetic divergence of Herero, Himba, and Kuvale is compatible with a common shared ancestry with high levels of drift, while the similarity of the Herero, Himba, and Damara probably reflects admixture, as also suggested by linguistic analyses.

  20. Migration and interaction in a contact zone: mtDNA variation among Bantu-speakers in Southern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Barbieri

    Full Text Available Bantu speech communities expanded over large parts of sub-Saharan Africa within the last 4000-5000 years, reaching different parts of southern Africa 1200-2000 years ago. The Bantu languages subdivide in several major branches, with languages belonging to the Eastern and Western Bantu branches spreading over large parts of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa. There is still debate whether this linguistic divide is correlated with a genetic distinction between Eastern and Western Bantu speakers. During their expansion, Bantu speakers would have come into contact with diverse local populations, such as the Khoisan hunter-gatherers and pastoralists of southern Africa, with whom they may have intermarried. In this study, we analyze complete mtDNA genome sequences from over 900 Bantu-speaking individuals from Angola, Zambia, Namibia, and Botswana to investigate the demographic processes at play during the last stages of the Bantu expansion. Our results show that most of these Bantu-speaking populations are genetically very homogenous, with no genetic division between speakers of Eastern and Western Bantu languages. Most of the mtDNA diversity in our dataset is due to different degrees of admixture with autochthonous populations. Only the pastoralist Himba and Herero stand out due to high frequencies of particular L3f and L3d lineages; the latter are also found in the neighboring Damara, who speak a Khoisan language and were foragers and small-stock herders. In contrast, the close cultural and linguistic relatives of the Herero and Himba, the Kuvale, are genetically similar to other Bantu-speakers. Nevertheless, as demonstrated by resampling tests, the genetic divergence of Herero, Himba, and Kuvale is compatible with a common shared ancestry with high levels of drift, while the similarity of the Herero, Himba, and Damara probably reflects admixture, as also suggested by linguistic analyses.

  1. Phylogeography of Arabidopsis halleri (Brassicaceae) in mountain regions of Central Europe inferred from cpDNA variation and ecological niche modelling (United States)

    Pauwels, Maxime; Pasierbinski, Andrzej; Przedpelska-Wasowicz, Ewa M.; Babst-Kostecka, Alicja A.; Saumitou-Laprade, Pierre; Rostanski, Adam


    The present study aimed to investigate phylogeographical patterns present within A. halleri in Central Europe. 1,281 accessions sampled from 52 populations within the investigated area were used in the study of genetic variation based on chloroplast DNA. Over 500 high-quality species occurrence records were used in ecological niche modelling experiments. We evidenced the presence of a clear phylogeographic structure within A. halleri in Central Europe. Our results showed that two genetically different groups of populations are present in western and eastern part of the Carpathians. The hypothesis of the existence of a glacial refugium in the Western Carpathians adn the Bohemian Forest cannot be rejected from our data. It seems, however, that the evidence collected during the present study is not conclusive. The area of Sudetes was colonised after LGM probably by migrants from the Bohemian Forest. PMID:26835186

  2. Intragenomic sequence variation at the ITS1 - ITS2 region and at the 18S and 28S nuclear ribosomal DNA genes of the New Zealand mud snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae: mollusca) (United States)

    Hoy, Marshal S.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.


    Molecular genetic analysis was conducted on two populations of the invasive non-native New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), one from a freshwater ecosystem in Devil's Lake (Oregon, USA) and the other from an ecosystem of higher salinity in the Columbia River estuary (Hammond Harbor, Oregon, USA). To elucidate potential genetic differences between the two populations, three segments of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA), the ITS1-ITS2 regions and the 18S and 28S rDNA genes were cloned and sequenced. Variant sequences within each individual were found in all three rDNA segments. Folding models were utilized for secondary structure analysis and results indicated that there were many sequences which contained structure-altering polymorphisms, which suggests they could be nonfunctional pseudogenes. In addition, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) was used for hierarchical analysis of genetic variance to estimate variation within and among populations and within individuals. AMOVA revealed significant variation in the ITS region between the populations and among clones within individuals, while in the 5.8S rDNA significant variation was revealed among individuals within the two populations. High levels of intragenomic variation were found in the ITS regions, which are known to be highly variable in many organisms. More interestingly, intragenomic variation was also found in the 18S and 28S rDNA, which has rarely been observed in animals and is so far unreported in Mollusca. We postulate that in these P. antipodarum populations the effects of concerted evolution are diminished due to the fact that not all of the rDNA genes in their polyploid genome should be essential for sustaining cellular function. This could lead to a lessening of selection pressures, allowing mutations to accumulate in some copies, changing them into variant sequences.                   

  3. Agro-ecological variations of sheath rot disease of rice caused by Sarocladium oryzae and DNA fingerprinting of the pathogen's population structure. (United States)

    Tajul Islam Chowdhury, M; Salim Mian, M; Taher Mia, M A; Rafii, M Y; Latif, M A


    To examine the impact of regional and seasonal variations on the incidence and severity of sheath rot, a major seed-borne disease of rice caused by Sarocladium oryzae, data on incidence and severity were collected from 27 selected fields in the Gazipur, Rangpur, Bogra, Chittagong, Comilla, Gopalgonj, Jessore, Manikgonj, and Bhola districts of Bangladesh in rain-fed and irrigated conditions. Cultural variability of 29 pathogen isolates obtained from 8 different locations was studied on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and genetic variability was determined by DNA fingerprinting using variable number tandem repeat-polymerase chain reaction markers. Overall, disease incidence and severity were higher in irrigated rice. Disease incidence and severity were highest in the Bhola district in rain-fed rice and lowest in irrigated rice. Mycelial growth of 29 representative isolates was found to vary on PDA and the isolates were divided into 6 groups. The range of the overall size of conidia of the selected isolates was 2.40-7.20 x 1.20-2.40 μm. Analysis of the DNA fingerprint types of the 29 isolates of S. oryzae, obtained from the amplification reactions, revealed 10 fingerprinting types (FPTs) that were 80% similar. FPT-1 was the largest group and included 13 isolates (44.8%), while FPT-2 was the third largest group and included 3 isolates. Each of FPT-3, 4, 5, and 6 included only 1 isolate. We observed no relationship between cultural and genetic groupings.

  4. Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation, copy number variation, and gene expression in monozygotic twins discordant for primary biliary cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo eSelmi


    Full Text Available Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC is an uncommon autoimmune disease with a homogeneous clinical phenotype that reflects incomplete disease concordance in monozygotic (MZ twins. We have taken advantage of a unique collection consisting of genomic DNA and mRNA from peripheral blood cells of female MZ twins (n=3 sets and sisters of similar age (n=8 pairs discordant for disease. We performed a genome-wide study to investigate differences in (i DNA methylation (using a custom tiled 4-plex array containing tiled 50-mers 19,084 randomly chosen methylation sites, (ii copy number variation (CNV (with a chip including markers derived from the 1000 Genomes Project, all three HapMap phases, and recently published studies, and/or (iii gene expression (by whole-genome expression arrays. Based on the results obtained from these three approaches we utilized quantitative PCR to compare the expression of candidate genes. Importantly, our data support consistent differences in discordant twins and siblings for the (i methylation profiles of 60 gene regions, (ii CNV of 10 genes, and (iii the expression of 2 interferon-dependent genes. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that 17 of these genes are differentially expressed in discordant sibling pairs. In conclusion, we report that MZ twins and sisters discordant for PBC manifest particular epigenetic differences and highlight the value of the epigenetic study of twins.

  5. Human longevity and variation in DNA damage response and repair: study of the contribution of sub-processes using competitive gene-set analysis. (United States)

    Debrabant, Birgit; Soerensen, Mette; Flachsbart, Friederike; Dato, Serena; Mengel-From, Jonas; Stevnsner, Tinna; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Kruse, Torben A; Schreiber, Stefan; Nebel, Almut; Christensen, Kaare; Tan, Qihua; Christiansen, Lene


    DNA-damage response and repair are crucial to maintain genetic stability, and are consequently considered central to aging and longevity. Here, we investigate whether this pathway overall associates to longevity, and whether specific sub-processes are more strongly associated with longevity than others. Data were applied on 592 SNPs from 77 genes involved in nine sub-processes: DNA-damage response, base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, non-homologous end-joining, homologous recombinational repair (HRR), RecQ helicase activities (RECQ), telomere functioning and mitochondrial DNA processes. The study population was 1089 long-lived and 736 middle-aged Danes. A self-contained set-based test of all SNPs displayed association with longevity (P-value=9.9 × 10(-5)), supporting that the overall pathway could affect longevity. Investigation of the nine sub-processes using the competitive gene-set analysis by Wang et al indicated that BER, HRR and RECQ associated stronger with longevity than the respective remaining genes of the pathway (P-values=0.004-0.048). For HRR and RECQ, only one gene contributed to the significance, whereas for BER several genes contributed. These associations did, however, generally not pass correction for multiple testing. Still, these findings indicate that, of the entire pathway, variation in BER might influence longevity the most. These modest sized P-values were not replicated in a German sample. This might, though, be due to differences in genotyping procedures and investigated SNPs, potentially inducing differences in the coverage of gene regions. Specifically, five genes were not covered at all in the German data. Therefore, investigations in additional study populations are needed before final conclusion can be drawn.

  6. Reprint of "Identification of staphylococcal species based on variations in protein sequences (mass spectrometry) and DNA sequence (sodA microarray)". (United States)

    Kooken, Jennifer; Fox, Karen; Fox, Alvin; Altomare, Diego; Creek, Kim; Wunschel, David; Pajares-Merino, Sara; Martínez-Ballesteros, Ilargi; Garaizar, Javier; Oyarzabal, Omar; Samadpour, Mansour


    This report is among the first using sequence variation in newly discovered protein markers for staphylococcal (or indeed any other bacterial) speciation. Variation, at the DNA sequence level, in the sodA gene (commonly used for staphylococcal speciation) provided excellent correlation. Relatedness among strains was also assessed using protein profiling using microcapillary electrophoresis and pulsed field electrophoresis. A total of 64 strains were analyzed including reference strains representing the 11 staphylococcal species most commonly isolated from man (Staphylococcus aureus and 10 coagulase negative species [CoNS]). Matrix assisted time of flight ionization/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC ESI MS/MS) were used for peptide analysis of proteins isolated from gel bands. Comparison of experimental spectra of unknowns versus spectra of peptides derived from reference strains allowed bacterial identification after MALDI TOF MS analysis. After LC-MS/MS analysis of gel bands bacterial speciation was performed by comparing experimental spectra versus virtual spectra using the software X!Tandem. Finally LC-MS/MS was performed on whole proteomes and data analysis also employing X!tandem. Aconitate hydratase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase served as marker proteins on focused analysis after gel separation. Alternatively on full proteomics analysis elongation factor Tu generally provided the highest confidence in staphylococcal speciation.

  7. Strait of Gibraltar: an effective gene-flow barrier for wind-pollinated Carex helodes (Cyperaceae) as revealed by DNA sequences, AFLP, and cytogenetic variation. (United States)

    Escudero, Marcial; Vargas, Pablo; Valcárcel, Virginia; Luceño, Modesto


    The Strait of Gibraltar is the most important barrier disconnecting the landmasses of Europe and Africa on the western Mediterranean extreme. Carex helodes is a wind-pollinated species endemic to the western Mediterranean. Because molecular and cytogenetic data allow the inference of its evolutionary history, we analyzed variations in chromosome number, including meiotic chromosome behavior, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints, and nucleotide substitutions in plastid and nuclear DNA sequences. Cytogeographic results showed that the African populations have stabilized at a single chromosome number of 2n = 74, whereas the most frequent cytotype in Iberia is 2n = 72. Phylogenetic reconstructions of 17 sequences from nine closely related species revealed that C. helodes is monophyletic and that the Moroccan populations are embedded in the Iberian lineages. The haplotype network is also consistent with a European origin of the northern African haplotype. AFLP analysis also revealed hierarchical levels of genetic variation compatible with a founder effect process responsible for the African populations. All sources of evidence support the hypothesis that the Strait of Gibraltar has been an effective gene-flow barrier, generating two isolated evolutionary lineages after their dispersal. Recent connections between the two lineages appear unlikely, whereas active gene flow occurs among populations within the two lineages.

  8. Loss of genetic variation in Greek hatchery populations of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L. as revealed by microsatellite DNA analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Genetic variation in four reared stocks of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax L., originating from Greek commercial farms, was assessed using five polymorphic microsatellite markers and was compared with that of three natural populations from Greece and France. The total number of alleles per marker ranged from 8 to 22 alleles, and hatchery samples showed the same levels of observed heterozygosity with samples from the wild but substantially smaller allelic richness and expected heterozygosity. The genetic differentiation of cultivated samples between them as well as from the wild origin fish was significant as indicated by Fst analysis. All population pairwise comparisons were statistically significant, except for the pair of the two natural Greek populations. Results of microsatellite DNA analysis herein showed a 37 % reduction of the mean allele number in the hatchery samples compared to the wild ones, suggesting random genetic drift and inbreeding events operating in the hatcheries. Knowledge of the genetic variation in D. labrax cultured populations compared with that in the wild ones is essential for setting up appropriate guidelines for proper monitoring and management of the stocks either under traditional practices or for the implementation of selective breeding programmes.

  9. Inferring the mode of colonization of the rapid range expansion of a solitary bee from multilocus DNA sequence variation. (United States)

    Dellicour, S; Mardulyn, P; Hardy, O J; Hardy, C; Roberts, S P M; Vereecken, N J


    Rapid geographic range expansions can have dramatic effects on the distribution of genetic diversity, both within and among populations. Based on field records collected over the past two decades in Western Europe, we report on the rapid geographic range expansion in Colletes hederae, a solitary bee species. To characterize how this expansion shaped the distribution of genetic diversity within and among populations, we performed a genetic analysis based on the sequencing of three nuclear loci (RNAp, CAD and WgL). We then simulated the evolution of DNA sequences under a spatially explicit model of coalescence to compare different hypotheses regarding the mode of colonization associated with this rapid expansion and to identify those that are most consistent with the observed molecular data. Our genetic analyses indicate that the range expansion was not associated with an important reduction in genetic diversity, even in the most recently colonized area in the United Kingdom. Moreover, little genetic differentiation was observed among populations. Our comparative analysis of simulated data sets indicates that the observed genetic data are more consistent with a demographic scenario involving relatively high migration rates than with a scenario based on a high reproduction rate associated with few migrants. In the light of these results, we discuss the factors that might have contributed to the rapid geographic range expansion of this pollen-specialist solitary bee species across Western Europe.

  10. Phylogeography of Spiraea alpina (Rosaceae) in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau inferred from chloroplast DNA sequence variations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fa-Qi ZHANG; Qing-Bo GAO; De-Jun ZHANG; Yi-Zhong DUAN; Yin-Hu LI; Peng-Cheng FU; Rui XING; Khan GULZAR; Shi-Long CHEN


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the phylogeographic patterns of Spiraea alpina (Rosaceae) and clarify its response to past climatic changes in the climate-sensitive Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP).We sequenced a chloroplast DNA fragment (trnL-trnF) from 528 individuals representing 43 populations.We identified 10 haplotypes,which were tentatively divided into three groups.These haplotypes or groups were distributed in the different regions of the QTP.Only half the populations were fixed by a single haplotype,whereas the others contained two or more.In the central and eastern regions,adjacent populations at the local scale shared the same haplotype.Our phylogeographic analyses suggest that this alpine shrub survived in multiple refugia during the Last Glacial Maximum and that earlier glaciations may have trigged deep intraspecific divergences.Post-glacial expansions occurred only within populations or across multiple populations within a local range.The findings of the present study together with previous phylogeographic reports suggest that evolutionary histories of plants in the QTP are complex and variable depending on the species investigated.

  11. Genetic variation of Chinese and Japanese wild Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) measured by microsatellite DNA markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qi; KIJIMA Akihiro


    Population differentiation and relationships among three wild populations of the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai collected from coastal seas around China and Japan were estimated using microsatellite DNA analysis. The results obtained with six microsatellite loci showed a high genetic diversity for China and Japan populations. The mean number of alleles per locus ranged from 11.7 to 23.0, and the average of observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.656 to 0.721, and from 0.721 to 0.793, respectively. The observed genotype frequencies at each locus were mostly in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg expectations with five exceptions. Significant differences were detected between Chinese and Japanese H. discus hannai populations [Weir and Cocker-ham's fixation index(Fst) range: 0.020~0.023; Slatkin's fixation index (Rst) range: 0.016~0.044], and no obvious difference was detected between the samples of Japanese H. discus hannai populations (Fst=0.002; Rst = 0.007). The level of differentiation among populations is further evidenced by the nNeighbor-joining tree topology on which the Japanese samples were closely clustered, and the Chinese population formed a separate cluster. These results suggest that care should be taken in future management of different populations.

  12. Copy number variations of genes involved in stress responses reflect the redox state and DNA damage in brewing yeasts. (United States)

    Adamczyk, Jagoda; Deregowska, Anna; Skoneczny, Marek; Skoneczna, Adrianna; Natkanska, Urszula; Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra; Rawska, Ewa; Potocki, Leszek; Kuna, Ewelina; Panek, Anita; Lewinska, Anna; Wnuk, Maciej


    The yeast strains of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex involved in beer production are a heterogeneous group whose genetic and genomic features are not adequately determined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to provide a genetic characterization of selected group of commercially available brewing yeasts both ale top-fermenting and lager bottom-fermenting strains. Molecular karyotyping revealed that the diversity of chromosome patterns and four strains with the most accented genetic variabilities were selected and subjected to genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) analysis. The differences in the gene copy number were found in five functional gene categories: (1) maltose metabolism and transport, (2) response to toxin, (3) siderophore transport, (4) cellular aldehyde metabolic process, and (5) L-iditol 2-dehydrogenase activity (p < 0.05). In the Saflager W-34/70 strain (Fermentis) with the most affected array-CGH profile, loss of aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase (AAD) gene dosage correlated with an imbalanced redox state, oxidative DNA damage and breaks, lower levels of nucleolar proteins Nop1 and Fob1, and diminished tolerance to fermentation-associated stress stimuli compared to other strains. We suggest that compromised stress response may not only promote oxidant-based changes in the nucleolus state that may affect fermentation performance but also provide novel directions for future strain improvement.

  13. Inferring multiple refugia and phylogeographical patterns in Pinus massoniana based on nucleotide sequence variation and DNA fingerprinting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Jun Ge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pinus massoniana, an ecologically and economically important conifer, is widespread across central and southern mainland China and Taiwan. In this study, we tested the central-marginal paradigm that predicts that the marginal populations tend to be less polymorphic than the central ones in their genetic composition, and examined a founders' effect in the island population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the phylogeography and population structuring of the P. massoniana based on nucleotide sequences of cpDNA atpB-rbcL intergenic spacer, intron regions of the AdhC2 locus, and microsatellite fingerprints. SAMOVA analysis of nucleotide sequences indicated that most genetic variants resided among geographical regions. High levels of genetic diversity in the marginal populations in the south region, a pattern seemingly contradicting the central-marginal paradigm, and the fixation of private haplotypes in most populations indicate that multiple refugia may have existed over the glacial maxima. STRUCTURE analyses on microsatellites revealed that genetic structure of mainland populations was mediated with recent genetic exchanges mostly via pollen flow, and that the genetic composition in east region was intermixed between south and west regions, a pattern likely shaped by gene introgression and maintenance of ancestral polymorphisms. As expected, the small island population in Taiwan was genetically differentiated from mainland populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The marginal populations in south region possessed divergent gene pools, suggesting that the past glaciations might have low impacts on these populations at low latitudes. Estimates of ancestral population sizes interestingly reflect a recent expansion in mainland from a rather smaller population, a pattern that seemingly agrees with the pollen record.

  14. Variation in the genomic locations and sequence conservation of STAR elements among staphylococcal species provides insight into DNA repeat evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purves Joanne


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus Repeat (STAR elements are a type of interspersed intergenic direct repeat. In this study the conservation and variation in these elements was explored by bioinformatic analyses of published staphylococcal genome sequences and through sequencing of specific STAR element loci from a large set of S. aureus isolates. Results Using bioinformatic analyses, we found that the STAR elements were located in different genomic loci within each staphylococcal species. There was no correlation between the number of STAR elements in each genome and the evolutionary relatedness of staphylococcal species, however higher levels of repeats were observed in both S. aureus and S. lugdunensis compared to other staphylococcal species. Unexpectedly, sequencing of the internal spacer sequences of individual repeat elements from multiple isolates showed conservation at the sequence level within deep evolutionary lineages of S. aureus. Whilst individual STAR element loci were demonstrated to expand and contract, the sequences associated with each locus were stable and distinct from one another. Conclusions The high degree of lineage and locus-specific conservation of these intergenic repeat regions suggests that STAR elements are maintained due to selective or molecular forces with some of these elements having an important role in cell physiology. The high prevalence in two of the more virulent staphylococcal species is indicative of a potential role for STAR elements in pathogenesis.

  15. DNA sequence and haplotype variation in two candidate genes for dilated cardiomyopathy in the turkey Meleagris gallopavo. (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-chin; Xu, Jun; Kamara, Davida; Geng, Tuoyu; Gyenai, Kwaku; Reed, Kent M; Smith, Edward J


    Determining variation in genes is fundamental to understanding their function in the disease state. Cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and phospholamban (PLN) genes have been implicated in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in human and model species. To investigate the role of these 2 candidate genes in DCM in the turkey Meleagris gallopavo, understanding sequence variants and map position distribution is necessary. To this end, a total of 1854 and 1771 bp of cTnT and PLN gene sequences, respectively, were scanned for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a randomly bred population. A total of 15 SNPs was identified in the cTnT and PLN genomic sequences. Nine haplotypes, 5 in cTnT and 4 in PLN, were identified. Observed heterozygosities (0.02-0.39) in the turkey population were low for both genes. Within each gene, 1 SNP corresponding to a restriction enzyme site was identified and used to develop a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) genotyping assay. The PLN gene was genetically mapped to turkey chromosome 2, equivalent to Gallus gallus chromosome 3, and cTnT mapped to a turkey microchromosome. Although limited because of the relatively small sample size of 55 birds, the data from this SNP analysis of PLN and cTnT provide a foundation from which to evaluate the function of cTnT and PLN in the turkey. Information about the distribution of the SNPs and haplotypes will facilitate future association and linkage studies.

  16. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in Drosophilid species (Diptera: Drosophilidae) along altitudinal gradient from Central Himalayan region of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Central Himalayan region of India encompasses varied ecological habitats ranging from near tropics to the mid-elevation forests dominated by cool-temperate taxa. In past, we have reported several new records and novel species from Uttarakhand state of India. Here, we assessed genetic variations in three mitochondrial genes, namely, 16S rRNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COI and COII) in 26 drosophilid species collected along altitudinal transect from 550 to 2700 m above mean sea level. In the present study, overall 543 sequences were generated, 82 for 16S rRNA, 238 forCOI, 223 for COII with 21, 47 and 45 mitochondrial haplotypes for 16S rRNA, COI and COII genes,respectively. Almost all species were represented by 2–3 unique mitochondrial haplotypes, depicting a significant impact of environmental heterogeneity along altitudinal gradient on genetic diversity. Also for the first time, molecular data of some rare species like Drosophila mukteshwarensis , Liodrosophila nitida, Lordiphosa parantillaria , Lordiphosa ayarpathaensis ,Scaptomyza himalayana,Scaptomyza tistai , Zaprionus grandis and Stegana minuta are provided to public domains through this study.

  17. The variation analysis of mtDNA D-loop sequence of Cheilinus undulatus%波纹唇鱼mtDNA D-loop序列变异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡静; 齐兴柱; 尹绍武; 骆剑; 朱晓平; 祝斐; 胡亚丽


    The aim of this paper was to study the variations in the mtDNA D-loop sequences of Cheilinus undulatus populations. Twenty-five individuals of C. undulatus were collected from the offshore area of Hainan province. One thousand and four hundreds bp nucleotide sequences of mtDNA D-loop region were obtained using PCR and clon- ing techniques. 66 variation sites including 0 deletion, 4 inserts, 59 transition sites, 2 transversion sites and l tran- sition- transversion sites were observed using ClustalX and MEGA5.0 softwares. The pairwise genetic distances of these 25 individuals were calculated using the MEGA5.0 software and based on that, the NJ phylogenetic trees was contracted for these fish populations. Analysis of this fish populations using the DNASP software showed that they had a polymorphic sites (S) of 62, a nucleotide diversity (Pi) of 0.00606 and an average number of nucleotide dif- ferences (K) of 6.907, respectively. Overall, there were no significant variations between mtDNA D-loops of C. undulatus populations.%为研究波纹唇鱼(Cheilinusundulatus)线粒体D—loop序列遗传多样性,作者采用聚合酶链式反应和克隆技术对海波纹唇鱼群体(n=25)的mtDNA D-loop序列进行克隆和测序,获得长度大约为1400bp的产物。用ClustalX软件进行排序比较,将结果导入MEGA5.0,结果显示出在这25尾个体中,共检测出66个变异位点,包括0个碱基缺失,4个碱基插入,59转换位点,2颠换位点及1个转换和颠换同时存在的位点。并用MEGA5.0软件构建该群25尾个体的NJ和UPGMA系统树。由DNASP软件计算出该波纹唇鱼群体的多态位点数(印为62,核苷酸多样性(只)为0.00606,平均核苷酸差异数为6.907。结果表明波纹唇鱼群体的mtDNA—loop基因个体差异程度不明显。

  18. Nuclear and Chloroplast DNA Variation Provides Insights into Population Structure and Multiple Origin of Native Aromatic Rices of Odisha, India (United States)

    Roy, Pritesh Sundar; Rao, Gundimeda Jwala Narasimha; Patnaik, Ashok; Patnaik, Sasank Sekhar Chyau; Jambhulkar, Nitiprasad Namdeorao; Sharma, Srigopal; Mohapatra, Trilochan


    A large number of short grain aromatic rice suited to the agro-climatic conditions and local preferences are grown in niche areas of different parts of India and their diversity is evolved over centuries as a result of selection by traditional farmers. Systematic characterization of these specialty rices has not been attempted. An effort was made to characterize 126 aromatic short grain rice landraces, collected from 19 different districts in the State of Odisha, from eastern India. High level of variation for grain quality and agronomic traits among these aromatic rices was observed and genotypes having desirable phenotypic traits like erect flag leaf, thick culm, compact and dense panicles, short plant stature, early duration, superior yield and grain quality traits were identified. A total of 24 SSR markers corresponding to the hyper variable regions of rice chromosomes were used to understand the genetic diversity and to establish the genetic relationship among the aromatic short grain rice landraces at nuclear genome level. SSR analysis of 126 genotypes from Odisha and 10 genotypes from other states revealed 110 alleles with an average of 4.583 and the Nei’s genetic diversity value (He) was in the range of 0.034–0.880 revealing two sub-populations SP 1 (membership percentage-27.1%) and SP 2 (72.9%). At the organelle genomic level for the C/A repeats in PS1D sequence of chloroplasts, eight different plastid sub types and 33 haplotypes were detected. The japonica (Nipponbare) subtype (6C7A) was detected in 100 genotypes followed by O. rufipogon (KF428978) subtype (6C6A) in 13 genotypes while indica (93–11) sub type (8C8A) was seen in 14 genotypes. The tree constructed based on haplotypes suggests that short grain aromatic landraces might have independent origin of these plastid subtypes. Notably a wide range of diversity was observed among these landraces cultivated in different parts confined to the State of Odisha. PMID:27598392

  19. The effect of non-coding DNA variations on P53 and cMYC competitive inhibition at cis-overlapping motifs. (United States)

    Kin, Katherine; Chen, Xi; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel; Fakhouri, Walid D


    Non-coding DNA variations play a critical role in increasing the risk for development of common complex diseases, and account for the majority of SNPs highly associated with cancer. However, it remains a challenge to identify etiologic variants and to predict their pathological effects on target gene expression for clinical purposes. Cis-overlapping motifs (COMs) are elements of enhancer regions that impact gene expression by enabling competitive binding and switching between transcription factors. Mutations within COMs are especially important when the involved transcription factors have opposing effects on gene regulation, like P53 tumor suppressor and cMYC proto-oncogene. In this study, genome-wide analysis of ChIP-seq data from human cancer and mouse embryonic cells identified a significant number of putative regulatory elements with signals for both P53 and cMYC. Each co-occupied element contains, on average, two COMs, and one common SNP every two COMs. Gene ontology of predicted target genes for COMs showed that the majority are involved in DNA damage, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, and RNA processing. EMSA results showed that both cMYC and P53 bind to cis-overlapping motifs within a ChIP-seq co-occupied region in Chr12. In vitro functional analysis of selected co-occupied elements verified enhancer activity, and also showed that the occurrence of SNPs within three COMs significantly altered enhancer activity. We identified a list of COM-associated functional SNPs that are in close proximity to SNPs associated with common diseases in large population studies. These results suggest a potential molecular mechanism to identify etiologic regulatory mutations associated with common diseases.

  20. In search of the genetic footprints of Sumerians: a survey of Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation in the Marsh Arabs of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivieri Anna


    Full Text Available Abstract Background For millennia, the southern part of the Mesopotamia has been a wetland region generated by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers before flowing into the Gulf. This area has been occupied by human communities since ancient times and the present-day inhabitants, the Marsh Arabs, are considered the population with the strongest link to ancient Sumerians. Popular tradition, however, considers the Marsh Arabs as a foreign group, of unknown origin, which arrived in the marshlands when the rearing of water buffalo was introduced to the region. Results To shed some light on the paternal and maternal origin of this population, Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA variation was surveyed in 143 Marsh Arabs and in a large sample of Iraqi controls. Analyses of the haplogroups and sub-haplogroups observed in the Marsh Arabs revealed a prevalent autochthonous Middle Eastern component for both male and female gene pools, with weak South-West Asian and African contributions, more evident in mtDNA. A higher male than female homogeneity is characteristic of the Marsh Arab gene pool, likely due to a strong male genetic drift determined by socio-cultural factors (patrilocality, polygamy, unequal male and female migration rates. Conclusions Evidence of genetic stratification ascribable to the Sumerian development was provided by the Y-chromosome data where the J1-Page08 branch reveals a local expansion, almost contemporary with the Sumerian City State period that characterized Southern Mesopotamia. On the other hand, a more ancient background shared with Northern Mesopotamia is revealed by the less represented Y-chromosome lineage J1-M267*. Overall our results indicate that the introduction of water buffalo breeding and rice farming, most likely from the Indian sub-continent, only marginally affected the gene pool of autochthonous people of the region. Furthermore, a prevalent Middle Eastern ancestry of the modern population of the marshes of

  1. Pash 3.0: A versatile software package for read mapping and integrative analysis of genomic and epigenomic variation using massively parallel DNA sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zuozhou


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Massively parallel sequencing readouts of epigenomic assays are enabling integrative genome-wide analyses of genomic and epigenomic variation. Pash 3.0 performs sequence comparison and read mapping and can be employed as a module within diverse configurable analysis pipelines, including ChIP-Seq and methylome mapping by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing. Results Pash 3.0 generally matches the accuracy and speed of niche programs for fast mapping of short reads, and exceeds their performance on longer reads generated by a new generation of massively parallel sequencing technologies. By exploiting longer read lengths, Pash 3.0 maps reads onto the large fraction of genomic DNA that contains repetitive elements and polymorphic sites, including indel polymorphisms. Conclusions We demonstrate the versatility of Pash 3.0 by analyzing the interaction between CpG methylation, CpG SNPs, and imprinting based on publicly available whole-genome shotgun bisulfite sequencing data. Pash 3.0 makes use of gapped k-mer alignment, a non-seed based comparison method, which is implemented using multi-positional hash tables. This allows Pash 3.0 to run on diverse hardware platforms, including individual computers with standard RAM capacity, multi-core hardware architectures and large clusters.

  2. Variation in copy number of the 28S rDNA of Aspergillus fumigatus measured by droplet digital PCR and analog quantitative real-time PCR. (United States)

    Alanio, Alexandre; Sturny-Leclère, Aude; Benabou, Marion; Guigue, Nicolas; Bretagne, Stéphane


    Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) after DNA digestion yielded a 28S rDNA copy number of 61 to 86 copies/genome when testing 10 unrelated Aspergillus fumigatus isolates, higher than with quantitative PCR. Unfortunately, ddPCR after DNA digestion did not improve the sensitivity of our PCR assay when testing serum patients with invasive aspergillosis.

  3. Cryptic variation in an ecological indicator organism: mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data confirm distinct lineages of Baetis harrisoni Barnard (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira-da-Conceicoa Lyndall L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Baetis harrisoni Barnard is a mayfly frequently encountered in river studies across Africa, but the external morphological features used for identifying nymphs have been observed to vary subtly between different geographic locations. It has been associated with a wide range of ecological conditions, including pH extremes of pH 2.9–10.0 in polluted waters. We present a molecular study of the genetic variation within B. harrisoni across 21 rivers in its distribution range in southern Africa. Results Four gene regions were examined, two mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I [COI] and small subunit ribosomal 16S rDNA [16S] and two nuclear (elongation factor 1 alpha [EF1α] and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase [PEPCK]. Bayesian and parsimony approaches to phylogeny reconstruction resulted in five well-supported major lineages, which were confirmed using a general mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC model. Results from the EF1α gene were significantly incongruent with both mitochondrial and nuclear (PEPCK results, possibly due to incomplete lineage sorting of the EF1α gene. Mean between-clade distance estimated using the COI and PEPCK data was found to be an order of magnitude greater than the within-clade distance and comparable to that previously reported for other recognised Baetis species. Analysis of the Isolation by Distance (IBD between all samples showed a small but significant effect of IBD. Within each lineage the contribution of IBD was minimal. Tentative dating analyses using an uncorrelated log-normal relaxed clock and two published estimates of COI mutation rates suggest that diversification within the group occurred throughout the Pliocene and mid-Miocene (~2.4–11.5 mya. Conclusions The distinct lineages of B. harrisoni correspond to categorical environmental variation, with two lineages comprising samples from streams that flow through acidic Table Mountain Sandstone and three lineages with samples from

  4. Gene expression profiling of Spodoptera frugiperda hemocytes and fat body using cDNA microarray reveals polydnavirus-associated variations in lepidopteran host genes transcript levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyereisen R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic approaches provide unique opportunities to study interactions of insects with their pathogens. We developed a cDNA microarray to analyze the gene transcription profile of the lepidopteran pest Spodoptera frugiperda in response to injection of the polydnavirus HdIV associated with the ichneumonid wasp Hyposoter didymator. Polydnaviruses are associated with parasitic ichneumonoid wasps and are required for their development within the lepidopteran host, in which they act as potent immunosuppressive pathogens. In this study, we analyzed transcriptional variations in the two main effectors of the insect immune response, the hemocytes and the fat body, after injection of filter-purified HdIV. Results Results show that 24 hours post-injection, about 4% of the 1750 arrayed host genes display changes in their transcript levels with a large proportion (76% showing a decrease. As a comparison, in S. frugiperda fat body, after injection of the pathogenic JcDNV densovirus, 8 genes display significant changes in their transcript level. They differ from the 7 affected by HdIV and, as opposed to HdIV injection, are all up-regulated. Interestingly, several of the genes that are modulated by HdIV injection have been shown to be involved in lepidopteran innate immunity. Levels of transcripts related to calreticulin, prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme, immulectin-2 and a novel lepidopteran scavenger receptor are decreased in hemocytes of HdIV-injected caterpillars. This was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis but not observed after injection of heat-inactivated HdIV. Conversely, an increased level of transcripts was found for a galactose-binding lectin and, surprisingly, for the prophenoloxidase subunits. The results obtained suggest that HdIV injection affects transcript levels of genes encoding different components of the host immune response (non-self recognition, humoral and cellular responses. Conclusion This analysis of the

  5. DNA sequence variation and selection of tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms at candidate genes for drought-stress response in Pinus taeda L. (United States)

    González-Martínez, Santiago C; Ersoz, Elhan; Brown, Garth R; Wheeler, Nicholas C; Neale, David B


    Genetic association studies are rapidly becoming the experimental approach of choice to dissect complex traits, including tolerance to drought stress, which is the most common cause of mortality and yield losses in forest trees. Optimization of association mapping requires knowledge of the patterns of nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium and the selection of suitable polymorphisms for genotyping. Moreover, standard neutrality tests applied to DNA sequence variation data can be used to select candidate genes or amino acid sites that are putatively under selection for association mapping. In this article, we study the pattern of polymorphism of 18 candidate genes for drought-stress response in Pinus taeda L., an important tree crop. Data analyses based on a set of 21 putatively neutral nuclear microsatellites did not show population genetic structure or genomewide departures from neutrality. Candidate genes had moderate average nucleotide diversity at silent sites (pi(sil) = 0.00853), varying 100-fold among single genes. The level of within-gene LD was low, with an average pairwise r2 of 0.30, decaying rapidly from approximately 0.50 to approximately 0.20 at 800 bp. No apparent LD among genes was found. A selective sweep may have occurred at the early-response-to-drought-3 (erd3) gene, although population expansion can also explain our results and evidence for selection was not conclusive. One other gene, ccoaomt-1, a methylating enzyme involved in lignification, showed dimorphism (i.e., two highly divergent haplotype lineages at equal frequency), which is commonly associated with the long-term action of balancing selection. Finally, a set of haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPs) was selected. Using htSNPs, a reduction of genotyping effort of approximately 30-40%, while sampling most common allelic variants, can be gained in our ongoing association studies for drought tolerance in pine.

  6. How selection fashions morphological variation in Cakile maritima: A comparative analysis of population structure using random amplified polymorphic DNA and quantitative traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gandour MHEMMED; Hessini KAMEL; Abdelly CHEDLY


    It is a long-standing debate in evolutionary biology whether natural selection can generate divergence in the face of gene flow.Comparative studies of quantitative genetic and neutral marker differentiation have provided means for detecting the action of selection and random genetic drift in natural populations.We estimated the degree of population divergence in several quantitative traits and compared these estimates with that based on presumably neutral molecular markers (random amplified polymorphic DNA [RAPD]).This approach allowed us to disentangle the effects of divergent selection from that of other evolutionary forces.Nine populations of Cakile maritima,which encompasses the complete range of distribution of this species in Tunisia,were examined.We found a high proportion of total genetic variance to be among populations and among ecoregions for quantitative traits (range of QsT:0.44-0.88) and a moderate one for RAPD markers (GsT:0.081).In addition,almost all characters displayed a significant higher QsT than GsT,indicating occurrence of phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation.The latter is explicable as there is no reason to expect that natural selection would affect in similar fashion all traits and affect all populations at a similar level.We also found a negative and significant correlation between genetic variation in molecular marker loci and quantitative traits at the multitrait scale.This result attests that the evolution of these markers in C.maritima were not paralleled,suggesting that the degree of genetic differentiation in neutral marker loci is closely predictive of the degree of differentiation in loci coding quantitative traits and the majority of these neutral markers negatively controlled the studied quantitative traits.

  7. Seasonal variation of DNA damage and repair in patients with non-melanoma skin cancer and referents with and without psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Frentz, G;


    Quadruples of skin cancer patients with and without psoriasis and referents with and without psoriasis (4 x 20 study persons) were identified and examined for DNA damage by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet-assay) and DNA-repair by UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in mononuclear...... to solar radiation. When the comet tail moment data were stratified by sampling period, an interaction between psoriasis and skin cancer was detected, with patients with psoriasis and skin cancer exhibiting more DNA damage. Patients with psoriasis and skin cancer also had lower UDS compared to healthy...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Recent studies have identified a group of patients with cytochrome oxidase (COX) deficiency presenting in infancy associated with a deficiency of mtDNA in muscle or other affected tissue (Moraes et al 1991). We used a navel approach to compare the level of mitochondrial (mtDNA) compared to nuclear D

  9. High frequency of the IVS2-2A>G DNA sequence variation in SLC26A5, encoding the cochlear motor protein prestin, precludes its involvement in hereditary hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Fred A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cochlear outer hair cells change their length in response to variations in membrane potential. This capability, called electromotility, is believed to enable the sensitivity and frequency selectivity of the mammalian cochlea. Prestin is a transmembrane protein required for electromotility. Homozygous prestin knockout mice are profoundly hearing impaired. In humans, a single nucleotide change in SLC26A5, encoding prestin, has been reported in association with hearing loss. This DNA sequence variation, IVS2-2A>G, occurs in the exon 3 splice acceptor site and is expected to abolish splicing of exon 3. Methods To further explore the relationship between hearing loss and the IVS2-2A>G transition, and assess allele frequency, genomic DNA from hearing impaired and control subjects was analyzed by DNA sequencing. SLC26A5 genomic DNA sequences from human, chimp, rat, mouse, zebrafish and fruit fly were aligned and compared for evolutionary conservation of the exon 3 splice acceptor site. Alternative splice acceptor sites within intron 2 of human SLC26A5 were sought using a splice site prediction program from the Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project. Results The IVS2-2A>G variant was found in a heterozygous state in 4 of 74 hearing impaired subjects of Hispanic, Caucasian or uncertain ethnicity and 4 of 150 Hispanic or Caucasian controls (p = 0.45. The IVS2-2A>G variant was not found in 106 subjects of Asian or African American descent. No homozygous subjects were identified (n = 330. Sequence alignment of SLC26A5 orthologs demonstrated that the A nucleotide at position IVS2-2 is invariant among several eukaryotic species. Sequence analysis also revealed five potential alternative splice acceptor sites in intron 2 of human SLC26A5. Conclusion These data suggest that the IVS2-2A>G variant may not occur more frequently in hearing impaired subjects than in controls. The identification of five potential alternative splice acceptor sites in

  10. Alternative splicing in the fiddler crab cognate ecdysteroid receptor: variation in receptor isoform expression and DNA binding properties in response to hormone. (United States)

    Durica, David S; Das, Sunetra; Najar, Fares; Roe, Bruce; Phillips, Barret; Kappalli, Sudha; Anilkumar, Gopinathan


    RXR cDNA cloning from three Uca species led to the identification of 4 conserved isoforms, indicative of alternative splicing in the hinge and ligand binding domains (LBD). Sequencing of overlapping clones from a Ucapugilator genomic library identified EcR isoforms matching previously identified cDNA variants; in addition, a cryptic exon in the LBD was detected and evidence for expression of this new isoform was obtained from next-generation sequencing. RNA-seq analysis also identified a new amino terminal EcR variant. EcR and RXR transcript abundance increases throughout ovarian maturation in U. pugilator, while cognate receptor transcript abundance remains constant in a related Indo-Pacific species with a different reproductive strategy. To examine if crab RXR LBD isoforms have different physical properties in vitro, electromobility shift assays were performed with different EcR isoforms. The cognate crab and fruit fly receptors differ in their responses to hormone. Ecdysteroids did not increase DNA binding for the crab heterodimers, while ecdysteroids stimulate binding for Drosophilamelanogaster EcR/USP heterodimers. In swapping experiments, UpEcR/USP heterodimers did not show ligand-responsive differences in DNA binding; both crab RXR LBD isoforms, however, conferred ligand-responsive increases in DNA binding with DmEcRs. These data indicate that both UpRXR LBD isoforms can heterodimerize with the heterologous DmEcR receptors and promote ligand and DNA binding. Unresponsiveness of the cognate receptors to ecdysteroid, however, suggest additional factors may be required to mediate endogenous, perhaps isoform-specific, differences in EcR conformation, consistent with previously reported effects of UpRXR isoforms on UpEcR ligand-binding affinities.

  11. Use of pyrosequencing and DNA barcodes to monitor variations in Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes communities in the gut microbiota of obese humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoult Didier


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies of 16S rRNA genes in the mammalian gut microbiota distinguished a higher Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in obese individuals compared to lean individuals. This ratio was estimated using a clonal Sanger sequencing approach which is time-consuming and requires laborious data analysis. In contrast, new high-throughput pyrosequencing technology offers an inexpensive alternative to clonal Sanger sequencing and would significantly advance our understanding of obesity via the development of a clinical diagnostic method. Here we present a cost-effective method that combines 16S rRNA pyrosequencing and DNA barcodes of the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes to determine the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in the gut microbiota of obese humans. Results The main result was the identification of DNA barcodes targeting the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. These barcodes were validated using previously published 16S rRNA gut microbiota clone libraries. In addition, an accurate F/B ratio was found when the DNA barcodes were applied to short pyrosequencing reads of published gut metagenomes. Finally, the barcodes were utilized to define the F/B ratio of 16S rRNA pyrosequencing data generated from brain abscess pus and cystic fibrosis sputum. Conclusion Using DNA barcodes of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes 16S rRNA genes combined with pyrosequencing is a cost-effective method for monitoring relevant changes in the relative abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes bacterial communities in microbial ecosystems.

  12. Population structure and gene flow of the Atlantic walrus ( Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus ) in the eastern Atlantic Arctic based on mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L.W.; Born, E.W.; Gjertz, I.;


    The population structure of the Atlantic walrus, Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus, was studied using 11 polymorphic microsatellites and restriction fragment length polymorphism detected in the NADH-dehydrogenase ND1, ND2 and ND3/4 segments in mtDNA. A total of 105 walrus samples were analysed from nort...

  13. Variation and association to diabetes in 2000 full mtDNA sequences mined from an exome study in a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shengting; Besenbacher, Søren; Li, Yingrui;


    In this paper, we mine full mtDNA sequences from an exome capture data set of 2000 Danes, showing that it is possible to get high-quality full-genome sequences of the mitochondrion from this resource. The sample includes 1000 individuals with type 2 diabetes and 1000 controls. We characterise...

  14. Lineage-specific variations of congruent evolution among DNA sequences from three genomes, and relaxed selective constraints on rbcL in Cryptomonas (Cryptophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Hoang-Dung


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plastid-bearing cryptophytes like Cryptomonas contain four genomes in a cell, the nucleus, the nucleomorph, the plastid genome and the mitochondrial genome. Comparative phylogenetic analyses encompassing DNA sequences from three different genomes were performed on nineteen photosynthetic and four colorless Cryptomonas strains. Twenty-three rbcL genes and fourteen nuclear SSU rDNA sequences were newly sequenced to examine the impact of photosynthesis loss on codon usage in the rbcL genes, and to compare the rbcL gene phylogeny in terms of tree topology and evolutionary rates with phylogenies inferred from nuclear ribosomal DNA (concatenated SSU rDNA, ITS2 and partial LSU rDNA, and nucleomorph SSU rDNA. Results Largely congruent branching patterns and accelerated evolutionary rates were found in nucleomorph SSU rDNA and rbcL genes in a clade that consisted of photosynthetic and colorless species suggesting a coevolution of the two genomes. The extremely accelerated rates in the rbcL phylogeny correlated with a shift from selection to mutation drift in codon usage of two-fold degenerate NNY codons comprising the amino acids asparagine, aspartate, histidine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine. Cysteine was the sole exception. The shift in codon usage seemed to follow a gradient from early diverging photosynthetic to late diverging photosynthetic or heterotrophic taxa along the branches. In the early branching taxa, codon preferences were changed in one to two amino acids, whereas in the late diverging taxa, including the colorless strains, between four and five amino acids showed changes in codon usage. Conclusion Nucleomorph and plastid gene phylogenies indicate that loss of photosynthesis in the colorless Cryptomonas strains examined in this study possibly was the result of accelerated evolutionary rates that started already in photosynthetic ancestors. Shifts in codon usage are usually considered to be caused by changes in functional

  15. Microsatellite DNA Variation of the Gametophyte Clones Isolated from Introduced Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyta) and L. Iongissima of China and Varieties Derived from them

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-Jun Li; Yuan-Yuan Shi; Guan-Pin Yang; Shi Che; Xiao-Jie Li; Yi-Zhou Cong


    The variation of 90 Laminaria gametophyte clones representing the introduced Laminariajaponica (Group 1) and Laminaria Iongissima (Group 2), the varieties of L. japonica (Group 3) and the varieties derived from interspecific hybrids (Group 4) was determined with 10 microsatellite markers. The allelic diversity and Nei's gene diversity of Group 1 were significantly higher than those of Group 2 (2.9 vs. 1.8 and 0.414 vs. 0.161, respectively), demonstrating that the variation of the introduced L. japonica is richer than that of L. Iongiesima. Both allelic diversity and Nei's gene diversity of Group 3 were lower than those of Group 1, indicating that only a portion of variation of L. japonica was incorporated into the varieties of L. japonica. Significant genetic differentiation was detected between four groups and between female (Population 1) and male (Population 2) gametophyte clones in each group. The variation among groups accounted for 39.95%, while that among populations accounted for 21.65% of the total. The genetic distance between Group 1 and Group 4 was obviously longer than that between Group 2 and Group 4 (0.686 vs. 0.291), Indicating that maternal gametophyte clone contributed more variation to the hybrids than the paternal gametophyte clone did.

  16. Identification of variations of gene expression of visceral adipose and renal tissue in type 2 diabetic rats using cDNA representational difference analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨架林; 李果; 张芳林; 刘优萍; 张迪; 周文中; 许光武; 杨义生; 罗敏


    Objectives To identify differences in gene expression in renal and visceral adipose tissue in type 2 diabetic rats using cDNA representational difference analysis (RDA) and to explore the molecular pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and its chronic vascular complications.Methods A rat model of type 2 diabetes was generated by administration of a high fat and calorie diet combined with a low dose of streptozocin (STZ) injected into the tail vein. The difference bands were generated by cDNA representational difference analysis (cDNA RDA). The final difference products were ligated into the pUC-18 vector and sequenced. A bioformatics analysis was performed on the obtained expressed sequence tags (ESTs), and then the expression levels of known and novel genes were verified by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). At the same time, full-length cDNA of a novel gene was cloned in silico.Results The type 2 diabetic rats in this experiment experienced hyperglycemia, lipidemia, lower insulin sensitivity and normal body weight. We obtained 9 novel ESTs and 2 novel genes from renal tissue of rats and 6 novel ESTs and 1 known gene, the rat lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene from their visceral adipose tissue. The 2 novel genes (RS91 and RS2) from the renal tissue were both very similar to serine (or cysteine) proteinase inhibitor, clade F and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 and subunit 5 (EIF-3 epsilon). The expression of both novel genes and the LPL gene were upregulated in renal and visceral adipose tissue of type 2 diabetic and fat-enriched rats. Full-length cDNA of the novel gene RS91 was cloned in silico.Conclusions① The rat model of type 2 diabetes generated in this study was ideal because the disease in the animals closely mimicked type 2 diabetic patients ② cDNA RDA is a flexible, inexpensive, more accurate, sensitive and highly effective technique for identifying differences in gene expression ③ Six novel ESTs and 1 known gene were obtained

  17. Variations of HBV-DNA quantification and concentration of α-L-fucosidase and alpha fetal protein%HBV-DNA、AFU和AFP水平与肝损害的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧超伟; 陈绍鹏; 雷耀珍; 郝彦强


    目的 探讨HBV-DNA定量与α-L-岩藻糖苷酶(AFU)和甲胎蛋白(AFP)浓度变化的关系.方法 对373例慢性乙型肝炎患者血清进行HBV-DNA定量、AFU与AFP浓度检测,根据HBV-DNA水平分为3组:HBV-DNA 1×10copies/ml以下为阴性组;HBV-DNA 1×10~1×10copies/ml为低病毒量组;HBV-DNA 1×10~1×10copies/ml为高病毒量组进行分析.结果不同病毒量组的AFU、AFP浓度变化显示HBV-DNA低病毒量组和高病毒量组与正常对照组比较的差异则有统计学意义(P<0.05).AFU与AFP的阳性比例随病毒复制量的增加而升高.结论 对乙型肝炎病毒感染者,应定期进行血清HBV-DNA定量检测,评估病毒的复制状况,并同时检测AFU和AFP浓度,尽早发现肝组织的损害程度及演变过程,达到早期治疗的目的.%Objective To investigate the relationship between HBV-DNA quantification and concentration variation of α-L-fucosidase(AFU) and alpha fetal protein(AFP). Methods The levels of AFU,AFP and HBV-DNA in the serum of 373 chronic hepatitis B patients were determined. The 373 chronic hepatitis B patients were divided into 3 groups based the levels of HBV-DNA,that is the negative group(HBV-DNA <1×103 copies/ml(the low viral load group(HBV-DNA 1 ×104 ~1 ×105copies/ml); high viral load group (HBV-DNA 1×106~1×108copies/ml). Results The levels of AFU and AFP in low and high viral load groups were significantly different as compared with that of the norrmal control group (P<0.05).The positive rates of AFU and AFP increases along with the increase of virus replication. Conclusion HBV-DNA in the HBV carriers should be determined at regular intervals,the replication of HBV-DNA be assessed and the levels of AFU and AFP be simultaneously detected to diagnose the ealy liver lesions for early treatment.

  18. 牛胸腺DNA导入"矮抗58"后代变异及SSR分析%Character Variation of Wheat "AK58" After Introducing Calf Thymus DNA and Assessment by Using SSR Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张希太; 谢淑芹; 张彦波; 肖磊


    To create the new wheat germplasms, we introduced calf thymus DNA into the wheat " AK58" through the pollen-tube pathway. A large number of variations in plant height, waxiness, awn and ear types, hair on glume and maturation period were found in the descendants. We had owned several unaltered germplasm lines by subsequent continuous selection in the variational descendants;We had detected the DNA of DAK58-66 and DAK58-34 by using SSR markers. A large number of differential fragments had been found by the primers xgwm213 , xgwm219, rgum400, rgwm428 ,xgwm148 and xgwm408. Especially. we had found the differential fragments that belong to the thymus DNA of calf only in the DNA of DAK58-66 and DAK58-34 by primers xgwm213,xgwm428 and xgwm148. It further showed that DAK58-66 and DAK58-34 came from " AK58" hy inlaiding the fragments of thymus DNA of caLf.%为了创造新的小麦种质资源材料,我们将小牛胸腺DNA通过花粉管通道导入小麦品种"矮抗58",其后代在株高、蜡质层、芒型、穗型、颖壳上有无茸毛、成熟期等几个方面发生大量变异.通过对变异后代系统选择得到多个稳定的变异种质系;通过对DAK58-66、DAK58-34两个种质系的SSR分子标记检测,引物xgwm213、xgwm219、xgwm400、xgwm428、xgwm148、xgwm408检测出了较丰富的多态性DNA片段,其中xgwm213、xgwm428、xgwm148在DAK58-66、DAK58-34基因组DNA中检测出了小牛胸腺DNA特有而"矮抗58"没有的特异带型,进一步说明了DAK58~66、DAK58-34是由小牛胸腺DNA片段嵌入"矮抗58"基因组DNA变异而来.

  19. Analysis and validation of genome-specific DNA variations in 5' flanking conserved sequences of wheat low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG; Hai; WEI; Yuming


    The thirty-three 5' flanking conserved sequences of the known low-molecular-weight subunit (LMW-GS) genes have been divided into eight clusters, which was in agreement with the classification based on the deduced N-terminal protein sequences. The DNA polymorphism between the eight clusters was obtained by sequence alignment, and a total of 34 polymorphic positions were observed in the approximately 200 bp regions, among which 18 polymorphic positions were candidate SNPs. Seven cluster-specific primer sets were designed for seven out of eight clusters containing cluster-specific bases, with which the genomic DNA of the ditelosomic lines of group 1 chromosomes of a wheat variety 'Chinese Spring' was employed to carry out chromosome assignment. The subsequent cloning and DNA sequencing of PCR fragments validated the sequences specificity of the 5' flanking conserved sequences between LMW-GS gene groups in different genomes. These results suggested that the coding and 5' flanking regions of LMW-GS genes are likely to have evolved in a concerted fashion. The seven primer sets developed in this study could be used to isolate the complete ORFs of seven groups of LMW-GS genes, respectively, and therefore possess great value for further research in the contributions of a single LMW-GS gene to wheat quality in the complex genetic background and the efficient selections of quality-related components in breeding programs.

  20. The effects of structural variations of thiophene-containing Ru(II) complexes on the acid-base and DNA binding properties. (United States)

    Yuan, Cui-Li; Zhang, An-Guo; Zheng, Ze-Bo; Wang, Ke-Zhi


    A phenylthiophenyl-bearing Ru(II) complex of [Ru(bpy)₂(Hbptip)](PF₆)₂ {bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, Hbptip = 2-(4-phenylthiophen-2-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline} was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, ¹H NMR spectroscopy, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The ground- and excited-state acid-base properties of the complex were studied by UV-visible absorption and photoluminescence spectrophotometric pH titrations and the negative logarithm values of the ground-state acid ionization constants were derived to be pK(a1) = 1.31 ± 0.09 and pK(a2) = 5.71 ± 0.11 with the pK(a2) associated deprotonation/protonation process occurring over 3 pK(a) units more acidic than thiophenyl-free parent complex of [Ru(bpy)₂(Hpip)]²⁺ {Hpip = 2-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline}. The calf thymus DNA-binding properties of [Ru(bpy)₂(Hbptip)]²⁺ in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.1 and 50 mM NaCl) were investigated by DNA viscosities and density functional theoretical calculations as well as UV-visible and emission spectroscopy techniques of UV-visible and luminescence titrations, steady-state emission quenching by [Fe(CN)₆]⁴⁻, DNA competitive binding with ethidium bromide, DNA melting experiments, and reverse salt effects. The complex was evidenced to bind to the DNA intercalatively with binding affinity being greater than those for previously reported analogs of [Ru(bpy)₂(Hip)]²⁺, [Ru(bpy)₂(Htip)]²⁺, and [Ru(bpy)₂(Haptip)]²⁺ {Hip = 1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline, Htip = 2-thiophenimidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline, Haptip = 2-(5-phenylthiophen-2-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline}.

  1. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan


    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  2. Full-Length Venom Protein cDNA Sequences from Venom-Derived mRNA: Exploring Compositional Variation and Adaptive Multigene Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra M Modahl


    Full Text Available Envenomation of humans by snakes is a complex and continuously evolving medical emergency, and treatment is made that much more difficult by the diverse biochemical composition of many venoms. Venomous snakes and their venoms also provide models for the study of molecular evolutionary processes leading to adaptation and genotype-phenotype relationships. To compare venom complexity and protein sequences, venom gland transcriptomes are assembled, which usually requires the sacrifice of snakes for tissue. However, toxin transcripts are also present in venoms, offering the possibility of obtaining cDNA sequences directly from venom. This study provides evidence that unknown full-length venom protein transcripts can be obtained from the venoms of multiple species from all major venomous snake families. These unknown venom protein cDNAs are obtained by the use of primers designed from conserved signal peptide sequences within each venom protein superfamily. This technique was used to assemble a partial venom gland transcriptome for the Middle American Rattlesnake (Crotalus simus tzabcan by amplifying sequences for phospholipases A2, serine proteases, C-lectins, and metalloproteinases from within venom. Phospholipase A2 sequences were also recovered from the venoms of several rattlesnakes and an elapid snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus, and three-finger toxin sequences were recovered from multiple rear-fanged snake species, demonstrating that the three major clades of advanced snakes (Elapidae, Viperidae, Colubridae have stable mRNA present in their venoms. These cDNA sequences from venom were then used to explore potential activities derived from protein sequence similarities and evolutionary histories within these large multigene superfamilies. Venom-derived sequences can also be used to aid in characterizing venoms that lack proteomic profiles and identify sequence characteristics indicating specific envenomation profiles. This approach, requiring only

  3. An assessment of haplotype variation in ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA fragments suggests incomplete lineage sorting in some species of the Paramecium aurelia complex (Ciliophora, Protozoa). (United States)

    Tarcz, Sebastian; Przyboś, Ewa; Surmacz, Marta


    The Paramecium aurelia complex (Ciliophora, Protozoa) Sonneborn (1975) is composed of 15 sibling species, which are morphologically indistinguishable but sexually isolated. Therefore, the P. aurelia complex seems to be an ideal model for testing hypotheses about recent speciation events. Here we present two-locus (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2-5'LSU rDNA and COI mtDNA) analyses using over 120 strains collected from around the world and representing all currently known species of the complex. According to our findings, the studied species show different levels of haplotype variability. Some of them appear on the obtained trees as polyphyletic (e.g., P. dodecaurelia), while others as monophyletic (e.g., P. quadecaurelia), clusters. The revealed discrepancies, which are manifested by different mating behavior and haplotypes not characteristic of particular species, may be explained by incomplete lineage sorting. Furthermore, the phenomena of hybridization and introgression are considered as another explanation for our results. Despite the above discrepancies, "polyphyletic taxa" should be considered true biological species based on the results of genetic crosses. Using a combination of both strain crosses (the biological species concept) and molecular methods (the phylogenetic species concept) seems to be the appropriate way of delimiting species in closely related eukaryotic microorganisms such as the P. aurelia complex.

  4. A case study on the genetic origin of the high oleic acid trait through FAD2-1 DNA sequence variation in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eRapson


    Full Text Available The safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. is considered a strongly domesticated species with a long history of cultivation. The hybridization of safflower with its wild relatives has played an important role in the evolution of cultivars and is of particular interest with regards to their production of high quality edible oils. Original safflower varieties were all rich in linoleic acid, while varieties rich in oleic acid have risen to prominence in recent decades. The high oleic acid trait is controlled by a partially recessive allele ol at a single locus OL. The ol allele was found to be a defective microsomal oleate desaturase FAD2-1. Here we present DNA sequence data and DNA Southern blot analysis suggesting that there has been an ancient hybridization and introgression of the FAD2-1 gene into C. tinctorius from its wild relative C. palaestinus. It is from this gene that FAD2-1Δ was derived more recently. Identification and characterization of the genetic origin and diversity of FAD2-1 could aid safflower breeders in reducing population size and generations required for the development of new high oleic acid varieties by using perfect molecular marker-assisted selection.

  5. PCR and RFLP variation of conserved region of small subunit ribosomal DNA among Acanthamoeba isolates assigned to either A. castellanii or A. polyphaga. (United States)

    Kong, H H; Chung, D I


    Twelve isolates of Acanthamoeba spp. assigned to either A. castellanii or A. polyphaga, and type strains of A. culbertsoni, A. healyi, A. palestinensis, and A. astronyxis were examined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of a conserved region of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (ssu rDNA) amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR products of the isolates measured approximately 910-930 bp, except for that of A. astronyxis which was extraordinarily long, approximately 1,170 bp. Average of estimated sequence divergence of the amplified DNA among the isolates assigned to A. castellaii was 9.8% whereas that among the isolates assigned to A. polyphaga 9.6%. The maximum intraspecific sequence divergence among the isolates assigned to A. castellanii was observed between the Chang and Ma strains (17.3%) while that among the isolates assigned to A. polyphaga was observed between KA/S3 and KA/S7 strains (16.1%). The both maximum sequence divergences were much greater than the minimum interspecific sequence divergence between A. castellanii and A. polyphaga (2.6%) which appeared between the Castellani (or CCAP 1501/2 g) and KA/S3 strains. The PCR-RFLP patterns of A. culbertsoni, A. healyi, A. palestinensis, and A. astronyxis were quite diverse from one another and from those of isolates assigned to either A. castellanii or A. polyphaga. It is suggested that taxonomic validity of the isolates assigned to either A. castellanii or A. polyphaga should be reevaluated.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA Variation Reveals a Sharp Genetic Break within the Distribution of the Blue Land Crab Cardisoma guanhumi in the Western Central Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosimere Xavier Amaral


    Full Text Available The blue land crab Cardisoma guanhumi is widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical estuarine regions in the Western Central Atlantic (WCA. Patterns of population genetic structure and historical demographics of the species were assessed by mtDNA control region sequence analysis to examine the connectivity among five populations (n = 97 within the region for future conservation strategies and decision-making of fishery management. A total of 234 polymorphic nucleotides were revealed within the sequence region, which have defined 93 distinct haplotypes. No dominant mtDNA haplotypes were found but instead a distribution of a few low-frequency recurrent haplotypes with a large number of singletons. A NJ-tree and a median-joining haplotype network revealed two distinct clusters, corresponding to individuals from estuaries located along the Caribbean Sea and Brazilian waters, respectively. AMOVA and FST statistics supported the hypothesis that two main geographic regions exists. Phylogeographical discontinuity was further demonstrated by the Bayesian assignment analysis and a significant pattern of isolation-by-distance. Additionally, tests of neutral evolution and analysis of mismatch distribution indicate a complex demographic history in the WCA, which corresponds to bottleneck and subsequent population growth. Overall, a sharp genetic break between Caribbean and Brazilian populations raised concerns over the conservation status of the blue land crab.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA Variation Reveals a Sharp Genetic Break within the Distribution of the Blue Land Crab Cardisoma guanhumi in the Western Central Atlantic. (United States)

    Amaral, Maria Rosimere Xavier; Albrecht, Marc; McKinley, Alan Shane; de Carvalho, Adriana Márcia Ferreira; de Sousa Junior, Severino Cavalcante; Diniz, Fabio Mendonça


    The blue land crab Cardisoma guanhumi is widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical estuarine regions in the Western Central Atlantic (WCA). Patterns of population genetic structure and historical demographics of the species were assessed by mtDNA control region sequence analysis to examine the connectivity among five populations (n = 97) within the region for future conservation strategies and decision-making of fishery management. A total of 234 polymorphic nucleotides were revealed within the sequence region, which have defined 93 distinct haplotypes. No dominant mtDNA haplotypes were found but instead a distribution of a few low-frequency recurrent haplotypes with a large number of singletons. A NJ-tree and a median-joining haplotype network revealed two distinct clusters, corresponding to individuals from estuaries located along the Caribbean Sea and Brazilian waters, respectively. AMOVA and FST statistics supported the hypothesis that two main geographic regions exists. Phylogeographical discontinuity was further demonstrated by the Bayesian assignment analysis and a significant pattern of isolation-by-distance. Additionally, tests of neutral evolution and analysis of mismatch distribution indicate a complex demographic history in the WCA, which corresponds to bottleneck and subsequent population growth. Overall, a sharp genetic break between Caribbean and Brazilian populations raised concerns over the conservation status of the blue land crab.

  8. Female gene pools of Berber and Arab neighboring communities in central Tunisia: microstructure of mtDNA variation in North Africa. (United States)

    Cherni, Lotfi; Loueslati, Besma Yaacoubi; Pereira, Luísa; Ennafaâ, Hajer; Amorim, António; El Gaaied, Amel Ben Ammar


    North African populations are considered genetically closer to Eurasians than to sub-Saharans. However, they display a considerably high mtDNA heterogeneity among them, namely in the frequencies of the U6, East African, and sub-Saharan haplogroups. In this study, we describe and compare the female gene pools of two neighboring Tunisian populations, Kesra (Berber) and Zriba (non-Berber), which have contrasting historical backgrounds. Both populations presented lower diversity values than those observed for other North African populations, and they were the only populations not showing significant negative Fu's F(S) values. Kesra displayed a much higher proportion of typical sub-Saharan haplotypes (49%, including 4.2% of M1 haplogroup) than Zriba (8%). With respect to U6 sequences, frequencies were low (2% in Kesra and 8% in Zriba), and all belonged to the subhaplogroup U6a. An analysis of these data in the context of North Africa reveals that the emerging picture is complex, because Zriba would match the profile of a Berber Moroccan population, whereas Kesra, which shows twice the frequency of sub-Saharan lineages normally observed in northern coastal populations, would match a western Saharan population except for the low U6 frequency. The North African patchy mtDNA landscape has no parallel in other regions of the world and increasing the number of sampled populations has not been accompanied by any substantial increase in our understanding of its phylogeography. Available data up to now rely on sampling small, scattered populations, although they are carefully characterized in terms of their ethnic, linguistic, and historical backgrounds. It is therefore doubtful that this picture truly represents the complex historical demography of the region rather than being just the result of the type of samplings performed so far.

  9. Of mice and the 'Age of Discovery': the complex history of colonization of the Azorean archipelago by the house mouse (Mus musculus) as revealed by mitochondrial DNA variation. (United States)

    Gabriel, S I; Mathias, M L; Searle, J B


    Humans have introduced many species onto remote oceanic islands. The house mouse (Mus musculus) is a human commensal and has consequently been transported to oceanic islands around the globe as an accidental stowaway. The history of these introductions can tell us not only about the mice themselves but also about the people that transported them. Following a phylogeographic approach, we used mitochondrial D-loop sequence variation (within an 849- to 864-bp fragment) to study house mouse colonization of the Azores. A total of 239 sequences were obtained from all nine islands, and interpretation was helped by previously published Iberian sequences and 66 newly generated Spanish sequences. A Bayesian analysis revealed presence in the Azores of most of the D-loop clades previously described in the domesticus subspecies of the house mouse, suggesting a complex colonization history of the archipelago as a whole from multiple geographical origins, but much less heterogeneity (often single colonization?) within islands. The expected historical link with mainland Portugal was reflected in the pattern of D-loop variation of some of the islands but not all. A more unexpected association with a distant North European source area was also detected in three islands, possibly reflecting human contact with the Azores prior to the 15th century discovery by Portuguese mariners. Widening the scope to colonization of the Macaronesian islands as a whole, human linkages between the Azores, Madeira, the Canaries, Portugal and Spain were revealed through the sharing of mouse sequences between these areas. From these and other data, we suggest mouse studies may help resolve historical uncertainties relating to the 'Age of Discovery'.

  10. Variation of DNA Fragmentation Levels During Density Gradient Sperm Selection for Assisted Reproduction Techniques: A Possible New Male Predictive Parameter of Pregnancy? (United States)

    Muratori, Monica; Tarozzi, Nicoletta; Cambi, Marta; Boni, Luca; Iorio, Anna Lisa; Passaro, Claudia; Luppino, Benedetta; Nadalini, Marco; Marchiani, Sara; Tamburrino, Lara; Forti, Gianni; Maggi, Mario; Baldi, Elisabetta; Borini, Andrea


    Predicting the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is one main goal of the present research on assisted reproduction. To understand whether density gradient centrifugation (DGC), used to select sperm, can affect sperm DNA integrity and impact pregnancy rate (PR), we prospectively evaluated sperm DNA fragmentation (sDF) by TUNEL/PI, before and after DGC. sDF was studied in a cohort of 90 infertile couples the same day of IVF/ICSI treatment. After DGC, sDF increased in 41 samples (Group A, median sDF value: 29.25% [interquartile range, IQR: 16.01-41.63] in pre- and 60.40% [IQR: 32.92-93.53] in post-DGC) and decreased in 49 (Group B, median sDF value: 18.84% [IQR: 13.70-35.47] in pre- and 8.98% [IQR: 6.24-15.58] in post-DGC). PR was 17.1% and 34.4% in Group A and B, respectively (odds ratio [OR]: 2.58, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95-7.04, P = 0.056). After adjustment for female factor, female and male age and female BMI, the estimated OR increased to 3.12 (95% CI: 1.05-9.27, P = 0.041). According to the subgroup analysis for presence/absence of female factor, heterogeneity in the association between the Group A and B and PR emerged (OR: 4.22, 95% CI: 1.16-15.30 and OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 0.23-10.40, respectively, for couples without, n = 59, and with, n = 31, female factor).This study provides the first evidence that the DGC procedure produces an increase in sDF in about half of the subjects undergoing IVF/ICSI, who then show a much lower probability of pregnancy, raising concerns about the safety of this selection procedure. Evaluation of sDF before and after DGC configures as a possible new prognostic parameter of pregnancy outcome in IVF/ICSI. Alternative sperm selection strategies are recommended for those subjects who undergo the damage after DGC.

  11. Variation of TTC Repeat Pattern In The Dna of Mycobacterium Leprae Isolates Obtained from Archeological Bones and Leprosy Patients From East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinar Adriaty


    Full Text Available The existence of leprosy or kusta or Morbus Hansen or Hansen’s disease has been known for years, including in Indonesia. Starting from the discovery of Mycobacterium leprae isolates from ancient bone (about 1.000 years B.C, the archaeological excavations results in East Nusa Tenggara, interesting questions arise about how the development of leprosy in eastern Indonesia is. Biology molecular study would become a powerful tool to investigate the presence of leprosy bacillary whether there are similarities between the genomes of M. leprae isolates in the primeval and the present. PCR examinations were performed on mandibular bone fragments from ancient human who lived 1000 years B.C. discovered in archaeological surveys on the island of Lembata and three leprosy patients from East Nusa Tenggara. The DNA extraction was performed using a kit from Qiagen products and its TTC repeating pattern was seen with the method of direct sequencing. It turned out that the TTC profile obtained from samples of archaeological was as many as 13 copies, while the repetition of TTC in three samples of leprosy patients were 15, 17 and 26 copies. The different number of TTC repetition shows the different isolates of M. leprae between in the ancient times and the present. Further studies are needed to verify the differences in the genome that occur, for example from the study of SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms.

  12. Interspecific variation in the repair of UV damaged DNA in the genus Xiphophorus as a factor in the decline of the Rio Grande Platyfish. (United States)

    Mitchell, David; Paniker, Lakshmi; Lin, Kevin; Fernandez, André


    The fish genus Xiphophorus consists of 26 species distributed along the eastern slopes of mountain ranges extending from northern Mexico to Belize and Nicaragua. We analyzed light-dependent repair of UV-induced DNA damage in at least two species from each of the four monophyletic Xiphophorus groups. We found that the northern platyfish had significantly reduced photoenzymatic repair compared to the other three groups, including the northern swordtails, southern platyfish and southern swordtails. All of the species of the northern platyfish, including the Marbled (meyeri), Northern (gordoni) and Monterrey Platyfish (couchianus) are the northernmost species in the genus and are the only three species in the genus that are currently found on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Satellite data from the past 30 years (1979-2008) correlate greater increases in shorter wavelength UVB with higher latitudes within the Xiphophorus range. We suggest that, combined with other consequences of human population growth, anthropogenic deozonation resulting in a disproportionate increase in UVB in temperate latitudes may be a contributing factor in the decline and extirpation of the northern platyfish.

  13. Indole acetic acid production by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. from the rhizosphere of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. and their variation in extragenic repetitive DNA sequences. (United States)

    Sethia, Bedhya; Mustafa, Mariam; Manohar, Sneha; Patil, Savita V; Jayamohan, Nellickal Subramanian; Kumudini, Belur Satyan


    Fluorescent Pseudomonas (FP) is a heterogenous group of growth promoting rhizobacteria that regulate plant growth by releasing secondary metabolic compounds viz., indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophores, ammonia and hydrogen cyanide. In the present study, IAA producing FPs from the rhizosphere of Plectranthus amboinicus were characterized morphologically, biochemically and at the molecular level. Molecular identification of the isolates were carried out using Pseudomonas specific primers. The effect of varying time (24, 48, 72 and 96 h), Trp concentrations (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 μg x ml(-1)), temperature (10, 26, 37 and 50 ± 2 degrees C) and pH (6, 7 and 8) on IAA production by 10 best isolates were studied. Results showed higher IAA production at 72 h incubation, at 300 μg x ml(-1) Trp concentration, temperature 26 ± 2 degrees C and pH 7. TLC with acidified ethyl acetate extract showed that the IAA produced has a similar Rf value to that of the standard IAA. Results of TLC were confirmed by HPLC analysis. Genetic diversity of the isolates was also studied using 40 RAPD and 4 Rep primers. Genetic diversity parameters such as dominance, Shannon index and Simpson index were calculated. Out of 40 RAPD primers tested, 9 (2 OP-D series and 7 OP-E series) were shortlisted for further analysis. Studies using RAPD, ERIC, BOX, REP and GTG5 primers revealed that isolates exhibit significant diversity in repetitive DNA sequences irrespective of the rhizosphere.

  14. Phylogeography of an alpine plant (Bupleurum smithii, Apiaceae) endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and adjacent regions inferred from chloroplast DNA sequence variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai ZHAO; Xiang-Guang MA; Qian-Long LIANG; Chang-Bao WANG; Xing-Jin HE


    To obtain a better understanding of how Quaternary climatic oscillations influenced range distributions and intraspecific split of alpine plants on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and in adjacent regions,we investigated the extant phylogeographical structure of Bupleurum smithii in this area based on 22 populations and 103 individuals spanning the entire distribution region of this species using chloroplast DNA sequences.Two major haplotype lineages were identified,and at least two corresponding glacial refugia maintaining in the northeastern and eastern edge of the QTP during the Last Glacial Maximum were revealed.Secondary contact between populations and efficient gene flow were also found between two major haplotype lineages.In addition,based on the geographic distribution of haplotypes,we found that populations on the platform derived from individuals that recolonized this area from refugia situated at the northeastem and eastern edges of the QTP,and that B.smithii recolonized from southern to northern China during inter-and post-glacial periods.

  15. Chloroplast DNA analysis of Tunisian cork oak populations (Quercus suber L.): sequence variations and molecular evolution of the trnL (UAA)-trnF (GAA) region. (United States)

    Abdessamad, A; Baraket, G; Sakka, H; Ammari, Y; Ksontini, M; Hannachi, A Salhi


    Sequences of the trnL-trnF spacer and combined trnL-trnF region in chloroplast DNA of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) were analyzed to detect polymorphisms and to elucidate molecular evolution and demographic history. The aligned sequences varied in length and nucleotide composition. The overall ratio of transition/transversion (ti/tv) of 0.724 for the intergenic spacer and 0.258 for the pooled sequences were estimated, and indicated that transversions are more frequent than transitions. The molecular evolution and demographic history of Q. suber were investigated. Neutrality tests (Tajima's D and Fu and Li) ruled out the null hypothesis of a strictly neutral model, and Fu's Fs and Ramos-Onsins and Rozas' R2 confirmed the recent expansion of cork oak trees, validating its persistency in North Africa since the last glaciation during the Quaternary. The observed uni-modal mismatch distribution and the Harpending's raggedness index confirmed the demographic history model for cork oak. A phylogenetic dendrogram showed that the distribution of Q. suber trees occurs independently of geographical origin, the relief of the population site, and the bioclimatic stages. The molecular history and cytoplasmic diversity suggest that in situ and ex situ conservation strategies can be recommended for preserving landscape value and facing predictable future climatic changes.

  16. Effects of Avermectin on DNA Variation in Hemocytes of Silkworm%阿维菌素对家蚕血细胞DNA变异的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈卫锋; 孟智启; 王强; 牛宝龙; 何丽华; 刘岩; 翁宏飚; 陈玉银


    利用RAPD标记技术检测杀虫剂阿维菌素对家蚕血细胞DNA的损伤,作为评价其对蚕体毒性的依据.分别用1、2、4、8 μg/L阿维菌素药液处理的桑叶给4龄起蚕添食,96 h后对家蚕血细胞的基因组DNA进行RAPD分析.24条RAPD引物对5个样品基因组DNA扩增产生的清晰条带数为143条,其中多态性片段19条,多态性带数比率为13.29%.用Ntsyspc 2.1软件计算出不同处理样品血细胞DNA间的遗传相似系数分布在0.867~0.993,树状聚类图显示正常样品与1、2、4μg/L阿维菌素药液处理的3个样品聚为一类,而8 μg/L阿维菌素药液处理的样品单独聚为一类,说明该样品血细胞DNA的变异最大.研究结果提示,RAPD标记作为杀虫剂对家蚕的毒性检测标志技术,可准确预警蚕区农药使用对养蚕生产存在的潜在危害.%DNA damage of silkworm (Bombyx mori) hemocytes detected by RAPD marker technology could be used as a reference for evaluating the toxicity of avermectin to silkworm. The 4th instar newly exuviated silkworm larvae were fed with mulberry leaves treated with 1,2,4, and 8 μg/L avermectin. After 96 hours, the genomic DNAs of silkworm hemocytes were isolated for RAPD assay. By using 24 RAPD primers to amplify the genomic DNAs of five samples, 143 clearly distinguishable bands were obtained, among which 19 bands were polymorphic, showing a polymorphism percentage of 13. 29%. Calculation with Ntsyspc 2. 1 software displayed that the genetic similarity coefficients between hemocytic DNAs from different treatments were in the range of 0. 867 to 0. 993. The result of dendrogram showed that the samples treated with 1,2, and 4 μg/L avermectin and the normal sample were clustered into one group, and the sample treated with 8 μg/L avermectin was in a separate group, indicating that 8 μg/L of avermectin caused the most serious effect on DNA integrality. These results showed that RAPD molecular marker technology, as a measure of

  17. 不育夫妇中男性精子DNA碎片指数变异的研究%Variation of sperm DNA fragmentation index in male partners from infertile couples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费前进; 金建远; 倪吴花; 黄学锋


    目的 探讨不育夫妇中男性精子DNA碎片指数(DNA fragmentation index,DFI)的变异程度.方法 2009年4月至2012年4月,将539对不育夫妇中的539例男性纳入本研究.根据世界卫生组织标准(1999年),应用精子染色质扩散(sperm chromatin dispersion,SCD)试验对每名男性进行至少1次的重复精液常规分析和DFI检测,计算DFI的变异系数(coefficient of variation,CV),对DFI的变异程度及其影响因素进行统计分析.结果 539例男性中,有473例、59例、6例和1例分别行1次、2次、3次和4次重复精液常规分析和DFI检测,共计613次重复检测,重复检测和首次检测的间隔时间为0.5~34个月,中位数3.0(1.0~11.0)个月.539份首次检测样本间的DFI变异系数(between-sample coefficient of variation,CVB)为71.2%.与首次检测间隔0.5~3个月、3~12个月和12~34个月的DFI与首次检测的DFI比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).以18%作为男性生育力的DFI阈值,539例男性中有142例(26.3%,95%CI:22.6%~30.0%)的首次和重复检测DFI值分别位于阈值两侧.539例男性自身DFI的变异系数(within-subject coefficient of variation,CVw)为0.0~110.5%,中位数为26.0%(12.6%~42.8%),精子总数、精子浓度、精子活动力和精子形态的CVw的中位数分别为41.9%(21.8%~72.6%)、31.9%(15.1%~62.5%)、29.4%(13.2%~55.4%)和46.0%(22.4%~87.1%),各精液常规参数的CVw分别与DFI的CVw比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).DFI的CVw与精子总数、精子浓度和DFI重复检测的间隔时间密切相关(P<0.05).结论 不育夫妇中的男性精子DFI是一个变异较大的参数,应对每例男性的DFI进行重复检测才能反映其精子DNA损伤的水平.%Objective To investigate variation of sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) in male partners of infertile couples.Methods A total of 539 males between April 2009 and April 2012 were analyzed.At least one repeated

  18. DNA barcoding for plants. (United States)

    de Vere, Natasha; Rich, Tim C G; Trinder, Sarah A; Long, Charlotte


    DNA barcoding uses specific regions of DNA in order to identify species. Initiatives are taking place around the world to generate DNA barcodes for all groups of living organisms and to make these data publically available in order to help understand, conserve, and utilize the world's biodiversity. For land plants the core DNA barcode markers are two sections of coding regions within the chloroplast, part of the genes, rbcL and matK. In order to create high quality databases, each plant that is DNA barcoded needs to have a herbarium voucher that accompanies the rbcL and matK DNA sequences. The quality of the DNA sequences, the primers used, and trace files should also be accessible to users of the data. Multiple individuals should be DNA barcoded for each species in order to check for errors and allow for intraspecific variation. The world's herbaria provide a rich resource of already preserved and identified material and these can be used for DNA barcoding as well as by collecting fresh samples from the wild. These protocols describe the whole DNA barcoding process, from the collection of plant material from the wild or from the herbarium, how to extract and amplify the DNA, and how to check the quality of the data after sequencing.

  19. Male fertility versus sterility, cytotype, and DNA quantitative variation in seed production in diploid and tetraploid sea lavenders (Limonium sp., Plumbaginaceae) reveal diversity in reproduction modes. (United States)

    Róis, Ana Sofia; Teixeira, Generosa; Sharbel, Timothy F; Fuchs, Jörg; Martins, Sérgio; Espírito-Santo, Dalila; Caperta, Ana D


    were present in each seed. Flow cytometric seed screens using such mature seeds showed quantitative variations in seeds ploidy level. It is concluded that male function seems to play an important role in the reproduction modes of Limonium diploids and tetraploids.

  20. Parkinson's disease and mitochondrial gene variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andalib, Sasan; Vafaee, Manouchehr Seyedi; Gjedde, Albert


    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common disorder of the central nervous system in the elderly. The pathogenesis of PD is a complex process, with genetics as an important contributing factor. This factor may stem from mitochondrial gene variations and mutations as well as from nuclear gene variations...... and mutations. More recently, a particular role of mitochondrial dysfunction has been suggested, arising from mitochondrial DNA variations or acquired mutations in PD pathogenesis. The present review summarizes and weighs the evidence in support of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variations as important contributors...

  1. Common DNA sequence variation and psychiatric disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripke, S.


    In a genome-wide association study (GWAS), a large number of SNPs are genotyped in a large number of cases (with disease) and controls (without disease) using commercially available high-throughput genotyping platforms. In a GWAS, the genotype data collected in cases and unaffected, population-match

  2. Spatial and temporal population genetic structure of four northeastern Pacific littorinid gastropods: the effect of mode of larval development on variation at one mitochondrial and two nuclear DNA markers. (United States)

    Lee, Hyuk Je; Boulding, Elizabeth G


    We investigated the effect of development mode on the spatial and temporal population genetic structure of four littorinid gastropod species. Snails were collected from the same three sites on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada in 1997 and again in 2007. DNA sequences were obtained for one mitochondrial gene, cytochrome b (Cyt b), and for up to two nuclear genes, heat shock cognate 70 (HSC70) and aminopeptidase N intron (APN54). We found that the mean level of genetic diversity and long-term effective population sizes (N(e)) were significantly greater for two species, Littorina scutulata and L. plena, that had a planktotrophic larval stage than for two species, Littorina sitkana and L. subrotundata, that laid benthic egg masses which hatched directly into crawl-away juveniles. Predictably, two poorly dispersing species, L. sitkana and L. subrotundata, showed significant spatial genetic structure at an 11- to 65-km geographical scale that was not observed in the two planktotrophic species. Conversely, the two planktotrophic species had more temporal genetic structure over a 10-year interval than did the two direct-developing species and showed highly significant temporal structure for spatially pooled samples. The greater temporal genetic variation of the two planktotrophic species may have been caused by their high fecundity, high larval dispersal, and low but spatially correlated early survivorship. The sweepstakes-like reproductive success of the planktotrophic species could allow a few related females to populate hundreds of kilometres of coastline and may explain their substantially larger temporal genetic variance but lower spatial genetic variance relative to the direct-developing species.

  3. Nuclear DNA Contents of Some Endemic Hedysarum L. Species



    The nuclear DNA contents and nuclear areas of some endemic Hedysarum L. species were investigated. A significant variation in the DNA content of Hedysarum species was established. The 2C nuclear DNA amount in the Hedysarum species (x = 8) ranged from approximately 4 to 6 picograms. It was found that the variation in the 2C nuclear DNA content was not related to chromosome numbers. However, there was a very high positive linear relationship between nuclear DNA content and nuclear area.

  4. FROG - Fingerprinting Genomic Variation Ontology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Abinaya

    Full Text Available Genetic variations play a crucial role in differential phenotypic outcomes. Given the complexity in establishing this correlation and the enormous data available today, it is imperative to design machine-readable, efficient methods to store, label, search and analyze this data. A semantic approach, FROG: "FingeRprinting Ontology of Genomic variations" is implemented to label variation data, based on its location, function and interactions. FROG has six levels to describe the variation annotation, namely, chromosome, DNA, RNA, protein, variations and interactions. Each level is a conceptual aggregation of logically connected attributes each of which comprises of various properties for the variant. For example, in chromosome level, one of the attributes is location of variation and which has two properties, allosomes or autosomes. Another attribute is variation kind which has four properties, namely, indel, deletion, insertion, substitution. Likewise, there are 48 attributes and 278 properties to capture the variation annotation across six levels. Each property is then assigned a bit score which in turn leads to generation of a binary fingerprint based on the combination of these properties (mostly taken from existing variation ontologies. FROG is a novel and unique method designed for the purpose of labeling the entire variation data generated till date for efficient storage, search and analysis. A web-based platform is designed as a test case for users to navigate sample datasets and generate fingerprints. The platform is available at

  5. Genetisk variation og langt liv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette


    andre ikke gør. I dette ph.d.-projekt undersøgte vi sammenhængen mellem levetid og variation i tre biologiske skadesprocesser. De tre er: antioxidanter, væksthormon/insulin-signalering og DNA-reparation. Vi fandt nye genvariationer, hvoraf nogle har positiv indflydelse på chancen for at blive meget...

  6. 韩国与中国东北地区松鼠线粒体DNA控制区的序列变异%Mitochondrial DNA variation in the red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris mantchuricus) from Korea and Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOH; Hung; Sun; 张明海; 王金星; SHIN; Dong; Sun; LEE; Bae; Geun


    The full sequences (1 058 bp) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of the red squirrel from five localities in South Korea and two localities from northeast China (Sciurus vulgaris mantchuricus Thomas) were obtained and analyzed to determine the degree of sequence variation in the populations of two countries and to clarify the taxonomic status of the subspecies as well. The average Tamura-Nei nucleotide distance among 21 haplotypes from 39 Korean red squirrels and among another 21 haplotypes from 24 Chinese red squirrels were 1.0% and 1.4%, respectively. The sequences varied at 119 sites of 1 058 bp (11.2%). The average distance between the haplotypes of Korean red squirrel and Chinese red squirrel was 1.3%. Moreover, all 42 haplotypes from 63 red squirrels from Korea and China formed a monophyletic clade, and the Fst value was 0.04, indicating that genetic differentiation has not occurred between the two countries'red squirrels. It is concluded that this molecular result supports the present classification, i.e., the subspecies coreae from Korea is a synonym of the subspecies mantchuricus from northern China, although further molecular and morphological analyses with the specimens from North Korea and other areas of northeast China are necessary to confirm the taxonomic status of the subspecies mantchuricus.%为了研究松鼠东北亚种(Sciurus vulgaris manchuricus Thomas)不同种群的序列变异水平并进一步确定分类地位,我们分析了韩国5个地点和中国东北2个地点的松鼠标本的线粒体DNA控制区的全序列(1 058 bp).39个韩国松鼠标本显示出21种单倍型,这些单倍型间的平均Tamura-Nei 距离为1.0%;24个中国松鼠标本显示21种单倍型,单倍型间的平均Tamura-Nei 距离为1.4%(1 058 bp的全序列中发生变异的位点有119个,占11.2%).韩国松鼠和中国松鼠间的平均距离为1.3%.并且韩国和中国松鼠的所有42个单倍型形成了一个单系分支,Fst值为0.04,表明在两

  7. Identification and characterization of a catechol-o-methyltransferase cDNA in the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis: Tissue, sex and seasonal variations, and effects of gonadotropin and 2-hydroxyestradiol-17β on mRNA expression. (United States)

    Chaube, R; Rawat, A; Inbaraj, R M; Bobe, J; Guiguen, Y; Fostier, A; Joy, K P


    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is involved in the methylation and inactivation of endogenous and xenobiotic catechol compounds, and serves as a common biochemical link in the catecholamine and catecholestrogen metabolism. Studies on cloning, sequencing and function characterization comt gene in lower vertebrates like fish are fewer. In the present study, a full-length comt cDNA of 1442bp with an open-reading frame (ORF) of 792bp, and start codon (ATG) at nucleotide 162 and stop codon (TAG) at nucleotide 953 was isolated and characterized in the stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (accession No. KT597925). The ORF codes for a protein of 263 amino acid residues, which is also validated by the catfish transcriptome data analysis. The catfish Comt shared conserved putative structural regions important for S-adenosyl methionine (AdoMet)- and catechol-binding, transmembrane regions, two glycosylation sites (N-65 and N-91) at the N-terminus and two phosphorylation sites (Ser-235 and Thr-240) at the C-terminus. The gene was expressed in all tissues examined and the expression showed significant sex dimorphic distribution with high levels in females. The transcript was abundant in the liver, brain and gonads and low in muscles. The transcripts showed significant seasonal variations in the brain and ovary, increased progressively to the peak levels in spawning phase and then declined. The brain and ovarian comt mRNA levels showed periovulatory changes after in vivo and in vitro human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatments with high fold increases at 16 and 24h in the brain and at 16h in the ovary. The catecholestrogen 2-hydroxyE2 up regulated ovarian comt expression in vitro with the highest fold increase at 16h. The mRNA and protein was localized in the follicular layer of the vitellogenic follicles and in the cytoplasm of primary follicles. The data were discussed in relation to catecholamine and catecholestrogen-mediated functions in the brain and ovary of the

  8. Variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L


    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha

  9. Salt Tolerance of Rice Variation Germplasm with Transformed Common Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon) DNA%导入普通野生稻DNA的水稻变异种质的耐盐性鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕学莲; 白海波; 李树华; 蔡正云; 高晓原


    The research aimed to study salt tolerance of rice variation germplasm with transformed common wild rice DNA, and screen out the materials with high salt tolerance, so as to provide germplasm for salt-tolerant rice breeding. Ten rice variation germplasms of 'Ningjing 23' were used to study germination and seedling growth. The results showed that, when treated with 170 mmol/L NaCl, the germination level and germination rate of materials D42, D5-54, D5-27, D-10, D102, DJ18 and D68 were high, and its relative salt harm rate were low. With the solution containing 120 mmol/L NaCl, the salt tolerance of D5-27, DJ18, D5-54 and D-10 were strong, and the ratio of salt treatment and non-salt treatment of ground and underground, fresh and dry weights were high. The increased soluble sugar content of materials D5-27, DJ18, D5-54 and D-10 were higher than its receptor. Materials D42, D5-54, D5-27, D-10, D102, DJ18 and D68 had high salt tolerance in germinating stage, and materials D5-27, DJ18, D5-54 and D-10 had high salt tolerance in seedling stage.%旨在研究导入普通野生稻DNA的水稻后代的耐盐性,从中筛选出耐盐性较强的材料,为水稻耐盐育种提供种质资源.以普通野生稻DNA导入到宁夏栽培水稻‘宁粳23号’中获得的10份变异后代为材料,研究各材料在盐胁迫下的发芽特性和幼苗生长情况.结果表明在170 mmol/L NaCl处理下,材料D42、D5-54、D5-27、D-10、D102、DJ18和D68的发芽势和发芽率均较高,相对盐害率较低,在盐浓度为120 mmol/L时,材料D5-27、DJ18、D5-54和D-10的耐盐性为强,地上和地下鲜、干重的盐处理与非盐处理的比值较高,材料D5-27、DJ18、D5-54和D-10的可溶性糖积累量高于其受体.材料D42、D5-54、D5-27、D-10、D102、DJ18和D68的芽期耐盐性较强,材料D5-27、DJ18、D5-54和D-10属于苗期较耐盐的材料.

  10. DNA Nanotechnology (United States)

    Taniguchi, Masateru; Kawai, Tomoji


    DNA is one candidate of promising molecules for molecular electronic devices, since it has the double helix structure with pi-electron bases for electron transport, the address at 0.4 nm intervals, and the self-assembly. Electrical conductivity and nanostructure of DNA and modified DNA molecules are investigated in order to research the application of DNA in nanoelectronic devices. It has been revealed that DNA is a wide-gap semiconductor in the absence of doping. The conductivity of DNA has been controlled by chemical doping, electric field doping, and photo-doping. It has found that Poly(dG)[middle dot]Poly(dC) has the best conductivity and can function as a conducting nanowire. The pattern of DNA network is controlled by changing the concentration of the DNA solution.

  11. DNA Methylation


    Alokail, Majed S.; Alenad, Amal M.


    The DNA of E. coli contains 19,120 6-methyladenines and 12,045 5-methylcytosines in addition to the four regular bases and these are formed by the postreplicative action of three DNA methyltransferases. The majority of the methylated bases are formed by the Dam and Dcm methyltransferases encoded by the dam (DNA adenine methyltransferase) and dcm (DNA cytosine methyltransferase) genes. Although not essential, Dam methylation is important for strand discrimination during repair of replication e...

  12. Dna Sequencing (United States)

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles C.


    A method for sequencing a strand of DNA, including the steps off: providing the strand of DNA; annealing the strand with a primer able to hybridize to the strand to give an annealed mixture; incubating the mixture with four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, a DNA polymerase, and at least three deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates in different amounts, under conditions in favoring primer extension to form nucleic acid fragments complementory to the DNA to be sequenced; labelling the nucleic and fragments; separating them and determining the position of the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates by differences in the intensity of the labels, thereby to determine the DNA sequence.

  13. Human DNA Ligase III Recognizes DNA Ends by Dynamic Switching between Two DNA-Bound States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotner-Gohara, Elizabeth; Kim, In-Kwon; Hammel, Michal; Tainer, John A.; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Ellenberger, Tom (Scripps); (Maryland-MED); (WU-MED); (LBNL)


    Human DNA ligase III has essential functions in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA replication and repair and contains a PARP-like zinc finger (ZnF) that increases the extent of DNA nick joining and intermolecular DNA ligation, yet the bases for ligase III specificity and structural variation among human ligases are not understood. Here combined crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering results reveal dynamic switching between two nick-binding components of ligase III: the ZnF-DNA binding domain (DBD) forms a crescent-shaped surface used for DNA end recognition which switches to a ring formed by the nucleotidyl transferase (NTase) and OB-fold (OBD) domains for catalysis. Structural and mutational analyses indicate that high flexibility and distinct DNA binding domain features in ligase III assist both nick sensing and the transition from nick sensing by the ZnF to nick joining by the catalytic core. The collective results support a 'jackknife model' in which the ZnF loads ligase III onto nicked DNA and conformational changes deliver DNA into the active site. This work has implications for the biological specificity of DNA ligases and functions of PARP-like zinc fingers.

  14. Epigenetic variation in the Egfr gene generates quantitative variation in a complex trait in ants. (United States)

    Alvarado, Sebastian; Rajakumar, Rajendhran; Abouheif, Ehab; Szyf, Moshe


    Complex quantitative traits, like size and behaviour, are a pervasive feature of natural populations. Quantitative trait variation is the product of both genetic and environmental factors, yet little is known about the mechanisms through which their interaction generates this variation. Epigenetic processes, such as DNA methylation, can mediate gene-by-environment interactions during development to generate discrete phenotypic variation. We therefore investigated the developmental role of DNA methylation in generating continuous size variation of workers in an ant colony, a key trait associated with division of labour. Here we show that, in the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus, global (genome-wide) DNA methylation indirectly regulates quantitative methylation of the conserved cell-signalling gene Epidermal growth factor receptor to generate continuous size variation of workers. DNA methylation can therefore generate quantitative variation in a complex trait by quantitatively regulating the transcription of a gene. This mechanism, alongside genetic variation, may determine the phenotypic possibilities of loci for generating quantitative trait variation in natural populations.

  15. DNA glue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filichev, Vyacheslav V; Astakhova, Irina V.; Malakhov, Andrei D.


    Significant alterations in thermal stability of parallel DNA triplexes and antiparallel duplexes were observed upon changing the attachment of ethynylpyrenes from para to ortho in the structure of phenylmethylglycerol inserted as a bulge into DNA (TINA). Insertions of two ortho-TINAs as a pseudo...

  16. Chloroplast DNA trnQ-rps16 variation and genetic structure of nine wild Chinese cherry (Cerasus pseudocerasus Lindl.) populations%9个野生中国樱桃群体叶绿体 DNA trnQ-rps16序列变异及其遗传结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈涛; 王小蓉; 罗华; 王春涛; 张家志; 罗明敏


    Chinese cherry (Cerasus pseudocerasus Lindl.) is one of the most economically domestic fruit trees in China. The rich variation of wild Chinese cherry is the most important breeding resource for existing cultivars. In order to reveal the levels and distribution of genetic variation within wild Chinese cherry of Sichuan Province, China, where is rich in wild Chinese cherry, the sequence variation of chloroplast DNA trnQ-rps16 intergenic spacer was analyzed in 145 individuals of all nine existing populations (seven from Sichuan, two from Shanxi and Guizhou provinces) of China. The results showed that trnQ-rps16 sequence were aligned with 13 polymorphic sites (1.87%), including 3 substitutions and 10 indels in 145 individuals, which revealed a low level of genetic diversity (h= 0.562,Π= 0.00184). Compared to other regions (h= 0.733, Π= 0.00243), a rather lower genetic diversity (h= 0.544,π= 0.00203) was found in the populations from Sichuan, and a large scale of genetic diversity among the seven populations was detected (h= 0-0.708; π= 0-0.00298), ranging from EM (h=0.000, Π=0.000) to TL (h=0.708, Π=0.00298). The low genetic diversity of populations may be strongly affected by founder effect and bottleneck effect because of the marginal nature, recent reduction, and consequent genetic drift of these populations. In addition, a fairly low genetic differentiation (FST= 0.21573) was found among the studied populations. This suggest that gene flow seems to originate from pronounced seed dispersal abilities of the species and it may play a significant role in shaping such a genetic structure. The long generation cycle of the species may also contribute to this structure. Based on these findings, a conservational plan for sampling or preserving fewer populations but more individuals from each population for the species was proposes.%中国樱桃(Cerasus pseudocerasus Lindl.)是我国古老的具有较高经济价值的栽培果树之一,个别性状突 出的野生

  17. Low Genetic Variation with Mitochondrial DNA Control Region Sequence in Chinese Alligators (Alligator sinensis) and Implification for Its Conservation%扬子鳄种群的线粒体DNA控制区序列变异性及其对物种保护的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴孝兵; 刘辉; 薛辉; George Amato; John Thorbjarnarson


    A portion of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region was sequenced for 64 individual Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis) from four different areas: the wild population in Xuanzhou, Anhui; the captive population in Changxin, Zhejiang, the Anhui Research Center for Chinese Alligator Reproduction and the ex situ managed population in the USA. In this research, 4 haplotypes were detected from these sequences with only 3 variable sites. These results suggest that the level of mtDNA genetic variation in Chinese alligators is very low compared with chelonians, birds, mammals and other crocodilians.%测定了来自4个不同地点(包括安徽宣城野生和饲养种群、浙江长兴的饲养种群及在美国的饲养种群)的64个扬子鳄线粒体DNA控制区部分序列.结果共检测出4个单倍型共3个变异位点,与龟类、鸟类、哺乳类及其它鳄类相比较,反央出扬子鳄线粒体区的序列变异性很低.在此基础上,对扬子鳄遗传保护提出了有关建议.

  18. Natural transformation and phase variation modulation in Neisseria meningitidis. (United States)

    Alexander, Heather L; Richardson, Anthony R; Stojiljkovic, Igor


    Neisseria meningitidis has evolved the ability to control the expression-state of numerous genes by phase variation. It has been proposed that the process aids this human pathogen in coping with the diversity of microenvironments and host immune systems. Therefore, increased frequencies of phase variation may augment the organism's adaptability and virulence. In this study, we found that DNA derived from various neisserial co-colonizers of the human nasopharynx increased N. meningitidis switching frequencies, indicating that heterologous neisserial DNA modulates phase variation in a transformation-dependent manner. In order to determine whether the effect of heterologous DNA was specific to the Hb receptor, HmbR, we constructed a Universal Rates of Switching cassette (UROS). With this cassette, we demonstrated that heterologous DNA positively affects phase variation throughout the meningococcal genome, as UROS phase variation frequencies were also increased in the presence of neisserial DNA. Overexpressing components of the neisserial mismatch repair system partially alleviated DNA-induced changes in phase variation frequencies, thus implicating mismatch repair titration as a cause of these transformation-dependent increases in switching. The DNA-dependent effect on phase variation was transient and may serve as a mechanism for meningococcal genetic variability that avoids the fitness costs encountered by global mutators.

  19. Recognition of DNA Termini by the C-Terminal Region of the Ku80 and the DNA-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek S Woods

    Full Text Available DNA double strand breaks (DSBs can be generated by endogenous cellular processes or exogenous agents in mammalian cells. These breaks are highly variable with respect to DNA sequence and structure and all are recognized in some context by the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK. DNA-PK is a critical component necessary for the recognition and repair of DSBs via non-homologous end joining (NHEJ. Previously studies have shown that DNA-PK responds differentially to variations in DSB structure, but how DNA-PK senses differences in DNA substrate sequence and structure is unknown. Here we explore the enzymatic mechanisms by which DNA-PK is activated by various DNA substrates and provide evidence that the DNA-PK is differentially activated by DNA structural variations as a function of the C-terminal region of Ku80. Discrimination based on terminal DNA sequence variations, on the other hand, is independent of the Ku80 C-terminal interactions and likely results exclusively from DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit interactions with the DNA. We also show that sequence differences in DNA termini can drastically influence DNA repair through altered DNA-PK activation. These results indicate that even subtle differences in DNA substrates influence DNA-PK activation and ultimately the efficiency of DSB repair.

  20. DNA methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Kristine; Christensen, Jesper; Helin, Kristian


    DNA methylation is involved in key cellular processes, including X-chromosome inactivation, imprinting and transcriptional silencing of specific genes and repetitive elements. DNA methylation patterns are frequently perturbed in human diseases such as imprinting disorders and cancer. The recent...... discovery that the three members of the TET protein family can convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) has provided a potential mechanism leading to DNA demethylation. Moreover, the demonstration that TET2 is frequently mutated in haematopoietic tumours suggests that the TET...... proteins are important regulators of cellular identity. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding the function of the TET proteins, and discuss various mechanisms by which they contribute to transcriptional control. We propose that the TET proteins have an important role in regulating DNA methylation...

  1. DNA data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Raw DNA chromatogram data produced by the ABI 373, 377, 3130 and 3730 automated sequencing machines in ABI format. These are from fish (primarily Sebastes spp.,...

  2. DNA adductomics. (United States)

    Balbo, Silvia; Turesky, Robert J; Villalta, Peter W


    Systems toxicology is a broad-based approach to describe many of the toxicological features that occur within a living system under stress or subjected to exogenous or endogenous exposures. The ultimate goal is to capture an overview of all exposures and the ensuing biological responses of the body. The term exposome has been employed to refer to the totality of all exposures, and systems toxicology investigates how the exposome influences health effects and consequences of exposures over a lifetime. The tools to advance systems toxicology include high-throughput transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and adductomics, which is still in its infancy. A well-established methodology for the comprehensive measurement of DNA damage resulting from every day exposures is not fully developed. During the past several decades, the (32)P-postlabeling technique has been employed to screen the damage to DNA induced by multiple classes of genotoxicants; however, more robust, specific, and quantitative methods have been sought to identify and quantify DNA adducts. Although triple quadrupole and ion trap mass spectrometry, particularly when using multistage scanning (LC-MS(n)), have shown promise in the field of DNA adductomics, it is anticipated that high-resolution and accurate-mass LC-MS(n) instrumentation will play a major role in assessing global DNA damage. Targeted adductomics should also benefit greatly from improved triple quadrupole technology. Once the analytical MS methods are fully mature, DNA adductomics along with other -omics tools will contribute greatly to the field of systems toxicology.

  3. Fleet DNA (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkokwicz, K.; Duran, A.


    The Fleet DNA project objectives include capturing and quantifying drive cycle and technology variation for the multitude of medium- and heavy-duty vocations; providing a common data storage warehouse for medium- and heavy-duty vehicle fleet data across DOE activities and laboratories; and integrating existing DOE tools, models, and analyses to provide data-driven decision making capabilities. Fleet DNA advantages include: for Government - providing in-use data for standard drive cycle development, R&D, tech targets, and rule making; for OEMs - real-world usage datasets provide concrete examples of customer use profiles; for fleets - vocational datasets help illustrate how to maximize return on technology investments; for Funding Agencies - ways are revealed to optimize the impact of financial incentive offers; and for researchers -a data source is provided for modeling and simulation.

  4. Genetic variation between susceptible and non-susceptible snails to Schistosoma infection using random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPDs Variação genética entre moluscos susceptíveis e não susceptíveis à infecção pelo Schistosoma através da análise do DNA polimórfico amplificado aleatóriamente (RAPDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hamid Zaki ABDEL-HAMID


    Full Text Available Susceptibility of snails to infection by certain trematodes and their suitability as hosts for continued development has been a bewildering problem in host-parasite relationships. The present work emphasizes our interest in snail genetics to determine what genes or gene products are specifically responsible for susceptibility of snails to infection. High molecular weight DNA was extracted from both susceptible and non-susceptible snails within the same species Biomphalaria tenagophila. RAPD was undertaken to distinguish between the two types of snails. Random primers (10 mers were used to amplify the extracted DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR followed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE and silver staining. The results suggest that RAPD represents an efficient means of genome comparison, since many molecular markers were detected as genetic variations between susceptible and non-susceptible snails.A susceptibilidade de moluscos à infecção por certos trematódeos e a sua capacidade como hospedeiro para o contínuo desenvolvimento é o problema mais deslumbrante nas relações parasita hospedeiro. O presente trabalho, focaliza nosso interesse na genética dos moluscos para determinar quais genes ou produtos gênicos são especificamente responsáveis pela susceptibilidade do molusco à infecção. DNA de alto peso molecular, foi extraído de ambos moluscos susceptíveis e não susceptíveis da espécie Biomphalaria tenagophila. Iniciadores aleatórios com 10 pares de bases foram usados na amplificação aleatória (RAPD de ambos os DNAs e análise por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida e coloração com prata. Os resultados mostram que a amplificação aleatória do DNA representa um eficiente caminho para a comparação dos genomas desde que marcadores moleculares foram detectados como variantes genéticos entre os moluscos susceptíveis e não susceptíveis.

  5. Sequence length variation of internal genic space of 16S rDNA-23S rDNA in biohydrogen-bacterium%产氢菌的16S -23S rDNA间隔区的长度变异性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永峰; 郑国香; 张文启; 李建政; 胡立杰


    生物制氢细菌Rennanqilyf3的16S rRNA gene (rDNA)-23S rDNA间隔区碱基序列被测定.利用PCR扩增间隔区DNA,间隔区碱基序列存在长度多态现象.用这一长度多态现象进行产氢发酵细菌的辨认和识别.产氢发酵细菌Rennanqilyf3的16S rRNA gene (rDNA)-23S rDNA间隔区的PCR产品从1 270 到398 bp,共有5个序列.碱基数目分别为1 270、398、638、437 和 436 bp.%A method based on PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene (rDNA)-23S rDNA intergenic regions was developed for the identification of species for fermentative biohydrogen-producing bacterium. The sizes of the PCR products varied from 1 270 to 398 bp. Strain of Rennanqilyf3 were characterized as having products of 1 270,398,638, 437 and 436bp.

  6. DNA expressions - A formal notation for DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, Rudy van


    We describe a formal notation for DNA molecules that may contain nicks and gaps. The resulting DNA expressions denote formal DNA molecules. Different DNA expressions may denote the same molecule. Such DNA expressions are called equivalent. We examine which DNA expressions are minimal, which

  7. 四种群东方田鼠线粒体DNA D-loop多态性研究%Study on Sequence Variation of Mitochondrial D-loop Gene and Polymorphism among four populations of Reed Vole (Microtus fortis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢建云; 冯洁; 柏熊; 胡建华; 高诚


    目的 探讨我国不同地区东方田鼠线粒体DNA D-loop多态性.方法 对四个种群东方田鼠线粒体DNA(mt DNA)D-loop片段进行测序,并对测序结果用Clustal W软件进行比对,通过MEGA Version3.1软件构建基于平均遗传距离的NJ(neighbor-joining,邻接法)分子系统进化树,用Dnasp4.0分析所有序列的多态位点、核苷酸多样性、单倍型数目、单倍型多样性以及进行Tajima's中性显著性检验.结果 四个种群34个东方田鼠个体的mtDNA D-loop区全序列共发现19个单倍型,单倍型比例为55.88%,单倍型多样性和核苷酸多样性分别为0.934±0.024和0.04334±0.00285.以台湾田鼠(Microtus kikuchii)线粒体全序列(GenBank登录号AF348082)为对照,共检测到核苷酸变异位点172个,约占核苷酸总教的18.66%.由分子系统进化树可发现所有34只东方田鼠分为两大类,小体型黑龙江东方田鼠为一类,其他三个种群东方田鼠为另外一类,在这一类别中,又有两个分支,其中所有宁夏种群鼠及3只大体型黑龙江种群鼠为一个分支,所有洞庭湖种群鼠和其他5只大体型黑龙江种群鼠为另一个分支.结论 我国东方田鼠在mt DNA D-loop片段存在种内遗传多态性,种群内和种群间都存在一定的遗传变异,并且黑龙江小体型种群东方田鼠表现出与其他三种群东方田鼠更大的差异水平.

  8. DNA and RNA sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Tao; LIN; Lin; ZHAO; Hong; JIANG; Long


    This review summarizes recent advances in DNA sensor. Major areas of DNA sensor covered in this review include immobilization methods of DNA, general techniques of DNA detection and application of nanoparticles in DNA sensor.

  9. What Is Mitochondrial DNA? (United States)

    ... DNA What is mitochondrial DNA? What is mitochondrial DNA? Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within ... proteins. For more information about mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA: Molecular Expressions, a web site from the Florida ...

  10. DNA vaccines (United States)

    Gregersen, Jens-Peter


    Immunization by genes encoding immunogens, rather than with the immunogen itself, has opened up new possibilities for vaccine research and development and offers chances for new applications and indications for future vaccines. The underlying mechanisms of antigen processing, immune presentation and regulation of immune responses raise high expectations for new and more effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines, particularly for vaccines against chronic or persistent infectious diseases and tumors. Our current knowledge and experience of DNA vaccination is summarized and critically reviewed with particular attention to basic immunological mechanisms, the construction of plasmids, screening for protective immunogens to be encoded by these plasmids, modes of application, pharmacokinetics, safety and immunotoxicological aspects. DNA vaccines have the potential to accelerate the research phase of new vaccines and to improve the chances of success, since finding new immunogens with the desired properties is at least technically less demanding than for conventional vaccines. However, on the way to innovative vaccine products, several hurdles have to be overcome. The efficacy of DNA vaccines in humans appears to be much less than indicated by early studies in mice. Open questions remain concerning the persistence and distribution of inoculated plasmid DNA in vivo, its potential to express antigens inappropriately, or the potentially deleterious ability to insert genes into the host cell's genome. Furthermore, the possibility of inducing immunotolerance or autoimmune diseases also needs to be investigated more thoroughly, in order to arrive at a well-founded consensus, which justifies the widespread application of DNA vaccines in a healthy population.

  11. DNA nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadrian C Seeman


    We are all aware that the DNA found in cells is a double helix consisting of two antiparallel strands held together by specific hydrogen-bonded base pairs; adenine (A always pairs with thymine (T, and guanine (G always pairs with cytosine (C. The specificity of this base pairing and the ability to ensure that it occurs in this fashion (and not some other1 is key to the use of DNA in materials applications. The double helical arrangement of the two molecules leads to a linear helix axis, linear not in the geometrical sense of being a straight line, but in the topological sense of being unbranched. Genetic engineers discovered in the 1970s how to splice together pieces of DNA to add new genes to DNA molecules2, and synthetic chemists worked out convenient syntheses for short pieces of DNA (up to ∼100–150 units in the 1980s3. Regardless of the impact of these technologies on biological systems, hooking together linear molecules leads only to longer linear molecules, with circles, knots, and catenanes perhaps resulting from time to time.

  12. Genetic Variation of Host Populations of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-ping; DU Yu-zhou; HE Ya-ting; ZHENG Fu-shan; LU Zi-qiang


    In this study, partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit Ⅰ (mtDNA-COI) gene and the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (rDNA-ITS1) gene, isolated from five artificial populations of Liriomyza sativae (Diptera:Agromyzidae), were sequenced and compared, to analyze their genetic variation. Analysis of the mtDNA-CO1 gene showed that a low genetic variation was detected among the five populations and only five variable sites were found in the nucleotide sequences. Most of the observed variations that occurred within the populations were because of nucleotide transitions, whereas, the interpopulation variation was because of the differences in haplotype frequencies occurring among the host populations. Analysis of the rDNA-ITS1 gene revealed a small diversity in the five host populations. The trend of genetic differentiation in the host populations was consistent with the preference of L. sativae to the plant hosts.

  13. Individual epigenetic variation: When, why, and so what? (United States)

    Epigenetics provides a potential explanation for how environmental factors modify the risk for common diseases among individuals. Interindividual variation in DNA methylation and epigenetic regulation has been reported at specific genomic regions including transposable elements, genomically imprinte...

  14. Tissue culture-induced DNA methylation polymorphisms in repetitive DNA of tomato calli and regenerated plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, M.J.M.; Rus-Kortekaas, W.; Vosman, B.


    The propagation of plants through tissue culture can induce a variety of genetic and epigenetic changes. Variation in DNA methylation has been proposed as a mechanism that may explain at least a part of these changes. In the present study, the methylation of tomato callus DNA was compared with that

  15. DNA origami nanopores for controlling DNA translocation. (United States)

    Hernández-Ainsa, Silvia; Bell, Nicholas A W; Thacker, Vivek V; Göpfrich, Kerstin; Misiunas, Karolis; Fuentes-Perez, Maria Eugenia; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando; Keyser, Ulrich F


    We combine DNA origami structures with glass nanocapillaries to reversibly form hybrid DNA origami nanopores. Trapping of the DNA origami onto the nanocapillary is proven by imaging fluorescently labeled DNA origami structures and simultaneous ionic current measurements of the trapping events. We then show two applications highlighting the versatility of these DNA origami nanopores. First, by tuning the pore size we can control the folding of dsDNA molecules ("physical control"). Second, we show that the specific introduction of binding sites in the DNA origami nanopore allows selective detection of ssDNA as a function of the DNA sequence ("chemical control").

  16. Modeling inhomogeneous DNA replication kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel G Gauthier

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic organisms, DNA replication is initiated at a series of chromosomal locations called origins, where replication forks are assembled proceeding bidirectionally to replicate the genome. The distribution and firing rate of these origins, in conjunction with the velocity at which forks progress, dictate the program of the replication process. Previous attempts at modeling DNA replication in eukaryotes have focused on cases where the firing rate and the velocity of replication forks are homogeneous, or uniform, across the genome. However, it is now known that there are large variations in origin activity along the genome and variations in fork velocities can also take place. Here, we generalize previous approaches to modeling replication, to allow for arbitrary spatial variation of initiation rates and fork velocities. We derive rate equations for left- and right-moving forks and for replication probability over time that can be solved numerically to obtain the mean-field replication program. This method accurately reproduces the results of DNA replication simulation. We also successfully adapted our approach to the inverse problem of fitting measurements of DNA replication performed on single DNA molecules. Since such measurements are performed on specified portion of the genome, the examined DNA molecules may be replicated by forks that originate either within the studied molecule or outside of it. This problem was solved by using an effective flux of incoming replication forks at the model boundaries to represent the origin activity outside the studied region. Using this approach, we show that reliable inferences can be made about the replication of specific portions of the genome even if the amount of data that can be obtained from single-molecule experiments is generally limited.

  17. Rationally designed coiled-coil DNA looping peptides control DNA topology. (United States)

    Gowetski, Daniel B; Kodis, Erin J; Kahn, Jason D


    Artificial DNA looping peptides were engineered to study the roles of protein and DNA flexibility in controlling the geometry and stability of protein-mediated DNA loops. These LZD (leucine zipper dual-binding) peptides were derived by fusing a second, C-terminal, DNA-binding region onto the GCN4 bZip peptide. Two variants with different coiled-coil lengths were designed to control the relative orientations of DNA bound at each end. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays verified formation of a sandwich complex containing two DNAs and one peptide. Ring closure experiments demonstrated that looping requires a DNA-binding site separation of 310 bp, much longer than the length needed for natural loops. Systematic variation of binding site separation over a series of 10 constructs that cyclize to form 862-bp minicircles yielded positive and negative topoisomers because of two possible writhed geometries. Periodic variation in topoisomer abundance could be modeled using canonical DNA persistence length and torsional modulus values. The results confirm that the LZD peptides are stiffer than natural DNA looping proteins, and they suggest that formation of short DNA loops requires protein flexibility, not unusual DNA bendability. Small, stable, tunable looping peptides may be useful as synthetic transcriptional regulators or components of protein-DNA nanostructures.

  18. Association of allelic variation in genes mediating aspects of energy homeostasis with weight gain during administration of antipsychotic drugs (CATIE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant K Tiwari


    Full Text Available Antipsychotic drugs are widely used in treating schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other psychiatric disorders. Many of these drugs, despite their therapeutic advantages, substantially increase body weight. We assessed the association of alleles of 31 genes implicated in body weight regulation with weight gain among patients being treated with specific antipsychotic medications in the CATIE trial, we found that rs2237988 in ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 8 (ABCC8 , and rs11643744 and rs9922047 in Fat Mass and Obesity Associated (FTO were associated with such weight gain.

  19. TA1 oncofetal rat liver cDNA and putative amino acid permease: temporal correlation with c-myc during acute CCl4 liver injury and variation of RNA levels in response to amino acids in hepatocyte cultures. (United States)

    Shultz, V D; Campbell, W; Karr, S; Hixson, D C; Thompson, N L


    TA1 is a rat liver oncofetal cDNA and a member of an emerging family of evolutionarily conserved molecules with homology to amino acid transporters and permeases. The aim of these studies was to characterize the regulation and role of TA1 in acute rat liver injury by examining its relation to regeneration and metabolic stress. Following a single dose of CCl4, TA1 message was expressed 3-48 h. The major 3.3-kb TA1 transcript correlated temporally with c-myc expression. A novel 2.9-kb TA1 transcript was expressed more variably 24-48 h. TA1 protein was restricted to hepatocytes in G0 and G1 phases of the cell cycle. Relative to CCl4, a much smaller increase in TA1 was noted after partial hepatectomy and TA1 preceded the peak of c-myc expression. In vitro TA1 was not induced in hepatocytes by EGF or the acute-phase cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha, but was found to be modulated in response to amino acid availability. TA1 expression increased in media without arginine and glutamine and was repressed by total amino acid levels 5-fold over basal MEM. Together, these results contrast with the constitutive expression observed in transformed cells and suggest an adaptive role for TA1 during liver injury.

  20. PCR-based random amplified polymorphic DNA technique used for the genetic variations of pathogenic strains of Paragonimus westermani%卫氏并殖吸虫致病品系PCR-RAPD分子标记的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱宝珍; 沈琦



  1. Standardization of anti-DNA antibody assays. (United States)

    Pisetsky, David S


    Antibodies to DNA (anti-DNA) are the serological hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus and represent important biomarkers for clinical and research purposes. These antibodies are part of a family of antibodies to nucleosomes and bind to conserved sites widely present on DNA. While the value of anti-DNA as a biomarker is well established, the assay for these antibodies has involved a variety of DNA sources and systems to detect DNA-anti-DNA interactions. The influence of these variations on antibody detection has complicated assay standardization. As an antigen, DNA has unique features since it is a highly charged polymer that has structural heterogeneity. This heterogeneity can affect antigenicity which can vary on the basis of DNA origin, size, conformation and mobility. In addition, as a polymer, DNA can promote patterns of antibody binding based on monogamous or bivalent interaction which require an extended polynucleotide structure. Understanding the nature of DNA as an antigen can facilitate interpretation of serological tests and underpin efforts at better standardization.

  2. Study on Somaclonal Variation of Spring Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Shu-mei; HU Shang-lian; LI Wen-xiong


    Somaclonal variation of calli and regenerated plants of spring wheat ware detected by using technique RAPD in the study. Calli at different culture stages and regenerated plants derived from young spikes and immature embryos were used as materials. Molecular variation could be reflected from electrophoresis patternof RAPD fragments at different culture stage in calli, and in regenerated plants derived from different explants, even no phenotype variations were found. Somaclonal variation in calli and in regenerated plants appeared regularly: A higher frequency of variation in hybrids F2 was detected than that of the cultivar that is stable genetically. High variation frequency of RAPD fragments appeared in calli when cultured 75 days. The identical variations of RAPD fragments were observed in calli and in the regenerated plants induced from different genotype or explants. The variation frequency detected is higher in regenerated plants than that of in calli. RAPD could be applied easily and simply to determine variation in level of DNA at each stage cultured in vitro.

  3. DNA nanostructure immobilization to lithographic DNA arrays (United States)

    Negrete, Omar D.

    Although DNA is well known for its genetic role in biology, DNA has also been sought-after as a material for the self-assembly of biological and electronic devices. Examples of DNA nanostructure construction include DNA tiled self-assembly and DNA Origami, where by controlling the sequence and concentration of DNA molecules, the rational design of geometric DNA nanostructures is possible. The assembly of DNA nanostructures takes place in solution and thus they are in disorder and require further organization to construct circuitry or devices. Hence, it is essential for future applications of this technology to develop methods to direct the placement of DNA nanostructures on a surface. To address this challenge my research examines the use of DNA microarrays to capture DNA nanostructures via DNA hybridization. Modern DNA arrays offer a high-density of sequence-specific molecular recognition sites where the addressable placement of DNA nanostructures can be achieved. Using Maskless Array Synthesizer (MAS) technology, I have characterized photolithographic DNA arrays for the hybridization of DNA complexes like large DNA molecules (> 1 kb), DNA-gold nanoparticle conjugates, and DNA Origami. Although modern photolithographic DNA arrays can possess a high-density of sequence (106/cm2), the printed DNA areas are on the order of tens of microns. Thus, I have also developed a method to reduce the DNA array spot size to nanoscale dimensions through the combined use of electron beam lithography with photolithographic DNA synthesis. This work addresses the key elements towards developing a surface patterning technology that takes advantage of DNA base-pairing for both molecular sub-assembly and surface patterning.

  4. Analysis of genetic variation in rice paddy landraces across 30 years as revealed by microsatellite DNA markers%微卫星标记分析水稻地方品种30年的遗传变异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严红梅; 董超; 张恩来; 汤翠凤; 阿新祥; 杨文毅; 杨雅云; 张斐斐; 徐福荣


    为揭示水稻(Oryza sativa)地方品种30年的遗传变异状况,文章通过60个SSR标记,对元阳哈尼梯田农户在20世纪70年代种植的6个(简称“过去的品种”)和近10年间种植的对应6个(简称“当前的品种”)代表性水稻地方品种进行检测.结果表明,共检测到159个等位基因(Na),等位基因数1~4不等,当前的品种较过去的品种减少7个等位基因.平均每个标记检测到的等位基因数(Na)、有效等位基因数(Ne)、基因型多样性(H')和 位点多态信息含量(PIC)4个指标均为过去的品种高于当前的品种,分别是(Na)为2.567>2.450,(Ne)为2.052>1.968,(H')为0.768>0.722,(PIC)为0.469>0.439.基于60个SSR标记,过去6个品种间的遗传相似性系数(GS)平均值为0.437,变幅为0.117 ~ 0.667,而当前6个品种间平均值为0.473,变幅为0.200 ~ 0.700.总的说来,水稻地方品种经过30年自然和人工选择,遗传多样性降低,不同品种存在等位基因大小的差异程度不同.%To reveal the genetic variation of rice paddy landraces across 30 years, we compared the genetic variation of between 6 paddy rice landraces grown in Yuanyang Hani's terraced fields in Yuanyang County, Yunnan Province in the 1970s (past-grown landraces) and 6 paired ones that have been grown during the past decade (current-grown landraces) using 60 SSR markers. The results showed that one to four alleles were amplified in 60 loci and 159 alleles in all the land-races tested. The number of alleles from the current-grown landraces decreased by 7 alleles compared to the past-grownlandraces. The average number of alleles (Na), effective number of alleles (Ne), locus polymorphism information content (PIC), and genotype diversity (H1) of the past-grown landraces were higher than those of the current-grown landraces, with Na of 2.567>2.450, Ne of 2.052>l .968, PIC of 0.469>0.439, and H' of 0.768>0.722. The average genetic similarity coefficient (GS) of the past

  5. Child Development and Structural Variation in the Human Genome (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Haraksingh, Rajini; Grubert, Fabian; Abyzov, Alexej; Gerstein, Mark; Weissman, Sherman; Urban, Alexander E.


    Structural variation of the human genome sequence is the insertion, deletion, or rearrangement of stretches of DNA sequence sized from around 1,000 to millions of base pairs. Over the past few years, structural variation has been shown to be far more common in human genomes than previously thought. Very little is currently known about the effects…

  6. Calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    Elsgolc, L E; Stark, M


    Calculus of Variations aims to provide an understanding of the basic notions and standard methods of the calculus of variations, including the direct methods of solution of the variational problems. The wide variety of applications of variational methods to different fields of mechanics and technology has made it essential for engineers to learn the fundamentals of the calculus of variations. The book begins with a discussion of the method of variation in problems with fixed boundaries. Subsequent chapters cover variational problems with movable boundaries and some other problems; sufficiency

  7. First evidence of DNA methylation in insect Tribolium castaneum: environmental regulation of DNA methylation within heterochromatin. (United States)

    Feliciello, Isidoro; Parazajder, Josip; Akrap, Ivana; Ugarković, Durđica


    DNA methylation has been studied in many eukaryotic organisms, in particular vertebrates, and was implicated in developmental and phenotypic variations. Little is known about the role of DNA methylation in invertebrates, although insects are considered as excellent models for studying the evolution of DNA methylation. In the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera), no evidence of DNA methylation has been found till now. In this paper, a cytosine methylation in Tribolium castaneum embryos was detected by methylation sensitive restriction endonucleases and immuno-dot blot assay. DNA methylation in embryos is followed by a global demethylation in larvae, pupae and adults. DNA demethylation seems to proceed actively through 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, most probably by the action of TET enzyme. Bisulfite sequencing of a highly abundant satellite DNA located in pericentromeric heterochromatin revealed similar profile of cytosine methylation in adults and embryos. Cytosine methylation was not only restricted to CpG sites but was found at CpA, CpT and CpC sites. In addition, complete cytosine demethylation of heterochromatic satellite DNA was induced by heat stress. The results reveal existence of DNA methylation cycling in T. castaneum ranging from strong overall cytosine methylation in embryos to a weak DNA methylation in other developmental stages. Nevertheless, DNA methylation is preserved within heterochromatin during development, indicating its role in heterochromatin formation and maintenance. It is, however, strongly affected by heat stress, suggesting a role for DNA methylation in heterochromatin structure modulation during heat stress response.

  8. Monitoring the Bending Stiffness of DNA (United States)

    Yuan, Chongli; Lou, Xiongwen; Rhoades, Elizabeth; Chen, Huimin; Archer, Lynden


    In eukaryotic cells, the accessibility of genomic sequences provides an inherent regulation mechanism for gene expression through variations in bending stiffness encoded by the nucleic acid sequence. Cyclization of dsDNA is the prevailing method for determining DNA bending stiffness. Recent cyclization data for short dsDNA raises several fundamental questions about the soundness of the cyclization method, particularly in cases where the probability of highly bent DNA conformations is low. We herein evaluate the role of T4 DNA ligase in the cyclization reaction by inserting an environmental sensitive base analogue, 2-amino purine, to the DNA molecule. By monitoring the 2-AP fluorescence under standard cyclization conditions, it is found that in addition to trapping highly-bent cyclic DNA conformations, T4 DNA ligase enhances the apparent base pair flip out rate, thus exaggerating the measured flexibility. This result is further confirmed using fluorescence anisotropy experiments. We show that fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements on suitably labeled dsDNA provides an alternative approach for quantifying the bending stiffness of short fragments. DNA bending stiffness results obtained using FRET are compared with literature values.

  9. Forensic DNA methylation profiling from evidence material for investigative leads (United States)

    Lee, Hwan Young; Lee, Soong Deok; Shin, Kyoung-Jin


    DNA methylation is emerging as an attractive marker providing investigative leads to solve crimes in forensic genetics. The identification of body fluids that utilizes tissue-specific DNA methylation can contribute to solving crimes by predicting activity related to the evidence material. The age estimation based on DNA methylation is expected to reduce the number of potential suspects, when the DNA profile from the evidence does not match with any known person, including those stored in the forensic database. Moreover, the variation in DNA implicates environmental exposure, such as cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, thereby suggesting the possibility to be used as a marker for predicting the lifestyle of potential suspect. In this review, we describe recent advances in our understanding of DNA methylation variations and the utility of DNA methylation as a forensic marker for advanced investigative leads from evidence materials. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(7): 359-369] PMID:27099236

  10. Forensic DNA methylation profiling from evidence material for investigative leads. (United States)

    Lee, Hwan Young; Lee, Soong Deok; Shin, Kyoung-Jin


    DNA methylation is emerging as an attractive marker providing investigative leads to solve crimes in forensic genetics. The identification of body fluids that utilizes tissue-specific DNA methylation can contribute to solving crimes by predicting activity related to the evidence material. The age estimation based on DNA methylation is expected to reduce the number of potential suspects, when the DNA profile from the evidence does not match with any known person, including those stored in the forensic database. Moreover, the variation in DNA implicates environmental exposure, such as cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, thereby suggesting the possibility to be used as a marker for predicting the lifestyle of potential suspect. In this review, we describe recent advances in our understanding of DNA methylation variations and the utility of DNA methylation as a forensic marker for advanced investigative leads from evidence materials. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(7): 359-369].

  11. Protocol for extraction of genomic DNA from swine solid tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Henrique Biase


    Full Text Available Molecular diagnostics are performed by using DNA from different body tissues. However, it is necessary to obtain genomic DNA of good quality. Due to the impossibility of collecting blood from slaughtered animals, DNA extraction from solid tissues is necessary. The objective of this study was to describe a protocol of DNA extraction from swine skin, adipose, brain, liver, kidney and muscle tissues. We obtained high molecular weight DNA of good quality, shown by agarose gel and amplification of two DNA fragments, 605bp and 891pb, by PCR. Spectrophotometric analysis of DNA concentration showed variation among the DNA from different tissues, with the liver and adipose tissues presenting the greatest and the smallest concentration, respectively. The described protocol has proven to be advantageous due to its simplicity, quickness, affordable reagents and absence of phenol, resulting in a high molecular weight DNA of good quality from several tissues.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    门荣新; 杨官品; 刘永健; 管晓菁


    采用PCR扩增、文库构建、限制性片段长度多态性分析、序列分析和系统学分析等方法,初步研究了夏季胶州湾上层海水浮游桡足类核糖体小亚基RNA基因(18S rDNA)约1.5kb片段的序列变异.从浮游生物混合DNA中选择性扩增桡足类18S rDNA,建立桡足类18S rDNA变异类型文库,并从文库中随机挑选的30个克隆进行分析.结果表明,Vsp I限制性内切酶能将这些克隆分成频率分别为0.17、0.23和0.6的3种操作分类单元(OTUs),遗传多样性指数达到0.95.3条OTU代表克隆序列与甲壳纲桡足亚纲核苷酸差异数在75.4-97.8之间,而与其他亚纲的差异都高于100.3条OTU代表克隆序列均属于桡足亚纲,其中,AY437861和AY437862属于哲水蚤目.3条OTU代表克隆序列可分为2个高变异区和3个相对保守区,其GC%分别为47.37%、48.16%和48.57%.研究结果表明,混合DNA提取方法简单,设计的引物可选择性地扩增浮游桡足类18S rDNA,根据18S rDNA序列序列变异描述浮游桡足类多样性是可行的.研究结果也为在浮游桡足类分类中引入18S rDNA序列奠定了基础.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉波; 甘小妮; 何舜平


    The pufferfishes of the genus Takifugu are East Asian fish, mainly distribute along the coastal region in western part of the Sea of Japan and the East China. This genus is attached more and more importance to researchers, for Takifugu rubripes, which is one species in it, has been a new model fish in the post-genomic era. The details of the phylogenetic relationships within the genus remain unresolved. In the present paper, mitochondrial D-loop sequences of 11 species of the genus Takifugu were determined and analyzed to test the present phylogenetic hypotheses. The sequence saturation analysis was inferred from the shape of the trend line, which indicated that the sequence was unsaturated and could be used in the following phylogenetic analysis. After alignment, the sequence compositions and variations were analyzed by using MEGA 3 software. There were 841 sites, among which 395 sites were variable, and 267 were informative. There was significant difference in base compositional bias between the ingroup and the outgroup species. The uncorrected p-distance matrix obtained from the analysis of the alignment of all D-loop sequences showed that the relationships among the different species were closely. Neighbor-joining, Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian methods were employed for phylogenetics analysis, respectively. Due to the SH test about the phylogeny hypothesis, we chose the Bayesian tree as our best tree in this paper. The Bayesian tree has described a more clearly phylogeny and the analysis also has pointed out the basal species in the genus. The results indicate that the genus form a monophyletic groups, with the sister group consisted by T. oblongus and T. alboplumbeus is the basal group of the genus. Our results also show some confusion about the taxonomy in the genus, according to the data and combined analysis with the morphological characters, we suppose some species are in fact synonymous in this genus, which suggest that the taxonomy

  14. Salt-Dependent DNA-DNA Spacings in Intact Bacteriophage lambda Reflect Relative Importance of DNA Self-Repulsion and Bending Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    X Qiu; D Rau; V Parsegian; L Fang; C Knobler; W Gelbart


    Using solution synchrotron x-ray scattering, we measure the variation of DNA-DNA d spacings in bacteriophage {lambda} with mono-, di-, and polyvalent salt concentrations, for wild-type [48.5 x 10{sup 3} base pairs (bp)] and short-genome-mutant (37.8 kbp) strains. From the decrease in d spacings with increasing salt, we deduce the relative contributions of DNA self-repulsion and bending to the energetics of packaged phage genomes. We quantify the DNA-DNA interaction energies within the intact phage by combining the measured d spacings in the capsid with measurements of osmotic pressure in DNA assemblies under the same salt conditions in bulk solution. In the commonly used Tris-Mg buffer, the DNA-DNA interaction energies inside the phage capsids are shown to be about 1 kT/bp, an order of magnitude larger than the bending energies.

  15. DNA nanostructure meets nanofabrication. (United States)

    Zhang, Guomei; Surwade, Sumedh P; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Haitao


    Recent advances in DNA nanotechnology have made it possible to construct DNA nanostructures of almost arbitrary shapes with 2-3 nm of precision in their dimensions. These DNA nanostructures are ideal templates for bottom-up nanofabrication. This review highlights the challenges and recent advances in three areas that are directly related to DNA-based nanofabrication: (1) fabrication of large scale DNA nanostructures; (2) pattern transfer from DNA nanostructure to an inorganic substrate; and (3) directed assembly of DNA nanostructures.

  16. Functions of bounded variation


    Lind, Martin


    The paper begins with a short survey of monotone functions. The functions of bounded variation are introduced and some basic properties of these functions are given. Finally the jump function of a function of bounded variation is defined.

  17. Variation in MAPT is not a contributing factor to the incomplete penetrance in LHON. (United States)

    Hudson, Gavin; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Griffiths, Philip G; Horvath, Rita; Carelli, Valerio; Zeviani, Massimo; Chinnery, Patrick F


    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a common cause of inherited blindness, primarily due to one of three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. LHON, which has an unexplained variable penetrance and pathology, is characterised by disruption of the mitochondrial respiratory chain ultimately resulting in degeneration of the retinal ganglion cells. Phosphorylation of the tau protein is known to cause neurodegeneration and variation in MAPT has been associated with a range of neurodegenerative disorders. Given the relationship between MAPT variation and altered mitochondrial respiratory chain function, we hypothesised that MAPT variation could contribute to the risk of blindness in LHON mtDNA mutation carriers. We studied MAPT variation in a large, well characterised LHON cohort, but were unable to find an association between MAPT genetic variation and visual failure in LHON mtDNA mutation carriers. Our findings suggest that genetic variation in MAPT is unlikely to make a major contribution to the risk of blindness among LHON mutation carriers.

  18. Studying Variation in Tunes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, B.; van Kranenburg, P.


    Variation in music can be caused by different phenomena: conscious, creative manipulation of musical ideas; but also unconscious variation during music recall. It is the latter phenomenon that we wish to study: variation which occurs in oral transmission, in which a melody is taught without the help

  19. New environmental metabarcodes for analysing soil DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epp, Laura S.; Boessenkool, Sanne; Bellemain, Eva P.


    was systematically evaluated by (i) in silico PCRs using all standard sequences in the EMBL public database as templates, (ii) in vitro PCRs of DNA extracts from surface soil samples from a site in Varanger, northern Norway and (iii) in vitro PCRs of DNA extracts from permanently frozen sediment samples of late......Metabarcoding approaches use total and typically degraded DNA from environmental samples to analyse biotic assemblages and can potentially be carried out for any kinds of organisms in an ecosystem. These analyses rely on specific markers, here called metabarcodes, which should be optimized...... in the environmental DNA, but we found large variation in the level of detection among the groups and between modern and ancient samples. Success rates for the Pleistocene samples were highest for fungal DNA, whereas bryophyte, beetle and bird sequences could also be retrieved, but to a much lesser degree...

  20. DNA fingerprinting, DNA barcoding, and next generation sequencing technology in plants. (United States)

    Sucher, Nikolaus J; Hennell, James R; Carles, Maria C


    DNA fingerprinting of plants has become an invaluable tool in forensic, scientific, and industrial laboratories all over the world. PCR has become part of virtually every variation of the plethora of approaches used for DNA fingerprinting today. DNA sequencing is increasingly used either in combination with or as a replacement for traditional DNA fingerprinting techniques. A prime example is the use of short, standardized regions of the genome as taxon barcodes for biological identification of plants. Rapid advances in "next generation sequencing" (NGS) technology are driving down the cost of sequencing and bringing large-scale sequencing projects into the reach of individual investigators. We present an overview of recent publications that demonstrate the use of "NGS" technology for DNA fingerprinting and DNA barcoding applications.

  1. DNA ligase I, the replicative DNA ligase. (United States)

    Howes, Timothy R L; Tomkinson, Alan E


    Multiple DNA ligation events are required to join the Okazaki fragments generated during lagging strand DNA synthesis. In eukaryotes, this is primarily carried out by members of the DNA ligase I family. The C-terminal catalytic region of these enzymes is composed of three domains: a DNA binding domain, an adenylation domain and an OB-fold domain. In the absence of DNA, these domains adopt an extended structure but transition into a compact ring structure when they engage a DNA nick, with each of the domains contacting the DNA. The non-catalytic N-terminal region of eukaryotic DNA ligase I is responsible for the specific participation of these enzymes in DNA replication. This proline-rich unstructured region contains the nuclear localization signal and a PCNA interaction motif that is critical for localization to replication foci and efficient joining of Okazaki fragments. DNA ligase I initially engages the PCNA trimer via this interaction motif which is located at the extreme N-terminus of this flexible region. It is likely that this facilitates an additional interaction between the DNA binding domain and the PCNA ring. The similar size and shape of the rings formed by the PCNA trimer and the DNA ligase I catalytic region when it engages a DNA nick suggest that these proteins interact to form a double-ring structure during the joining of Okazaki fragments. DNA ligase I also interacts with replication factor C, the factor that loads the PCNA trimeric ring onto DNA. This interaction, which is regulated by phosphorylation of the non-catalytic N-terminus of DNA ligase I, also appears to be critical for DNA replication.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Eubacterial DNA Polymerase Ⅲ Alpha Subunits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qian Zhao; Jian-Fei Hu; Jun Yu


    DNA polymerase Ⅲ is one of the five eubacterial DNA polymerases that is responsible for the replication of DNA duplex. Among the ten subunits of the DNA polymerase Ⅲ core enzyme, the alpha subunit catalyzes the reaction for polymerizing both DNA strands. In this study, we extracted genomic sequences of the alpha subunit from 159 sequenced eubacterial genomes, and carried out sequencebased phylogenetic and structural analyses. We found that all eubacterial genomes have one or more alpha subunits, which form either homodimers or heterodimers.Phylogenetic and domain structural analyses as well as copy number variations of the alpha subunit in each bacterium indicate the classification of alpha subunit into four basic groups: polC, dnaE1, dnaE2, and dnaE3. This classification is of essence in genome composition analysis. We also consolidated the naming convention to avoid further confusion in gene annotations.

  3. Keeping mtDNA in shape between generations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Stewart


    Full Text Available Since the unexpected discovery that mitochondria contain their own distinct DNA molecules, studies of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA have yielded many surprises. In animals, transmission of the mtDNA genome is explicitly non-Mendelian, with a very high number of genome copies being inherited from the mother after a drastic bottleneck. Recent work has begun to uncover the molecular details of this unusual mode of transmission. Many surprising variations in animal mitochondrial biology are known; however, a series of recent studies have identified a core of evolutionarily conserved mechanisms relating to mtDNA inheritance, e.g., mtDNA bottlenecks during germ cell development, selection against specific mtDNA mutation types during maternal transmission, and targeted destruction of sperm mitochondria. In this review, we outline recent literature on the transmission of mtDNA in animals and highlight the implications for human health and ageing.

  4. Keeping mtDNA in Shape between Generations (United States)

    Stewart, James B.; Larsson, Nils-Göran


    Since the unexpected discovery that mitochondria contain their own distinct DNA molecules, studies of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have yielded many surprises. In animals, transmission of the mtDNA genome is explicitly non-Mendelian, with a very high number of genome copies being inherited from the mother after a drastic bottleneck. Recent work has begun to uncover the molecular details of this unusual mode of transmission. Many surprising variations in animal mitochondrial biology are known; however, a series of recent studies have identified a core of evolutionarily conserved mechanisms relating to mtDNA inheritance, e.g., mtDNA bottlenecks during germ cell development, selection against specific mtDNA mutation types during maternal transmission, and targeted destruction of sperm mitochondria. In this review, we outline recent literature on the transmission of mtDNA in animals and highlight the implications for human health and ageing. PMID:25299061

  5. Bacterial natural transformation by highly fragmented and damaged DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Harms, Klaus; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre


    of DNA from a 43,000-y-old woolly mammoth bone, we further demonstrate that such natural transformation events include ancient DNA molecules. We find that the DNA recombination is RecA recombinase independent and is directly linked to DNA replication. We show that the adjacent nucleotide variations......DNA molecules are continuously released through decomposition of organic matter and are ubiquitous in most environments. Such DNA becomes fragmented and damaged (often DNA is recognized as nutrient source...... for microbes, but not as potential substrate for bacterial evolution. Here, we show that fragmented DNA molecules (≥20 bp) that additionally may contain abasic sites, cross-links, or miscoding lesions are acquired by the environmental bacterium Acinetobacter baylyi through natural transformation. With uptake...

  6. Osmylated DNA, a novel concept for sequencing DNA using nanopores (United States)

    Kanavarioti, Anastassia


    Saenger sequencing has led the advances in molecular biology, while faster and cheaper next generation technologies are urgently needed. A newer approach exploits nanopores, natural or solid-state, set in an electrical field, and obtains base sequence information from current variations due to the passage of a ssDNA molecule through the pore. A hurdle in this approach is the fact that the four bases are chemically comparable to each other which leads to small differences in current obstruction. ‘Base calling’ becomes even more challenging because most nanopores sense a short sequence and not individual bases. Perhaps sequencing DNA via nanopores would be more manageable, if only the bases were two, and chemically very different from each other; a sequence of 1s and 0s comes to mind. Osmylated DNA comes close to such a sequence of 1s and 0s. Osmylation is the addition of osmium tetroxide bipyridine across the C5-C6 double bond of the pyrimidines. Osmylation adds almost 400% mass to the reactive base, creates a sterically and electronically notably different molecule, labeled 1, compared to the unreactive purines, labeled 0. If osmylated DNA were successfully sequenced, the result would be a sequence of osmylated pyrimidines (1), and purines (0), and not of the actual nucleobases. To solve this problem we studied the osmylation reaction with short oligos and with M13mp18, a long ssDNA, developed a UV-vis assay to measure extent of osmylation, and designed two protocols. Protocol A uses mild conditions and yields osmylated thymidines (1), while leaving the other three bases (0) practically intact. Protocol B uses harsher conditions and effectively osmylates both pyrimidines, but not the purines. Applying these two protocols also to the complementary of the target polynucleotide yields a total of four osmylated strands that collectively could define the actual base sequence of the target DNA.

  7. Synthesis of DNA (United States)

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.


    A method of synthesizing a desired double-stranded DNA of a predetermined length and of a predetermined sequence. Preselected sequence segments that will complete the desired double-stranded DNA are determined. Preselected segment sequences of DNA that will be used to complete the desired double-stranded DNA are provided. The preselected segment sequences of DNA are assembled to produce the desired double-stranded DNA.

  8. 探讨HBV-DNA和AFP血清浓度的变化与HBV感染者转归的关系%Investigation of the Correlation of Variations of HBV-DNA Quantification and Alpha Fetal Protein Concentration in Serum with the Turnover of Hep-atitis B Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴艳丽; 陈育贤; 苏鲁贤; 王雪英


    目的:探讨乙肝病毒感染者血清中HBV-DNA拷贝数与AFP浓度的变化对其转归的影响。方法收集2012年1月-2013年1月来该院就诊的400例乙肝病毒感染者血清,参照乙型肝炎和原发性肝癌的诊断标准进行如下分组:慢性乙型肝炎组200例,肝炎肝硬化组150例,肝癌组50例。对收集的标本采用实时荧光定量的方法检测出HBV-DNA水平,化学发光法检测AFP的浓度,然后对结果进行统计分析。结果在所有病例中,慢性乙型肝炎组HBV-DNA拷贝数为(5.38±1.66),在3组中最高,而肝癌组HBV-DNA拷贝数为(4.41±1.43)在3组中最低。慢性乙型肝炎组与其他两组比较,P<0.01,差异有统计学意义;3组间AFP浓度的变化进行比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。3组中HBV-DNA拷贝数及AFP浓度变化和组别之间有明显的相关性,其中HBV-DNA的变化与病程呈反相关,而AFP的变化则呈正相关。结论乙肝病毒感染者应定期定量检测血清中HBV-DNA的含量,判断病毒的复制情况,并同时检测AFP浓度,以期尽早发现肝组织的损害程度及病情的演变过程,对乙肝病毒感染者病程转归的监测和预后判断具有重要的意义。%Objective To investigate the effect of variations of HBV-DNA copy number and alpha fetal protein (AFP) concentra-tion in serum on the turnover of hepatitis B patients. Methods The serum of 400 hepatitis B patients visited our hospital from Jan-uary 2012 to January 2013 were collected. According to the diagnostic standard of hepatitis B and hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC), the patients were divided into chronic hepatitis B group of 200 cases, liver cirrhosis group of 150 cases, HCC group of 50 cases. Fluorescent quantitation was used to detect the levels of HBV-DNA, and chemiluminescence method was adopted to measure the levels of AFP. And the results were analyzed statistically. Results Of all the patients, the HBV-DNA copy number of chronic hep-atitis B group was 5.38

  9. Endonuclease-based Method for Detecting the Sequence Specific DNA Binding Protein on Double-stranded DNA Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Fei BAI; Qin Yu GE; Tong Xiang LI; Jin Ke WANG; Quan Jun LIU; Zu Hong LU


    The double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) probe contains two different protein binding sites.One is for DNA- binding proteins to be detected and the other is for a DNA restriction enzyme.The two sites were arranged together with no base interval. The working principle of the capturing dsDNA probe is described as follows: the capturing probe can be cut with the DNA restriction enzyme (such as EcoR I) to cause a sticky terminal, if the probe is not bound with a target protein, and the sticky terminal can be extended and labeled with Cy3-dUTP by DNA polymerase. When the probe is bound with a target protein, the probe is not capable to be cut by the restriction enzyme because of space obstruction. The amount of the target DNA binding proteins can be measured according to the variations of fluorescent signals of the corresponding probes.

  10. Concentration Polarization in Translocation of DNA through Nanopores and Nanochannels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Siddhartha; Dubsky, Pavel; Berg, van den Albert; Eijkel, J.C.T.


    In this Letter we provide a theory to show that high-field electrokinetic translocation of DNA through nanopores or nanochannels causes large transient variations of the ionic concentrations in front and at the back of the DNA due to concentration polarization (CP). The CP causes strong local conduc

  11. Phylogeographical Variation of Chloroplast DNA in Cork Oak (Quercus suber)




    • Background and Aims In the last decades, the geographical location of the centre of origin of Quercus suber (cork oak), a strictly western Mediterranean oak species, has been the subject of controversy.

  12. Gene Expression Analysis Using Agilent DNA Microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael


    of labeled cDNA added to each slide reduces dye-bias and slide to slide variation. Efficient mixing of the hybridization solution throughout the hybridization reaction increases signals several fold. The amount of near perfect target-probe hybrids may be reduced by efficient stringency washes...

  13. A positron annihilation study of hydrated DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warman, J. M.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard


    Positron annihilation measurements are reported for hydrated DNA as a function of water content and as a function of temperature (20 to C) for samples containing 10 and 50% wt of water. The ortho-positronium mean lifetime and its intensity show distinct variations with the degree...

  14. Variation of fundamental constants

    CERN Document Server

    Flambaum, V V


    We present a review of recent works devoted to the variation of the fine structure constant alpha, strong interaction and fundamental masses. There are some hints for the variation in quasar absorption spectra, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, and Oklo natural nuclear reactor data. A very promising method to search for the variation of the fundamental constants consists in comparison of different atomic clocks. Huge enhancement of the variation effects happens in transition between accidentally degenerate atomic and molecular energy levels. A new idea is to build a ``nuclear'' clock based on the ultraviolet transition between very low excited state and ground state in Thorium nucleus. This may allow to improve sensitivity to the variation up to 10 orders of magnitude! Huge enhancement of the variation effects is also possible in cold atomic and molecular collisions near Feschbach resonance.

  15. 寄主型和迁飞型棉蚜在线粒体DNA COⅠ基因序列上的分化%Variation of host-specialized and migratory biotypes of Aphis gossypii Glover based on mtDNA CO Ⅰ gene sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 刘向东


    为了探明同域棉蚜(Aphis gossypii Glover)种群的生态分化与进化程度,检测了室内长期筛选所得的迁飞型、滞留型、棉花型和瓜型棉蚜品系,以及在南京田间采集的棉花和黄瓜上的棉蚜,共84个样本的线粒体DNA COⅠ基因的部分序列.结果表明:南京地区寄主型和迁飞型棉蚜种群的COⅠ序列同源性很高,为99.8%~100%.在各样本的569 bp大小序列中检测到3个突变位点,共形成4种单倍型( H1~H4),其中2个突变发生在迁飞型中,另1个发生在滞留型中,而棉花型和瓜型棉蚜中没有检测到突变,各品系棉蚜还共享着同一单倍型H4.迁飞型棉蚜的单倍型多样性(h)最高,为0.68~0.75,滞留型为0~0.18,而棉花型和瓜型无多样性.各种群内核苷酸多样性(Π)都极低.UPGMA聚类分析表明,迁飞型与其他各品系间的遗传距离相对较远.系统进化树显示,棉蚜种群正向着3个支系分化:支系一为COⅠ没有变异的棉花型、瓜型、滞留型和迁飞型个体所组成,数量占绝对优势;支系二和支系三仅由迁飞型组成,其COⅠ序列均发生了变异.迁飞型品系中存在突变位点的单倍型H3和没发生突变的H4,在平均寿命、净增殖率与内禀增长率上均没有显著差异,COⅠ序列在该位点上的变异还不足以影响迁飞型棉蚜的生态适合度.%In order to illustrate the degree of ecological differentiation and evolution in Aphis gossypii population, portion of the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene (CO I ) in mtDNA of 84 samples from migratory, sedentary, cotton- and cucurbits-specialized strains,and the natural population in cotton and cucumber fields in Nanjing,were examined. The results showed that the identity of CO I pairwise sequences was 99.8%-100% among these samples, and three mutations in CO I sequence were found in migratory and sedentary strains which resulted in 4 haplotypes( H1-H4). Two mutations were detected in the migratory

  16. Molecular DNA switches and DNA chips (United States)

    Sabanayagam, Chandran R.; Berkey, Cristin; Lavi, Uri; Cantor, Charles R.; Smith, Cassandra L.


    We present an assay to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms on a chip using molecular DNA switches and isothermal rolling- circle amplification. The basic principle behind the switch is an allele-specific oligonucleotide circularization, mediated by DNA ligase. A DNA switch is closed when perfect hybridization between the probe oligonucleotide and target DNA allows ligase to covalently circularize the probe. Mismatches around the ligation site prevent probe circularization, resulting in an open switch. DNA polymerase is then used to preferentially amplify the closed switches, via rolling-circle amplification. The stringency of the molecular switches yields 102 - 103 fold discrimination between matched and mismatched sequences.

  17. Molecular Darwinism: the contingency of spontaneous genetic variation. (United States)

    Arber, Werner


    The availability of spontaneously occurring genetic variants is an important driving force of biological evolution. Largely thanks to experimental investigations by microbial geneticists, we know today that several different molecular mechanisms contribute to the overall genetic variations. These mechanisms can be assigned to three natural strategies to generate genetic variants: 1) local sequence changes, 2) intragenomic reshuffling of DNA segments, and 3) acquisition of a segment of foreign DNA. In these processes, specific gene products are involved in cooperation with different nongenetic elements. Some genetic variations occur fully at random along the DNA filaments, others rather with a statistical reproducibility, although at many possible sites. We have to be aware that evolution in natural ecosystems is of higher complexity than under most laboratory conditions, not at least in view of symbiotic associations and the occurrence of horizontal gene transfer. The encountered contingency of genetic variation can possibly best ensure a long-term persistence of life under steadily changing living conditions.

  18. An integrated epigenetic and genetic analysis of DNA methyltransferase genes (DNMTs) in tumor resistant and susceptible chicken lines (United States)

    Both epigenetic alterations and genetic variations play essential roles in tumorigenesis. The epigenetic modification of DNA methylation is catalyzed and maintained by the DNA methyltransferases (DNMT3a, DNMT3b and DNMT1). DNA mutations and DNA methylation profiles of DNMTs themselves and their rela...

  19. Calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfand, I M


    Based on a series of lectures given by I. M. Gelfand at Moscow State University, this book actually goes considerably beyond the material presented in the lectures. The aim is to give a treatment of the elements of the calculus of variations in a form both easily understandable and sufficiently modern. Considerable attention is devoted to physical applications of variational methods, e.g., canonical equations, variational principles of mechanics, and conservation laws.The reader who merely wishes to become familiar with the most basic concepts and methods of the calculus of variations need on

  20. Genetic variation and human longevity. (United States)

    Soerensen, Mette


    The overall aim of the PhD project was to elucidate the association of human longevity with genetic variation in major candidate genes and pathways of longevity. Based on a thorough literature and database search we chose to apply a pathway approach; to explore variation in genes composing the DNA damage signaling, DNA repair, GH/IGF-1/insulin signaling and pro-/antioxidant pathways. In addition, 16 genes which did not belong to the core of either pathway, however recurrently regarded as candidate genes of longevity (e.g. APOE), were included. In this way a total of 168 genes were selected for investigation. We decided to explore the genetic variation in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), a highly investigated type of genetic variation. SNPs having potential functional impact (e.g. affecting binding of transcription factors) were identified, so were specific SNPs in the candidate genes previously published to be associated with human longevity. To cover the majority of the common genetic variation in the 168 gene regions (encoding regions plus 5,000 bp upstream and 1,000 downstream) we applied the tagging SNP approach via the HapMap Consortium. Consequently 1,536 SNPs were selected. The majority of the previous publications on genetic variation and human longevity had employed a case-control study design, e.g. comparing centenarians to middle-aged controls. This type of study design is somehow prone to bias introduced by for instance cohort effects, i.e. differences in characteristics of cases and controls, a kind of bias which is avoided when a prospective cohort is under study. Therefore, we chose to investigate 1,200 individuals of the Danish 1905 birth cohort, which have been followed since 1998 when the members were 92-93 years old. The genetic contribution to human longevity has been estimated to be most profound during the late part of life, thus these oldest-old individuals are excellent for investigating such effect. The follow-up survival

  1. Melanesian mtDNA complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Friedlaender

    Full Text Available Melanesian populations are known for their diversity, but it has been hard to grasp the pattern of the variation or its underlying dynamic. Using 1,223 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequences from hypervariable regions 1 and 2 (HVR1 and HVR2 from 32 populations, we found the among-group variation is structured by island, island size, and also by language affiliation. The more isolated inland Papuan-speaking groups on the largest islands have the greatest distinctions, while shore dwelling populations are considerably less diverse (at the same time, within-group haplotype diversity is less in the most isolated groups. Persistent differences between shore and inland groups in effective population sizes and marital migration rates probably cause these differences. We also add 16 whole sequences to the Melanesian mtDNA phylogenies. We identify the likely origins of a number of the haplogroups and ancient branches in specific islands, point to some ancient mtDNA connections between Near Oceania and Australia, and show additional Holocene connections between Island Southeast Asia/Taiwan and Island Melanesia with branches of haplogroup E. Coalescence estimates based on synonymous transitions in the coding region suggest an initial settlement and expansion in the region at approximately 30-50,000 years before present (YBP, and a second important expansion from Island Southeast Asia/Taiwan during the interval approximately 3,500-8,000 YBP. However, there are some important variance components in molecular dating that have been overlooked, and the specific nature of ancestral (maternal Austronesian influence in this region remains unresolved.

  2. A role for the weak DnaA binding sites in bacterial replication origins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Løbner-Olesen, Anders


    DnaA initiates the chromosomal DNA replication in nearly all bacteria, and replication origins are characterized by binding sites for the DnaA protein (DnaA-boxes) along with an ‘AT-rich’ region. However, great variation in number, spatial organization and specificity of DnaA-boxes is observed...... between species. In the study by Taylor et al. (2011), new and unexpectedly weak DnaA-boxes were identified within the Caulobacter crescentus origin of replication (Cori). The position of weak and stronger DnaA-boxes follows a pattern seen in Escherichia coli oriC. This raises the possibility...

  3. Ladder Variational Autoencoder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Raiko, Tapani; Maaløe, Lars


    Variational autoencoders are powerful models for unsupervised learning. However deep models with several layers of dependent stochastic variables are difficult to train which limits the improvements obtained using these highly expressive models. We propose a new inference model, the Ladder Variat...

  4. Variation of Fundamental Constants (United States)

    Flambaum, V. V.


    Theories unifying gravity with other interactions suggest temporal and spatial variation of the fundamental ``constants'' in expanding Universe. The spatial variation can explain a fine tuning of the fundamental constants which allows humans (and any life) to appear. We appeared in the area of the Universe where the values of the fundamental constants are consistent with our existence. We present a review of recent works devoted to the variation of the fine structure constant α, strong interaction and fundamental masses. There are some hints for the variation in quasar absorption spectra. Big Bang nucleosynthesis, and Oklo natural nuclear reactor data. A very promising method to search for the variation of the fundamental constants consists in comparison of different atomic clocks. Huge enhancement of the variation effects happens in transition between accidentally degenerate atomic and molecular energy levels. A new idea is to build a ``nuclear'' clock based on the ultraviolet transition between very low excited state and ground state in Thorium nucleus. This may allow to improve sensitivity to the variation up to 10 orders of magnitude! Huge enhancement of the variation effects is also possible in cold atomic and molecular collisions near Feshbach resonance.

  5. Total variation regularization with bounded linear variations (United States)

    Makovetskii, Artyom; Voronin, Sergei; Kober, Vitaly


    One of the most known techniques for signal denoising is based on total variation regularization (TV regularization). A better understanding of TV regularization is necessary to provide a stronger mathematical justification for using TV minimization in signal processing. In this work, we deal with an intermediate case between one- and two-dimensional cases; that is, a discrete function to be processed is two-dimensional radially symmetric piecewise constant. For this case, the exact solution to the problem can be obtained as follows: first, calculate the average values over rings of the noisy function; second, calculate the shift values and their directions using closed formulae depending on a regularization parameter and structure of rings. Despite the TV regularization is effective for noise removal; it often destroys fine details and thin structures of images. In order to overcome this drawback, we use the TV regularization for signal denoising subject to linear signal variations are bounded.

  6. VariOtator, a Software Tool for Variation Annotation with the Variation Ontology. (United States)

    Schaafsma, Gerard C P; Vihinen, Mauno


    The Variation Ontology (VariO) is used for describing and annotating types, effects, consequences, and mechanisms of variations. To facilitate easy and consistent annotations, the online application VariOtator was developed. For variation type annotations, VariOtator is fully automated, accepting variant descriptions in Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS) format, and generating VariO terms, either with or without full lineage, that is, all parent terms. When a coding DNA variant description with a reference sequence is provided, VariOtator checks the description first with Mutalyzer and then generates the predicted RNA and protein descriptions with their respective VariO annotations. For the other sublevels, function, structure, and property, annotations cannot be automated, and VariOtator generates annotation based on provided details. For VariO terms relating to structure and property, one can use attribute terms as modifiers and evidence code terms for annotating experimental evidence. There is an online batch version, and stand-alone batch versions to be used with a Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD) download file. A SOAP Web service allows client programs to access VariOtator programmatically. Thus, systematic variation effect and type annotations can be efficiently generated to allow easy use and integration of variations and their consequences.

  7. Ensembl variation resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin-Garcia Pablo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maturing field of genomics is rapidly increasing the number of sequenced genomes and producing more information from those previously sequenced. Much of this additional information is variation data derived from sampling multiple individuals of a given species with the goal of discovering new variants and characterising the population frequencies of the variants that are already known. These data have immense value for many studies, including those designed to understand evolution and connect genotype to phenotype. Maximising the utility of the data requires that it be stored in an accessible manner that facilitates the integration of variation data with other genome resources such as gene annotation and comparative genomics. Description The Ensembl project provides comprehensive and integrated variation resources for a wide variety of chordate genomes. This paper provides a detailed description of the sources of data and the methods for creating the Ensembl variation databases. It also explores the utility of the information by explaining the range of query options available, from using interactive web displays, to online data mining tools and connecting directly to the data servers programmatically. It gives a good overview of the variation resources and future plans for expanding the variation data within Ensembl. Conclusions Variation data is an important key to understanding the functional and phenotypic differences between individuals. The development of new sequencing and genotyping technologies is greatly increasing the amount of variation data known for almost all genomes. The Ensembl variation resources are integrated into the Ensembl genome browser and provide a comprehensive way to access this data in the context of a widely used genome bioinformatics system. All Ensembl data is freely available at and from the public MySQL database server at

  8. Porosity variation in chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Ida; Grøn, Peter


    Vertical porosity variations in chalk are generally assumed to result from either a vaguely defined combination of primary sedimentary and diagenetic processes or solely to diagenetic processes. In this study, image analysis of backscatter electron images of polished samples and geochemical...... microprobe mapping were applied to measure the porosity variation in a limited number of chalk samples. Microscope data indicate that in all cases the chalk has been subjected to diagenetic processes, but our data suggest that the variations in porosity originate in primary sedimentary differences....

  9. Variational Transition State Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truhlar, Donald G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)


    This is the final report on a project involving the development and applications of variational transition state theory. This project involved the development of variational transition state theory for gas-phase reactions, including optimized multidimensional tunneling contributions and the application of this theory to gas-phase reactions with a special emphasis on developing reaction rate theory in directions that are important for applications to combustion. The development of variational transition state theory with optimized multidimensional tunneling as a useful computational tool for combustion kinetics involved eight objectives.

  10. Pharmacogenomic study using bio- and nanobioelectrochemistry: Drug-DNA interaction. (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Mohammad; Shadjou, Nasrin


    Small molecules that bind genomic DNA have proven that they can be effective anticancer, antibiotic and antiviral therapeutic agents that affect the well-being of millions of people worldwide. Drug-DNA interaction affects DNA replication and division; causes strand breaks, and mutations. Therefore, the investigation of drug-DNA interaction is needed to understand the mechanism of drug action as well as in designing DNA-targeted drugs. On the other hand, the interaction between DNA and drugs can cause chemical and conformational modifications and, thus, variation of the electrochemical properties of nucleobases. For this purpose, electrochemical methods/biosensors can be used toward detection of drug-DNA interactions. The present paper reviews the drug-DNA interactions, their types and applications of electrochemical techniques used to study interactions between DNA and drugs or small ligand molecules that are potentially of pharmaceutical interest. The results are used to determine drug binding sites and sequence preference, as well as conformational changes due to drug-DNA interactions. Also, the intention of this review is to give an overview of the present state of the drug-DNA interaction cognition. The applications of electrochemical techniques for investigation of drug-DNA interaction were reviewed and we have discussed the type of qualitative or quantitative information that can be obtained from the use of each technique.

  11. Tissue culture-induced DNA methylation polymorphisms in repetitive DNA of tomato calli and regenerated plants. (United States)

    Smulders, M J; Rus-Kortekaas, W; Vosman, B


    The propagation of plants through tissue culture can induce a variety of genetic and epigenetic changes. Variation in DNA methylation has been proposed as a mechanism that may explain at least a part of these changes. In the present study, the methylation of tomato callus DNA was compared with that of leaf DNA, from control or regenerated plants, at MspI/HpaII sites around five middle-repetitive sequences. Although the methylation of the internal cytosine in the recognition sequence CCGG varied from zero to nearly full methylation, depending on the probe used, no differences were found between callus and leaf DNA. For the external cytosine, small differences were revealed between leaf and callus DNA with two probes, but no polymorphisms were detected among DNA samples of calli or DNA samples of leaves of regenerated plants. When callus DNA cut with HindIII was studied with one of the probes, H9D9, most of the signal was found in high-molecular-weight DNA, as opposed to control leaf DNA where almost all the signal was in a fragment of 530 bp. Also, an extra fragment of 630 bp was found in the callus DNA that was not present in control leaf DNA. Among leaves of plants regenerated from tissue culture, the 630-bp fragment was found in 10 of 68 regenerated plants. This 630-bp fragment was present among progeny of only 4 of these 10 plants after selfing, i.e. it was partly inherited. In these cases, the fragment was not found in all progeny plants, indicating heterozygosity of the regenerated plants. The data are interpreted as indicating that a HindIII site becomes methylated in callus tissue, and that some of this methylation persists in regenerated plants and is partly transmitted to their progeny.

  12. Variational principles in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basdevant, Jean-Louis


    Optimization under constraints is an essential part of everyday life. Indeed, we routinely solve problems by striking a balance between contradictory interests, individual desires and material contingencies. This notion of equilibrium was dear to thinkers of the enlightenment, as illustrated by Montesquieu’s famous formulation: "In all magistracies, the greatness of the power must be compensated by the brevity of the duration." Astonishingly, natural laws are guided by a similar principle. Variational principles have proven to be surprisingly fertile. For example, Fermat used variational methods to demonstrate that light follows the fastest route from one point to another, an idea which came to be known as Fermat’s principle, a cornerstone of geometrical optics. Variational Principles in Physics explains variational principles and charts their use throughout modern physics. The heart of the book is devoted to the analytical mechanics of Lagrange and Hamilton, the basic tools of any physicist. Prof. Basdev...

  13. DNA fragmentation in apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Cleavage of chromosomal DNA into oligonucleosomal size fragments is an integral part of apoptosis. Elegant biochemical work identified the DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) as a major apoptotic endonuclease for DNA fragmentation in vitro. Genetic studies in mice support the importance of DFF in DNA fragmentation and possibly in apoptosis in vivo. Recent work also suggests the existence of additional endonucleases for DNA degradation. Understanding the roles of individual endonucleases in apoptosis, and how they might coordinate to degrade DNA in different tissues during normal development and homeostasis, as well as in various diseased states, will be a major research focus in the near future.

  14. ex vivo DNA assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam B Fisher


    Full Text Available Even with decreasing DNA synthesis costs there remains a need for inexpensive, rapid and reliable methods for assembling synthetic DNA into larger constructs or combinatorial libraries. Advances in cloning techniques have resulted in powerful in vitro and in vivo assembly of DNA. However, monetary and time costs have limited these approaches. Here, we report an ex vivo DNA assembly method that uses cellular lysates derived from a commonly used laboratory strain of Escherichia coli for joining double-stranded DNA with short end homologies embedded within inexpensive primers. This method concurrently shortens the time and decreases costs associated with current DNA assembly methods.

  15. Generalized quasi variational inequalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noor, M.A. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)


    In this paper, we establish the equivalence between the generalized quasi variational inequalities and the generalized implicit Wiener-Hopf equations using essentially the projection technique. This equivalence is used to suggest and analyze a number of new iterative algorithms for solving generalized quasi variational inequalities and the related complementarity problems. The convergence criteria is also considered. The results proved in this paper represent a significant improvement and refinement of the previously known results.

  16. The Schwinger Variational Method (United States)

    Huo, Winifred M.


    Variational methods have proven invaluable in theoretical physics and chemistry, both for bound state problems and for the study of collision phenomena. For collisional problems they can be grouped into two types: those based on the Schroedinger equation and those based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. The application of the Schwinger variational (SV) method to e-molecule collisions and photoionization has been reviewed previously. The present chapter discusses the implementation of the SV method as applied to e-molecule collisions.

  17. [Uracil-DNA glycosylases]. (United States)

    Pytel, Dariusz; Słupianek, Artur; Ksiazek, Dominika; Skórski, Tomasz; Błasiak, Janusz


    Uracil is one of four nitrogen bases, most frequently found in normal RNA. Uracyl can be found also in DNA as a result of enzymatic or non-enzymatic deamination of cytosine as well as misincorporation of dUMP instead of dTMP during DNA replication. Uracil from DNA can be removed by DNA repair enzymes with apirymidine site as an intermediate. However, if uracil is not removed from DNA a pair C:G in parental DNA can be changed into a T:A pair in the daughter DNA molecule. Therefore, uracil in DNA may lead to a mutation. Uracil in DNA, similarly to thymine, forms energetically most favorable hydrogen bonds with adenine, therefore uracil does not change the coding properties of DNA. Uracil in DNA is recognized by uracil DNA glycosylase (UDGs), which initiates DNA base excision repair, leading to removing of uracil from DNA and replacing it by thymine or cytosine, when arose as a result of cytosine deamination. Eukaryotes have at least four nuclear UDGs: UNG2, SMUG1, TDG i MBD4, while UNG1 operates in the mitochondrium. UNG2 is involved in DNA repair associated with DNA replication and interacts with PCNA and RPA proteins. Uracil can also be an intermediate product in the process of antigen-dependent antibody diversification in B lymphocytes. Enzymatic deamination of viral DNA by host cells can be a defense mechanism against viral infection, including HIV-1. UNG2, MBD4 and TDG glycosylases may cooperate with mismatch repair proteins and TDG can be involved in nucleotide excision repair system.

  18. DNA damage and autophagy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Garcia-Garcia, Aracely [Redox Biology Center and School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583 (United States); Panayiotidis, Mihalis I. [School of Community Health Sciences, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Franco, Rodrigo, E-mail: [Redox Biology Center and School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583 (United States)


    Both exogenous and endogenous agents are a threat to DNA integrity. Exogenous environmental agents such as ultraviolet (UV) and ionizing radiation, genotoxic chemicals and endogenous byproducts of metabolism including reactive oxygen species can cause alterations in DNA structure (DNA damage). Unrepaired DNA damage has been linked to a variety of human disorders including cancer and neurodegenerative disease. Thus, efficient mechanisms to detect DNA lesions, signal their presence and promote their repair have been evolved in cells. If DNA is effectively repaired, DNA damage response is inactivated and normal cell functioning resumes. In contrast, when DNA lesions cannot be removed, chronic DNA damage triggers specific cell responses such as cell death and senescence. Recently, DNA damage has been shown to induce autophagy, a cellular catabolic process that maintains a balance between synthesis, degradation, and recycling of cellular components. But the exact mechanisms by which DNA damage triggers autophagy are unclear. More importantly, the role of autophagy in the DNA damage response and cellular fate is unknown. In this review we analyze evidence that supports a role for autophagy as an integral part of the DNA damage response.

  19. DNA tagged microparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N; Wheeler, Elizabeth


    A simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the simulant.

  20. Modeling DNA Replication. (United States)

    Bennett, Joan


    Recommends the use of a model of DNA made out of Velcro to help students visualize the steps of DNA replication. Includes a materials list, construction directions, and details of the demonstration using the model parts. (DDR)

  1. Mitochondrial DNA hyperdiversity and its potential causes in the marine periwinkle Melarhaphe neritoides (Mollusca: Gastropoda)



    We report the presence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hyperdiversity in the marine periwinkle Melarhaphe neritoides (Linnaeus, 1758), the first such case among marine gastropods. Our dataset consisted of concatenated 16S-COI-Cytb gene fragments. We used Bayesian analyses to investigate three putative causes underlying genetic variation, and estimated the mtDNA mutation rate, possible signatures of selection and the effective population size of the species in the Azores archipelago. The mtDNA hy...

  2. Hysteresis in pressure-driven DNA denaturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Hernández-Lemus

    Full Text Available In the past, a great deal of attention has been drawn to thermal driven denaturation processes. In recent years, however, the discovery of stress-induced denaturation, observed at the one-molecule level, has revealed new insights into the complex phenomena involved in the thermo-mechanics of DNA function. Understanding the effect of local pressure variations in DNA stability is thus an appealing topic. Such processes as cellular stress, dehydration, and changes in the ionic strength of the medium could explain local pressure changes that will affect the molecular mechanics of DNA and hence its stability. In this work, a theory that accounts for hysteresis in pressure-driven DNA denaturation is proposed. We here combine an irreversible thermodynamic approach with an equation of state based on the Poisson-Boltzmann cell model. The latter one provides a good description of the osmotic pressure over a wide range of DNA concentrations. The resulting theoretical framework predicts, in general, the process of denaturation and, in particular, hysteresis curves for a DNA sequence in terms of system parameters such as salt concentration, density of DNA molecules and temperature in addition to structural and configurational states of DNA. Furthermore, this formalism can be naturally extended to more complex situations, for example, in cases where the host medium is made up of asymmetric salts or in the description of the (helical-like charge distribution along the DNA molecule. Moreover, since this study incorporates the effect of pressure through a thermodynamic analysis, much of what is known from temperature-driven experiments will shed light on the pressure-induced melting issue.

  3. Click chemistry with DNA


    El-Sagheer, Afaf H.; Brown, Tom


    The advent of click chemistry has led to an influx of new ideas in the nucleic acids field. The copper catalysed alkyne–azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction is the method of choice for DNA click chemistry due to its remarkable efficiency. It has been used to label oligonucleotides with fluorescent dyes, sugars, peptides and other reporter groups, to cyclise DNA, to synthesise DNA catenanes, to join oligonucleotides to PNA, and to produce analogues of DNA with modified nucleobases and backbone...

  4. Strong Purifying Selection in Transmission of Mammalian Mitochondrial DNA (United States)

    Stewart, James Bruce; Freyer, Christoph; Elson, Joanna L; Wredenberg, Anna; Cansu, Zekiye; Trifunovic, Aleksandra; Larsson, Nils-Göran


    There is an intense debate concerning whether selection or demographics has been most important in shaping the sequence variation observed in modern human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Purifying selection is thought to be important in shaping mtDNA sequence evolution, but the strength of this selection has been debated, mainly due to the threshold effect of pathogenic mtDNA mutations and an observed excess of new mtDNA mutations in human population data. We experimentally addressed this issue by studying the maternal transmission of random mtDNA mutations in mtDNA mutator mice expressing a proofreading-deficient mitochondrial DNA polymerase. We report a rapid and strong elimination of nonsynonymous changes in protein-coding genes; the hallmark of purifying selection. There are striking similarities between the mutational patterns in our experimental mouse system and human mtDNA polymorphisms. These data show strong purifying selection against mutations within mtDNA protein-coding genes. To our knowledge, our study presents the first direct experimental observations of the fate of random mtDNA mutations in the mammalian germ line and demonstrates the importance of purifying selection in shaping mitochondrial sequence diversity. PMID:18232733

  5. Replicating animal mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. McKinney


    Full Text Available The field of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA replication has been experiencing incredible progress in recent years, and yet little is certain about the mechanism(s used by animal cells to replicate this plasmid-like genome. The long-standing strand-displacement model of mammalian mtDNA replication (for which single-stranded DNA intermediates are a hallmark has been intensively challenged by a new set of data, which suggests that replication proceeds via coupled leading-and lagging-strand synthesis (resembling bacterial genome replication and/or via long stretches of RNA intermediates laid on the mtDNA lagging-strand (the so called RITOLS. The set of proteins required for mtDNA replication is small and includes the catalytic and accessory subunits of DNA polymerase y, the mtDNA helicase Twinkle, the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein, and the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (which most likely functions as the mtDNA primase. Mutations in the genes coding for the first three proteins are associated with human diseases and premature aging, justifying the research interest in the genetic, biochemical and structural properties of the mtDNA replication machinery. Here we summarize these properties and discuss the current models of mtDNA replication in animal cells.

  6. Structural variations in pig genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, Y.


    Abstract Paudel, Y. (2015). Structural variations in pig genomes. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands Structural variations are chromosomal rearrangements such as insertions-deletions (INDELs), duplications, inversions, translocations, and copy number variations (CNVs

  7. A longitudinal study of epigenetic variation in twins (United States)

    Caspi, Avshalom; Williams, Benjamin; Craig, Ian W; Houts, Renate; Ambler, Antony; Moffitt, Terrie E; Mill, Jonathan


    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism involved in the developmental regulation of gene expression. Alterations in DNA methylation are established contributors to inter-individual phenotypic variation and have been associated with disease susceptibility. The degree to which changes in loci-specific DNA methylation are under the influence of heritable and environmental factors is largely unknown. In this study, we quantitatively measured DNA methylation across the promoter regions of the dopamine receptor 4 gene (DRD4), the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4/SERT) and the X-linked monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) using DNA sampled at both ages 5 and 10 years in 46 MZ twinpairs and 45 DZ twin-pairs (total n = 182). Our data suggest that DNA methylation differences are apparent already in early childhood, even between genetically identical individuals, and that individual differences in methylation are not stable over time. Our longitudinal-developmental study suggests that environmental influences are important factors accounting for interindividual DNA methylation differences, and that these influences differ across the genome. The observation of dynamic changes in DNA methylation over time highlights the importance of longitudinal research designs for epigenetic research. PMID:20505345

  8. Three-Dimensional DNA Nanostructures Assembled from DNA Star Motifs. (United States)

    Tian, Cheng; Zhang, Chuan


    Tile-based DNA self-assembly is a promising method in DNA nanotechnology and has produced a wide range of nanostructures by using a small set of unique DNA strands. DNA star motif, as one of DNA tiles, has been employed to assemble varieties of symmetric one-, two-, three-dimensional (1, 2, 3D) DNA nanostructures. Herein, we describe the design principles, assembly methods, and characterization methods of 3D DNA nanostructures assembled from the DNA star motifs.

  9. Genome size variation in Begonia. (United States)

    Dewitte, Angelo; Leus, Leen; Eeckhaut, Tom; Vanstechelman, Ives; Van Huylenbroeck, Johan; Van Bockstaele, Erik


    The genome sizes of a Begonia collection comprising 37 species and 23 hybrids of African, Asiatic, Middle American, and South American origin were screened using flow cytometry. Within the collection, 1C values varied between 0.23 and 1.46 pg DNA. Genome sizes were, in most cases, not positively correlated with chromosome number, but with pollen size. A 12-fold difference in mean chromosome size was found between the genotypes with the largest and smallest chromosomes. In general, chromosomes from South American genotypes were smaller than chromosomes of African, Asian, or Middle American genotypes, except for B. boliviensis and B. pearcei. Cytological chromosome studies in different genotypes showed variable chromosome numbers, length, width, and total chromosome volume, which confirmed the diversity in genome size. Large secondary constrictions were present in several investigated genotypes. These data show that chromosome number and structure exhibit a great deal of variation within the genus Begonia, and likely help to explain the large number of taxa found within the genus.

  10. Genetic variation and the de novo assembly of human genomes. (United States)

    Chaisson, Mark J P; Wilson, Richard K; Eichler, Evan E


    The discovery of genetic variation and the assembly of genome sequences are both inextricably linked to advances in DNA-sequencing technology. Short-read massively parallel sequencing has revolutionized our ability to discover genetic variation but is insufficient to generate high-quality genome assemblies or resolve most structural variation. Full resolution of variation is only guaranteed by complete de novo assembly of a genome. Here, we review approaches to genome assembly, the nature of gaps or missing sequences, and biases in the assembly process. We describe the challenges of generating a complete de novo genome assembly using current technologies and the impact that being able to perfectly sequence the genome would have on understanding human disease and evolution. Finally, we summarize recent technological advances that improve both contiguity and accuracy and emphasize the importance of complete de novo assembly as opposed to read mapping as the primary means to understanding the full range of human genetic variation.

  11. DNA polymorphism in Cab locus of tomato induced by tissue culture. (United States)

    Nambisan, P; Chopra, V L; Mohapatra, T


    Plants were regenerated from callus induced from leaf disc explants of a tomato F1 hybrid heterozygous for three marker loci anthocyaninless (a), without anthocyanin (aw), and hairless (hl). Regenerants were studied for somaclonal variation at the phenotypic level by scoring for variation in the marker loci, and at the DNA level by probing geomic DNA blots with a chlorophyll a/b binding protein (Cab-3C) cDNA sequence. While no variation was observed at the phenotypic level in over 950 somaclones studied, DNA polymorphism for the Cab locus could be detected in two out of 17 somaclones tested. Tissue culture induced variation at the phenotypic level for specific loci is very low (less than 0.001 for a, aw or hl) but DNA sequence changes are induced at much greater frequency (approximately 0.1 for a multicopy gene family such as Cab).

  12. A mechanism of gene amplification driven by small DNA fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntal Mukherjee

    Full Text Available DNA amplification is a molecular process that increases the copy number of a chromosomal tract and often causes elevated expression of the amplified gene(s. Although gene amplification is frequently observed in cancer and other degenerative disorders, the molecular mechanisms involved in the process of DNA copy number increase remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that small DNA fragments could be the trigger of DNA amplification events. Following our findings that small fragments of DNA in the form of DNA oligonucleotides can be highly recombinogenic, we have developed a system in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to capture events of chromosomal DNA amplification initiated by small DNA fragments. Here we demonstrate that small DNAs can amplify a chromosomal region, generating either tandem duplications or acentric extrachromosomal DNA circles. Small fragment-driven DNA amplification (SFDA occurs with a frequency that increases with the length of homology between the small DNAs and the target chromosomal regions. SFDA events are triggered even by small single-stranded molecules with as little as 20-nt homology with the genomic target. A double-strand break (DSB external to the chromosomal amplicon region stimulates the amplification event up to a factor of 20 and favors formation of extrachromosomal circles. SFDA is dependent on Rad52 and Rad59, partially dependent on Rad1, Rad10, and Pol32, and independent of Rad51, suggesting a single-strand annealing mechanism. Our results reveal a novel molecular model for gene amplification, in which small DNA fragments drive DNA amplification and define the boundaries of the amplicon region. As DNA fragments are frequently found both inside cells and in the extracellular environment, such as the serum of patients with cancer or other degenerative disorders, we propose that SFDA may be a common mechanism for DNA amplification in cancer cells, as well as a more general cause of DNA copy number variation

  13. DNA Shape Dominates Sequence Affinity in Nucleosome Formation (United States)

    Freeman, Gordon S.; Lequieu, Joshua P.; Hinckley, Daniel M.; Whitmer, Jonathan K.; de Pablo, Juan J.


    Nucleosomes provide the basic unit of compaction in eukaryotic genomes, and the mechanisms that dictate their position at specific locations along a DNA sequence are of central importance to genetics. In this Letter, we employ molecular models of DNA and proteins to elucidate various aspects of nucleosome positioning. In particular, we show how DNA's histone affinity is encoded in its sequence-dependent shape, including subtle deviations from the ideal straight B-DNA form and local variations of minor groove width. By relying on high-precision simulations of the free energy of nucleosome complexes, we also demonstrate that, depending on DNA's intrinsic curvature, histone binding can be dominated by bending interactions or electrostatic interactions. More generally, the results presented here explain how sequence, manifested as the shape of the DNA molecule, dominates molecular recognition in the problem of nucleosome positioning.

  14. Variational electrodynamics of Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    De Luca, Jayme


    We study extrema with velocity discontinuities for the variational electromagnetic two-body problem. Along $C^2$ segments, these broken extrema satisfy the Euler-Lagrange equations of the variational principle, which are neutral differential delay equations with state-dependent deviating arguments. At points where accelerations are not defined and velocities are discontinuous, broken extrema satisfy Weierstrass-Erdmann corner conditions that energies and momenta are continuous. Here we construct periodic broken extrema near the $C^{\\infty}$ two-body circular orbits, using piecewise-defined $C^2$ solutions of the neutral differential delay equations along regular segments and a variational approximation for the boundary-layer segments. Broken periodic extrema with an integer number of corner points bifurcate from a discrete set of circular orbits, with scales defined by the Weierstrass-Erdmann corner conditions. We consider the three cases of hydrogen, muonium and positronium atoms. In each case the broken ext...

  15. Variation and Synthetic Speech

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, C; Massey, N; Miller, Corey; Karaali, Orhan; Massey, Noel


    We describe the approach to linguistic variation taken by the Motorola speech synthesizer. A pan-dialectal pronunciation dictionary is described, which serves as the training data for a neural network based letter-to-sound converter. Subsequent to dictionary retrieval or letter-to-sound generation, pronunciations are submitted a neural network based postlexical module. The postlexical module has been trained on aligned dictionary pronunciations and hand-labeled narrow phonetic transcriptions. This architecture permits the learning of individual postlexical variation, and can be retrained for each speaker whose voice is being modeled for synthesis. Learning variation in this way can result in greater naturalness for the synthetic speech that is produced by the system.

  16. Discrete Variational Optimal Control

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Fernando; de Diego, David Martin


    This paper develops numerical methods for optimal control of mechanical systems in the Lagrangian setting. It extends the theory of discrete mechanics to enable the solutions of optimal control problems through the discretization of variational principles. The key point is to solve the optimal control problem as a variational integrator of a specially constructed higher-dimensional system. The developed framework applies to systems on tangent bundles, Lie groups, underactuated and nonholonomic systems with symmetries, and can approximate either smooth or discontinuous control inputs. The resulting methods inherit the preservation properties of variational integrators and result in numerically robust and easily implementable algorithms. Several theoretical and a practical examples, e.g. the control of an underwater vehicle, will illustrate the application of the proposed approach.

  17. Discrete Variational Optimal Control (United States)

    Jiménez, Fernando; Kobilarov, Marin; Martín de Diego, David


    This paper develops numerical methods for optimal control of mechanical systems in the Lagrangian setting. It extends the theory of discrete mechanics to enable the solutions of optimal control problems through the discretization of variational principles. The key point is to solve the optimal control problem as a variational integrator of a specially constructed higher dimensional system. The developed framework applies to systems on tangent bundles, Lie groups, and underactuated and nonholonomic systems with symmetries, and can approximate either smooth or discontinuous control inputs. The resulting methods inherit the preservation properties of variational integrators and result in numerically robust and easily implementable algorithms. Several theoretical examples and a practical one, the control of an underwater vehicle, illustrate the application of the proposed approach.

  18. Estimates of DNA strand breakage in bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus leukocytes measured with the Comet and DNA diffusion assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Díaz


    Full Text Available The analysis of DNA damage by mean of Comet or single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE assay has been commonly used to assess genotoxic impact in aquatic animals being able to detect exposure to low concentrations of contaminants in a wide range of species. The aims of this work were 1 to evaluate the usefulness of the Comet to detect DNA strand breakage in dolphin leukocytes, 2 to use the DNA diffusion assay to determine the amount of DNA strand breakage associated with apoptosis or necrosis, and 3 to determine the proportion of DNA strand breakage that was unrelated to apoptosis and necrosis. Significant intra-individual variation was observed in all of the estimates of DNA damage. DNA strand breakage was overestimated because a considerable amount (~29% of the DNA damage was derived from apoptosis and necrosis. The remaining DNA damage in dolphin leukocytes was caused by factors unrelated to apoptosis and necrosis. These results indicate that the DNA diffusion assay is a complementary tool that can be used together with the Comet assay to assess DNA damage in bottlenose dolphins.

  19. Splines and variational methods

    CERN Document Server

    Prenter, P M


    One of the clearest available introductions to variational methods, this text requires only a minimal background in calculus and linear algebra. Its self-contained treatment explains the application of theoretic notions to the kinds of physical problems that engineers regularly encounter. The text's first half concerns approximation theoretic notions, exploring the theory and computation of one- and two-dimensional polynomial and other spline functions. Later chapters examine variational methods in the solution of operator equations, focusing on boundary value problems in one and two dimension

  20. Fast phylogenetic DNA barcoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, Kasper Munch; Boomsma, Wouter Krogh; Willerslev, Eske


    We present a heuristic approach to the DNA assignment problem based on phylogenetic inferences using constrained neighbour joining and non-parametric bootstrapping. We show that this method performs as well as the more computationally intensive full Bayesian approach in an analysis of 500 insect...... DNA sequences obtained from GenBank. We also analyse a previously published dataset of environmental DNA sequences from soil from New Zealand and Siberia, and use these data to illustrate the fact that statistical approaches to the DNA assignment problem allow for more appropriate criteria...... for determining the taxonomic level at which a particular DNA sequence can be assigned....

  1. DNA: Structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinden, Richard R.; E. Pearson, Christopher; N. Potaman, Vladimir


    This chapter discusses the structure and function of DNA. DNA occupies a critical role in cells, because it is the source of all intrinsic genetic information. Chemically, DNA is a very stable molecule, a characteristic important for a macromolecule that may have to persist in an intact form...... for a long period of time before its information is accessed by the cell. Although DNA plays a critical role as an informational storage molecule, it is by no means as unexciting as a computer tape or disk drive. The structure of the DNA described by Watson and Crick in 1953 is a right handed helix of two...

  2. Archaeal DNA replication. (United States)

    Kelman, Lori M; Kelman, Zvi


    DNA replication is essential for all life forms. Although the process is fundamentally conserved in the three domains of life, bioinformatic, biochemical, structural, and genetic studies have demonstrated that the process and the proteins involved in archaeal DNA replication are more similar to those in eukaryal DNA replication than in bacterial DNA replication, but have some archaeal-specific features. The archaeal replication system, however, is not monolithic, and there are some differences in the replication process between different species. In this review, the current knowledge of the mechanisms governing DNA replication in Archaea is summarized. The general features of the replication process as well as some of the differences are discussed.

  3. Racemic DNA crystallography. (United States)

    Mandal, Pradeep K; Collie, Gavin W; Kauffmann, Brice; Huc, Ivan


    Racemates increase the chances of crystallization by allowing molecular contacts to be formed in a greater number of ways. With the advent of protein synthesis, the production of protein racemates and racemic-protein crystallography are now possible. Curiously, racemic DNA crystallography had not been investigated despite the commercial availability of L- and D-deoxyribo-oligonucleotides. Here, we report a study into racemic DNA crystallography showing the strong propensity of racemic DNA mixtures to form racemic crystals. We describe racemic crystal structures of various DNA sequences and folded conformations, including duplexes, quadruplexes, and a four-way junction, showing that the advantages of racemic crystallography should extend to DNA.

  4. Characterization of IS6110 insertions in the dnaA-dnaN intergenic region of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates. (United States)

    Turcios, L; Casart, Y; Florez, I; de Waard, J; Salazar, L


    Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with identical IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns are considered to be clonally related. The presence of IS6110 in the dnaA-dnaN intergenic region, one preferential locus for the integration of IS6110, was evaluated in 125 M. tuberculosis isolates. Five isolates had IS6110 inserted in this region, and two consisted of a mix of isogenic strains that putatively have evolved during a single infection. Strains from the same isolate had identical spoligo and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat profiles, but had slight variations in IS6110 RFLP patterns, due to the presence of IS6110 in the dnaA-dnaN intergenic region. Duplication of the dnaA-dnaN intergenic region was found in one isogenic strain.

  5. DNA from keratinous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Maia E.; Bengtsson, Camilla Friis; Bertelsen, Mads Frost


    Although good quality DNA can be recovered from the base of the calamus of freshly sampled feathers, as from other fully keratinized tissues such as nail or hair shaft, the quality and quantity of DNA in the majority of feather structures is much poorer. Little research has been performed...... to characterize the quality of this DNA is, and thus what a researcher might be able to achieve when using feathers as a source of DNA. In this review, we expand on our companion article detailing the quality of DNA in nail and hair, by synthesizing published, and new preliminary genetic data obtained from...... feathers. As with nail and hair, we demonstrate that although DNA can, in general, be recovered from all parts of the feather, the quality of such DNA varies. As such, although one can expect a priori that genetic analyses are possible on the feather, for PCR based analyses, it is extremely difficult...

  6. Biophysics of DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Vologodskii, Alexander


    Surveying the last sixty years of research, this book describes the physical properties of DNA in the context of its biological functioning. It is designed to enable both students and researchers of molecular biology, biochemistry and physics to better understand the biophysics of DNA, addressing key questions and facilitating further research. The chapters integrate theoretical and experimental approaches, emphasising throughout the importance of a quantitative knowledge of physical properties in building and analysing models of DNA functioning. For example, the book shows how the relationship between DNA mechanical properties and the sequence specificity of DNA-protein binding can be analyzed quantitatively by using our current knowledge of the physical and structural properties of DNA. Theoretical models and experimental methods in the field are critically considered to enable the reader to engage effectively with the current scientific literature on the physical properties of DNA.

  7. [DNA methylation and epigenetics]. (United States)

    Vaniushin, B F


    In eukaryotic cells, nuclear DNA is subject to enzymatic methylation with the formation of 5-methylcytosine residues, mostly within the CG and CNG sequences. In plants and animals this DNA methylation is species-, tissue-, and organelle-specific. It changes (decreases) with age and is regulated by hormones. On the other hand, genome methylation can control hormonal signal. Replicative and post-replicative DNA methylation types are distinguished. They are mediated by multiple DNA methyltransferases with different site-specificity. Replication is accompanied by the appearance of hemimethylated DNA sites. Pronounced asymmetry of the DNA strand methylation disappears to the end of the cell cycle. A model of methylation-regulated DNA replication is proposed. DNA methylation controls all genetic processes in the cell (replication, transcription, DNA repair, recombination, and gene transposition). It is the mechanism of cell differentiation, gene discrimination and silencing. In animals, suppression of DNA methylation stops development (embryogenesis), switches on apoptosis, and is usually lethal. Disruption of DNA methylation pattern results in the malignant cell transformation and serves as one of the early diagnostic features of carcinogenesis. In malignant cell the pattern of DNA methylation, as well as the set of DNA methyltransferase activities, differs from that in normal cell. In plants inhibition of DNA methylation is accompanied by the induction of seed storage and florescence genes. In eukaryotes one and the same gene can be simultaneously methylated both at cytosine and adenine residues. It can be thus suggested, that the plant cell contains at least two different, and probably, interdependent systems of DNA methylation. The first eukaryotic adenine DNA methyltransferase was isolated from plants. This enzyme methylates DNA with the formation of N6-methyladenine residues in the sequence TGATCA (TGATCA-->TGm6ATCA). Plants possess AdoMet-dependent endonucleases

  8. Novel DNA probes for sensitive DNA detection


    Richardson, James Alistair


    The ability to detect and interrogate DNA sequences allows further understanding and\\ud diagnosis of genetic disease. The ability to perform such analysis of genetic material\\ud requires highly selective and reliable technologies. Furthermore techniques which can use\\ud simple and cheap equipment allow the use of such technologies for point of care analysis.\\ud \\ud Described in this thesis are two novel DNA probe systems designed for mutation\\ud discrimination and sequence recognition of PCR ...

  9. Seasonal Variation in Epidemiology (United States)

    Marrero, Osvaldo


    Seasonality analyses are important in medical research. If the incidence of a disease shows a seasonal pattern, then an environmental factor must be considered in its etiology. We discuss a method for the simultaneous analysis of seasonal variation in multiple groups. The nuts and bolts are explained using simple trigonometry, an elementary…

  10. Bounded variation and around

    CERN Document Server

    Appell, Jürgen; Merentes Díaz, Nelson José


    This monographis a self-contained exposition of the definition and properties of functionsof bounded variation and their various generalizations; the analytical properties of nonlinear composition operators in spaces of such functions; applications to Fourier analysis, nonlinear integral equations, and boundary value problems. The book is written for non-specialists. Every chapter closes with a list of exercises and open problems.

  11. Variation and Linguistic Theory. (United States)

    Bailey, Charles-James N.

    This volume presents principles and models for describing language variation, and introduces a time-based, dynamic framework for linguistic description. The book first summarizes some of the problems of grammatical description encountered from Saussure through the present and then outlines possibilities for new descriptions of language which take…

  12. Variational transition state theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truhlar, D.G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States)


    This research program involves the development of variational transition state theory (VTST) and semiclassical tunneling methods for the calculation of gas-phase reaction rates and selected applications. The applications are selected for their fundamental interest and/or their relevance to combustion.

  13. Progress in variational methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The International Conference on Variational Methods (ICVAM) was held from May 20th to 26th in 2007 at the Chern Institute of Mathematics, Nankai University, Tianjin, China. Twenty eight invited speakers from ten countries and areas worldwide gave their lectures at the conference.

  14. Fimbrial phase variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khandige, Surabhi; Møller-Jensen, Jakob


    if the fimbrial diversity seen at the population level is the product of random stochasticity or a concerted effort based on active communication. Here we discuss the possibility of a mechanism alternative to a stochastic fimbrial phase variation model affecting the dynamics of a heterogeneous population....

  15. Modeling DNA beacons at the mesoscopic scale

    CERN Document Server

    Errami, Jalal; Theodorakopoulos, Nikos


    We report model calculations on DNA single strands which describe the equilibrium dynamics and kinetics of hairpin formation and melting. Modeling is at the level of single bases. Strand rigidity is described in terms of simple polymer models; alternative calculations performed using the freely rotating chain and the discrete Kratky-Porod models are reported. Stem formation is modeled according to the Peyrard-Bishop-Dauxois Hamiltonian. The kinetics of opening and closing is described in terms of a diffusion-controlled motion in an effective free energy landscape. Melting profiles, dependence of melting temperature on loop length, and kinetic time scales are in semiquantitative agreement with experimental data obtained from fluorescent DNA beacons forming poly(T) loops. Variation in strand rigidity is not sufficient to account for the large activation enthalpy of closing and the strong loop length dependence observed in hairpins forming poly(A) loops. Implications for modeling single strands of DNA or RNA are...

  16. Development of novel electrical characterization methods and measurements of G4-DNA and DNA Derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Livshits, Gideon I


    This dissertation presents an investigation into the electrical properties of two types of G4-DNA and several DNA-based molecules, targeting them as candidates for molecular wires and devices. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) comparison of co-deposited tetra- and intra-molecular G4-DNA reveals variations in morphology and different sensitivity to the applied electric field, suggesting that the folding orientation of the strands affects the molecular structure, i.e. either the tetrad unit or the tetrad-tetrad stacking or both, and therefore the charge mobility. Tetra-molecular G4-DNA is found to be twice as polarizable as intra-molecular G4-DNA, suggesting it has greater charge mobility. These promising results motivated direct electrical transport measurements on tetra-molecular G4-DNA using a special conductive AFM setup, profiling the conductance along the molecule. Reproducible currents of tens to over 100 pA were measured in many tetra-molecular G4-DNA molecules over ...

  17. Genetic analysis of environmental variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, W.G.; Mulder, H.A.


    Environmental variation (VE) in a quantitative trait – variation in phenotype that cannot be explained by genetic variation or identifiable genetic differences – can be regarded as being under some degree of genetic control. Such variation may be either between repeated expressions of the same trait

  18. Genetic and Non-Genetic Influences during Pregnancy on Infant Global and Site Specific DNA Methylation: Role for Folate Gene Variants and Vitamin B12


    McKay, Jill A; Alexandra Groom; Catherine Potter; Coneyworth, Lisa J.; Dianne Ford; Mathers, John C.; Relton, Caroline L


    Inter-individual variation in patterns of DNA methylation at birth can be explained by the influence of environmental, genetic and stochastic factors. This study investigates the genetic and non-genetic determinants of variation in DNA methylation in human infants. Given its central role in provision of methyl groups for DNA methylation, this study focuses on aspects of folate metabolism. Global (LUMA) and gene specific (IGF2, ZNT5, IGFBP3) DNA methylation were quantified in 430 infants by Py...

  19. Influence of DNMT genotype on global and site specific DNA methylation patterns in neonates and pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Potter

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between common genetic variation within DNA methyltransferase genes and inter-individual variation in DNA methylation. Eleven polymorphisms spanning DNMT1 and DNMT3B were genotyped. Global and gene specific (IGF2, IGFBP3, ZNT5 DNA methylation was quantified by LUMA and bisulfite Pyrosequencing assays, respectively, in neonatal cord blood and in maternal peripheral blood. Associations between maternal genotype and maternal methylation (n (≈ 333, neonatal genotype and neonatal methylation (n (≈ 454, and maternal genotype and neonatal methylation (n (≈ 137 were assessed. The findings of this study provide some support to the hypothesis that genetic variation in DNA methylating enzymes influence DNA methylation at global and gene-specific levels; however observations were not robust to correction for multiple testing. More comprehensive analysis of the influence of genetic variation on global and site specific DNA methylation is warranted.

  20. The genus Basilichthys (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae revisited along its Chilean distribution range (21° to 40° S using variation in morphologyand mtDNA El género Basilichthys (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae analizado a lo largo de su distribución en Chile (21° a 40° S, utilizando rasgos morfológicos y variabilidad del ADN mitocondrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available There is still doubt as to the number of species of the freshwater Chilean ichthyofauna, 64 % of which have conservation problems. One of the groups is that of the silversides of the genus Basilichthys. Three morphological species of this genus have been described in Chile with disjoint distributions: Basilichthys semotilus, B. microlepidotus and B. australis; the latter two overlap in distribution only in the Aconcagua River and are not easily distinguishable by morphological and meristic characters. In order to evaluate the efficacy of identification of these species by molecular techniques, we analyzed the sequence of 9 % of the mitochondrial DNA (Control Region and COI of individuals from the Loa River (21°41' S to the Valdivia River (39°50' S, adding meristic features for B. microlepidotus and B. australis in order to study population variation to clarify the taxonomy of the native species of the genus. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the individuals of Basilichthys semotilus form an haplogroup separated from the other species of the genus; however, B. australis and B. microlepidotus form a monophyletic group that shares the most common haplotypes. An analysis of meristic information showed no statistically significant differences in the number of lateral line scales or number of rays in the fins between B. microlepidotus and B. australis. These results do not support the current classification for the latter two species; there appears to be one group in the extreme north of the country (Basilichthys semotilus and a second group in central Chile which should be called B. microlepidotus. This information will be useful to review the conservation status of the Chilean fauna.Si bien aún existen dudas sobre el número de especies descritas en el país, se reconoce que el 64 % de la ictiofauna dulceacuícola chilena se encuentra en alguna categoría de peligro de conservación. Uno de los grupos categorizados como vulnerable y en

  1. On functions of bounded variation


    Aistleitner, Christoph; Pausinger, Florian; Svane, Anne Marie; Tichy, Robert F.


    The recently introduced concept of $\\mathcal{D}$-variation unifies previous concepts of variation of multivariate functions. In this paper, we give an affirmative answer to the open question from Pausinger \\& Svane (J. Complexity, 2014) whether every function of bounded Hardy--Krause variation is Borel measurable and has bounded $\\mathcal{D}$-variation. Moreover, we show that the space of functions of bounded $\\mathcal{D}$-variation can be turned into a commutative Banach algebra.

  2. Distinct evolutionary histories of the DNA-A and DNA-B components of bipartite begomoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaz-ul-Rehman Muhammad


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viruses of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae have genomes consisting of either one or two genomic components. The component of bipartite begomoviruses known as DNA-A is homologous to the genomes of all geminiviruses and encodes proteins required for replication, control of gene expression, overcoming host defenses, encapsidation and insect transmission. The second component, referred to as DNA-B, encodes two proteins with functions in intra- and intercellular movement in host plants. The origin of the DNA-B component remains unclear. The study described here was initiated to investigate the relationship between the DNA-A and DNA-B components of bipartite begomoviruses with a view to unraveling their evolutionary histories and providing information on the possible origin of the DNA-B component. Results Comparative phylogenetic and exhaustive pairwise sequence comparison of all DNA-A and DNA-B components of begomoviruses demonstrates that the two molecules have very distinct molecular evolutionary histories and likely are under very different evolutionary pressures. The analysis highlights that component exchange has played a far greater role in diversification of begomoviruses than previously suspected, although there are distinct differences in the apparent ability of different groups of viruses to utilize this "sexual" mechanism of genetic exchange. Additionally we explore the hypothesis that DNA-B originated as a satellite that was captured by the monopartite progenitor of all extant bipartite begomoviruses and subsequently evolved to become the integral (essential genome component that we recognize today. The situation with present-day satellites associated with begomoviruses provides some clues to the processes and selection pressures that may have led to the "domestication" of a wild progenitor of the DNA-B component. Conclusions The analysis has highlighted the greater genetic variation of DNA-B components, in

  3. DNA interactions with a Methylene Blue redox indicator depend on the DNA length and are sequence specific. (United States)

    Farjami, Elaheh; Clima, Lilia; Gothelf, Kurt V; Ferapontova, Elena E


    A DNA molecular beacon approach was used for the analysis of interactions between DNA and Methylene Blue (MB) as a redox indicator of a hybridization event. DNA hairpin structures of different length and guanine (G) content were immobilized onto gold electrodes in their folded states through the alkanethiol linker at the 5'-end. Binding of MB to the folded hairpin DNA was electrochemically studied and compared with binding to the duplex structure formed by hybridization of the hairpin DNA to a complementary DNA strand. Variation of the electrochemical signal from the DNA-MB complex was shown to depend primarily on the DNA length and sequence used: the G-C base pairs were the preferential sites of MB binding in the duplex. For short 20 nts long DNA sequences, the increased electrochemical response from MB bound to the duplex structure was consistent with the increased amount of bound and electrochemically readable MB molecules (i.e. MB molecules that are available for the electron transfer (ET) reaction with the electrode). With longer DNA sequences, the balance between the amounts of the electrochemically readable MB molecules bound to the hairpin DNA and to the hybrid was opposite: a part of the MB molecules bound to the long-sequence DNA duplex seem to be electrochemically mute due to long ET distance. The increasing electrochemical response from MB bound to the short-length DNA hybrid contrasts with the decreasing signal from MB bound to the long-length DNA hybrid and allows an "off"-"on" genosensor development.

  4. DNA replication and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyer, Anne-Sophie; Walter, David; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard


    A dividing cell has to duplicate its DNA precisely once during the cell cycle to preserve genome integrity avoiding the accumulation of genetic aberrations that promote diseases such as cancer. A large number of endogenous impacts can challenge DNA replication and cells harbor a battery of pathways...... to promote genome integrity during DNA replication. This includes suppressing new replication origin firing, stabilization of replicating forks, and the safe restart of forks to prevent any loss of genetic information. Here, we describe mechanisms by which oncogenes can interfere with DNA replication thereby...... causing DNA replication stress and genome instability. Further, we describe cellular and systemic responses to these insults with a focus on DNA replication restart pathways. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of exploiting intrinsic replicative stress in cancer cells for targeted therapy....

  5. DNA media storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christy M.Bogard; Eric C.Rouchka; Benjamin Arazi


    In 1994. University of Southern California computer scientist,Dr.Leonard Adleman solved the Hamiltonian path problem using DNA as a computational mechanism.He proved the principle that DNA computing could be used to solve computationally complex problems.Because of the limitations in discovery time,resource requirements,and sequence mismatches,DNA computing has not yet become a commonly accepted practice.However,advancements are continually being discovered that are evolving the field of DNA computing.Practical applications of DNA are not restricted to computation alone.This research presents a novel approach in which DNA could be used as a means of storing files.Through the use of multiple sequence alignment combined with intelligent heuristics,the most probabilistic file contents can be determined with minimal errors.

  6. DNA supercoiling during transcription (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Michelle D.


    The twin-supercoiled-domain model describes how transcription can drive DNA supercoiling, and how DNA supercoiling, in turn plays an important role in regulating gene transcription. In vivo and in vitro experiments have disclosed many details of the complex interactions in this relationship, and recently new insights have been gained with the help of genome-wide DNA supercoiling mapping techniques and single molecule methods. This review summarizes the general mechanisms of the interplay between DNA supercoiling and transcription, considers the biological implications, and focuses on recent important discoveries and technical advances in this field. We highlight the significant impact of DNA supercoiling in transcription, but also more broadly in all processes operating on DNA.

  7. DNA topology and transcription. (United States)

    Kouzine, Fedor; Levens, David; Baranello, Laura


    Chromatin is a complex assembly that compacts DNA inside the nucleus while providing the necessary level of accessibility to regulatory factors conscripted by cellular signaling systems. In this superstructure, DNA is the subject of mechanical forces applied by variety of molecular motors. Rather than being a rigid stick, DNA possesses dynamic structural variability that could be harnessed during critical steps of genome functioning. The strong relationship between DNA structure and key genomic processes necessitates the study of physical constrains acting on the double helix. Here we provide insight into the source, dynamics, and biology of DNA topological domains in the eukaryotic cells and summarize their possible involvement in gene transcription. We emphasize recent studies that might inspire and impact future experiments on the involvement of DNA topology in cellular functions.

  8. DNA profiles from fingermarks. (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Linacre, Adrian


    Criminal investigations would be considerably improved if DNA profiles could be routinely generated from single fingermarks. Here we report a direct DNA profiling method that was able to generate interpretable profiles from 71% of 170 fingermarks. The data are based on fingermarks from all 5 digits of 34 individuals. DNA was obtained from the fingermarks using a swab moistened with Triton-X, and the fibers were added directly to one of two commercial DNA profiling kits. All profiles were obtained without increasing the number of amplification cycles; therefore, our method is ideally suited for adoption by the forensic science community. We indicate the use of the technique in a criminal case in which a DNA profile was generated from a fingermark on tape that was wrapped around a drug seizure. Our direct DNA profiling approach is rapid and able to generate profiles from touched items when current forensic practices have little chance of success.

  9. DNA Media Storage. (United States)

    Bogard, Christy M; Rouchka, Eric C


    In 1994, University of Southern California computer scientist Dr. Leonard Adelman solved the Hamiltonian Path Problem using DNA as a computational mechanism. He proved the principle that DNA computing could be used to solve computationally complex problems. Because of the limitations in discovery time, resource requirements, and sequence mismatches, DNA computing has not yet become a commonly accepted practice. However, advancements are continually being discovered that are evolving the field of DNA Computing. Practical applications of DNA are not restricted to computation alone. This research presents a novel approach in which DNA could be used as a means of storing files. Through the use of Multiple Sequence Alignment combined with intelligent heuristics, the most probabilistic file contents can be determined with minimal errors.

  10. Human immune system variation. (United States)

    Brodin, Petter; Davis, Mark M


    The human immune system is highly variable between individuals but relatively stable over time within a given person. Recent conceptual and technological advances have enabled systems immunology analyses, which reveal the composition of immune cells and proteins in populations of healthy individuals. The range of variation and some specific influences that shape an individual's immune system is now becoming clearer. Human immune systems vary as a consequence of heritable and non-heritable influences, but symbiotic and pathogenic microbes and other non-heritable influences explain most of this variation. Understanding when and how such influences shape the human immune system is key for defining metrics of immunological health and understanding the risk of immune-mediated and infectious diseases.

  11. DNA Media Storage



    In 1994, University of Southern California computer scientist Dr. Leonard Adelman solved the Hamiltonian Path Problem using DNA as a computational mechanism. He proved the principle that DNA computing could be used to solve computationally complex problems. Because of the limitations in discovery time, resource requirements, and sequence mismatches, DNA computing has not yet become a commonly accepted practice. However, advancements are continually being discovered that are evolving the field...

  12. Disentangling DNA molecules (United States)

    Vologodskii, Alexander


    The widespread circular form of DNA molecules inside cells creates very serious topological problems during replication. Due to the helical structure of the double helix the parental strands of circular DNA form a link of very high order, and yet they have to be unlinked before the cell division. DNA topoisomerases, the enzymes that catalyze passing of one DNA segment through another, solve this problem in principle. However, it is very difficult to remove all entanglements between the replicated DNA molecules due to huge length of DNA comparing to the cell size. One strategy that nature uses to overcome this problem is to create the topoisomerases that can dramatically reduce the fraction of linked circular DNA molecules relative to the corresponding fraction at thermodynamic equilibrium. This striking property of the enzymes means that the enzymes that interact with DNA only locally can access their topology, a global property of circular DNA molecules. This review considers the experimental studies of the phenomenon and analyzes the theoretical models that have been suggested in attempts to explain it. We describe here how various models of enzyme action can be investigated computationally. There is no doubt at the moment that we understand basic principles governing enzyme action. Still, there are essential quantitative discrepancies between the experimental data and the theoretical predictions. We consider how these discrepancies can be overcome.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    During this year we performed two major projects: I. We developed a detailed theoretical model which complements our experiments on surface DNA electrophoresis. We found that it was possible to enhance the separation of DNA chains by imposing a chemical nanoscale pattern on the surface. This approach utilized the surface interaction effect of the DNA chains with the substrate and is a refinement to our previous method in which DNA chains were separated on homogeneous flat surfaces. By introducing the nano-patterns on the surface, the conformational changes of DNA chains of different lengths can be amplified, which results in the different friction strengths with the substrate surface. Our results also show that, when compared to the DNA electrophoresis performed on homogeneous flat surfaces, nanopatterned surfaces offer a larger window in choosing different surface interactions to achieve separation. II. In collaboration with a large international manufacturer of skin care products we also embarked on a project involving photo toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, which are a key ingredient in sunscreen and cosmetic lotions. The results clearly implicated the nanoparticles in catalyzing damage to chromosomal DNA. We then used this knowledge to develop a polymer/anti-oxidant coating which prevented the photocatalytic reaction on DNA while still retaining the UV absorptive properties of the nanoparticles. The standard gel electrophoresis was not sufficient in determining the extent of the DNA damage. The conclusions of this study were based predominantly on analysis obtained with the surface electrophoresis method.

  14. Disentangling DNA molecules. (United States)

    Vologodskii, Alexander


    The widespread circular form of DNA molecules inside cells creates very serious topological problems during replication. Due to the helical structure of the double helix the parental strands of circular DNA form a link of very high order, and yet they have to be unlinked before the cell division. DNA topoisomerases, the enzymes that catalyze passing of one DNA segment through another, solve this problem in principle. However, it is very difficult to remove all entanglements between the replicated DNA molecules due to huge length of DNA comparing to the cell size. One strategy that nature uses to overcome this problem is to create the topoisomerases that can dramatically reduce the fraction of linked circular DNA molecules relative to the corresponding fraction at thermodynamic equilibrium. This striking property of the enzymes means that the enzymes that interact with DNA only locally can access their topology, a global property of circular DNA molecules. This review considers the experimental studies of the phenomenon and analyzes the theoretical models that have been suggested in attempts to explain it. We describe here how various models of enzyme action can be investigated computationally. There is no doubt at the moment that we understand basic principles governing enzyme action. Still, there are essential quantitative discrepancies between the experimental data and the theoretical predictions. We consider how these discrepancies can be overcome.

  15. DNA Microarray Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakare SP


    Full Text Available DNA Microarray is the emerging technique in Biotechnology. The many varieties of DNA microarray or DNA chip devices and systems are described along with their methods for fabrication and their use. It also includes screening and diagnostic applications. The DNA microarray hybridization applications include the important areas of gene expression analysis and genotyping for point mutations, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and short tandem repeats (STRs. In addition to the many molecular biological and genomic research uses, this review covers applications of microarray devices and systems for pharmacogenomic research and drug discovery, infectious and genetic disease and cancer diagnostics, and forensic and genetic identification purposes.

  16. DNA Based Molecular Scale Nanofabrication (United States)


    water adsorption on DNA origami template and its impact on DNA- mediated chemical reactions. We also extended the concept of DNA- mediated reaction to...addition, we have expanded our efforts to include DNA- mediated HF etching of SiÜ2, DNA- mediated nanoimprinting lithography, DNA-based patterning of self...detailed kinetics study of DNA- mediated chemical reactions. Examples of such reactions include chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of inorganic oxide and HF

  17. Population characteristics of DNA fingerprints in humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). (United States)

    Baker, C S; Gilbert, D A; Weinrich, M T; Lambertsen, R; Calambokidis, J; McArdle, B; Chambers, G K; O'Brien, S J


    Humpback whales exhibit a remarkable social organization that is characterized by seasonal long-distance migration (> 10,000 km/year) between summer feeding grounds in high latitudes and winter calving and breeding grounds in tropical or near-tropical waters. All populations are currently considered endangered as a result of intensive commercial exploitation during the last 200 years. Using three hypervariable minisatellite DNA probes (33.15, 3'HVR, and M13) originally developed for studies of human genetic variation, we examined genetic variation within and among three regional subpopulations of humpback whales from the North Pacific and one from the North Atlantic oceans. Analysis of DNA extracted from skin tissues collected by biopsy darting from free-ranging whales revealed considerable variation in each subpopulation. The extent of this variation argues against a recent history of inbreeding among humpback whales as a result of nineteenth- and twentieth-century hunting. A canonical variate analysis suggested a relationship between scaled genetic distance, based on similarities of DNA fingerprints, and geographic distance (i.e., longitude of regional subpopulation). Significant categorical differences were found between the two oceanic populations using a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) with a modification of the Mantel nonparametric permutation test. The relationship between DNA fingerprint similarities and geographic distance suggests that nuclear gene flow between regional subpopulations within the North Pacific is restricted by relatively low rates of migratory interchange between breeding grounds or assortative mating on common wintering grounds.

  18. Visible periodicity of strong nucleosome DNA sequences. (United States)

    Salih, Bilal; Tripathi, Vijay; Trifonov, Edward N


    Fifteen years ago, Lowary and Widom assembled nucleosomes on synthetic random sequence DNA molecules, selected the strongest nucleosomes and discovered that the TA dinucleotides in these strong nucleosome sequences often appear at 10-11 bases from one another or at distances which are multiples of this period. We repeated this experiment computationally, on large ensembles of natural genomic sequences, by selecting the strongest nucleosomes--i.e. those with such distances between like-named dinucleotides, multiples of 10.4 bases, the structural and sequence period of nucleosome DNA. The analysis confirmed the periodicity of TA dinucleotides in the strong nucleosomes, and revealed as well other periodic sequence elements, notably classical AA and TT dinucleotides. The matrices of DNA bendability and their simple linear forms--nucleosome positioning motifs--are calculated from the strong nucleosome DNA sequences. The motifs are in full accord with nucleosome positioning sequences derived earlier, thus confirming that the new technique, indeed, detects strong nucleosomes. Species- and isochore-specific variations of the matrices and of the positioning motifs are demonstrated. The strong nucleosome DNA sequences manifest the highest hitherto nucleosome positioning sequence signals, showing the dinucleotide periodicities in directly observable rather than in hidden form.

  19. DNA polymorphism at the casein loci in sheep. (United States)

    Di Gregorio, P; Rando, A; Pieragostini, E; Masina, P


    By using seven endonucleases and four bovine cDNA probes specific for alpha S1-, alpha S2-, beta-, and kappa-casein genes, nine restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) have been found in the sheep orthologous DNA regions. In contrast to the low level of variation observed at the protein level, these DNA polymorphisms determine a high level of heterozygosity and, therefore, represent useful tools for genetic analyses since they can also be obtained without the need for gene expression. In fact, informative matings suggest that in sheep, as in cattle, the four loci are linked.

  20. Mosaic VSGs and the scale of Trypanosoma brucei antigenic variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P J Hall

    Full Text Available A main determinant of prolonged Trypanosoma brucei infection and transmission and success of the parasite is the interplay between host acquired immunity and antigenic variation of the parasite variant surface glycoprotein (VSG coat. About 0.1% of trypanosome divisions produce a switch to a different VSG through differential expression of an archive of hundreds of silent VSG genes and pseudogenes, but the patterns and extent of the trypanosome diversity phenotype, particularly in chronic infection, are unclear. We applied longitudinal VSG cDNA sequencing to estimate variant richness and test whether pseudogenes contribute to antigenic variation. We show that individual growth peaks can contain at least 15 distinct variants, are estimated computationally to comprise many more, and that antigenically distinct 'mosaic' VSGs arise from segmental gene conversion between donor VSG genes or pseudogenes. The potential for trypanosome antigenic variation is probably much greater than VSG archive size; mosaic VSGs are core to antigenic variation and chronic infection.

  1. Online resources for genomic structural variation. (United States)

    Sneddon, Tam P; Church, Deanna M


    Genomic structural variation (SV) can be thought of on a continuum from a single base pair insertion/deletion (INDEL) to large megabase-scale rearrangements involving insertions, deletions, duplications, inversions, or translocations of whole chromosomes or chromosome arms. These variants can occur in coding or noncoding DNA, they can be inherited or arise sporadically in the germline or somatic cells. Many of these events are segregating in the population and can be considered common alleles while others are new alleles and thus rare events. All species studied to date harbor structural variants and these may be benign, contributing to phenotypes such as sensory perception and immunity, or pathogenic resulting in genomic disorders including DiGeorge/velocardiofacial, Smith-Margenis, Williams-Beuren, and Prader-Willi syndromes. As structural variants are identified, validated, and their significance, origin, and prevalence are elucidated, it is of critical importance that these data be collected and collated in a way that can be easily accessed and analyzed. This chapter describes current structural variation online resources (see Fig. 1 and Table 1), highlights the challenges in capturing, storing, and displaying SV data, and discusses how dbVar and DGVa, the genomic structural variation databases developed at NCBI and EBI, respectively, were designed to address these issues.

  2. Duck hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA appears to survive hepatocyte mitosis in the growing liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaiche-Miller, Georget Y.; Thorpe, Michael; Low, Huey Chi; Qiao, Qiao; Scougall, Catherine A. [School of Molecular and Biomedical Science, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Mason, William S.; Litwin, Samuel [Institute for Cancer Research, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111 (United States); Jilbert, Allison R., E-mail: [School of Molecular and Biomedical Science, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)


    Nucleos(t)ide analogues that inhibit hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA replication are typically used as monotherapy for chronically infected patients. Treatment with a nucleos(t)ide analogue eliminates most HBV DNA replication intermediates and produces a gradual decline in levels of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), the template for viral RNA synthesis. It remains uncertain if levels of cccDNA decline primarily through hepatocyte death, or if loss also occurs during hepatocyte mitosis. To determine if cccDNA survives mitosis, growing ducklings infected with duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) were treated with the nucleoside analogue, Entecavir. Viremia was suppressed at least 10{sup 5}-fold, during a period when average liver mass increased 23-fold. Analysis of the data suggested that if cccDNA synthesis was completely inhibited, at least 49% of cccDNA survived hepatocyte mitosis. However, there was a large duck-to-duck variation in cccDNA levels, suggesting that low level cccDNA synthesis may contribute to this apparent survival through mitosis. - Highlights: • The hepatitis B virus nuclear template is covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). • cccDNA was studied during liver growth in duck hepatitis B virus infected ducks. • Virus DNA replication and new cccDNA synthesis were inhibited with Entecavir. • At least 49% of cccDNA appeared to survive hepatocyte mitosis. • Low level virus DNA synthesis may contribute to survival of cccDNA through mitosis.

  3. Click-iT assay with improved DNA distribution histograms. (United States)

    Hamelik, Ronald M; Krishan, Awtar


    The Click-iT Assay developed and commercialized by Invitrogen is based on incorporation of a new 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine analog, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) into newly synthesized DNA and its recognition by azide dyes via a copper mediated "click" reaction. This relatively convenient and useful procedure depends on fixation of cells with paraformaldehyde and staining of the DNA with 7-aminoactinomycin-D (7-AAD). Both of these procedures result in DNA histograms with broad coefficients of variation (CV's). In this report, we have shown that after EdU incorporation, nuclei isolated by lysis can be incubated with the Click-iT Assay and stained with propidium iodide for generation of DNA histograms with low CV's. This modified procedure results in better DNA histograms by replacing 7-AAD with propidium iodide and also saves processing time by eliminating the fixation and permeabilization steps.

  4. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate the regulation of DNA-DNA attraction by H4 histone tail acetylations and mutations. (United States)

    Korolev, Nikolay; Yu, Hang; Lyubartsev, Alexander P; Nordenskiöld, Lars


    The positively charged N-terminal histone tails play a crucial role in chromatin compaction and are important modulators of DNA transcription, recombination, and repair. The detailed mechanism of the interaction of histone tails with DNA remains elusive. To model the unspecific interaction of histone tails with DNA, all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out for systems of four DNA 22-mers in the presence of 20 or 16 short fragments of the H4 histone tail (variations of the 16-23 a. a. KRHRKVLR sequence, as well as the unmodified fragment a. a.13-20, GGAKRHRK). This setup with high DNA concentration, explicit presence of DNA-DNA contacts, presence of unstructured cationic peptides (histone tails) and K(+) mimics the conditions of eukaryotic chromatin. A detailed account of the DNA interactions with the histone tail fragments, K(+) and water is presented. Furthermore, DNA structure and dynamics and its interplay with the histone tail fragments binding are analysed. The charged side chains of the lysines and arginines play major roles in the tail-mediated DNA-DNA attraction by forming bridges and by coordinating to the phosphate groups and to the electronegative sites in the minor groove. Binding of all species to DNA is dynamic. The structure of the unmodified fully-charged H4 16-23 a.a. fragment KRHRKVLR is dominated by a stretched conformation. The H4 tail a. a. fragment GGAKRHRK as well as the H4 Lys16 acetylated fragment are highly flexible. The present work allows capturing typical features of the histone tail-counterion-DNA structure, interaction and dynamics.

  5. DNA-cell conjugates (United States)

    Hsiao, Shih-Chia; Francis, Matthew B.; Bertozzi, Carolyn; Mathies, Richard; Chandra, Ravi; Douglas, Erik; Twite, Amy; Toriello, Nicholas; Onoe, Hiroaki


    The present invention provides conjugates of DNA and cells by linking the DNA to a native functional group on the cell surface. The cells can be without cell walls or can have cell walls. The modified cells can be linked to a substrate surface and used in assay or bioreactors.

  6. Extended DNA Tile Actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Martin; Kryger, Mille; Zhang, Zhao


    A dynamic linear DNA tile actuator is expanded to three new structures of higher complexity. The original DNA actuator was constructed from a central roller strand which hybridizes with two piston strands by forming two half-crossover junctions. A linear expansion of the actuator is obtained...

  7. DNA sequences encoding erythropoietin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, F.K.


    A purified and isolated DNA sequence is described consisting essentially of a DNA sequence encoding a polypeptide having an amino acid sequence sufficiently duplicative of that of erythropoietin to allow possession of the biological property of causing bone marrow cells to increase production of reticulocytes and red blood cells, and to increase hemoglobin synthesis or iron uptake.

  8. Characterization of muntjac DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.C.


    Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in muntjac chromosomes is generally proportional to the chromosomal DNA content, but the SCE frequency is reduced in the heterochromatic neck region of the X chromosome. The physical properties of muntjac DNA and the kinetics of repair of UV damage in muntjac heterochromatin and euchromatin were examined and compared with the distribution of sister chromatid exchange.

  9. Workshop on DNA repair.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Lehmann (Alan); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); A.A. van Zeeland (Albert); C.M.P. Backendorf (Claude); B.A. Bridges; A. Collins; R.P.D. Fuchs; G.P. Margison; R. Montesano; E. Moustacchi; A.T. Natarajan; M. Radman; A. Sarasin; E. Seeberg; C.A. Smith; M. Stefanini (Miria); L.H. Thompson; G.P. van der Schans; C.A. Weber (Christine); M.Z. Zdzienika


    textabstractA workshop on DNA repair with emphasis on eukaryotic systems was held, under the auspices of the EC Concerted Action on DNA Repair and Cancer, at Noordwijkerhout (The Netherlands) 14-19 April 1991. The local organization of the meeting was done under the auspices of the Medical Genetic C

  10. Recombinant DNA for Teachers. (United States)

    Duvall, James G., III


    A science teacher describes his experience at a workshop to learn to teach the Cold Spring Harbor DNA Science Laboratory Protocols. These protocols lead students through processes for taking E. coli cells and transforming them into a new antibiotic resistant strain. The workshop featured discussions of the role of DNA recombinant technology in…

  11. Graphene coated fiber optic surface plasmon resonance biosensor for the DNA hybridization detection: Simulation analysis (United States)

    Shushama, Kamrun Nahar; Rana, Md. Masud; Inum, Reefat; Hossain, Md. Biplob


    In this paper, a graphene coated optical fiber surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor is presented for the detection of DNA Hybridization. For the proposed sensor, a four layer model (fiber core /metal /sensing layer /sample) where a sheet of graphene (biomolecular recognition elements (BRE)) acting as a sensing layer is coated around the gold film because graphene enhances the sensitivity of fiber optic SPR biosensor. Numerical analysis shows the variation of resonance wavelength and spectrum of transmitted power for mismatched DNA strands and for complementary DNA strands. For mismatched DNA strands variation is negligible whereas for complementary DNA strands is considerably countable. Proposed sensor successfully distinguishes hybridization and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) by observing the variation level of resonance wavelength and spectrum of transmitted power.

  12. An improved variational method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Zhuo-Quan; SHEN Peng-Nian; DING Yi-Bing


    In order to improve the unitarity of the S-matrix, an improved variational formulism is derived by proposing new generating functionals and adopting proper asymptotic boundary conditions for trial relative wave functions. The formulas with the weighted line-column balance for the single-channel and multi-channel scatterings, where the non-central interaction is implicitly considered, are presented. A numerical check is performed with a soluble model in a four coupled channel scattering problem. The result shows that the high accuracy and the unitarity of the S-matrix are reached.

  13. Microbial food safety: Potential of DNA extraction methods for use in diagnostic metagenomics. (United States)

    Josefsen, Mathilde H; Andersen, Sandra C; Christensen, Julia; Hoorfar, Jeffrey


    The efficiency of ten widely applied DNA extraction protocols was evaluated for suitability for diagnostic metagenomics. The protocols were selected based on a thorough literature study. Chicken fecal samples inoculated with about 1×10(3) and 1×10(6) CFU/g Campylobacter jejuni were used as a model. The evaluation was performed based on total DNA yield measured by fluorometry, and quality and quantity of C. jejuni DNA measured by real-time PCR. There was up to a 25-fold variance between the lowest (NucliSens miniMAG, BIOMÉRIEUX) and highest (PowerLyzer PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit, MO BIO Laboratories) yielding protocols. The PowerLyzer PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit performed significantly better than all other protocols tested. Selected protocols were modified, i.e., extended heating and homogenization, resulting in increased yields of total DNA. For QIAamp Fast DNA Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen) a 7-fold increase in total DNA was observed following the protocol for human DNA analysis and including a 5 min heating step at 70°C. For the PowerLyzer PowerSoil and the PowerFecal DNA Isolation Kit (MO BIO Laboratories) the total DNA fold increase was 1.6 to 1.8 when including an extra 10 min of bead-vortexing. There was no correlation between the yield of total DNA and the amount of PCR-amplifiable DNA from C. jejuni. The protocols resulting in the highest yield of total DNA did not show correspondingly increased levels of C. jejuni DNA as determined by PCR. In conclusion, substantial variation in the efficiency of the protocols to extract DNA was observed. The highest DNA yield was obtained with the PowerLyzer PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit, whereas the FastDNA SPIN Kit for Feces (MP Biomedicals) resulted in the highest amount of PCR-amplifiable C. jejuni DNA.

  14. Premeltons in DNA. (United States)

    Sobell, Henry M


    Premeltons are examples of emergent-structures (i.e., structural-solitons) that arise spontaneously in DNA due to the presence of nonlinear-excitations in its structure. They are of two kinds: B-B (or A-A) premeltons form at specific DNA-regions to nucleate site-specific DNA melting. These are stationary and, being globally-nontopological, undergo breather-motions that allow drugs and dyes to intercalate into DNA. B-A (or A-B) premeltons, on the other hand, are mobile, and being globally-topological, act as phase-boundaries transforming B- into A-DNA during the structural phase-transition. They are not expected to undergo breather motions. A key feature of both types of premeltons is the presence of an intermediate structural-form in their central regions (proposed as being a transition-state intermediate in DNA-melting and in the B- to A-transition), which differs from either A- or B-DNA. Called beta-DNA, this is both metastable and hyperflexible--and contains an alternating sugar-puckering pattern along the polymer backbone combined with the partial unstacking (in its lower energy-forms) of every-other base-pair. Beta-DNA is connected to either B- or to A-DNA on either side by boundaries possessing a gradation of nonlinear structural-change, these being called the kink and the antikink regions. The presence of premeltons in DNA leads to a unifying theory to understand much of DNA physical chemistry and molecular biology. In particular, premeltons are predicted to define the 5' and 3' ends of genes in naked-DNA and DNA in active-chromatin, this having important implications for understanding physical aspects of the initiation, elongation and termination of RNA-synthesis during transcription. For these and other reasons, the model will be of broader interest to the general-audience working in these areas. The model explains a wide variety of data, and carries with it a number of experimental predictions--all readily testable--as will be described in this review.

  15. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  16. Whose DNA is this?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taroni, Franco; Biedermann, Alex; Vuille, Joëlle


    This communication seeks to draw the attention of researchers and practitioners dealing with forensic DNA profiling analyses to the following question: is a scientist's report, offering support to a hypothesis according to which a particular individual is the source of DNA detected during...... evoked during the international conference "The hidden side of DNA profiles. Artifacts, errors and uncertain evidence" held in Rome (April 27th to 28th, 2012). Indeed, despite the fact that this conference brought together some of the world's leading forensic DNA specialists, it appeared clearly...... talk considerably different languages. It thus is fundamental to address this issue of communication about results of forensic DNA analyses, and open a dialogue with practicing non-scientists at large who need to make meaningful use of scientific results to approach and help solve judicial cases...

  17. Whose DNA is this?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taroni, Franco; Biedermann, Alex; Vuille, Joëlle;


    This communication seeks to draw the attention of researchers and practitioners dealing with forensic DNA profiling analyses to the following question: is a scientist's report, offering support to a hypothesis according to which a particular individual is the source of DNA detected during...... evoked during the international conference "The hidden side of DNA profiles. Artifacts, errors and uncertain evidence" held in Rome (April 27th to 28th, 2012). Indeed, despite the fact that this conference brought together some of the world's leading forensic DNA specialists, it appeared clearly....... This paper intends to emphasize the actuality of this topic and suggest beneficial ways ahead towards a more reasoned use of forensic DNA in criminal proceedings....

  18. DNA-repair measurements by use of the modified comet assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godschalk, Roger W L; Ersson, Clara; Riso, Patrizia;


    The measurement of DNA-repair activity by extracts from cells or tissues by means of the single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay has a high potential to become widely used in biomonitoring studies. We assessed the inter-laboratory variation in reported values of DNA-repair activity...... line as having the highest level of DNA-repair activity. The two laboratories that reported discordant results (with another cell line having the highest level of DNA-repair activity) were those that reported to have little experience with the modified comet assay to assess DNA repair. The laboratories...

  19. Multifunctions of bounded variation (United States)

    Vinter, R. B.


    Consider control systems described by a differential equation with a control term or, more generally, by a differential inclusion with velocity set F (t , x). Certain properties of state trajectories can be derived when it is assumed that F (t , x) is merely measurable w.r.t. the time variable t. But sometimes a refined analysis requires the imposition of stronger hypotheses regarding the time dependence. Stronger forms of necessary conditions for minimizing state trajectories can be derived, for example, when F (t , x) is Lipschitz continuous w.r.t. time. It has recently become apparent that significant addition properties of state trajectories can still be derived, when the Lipschitz continuity hypothesis is replaced by the weaker requirement that F (t , x) has bounded variation w.r.t. time. This paper introduces a new concept of multifunctions F (t , x) that have bounded variation w.r.t. time near a given state trajectory, of special relevance to control. We provide an application to sensitivity analysis.

  20. Lexical Variation in Akokoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fádorò Jacob Oludare


    Full Text Available Language contact among Akokoid, Yoruboid and Edoid has resulted in extensive borrowing from Yoruboid and Edoid to Akokoid. Thus, the speech forms subsumed under Akokoid exhibit lexical items which are similar to Yoruboid and Edoid. To the best of our knowledge, no other scholarly work has addressed the concept ‘lexical variation in these speech forms, hence, the need for this present effort. Twenty lexical items were carefully selected for analysis in this paper. Data were elicited from 34 informants who are competent speakers of Akokoid. Apart from the linguistic data, these informants, including  traditional rulers, supplied us with historical facts about the migration patterns of the progenitors of Akokoid. The historical facts coupled with the linguistic data helped us to arrive at the conclusion that some of the words used in contemporary Akokoid found their way into Akokoid as a result of the contact between Akokoid and their neighbours, Yoruboid and Edoid.Keywords: Akokoid, Language Contact, Lexical Variation, Yoruboid, Edoid

  1. Variational Theory for Chandrasekharaiah Thermopizoelectricity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Via the semi-inverse method of establishing generalized variational principle for physical problems,a classical variational model(non Gurtin-type and not involving convolutions) for Chandrasekharaiah thermopiezoelectricity is established directly from the governing equations.The present theory aims at providing a more complete theoretical basis for the variational-based finite element applications and variational-based meshless method(element-free method).

  2. Left-handed DNA crossovers. Implications for DNA-DNA recognition and structural alterations. (United States)

    Timsit, Y; Shatzky-Schwartz, M; Shakked, Z


    The close approach of DNA segments participates in many biological functions including DNA condensation and DNA processing. Previous crystallographic studies have shown that B-DNA self-fitting by mutual groove-backbone interaction produces right-handed DNA crossovers. These structures have opened new perspectives on the role of close DNA-DNA interactions in the architecture and activity the DNA molecule. In the present study, the analysis of the crystal packing of two B-DNA decamer duplexes d(CCIIICCCGG) and d(CCGCCGGCGG) reveals the existence of new modes of DNA crossing. Symmetric left-handed crossovers are produced by mutual fitting of DNA grooves at the crossing point. New sequence patterns contribute to stabilize longitudinal fitting of the sugar-phosphate backbone into the major groove. In addition, the close approach of DNA segments greatly influences the DNA conformation in a sequence dependent manner. This study provides new insights into the role of DNA sequence and structure in DNA-DNA recognition. In providing detailed molecular views of DNA crossovers of opposite chirality, this study can also help to elucidate the role of symmetry and chirality in the recognition of complex DNA structures by protein dimers or tetramers, such as topoisomerase II and recombinase enzymes. These results are discussed in the context of the possible relationships between DNA condensation and DNA processing.

  3. Simple & Safe Genomic DNA Isolation. (United States)

    Moss, Robert; Solomon, Sondra


    A procedure for purifying DNA using either bacteria or rat liver is presented. Directions for doing a qualitative DNA assay using diphenylamine and a quantitative DNA assay using spectroscopy are included. (KR)

  4. Ancient mtDNA genetic variants modulate mtDNA transcription and replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarit Suissa


    Full Text Available Although the functional consequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genetic backgrounds (haplotypes, haplogroups have been demonstrated by both disease association studies and cell culture experiments, it is not clear which of the mutations within the haplogroup carry functional implications and which are "evolutionary silent hitchhikers". We set forth to study the functionality of haplogroup-defining mutations within the mtDNA transcription/replication regulatory region by in vitro transcription, hypothesizing that haplogroup-defining mutations occurring within regulatory motifs of mtDNA could affect these processes. We thus screened >2500 complete human mtDNAs representing all major populations worldwide for natural variation in experimentally established protein binding sites and regulatory regions comprising a total of 241 bp in each mtDNA. Our screen revealed 77/241 sites showing point mutations that could be divided into non-fixed (57/77, 74% and haplogroup/sub-haplogroup-defining changes (i.e., population fixed changes, 20/77, 26%. The variant defining Caucasian haplogroup J (C295T increased the binding of TFAM (Electro Mobility Shift Assay and the capacity of in vitro L-strand transcription, especially of a shorter transcript that maps immediately upstream of conserved sequence block 1 (CSB1, a region associated with RNA priming of mtDNA replication. Consistent with this finding, cybrids (i.e., cells sharing the same nuclear genetic background but differing in their mtDNA backgrounds harboring haplogroup J mtDNA had a >2 fold increase in mtDNA copy number, as compared to cybrids containing haplogroup H, with no apparent differences in steady state levels of mtDNA-encoded transcripts. Hence, a haplogroup J regulatory region mutation affects mtDNA replication or stability, which may partially account for the phenotypic impact of this haplogroup. Our analysis thus demonstrates, for the first time, the functional impact of particular mtDNA

  5. Next-generation sequencing approaches in genetic rodent model systems to study functional effects of human genetic variation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guryev, V.; Cuppen, E.


    Rapid advances in DNA sequencing improve existing techniques and enable new approaches in genetics and functional genomics, bringing about unprecedented coverage, resolution and sensitivity. Enhanced toolsets can facilitate the untangling of connections between genomic variation, environmental facto

  6. Next-generation sequencing approaches in genetic rodent model systems to study functional effects of human genetic variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guryev, Victor; Cuppen, Edwin


    Rapid advances in DNA sequencing improve existing techniques and enable new approaches in genetics and functional genomics, bringing about unprecedented coverage, resolution and sensitivity. Enhanced toolsets can facilitate the untangling of connections between genomic variation, environmental facto

  7. Progress in the detection of human genome structural variations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU XueMei; XIAO HuaSheng


    The emerging of high.throughput and high-resolution genomic technologies led to the detection of submicroscopic variants ranging from 1 kb to 3 Mb in the human genome. These variants include copy number variations (CNVs), inversions, insertions, deletions and other complex rearrangements of DNA sequences. This paper briefly reviews the commonly used technologies to discover both genomic structural variants and their potential influences. Particularly, we highlight the array-based, PCR-based and sequencing-based assays, including array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH),representational oligonucleotide microarray analysis (ROMA), multiplex amplifiable probe hybridization (MAPH), multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), paired-end mapping (PEM), and next-generation DNA sequencing technologies. Furthermore, we discuss the limitations and challenges of current assays and give advices on how to make the database of genomic variations more reliable.

  8. Progress in the detection of human genome structural variations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The emerging of high-throughput and high-resolution genomic technologies led to the detection of submicroscopic variants ranging from 1 kb to 3 Mb in the human genome.These variants include copy number variations(CNVs),inversions,insertions,deletions and other complex rearrangements of DNA sequences.This paper briefly reviews the commonly used technologies to discover both genomic structural variants and their potential influences.Particularly,we highlight the array-based,PCR-based and sequencing-based assays,including array-based comparative genomic hybridization(aCGH),representational oligonucleotide microarray analysis(ROMA),multiplex amplifiable probe hybridization(MAPH),multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification(MLPA),paired-end mapping(PEM),and next-generation DNA sequencing technologies.Furthermore,we discuss the limitations and challenges of current assays and give advices on how to make the database of genomic variations more reliable.

  9. Phenotypic variation in Azospirillum brasilense exposed to starvation. (United States)

    Lerner, Anat; Valverde, Angel; Castro-Sowinski, Susana; Lerner, Hadas; Okon, Yaacov; Burdman, Saul


    Bacteria have developed mechanisms that allow them maintaining cell viability during starvation and resuming growth when nutrients become available. Among these mechanisms are adaptive mutations and phase variation, which are often associated with DNA rearrangements. Azospirillum brasilense is a Gram-negative, nitrogen-fixing, plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium. Here we report phenotypic variants of A. brasilense that were collected after exposure to prolonged starvation or after re-isolation from maize roots. The variants differed in several features from the parental strains, including pigmentation, aggregation ability, EPS amount and composition and LPS structure. One of the phenotypic variants, overproducing EPS and showing an altered LPS structure, was further characterized and showed differential response to several stresses and antibiotics relative to its parental strain. Characterization of the variants by repetitive-PCR revealed that phenotypic variation was often associated with DNA rearrangements.

  10. DNA vaccines against influenza. (United States)

    Stachyra, Anna; Góra-Sochacka, Anna; Sirko, Agnieszka


    Genetic vaccine technology has been considerably developed within the last two decades. This cost effective and promising strategy can be applied for therapy of cancers and for curing allergy, chronic and infectious diseases, such as a seasonal and pandemic influenza. Despite numerous advantages, several limitations of this technology reduce its performance and can retard its commercial exploitation in humans and its veterinary applications. Inefficient delivery of the DNA vaccine into cells of immunized individuals results in low intracellular supply of suitable expression cassettes encoding an antigen, in its low expression level and, in turn, in reduced immune responses against the antigen. Improvement of DNA delivery into the host cells might significantly increase effectiveness of the DNA vaccine. A vast array of innovative methods and various experimental strategies have been applied in order to enhance the effectiveness of DNA vaccines. They include various strategies improving DNA delivery as well as expression and immunogenic potential of the proteins encoded by the DNA vaccines. Researchers focusing on DNA vaccines against influenza have applied many of these strategies. Recent examples of the most successful modern approaches are discussed in this review.

  11. Quantitive DNA Fiber Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chun-Mei; Wang, Mei; Greulich-Bode, Karin M.; Weier, Jingly F.; Weier, Heinz-Ulli G.


    Several hybridization-based methods used to delineate single copy or repeated DNA sequences in larger genomic intervals take advantage of the increased resolution and sensitivity of free chromatin, i.e., chromatin released from interphase cell nuclei. Quantitative DNA fiber mapping (QDFM) differs from the majority of these methods in that it applies FISH to purified, clonal DNA molecules which have been bound with at least one end to a solid substrate. The DNA molecules are then stretched by the action of a receding meniscus at the water-air interface resulting in DNA molecules stretched homogeneously to about 2.3 kb/{micro}m. When non-isotopically, multicolor-labeled probes are hybridized to these stretched DNA fibers, their respective binding sites are visualized in the fluorescence microscope, their relative distance can be measured and converted into kilobase pairs (kb). The QDFM technique has found useful applications ranging from the detection and delineation of deletions or overlap between linked clones to the construction of high-resolution physical maps to studies of stalled DNA replication and transcription.

  12. What Controls DNA Looping?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela J. Perez


    Full Text Available The looping of DNA provides a means of communication between sequentially distant genomic sites that operate in tandem to express, copy, and repair the information encoded in the DNA base sequence. The short loops implicated in the expression of bacterial genes suggest that molecular factors other than the naturally stiff double helix are involved in bringing the interacting sites into close spatial proximity. New computational techniques that take direct account of the three-dimensional structures and fluctuations of protein and DNA allow us to examine the likely means of enhancing such communication. Here, we describe the application of these approaches to the looping of a 92 base-pair DNA segment between the headpieces of the tetrameric Escherichia coli Lac repressor protein. The distortions of the double helix induced by a second protein—the nonspecific nucleoid protein HU—increase the computed likelihood of looping by several orders of magnitude over that of DNA alone. Large-scale deformations of the repressor, sequence-dependent features in the DNA loop, and deformability of the DNA operators also enhance looping, although to lesser degrees. The correspondence between the predicted looping propensities and the ease of looping derived from gene-expression and single-molecule measurements lends credence to the derived structural picture.

  13. DNA mini-barcodes. (United States)

    Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; McKenna, Charly


    Conventional DNA barcoding uses an approximately 650 bp DNA barcode of the mitochondrial gene COI for species identification in animal groups. Similar size fragments from chloroplast genes have been proposed as barcode markers for plants. While PCR amplification and sequencing of a 650 bp fragment is consistent in freshly collected and well-preserved specimens, it is difficult to obtain a full-length barcode in older museum specimens and samples which have been preserved in formalin or similar DNA-unfriendly preservatives. A comparable issue may prevent effective DNA-based authentication and testing in processed biological materials, such as food products, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals. In these cases, shorter DNA sequences-mini-barcodes-have been robustly recovered and shown to be effective in identifying majority of specimens to a species level. Furthermore, short DNA regions can be utilized via high-throughput sequencing platforms providing an inexpensive and comprehensive means of large-scale species identification. These properties of mini-barcodes, coupled with the availability of standardized and universal primers make mini-barcodes a feasible option for DNA barcode analysis in museum samples and applied diagnostic and environmental biodiversity analysis.

  14. 基于线粒体控制区序列的南海北部近岸鯻的遗传多样性%Genetic variation of Therapon theraps in coastal waters of northern South China Sea based on mtDNA control region sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛丹; 章群; 郜星晨; 宫亚运; 曹艳


    Therapon theraps is widely distributed in the Indo–western Pacific coastal waters, and South China Sea is its’ main producing areas. It is the most representative terapontid fish, and used to be an important object for bottom trawl, bottom gillnet fishing in South China Sea. Due to the degradation of habitats and overfishing, the quantity of this fish has been decreased greatly in recent years. The recent studies on T. theraps mainly focused on the chromosome, fisheries resources survey as well as phylogenetic relationship for terapontid fish based on CO I gene and 16S RNA , there is no genetic investigation reported. In the present study, the control region of mtDNA of 80 individuals of 5 populations collected from Jieshi, Yangjiang in Guangdong Province, Dongxing in Guangxi Province, Linggao and Lingshui in Hainan province, were sequenced to analyze genetic variation in South China Sea, of which 42 mutations and 60 haplotypes were detected in the 951bp sequences. Overall haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were relatively low (Hd=0.986±0.007, π=0.009±0.000), of which the nucleotide diversity (π) of Lingshui population is the highest (0.010), and Dongxing population is the lowest (0.008). Apart from 8 haplotypes shared by various populations, the remaining ones were endemic to each population. In the Kimura 2–parameter based neighbor-joining tree and par-simony network, haplotypes from various locations were intertwined together, and no deep lineage branches found, suggesting no obvious phylogenetic and geographical structure. Pairwise fixation indexes Fst among 3 populations from mainland China coastal waters ranged from –0.017 5 to 0.008 9 (P>0.05), and gene flow from 14.54 to 27.84. Fst values between 2 populations from Hainan Island was –0.046 0 (P>0.05), and gene flow was 5.68. However Fst among the mainland coastal populations and Hainan Island populations ranged from 0.0616 to 0.135 3 (P0.05),基因流(Nm)值为–14.54~27.84;海

  15. DNA Bending elasticity (United States)

    Sivak, David Alexander

    DNA bending elasticity on length scales of tens of basepairs is of critical importance in numerous biological contexts. Even the simplest models of DNA bending admit of few simple analytic results, thus there is a need for numerical methods to calculate experimental observables, such as distance distributions, forces, FRET efficiencies, and timescales of particular large-scale motions. We have implemented and helped develop a coarse-grained representation of DNA and various other covalently-linked groups that allows simple calculation of such observables for varied experimental systems. The simple freely-jointed chain (FJC) model and extremely coarse resolution proved useful in understanding DNA threading through nanopores, identifying steric occlusion by other parts of the chain as a prime culprit for slower capture as distance to the pore decreased. Enhanced sampling techniques of a finer resolution discrete wormlike chain (WLC) model permitted calculation of cyclization rates for small chains and identified the ramifications of a thermodynamically-sound treatment of thermal melts. Adding treatment of double-stranded DNA's helical nature and single-stranded DNA provided a model system that helped demonstrate the importance of statistical fluctuations in even highly-stressed DNA mini-loops, and allowed us to verify that even these constructs show no evidence of excitation-induced softening. Additional incorporation of salt-sensitivity to the model allowed us to calculate forces and FRET efficiencies for such mini-loops and their uncircularized precursors, thereby furthering the understanding of the nature of IHF binding and bending of its recognition sequence. Adding large volume-excluding spheres linked to the ends of the dsDNA permits calculation of distance distributions and thus small-angle X-ray scattering, whereby we demonstrated the validity of the WLC in describing bending fluctuations in DNA chains as short as 42 bp. We also make important connections

  16. DNA-PK assay (United States)

    Anderson, Carl W.; Connelly, Margery A.


    The present invention provides a method for detecting DNA-activated protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity in a biological sample. The method includes contacting a biological sample with a detectably-labeled phosphate donor and a synthetic peptide substrate defined by the following features to provide specific recognition and phosphorylation by DNA-PK: (1) a phosphate-accepting amino acid pair which may include serine-glutamine (Ser-Gln) (SQ), threonine-glutamine (Thr-Gln) (TQ), glutamine-serine (Gln-Ser) (QS), or glutamine-threonine (Gln-Thr) (QT); (2) enhancer amino acids which may include glutamic acid or glutamine immediately adjacent at the amino- or carboxyl- side of the amino acid pair and forming an amino acid pair-enhancer unit; (3) a first spacer sequence at the amino terminus of the amino acid pair-enhancer unit; (4) a second spacer sequence at the carboxyl terminus of the amino acid pair-enhancer unit, which spacer sequences may include any combination of amino acids that does not provide a phosphorylation site consensus sequence motif; and, (5) a tag moiety, which may be an amino acid sequence or another chemical entity that permits separating the synthetic peptide from the phosphate donor. A compostion and a kit for the detection of DNA-PK activity are also provided. Methods for detecting DNA, protein phosphatases and substances that alter the activity of DNA-PK are also provided. The present invention also provides a method of monitoring protein kinase and DNA-PK activity in living cells. -A composition and a kit for monitoring protein kinase activity in vitro and a composition and a kit for monitoring DNA-PK activities in living cells are also provided. A method for identifying agents that alter protein kinase activity in vitro and a method for identifying agents that alter DNA-PK activity in living cells are also provided.

  17. Spatial Variations of Fundamental Constants

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D; Barrow, John D.; Toole, Chris O'


    We show that observational limits on the possible time variation of constants of Nature are significantly affected by allowing for both space and time variation. Bekenstein's generalisation of Maxwell's equations to allow for cosmological variation of $alpha$ is investigated in a universe containing spherically symmetric inhomogeneities. The time variation of $alpha$ is determined by the local matter density and hence limits obtained in high-density geophysical enviroments are far more constraining than those obtained at high redshift. This new feature is expected to be a property of a wide class of theories for the variation of constants.

  18. Analysis of DNA repair gene polymorphisms and survival in low-grade and anaplastic gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsson, Shala Ghaderi; Wibom, Carl; Sjöström, Sara;


    The purpose of this study was to explore the variation in DNA repair genes in adults with WHO grade II and III gliomas and their relationship to patient survival. We analysed a total of 1,458 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were selected to cover DNA repair genes, in 81 grade ...

  19. DNA self-assembly on graphene surface studied by SERS mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botti, Sabina; Rufoloni, Alessandro; Laurenzi, Susanna;


    The self-assembly of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) segments on two variations of graphene surfaces having nano-platelets with different lateral sizes and thicknesses was investigated using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Due to the ...

  20. Variations on tremor parameters (United States)

    Boose, A.; Jentgens, Ch.; Spieker, S.; Dichgans, J.


    This paper describes our analysis procedure for long-term tremor EMG recordings, as well as three examples of applications. The description of the method focuses on how characteristics of the tremor (e.g. frequency, intensity, agonist-antagonist interaction) can be defined and calculated based on surface EMG data. The resulting quantitative characteristics are called ``tremor parameters.'' We discuss sinusoidally modulated, band-limited white noise as a model for pathological tremor-EMG, and show how the basic parameters can be extracted from this class of signals. The method is then applied to (1) estimate tremor severity in clinical studies, (2) quantify agonist-antagonist interaction, and (3) investigate the variations of the tremor parameters using simple methods from time-series analysis.

  1. "Artifactual" arsenate DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E


    The recent claim by Wolfe-Simon et al. that the Halomonas bacterial strain GFAJ-1 when grown in arsenate-containing medium with limiting phosphate is able to substitute phosphate with arsenate in biomolecules including nucleic acids and in particular DNA(1) arose much skepticism, primarily due...... to the very limited chemical stability of arsenate esters (see ref. 2 and references therein). A major part of the criticisms was concerned with the insufficient (bio)chemical evidence in the Wolfe-Simon study for the actual chemical incorporation of arsenate in DNA (and/or RNA). Redfield et al. now present...... evidence that the identification of arsenate DNA was artifactual....

  2. Apoptosis and DNA Methylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Huan X.; Hackett, James A. [MRC Human Genetics Unit, IGMM, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU (United Kingdom); Nestor, Colm [MRC Human Genetics Unit, IGMM, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU (United Kingdom); Breakthrough Research Unit, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU (United Kingdom); Dunican, Donncha S.; Madej, Monika; Reddington, James P. [MRC Human Genetics Unit, IGMM, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU (United Kingdom); Pennings, Sari [Queen' s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ (United Kingdom); Harrison, David J. [Breakthrough Research Unit, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU (United Kingdom); Meehan, Richard R., E-mail: [MRC Human Genetics Unit, IGMM, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU (United Kingdom); Breakthrough Research Unit, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU (United Kingdom)


    Epigenetic mechanisms assist in maintaining gene expression patterns and cellular properties in developing and adult tissues. The molecular pathology of disease states frequently includes perturbation of DNA and histone methylation patterns, which can activate apoptotic pathways associated with maintenance of genome integrity. This perspective focuses on the pathways linking DNA methyltransferases and methyl-CpG binding proteins to apoptosis, and includes new bioinformatic analyses to characterize the evolutionary origin of two G/T mismatch-specific thymine DNA glycosylases, MBD4 and TDG.

  3. Apoptosis and DNA Methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Meehan


    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms assist in maintaining gene expression patterns and cellular properties in developing and adult tissues. The molecular pathology of disease states frequently includes perturbation of DNA and histone methylation patterns, which can activate apoptotic pathways associated with maintenance of genome integrity. This perspective focuses on the pathways linking DNA methyltransferases and methyl-CpG binding proteins to apoptosis, and includes new bioinformatic analyses to characterize the evolutionary origin of two G/T mismatch-specific thymine DNA glycosylases, MBD4 and TDG.

  4. Genome-wide profiling of genetic variation in Agrobacterium-transformed rice plants*# (United States)

    Li, Wen-xu; Wu, San-ling; Liu, Yan-hua; Jin, Gu-lei; Zhao, Hai-jun; Fan, Long-jiang; Shu, Qing-yao


    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been widely used in producing transgenic plants, and was recently used to generate “transgene-clean” targeted genomic modifications coupled with the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas9) system. Although tremendous variation in morphological and agronomic traits, such as plant height, seed fertility, and grain size, was observed in transgenic plants, the underlying mechanisms are not yet well understood, and the types and frequency of genetic variation in transformed plants have not been fully disclosed. To reveal the genome-wide variation in transformed plants, we sequenced the genomes of five independent T0 rice plants using next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques. Bioinformatics analyses followed by experimental validation revealed the following: (1) in addition to transfer-DNA (T-DNA) insertions, three transformed plants carried heritable plasmid backbone DNA of variable sizes (855–5216 bp) and in different configurations with the T-DNA insertions (linked or apart); (2) each transgenic plant contained an estimated 338–1774 independent genetic variations (single nucleotide variations (SNVs) or small insertion/deletions); and (3) 2–6 new Tos17 insertions were detected in each transformed plant, but no other transposable elements or bacterial genomic DNA. PMID:27921404

  5. Dynamics of nonholonomic systems from variational principles embedded variation identity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Yongxin, E-mail: [College of Physics, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Liu Shixing [College of Physics, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Liu Chang; Chang Peng [Department of Applied Mechanics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)


    Nondeterminacy of dynamics, i.e., the nonholonomic or the vakonomic, fundamental variational principles, e.g., the Lagrange-d'Alembert or Hamiltonian, and variational operators, etc., of nonholonomic mechanical systems can be attributed to the non-uniqueness of ways how to realize nonholonomic constraints. Making use of a variation identity of nonholonomic constraints embedded into the Hamilton's principle with the method of Lagrange undetermined multipliers, three kinds of dynamics for the nonholonomic systems including the vakonomic and nonholonomic ones and a new one are obtained if the variation is respectively reduced to three conditional variations: vakonomic variation, Hoelder's variation and Suslov's variation, defined by the identity. Therefore, different dynamics of nonholonomic systems can be derived from an integral variational principle, utilizing one way of embedding constraints into the principle, with different variations. It is verified that the similar embedding of the identity into the Lagrange-d'Alembert principle gives rise to the nonholonomic dynamics but fails to give the vakonomic one unless the constraints are integrable.

  6. Restriction enzyme-mediated DNA family shuffling. (United States)

    Behrendorff, James B Y H; Johnston, Wayne A; Gillam, Elizabeth M J


    DNA shuffling is an established recombinatorial method that was originally developed to increase the speed of directed evolution experiments beyond what could be accomplished using error-prone PCR alone. To achieve this, mutated copies of a protein-coding sequence are fragmented with DNase I and the fragments are then reassembled in a PCR without primers. The fragments anneal where there is sufficient sequence identity, resulting in full-length variants of the original gene that have inherited mutations from multiple templates. Subsequent studies demonstrated that directed evolution could be further accelerated by shuffling similar native protein-coding sequences from the same gene family, rather than mutated variants of a single gene. Generally at least 65-75 % global identity between parental sequences is required in DNA family shuffling, with recombination mostly occurring at sites with at least five consecutive nucleotides of local identity. Since DNA shuffling was originally developed, many variations on the method have been published. In particular, the use of restriction enzymes in the fragmentation step allows for greater customization of fragment lengths than DNase I digestion and avoids the risk that parental sequences may be over-digested into unusable very small fragments. Restriction enzyme-mediated fragmentation also reduces the occurrence of undigested parental sequences that would otherwise reduce the number of unique variants in the resulting library. In the current chapter, we provide a brief overview of the alternative methods currently available for DNA shuffling as well as a protocol presented here that improves on several previous implementations of restriction enzyme-mediated DNA family shuffling, in particular with regard to purification of DNA fragments for reassembly.

  7. DNA Confined in Nanochannels and Nanoslits (United States)

    Tree, Douglas R.

    It has become increasingly apparent in recent years that next-generation sequencing (NGS) has a blind spot for large scale genomic variation, which is crucial for understanding the genotype-phenotype relationship. Genomic mapping methods attempt to overcome the weakesses of NGS by providing a coarse-grained map of the distances between restriction sites to aid in sequence assembly. From such methods, one hopes to realize fast and inexpensive de novo sequencing of human and plant genomes. One of the most promising methods for genomic mapping involves placing DNA inside a device only a few dozen nanometers wide called a nanochannel. A nanochannel stretches the DNA so that the distance between fluorescently labeled restriction sites can be measured en route to obtaining an accurate genome map. Unfortunately for those who wish to design devices, the physics of how DNA stretches when confined in a nanochannel is still an active area of research. Indeed, despite decades old theories from polymer physics regarding weakly and strongly stretched polymers, seminal experiments in the mid-2000s have gone unexplained until very recently. With a goal of creating a realistic engineering model of DNA in nanochannels, this dissertation addresses a number of important outstanding research topics in this area. We first discuss the physics of dilute solutions of DNA in free solution, which show distinctive behavior due to the stiff nature of the polymer. We then turn our attention to the equilibrium regimes of confined DNA and explore the effects of stiff chains and weak excluded volume on the confinement free energy and polymer extension. We also examine dynamic properties such as the diffusion coefficient and the characteristic relaxation time. Finally, we discuss a sister problem related to DNA confined in nanoslits, which shares much of the same physics as DNA confined in channels. Having done this, we find ourselves with a well-parameterized wormlike chain model that is

  8. Unmasking risk loci: DNA methylation illuminates the biology of cancer predisposition: analyzing DNA methylation of transcriptional enhancers reveals missed regulatory links between cancer risk loci and genes. (United States)

    Aran, Dvir; Hellman, Asaf


    Paradoxically, DNA sequence polymorphisms in cancer risk loci rarely correlate with the expression of cancer genes. Therefore, the molecular mechanism underlying an individual's susceptibility to cancer has remained largely unknown. However, recent evaluations of the correlations between DNA methylation and gene expression levels across healthy and cancerous genomes have revealed enrichment of disease-related DNA methylation variations within disease-associated risk loci. Moreover, it appears that transcriptional enhancers embedded in cancer risk loci often contain DNA methylation sites that closely define the expression of prominent cancer genes, despite the lack of significant correlations between gene expression levels and the surrounding disease-associated polymorphic sequences. We suggest that DNA methylation variations may obscure the effect of co-residing risk sequence alleles. Analysis of enhancer methylation data may help to reveal the regulatory circuits underlying predisposition to cancers and other common diseases.

  9. DNA from keratinous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Camilla F.; Olsen, Maja E.; Brandt, Luise Ørsted


    Keratinous tissues such as nail, hair, horn, scales and feather have been used as a source of DNA for over 20 years. Particular benefits of such tissues include the ease with which they can be sampled, the relative stability of DNA in such tissues once sampled, and, in the context of ancient...... genetic analyses, the fact that sampling generally causes minimal visual damage to valuable specimens. Even when freshly sampled, however, the DNA quantity and quality in the fully keratinized parts of such tissues is extremely poor in comparison to other tissues such as blood and muscle – although little...... systematic research has been undertaken to characterize how such degradation may relate to sample source. In this review paper we present the current understanding of the quality and limitations of DNA in two key keratinous tissues, nail and hair. The findings indicate that although some fragments of nuclear...

  10. DNA fusion gene vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Thomsen, Allan Randrup


    DNA vaccines are versatile and safe, but limited immunogenicity has prevented their use in the clinical setting. Experimentally, immunogenicity may be enhanced by the use of new delivery technologies, by coadministration of cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or by fusion...... of antigens into molecular domains that enhance antigen presentation. More specifically, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines may benefit from increased protein synthesis, increased T-cell help and MHC class I presentation, and the addition of a range of specific cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular...... with viral-vectored vaccines, various synergistic components may need to be incorporated into DNA vaccines. From the perspective of the future clinical use of DNA vaccines, it has been suggested that antigen presentation should be improved and cytokine coadministration attempted. However, even...

  11. DNA from keratinous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Camilla Friis; Olsen, Maia E.; Brandt, Luise Ørsted


    Keratinous tissues such as nail, hair, horn, scales and feather have been used as a source of DNA for over 20 years. Particular benefits of such tissues include the ease with which they can be sampled, the relative stability of DNA in such tissues once sampled, and, in the context of ancient...... genetic analyses, the fact that sampling generally causes minimal visual damage to valuable specimens. Even when freshly sampled, however, the DNA quantity and quality in the fully keratinized parts of such tissues is extremely poor in comparison to other tissues such as blood and muscle - although little...... systematic research has been undertaken to characterize how such degradation may relate to sample source. In this review paper we present the current understanding of the quality and limitations of DNA in two key keratinous tissues, nail and hair. The findings indicate that although some fragments of nuclear...

  12. DNA Sampling Hook (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The DNA Sampling Hook is a significant improvement on a method of obtaining a tissue sample from a live fish in situ from an aquatic environment. A tissue sample...