WorldWideScience

Sample records for abcc-jnih adult health

  1. Serum immunoglobulin levels in the ABCC-JNIH adult health study: Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.A.; Milton, R.C.; Hamilton, H.B.

    1973-05-31

    Immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgA, and IgM) were determined on 2043 individuals in the ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study population, and levels were compared to disease states and the dose of radiation ATB. Mean levels for both cities and sexes combined were IgG = 1577 mg%, IgA = 312 mg%, and IgM = 127 mg%. Differences between these mean levels and those reported in other studies are thought secondary to racial and environmental factors, and technical differences with the methods used for quantitation. Females had higher IgM levels that tended to go down with advancing age. Of the diseases evaluated, rheumatoid arthritis, cirrhosis, and pulmonary tuberculosis affected immunoglobulin levels the greatest. There was no apparent relationship between radiation dose from the atomic bomb and immunoglobulin levels determined more than 25 years after exposure. (6 tables)

  2. Older Adults (and Oral Health)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Sorted by ... > OlderAdults Older Adults and Oral Health Main Content ​ Is dry mouth a natural part ... from fiction by reading this web page about oral health and growing older. Having the right information can ...

  3. Health Literacy and Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy K. Chesser PhD

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this review was to assess published literature relating to health literacy and older adults. Method: The current review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses. Results: Eight articles met inclusion criteria. All studies were conducted in urban settings in the United States. Study sample size ranged from 33 to 3,000 participants. Two studies evaluated health-related outcomes and reported significant associations between low health literacy and poorer health outcomes. Two other studies investigated the impact of health literacy on medication management, reporting mixed findings. Discussion: The findings of this review highlight the importance of working to improve health care strategies for older adults with low health literacy and highlight the need for a standardized and validated clinical health literacy screening tool for older adults.

  4. Oral Health and Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-27

    This podcast discusses the importance of older adults maintaing good oral health habits. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 10/27/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/27/2008.

  5. Health Literacy in Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-09-20

    In this podcast, Dr. Lynda Anderson, former Director of CDC’s Healthy Aging Program, discusses the importance of improving health literacy among older adults.  Created: 9/20/2011 by Office of the Associate Director for Communication (OADC), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/20/2011.

  6. Interactive Influences on Health and Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Lilian H.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines multiple convergent forces affecting health, relates these to social determinants of health and critical adult health learning, and closes with discussion of opportunities for adult educators to contribute to human health at the individual, community, health provider, policy/regulatory agency, and international levels.

  7. Training Older Adults to Access Health Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertera, Elizabeth M.; Bertera, Robert L.; Morgan, Russell; Wuertz, Ellen; Attey, Alfred M. O.

    2007-01-01

    Many older adults do not use health information available on the Internet. Older adults residing in affordable housing were taught to use the NIHSeniorHealth.gov Web site. Participants were predominantly African American women with limited education and income (N = 42). Outcomes included changes in computer and health Web site navigation skills.…

  8. Medicaid Adult Health Care Quality Measures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act (Section 1139B) requires the Secretary of HHS to identify and publish a core set of health care quality measures for adult Medicaid...

  9. Exploring Older Adults' Health Information Seeking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…

  10. Exploring Older Adults' Health Information Seeking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…

  11. Adult height, nutrition, and population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jessica M; Subramanian, S V; Davey Smith, George; Özaltin, Emre

    2016-03-01

    In this review, the potential causes and consequences of adult height, a measure of cumulative net nutrition, in modern populations are summarized. The mechanisms linking adult height and health are examined, with a focus on the role of potential confounders. Evidence across studies indicates that short adult height (reflecting growth retardation) in low- and middle-income countries is driven by environmental conditions, especially net nutrition during early years. Some of the associations of height with health and social outcomes potentially reflect the association between these environmental factors and such outcomes. These conditions are manifested in the substantial differences in adult height that exist between and within countries and over time. This review suggests that adult height is a useful marker of variation in cumulative net nutrition, biological deprivation, and standard of living between and within populations and should be routinely measured. Linkages between adult height and health, within and across generations, suggest that adult height may be a potential tool for monitoring health conditions and that programs focused on offspring outcomes may consider maternal height as a potentially important influence.

  12. Investigating Adult Health Literacy in Tuyserkan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Afshari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health literacy is the capacity of individuals to obtain, process and understand basic health information and services needed to make healthy decisions. Therefore, this study was designed to determine health literacy of adults Tuyserkan district. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study was performed on 285 subjects aged 20-60 years attending Tuyserkan health centers through convenience sampling method in 2014. Iranian health literacy questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was analyzed using Stata-11 by Independent T-test and one way ANOVA. Results: Most participants aged 20 to 30 years (52.3% and 53.7 % were males. Most participants had postgraduate diploma level (55.8 % and were students (31.9 %. Participants had a weak level to access information (42.1%, weak level to perceive data (54.4%, moderate in judgment and assessment (64.9% and moderate in use of information (88.8%. Conclusion: Overall, there was a poor health literacy in adults. This indicates the need for more attention to health education and health promotion programs. It seems necessary to design and implement comprehensive plans using media and simple training methods for adults with a low level of health literacy.

  13. Reproductive health of adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Reşit Ersay

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, one out of five person belonging to 10-24 age group, is at risk concerning reproductive health. Topics related to the reproductive health, are neither discussed within the family or society, nor within the educational system. Adolescents, who have to experience sexual intercourse with insufficient and incorrect knowledge, have to face with sexually transmitted diseases (STD, teenage pregnancy, abortion and other problems as a consequence of this experience. Research on this area has showed that both adolescents and young adults, especially health personnel, requested training on reproductive health. In terms of planning health services effectively, these topics should be evaluated carefully in Turkey. In this research, reproductive health regarding adolescents and young adults is examined under the four headings of sexual experience, STD, use of protection and productivity. As a result, depending on all the cultural restrictions and health service limitations, it is observed that adolescents and young adults experience sexual relationship with an inadequate knowledge and consequently, they have to face with problems. Within this context, it is suggested to expand the reproductive health educational programmes involving family, school and society within long term.

  14. Subjective Oral Health in Dutch Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijsbert H.W. Verrips

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine whether the subjective oral health (SOH of the Dutch adult population was associated with clinical and demographic variables. Methods: A clinical examination was conducted in a sample of 1,018 people from the Dutch city of ‘s-Hertogenbosch. SOH was measured using the Dutch translation of the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-NL14. Results: The average score on the OHIP-NL14 was 2.8 ± 5.9 and 51% of the respondents had a score of 0. Dental status was the most important predictor of SOH. Conclusions:  The SOH in the Dutch adult population was much better than in groups of adults in Australia, the United Kingdom and New Zealand. Nevertheless, there were important variations in SOH related to dental and socio-economic status.

  15. The Mental Health of Older LGBT Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarns, Brandon C; Abrams, Janet M; Meeks, Thomas W; Sewell, Daniel D

    2016-06-01

    There are approximately one million older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults in the USA. Their mental health issues result from interactions between genetic factors and stress associated with membership in a sexual minority group. Although advancements in acceptance and equal treatment of LGBT individuals have been occurring, sexual minority status remains associated with risks to physical and mental well-being. Older LGBT adults are more likely to have experienced mistreatment and discrimination due to living a majority of their lives prior to recent advancements in acceptance and equal treatment. All LGBT adults experience one common developmental challenge: deciding if, when, and how to reveal to others their gender identity and/or sexual orientation. LGBT individuals have higher rates of anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders and also are at increased risk for certain medical conditions like obesity, breast cancer, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Improved education and training of clinicians, coupled with clinical research efforts, holds the promise of improved overall health and life quality for older LGBT adults.

  16. Psychological and socioeconomic health of community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuei-Min; Lin, Mei-Hui; Wang, Yueh-Chin; Li, Chun-Huw; Huang, Hsin-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Different dimensions of health are intertwined. The purposes of this study were: (1) to investigate the psychological and socioeconomic health status of community-dwelling older adults in Taiwan, and (2) to compare the psychological and socioeconomic health differences among people of different age groups, gender, marital status, and exercise habits. Using stratified random sampling, 384 Taiwanese community-dwelling older adults were recruited for this survey research. Based on the Health Model of Older Adults, seven constructs were measured: (1) psychological health: sleep quality, emotional health, cognitive functioning, and health promotion behaviors; (2) socioeconomic health: social engagement, social support, and financial status. Results showed that most participants were in a good state of psychological and socioeconomic health, except that 38.02% of them suffered from sleep disruptions, and the majority of them were not involved in any social group, nor engaged in any volunteer work. Young-old older adults had better psychological and socioeconomic health than middle-old and old-old older adults. Male older adults had better psychological health than female older adults; however, they had less social engagement and social support than female older adults. Married older adults and exercisers performed better in most of the psychological and socioeconomic health indicators than single/widowed older adults and non-exercisers.

  17. Psychological health in adults with morquio syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nadia; Cagle, S

    2015-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IV (MPSIV), also known as Morquio syndrome, is a progressive genetic condition which predominantly affects skeletal development. Research thus far has focused on physical manifestations, with little attention to psychological characteristics. As a first step in determining the natural occurrence of psychological symptoms in this population, we administered Achenbach measures of psychological functioning (ASEBA ASR and OASR), quality of life (SF-36), and pain severity (BPI) questionnaires to 20 adults with Morquio syndrome. 11/20 subjects (55%) scored within the symptomatic range on at least one or more ASEBA problem scales. These subjects also had higher pain severity scores (p = 0.051) and pain interference scores (p = 0.03) on the BPI. However, subjects with psychological symptoms did not differ significantly on QOL measures from those without psychological symptoms. Overall, subjects scored below the US mean only in physical health QOL (p Morquio syndrome, including regular assessment for psychological symptoms in addition to the quality of life measures typically used, as the latter may miss important information. Greater attention to psychological symptoms may help maximize overall health in adults with Morquio syndrome. Comparison with psychological studies on other lysosomal storage diseases suggests these results may be disease specific, rather than the result of living with chronic pain or having an LSD in general.

  18. Cultural Diversity Among Older Adults: Addressing Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, David

    2005-01-01

    The diversity of the older adult population is increasing, and health professionals need to learn new knowledge and skills to improve the adherence of older ethnic clients to their health recommendations. Much of the existing research literature on diversity in gerontology concludes that ethnic older adults are at a health disadvantage. Few if any…

  19. Health status of independently living older adults in Romania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghinescu, Minerva; Olaroiu, Marinela; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Olteanu, Tatiana; van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.

    2014-01-01

    AimAging is affecting health care all over Europe, but it is expected to have a much greater impact in Eastern Europe. Reliable data on various indicators of health of older adults in Eastern Europe are lacking. The objectives of the present study were to describe the health of older Romanian adults

  20. Health Literacy Programs for Older Adults: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Older adults make up the fastest growing age group in North America. This has demanded increased attention in supporting the health and well-being of this population and, in particular, the role of health information in promoting the health and well-being of older adults. Increased availability and accessibility of information as well as a greater…

  1. Oral Health Knowledge and Behavior among Adults with Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Hon K. Yuen; Wolf, Bethany J.; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Magruder, Kathryn M.; Salinas, Carlos F.; London, Steven D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine levels of oral health knowledge and factors associated with adequate oral health knowledge in adults with diabetes. A convenience sample of 253 adult US residents with diabetes completed an oral health survey to assess their knowledge. Results showed that only 47% of the participants answered five or more (out of a maximum of seven) oral health knowledge items related to diabetes correctly. Participants who received oral health information related to...

  2. Social, Economic, and Health Disparities Among LGBT Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emlet, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    LGBT older adults are a heterogeneous population with collective and unique strengths and challenges. Health, personal, and economic disparities exist in this group when compared to the general population of older adults, yet subgroups such as transgender and bisexual older adults and individuals living with HIV are at greater risk for disparities and poorer health outcomes. As this population grows, further research is needed on factors that contribute to promoting health equity, while decreasing discrimination and improving competent service delivery.

  3. An examination of electronic health information privacy in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thai; Thompson, Hilaire; Demiris, George

    2013-01-01

    Older adults are the quickest growing demographic group and are key consumers of health services. As the United States health system transitions to electronic health records, it is important to understand older adult perceptions of privacy and security. We performed a secondary analysis of the Health Information National Trends Survey (2012, Cycle 1), to examine differences in perceptions of electronic health information privacy between older adults and the general population. We found differences in the level of importance placed on access to electronic health information (older adults placed greater emphasis on provider as opposed to personal access) and tendency to withhold information out of concerns for privacy and security (older adults were less likely to withhold information). We provide recommendations to alleviate some of these privacy concerns. This may facilitate greater use of electronic health communication between patient and provider, while promoting shared decision making.

  4. Understanding the role of health literacy in self-management and health behaviors among older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geboers, Bas

    2017-01-01

    Older adults with low health literacy can improve their health if they learn to self-manage their well-being and improve their physical activity and their dietary pattern. One of the major challenges in health care is the problem of low health literacy. Especially older adults often have low health

  5. The Digital Health Divide: Evaluating Online Health Information Access and Use among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Amanda K.; Bernhardt, Jay M.; Dodd, Virginia; Vollrath, Morgan W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Innovations in health information technology (HIT) provide opportunities to reduce health care spending, improve quality of care, and improve health outcomes for older adults. However, concerns relating to older adults' limited access and use of HIT, including use of the Internet for health information, fuel the digital health divide…

  6. The Digital Health Divide: Evaluating Online Health Information Access and Use among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Amanda K.; Bernhardt, Jay M.; Dodd, Virginia; Vollrath, Morgan W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Innovations in health information technology (HIT) provide opportunities to reduce health care spending, improve quality of care, and improve health outcomes for older adults. However, concerns relating to older adults' limited access and use of HIT, including use of the Internet for health information, fuel the digital health divide…

  7. Living with Multiple Health Problems: What Older Adults Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Managing Multiple Health Problems Nutrition Osteoporosis Stroke Related Documents PDF Living With Multiple Health Problems: What Older Adults Should Know Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources ...

  8. 2014 Child and Adult Health Care Quality Measures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Performance rates on frequently reported health care quality measures in the CMS Medicaid/CHIP Child and Adult Core Sets, for FFY 2014 reporting. Dataset contains...

  9. 2015 Child and Adult Health Care Quality Measures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Performance rates on frequently reported health care quality measures in the CMS Medicaid/CHIP Child and Adult Core Sets, for FFY 2015 reporting. Source: Mathematica...

  10. Adult Learning, Health and Well-Being--Changing Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, John

    2011-01-01

    It is increasingly important for adult educators to articulate more clearly their understanding of the benefits and outcomes of adult learning. This paper reviews existing evidence of the impact of participation in education, and particularly explores the relevance of recent studies of how learning has influenced adults' health and well-being.…

  11. Comprehension of Health-Related Written Materials by Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-Ju; Kemper, Susan; Bovaird, James A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how Flesch Reading Ease and text cohesion affect older adults' comprehension of common health texts. All older adults benefited when high Flesh Reading Ease was combined with high cohesion. Older adults with small working memories had more difficulty understanding texts high in Flesch Reading Ease. Additionally, older adults…

  12. Separate and Cumulative Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Predicting Adult Health and Health Care Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Mariette J.; Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Methods:…

  13. Separate and Cumulative Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Predicting Adult Health and Health Care Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Mariette J.; Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Methods:…

  14. Lay meanings of health among rural older adults in Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goins, R Turner; Spencer, S Melinda; Williams, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Self-perceptions of health vary depending on one's social and cultural context. Rural residents have been characterized as having a distinct culture, and health differences by residence have been well documented. While there is evidence of poor health among rural older adults, little research has examined how they perceive and define health. Qualitative methods may help capture these lay meanings of health. The purpose of our study was to use a qualitative approach to examine what perceptions community-dwelling rural older adults have regarding their health. The study involved thirteen 90-minute focus groups and short self-administered surveys with community-dwelling persons aged 60 years or older residing in 6 rural West Virginia communities. A total of 101 participants were asked questions about their personal definitions of health. With professional transcribed tapes from the focus group discussions, we used a systematic text analysis approach. Discussions included 4 themes on the meaning of health: (1) health as a value, (2) dimensions of life, (3) holistic nature of health, and (4) health care use and adherence. Our results expand on previous studies and demonstrate that health is a subjective, multidimensional construct deeply embedded in the everyday experience of rural older adults. We found that older adults' perceptions about health contain components which most medical professionals would not take into account. Health care providers may consider supplementing traditional medical approaches with a more contextually sensitive recognition of rural elders' desired health goals and outcomes. © 2010 National Rural Health Association.

  15. Mental health care Monitor Older adults (MEMO) : monitoring patient characteristics and outcome in Dutch mental health services for older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerbeek, Marjolein; Voshaar, Richard Oude; Depla, Marja; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2013-01-01

    Information on which older adults attend mental health care and whether they profit from the care they receive is important for policy-makers. To assess this information in daily practice, the Mental health care Monitor Older adults (MEMO) was developed in the Netherlands. The aim of this paper is t

  16. Do oral health conditions adversely impact young adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Carvalho; H.D. Mestrinho; S. Stevens; A.J. van Wijk

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the extent to which clinically measured oral health conditions, adjusted for sociodemographic and oral health behavior determinants, impact adversely on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in a sample of Belgian young adults. The null hypothesis was that, among young

  17. Familism and Health Care Provision to Hispanic Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Brittany; Foli, Karen J; Edwards, Nancy E; Abrahamson, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The Hispanic older adult population's rapid growth calls for an awareness of values that can affect the rendering and receipt of care. Familism, or familismo, a traditional Hispanic value, places importance of family over the self and can potentially affect health care perceptions and practices for Hispanic older adults. The current article discusses familism, which is upheld by some Hispanic older adults, and the potential for underuse of health care services. The traditional feminine role, marianismo, and masculine role, machismo, are considered, as well as implications for how decision making may be made by family members rather than the patient. Clinical implications for the provision of health care to Hispanic older adults are provided, along with the importance of considering acculturation and ethnic heterogeneity. Health care management strategies that reflect recognition and respect of familism, yet emphasize optimization of adherence and self-care, are described. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Setting Overweight adults in motion: the role of health beliefs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MSc Annemieke van Nunen; PhD Rinie Geenen; PhD Ad Vingerhoets; MD E.J.M. Wouters

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Health beliefs of overweight adults who did and did not enter an exercise program were compared to identify possible factors that hamper people to increase physical exercise. Method: Participants (n = 116, 78 women and 38 men) were overweight adults without comorbidities. Self-report

  19. Setting Overweight adults in motion: the role of health beliefs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MSc Annemieke van Nunen; PhD Rinie Geenen; PhD Ad Vingerhoets; MD E.J.M. Wouters

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Health beliefs of overweight adults who did and did not enter an exercise program were compared to identify possible factors that hamper people to increase physical exercise. Method: Participants (n = 116, 78 women and 38 men) were overweight adults without comorbidities. Self-report inst

  20. Setting Overweight adults in motion: the role of health beliefs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Eveline; Nunen, Annemieke van; Vingerhoets, Ad; Geenen, Rinie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Health beliefs of overweight adults who did and did not enter an exercise program were compared to identify possible factors that hamper people to increase physical exercise. Method: Participants (n = 116, 78 women and 38 men) were overweight adults without comorbidities. Self-report inst

  1. Are Health Answers Online for Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, Mary K.; Jarosz, Patricia A.; Templin, Thomas N.

    2012-01-01

    The Internet has the potential for engaging urban seniors in managing their health. This study examined computer and Internet use among urban seniors and their interest in using the Internet as a health-management tool. Findings indicated that many participants were interested in storing and accessing health-related information using an…

  2. Disclosing personal health information relating to adults who lack capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard

    2014-03-01

    The need to share information about patients is vital to effective care and protection, especially where it relates to adults who lack decision-making capacity but it has to be balanced against the right to confidentiality. Like other health professionals, district nurses have a duty to maintain the confidentiality of patient information, and incapable adults have the right to expect their personal health information to be kept private. This right is guaranteed by the common-law duty of confidence, the Data Protection Act 1998 and the NHS Care Record Guarantee and confidentiality policy. This article discusses the district nurse's legal obligations when considering sharing information in relation to an incapable adult

  3. Becoming Adult from the Perspective of Psychological Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay Pekel Uludagli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the transition from adolescence to adulthood, individuals are expected to undertake a variety of role transitions. The adult roles and their contents have begun to change for both genders as a part of social, economic and cultural changes in the world. As women began to join to the work force more, men’s involvement in family life and childcare increased. Although having multiple roles causes conflict between the roles for both genders nowadays, being married and having children still seem to be related to better psychological health for today’s early adults. However, these positive effects of marriage disappear in conflicting and unhappy marriages; and these marriages, on the contrary, damage the health of individuals. In addition to the content, the timing of the roles is also related to the psychological health of individuals. As adults who undertake the roles early have a disadvantaged position in terms of psychological health, marital and family relations, on the other hand, adults who undertake these roles on-time and lately have better psychological health and life conditions. The aim of this review is to assess the effects of undertaking adult roles and its timing on individuals’ psychological health in today’s societies. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 263-283

  4. Mental health system historians: adults with schizophrenia describe changes in community mental health care over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Catherine H; Leith, Jaclyn E; Osborn, Lawrence A; Greenberg, Sarah; Petrowski, Catherine E; Jesse, Samantha; Kraus, Shane W; May, Michael C

    2015-03-01

    This qualitative study examined changes in community mental health care as described by adults diagnosed with schizophrenia with long-term involvement in the mental health system to situate their experiences within the context of mental health reform movements in the United States. A sample of 14 adults with schizophrenia who had been consumers of mental health services from 12 to 40 years completed interviews about their hospital and outpatient experiences over time and factors that contributed most to their mental health. Overall, adults noted gradual changes in mental health care over time that included higher quality of care, more humane treatment, increased partnership with providers, shorter hospital stays, and better conditions in inpatient settings. Regardless of the mental health reform era in which they were hospitalized, participants described negative hospitalization experiences resulting in considerable personal distress, powerlessness, and trauma. Adults with less than 27 years involvement in the system reported relationships with friends and family as most important to their mental health, while adults with more than 27 years involvement reported mental health services and relationships with professionals as the most important factors in their mental health. The sample did not differ in self-reported use of services during their initial and most recent hospitalization experiences, but differences were found in participants' reported use of outpatient services over time. Findings underscore the importance of the lived experience of adults with schizophrenia in grounding current discourse on mental health care reform.

  5. Dimensions of self-rated health in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borim, Flávia Silva Arbex; Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Francisco, Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between negative self-rated health and indicators of health, wellbeing and sociodemographic variables in older adults. METHODS Cross-sectional study that used data from a population-based health survey with a probability cluster sample that was carried out in Campinas, SP, Southeastern Brazil,, in 2008 and 2009. The participants were older adults (≥ 60 years) and the dependent variable was self-rated health, categorized as: excellent, very good, good, bad and very bad. The adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated by means of Poisson multiple regression. RESULTS The highest prevalences of bad/very bad self-rated health were observed in the individuals who never attended school, in those with lower level of schooling, with monthly per capita family income lower than one minimum salary. Individuals who scored five or more in the physical health indicator also had bad self-rated health, as well as those who scored five or more in the Self-Reporting Questionnaire 20 and those who did not refer feeling happiness all the time. CONCLUSIONS The independent effects of material life conditions, physical and mental health and subjective wellbeing, observed in self-rated health, suggest that older adults can benefit by health policies supported by a global and integrative view of old age. PMID:25372161

  6. Health Care Transition Experiences of Young Adults With Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Ellen McLaughlin

    2015-01-01

    Health care transition (HCT) describes the purposeful, planned movement of adolescents from child to adult-orientated care. The purpose of this qualitative study is to uncover the meaning of transition to adult-centered care as experienced by young adults with cerebral palsy (YA-CP) through the research question: What are the lived experiences of young adults with cerebral palsy transitioning from pediatric to adult healthcare? Six females and 3 males, aged 19-25 years of age, who identified as carrying the diagnosis of cerebral palsy without cognitive impairment, were interviewed. Giorgi's (1985) method for analysis of phenomenology was the framework for the study and guided the phenomenological reduction. The meaning of the lived experiences of YA-CPs transition to adult health care is expert novices with evidence and experience-based expectations, negotiating new systems interdependently and accepting less than was expected. More information and support is needed for the YA-CP during transition to ensure a well-organized move to appropriate adult-oriented health care that is considerate of the lifelong impact of the disorder. The nurses' role as advocate, mentor and guide can optimize the individual's response to the transition process.

  7. Religion and health-promoting behaviors among emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Shalonda E B

    2015-02-01

    Studies suggest we capitalize upon religion's health benefits to prevent obesity. The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to determine how emerging adults used religion to manage their health. Two focus groups were conducted among White and African American participants. Content analysis of the data revealed categories about their attitudes regarding parental and religious influences, religion's influence on behavior, negative health effects of religion, barriers, obesity prevention, and health promotion programs. Society sends out "easy" solutions for unhealthy behaviors, but we should focus on healthy behavior benefits, remove barriers, and consider religion's part in health promotion (obesity prevention).

  8. Seeing Health Insurance and HealthCare.gov Through the Eyes of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Charlene A; Asch, David A; Vinoya, Cjloe M; Ford, Carol A; Baker, Tom; Town, Robert; Merchant, Raina M

    2015-08-01

    We describe young adults' perspectives on health insurance and HealthCare.gov, including their attitudes toward health insurance, health insurance literacy, and benefit and plan preferences. We observed young adults aged 19-30 years in Philadelphia from January to March 2014 as they shopped for health insurance on HealthCare.gov. Participants were then interviewed to elicit their perceived advantages and disadvantages of insurance and factors considered important for plan selection. A 1-month follow-up interview assessed participants' plan enrollment decisions and intended use of health insurance. Data were analyzed using qualitative methodology, and salience scores were calculated for free-listing responses. We enrolled 33 highly educated young adults; 27 completed the follow-up interview. The most salient advantages of health insurance for young adults were access to preventive or primary care (salience score .28) and peace of mind (.27). The most salient disadvantage was the financial strain of paying for health insurance (.72). Participants revealed poor health insurance literacy with 48% incorrectly defining deductible and 78% incorrectly defining coinsurance. The most salient factors reported to influence plan selection were deductible (.48) and premium (.45) amounts as well as preventive care (.21) coverage. The most common intended health insurance use was primary care. Eight participants enrolled in HealthCare.gov plans: six selected silver plans, and three qualified for tax credits. Young adults' perspective on health insurance and enrollment via HealthCare.gov can inform strategies to design health insurance plans and communication about these plans in a way that engages and meets the needs of young adult populations. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vitamin K and bone health in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Krupa; Gleason, Lauren; Villareal, Dennis T

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin K is one of several nutrients that have been linked with bone health. In particular, there is an emerging literature regarding the questionable efficacy of vitamin K supplementation in reducing age-related bone loss. This review aims to summarize the role of vitamin K in bone health in older adults and discuss the clinical implications from a select few human studies. The evidence for vitamin K supplementation in older adults is mixed. Although the observational studies have shown linkages between vitamin K intake and lower risk of fractures in this population, the current evidence from randomized controlled trials is not strongly supportive of vitamin K supplementation in older adults for the intent of improving bone health.

  10. Senior Health: Older Adults and Newer Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... into plain language by Helen Osborne of Health Literacy Consulting Click here for optional PDF format. Requires Adobe Acrobat Reader . Many seniors, aged 65 and over, have diseases which cause disability. Some of these, such as diabetes, obesity, and severe peripheral vascular disease, can result ...

  11. The Healthy Ageing Model: health behaviour change for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potempa, Kathleen M; Butterworth, Susan W; Flaherty-Robb, Marna K; Gaynor, William L

    2010-01-01

    Proposed is a model of primary care for older adults with chronic health conditions that focuses on active engagement in health care. The Healthy Ageing Model is anchored in established theory on motivation and health behaviour change. The model draws on empirical and applied clinical underpinnings in such diverse areas as health promotion and education, treatment of addictions or obesity, management of chronic diseases, goal-setting, and coaching techniques. The conceptual foundation for the Healthy Ageing Model is described first, followed by a brief description of the key characteristics of the model. In conclusion, suggestions are offered for the clinical application and for further developing the model.

  12. Health literacy and nutrition behaviors among low-income adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, Katherine E; Messina, Lauren A; Munger, Ashley L; Grutzmacher, Stephanie K

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between health literacy and nutrition behaviors using a low-income sample. Face-to-face surveys at 11 social services offices generated a convenience sample of 154 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-eligible adults. We assessed health literacy, fruit and vegetable intake, food label use, consumption of healthy foods, and demographic characteristics. Thirty seven percent of the sample had adequate health literacy as measured by the Newest Vital Sign (NVS). Race and parenthood were significantly related to health literacy scores. Adequate health literacy, as measured by the NVS, was associated with frying chicken less often and eating the peels of fresh fruit more often. The findings suggest that health practitioners should ensure nutrition-related messages are accessible to all of their clients, especially those with the lowest health literacy levels.

  13. Chinese older adults' Internet use for health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carmen K M; Yeung, Dannii Y; Ho, Henry C Y; Tse, Kin-Po; Lam, Chun-Yiu

    2014-04-01

    Technological advancement benefits Internet users with the convenience of social connection and information search. This study aimed at investigating the predictors of Internet use to search for online health information among Chinese older adults. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was applied to examine the predictiveness of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and attitudes toward Internet use on behavioral intention to search for health information online. Ninety-eight Chinese older adults were recruited from an academic institute for older people and community centers. Frequency of Internet use and physical and psychological health were also assessed. Results showed that perceived ease of use and attitudes significantly predicted behavioral intention of Internet use. The potential influences of traditional Chinese values and beliefs in health were also discussed.

  14. Factors Influencing Adult Physical Health after Controlling for Current Health Conditions: Evidence from a British Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    This study explored a longitudinal data set of 6875 British adults examining the effects of parental social status (measured at birth), cognitive ability (at age 11 yrs), personality traits, education and occupational attainment on physical health and functioning (all measured at age 50 yrs), after taking account of current health conditions (number of illness). Correlation analysis showed that parental social class, childhood cognitive ability, education and occupation, and two personality traits (Emotional Stability/Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness) were all significantly associated with adult physical health variables. Structural equation modelling showed that health conditions and personality traits were significantly, and inversely, associated with physical health (indicated by good daily physical functioning, relative absence of pain, perceived health, and low level of limitations at work due to physical health). Parental social status, childhood intelligence, educational and occupational attainment were all modestly, but significantly and directly, associated with adult physical health. The effect of childhood intelligence on adult physical health was, in part, mediated through Emotional Stability and Conscientiousness. After controlling for health conditions Emotional Stability was the strongest predictor of physical health. Implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:23826090

  15. Factors influencing adult physical health after controlling for current health conditions: evidence from a british cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Cheng

    Full Text Available This study explored a longitudinal data set of 6875 British adults examining the effects of parental social status (measured at birth, cognitive ability (at age 11 yrs, personality traits, education and occupational attainment on physical health and functioning (all measured at age 50 yrs, after taking account of current health conditions (number of illness. Correlation analysis showed that parental social class, childhood cognitive ability, education and occupation, and two personality traits (Emotional Stability/Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness were all significantly associated with adult physical health variables. Structural equation modelling showed that health conditions and personality traits were significantly, and inversely, associated with physical health (indicated by good daily physical functioning, relative absence of pain, perceived health, and low level of limitations at work due to physical health. Parental social status, childhood intelligence, educational and occupational attainment were all modestly, but significantly and directly, associated with adult physical health. The effect of childhood intelligence on adult physical health was, in part, mediated through Emotional Stability and Conscientiousness. After controlling for health conditions Emotional Stability was the strongest predictor of physical health. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  16. Sleep characteristics of Veterans Affairs Adult Day Health Care participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jaime M; Martin, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Addressing sleep disturbance can help to slow functional decline, delay nursing home admission, and improve overall health among older adults; however, sleep is not widely studied in high-risk older adults such as Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) participants. Sixty-eight ADHC participants were interviewed for sleep disturbance using a 28-item screening questionnaire. More than two thirds (n = 48, 70.6%) reported one or more characteristics of poor sleep, and 38% of participants met basic criteria for insomnia. Individuals with insomnia attended ADHC less frequently, reported worse sleep quality and shorter sleep duration, and were more likely to endorse trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, and waking up too early (ps sleep disturbance within ADHC participants.

  17. Diabetes Literacy: Health and Adult Literacy Practitioners in Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes pedagogy in a series of "diabetes literacy" programs involving culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities. The programs were jointly delivered in local community sites, including neighbourhood centres and public housing halls, by qualified nutritionists from a public health service and adult literacy…

  18. The Health Status of Adults on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croen, Lisa A.; Zerbo, Ousseny; Qian, Yinge; Massolo, Maria L.; Rich, Steve; Sidney, Stephen; Kripke, Clarissa

    2015-01-01

    Compared to the general pediatric population, children with autism have higher rates of co-occurring medical and psychiatric illnesses, yet very little is known about the general health status of adults with autism. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of psychiatric and medical conditions among a large, diverse, insured…

  19. The Health Status of Adults on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croen, Lisa A.; Zerbo, Ousseny; Qian, Yinge; Massolo, Maria L.; Rich, Steve; Sidney, Stephen; Kripke, Clarissa

    2015-01-01

    Compared to the general pediatric population, children with autism have higher rates of co-occurring medical and psychiatric illnesses, yet very little is known about the general health status of adults with autism. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of psychiatric and medical conditions among a large, diverse, insured…

  20. Predictors of Health Care Costs in Adults With Diabetes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Todd P. Gilmer; Patrick J. O’Connor; William A. Rush; A. Lauren Crain; Robin R. Whitebird; Ann M. Hanson; Leif I. Solberg

    2005-01-01

    ...., La Jolla, CA 92093-0622. E-mail: tgilmer{at}ucsd.edu Abstract OBJECTIVE —The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of baseline A1c, cardiovascular disease, and depression on subsequent health care costs among adults with diabetes...

  1. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... : Program Director 200 Assistant administrator 150 Medical officer, director of nursing or equivalent 150... facility, States must meet the requirements of this section. (a) Each adult day health care program, when it is co-located in a nursing home, domiciliary, or other care facility, must have its own...

  2. Early-Childhood Poverty and Adult Attainment, Behavior, and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Kalil, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses the consequences of poverty between a child's prenatal year and 5th birthday for several adult achievement, health, and behavior outcomes, measured as late as age 37. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1,589) and controlling for economic conditions in middle childhood and adolescence, as well as demographic…

  3. Potential for intensive volunteering to promote the health of older adults in fair health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Jeremy S; Tan, Erwin J; Yu, Qilu; Song, Meilin; McGill, Sylvia; Fried, Linda P

    2009-07-01

    Volunteer service opportunities for older adults may soon be expanded. Although volunteering is thought to provide health benefits for healthier older adults, it is not known whether older adults in less than very good health are suitable candidates for high-intensity volunteering and can derive health benefits. This manuscript presents a prospective analysis of 174 older adult volunteers serving in Experience Corps Baltimore, a high-intensity senior volunteer program in Baltimore, Maryland. Volunteers served > or =15 h per week, for a full school year, in elementary schools helping children with reading and other skills between 1999 and 2002. Volunteers were assessed with standardized questionnaires and performance-based testing including grip strength, walking speed, chair stand speed, and stair-climbing speed prior to school volunteering and at the end of the school year. Results were stratified by health status. Among 174 volunteers, 55% initially reported "good" and 12% "fair" or "poor" health status. At baseline, those in fair health reported higher frequencies of disease and disability than volunteers in excellent or very good health. After volunteering, a majority of volunteers in every baseline health status category described increased strength and energy. Those in fair health were significantly more likely to display improved stair-climbing speed than those in good or excellent/very good health (100.0% vs. 53.4% vs. 37.5%, p = 0.05), and many showed clinically significant increases in walking speed of >0.5 m/s. Satisfaction and retention rates were high for all health status groups. Clinicians should consider whether their patients in fair or good health, as well as those in better health, might benefit from high-intensity volunteer programs. Productive activity such as volunteering may be an effective community-based approach to health promotion for older adults.

  4. The Effects of Parental Health Shocks on Adult Offspring Smoking Behavior and Self-Assessed Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Michael; Gilleskie, Donna

    2016-08-01

    An important avenue for smoking deterrence may be through familial ties if adult smokers respond to parental health shocks. In this paper, we merge the Original Cohort and the Offspring Cohort of the Framingham Heart Study to study how adult offspring smoking behavior and subjective health assessments vary with elder parent smoking behavior and health outcomes. These data allow us to model the smoking behavior of adult offspring over a 30-year period contemporaneously with parental behaviors and outcomes. We find strong 'like father, like son' and 'like mother, like daughter' correlations in smoking behavior. We find that adult offspring significantly curtail their own smoking following an own health shock; however, we find limited evidence that offspring smoking behavior is sensitive to parent health, with the notable exception that women significantly reduce both their smoking participation and intensity following a smoking-related cardiovascular event of a parent. We also model the subjective health assessment of adult offspring as a function of parent health, and we find that women report significantly worse health following the smoking-related death of a parent. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Social Network Types and Mental Health Among LGBT Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Bryan, Amanda E B; Muraco, Anna

    2017-02-01

    This study was designed to identify social network types among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults and examine the relationship between social network type and mental health. We analyzed the 2014 survey data of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,450) from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study. Latent profile analyses were conducted to identify clusters of social network ties based on 11 indicators. Multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the association between social network types and mental health. We found five social network types. Ordered from greatest to least access to family, friend, and other non-family network ties, they were diverse, diverse/no children, immediate family-focused, friend-centered/restricted, and fully restricted. The friend-centered/restricted (33%) and diverse/no children network types (31%) were the most prevalent. Among individuals with the friend-centered/restricted type, access to social networks was limited to friends, and across both types children were not present. The least prevalent type was the fully restricted network type (6%). Social network type was significantly associated with mental health, after controlling for background characteristics and total social network size; those with the fully restricted type showed the poorest mental health. Unique social network types (diverse/no children and friend-centered/restricted) emerge among LGBT older adults. Moreover, individuals with fully restricted social networks are at particular risk due to heightened health needs and limited social resources. This study highlights the importance of understanding heterogeneous social relations and developing tailored interventions to promote social connectedness and mental health in LGBT older adults. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Health promotion in young adults at a university in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Ji; Kim, Young-Oh; Lee, Jae-Young; Cho, BeLong; Lim, Chun Soo; Jung, Sung-Eun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Young adulthood is a critical developmental period for establishing life-long health behaviors. However, too little attention has been paid to young adult health promotion. The purpose of this study was to describe the processes of development and implementation involved in a collaborative university-wide health promotion program and to evaluate the achievements of the program. A 3-day university-wide health promotion program was developed and implemented in the nation's largest public university in South Korea in September 2013. Its objectives were to heighten health awareness, to promote healthy behaviors, especially active lifestyle and healthy diet, and to disseminate health knowledge, skills, and access to health resources among young people. The program comprised 14 health lectures, 12 events, and 25 booths. To monitor and evaluate the program, a cross-sectional postevent survey was conducted. A convenience sample of 625 university members who participated in the program was used. The statistics were analyzed with a general linear model and paired t test. The program evaluation demonstrated that this university-wide program effectively provided opportunities for students to access health information, knowledge, skills, self-confidence, and available health services and resources. Participants positively evaluated most of the processes of the program activities and services. Participants’ overall evaluation score (83% rated “excellent” or “good”) and reparticipation intention (86%) were high. The majority of participants reported increased awareness of health (80%) and the need for a university health promotion program (87%) after the program. Most of the evaluation scores were similarly high for health lectures and booths/events. In conclusion, the university-wide health promotion program was effective in improving university members’ health awareness and providing opportunities for students to access various health information and

  7. Challenges of improving oral health for adults in care homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Victoria

    2017-08-31

    In 2016 the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) published a guideline on oral health for adults in care homes in England. The author was a co-opted member of the NICE oral health for adults in care homes public health advisory committee. This article reviews the NICE guideline as it applies to care homes, and relates it to the results of a survey of oral care practice undertaken in a large care home organisation and the available research literature from the past 20 years. The literature and survey results suggest that, if translated into practice, the NICE guideline could do much to improve oral health for adults in care homes. The survey highlighted that 85% of residents required support from carers to undertake mouth care. It also found that care homes experienced significant difficulties in accessing dental services for residents. The author concludes that providers need to equip staff with the necessary knowledge and skills to undertake mouth care and to give this area of personal care greater priority. Finally, the author suggests that the Care Quality Commission could ensure that the NICE guideline is translated into practice in care homes.

  8. Adopting a Clinical Assessment Framework in Older Adult Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Lillian; Lee, Patience Anne; Au-Yeung, Andy T; Kucherova, Irina; Harrigan, MaryLou

    2016-07-01

    Obtaining new knowledge accepted and used by practitioners remains a slow process. A dearth of knowledge translation research exists that explores how to effectively move knowledge to practice in the field of older adult mental health. The current article reports findings of a knowledge translation study that examined what factors enabled the adoption of a new clinical assessment framework, P.I.E.C.E.S.™, into practice in an older adult tertiary mental health unit. Theoretical insights of appreciative inquiry were used to guide the study. Qualitative methods were used, including focus groups with 20 staff and individual interviews with three leaders. The appreciative inquiry approach helped researchers successfully facilitate knowledge translation. Enabling factors included: (a) fostering positive energy to make continuous improvement, (b) working with team members across disciplines at all levels, and (c) using knowledge translation tools to enable and sustain the new practice. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54 (7), 26-31.].

  9. [The health of adults undergoing an eviction process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolívar Muñoz, Julia; Bernal Solano, Mariola; Mateo Rodríguez, Inmaculada; Daponte Codina, Antonio; Escudero Espinosa, Cecilia; Sánchez Cantalejo, Carmen; González Usera, Isis; Robles Ortega, Humbelina; Mata Martín, José Luis; Fernández Santaella, M Carmen; Vila Castellar, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    To analyze perceived health status and other health-related indicators in the adult population in Granada (Spain) undergoing an eviction process from their homes, whether rented or owned, in comparison with health indicators in the general adult population in Andalusia. A cross-sectional survey was administered by trained staff. The survey included instruments from the Andalusian Health Survey 2011 for measuring variables related to physical and mental health, as well as health-related habits. We compared the results with those obtained from the Andalusian general population through the Andalusian Health Survey. A bivariate analysis using the χ2 test and a multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted. We obtained a total sample of 205 people in the process of eviction. A total of 59.5% (n=122) were women, and 40.5% (n=83) were men. Participants were more likely to have poor health (odds ratio [OR]: 12.63, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 8.74-18.27), have cardiovascular diseases (OR: 3.08; 95%CI: 1.54- 6.16), or to smoke (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.21-2.33) compared with the Andalusian general population. Most of the health indicators analyzed showed a worse outcome for women undergoing an eviction process. Our results suggest that, in the current context of economic crisis, people undergoing a process of eviction in Granada and its metropolitan area show poorer health than the Andalusian general population. Further research is needed on health and evictions from different methodological approaches, for a better understanding of the topic. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Sexual Health of Adolescents and Young Adults in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adolescents and Young Adults in the United States Sexual Health of Adolescents and Young Adults in the ... among teenagers and young adults in the U.S. Sexual Activity Nearly half (47%) of all high school ...

  11. Vitamin D and bone health in adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, Linda L; Judd, Suzanne E; Shah, Reshma; Sanyal, Rupan; Ziegler, Thomas R; Tangpricha, Vin

    2008-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients have chronic pancreatic insufficiency leading to malabsorption of fat-soluble vitamins, including vitamin D which can contribute to poor skeletal health and respiratory function. This study evaluated the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and its impact on bone and respiratory health in adults with CF. This was a retrospective study in which data were collected from medical records over a 2-year period. Data included patient demographics, lung function, biochemical data, bone mineral densities, X-rays and ascertainment of use of vitamin supplements. Data were collected from medical records at a single accredited CF Center. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and bone mineral density studies were also collected. A total of 185 adults with CF were identified with a mean age of 29 +/- 9 years. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency [25(OH)D vitamin D supplementation was protective against vitamin D insufficiency whereas use of multivitamins was not. There was a small, but significant, positive association between serum 25(OH)D and FEV(1) per cent predicted after controlling for age, gender, BMI and race (R(2) = 0.30, P vitamin D insufficiency and poor skeletal health is high in the US CF population. Vitamin D status appears to be positively associated with lung function. Prospective studies to examine the impact of correction of vitamin D insufficiency on skeletal and lung health in adult CF are warranted.

  12. Depression and health behaviors in Brazilian adults – PNS 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilisa Berti de Azevedo Barros

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of health-related behaviors according to presence and type of depression in Brazilian adults. METHODS Based on a sample of 49,025 adults (18 to 59 years from the National Survey on Health 2013 (PNS 2013, we estimated the prevalence of health-related behaviors (smoking; passive smoking; frequent or risky alcohol consumption; leisure time physical activity; time watching TV; and eating pattern indicators, according to the presence of depression (minor and major, evaluated by the Patient Health Questionnaire – 9 (PHQ-9, and the report of depressive mood (in up to seven days or more than seven days over a two-week period. Prevalence ratios were estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS Evaluated by the PHQ-9 scale, 9.7% of the Brazilian adults had depression and 3.9% presented major depression. About 21.0% reported depressive mood and, in 34.9% of them, that feeling has been present for more than seven days. In individuals with major depression (PHQ-9, higher prevalence was found in almost all unhealthy behaviors analyzed, in particular, smoking (PR = 1.65, passive smoking (PR = 1.55, risk alcohol consumption (PR = 1.72, TV for ≥ 5 hours/day (PR = 2.13, consumption of fat meat (PR = 1.43 and soft drink (PR = 1.42. The prevalence ratios tended to be lower in those with minor depression. Similar results were observed in adults with depressive mood. CONCLUSIONS This study detected relevant association between depression and health behaviors, in particular for smoking and physical activity. The associations found with the PHQ were similar to those observed with the application of a single question about depressive mood. Our results indicate the importance of assessing the presence of depression and the frequency and severity of symptoms when implementing actions for the promotion of healthy behaviors.

  13. Self-rated health: Importance of use in elderly adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mauricio Ocampo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The concept of self-rated health (SRH was conceived during the first half of the twentieth century. Since then, numerous studies have documented the validity of its measurement and it has been widely accepted as a reliable measurement of overall health. SRH is considered a subjective measurement integrating the biological, mental, social, and functional aspects of an individual.Objective: To review the literature to determine theoretical determinants, related outcomes, and utility of SRH in elderly adults (EAs.Methods: The databases reviewed were Medline, SciELO, EMBASE, Science Direct, Proquest, and Ovid, along with information available in websites from international health agencies.Results: SRH is considered a sensitive measurement of overall health in EAs. It is influenced by physical function, the presence of disease, the existence of disabilities, functional limitations, and by the rate of aging. Many studies suggest it may be modified by demographics, as well as by social and mental factors. Thus, the perception of health is the result of multiple and complex interactions of variables determining it at any given time. SRH is based on systems theory and the bio-psychosocial health model. It has proven to be a significant independent predictor for development of morbidity, mortality, and disability in basic physical and instrumental daily life activities among elderly adults.Conclusion: In addition to reflecting the overall health status of EAs, SRH can provide information to aid health personnel and decision makers in the development and implementation of health promotion and disease prevention programs, as well as the adequacy and planning of different levels of care for this population.

  14. Child physical abuse and adult mental health: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F; Blanco, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000-2001 and 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16-2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  15. Lifestyle and health conditions of adults with spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inacia Sátiro Xavier de França

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the lifestyle of adults with spinal cord injury and explore its relation with some health conditions. Methodology. Cross sectional study, in which a questionnaire containing sociodemographic, habits and health conditions variables was used. Forty-seven people with spinal cord injury participated and answered the self-report questionnaire. Results. The group under study was predominantly male (92%, under 40 years of age (47%, and had low educational level (76%. The most frequent risk factors related to the lifestyle were: smoking (28%, alcohol consumption (36%, coffee consumption (92% and being physically inactive (64%. Association was found between having four or more risk factors related to lifestyle and the loss of appetite, as well as constipation. Conclusion. The actual inadequate lifestyle is associated with the health conditions of patients, and the nursing team should pay special attention to the education and promotion of health related to people with spinal cord injury.

  16. Life and health satisfaction in the adult population of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daroudi, Rajabali; Rashidian, Arash; Zeraati, Hojjat; Oliyaeemanesh, Alireza; Akbari Sari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Increasing interest has emerged in the use of subjective well-being as a development indicator and for the evaluation of public policies. The aim of this study was to assess life and health satisfaction and their determinants in the adult population of Iran. We conducted a survey of a sample of 3,150 adults at least 18 years of age in Tehran, the capital of Iran. The subjects were selected using a stratified random sampling method, and they were interviewed face-to-face at their usual residence by trained interviewers. Life satisfaction was used as a measure of subjective well-being. We used ordinary least square regression models to assess the associations of life and health satisfaction with socio-demographic variables. On a 0-10 scale, the mean (standard deviation) scores for life and health satisfaction were 6.93 (2.54) and 7.18 (1.97), respectively. The average score for life satisfaction in females was 0.52 points higher than in males. A U-shaped relationship was found between age and life satisfaction, with respondents 35 to 44 years of age having the lowest average level of life satisfaction. Satisfaction with life and health among divorced respondents was significantly lower than among never-married and married participants. The scores for life satisfaction in respondents who rated their health status as poor were 3.83 points lower than in those who rated their health status as excellent. The majority of the population of Tehran was satisfied with their life and health. Self-rated health status had the greatest impact on life satisfaction.

  17. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....61 General requirements for adult day health care program. Adult day health care must be a... knowledge and skills necessary to manage care requirements in the home. Adult day health care is principally... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for...

  18. Do Sedentary Behaviors Modify the Health Status of Older Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth K. Lenz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests sedentary behavior (SB negatively impacts the health of adults but less is known about SB impact on older adult (OA health.  Seventy OA (73.4±6years living in the southeast region of Wisconsin, United States of America (USA completed three SB diaries and had risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD assessed. Sedentary behaviors were quantified as time spent in sitting/lying activities. Pearson correlation coefficients, independent samples t-tests, and one-way ANOVA were performed to explore the relationship between SB and health. Older adults engaged in 620.3±91.2mins/d of SB with television watching (144.3±99.8mins/d being the most prominent. Total SB and television watching were correlated to multiple risk factors for CVD (r=-.241-.415, p=.009-.027 and these variables worsened as OA spent more time in those activities. Television watching was the only SB that increased across risk categories of CVD [F (2,67 =4.158, p=.020, eta squared=.11]. These results suggest SB, especially television watching to be related to risk factors of CVD in OA.

  19. Use of Mobile Health Applications for Health-Seeking Behavior Among US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Soumitra S; Lu, Ning; Chandak, Aastha; Kim, Hyunmin; Wyant, David; Bhatt, Jay; Kedia, Satish; Chang, Cyril F

    2016-06-01

    This study explores the use of mobile health applications (mHealth apps) on smartphones or tablets for health-seeking behavior among US adults. Data was obtained from cycle 4 of the 4th edition of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 4). Weighted multivariate logistic regression models examined predictors of 1) having mHealth apps, 2) usefulness of mHealth apps in achieving health behavior goals, 3) helpfulness in medical care decision-making, and 4) asking a physician new questions or seeking a second opinion. Using the Andersen Model of health services utilization, independent variables of interest were grouped under predisposing factors (age, gender, race, ethnicity, and marital status), enabling factors (education, employment, income, regular provider, health insurance, and rural/urban location of residence), and need factors (general health, confidence in their ability to take care of health, Body Mass Index, smoking status, and number of comorbidities). In a national sample of adults who had smartphones or tablets, 36 % had mHealth apps on their devices. Among those with apps, 60 % reported the usefulness of mHealth apps in achieving health behavior goals, 35 % reported their helpfulness for medical care decision-making, and 38 % reported their usefulness in asking their physicians new questions or seeking a second opinion. The multivariate models revealed that respondents were more likely to have mHealth apps if they had more education, health insurance, were confident in their ability to take good care of themselves, or had comorbidities, and were less likely to have them if they were older, had higher income, or lived in rural areas. In terms of usefulness of mHealth apps, those who were older and had higher income were less likely to report their usefulness in achieving health behavior goals. Those who were older, African American, and had confidence in their ability to take care of their health were more likely to respond that the mHealth

  20. The Health Status and Unique Health Challenges or Rural Older Adults in California

    OpenAIRE

    Durazo, Eva; Jones, Melissa; Wallace,Steven; Van Arsdale, Jessica; Aydin, May; Stewart, Connie

    2011-01-01

    Despite living in the countryside where open space is plentiful and there is often significant agricultural production, rural older adults have higher rates of overweight/obesity, physical inactivity and food insecurity than older adults living in suburban areas. All three conditions are risk factors for heart disease, diabetes and repeated falls. This policy brief examines the health of rural elders and, by contrast, their urban counterparts, and finds that both groups lmost one in five Cali...

  1. Incentivizing health care behaviors in emerging adults: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu CH

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Catherine H Yu,1,2 Giuliana Guarna,1 Pamela Tsao,3 Jude R Jesuthasan,1 Adrian NC Lau,3,4 Ferhan S Siddiqi,1 Julie Anne Gilmour,3 Danyal Ladha,1 Henry Halapy,5 Andrew Advani1–3 1Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael’s Hospital, 2Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, St Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, 3Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 4Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University Health Network, 5Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Purpose: For emerging adults with chronic medical diseases, the transition from pediatric to adult health care is often a time of great upheaval, commonly associated with unhealthy self-management choices, loss to follow-up, and adverse outcomes. We conducted a systematic review to examine the use of incentive strategies to promote positive health-related behaviors in young adults with chronic medical diseases.Methods: The Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsycInfo, and Cochrane databases were searched through June 2014. Studies of any design where an incentive was used to achieve a target behavior or outcome in a pediatric or emerging adult population (age <30 years with chronic medical conditions including addictions, were included.Results: A total of 26 studies comprising 10,880 patients met our inclusion criteria after screening 10,305 abstracts and 301 full-text articles. Of these studies, 20 examined the effects of behavioral incentives on cigarette smoking or substance abuse, including alcohol; four studies explored behavioral incentives in the setting of HIV or sexual health; and two articles studied individuals with other chronic medical conditions. Seventeen articles reported a statistically significant benefit of the behavioral incentive on one or more outcomes, although only half reported follow-up after the incentive period was terminated.Conclusion: While the majority of

  2. Sexual health and older adults: suggestions for social science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliff, Sharron

    2016-11-01

    The body of evidence on older adults' sexual health is beginning to grow. However, it remains an under-researched area particularly within the social sciences. This viewpoint outlines four considerations for those who carry out social science research in this area: 1. defining the age category "older adults"; 2. being clear about the types of sex under research; 3. capturing a range of diverse voices; and 4. considering the use of qualitative research methods to explore the topic in depth. These suggestions are aimed at helping researchers to avoid some of the pitfalls of research in this area, as well as improving the evidence base in order to advance recognition of the issues and drive change in service provision.

  3. Periodic health evaluation of adults: a survey of family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckmann, R; Melville, S K

    1995-06-01

    The routine periodic health evaluation (PHE) is a popular format in primary care practice for the delivery of clinical preventive services to adults, but knowledge of the current pattern of use and of the content of the PHE is limited. We surveyed a random sample of 567 family physicians (response rate, 60.1%) in New England regarding their approach to and attitudes about the PHE of adults. Family physicians reported spending a mean of 35.2% (11.6 hours per week) of their total ambulatory care time on adult PHEs, which were usually scheduled for 20 to 30 minutes each. All respondents recommended a PHE to men > or = 50 years old and to women > or = 40 years old, and more than 90% recommended a PHE to younger patients. Most physicians (80.7%) reported that the PHE is their primary mechanism for delivering preventive services, and 90.6% believed that the PHE should include a comprehensive physical examination. The mean number of physical examination items performed during the PHE was 11.6 to 13.9, depending on patient age and sex. As part of the PHE, most physicians (71.6% to 90.7%, depending on patient age and sex) ordered one or more screening laboratory tests not recommended by the US Preventive Services Task Force. Utilization of fewer laboratory tests was associated with residency training, employment in a health maintenance organization (HMO), and limited concern about malpractice suits. Family physicians reported spending a substantial amount of time on the PHE of adults, performing extensive screening physical examinations and many screening laboratory tests of unknown effectiveness. Among family physicians, there is considerable unexplained variation in the form and content of the PHE.

  4. Cardiovascular and general health status of adults with Trisomy 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Samuel A; Kutty, Shelby; Thomas, Joshua; Johnson, Joyce T; Yetman, Anji T

    2017-08-15

    Patients with Trisomy 21 are now living well into adulthood. Little data exists to assist the cardiologist in the care of these patients. We sought to examine the cardiac and general health status of adults with Trisomy 21 undergoing cardiac evaluation. A retrospective review of all affected adults >21years followed at 2 tertiary care institutions was performed. Of 193 patients identified, median age was 31 (range 21.1-60.5) years. Cardiac surgery was performed in childhood in 127 with 30 patients who did not undergo surgery developing Eisenmenger syndrome. The remaining 36 patients did not warrant early surgical intervention. Six patients were lost to follow-up. Significant cardiac residua were present in 117 (62%). Arrhythmias were present in 53 (28%) with 15 having atrial fibrillation (8%). Non-cardiac comorbidities were common and included sleep apnea, pulmonary hypertension, thyroid dysfunction, thromboses and recurrent infections. Hospitalization in adulthood occurred in 58 patients (51%); pneumonia and cardiac related surgeries being the most common reasons for hospitalization. Average age of death (n=23) was 39.8±8.5years. Transition of care to an adult provider was uncommon occurring in 54 (27%) patients. On multivariate analysis, presence of younger age and absence of pulmonary hypertension were the sole predictors of survival for the group as a whole, as well as those patients without Eisenmenger syndrome. Adults with Trisomy 21 have frequent cardiac and non-cardiac co-morbidities. Cardiologists caring for these patients should be familiar with the adult acquired medical problems these patients encounter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Socioeconomic status and risky health behaviors in Croatian adult population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilić, Leta; Dzakula, Aleksandar

    2013-03-01

    Based on the previous research, there is strong association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and high morbidity and mortality rates. Even though association between SES and risky health behaviors as the main factors influencing health has been investigated in Croatian population, some questions are yet to be answered. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, smoking and excessive drinking in low, middle, and high socioeconomic group of adult Croatian population included in the cohort study on regionalism of cardiovascular health risk behaviors. We also investigated the association between SES measured by income, education and occupation, as well as single SES indicators, and risky health behaviors. We analyzed data on 1227 adult men and women (aged 19 and older at baseline) with complete data on health behaviors, SES and chronic diseases at baseline (2003) and 5-year follow up. Respondents were classified as being healthy or chronically ill. SES categories were derived from answers to questions on monthly household income, occupation and education by using two-step cluster analysis algorithm. At baseline, for the whole sample as well as for healthy respondents, SES was statistically significantly associated with unhealthy diet (whole sample/healthy respondents: p = 0.001), physical inactivity (whole sample/healthy respondents p = 0.44/ p = 0.007), and smoking (whole sample/healthy respondents p < 0.001/p = 0.002). The proportion of respondents with unhealthy diet was greatest in the lowest social class, smokers in the middle and physically inactive in the high social class. During the follow up, smoking and physical inactivity remained statistically significantly associated with SES. In chronically ill respondents, only smoking was statistically significantly associated with SES, at baseline and follow up (p = 0.001/p = 0.002). The highest share of smokers was in the middle social class. Results of our

  6. Older Adults' Perceptions of Physical Activity and Cognitive Health: Implications for Health Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Anna E.; Corwin, Sara J.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Montgomery, Kara M.

    2011-01-01

    Messages promoting physical activity (PA) to maintain cognitive health (CH) may increase PA and enhance CH among older persons. This study examined older adults' perceptions of PA and CH. We conducted 10 focus groups with irregularly active older Black and White women and men (N = 55), ages 65 to 74 in South Carolina. Constant comparison methods…

  7. Older Adults' Perceptions of Physical Activity and Cognitive Health: Implications for Health Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Anna E.; Corwin, Sara J.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Montgomery, Kara M.

    2011-01-01

    Messages promoting physical activity (PA) to maintain cognitive health (CH) may increase PA and enhance CH among older persons. This study examined older adults' perceptions of PA and CH. We conducted 10 focus groups with irregularly active older Black and White women and men (N = 55), ages 65 to 74 in South Carolina. Constant comparison methods…

  8. Linguistic Stereotyping in Older Adults' Perceptions of Health Care Aides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Donald; Coles, Valerie Berenice; Barnett, Joshua Trey

    2016-07-01

    The cultural and linguistic diversity of the U.S. health care provider workforce is expanding. Diversity among health care personnel such as paraprofessional health care assistants (HCAs)-many of whom are immigrants-means that intimate, high-stakes cross-cultural and cross-linguistic contact characterizes many health interactions. In particular, nonmainstream HCAs may face negative patient expectations because of patients' language stereotypes. In other contexts, reverse linguistic stereotyping has been shown to result in negative speaker evaluations and even reduced listening comprehension quite independently of the actual language performance of the speaker. The present study extends the language and attitude paradigm to older adults' perceptions of HCAs. Listeners heard the identical speaker of Standard American English as they watched interactions between an HCA and an older patient. Ethnolinguistic identities-either an Anglo native speaker of English or a Mexican nonnative speaker-were ascribed to HCAs by means of fabricated personnel files. Dependent variables included measures of perceived HCA language proficiency, personal characteristics, and professional competence, as well as listeners' comprehension of a health message delivered by the putative HCA. For most of these outcomes, moderate effect sizes were found such that the HCA with an ascribed Anglo identity-relative to the Mexican guise-was judged more proficient in English, socially superior, interpersonally more attractive, more dynamic, and a more satisfactory home health aide. No difference in listening comprehension emerged, but the Anglo guise tended to engender a more compliant listening mind set. Results of this study can inform both provider-directed and patient-directed efforts to improve health care services for members of all linguistic and cultural groups.

  9. Acceptability of mobile health interventions to reduce inactivity-related health risk in central Pennsylvania adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsiang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient physical activity and excessive sedentary behavior elevate health risk. Mobile applications (apps provide one mode for delivering interventions to modify these behaviors and reduce health risk. The purpose of this study was to characterize the need for and acceptability of health behavior interventions among rural adults and evaluate the interest in and the value of app-based interventions in this population. Central Pennsylvania adults with smartphones (N = 258 completed a brief web survey in October–November 2012. Most adults report one or both inactivity-related behavioral risk factors, would use a free app to modify those risk behaviors, and would pay a small amount for that app. Low-cost, efficacious apps to increase physical activity or reduce sedentary behavior should be promoted in public health practice. User experience should be at the forefront of this process to increase value and minimize burden in the service of long-term engagement, behavior change, and health risk reduction.

  10. "Love" and the mental health professions: toward understanding adult love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, S B

    1996-01-01

    This essay explores three aspects of the normal processes of adult-adult love: falling in love, being in love, and staying in love. It describes the emotions, defenses, and challenges inherent in each phase. Love is an ordinary but immensely powerful adult aspiration. As a term it is impossible to define in any singular sense. The attainment of its lofty purposes requires profound intrapsychic adjustments involving creative acts of imagination, the integration of ideals with reality, evolving adaptations to the partner, the maintenance of a positive internal image of the partner, and ongoing struggles to overcome self-interest. These adjustments have not been well characterized by the mental health professions. This is ironic since a large portion of our work involves caring for love's casualties--that is, people whose miseries relate to their inability to successfully negotiate the phases of love or whose happiness is limited by their partners who cannot. Six arguments for ending professional avoidance of the topic are offered, the most compelling of which are love's relevance to both the pathogenesis of mental suffering and to the art of psychotherapeutic healing.

  11. Harnessing the Web: How E-Health and E-Health Literacy Impact Young Adults' Perceptions of Online Health Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Rowena

    2015-12-31

    The rise of technology has changed how people take control of their health, enabling individuals to choose to live healthier lives and make better treatment decisions. With this said, the Internet has emerged as the channel used by individuals for actively seeking or passively receiving health information. To explore how young adults assess the quality of health information, and how they construct meaning of online health information in general. Through 50 in-depth interviews, this study aims to examine how and why young adults turn to the Web for health information, and what strategies they employ to ensure that they are getting credible information. A total of 50 in-depth interviews were conducted with young adults to explore how they make meaning of online health information. Depending on the geographic area of the participant, the interview took place face-to-face at a location convenient for them, over Skype, or over the telephone and lasted on average 40 minutes. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, fully retaining the speech style of the moderator and the participants. Data were analyzed using techniques from the grounded theory approach, using a constant comparative method to allow for themes to emerge from the transcripts. The participants shared several benefits to this mode of health information seeking, claiming that it made for more productive visits with doctors and made health information more readily accessible through a variety of different formats. Additionally, the participants demonstrated their e-health literacy levels by discussing how they assessed online health information, engaging in a series of strategies that encompassed different aspects of e-health literacy. Social media channels were brought up by the participants as relatively new tools that can be used to assist in the seeking, understanding, and sharing of health information. However, participants also cautioned about the use of social media in regards to its informal nature

  12. Barriers and facilitators of Hispanic older adult mental health service utilization in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Erin De; Woods-Giscombe, Cheryl L; Beeber, Linda S

    2015-01-01

    Mental health providers in the USA encounter the challenge and opportunity to engage the rapidly growing population of Hispanic older adults in evidence-based mental health treatments. This population underutilizes mental health services, despite comparable or slightly higher rates of mental illness compared with non-Hispanic White older adults. This review identified barriers and facilitators of mental health service use by Hispanic older adults in the USA to identify practice, policy, and research implications. Hispanic older adults face multiple compounding barriers to mental health service use. Issues related to identification of needs, availability of services, accessibility of services, and acceptability of mental healthcare treatment are discussed.

  13. [Management of adult secondary insomnia in primary health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavadas, Luís Filipe; Ribeiro, Lúcia

    2011-01-01

    Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in adults, with secondary insomnia being the most prevalent. This sleep disorder is associated with important medical and social consequences. The General Practitioner (GP) plays a key role in the diagnosis of insomnia, which may affect about 69% of their patients in the PHC (Primary Health Care). Recognize the differential diagnosis of secondary insomnia in adults, evaluate and manage these patients in the PHC, appropriately use the treatments available and meet the criteria for referral. Bibliographic search in MEDLINE databases, and evidence based review databases, using the MeSH terms: Primary Health Care, Sleep Disorders, Insomnia, for articles published since January 2000 until July 2009, in English, Portuguese, French and Spanish. Index de Revistas Médicas Portuguesas and scientific societies dedicated to sleep disorders were searched. Mood and anxiety disorders are the main co-morbidities associated with secondary insomnia, being present in 30% to 50% of patients with insomnia. The medical pathology and substance abuse are present respectively in 10% of patients. It is essential a proper clinical history, with a history of sleep, sleep diary and the partner information. There is evidence that the combination of specific pharmacological treatments (benzodiazepines and the benzodiazepine receptor agonists) with the nonpharmacological (cognitive-behavioral therapy) may be useful in secondary insomnia, as co-adjuvant treatment of the underlying disease. There are several treatment options with their indications and adverse effects. The criteria for referral should be defined according to the availability of human resources. Due to the high prevalence and the serious consequences of secondary insomnia in adults, it must be systematically managed by the GP. It is important to know and to use non-pharmacological therapy in GP consultation, because this therapy was shown to be important in treating this type of insomnia

  14. Health risk behaviors among young adults with spina bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soe, Minn M; Swanson, Mark E; Bolen, Julie C; Thibadeau, Judy K; Johnson, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    AIM Persons with spina bifida who adopt unhealthy lifestyles could be at increased risk of adverse health outcomes because the presence of spina bifida may magnify this risk. We estimated overall and age-specific prevalence of selected health risk behaviors (HRBs) in young people with spina bifida and examined the association between HRBs and depression. METHOD We performed analyses on data obtained from individuals with spina bifida (n=130; mean age 23y SD 4y 5mo; 64 males, 66 females; 64% lumbosacral lesion; 77% with shunt) who participated in a population-based survey conducted by the Arkansas Spinal Cord Commission in 2005. RESULTS Compared with national estimates, young people with spina bifida tend to eat less healthy diets, do less exercise, and engage inmore sedentary activities. Respondents were less likely to use substances (alcohol, tobacco, illegal drugs), which peaked among 25 to 31 year olds. About 90% saw a doctor in the previous year. Nearly one half reported mild or major depressive symptoms. In the logistic regression analysis after controlling for potential confounders (age, sex, ethnic group, education, employment, marital status, living arrangement, level of lesion, presence of shunt, mobility, self-rated health and healthcare utilization), major depressive symptoms were associated with current alcohol drinking (adjusted odds ratio: 4.74; 95% CI 1.18–19.04). INTERPRETATION Young adults with spina bifida exhibit unhealthy behaviors that continue into their late 20s. The findings highlight the need to increase awareness of their health risk profiles in the spina bifida community and show opportunities for mental health and health risk screening and counseling by healthcare providers. PMID:22937873

  15. Pathways from childhood abuse and other adversities to adult health risks: The role of adult socioeconomic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child abuse, have been linked with poor health outcomes in adulthood. The mechanisms that explain these relations are less understood. This study assesses whether associations of ACEs and health risks are mediated by adult socioeconomic conditions, and whether these pathways are different for maltreatment than for other types of adversities. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012 survey (N=29,229), we employ structural equation modeling to (1) estimate associations of the number and type of ACEs with five health risks-depression, obesity, tobacco use, binge drinking, and self-reported sub-optimal health; and (2) assess whether adult socioeconomic conditions-marriage, divorce and separation, educational attainment, income and insurance status-mediate those associations. Findings suggest both direct and indirect associations between ACEs and health risks. At high numbers of ACEs, 15-20% of the association between number of ACEs and adult health risks was attributable to socioeconomic conditions. Associations of three ACEs (exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce, and residing with a person who was incarcerated) with health risks were nearly entirely explained by socioeconomic conditions in adulthood. However, child physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were significantly associated with several adult health risks, beyond the effects of other adversities, and socioeconomic conditions explained only a small portion of these associations. These findings suggest that the pathways to poor adult health differ by types of ACEs, and that childhood abuse is more likely than other adversities to have a direct impact.

  16. The Need for Health Promotion for Adults Who Are Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capella-McDonnall, Michele

    2007-01-01

    Health promotion interventions for adults who are visually impaired have received little attention. This article reports what is currently known about the health, overweight and obesity, and levels of physical activity reported by these adults. Conclusions about the need for health promotion activities based on this information are provided, and…

  17. An Investigation of the Relationship between Health Literacy and Social Communication Skills in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Eva Jackson

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine connections between health literacy and social communication skills in older adults, a population that experiences chronic health conditions but is reported to have low health literacy and declines in communication skills. Sixty-three older adults were administered the "Social Communication" subtest of the…

  18. An Investigation of the Relationship between Health Literacy and Social Communication Skills in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Eva Jackson

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine connections between health literacy and social communication skills in older adults, a population that experiences chronic health conditions but is reported to have low health literacy and declines in communication skills. Sixty-three older adults were administered the "Social Communication"…

  19. Health and Social Functioning of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Lisa; McCarthy, Jane; Tsakanikos, Elias; Howlin, Patricia; Bouras, Nick; Craig, Tom K. J.

    2012-01-01

    There is little information on the mental health needs of adults with intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Such evidence is much needed for the development of more effective mental health services for this group. The aim of this study is to compare adults with ID and ASD receiving specialist mental health services…

  20. The Associations between Health Literacy, Reasons for Seeking Health Information, and Information Sources Utilized by Taiwanese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mi-Hsiu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the associations between health literacy, the reasons for seeking health information, and the information sources utilized by Taiwanese adults. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 752 adults residing in rural and urban areas of Taiwan was conducted via questionnaires. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were used for…

  1. The Associations between Health Literacy, Reasons for Seeking Health Information, and Information Sources Utilized by Taiwanese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mi-Hsiu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the associations between health literacy, the reasons for seeking health information, and the information sources utilized by Taiwanese adults. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 752 adults residing in rural and urban areas of Taiwan was conducted via questionnaires. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were used for…

  2. Self-Esteem, Oral Health Behaviours, and Clinical Oral Health Status in Chinese Adults: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Luzy Siu-Hei; Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This is an exploratory study to examine the relations among self-esteem, oral health behaviours and clinical oral health status in Chinese adults. In addition, gender differences in clinical oral health status and oral health behaviours were explored. Methods: Participants were 192 patients from a private dental clinic in Hong Kong…

  3. Self-Esteem, Oral Health Behaviours, and Clinical Oral Health Status in Chinese Adults: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Luzy Siu-Hei; Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This is an exploratory study to examine the relations among self-esteem, oral health behaviours and clinical oral health status in Chinese adults. In addition, gender differences in clinical oral health status and oral health behaviours were explored. Methods: Participants were 192 patients from a private dental clinic in Hong Kong…

  4. Research Priorities to Advance the Health and Health Care of Older Adults with Multiple Chronic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisminetzky, Mayra; Bayliss, Elizabeth A; Magaziner, Jay S; Allore, Heather G; Anzuoni, Kathryn; Boyd, Cynthia M; Gill, Thomas M; Go, Alan S; Greenspan, Susan L; Hanson, Leah R; Hornbrook, Mark C; Kitzman, Dalane W; Larson, Eric B; Naylor, Mary D; Shirley, Benjamin E; Tai-Seale, Ming; Teri, Linda; Tinetti, Mary E; Whitson, Heather E; Gurwitz, Jerry H

    2017-07-01

    To prioritize research topics relevant to the care of the growing population of older adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs). Survey of experts in MCC practice, research, and policy. Topics were derived from white papers, funding announcements, or funded research projects relating to older adults with MCCs. Survey conducted through the Health Care Systems Research Network (HCSRN) and Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Centers (OAICs) Advancing Geriatrics Infrastructure and Network Growth Initiative, a joint endeavor of the HCSRN and OAICs. Individuals affiliated with the HCSRN or OAICs and national MCC experts, including individuals affiliated with funding agencies having MCC-related grant portfolios. A "top box" methodology was used, counting the number of respondents selecting the top response on a 5-point Likert scale and dividing by the total number of responses to calculate a top box percentage for each of 37 topics. The highest-ranked research topics relevant to the health and healthcare of older adults with MCCs were health-related quality of life in older adults with MCCs; development of assessment tools (to assess, e.g., symptom burden, quality of life, function); interactions between medications, disease processes, and health outcomes; disability; implementation of novel (and scalable) models of care; association between clusters of chronic conditions and clinical, financial, and social outcomes; role of caregivers; symptom burden; shared decision-making to enhance care planning; and tools to improve clinical decision-making. Study findings serve to inform the development of a comprehensive research agenda to address the challenges relating to the care of this "high-need, high-cost" population and the healthcare delivery systems responsible for serving it. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  5. Haemophilia Joint Health Score in healthy adults playing sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluiter, D; Foppen, W; de Kleijn, P; Fischer, K

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate outcome of prophylactic clotting factor replacement in children with haemophilia, the Haemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS) was developed aiming at scoring early joint changes in children aged 4-18. The HJHS has been used for adults on long-term prophylaxis but interpretation of small changes remains difficult. Some changes in these patients may be due to sports-related injuries. Evaluation of HJHS score in healthy adults playing sports could improve the interpretation of this score in haemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the HJHS scores in a cohort of young, healthy men participating in sports. Concomitant with a project collecting MRI images of ankles and knees in normal young adults, HJHS scores were assessed in 30 healthy men aged 18-26, participating in sports one to three times per week. One physiotherapist assessed their clinical function using the HJHS 2.1. History of joint injuries was documented. MRI images were scored by a single radiologist, using the International Prophylaxis Study Group additive MRI score. Median age of the study group was 24.3 years (range 19.0-26.4) and median frequency of sports activities was three times per week (range 1-4). Six joints (five knees, one ankle) had a history of sports-related injury. The median overall HJHS score was 0 out of 124 (range 0-3), with 60% of subjects showing no abnormalities on HJHS. All joints were normal on MRI. These results suggest that frequent sports participation and related injuries are not related with abnormalities in HJHS scores.

  6. Data resource profile: the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Naidoo, Nirmala; Biritwum, Richard; Fan, Wu; Lopez Ridaura, Ruy; Maximova, Tamara; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Williams, Sharon; Snodgrass, J Josh; Minicuci, Nadia; D'Este, Catherine; Peltzer, Karl; Boerma, J Ties

    2012-12-01

    Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with nationally representative samples of persons aged 50+ years in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, with a smaller sample of adults aged 18-49 years in each country for comparisons. Instruments are compatible with other large high-income country longitudinal ageing studies. Wave 1 was conducted during 2007-2010 and included a total of 34 124 respondents aged 50+ and 8340 aged 18-49. In four countries, a subsample consisting of 8160 respondents participated in Wave 1 and the 2002/04 World Health Survey (referred to as SAGE Wave 0). Wave 2 data collection will start in 2012/13, following up all Wave 1 respondents. Wave 3 is planned for 2014/15. SAGE is committed to the public release of study instruments, protocols and meta- and micro-data: access is provided upon completion of a Users Agreement available through WHO's SAGE website (www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/sage) and WHO's archive using the National Data Archive application (http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata).

  7. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Agnes N.; Kondrup, Jens; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000-2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were...... between all-cause mortality risk and protein intake per se; suggestive for an inverse relationship between cardiovascular mortality and vegetable protein intake; inconclusive for relationships between cancer mortality and cancer diseases, respectively, and protein intake; inconclusive for a relationship...... between cardiovascular diseases and total protein intake; suggestive for an inverse relationship between blood pressure (BP) and vegetable protein; probable to convincing for an inverse relationship between soya protein intake and LDL cholesterol; inconclusive for a relationship between protein intake...

  8. WHO’s oral health assessment questionnaire for adult: psychometric properties of the Arabic version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Khoshnevisan

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion The results of this study prove that, the Arabic version of the WHO Oral Health Survey Questionnaire is reliable instrument to be used for oral health evaluation of adults among Arabic speaking populations.

  9. A Systematic Review of Osteoporosis Health Beliefs in Adult Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine M. McLeod; Johnson, C. Shanthi

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis is major public health concern affecting millions of older adults worldwide. A systematic review was carried out to identify the most common osteoporosis health beliefs in adult men and women from descriptive and intervention studies. The Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS) and Osteoporosis Self-efficacy Scale (OSES) evaluate osteoporosis health beliefs, including perceived susceptibility and seriousness, benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy of calcium and exercise, and heal...

  10. Health profile for Danish adults with activity limitation and/or physical disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Nina Føns; Davidsen, Michael; Juel, Knud

    proportion of Danish adults with activity limitation and/or physical disabilities experiences a good health and well-being, a larger proportion has an unhealthy lifestyle, poor social relations and uses the health care system frequently, as compared to adults without activity limitation and/or physical...... limitation and/or disabilities have a poor health and social contact. Availability and flexibility of health care services and prevention programs should be prioritized....

  11. Behavioral health in young adults with epilepsy: Implications for transition of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Janelle L; Wilson, Dulaney A; Kellermann, Tanja; Smith, Gigi; Malek, Angela M; Wannamaker, Braxton; Selassie, Anbesaw W

    2016-12-01

    Neurodevelopmental and behavioral health disorders commonly occur with epilepsy, yet risk for young adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution and risk characteristics of neurodevelopmental and behavior health comorbidities among young adults with epilepsy compared with those among young adults with migraine and healthy controls. A case-control study examining hospital admission, outpatient, and emergency department (ED) visits for young adults with an ICD-9-CM diagnosis of epilepsy, migraine, or lower extremity fracture (LEF) was conducted. The association of epilepsy, migraine, or LEF with comorbidities was evaluated with univariate and multivariate polytomous logistic regression. From 2000 to 2013, 29,139 young adults ages 19 to 25years were seen in hospitals and EDs for epilepsy (5666), migraine (17,507), or LEF (5966). Young adults with epilepsy had higher proportions of behavioral health comorbidities (51.8%) compared with controls with migraine (37.6%) or LEF (21.6%). In young adults with epilepsy compared with migraine, the increased risk of having any behavioral health comorbidity was 76%, and neurodevelopmental comorbidity was 297%. After adjustment, young adults with epilepsy showed significantly higher odds of each behavioral health comorbidity compared with controls with migraine and LEF. Young adults with epilepsy are particularly susceptible to behavioral health and neurodevelopmental disorders. Results are discussed within the context of transition to adult care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Investing in the health and well-being of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Clare; Walker, Leslie R; Davis, Maryann; Irwin, Charles E

    2015-02-01

    Contrary to popular perception, young adults-ages approximately 18-26 years-are surprisingly unhealthy. They are less healthy than adolescents, and they also show a worse health profile than those in their late 20s and 30s. The Affordable Care Act provisions to extend coverage for young adults are well known, and some states had already been pursuing similar efforts before the Affordable Care Act was enacted. These initiatives have resulted in important gains in young adults' heath care coverage. However, too little attention has been paid to the care that young adults receive once they are in the system. Given young adults' health problems, this is a critical omission. The Institute of Medicine and National Research Council recently released a report titled Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults. The report concludes that young adulthood is a critical developmental period and recommends that young adults ages 18-26 years be treated as a distinct subpopulation in policy, planning, programming, and research. The report also recommends action in three priority areas to improve health care for young adults: improving the transition from pediatric to adult medical and behavioral health care, enhancing preventive care for young adults, and developing evidence-based practices. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of mercury health risks to adults from coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.; DePhillips, M.P.; Viren, J.; Saroff, L.

    1994-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is preparing, for the U.S. Congress, a report evaluating the need to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from electric utilities. This study, to be completed in 1995, will have important health and economic implications. In support of these efforts, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to evaluate methylmercury (MeHg) hazards independently. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical 1000 MW{sub e} coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. The approach draws on the extant knowledge in each of the important steps in the calculation chain from emissions to health effects. Estimated results at key points in the chain were compared with actual measurements to help validate the modeled estimates. Two cases were considered: the baseline case (no local impacts), and the impact case (maximum local power-plant impact). The BNL study showed that the effects of emissions of a single power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized area near the power plant. Many implicit and explicit sources of uncertainty exist in this analysis. Those that appear to be most in need of improvement include data on doses and responses for potentially sensitive subpopulations (e.g., fetal exposures). Rather than considering hypothetical situations, it would also be preferable to assess the risks associated with actual coal-fired power plants and the nearby sensitive water bodies and susceptible subpopulations. Finally, annual total Hg emissions from coal burning and from other anthropogenic sources are still uncertain; this makes it difficult to estimate the effects of U.S. coal burning on global Hg concentration levels, especially over the long term.

  14. Differences of oral health conditions between adults and older adults: A census in a Southern Brazilian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscato, Noeli; Schuch, Helena S; Grasel, Claudia E; Goettems, Marilia L

    2016-09-01

    To assess differences in the oral diseases/conditions between adults and older adults. A cross-sectional study was carried out with all adults and older adults in Luzerna, South Brazil (n = 569). Clinical data included use of and need for dental prostheses; number of decayed, missing and filled teeth; and temporomandibular disorder. Differences between adults and older adults were evaluated using χ(2) -tests. Associations between independent variables and the use of and need for dental prostheses were determined using Poisson regression analyses (P adults. After adjustments, lower social class (P = 0.001) and unmarried status (P = 0.05) were associated with greater need for prosthetic rehabilitation. Women (P = 0.02), older individuals (P adults and older adults was observed. The frequency of use of and need for dental prostheses was higher for older adults, although they had reported lower frequency of temporomandibular disorder. Women, married and individuals of higher socioeconomic status showed better oral health conditions. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 1014-1020. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. Oral health: locus of control, health behavior, self-rated oral health and socio-demographic factors in Istanbul adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, Kadriye; Bermek, Gulcin

    2011-01-01

    To determine oral health control beliefs of Istanbul adults using the Multidimensional Oral Health Locus of Control Scale (MOHLCS) after confirming its factorial validity and to examine the relationships between these beliefs, self-rated oral health, oral health behaviors and socio-demographic factors. The MOHLCS was administered to a sample of 1200 subjects aged ≥18 years in Istanbul chosen using a quota-sampling method (response 88%). The relationship between the MOHLCS and oral health behaviors, self-rated oral health and socio-demographic factors was assessed after confirming the factorial validity of the MOHLCS. The MOHLCS demonstrated satisfactory internal reliability. Factor analysis results showed a new four-factor solution, namely Internal, Dentist, Chance, and Socialization agents. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender, younger age, higher socioeconomic status, more frequent daily toothbrushing, and regular dental check-ups were associated with higher Internal beliefs, while older age, lower educational level, lower socioeconomic status, low toothbrushing frequency, and symptom-orientated dental attendance were associated with higher Chance beliefs. Being unmarried and low toothbrushing frequency were associated with lower Dentist beliefs. Males and older subjects had lower Socialization agents beliefs. Internal, Dentist and Chance beliefs were significantly associated with self-rated oral health. Compared with the original factor structure, the new factor structure had better goodness of fit for this sample. Self-rated oral health, socio-demographic factors, and oral health behaviors were significantly associated with oral health control beliefs. These beliefs may be useful for planning oral health promotion programs and for formulating advice given by oral health professionals about their patients' oral health behaviors.

  16. Older adult mental health: Teaching senior-level baccalaureate nursing students what they need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, William J; Bradway, Christine K; Aselage, Melissa

    2010-07-01

    Within the older adult population, certain idiosyncratic aspects of mental illness add to the challenges of helping clients manage these disorders. Older adults are more likely than younger populations to experience physiologically based comorbidities, a dynamic that further strains coping capacities. Barriers to the provision of comprehensive mental health nursing care for older adults include myths and stigmas about aging and mental health. Nurse educators are challenged to move students toward a more positive, empirically based approach to the care of older adults' mental health. In this article, background information supporting the importance of working to improve students' knowledge of and attitudes toward mental illness in older adults is provided. Specific teaching strategies in the areas of older adult mental health, dementia, and delirium are discussed. Resources to support the incorporation of these strategies into nursing curricula are described.

  17. Implementation of Health Promotion in the Older Adults in Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assantachai, Prasert; Bunnag, Chaweewan; Piya-Anant, Manee; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2006-01-01

    Effective strategies that bring health promotion messages to older adults in a developing country are needed. To evaluate the impact of various education media upon changes in knowledge and health behavior, a double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted involving 1,268 older adults in a southwest Bangkok suburb. Group teaching…

  18. High Blood Pressure in Adults with Disabilities: Influence of Gender, Body Weight and Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Chien-Ting; Liou, Shih-Wen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the mean and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and to examine the influence of gender, body weight and health behaviors on hypertension in adults with disabilities. We analyzed the 2010 annual community health examination chart of adults with disabilities in east Taiwan. The study samples…

  19. General health checks in adults for reducing morbidity and mortality from disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Lasse T; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Grønhøj Larsen, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    To quantify the benefits and harms of general health checks in adults with an emphasis on patient-relevant outcomes such as morbidity and mortality rather than on surrogate outcomes.......To quantify the benefits and harms of general health checks in adults with an emphasis on patient-relevant outcomes such as morbidity and mortality rather than on surrogate outcomes....

  20. Health-related quality of life in adult survivors of childhood sarcoidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Svendsen, Claus Bo; Hoffmann, Anne Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To describe health-related quality of life (hrQOL) in adult subjects who had sarcoidosis in childhood. METHODS: Forty-six children (24 boys), all ethnic Danes......AIM: To describe health-related quality of life (hrQOL) in adult subjects who had sarcoidosis in childhood. METHODS: Forty-six children (24 boys), all ethnic Danes...

  1. Referral Trends in Mental Health Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakanikos, Elias; Sturmey, Peter; Costello, Helen; Holt, Geraldine; Bouras, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Researchers have paid increasing attention to mental health issues in adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) over the last decades. However, little is known about how rates of clinical referrals, types of mental health diagnoses and treatment in adults with ASDs and intellectual disability have changed. We examined patterns of change in…

  2. The association between health literacy and self-management abilities in adults aged 75 and older, and its moderators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geboers, Bas; de Winter, Andrea F.; Spoorenberg, Sophie L. W.; Wynia, Klaske; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2016-01-01

    Low health literacy is an important predictor of poor health outcomes and well-being among older adults. A reason may be that low health literacy decreases older adults' self-management abilities. We therefore assessed the association between health literacy and self-management abilities among adult

  3. Young, uninsured, and seeking change: health coverage of young adults and their views on health reform. Findings from the Commonwealth fund Survey of Young Adults (2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Jennifer L; Collins, Sara R

    2009-12-01

    Young adults are one of the largest uninsured segments of the population. This analysis of new survey data from The Commonwealth Fund finds almost half are without insurance at some time during the year. As they hit milestones like high school or college graduation, they face loss of coverage as they are dropped from parents' plans or public insurance programs. In the current economic climate, young adults are less likely to find jobs, and when they do, are frequently offered positions that come without benefits. Provisions in the health reform bills could help young adults by expanding Medicaid eligibility, creating a health insurance exchange with premium subsidies, and requiring insurers and employers to allow young adults to remain on parents' plans up to age 26 or 27. These provisions could help young adults obtain and keep affordable, comprehensive coverage through transitions from school to work and from job to job.

  4. A Study of the Psychosocial Profile of the Health Promoting Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Barbara L; Greenberg, Jerrold S.

    1991-01-01

    Researchers developed a profile of health promoting adults by surveying 830 health promoting individuals. Results highlighted psychosocial variables most strongly associated with health promoting behavior: total self-concept, physical self, moral-ethical self, self-satisfaction, behavior, and chance health locus of control. Demographic variables…

  5. Cognition and Health Literacy in Older Adults' Recall of Self-Care Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jessie; Madison, Anna; Gao, Xuefei; Graumlich, James F; Conner-Garcia, Thembi; Murray, Michael D; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L; Morrow, Daniel G

    2017-04-01

    Health literacy is associated with health outcomes presumably because it influences the understanding of information needed for self-care. However, little is known about the language comprehension mechanisms that underpin health literacy. We explored the relationship between a commonly used measure of health literacy (Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults [STOFHLA]) and comprehension of health information among 145 older adults. Results showed that performance on the STOFHLA was associated with recall of health information. Consistent with the Process-Knowledge Model of Health Literacy, mediation analysis showed that both processing capacity and knowledge mediated the association between health literacy and recall of health information. In addition, knowledge moderated the effects of processing capacity limits, such that processing capacity was less likely to be associated with recall for older adults with higher levels of knowledge. These findings suggest that knowledge contributes to health literacy and can compensate for deficits in processing capacity to support comprehension of health information among older adults. The implications of these findings for improving patient education materials for older adults with inadequate health literacy are discussed.

  6. Depression and health behaviors in Brazilian adults - PNS 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; Lima, Margareth Guimarães; Azevedo, Renata Cruz Soares de; Medina, Lhais Barbosa de Paula; Lopes, Claudia de Souza; Menezes, Paulo Rossi; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of health-related behaviors according to presence and type of depression in Brazilian adults. Based on a sample of 49,025 adults (18 to 59 years) from the National Survey on Health 2013 (PNS 2013), we estimated the prevalence of health-related behaviors (smoking; passive smoking; frequent or risky alcohol consumption; leisure time physical activity; time watching TV; and eating pattern indicators), according to the presence of depression (minor and major), evaluated by the Patient Health Questionnaire - 9 (PHQ-9), and the report of depressive mood (in up to seven days or more than seven days) over a two-week period. Prevalence ratios were estimated by Poisson regression. Evaluated by the PHQ-9 scale, 9.7% of the Brazilian adults had depression and 3.9% presented major depression. About 21.0% reported depressive mood and, in 34.9% of them, that feeling has been present for more than seven days. In individuals with major depression (PHQ-9), higher prevalence was found in almost all unhealthy behaviors analyzed, in particular, smoking (PR = 1.65), passive smoking (PR = 1.55), risk alcohol consumption (PR = 1.72), TV for ≥ 5 hours/day (PR = 2.13), consumption of fat meat (PR = 1.43) and soft drink (PR = 1.42). The prevalence ratios tended to be lower in those with minor depression. Similar results were observed in adults with depressive mood. This study detected relevant association between depression and health behaviors, in particular for smoking and physical activity. The associations found with the PHQ were similar to those observed with the application of a single question about depressive mood. Our results indicate the importance of assessing the presence of depression and the frequency and severity of symptoms when implementing actions for the promotion of healthy behaviors. Avaliar a prevalência de comportamentos relacionados à saúde segundo a presença e tipo de depressão em adultos brasileiros. Com base em amostra de 49

  7. Do childhood and adult socioeconomic circumstances influence health and physical function in middle-age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Madsen, Mia; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie;

    2009-01-01

    , respectively and health in midlife, measured as limitations in running 100 m, poor dental status, poor self-rated health, and fatigue. In both datasets, men with low childhood or adult social class had a higher risk of being unable to run 100 m, having poor dental status, having poor self-rated health...... effects on the estimates for childhood social class, but attenuated the effect of adult social class somewhat. Among male twin pairs discordant on adult social class, the twin in the lowest class seemed to be unable to run 100 m, rate own health poorer and being fatigued more often than the high class co...

  8. Age and Socioeconomic Gradients of Health of Indian Adults: An Assessment of Self-Reported and Biological Measures of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Uttamacharya; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes overall socioeconomic gradients and the age patterns of socioeconomic gradients of health of Indian adults for multiple health indicators encompassing the multiple aspects of health. Cross-sectional data on 11,230 Indians aged 18 years and older from the WHO-SAGE India Wave 1, 2007 were analyzed. Multivariate logit models were estimated to examine effects of socioeconomic status (education and household wealth) and age on four health domains: self-rated health, self-reported functioning, chronic diseases, and biological health measures. Results show that socioeconomic status (SES) was negatively associated with prevalence of each health measure but with considerable heterogeneity across age groups. Results for hypertension and COPD were inconclusive. SES effects are significant while adjusting for background characteristics and health risk factors. The age patterns of SES gradient of health depict divergence with age, however, no conclusive age pattern emerged for biological markers. Overall, results in this paper dispelled the conclusion of negative SES-health association found in some previous Indian studies and reinforced the hypothesis of positive association of SES with health for Indian adults. Higher prevalence of negative health outcomes and SES disparities of health outcomes among older age-groups highlight need for inclusive and focused health care interventions for older adults across socioeconomic spectrum.

  9. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Mental Health of Adult Population: Serbian National Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santric-Milicevic, Milena; Jankovic, Janko; Trajkovic, Goran; Terzic-Supic, Zorica; Babic, Uros; Petrovic, Marija

    2016-01-01

    Background: The global burden of mental disorders is rising. In Serbia, anxiety is the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years. Serbia has no mental health survey at the population level. The information on prevalence of mental disorders and related socioeconomic inequalities are valuable for mental care improvement. Aims: To explore the prevalence of mental health disorders and socioeconomic inequalities in mental health of adult Serbian population, and to explore whether age years and employment status interact with mental health in urban and rural settlements. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: This study is an additional analysis of Serbian Health Survey 2006 that was carried out with standardized household questionnaires at the representative sample of 7673 randomly selected households – 15563 adults. The response rate was 93%. A multivariate logistic regression modeling highlighted the predictors of the 5 item Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5), and of chronic anxiety or depression within eight independent variables (age, gender, type of settlement, marital status and self-perceived health, education, employment status and Wealth Index). The significance level in descriptive statistics, chi square analysis and bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions was set at p<0.05. Results: Chronic anxiety or depression was seen in 4.9% of the respondents, and poor MHI-5 in 47% of respondents. Low education (Odds Ratios 1.32; 95% confidence intervals=1.16–1.51), unemployment (1.36; 1.18–1.56), single status (1.34; 1.23–1.45), and Wealth Index middle class (1.20; 1.08–1.32) or poor (1.33; 1.21–1.47) were significantly related with poor MHI-5. Unemployed persons in urban settlements had higher odds for poormMHI-5 than unemployed in rural areas (0.73; 0.59–0.89). Single (1.50; 1.26–1.78), unemployed (1.39; 1.07–1.80) and inactive respondents (1.42; 1.10–1.83) had a higher odds of chronic anxiety or depression than married

  10. e-Health technologies for adult hearing screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Stenfelt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of hearing diagnosis methods and hearing screening methods are not isolated phenomena: they are intimately related to changes in the cultural background and to advances in fields of medicine and engineering. In the recent years, there has been a rapid evolution in the development of fast, easy and reliable techniques for lowcost hearing screening initiatives. Since adults and elderly people typically experience a reduced hearing ability in challenging listening situations [e.g., in background noise, in reverberation, or with competing speech (Pichora‑Fuller & Souza, 2003], these newly developed screening tests mainly rely on the recognition of speech stimuli in noise, so that the real experienced listening difficulties can be effectively targeted (Killion & Niquette, 2000. New tests based on the recognition of speech in noise are being developed on portable, battery- operated devices (see, for example, Paglialonga et al., 2011, or distributed diffusely using information and communication technologies. The evolutions of e-Health and telemedicine have shifted focus from patients coming to the hearing clinic for hearing health evaluation towards the possibility of evaluating the hearing status remotely at home. So far, two ways of distributing the hearing test have primarily been used: ordinary telephone networks (excluding mobile networks and the internet. When using the telephone network for hearing screening, the predominantly test is a speech-in-noise test often referred to as the digit triplet test where the subjects hearing status is evaluated as the speech-to-noise threshold for spoken digits. This test is today available in some ten countries in Europe, North America and Australia. The use of internet as testing platform allows several different types of hearing assessment tests such as questionnaires, different types of speech in noise tests, temporal gap detection, sound localization (minimum audible angle, and spectral

  11. Relationship between massage therapy usage and health outcomes in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Niki; Zanjani, Faika

    2011-04-01

    Physical and emotional decline in older adults is a serious issue affecting not only quality of life but also susceptibility to injury. Non-pharmacological interventions addressing the needs of older adults are important for reducing medication burden and possible drug interactions. This study (N=144) examines the potential of massage therapy as such an intervention for older adults by comparing self-reported health outcome scores among adults 60 and older who have and have not utilized massage therapy in the past year. When controlling for age and cumulative morbidities, older adults who reported massage therapy usage in the past year had significantly better health outcome scores in the following domains: 1) emotional well-being, 2) limitations due to physical issues, and 3) limitations due to emotional issues. Because previous massage therapy research has not included or focused on older adults, studies examining massage therapy and emotional health, specifically among this population, are warranted.

  12. The utility of childhood and adolescent obesity assessment in relation to adult health

    OpenAIRE

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.; Rubinfeld, Rachel E.; Bhattacharya, Jay; Robinson, Thomas N.; Wise, Paul H

    2012-01-01

    The high prevalence of childhood obesity has raised concerns regarding long-term patterns of adult health and has generated calls for obesity screening of young children. This study examined patterns of obesity and the predictive utility of obesity screening for children of different ages in terms of adult health outcomes. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the Population Study of Income Dynamics, and National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Surveys, we estimated the sensitivity...

  13. Understanding the Health Literacy of America Results of the National Assessment of Adult Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Cutilli, Carolyn Crane; Bennett, Ian M.

    2009-01-01

    Health literacy refers to an individual’s ability to understand healthcare information to make appropriate decisions (S. C Ratzen & R. M. Parker, 2000). Healthcare professionals are obligated to make sure that patients understand information to maximize the benefits of healthcare. The National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) provides information on the literacy/health literacy levels of the U.S. adult population. The NAAL is the only large-scale survey of health literacy. The results of t...

  14. Understanding the Health Literacy of America Results of the National Assessment of Adult Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Cutilli, Carolyn Crane; Bennett, Ian M.

    2009-01-01

    Health literacy refers to an individual’s ability to understand healthcare information to make appropriate decisions (S. C Ratzen & R. M. Parker, 2000). Healthcare professionals are obligated to make sure that patients understand information to maximize the benefits of healthcare. The National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) provides information on the literacy/health literacy levels of the U.S. adult population. The NAAL is the only large-scale survey of health literacy. The results of t...

  15. Health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization among homeless young adults in Venice, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winetrobe, H; Rice, E; Rhoades, H; Milburn, N

    2016-03-01

    Homeless young adults are a vulnerable population with great healthcare needs. Under the Affordable Care Act, homeless young adults are eligible for Medicaid, in some states, including California. This study assesses homeless young adults' health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization prior to Medicaid expansion. All homeless young adults accessing services at a drop-in center in Venice, CA, were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire; 70% of eligible clients participated (n = 125). Within this majority White, heterosexual, male sample, 70% of homeless young adults did not have health insurance in the prior year, and 39% reported their last healthcare visit was at an emergency room. Past year unmet healthcare needs were reported by 31%, and financial cost was the main reported barrier to receiving care. Multivariable logistic regression found that homeless young adults with health insurance were almost 11 times more likely to report past year healthcare utilization. Health insurance coverage is the sole variable significantly associated with healthcare utilization among homeless young adults, underlining the importance of insurance coverage within this vulnerable population. Service providers can play an important role by assisting homeless young adults with insurance applications and facilitating connections with regular sources of health care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Stories through the Camera - A Photovoice Community Health Assessment about the Impacts of Neighbourhood on Chinese Immigrant Older Adults' Health

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Danny

    2016-01-01

    A growing public health literature indicates that neighbourhood environment plays an important role in older adults’ health. However, investigation on neighbourhood health impacts on Chinese immigrant older adults – a growing socially marginalized population in Canada – is currently missing. This study helps to fill this gap by exploring the multiple dimensions on how neighbourhood environmental factors affect Chinese immigrant older adults’ different health aspects. The purpose of this study...

  17. Oral health-related quality of life in Swedish young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Gunvi; Östberg, Anna-Lena

    2015-01-01

    The living conditions of young adults in Sweden have changed during the last decades due to the economic and employment situation in society. Although oral health is mainly considered to be good in this age group, their use of dental care has decreased and their priorities and opportunities regarding oral health are little known. The purpose of this study was to describe the views of Swedish young adults on their oral health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). The design of the study was qualitative, using content analysis. Sixteen young adults, aged 21-29 years, were interviewed. The findings from the interviews were summarized under the theme "Young adults reflected on their OHRQoL in a time perspective" consisting of three categories: "Past experiences, Present situation, and Future prospects." The OHRQoL of young adults is dependent not only on their own experiences of oral health during childhood and their received dental care but also on their present self-perceived oral health, oral health habits, and social life; together with their expectations of future oral health. The findings in this study indicate that the oral health awareness and needs of young adults, as well as their expectations of oral care, merit further follow-up.

  18. Oral health-related quality of life in Swedish young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunvi Johansson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The living conditions of young adults in Sweden have changed during the last decades due to the economic and employment situation in society. Although oral health is mainly considered to be good in this age group, their use of dental care has decreased and their priorities and opportunities regarding oral health are little known. The purpose of this study was to describe the views of Swedish young adults on their oral health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL. The design of the study was qualitative, using content analysis. Sixteen young adults, aged 21–29 years, were interviewed. The findings from the interviews were summarized under the theme “Young adults reflected on their OHRQoL in a time perspective” consisting of three categories: “Past experiences, Present situation, and Future prospects.” The OHRQoL of young adults is dependent not only on their own experiences of oral health during childhood and their received dental care but also on their present self-perceived oral health, oral health habits, and social life; together with their expectations of future oral health. The findings in this study indicate that the oral health awareness and needs of young adults, as well as their expectations of oral care, merit further follow-up.

  19. Knowledge and Attitude about Reproductive Health and Family Planning among Young Adults in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed S. A. Masood

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Yemeni government is focusing more attention on the needs of youth to ensure a healthy transition to adulthood. This is critical because adolescent population (ages 15–24 of 3.35 million will double in just 20 years. Young adults often lack basic knowledge about reproductive health and family planning. Objectives. To determine reproductive health and family planning knowledge and attitude among young adults aged 15 to 25+ years. Method. Sample study was taken from Marie Stopes International in Yemen which was conducted from March to July 2013 on the reproductive health age 15–49 years. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were employed. Results. Majority had heard about reproductive health and family planning and encouraged its methods. Television, relatives, and radio were major sources of information. Adults with higher education tend to have more awareness about health services. Knowledge about health services and family planning methods among older adults was significant, and adults in Belqees Club were more likely to have high empowerment scores for family planning methods. Conclusion. The level of knowledge about health services for reproductive health and family planning and its methods was low to moderate. The introduction of contraceptives remains a challenge in Yemen because the educational reproductive health is weak in Yemeni schools or health institutes or universities. Information about reproductive health and family planning should be provided to adolescents through medical schools curricula.

  20. Health-care access among adults with epilepsy: The U.S. National Health Interview Survey, 2010 and 2013✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, David J.; Kobau, Rosemarie; Luo, Yao-Hua; Helmers, Sandra L.; Zack, Matthew M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Community-based and other epidemiologic studies within the United States have identified substantial disparities in health care among adults with epilepsy. However, few data analyses addressing their health-care access are representative of the entire United States. This study aimed to examine national survey data about adults with epilepsy and to identify barriers to their health care. Materials and methods We analyzed data from U.S. adults in the 2010 and the 2013 National Health Interview Surveys, multistage probability samples with supplemental questions on epilepsy. We defined active epilepsy as a history of physician-diagnosed epilepsy either currently under treatment or accompanied by seizures during the preceding year. We employed SAS-callable SUDAAN software to obtain weighted estimates of population proportions and rate ratios (RRs) adjusted for sex, age, and race/ethnicity. Results Compared to adults reporting no history of epilepsy, adults reporting active epilepsy were significantly more likely to be insured under Medicaid (RR = 3.58) and less likely to have private health insurance (RR = 0.58). Adults with active epilepsy were also less likely to be employed (RR = 0.53) and much more likely to report being disabled (RR = 6.14). They experience greater barriers to health-care access including an inability to afford medication (RR = 2.40), mental health care (RR = 3.23), eyeglasses (RR = 2.36), or dental care (RR = 1.98) and are more likely to report transportation as a barrier to health care (RR = 5.28). Conclusions These reported substantial disparities in, and barriers to, access to health care for adults with active epilepsy are amenable to intervention. PMID:26627980

  1. Use of hospital-based services among young adults with behavioral health diagnoses before and after health insurance expansions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meara, Ellen; Golberstein, Ezra; Zaha, Rebecca; Greenfield, Shelly F; Beardslee, William R; Busch, Susan H

    2014-04-01

    Young adults have high levels of behavioral health needs but often lack health insurance. Recent health reforms have increased coverage, but it is unclear how use of hospital-based care changed after expanding insurance. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between health insurance coverage expansions and use of hospital-based care among young adults with behavioral health diagnoses. Quasi-experimental analyses of community hospital inpatient and emergency department use from 2003-2009 based on hospital discharge data, comparing differential changes in service use among young adults with behavioral health diagnoses in Massachusetts vs other states before and after Massachusetts' 2006 health reform. This population-based sample included inpatient admissions (n = 2,533,307, representing 12,821,746 weighted admissions across 7 years) nationwide and emergency department visits (n = 6,817,855 across 7 years) from Maryland and Massachusetts for 12- to 25-year-old patients. Inpatient admission rates per 1000 population for primary diagnosis of any behavioral health disorder by diagnosis; emergency department visit rates per 1000 population by behavioral health diagnosis; and insurance coverage for hospital discharges. After 2006, uninsurance among 19- to 25-year-old individuals in Massachusetts decreased from 26% to 10% (16 percentage points; 95% CI, 13-20). Young adults experienced relative declines in inpatient admission rates of 2.0 per 1000 for primary diagnoses of any behavioral health disorder (95% CI, 0.95-3.2), 0.38 for depression (95% CI, 0.18-0.58), and 1.3 for substance use disorder (95% CI, 0.68-1.8). The increase in emergency department visits with any behavioral health diagnosis after 2006 was lower among young adults in Massachusetts compared with Maryland (16.5 per 1000; 95% CI, 11.4-21.6). Among young adults in Massachusetts, the percentage of behavioral health discharges that were uninsured decreased by 5.0 (95% CI, 3.0-7.2) percentage points in

  2. Health risks and changes in self-efficacy following community health screening of adults with serious mental illnesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A Cook

    Full Text Available Physical health screenings were conducted by researchers and peer wellness specialists for adults attending publicly-funded community mental health programs. A total of 457 adults with serious mental illnesses attended health fairs in 4 U.S. states and were screened for 8 common medical co-morbidities and health risk factors. Also assessed were self-reported health competencies, medical conditions, and health service utilization. Compared to non-institutionalized U.S. adults, markedly higher proportions screened positive for obesity (60%, hypertension (32%, diabetes (14%, smoking (44%, nicotine dependence (62%, alcohol abuse (17%, drug abuse (11%, and coronary heart disease (10%. A lower proportion screened positive for hyperlipidemia (7%. Multivariable random regression analysis found significant pre- to post-screening increases in participants' self-rated abilities for health practices, competence for health maintenance, and health locus of control. Screening identified 82 instances of undiagnosed diabetes, hypertension or hyperlipidemia, and 76 instances where these disorders were treated but uncontrolled. These results are discussed in the context of how this global public health approach holds promise for furthering the goal of integrating health and mental health care.

  3. [Developmental origins of adult health and disease: an important concept for social inequalities in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, M-A

    2013-08-01

    According to the theory of the developmental origins of adult health and disease, development in utero and in the first years of life are critical phases during which susceptibility to many chronic diseases is set. Diseases eventually occur only if the environment and lifestyle in later life is favorable. Exposure to chemicals (environmental or drug), to infectious agents, unbalanced nutrition, or psychosocial stress prenatally or in the first months/years of life are all factors which have been shown to impact long-term health of individuals. The consequences, however, are not limited to health. A demonstrative example was provided by the study of the influenza epidemic of 1918-1919 in the United States. Nationwide, it was estimated that the loss of income over a lifetime for individuals exposed during fetal life to this epidemic amounted to 14 billion dollars. This example demonstrates that an exposure during fetal life, which is not socially differentiated, may affect the social situation of individuals in adulthood. In many situations, it is much more difficult to separate the specific effect of a given exposure from the overall effect of the social environment. Indeed, it has been shown that socioeconomic status in childhood is associated with increased risk of mortality in adulthood, even after accounting for the socioeconomic status and risky behaviors in adulthood. Among the explanations, the theory of developmental origins of health credits of biological plausibility the model of critical periods early in which the individual is particularly vulnerable to certain exposures. Thus, ensuring the best conditions for the biological, physical, emotional and cognitive development of children in early life will enable them to reach their potential in terms of health and socioeconomic return to society. Investment in this period also brings the hope of reducing the perpetuation of social inequalities and health from generation to generation.

  4. Personal factors predictive of health-related lifestyles of community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Catipon, Terry; Hwang, Jengliang Eric

    2011-01-01

    We explored personal factors that can predict health-related lifestyles of community-dwelling older adults. A convenience sample of 253 older adults was recruited to complete the Health Enhancement Lifestyle Profile (HELP), a comprehensive measure of health-promoting behaviors. Data were analyzed through univariate correlational/comparative statistics followed by stepwise multiple regression analysis to determine significant predictor variables for different aspects of health-related lifestyle. Personal health conditions, including the number of chronic diseases or impairments and self-rated health, were two strong predictors for the HELP (R2 = .571, p Leisure). When developing individualized plans for older adults in community settings, occupational therapists should consider the clients' strengths and vulnerabilities potentially derived from personal health factors and demographic attributes to yield more effective lifestyle interventions.

  5. A path analysis of Internet health information seeking behaviors among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sun Ju; Im, Eun-Ok

    2014-01-01

    The Internet has emerged as an innovative tool that older adults can use to obtain health-related information. However, the relationships among predictors of Internet health information seeking behaviors (IHISB) in this population are not well understood. To fill this gap, this study examined the direct and indirect pathways of potential predictors of IHISB among older South Korean adults, using the modified Technology Acceptance Model 3. Participants were 300 older South Korean adults who had used the Internet to obtain health information within the past month. Data were collected via a self-report questionnaire and were analyzed through structural equation modeling. Two variables-prior experience and behavioral intention to use-had positive direct effects on IHISB. These findings imply that health care providers promoting IHISB among older adults should consider these individuals' prior experience with the Internet and their willingness to use the Internet as a source of health information.

  6. Using social media to engage adolescents and young adults with their health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Charlene A.; Merchant, Raina M.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the potential of social media related to the health of adolescent and young adults, who are nearly ubiquitous social media users but difficult to engage with their health and relatively low healthcare utilizers. Opportunities to better engage adolescents and young adults through social media exist in healthcare delivery, health education and health policy. However, challenges remain for harnessing social media, including making a clear value proposition and developing evidence-based frameworks for measuring the impact of social media on health. PMID:25984444

  7. Change in health literacy over 2 years in older adults with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Nancy S; Maclean, Charles D; Littenberg, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of health literacy in adults with diabetes over time. Understanding the dynamic nature of health literacy is important when tailoring health messages, especially those targeted at the management of chronic health conditions. This was a descriptive longitudinal study of 751 adults with diabetes randomly selected from primary care practices in the Vermont Diabetes Information System study between July 2003 and December 2007. Participants were interviewed and completed questionnaires upon entrance into the study and again 24 months later. Health literacy was measured with the Short Test for Functional Health Literacy of Adults. Participants also completed the SF-12 and the Self-Administered Comorbidity Questionnaire and self-reported their sex, income, education, marital status, race/ethnicity, health insurance, duration of diabetes, and problems with vision. A significant decrease in health literacy was noted over 24 months. The largest decrease was in adults ≥65 years of age and those with higher physical function at baseline. Smaller declines were noted for women and participants who were white, higher educated, poly-pharmacy users, and with fair to excellent vision. Health literacy exhibits decline with increasing age among adults with diabetes. Individual variability in health literacy has implications for the best timing and approach to provide self-management education and support.

  8. Channels of health communications used among Korean and Asian Indian older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Seon

    2010-01-01

    According to Healthy People 2010, health communication is an important tool to reduce health disparities. Communication channels in which people prefer to receive health information may differ by race/ethnicity. One of the main challenges in designing an effective health communication program is to identify the most trusted and most often used channels of health information by Asian older adults. The aim of this study is to determine which health communication channels can be used to promote healthy lifestyles among older adults. A non-probability, convenience-sampling technique was used to recruit Korean (n = 9) and Asian Indian (n = 9) older adults from two senior centers in New York City. The findings from the two focus groups identified three distinct channels used by Asian older adults when obtaining health information: interpersonal (i.e., health care providers, word of mouth), mass media (i.e., ethnic mass media sources), and community specific (i.e., religious organizations, community centers). Health communication is an important area for prevention. Increased efforts are needed to develop culturally appropriate health messages and equally important to deliver these messages in the context in which Asian older adults trust and use the most.

  9. [Hypothyroidism in adults in a basic health area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Macías, I; Hidalgo-Requena, A; Pérez-Membrive, E; González-Rodríguez, M E; Bellido-Moyano, C; Pérula-de Torres, L A

    2017-08-29

    The objective of the present study is to study the prevalence, as well as the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of hypothyroid disease in adults using the computerised clinical records. Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study. The target population was the patients of the health centres of Lucena I and II (Córdoba). Patients 14 years or older, diagnosed with hypothyroidism, born and resident in Lucena. Two hundred and fourteen patients were recruited by random sampling, who then underwent a clinical interview using a questionnaire. The mean age of the patients was 49.71 years (SD 17.03; 95% CI 47.34-51.98), with 85.5% women. A diagnosis of sub-clinical hypothyroidism was found in 74.8%, compared to 18.7% of primary hypothyroidism, and 6.5% of secondary hypothyroidism. The 53.7% (95% CI 46.81-60.59) of patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism did not have thyroid antibodies results. However, 75.2% (95% CI 68.89-80.86) were being treated with levothyroxine. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was 5.7% (95% CI 5.46-5.96). Sub-clinical hypothyroidism is very common in Primary Care clinics. Many patients are not correctly diagnosed and many are over-medicated, suggesting a need to review the diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Health Insurance Status and Psychological Distress among US Adults Aged 18-64 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Brian W; Martinez, Michael E

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between psychological distress and aspects of health insurance status, including lack of coverage, types of coverage and disruption in coverage, among US adults. Data from the 2001-2010 National Health Interview Survey were used to conduct analyses representative of the US adult population aged 18-64 years. Multivariate analyses regressed psychological distress on health insurance status while controlling for covariates. Adults with private or no health insurance coverage had lower levels of psychological distress than those with public/other coverage. Adults who recently (≤1 year) experienced a change in health insurance status had higher levels of distress than those who had not recently experienced a change. An interaction effect indicated that the relationship between recent change in health insurance status and distress was not dependent on whether an adult had private versus public/other coverage. However, for adults who had not experienced a change in status in the past year, the average absolute level of distress is higher among those with no coverage versus private coverage. Although significant relationships between psychological distress and health insurance status were identified, their strength was modest, with other demographic and health condition covariates also being potential sources of distress. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Exploring the Health Needs of Aging LGBT Adults in the Cape Fear Region of North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Noell L; Beyer, Kelsey

    2017-06-22

    This study explored issues of culturally sensitive healthcare practice and needs among lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender aging adults in coastal North Carolina. Survey data results indicated the largest problem was a history of verbally harassment and need for culturally sensitive healthcare. In conclusion, culturally sensitive interventions are needed to address the health disparities and unique needs of LGBT aging adults. Cultural sensitivity training for service providers is suggested as a vital step in addressing health disparities of aging LGBT adults. Implications for research include further exploration of health related needs of these often hidden and underserved population groups.

  12. Older adult social participation and its relationship with health: Rural-urban differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsang, Eric M

    2016-11-01

    In an aging world, there is increased need to identify places and characteristics of places that promote health among older adults. This study examines whether there are rural-urban differences in older adult social participation and its relationship with health. Using the 2003 and 2011 waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (n=3006), I find that older adults living in rural counties are less socially active than their counterparts in more-urban counties. I also find that relationships between social participation and health vary by the type of activity and rural-urban context.

  13. Urinary incontinence, mental health and loneliness among community-dwelling older adults in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stickley, Andrew; Santini, Ziggi Ivan; Koyanagi, Ai

    2017-01-01

    Background Urinary incontinence (UI) is associated with worse health among older adults. Little is known however, about its relation with loneliness or the role of mental health in this association. This study examined these factors among older adults in Ireland. Methods Data were analyzed from...... frequency of UI and activity limitations due to UI were both significantly associated with loneliness prior to adjustment for mental disorders, neither association remained significant after adjustment for both depression and anxiety. Conclusion UI is associated with higher odds for loneliness among older...... community-dwelling adults but this association is largely explained by comorbid mental health problems, in particular, depression....

  14. Transitioning Adolescents and Young Adults With Sickle Cell Disease From Pediatric to Adult Health Care: Provider Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollon, Natalie B; Paine, Christine W; Lucas, Matthew S; Brumley, Lauren D; Poole, Erika S; Peyton, Tamara; Grant, Anne W; Jan, Sophia; Trachtenberg, Symme; Zander, Miriam; Bonafide, Christopher P; Schwartz, Lisa A

    2015-11-01

    The transition from pediatric to adult health care is often challenging for adolescents and young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Our study aimed to identify (1) measures of success for the transition to adult health care; and (2) barriers and facilitators to this process. We interviewed 13 SCD experts and asked them about their experiences caring for adolescents and young adults with SCD. Our interview guide was developed based on Social-Ecological Model of Adolescent and Young Adult Readiness to Transition framework, and interviews were coded using the constant comparative method. Our results showed that transition success was measured by health care utilization, quality of life, and continuation on a stable disease trajectory. We also found that barriers to transition include negative experiences in the emergency department, sociodemographic factors, and adolescent skills. Facilitators include a positive relationship with the provider, family support, and developmental maturity. Success in SCD transition is primarily determined by the patients' quality of relationships with their parents and providers and their developmental maturity and skills. Understanding these concepts will aid in the development of future evidence-based transition care models.

  15. Cost Estimation of a Health-Check Intervention for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, R.; Knapp, M.; Morrison, J.; Melville, C.; Allan, L.; Finlayson, J.; Cooper, S.-A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: High rates of health needs among adults with intellectual disabilities flag the need for information about the economic consequences of strategies to identify and address unmet needs. Health-check interventions are one such strategy, and have been demonstrated to effect health gains over the following 12-month period. However, little…

  16. Interrelations between Subjective Health and Episodic Memory Change in Swedish and Canadian Samples of Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlin, Ake; Maitland, Scott B.; Backman, Lars; Dixon, Roger A.

    2003-01-01

    Recent research has documented associations between subjective health ratings and objective indicators of disease and death. Less is known about relations between subjective health ratings and level of cognitive performance in older adults. In this study, we explored whether subjective health ratings are related to episodic memory performance,…

  17. Self-Regulation, Self-Efficacy and Health Behavior Change in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdie, Nola; McCrindle, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Presents an overview of self-regulation models: theory of planned behavior, protection motivation theory, health belief model, action control theory, transtheoretical model of behavior change, health action process, and precaution adoption process. Applies models to health behavior change in older adults with cardiovascular disease or diabetes.…

  18. Perceived Discrimination, Perceived Stress, and Mental and Physical Health among Mexican-Origin Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Bachen, Elizabeth A.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided a test of the minority status stress model by examining whether perceived discrimination would directly affect health outcomes even when perceived stress was taken into account among 215 Mexican-origin adults. Perceived discrimination predicted depression and poorer general health, and marginally predicted health symptoms, when…

  19. Perceived Discrimination, Perceived Stress, and Mental and Physical Health among Mexican-Origin Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Bachen, Elizabeth A.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided a test of the minority status stress model by examining whether perceived discrimination would directly affect health outcomes even when perceived stress was taken into account among 215 Mexican-origin adults. Perceived discrimination predicted depression and poorer general health, and marginally predicted health symptoms, when…

  20. Health Worry, Physical Activity Participation, and Walking Difficulty among Older Adults: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kin-Kit; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Vuchinich, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of health worry (i.e., cognitive aspect of anxiety resulting from concern for health) on walking difficulty in a nationally representative sample (N = 7,527) of older adults (M age = 76.83 years). The study further tested whether physical activity mediates the effect of health worry on walking difficulty in a 6-year…

  1. Development of a Scale to Measure Adults' Perceptions of Health: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, James J.; Becker, Julie A.; Arenson, Christine A.; Chambers, Christopher V.; Rosenthal, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    Given the national agenda on chronic disease self-management, the goal of the project described in this brief report was to develop a scale that measured adult perceptions about health but did not focus on a specific condition. The Perception of Health Scale (PHS) is based on earlier work that used the Health Belief Model as a focus. The 15-item…

  2. Suicide Ideation in Older Adults: Relationship to Mental Health Problems and Service Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corna, Laurie M.; Cairney, John; Streiner, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the prevalence of suicide ideation among community-dwelling older adults and the relationship between suicide ideation, major psychiatric disorder, and mental health service use. Design and Methods: We use data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 1.2: Mental Health and Well-being (CCHS 1.2). We estimate the prevalence of…

  3. Optimizing Health Care for Adults with Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Survival into adulthood for individuals with spina bifida has significantly improved over the last 40 years with the majority of patients now living as adults. Despite this growing population of adult patients who have increased medical needs compared to the general population, including spina bifida (SB)-specific care, age-related secondary…

  4. Optimizing Health Care for Adults with Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Survival into adulthood for individuals with spina bifida has significantly improved over the last 40 years with the majority of patients now living as adults. Despite this growing population of adult patients who have increased medical needs compared to the general population, including spina bifida (SB)-specific care, age-related secondary…

  5. Systemwide Initiative Documents Robust Health Screening for Adults With Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Marisa; Jacobstein, Diane; Yoon, Irene Seyoung; Anthony, Bruno; Bullock, Kim

    2016-10-01

    It is well documented that adults with intellectual disability (ID) experience higher rates of a series of health conditions compared to their peers without disability. These health conditions include cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, and psychiatric and behavioral disorders. With life expectancy approximating the general population, adults with ID are also now experiencing health conditions related to aging, further increasing their risk for diminished function and well-being. This increased morbidity poses new challenges in geriatric healthcare planning for this population. Relatively simple health prevention practices, such as the implementation of a health screening tool, can substantially increase disease detection and clinical activities directed toward improved health outcomes for people with ID. This study examines data collected from the District of Columbia Developmental Disabilities Administration's (DC DDA's) health screening component of its Health and Wellness Standards. Findings are presented, along with recommendations and implications for improving preventive health screening practices in the ID population.

  6. Comparing Young Adults to Older Adults in E-Cigarette Perceptions and Motivations for Use: Implications for Health Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Maria; Harrell, Melissa B.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Use of electronic cigarettes ("e-cigarettes" is rapidly rising, and is especially prevalent among young adults. A better understanding of e-cigarette perceptions and motivations for use is needed to inform health communication and educational efforts. This study aims to explore these aspects of use with a focus on comparing…

  7. Comparing Young Adults to Older Adults in E-Cigarette Perceptions and Motivations for Use: Implications for Health Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Maria; Harrell, Melissa B.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Use of electronic cigarettes ("e-cigarettes" is rapidly rising, and is especially prevalent among young adults. A better understanding of e-cigarette perceptions and motivations for use is needed to inform health communication and educational efforts. This study aims to explore these aspects of use with a focus on comparing…

  8. An Efficacy Trial of "Steps to Your Health", a Health Promotion Programme for Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Suzanne; Whitner, Wendy; Thomas-Koger, Marlo; Mann, Joshua R.; Clarkson, John; Barnes, Timothy L.; Bao, Haikun; Meriwether, Rebecca A

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although there are evaluation and effectiveness studies of health promotion interventions for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), randomized efficacy trials of such interventions are lacking. Design: A randomized active control intervention trial. Setting: The participants attended the health promotion classes in local…

  9. An Innovative Mixed Methods Approach to Studying the Online Health Information Seeking Experiences of Adults with Chronic Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoh, Joanne; Bond, Carol S.; Todres, Les

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an innovative sequential mixed methods approach to researching the experiences of U.K. adults with chronic health conditions seeking health information online. The use of multiple methods integrated within a single study ensured that the focus of the research was emergent and relevant and ultimately provided a more complete…

  10. Tobacco use in older adults in Ghana: sociodemographic characteristics, health risks and subjective wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawson, Alfred E; Baddoo, Akosua; Hagan-Seneadza, Nana Ayegua; Calys-Tagoe, Benedict; Hewlett, Sandra; Dako-Gyeke, Phyllis; Mensah, George; Minicuci, Nadia; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul; Biritwum, Richard

    2013-10-20

    Tobacco use over the life-course threatens to increase disease burden in older adulthood, including lower income countries like Ghana. This paper describes demographic, socioeconomic, health risks and life satisfaction indices related to tobacco use among older adults in Ghana. This work was based on the World Health Organization's multi-country Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE), conducted in six countries including Ghana. Wave one of SAGE in Ghana was conducted in 2007-2008 as collaboration between WHO and the University of Ghana Medical School through the Department of Community Health. A nationally representative sample of 4305 older adults aged 50 years and above were interviewed. Associations between tobacco consumption and sociodemographic, socioeconomic, health risk and life satisfaction were evaluated using chi-square and odds ratio (OR). Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex and other variables, were conducted to determine predictors of tobacco consumption in older persons. Overall prevalence of current daily smokers among older adults in Ghana was 7.6%. Tobacco use (i.e. ever used tobacco) was associated with older males, (AOR = 1.10, CI 1.05-1.15), older adults residing in rural locations (AOR = 1.37, CI 1.083-1.724), and older adults who used alcohol (AOR = 1.13, CI 0.230-2.418). Tobacco use was also associated (although not statistically significant per p-values) with increased self-reporting of angina, arthritis, asthma, chronic lung disease, depression, diabetes, hypertension, and stroke. Older adults who used tobacco and with increased health risks, tended to be without health insurance (AOR = 1.41, CI 1.111-1.787). Satisfaction with life and daily living was much lower for those who use tobacco. Regional differences existed in tobacco use; the three northern regions (Upper East, Northern and Upper West) had higher proportions of tobacco use among older adults in the country. Quitting tobacco use was higher

  11. Systematic Review of Yoga Interventions to Promote Cardiovascular Health in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Jennifer L; Fleury, Julie

    2016-06-01

    The benefits of physical activity are well established, yet few older adults engage in adequate physical activity to optimize health. While yoga may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, few studies have focused on the efficacy of yoga-based physical activity to promote cardiovascular health in older adults. The objective of this review is to provide an evaluation of yoga interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk in older adults. Four databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of yoga interventions in older adults. Studies with cardiovascular outcomes were included. Literature searches identified nine articles eligible for review. Significant health benefits were reported, including favorable changes in blood pressure, body composition, glucose, and lipids. Yoga practices, participant characteristics, and outcome measures were variable. There was limited use of theory. Yoga is safe and feasible in older adults; additional research is warranted to examine the specific components of yoga interventions essential to reducing cardiovascular risk.

  12. Self-Reported Reasons for Not Receiving Mental Health Treatment in Adults With Serious Suicidal Thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto-Crawford, S Janet; Han, Beth; McKeon, Richard T

    2017-06-01

    This study examined self-reported reasons for not receiving mental health treatment among adults with past-year serious suicidal thoughts and their sociodemographic characteristics associated with these reasons. Using the 2008-2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, we examined 8,400 respondents aged 18 years or older who had past-year serious thoughts of suicide and did not receive mental health treatment that year. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the associations between sociodemographic characteristics and self-reported reasons for not receiving mental health treatment among these suicidal adults. Among adults with serious suicidal thoughts who did not receive mental health treatment in the past year, three-fourths did not feel the need for treatment. Of the one-fourth of those who felt the need for treatment, the main reason for not receiving treatment was financial (58.4%), followed by logistical reasons such as not knowing where to go (36.1%). A greater proportion of suicidal adults than nonsuicidal adults perceived more than 1 barrier to treatment (43.8% vs 34.3%). Among suicidal adults who did not receive mental health treatment that year, the odds of not feeling the need for mental health treatment were higher in men (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.68; 95% CI, 1.42-1.99), adults aged 50 years or older (AOR = 3.02; 95% CI, 2.02-4.51), racial and ethnic minorities (AORs = 1.59-2.13), publicly insured (AOR = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.14-2.07), and nonmetropolitan residents (AOR = 1.50; 95% CI, 1.20-1.88). Most suicidal adults did not feel the need for mental health treatment. Of those who felt the need, multiple barriers were identified. A multifaceted approach to address these barriers is needed to promote receipt of mental health treatment among this vulnerable population.

  13. [Special Report: Adult Education and Primary Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayendra, T.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A series of five case studies examines (1) literacy, health, and conscientization in the Mandar region of India; (2) the training of community health workers in Indonesia; (3) the Chinese strategy combining health, political will, and participation; (4) British community-based health education programs, and (5) participatory methodology for…

  14. Food Insecurity and Health Care Utilization Among Older Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Vibha; Lee, Jung Sun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between food insecurity and utilization of four health services among older Americans: office visits, inpatient hospital nights, emergency department visits, and home health care. Nationally representative data from the 2011 and 2012 National Health Interview Survey were used (N = 13,589). Nearly 83.0% of the sample had two or more office visits, 17.0% reported at least one hospital night, 23.0% had at least one emergency room visit, and 8.1% used home health care during the past 12 months. Adjusting for confounders, food-insecure older adults had higher odds of using more office visits, inpatient hospital nights, and emergency department visits than food-secure older adults, but similar odds of home health care utilization. The findings of this study suggest that programs and policies aimed at reducing food insecurity among older adults may have a potential to reduce utilization of health care services.

  15. "That was grown folks' business": narrative reflection and response in older adults' family health history communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Jill; Hovick, Shelly R

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of family health history and the pivotal role of older adults in communicating it, this study examines how African American older adults (a) characterize their understandings of health-related conditions in their family histories and (b) rationalize their motivations and constraints for sharing this information with current family members. Using narrative theory as a framework, we illustrate how the participants reflect on prior health-related experiences within the family to respond to moral and practical calls for communicating family health information to current relatives. Specifically, our analysis highlights how storied family secrets--as constructed by 28 participants in group and individual interviews--reveal and inform shifting cultural and generational practices that shape the lived health behaviors and communication of older adults at greater risk for health disparities.

  16. Longitudinal effects of GALM on physical activity, health and fitness of older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Johan de; Lemmink, Koen; Stevens, Martin

    2010-01-01

    To determine the longitudinal effects of participation in the Groningen Active Living Model (GALM) on physical activity, health and fitness of sedentary and underactive older adults aged 55-65 (pag 35-36 abstract book).

  17. Behavioral Health Outcomes Among Adults: Associations With Individual and Community-Level Economic Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunlap, Laura J; Han, Beth; Dowd, William N; Cowell, Alexander J; Forman-Hoffman, Valerie L; Davies, M. Christine; Colpe, Lisa J

    2016-01-01

    Objective:This study examined the relationship between state and local economic conditions and serious psychological distress, substance use disorders, and mental health service utilization among adults in the United...

  18. Nutritional status and its health-related factors among older adults in rural and urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Hui; Cheng, Hsin-Yi; Chuang, Yeu-Hui; Shao, Jung-Hua

    2015-01-01

    To compare health-related characteristics, nutrition-related factors and nutritional status of older adults living in rural and urban counties of Taiwan. The older adult population of Taiwan is increasing. Furthermore, older people living in rural areas have shorter life expectancy and more chronic diseases than their urban counterparts. However, little is known about the health-related characteristics, nutrition-related factors and nutritional status of older adults living in rural and urban areas of Taiwan, limiting nurses' ability to identify and care for older adults at risk of poor nutritional health. Cross-sectional, comparative. Older adults were randomly selected from names of residents of an adjacent rural and urban area of northern Taiwan and having completing the 2009 health evaluation. From March-July 2010, older adult participants (N = 366) provided data on demographic and health-related information, nutritional self-efficacy, health locus of control and nutritional status. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics and compared using chi-square and t-test. Older rural participants had significantly lower educational level, less adequate income, higher medication use, lower scores on self-rated health status and researcher-rated health status and lower self-rated healthy eating status than their urban counterparts. Moreover, rural participants had significantly lower nutritional self-efficacy, higher chance health locus of control and poorer nutritional status than their urban counterparts. Our results suggest that nurses should assess older adults living in rural areas for nutritional health and nutrition knowledge. Based on this assessment, nurses should develop easy, practical and accessible nutritional programmes for this population. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Better oral health, more inequality--empirical analysis among young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuller, A A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to examine the development of the distribution of oral health according to socio-economic status in young adults from 1983 to 1994. PARTICIPANTS: Study material consisted of 23-24 year old adults randomly selected from municipalities in Trøndelag in 1983 and 1

  20. Health issues in young adults with cerebral palsy: towards a life-span perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilberink, S.R.; Roebroeck, M.E.; Nieuwstraten, W.; Jalink, L.; Verheijden, J.M.; Stam, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To obtain better insight into the health issues of young adults with cerebral palsy. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SUBJECTS: Two data sources were used: 54 adults with cerebral palsy (age range 25-36 years) and 48 physicians (members of the Netherlands Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Me

  1. Older Adult Participation in Health Promotion Programs: Perspectives of Facility Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tim; Hyner, Gerald C.

    2011-01-01

    Administrators of older adult-centered facilities must identify barriers to the planning and implementation of health promotion programs. In this qualitative research those barriers were identified through in-depth interviews with administrators of older adult-centered facilities. As identified by administrators, the predominant barriers to the…

  2. Mental Health Problems and Barriers to Service Use in Dutch Young Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Vanheusden (Kathleen)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOnly up to one-third of young adults with a mental disorder seek professional help. The reasons for this low help-seeking rate are largely unclear. The first aim of this thesis is to explain why young adults are unlikely to seek professional help when facing mental health problems. The s

  3. School Belonging, School Victimization, and the Mental Health of LGBT Young Adults: Implications for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Nicholas C.; Lindquist, Lauri M.; Machek, Greg R.; Cochran, Bryan N.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the mediating role of school victimization in the relationship between lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) young adults' feelings of high school belonging and current mental health (both depression and general psychological distress) outcomes. A total of 145 LGBT young adults were recruited from college LGBT…

  4. Transformation through Health Teaching for Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focht-New, Ginny

    2012-01-01

    Adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have medical conditions similar to those among the general population but with more complex presentation, a extended life expectancy, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. These adults' health education has been inadequate. In this qualitative study, the author describes the…

  5. Mental Health Problems in Adults with Down Syndrome and Their Association with Life Circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallardo, Mariarosa; Cuskelly, Monica; White, Paul; Jobling, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on current life circumstances, previous life events, and engagement with productive and enjoyable activities. It examined the association of these variables with mental health problems and mood in a cohort of young adults with Down syndrome. Participants were 49 adults with Down syndrome (age range 20-31 years) and their…

  6. Transformation through Health Teaching for Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focht-New, Ginny

    2012-01-01

    Adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have medical conditions similar to those among the general population but with more complex presentation, a extended life expectancy, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. These adults' health education has been inadequate. In this qualitative study, the author describes the…

  7. Perspectives of Young Emerging Adults with Serious Mental Health Conditions on Vocational Peer Mentors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klodnick, Vanessa V.; Sabella, Kathryn; Brenner, Christopher J.; Krzos, Izabela M.; Ellison, Marsha L.; Kaiser, Susan M.; Davis, Maryann; Fagan, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    For early emerging adults with serious mental health conditions, vocational services with peer mentors are a promising adaptation of adult system evidence-based practices. Peer mentors were added to the Individual Placement and Support model of supported employment for 17- to 20-year-olds receiving residential and psychiatric care. To explore the…

  8. Oral health changes in an adult Norwegian population : a cohort analytical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holst, D; Schuller, A A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this analysis was to study temporal variation in oral health in an adult population. The cohort analysis comprised 1) estimation of longitudinal, cross-sectional, and time-lag differences in caries and treatment experience of the adult population in Trøndelag from 1973 to

  9. The Prevalence and Incidence of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantry, D.; Cooper, S. -A.; Smiley, E.; Morrison, J.; Allan, L.; Williamson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Jackson, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: While there is considerable literature on adults with Down syndrome who have dementia, there is little published on the epidemiology of other types of mental ill-health in this population. Method: Longitudinal cohort study of adults with Down syndrome who received detailed psychiatric assessment (n = 186 at the first time point; n =…

  10. Health issues in young adults with cerebral palsy: towards a life-span perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilberink, S.R.; Roebroeck, M.E.; Nieuwstraten, W.; Jalink, L.; Verheijden, J.M.; Stam, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To obtain better insight into the health issues of young adults with cerebral palsy. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SUBJECTS: Two data sources were used: 54 adults with cerebral palsy (age range 25-36 years) and 48 physicians (members of the Netherlands Society of Physical and Rehabilitation

  11. The CINDI Health Monitor Survey. Health behaviour among the Italian adult population, 2001-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Tenconi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance to the WHO-CINDI (Countrywide Integrated Non-communicable Diseases Intervention Programme, in 2001-2002 Italy participated in the Health Monitor Survey (HMS along with all the other CINDI member countries.

    The survey aimed to investigate, by the use of a standard questionnaire, the self-reported health status, life-habits, social and health conditions, use of health services and other features of the study population.

    Following the international CINDI protocol, the adult population (25-64 years of age from six Italian demonstration areas were chosen: Bassiano-Lenola (LT, Brisighella (RA, Rovescala (PV, Sardinia (CA, SS, Udine (UD; Valle dell’Irno (SA. A total number of 4095 subjects, including both males and females were enrolled, with a participation rate of 53%, equal to 2202 subjects [45.7% males (M and 54.3% females (F]. All age groups were equally represented. From the analysis of the age-standardised rates, the following results were obtained. Self-reported “good state of health”: M 71%, F 56.9%; Hypertension: M 15.6%, F 17.5%; Diabetes: M 6.1%, F 4.2%; Back-illness: M 18%, F 22%; Gastritis: M 12.8%, F 12.6%; Headache: M 31.7%, F 54.6%; Insomnia: M 15.9%, F 28.5%; Daily smokers: M 35.7%, F 23.5%; Daily consumption of wine: M 40.2%, F 15.7%; BMI ≥ 30: M 12.3%, F 13.5%; Regular leisure physical activity: M 27.6%, F 23.1%; Hard physical activity: M 40.5%, F 24%. The results demonstrate how rural areas (Rovescala and Valle dell’Irno experience worse health conditions. Thanks to the HMS, the population’s health needs have been focused and compared to those of other CINDI countries, in order to plan specific interventions aimed at the improvement of lifestyle and health conditions.

  12. Research directions in oral health promotion for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gift, H C

    1992-09-01

    Health education and health promotion facilitate voluntary adoption of behaviors and provide educational, organizational, economic, and environmental supports for behaviors conductive to health. Health education and health promotion are complementary and any effort to eliminate oral disease requires both activities. Federal research initiatives in oral health promotion have encouraged more biomedical and behavioral research on oral health and aging through the establishment of research centers. Other initiatives have been established to speed the generation of basic and clinical research. Recent initiatives encourage research on aging and provide opportunities for oral health promotion during the coming decade. These include Healthy People 2000, the nation's health objectives for the decade; the NIH framework for the development of a strategic plan, and the NIDR Long-Range Research Plan, Broadening the Scope.

  13. Recollections of parental behaviour, adult attachment and mental health: mediating and moderating effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittleman, M G; Klein, M H; Smider, N A; Essex, M J

    1998-11-01

    Attachment theory posits links between early experiences with parents, adult relationships and adult mental health, but does not specify whether these are independent, mediating, or moderating effects. Associations of parent's behaviour on the Parental Bonding Instrument, adult attachment styles and three dimensions of mental health were investigated in a large sample of women and men. Men and women with secure styles recalled higher levels of care from both parents than those with fearful styles. Maternal and paternal control were more consistent predictors of increased distress for men than for women. Fearful and preoccupied adult styles were associated with higher levels of distress in both men and women. While adult styles had few mediating effects on the association of parental behaviour and mental health, interactions between the fearful style and parental variables suggested that this form of insecurity sometimes accentuated the impact of high parental care or low paternal control on mental health in both men and women; among women, however, the secure style seemed to buffer somewhat the negative effect of high parental control. Although the amount of variance explained by either parental behaviour or adult styles was modest, patterns of moderating effects of adult styles on associations between parental behaviour and mental health suggested that both continuity and discontinuity principles can be applied to understanding these links.

  14. Health-related stigma as a determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapella, Mary C; Berger, Barbara E; Vern, Boris A; Vispute, Sachin; Prasad, Bharati; Carley, David W

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of narcolepsy tend to arise during adolescence or young adulthood, a formative time in human development during which people are usually completing their education and launching a career. Little is known about the impact of narcolepsy on the social aspects of health-related quality of life in young adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between health-related stigma, mood (anxiety and depression) and daytime functioning in young adults with narcolepsy compared to those without narcolepsy. Young adults (age 18-35) with narcolepsy (N = 122) and without narcolepsy (N = 93) were mailed a packet that included questionnaires and a self-addressed postage paid envelope. The questionnaire included demographic information and a composite of instruments including the SF 36, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), Fife Stigma Scale (FSS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Variable associations were assessed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U Test, correlations, stepwise multiple regression and path analysis. Young adults with narcolepsy perceived significantly more stigma and lower mood and health-related quality of life than young adults without narcolepsy (pnarcolepsy. Health-related stigma in young adults with narcolepsy is at a level consistent with other chronic medical illnesses. Health-related stigma may be an important determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy. Future work is indicated toward further characterizing stigma and developing interventions that address various domains of stigma in people with narcolepsy.

  15. Most Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancers Enjoy Good Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163439.html Most Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancers Enjoy Good Sexual ... toxic treatments were tied to later issues, but most rated sex lives as positive To use the ...

  16. Meditation for older adults: a new look at an ancient intervention for mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2015-05-01

    New research is providing health care professionals with evidence for the effectiveness of mindfulness meditation as an intervention for older adults. Recent studies have provided evidence that meditation results in observable changes in brain structure related to memory, sense of self, empathy, and stress. Health care professionals should consider mindfulness training as a helpful intervention for older adults with problems such as depression, anxiety, chronic pain, loneliness, and caregiver burden.

  17. Why Provide Music Therapy in the Community for Adults With Mental Health Problems?

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Odell-Miller

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes music therapy within a community mental health setting for adults using a care programme approach in England. It describes the setting, and emphasises the importance of multidisciplinary teamwork in order to enable music therapy to be effective. It provides some statistics and descriptive clinical information which demonstrate the efficacy of music therapy for adults with long-term mental health problems, and argues that music therapy should be a priority for this client ...

  18. Stress on health-related quality of life in older adults: the protective nature of mindfulness

    OpenAIRE

    de Frias, Cindy M.; Whyne, Erum

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The current study examined whether the link between stress and health-related quality of life was buffered by protective factors, namely mindfulness, in a sample of middle-aged and older adults. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 134 healthy, community-dwelling adults (ages 50–85 years) were recruited from Dallas, TX. The participants were screened for depressive symptoms and severity (using the Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]). All participants completed measures of sel...

  19. Effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge regarding sexual health among young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Most of the male adults had inadequate knowledge and none had adequate knowledge regarding sexual health. The STP was highly effective in increasing the knowledge score among young males. Educational intervention programs must be given due importance, which will help the adult males to take care of their own health and protect themselves from the risk of STDs etc. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(4.000: 1119-1123

  20. Private religious practice, spiritual coping, social support, and health status among older Korean adult immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; Hwang, Myung Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the role of spiritual factors and social support on the health status of 246 older Korean adult immigrants age 65 years or older. Ordinary least squares regression results revealed that private religious practice, spiritual coping, and social support were significantly associated with improved health status. However, stressors such as the lack of English proficiency and transportation, longer residency in the United States, and financial problems were significantly associated with lower health status. Social workers need to consider providing appropriate spiritual interventions and social support programs for older Korean adult immigrants so that they may better handle their stressors and health problems.

  1. [Influence of child nutrition on health status during adult years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiazyk, J

    2000-01-01

    The problem of safety of child's nutrition should be considered from the moment of his conception because intrauterine growth may be related to the diseases in adult life: atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Strict vegetarian diets are not appropriate for children. The task of proper nutrition in childhood is to prevent adult life diseases and to promote potentially highest quality of life and development of cognitive and intellectual functions, and proper growth. The role of microelements - iron and zinc - is also discussed.

  2. Immunizing Adults (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-21

    Vaccines aren’t just for kids; adults also need to get immunized. Overall, far too many people 19 years and older aren’t getting the vaccines they need and remain unprotected. In this podcast, Dr. Walter Williams discuss the importance of adults being fully vaccinated.  Created: 2/21/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 2/21/2013.

  3. Young Adults' Health Care Utilization and Expenditures Prior to the Affordable Care Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Josephine S.; Adams, Sally H.; Boscardin, W. John; Irwin, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Examine young adults' health care utilization and expenditures prior to the ACA. Methods We used 2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) to 1) compare young adults' health care utilization and expenditures of a full-spectrum of health services to children and adolescents and 2) identify disparities in young adults' utilization and expenditures, based on access (insurance and usual source of care) and other socio-demographic factors, including race/ethnicity and income. Results Young adults had: 1) significantly lower rates of overall utilization (72%) than other age groups (83-88%, Padults had high out-of-pocket expenses. Compared to the young adults with private insurance, the uninsured spent less than half on health care ($1,040 vs. $2,150/ person, Padults, we identified significant disparities in utilization and expenditures based on the presence/absence of a usual source of care, race/ethnicity, home language and sex. Conclusions Young adults may not be utilizing the health care system optimally by having low rates of office-based visits and high rates of ER visits. The ACA provision of insurance for those previously uninsured or under-insured will likely increase their utilization and expenditures and lower their out-of-pocket expenses. Further effort is needed to address non-insurance barriers and ensure equal access to health services. PMID:24702839

  4. Linguistic adaptation and psychometric evaluation of original oral health literacy-adult questionnaire (OHL-AQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHALEEN VYAS

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Linguistically adapted oral health literacy tools are helpful to assess oral health literacy among local population with clarity and understandability. The original oral health literacy adult questionnaire, Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire, was given in English (2013, consisting of 17 items under 4 domains. The present study rationalizes to culturally adapt and validate Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire into Hindi language. Thus, we objectified to translate Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire into Hindi and test its psychometric properties like reliability and validity among primary school teachers. Methods: The Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire was translated into Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire – Hindi Version using the World Health Organization recommended translation backtranslation protocol. During pre-testing, an expert panel assessed content validity of the questionnaire. Face validity was assessed on a small sample of 10 individuals. A cross-sectional study was conducted (June-July 2015 and OHL-AQ-H was administered on a convenient sample of 170 primary school teachers. Internal consistency and testretest reliability were assessed using Cronbach’s alpha and Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC, respectively, with 2 weeks interval to ascertain adherence to the questionnaire response. Predictive validity was tested by comparing OHL-AQ-H scores with clinical indicators like oral hygiene scores and dental caries scores. The concurrent and discriminant validity was assessed through self-reported oral health and through negative association with sociodemographic variables. The data was analyzed by descriptive tests using chi-square and bivariate logistic regression in SPSS software, version 20 and p<0.05 was considered as the significance level. Results: The mean OHL-AQ-H score was 13.58±2.82. ICC and Cronbach’s alpha for Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire – Hindi Version

  5. Hypertension awareness and control among young adults in the national longitudinal study of adolescent health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Holly C; McGinty, Shannon; Richmond, Tracy K; Gillman, Matthew W; Field, Alison E

    2014-08-01

    Young adults are less likely than older adults to be aware they have hypertension or to be treated for hypertension. To describe rates of hypertension awareness and control in a cohort of young adults and understand the impact of health insurance, utilization of preventive care, and self-perception of health on rates of hypertension awareness and control in this age group. Cross-sectional study of 13,512 young adults participating in Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health in 2007-2008. We defined hypertension as an average of two measured systolic blood pressures (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressures (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg, or self-report of hypertension. We defined hypertension awareness as reporting having been told by a health care provider that one had high blood pressure, and assessed awareness among those with uncontrolled hypertension. We considered those aware of having hypertension controlled if their average measured SBP was adults with hypertension, 2,531 (76%) were uncontrolled, and 1,893 (75%) of those with uncontrolled hypertension were unaware they had hypertension. After adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, weight status, income, education, alcohol and tobacco use, young adults with uncontrolled hypertension who had (vs. didn't have) routine preventive care in the past 2 years were 2.4 times more likely (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.68-3.55) to be aware, but young adults who believed they were in excellent (vs. less than excellent) health were 64% less likely to be aware they had hypertension (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.23-0.57). Neither preventive care utilization nor self-rated health was associated with blood pressure control. In this nationally representative group of young adults, rates of hypertension awareness and control were low. Efforts to increase detection of hypertension must address young adults' access to preventive care and perception of their need for care.

  6. Health literacy of Dutch adults: a cross sectional survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, I. van der; Rademakers, J.; Schipper, M.; Droomers, M.; Sorensen, K.; Uiters, E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Relatively little knowledge is available to date about health literacy among the general population in Europe. It is important to gain insights into health literacy competences among the general population, as this might contribute to more effective health promotion and help clarify soci

  7. Health literacy of Dutch adults: a cross sectional survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, I. van der; Rademakers, J.; Schipper, M.; Droomers, M.; Sorensen, K.; Uiters, E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Relatively little knowledge is available to date about health literacy among the general population in Europe. It is important to gain insights into health literacy competences among the general population, as this might contribute to more effective health promotion and help clarify soci

  8. Aging expectations are associated with physical activity and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Shilpa; Al-Sahab, Ban; Manson, James; Tamim, Hala

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether aging expectations (AE) are associated with physical activity participation and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 170 older adults (mean age 70.9 years) was conducted. Data on AE, physical activity, and health were collected using the 12 item Expectations Regarding Aging instrument, the Healthy Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire, and the Short Form-36, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models showed significant associations between AE and social functioning, energy/vitality, mental health, and self-rated general health, as well as physical activity. These results suggest that AE may help to better explain the established association between low SES, low physical activity uptake, and poor health outcomes among older adults.

  9. An exploration of search patterns and credibility issues among older adults seeking online health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson-Lang, Laura; Major, Sonya; Hemming, Heather

    2011-12-01

    The Internet is an important resource for health information, among younger and older people alike. Unfortunately, there are limitations associated with online health information. Research is needed on the quality of information found online and on whether users are being critical consumers of the information they find. Also, there is a need for research investigating online use among adults aged 65 and over - a rapidly growing demographic of Internet users. The current study presents important descriptive data about the search patterns of older adults seeking online health information, the types of health topics they research, and whether they consider credibility issues when retrieving online health information. A comparison is also made between search strategies used in printed text and hypertext environments. The results, which have implications with respect to credibility issues, highlight the need to increase awareness about critical searching skills among older adult Internet users.

  10. Elderly parent health and the migration decisions of adult children: evidence from rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, John; Mu, Ren

    2007-05-01

    Recent research has shown that participation in migrant labor markets has led to substantial increases in income for families in rural China. This article addresses the question of how participation is affected by elderly parent health. We find that younger adults are less likely to work as migrants when a parent is ill. Poor health of an elderly parent has less impact on the probability of employment as a migrant when an adult child has siblings who may be available to provide care. We also highlight the potential importance of including information on nonresident family members when studying how parent illness and elder care requirements influence the labor supply decisions of adult children.

  11. Training meals on wheels volunteers as health literacy coaches for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Donald L; Freimuth, Vicki S; Johnson, Sharon D; Kaley, Terry; Parmer, John

    2014-05-01

    Homebound older adults constitute a "hardly reached" population with respect to health communication. Older adults also typically suffer from health literacy challenges, which put them at increased risk of adverse health outcomes. Suboptimal interactions with providers are one such challenge. Interventions to improve interactive health literacy focus on training consumers/patients in question preparation and asking. Meals on Wheels volunteers are uniquely suited to coach their clients in such interaction strategies. Seventy-three Meals on Wheels volunteers participated in workshops to train as health literacy coaches. The 3- to 4-hour workshops included units on communicating with older adults, on the nature of health literacy, and on the process of interactive health literacy coaching. Participants viewed and discussed videos that modeled the targeted communication behaviors for older adult patients interacting with physicians. They role-played the coaching process. After 9 months, coaches participated in a "booster" session that included videos of ideal coaching practices. Evaluation questionnaires revealed that participants had favorable reactions to the workshops with respect to utility and interest. They especially appreciated learning communication skills and seeing realistic videos. A measure of knowledge about the workshop material revealed a significant increment at posttest. Fidelity of coaching practices with respect to workshop curriculum was confirmed. This training in interactive health literacy for community-based lay volunteers constitutes one way to implement the National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy for one "hardly reached" population. An online tool kit containing all workshop materials is available.

  12. Oral health literacy and information sources among adults in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistani, M M Naghibi; Yazdani, R; Virtanen, J; Pakdaman, A; Murtomaa, H

    2013-09-01

    To assess oral health literacy level and oral health information of Iranian adults in Tehran, and to determine the factors related to oral health literacy. A cross-sectional population study. A random sample of 1,031 adults in Tehran, Iran. Oral health literacy was measured using an oral health adult literacy questionnaire (OHL-AQ). Variation in use of information sources by socio-economic and demographic background was estimated by odds ratios. A multiple linear regression model served to determine predictor factors of OHL-AQ scores controlling for characteristics of the subjects and number of information sources. The mean OHL-AQ score was 10.5 (sd 3.0). Women (p information were dentists (52.6%), and TV/Radio (49.5%). According to the regression model, females (p = 0.001), high educational level (p information sources (two sources p = 0.01, three sources or more p = 0.002) were the main predictor factors of OHL-AQ scores. The average oral health literacy level of Iranian adults was low. Disseminating evidence-based oral health care information from multiple sources including TV/radio, dentists, and other health professionals in different settings should improve public oral health literacy.

  13. Longitudinal predictors of adult socioeconomic attainment: the roles of socioeconomic status, academic competence, and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-02-01

    Educational attainment and occupational status are key markers of success in adulthood. We expand upon previous research that focused primarily on the contributions of academic competence and family socioeconomic status (SES) by investigating the role of mental health in predicting adult SES. In a longitudinal study spanning 30 years, we used structural equation modeling to examine how parental mental health in early childhood and family SES, offspring academic competence, and offspring mental health in adolescence relate to occupational and educational attainment at age 30. Results were that adolescent academic competence predicted adult educational attainment, and that educational attainment then predicted occupational attainment. The pathways between academic competence and occupational attainment, family SES and educational attainment, and family SES and occupational attainment were not significant. In contrast, adolescent mental health not only predicted educational attainment, but was also directly related to adult occupational attainment. Finally, early maternal mental health was associated with offspring's adult socioeconomic attainment through its relations with adolescent academic competence and mental health. These results highlight the importance of mental health to adult socioeconomic attainment.

  14. Has the Digital Health Divide Widened? Trends of Health-Related Internet Use Among Older Adults From 2003 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y Alicia; Cho, Jinmyoung

    2017-09-01

    To examine the trend of health-related Internet use (HRIU) among older adults. We analyzed data from the 2003, 2005, and 2011-2012 iterations of the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-sponsored Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). HRIU was measured by 4 online behaviors: seeking health information, buying medicine, connecting with people with similar health problems, and communicating with doctors. Internet use and HRIU among older adults increased substantially from 2003 to 2011 with more significant increases in seeking health information and communicating with doctors online. Overall, the digital health divide between different demographic groups has narrowed, especially in terms of gender, racial/ethnic group, rural/urban residence, and various health statuses; however, age, education, and household income remain persistent predictors of the digital divide. Those in the oldest group (75 or older), those with less than a high school education, and those with very low income (digital divide, significant variations in HRIU in different demographic groups persisted; therefore, we call for more senior-friendly online resources and culturally appropriate interventions to bridge the digital health divide for vulnerable older adults.

  15. Comparative risk judgements for oral health hazards among Norwegian adults: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åstrøm Anne

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study identified optimistic biases in health and oral health hazards, and explored whether comparative risk judgements for oral health hazards vary systematically with socio-economic characteristics and self-reported risk experience. Methods A simple random sample of 1,190 residents born in 1972 was drawn from the population resident in three counties of Norway. A total of 735 adults (51% women completed postal questionnaires at home. Results Mean ratings of comparative risk judgements differed significantly (p Conclusion Optimism in comparative judgements for health and oral health hazards was evident in young Norwegian adults. When judging their comparative susceptibility for oral health hazards, they consider personal health situation and risk behaviour experience.

  16. Associations between working memory, health literacy, and recall of the signs of stroke among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzer, Christine A; Insel, Kathleen C; Ritter, Leslie S

    2012-10-01

    Stroke remains a major cause of mortality and disability among older adults. Although early treatment after stroke is known to reduce both mortality and disability, the first step in seeking early treatment is dependent on the rapid recognition of the signs of stroke. Recall of the signs of stroke may be dependent on factors that exist before the stroke itself. Although it is known that both working memory and health literacy decline with advancing age, these factors have not been thoroughly examined with respect to recall of the signs of stroke. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate associations between working memory, health literacy, and recall of the signs of stroke among older adults. Community dwelling older adults (≥65 years of age) were recruited from two senior centers. Fifty-six participants meeting inclusion criteria provided demographic and health information and were asked to read a public service brochure listing the five warning signs of stroke. Working memory was then assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 3rd Edition Working Memory Index. Health literacy was assessed by the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Participants' recall of the five warning signs of stroke was evaluated. The mean age was 80.4 years. The mean number of the signs of stroke recalled was 2.9 ± 1.33. Working memory and health literacy were positively correlated with recall of the signs of stroke (r = .38, p recall. There was no statistically significant interaction between working memory and health literacy. Findings from this study indicate that working memory and health literacy were associated with successful recall of the warning signs of stroke in older adults. Further studies are needed to determine if programs that include cognitive and literacy assessments could identify older adults who need additional support to learn and recall the signs of stroke.

  17. Interrelationships of adult attachment orientations, health status and worrying among fibromyalgia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Paula; Costa, Maria Emilía

    2009-11-01

    This study examined associations between adult attachment dimensions, perceived health status and worrying (coping strategy with chronic pain), and explored whether worrying mediated observed relationships between attachment dimensions and health outcomes within a sample of 128 Portuguese female fibromyalgia patients. Physical health status was inversely correlated with dependence and worrying; mental health status was positively correlated with trust, and inversely related to attachment-related ambivalence, dependence and worrying. Finally, worrying mediated relationships between dependence and both physical and mental health status; moreover, worrying partially mediated the relationship between ambivalence and mental health status. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  18. DETECTING PSYCHOPATHOLOGY IN YOUNG-ADULTS - THE YOUNG-ADULT SELF REPORT, THE GENERAL HEALTH QUESTIONNAIRE AND THE SYMPTOM CHECKLIST AS SCREENING INSTRUMENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIZNITZER, M; VERHULST, FC; VANDENBRINK, W; KOETER, M; VANDERENDE, J; GIEL, R; KOOT, HM

    This study compares the screening capacity of an age-adjusted child-oriented questionnaire, the Young Adult Self Report (YASR) with two adult-oriented questionnaires, the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) and Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) in a sample of young adults (18-25 years). The YASR

  19. DETECTING PSYCHOPATHOLOGY IN YOUNG-ADULTS - THE YOUNG-ADULT SELF REPORT, THE GENERAL HEALTH QUESTIONNAIRE AND THE SYMPTOM CHECKLIST AS SCREENING INSTRUMENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIZNITZER, M; VERHULST, FC; VANDENBRINK, W; KOETER, M; VANDERENDE, J; GIEL, R; KOOT, HM

    1992-01-01

    This study compares the screening capacity of an age-adjusted child-oriented questionnaire, the Young Adult Self Report (YASR) with two adult-oriented questionnaires, the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) and Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) in a sample of young adults (18-25 years). The YASR pe

  20. The Silence of Our Science: Nursing Research on LGBT Older Adult Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyes, Kristin G

    2016-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults have been largely invisible within health and aging services research, despite being disproportionately burdened by poor health and aging outcomes. The current study examines the prevalence of LGBT aging and older adult health-related studies in the 2010-2014 nursing literature, and how this topic is being addressed. Systematic CINAHL and PubMed searches were conducted and compared to (a) quantify the prevalence of LGBT older adult-related scholarship in nursing research; (b) document the appearance of relevant publications in top nursing journals; (c) identify the focus of articles with a substantive focus on LGBT older adult health or aging; and (d) compare the prevalence of LGBT older adult-related literature in nursing, gerontology, medicine, and social work. Findings indicate that research explicitly including LGBT older adults is lacking across the health sciences, particularly in nursing (where it has been largely absent). Implications for nursing research, practice, and education are discussed. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Health benefits of cycle ergometer training for older adults over 70: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Walid; Schmitt, Elise; Kaltenbach, Georges; Geny, Bernard; Vogel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    As the number of older adults continues to increase worldwide, more attention is being paid to geriatric health care needs, and successful ageing is becoming an important topic in the medical literature. A preventive approach to the care of older adults is thus a priority in our aging societies. The purpose of this study was to update evidence for the health benefits of cycle ergometer training for older adults over 70. We searched online electronic databases up to September 2014 for original observational and intervention studies on the relationship between cycle ergometer training and health among older patients over 70. Twenty-five studies examined interventions aimed specifically at promoting cycling for older adults over 70. These studies reported a positive effect on the prevention of cardiovascular disease, and a significant improvement in metabolic responses. Improving functional status, muscle strength and cognitive performance are also well established. Overall, this review demonstrates a positive effect of cycle ergometer training with functional benefits and positive health outcomes for older adults over 70. Based on this evidence, clinicians can now encourage older adults to profit from the health benefits of cycle ergometer training to be able to pursue their daily activities independently.

  2. Oral health knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of adults in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Ling; Petersen, Poul Erik; Wang, Hong-Ying

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe oral health behaviour, illness behaviour, oral health knowledge and attitudes among 35-44 and 65-74-year-old Chinese; to analyse the oral health behaviour profile of the two age groups in relation to province and urbanisation, and to assess the relative effect of socio...... fifth of the rural participants had economic support for their dental treatment from a third party, either totally or partially. Significant variations in oral health practices were found according to urbanisation and province. At age 35-44 years 43% of participants had daily consumption of sweets......-based oral health promotion should be strengthened and preventive-oriented oral health care systems are needed, including promotion of further self-care practices and the use of fluoridated toothpaste....

  3. The Role of the Adult Educator in Helping Learners Access and Select Quality Health Information on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Melissa; Grabowsky, Adelia

    2011-01-01

    In 2002, 45 percent of American adults had used the Internet to search for health information. However, according to a 2009 report, the number had increased to 71 percent of adults ages thirty to forty-nine and 46 percent of those 50 and older who had sought health information online. While the number of adults using the Internet to search for…

  4. Health-related stigma as a determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C Kapella

    Full Text Available Symptoms of narcolepsy tend to arise during adolescence or young adulthood, a formative time in human development during which people are usually completing their education and launching a career. Little is known about the impact of narcolepsy on the social aspects of health-related quality of life in young adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between health-related stigma, mood (anxiety and depression and daytime functioning in young adults with narcolepsy compared to those without narcolepsy. Young adults (age 18-35 with narcolepsy (N = 122 and without narcolepsy (N = 93 were mailed a packet that included questionnaires and a self-addressed postage paid envelope. The questionnaire included demographic information and a composite of instruments including the SF 36, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ, Fife Stigma Scale (FSS, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Variable associations were assessed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U Test, correlations, stepwise multiple regression and path analysis. Young adults with narcolepsy perceived significantly more stigma and lower mood and health-related quality of life than young adults without narcolepsy (p<0.01. Health-related stigma was directly and indirectly associated with lower functioning through depressed mood. Fifty-two percent of the variance in functioning was explained by the final model in the young adults with narcolepsy. Health-related stigma in young adults with narcolepsy is at a level consistent with other chronic medical illnesses. Health-related stigma may be an important determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy. Future work is indicated toward further characterizing stigma and developing interventions that address various domains of stigma in people with narcolepsy.

  5. Autism spectrum disorder in adults: diagnosis, management, and health services development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy CM

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Clodagh M Murphy,1,2 C Ellie Wilson,1–3 Dene M Robertson,1,2 Christine Ecker,1,4 Eileen M Daly,1,2 Neil Hammond,1,2 Anastasios Galanopoulos,1,2 Iulia Dud,1,2 Declan G Murphy,1,2 Grainne M McAlonan1,2 1Sackler Institute for Translational Neurodevelopment, Department of Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Sciences, King’s College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, 2Behavioural and Developmental Psychiatry Clinical Academic Group, Behavioural Genetics Clinic, National Adult Autism Service, South London and Maudsley Foundation NHS Trust, London, UK; 3Individual Differences, Language and Cognition Lab, Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology, University of Seville, Spain; 4Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University Hospital, Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by pervasive difficulties since early childhood across reciprocal social communication and restricted, repetitive interests and behaviors. Although early ASD research focused primarily on children, there is increasing recognition that ASD is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder. However, although health and education services for children with ASD are relatively well established, service provision for adults with ASD is in its infancy. There is a lack of health services research for adults with ASD, including identification of comorbid health difficulties, rigorous treatment trials (pharmacological and psychological, development of new pharmacotherapies, investigation of transition and aging across the lifespan, and consideration of sex differences and the views of people with ASD. This article reviews available evidence regarding the etiology, legislation, diagnosis, management, and service provision for adults with ASD and considers what is needed to support adults with ASD as they age. We conclude

  6. Parents' Traditional Cultural Values and Mexican-Origin Young Adults' Routine Health and Dental Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A; Kuo, Sally I-Chun; McHale, Susan M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Wheeler, Lorey A

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the prospective associations between Mexican-origin mothers' and fathers' traditional cultural values and young adults' health and dental care utilization and to test the moderating role of youth gender. Mexican-origin parents and youth (N = 246 families) participated in home interviews and provided self-reports of parents' cultural values (time 1) and young adults' health status and routine health and dental care (time 2; 5 years later). Logistic regressions tested parents' traditional cultural values as predictors of routine health and dental care, accounting for parent nativity, parent acculturation, family socioeconomic status, youth gender, youth age, and youth physical health status. We also tested whether youth gender moderated the associations between parents' cultural values and young adults' routine care. Young adults whose mothers endorsed strong familism values when they were in mid-to-late adolescence were more likely to report at least one routine physician visit in the past year as young adults (odds ratio [OR] = 3.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-9.83, p = .019). Furthermore, for females only, mothers' more traditional gender role attitudes predicted reduced odds of receiving routine health (OR = .22; 95% CI: .08-.64, p = .005) and dental care (OR = .26; 95% CI: .09-.75, p < .012) in young adulthood. Our findings highlight the importance of examining intragroup variability in culturally specific mechanisms to identify targets for addressing ethnic/racial disparities in health care utilization among Mexican-origin young adults, during a period of increased risk for health-compromising behaviors and reduced access to care. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Smart homes and home health monitoring technologies for older adults: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lili; Stroulia, Eleni; Nikolaidis, Ioanis; Miguel-Cruz, Antonio; Rios Rincon, Adriana

    2016-07-01

    Around the world, populations are aging and there is a growing concern about ways that older adults can maintain their health and well-being while living in their homes. The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic literature review to determine: (1) the levels of technology readiness among older adults and, (2) evidence for smart homes and home-based health-monitoring technologies that support aging in place for older adults who have complex needs. We identified and analyzed 48 of 1863 relevant papers. Our analyses found that: (1) technology-readiness level for smart homes and home health monitoring technologies is low; (2) the highest level of evidence is 1b (i.e., one randomized controlled trial with a PEDro score ≥6); smart homes and home health monitoring technologies are used to monitor activities of daily living, cognitive decline and mental health, and heart conditions in older adults with complex needs; (3) there is no evidence that smart homes and home health monitoring technologies help address disability prediction and health-related quality of life, or fall prevention; and (4) there is conflicting evidence that smart homes and home health monitoring technologies help address chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The level of technology readiness for smart homes and home health monitoring technologies is still low. The highest level of evidence found was in a study that supported home health technologies for use in monitoring activities of daily living, cognitive decline, mental health, and heart conditions in older adults with complex needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gender Differences in Predictors of Mental Health among Older Adults in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Lee, Jungui

    2011-01-01

    As aging is occurring at a rate never before seen in South Korea, the present study examines the predictors of mental health in a nationally representative sample of older adults (n = 4,155), drawn from Wave I of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging. Findings show that sociodemographic factors, chronic health conditions, level of cognition, and…

  9. The Mental Health of British Adults with Intellectual Impairments Living in General Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Chris; Emerson, Eric; Robertson, Janet; Baines, Susannah

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning may have poorer mental health than their peers. The present authors sought to (i) estimate the risk of poorer mental health among British adults with and without intellectual impairments and (ii) estimate the extent to which any between-group differences in…

  10. Long-term health effects of unintentional injuries in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bjarne; Møller, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    and Morbidity Survey in Denmark, 14,566 adults aged 16 years or more were asked about long-term health effects of unintentional injuries. Those reporting long-term health effects were asked about the type and duration of these effects and the accompanying limitation of their daily activities. Information...

  11. Becoming Old as a "Pharmaceutical Person": Negotiation of Health and Medicines among Ethnoculturally Diverse Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Peri J.; Mirza, Raza M.; Austin, Zubin; Boon, Heather S.; Fisher, Judith E.

    2011-01-01

    Because medication prescribing and use have become a normative aspect of health care for older adults, we seek to understand how individuals navigate prescribed-medication use within the context of aging. We reasoned that, for those who are ambulatory, medication use is likely influenced by ethnocultural meanings of health and experiences with…

  12. Gender Differences in Predictors of Mental Health among Older Adults in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Lee, Jungui

    2011-01-01

    As aging is occurring at a rate never before seen in South Korea, the present study examines the predictors of mental health in a nationally representative sample of older adults (n = 4,155), drawn from Wave I of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging. Findings show that sociodemographic factors, chronic health conditions, level of cognition, and…

  13. Adolescent Tobacco and Cannabis Use: Young Adult Outcomes from the Ontario Child Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…

  14. Mobile health in adults with congenital heart disease: Current use and future needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuuring, M.J.; A. Backx (Ad); Zwart, R.; Veelenturf, A.H.; D. Robbers-Visser (Daniëlle); M. Groenink (Maarten); A. Abu-Hanna (Ameen); N. Bruining (Nico); M.P. Schijven; B.J.M. Mulder (Barbara); B.J. Bouma (Berto)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective Many adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) are affected lifelong by cardiac events, particularly arrhythmias and heart failure. Despite the care provided, the cardiac event rate remains high. Mobile health (mHealth) brings opportunities to enhance daily monitoring and henc

  15. Multi-Morbidity, Functional Limitations, and Self-Rated Health Among Older Adults in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perianayagam Arokiasamy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the prevalence of multi-morbidity and its association with self-rated and functional health using Longitudinal Aging Study in India (LASI, Pilot survey, 2010 data, on 1,683 older adults aged 45+. The prevalence of multi-morbidity is assessed as count of self-reported chronic diseases for an older adult. Limitations in activities of daily living (ADL are used as a measure of functional health. Zero-inflated Poisson regression is estimated to examine the covariates of multi-morbidity. Moreover, logit models are used to assess the association of multi-morbidity with functional health and self-rated health. Results depict a large prevalence of multi-morbidity, limitations in ADL and poor self-rated health with pronounced state variations. Prevalence of multimorbidity was higher at higher level of education, wealth, and caste. However, educational status of older adults is seen to be negatively associated with prevalence of ADL limitations and poor self-rated health. Household wealth and caste showed no clear association with limitations in ADL and poor self-rated health. Multi-morbid older adults were found with substantially high risk of ADL limitations and poor self-rated health.

  16. Mental Health Literacy in Emerging Adults in a University Setting: Distinctions between Symptom Awareness and Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Michelle M.; Gelinas, Bethany L.; Friesen, Lindsay N.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of mental health concerns in university populations, students are unlikely to seek formal help. The current study examined help-seeking behaviors among emerging adults in a university setting using a mental health literacy framework. Responses from 122 university undergraduates were examined. Students ranged in age from…

  17. Older adults' perceptions of ageing and their health and functioning: a systematic review of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmoth, Krystal; Tarrant, Mark; Abraham, Charles; Lang, Iain A

    2016-07-01

    Many older people perceive ageing negatively, describing it in terms of poor or declining health and functioning. These perceptions may be related to older adults' health. The aim of this review was to synthesise existing research on the relationship between older adults' perceptions of ageing and their health and functioning. A systematic search was conducted of five electronic databases (ASSIA, CINAHL, IBSS, MEDLINE and PsycINFO). Citations within identified reports were also searched. Observational studies were included if they included perceptions of ageing and health-related measures involving participants aged 60 years and older. Study selection, data extraction and quality appraisal were conducted using predefined criteria. Twenty-eight reports met the criteria for inclusion. Older adults' perceptions of ageing were assessed with a variety of measures. Perceptions were related to health and functioning across seven health domains: memory and cognitive performance, physical and physiological performance, medical conditions and outcomes, disability, care-seeking, self-rated health, quality of life and death. How ageing is perceived by older adults is related to their health and functioning in multiple domains. However, higher quality and longitudinal studies are needed to further investigate this relationship.

  18. Health checks in primary care for adults with intellectual disabilities: how extensive should they be?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chauhan, U.; Kontopantelis, E.; Campbell, S.M.; Jarrett, H.; Lester, H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Routine health checks have gained prominence as a way of detecting unmet need in primary care for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and general practitioners are being incentivised in the UK to carry out health checks for many conditions through an incentivisation scheme known

  19. Mobile health in adults with congenital heart disease: Current use and future needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuuring, M.J.; A. Backx (Ad); Zwart, R.; Veelenturf, A.H.; D. Robbers-Visser (Daniëlle); M. Groenink (Maarten); A. Abu-Hanna (Ameen); N. Bruining (Nico); M.P. Schijven; B.J.M. Mulder (Barbara); B.J. Bouma (Berto)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective Many adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) are affected lifelong by cardiac events, particularly arrhythmias and heart failure. Despite the care provided, the cardiac event rate remains high. Mobile health (mHealth) brings opportunities to enhance daily monitoring and

  20. Adolescent Tobacco and Cannabis Use: Young Adult Outcomes from the Ontario Child Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…

  1. Behavioral Health Services Utilization among Older Adults Identified within a State Abuse Hotline Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Lawrence; Larsen, Rebecca G.; Stiles, Paul G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the extent to which older adults identified in a statewide abuse hotline registry utilized behavioral health services. This is important as mental health issues have been identified as a high priority for filling gaps in services for victims of mistreatment. Design and Methods: We compared Medicaid and Medicare claims…

  2. Does Information Improve the Health Behavior of Adults Targeted by a Conditional Transfer Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitabile, Ciro

    2012-01-01

    We use data from the evaluation sample of Mexico's Food Assistance Program (PAL) to study whether including the attendance at health and nutrition classes among the requirements for receiving a transfer affects the health behavior of adults living in localities targeted by the program. The experimental trial has four different treatment types,…

  3. The Impact of Repeated Health Checks for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felce, David; Baxter, Helen; Lowe, Kathy; Dunstan, Frank; Houston, Helen; Jones, Glyn; Felce, Janet; Kerr, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background: An earlier study (Baxter "et al." 2006) found that a structured health check conducted in primary care identified clinically significant previously unrecognized morbidity among adults with intellectual disabilities. The aim here was to examine whether follow-up health checks would identify equally significant newly identified morbidity…

  4. Becoming Old as a "Pharmaceutical Person": Negotiation of Health and Medicines among Ethnoculturally Diverse Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Peri J.; Mirza, Raza M.; Austin, Zubin; Boon, Heather S.; Fisher, Judith E.

    2011-01-01

    Because medication prescribing and use have become a normative aspect of health care for older adults, we seek to understand how individuals navigate prescribed-medication use within the context of aging. We reasoned that, for those who are ambulatory, medication use is likely influenced by ethnocultural meanings of health and experiences with…

  5. Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance for the Older Adult: A Modular Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD).

    This book is addressed to the teacher of health, physical education, recreation, and dance courses for older adults. The first section provides the foundation for understanding gerontology. It includes fundamental concepts within the areas of sociological, physiological, and psychological aspects of aging, health problems, and nutritional status…

  6. Immunizing Adults (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-21

    Overall, far too many people 19 and older aren’t getting the vaccines they need and remain unprotected. This podcast discusses the importance of adults being fully vaccinated.  Created: 2/21/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 2/21/2013.

  7. Music and Public Health: Music in the everyday life of adult Danes and its relationship with health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, Ola; Bonde, Lars Ole

    2016-01-01

    in daily life? 2) What associations can be observed between musical background, uses and understanding of music as a health factor, and self-reported health? Method: Data came from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2013, based on a simple random sample of 25.000 adult Danes (16+ years). Response rate......: 57%. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate associations between musical background/activities and health-related indicators. Discussion: The study documents that a majority of informants use music to regulate physical and psychological states...

  8. Daily Health Symptoms of Mothers of Adolescents and Adults with Fragile X Syndrome and Mothers of Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Leann E.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2012-01-01

    Health symptoms of mothers of adolescents and adults with fragile X syndrome (FXS; n = 112) were compared to a nationally-representative sample of mothers of similarly-aged children without disabilities (n = 230) as well as to a sample of mothers of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; n = 96). Health symptoms experienced in…

  9. Health Benefits of Digital Videogames for Older Adults: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Amanda K; Chavarria, Enmanuel; Maneeratana, Vasana; Chaney, Beth H; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2012-12-01

    This article is a systematic review conducted of the research literature on digital videogames played by older adults and health outcomes associated with game play. Findings from each study meeting the inclusion criteria were analyzed and summarized into emergent themes to determine the impact of digital games in promoting healthy behaviors among older adults. A systematic review of the research literature was conducted through multiple academic databases for works, published between the years 2000 and 2011, looking at digital videogame interventions with adults 65 years of age and older. Multiple combinations of search terms and Boolean operators relevant to digital videogames and older adults were queried. A criteria matrix was created to code and evaluate studies. Thirteen studies met specific criteria for inclusion and were analyzed in the final review. Significant mental, physical, and social health factors, type of digital game platform, study design, and measurements are among emergent themes summarized from the reviewed research literature. Significant mental health outcomes of digital game interventions were found in the majority of the reviewed studies, followed by physical and lastly social health outcomes in older adults. A majority of the studies revealed significant positive effects on health outcomes associated with digital videogame play among older adults. With current advancements in technology, including advanced motion sensing, digital game platforms have significant potential for positive health impact among older populations. More robust and rigorous research designs are needed to increase validity and reliability of results and establish stronger causal relationships on the health benefits of digital videogame play for older adults.

  10. Home as a health promotion setting for older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahler, Marianne; Sarvimäki, Anneli; Clancy, Anne

    2014-01-01

    life. Conclusions: Only by taking into consideration the meaning of home and the resources of the individual older person can home function as a true health promoting setting. If health personnel focus solely on risk prevention, they can neglect the perspectives of the older person, resulting in dis...

  11. Brain Health Knowledge in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Carolyn S.; Troutman-Jordan, Meredith; Nies, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    Aging and its effects on a person's quality of life are a growing health concern and burden for many Americans. Recently, studies have shown that adopting certain healthy behaviors may help maintain and or prevent age-related health issues such as cognitive decline. However, many people are unaware of these newfound facts. Furthermore, there is…

  12. Home as a health promotion setting for older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahler, Marianne; Sarvimäki, Anneli; Clancy, Anne;

    2014-01-01

    life. Conclusions: Only by taking into consideration the meaning of home and the resources of the individual older person can home function as a true health promoting setting. If health personnel focus solely on risk prevention, they can neglect the perspectives of the older person, resulting in dis-empowerment...

  13. Brain Health Knowledge in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Carolyn S.; Troutman-Jordan, Meredith; Nies, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    Aging and its effects on a person's quality of life are a growing health concern and burden for many Americans. Recently, studies have shown that adopting certain healthy behaviors may help maintain and or prevent age-related health issues such as cognitive decline. However, many people are unaware of these newfound facts. Furthermore, there is…

  14. Self-perceived health and clinical characteristics in young adult students from the brazilian northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thereza Maria Magalhães Moreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the association between socioeconomic situation, clinical characteristics referred and the family history of cardiovascular disease, with the Self-perceived health of young adults education and their implications for clinical characteristics observed. Method Analytical study conducted with 501 young adults who are students in countryside city in the Brazilian Northeast. We used binary logistic regression. Results The final model explained 83.3% of the self-perceived positive health, confirming the association of Self-perceived health with male, residence in the community, have excellent/very good lifestyle and does not have or do not know that there are cases of stroke in the family. Conclusion Health perception was often optimistic, being important to identify devices to be worked closer to their perception of their actual health condition, increasing the effectiveness of health promotion activities undertaken by professionals.

  15. Infant mortality, season of birth and the health of older Puerto Rican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEniry, Mary

    2011-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of heart disease and diabetes among aging populations in low and middle income countries leads to questions regarding the degree to which endogenous early life exposures (exposures in utero) are important determinants of these health conditions. We devised a test using infant mortality (IMR) to verify if season of birth is a good indicator of early life (in utero) conditions that precipitate adult onset of disease. We linked annual IMR at the municipality (municipio) level from the late 1920s to early 1940s with individual birth year and place using a representative sample of older Puerto Rican adults (n = 1447) from the Puerto Rican Elderly: Health Conditions (PREHCO) study. We estimated the effects of season of birth on adult heart disease and diabetes for all respondents and then for respondents according to whether they were born when IMR was lower or higher, controlling for age, gender, obesity, respondent's educational level, adult behavior (smoking and exercise) and other early life exposures (childhood health, knee height and childhood socioeconomic status (SES)). The pattern of effects suggests that season of birth reflects endogenous causes: (1) odds of heart disease and diabetes were strong and significant for those born during the lean season in years when IMR was lower; (2) effects remained consistent even after controlling for other childhood conditions and adult behavior; but (3) no seasonality effects on adult health for adults born when IMR was higher. We conclude that in this population of older Puerto Rican adults there is continued support that the timing of adverse endogenous (in utero) conditions such as poor nutrition and infectious diseases is associated with adult heart disease and diabetes. It will be important to test the validity of these findings in other similar populations in the developing world.

  16. Physical activity and optimal self-rated health of adults with and without diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balluz Lina S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular physical activity can improve people's overall health and contribute to both primary and secondary prevention of many chronic diseases and conditions including diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine the association between levels of physical activity and optimal self-rated health (SRH of U.S. adults with and without diabetes in all 50 states and territories of the Unites States. Methods We estimated the prevalence of optimal SRH by diabetes status of 430,912 adults aged 18 years and older who participated in the 2007 state-based survey of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS. Prevalence ratios were produced with multivariate Cox regression models using levels of physical activity as a predictor and status of optimal SRH as an outcome variable while controlling for sociodemographic and behavioral health risk factors. Results The prevalence of reporting optimal SRH was 53.3%, 52.2%, and 86.2% for adults with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and without diabetes, respectively. Also in the aforementioned order, adults who reported being active had an increased likelihood of 81%, 32%, and 18% for reporting optimal SRH, when compared with adults who reported being inactive. Conclusions Regular physical activity of adults, particularly adults with diabetes, is associated with optimal SRH. The findings of this study underscore the importance of advising and motivating adults with diabetes so that physical activity can be integrated into their lifestyle for diabetes care. Additionally, a population-based effort to promote physical activity in communities may benefit adults in general by improving their overall health and well-being.

  17. Health of adults in Los Angeles County: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kathryn S; Curtin, Lester R; Carroll, Margaret D; Li, Xianfen; Mohadjer, Leyla; Shih, Margaret; Simon, Paul A; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2011-09-01

    Los Angeles County has the largest population of any county in the nation. Population-based estimates of health conditions for Los Angeles County are based primarily on telephone surveys, which are known to underestimate conditions of public health importance. This report presents the prevalence of selected health conditions for civilian noninstitutionalized adults aged 20 and over living in Los Angeles County households and group quarters, based on survey data using direct physical measurements. Combined data from the 1999-2000, 2001-2002, and 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics, were used for this report. Sample weights were recalculated for participants examined in Los Angeles County using population totals provided by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, excluding the institutionalized population. Compared with the nation as a whole, adults in Los Angeles County had similar rates of health conditions even after age and age-race adjustment, with a few exceptions. A significantly smaller proportion of Los Angeles County adults were obese (age-adjusted rate, 23.8%) compared with the United States (31.0%); this difference held after age-race adjustment. The age-adjusted rate of diagnosed diabetes for men was higher in Los Angeles County (9.1%) than in the nation (7.3%); however, this difference did not hold after age-race adjustment. The rates of total diabetes adjusted for age and age-race were similar for men in Los Angeles County and the United States. The rates of selected health conditions in this report were similar for adults in Los Angeles County compared with adults in the United States, with the exception of obesity. The rates of obesity adjusted for age and age-race were lower among Los Angeles County adults compared with national rates. Health estimates based on direct physical measurements can be useful

  18. Cognitive health among older adults in the United States and in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Robert B

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive function is a key determinant of independence and quality of life among older adults. Compared to adults in England, US adults have a greater prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and disease that may lead to poorer cognitive function. We compared cognitive performance of older adults in the US and England, and sought to identify sociodemographic and medical factors associated with differences in cognitive function between the two countries. Methods Data were from the 2002 waves of the US Health and Retirement Study (HRS (n = 8,299 and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA (n = 5,276, nationally representative population-based studies designed to facilitate direct comparisons of health, wealth, and well-being. There were differences in the administration of the HRS and ELSA surveys, including use of both telephone and in-person administration of the HRS compared to only in-person administration of the ELSA, and a significantly higher response rate for the HRS (87% for the HRS vs. 67% for the ELSA. In each country, we assessed cognitive performance in non-hispanic whites aged 65 and over using the same tests of memory and orientation (0 to 24 point scale. Results US adults scored significantly better than English adults on the 24-point cognitive scale (unadjusted mean: 12.8 vs. 11.4, P Conclusion Despite methodological differences in the administration of the surveys in the two countries, US adults aged ≥ 65 appeared to be cognitively healthier than English adults, even though they had a higher burden of cardiovascular risk factors and disease. Given the growing number of older adults worldwide, future cross-national studies aimed at identifying the medical and social factors that might prevent or delay cognitive decline in older adults would make important and valuable contributions to public health.

  19. Comparison in Adherence to Osteoporosis Guidelines according to Bone Health Status in Korean Adult

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Hee-Sook; Kim, Soon-Kyung; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Byun, Dong Won; Park, Yoon-Hyung; Kim, Tae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis one of the most serious disease to decrease the quality of life and cause economic loss. Thus, prevention of osteoporosis has become an important health concern. The study examined in adherence to osteoporosis guidelines and compared the levels of adherence to osteoporosis guidelines between bone health status in Korean adult. Methods This study used data from a nationally represented sample of Koreans (n=3,419) from 2008 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Exa...

  20. Kidney function and cognitive health in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsie, Brendan; Shlipak, Michael G; Sarnak, Mark J; Katz, Ronit; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Odden, Michelle C

    2014-07-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated the importance of kidney function in healthy aging. We examined the association between kidney function and change in cognitive function in 3,907 participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study who were recruited from 4 US communities and studied from 1992 to 1999. Kidney function was measured by cystatin C-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcys). Cognitive function was assessed using the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test, which were administered up to 7 times during annual visits. There was an association between eGFRcys and change in cognitive function after adjustment for confounders; persons with an eGFRcys of less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m(2) had a 0.64 (95% confidence interval: 0.51, 0.77) points/year faster decline in Modified Mini-Mental State Examination score and a 0.42 (95% confidence interval: 0.28, 0.56) points/year faster decline in Digit Symbol Substitution Test score compared with persons with an eGFRcys of 90 or more mL/minute/1.73 m(2). Additional adjustment for intermediate cardiovascular events modestly affected these associations. Participants with an eGFRcys of less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m(2) had fewer cognitive impairment-free life-years on average compared with those with eGFRcys of 90 or more mL/minute/1.73 m(2), independent of confounders and mediating cardiovascular events (mean difference = -0.44, 95% confidence interval: -0.62, -0.26). Older adults with lower kidney function are at higher risk of worsening cognitive function. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Trends in Adults Receiving a Recommendation for Exercise or Other Physical Activity from a Physician or Other Health ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... advice to exercise vary with having selected chronic health conditions? Between 2000 and 2010, receipt of advice from a physician to do exercise or physical activity increased for adults with hypertension, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes ( Figure 4 ). Adults with ...

  2. Does adult attachment style mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and mental and physical health outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J; Kozakowski, Sandra Sepulveda; Chauhan, Preeti

    2017-05-15

    Attachment theory has been proposed as one explanation for the relationship between childhood maltreatment and problematic mental and physical health outcomes in adulthood. This study seeks to determine whether: (1) childhood physical abuse and neglect lead to different attachment styles in adulthood, (2) adult attachment styles predict subsequent mental and physical health outcomes, and (3) adult attachment styles mediate the relationship between childhood physical abuse and neglect and mental and physical health outcomes. Children with documented cases of physical abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) were matched with children without these histories and followed up in adulthood. Adult attachment style was assessed at mean age 39.5 and outcomes at 41.1. Separate path models examined mental and physical health outcomes. Individuals with histories of childhood neglect and physical abuse had higher levels of anxious attachment style in adulthood, whereas neglect predicted avoidant attachment as well. Both adult attachment styles (anxious and avoidant) predicted mental health outcomes (higher levels of anxiety and depression and lower levels of self-esteem), whereas only anxious adult attachment style predicted higher levels of allostatic load. Path analyses revealed that anxious attachment style in adulthood in part explained the relationship between childhood neglect and physical abuse to depression, anxiety, and self-esteem, but not the relationship to allostatic load. Childhood neglect and physical abuse have lasting effects on adult attachment styles and anxious and avoidant adult attachment styles contribute to understanding the negative mental health consequences of childhood neglect and physical abuse 30 years later in adulthood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sources of Discrimination and Their Associations With Health in Sexual Minority Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Wilson S; Zoccola, Peggy M

    2016-06-01

    Health disparities exist between sexual minorities and heterosexuals. These health disparities may be due to stressful social situations and environments that are created by discrimination. The current study recruited 277 sexual minorities to complete an online survey to examine the effects of discrimination on health. Discrimination from family and friends, compared to non-family and friends, was found to be more strongly associated with poorer health. This effect was partially statistically mediated by perceived stress reactivity. Findings from this study highlight the importance of distinguishing between different sources of discrimination when examining the effect of discrimination on health in sexual minority adults.

  4. The effects of health coaching on adult patients with chronic diseases: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivelä, Kirsi; Elo, Satu; Kyngäs, Helvi; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to describe the effects of health coaching on adult patients with chronic diseases. The reviewers searched electronic databases and performed a manual search for studies published from 2009 to 2013. The inclusion criteria covered health coaching for adults with chronic diseases by health care professionals. The studies were original, randomized controlled trials or quasi-experimental designs. Thirteen studies were selected using the inclusion criteria. The results indicate that health coaching produces positive effects on patients' physiological, behavioral and psychological conditions and on their social life. In particular, statistically significant results revealed better weight management, increased physical activity and improved physical and mental health status. Health coaching improves the management of chronic diseases. Further research into the cost-effectiveness of health coaching and its long-term effectiveness for chronic diseases is needed. Practice implications Health care professionals play key roles in promoting healthy behavior and motivating good care for adults with chronic diseases. Health coaching is an effective patient education method that can be used to motivate and take advantage of a patient's willingness to change their life style and to support the patient's home-based self-care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Determining Factors in the Access to Mental Health Services by the Adult Colombian Population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Lina María; Peñaloza, Rolando Enrique; Matallana, María Alexandra; Gil, Fabián; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Landaeta, Angela Patricia Vega

    2016-12-01

    Access to mental health services by people with mental disorders has traditionally been limited, and is associated with attitudinal, social, and structural variables. To analyse the factors that determine access to mental health services by the adult population (18-44 years old) in Colombia, from the results obtained in the 2015 National Mental Health Survey. Analysis of variables of access to attention in mental health care for adults. The reasons for not consulting were classified as barriers of behavioural supply and demand. To analyse the factors associated with access to mental health services in the Colombian adult population, the use of health services in the last 12 months for emotional, nervous or mental health problems was taken into account, as well as associated variables such as demographic characteristics, occupational activity, affiliation to social security, and health status variables. The relationships between these variables were estimated using bivariate multinomial logistic regression models. Rural residence, being married, and having a chronic disease were associated with the decision to consult or not to consult the doctor. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the situation as regards mental health care access, as well as to determine the potential factors associated with these limitations. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. [Physical activity: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, S; Jordan, S; Mensink, G B M; Müters, S; Finger, J; Lampert, T

    2013-05-01

    Regular physical activity can have a positive effect on health at any age. Today's lifestyles, however, can often be characterised as sedentary. Therefore, the promotion of physical activity and sports has become an integral part of public health measures. The representative data of adults aged 18 to 79 years in Germany obtained from the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) provide an overview of self-estimated current physical activity behaviour. The results show that one third of the adult population claims to pay close attention to reaching a sufficient level of physical activity and one fourth participates in sports for at least 2 h/week on a regular basis. Thus, the percentage of adults regularly engaged in sports has increased compared to the previous "German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998". Still, four out of five adults do not achieve at least 2.5 h/week of moderate-intensity physical activity as recommended by the World Health Organisation. Consequently, future individual-level and population-level interventions should focus on target group-specific measures while continuing to promote regular physical activity in all segments of the population. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  7. eHealth literacy and Web 2.0 health information seeking behaviors among baby boomers and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Bethany; Stellefson, Michael; Dodd, Virginia; Chaney, Beth; Chaney, Don; Paige, Samantha; Alber, Julia

    2015-03-17

    Baby boomers and older adults, a subset of the population at high risk for chronic disease, social isolation, and poor health outcomes, are increasingly utilizing the Internet and social media (Web 2.0) to locate and evaluate health information. However, among these older populations, little is known about what factors influence their eHealth literacy and use of Web 2.0 for health information. The intent of the study was to explore the extent to which sociodemographic, social determinants, and electronic device use influences eHealth literacy and use of Web 2.0 for health information among baby boomers and older adults. A random sample of baby boomers and older adults (n=283, mean 67.46 years, SD 9.98) participated in a cross-sectional, telephone survey that included the eHealth literacy scale (eHEALS) and items from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) assessing electronic device use and use of Web 2.0 for health information. An independent samples t test compared eHealth literacy among users and non-users of Web 2.0 for health information. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine associations between sociodemographic, social determinants, and electronic device use on self-reported eHealth literacy and use of Web 2.0 for seeking and sharing health information. Almost 90% of older Web 2.0 users (90/101, 89.1%) reported using popular Web 2.0 websites, such as Facebook and Twitter, to find and share health information. Respondents reporting use of Web 2.0 reported greater eHealth literacy (mean 30.38, SD 5.45, n=101) than those who did not use Web 2.0 (mean 28.31, SD 5.79, n=182), t217.60=-2.98, P=.003. Younger age (b=-0.10), more education (b=0.48), and use of more electronic devices (b=1.26) were significantly associated with greater eHealth literacy (R(2) =.17, R(2)adj =.14, F9,229=5.277, Pinformation (OR 2.63, Wald= 8.09, df=1, P=.004). Finally, more education predicted greater use of Web 2.0 for health

  8. Relationship between oral health literacy and oral health behaviors and clinical status in Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Ueno

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: Our findings indicate that oral health literacy is associated with differences in oral health behaviors and clinical oral health status. An understanding of participants’ oral health literacy levels is crucial for designing effective health educational materials and creating intervention programs to promote oral health.

  9. Childhood Predictors of Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder : Results from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lara, Carmen; Fayyad, John; de Graaf, Ron; Kessler, Ronald C.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Angermeyer, Matthias; Demytteneare, Koen; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Jin, Robert; Karam, Elie G.; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Mora, Maria Elena Medina; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although it is known that childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often persists into adulthood, childhood predictors of this persistence have not been widely studied. Methods: Childhood history of ADHD and adult ADHD were assessed in 10 countries in the World Health Or

  10. Childhood Predictors of Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lara, C.; Fayyad, J.; de Graaf, R.; Kessler, R.C.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S.; Angermeyer, M.; Demytteneare, K.; De Girolamo, G.; Haro, J.M.; Jin, R.; Karam, E.G.; Lepine, J.P.; Mora, M.E.M.; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.; Sampson, N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although it is known that childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often persists into adulthood, childhood predictors of this persistence have not been widely studied. Methods: Childhood history of ADHD and adult ADHD were assessed in 10 countries in the World Health Or

  11. Food Avoidance and Food Modification Practices of Older Rural Adults: Association with Oral Health Status and Implications for Service Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandt, Sara A.; Chen, Haiying; Bell, Ronny A.; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Kohrman, Teresa; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Dietary variation is important for health maintenance and disease prevention among older adults. However, oral health deficits impair ability to bite and chew foods. This study examines the association between oral health and foods avoided or modified in a multiethnic rural population of older adults. It considers implications for…

  12. Race/Ethnicity and Health-Related Quality of Life Among LGBT Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Jen, Sarah; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I

    2017-02-01

    Few existing studies have addressed racial/ethnic differences in the health and quality of life of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Guided by the Health Equity Promotion Model, this study examines health-promoting and health risk factors that contribute to racial/ethnic health disparities among LGBT adults aged 50 and older. We utilized weighted survey data from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study. By applying multiple mediator models, we analyzed the indirect effects of race/ethnicity on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) via demographics, lifetime LGBT-related discrimination, and victimization, and socioeconomic, identity-related, spiritual, and social resources. Although African Americans and Hispanics, compared with non-Hispanic Whites, reported lower physical HRQOL and comparable psychological HRQOL, indirect pathways between race/ethnicity and HRQOL were observed. African Americans and Hispanics had lower income, educational attainment, identity affirmation, and social support, which were associated with a decrease in physical and psychological HRQOL. African Americans had higher lifetime LGBT-related discrimination, which was linked to a decrease in their physical and psychological HRQOL. African Americans and Hispanics had higher spirituality, which was associated with an increase in psychological HRQOL. Findings illustrate the importance of identifying both health-promoting and health risk factors to understand ways to maximize the health potential of racially and ethnically diverse LGBT older adults. Interventions aimed at health equity should be tailored to bolster identity affirmation and social networks of LGBT older adults of color and to support strengths, including spiritual resources. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. "Friending" teens: systematic review of social media in adolescent and young adult health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonker, Lael M; Zan, Shiyi; Scirica, Christina V; Jethwani, Kamal; Kinane, T Bernard

    2015-01-05

    Social media has emerged as a potentially powerful medium for communication with adolescents and young adults around their health choices. The goal of this systematic review is to identify research on the use of social media for interacting with adolescents and young adults in order to achieve positive health outcomes. A MEDLINE/PubMed electronic database search was performed between January 1, 2002 and October 1, 2013, using terms to identify peer-reviewed research in which social media and other Web 2.0 technologies were an important feature. We used a systematic approach to retrieve papers and extract relevant data. We identified 288 studies involving social media, of which 87 met criteria for inclusion; 75 studies were purely observational and 12 were interventional. The ways in which social media was leveraged by these studies included (1) observing adolescent and young adult behavior (n=77), (2) providing health information (n=13), (3) engaging the adolescent and young adult community (n=17), and (4) recruiting research participants (n=23). Common health topics addressed included high-risk sexual behaviors (n=23), alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use (n=19), Internet safety (n=8), mental health issues (n=18), medical conditions (n=11), or other specified issues (n=12). Several studies used more than one social media platform and addressed more than one health-related topic. Social media technologies offer an exciting new means for engaging and communicating with adolescents and young adults; it has been successfully used to engage this age group, identify behaviors, and provide appropriate intervention and education. Nevertheless, the majority of studies to date have been preliminary and limited in their methodologies, and mostly center around evaluating how adolescents and young adults use social media and the resulting implications on their health. Although these explorations are essential, further exploration and development of these strategies into

  14. “Friending” Teens: Systematic Review of Social Media in Adolescent and Young Adult Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scirica, Christina V; Jethwani, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Background Social media has emerged as a potentially powerful medium for communication with adolescents and young adults around their health choices. Objective The goal of this systematic review is to identify research on the use of social media for interacting with adolescents and young adults in order to achieve positive health outcomes. Methods A MEDLINE/PubMed electronic database search was performed between January 1, 2002 and October 1, 2013, using terms to identify peer-reviewed research in which social media and other Web 2.0 technologies were an important feature. We used a systematic approach to retrieve papers and extract relevant data. Results We identified 288 studies involving social media, of which 87 met criteria for inclusion; 75 studies were purely observational and 12 were interventional. The ways in which social media was leveraged by these studies included (1) observing adolescent and young adult behavior (n=77), (2) providing health information (n=13), (3) engaging the adolescent and young adult community (n=17), and (4) recruiting research participants (n=23). Common health topics addressed included high-risk sexual behaviors (n=23), alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use (n=19), Internet safety (n=8), mental health issues (n=18), medical conditions (n=11), or other specified issues (n=12). Several studies used more than one social media platform and addressed more than one health-related topic. Conclusions Social media technologies offer an exciting new means for engaging and communicating with adolescents and young adults; it has been successfully used to engage this age group, identify behaviors, and provide appropriate intervention and education. Nevertheless, the majority of studies to date have been preliminary and limited in their methodologies, and mostly center around evaluating how adolescents and young adults use social media and the resulting implications on their health. Although these explorations are essential, further

  15. Changes in Optimism Are Associated with Changes in Health Over Time Among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopik, William J.; Kim, Eric S.; Smith, Jacqui

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how optimism differs by age and changes over time, particularly among older adults. Even less is known about how changes in optimism are related to changes in physical health. We examined age differences and longitudinal changes in optimism in 9,790 older adults over a four-year period. We found an inverted U-shaped pattern between optimism and age both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, such that optimism generally increased in older adults before decreasing. Increases in optimism over a four-year period were associated with improvements in self-rated health and fewer chronic illnesses over the same time frame. The findings from the current study are consistent with changes in emotion regulation strategies employed by older adults and age-related changes in well-being. PMID:27114753

  16. Adolescent and Young Adult Use of Social Media for Health and Its Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Jonathan S; Touloumtzis, Currie; White, Matthew T; Colbert, James A; Gooding, Holly C

    2017-06-01

    To determine how adolescents and young adults (AYAs) use social media to share health information and to assess attitudes toward using social media to obtain health information and communicate with medical providers. A cross-sectional study of AYAs, 12 years or older, attending a primary care adolescent and young adult clinic. Participants completed an anonymous survey about health-related social media use, personal health, and communication with their health care team. Of the 244 patients approached, 204 enrolled (83.6% participation rate). Almost all (98%) had used social media within the prior month, but only 51.5% had shared health information in these networks. These participants shared about mood (76.2%), wellness (57.1%), and acute medical conditions (41.9%). Those with self-reported poor health were more likely to share health information than other groups. Privacy was the most important factor determining which platform to use. Only 25% thought that social media could provide them with useful health information. Few AYAs connected with their health care team on social media and most did not want to use this method; texting was preferred. AYAs maintain their privacy on social media regarding their health. Those with self-perceived poor health are more likely to share health information, potentially biasing online content and impairing the generalizability of social media research. AYAs do not view social media as a useful source of health information, which may limit the utility of public health messages through these platforms, and it may not be adequate for communication between patients and their health care team. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effect of Parental Divorce on the Health of Adult Children1

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Jason R.; Högnäs, Robin S.

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research have produced evidence that parental divorce is negatively associated with offspring outcomes from early childhood, through adolescence, and into the adult years. This study adds to the literature on the effects of parental divorce by examining how the timing of a parental divorce influences the total effect on adult health. Furthermore, we look at how this long-term effect of parental divorce depends on mediators such as the family’s socioeconomic status, parental involve...

  18. Happiness, health, and religiosity among Lebanese young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Abdel-Khalek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the associations between, and sex-related differences in happiness, health, and religiosity. A sample (N = 476 of Lebanese undergraduates took part in the study (215 men and 261 women. They answered Arabic versions of the Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, the Love of Life Scale, as well as five self-generated rating scales. Men obtained a significantly higher mean score on happiness and mental health than did their female counterparts, whereas women obtained a significantly higher mean score on religiosity. All the Pearson correlations between the study scales were significant and positive but one (between the self-rating scales of physical health and religiosity among men. Principal components analysis yielded one salient component separately in men and women, and labeled “Happiness, health, and religiosity.” The predictors of happiness as assessed with the OHI were love of life and SWLS, and happiness self-rating scale. Based on the responses of the present sample, it was concluded that those who consider themselves as felt happiness, reported higher mental and physical health, and being more religious.

  19. Health insurance, patient protection and Affordable Care Act, and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodich, Colleen; Patel, Dilip

    2013-12-01

    In summary, the ACA aims to correct some of the shortcomings of our current health insurance systems. It aims to make health insurance more affordable and more accessible and the health insurance systems easier to navigate. For the young adult population, it aims to protect more individuals by allowing them to stay on their parent's insurance longer and by making it easier to choose an insurance plan that is right for them. Those with preexisting medical conditions do not have to worry about being excluded from a health plan because of their medical history. The law is also making health insurance mandatory, which may help prevent young adults who fall ill from incurring large medical bills. Initial outcomes from the implementation of the ACA have shown both positive and negative responses. All in all, it is giving young adults more options when it comes to obtaining health insurance. As part of discussion with adolescents and young adults, physicians may take into consideration key points summarized in Table 4.

  20. Acculturation, Health Literacy, and Illness Perceptions of Hypertension among Hispanic Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Amelia

    2015-09-01

    Hypertension treatment rates are disproportionately lower among Hispanics compared to non-Hispanic Whites and non-Hispanic Blacks. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among acculturation, health literacy, and illness perceptions of hypertension among Hispanics. A cross-sectional correlational design was used, including 144 Hispanic adults with a self-reported diagnosis of hypertension. The instruments used included the Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics, the Newest Vital Sign instrument to measure health literacy, and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. Significant relationships were found among acculturation, health literacy, and several illness perceptions (consequences, control, symptoms, and emotions). Acculturation and health literacy play an important role in illness perceptions of hypertension among Hispanics. Findings could be helpful in the development of tailored health promotion interventions to improve hypertension management among Hispanic adults. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Does health insurance continuity among low-income adults impact their children's insurance coverage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Melissa; Carlson, Matthew J; Wright, Bill J; Angier, Heather; DeVoe, Jennifer E

    2013-02-01

    Parent's insurance coverage is associated with children's insurance status, but little is known about whether a parent's coverage continuity affects a child's coverage. This study assesses the association between an adult's insurance continuity and the coverage status of their children. We used data from a subgroup of participants in the Oregon Health Care Survey, a three-wave, 30-month prospective cohort study (n = 559). We examined the relationship between the length of time an adult had health insurance coverage and whether or not all children in the same household were insured at the end of the study. We used a series of univariate and multivariate logistic regression models to identify significant associations and the rho correlation coefficient to assess collinearity. A dose response relationship was observed between continuity of adult coverage and the odds that all children in the household were insured. Among adults with continuous coverage, 91.4% reported that all children were insured at the end of the study period, compared to 83.7% of adults insured for 19-27 months, 74.3% of adults insured for 10-18 months, and 70.8% of adults insured for fewer than 9 months. This stepwise pattern persisted in logistic regression models: adults with the fewest months of coverage, as compared to those continuously insured, reported the highest odds of having uninsured children (adjusted odds ratio 7.26, 95% confidence interval 2.75, 19.17). Parental health insurance continuity is integral to maintaining children's insurance coverage. Policies to promote continuous coverage for adults will indirectly benefit children.

  2. Health promotion and disease prevention strategies in older adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmeli, Eli; Imam, Bita

    2014-01-01

    The rapid growth in the number of individuals living with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) along with their increased longevity present challenges to those concerned about health and well-being of this unique population. While much is known about health promotion and disease prevention in the general geriatric population, far less is known about those in older adults with IDD. Effective and efficient health promotion and disease prevention strategies need to be developed and implemented for improving the health and quality of life of older adults living with IDD. This is considered to be challenging given the continued shrinkage in the overall health care and welfare system services due to the cut in the governmental budget in some of the western countries. The ideal health promotion and disease prevention strategies for older adults with IDD should be tailored to the individuals' health risks, address primary and secondary disease prevention, and prevent avoidable impairments that cause premature institutionalization. Domains of intervention should include cognitive, mental and physical health, accommodations, workplace considerations, assistive technology, recreational activities, and nutrition.

  3. Correlating reading comprehension and health numeracy among adults with low literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbeck, Amanda; Paschal, Angelia; Jones, Amy; Hsiao, Tracy

    2011-07-01

    Using the Test of Functional Health Literacy for Adults (TOFHLA), a pilot study was conducted to assess whether reading comprehension and numeracy scores sufficiently correlate in health contexts among adults with low literacy skills. The TOFHLA was administered to 144 adults with low literacy enrolled in a health literacy program prior to the start of coursework. Raw scores for reading and numeracy were calculated. Weighted numeracy scores were calculated and compared to raw reading comprehension scores. Among 143 participants, 20% (n=28) had a higher numeracy score than reading comprehension score, while an additional 20% scored lower in numeracy than in reading comprehension. This study found that reading comprehension and numeracy skill in the context of understanding health information do not necessarily correlate for specific disadvantaged groups. This finding calls attention to the need to further examine numeracy as a construct which is conceptually separate from reading comprehension, and highlights the importance of including a numerate component in health literacy evaluations. The results of this study have important implications for medical decision-makers, health educators, and health promoters working with traditional methods of assessing health literacy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The utility of childhood and adolescent obesity assessment in relation to adult health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D; Rubinfeld, Rachel E; Bhattacharya, Jay; Robinson, Thomas N; Wise, Paul H

    2013-02-01

    High childhood obesity prevalence has raised concerns about future adult health, generating calls for obesity screening of young children. To estimate how well childhood obesity predicts adult obesity and to forecast obesity-related health of future US adults. Longitudinal statistical analyses; microsimulations combining multiple data sets. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Population Study of Income Dynamics, and National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Surveys. The authors estimated test characteristics and predictive values of childhood body mass index to identify 2-, 5-, 10-, and 15 year-olds who will become obese adults. The authors constructed models relating childhood body mass index to obesity-related diseases through middle age stratified by sex and race. Twelve percent of 18-year-olds were obese. While screening at age 5 would miss 50% of those who become obese adults, screening at age 15 would miss 9%. The predictive value of obesity screening below age 10 was low even when maternal obesity was included as a predictor. Obesity at age 5 was a substantially worse predictor of health in middle age than was obesity at age 15. For example, the relative risk of developing diabetes as adults for obese white male 15-year-olds was 4.5 versus otherwise similar nonobese 15-year-olds. For obese 5-year-olds, the relative risk was 1.6. Main results do not include Hispanics due to sample size. Past relationships between childhood and adult obesity and health may change in the future. Early childhood obesity assessment adds limited information to later childhood assessment. Targeted later childhood approaches or universal strategies to prevent unhealthy weight gain should be considered.

  5. Regular group exercise contributes to balanced health in older adults in Japan: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Hiroko; Yagasaki, Kaori; Saito, Yoshinobu; Oguma, Yuko

    2017-08-22

    While community-wide interventions to promote physical activity have been encouraged in older adults, evidence of their effectiveness remains limited. We conducted a qualitative study among older adults participating in regular group exercise to understand their perceptions of the physical, mental, and social changes they underwent as a result of the physical activity. We conducted a qualitative study with purposeful sampling to explore the experiences of older adults who participated in regular group exercise as part of a community-wide physical activity intervention. Four focus group interviews were conducted between April and June of 2016 at community halls in Fujisawa City. The participants in the focus group interviews were 26 older adults with a mean age of 74.69 years (range: 66-86). The interviews were analysed using the constant comparative method in the grounded theory approach. We used qualitative research software NVivo10® to track the coding and manage the data. The finding 'regular group exercise contributes to balanced health in older adults' emerged as an overarching theme with seven categories (regular group exercise, functional health, active mind, enjoyment, social connectedness, mutual support, and expanding communities). Although the participants perceived that they were aging physically and cognitively, the regular group exercise helped them to improve or maintain their functional health and enjoy their lives. They felt socially connected and experienced a sense of security in the community through caring for others and supporting each other. As the older adults began to seek value beyond individuals, they gradually expanded their communities beyond geographical and generational boundaries. The participants achieved balanced health in the physical, mental, and social domains through regular group exercise as part of a community-wide physical activity intervention and contributed to expanding communities through social connectedness and

  6. [Health inequality among vulnerable groups in Mexico: older adults, indigenous people, and migrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Ramírez, Clara; Márquez-Serrano, Margarita; Salgado de Snyder, Nelly; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Ruelas-González, María Guadalupe; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia

    2014-04-01

    Health vulnerability refers to a lack of protection for specific population groups with specific health problems, as well as the disadvantages they face in solving them in comparison with other population groups. This major public health problem has multiple and diverse causes, including a shortage of trained health care personnel and the lack of family, social, economic, and institutional support in obtaining care and minimizing health risks. Health vulnerability is a dynamic condition arising from the confluence of multiple social determinants. This article attempts to describe the health situation of three vulnerable groups in Mexico-older adults, indigenous people, and migrants-and, after defining the needs of each, explore measures that could contribute to the design and implementation of public health policies better tailored to their respective needs.

  7. Factors influencing perceived oral health of Japanese middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masayuki; Zaitsu, Takashi; Ohara, Satoko; Wright, Clive; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships between subjective oral health symptoms and clinical oral health conditions on the perceived oral health of 1799 Japanese middle-aged adults. A self-administered questionnaire together with dental examinations was administered. A structural equation modeling analysis with Bayesian estimation was used to examine the factors influencing perceived oral health as a latent variable with 4 other latent variables: subjective oral health symptoms, clinical tooth conditions, clinical periodontal conditions, and other clinical oral conditions. For perceived oral health as the endogenous variable, only subjective oral health symptoms and clinical tooth conditions showed significant relationship. Clinical periodontal conditions and other clinical oral conditions did not show significant effects on the perceived oral health.

  8. [Health and nutrition status of older adults in Mexico: results of a national probabilistic survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucía; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Morales-Ruán, Carmen; Cervantes-Turrubiates, Leticia; Villalpando-Hernández, Salvador

    2008-01-01

    To describe health and nutrition status in the elderly population in Mexico. Information from 5,480 adults (>60 years) obtained by the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-2006) was analyzed. Frequencies, means, and confidence intervals at 95% were obtained and adjusted for design effect. Forty percent of the adults reported a lack of social security, 2% suffered from malnutrition, women were affected two times more than men by anemia (34.8 vs. 17%), more than 60% of the population were overweight and had obesity, approximately 25% suffered from hypertension according to the survey, and between 15 and 20% were diabetic. The results of this study show that health and nutrition status among the Mexican elderly population is inadequate. This is a situation that urgently needs to be addressed in order to improve the quality of life of older adults in Mexico.

  9. Gardening Activities and Physical Health Among Older Adults: A Review of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklett, Emily J; Anderson, Lynda A; Yen, Irene H

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have examined the health-related consequences of gardening among older adults. This scoping review summarizes and characterizes current research that examines the relationship between physical health and participation in planned gardening activities, including establishing, maintaining, or caring for plants. Six databases were searched. Eligible studies were published between 2000 and 2013, were published in English, and assessed different aspects of physical health (e.g., functional ability, energy expenditure, injury) for older adults who had participated in a planned gardening activity. Of the eight eligible studies identified with these criteria, four assessed energy expenditures and four assessed physical functioning. Studies assessing energy expenditures documented that the majority of gardening tasks were classified into low-to-moderate intensity physical activity. The current literature does not provide sufficient evidence of the physical functioning consequences of gardening. Future studies should consider how specific gardening interventions help older adults meet physical activity guidelines.

  10. Intention to Use mHealth in Older Adults With Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajita, Maan Isabella; Hodgson, Nancy A; Budhathoki, Chakra; Han, Hae-Ra

    2017-02-28

    mHealth, or the use of mobile technology in healthcare, is becoming increasingly common. In heart failure (HF), mHealth has been associated with improved self-management and quality of life. However, it is known that older adults continue to lag behind their younger counterparts when it comes to mobile technology adoption. The primary aim of this study was to examine factors that influence intention to use mHealth among older adults with HF. An adapted Technology Acceptance Model was used to guide this cross-sectional, correlational study. Convenience sampling was used to identify participants from a large university hospital and online. A total of 129 older adults with HF participated in the study. Social influence (β = 0.17, P = .010), perceived ease of use (β = 0.16, P technology savvy.

  11. Profession differences in family focused practice in the adult mental health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybery, Darryl; Goodyear, Melinda; O'Hanlon, Brendan; Cuff, Rose; Reupert, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    There is a large gulf between what psychiatric services should (or could) provide and what they do in practice. This article sought to determine practice differences between the differing professions working in adult mental health services in terms of their family focused work. Three hundred and seven adult mental health professionals completed a cross-sectional survey of family focused practices in adult mental health services. Findings highlight that social workers engaged in more family focused practice compared to psychiatric nurses, who performed consistently the lowest on direct family care, compared to both social workers and psychologists. Clear skill, knowledge, and confidence differences are indicated between the professions. The article concludes by offering direction for future profession education and training in family focused practices. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  12. Self-Management Behaviors among Older Adults with Asthma: Associations with Health Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federman, Alex D.; Wolf, Michael S.; Sofianou, Anastasia; Martynenko, Melissa; O’Connor, Rachel; Halm, Ethan A.; Leventhal, Howard; Wisnivesky, Juan P.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Older adults asthmatics experience high rates of morbidity and mortality yet little is known about their self-management behaviors. We examined self-management behaviors, including medication adherence and inhaler technique, among older adults and their association with health literacy. Design: Observational cohort study. Setting: Primary care and pulmonary specialty practices in two tertiary academic medical centers and three Federally Qualified Health Centers in New York City, NY and Chicago, IL. Participants: Adults with moderate or severe persistent asthma, ages 60 years and older (n=433). Measurements: Outcomes were adherence to asthma controller medications, metered dose inhaler (MDI) and dry powder inhaler (DPI) techniques, having a usual asthma physician, and avoidance of four common triggers. Health literacy was assessed with the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Results: The mean age was 67 years and 36% had marginal or low health literacy. Adherence was low (38%) overall and worse among individuals with low health literacy (22% vs. 47%, p<0.0001) and after adjusting for demographic factors and health status (odds ratio [OR] 0.48, 95% confidence [CI] 0.31-0.73). Similarly, inhaler technique was poor: only 38% and 54% had good MDI and DPI technique, respectively. Technique was worse among those with low health literacy (MDI technique: OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.38-0.85; DPI technique: OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.71). Asthma self-monitoring and avoidance of triggers occurred infrequently but were less consistently associated with low health literacy. Conclusion: Adherence to medications and inhaler technique are poor among older asthmatics, and worse among those with low health literacy. Clinicians should routinely assess controller medication adherence and inhaler technique, and use low-literacy communication strategies to support self-management in older asthmatics. PMID:24779482

  13. Health Care Engagement Among LGBT Older Adults: The Role of Depression Diagnosis and Symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Chengshi; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen

    2017-02-01

    Optimal engagement in health care plays a critical role in the success of disease prevention and treatment, particularly for older adults who are often in greater need of health care services. However, to date, there is still limited knowledge about the relationship between depression and health care engagement among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. This study utilized data from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, Sexuality/Gender Study, from the 2014 survey with 2,450 LGBT adults 50 years old and older. Multiple-variable regression was utilized to evaluate relationships between three indicators of health care engagement and four depression groups after controlling for background characteristics and discrimination in health care. Health care engagement indicators were "not using preventive care," "not seeking care when needed," and "difficulty in adhering to treatments." Depression groups were defined by depression diagnosis and symptomatology, including Diagnosed-Symptomatic group (Diag-Sympt), Diagnosed-Nonsymptomatic group (Diag-NoSympt), Nondiagnosed-Symptomatic group (NoDiag-Sympt), and Nondiagnosed-Nonsymptomatic group (NoDiag-NoSympt). Depression groups displayed different patterns and levels of health care engagement. The Diag-Sympt group displayed the highest "difficulty in adhering to treatments." Diag-NoSympt group displayed the lowest "not using preventive care." The NoDiag-Sympt group reported the highest "not using preventive care" and "not seeking care when needed." The NoDiag-NoSympt group had the lowest "not seeking care when needed" and "difficulty in adhering to treatments." Depression diagnosis and symptomatology are jointly associated with health care engagement among LGBT older adults. Interventions aiming to promote health care engagement among this population should simultaneously consider both depression diagnosis and symptomatology. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The

  14. PS2-6: Using Health Risk Assessments to Understand Older Adult Sedentary Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Dori; Grothaus, Louis; Gell, Nancy; Renz, Anne; Arterburn, David

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Sedentary time (ST) is independently associated with cardio-metabolic conditions and mortality. Older adults have the highest levels of ST of all age groups. Little is known about how ST relates to BMI, health conditions, and health costs in older adults. Our aim was to use electronic health records (EHR) to better explore these relationships. Methods We extracted health risk assessment data (HRA), outpatient visit diagnosis codes, and total healthcare costs from the EHR of a large health plan in WA State (Group Health). All members aged 65–99 who completed an HRA in 2011 and were continuously enrolled for 2 years, did not reside in long-term care, or have a terminal health condition were included (N = 3967; ~10% of all eligible members). ST was assessed by the International Physical Activity (PA) Questionnaire sitting item. BMI was calculated using most recent weight and height from the EHR. Cardiovascular disease and diabetes were identified using ICD-9 codes. We used regression analysis to determine how mean ST varied with factors such as diabetes, while controlling for age, gender, race, ethnicity, BMI, diet, and hours of PA per week. Results Age and PA were strongly related to ST. Obese participants (BMI >30 (24% of the sample) had significantly higher mean ST (6.75 hours/day, P <.001) compared to overweight (6.06) and normal weight (5.67) older adults. Those with diabetes (14% of the sample), had significantly higher ST (6.42 hours/day) than those without (6 hours/day; P = .01). Total healthcare costs increase on average $139 for each additional hour of sitting (P = .03). Conclusions After adjusting for demographic, health behaviors, and health conditions, older adults with a higher BMI, diabetes, and higher total healthcare costs had greater self-reported ST. These patterns indicate that ST may be an important health behavior to target for intervention as people age.

  15. Sexual Health in Adult Men with Spina Bifida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary W. Bong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical and surgical advances in the treatment of spina bifida (SB have resulted in increasing numbers of patients reaching adulthood. As such, issues related to sexual maturity are being investigated to offer optimal healthcare to men with spina bifida. This report constitutes a review of the current literature relating to adults with spina bifida and issues of sexuality, erectile dysfunction and fertility. In general, adult males with spina bifida have normal sexual desires and an interest in addressing these issues with healthcare providers. Sexual education and access to intimacy are delayed compared to the general population. 75% of men achieve erections, but maintaining erections is a problem and some may be merely reflexive in nature. The many of these men show marked improvement with sildenafil. In SB erectile dysfunction and infertility are related to the level of neurological lesion with the best performance status in those with sacral lesions and intact reflexes. Men with lesions higher than T10 are at risk for azoospermia. There is an increased risk of neural tube defects in the children of men with spina bifida, but the current incidence with modern folic acid therapy is unknown. As the number of males with spina bifida reaching sexual maturity increases, further investigation into sexuality, sex education, intimacy, and treatments for erectile dysfunction and infertility will be needed.

  16. Neurotological Findings at a Health Unit for Adults with Cervicalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeigelboim, Bianca Simone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The cervical spine is a flexible link between the sensory platform of the skull and torso. The fundamental principle of its operation is due to the balance between muscle strength and flexibility, and any dysfunction of this balance causes neck pain, known as cervicalgia. Objective The objective of this study is to analyze the most prevalent neurotological findings in adults with neck pain. Method A cross-sectional study in which 33 adults from 50 to 83 years of age with neck pain were evaluated and underwent the following procedures: anamnesis, as well as ENT, audiological, and vestibular exams. Results The most evident neurotological symptoms were dizziness (75.7%, tinnitus, neck cracking, tingling in the extremities, and auditory problems (36.3% for each. The most frequently reported clinical symptoms were related to cardiovascular (69.7%, endocrine-metabolic (48.5%, and rheumatic (30.3% systems. In the audiological assessment, 30 subjects (91.0% presented hearing impairment in at least one ear, with sensorineural impairment being the most prevalent (88.0%. In the vestibular assessment, there were alterations in 13 subjects (39.0% found in the caloric test. There was a prevalence of alterations in the peripheral vestibular system with a predominance of irritative peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Conclusion Neurotological complaints were frequent in this population, verifying the importance of these tests in the dysfunctions of the cervical region or the craniocervical junction.

  17. 'Mind the gap'--mapping services for young people with ADHD transitioning from child to adult mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Charlotte L; Newell, Karen; Taylor, John; Sayal, Kapil; Swift, Katie D; Hollis, Chris

    2013-07-10

    Once considered to be a disorder restricted to childhood, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is now recognised to persist into adult life. However, service provision for adults with ADHD is limited. Additionally, there is little guidance or research on how best to transition young people with ADHD from child to adult services. We report the findings of a survey of 96 healthcare professionals working in children's (Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services and Community Paediatrics) and adult services across five NHS Trusts within the East Midlands region of England to gain a better understanding of the current provision of services for young people with ADHD transitioning into adult mental health services. Our findings indicate a lack of structured guidelines on transitioning and little communication between child and adult services. Child and adult services had differing opinions on what they felt adult services should provide for ADHD cases. Adult services reported feeling ill-prepared to deal with ADHD patients, with clinicians in these services citing a lack of specific knowledge of ADHD and a paucity of resources to deal with such cases. We discuss suggestions for further research, including the need to map the national provision of services for adults with ADHD, and provide recommendations for commissioned adult ADHD services. We specifically advocate an increase in ADHD-specific training for clinicians in adult services, the development of specialist adult ADHD clinics and greater involvement of Primary Care to support the work of generic adult mental health services in adult ADHD management.

  18. Health supplement consumption behavior in older adults population: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi M.Y. eTSE

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Health supplement consumption behavior is important to maintain health status. The purpose of the study was to explore the spending pattern on health supplement consumption behavior in Hong Kong older adults population. The present study was a cross-sectional survey study; and was collected from via a street-intercept interview. Participants were approached and invited to response to a questionnaire. The location for data collection was evenly distributed in Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Territories. The questionnaire included demographic data and source of income source, spending habits on health supplement products and whether they performed regular health check. There were 982 participants interviewed; and 46% was male and 54% was female. The participants are divided into young-old (age 50-69 and old-old group (age 70 or above. The mean age is 67.93±10.386. Most of the participants have regular body check; the major reason is to maintain health. Less than half of the participants spent money on health supplement products; the major reason for such purchase was to maintain health; while for not buying is they did not think that would have any effect in their health. Also, more young-old participants have regular body check and spend more money on health supplement products; while old-old group participants were less likely to concern their health, and they were less likely to perform regular body check and purchase health supplement products. The present research reveals the pattern of the health supplement consumption behavior of young-old and old-old. Young-old group and old-old group have difference pattern according to their difference age-related health condition and the amount of spare money. Different educational programme concern health consciousness and promotion strategy of regular body check and health supplement products need be tailor-made for older adults, and for young old and old-old groups.

  19. Millennials at work: workplace environments of young adults and associations with weight-related health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Allison W; Laska, Melissa N; Larson, Nicole I; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the workplace environments of young adults and examine associations with diet, physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI). Cross-sectional data were collected (2008-2009) from 1538 employed young adult participants in Project EAT (Eating and Activity among Teens and Young Adults), a diverse population-based sample. Survey measures assessed height, weight, diet, moderate-to-vigorous PA, transportation-related PA and perceptions of the workplace food and PA environments (eg, soda availability, coworker support). Healthful characteristics were summed to reflect overall workplace healthfulness. Modified Poisson regression analyses conducted in 2015 identified associations between workplace food and PA environments and diet, PA and BMI. The healthfulness of workplace environments was suboptimal. Greater exposure to healthful workplace characteristics was related to more young adults engaged in favourable diet and PA behaviours and a lower prevalence obesity. For example, adjusted rates of obesity were 24% and 17% among those reporting low (≤1 characteristic) versus high (≥3 characteristics) exposure to healthful food environments, respectively (pWorkplace characteristics independently associated with weight-related outcomes included soda availability, proximity to a fast food outlet, living close to work and perceived ease of eating a healthy diet or being active at work. A more healthful workplace environment overall, including physical attributes and perceived social norms, may contribute to more favourable weight-related behaviours and lower prevalence of obesity among young adults. Employer-initiated and community-initiated policies may represent one way to create healthier workplace environments for young adults. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Improving the Neighborhood Environment for Urban Older Adults: Social Context and Self-Rated Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Arlesia; Rooks, Ronica; Kruger, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. population. Over 80% of older adults live in urban areas. This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) among urban older adults. Methods: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a deindustrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) was analyzed using regression and GIS models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Results: Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH (p = 0.01). Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities (p = 0.005) and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism (p < 0.001). Discussion: Given the increasing numbers of older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important for well-being among seniors. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood which are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability. PMID:26703659

  1. Improving the Neighborhood Environment for Urban Older Adults: Social Context and Self-Rated Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlesia Mathis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. population. Over 80% of older adults live in urban areas. This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH among urban older adults. Methods: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a deindustrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH was analyzed using regression and GIS models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Results: Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH (p = 0.01. Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities (p = 0.005 and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism (p < 0.001. Discussion: Given the increasing numbers of older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important for well-being among seniors. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood which are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability.

  2. Transition experiences and health care utilization among young adults with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garvey KC

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Katharine C Garvey,1 Jonathan A Finkelstein,2,3 Lori M Laffel,1,4 Victoria Ochoa,1 Joseph I Wolfsdorf,1 Erinn T Rhodes1 1Division of Endocrinology, Boston Children's Hospital, 2Division of General Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital, 3Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, 4Pediatric, Adolescent and Young Adult Section, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA, USA Background: The purpose of this study was to describe the current status of adult diabetes care in young adults with type 1 diabetes and examine associations between health care transition experiences and care utilization. Methods: We developed a survey to assess transition characteristics and current care in young adults with type 1 diabetes. We mailed the survey to the last known address of young adults who had previously received diabetes care at a tertiary pediatric center. Results: Of 291 surveys sent, 83 (29% were undeliverable and three (1% were ineligible. Of 205 surveys delivered, 65 were returned (response rate 32%. Respondents (mean age 26.6 ± 3.0 years, 54% male, 91% Caucasian transitioned to adult diabetes care at a mean age of 19.2 ± 2.8 years. Although 71% felt mostly/completely prepared for transition, only half received recommendations for a specific adult provider. Twenty-six percent reported gaps exceeding six months between pediatric and adult diabetes care. Respondents who made fewer than three diabetes visits in the year prior to transition (odds ratio [OR] 4.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–16.5 or cited moving/relocation as the most important reason for transition (OR 6.3, 95% CI 1.3–31.5 were more likely to report gaps in care exceeding six months. Patients receiving current care from an adult endocrinologist (79% were more likely to report at least two diabetes visits in the past year (OR 6.0, 95% CI 1.5–24.0 compared with those receiving diabetes care from a general internist/adult primary care doctor (17%. Two

  3. Mental health inpatient experiences of adults with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taua, Chris; Neville, Christine; Scott, Theresa

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents findings from a study exploring the mental health inpatient care of people with a dual disability of intellectual disability and mental health issues from the perspective of those people with the dual disability. A mixture of semi-structured interviews and focus group interviews were carried out with nine participants who had been admitted to an inpatient unit for mental health care exploring their experience of care. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using open coding and Leximancer (an online data mining tool) analysis to identify dominant themes in the discourse. Analysis revealed themes around 'Therapeutic and Meaningful Activity', 'Emotion Focussed Care', and 'Feeling Safe?' Participants were able to identify the aspects of inpatient care that worked for them in terms of coping with time in hospital. This research suggests that there are several factors that should be considered in providing effective mental health inpatient care for people with dual disability. A number of strategies and recommendations for responding to their needs are identified and discussed.

  4. Metabolic health status and the obesity paradox in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    The explanation for reduced mortality among older persons with overweight or class I obesity compared to those of desirable weight remains unclear. Our objective was to investigate the joint effects of body mass index (BMI) and metabolic health status on all-cause mortality in a cohort of advanced a...

  5. Physical health problems in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinnema, M.; Maaskant, M.A.; Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H.M.J. van; Nieuwpoort, I.C. van; Drent, M.L.; Curfs, L.M.G; Schrander-Stumpel, C.T.R.M.

    2011-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder which is characterized by severe hypotonia and feeding problems in early infancy. In later childhood and adolescence, this is followed by hyperphagia and extreme obesity if the diet is not strictly controlled. Data on physical health problems in adul

  6. Long-term Dental Visiting Patterns and Adult Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, W.M.; Williams, S.M.; Broadbent, J.M.; Poulton, R.; Locker, D.

    2010-01-01

    To date, the evidence supporting the benefits of dental visiting comes from cross-sectional studies. We investigated whether long-term routine dental visiting was associated with lower experience of dental caries and missing teeth, and better self-rated oral health, by age 32. A prospective cohort study in New Zealand examined 932 participants’ use of dentistry at ages 15, 18, 26, and 32. At each age, routine attenders (RAs) were identified as those who (a) usually visited for a check-up, and (b) had made a dental visit during the previous 12 months. Routine attending prevalence fell from 82% at age 15 to 28% by 32. At any given age, routine attenders had better-than-average oral health, fewer had teeth missing due to caries, and they had lower mean DS and DMFS scores. By age 32, routine attenders had better self-reported oral health and less tooth loss and caries. The longer routine attendance was maintained, the stronger the effect. Routine dental attendance is associated with better oral health. PMID:20093674

  7. 75 FR 82397 - Medicaid Program: Initial Core Set of Health Quality Measures for Medicaid-Eligible Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... arrangements or are part of reporting systems that measure both the presence and duration of health insurance..., Overall Adult Health, Complex Health Care Needs, and Mental Health and Substance Use. The workgroups... Drug Dependence Treatment. 50......... NA........ NCQA Mental Health ........ Utilization....

  8. The association of health literacy with physical activity and nutritional behavior in older adults, and its social cognitive mediators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geboers, Bas; de Winter, Andrea F.; Luten, Karla A.; Jansen, Carel J. M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate health literacy is a common problem among older adults and is associated with poor health outcomes. Insight into the association between health literacy and health behaviors may support interventions to mitigate the effects of inadequate health literacy. The authors assessed the associati

  9. Environmental Noise Annoyance and Mental Health in Adults: Findings from the Cross-Sectional German Health Update (GEDA Study 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Hammersen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The health implications of environmental noise, especially cardiovascular effects, have been studied intensively. Research on associations between noise and mental health, however, has shown contradictory results. The present study examined associations between individual levels of noise annoyance due to noise from various sources in the living environment and mental health of adults in Germany. It evaluated whether these associations persisted after adjusting for potential covariates. Data were obtained from the cross-sectional “German Health Update” study 2012 (GEDA 2012, a national health interview survey among adults in Germany conducted by the Robert Koch Institute (n = 19,294. Noise annoyance questions referred to overall noise and that from road traffic, neighbours, and air traffic. Mental health was measured with the five-item Mental Health Inventory. Bivariate analysis showed associations between high levels of noise annoyance and impaired mental health for all noise sources except air traffic. After adjusting for covariates (sociodemographic factors, chronic disease, and social support, both men and women who reported high overall noise annoyance showed more than doubled odds of impaired mental health compared to those who were not annoyed. The odds of impaired mental health in the highest noise annoyance category from road traffic and neighbours were also significantly increased. These findings indicate that high noise annoyance is associated with impaired mental health and that this association can vary with the source of environmental noise. Further research on covariates of this association is necessary. Particularly, longitudinal data are required to establish the direction of associations and to address questions of causality.

  10. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging. PMID:25059979

  11. Human Centred Design Considerations for Connected Health Devices for the Older Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Harte

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Connected health devices are generally designed for unsupervised use, by non-healthcare professionals, facilitating independent control of the individuals own healthcare. Older adults are major users of such devices and are a population significantly increasing in size. This group presents challenges due to the wide spectrum of capabilities and attitudes towards technology. The fit between capabilities of the user and demands of the device can be optimised in a process called Human Centred Design. Here we review examples of some connected health devices chosen by random selection, assess older adult known capabilities and attitudes and finally make analytical recommendations for design approaches and design specifications.

  12. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyoung Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1 the experience of psychological benefits, 2 the creation of social support, and 3 the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging.

  13. A Systematic Review of Osteoporosis Health Beliefs in Adult Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. McLeod

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is major public health concern affecting millions of older adults worldwide. A systematic review was carried out to identify the most common osteoporosis health beliefs in adult men and women from descriptive and intervention studies. The Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS and Osteoporosis Self-efficacy Scale (OSES evaluate osteoporosis health beliefs, including perceived susceptibility and seriousness, benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy of calcium and exercise, and health motivation, and their relationship to preventive health behaviours. A comprehensive search of studies that included OHBS and OSES subscale scores as outcomes was performed. Fifty full-text articles for citations were reviewed based on inclusion criteria. Twenty-two articles met the inclusion criteria. Greater perceived seriousness, benefits, self-efficacy, health motivation, and fewer barriers were the most common health-belief subscales in men and women. Few studies were interventions (n=6 and addressed osteoporosis health beliefs in men (n=8. Taking health beliefs into consideration when planning and conducting education interventions may be useful in both research and practice for osteoporosis prevention and management; however, more research in this area is needed.

  14. Health-promoting physical activity of adults with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanish, Heidi I; Temple, Viviene A; Frey, Georgia C

    2006-01-01

    This literature review describes the physical activity behavior of adults with mental retardation consistent with the U.S. Surgeon General's recommendation of 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity on 5 or more days per week. The proportion of participants achieving this criterion ranges from 17.5 to 33%. These data are likely to be generous estimates of activity as individuals included in physical activity studies to date have been relatively young and healthy volunteers with mild to moderate limitations. Major sources of physical activity were walking and cycling for transport, chores and work, dancing, and Special Olympics. There is a pressing need to conduct studies using appropriately powered representative samples and to validate measures that assess physical activity less directly; including methodologies in which proxy respondents are used. Accurate information about existing patterns of behavior will enhance the development of effective strategies to promote physical activity among persons with mental retardation.

  15. Beliefs about God and mental health among American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silton, Nava R; Flannelly, Kevin J; Galek, Kathleen; Ellison, Christopher G

    2014-10-01

    This study examines the association between beliefs about God and psychiatric symptoms in the context of Evolutionary Threat Assessment System Theory, using data from the 2010 Baylor Religion Survey of US Adults (N = 1,426). Three beliefs about God were tested separately in ordinary least squares regression models to predict five classes of psychiatric symptoms: general anxiety, social anxiety, paranoia, obsession, and compulsion. Belief in a punitive God was positively associated with four psychiatric symptoms, while belief in a benevolent God was negatively associated with four psychiatric symptoms, controlling for demographic characteristics, religiousness, and strength of belief in God. Belief in a deistic God and one's overall belief in God were not significantly related to any psychiatric symptoms.

  16. Memory performance, health literacy, and instrumental activities of daily living of community residing older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Graham J; Mackert, Michael; Becker, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Health literacy is associated with cognitive function across multiple domains in older adults, and these older adults may face special memory and cognitive challenges that can limit their health literacy and, in turn, their ability to live independently. The aim of this study was to evaluate if an association existed among health literacy, memory performance, and performance-based functional ability in community-residing older adults. Forty-five adults participated in this study. Designed to reflect everyday memory, the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT) bridges laboratory-based measures of memory and assessments obtained by self-report and observation. The RBMT classifies individuals into four categories of memory performance: normal, poor, mildly impaired, and severely impaired. The participants were recruited in the two categories of normal (≥22) or impaired (≤16) category on the RBMT. The sample consisted of 14 who were in the impaired category and 31 in the normal group. Their average age was 77.11 years, and their average number of years of education was 15.33 years. Health literacy scores measured with the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine. Health literacy scores were high (M = 65.09, SD = 2.80). Thirty-four participants or 76% of the sample scored a 66 out of a possible score of 80. Pearson correlations were calculated for the study variables. Health literacy scores with education and cognition (.30), memory performance groups (normal vs. poor; .25), and performance-based instrumental activities (.50) were associated significantly. The development of a broader assortment of health literacy instruments would improve the ability of researchers to both compare studies and build on the knowledge and results of others.

  17. Cognitive function is a risk for health literacy in older adults with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha T; Kirk, Julienne K; Arcury, Thomas A; Ip, Edward H; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Saldana, Santiago J; Bell, Ronny A; Quandt, Sara A

    2013-08-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in older adults with diabetes, yet it is unclear to what extent cognitive function is associated with health literacy. We hypothesized that cognitive function, independent of education, is associated with health literacy. The sample included 537 African American, American Indian, and White men and women 60 years or older. Measures of cognitive function included the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Verbal Fluency, Brief Attention, and Digit Span Backward tests. Health literacy was assessed using the S-TOFHLA. Cognitive function was associated with health literacy, independent of education and other important confounders. Every unit increase in the MMSE, Digit Span Backward, Verbal Fluency or Brief Attention was associated with a 20% (pliteracy, respectively. These results suggest that cognitive function is associated with health literacy in older adults with diabetes. Because poor cognitive function may undermine health literacy, efforts to target older adults on improving health literacy should consider cognitive function as a risk factor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Poor oral health and quality of life in older U.S. adults with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Deborah L; Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Young, Bessie A

    2013-10-01

    To determine the association between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and oral health in older U.S. adults with diabetes mellitus (DM). Cross-sectional. Data from the U.S. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2006, 2008, and 2010. Nationally representative sample of 70,363 adults aged 65 and older with DM. Older adults with DM were more likely to report permanent tooth loss due to caries or periodontal disease than those without (82.3% vs 74.3%, P periodontal disease was associated with 1.25 times greater odds of worse self-rated general health (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13-1.37). Lack of dental care in the preceding 12 months was associated with 1.34 times greater odds of worse self-rated general health (95% CI = 1.25-1.44) than receiving dental care in the preceding 12 months. Poor dentition and longer time since last dental visit were associated with more physically unhealthy days. Poor dentition and lack of dental care were associated with worse HRQOL in older adults with DM. Further research is needed to determine whether better oral health improves HRQOL in this population. © Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  19. Delivering Flexible Education and Training to Health Professionals: Caring for Older Adults in Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Brian A; Gulley, Kelly H; Rossi, Carlo; Strauss-Riggs, Kandra; Schor, Kenneth

    2016-08-01

    The National Center for Disaster Medicine and Public Health (NCDMPH), in collaboration with over 20 subject matter experts, created a competency-based curriculum titled Caring for Older Adults in Disasters: A Curriculum for Health Professionals. Educators and trainers of health professionals are the target audience for this curriculum. The curriculum was designed to provide breadth of content yet flexibility for trainers to tailor lessons, or select particular lessons, for the needs of their learners and organizations. The curriculum covers conditions present in the older adult population that may affect their disaster preparedness, response, and recovery; issues related to specific types of disasters; considerations for the care of older adults throughout the disaster cycle; topics related to specific settings in which older adults receive care; and ethical and legal considerations. An excerpt of the final capstone lesson is included. These capstone activities can be used in conjunction with the curriculum or as part of stand-alone preparedness training. This article describes the development process, elements of each lesson, the content covered, and options for use of the curriculum in education and training for health professionals. The curriculum is freely available online at the NCDMPH website at http://ncdmph.usuhs.edu (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:633-637).

  20. Fatigue, General Health, and Ischemic Heart Disease in Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Anette; Petersen, Inge; Mänty, Minna Regina

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds.Fatigue has been shown to predict ischemic heart disease (IHD) and mortality in nonsmoking middle-aged men free of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of fatigue for IHD and general health in nondisabled individuals free...... of cardiovascular disease and older than 70 years. METHODS: The study population was drawn from The Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. In total, 1,696 participants were followed up for 2-10 years by questionnaires and 10-16 years through registries. Kaplan Meier, Cox Proportional Hazard and logistic......-related diagnoses, no use of heart medication, sustained good mobility, and participation at follow-up. IHD was defined as first hospitalization due to IHD (ICD10: I20-I25) or death due to IHD as primary cause. RESULTS: Participants without fatigue had higher chances of a sustained good general health at 2 (odds...

  1. Neighborhood safety factors associated with older adults' health-related outcomes: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jaewoong; Lee, Chanam; Forjuoh, Samuel N; Ory, Marcia G

    2016-09-01

    Neighborhood safety is important for older adults' health and wellbeing, but there has not been a synthesis in the literature of what is currently known about this construct. This systematic literature review, following the PRISMA guidelines, focuses on identifying neighborhood safety factors associated with health-related outcomes and behaviors of older adults in the U.S. A search was conducted in 2014 via Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, SportDis, and Transportation Databases. Based on our inclusion and exclusion criteria, we identified thirty-two articles for review. Sixteen studies examined health outcomes such as health status, mental health, physical function, morbidity/mortality, and obesity; the other sixteen studies focused on health behaviors, such as physical activity and walking. Four domains of neighborhood safety were identified: overall/general neighborhood safety; crime-related safety; traffic-related safety; and proxies for safety (e.g., vandalism, graffiti). Overall/general neighborhood safety appeared most relevant to mental health and physical function. Traffic-related safety was most pertinent to physical activity, while crime-related safety was more consistently associated with mental health and walking. While all safety variables were significantly associated with mental health, no significant associations were found for obesity. We also found that specific measures or constructs of safety were not applied consistently across the examined studies, making it difficult to compare the results. This review identified several important gaps in the existing studies dealing with neighborhood safety-health relationships among older adults. Further studies are needed that examine the different roles of multidimensional neighborhood safety in promoting the community health, not only in the U.S., but globally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Attributing heart attack and stroke to "Old Age": Implications for subsequent health outcomes among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tara L; Chipperfield, Judith G; Perry, Raymond P; Hamm, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the extent to which older adults attribute a recent heart attack/stroke to "old age," and examined consequences for subsequent lifestyle behavior and health-care service utilization. Community-dwelling adults (N = 57, ages 73-98 years) were interviewed about their heart attack/stroke, and an objective health registry provided data on health-care utilization over a 3-year period. Endorsement of "old age" as a cause of heart attack/stroke negatively predicted lifestyle behavior change, and positively predicted frequency of physician visits and likelihood of hospitalization over the subsequent 3 years. Findings suggest the importance of considering "old age" attributions in the context of cardiovascular health events.

  3. Associations between health-related quality of life and mortality in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Derek S; Thompson, William W; Zack, Matthew M; Arnold, Sarah E; Barile, John P

    2015-01-01

    This study measures the use and relative importance of different measures of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) as predictors of mortality in a large sample of older US adults. We used Cox proportional hazards models to analyze the association between general self-reported health and three "healthy days" (HDs) measures of HRQOL and mortality at short-term (90-day) and long-term (2.5 years) follow-up. The data were from Cohorts 6 through 8 of the Medicare Health Outcomes Survey, a national sample of older adults who completed baseline surveys in 2003-2005. At the long term, reduced HRQOL in general health and all categories of the HDs were separately and significantly associated with greater mortality (P mortality, at least one HD category remained significant for each measure, but the associations between mental health and mortality were inconsistent. For short-term mortality, the physical health measures had larger hazard ratios, but fewer categories were significant. Hazard ratios decreased over time for all measures of HRQOL except mental health. In conclusion, HRQOL measures were shown to be significant predictors of short- and long-term mortality, further supporting their value in health surveillance and as markers of risk for targeted prevention efforts. Although all four measures of HRQOL significantly predicted mortality, general self-rated health and age were more important predictors than the HDs.

  4. Total and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011–2012 Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Associate Director for Science Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys Kathryn S. Porter, M.D., M.S., Director ...

  5. La salud de las personas adultas Adult health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Artazcoz

    2004-05-01

    salud sensibles a las desigualdades sociales.The objective of this study is to analyse the social inequalities in health status, health related behaviours and mortality among the 25-64 years Spanish population. Data come from the 1997 Spanish National Health Survey, the 1999 Spanish National Survey on Working Conditions, the 2001 Yearbook of Labour and Social Affairs Statistics and the 1998 Mortality Statistics. Most health-related behaviours are more unfavourable for men (smoking, alcohol consumption and overweight and for less privileged social classes. Among women, entrance into the labour market is associated with more unhealthy behaviours except for overweight. Low weight, however, is more frequent among employed females. Self-perceived health status is better among men, more privileged social class persons and among workers. Whereas classical physical job hazards and work injuries mostly affect men, the impact of psychosocial job hazards and of exposures derived from the domestic work is higher for women. As in other developed countries, the paradox exists that whereas women have a poorer self-perceived health status, mortality is higher among men. The male excess in mortality is related to health-related behaviours that to a great extent are determined by traditional values assigned to masculinity, with higher consumption of tobacco (lung cancer, alcohol (cirrhosis, drugs (HIV and AIDS and risky behaviours related to injuries. Health policies should take into account social inequalities in health determined by gender, social class and employment status. For doing so, it is important to increase the development of research on social inequalities and of health information systems sensitive to social inequalities.

  6. The effect of trends in health and longevity on health services use by older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, B.; Huisman, M.; Meijboom, Bert; Deeg, D.J.H.; Polder, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Background The effect of population aging on future health services use depends on the relationship between longevity gains and health. Whether further gains in life expectancy will be paired by improvements in health is uncertain. We therefore analyze the effect of population ageing on health servi

  7. Emotional health, support, and self‐efficacy in young adults with a history of language impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Botting, N.; Durkin, K.; Toseeb, U.; A R Pickles; Conti-Ramsden, G

    2016-01-01

    Children and adolescents with language impairment (LI) are at risk of emotional health difficulties. However, less is known about whether these difficulties continue into adulthood for this group, or about the potential role of environmental resources (e.g., social support) or internal resources (e.g., self‐efficacy). This study investigates emotional health in 81 adults with a history of developmental LI (aged 24) compared with 87 age‐matched peers (AMPs) using Beck Inventories. Social suppo...

  8. Does social status predict adult smoking and obesity? Results from the 2000 Mexican National Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Buttenheim, A.M.; Wong, R.; Goldman, N; Pebley, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is generally associated with better health, but recent evidence suggests that this ‘social gradient’ in health is far from universal. This study examines whether social gradients in smoking and obesity in Mexico—a country in the midst of rapid socioeconomic change—conform to or diverge from results for richer countries. Using a nationally-representative sample of 39 129 Mexican adults, we calculate the odds of smoking and of being obese by educational attainment and by ho...

  9. Consumption of soft drinks and health-related quality of life in the adult population

    OpenAIRE

    LANA, A.; Lopez-Garcia, E.; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Despite the accumulated evidence on the health risks associated with sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), the industry has funded mass communication strategies promoting the idea that soft drinks, including SSB, may represent a source of well-being. This study assessed the association between consumption of soft drinks and health-related quality of life (HRQL), as a proxy of well-being, in the adult population of Spain. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The cohort was established ...

  10. An Adult Protective Services' view of collaboration with Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaster, Pamela B; Stansbury, Kim L; Nerenberg, Lisa; Stanis, Patricia

    2009-10-01

    Mental Health Services (MHS) meet mental health needs of older adults through active, outpatient, community-based care. Adult Protective Services (APS) are involved with needs of older adults who have mental disability and mental illness. Adult Protective Services and MHS staff may to work together when they respond to the needs of victims and adults at risk for abuse, neglect, self-neglect, and exploitation. The purpose of this study was to understand effective APS-MHS collaborations (e.g., leadership, organizational culture, administration, and resources in predicting success). A survey that was sent to members of the National Adult Protective Services Association (NAPSA) revealed that both APS and MHS have strong commitments to protecting clients' rights and autonomy, but there appear to be differences between the two with regard to implementation, apparent in cases involving clients with diminished mental capacity who are at imminent risk, but who refuse help. Strengths of APS-MHS collaborations included improved communication and better service for at-risk clients.

  11. Neighborhood Environment and Self-Rated Health Among Urban Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlesia Mathis PhD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH among urban older adults. Method: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a de-industrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and SRH was analyzed using regression models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism, and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Results: Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH (p = .01. Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities (p = .005 and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism (p < .001. Discussion: More than 80% of older adults live in urban areas. By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. population. Given the increasing numbers of older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood that are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability.

  12. Neighborhood Environment and Self-Rated Health Among Urban Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlesia Mathis PhD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH among urban older adults. Method: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a de-industrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and SRH was analyzed using regression models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism, and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Results: Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH ( p = .01. Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities ( p = .005 and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism ( p < .001. Discussion: More than 80% of older adults live in urban areas. By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. population. Given the increasing numbers of older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood that are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability.

  13. Childhood circumstances, psychosocial factors and the social impact of adult oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Anne E; Spencer, A John

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether childhood familial conditions are associated with the social impact of adult oral health and to investigate the role of psychosocial attributes as potential mechanisms by which risk might be conveyed from childhood to adulthood. Using a cross-sectional design, self-report data were obtained from a representative sample of adults in Australia with a telephonic interview and a self-completed questionnaire. The dependent variable was the sum of impacts on the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Childhood familial conditions included socioeconomic position assessed by paternal occupation group, family structure and quality of rearing. Current adult sense of control, perceived stress and satisfaction with life were assessed with standard scales and social support was evaluated with four items. Data were obtained for 3678 dentate adults aged 18-91 years. In bivariate analysis controlling for sex, age and household income in adulthood, parenting style was significantly associated with OHIP-14 scores (anova, P parental rearing style was significantly associated with social impact after adjusting for sex, age and household income in adulthood, but was no longer significant in the presence of the psychosocial factors. The importance of parental rearing to adult oral health may be mediated through the quality and nature of psychosocial attributes.

  14. Designing Systems for Health Promotion and Autonomy in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Helena; Nilsson, Ingeborg

    The inclusion and autonomy of older people in the society where large parts of the life is organized with computer and Internet use as means is addressed in an ongoing project in the rehabilitation and health domains. Part from investigating the potentials of using ICT for rehabilitation of older people with limited or no computer skills, the aim for the project is to develop methods and tools for the purpose, and also for the interaction design domain where systems are developed for older people. The resulting methods are used for informing the design of the system in an iterative process.

  15. The Determinants of young Adult Social well-being and Health (DASH) study: diversity, psychosocial determinants and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Seeromanie; Read, Ursula M; Molaodi, Oarabile R; Cassidy, Aidan; Maynard, Maria J; Lenguerrand, Erik; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Teyhan, Alison; Whitrow, Melissa; Enayat, Zinat E

    2015-08-01

    The Determinants of young Adult Social well-being and Health longitudinal study draws on life-course models to understand ethnic differences in health. A key hypothesis relates to the role of psychosocial factors in nurturing the health and well-being of ethnic minorities growing up in the UK. We report the effects of culturally patterned exposures in childhood. In 2002/2003, 6643 11-13 year olds in London, ~80 % ethnic minorities, participated in the baseline survey. In 2005/2006, 4782 were followed-up. In 2012-2014, 665 took part in a pilot follow-up aged 21-23 years, including 42 qualitative interviews. Measures of socioeconomic and psychosocial factors and health were collected. Ethnic minority adolescents reported better mental health than White British, despite more adversity (e.g. economic disadvantage, racism). It is unclear what explains this resilience but findings support a role for cultural factors. Racism was an adverse influence on mental health, while family care and connectedness, religious involvement and ethnic diversity of friendships were protective. While mental health resilience was a feature throughout adolescence, a less positive picture emerged for cardio-respiratory health. Both, mental health and cultural factors played a role. These patterns largely endured in early 20s with family support reducing stressful transitions to adulthood. Education levels, however, signal potential for socio-economic parity across ethnic groups.

  16. A Qualitative Study of Multiple Health Behaviors in Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence regarding inflammatory pathways, elevated cardiovascular risk, and negative effects of secondary conditions on disability progression provide a strong rationale for promoting multiple health behaviors in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, many unanswered questions remain about the best ways to design multiple behavior change interventions for adults with MS. We sought to identify facilitators and barriers to engaging in multiple health behaviors (physical activity, nutrition, and sleep) and to gain further insights into how to develop multiple health behavior change interventions based on preferences of adults with MS. Methods: Focus groups and one-on-one interviews were conducted with 17 participants with MS. Results: Five qualitative themes were identified as either facilitating or hindering engagement in multiple health behaviors: 1) roles, priorities, and preferences; 2) sense of duty; 3) the fatigue and mobility problem; 4) taking control; and 5) resiliency. Participants identified advantages and disadvantages of delivery formats (eg, face-to-face group vs. telephone), frequency of contacts, and intervention strategies based on their individual circumstances and obligations. Participants felt that discussing the benefits of engaging in multiple health behaviors, developing action plans, accommodating preferences, and addressing health problems would be helpful strategies to include in a multiple behavior change intervention. Conclusions: These findings indicate that there may be common facilitators and barriers that can be targeted to promote multiple behavior changes. Future research should explore the best ways to tailor multiple behavior change interventions to preferences, symptoms, psychological traits, and social cognitions. PMID:27803640

  17. Pain and alcohol consumption among older adults: findings from the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health, Wave 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangari, Alebtekin; Stewart Williams, Jennifer; Myléus, Anna

    2016-10-01

    To investigate cross-sectional associations between self-reported recent pain and alcohol use/abstinence, and previous-day pain and previous-week alcohol consumption in adults aged 50 + in six low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 (2007-2010) in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa is the data source. Prevalence of alcohol use/abstinence is reported by previous-day and previous-month pain. Multinomial logistic regressions (crude and adjusted for sex and country) tested associations between recent pain and alcohol use in the pooled multicountry sample. Across the six SAGE countries, about one-third of respondents reported alcohol use, being highest in Russia (74%) and lowest in India (16%). Holding the effects of sex and country constant, compared with abstainers, people with previous-day pain were more likely to be previous-day or other users. With regard to the quantity and frequency of alcohol use, people with previous-day pain were more likely to be non-heavy drinkers. Overall, we found that, in this population of older adults in six LMICs, recent pain was associated with moderate use of alcohol, although there were differences between countries. The findings provide a platform for country-specific research to better understand bi-directional associations between pain and alcohol in older adults. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Family contact and health status among older adults with serious mental illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Mueser, Kim T; Bartels, Stephen J; Pratt, Sarah I

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the amount of family contact among older persons with serious mental illnesses (SMI), and to examine its relationship to health and mental health. An analysis of baseline data was conducted from a treatment study including 180 adults age 50 and older. The amount of family contact was examined with descriptive statistics. Differences in health and mental health were examined between participants with low, moderate, or high levels of family contact. Analyses also compared these groups on health and mental health functioning, controlling for psychiatric symptoms and the number and severity of medical diseases, respectively. Over three-quarters of respondents (77.8%) reported speaking on the phone with a relative and two-thirds (67.2%) reported seeing a relative at least once during the past month. Older adults who lived with a family member had more severe mood symptoms and poorer mental health functioning. Those who lived with family or had moderate levels of family contact had more comorbid diseases and more disease severity than those with less family contact. These relationships remained significant after controlling for medical conditions or psychiatric symptoms. The majority of older persons have regular family contact and those with the highest levels of family contact appear to have more compromised physical and mental health. Study findings provide new knowledge for practitioners regarding the importance of using family interventions to target physical health and mental illness management for older consumers who may need assistance to access medical care and treatment. Further research on the role of families in psychiatric and physical health management will provide a foundation for family interventions aimed at supporting community living among older adults.

  19. Stereotypes of Aging: Their Effects on the Health of Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rylee A. Dionigi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to present findings on the effects of stereotypes of aging on health outcomes related to older adults, such as physical and mental functioning (specifically and overall well-being and perceived quality of life (more broadly. This review shows that both positive and negative stereotypes of aging can have enabling and constraining effects on the actions, performance, decisions, attitudes, and, consequently, holistic health of an older adult. This review further highlights a variety of limitations in stereotype research in aging contexts, including a lack of qualitative studies focusing on older adult perspectives and the fluctuating definition of what constitutes “good health” during older age.

  20. The Effect of Parental Divorce on the Health of Adult Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jason R; Högnäs, Robin S

    Decades of research have produced evidence that parental divorce is negatively associated with offspring outcomes from early childhood, through adolescence, and into the adult years. This study adds to the literature on the effects of parental divorce by examining how the timing of a parental divorce influences the total effect on adult health. Furthermore, we look at how this long-term effect of parental divorce depends on mediators such as the family's socioeconomic status, parental involvement, cognitive test scores, behavioural problems, smoking, and the offspring's own experience with divorce. The analyses use data from the National Child Development Study, which includes nine waves of data beginning at birth in 1958 and continuing through age 50. Results from a structural equation model suggest that a parental divorce experienced before age 7 does influence adult health by operating primarily through family socioeconomic status and smoking in adulthood.

  1. EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF ADULTS IN THREE CHINESE CITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The authors examined potential associations between air-pollution exposures and respiratory symptoms and illnesses of 4,108 adults who resided in 4 districts of 3 large, distinct Chinese cities. Data on respiratory health outcomes and relevant risk factors for parents and childre...

  2. Acculturation and sociocultural influences on dietary intake and health status among Puerto Rican adults in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown negative consequences of acculturation on lifestyle factors, health status, and dietary intake of Hispanic immigrants in the US. Despite prevalent type 2 diabetes and low socioeconomic status (SES) among Puerto Rican adults living on the US mainland, little is known about...

  3. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults: A systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000-2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were i...

  4. Gender Differences in Views about Cognitive Health and Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors among Rural Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bei; Goins, R. Turner; Laditka, James N.; Ignatenko, Valerie; Goedereis, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Research suggests that men and women often differ in knowledge and beliefs about causes and treatments of a variety of diseases. This study examines gender differences in views about cognitive health and behaviors that have been associated with its maintenance, focusing on older adults living in rural areas. Design and Methods: We…

  5. Leisure as a Resource for Successful Aging by Older Adults with Chronic Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Susan L.; Nimrod, Galit

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the model of Selective Optimization with Compensation (SOC) (Baltes & Baltes, 1990), the purpose of this article is to examine leisure-related goals of older adults with chronic conditions and the strategies they use to not only successfully manage their chronic health conditions but live well with them. Semi-structured in-person…

  6. Acute effects of air pollution on respiratory health of 50-70 yr old adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, S C; Hoek, G; Boezen, Hendrika; Schouten, J P; van Wijnen, J H; Brunekreef, B

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between daily changes in respiratory health and air pollution in 489 adults, aged 50-70 yrs, with and without chronic respiratory symptoms, living in urban and nonurban areas in the Netherlands. Subjects were selected from the general populati

  7. Trends in Smoking among Adolescents and Young Adults in the United Kingdom: Implications for Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine trends in smoking prevalence among adolescents and young adults in the UK and to identify any developments in health education theory and practice relating to adolescent tobacco use since 2000. The implications of such research are discussed. Design/methodology/approach: A literature search was…

  8. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adolescent School Victimization: Implications for Young Adult Health and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T.; Ryan, Caitlin; Toomey, Russell B.; Diaz, Rafael M.; Sanchez, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adolescent school victimization due to lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) status is commonplace, and is associated with compromised health and adjustment. Few studies have examined the long-term implications of LGBT school victimization for young adult adjustment. We examine the association between reports of LGBT school…

  9. Health and Ageing in Older Adults: A gender-specific and life-course perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Jaspers (Loes)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractIn this thesis we aimed to provide insights in health and ageing of older adults whilst adopting an integrated, gender-specific, and life-course approach. As a first step we studied the global micro-economic and macro-economic impact of NCDs in societies. Thereafter, we developed a

  10. Family Health History Communication Networks of Older Adults: Importance of Social Relationships and Disease Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Goodman, Melody; Schafer, Ellen J.

    2013-01-01

    Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication ("have shared" and "intend to share…

  11. Material interaction and art product in art therapy assessment in adult mental health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penzés, I.; Hooren, S. van; Dokter, D.; Smeijsters, H.; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Art materials have a central role in art therapy. The way a client interacts with art materials - material interaction - is an important source of information in art therapy assessment in adult mental health. The aim of this study was to develop the categories of material interaction and

  12. Factors related to unmet oral health needs in older adults living in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Rodrigo; Giacaman, Rodrigo A

    2014-01-01

    To assess the oral health status and treatment needs of an ambulant population of older adults, living in the Maule Region, Chile, and provide descriptive information on its distribution by selected socio-demographic characteristics. The source of primary data was the Regional Oral Health Survey. A stratified random sample of 438 older adults, aged 65-74 years, living independently in the community was orally examined, and underwent an oral health interview. The sample was largely a dentate one (74.9%); with a mean DMFT score of 25.7 (s.d. 6.5) and an average number of missing teeth of 22.4 (s.d. 5.8). Dentate participants had 41% of their restorative care needs unmet, and 68.4% needed oral hygiene instruction plus removal of calculus on their teeth. Almost 30.1% required complex periodontal therapy. 21% of those fully edentulous were in need of full dentures. Comparing these findings with existing data on the oral health of older adults in Chile, participants in this study appear to have lower missing teeth scores and less need for complex periodontal treatment. Inequities were apparent in the proportion of unmet restorative and prosthetics needs. Community-based preventive care programs specifically tailored to older adults are needed to address this challenge.

  13. Health-related physical fitness of ambulatory adolescents and young adults with spastic cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.F.J. Nooijen (Carla); J. Slaman (Jorrit); W.M.A. van der Slot (Wilma); H.J. Stam (Henk); M.E. Roebroeck (Marij); R.J.G. van den Berg-Emons (Rita)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractOBJECTIVE: To describe in detail the health-related physical fitness of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy, compared with able-bodied references, and to assess differences related to Gross Motor Functioning Classification System (GMFCS) level and distribution of

  14. Primary Prevention for Mental Health: A Stress Inoculation Training Course for Functioning Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiraldi, Glenn R.; Brown, Stephen L.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a college course that taught preventive mental health skills to adults by exploring diverse cognitive-behavioral skills that facilitate coping, are preventive in nature, and are suitable for learning by healthy individuals in educational settings. It focused on anger management, anxiety and worry management, self-esteem enhancement,…

  15. Health, Quality of Care and Quality of Life: A Case of Frail Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chang-Ming

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between health, quality of care of geriatric case management and quality of life for the purpose of furthering the understanding of the relationship between quality of life and geriatric case management. Using survey data from a group of frail older adults, this study assesses the relative merit of two…

  16. Social networking and young adults' drinking practices: innovative qualitative methods for health behavior research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Antonia C; Goodwin, Ian; McCreanor, Tim; Griffin, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Understandings of health behaviors can be enriched by using innovative qualitative research designs. We illustrate this with a project that used multiple qualitative methods to explore the confluence of young adults' drinking behaviors and social networking practices in Aotearoa, New Zealand. Participants were 18-25 year old males and females from diverse ethnic, class, and occupational backgrounds. In Stage 1, 34 friendship focus group discussions were video-recorded with 141 young adults who talked about their drinking and social networking practices. In Stage 2, 23 individual interviews were conducted using screen-capture software and video to record participants showing and discussing their Facebook pages. In Stage 3, a database of Web-based material regarding drinking and alcohol was developed and analyzed. In friendship group data, young adults co-constructed accounts of drinking practices and networking about drinking via Facebook as intensely social and pleasurable. However, this pleasure was less prominent in individual interviews, where there was greater explication of unpleasant or problematic experiences and practices. The pleasure derived from drinking and social networking practices was also differentiated by ethnicity, gender, and social class. Juxtaposing the Web-based data with participants' talk about their drinking and social media use showed the deep penetration of online alcohol marketing into young people's social worlds. Multiple qualitative methods, generating multimodal datasets, allowed valuable nuanced insights into young adults' drinking practices and social networking behaviors. This knowledge can usefully inform health policy, health promotion strategies, and targeted health interventions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Adults Living with Type 2 Diabetes: Kept Personal Health Information Items as Expressions of Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetstone, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated personal information behavior and information needs that 21 adults managing life with Type 2 diabetes identify explicitly and implicitly during discussions of item acquisition and use of health information items that are kept in their homes. Research drew upon a naturalistic lens, in that semi-structured interviews were…

  18. Health-related quality of life in food-allergic adults from eight European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, Nicole J.; Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M. J.; van der Meulen, Gerbrich N.; Arnlind, Marianne H.; Asero, Ricardo; Barreales, Laura; Burney, Peter; Cerecedo, Imnaculada; Clausen, Michael; Fernandez-Rivas, Monteserrat; Frewer, Lynn; de la Hoz Caballer, Belen; Jansson, Sven-Arne; Jedrzejczak-Czechowicz, Monica; Knulst, Andre C.; Kowalski, Marek L.; Papadopoulos, Nikos G.; Purohit, Ashok; Rokicka, Ewa; Starosta, Pawel; Vasquez-Cortes, Sonia; Duiverman, Eric J.; Dubois, Anthony E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Food allergy can impair health-related quality of life (HRQL). Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaires (FAQLQs) have been developed and validated, including an adult form (FAQLQ-AF). HRQL has not, to date, been measured across different European countries using a uniform methodology.

  19. Health and Social Care Interventions Which Promote Social Participation for Adults with Learning Disabilities: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Sharon; Morris, David; Newlin, Meredith; Webber, Martin

    2016-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are among the most socially excluded in society. There is a significant gap in research evidence showing how health and social care workers can intervene to improve the social participation of adults with learning disabilities. A systematic review and modified narrative synthesis was used to appraise the quality…

  20. Health-related physical fitness of ambulatory adolescents and young adults with spastic cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.F.J. Nooijen (Carla); J. Slaman (Jorrit); W.M.A. van der Slot (Wilma); H.J. Stam (Henk); M.E. Roebroeck (Marij); R.J.G. van den Berg-Emons (Rita)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractOBJECTIVE: To describe in detail the health-related physical fitness of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy, compared with able-bodied references, and to assess differences related to Gross Motor Functioning Classification System (GMFCS) level and distribution of cerebra

  1. Lifestyle, participation, and health-related quality of life in adolescents and young adults with myelomeningocele

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buffart, L.M.; Berg-Emons, van den R.J.; Meeteren, van J.; Stam, H.; Roebroeck, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to describe participation and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescents and young adults with myelomeningocele and to explore their relationships with lifestyle-related factors. Fifty-one individuals with a mean age of 21 years 1 month (SD 4y 6mo) years participated (26

  2. Knowledge and Attitudes of Undergraduate Students Regarding the Health and Nutrition of Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuberger, Roschelle A.; Stanczak, Melanie

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated knowledge and attitudes of undergraduates regarding nutrition and health of the aged and students' intentions of pursuing career involvement with older adults. The participants evaluated were undergraduates from three mid-western universities (n=1,755). The majority of those surveyed were uninformed and unlikely to pursue…

  3. Health-related Quality of Life in young adults with continuing symptoms of childhood constipation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, M.E.J.; Benninga, M.A.; Maurice-Stam, H.; Grootenhuis, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Children with functional constipation report impaired Health-related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in relation to physical complaints and long duration of symptoms. In about one third of children with constipation symptoms continue into adulthood. To date, knowledge on HRQoL in adult

  4. Transformative Theatre: A Promising Educational Tool for Improving Health Encounters With LGBT Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Anne K; Luz, Clare; Hall, Dennis; Gardner, Penny; Hennessey, Chris Walker; Lammers, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) older adults are often unaware or fearful of aging services that contribute to greater vulnerability, isolation, and risk when services are needed. In addition, they may perceive or experience bias in health care encounters. Providers may not recognize their own biases or their impact on such encounters. In response, a group of LGBT community activists, aging professionals, researchers, and a theatre ensemble developed an interactive theatre experience, described herein, that portrays challenges faced by LGBT older adults needing services. Goals included raising awareness among LGBT older adults and providers about issues such as the limited legal rights of partners, limited family support, and fear of being mistreated as a result of homophobia. Evaluations and feedback reflected the potential of interactive theatre to engage people in sensitive discussions that can lead to increased awareness, reduced bias, practice change, and ultimately improved care for LGBT older adults.

  5. Childhood and Adult Trauma Experiences of Incarcerated Persons and Their Relationship to Adult Behavioral Health Problems and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Shi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Rates of childhood and adult trauma are high among incarcerated persons. In addition to criminality, childhood trauma is associated with the risk for emotional disorders (e.g., depression and anxiety and co-morbid conditions such as alcohol and drug abuse and antisocial behaviors in adulthood. This paper develops rates of childhood and adult trauma and examines the impact of age-of-onset and type-specific trauma on emotional problems and behavior for a sample of incarcerated males (N~4,000. Prevalence estimates for types of trauma were constructed by age at time of trauma, race and types of behavioral health treatment received while incarcerated. HLM models were used to explore the association between childhood and adult trauma and depression, anxiety, substance use, interpersonal problems, and aggression problems (each model estimated separately and controlling for age, gender, race, time incarcerated, and index offense. Rates of physical, sexual, and emotional trauma were higher in childhood than adulthood and ranged from 44.7% (physical trauma in childhood to 4.5% (sexual trauma in adulthood. Trauma exposure was found to be strongly associated with a wide range of behavioral problems and clinical symptoms. Given the sheer numbers of incarcerated men and the strength of these associations, targeted intervention is critical.

  6. Young, uninsured, and in debt: why young adults lack health insurance and how the Affordable Care Act is helping: findings from the Commonwealth Fund Health Insurance Tracking Survey of Young Adults, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sara R; Robertson, Ruth; Garber, Tracy; Doty, Michelle M

    2012-06-01

    The Commonwealth Fund Health Insurance Tracking Survey of Young Adults finds that between November 2010 and November 2011, an estimated 13.7 million young adults ages 19-25 stayed on or joined their parents' health plans, including 6.6 million who likely would not have been able to do so prior to the passage of the Affordable Care Act. The findings of the survey underscore the need for policymakers to implement the remaining coverage expansions in the law. Nearly two of five young adults ages 19-29 were without health insurance for all or part of 2011, with young adults in low- and moderate-income households the most at risk. The lack of insurance had significant health and financial implications for young adults: 60 percent said they did not get needed health care because of cost and half reported problems paying medical bills or said they were paying off medical debt over time.

  7. The influence of socioeconomic factors on health parameters in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkert, Nathalie T; Rásky, Éva; Großschädl, Franziska; Muckenhuber, Johanna; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of being overweight and of obesity is increasing worldwide, and is associated with a high risk to health. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether normal weight, overweight and obese subjects of low, middle or high socioeconomic status (SES) differ with regard to their health behavior, health, quality of life, and the use of medical care. Data from the Austrian Health Interview Survey (ATHIS) 2006/07, comprising 3 groups of 1,077 individuals, each of whom were normal weight, overweight, or obese, respectively, and matched according to their age, sex and SES, were analyzed concerning health outcomes. The results show that subjects with a low SES differ significantly from those of high SES in terms of their health behavior, self-perceived health, levels of impairment, chronic conditions, quality of life, and health care. Additionally, obesity in adults is associated with sub-optimal dietary practices and worse health, poorer quality of life and medical care than normal weight and overweight individuals. A significant interaction between the weight class and SES was found concerning physical exercise, impairment due to health problems and chronic diseases. A low SES has a strong negative impact on health, especially in obese individuals. Therefore a continuous target group-oriented, non-discriminatory public health program is required, prioritizing obese subjects with low SES.

  8. The influence of socioeconomic factors on health parameters in overweight and obese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie T Burkert

    Full Text Available The prevalence of being overweight and of obesity is increasing worldwide, and is associated with a high risk to health. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether normal weight, overweight and obese subjects of low, middle or high socioeconomic status (SES differ with regard to their health behavior, health, quality of life, and the use of medical care. Data from the Austrian Health Interview Survey (ATHIS 2006/07, comprising 3 groups of 1,077 individuals, each of whom were normal weight, overweight, or obese, respectively, and matched according to their age, sex and SES, were analyzed concerning health outcomes. The results show that subjects with a low SES differ significantly from those of high SES in terms of their health behavior, self-perceived health, levels of impairment, chronic conditions, quality of life, and health care. Additionally, obesity in adults is associated with sub-optimal dietary practices and worse health, poorer quality of life and medical care than normal weight and overweight individuals. A significant interaction between the weight class and SES was found concerning physical exercise, impairment due to health problems and chronic diseases. A low SES has a strong negative impact on health, especially in obese individuals. Therefore a continuous target group-oriented, non-discriminatory public health program is required, prioritizing obese subjects with low SES.

  9. Modeling indoor TV/screen viewing and adult physical and mental health: Health Survey for England, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to model indoor TV/screen viewing and a series of adult health conditions and cognitive performance in a country-wide, population-based setting in recent years. Data was retrieved from Health Survey for England, 2012. Information on demographics, lifestyle factors, self-reported health conditions, and TV and/or screen watching hours in adults was collected by household interviews. Chi-square test and survey-weighted logistic and multi-nominal modeling were performed. Of 8114 English adults aged 18-98, 4138 people (51.1 %) watched TV and/or screen daily for 2 h or more on average. Two thousand five-hundred people (30.9 %) watched for 3 h or more. TV and/or screening watching for 2+ hours was associated with endocrine or metabolic disorders, diabetes, mental disorders (including poor scores in General Health Questionnaire and Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale), nervous system disorders, eye complaints, circulatory system disorders, respiratory system disorders, musculoskeletal system disorders, and self-rated health. TV and/or screen watching for 3+ hours was associated with digestive disorders and clotting disorder. TV and/or screen watching for 5+ hours was associated with cancer. TV and/or screen watching for 6+, 8+, or 11+ hours was associated with bladder disease, genito-urinary system disorders or bowel disease, respectively. There were no risk associations (within 20 h) found with ear complaints, infectious disease, and blood system disorders. Future educational and public health programs minimizing TV and/or screen viewing in order to protect from physical inactivity and X-radiation might be needed while research on the combined effect of physical inactivity and X-radiation should be explored.

  10. Adolescents' and Young Adults' Beliefs about Mental Health Services and Care: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, John; Savage, Eileen; Horgan, Aine

    2016-10-01

    Adolescents and young people are known to hold negative views about mental illness. There is less known about their beliefs about mental health services and care. The aim of this study was to systematically examine literature on the beliefs of adolescents and young people from the general population about mental health services and care. Factors that positively and negatively influence these beliefs are also explored. Relevant electronic databases were searched for papers published in the English language between January 2004 and October 2015. Culture seemed to influence how adolescents and young adults perceived mental health interventions. This was particularly evident in countries such as Palestine and South Africa where prayer was highly valued. Adolescents and young people were uninformed about psychiatric medication. They believed that accessing mental health care was a sign of weakness. Furthermore, they viewed psychiatric hospitals and various mental health professionals negatively. Film was found to have a negative impact on how adolescents and young people perceived mental health services, whereas open communication with family members was found to have a positive impact. Adolescents and young adults hold uninformed and stigmatizing beliefs about mental health treatments, mental health professionals, and access to care. The sources of these beliefs remain unclear although some at least seem influenced by culture. Further research, (particularly qualitative research) in this area is recommended in order to address current gaps in knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fundamental resource dis/advantages, youth health and adult educational outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Cheryl; Wray, Linda A; Xi, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies find lasting effects of poor youth health on educational attainment but use young samples and narrow life course windows of observation to explore outcomes. We apply a life course framework to three sets of Health and Retirement Study birth cohorts to examine early health status effects on education and skills attainment measured late in life. The older cohorts that we study were the earliest recipients of U.S. policies promoting continuing education through the GI Bill, community college expansions and new credentials such as the GED. We examine a wide range of outcomes but focus on GEDs, postsecondary school entry and adult human capital as job-related training. We find that older U.S. cohorts had considerable exposure to these forms of attainment and that the effects of youth health on them vary by outcome: health selection and ascription group effects are weak or fade, respectively, in outcomes associated with delayed or adult attainment. However, poorer health and social disadvantage in youth and barriers associated with ascription carry forward to limit attainment of key credentials such as diplomas and college degrees. We find that the human capital - health gradient is dynamic and that narrow windows of observation in existing studies miss much of it. National context also matters for studying health-education linkages over the life course.

  12. Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors Among US Adults With and Without Jail Experience: Implications for Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Michael J

    2016-04-29

    Contact with correctional facilities adversely affects midlife health status and contributes to health disparities in the United States. Sexual health of correctional populations has become a focus for public health research and health promotion programs. Relying on the Health Belief Model, most research has focused almost exclusively on case studies of inmates' disease risk, perceptions of disease susceptibility, and condom use. There is a dearth of research on attitudes and behaviors beyond disease risk perceptions and condom use, particularly within a nationally representative sample of adults. Utilizing social cognitive theory, theory of reasoned action, and related theories, this study examines four alternative sexual attitudes and behaviors among a nationally representative sample of adults with and without jail experience. Results show that jail experience is associated with attitudes concerning sexual exclusivity and intimacy, as well as group sex participation and number of partners. Results also demonstrate that alcohol consumption is strongly associated with jail experience and all four outcomes. Findings offer implications for health promotion within correctional populations. Community-based programs focused on correctional populations could be a fruitful line of public health practice, and programs should take into account social contexts, broad attitudes, and risk factors such as substance abuse.

  13. An oral health literacy intervention for Indigenous adults in a rural setting in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Eleanor J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians suffer substantially poorer oral health than their non-Indigenous counterparts and new approaches are needed to address these disparities. Previous work in Port Augusta, South Australia, a regional town with a large Indigenous community, revealed associations between low oral health literacy scores and self-reported oral health outcomes. This study aims to determine if implementation of a functional, context-specific oral health literacy intervention improves oral health literacy-related outcomes measured by use of dental services, and assessment of oral health knowledge, oral health self-care and oral health- related self-efficacy. Methods/design This is a randomised controlled trial (RCT that utilises a delayed intervention design. Participants are Indigenous adults, aged 18 years and older, who plan to reside in Port Augusta or a nearby community for the next two years. The intervention group will receive the intervention from the outset of the study while the control group will be offered the intervention 12 months following their enrolment in the study. The intervention consists of a series of five culturally sensitive, oral health education workshops delivered over a 12 month period by Indigenous project officers. Workshops consist of presentations, hands-on activities, interactive displays, group discussions and role plays. The themes addressed in the workshops are underpinned by oral health literacy concepts, and incorporate oral health-related self-efficacy, oral health-related fatalism, oral health knowledge, access to dental care and rights and entitlements as a patient. Data will be collected through a self-report questionnaire at baseline, at 12 months and at 24 months. The primary outcome measure is oral health literacy. Secondary outcome measures include oral health knowledge, oral health self-care, use of dental services, oral health-related self-efficacy and oral health-related fatalism

  14. Association of oral health behavior and the use of dental services with oral health literacy among adults in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghibi Sistani, Mohammad Mehdi; Virtanen, Jorma I; Yazdani, Reza; Murtomaa, Heikki

    2017-01-01

    To assess the association of oral health behavior (OHB) and the use of dental services with oral health literacy (OHL) among Iranian adults. This was a cross-sectional population study of a random sample of 1031 adults aged 18-65 in Tehran, Iran. We collected data on tooth brushing frequency, the consumption of sugary snacks and beverages, and time since last dental visit. To measure OHL, we used a validated OHL adults' questionnaire (OHL-AQ). In addition to descriptive analysis, we used multiple logistic regression models to assess the association of OHB and the most recent dental visit with OHL while controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors. The participants' mean age was 36.3 (standard deviation 12.9), and 51% were women. Of the participants, 81.3% reported brushing their teeth daily (≥1/day), 37.6% consumed sugary snacks or beverages between meals less than once daily (<1/day), and 36.8% used dental services within the past 6 months. In the adjusted models, high OHL scores significantly correlated with daily (≥1/day) tooth brushing (odds ratio [OR] = 1.97, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-2.98), the consumption of sugary snacks or beverages (<1/day between meals) (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.13-2.15) and the recent use of dental services (≤6 months) (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.15-2.21), respectively. OHL relates significantly to improved OHB and the use of dental services. Oral health promotion programs should, therefore, take into account improvements in adults' OHL, particularly in countries with developing health-care services.

  15. Perspectives of Constraining and Enabling Factors for Health-Promoting Physical Activity by Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Viviene A.; Walkley, Jeff W.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Physical activity influences health in individuals and within populations. This study explored factors perceived as enabling or inhibiting participation in physical activity by adults with intellectual disability from a health promotion perspective. Method: Six focus group interviews were conducted: adults with intellectual disability…

  16. Journey to Healthy Aging: Impact of Community Based Education Programs on Knowledge and Health Behavior in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarry, Sue

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if community based health education programs increased knowledge and health behavior in older adults. The study was a pretest-posttest design with a convenience sample of 111 independent community dwelling older adults. Participants received two disease prevention education presentations: type 2…

  17. Reclaiming Joy: Pilot Evaluation of a Mental Health Peer Support Program for Older Adults Who Receive Medicaid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Rosemary K.; Sergeant, Julie F.; Landry, Sarah; Leedahl, Skye N.; Rachlin, Roxanne; Koenig, Terry; Graham, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Stigma and lack of access to providers create barriers to mental health treatment for older adults living in the community. In order to address these barriers, we developed and evaluated a peer support intervention for older adults receiving Medicaid services. Design and Methods: Reclaiming Joy is a mental health intervention that pairs…

  18. The descriptive epidemiology of DSM-IV Adult ADHD in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayyad, John; Sampson, Nancy A; Hwang, Irving; Adamowski, Tomasz; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura H S G; Borges, Guilherme; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G; Lee, Sing; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; O'Neill, Siobhan; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Ten Have, Margreet; Torres, Yolanda; Xavier, Miguel; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C

    2017-03-01

    We previously reported on the cross-national epidemiology of ADHD from the first 10 countries in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. The current report expands those previous findings to the 20 nationally or regionally representative WMH surveys that have now collected data on adult ADHD. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered to 26,744 respondents in these surveys in high-, upper-middle-, and low-/lower-middle-income countries (68.5% mean response rate). Current DSM-IV/CIDI adult ADHD prevalence averaged 2.8% across surveys and was higher in high (3.6%)- and upper-middle (3.0%)- than low-/lower-middle (1.4%)-income countries. Conditional prevalence of current ADHD averaged 57.0% among childhood cases and 41.1% among childhood subthreshold cases. Adult ADHD was significantly related to being male, previously married, and low education. Adult ADHD was highly comorbid with DSM-IV/CIDI anxiety, mood, behavior, and substance disorders and significantly associated with role impairments (days out of role, impaired cognition, and social interactions) when controlling for comorbidities. Treatment seeking was low in all countries and targeted largely to comorbid conditions rather than to ADHD. These results show that adult ADHD is prevalent, seriously impairing, and highly comorbid but vastly under-recognized and undertreated across countries and cultures.

  19. Relative Association of Multi-Level Supportive Environments on Poor Health among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier, Nelda; Ory, Marcia G; Towne, Samuel D; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2017-04-06

    Background: The aging of the United States population poses significant challenges to American healthcare and informal caregiving systems. Additional research is needed to understand how health promotion programs and policies based on a socio-ecological perspective impact the health and well-being of older persons. The purpose of this study was to investigate personal characteristics and supportive environments associated with poor health among older individuals aged 65 and over. Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design and was guided by a conceptual framework developed by the authors to depict the relationship between personal characteristics and environments associated with poor health status. Environment types included in this study were family, home, financial, neighborhood, and healthcare. The sample was comprised of 1319 adults aged 65 years and older residing in Central Texas. From a random selection of households, participants were administered a mail-based survey created by a community collaborative effort. Descriptive statistics and three binary logistic regression models were fitted to examine associations with poor health status (i.e., physical, mental, and combined physical/mental). Results: Two personal characteristics (number of chronic conditions and educational level) were consistently related (p health outcomes. Supportive family, home, financial, neighborhood, and health care environmental factors were shown to be related (p health outcomes. Conclusions: Multidimensional factors including personal characteristics and protective environments are related to health status among older individuals. The unique roles of each environment can help inform public health interventions to create and enhance support for older adults to engage in healthful activities and improve their physical and mental health.

  20. Edentulism and other variables associated with self-reported health status in Mexican adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine if edentulism, controlling for other known factors, is associated with subjective self-report health status (SRH) in Mexican adults. Material/Methods We examined the SRH of 13 966 individuals 35 years and older, using data from the National Survey of Performance Assessment, a cross-sectional study that is part of the technical collaboration between the Ministry of Health of Mexico and the World Health Organization, which used the survey instrument and sampling strategies developed by WHO for the World Health Survey. Sociodemographic, socioeconomic, medical, and behavioral variables were collected using questionnaires. Self-reported health was our dependent variable. Data on edentulism were available from 20 of the 32 Mexican states. A polynomial logistic regression model adjusted for complex sampling was generated. Results In the SRH, 58.2% reported their health status as very good/good, 33.8% said they had a moderate health status, and 8.0% reported that their health was bad/very bad. The association between edentulism and SRH was modified by age and was significant only for bad/very bad SRH. Higher odds of reporting moderate health or poor/very poor health were found in women, people with lower socio-economic status and with physical disabilities, those who were not physically active, or those who were underweight or obese, those who had any chronic disease, and those who used alcohol. Conclusions The association of edentulism with a self-report of a poor health status (poor/very poor) was higher in young people than in adults. The results suggest socioeconomic inequalities in SRH. Inequality was further confirmed among people who had a general health condition or a disability. PMID:24852266

  1. Knowledge of the health consequences of tobacco smoking: a cross-sectional survey of Vietnamese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Thi Minh An

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although substantial efforts have been made to curtail smoking in Vietnam, the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS revealed that the proportion of male adults currently smoking remains high at 47.4%. Objectives: To determine the level of, and characteristics associated with, knowledge of the health consequences of smoking among Vietnamese adults. Design: GATS 2010 was designed to survey a nationally representative sample of Vietnamese men and women aged 15 and older drawn from 11,142 households using a two-stage sampling design. Descriptive statistics were calculated and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between postulated exposure factors (age, education, access to information, ethnic group etc. and knowledge on health risks. Results: General knowledge on the health risks of active smoking (AS and exposure to second hand smoke (SHS was good (90% and 83%, respectively. However, knowledge on specific diseases related to tobacco smoking (stroke, heart attack, and lung cancer appeared to be lower (51.5%. Non-smokers had a significantly higher likelihood of demonstrating better knowledge on health risks related to AS (OR 1.6 and SHS (OR 1.7 than smokers. Adults with secondary education, college education or above also had significantly higher levels knowledge of AS/SHS health risks than those with primary education (AS: ORs 1.6, 1.7, and 1.9, respectively, and SHS: ORs 2.4, 3.9, and 5.7 respectively. Increasing age was positively associated with knowledge of the health consequences of SHS, and access to information was significantly associated with knowledge of AS/SHS health risks (ORs 2.3 and 1.9 respectively. Otherwise, non-Kinh ethnic groups had significantly less knowledge on health risks of AS/SHS than Kinh ethnic groups. Conclusions: It may be necessary to target tobacco prevention programs to specific subgroups including current smokers, adults with low education, non-Kinh ethnics in order to

  2. Health-related quality of life in French adolescents and adults: norms for the DUKE Health Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin Jean-François

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The continual monitoring of population health-related quality of life (HRQoL with validated instruments helps public health agencies assess, protect, and promote population health. This study aimed to determine norms for the French adolescent and adult general population for the Duke Health Profile (DUKE questionnaire in a large representative community sample. Methods We randomly selected 17,733 French people aged 12 to 75 years old in 2 steps, by households and individuals, from the National Health Barometer 2005, a periodic population study by the French National Institute for Prevention and Health Education. Quality of life and other data were collected by computer-assisted telephone interview. Results Normative data for the French population were analyzed by age, gender and self-reported chronic disease. Globally, function scores (best HRQoL=100 for physical, mental, social, and general health, as well as perceived health and self-esteem, were 72.3 (SEM 0.2, 74.6 (0.2, 66.8 (0.1, 71.3 (0.1, 71.3 (0.3, 76.5 (0.1, respectively. Dysfunction scores (worst HRQoL=100 for anxiety, depression, pain and disability domains were 30.9 (0.1, 27.6 (0.2, 34.3 (0.3, 3.1 (0.1, respectively. Conclusion The French norms for adolescents and adults for the DUKE could be used as a reference for other studies assessing HRQoL, for specific illnesses, in France and for international comparisons.

  3. Adults with Greater Weight Satisfaction Report More Positive Health Behaviors and Have Better Health Status Regardless of BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E. Blake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prior studies suggest that weight satisfaction may preclude changes in behavior that lead to healthier weight among individuals who are overweight or obese. Objective. To gain a better understanding of complex relationships between weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, and health outcomes. Design. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS. Participants. Large mixed-gender cohort of primarily white, middle-to-upper socioeconomic status (SES adults with baseline examination between 1987 and 2002 (n=19,003. Main Outcome Variables. Weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, chronic health conditions, and clinical health indicators. Statistical Analyses Performed. Chi-square test, t-tests, and linear and multivariate logistic regression. Results. Compared to men, women were more likely to be dieting (32% women; 18% men and had higher weight dissatisfaction. Men and women with greater weight dissatisfaction reported more dieting, yo-yo dieting, and snacking and consuming fewer meals, being less active, and having to eat either more or less than desired to maintain weight regardless of weight status. Those who were overweight or obese and dissatisfied with their weight had the poorest health. Conclusion. Greater satisfaction with one’s weight was associated with positive health behaviors and health outcomes in both men and women and across weight status groups.

  4. Polypharmacy and Polymorbidity in Older Adults in Brazil: a public health challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Farias, Mareni Rocha; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva Dal; Arrais, Paulo Sérgio Dourado; Mengue, Sotero Serrate

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze variations in the prevalence of chronic use of medicines by older adults in Brazil according to its possible association with the most prevalent chronic diseases and demographic and health factors, and to identify risk factors for polypharmacy. METHODS A study based on data from the National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines (PNAUM), a cross-sectional, population-based survey with probability sampling in Brazilian urban areas. The independent variable was the number of chronic-use medicines taken by older adults, linked to eight chronic diseases investigated. The intervening variables were gender, age group, marital status, level of education, socioeconomic status, Brazilian region, body mass index, smoking, self-perceived health, hospitalization in the previous year and having health insurance, besides the investigated chronic diseases. A multivariable analysis identified risk factors for polypharmacy. RESULTS Prevalence of at least one chronic-use medicines among older adults was 93.0%. Of the total number of older adults, 18.0% used at least five medications (polypharmacy). Polypharmacy was higher among the oldest individuals (20.0%), in the South region (25.0%), in those with poor self-perceived health (35.0%), in obese individuals (26.0%), in those with reported health insurance (23.0%) or hospitalization in the previous year (31.0%), and among those who reported any of the investigated diseases, particularly diabetes (36.0%) and heart diseases (43.0%). The variables remaining in the final risk model for polypharmacy were age, region, perceived health, health insurance, hospitalization in the previous year and all investigated diseases except stroke. CONCLUSIONS Older adults with specific diseases have risk factors for polypharmacy modifiable by actions aimed at the rational use of medicines. With the current population aging and successful drug access policy, the trend is an increase in drug use by

  5. Improving Mental Health Care for Young Adults in Badakshan Province of Afghanistan Using eHealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoja, Shariq; Khan, Maria Arif; Husyin, Nida; Scott, Richard; Yousafzai, Abdul Wahab; Durrani, Hammad; Mohbatali, Fatima; Khan, Dodo

    2015-01-01

    Decades of war, social problems and poverty, have led large number of Afghan youth aged between 18-25 years suffering from mental health problems. Other important contributing factors include extreme poverty, insecurity, and violence and gender disparities, contributing to worsening mental and emotional health conditions in the country. The reported project is designed to strengthen the health system for improving mental health services in the province of Badakshan by improving awareness in the community and empowering frontline health workers. The project uses technological innovations, in combination with traditional approaches, to reduce stigma, enhance capacity of health providers and improve access to the specialist. The project also focuses on skills development of health providers, and empowering them to provide quality mental health services through access to interactive protocols, Management Information system and telemedicine.

  6. Relationship Between Health Service Use and Health Information Technology Use Among Older Adults: Analysis of the US National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Older adults are the most frequent and heaviest users of health services in the United States; however, previous research on older adults’ use of health information technology (HIT) has not examined the possible association of HIT use among older adults with their use of health services. Objective This study examined the relationship between US older adults’ use of health services and their use of the Internet for health-related activities, controlling for socioeconomic characteristics and aging-related limitations in sensory and cognitive function. It also examined gender differences in the pattern of association between the types of health services used and HIT use. Methods The data for this study were drawn from the 2009 US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), which was the first nationally representative household survey to collect data on HIT (Internet) use. First, the rates of lifetime and 12-month HIT use among sample adults (n = 27,731) by age group (18-29 to 85 and over) were analyzed. Second, bivariate analysis of sociodemographic characteristics, health status, and health service use by HIT use status among those aged 65 or older (n = 5294) was conducted. Finally, multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to test the study hypotheses with 12-month HIT use as the dependent variable and 12-month health service uses among the age group 65 or older as possible correlates. Results The rates of HIT use were significantly lower among the age groups 65 or older compared with the younger age groups, although the age group 55 to 64 was not different from those younger. The rates of HIT use decreased from 32.2% in the age group 65 to 74 to 14.5% in the age group 75 to 84 and 4.9% in the 85 and older age group. For both genders, having seen or talked to a general practitioner increased the odds of HIT use. However, having seen or talked to a medical specialist, eye doctor, or physical therapist/occupational therapist (PT/OT) were

  7. Social, Demographic and Labour Market Related Determinants of Health in the Adult European Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Rozsa Santha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the social, demographic and labour market related determinants of the state of health and assesses the magnitude of their impact within the European adult population. The research is based on a statistical analysis on the data of the European Social Survey (ESS, round 7, 2014/2015. Subjective socioeconomic situation and partnership status are being identified as the most influential social determinants of health. Results also illuminate how work-life-balance determines health. People suffering from work-life-imbalance are more likely to become ill than those with more free time and flexible working hours.

  8. Association of orthodontic treatment needs and oral health-related quality of life in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ali H; Amin, Hatem El-Sayed

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the effect of different orthodontic treatment needs on the oral health-related quality of life of young adults. The study sample comprised 366 young adult orthodontic patients (153 men, 213 women; age range, 21-25 years). Each participant was assessed for orthodontic treatment need and oral health-related quality of life by using the dental health component of orthodontic treatment need index and the shortened version of oral health impact profile questionnaire. Orthodontic patients who had little or no, borderline, and actual need for orthodontic treatment represented 14.8%, 56%, and 29.2% of the total sample, respectively. Orthodontic treatment need significantly affected mouth aching, self-consciousness, tension, embarrassment, irritability, and life satisfaction in both sexes. Also, orthodontic treatment need significantly affected taste and relaxation in both men and women. However, pronunciation and the ability to do jobs or function effectively were not significantly associated with orthodontic treatment needs in either sex. These findings emphasize the impact of malocclusion on oral health-related quality of life of young adults. Copyright 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults in the phase of a health policy change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dake Fidelia AA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries have adopted health policies that are targeted at reducing the risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. These policies promote a healthy population by encouraging people to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviours. This paper examines healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults by comparing behaviours before and after the introduction of a national health policy. The paper also explores the socio-economic and demographic factors associated with healthy lifestyle behaviour. Method Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate regression techniques were employed on two nationally representative surveys (2003 World Health Survey (Ghana and 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey to arrive at the results. Results While the prevalence of some negative lifestyle behaviours like smoking has reduced others like alcohol consumption has increased. Relatively fewer people adhered to consuming the recommended amount of fruit and vegetable servings per day in 2008 compared to 2003. While more females (7.0% exhibited healthier lifestyles, more males (9.0% exhibited risky lifestyle behaviours after the introduction of the policy. Conclusion The improvement in healthy lifestyle behaviours among female adult Ghanaians will help promote healthy living and potentially lead to a reduction in the prevalence of obesity among Ghanaian women. The increase in risky lifestyle behaviour among adult male Ghanaians even after the introduction of the health policy could lead to an increase in the risk of non-communicable diseases among men and the resultant burden of disease on them and their families will push more people into poverty.

  10. Forecheck, backcheck, health check: the benefits of playing recreational ice hockey for adults in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Peter; Chowhan, James

    2016-11-01

    More than 1 million Canadian adults play recreational ice hockey. Compared to elite players, very little is known about the physical and health characteristics of people who play the game for fun. Analyzing data from Statistics Canada's 2011/12 Canadian Community Health Survey, the paper found that there is an association between physically active males age 35 or over who play ice hockey regularly (at least once a week) and enhanced health more so than other physically active males. While these players are larger in body size, they have significantly lower rates of diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease and report significantly higher rates of self-assessed health. Given the potential health benefits associated with this high intensity sport, the paper discusses ways in which participation can be promoted among less physically active adults and people who are new to the game or who have historically lower levels of participation including women and recent immigrants. Finally, the paper argues that compared to the very high costs associated with child and youth hockey, participation in adult recreational ice hockey is quite affordable.

  11. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and dental anxiety in adults: relationship with oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Viktor; Hakeberg, Magnus; Blomkvist, Klas; Wide Boman, Ulla

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adult patients with severe dental anxiety. Specifically, we analysed the relationship among ADHD, oral health, and dental anxiety. The World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener was administered to a consecutive sample of patients referred to a dental fear research and treatment clinic. Patients completed questionnaires measuring dental anxiety (Dental Fear Survey) and self-rated oral health, and underwent a full radiographic examination. Of the total sample (n = 110), 16% scored above the established ASRS cut-off point, which is indicative of having ADHD. The ADHD group showed a higher level of dental anxiety and poorer self-rated oral health. There were also indications of poorer clinical oral health in the ADHD group, but these results did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate an increased prevalence of ADHD in highly dentally anxious adults and the need to pay special attention to these patients because of greater treatment needs and increased dental anxiety. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  12. Perception of adult men on their preventive practices and health support networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Oliveira de Arruda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to know the preventive practices adopted by adult men in daily life and to identify health support networks. Methods: a descriptive qualitative study, made during the months of November and December 2012, at two emergency units, along with 32 men aged between 20 and 59 years. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and subjected to content analysis with thematic modality. Results: men highlighted different preventive practices such as sanitizing hands, eating properly, having screening tests, avoiding psychoactive substance abuse, using personal protective equipment at work and condoms during sex. Most of the participants had nuclear family and its members were their primary support network regarding the health-disease process. Conclusion: it is for health team members to try to leverage the adoption of preventive practices by adult men from the support networks they consider significant.

  13. Poverty and mental health: how do low-income adults and children fare in psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Kaltman, Stacey; Miranda, Jeanne

    2013-02-01

    Poverty is associated with an increased risk for psychological problems. Even with this increased risk for mental health problems and need for care, many low-income adults and families do not receive treatment because of logistical, attitudinal, and systemic barriers. Despite significant barriers to obtaining care, research suggests that low-income individuals show significant benefit from evidence-based mental healthcare. In this article, we review the link between poverty and mental health, common barriers to obtaining mental health services, and treatment studies that have been conducted with low-income groups. Finally, we discuss the implications of the research reviewed and offer recommendations for clinicians working with low-income children or adults, highlighting the importance of evidence-based care, extensive outreach, and empathic respect.

  14. Food shopping habits, physical activity and health-related indicators among adults aged ≥70 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Janice L; Bentley, Georgina; Davis, Mark; Coulson, Jo; Stathi, Afroditi; Fox, Kenneth R

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the food shopping habits of older adults in the UK and explore their potential associations with selected health-related indicators. A cross-sectional study including objectively measured physical activity levels, BMI, physical function and self-reported health status and dietary intake. Bristol, UK. A total of 240 older adults aged ≥70 years living independently. Mean age was 78·1 (sd 5·7) years; 66·7 % were overweight or obese and 4 % were underweight. Most (80·0 %) carried out their own food shopping; 53·3 % shopped at least once weekly. Women were more likely to shop alone (P car at least once weekly at large supermarket chains, with most finding high-quality fruit, vegetables and low-fat products easily accessible. Higher levels of physical function and physical activity and better self-reported health are important in supporting food shopping and maintaining independence.

  15. Traditional and commercial herb use in health self- management among rural multiethnic older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altizer, Kathryn P; Quandt, Sara A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Bell, Ronny A; Sandberg, Joanne C; Arcury, Thomas A

    2013-06-01

    This study analyzes the role of traditional and commercial herbs in older adults’ health self-management based on Leventhal’s Self-Regulatory Model conceptual framework. Sixty-two African American and White adults age 65 and older completed qualitative interviews describing the forms of herbs currently being used, sources of information about them, interpretations of health (acute symptoms or chronic conditions) that led to their use, and the initiation and suspension of use. Traditional herbs are native to the region or have been traditionally cultivated, usually taken raw or boiled to produce tea, and used for treating mild symptoms. Commercial herbs are prepared as pills, extracts, or teas; they are purchased at local stores or ordered by catalog or Internet and used for health promotion, illness prevention, or treatment of chronic conditions. Herbs are widely used among older adults; this analysis differentiates the types of herbs they use and their reasons for herbs use.

  16. The neurologist's role in supporting transition to adult health care: A consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lawrence W; Camfield, Peter; Capers, Melissa; Cascino, Greg; Ciccarelli, Mary; de Gusmao, Claudio M; Downs, Stephen M; Majnemer, Annette; Miller, Amy Brin; SanInocencio, Christina; Schultz, Rebecca; Tilton, Anne; Winokur, Annick; Zupanc, Mary

    2016-08-23

    The child neurologist has a critical role in planning and coordinating the successful transition from the pediatric to adult health care system for youth with neurologic conditions. Leadership in appropriately planning a youth's transition and in care coordination among health care, educational, vocational, and community services providers may assist in preventing gaps in care, delayed entry into the adult care system, and/or health crises for their adolescent patients. Youth whose neurologic conditions result in cognitive or physical disability and their families may need additional support during this transition, given the legal and financial considerations that may be required. Eight common principles that define the child neurologist's role in a successful transition process have been outlined by a multidisciplinary panel convened by the Child Neurology Foundation are introduced and described. The authors of this consensus statement recognize the current paucity of evidence for successful transition models and outline areas for future consideration.

  17. The Cascading Effects of Marginalization and Pathways of Resilience in Attaining Good Health Among LGBT Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Bryan, Amanda E B; Shiu, Chengshi; Emlet, Charles A

    2017-02-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults comprise a diverse and growing health disparate population. In the present study, using the Health Equity Promotion Model, we investigated pathways by which LGBT older adults experience resilience, risk, and marginalization and their relationship to attaining positive health outcomes. Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study (NHAS) is the first longitudinal research project designed to examine the health, aging, and well-being of LGBT adults aged 50 and older. Using data from 2014 (N = 2,415), we tested a structural equation model linking lifetime marginalization, identity affirmation and management, social and psychological resources, and health behaviors to positive health outcomes. Identity affirmation positively predicted social resources and mental health, and social resources positively predicted mental health. Marginalization was associated with fewer social resources for LGBT older adults with an open identity management style, lower identity affirmation for LGBT older adults who strategically concealed their sexual identity, and poorer mental health. Mental health was associated with better health behaviors, which in turn predicted positive physical health outcomes. Although a health disparate population, good health among LGBT older adults appears to be attained via multiple resilience and risk pathways. Providers must remain aware of the historical contexts in which LGBT older adults lived and the strengths they developed in order to understand their health and to develop tailored and targeted prevention and intervention services. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Self-perceived health status in older adults: regional and sociodemographic inequalities in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Fernandez-Martinez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess regional and sociodemographic differences in self-perceived health status among older adults. METHODS: A face-to-face quality of life survey was conducted in a representative sample of the Spanish population comprising 1,106 non-institutionalized elderly aged 60 or more in 2008. Logistic regression models were used to explain self-perceived health status according to the EuroQol Group Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-VAS. Independent variables included sociodemographic and health characteristics as well as the nomenclature of territorial units for statistics level 1 (NUTS1: group of autonomous regions and level 2 (NUTS 2: autonomous regions. RESULTS: Younger and better off respondents were more likely to have a positive self-perceived health status. Having no chronic conditions, independence in performing daily living activities and lower level of depression were also associated with positive self-perceived health status. People living in the south of Spain showed a more negative self-perceived health status than those living in other regions. CONCLUSION: The study results point to health inequality among Spanish older adults of lower socioeconomic condition and living in the south of Spain. The analysis by geographic units allows for international cross-regional comparisons.

  19. Health conditions associated with aging and end of life of adults with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Anna J

    2010-01-01

    Expectations for the life course of individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have changed, with life expectancy estimates increasing from 12 in 1949 to nearly 60 years of age today (Bittles & Glasson, 2004; Penrose, 1949). Along with this longer life expectancy comes a larger population of adults with DS who display premature age-related changes in their health. There is thus a need to provide specialized health care to this aging population of adults with DS who are at high risk for some conditions and at lower risk for others. This review focuses on the rates and contributing factors to medical conditions that are common in adults with DS or that show changes with age. The review of medical conditions includes the increased risk for skin and hair changes, early onset menopause, visual and hearing impairments, adult onset seizure disorder, thyroid dysfunction, diabetes, obesity, sleep apnea and musculoskeletal problems. The different pattern of conditions associated with the mortality of adults with DS is also reviewed.

  20. Rural-to-Urban Migration and Changes in Health Among Young Adults in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauman, Elizabeth; VanLandingham, Mark; Anglewicz, Philip; Patthavanit, Umaporn; Punpuing, Sureeporn

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the impacts of rural-to-urban migration on the health of young adult migrants. A key methodological challenge involves the potentially confounding effects of selection on the relationship between migration and health. Our study addresses this challenge in two ways. To control for potential effects of prior health status on post-migration health outcomes, we employ a longitudinal approach. To control for static unobserved characteristics that can affect migration propensity as well as health outcomes, we use fixed-effects analyses. Data were collected in 2005 and 2007 for a cohort of young adults in rural Kanchanaburi province, western Thailand. The migrant sample includes individuals who subsequently moved to urban destinations where they were reinterviewed in 2007. Return migrants were interviewed in rural Kanchanaburi in both years but moved to an urban area and returned in the meantime. A rural comparison group comprises respondents who remained in the origin villages. An urban comparison sample includes longer-term residents of the urban destination communities. Physical and mental health measures are based on the SF-36 health survey. Findings support the "healthy migrant hypothesis." Migrants are physically healthier than their nonmigrant counterparts both before and after moving to the city. We did not find an effect of migration on physical health. Rural-to-urban migrants who stayed at destination experienced a significant improvement in mental health status. Fixed-effects analyses indicate that rural-to-urban migration positively affects mental health. Return migrants do not fare as well as migrants who stayed at destination on both physical and mental health status--evidence of selective return migration.

  1. Variation in quality of preventive care for well adults in Indigenous community health centres in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hains Jenny

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early onset and high prevalence of chronic disease among Indigenous Australians call for action on prevention. However, there is deficiency of information on the extent to which preventive services are delivered in Indigenous communities. This study examined the variation in quality of preventive care for well adults attending Indigenous community health centres in Australia. Methods During 2005-2009, clinical audits were conducted on a random sample (stratified by age and sex of records of adults with no known chronic disease in 62 Indigenous community health centres in four Australian States/Territories (sample size 1839. Main outcome measures: i adherence to delivery of guideline-scheduled services within the previous 24 months, including basic measurements, laboratory investigations, oral health checks, and brief intervention on lifestyle modification; and ii follow-up of abnormal findings. Results Overall delivery of guideline-scheduled preventive services varied widely between health centres (range 5-74%. Documentation of abnormal blood pressure reading ([greater than or equal to]140/90 mmHg, proteinuria and abnormal blood glucose ([greater than or equal to]5.5 mmol/L was found to range between 0 and > 90% at the health centre level. A similarly wide range was found between health centres for documented follow up check/test or management plan for people documented to have an abnormal clinical finding. Health centre level characteristics explained 13-47% of variation in documented preventive care, and the remaining variation was explained by client level characteristics. Conclusions There is substantial room to improve preventive care for well adults in Indigenous primary care settings. Understanding of health centre and client level factors affecting variation in the care should assist clinicians, managers and policy makers to develop strategies to improve quality of preventive care in Indigenous communities.

  2. Health outcomes in young adults from foster care and economically diverse backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Kym R; Garrison, Michelle M; Courtney, Mark E

    2014-12-01

    Foster youth have high rates of health problems in childhood. Little work has been done to determine whether they are similarly vulnerable to increased health problems once they transition to adulthood. We sought to prospectively evaluate the risk of cardiovascular risk factors and other chronic conditions among young adults formerly in foster care (FC) and young adults from economically insecure (EI) and economically secure (ES) backgrounds in the general population. We used data from the Midwest Evaluation of the Adult Functioning of Former Foster Youth (FC group; N = 596) and an age-matched sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (EI and ES groups; N = 456 and 1461, respectively). After controlling for covariates, we performed multivariate regressions to evaluate health outcomes and care access by group at 2 time points (baseline at late adolescence, follow-up at 25-26 years). Data revealed a consistent pattern of graduated increase in odds of most health outcomes, progressing from ES to EI to FC groups. Health care access indicators were more variable; the FC group was most likely to report having Medicaid or no insurance but was least likely to report not getting needed care in the past year. Former foster youth appear to have a higher risk of multiple chronic health conditions, beyond that which is associated with economic insecurity. Findings may be relevant to policymakers and practitioners considering the implementation of extended insurance and foster care programs and interventions to reduce health disparities in young adulthood. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. What prompts young adults in Ireland to attend health services for STI testing?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Balfe, Myles

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In-depth understanding of the factors that prompt young adults to attend health services for sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing are needed to underpin sexual health programes. We conducted a qualitative study to identify and explore why young adults (18-29 years) in Ireland attended specialist and community health services for STI testing; the factors that supported\\/undermined their decisions to seek STI testing; and any factors that led to delay in seeking STI testing. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews with 30 adults (21 women, 9 men). Young adults were recruited from General Practice (GP) practices, Third Level College health services, Family Planning clinics and specialist STI treatment services for men who have sex with men (MSM). Interview questions examined why respondents decided to go for STI testing, whether they acted upon this desire immediately or decided to wait, and what they felt were important barriers\\/enablers to their health-seeking attempts. Interviews were thematically analyzed using standard qualitative techniques. RESULTS: Respondents sought STI testing for one of four reasons: they had reached a transitional moment in their lives (they were either about to stop using condoms with their sexual partner or were emerging from a period of their lives where they had a series of risky sexual relationships); they had had unprotected sex with a casual partner; they had symptoms of infection; and\\/or they were required to do so by their employer. Catalytic factors included media and government health promotion campaigns and knowing someone with an STI. However, many respondents delayed seeking testing. Reasons included respondents\\' concerns about stigma and that they would be judged by healthcare professionals, and feelings of invulnerability. Importantly, several respondents who waited up to four weeks to make an appointment after their initial decision to seek STI testing did not view this as delay. CONCLUSION: Sexual

  4. Does school health and home economics education influence adults' food knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, A; Wang, W C; Yeatman, H; Byrne, S; Wijayaratne, P

    2016-12-01

    Home economics and health teachers are to be found in many parts of the world. They teach students about food in relation to its nutritional, safety and environmental properties. The effects of such teaching might be expected to be reflected in the food knowledge of adults who have undertaken school education in these areas. This study examined the food knowledge associations of school home economics and health education among Australian adults. Two separate online surveys were conducted nationwide among 2022 (November 2011) and 2146 Australian adults (November-December 2012). True/false and multiple choice questions in both surveys were used to assess nutrition, food safety and environmental knowledge. Knowledge scores were constructed and compared against respondents' experience of school health or home economics education via multiple regression analyses. The results from both studies showed that home economics (and similar) education was associated with higher levels of food knowledge among several age groups. The associations of home economics education with food knowledge differed across several Australian states and recall of home economics themes differed across the age groups. These findings suggest that home economics education may bring about long-lasting learning of food knowledge. Further research is required, however, to confirm the findings and to test the causal influence of home economics education on adults' food knowledge.

  5. Health education with older adults: action research with primary care professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle Toniolo Nicodemos Furtado de Mendonça

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the development and implementation of permanent education action. Method: Quantitative-qualitative research based on action research in three phases (diagnosis of reality, implementation of activity and evaluation, performed with health professionals and managers of basic health units. The evaluation was on the perception of changes immediately following the activity and after 120 days. Results: In the first phase, 110 professionals took part, 36.4% of whom indicated the existence of groups for older adults at work. In the second phase, 98 professionals participated, pointing out interferences of the group in the life of older adults, items of importance and facilitation in forming groups and developing reality-based activities. The third phase showed, in the quantitative analysis, positive impact of the training, and in the qualitative analysis, reassessment of groups, greater knowledge and confidence in managing groups and increased respect for older adults. Final considerations: Permanent education opens pathways for the construction of differentiated care for older adults based on respect and health promotion.

  6. The Relationship between Outdoor Activity and Health in Older Adults Using GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Buchner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA provides health benefits in older adults. Research suggests that exposure to nature and time spent outdoors may also have effects on health. Older adults are the least active segment of our population, and are likely to spend less time outdoors than other age groups. The relationship between time spent in PA, outdoor time, and various health outcomes was assessed for 117 older adults living in retirement communities. Participants wore an accelerometer and GPS device for 7 days. They also completed assessments of physical, cognitive, and emotional functioning. Analyses of variance were employed with a main and interaction effect tested for ±30 min PA and outdoor time. Significant differences were found for those who spent >30 min in PA or outdoors for depressive symptoms, fear of falling, and self-reported functioning. Time to complete a 400 m walk was significantly different by PA time only. QoL and cognitive functioning scores were not significantly different. The interactions were also not significant. This study is one of the first to demonstrate the feasibility of using accelerometer and GPS data concurrently to assess PA location in older adults. Future analyses will shed light on potential causal relationships and could inform guidelines for outdoor activity.

  7. Cystic fibrosis: addressing the transition from pediatric to adult-oriented health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreindler JL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available James L Kreindler,1,2 Victoria A Miller1,31The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, 2Department of Pediatrics, 3Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Survival for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF increased to nearly 40 years in 2012 from the early childhood years in the 1940s. Therefore, patients are living long enough to require transition from pediatric CF centers to adult CF centers. The goal of transition is for the young adult to be engaged in the adult health care system in ways that optimize health, maximize potential, and increase quality of life. A successful transition promotes autonomy and responsibility with respect to one's own health. Currently, there is an information gap in the literature with respect to psychological models that can help guide informed transition processes. In this review, we establish the framework in which transition exists in CF; we review some of the published literature from the last 20 years of experience with transition in CF centers around the world; and we discuss psychological models of pediatric illness that can help to explain the current state of transition to adult-oriented care from pediatric-oriented care and help to formulate new models of ascertaining readiness for transition. Finally, we look at our current knowledge gaps and opportunities for future research endeavors.Keywords: cystic fibrosis, transition, adolescent, social-ecological model of AYA readiness for transition, SMART

  8. Age as a predictive factor of mental health service use among adults with depression and/or anxiety disorder receiving care through the Veterans Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNapoli, Elizabeth A; Cully, Jeffery A; Wayde, Ernest; Sansgiry, Shubhada; Yu, Hong Jen; Kunik, Mark E

    2016-06-01

    This study compared mental health service utilization by treatment modality and determined predictive factors of use among younger-adult (18-35 years), middle-aged adult (36-64 years), and older-adult veterans (65+ years) with a newly recognized diagnosis of depression and/or anxiety disorder. This retrospective study used data from the Veterans Health Administration National Patient Care Database outpatient and inpatient treatment files during the 2010 fiscal year (N = 583,692). Younger adults were the most likely to use mental health services, followed by middle-aged adults and then older adults. Age was found to be one of the greatest predictors of utilization of mental health services, with odds of use being threefold among younger adults compared with older adults. Continued efforts are needed to improve the awareness of, access to, and receipt of mental health services in veterans, particularly older adults, with depression and anxiety disorders. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Adolescent and young adult health in the United States in the past decade: little improvement and young adults remain worse off than adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M Jane; Scott, Jazmyn T; Adams, Sally H; Brindis, Claire D; Irwin, Charles E

    2014-07-01

    Adolescence and young adulthood are unique developmental periods that present opportunities and challenges for improving health. Health at this age can affect health throughout the lifespan. This review has two aims: (1) to examine trends in key indicators in outcomes, behaviors, and health care over the past decade for U.S. adolescents and young adults; and (2) to compare U.S. adolescents and young adults on these indicators. The review also assesses sociodemographic differences in trends and current indicators. Guided by our aims, previous reviews, and national priorities, the present review identified 21 sources of nationally representative data to examine trends in 53 areas and comparisons of adolescents and young adults in 42 areas. Most health and health care indicators have changed little over the past decade. Encouraging exceptions were found for adolescents and young adults in unintentional injury, assault, and tobacco use, and, for adolescents, in sexual/reproductive health. Trends in violence and chronic disease and related behaviors were mixed. Review of current indicators demonstrates that young adulthood continues to entail greater risk and worse outcomes than adolescence. Young adults fared worse on about two-thirds of the indicators examined. Differences among sociodemographic subgroups persisted for both trends and current indicators.

  10. The Bambuí Health and Aging Study (BHAS: private health plan and medical care utilization by older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima-Costa Maria Fernanda F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this cross sectional study was to investigate whether holding a private health plan affects the consumption of medical services (hospitalization and visits to a doctor and use of medications by older adults. All residents in Bambuí town (Minas Gerais, Brazil aged > or = 60 years (n = 1,742 were selected. From these, 92.2% were interviewed and 85.9% were examined (blood tests and physical measurements. After adjustments for counfounders, those under exclusive public coverage (n = 1,296, compared with those holding a private health plan (n = 310, presented some evidence of having worse health status, reported less visits to a doctor, and used a small number of prescribed medications. The main explanation for the aged holding a private health plan was economic, not health. Even though those who had only public health coverage complained more in relation to medical care (70.9%, an important proportion of the aged with a private health care plan presented some kind of complaint (45.2%. Another worrying factor was the difficulty to acquire medication because of financial problems (47.2 and 25.2% reported, respectively. Further investigations are needed to verify whether our results can be generalized to other communities of the country.

  11. Early-life conditions and older adult health in low- and middle-income countries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEniry, M

    2013-02-01

    Population aging and subsequent projected large increases in chronic conditions will be important health concerns in low- and middle-income countries. Although evidence is accumulating, little is known regarding the impact of poor early-life conditions on older adult (50 years and older) health in these settings. A systematic review of 1141 empirical studies was conducted to identify population-based and community studies in low- and middle-income countries, which examined associations between early-life conditions and older adult health. The resulting review of 20 studies revealed strong associations between (1) in utero/early infancy exposures (independent of other early life and adult conditions) and adult heart disease and diabetes; (2) poor nutrition during childhood and difficulties in adult cognition and diabetes; (3) specific childhood illnesses such as rheumatic fever and malaria and adult heart disease and mortality; (4) poor childhood health and adult functionality/disability and chronic diseases; (5) poor childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and adult mortality, functionality/disability and cognition; and (6) parental survival during childhood and adult functionality/disability and cognition. In several instances, associations remained strong even after controlling for adult SES and lifestyle. Although exact mechanisms cannot be identified, these studies reinforce to some extent the importance of early-life environment on health at older ages. Given the paucity of cohort data from the developing world to examine hypotheses of early-life conditions and older adult health, population-based studies are relevant in providing a broad perspective on the origins of adult health.

  12. Identifying adults aging with disability using existing data: The case of the Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Caitlin E; Putnam, Michelle

    2017-10-01

    The population of persons aging with disabilities is growing. Being able to segment aging with disability sub-populations within national data sets is becoming increasingly important in order to understand the relationship of aging with disability to a range of outcomes in later life including health and wellness, economic security, and health and long-term service and support need and use. The purpose of this study was to identify viable sub-samples of adults aging with disabilities within the Health and Retirement Study, one of the most used secondary data sets to study aging and older adults. Samples used in this research are drawn from wave 11 (2012) of the HRS. Five operationalizations of disability were used: childhood disability (n = 719), childhood chronic condition (n = 3070), adult chronic condition (n = 13,723), functional limitation in adulthood (n = 4448) and work disability (n = 5632). These subsamples are not mutually exclusive. Among respondents that reported having a childhood disability, 87% also report having at least one chronic disease in adulthood, 50% report having functional limitations in adulthood and 38% report interruption in their ability to work due to a disability. Compared to the childhood disability samples, rates of reporting fair/poor health are nearly double among adults with functional limitations or those with work disruptions because of disability. Work disability and functional limitation appeared to be the most viable sub-sample options to consider when using the HRS to study experiences of adults aging with disability. Overall, age at onset is unclear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prehypertension and hypertension among young Indonesian adults at a primary health care in a rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix F. Widjaja

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prehypertension and hypertension were related with many complications of nearly every organ, but often neglected by young adults in rural area. This research was done to observe the prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension among young adult in a primary health care of rural area at Cicurug, Sukabumi District, West Java.Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in Cicurug Public Health Center, Sukabumi District, West Java. The subjects were consecutively recruited from the outpatient clinic on Monday until Saturday in September 2012,18–25 years old, not pregnant nor having shock. They were interviewed about their age, gender, physical activity, sitting hours, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, and family history and examined by trained health professionals (weight, height, body mass index [BMI], systolic and diastolic blood pressure.Results: From 111 young adults, 34.2% had prehypertension and 17.1% had hypertension. Within sex groups, the prevalence of prehypertension was higher in females, whereas hypertension was occurred more in males. Neither of family history from mother nor father were associated with prehypertension and hypertension compared with normotension. Total activity was not associated with prehypertension (OR = 2.6; p = 0.052 and hypertension (OR = 1.758; p = 0.498. BMI was associated with hypertension (OR = 3.354; p = 0.041 and not associated with prehypertension (OR = 2.343; p = 0.099.Conclusion: Prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension were relatively high among young adult in primary health care of rural area. Intervention to prevent further complications needs to be done early with lifestyle modification because blood pressure is associated with modifiable risk factors, such as BMI and total activity. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:39-45Keywords: Hypertension, prehypertension, rural area, young adult

  14. Body image in adult women: Associations with health behaviors, quality of life, and functional impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carolyn B; Verzijl, Christina L; Kilpela, Lisa S; Wilfred, Salome A; Stewart, Tiffany

    2017-05-01

    This study examined body image in adult women along with probable correlates including health behaviors, negative affect, quality of life, and functional impairment. Adult women ( N = 738, age = 25-86 years) completed an online survey assessing these domains. Women across all ages reported similar body image concerns. Negative body image significantly correlated with poorer wellness behaviors, negative affect, quality of life, and functional impairment. The inverse held for positive body image. The majority of correlations remained even when controlling for negative affect. Further research is warranted to investigate nature of the correlational relationships identified in this study.

  15. Emotional health across the transition to first and second unions among emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mernitz, Sara E; Dush, Claire Kamp

    2016-03-01

    The link between romantic relationships and emotional health has been extensively examined and suggests that marriage provides more emotional health benefits than cohabiting or dating relationships. However, the contemporary context of intimate relationships has changed and these associations warrant reexamination among emerging adults in the 2000s. We examined the change in emotional health across the entrance into first and second unions, including cohabiting unions, direct marriage (marriage without premarital cohabitation), and marriage preceded by cohabitation. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997, a nationally representative panel study of youth born between 1980 and 1984 in the United States, pooled fixed-effects regression models indicated that entrance into first cohabiting unions and direct marriages, and all second unions, were significantly associated with reduced emotional distress. Gender differences were found for first unions only; for men, only direct marriage was associated with an emotional health benefit, while both direct marriage and cohabitation benefited women's emotional health.

  16. Poster: Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life among Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Hede, Børge; Fiehn, Nils-Erik

    Objectives Identify and analyze determinants for oral-health-related quality of life among adults admitted to a Danish research program on general health and lifestyle (DANHES 2007-2008) Materials and methods Study population: 4402 volunteers invited among participants of main study (n=18065) in 12...... Danish cities. Age 18-96 years (average 54) Structured interviews (from main study and dental study) and clinical oral examination Oral-health-related quality of life measured by a 10 item index Non-parametric statistical methods, chi-square, simple and multivariate logistic regression Conclusions...... Regular dental visits and high number of natural teeth are determinants for high level of oral-health-related quality of life Untreated caries, wearing dentures and high caries experience are determinants for reduced oral-health-related quality of life Results 33 persons were edentulous, 7 % wore dentures...

  17. Type of Insurance and Use of Preventive Health Services Among Older Adults in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Hernandez, Maricruz; Galarraga, Omar

    2015-09-01

    The main purpose of this article was to assess the differences between Seguro Popular (SP) and employer-based health insurance in the use of preventive services, including screening tests for diabetes, cholesterol, hypertension, cervical cancer, and prostate cancer among older adults at more than a decade of health care reform in Mexico. Logistic regression models were used with data from the Mexican Health and Nutrition Survey, 2012. After adjusting for other factors influencing preventive service utilization, SP enrollees were more likely to use screening tests for diabetes, cholesterol, hypertension, and cervical cancer than the uninsured; however, those in employment-based and private insurances had higher odds of using preventive care for most of these services, except Pap smears. Despite all the evidence that suggests that SP has increased access to health insurance for the poor, inequalities in health care access and utilization still exist in Mexico. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Neighborhood social capital and adult health: an empirical test of a Bourdieu-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpiano, Richard M

    2007-09-01

    Drawing upon Bourdieu's [1986. The forms of capital. In: Richardson, J.G. (Ed.), Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. Greenwood, New York, pp. 241-258.] social capital theory, I test a conceptual model of neighborhood conditions and social capital - considering relationships between neighborhood social capital forms (social support, social leverage, informal social control, and neighborhood organization participation) and adult health behaviors (smoking, binge drinking) and perceived health, as well as interactions between neighborhood social capital and individuals' access to that social capital. Analyzing Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey data linked with tract level census data, results suggest that specific social capital forms were directly associated with both positive and negative health outcomes. Additionally, residents' neighborhood attachment moderated relationships between various social capital forms and health. Future studies should consider social capital resources and the role of differential access to such resources for promoting or compromising health.

  19. Patterns of family health history communication among older African American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, Shelly R; Yamasaki, Jill S; Burton-Chase, Allison M; Peterson, Susan K

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examined patterns of communication regarding family health history among older African American adults. The authors conducted 5 focus groups and 6 semi-structured interviews with African Americans aged 60 years and older (N = 28). The authors identified 4 distinct patterns of family health history communication: noncommunication, open communication, selective communication (communication restricted to certain people or topics), and one-way communication (communication not reciprocated by younger family members). In general, participants favored open family health history communication, often resulting from desires to change patterns of noncommunication in previous generations regarding personal and family health history. Some participants indicated that they were selective about what and with whom they shared health information in order to protect their privacy and not worry others. Others described family health history communication as one-way or unreciprocated by younger family members who appeared uninterested or unwilling to share personal and family health information. The communication patterns that the authors identified are consistent with communication privacy management theory and with findings from studies focused on genetic testing results for hereditary conditions, suggesting that individuals are consistent in their communication of health and genetic risk information. Findings may guide the development of health message strategies for African Americans to increase family health history communication.

  20. Summary Health Statistics for U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2009. Data from the National Health Interview Survey. Vital and Health Statistics. Series 10, Number 249. DHHS Publication No. (PHS) 2011-1577

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleis, J. R.; Ward, B. W.; Lucas, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This report presents health statistics from the 2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for the civilian noninstitutionalized adult population, classified by sex, age, race and ethnicity, education, family income, poverty status, health insurance coverage, marital status, and place and region of residence. Estimates are presented…

  1. Covering young adults under the Affordable Care Act: the importance of outreach and Medicaid expansion: findings from the Commonwealth Fund Health Insurance Tracking Survey of Young Adults, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sara R; Rasmussen, Petra W; Garber, Tracy; Doty, Michelle M

    2013-08-01

    There is concern that many young adults (ages 19--29) will remain without health insurance in 2014 despite the Affordable Care Act's reforms, including subsidized private coverage offered in new state marketplaces and expanded Medicaid eligibility. How things turn out will likely depend on outreach efforts and states' decisions on expanding Medicaid. Commonwealth Fund Health Insurance Tracking Survey data from 2011 and 2013 show increasing awareness among young adults of the 2010 requirement that health plans cover children under age 26. Of the estimated 15 million young adults enrolled in a parent's plan in the prior 12 months, 7.8 million would not likely have been eligible to enroll prior to the law. Still, only 27 percent of 19-to-29-year-olds are aware of the marketplaces. Meanwhile, most uninsured young adults living below poverty will not have access to subsidized public or private insurance in states opting out of the Medicaid expansion.

  2. Is diabetes-specific health literacy associated with diabetes-related outcomes in older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takashi; Kart, Cary S

    2011-06-01

     The present study examined the association between a measure of diabetes-specific health literacy and three different Type 2 diabetes outcome indicators in a national sample of older adults. Data were taken from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) 2003 Diabetes module and the HRS 2002 core wave. Analysis was performed on data from 1318 respondents aged 42-96 years [mean (±SD) 67.96 ± 8.65 years] who submitted responses on all relevant independent variable measures along with an HbA1c test kit. The index of diabetes-specific health literacy was constructed from responses to 10 diabetes self-care regimen items (α = 0.927). Using a multivariate regression strategy to analyze weighted data, the diabetes-specific health literacy index was significantly and positively associated with self-graded assessment of diabetes self-care (R2 = 0.231). However, diabetes-specific health literacy was not independently associated with the HbA1c level or the average number of days five recommended self-management behaviors were practiced each week.  No previous single study has focused on the relationship between diabetes-specific health literacy and multiple diabetes-related outcomes. The direct association of diabetes-specific health literacy with patients' assessment of their self-care practice acumen is useful information for the design of effective patient intervention and/or communication strategies. Health literacy is a broad, multidimensional construct that bridges basic literacy skills and various health and illness contexts. Because it is so important to adults engaged in the self-management of chronic illness, indicators of disease-specific knowledge and/or understanding should be included in efforts to measure health literacy. © 2011 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Health status and quality of life among older adults in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew A. Mwanyangala

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasingly, human populations throughout the world are living longer and this trend is developing in sub-Saharan Africa. In developing African countries such as Tanzania, this demographic phenomenon is taking place against a background of poverty and poor health conditions. There has been limited research on how this process of ageing impacts upon the health of older people within such low-income settings. Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the impacts of ageing on the health status, quality of life and well-being of older people in a rural population of Tanzania. Design: A short version of the WHO Survey on Adult Health and Global Ageing questionnaire was used to collect information on the health status, quality of life and well-being of older adults living in Ifakara Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Tanzania, during early 2007. Questionnaires were administered through this framework to 8,206 people aged 50 and over. Results: Among people aged 50 and over, having good quality of life and health status was significantly associated with being male, married and not being among the oldest old. Functional ability assessment was associated with age, with people reporting more difficulty in performing routine activities as age increased, particularly among women. Reports of good quality of life and well-being decreased with increasing age. Women were significantly more likely to report poor quality of life (odds ratio 1.31; p<0.001, 95% CI 1.15–1.50. Conclusions: Older people within this rural Tanzanian setting reported that the ageing process had significant impacts on their health status, quality of life and physical ability. Poor quality of life and well-being, and poor health status in older people were significantly associated with marital status, sex, age and level of education. The process of ageing in this setting is challenging and raises public health concerns.

  4. Assessment of mental health in adults of the northern part of the city of Kosovska Mitrovica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirković Momčilo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Mental health disorders lead to disorder of effective functioning of people and deterioration of quality of life. Early detection of individuals at risk of mental health disorders is extremely important from the aspect of mental health disorders prevention. The aim of the research was to determine the frequency of mental health problems among adult residents of northern Kosovska Mitrovica and to examine the association between frequency of mental health problems and socio-demographic and other characteristics of the population obtained by the questionnaire. Methods. The cross-sectional study on the representative sample of adult residents of northern Kosovska Mitrovica was performed in October 2009. To obtain information about the characteristics of mental health the Goldberg’s General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 was used. For performing survey at site the method of rapid epidemiological assessment was chosen. Statistical analysis included the methods of descriptive statistics, multivariate regression analysis and calculation of the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of internal consistency of the questionnaire. Results. Mental health problems (total score were present in almost half of the respondents (49.2%. Psychosomatic problems were present in more than half of the respondents (55.4%, while anxiety and insomnia were present in almost half of the respondents (49.2%. Social dysfunction had more than three fifths of the respondents (63.1% and depression more than a quarter of the respondents (28.5%. More positive responses in the questionnaire were statistically significantly associated with older age, poor financial situation, abuse and assessing of the current political-security situation as high risk. The value of Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.705. Conclusions. Almost half of the respondents (49.2% of North Kosovska Mitrovica had mental health problems. Mental health problems were associated with older age, poor

  5. Nutrition: Eating for Better Health. Student Workbook. Health Promotion for Adult Literacy Students: An Empowering Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson River Center for Program Development, Glenmont, NY.

    This workbook was developed to help adult literacy students learn about nutrition. It contains information sheets, student worksheets, and answers to the worksheets. The information sheets are coordinated with an available audiotape. Some of the topics covered in the workbook are the following: choosing good foods without spending a lot of money;…

  6. Psychosocial Effects of Health Disparities of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelle, Andraya; Arms, Tamatha

    2015-07-01

    The 1.5 million older adults who self-identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) are expected to double in number by 2030. Research suggests that health disparities are closely linked with societal stigma, discrimination, and denial of civil and human rights. More LGBT older adults struggle with depression, substance abuse, social isolation, and acceptance compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Despite individual preferences, most health care providers recognize the right of any individual to have access to basic medical services. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services requires that all hospitals receiving funds from Medicare and Medicaid respect visitation and medical decision-making rights to all individuals identifying as LGBT. The Joint Commission also requires a non-discrimination statement for accreditation. The current literature review examines LGBT health disparities and the consequential psychosocial impact on LGBT older adults as well as brings awareness to the needs of this underserved and underrepresented population. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Applying the Health Belief Model in Explaining the Stages of Exercise Change in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sas-Nowosielski Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The benefits of physical activity (PA have been so well documented that there is no doubt about the significance of PA for personal and social health. Several theoretical models have been proposed with a view to understanding the phenomenon of PA and other health behaviours. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if and how the variables suggested in the Health Belief Model (HBM determine physical activity stages of change in older adults. Material and methods. A total of 172 students of Universities of the Third Age aged 54 to 75 (mean = 62.89 ± 4.83 years agreed to participate in the study, filling out an anonymous survey measuring their stage of exercise change and determinants of health behaviours proposed by the HBM, including: perceived benefits of physical activity, perceived barriers to physical activity, perceived severity of diseases associated with sedentary lifestyle, perceived susceptibility to these diseases, and self-efficacy. Results. The results only partially support the hypothesis that the HBM predicts intentions and behaviours related to the physical activity of older adults. Only two variables were moderately-to-strongly related to stages of exercise change, namely perceived barriers and self-efficacy. Conclusion. Interventions aimed at informing older adults about the benefits of physical activity and the threats associated with sedentary lifestyle can be expected to have rather a weak influence on their readiness for physical activity.

  8. Life-space mobility, perceived health, and depression symptoms in a sample of Mexican older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Bertha Cecilia Salazar; Delgado, Leticia Hernández; Quevedo, Juana Edith Cruz; Gallegos Cabriales, Esther C

    2013-01-01

    Mobility in older adults is essential to preserving their physical independence and health. Changes in mobility are related to cognitive, physical, and emotional factors, among others. We explored symptoms of depression as a mediator variable between chronic diseases and comorbidities and the outcomes of perceived health and life-space mobility in a convenience sample of 135 older Mexican adults. A cross-sectional design was used. Simple and multiple linear regression models were adjusted to verify the assumptions of mediation using Baron and Kenny's model. Chronic diseases and comorbidities served as independent variables in two separate models, perceived health and life-space mobility served as dependent variables, and depressive symptoms as the mediator variable. Results showed that perceived health and life-space mobility are affected by chronic diseases and comorbidities. However, when symptoms of depression enter the equation, the β coefficients decreased suggesting partial mediation. It is important to assess and treat depression symptoms in older adults rather than assuming that, at their age, depression is normal.

  9. Correlates of health and financial literacy in older adults without dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Jarred S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research has begun to recognize the important influence of literacy levels and how they affect health and wellbeing, especially in older adults. Our study focuses on health and financial literacy, two domains of literacy which previous research has suggested may be significantly related to health and wellbeing. Our study examines the relation of health and financial literacy with health promoting behaviors and health status among community-based older persons. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a community-based cohort study of aging in northeastern Illinois. The study consisted of 556 older persons without dementia, each determined by a clinical evaluation. Health and financial literacy were measured using a series of questions designed to assess the ability to understand and process health and financial information, concepts, and numeracy; the two scores were averaged to yield a total literacy score. Health promoting behaviors, including engagement in cognitive, physical, and social activities, were assessed using self report measures. Indicators of heath status, including cognition (global cognition and five specific cognitive abilities, functional status (basic and instrumental activities of daily living, mobility disability, and mental health (depressive symptoms, loneliness were assessed. Results In a series of regression models adjusted for age, sex, and education, higher total literacy scores were associated with more frequent participation in health promoting behaviors, including cognitive, physical and social activities (all p values Conclusions Health and financial literacy are associated with more frequent engagement in health promoting behaviors and better health status in older persons without dementia.

  10. Socio-demographic differentials of adult health indicators in Matlab, Bangladesh: self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdur Razzaque

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mortality has been declining in Bangladesh since the mid- twentieth century, while fertility has been declining since the late 1970s, and the country is now passing through the third stage of demographic transition. This type of demographic transition has produced a huge youthful population with a growing number of older people. For assessing health among older people, this study examines self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level in persons aged 50 and over. Data and methods: This is a collaborative study between the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health and the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health in developing countries which collected data from eight countries. Two sources of data from the Matlab study area were used: health indicator data collected as a part of the study, together with the ongoing Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS data. For the survey, a total of 4,000 randomly selected people aged 50 and over (HDSS database were interviewed. The four health indicators derived from these data are self-rated health (five categories, health state (eight domains, quality of life (eight items and disability level (12 items. Self-rated health was coded as dummy while scores were calculated for the rest of the three health indicators using WHO-tested instruments. Results: After controlling for all the variables in the regression model, all four indicators of health (self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level documented that health was better for males than females, and health deteriorates with increasing age. Those people who were in current partnerships had generally better health than those who were single, and better health was associated with higher levels of education and asset score. Conclusions: To improve the health of the population it is important to know health conditions in

  11. Socio-demographic differentials of adult health indicators in Matlab, Bangladesh: self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaque, Abdur; Nahar, Lutfun; Akter Khanam, Masuma; Kim Streatfield, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background Mortality has been declining in Bangladesh since the mid- twentieth century, while fertility has been declining since the late 1970s, and the country is now passing through the third stage of demographic transition. This type of demographic transition has produced a huge youthful population with a growing number of older people. For assessing health among older people, this study examines self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level in persons aged 50 and over. Data and methods This is a collaborative study between the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health and the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health in developing countries which collected data from eight countries. Two sources of data from the Matlab study area were used: health indicator data collected as a part of the study, together with the ongoing Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) data. For the survey, a total of 4,000 randomly selected people aged 50 and over (HDSS database) were interviewed. The four health indicators derived from these data are self-rated health (five categories), health state (eight domains), quality of life (eight items) and disability level (12 items). Self-rated health was coded as dummy while scores were calculated for the rest of the three health indicators using WHO-tested instruments. Results After controlling for all the variables in the regression model, all four indicators of health (self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level) documented that health was better for males than females, and health deteriorates with increasing age. Those people who were in current partnerships had generally better health than those who were single, and better health was associated with higher levels of education and asset score. Conclusions To improve the health of the population it is important to know health conditions in advance rather than

  12. How does orthodontic treatment affect young adults' oral health-related quality of life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Nathália B; Celeste, Roger Keller; Oliveira, Branca Heloisa de; Miguel, José Augusto M

    2012-06-01

    Studies in the dental literature do not yet provide conclusive evidence for the functional and psychosocial benefits of orthodontic treatment. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to assess the oral health-related quality of life of young Brazilian adults, aged 18 to 30 years, who had completed orthodontic treatment compared with untreated subjects waiting for treatment. The subjects were recruited at a state-funded university clinic. The sample comprised 100 patients in the retention phase of orthodontic treatment for more than 6 months (treated group) and 100 persons who were seeking orthodontic treatment and were still on a waiting list (nontreated group). Data were collected by using the oral health impact profile, the index of orthodontic treatment need (malocclusion severity and esthetic impairment), the Brazilian economic classification criteria (socioeconomic status), and the index of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (oral health status). Statistical analyses were performed by using chi-square and Fisher exact tests and negative binomial regression. The mean oral health impact profile scores were 3.1 (SD ± 2.99) and 15.1 (SD ± 8.02) in the treated and nontreated groups, respectively. The most frequent impacts in the treated and nontreated groups were "painful aching" and "been self-conscious," respectively. Comparisons between the groups were controlled for malocclusion severity, clinician-assessed esthetic impairment, age, sex, socioeconomic status, and oral health status. Nontreated young adults had mean oral health impact profile scores 5.3 times higher than did the treated subjects. Young Brazilian adults who received orthodontic treatment had significantly better oral health-related quality of life scores in the retention phase, after treatment completion, than did nontreated subjects. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Health-related quality of life among older adults with arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gold Carol H

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health-related quality of life (HRQOL is a key outcome in arthritis, but few population-based studies have examined the relationship of specific arthritic conditions, such as osteoarthritis (OA and rheumatoid arthritis (RA with HRQOL. Methods Older adults in Pennsylvania completed a mail version of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC HRQOL modules. Medicare data were used to identify subjects with OA, RA, and no arthritis diagnosis. We compared HRQOL responses among these groups, and we also examined relationships of demographic characteristics to HRQOL among subjects with arthritis. Results In analyses controlling for demographic characteristics and comorbidity, subjects with OA and RA had poorer scores than those without arthritis on all HRQOL items, including general health, physical health, mental health, activity limitation, pain, sleep, and feeling healthy and full of energy. HRQOL scores were also lower for those with RA compared to OA. Among individuals with arthritis, all subject characteristics (including age, race, sex, nursing home residence, marital status, income, and comorbid illnesses were significantly related to at least one HRQOL item. Older age, nursing home residence, and greater comorbidity were the most consistently associated with poorer HRQOL. Conclusions Results of this study show that both OA and RA have a significant impact on multiple dimensions of HRQOL among older adults. Results also suggest the CDC HRQOL items are suitable for use among older adults and in mail surveys. Due to the rising number of older adults in many countries, the public health burden of arthritis is expected to increase dramatically. Efforts are needed to enhance access to medical care and disseminate self-management interventions for arthritis.

  14. Social Networks and Health Among Older Adults in Lebanon: The Mediating Role of Support and Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Toni C.; Ajrouch, Kristine J.; Abdulrahim, Sawsan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Despite a growing body of literature documenting the influence of social networks on health, less is known in other parts of the world. The current study investigates this link by clustering characteristics of network members nominated by older adults in Lebanon. We then identify the degree to which various types of people exist within the networks. This study further examines how network composition as measured by the proportion of each type (i.e., type proportions) is related to health; and the mediating role of positive support and trust in this process. Method. Data are from the Family Ties and Aging Study (2009). Respondents aged ≥60 were selected (N = 195) for analysis. Results. Three types of people within the networks were identified: Geographically Distant Male Youth, Geographically Close/Emotionally Distant Family, and Close Family. Having more Geographically Distant Male Youth in one’s network was associated with health limitations, whereas more Close Family was associated with no health limitations. Positive support mediated the link between type proportions and health limitations, whereas trust mediated the link between type proportions and depressive symptoms. Discussion. Results document links between the social networks and health of older adults in Lebanon within the context of ongoing demographic transitions. PMID:25324295

  15. Food insecurity among adults residing in disadvantaged urban areas: potential health and dietary consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Rebecca; Giskes, Katrina; Turrell, Gavin; Gallegos, Danielle

    2012-02-01

    Food insecurity is the limited or uncertain availability or access to nutritionally adequate, culturally appropriate and safe foods. Food insecurity may result in inadequate dietary intakes, overweight or obesity and the development of chronic disease. Internationally, few studies have focused on the range of potential health outcomes related to food insecurity among adults residing in disadvantaged locations and no such Australian studies exist. The objective of the present study was to investigate associations between food insecurity, sociodemographic and health factors and dietary intakes among adults residing in disadvantaged urban areas. Data were collected by mail survey (n 505, 53 % response rate), which ascertained information about food security status, demographic characteristics (such as age, gender, household income, education) fruit and vegetable intakes, takeaway and meat consumption, general health, depression and chronic disease. Disadvantaged suburbs of Brisbane city, Australia, 2009. Individuals aged ≥ 20 years. Approximately one in four households (25 %) was food insecure. Food insecurity was associated with lower household income, poorer general health, increased health-care utilisation and depression. These associations remained after adjustment for age, gender and household income. Food insecurity is prevalent in urbanised disadvantaged areas in developed countries such as Australia. Low-income households are at high risk of experiencing food insecurity. Food insecurity may result in significant health burdens among the population, and this may be concentrated in socio-economically disadvantaged suburbs.

  16. Impact of oral health care needs on health-related quality of life in adult HIV+ patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Gabriel A; D'Eramo, Luciana R; Lecumberri, Rodolfo; Squassi, Aldo F

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the social impact of oral conditions on health-related quality of life in adult HIV+ patients and create a predictive model. The oral health impact profile questionnaire OHIP-49 was randomly administered to 200 HIV+ adults patients of any age and either sex at the High Risk Patients Dental Care Unit (CLAPAR I), School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires. Argentina. For each of the 49 items, participants indicated their responses on a five point Likert-type frequency scale ranging from "never" to "very often". Oral health needs were assessed through the CCITN (Community Caries Index of Treatment Need) and CPITN (Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Need). The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the OHIP-49 score between male and female respondents. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess score differences among the OHIP-49 domains. Altogether, 50% of the respondents were male and 50% were female, aged 36.45 +/- 0.70 years and 38.03 +/- 0.78 years respectively. The assessment of oral health care needs revealed a great need for treatment. Mean CCITN was 11.15 +/- 0.35 and CPITN was 2.41 +/- 0.12. The average total OHIP-49 score (83) revealed a high level of social impact, which was higher for female compared to male respondents (Z(T) = 2.08, p = 0.037). The domains concerning functional limitation (domain 1), physical pain (domain 2) and psychological discomfort (domain 3) showed higher levels of social impact (H = 395.06, p < 0.0001). The social impact observed in these domains was higher for female compared to male patients. In the correlation analysis, oral conditions, age, gender and social impact were significantly associated. These results demonstrate that unmet oral health care need impairs the quality of life of HIV+ patients and suggest the need of comprehensive oral health care interventions.

  17. Concurrent associations between anxiety sensitivity and perceived health and health disability among young adult daily smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLeish, A.C.; Zvolensky, M.J.; Smits, J.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the incremental validity of anxiety sensitivity (fear of arousal-related physical and psychological sensations) relative to health factors (smoking variables, alcohol use and exercise level), in predicting perceived health and disability among a sample

  18. Concurrent associations between anxiety sensitivity and perceived health and health disability among young adult daily smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLeish, A.C.; Zvolensky, M.J.; Smits, J.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the incremental validity of anxiety sensitivity (fear of arousal-related physical and psychological sensations) relative to health factors (smoking variables, alcohol use and exercise level), in predicting perceived health and disability among a sample o

  19. Engaging Health Professionals in Health Economics: A Human Capital Informed Approach for Adults Learning Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberthal, Robert D.; Leon, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe a Wikipedia-based project designed for a graduate course introducing health economics to experienced healthcare professionals. The project allows such students to successfully write articles on niche topics in rapidly evolving health economics subspecialties. These students are given the opportunity to publish their completed…

  20. Engaging Health Professionals in Health Economics: A Human Capital Informed Approach for Adults Learning Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberthal, Robert D.; Leon, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe a Wikipedia-based project designed for a graduate course introducing health economics to experienced healthcare professionals. The project allows such students to successfully write articles on niche topics in rapidly evolving health economics subspecialties. These students are given the opportunity to publish their completed…

  1. The effects of terrorism on adult mental health: a public health preparedness approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera S. Karnik

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a disruptive man--‐made disaster event challenging human health and wellbeing. It is a hostile activity which brings about much casualty, even death. It not only causes physical casualties but also brings about psychological morbidity and can lead to long term mental disorders. The effects of terrorist attacks on people’s psychological health covers a wide range such as acute stress symptoms to long term disorders like Post--‐traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. The psychological disorder due to traumatic distress is treated with psychotherapies such as psychosocial intervention, psychological debriefing, psychological first aid care, psychological counseling services, and psychoeducation. Government is supporting state and local public health departments to develop efficient public health preparedness planning programs in case of emergency situations. There are some newer approaches working towards enhancing health security and managing responses to a psychological impact of a disaster event like a terrorist attack.

  2. Transition from pediatric to adult health care in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Johanna C

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a lifelong disease that has great psychosocial impact on the adolescent patient and his/her family. Starting around age 12-14 years, many changes take place related to school, work, and sexual development. At some point, usually around the age of 16-18 years, these patients need to move from the pediatric clinic to the adult caregivers. A stepwise program for transition of care, aimed at coaching the adolescent patient into self-management will benefit patients, parents, and the 'adult gastroenterologist' who will take over the care from the pediatric gastroenterologist. Differences in pediatric and adult health care, transition goals, tips and tools for successful transition will be discussed.

  3. Screening for depressive symptoms in older adults in the Family Health Strategy, Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Eduardo Lopes; Rubin, Leonardo Librelotto; Giacobbo, Sara de Souza; Gomes, Irenio; Cataldo, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of depression in older adults and associated factors. METHODS Cross-sectional study using a stratified random sample of 621 individuals aged ≥ 60 from 27 family health teams in Porto Alegre, RS, Southern Brazil, between 2010 and 2012. Community health agents measured depression using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Scores of ≥ 6 were considered as depression and between 11 and 15 as severe depression. Poisson regression was used to search for independent associations of sociodemographic and self-perceived health with both depression and its severity. RESULTS The prevalence of depression was 30.6% and was significantly higher in women (35.9% women versus 20.9% men, p < 0.001). The variables independently associated with depression were: female gender (PR = 1.4, 95%CI 1.1;1.8); low education, especially illiteracy (PR = 1.8, 95%CI 1.2;2 6); regular self-rated health (OR = 2.2, 95%CI 1.6;3.0); and poor/very poor self-rated health (PR = 4.0, 95%CI 2.9;5.5). Except for education, the strength of association of these factors increases significantly in severe depression. CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of depression was observed in the evaluations conducted by community health agents, professionals who are not highly specialized. The findings identified using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale in this way are similar to those in the literature, with depression more associated with low education, female gender and worse self-rated health. From a primary health care strategic point of view, the findings become still more relevant, indicating that community health agents could play an important role in identifying depression in older adults. PMID:25119932

  4. Screening for depressive symptoms in older adults in the Family Health Strategy, Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lopes Nogueira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of depression in older adults and associated factors. METHODS Cross-sectional study using a stratified random sample of 621 individuals aged ≥ 60 from 27 family health teams in Porto Alegre, RS, Southern Brazil, between 2010 and 2012. Community health agents measured depression using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Scores of ≥ 6 were considered as depression and between 11 and 15 as severe depression. Poisson regression was used to search for independent associations of sociodemographic and self-perceived health with both depression and its severity. RESULTS The prevalence of depression was 30.6% and was significantly higher in women (35.9% women versus 20.9% men, p < 0.001. The variables independently associated with depression were: female gender (PR = 1.4, 95%CI 1.1;1.8; low education, especially illiteracy (PR = 1.8, 95%CI 1.2;2 6; regular self-rated health (OR = 2.2, 95%CI 1.6;3.0; and poor/very poor self-rated health (PR = 4.0, 95%CI 2.9;5.5. Except for education, the strength of association of these factors increases significantly in severe depression. CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of depression was observed in the evaluations conducted by community health agents, professionals who are not highly specialized. The findings identified using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale in this way are similar to those in the literature, with depression more associated with low education, female gender and worse self-rated health. From a primary health care strategic point of view, the findings become still more relevant, indicating that community health agents could play an important role in identifying depression in older adults.

  5. Educational Needs of Adult Men regarding Sexual and Reproductive Health in Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Hajizadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Men’s sexual and reproductive health is one of the most important public health issues. However, less attention has been paid to this matter, compared to women’s health issues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the educational needs of men regarding sexual and reproductive health in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods:This descriptive study was performed on 1,068 adult men (aged 20-60 years, selected via random cluster sampling in Ahvaz city in 2014. In order to determine the educational needs of men regarding sexual and reproductive health, a questionnaire consisting of three major sections (i.e., demographic data, sexual and reproductive health needs, and men’s attitudes was designed. The validity of the questionnaire was determined by content and face validity. Its reliability was assessed by internal consistency (α=85% and test-retest. For data analysis, descriptive statistics, t-test and ANOVA were performed, using SPSS version 19. Results: The majority of men (75.1% had poor knowledge and a moderate attitude (67.3% towards sexual and reproductive health. The three most important educational needs of men regarding sexual and reproductive health were cancers of male reproductive system (83.8%, sexually transmitted diseases (STD/HIV (77.4% and religious attitudes toward sex (77%, respectively. Friends were the most important source of information in all aspects of sexual and reproductive health, while men preferred to receive information from a male physician or counselor. According to the results, men were dissatisfied with the amount of information they received about sexual and reproductive health. Conclusion: Based on the findings, men felt the need for sexual and reproductive health education; these needs were influenced by social and demographic factors, except marital status. If health policymakers pay attention to these educational needs, it is possible to implement suitable programs for improving men's sexual health and

  6. Same-Sex Behavior and Health Indicators of Sexually Experienced Filipino Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chia-Hsin Emily; Gipson, Jessica D; Perez, Tita Lorna; Cochran, Susan D

    2016-08-01

    The Philippines is one of seven countries in which HIV incidence has recently increased-much of this increase has been among men who have sex with men. Despite this trend, knowledge on sexuality and same-sex behaviors in the Philippines is limited. This study examines same-sex behavior, sexual outcomes, substance use, and psychological distress among young adults participating in the 2005 Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS). We use gender-stratified, multivariate models to compare young adults who reported same-sex behaviors and those who did not. Among a cohort of 1,912 Filipino young adults (ages 20-22), 58.2 % were sexually experienced and 15.1 % of them reported same-sex sexual contacts or romantic relationships. Compared to females, more males reported same-sex sexual contact (19.4 vs. 2.3 %) or same-sex romantic relationships (9.2 vs. 4.1 %). Young adults reporting same-sex behavior had higher odds of smoking, drug use, perceived stress, and more sexual partners as compared to their peers. Males who reported same-sex behavior initiated sex earlier than those males who did not report same-sex behaviors. There were no significant differences in depressive distress. Earlier sexual initiation and higher levels of substance use among Filipino young adults engaging in same-sex behavior highlight the need to address unique health issues within this population. Mixed findings for depressive distress and perceived stress indicate that further investigation is needed to explore the potential impacts of same-sex status on mental health outcomes, particularly in lower- and middle-income countries such as the Philippines.

  7. [Health inequalities in self-perceived health among older adults in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcillo Cebolla, Victoria; de Lorenzo-Cáceres Ascanio, Antonio; Domínguez Ruiz de León, Paloma; Rodríguez Barrientos, Ricardo; Torijano Castillo, María José

    2014-01-01

    Recent publications have concluded that there are social health inequalities in people older than 65 years in Spain, especially among women and people with low socioeconomic status. Self-perceived health is an indicator that is related to the possibility of chronic disease, the use of health services, and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess inequalities in self-perceived health in relation to age, gender, socioeconomic factors, and functional dependence. A systematic review was conducted following the PRISMA criteria. An exhaustive search was performed in PubMed, WOK, Science Direct, EMBASE, IME, Cochrane, JSTOR, Ovid, Proquest, the BMJ Group and in Spanish doctoral theses up to April 2013. The quality of the studies was assessed by two independent editors through the Berra Tool. A total of 20 documents were selected. These studies were in agreement in the deterioration of self-perceived health among older people (except the oldest), in those with functional dependence, lower socioeconomic status, and in women. This review shows that, among older people, inequalities in self-perceived health due to socioeconomic status and gender have persisted in time. Future research is needed to cast light on the factors determining the persistence of these inequalities among older people, so that specific health policies can be designed for this sector of the population. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  8. Usability testing by older adults of a computer-mediated health communication program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Carolyn A; Neafsey, Patricia J; Strickler, Zoe

    2009-03-01

    Failure to adhere to an antihypertensive regimen and interactions between antihypertensives and other medicines represent serious health threats to older adults. This study tested the usability of a touch-screen-enabled personal education program (PEP). Findings showed that older adults rated the PEP system usability, system usefulness, and system-use satisfaction at a moderately high level for prototype-1 and at an exceptionally high level for prototype-2. A 201.91% reduction in interface errors and a 31.08% decrease in interface time also were found between the two trials. This participatory usability design was highly successful in tailoring its program interface design to accommodate older users to enhance their health communication and technology use efficacy.

  9. Educational technologies designed to promote cardiovascular health in adults: integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Célia Caetano de Souza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective Investigating the educational technologies developed for promoting cardiovascular health in adults. Method Integrative review carried out in the databases of PubMed, SciELO and LILACS, with 15 articles selected. Results Over half (60% of the studies were randomized clinical trials. The developed educational technologies were programs involving three strategies, with duration of one year, use of playful technologies with storytelling, computer programs or software for smartphones, and electronic brochure. These technologies resulted in reduction of blood pressure, weight, waist circumference, decreased hospitalizations and increased years of life. Conclusion The studies with better impact on the cardiovascular health of adults were those who brought the technology in the form of program and duration of one year.

  10. Why Provide Music Therapy in the Community for Adults With Mental Health Problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Odell-Miller

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes music therapy within a community mental health setting for adults using a care programme approach in England. It describes the setting, and emphasises the importance of multidisciplinary teamwork in order to enable music therapy to be effective. It provides some statistics and descriptive clinical information which demonstrate the efficacy of music therapy for adults with long-term mental health problems, and argues that music therapy should be a priority for this client group. To support these points of view, the article includes a case study showing a psychoanalytically informed approach in music therapy. This paper was given as a keynote address at the 1994 Australian Conference of Music Therapy.

  11. Health Beliefs About Tobacco With Betel Nut Use Among Adults in Yap, Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareg, Aileen Rosogmar Castaritas; Modeste, Naomi N; Lee, Jerry W; Santos, Hildemar Dos

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use is high among Pacific Islanders in general and little tobacco research has been done in Yap, Micronesia. This study aimed to explore perceptions of tobacco use coupled with chewing of betel (areca) nut among adults in Yap using self-administered questionnaires based on the health belief model. A Likert scale (ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree or very unlikely to very likely) was used to measure susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy among individuals aged 18 and older. Older adults felt quitting tobacco or betel nut use would be significantly more difficult because of social reasons and withdrawal problems. Most participants felt susceptible to tobacco-related diseases. These findings possibly indicate a receptive attitude toward any future tobacco use prevention and intervention program. Older Yapese population would need to be especially targeted. Health promotion programs should target smoking behaviors and risk reduction.

  12. Parenting style, resilience, and mental health of community-dwelling elderly adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xue; Wu, Daxing; Nie, Xueqing; Xia, Jie; Li, Mulei; Lei, Feng; Lim, Haikel A; Kua, Ee-Heok; Mahendran, Rathi

    2016-07-08

    Given the increasing elderly population worldwide, the identification of potential determinants of successful ageing is important. Many studies have shown that parenting style and mental resilience may influence mental health; however, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underpin this relationship. The current study sought to explore the relationships among mental resilience, perceptions of parents' parenting style, and depression and anxiety among community-dwelling elderly adults in China. In total, 439 community-dwelling elderly Chinese adults aged 60-91 years completed the Personal and Parents' Parenting Style Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. Elderly adults whose parents preferred positive and authoritative parenting styles had higher levels of mental resilience and lower levels of depression and anxiety. Elderly adults parented in the authoritarian style were found to have higher levels of depression and anxiety, with lower mental resilience. The findings of this study provide evidence related to successful ageing and coping with life pressures, and highlight the important effects of parenting on mental health. The results suggest that examination of the proximal determinants of successful ageing is not sufficient-distal factors may also contribute to the 'success' of ageing by modifying key psychological dispositions that promote adaptation to adversity.

  13. Clowning in Health Care Settings: The Point of View of Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Dionigi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Within the past decade, there has been a surge of interest in investigating the effects of clown intervention in a large variety of clinical settings. Many studies have focused on the effects of clown intervention on children. However, few studies have investigated clowning effects on adults. This paper presents an overview of the concept of medical clowning followed by a literature review conducted on the empirical studies drawn from three data bases (PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar, with the aim of mapping and discussing the evidence of clowning effects on non-children, namely adults. The following areas were investigated: Adult and elderly patients (mainly those with dementia, observers of clowning, namely non-hospitalized adults who are at the hospital as relatives of patients or health-care staff, and finally clowns themselves. The main results are that 1 clown intervention induces positive emotions, thereby enhancing the patient’s well-being, reduces psychological symptoms and emotional reactivity, and prompts a decrease in negative emotions, such as anxiety and stress; 2 clown doctors are also well-perceived by relatives and healthcare staff and their presence appears to be useful in creating a lighter atmosphere in the health setting; 3 few pilot studies have been conducted on clown doctors and this lacuna represents a subject for future research.

  14. Clowning in Health Care Settings: The Point of View of Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionigi, Alberto; Canestrari, Carla

    2016-08-01

    Within the past decade, there has been a surge of interest in investigating the effects of clown intervention in a large variety of clinical settings. Many studies have focused on the effects of clown intervention on children. However, few studies have investigated clowning effects on adults. This paper presents an overview of the concept of medical clowning followed by a literature review conducted on the empirical studies drawn from three data bases (PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar), with the aim of mapping and discussing the evidence of clowning effects on non-children, namely adults. The following areas were investigated: Adult and elderly patients (mainly those with dementia), observers of clowning, namely non-hospitalized adults who are at the hospital as relatives of patients or health-care staff, and finally clowns themselves. The main results are that 1) clown intervention induces positive emotions, thereby enhancing the patient's well-being, reduces psychological symptoms and emotional reactivity, and prompts a decrease in negative emotions, such as anxiety and stress; 2) clown doctors are also well-perceived by relatives and healthcare staff and their presence appears to be useful in creating a lighter atmosphere in the health setting; 3) few pilot studies have been conducted on clown doctors and this lacuna represents a subject for future research.

  15. Clowning in Health Care Settings: The Point of View of Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionigi, Alberto; Canestrari, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Within the past decade, there has been a surge of interest in investigating the effects of clown intervention in a large variety of clinical settings. Many studies have focused on the effects of clown intervention on children. However, few studies have investigated clowning effects on adults. This paper presents an overview of the concept of medical clowning followed by a literature review conducted on the empirical studies drawn from three data bases (PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar), with the aim of mapping and discussing the evidence of clowning effects on non-children, namely adults. The following areas were investigated: Adult and elderly patients (mainly those with dementia), observers of clowning, namely non-hospitalized adults who are at the hospital as relatives of patients or health-care staff, and finally clowns themselves. The main results are that 1) clown intervention induces positive emotions, thereby enhancing the patient’s well-being, reduces psychological symptoms and emotional reactivity, and prompts a decrease in negative emotions, such as anxiety and stress; 2) clown doctors are also well-perceived by relatives and healthcare staff and their presence appears to be useful in creating a lighter atmosphere in the health setting; 3) few pilot studies have been conducted on clown doctors and this lacuna represents a subject for future research. PMID:27547261

  16. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-06-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=-0.539; PActive older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index.

  17. The relationship of language acculturation (English proficiency) to current self-rated health among African immigrant adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Maria-Theresa C; Carter-Pokras, Olivia D; Picot, Sandra J; Zhan, Min

    2013-06-01

    Although over 1.5 million African immigrants live in the US, few studies have examined the relationship of language acculturation to health outcomes among African immigrant adults. The primary objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between English proficiency and current self-rated health among African immigrant adults. Using a cross-sectional design, a secondary data analysis was performed on baseline data from the African immigrant adult subsample (n = 763) of the 2003 New Immigrant Survey, a longitudinal study of lawful permanent residents. Limited English proficiency (LEP), increased duration of US residence, older age at immigration, being male, less than 12 years of education, poor pre-migration health, and chronic disease were associated with good/fair/poor current self-rated health. Findings support consideration of pre-migration health and chronic disease in future acculturation and health studies, and provision of linguistically competent interventions for LEP African immigrants at risk for poor health outcomes.

  18. Young adults' experiences of seeking online information about diabetes and mental health in the age of social media

    OpenAIRE

    Fergie, Gillian; Hilton, Shona; Hunt, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Background:\\ud The Internet is a primary source of health information for many. Since the widespread adoption of social media, user-generated health-related content has proliferated, particularly around long-term health issues such as diabetes and common mental health disorders (CMHDs).\\ud Objective:\\ud To explore perceptions and experiences of engaging with health information online in a sample of young adults familiar with social media environments and variously engaged in consuming user-ge...

  19. The Social Costs of Gender Nonconformity for Transgender Adults: Implications for Discrimination and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lisa R; Grollman, Eric Anthony

    2015-09-01

    Research suggests that transgender people face high levels of discrimination in society, which may contribute to their disproportionate risk for poor health. However, little is known about whether gender nonconformity, as a visible marker of one's stigmatized status as a transgender individual, heightens trans people's experiences with discrimination and, in turn, their health. Using data from the largest survey of transgender adults in the United States, the National Transgender Discrimination Survey (N = 4,115), we examine the associations among gender nonconformity, transphobic discrimination, and health-harming behaviors (i.e., attempted suicide, drug/alcohol abuse, and smoking). The results suggest that gender nonconforming trans people face more discrimination and, in turn, are more likely to engage in health-harming behaviors than trans people who are gender conforming. Our findings highlight the important role of gender nonconformity in the social experiences and well-being of transgender people.

  20. Poster Determinants for Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life among Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Hede, Børge; Fiehn, Nils-Erik

    Objectives To identify and analyze determinants for oral-health-related quality of life among adults admitted to a Danish research program on general health and lifestyle (DANHES 2007-2008) Materials and methods Study population of the present (dental) study: 4402 volunteers invited among...... participants of main study (n18065) covering 12 different Danish cities. Age 18-96 years (average 54) Structured interviews (from main study and dental study) and clinical oral examination Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life measured by a 10 item index Non-parametric statistical methods, chi-square, simple...... and multivariate logistic regression Data are not representative to the Danish population, however, associations between outcome and independent variables are considered valid. Regular dental visits and high number of natural teeth are determinants for a high level of Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life Untreated...

  1. Health Needs of Adults with Intellectual Disability Relevant for the Family Physician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joav Merrick

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available People with developmental disability, mental retardation, or intellectual disability are living longer and becoming prone to age-related health problems and diseases of old age much like the general population. This worldwide trend is also seen in Israel, where today 39.8% of persons with intellectual disability in residential care are 40 years old and above. There is a need for service and staff providers to receive training; a need for more research and better service for this aging population. This review presents health concerns for older persons with different levels of intellectual disability, health concerns in persons with Down syndrome, and persons with epileptic seizures and cerebral palsy in relation to general practice and family medicine. The review is concluded with recommendations on health and aging in adults with intellectual disabilities and the call for formalized training in the topic for specialists in family medicine.

  2. Health-related decision-making by older adults and their families: how clinicians can help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popejoy, Lori

    2005-09-01

    Helping frail and vulnerable individuals and their families to make the best health-related decision is difficult even in the best of circumstances. Decision-making as a discrete action is often discussed in the health care literature, but the concept that decision-making is a process is largely ignored. Understanding the basic elements of the decision-making process used by older adults and their family, or support individual(s) may help health care team members offer more substantial and meaningful assistance to the individuals who are trying to make tough health-related decisions. Full information needs to be available so all participants involved in the process can make reasonable decisions. The decision-making process is highly contextual and is based on how realistic the decision-making goals are and how congruent the experiences versus perceived expectations are, as well as the quality of options available.

  3. Social influences, social context, and health behaviors among working-class, multi-ethnic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Karen M; Barbeau, Elizabeth M; Gutheil, Caitlin; Stryker, Jo Ellen; Stoddard, Anne M

    2007-04-01

    Little research has explored the relationship between social influences (e.g., social networks, social support, social norms) and health as related to modifying factors that may contribute to health disparities. This is a cross-sectional analysis of fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity, using baseline data from two cancer prevention studies with working-class, multi-ethnic adults. Several social influence and social contextual variables were associated with fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity in both samples. Fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with social norms and social networks, although different contextual variables also were related to intake across the two samples. Physical activity was associated with social networks, social norms, and competing demands. By examining how key social influence and contextual mediating variables relate to health behaviors, we can learn more about the types of interventions that might be needed to promote sustained health behavior change in this population.

  4. Literacy and health outcomes: a cross-sectional study in 1002 adults with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Nancy S; MacLean, Charles D; Littenberg, Benjamin

    2006-08-14

    Inconsistent findings reported in the literature contribute to the lack of complete understanding of the association of literacy with health outcomes. We evaluated the association between literacy, physiologic control and diabetes complications among adults with diabetes. A cross-sectional study of 1,002 English speaking adults with diabetes, randomly selected from the Vermont Diabetes Information System, a cluster-randomized trial of a diabetes decision support system in a region-wide sample of primary care practices was conducted between July 2003 and March 2005. Literacy was assessed by the Short-Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Outcome measures included glycated hemoglobin, low density lipoprotein, blood pressure and self-reported complications. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, duration of diabetes, diabetes education, depression, alcohol use, and medication use we did not find a significant association between literacy and glycemic control (beta coefficent,+ 0.001; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.01 to +0.01; P = .88), systolic blood pressure (beta coefficent, +0.08; 95% CI, -0.10 to +0.26; P = .39), diastolic blood pressure (beta coefficent, -0.03; 95% CI, -0.12 to +0.07, P = .59), or low density lipoprotein (beta coefficent, +0.04; 95% CI, -0.27 to +0.36, P = .77. We found no association between literacy and report of diabetes complications. These findings suggest that literacy, as measured by the S-TOFHLA, is not associated with glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, lipid levels or self-reported diabetes complications in a cross-sectional study of older adults with diabetes under relatively good glycemic control. Additional studies to examine the optimal measurement of health literacy and its relationship to health outcomes over time are needed.

  5. Literacy and health outcomes: a cross-sectional study in 1002 adults with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLean Charles D

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inconsistent findings reported in the literature contribute to the lack of complete understanding of the association of literacy with health outcomes. We evaluated the association between literacy, physiologic control and diabetes complications among adults with diabetes. Methods A cross-sectional study of 1,002 English speaking adults with diabetes, randomly selected from the Vermont Diabetes Information System, a cluster-randomized trial of a diabetes decision support system in a region-wide sample of primary care practices was conducted between July 2003 and March 2005. Literacy was assessed by the Short-Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Outcome measures included glycated hemoglobin, low density lipoprotein, blood pressure and self-reported complications. Results After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, duration of diabetes, diabetes education, depression, alcohol use, and medication use we did not find a significant association between literacy and glycemic control (beta coefficent,+ 0.001; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.01 to +0.01; P = .88, systolic blood pressure (beta coefficent, +0.08; 95% CI, -0.10 to +0.26; P = .39, diastolic blood pressure (beta coefficent, -0.03; 95% CI, -0.12 to +0.07, P = .59, or low density lipoprotein (beta coefficent, +0.04; 95% CI, -0.27 to +0.36, P = .77. We found no association between literacy and report of diabetes complications. Conclusion These findings suggest that literacy, as measured by the S-TOFHLA, is not associated with glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, lipid levels or self-reported diabetes complications in a cross-sectional study of older adults with diabetes under relatively good glycemic control. Additional studies to examine the optimal measurement of health literacy and its relationship to health outcomes over time are needed.

  6. Health-Related Quality of Life in Adults From 17 Family Practice Clinics in North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Callahan, Leigh F.; Shreffler, Jack; Thelma J. Mielenz; Kaufman, Jay S.; Schoster, Britta; Randolph, Randy; Sloane, Philip; DeVellis, Robert; Weinberger, Morris

    2008-01-01

    Introduction We examined health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in white and African American patients based on their own and their community's socioeconomic status. Methods Participants were 4,565 adults recruited from 17 family physician practices in urban and rural areas of North Carolina. Education was used as a proxy for individual socioeconomic status, and the census block-group poverty level was used as a proxy for community socioeconomic status. HRQOL measures were the 12-Item Short F...

  7. Infant milk feeding influences adult bone health: a prospective study from birth to 32 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Pirilä

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peak bone mass, attained by early adulthood, is influenced by genetic and life-style factors. Early infant feeding and duration of breastfeeding in particular, associate with several health-related parameters in childhood. The aim of this study was to examine whether the effects of early infant feeding extend to peak bone mass and other bone health characteristics at adult age. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cohort of 158 adults (76 males born in Helsinki, Finland, 1975, prospectively followed up from birth, underwent physical examination and bone densitometry to study bone area, bone mineral content (BMC, and bone mineral density (BMD at 32 years of age. Life-style factors relevant for bone health were recorded. For data analysis the cohort was divided into three equal-size groups according to the total duration of breastfeeding (BF: Short (≤3 months, Intermediate and Prolonged (≥7 months BF groups. In males short BF is associated with higher bone area, BMC, and BMD compared to longer BF. Males in the Short BF group had on average 4.7% higher whole body BMD than males in the Prolonged BF group. In multivariate analysis, after controlling for multiple confounding factors, the influence of BF duration on adult bone characteristics persisted in males. Differences between the three feeding groups were observed in lumbar spine bone area and BMC, and whole body BMD (MANCOVA; p = 0.025, p = 0.013, and p = 0.048, respectively, favoring the Short BF group. In women no differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: In men, early infant milk feeding may have a significant impact on adult bone health. A potential explanation is that the calcium and phosphate contents were strikingly higher in formula milk and commercial cow milk/cow milk dilutions as opposed to human milk. Our novel finding merits further studies to determine means to ensure optimal bone mass development in infants with prolonged breastfeeding.

  8. Sleep Disturbances and Glucose Metabolism in Older Adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Strand, Linn Beate; Carnethon, Mercedes; Biggs, Mary Lou; Djoussé, Luc; Kaplan, Robert C.; David S Siscovick; Robbins, John A.; Redline, Susan; Patel, Sanjay R.; Janszky, Imre; Mukamal, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examined the associations of symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), which was defined as loud snoring, stopping breathing for a while during sleep, and daytime sleepiness, and insomnia with glucose metabolism and incident type 2 diabetes in older adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Between 1989 and 1993, the Cardiovascular Health Study recruited 5,888 participants ≥65 years of age from four U.S. communities. Participants reported SDB and insomnia symptoms yearly through 19...

  9. Communication inequalities and public health implications of adult social networking site use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Emily Z; Emmons, Karen M; Puleo, Elaine; Viswanath, K

    2010-01-01

    Social media, and specifically social networking sites (SNSs), are emerging as an important platform for communication and health information exchange. Yet, despite the increase in popularity and use, only a limited number of empirical studies document which segments of the adult population are and are not using social networking sites and with what, if any, affect on health. The purpose of this study is to identify potential communication inequalities in social networking site use among a representative sample of U.S. adults and to examine the association between SNS use and psychological well-being. We analyzed data from the National Cancer Institute's 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Thirty-five percent of online adults reported SNS use within the past 12 months, and there were no significant differences in SNS use by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic position. Younger age (p = .00) was the most significant predictor of SNS use, while being married (p = .02) and having a history of cancer (p = .02) were associated with a decreased odds of SNS use. SNS use was significantly associated with a 0.80 (p = .00) increment in psychological distress score after controlling for other factors. The absence of inequalities in adult SNS use across race/ethnicity and class offers some support for the continued use of social media to promote public health efforts; however, issues such as the persisting digital divide and potential deleterious effects of SNS use on psychological well-being need to be addressed.

  10. Gratitude and longing: Meanings of health in aging for Puerto Rican adults in the mainland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, Irina L G; Guzzardo, Mariana T; Adams, Wallis E; Falcón, Luis M

    2015-12-01

    Puerto Rican adults in the United States mainland live with socioeconomic and health disparities. To understand their contextual experience of aging, we interviewed participants in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study. Through a Thematic Analysis we identify themes and tensions: normalization and acceptance of aging; gratitude; the importance of aging within social networks; longing to return to Puerto Rico at older age. We address the tensions between 'acceptance' and fatalismo as a cultural belief, and a function of structural barriers. The experience of aging is discussed in the context of Puerto Rico's history and continued dependence on the United States.

  11. Identifying dietary patterns and associated health-related lifestyle factors in the adult Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia

    2014-01-01

    Background/objectives:To identify and describe dietary patterns in Danish adults and to examine which demographic and health-related lifestyle factors are associated with dietary patterns.Subjects/methods:Data derived from the Danish national survey of diet and physical activity collected in 2003......, potatoes and gravy, and cake and biscuits; a 'health-conscious' pattern correlated with coarse bread, fruit, vegetables, low-fat dairy, nuts, water and tea; and a 'fast food' pattern correlated with pizza, hamburger/spring rolls, crisps, rice and pasta, sugar-sweetened soft drinks and sweets...

  12. Self-care behaviors and health indicators in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compeán Ortiz, Lidia Guadalupe; Gallegos Cabriales, Esther Carlota; González González, José Gerardo; Gómez Meza, Marco Vinicio

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive correlational study aimed to analyze self-care behaviors and their relationship with health indicators represented by glycemic control, lipid profile, Body Mass Index [BMI], waist circumference and body fat percentage in a sample of 98 adults with type 2 diabetes in an area of Nuevo Leon, Mexico (August 2005/May 2006). The results showed a low self-care behaviors index (X = 36.94, SD=15.14). A significant relationship was found between self-care behaviors and glycosilated hemoglobin [HbA1c] (r s=-.379, pdiet was the most predictive for health indicators, moderated by gender and understanding of diabetes contents (p< .05).

  13. Differences between Irish and Australian psychiatric nurses' family-focused practice in adult mental health services

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grant, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Psychiatric nurses\\' practice with parents who have mental illness, their children and families is an important issue internationally. This study provides a comparison of Irish and Australian psychiatric nurses\\' family-focused practices in adult mental health services. Three hundred and forty three nurses across Ireland and 155 from Australia completed the Family Focused Mental Health Practice Questionnaire. Cross-country comparisons revealed significant differences, in terms of family-focused skill, knowledge, confidence and practice. Australian psychiatric nurses engaged in higher family-focused practice compared to Irish nurses. The comparative differences between countries may be attributable to differences in training, workplace support and policy.

  14. Ethnicity and gender comparisons of health consequences in adults with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Karen G; Hesselbrock, Michie N; Hesselbrock, Victor M

    2013-02-01

    The moderating effects of ethnicity and gender on factors associated with physical health consequences in adults manifesting alcohol dependence were examined using data from the 2001-2002 US National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Black and white respondents with a lifetime diagnosis of DSM-IV alcohol dependence were selected for the study (n = 3,852). A multiple-group structural equation model tested ethnicity, gender, and intervening variables as predictors of physical health status in alcohol-dependent men and women. Study findings offer implications for clinical practice with alcohol-dependent individuals by identifying likely target groups and problems for intervention.

  15. Connecting teens to caring adults in a school-based health center: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacksin, Beth A; Kelly, Patricia J

    2015-01-01

    The traditional medical care system is generally unable to provide the broad health and wellness services needed by many adolescents, especially those from low-income and racial/ethnic minority communities. Using a theoretical framework adapted from Bronfenbrenner's ecological model of multiple influencers, this case study examined how a school-based health center was able to provide a network of connections for adolescents to caring adults within the school and the local community. Contributors to this network were the creation of a student-centered community with access to adolescent-friendly services, providers acting as connectors, and care of the whole adolescent.

  16. Relationships among the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sook-Young; Sok, Sohyune R

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults and the relationships among them. This study was designed to be a descriptive correlation study using questionnaire. Subjects were 246 older people who were over 65 years of age in Seoul and Daegu metropolitan city, Korea. Measures were the Cornell Medical Index-Simple Korean Form to measure the perceived health status, the Family Support Instrument to measure the family support and the Standard Life Satisfaction Instrument for Korean people to measure the life satisfaction. Perceived health state was worse as average 3.3, family support was good as average 3.4 and life satisfaction was low as average 3.1. There were statistically significant positive correlations among perceived health state, family support and life satisfaction and between family support and life satisfaction. The predictors of life satisfaction in elderly were family support, age, monthly allowance and perceived health state. These factors explained 37.5% of the total variance. The major influencing factor was family support. This cross-sectional study provides preliminary evidence that to develop nursing strategy to increase family support of older Korean adults is needed. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Thermal and health outcomes of energy efficiency retrofits of homes of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrentzen, S; Erickson, J; Fonseca, E

    2016-08-01

    Mitigation of thermal stress and adverse indoor climatic conditions is important to older low-income populations whose age, health, and economic circumstances make them vulnerable to indoor environmental conditions. This research examines whether energy retrofits in affordable housing for older adults can also improve indoor climatic (i.e., temperature, humidity, air infiltration) conditions and whether such improvements correspond with improved health and comfort of residents. An apartment complex for low-income older adults in Phoenix was the study site. In 2010, renovations were undertaken to make it more energy efficient and to replace interior cabinetry, flooring, and paint with materials that had low or no volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Fifty-seven residents from 53 apartment units participated in both baseline (pre-renovation) and 1 year post-renovation data collection trials. Environmental measures included temperature, relative humidity, and air infiltration. Health measures included general health, emotional distress, and sleep. Four questions addressed residents' perceptions of temperature quality. Results demonstrated a 19% reduction in energy consumption following the retrofit. In addition, fixed effects statistical models of the panel data showed significant stabilization of unit temperature from pre-retrofit to 1 year post-retrofit. Reductions in an apartment's temperature extremes of 27.2°C (81°F) and above also corresponded with improvement in occupant's reported health over the same time period, although not with occupant's perceptions of thermal comfort.

  18. Risk factors for falls in older Korean adults: the 2011 Community Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Jin; Kim, Sun A; Kim, Nu Ri; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Yun, Yong-Woon; Shin, Min-Ho

    2014-11-01

    Falls are a major health problem for elderly populations worldwide. We analyzed data from the 2011 Korean Community Health Survey to identify potential risk factors for falls in a representative population-based sample of community-dwelling older Korean adults. Risk factors for falls were assessed by multivariate survey logistic regression models. The prevalence of falls was 16.9% in males and 24.3% in females [Corrected]. Age and female sex were associated with a higher risk of falls. Similarly, living alone, living in an urban area, poor self-rated health, and high stress were associated with a high risk of falls. Subjects with diabetes mellitus, stroke, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, urinary incontinence, cataracts, or depression had a high risk of falls. However, subjects with hypertension were at low risk for falls. In conclusion, age, female sex, marital status, residence location, self-rated health, stress, and several chronic conditions were significantly associated with the risk for falls in the older Korean adults. Our findings suggest that these risk factors should be addressed in public health policies for preventing falls.

  19. Nutritional Status of Rural Older Adults Is Linked to Physical and Emotional Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seung Eun; Bishop, Alex J; Kim, Minjung; Hermann, Janice; Kim, Giyeon; Lawrence, Jeannine

    2017-06-01

    Although nutritional status is influenced by multidimensional aspects encompassing physical and emotional well-being, there is limited research on this complex relationship. The purpose of this study was to examine the interplay between indicators of physical health (perceived health status and self-care capacity) and emotional well-being (depressive affect and loneliness) on rural older adults' nutritional status. The cross-sectional study was conducted from June 1, 2007, to June 1, 2008. A total of 171 community-dwelling older adults, aged 65 years and older, residing within nonmetro rural communities in the United States participated in this study. Participants completed validated instruments measuring self-care capacity, perceived health status, loneliness, depressive affect, and nutritional status. Structural equation modeling was employed to investigate the complex interplay of physical and emotional health status with nutritional status among rural older adults. The χ(2) test, comparative fit index, root mean square error of approximation, and standardized root mean square residual were used to assess model fit. The χ(2) test and the other model fit indexes showed the hypothesized structural equation model provided a good fit to the data (χ(2) (2)=2.15; P=0.34; comparative fit index=1.00; root mean square error of approximation=0.02; and standardized root mean square residual=0.03). Self-care capacity was significantly related with depressive affect (γ=-0.11; P=0.03), whereas self-care capacity was not significantly related with loneliness. Perceived health status had a significant negative relationship with both loneliness (γ=-0.16; P=0.03) and depressive affect (γ=-0.22; P=0.03). Although loneliness showed no significant direct relationship with nutritional status, it showed a significant direct relationship with depressive affect (β=.4; Pnutritional status (β=-.30; Phealth and emotional indicators have significant multidimensional associations

  20. An observational study of health literacy and medication adherence in adult kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demian, Maryam N; Shapiro, R Jean; Thornton, Wendy Loken

    2016-12-01

    There is a high prevalence of non-adherence to immunosuppressants in kidney transplant recipients. Although limited health literacy is common in kidney recipients and is linked to adverse outcomes in other medical populations, its effect on medication adherence in kidney transplant recipients remains poorly understood. The objective was to investigate the effect of lower health literacy on immunosuppressant adherence. Kidney recipients who were at least 6 months post-transplant and outpatients of Vancouver General Hospital in B.C., Canada were recruited through invitation letters. A total of 96 recipients completed the Health Literacy Questionnaire, which provides a multifactorial profile of self-reported health literacy and the Transplant Effects Questionnaire-Adherence subscale measuring self-reported immunosuppressant adherence. Hierarchical linear regression was used to analyze the association between health literacy and adherence after controlling for identified risk factors of non-adherence. Our sample was on average 53 years old, 56% male and 9 years post-transplant. Kidney recipients reported low levels of health literacy on scales measuring active health management and critical appraisal of information and 75% reported non-perfect adherence. Worse adherence was associated with poorer overall health literacy (ΔR(2) = 0.08, P = 0.004) and lower scores on six of nine of the health literacy factors. Poorer health literacy is associated with lower immunosuppressant adherence in adult kidney transplant recipients suggesting the importance of considering a recipient's level of health literacy in research and clinical contexts. Medication adherence interventions can target the six factors of health literacy identified as being risk factors for lower medication adherence.

  1. Living with muscular dystrophy: health related quality of life consequences for children and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Boone Judith

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscular dystrophies are chronic diseases manifesting with progressive muscle weakness leading to decreasing activities and participation. To understand the impact on daily life, it is important to determine patients' quality of life. Objective To investigate Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL of children and adults with muscular dystrophy (MD, and to study the influence of type and severity of MD on HRQoL in adult patients. Methods Age-related HRQoL questionnaires were administered to 40 children (8–17 years, and 67 adult patients with muscular dystrophies. Results Significant differences in HRQoL were found in children and adults with MD compared to healthy controls. Patients with Becker muscular dystrophy reported a better HRQoL on the several scales compared to patients with other MDs. Severity was associated with worse fine motor functioning and social functioning in adult patients. Conclusion This is one of the first studies describing HRQoL of patients with MD using validated instruments in different age groups. The results indicate that having MD negatively influences the HRQoL on several domains.

  2. Metabolic health reduces risk of obesity-related cancer in framingham study adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lynn L; Chadid, Susan; Singer, Martha R; Kreger, Bernard E; Denis, Gerald V

    2014-10-01

    It is unknown whether the risk for obesity-related cancers differs between metabolically unhealthy and healthy overweight/obese adults. Data on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and random blood glucose in Framingham Heart Study adults (n = 3,763) ages 55 to 69 years were used to estimate risks of obesity-related cancers (n = 385), including postmenopausal breast, female reproductive, colon, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and kidney cancers, as well as esophageal adenocarcinomas. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate risk for obesity-related cancers associated with body fat and metabolic health (as defined by glucose levels) among subjects in three risk groups (vs. referent group with normal weight/normal glucose): normal weight/elevated glucose, overweight/normal glucose, and overweight/elevated glucose. Overweight adults [BMI ≥ 25 or WHtR ≥ 0.51 (men) and ≥0.57 (women)] with elevated glucose (≥125 mg/dL) had a statistically significant 2-fold increased risk of developing obesity-related cancer, whereas overweight adults with normal glucose had a 50% increased risk. Normal-weight adults with elevated glucose had no excess cancer risk. The effects of BMI and WHtR were independent of one another. Finally, overweight women with elevated blood glucose had a 2.6-fold increased risk [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.4-4.9] of female reproductive (cervical, endometrial, uterine cancers) and postmenopausal breast cancers, whereas overweight women with normal glucose levels had only a 70% increased risk (95% CI, 1.1-2.5). These results suggest that cancer risk may be lower among metabolically healthy overweight/obese older adults than among overweight/obese adults with metabolic dysfunction. Metabolic dysfunction and obesity act synergistically to increase cancer risk. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Uptake of health monitoring and disease self-management in Australian adults with neurofibromatosis type 1: strategies to improve care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, H A; Barton, B; Wilson, M J; Berman, Y; McKelvey-Martin, V J; Morrison, P J; North, K N

    2016-03-01

    Lifelong health monitoring is recommended in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) because of the progressive and unpredictable range of disabling and potentially life-threatening symptoms that arise. In Australia, strategies for NF1 health surveillance are less well developed for adults than they are for children, resulting in inequalities between pediatric and adult care. The aims of this study were to determine the uptake of health monitoring and capacity of adults with NF1 to self-manage their health. Australian adults with NF1 (n = 94, 18-40 years) participated in a semi-structured interview. Almost half reported no regular health monitoring. Thematic analysis of interviews identified four main themes as to why: (i) did not know where to seek care, (ii) unaware of the need for regular monitoring, (iii) futility of health monitoring as nothing can be done for NF1, and (iv) feeling healthy, therefore monitoring unnecessary. Overall, there were low levels of patient activation, indicating that adults with NF1 lacked knowledge and confidence to manage their health and health care. Findings are discussed in the context of service provision for adults with NF1 in New South Wales, Australia.

  4. Health literacy, diabetes self-care, and glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Chandra Y; Bains, Sujeev S; Egede, Leonard E

    2010-11-01

    Although limited health literacy is a barrier to disease management and has been associated with poor glycemic control, the mechanisms underlying the relationships between health literacy and diabetes outcomes are unknown. We examined the relationships between health literacy, determinants of diabetes self-care, and glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Patients with diabetes were recruited from an outpatient primary care clinic. We collected information on demographics, health literacy, diabetes knowledge, diabetes fatalism, social support, and diabetes self-care, and hemoglobin A1c values were extracted from the medical record. Structural equation models tested the predicted pathways linking health literacy to diabetes self-care and glycemic control. No direct relationship was observed between health literacy and diabetes self-care or glycemic control. Health literacy had a direct effect on social support (r = -0.20, P diabetes self-care (r = -0.07) and on glycemic control (r = -0.01). More diabetes knowledge (r = 0.22, P diabetes self-care and through self-care were related to glycemic control (r = -0.20, P literacy has an indirect effect on diabetes self-care and glycemic control through its association with social support. This suggests that for patients with limited health literacy, enhancing social support would facilitate diabetes self-care and improved glycemic control.

  5. Health Behavior Change Interventions for Teenage and Young Adult Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Gemma; Gravestock, Helen L; Hough, Rachael E; King, Wendy M; Wardle, Jane; Fisher, Abigail

    2016-06-01

    It is important that teenage and young adult (TYA) cancer survivors adopt a healthy lifestyle, since health vulnerabilities associated with their diagnosis and treatment may be exacerbated by poor health behaviors. This review aims to synthesize the current literature on health behavior change interventions created specifically for TYA-aged cancer survivors. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases were searched for studies investigating interventions targeting one or more health behaviors, including: physical activity, diet, smoking cessation, and alcohol consumption. Studies were eligible for review if the study population were defined as TYA cancer survivors and the mean age of the sample was younger than 30 years of age. Twelve studies were identified, of which nine were randomized controlled trials. Physical activity was the most commonly targeted health behavior. Six of the 12 interventions included within this review were successful in changing health behavior. Due to the heterogeneity of intervention characteristics, the relationship between intervention efficacy or outcome and intervention content, delivery mode, or theoretical framework was not discernible. Nevertheless, trends emerged relating to the delivery and content of health behavior interventions designed specifically for TYA cancer survivors. More research is required to identify the most effective means of promoting health behavior change among the TYA cancer survivor population. Specifically, future research should focus on providing evidence of the efficiency and feasibility of interventions that use online technologies to facilitate remote intervention delivery and peer support.

  6. Mitigating Nutrition and Health Deficiencies in Older Adults: A Role for Food Innovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugreet, Sephora; Hamill, Ruth M; Kerry, Joseph P; McCarthy, Sinéad N

    2017-03-07

    The aim of this review is to describe the factors contributing to diminished food intake, resulting in nutritional deficiencies and associated health conditions in older adults and proposes food innovation strategies to mitigate these. Research has provided convincing evidence of a link between healthy eating patterns and healthy aging. There is a need to target new food product development (NPD) with functional health benefits specifically designed to address the particular food-related needs of older consumers. When developing foods for older adults, consideration should be given to the increased requirements for specific macro- and micronutrients, especially protein, calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin B. Changes in chemosensory acuity, chewing difficulties, and reduced or poor swallowing ability should also be considered. To compensate for the diminished appetite and reduced intake, foods should be energy dense, nutritionally adequate, and, most importantly, palatable, when targeting this cohort. This paper describes the potential of new food product development to facilitate dietary modification and address health deficiencies in older adults.

  7. Risk indicators for severe impaired oral health among indigenous Australian young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts-Thomson Kaye F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health impairment comprises three conceptual domains; pain, appearance and function. This study sought to: (1 estimate the prevalence of severe oral health impairment as assessed by a summary oral health impairment measure, including aspects of dental pain, dissatisfaction with dental appearance and difficulty eating, among a birth cohort of Indigenous Australian young adults (n = 442, age range 16-20 years; (2 compare prevalence according to demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and oral health outcome risk indicators; and (3 ascertain the independent contribution of those risk indicators to severe oral health impairment in this population. Methods Data were from the Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC study, a prospective longitudinal investigation of Aboriginal individuals born 1987-1990 at an Australian regional hospital. Data for this analysis pertained to Wave-3 of the study only. Severe oral health impairment was defined as reported experience of toothache, poor dental appearance and food avoidance in the last 12 months. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate effects of demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and clinical oral disease indicators on severe oral health impairment. Effects were quantified as odds ratios (OR. Results The percent of participants with severe oral health impairment was 16.3 (95% CI 12.9-19.7. In the multivariate model, severe oral health impairment was associated with untreated dental decay (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.6-9.6. In addition to that clinical indicator, greater odds of severe oral health impairment were associated with being female (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.6, being aged 19-20 years (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.6, soft drink consumption every day or a few days a week (OR 2.6, 95% 1.2-5.6 and non-ownership of a toothbrush (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.4. Conclusions Severe oral health impairment was prevalent among this population. The findings

  8. Effects of an eHealth literacy intervention for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bo

    2011-11-03

    Older adults generally have low health and computer literacies, making it challenging for them to function well in the eHealth era where technology is increasingly being used in health care. Little is known about effective interventions and strategies for improving the eHealth literacy of the older population. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a theory-driven eHealth literacy intervention for older adults. The experimental design was a 2 × 2 mixed factorial design with learning method (collaborative; individualistic) as the between-participants variable and time of measurement (pre; post) as the within-participants variable. A total of 146 older adults aged 56-91 (mean 69.99, SD 8.12) participated in this study during February to May 2011. The intervention involved 2 weeks of learning about using the National Institutes of Health's SeniorHealth.gov website to access reliable health information. The intervention took place at public libraries. Participants were randomly assigned to either experimental condition (collaborative: n = 72; individualistic: n = 74). Overall, participants' knowledge, skills, and eHealth literacy efficacy all improved significantly from pre to post intervention (P 0.8 with statistical power of 1.00 even at the .01 level in all cases). When controlling for baseline differences, no significant main effect of the learning method was found on computer/Web knowledge, skills, or eHealth literacy efficacy. Thus, collaborative learning did not differ from individualistic learning in affecting the learning outcomes. No significant interaction effect of learning method and time of measurement was found. Group composition based on gender, familiarity with peers, or prior computer experience had no significant main or interaction effect on the learning outcomes. Regardless of the specific learning method used, participants had overwhelmingly positive attitudes toward the intervention and reported positive changes in

  9. Health Care Provider Advice for African American Adults Not Meeting Health Behavior Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Fallon, PhD

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Poor dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle contribute to excessive morbidity and mortality. Healthy People 2010 goals are for 85% of physicians to counsel their patients about physical activity and for 75% of physician office visits made by patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or dyslipidemia to include dietary counseling. The purpose of this study was to 1 determine the rate of participant-reported health care provider advice for healthy lifestyle changes among African Americans who do not meet recommendations for physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and healthy weight; 2 examine correlates of provider advice; and 3 assess the association between provider advice and stage of readiness for change for each of these health behaviors. Methods Data for this study were collected as part of a statewide faith-based physical activity program for African Americans. A stratified random sample of 20 African Methodist Episcopal churches in South Carolina was selected to participate in a telephone survey of members aged 18 years and older. The telephone survey, conducted over a 5-month period, asked participants a series of questions about sociodemographics, health status, physical activity, and nutrition. Analyses for moderate to vigorous physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and weight loss were conducted separately. For each of these behaviors, logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the independent association of sex, age, body mass index, education, number of diagnosed diseases, perceived health, and stage of change with health care provider advice for health behaviors. Results A total of 572 church members (407 women, 165 men; mean age, 53.9 years; range, 18–102 years completed the survey. Overall, participant-reported provider advice for lifestyle changes was 47.0% for physical activity, 38.7% for fruit and vegetable consumption, and 39.7% for weight. A greater number of diagnosed

  10. The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study on health disparities in Puerto Rican adults: challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collado Bridgette M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study designed to examine the role of psychosocial stress on presence and development of allostatic load and health outcomes in Puerto Ricans, and potential modification by nutritional status, genetic variation, and social support. Methods Self-identified Puerto Ricans, aged 45-75 years and residing in the Boston, MA metro area, were recruited through door-to-door enumeration and community approaches. Participants completed a comprehensive set of questionnaires and tests. Blood, urine and salivary samples were extracted for biomarker and genetic analysis. Measurements are repeated at a two-year follow-up. Results A total of 1500 eligible participants completed baseline measurements, with nearly 80% two-year follow-up retention. The majority of the cohort is female (70%, and many have less than 8th grade education (48%, and fall below the poverty level (59%. Baseline prevalence of health conditions is high for this age range: considerable physical (26% and cognitive (7% impairment, obesity (57%, type 2 diabetes (40%, hypertension (69%, arthritis (50% and depressive symptomatology (60%. Conclusions The enrollment of minority groups presents unique challenges. This report highlights approaches to working with difficult to reach populations, and describes some of the health issues and needs of Puerto Rican older adults. These results may inform future studies and interventions aiming to improve the health of this and similar communities.

  11. Defining Optimal Brain Health in Adults: A Presidential Advisory From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Philip B; Furie, Karen L; Iadecola, Costantino; Smith, Eric E; Waddy, Salina P; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Bae, Hee-Joon; Bauman, Mary Ann; Dichgans, Martin; Duncan, Pamela W; Girgus, Meighan; Howard, Virginia J; Lazar, Ronald M; Seshadri, Sudha; Testai, Fernando D; van Gaal, Stephen; Yaffe, Kristine; Wasiak, Hank; Zerna, Charlotte

    2017-10-01

    Cognitive function is an important component of aging and predicts quality of life, functional independence, and risk of institutionalization. Advances in our understanding of the role of cardiovascular risks have shown them to be closely associated with cognitive impairment and dementia. Because many cardiovascular risks are modifiable, it may be possible to maintain brain health and to prevent dementia in later life. The purpose of this American Heart Association (AHA)/American Stroke Association presidential advisory is to provide an initial definition of optimal brain health in adults and guidance on how to maintain brain health. We identify metrics to define optimal brain health in adults based on inclusion of factors that could be measured, monitored, and modified. From these practical considerations, we identified 7 metrics to define optimal brain health in adults that originated from AHA's Life's Simple 7: 4 ideal health behaviors (nonsmoking, physical activity at goal levels, healthy diet consistent with current guideline levels, and body mass index brain health but recognize that the truly ideal circumstance may be uncommon because there is a continuum of brain health as demonstrated by AHA's Life's Simple 7. Therefore, there is opportunity to improve brain health through primordial prevention and other interventions. Furthermore, although cardiovascular risks align well with brain health, we acknowledge that other factors differing from those related to cardiovascular health may drive cognitive health. Defining optimal brain health in adults and its maintenance is consistent with the AHA's Strategic Impact Goal to improve cardiovascular health of all Americans by 20% and to reduce deaths resulting from cardiovascular disease and stroke by 20% by the year 2020. This work in defining optimal brain health in adults serves to provide the AHA/American Stroke Association with a foundation for a new strategic direction going forward in cardiovascular health

  12. A review of health utilities across conditions common in paediatric and adult populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopkins Robert B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost-utility analyses are commonly used in economic evaluations of interventions or conditions that have an impact on health-related quality of life. However, evaluating utilities in children presents several challenges since young children may not have the cognitive ability to complete measurement tasks and thus utility values must be estimated by proxy assessors. Another solution is to use utilities derived from an adult population. To better inform the future conduct of cost-utility analyses in paediatric populations, we reviewed the published literature reporting utilities among children and adults across selected conditions common to paediatric and adult populations. Methods An electronic search of Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library up to November 2008 was conducted to identify studies presenting utility values derived from the Health Utilities Index (HUI or EuroQoL-5Dimensions (EQ-5D questionnaires or using time trade off (TTO or standard gamble (SG techniques in children and/or adult populations from randomized controlled trials, comparative or non-comparative observational studies, or cross-sectional studies. The search was targeted to four chronic diseases/conditions common to both children and adults and known to have a negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Results After screening 951 citations identified from the literature search, 77 unique studies included in our review evaluated utilities in patients with asthma (n = 25, cancer (n = 23, diabetes mellitus (n = 11, skin diseases (n = 19 or chronic diseases (n = 2, with some studies evaluating multiple conditions. Utility values were estimated using HUI (n = 33, EQ-5D (n = 26, TTO (n = 12, and SG (n = 14, with some studies applying more than one technique to estimate utility values. 21% of studies evaluated utilities in children, of those the majority being in the area of oncology. No utility values for children were reported in skin

  13. Work participation in adults with Marfan syndrome: Demographic characteristics, MFS related health symptoms, chronic pain, and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velvin, Gry; Bathen, Trine; Rand-Hendriksen, Svend; Geirdal, Amy Østertun

    2015-12-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a severe autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder that might influence peoples work ability. This cross sectional study aims to investigate work participation in adults with verified MFS diagnosis and to explore how the health related consequences of MFS and other factors might influence work participation. The prevalence of health problems in young adults compared to older adults with MFS was examined in association to work participation. A postal questionnaire including questions about work participation, demographic characteristics, MFS related health problems, chronic pain, and fatigue was sent to 117 adults with verified MFS (Ghent 1), and 62% answered. Fifty-nine percent were employed or students, significantly lower work participation than the General Norwegian Population (GNP), but higher than the Norwegian population of people with disability. Most young adults worked full-time despite extensive health problems, but the average age for leaving work was low. Few had received any work adaptations prior to retiring from work. In multiple logistic regression analysis, only age, lower educational level and severe fatigue were significantly associated with low work participation; not MFS related health problems or chronic pain. Fatigue appears to be the most challenging health problem to deal with in work, but the covariance is complex. Focus on vocational guidance early in life, more appropriate work adaptations, and psychosocial support might improve the possibility for sustaining in work for adults with MFS. More research about work challenges in adults with MFS is needed.

  14. Internet use among older adults: association with health needs, psychological capital, and social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; Dinitto, Diana M

    2013-05-16

    Previous studies have identified socioeconomic status and health status as predictors of older adults' computer and Internet use, but researchers have not examined the relationships between older adults' health needs and psychological capital (emotional well-being and self-efficacy) and social capital (social integration/ties and support networks) to different types of Internet use. This study examined (1) whether older adults' health conditions and psychological and social capital differentiate Internet users from nonusers, and (2) whether the Internet users differed in their types of Internet use on the basis of their health conditions and psychological and social capital. Data for this study came from the National Health and Aging Trends Study, which is based on a nationally representative sample of US Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older. The sample for this study were those who resided in the community in their own or others' homes (N=6680). Binary logistic regression analysis was used to compare health needs, psychological capital, and social capital among (1) any type of Internet users and nonusers, (2) Internet users who engaged in health-related tasks and Internet users who did not, (3) Internet users who engaged in shopping/banking tasks and Internet users who did not, and (4) Internet users only used the Internet for email/texting and all other Internet users. Depressive and anxiety symptoms, measures of psychological capital, were negatively associated with Internet use among older adults (odds ratio [OR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.98, P=.03 and OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.97, P=.03, respectively), whereas most measures of social capital were positively associated with Internet use. Having more chronic medical conditions and engaging in formal volunteering increased the odds of Internet use for health-related tasks by 1.15 (95% CI 1.08-1.23, Pshopping/banking activities (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.62-0.91, P=.01). Anxiety symptoms increased the odds of using the

  15. Patient Portals as a Tool for Health Care Engagement: A Mixed-Method Study of Older Adults With Varying Levels of Health Literacy and Prior Patient Portal Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, Taya; Shoemake, Jocelyn; Nilsen, Marci Lee; Czaja, Sara; Beach, Scott; DeVito Dabbs, Annette

    2017-03-30

    Growing evidence that patient engagement improves health outcomes and reduces health care costs has fueled health providers' focus on patient portals as the primary access point for personal health information and patient-provider communication. Whereas much attention has been given to identifying characteristics of older adults who do and do not adopt patient portals and necessary adaptions to portal design, little is known about their attitudes and perceptions regarding patient portal use as a tool for engagement in their health care within the context of health literacy, experience navigating Web-based health information, and previous patient portal use. The specific aims of this study were to explore attitudes toward portal adoption and its perceived usefulness as a tool for health care engagement among adults (65 years and older) who have varying levels of health literacy and degrees of prior patient portal use. A phone survey of 100 community dwelling adults gathered sociodemographic, health, and technology related information. Older adults were purposefully selected for 4 follow-up focus groups based on survey responses to health literacy and previous patient portal use. A mixed-method approach was used to integrate phone survey data with thematic analysis of 4 focus groups. Due to variability in attitudes between focus group participants, an individual case analysis was performed and thematic patterns were used as the basis for subgroup formation. Differences in health literacy, comfort navigating health information on the Web, and previous portal experience explained some but not all differences related to the 7 themes that emerged in the focus groups analysis. Individual cases who shared attitudes were arranged into 5 subgroups from least to most able and willing to engage in health care via a patient portal. The subgroups' overall portal adoption attitudes were: (1) Don't want to feel pushed into anything, (2) Will only adopt if required, (3) Somebody

  16. Validity and reliability of the Family Empowerment Scale for caregivers of adults with mental health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, M; Nakamura, Y; Kobayashi, S; Yokoyama, K

    2016-10-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Empowerment of family caregivers of adults with mental health issues has received increasing attention among mental health nurses in Japan and has been recognized as a new goal of family interventions. The Family Empowerment Scale (FES) was originally developed to measure the empowerment status of parents of children with emotional disorders. However, it was later applied to broader health issues. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: We developed a Japanese version of the FES for family caregivers of adults with mental health issues (FES-AMJ) and examined the validity and reliability among parents. Results showed that the FES-AMJ had acceptable concurrent validity and reliability; however, insufficient construct validity was found, especially for the subscale regarding the service system. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Further studies need to modify the scale. Clarification of ideal family empowerment status in the service system through discussion with mental health nurses and family caregivers may be important. Introduction The Family Empowerment Scale (FES) was originally developed for parents of children with emotional disorders. In Japan, family empowerment is gaining increasing attention and may be one goal of nursing interventions. Aim To develop a Japanese version of the FES for family caregivers of adults with mental health issues and to study the validity and reliability of this scale among parents. Method We translated the FES into Japanese and administered this self-report questionnaire to 275 parents. Results The multitrait scaling analysis revealed acceptable convergent validity and insufficient discriminant validity among all subscales. In particular, all items of the Service system subscale had insufficient discriminant and/or convergent validity. Each subscale significantly correlated with the indicator of empowerment. The intraclass correlation coefficients of each subscale were .855-.917. Cronbach

  17. Acculturation and Sociocultural Influences on Dietary Intake and Health Status among Puerto Rican Adults in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rompay, Maria I.; McKeown, Nicola M.; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen; Falcon, Luis M.; Ordovas, José M.; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown negative consequences of acculturation on lifestyle factors, health status, and dietary intake of Hispanic immigrants in the US. Despite prevalent type 2 diabetes and low socioeconomic status (SES) among Puerto Rican adults living on the US mainland, little is known about acculturation in this group. Objective We investigated associations among acculturation, lifestyle characteristics, health status, and carbohydrate nutrition in Puerto Rican adults. A secondary objective was to investigate possible confounding and/or effect modification on these associations by SES. Design Cross-sectional data from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, which included 1219 Puerto Ricans in the Boston area, aged 45–75 years. Statistical analyses Characteristics were compared using ANCOVA, linear trend and Pearson’s chi-square tests across quartiles of acculturation. Tests for interaction by poverty status were conducted. Proportional contributions of foods to intake of total carbohydrate and fiber were assessed using SAS RANK. Results Levels of acculturation were low, despite young age at first arrival to the US mainland (25.4 ± 12.3 y) and long length of stay (34.2 ± 12.2 y). Greater English language use was associated with higher SES, alcohol consumption, physical activity, better perceived health, and less central obesity. Acculturation was associated with lower legume fiber and greater cereal fiber intake. Among those above the poverty threshold, acculturation was associated with lower dietary glycemic index and starch intake, and greater fruit and non-starchy vegetable intake. Conclusions In contrast to studies with Mexican Americans, the association of acculturation with dietary quality in these Puerto Rican adults was mixed, but tended toward better carbohydrate quality. Dietary recommendations should include maintenance of traditional, healthful dietary practices including consumption of legumes, but also reduction in refined

  18. Smartphone Ownership Among US Adult Cigarette Smokers: 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Jaimee L; Mull, Kristin E

    2017-08-31

    Despite increasing interest in smartphone apps as a platform for delivery of tobacco cessation interventions, no previous studies have evaluated the prevalence and characteristics of smokers who can access smartphone-delivered interventions. To guide treatment development in this new platform and to evaluate disparities in access to smartphone-delivered interventions, we examined associations of smartphone ownership with demographics, tobacco use and thoughts about quitting, other health behaviors, physical and mental health, health care access, and Internet and technology utilization using a nationally representative sample of US adult smokers. Data were from the National Cancer Institute's 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4), Cycle 4. This mailed survey targeted noninstitutionalized individuals aged 18 years or older using two-stage stratified random sampling. For this analysis, we restricted the sample to current smokers with complete data on smartphone ownership (n=479). Nearly two-thirds (weighted percent=63.8%, 248/479) of smokers reported owning a smartphone. Those who were younger (Pvegetable consumption (P=.03) and were more likely to report past-year efforts to increase exercise (P=.001) and to lose weight (P=.02). No differences in health care access and utilization were found. Smartphone owners reported better physical and mental health in several domains and higher access to and utilization of technology and the Internet, including for health reasons. Smartphone ownership among smokers mirrors many trends in the general population, including the overall rate of ownership and the association with younger age and higher socioeconomic status. Apps for smoking cessation could potentially capitalize on smartphone owners' efforts at multiple health behavior changes and interest in communicating with health care providers via technology. These data also highlight the importance of accessible treatment options for smokers without

  19. Dropout From an eHealth Intervention for Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Silje Stangeland; Karlsen, Bjørg; Oord, Ellen Renate; Graue, Marit; Oftedal, Bjørg

    2017-05-30

    Adequate self-management is the cornerstone of type 2 diabetes treatment, as people make the majority of daily treatment measures and health decisions. The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the complexity of diabetes self-management demonstrate the need for innovative and effective ways to deliver self-management support. eHealth interventions are promoted worldwide and hold a great potential in future health care for people with chronic diseases such as T2DM. However, many eHealth interventions face high dropout rates. This led to our interest in the experiences of participants who dropped out of an eHealth intervention for adults with T2DM, based on the Guided Self-Determination (GSD) counseling method. In this study, we aimed to explore experiences with an eHealth intervention based on GSD in general practice from the perspective of those who dropped out and to understand their reasons for dropping out. To the best of our knowledge, no previous qualitative study has focused on participants who withdrew from an eHealth self-management support intervention for adults with T2DM. A qualitative design based on telephone interviews was used to collect data. The sample comprised 12 adults with type 2 diabetes who dropped out of an eHealth intervention. Data were collected in 2016 and subjected to qualitative content analysis. We identified one overall theme: "Losing motivation for intervention participation." This theme was illustrated by four categories related to the participants' experiences of the eHealth intervention: (1) frustrating technology, (2) perceiving the content as irrelevant and incomprehensible, (3) choosing other activities and perspectives, and (4) lacking face-to-face encounters. Our findings indicate that the eHealth intervention based on GSD without face-to-face encounters with nurses reduced participants' motivation for engagement in the intervention. To maintain motivation, our study points to the importance of

  20. Using Facebook to Recruit Young Adult Veterans: Online Mental Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Veteran research has primarily been conducted with clinical samples and those already involved in health care systems, but much is to be learned about veterans in the community. Facebook is a novel yet largely unexplored avenue for recruiting veteran participants for epidemiological and clinical studies. Objective In this study, we utilized Facebook to recruit a sample of young adult veterans for the first phase of an online alcohol intervention study. We describe the successful Facebook recruitment process, including data collection from over 1000 veteran participants in approximately 3 weeks, procedures to verify participation eligibility, and comparison of our sample with nationally available norms. Methods Participants were young adult veterans aged 18-34 recruited through Facebook as part of a large study to document normative drinking behavior among a large community sample of veterans. Facebook ads were targeted toward young veterans to collect information on demographics and military characteristics, health behaviors, mental health, and health care utilization. Results We obtained a sample of 1023 verified veteran participants over a period of 24 days for the advertising price of approximately US $7.05 per verified veteran participant. Our recruitment strategy yielded a sample similar to the US population of young adult veterans in most demographic areas except for race/ethnicity and previous branch of service, which when we weighted the sample on race/ethnicity and branch a sample better matched with the population data was obtained. The Facebook sample recruited veterans who were engaged in a variety of risky health behaviors such as binge drinking and marijuana use. One fourth of veterans had never since discharge been to an appointment for physical health care and about half had attended an appointment for service compensation review. Only half had attended any appointment for a mental health concern at any clinic or hospital. Despite more