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Sample records for abc multidrug efflux

  1. Dual repression of the multidrug efflux pump CmeABC by CosR and CmeR in Campylobacter jejuni

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    Tara Grinnage-Pulley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During transmission and intestinal colonization, Campylobacter jejuni, a major foodborne human pathogen, experiences oxidative stress. CosR, a response regulator in C. jejuni, modulates the oxidative stress response and represses expression of the CmeABC multidrug efflux pump. CmeABC, a key component in resistance to toxic compounds including antimicrobials and bile salts, is also under negative regulation by CmeR, a TetR family transcriptional regulator. How CosR and CmeR interact in binding to the cmeABC promoter and how CosR senses oxidative stress are still unknown. To answer these questions, we conducted various experiments utilizing electrophoretic mobility shift assays and transcriptional fusion assays. CosR and CmeR bound independently to two separate sites of the cmeABC promoter, simultaneously repressing cmeABC expression. This dual binding of CosR and CmeR is optimal with a 17 base pair space between the two binding sites as mutations that shortened the distance between the binding sites decreased binding by CmeR and enhanced cmeABC expression. Additionally, the single cysteine residue (C218 of CosR was sensitive to oxidation, which altered the DNA-binding activity of CosR and dissociated CosR from the cmeABC promoter as determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Replacement of C218 with serine rendered CosR insensitive to oxidation, suggesting a potential role of C218 in sensing oxidative stress and providing a possible mechanism for CosR-mediated response to oxidative stress. These findings reveal a dual regulatory role of CosR and CmeR in modulating cmeABC expression and suggest a potential mechanism that may explain overexpression of cmeABC in response to oxidative stress. Differential expression of cmeABC mediated by CmeR and CosR in response to different signals may facilitate adaptation of Campylobacter to various environmental conditions.

  2. Multidrug Efflux Systems in Microaerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria

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    Xu, Zeling; Yan, Aixin

    2015-01-01

    Active drug efflux constitutes an important mechanism of antibiotic and multidrug resistance in bacteria. Understanding the distribution, expression, and physiological functions of multidrug efflux pumps, especially under physiologically and clinically relevant conditions of the pathogens, is the key to combat drug resistance. In animal hosts, most wounded, infected and inflamed tissues display low oxygen tensions. In this article, we summarize research development on multidrug efflux pumps i...

  3. Multidrug efflux pumps in Staphylococcus aureus and their clinical implications.

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    Jang, Soojin

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is rapidly spreading among bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that causes a variety of diseases in humans. For the last two decades, bacterial multidrug efflux pumps have drawn attention due to their potential association with clinical multidrug resistance. Numerous researchers have demonstrated efflux-mediated resistance in vitro and in vivo and found novel multidrug transporters using advanced genomic information about bacteria. This article aims to provide a concise summary of multidrug efflux pumps and their important clinical implications, focusing on recent findings concerning S. aureus efflux pumps.

  4. Development of novel strategies to combat multidrug resistance mediated by efflux transporters and intracellular bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Kuriakose, Jerrin

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the condition where cancer cells or microorganisms cease to respond to multiple drugs. MDR conferred by efflux transporters, that deprive the bioavailability of drugs at their site of action, are a threat to cancer and malarial chemotherapy. Specifically, the mammalian ABC transporter Pglycoprotein (P-gp) has undermined many drugs in treatment of cancer and other disease states. Mutations in the parasitic transporter Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance t...

  5. Bacterial Multidrug Efflux Pumps: Much More Than Antibiotic Resistance Determinants.

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    Blanco, Paula; Hernando-Amado, Sara; Reales-Calderon, Jose Antonio; Corona, Fernando; Lira, Felipe; Alcalde-Rico, Manuel; Bernardini, Alejandra; Sanchez, Maria Blanca; Martinez, Jose Luis

    2016-02-16

    Bacterial multidrug efflux pumps are antibiotic resistance determinants present in all microorganisms. With few exceptions, they are chromosomally encoded and present a conserved organization both at the genetic and at the protein levels. In addition, most, if not all, strains of a given bacterial species present the same chromosomally-encoded efflux pumps. Altogether this indicates that multidrug efflux pumps are ancient elements encoded in bacterial genomes long before the recent use of antibiotics for human and animal therapy. In this regard, it is worth mentioning that efflux pumps can extrude a wide range of substrates that include, besides antibiotics, heavy metals, organic pollutants, plant-produced compounds, quorum sensing signals or bacterial metabolites, among others. In the current review, we present information on the different functions that multidrug efflux pumps may have for the bacterial behaviour in different habitats as well as on their regulation by specific signals. Since, in addition to their function in non-clinical ecosystems, multidrug efflux pumps contribute to intrinsic, acquired, and phenotypic resistance of bacterial pathogens, the review also presents information on the search for inhibitors of multidrug efflux pumps, which are currently under development, in the aim of increasing the susceptibility of bacterial pathogens to antibiotics.

  6. Bacterial Multidrug Efflux Pumps of the Major Facilitator Superfamily as Targets for Modulation.

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    Kumar, Sanath; He, Guixin; Kakarla, Prathusha; Shrestha, Ugina; Ranjana, K C; Ranaweera, Indrika; Willmon, T Mark; Barr, Sharla R; Hernandez, Alberto J; Varela, Manuel F

    2016-01-01

    Causative agents of infectious disease that are multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens represent a serious public health concern due to the increasingly difficult nature of achieving efficacious clinical treatments. Of the various acquired and intrinsic antimicrobial agent resistance determinants, integral-membrane multidrug efflux pumps of the major facilitator superfamily constitute a major mechanism of bacterial resistance. The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) encompasses thousands of known related secondary active and passive solute transporters, including multidrug efflux pumps, from bacteria to humans. This review article addresses recent developments involving the targeting by various modulators of bacterial multidrug efflux pumps from the major facilitator superfamily. It is currently of tremendous interest to modulate bacterial multidrug efflux pumps in order to eventually restore the clinical efficacy of therapeutic agents against recalcitrant bacterial infections. Such MFS multidrug efflux pumps are good targets for modulation.

  7. Bacterial multidrug efflux pumps: mechanisms, physiology and pharmacological exploitations.

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    Sun, Jingjing; Deng, Ziqing; Yan, Aixin

    2014-10-17

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) refers to the capability of bacterial pathogens to withstand lethal doses of structurally diverse drugs which are capable of eradicating non-resistant strains. MDR has been identified as a major threat to the public health of human being by the World Health Organization (WHO). Among the four general mechanisms that cause antibiotic resistance including target alteration, drug inactivation, decreased permeability and increased efflux, drug extrusion by the multidrug efflux pumps serves as an important mechanism of MDR. Efflux pumps not only can expel a broad range of antibiotics owing to their poly-substrate specificity, but also drive the acquisition of additional resistance mechanisms by lowering intracellular antibiotic concentration and promoting mutation accumulation. Over-expression of multidrug efflux pumps have been increasingly found to be associated with clinically relevant drug resistance. On the other hand, accumulating evidence has suggested that efflux pumps also have physiological functions in bacteria and their expression is subject tight regulation in response to various of environmental and physiological signals. A comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of drug extrusion, and regulation and physiological functions of efflux pumps is essential for the development of anti-resistance interventions. In this review, we summarize the development of these research areas in the recent decades and present the pharmacological exploitation of efflux pump inhibitors as a promising anti-drug resistance intervention. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Multidrug efflux pumps at the crossroad between antibiotic resistance and bacterial virulence

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    Manuel Alcalde-Rico

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug efflux pumps can be involved in bacterial resistance to antibiotics at different levels. Some efflux pumps are constitutively expressed at low levels and contribute to intrinsic resistance. In addition, their overexpression may allow higher levels of resistance. This overexpression can be transient, in the presence of an effector (phenotypic resistance, or constitutive when mutants in the regulatory elements of the expression of efflux pumps are selected (acquired resistance. Efflux pumps are present in all cells, from human to bacteria and are highly conserved, which indicates that they are ancient elements in the evolution of different organisms. Consequently, it has been suggested that, besides antibiotic resistance, bacterial multidrug efflux pumps would likely contribute to other relevant process of the microbial physiology. In the current article, we discuss some specific examples of the role that efflux pumps may have in the bacterial virulence of animals' and plants' pathogens, including the processes of intercellular communication. Based in these evidences, we propose that efflux pumps are at the crossroad between resistance and virulence of bacterial pathogens. Consequently, the comprehensive study of multidrug efflux pumps requires addressing these functions, which are of relevance for the bacterial-host interactions during infection.

  9. Multidrug Efflux Pumps at the Crossroad between Antibiotic Resistance and Bacterial Virulence.

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    Alcalde-Rico, Manuel; Hernando-Amado, Sara; Blanco, Paula; Martínez, José L

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug efflux pumps can be involved in bacterial resistance to antibiotics at different levels. Some efflux pumps are constitutively expressed at low levels and contribute to intrinsic resistance. In addition, their overexpression may allow higher levels of resistance. This overexpression can be transient, in the presence of an effector (phenotypic resistance), or constitutive when mutants in the regulatory elements of the expression of efflux pumps are selected (acquired resistance). Efflux pumps are present in all cells, from human to bacteria and are highly conserved, which indicates that they are ancient elements in the evolution of different organisms. Consequently, it has been suggested that, besides antibiotic resistance, bacterial multidrug efflux pumps would likely contribute to other relevant processes of the microbial physiology. In the current article, we discuss some specific examples of the role that efflux pumps may have in the bacterial virulence of animals' and plants' pathogens, including the processes of intercellular communication. Based in these evidences, we propose that efflux pumps are at the crossroad between resistance and virulence of bacterial pathogens. Consequently, the comprehensive study of multidrug efflux pumps requires addressing these functions, which are of relevance for the bacterial-host interactions during infection.

  10. Drug efflux proteins in multidrug resistant bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanVeen, HW; Konings, WN

    Bacteria contain an array of transport proteins in their cytoplasmic membrane. Many of these proteins play an important role in conferring resistance to toxic compounds. The multidrug efflux systems encountered in prokaryotic cells are very similar to those observed in eukaryotic cells. Therefore, a

  11. RND multidrug efflux pumps: what are they good for?

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    Alvarez-Ortega, Carolina; Olivares, Jorge; Martínez, José L.

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug efflux pumps are chromosomally encoded genetic elements capable of mediating resistance to toxic compounds in several life forms. In bacteria, these elements are involved in intrinsic and acquired resistance to antibiotics. Unlike other well-known horizontally acquired antibiotic resistance determinants, genes encoding for multidrug efflux pumps belong to the core of bacterial genomes and thus have evolved over millions of years. The selective pressure stemming from the use of antibiotics to treat bacterial infections is relatively recent in evolutionary terms. Therefore, it is unlikely that these elements have evolved in response to antibiotics. In the last years, several studies have identified numerous functions for efflux pumps that go beyond antibiotic extrusion. In this review we present some examples of these functions that range from bacterial interactions with plant or animal hosts, to the detoxification of metabolic intermediates or the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. PMID:23386844

  12. Multidrug Efflux Pumps in Staphylococcus aureus: an Update

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    Costa, Sofia Santos; Viveiros, Miguel; Amaral, Leonard; Couto, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of infections caused by multi- or pan-resistant bacteria in the hospital or in the community settings is an increasing health concern. Albeit there is no single resistance mechanism behind multiresistance, multidrug efflux pumps, proteins that cells use to detoxify from noxious compounds, seem to play a key role in the emergence of these multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. During the last decades, experimental data has established their contribution to low level resistance to antimicrobials in bacteria and their potential role in the appearance of MDR phenotypes, by the extrusion of multiple, unrelated compounds. Recent studies suggest that efflux pumps may be used by the cell as a first-line defense mechanism, avoiding the drug to reach lethal concentrations, until a stable, more efficient alteration occurs, that allows survival in the presence of that agent. In this paper we review the current knowledge on MDR efflux pumps and their intricate regulatory network in Staphylococcus aureus, a major pathogen, responsible from mild to life-threatening infections. Particular emphasis will be given to the potential role that S. aureus MDR efflux pumps, either chromosomal or plasmid-encoded, have on resistance towards different antimicrobial agents and on the selection of drug - resistant strains. We will also discuss the many questions that still remain on the role of each specific efflux pump and the need to establish appropriate methodological approaches to address all these questions. PMID:23569469

  13. Multidrug Efflux Pumps in Staphylococcus aureus: an Update.

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    Costa, Sofia Santos; Viveiros, Miguel; Amaral, Leonard; Couto, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of infections caused by multi- or pan-resistant bacteria in the hospital or in the community settings is an increasing health concern. Albeit there is no single resistance mechanism behind multiresistance, multidrug efflux pumps, proteins that cells use to detoxify from noxious compounds, seem to play a key role in the emergence of these multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. During the last decades, experimental data has established their contribution to low level resistance to antimicrobials in bacteria and their potential role in the appearance of MDR phenotypes, by the extrusion of multiple, unrelated compounds. Recent studies suggest that efflux pumps may be used by the cell as a first-line defense mechanism, avoiding the drug to reach lethal concentrations, until a stable, more efficient alteration occurs, that allows survival in the presence of that agent. In this paper we review the current knowledge on MDR efflux pumps and their intricate regulatory network in Staphylococcus aureus, a major pathogen, responsible from mild to life-threatening infections. Particular emphasis will be given to the potential role that S. aureus MDR efflux pumps, either chromosomal or plasmid-encoded, have on resistance towards different antimicrobial agents and on the selection of drug - resistant strains. We will also discuss the many questions that still remain on the role of each specific efflux pump and the need to establish appropriate methodological approaches to address all these questions.

  14. Multidrug Efflux Pumps in Staphylococcus aureus: an Update

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Sofia Santos; Viveiros, Miguel; Amaral, Leonard; Couto, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of infections caused by multi- or pan-resistant bacteria in the hospital or in the community settings is an increasing health concern. Albeit there is no single resistance mechanism behind multiresistance, multidrug efflux pumps, proteins that cells use to detoxify from noxious compounds, seem to play a key role in the emergence of these multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. During the last decades, experimental data has established their contribution to low level resistance to an...

  15. Mouse ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporters Conferring Multi-Drug Resistance

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    Shuaizhang, L I; Zhang, Wen; Yin, Xuejiao; Xing, Shilai; Xie, Qunhui; Cao, Zhengyu; Zhao, Bin

    2015-04-28

    The ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter is one of the largest and most ancient protein families with members functioning from protozoa to human. The resistance of cancer and tumor cells to anticancer drugs is due to the over-expression of some ABC transporters, which may finally lead to chemotherapy failure. The mouse ABC transporters are classified into seven subfamilies by phylogenetic analysis. The mouse ABC transporter gene, alias, chromosomal location and function have been determined. Within the ABC super-family, the MDR transporters (Abcb1, Abcc1, Abcg2) in mouse models have been proved to be valuable to investigate the biochemistry and physiological functions. This review concentrates on the multidrug resistance of mouse ABC transporters in cancer and tumor cells.

  16. Crystal structure of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae MtrD inner membrane multidrug efflux pump.

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    Jani Reddy Bolla

    Full Text Available Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an obligate human pathogen and the causative agent of the sexually-transmitted disease gonorrhea. The control of this disease has been compromised by the increasing proportion of infections due to antibiotic-resistant strains, which are growing at an alarming rate. The MtrCDE tripartite multidrug efflux pump, belonging to the hydrophobic and amphiphilic efflux resistance-nodulation-cell division (HAE-RND family, spans both the inner and outer membranes of N. gonorrhoeae and confers resistance to a variety of antibiotics and toxic compounds. We here report the crystal structure of the inner membrane MtrD multidrug efflux pump, which reveals a novel structural feature that is not found in other RND efflux pumps.

  17. Effect of iron on expression of efflux pump (adeABC) and quorum sensing (luxI, luxR) genes in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii.

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    Modarresi, Farzan; Azizi, Omid; Shakibaie, Mohammad Reza; Motamedifar, Mohammad; Valibeigi, Behnaz; Mansouri, Shahla

    2015-11-01

    Resistance-nodulation-division efflux system (RND) adeABC contributes to intrinsic resistance to various drug classes in Acinetobacter baumannii. Similarly, quorum sensing (QS) plays an important role in the biofilm formation and pathogenicity of this bacterium. The aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of iron limitation on the expression of efflux pump (adeABC) genes and QS (luxI, luxR) system by relative quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In addition, DNA sequence and phylogenetic relatedness of biofilm-associated protein (Bap) gene was also investigated. Sixty-five multidrug-resistant isolates of A. baumannii were recovered from ICU patients of three hospitals in Kerman, Iran. The isolates were highly resistant to at least 11 antibiotics (MIC ≥64 μg/mL); however, 87% and 89% were susceptible to colistin and tigecycline, respectively (MIC 0.05 μg/mL) (p ≤ 0.05). We detected the presence of RND efflux pump, QS, and bap genes with the frequencies of 92% (adeA), 61.5% (adeB), 84.6% (adeC), 80% (luxI), 61% (luxR), and 66% (bap), respectively. qRT-PCR analysis showed that in some isolates, expression of both adeABC and luxI/R was increased more than fourfold in the presence of low iron (20 μm), suggesting the additional regulatory role of iron on both efflux pump and QS system. Alignment and phylogenetic analysis on the strong biofilm forming isolates confirmed that the fragments amplified were indeed part of bap gene and deduced sequence was similar to A. baumannii K9B410. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Acinetobacter baumannii Two-Component System AdeRS Regulates Genes Required for Multidrug Efflux, Biofilm Formation, and Virulence in a Strain-Specific Manner

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    Grace E. Richmond

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The opportunistic pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii is able to persist in the environment and is often multidrug resistant (MDR, causing difficulties in the treatment of infections. Here, we show that the two-component system AdeRS, which regulates the production of the AdeABC multidrug resistance efflux pump, is required for the formation of a protective biofilm in an ex vivo porcine mucosal model, which mimics a natural infection of the human epithelium. Interestingly, deletion of adeB impacted only on the ability of strain AYE to form a biofilm on plastic and only on the virulence of strain Singapore 1 for Galleria mellonella. RNA-Seq revealed that loss of AdeRS or AdeB significantly altered the transcriptional landscape, resulting in the changed expression of many genes, notably those associated with antimicrobial resistance and virulence interactions. For example, A. baumannii lacking AdeRS displayed decreased expression of adeABC, pil genes, com genes, and a pgaC-like gene, whereas loss of AdeB resulted in increased expression of pil and com genes and decreased expression of ferric acinetobactin transport system genes. These data define the scope of AdeRS-mediated regulation, show that changes in the production of AdeABC mediate important phenotypes controlled by AdeRS, and suggest that AdeABC is a viable target for antimicrobial drug and antibiofilm discovery.

  19. Homologs of the Acinetobacter baumannii AceI transporter represent a new family of bacterial multidrug efflux systems.

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    Hassan, Karl A; Liu, Qi; Henderson, Peter J F; Paulsen, Ian T

    2015-02-10

    Multidrug efflux systems are a major cause of resistance to antimicrobials in bacteria, including those pathogenic to humans, animals, and plants. These proteins are ubiquitous in these pathogens, and five families of bacterial multidrug efflux systems have been identified to date. By using transcriptomic and biochemical analyses, we recently identified the novel AceI (Acinetobacter chlorhexidine efflux) protein from Acinetobacter baumannii that conferred resistance to the biocide chlorhexidine, via an active efflux mechanism. Proteins homologous to AceI are encoded in the genomes of many other bacterial species and are particularly prominent within proteobacterial lineages. In this study, we expressed 23 homologs of AceI and examined their resistance and/or transport profiles. MIC analyses demonstrated that, like AceI, many of the homologs conferred resistance to chlorhexidine. Many of the AceI homologs conferred resistance to additional biocides, including benzalkonium, dequalinium, proflavine, and acriflavine. We conducted fluorimetric transport assays using the AceI homolog from Vibrio parahaemolyticus and confirmed that resistance to both proflavine and acriflavine was mediated by an active efflux mechanism. These results show that this group of AceI homologs represent a new family of bacterial multidrug efflux pumps, which we have designated the proteobacterial antimicrobial compound efflux (PACE) family of transport proteins. Bacterial multidrug efflux pumps are an important class of resistance determinants that can be found in every bacterial genome sequenced to date. These transport proteins have important protective functions for the bacterial cell but are a significant problem in the clinical setting, since a single efflux system can mediate resistance to many structurally and mechanistically diverse antibiotics and biocides. In this study, we demonstrate that proteins related to the Acinetobacter baumannii AceI transporter are a new class of multidrug

  20. Multidrug Efflux Pumps from Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus Bacterial Food Pathogens

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    Jody L. Andersen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne illnesses caused by bacterial microorganisms are common worldwide and constitute a serious public health concern. In particular, microorganisms belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae families of Gram-negative bacteria, and to the Staphylococcus genus of Gram-positive bacteria are important causative agents of food poisoning and infection in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Recently, variants of these bacteria have developed resistance to medically important chemotherapeutic agents. Multidrug resistant Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholerae, Enterobacter spp., and Staphylococcus aureus are becoming increasingly recalcitrant to clinical treatment in human patients. Of the various bacterial resistance mechanisms against antimicrobial agents, multidrug efflux pumps comprise a major cause of multiple drug resistance. These multidrug efflux pump systems reside in the biological membrane of the bacteria and actively extrude antimicrobial agents from bacterial cells. This review article summarizes the evolution of these bacterial drug efflux pump systems from a molecular biological standpoint and provides a framework for future work aimed at reducing the conditions that foster dissemination of these multidrug resistant causative agents through human populations.

  1. Multidrug Efflux Pumps from Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus Bacterial Food Pathogens

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    Andersen, Jody L.; He, Gui-Xin; Kakarla, Prathusha; KC, Ranjana; Kumar, Sanath; Lakra, Wazir Singh; Mukherjee, Mun Mun; Ranaweera, Indrika; Shrestha, Ugina; Tran, Thuy; Varela, Manuel F.

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne illnesses caused by bacterial microorganisms are common worldwide and constitute a serious public health concern. In particular, microorganisms belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae families of Gram-negative bacteria, and to the Staphylococcus genus of Gram-positive bacteria are important causative agents of food poisoning and infection in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Recently, variants of these bacteria have developed resistance to medically important chemotherapeutic agents. Multidrug resistant Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholerae, Enterobacter spp., and Staphylococcus aureus are becoming increasingly recalcitrant to clinical treatment in human patients. Of the various bacterial resistance mechanisms against antimicrobial agents, multidrug efflux pumps comprise a major cause of multiple drug resistance. These multidrug efflux pump systems reside in the biological membrane of the bacteria and actively extrude antimicrobial agents from bacterial cells. This review article summarizes the evolution of these bacterial drug efflux pump systems from a molecular biological standpoint and provides a framework for future work aimed at reducing the conditions that foster dissemination of these multidrug resistant causative agents through human populations. PMID:25635914

  2. MOLECULAR DYNAMICS COMPUTER SIMULATIONS OF MULTIDRUG RND EFFLUX PUMPS

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    Paolo Ruggerone

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Over-expression of multidrug efflux pumps of the Resistance Nodulation Division (RND protein super family counts among the main causes for microbial resistance against pharmaceuticals. Understanding the molecular basis of this process is one of the major challenges of modern biomedical research, involving a broad range of experimental and computational techniques. Here we review the current state of RND transporter investigation employing molecular dynamics simulations providing conformational samples of transporter components to obtain insights into the functional mechanism underlying efflux pump-mediated antibiotics resistance in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  3. Molecular Dynamics Computer Simulations of Multidrug RND Efflux Pumps

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    Paolo Ruggerone

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Over-expression of multidrug efflux pumps of the Resistance Nodulation Division (RND protein super family counts among the main causes for microbial resistance against pharmaceuticals. Understanding the molecular basis of this process is one of the major challenges of modern biomedical research, involving a broad range of experimental and computational techniques. Here we review the current state of RND transporter investigation employing molecular dynamics simulations providing conformational samples of transporter components to obtain insights into the functional mechanism underlying efflux pump-mediated antibiotics resistance in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  4. Sensitive and specific fluorescent probes for functional analysis of the three major types of mammalian ABC transporters.

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    Lebedeva, Irina V; Pande, Praveen; Patton, Wayne F

    2011-01-01

    An underlying mechanism for multi drug resistance (MDR) is up-regulation of the transmembrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins. ABC transporters also determine the general fate and effect of pharmaceutical agents in the body. The three major types of ABC transporters are MDR1 (P-gp, P-glycoprotein, ABCB1), MRP1/2 (ABCC1/2) and BCRP/MXR (ABCG2) proteins. Flow cytometry (FCM) allows determination of the functional expression levels of ABC transporters in live cells, but most dyes used as indicators (rhodamine 123, DiOC(2)(3), calcein-AM) have limited applicability as they do not detect all three major types of ABC transporters. Dyes with broad coverage (such as doxorubicin, daunorubicin and mitoxantrone) lack sensitivity due to overall dimness and thus may yield a significant percentage of false negative results. We describe two novel fluorescent probes that are substrates for all three common types of ABC transporters and can serve as indicators of MDR in flow cytometry assays using live cells. The probes exhibit fast internalization, favorable uptake/efflux kinetics and high sensitivity of MDR detection, as established by multidrug resistance activity factor (MAF) values and Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical analysis. Used in combination with general or specific inhibitors of ABC transporters, both dyes readily identify functional efflux and are capable of detecting small levels of efflux as well as defining the type of multidrug resistance. The assay can be applied to the screening of putative modulators of ABC transporters, facilitating rapid, reproducible, specific and relatively simple functional detection of ABC transporter activity, and ready implementation on widely available instruments.

  5. Current Advances in Developing Inhibitors of Bacterial MultidrugEfflux Pumps

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    Mahmood, Hannah Y.; Jamshidi, Shirin; Sutton, J. Mark; Rahman, Khondaker M.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance represents a significant challenge to future healthcare provision. An acronym ESKAPEE has been derived from the names of the organisms recognised as the major threats although there are a number of other organisms, notably Neisseria gonorrhoeae, that have become equally challenging to treat in the clinic. These pathogens are characterised by the ability to rapidly develop and/or acquire resistance mechanisms in response to exposure to different antimicrobial agents. A key part of the armoury of these pathogens is a series of efflux pumps, which effectively exclude or reduce the intracellular concentration of a large number of antibiotics, making the pathogens significantly more resistant. These efflux pumps are the topic of considerable interest, both from the perspective of basic understanding of efflux pump function, and its role in drug resistance but also as targets for the development of novel adjunct therapies. The necessity to overcome antimicrobial resistance has encouraged investigations into the characterisation of resistance-modifying efflux pump inhibitors to block the mechanisms of drug extrusion, thereby restoring antibacterial susceptibility and returning existing antibiotics into the clinic. A greater understanding of drug recognition and transport by multidrug efflux pumps is needed to develop clinically useful inhibitors, given the breadth of molecules that can be effluxed by these systems. This review discusses different bacterial EPIs originating from both natural source and chemical synthesis and examines the challenges to designing successful EPIs that can be useful against multidrug resistant bacteria. PMID:26947776

  6. New Roads Leading to Old Destinations: Efflux Pumps as Targets to Reverse Multidrug Resistance in Bacteria

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    Gabriella Spengler

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance (MDR has appeared in response to selective pressures resulting from the incorrect use of antibiotics and other antimicrobials. This inappropriate application and mismanagement of antibiotics have led to serious problems in the therapy of infectious diseases. Bacteria can develop resistance by various mechanisms and one of the most important factors resulting in MDR is efflux pump-mediated resistance. Because of the importance of the efflux-related multidrug resistance the development of new therapeutic approaches aiming to inhibit bacterial efflux pumps is a promising way to combat bacteria having over-expressed MDR efflux systems. The definition of an efflux pump inhibitor (EPI includes the ability to render the bacterium increasingly more sensitive to a given antibiotic or even reverse the multidrug resistant phenotype. In the recent years numerous EPIs have been developed, although so far their clinical application has not yet been achieved due to their in vivo toxicity and side effects. In this review, we aim to give a short overview of efflux mediated resistance in bacteria, EPI compounds of plant and synthetic origin, and the possible methods to investigate and screen EPI compounds in bacterial systems.

  7. Tripartite assembly of RND multidrug efflux pumps.

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    Daury, Laetitia; Orange, François; Taveau, Jean-Christophe; Verchère, Alice; Monlezun, Laura; Gounou, Céline; Marreddy, Ravi K R; Picard, Martin; Broutin, Isabelle; Pos, Klaas M; Lambert, Olivier

    2016-02-12

    Tripartite multidrug efflux systems of Gram-negative bacteria are composed of an inner membrane transporter, an outer membrane channel and a periplasmic adaptor protein. They are assumed to form ducts inside the periplasm facilitating drug exit across the outer membrane. Here we present the reconstitution of native Pseudomonas aeruginosa MexAB-OprM and Escherichia coli AcrAB-TolC tripartite Resistance Nodulation and cell Division (RND) efflux systems in a lipid nanodisc system. Single-particle analysis by electron microscopy reveals the inner and outer membrane protein components linked together via the periplasmic adaptor protein. This intrinsic ability of the native components to self-assemble also leads to the formation of a stable interspecies AcrA-MexB-TolC complex suggesting a common mechanism of tripartite assembly. Projection structures of all three complexes emphasize the role of the periplasmic adaptor protein as part of the exit duct with no physical interaction between the inner and outer membrane components.

  8. Structures and transport dynamics of a Campylobacter jejuni multidrug efflux pump

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    Su, Chih-Chia; Yin, Linxiang; Kumar, Nitin; Dai, Lei; Radhakrishnan, Abhijith; Bolla, Jani Reddy; Lei, Hsiang-Ting; Chou, Tsung-Han; Delmar, Jared A.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Zhang, Qijing; Shin, Yeon-Kyun; Yu, Edward W. (Cornell); (Iowa State)

    2017-08-01

    Resistance-nodulation-cell division efflux pumps are integral membrane proteins that catalyze the export of substrates across cell membranes. Within the hydrophobe-amphiphile efflux subfamily, these resistance-nodulation-cell division proteins largely form trimeric efflux pumps. The drug efflux process has been proposed to entail a synchronized motion between subunits of the trimer to advance the transport cycle, leading to the extrusion of drug molecules. Here we use X-ray crystallography and single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging to elucidate the structures and functional dynamics of the Campylobacter jejuni CmeB multidrug efflux pump. We find that the CmeB trimer displays a very unique conformation. A direct observation of transport dynamics in individual CmeB trimers embedded in membrane vesicles indicates that each CmeB subunit undergoes conformational transitions uncoordinated and independent of each other. On the basis of our findings and analyses, we propose a model for transport mechanism where CmeB protomers function independently within the trimer.

  9. The ABC of Biofilm Drug Tolerance: the MerR-Like Regulator BrlR Is an Activator of ABC Transport Systems, with PA1874-77 Contributing to the Tolerance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms to Tobramycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudyal, Bandita; Sauer, Karin

    2018-02-01

    A hallmark of biofilms is their tolerance to killing by antimicrobial agents. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa , biofilm drug tolerance requires the c-di-GMP-responsive MerR transcriptional regulator BrlR. However, the mechanism by which BrlR mediates biofilm drug tolerance has not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that BrlR activates the expression of at least 7 ABC transport systems, including the PA1874-PA1875-PA1876-PA1877 (PA1874-77) operon, with chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNA binding assays confirming BrlR binding to the promoter region of PA1874-77. Insertional inactivation of the 7 ABC transport systems rendered P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms susceptible to tobramycin or norfloxacin. Susceptibility was linked to drug accumulation, with BrlR contributing to norfloxacin accumulation in a manner dependent on multidrug efflux pumps and the PA1874-77 ABC transport system. Inactivation of the respective ABC transport system, furthermore, eliminated the recalcitrance of biofilms to killing by tobramycin but not norfloxacin, indicating that drug accumulation is not linked to biofilm drug tolerance. Our findings indicate for the first time that BrlR, a MerR-type transcriptional activator, activates genes encoding several ABC transport systems, in addition to multiple multidrug efflux pump genes. Moreover, our data confirm a BrlR target contributing to drug tolerance, likely countering the prevailing dogma that biofilm tolerance arises from a multiplicity of factors. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Surface charge-specific interactions between polymer nanoparticles and ABC transporters in Caco-2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, Sourav, E-mail: sourav.bhattacharjee@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry (Netherlands); Opstal, Edward J. van; Alink, Gerrit M. [Wageningen University, Division of Toxicology (Netherlands); Marcelis, Antonius T. M.; Zuilhof, Han [Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry (Netherlands); Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M. [Wageningen University, Division of Toxicology (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    The surface charge-dependent transport of polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) across Caco-2 monolayers grown on transwell culture systems as an in vitro model for intestinal transport was tested. The transport of well-characterized, monodisperse, and fluorescent tri-block copolymer nanoparticles (TCNPs/size {approx}45 nm) and polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs/size {approx}50 nm), with different surface charges (positive and negative), was quantified. The positive PNPs showed a higher intracellular uptake and flux across the Caco-2 monolayers than the negative PNPs. Multidrug resistance/P-glycoprotein (MDR1/P-gp), a specific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, was found to play a major role in the cellular efflux of positive PNPs, whereas the multidrug resistance protein 1 took part in the efflux of negative PNPs from Caco-2 cells. The positive PNPs also caused an increased cellular uptake and apical to basolateral transport of the carcinogen PhIP across the Caco-2 monolayer. The flavonoid quercetin, which is known to interact with ABC transporters, promoted the intracellular uptake of different PNPs and interfered with the normal distribution patterns of PNPs in the transwell system. These results indicate that PNPs display surface charge-specific interactions with ABC transporters and can even affect the bioavailability of toxic food-borne compounds (like pro-carcinogens).

  11. Surface charge-specific interactions between polymer nanoparticles and ABC transporters in Caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Sourav; van Opstal, Edward J.; Alink, Gerrit M.; Marcelis, Antonius T. M.; Zuilhof, Han; Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M.

    2013-06-01

    The surface charge-dependent transport of polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) across Caco-2 monolayers grown on transwell culture systems as an in vitro model for intestinal transport was tested. The transport of well-characterized, monodisperse, and fluorescent tri-block copolymer nanoparticles (TCNPs/size 45 nm) and polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs/size 50 nm), with different surface charges (positive and negative), was quantified. The positive PNPs showed a higher intracellular uptake and flux across the Caco-2 monolayers than the negative PNPs. Multidrug resistance/P-glycoprotein (MDR1/P-gp), a specific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, was found to play a major role in the cellular efflux of positive PNPs, whereas the multidrug resistance protein 1 took part in the efflux of negative PNPs from Caco-2 cells. The positive PNPs also caused an increased cellular uptake and apical to basolateral transport of the carcinogen PhIP across the Caco-2 monolayer. The flavonoid quercetin, which is known to interact with ABC transporters, promoted the intracellular uptake of different PNPs and interfered with the normal distribution patterns of PNPs in the transwell system. These results indicate that PNPs display surface charge-specific interactions with ABC transporters and can even affect the bioavailability of toxic food-borne compounds (like pro-carcinogens).

  12. Surface charge-specific interactions between polymer nanoparticles and ABC transporters in Caco-2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, Sourav; Opstal, Edward J. van; Alink, Gerrit M.; Marcelis, Antonius T. M.; Zuilhof, Han; Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M.

    2013-01-01

    The surface charge-dependent transport of polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) across Caco-2 monolayers grown on transwell culture systems as an in vitro model for intestinal transport was tested. The transport of well-characterized, monodisperse, and fluorescent tri-block copolymer nanoparticles (TCNPs/size ∼45 nm) and polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs/size ∼50 nm), with different surface charges (positive and negative), was quantified. The positive PNPs showed a higher intracellular uptake and flux across the Caco-2 monolayers than the negative PNPs. Multidrug resistance/P-glycoprotein (MDR1/P-gp), a specific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, was found to play a major role in the cellular efflux of positive PNPs, whereas the multidrug resistance protein 1 took part in the efflux of negative PNPs from Caco-2 cells. The positive PNPs also caused an increased cellular uptake and apical to basolateral transport of the carcinogen PhIP across the Caco-2 monolayer. The flavonoid quercetin, which is known to interact with ABC transporters, promoted the intracellular uptake of different PNPs and interfered with the normal distribution patterns of PNPs in the transwell system. These results indicate that PNPs display surface charge-specific interactions with ABC transporters and can even affect the bioavailability of toxic food-borne compounds (like pro-carcinogens).

  13. Single gold nanoparticle plasmonic spectroscopy for study of chemical-dependent efflux function of single ABC transporters of single live Bacillus subtilis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Lauren M; Lee, Kerry J; Cherukuri, Pavan K; Huang, Tao; Songkiatisak, Preeyaporn; Warren, Seth; Xu, Xiao-Hong Nancy

    2018-03-26

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters serve as self-defense transport apparatus in many living organisms and they can selectively extrude a wide variety of substrates, leading to multidrug resistance (MDR). The detailed molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Single nanoparticle plasmonic spectroscopy highly depends upon their sizes, shapes, chemical and surface properties. In our previous studies, we have used the size-dependent plasmonic spectra of single silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to study the real-time efflux kinetics of the ABC (BmrA) transporter and MexAB-OprM transporter in single live cells (Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterium), respectively. In this study, we prepared and used purified, biocompatible and stable (non-aggregated) gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) (12.4 ± 0.9 nm) to study the efflux kinetics of single BmrA membrane transporters of single live Bacillus subtillis cells, aiming to probe chemical dependent efflux functions of BmrA transporters and their potential chemical sensing capability. Similar to those observed using Ag NPs, accumulation of the intracellular Au NPs in single live cells (WT and ΔBmrA) highly depends upon the cellular expression of BmrA and the NP concentration (0.7 and 1.4 nM). The lower accumulation of intracellular Au NPs in WT (normal expression of BmrA) than ΔBmrA (deletion of bmrA) indicates that BmrA extrudes the Au NPs out of the WT cells. The accumulation of Au NPs in the cells increases with NP concentration, suggesting that the Au NPs most likely passively diffuse into the cells, similar to antibiotics. The result demonstrates that such small Au NPs can serve as imaging probes to study the efflux function of the BmrA membrane transporter in single live cells. Furthermore, the dependence of the accumulation rate of intracellular Au NPs in single live cells upon the expression of BmrA and the concentration of the NPs is about twice higher than that of the same sized Ag NPs. This interesting finding

  14. Distribution and physiology of ABC-Type transporters contributing to multidrug resistance in bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubelski, Jacek; Konings, Wil N.; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    Membrane proteins responsible for the active efflux of structurally and functionally unrelated drugs were first characterized in higher eukalyotes. To date, a vast number of transporters contributing to multidrug resistance (MDR transporters) have been reported for a large variety of organisms.

  15. Circumvention of multi-drug resistance of cancer cells by Chinese herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Stella; To, Kenneth Kw; Lin, Ge

    2010-07-25

    Multi-drug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells severely limits therapeutic outcomes. A proposed mechanism for MDR involves the efflux of anti-cancer drugs from cancer cells, primarily mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters including P-glycoprotein. This article reviews the recent progress of using active ingredients, extracts and formulae from Chinese medicine (CM) in circumventing ABC transporters-mediated MDR. Among the ABC transporters, Pgp is the most extensively studied for its role in MDR reversal effects. While other MDR reversal mechanisms remain unclear, Pgp inhibition is a criterion for further mechanistic study. More mechanistic studies are needed to fully establish the pharmacological effects of potential MDR reversing agents.

  16. Brain barriers and functional interfaces with sequential appearance of ABC efflux transporters during human development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgård, Kjeld; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M.; Holst, Camilla B.

    2017-01-01

    Adult brain is protected from entry of drugs and toxins by specific mechanisms such as ABC (ATP-binding Cassette) efflux transporters. Little is known when these appear in human brain during development. Cellular distribution of three main ABC transporters (ABCC1, ABCG2, ABCB1) was determined...... at blood-brain barriers and interfaces in human embryos and fetuses in first half of gestation. Antibodies against claudin-5 and-11 and antibodies to α-fetoprotein were used to describe morphological and functional aspects of brain barriers. First exchange interfaces to be established, probably at 4...... three transporters. Results provide evidence for sequential establishment of brain exchange interfaces and spatial and temporal timetable for three main ABC transporters in early human brain....

  17. Enhancement of antibiotic activity by efflux inhibitors against multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane eCoelho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistant tuberculosis continues to increase and new approaches for its treatment are necessary. The identification of M. tuberculosis clinical isolates presenting efflux as part of their resistant phenotype has a major impact in tuberculosis treatment. In this work, we used a checkerboard procedure combined with the tetrazolium microplate-based assay (TEMA to study single combinations between antituberculosis drugs and efflux inhibitors (EIs against multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis clinical isolates using the fully susceptible strain H37Rv as reference. Efflux activity was studied on a real-time basis by a fluorometric method that uses ethidium bromide as efflux substrate. Quantification of efflux pump genes mRNA transcriptional levels were performed by RT-qPCR. The fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC indicated synergistic activity for the interactions between isoniazid, rifampicin, amikacin, ofloxacin, and ethidium bromide plus the EIs verapamil, thioridazine and chlorpromazine. The FICs ranged from 0.25, indicating a four-fold reduction on the MICs, to 0.015, 64-fold reduction. The detection of active efflux by real-time fluorometry showed that all strains presented intrinsic efflux activity that contributes to the overall resistance which can be inhibited in the presence of the EIs. The quantification of the mRNA levels of the most important efflux pump genes on these strains shows that they are intrinsically predisposed to expel toxic compounds as the exposure to subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics were not necessary to increase the pump mRNA levels when compared with the non-exposed counterpart. The results obtained in this study confirm that the intrinsic efflux activity contributes to the overall resistance in multidrug resistant clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis and that the inhibition of efflux pumps by the EIs can enhance the clinical effect of antibiotics that are their substrates.

  18. Reduced intracellular drug accumulation in drug-resistant leukemia cells is not solely due to MDR-mediated efflux but also to decreased uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Oliveira Pisco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Expression of ABC family transporter proteins that promote drug efflux from cancer cells is a widely observed mechanism of multi-drug resistance of cancer cells. Cell adaptation in long-term culture of HL60 leukemic cells in the presence of chemotherapy leads to induction and maintenance of the ABC transporters expression, preventing further accumulation of drugs. However, we found that decreased accumulation of drugs and fluorescent dyes was also contributed by a reduced uptake by the resistant cells. Confocal time-lapse microscopy and flow cytometry revealed that fluid-phase endocytosis was diminished in drug-resistant cells compared to drug-sensitive cells. Drug uptake was increased by insulin co-treatment when cells were grown in methylcellulose and monitored under the microscope, but not when cultured in suspension. We propose that multi-drug resistance is not solely achieved by enhanced efflux capacity but also by supressed intake of the drug offering an alternative target to overcome drug resistance or potentiate chemotherapy.

  19. Efflux-mediated antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Keith

    2005-07-01

    Antibiotic resistance continues to plague antimicrobial chemotherapy of infectious disease. And while true biocide resistance is as yet unrealized, in vitro and in vivo episodes of reduced biocide susceptibility are common and the history of antibiotic resistance should not be ignored in the development and use of biocidal agents. Efflux mechanisms of resistance, both drug specific and multidrug, are important determinants of intrinsic and/or acquired resistance to these antimicrobials, with some accommodating both antibiotics and biocides. This latter raises the spectre (as yet generally unrealized) of biocide selection of multiple antibiotic-resistant organisms. Multidrug efflux mechanisms are broadly conserved in bacteria, are almost invariably chromosome-encoded and their expression in many instances results from mutations in regulatory genes. In contrast, drug-specific efflux mechanisms are generally encoded by plasmids and/or other mobile genetic elements (transposons, integrons) that carry additional resistance genes, and so their ready acquisition is compounded by their association with multidrug resistance. While there is some support for the latter efflux systems arising from efflux determinants of self-protection in antibiotic-producing Streptomyces spp. and, thus, intended as drug exporters, increasingly, chromosomal multidrug efflux determinants, at least in Gram-negative bacteria, appear not to be intended as drug exporters but as exporters with, perhaps, a variety of other roles in bacterial cells. Still, given the clinical significance of multidrug (and drug-specific) exporters, efflux must be considered in formulating strategies/approaches to treating drug-resistant infections, both in the development of new agents, for example, less impacted by efflux and in targeting efflux directly with efflux inhibitors.

  20. Circumvention of multi-drug resistance of cancer cells by Chinese herbal medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ge

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multi-drug resistance (MDR of cancer cells severely limits therapeutic outcomes. A proposed mechanism for MDR involves the efflux of anti-cancer drugs from cancer cells, primarily mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC membrane transporters including P-glycoprotein. This article reviews the recent progress of using active ingredients, extracts and formulae from Chinese medicine (CM in circumventing ABC transporters-mediated MDR. Among the ABC transporters, Pgp is the most extensively studied for its role in MDR reversal effects. While other MDR reversal mechanisms remain unclear, Pgp inhibition is a criterion for further mechanistic study. More mechanistic studies are needed to fully establish the pharmacological effects of potential MDR reversing agents.

  1. ABC transporters as multidrug resistance mechanisms and the development of chemosensitizers for their reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Cheol-Hee

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the major problems related with anticancer chemotherapy is resistance against anticancer drugs. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters are a family of transporter proteins that are responsible for drug resistance and a low bioavailability of drugs by pumping a variety of drugs out cells at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. One strategy for reversal of the resistance of tumor cells expressing ABC transporters is combined use of anticancer drugs with chemosensitizers. In this review, the physiological functions and structures of ABC transporters, and the development of chemosensitizers are described focusing on well-known proteins including P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance associated protein, and breast cancer resistance protein.

  2. ABC transporters affect the elimination and toxicity of CdTe quantum dots in liver and kidney cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Mingli; Yin, Huancai; Bai, Pengli [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China); Miao, Peng [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Deng, Xudong [Department of Chemical Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L7 (Canada); Xu, Yingxue [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu, Jun [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China); Yin, Jian, E-mail: yinj@sibet.ac.cn [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China)

    2016-07-15

    This paper aimed to investigate the role of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporters on the efflux and the toxicity of nanoparticles in liver and kidney cells. In this study, we synthesized CdTe quantum dots (QDs) that were monodispersed and emitted green fluorescence (maximum peak at 530 nm). Such QDs tended to accumulate in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2), human kidney cells 2 (HK-2), and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, and cause significant toxicity in all the three cell lines. Using specific inhibitors and inducers of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance associated proteins (Mrps), the cellular accumulation and subsequent toxicity of QDs in HepG2 and HK-2 cells were significantly affected, while only slight changes appeared in MDCK cells, corresponding well with the functional expressions of ABC transporters in cells. Moreover, treatment of QDs caused concentration- and time- dependent induction of ABC transporters in HepG2 and HK-2 cells, but such phenomenon was barely found in MDCK cells. Furthermore, the effects of CdTe QDs on ABC transporters were found to be greater than those of CdCl{sub 2} at equivalent concentrations of cadmium, indicating that the effects of QDs should be a combination of free Cd{sup 2+} and specific properties of QDs. Overall, these results indicated a strong dependence between the functional expressions of ABC transporters and the efflux of QDs, which could be an important reason for the modulation of QDs toxicity by ABC transporters. - Highlights: • ABC transporters contributed actively to the cellular efflux of CdTe quantum dots. • ABC transporters affected the cellular toxicity of CdTe quantum dots. • Treatment of CdTe quantum dots induced the gene expression of ABC transporters. • Free Cd{sup 2+} should be partially involved in the effects of QDs on ABC transporters. • Cellular efflux of quantum dots could be an important modulator for its toxicity.

  3. Physiological characterisation of the efflux pump system of antibiotic-susceptible and multidrug-resistant

    OpenAIRE

    Martins , A.; Spengler , G.; Martins , M.; Rodrigues , L.; Viveiros , M.; Davin-Regli , A.; Chevalier , J.; Couto , I.; Pagès , J.M.; Amaral , L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Enterobacter aerogenes predominates among Enterobacteriaceae species that are increasingly reported as producers of extended-spectrum ?-lactamases. Although this mechanism of resistance to ?-lactams is important, other mechanisms bestowing a multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotype in this species are now well documented. Among these mechanisms is the overexpression of efflux pumps that extrude structurally unrelated antibiotics prior to their reaching their targets. Interestin...

  4. From phenothiazine to 3-phenyl-1,4-benzothiazine derivatives as inhibitors of the Staphylococcus aureus NorA multidrug efflux pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Stefano; Kaatz, Glenn W; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Brandini, David; Fravolini, Arnaldo

    2008-07-24

    Overexpression of efflux pumps is an important mechanism by which bacteria evade effects of substrate antimicrobial agents and inhibition of such pumps is a promising strategy to circumvent this resistance mechanism. NorA is a Staphylococcus aureus multidrug efflux pump, the activity of which confers decreased susceptibility to many structurally unrelated agents, including fluoroquinolones, resulting in a multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotype. In this work, a series of 1,4-benzothiazine derivatives were designed and synthesized as a minimized structural template of phenothiazine MDR efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) in an effort to identify more potent S. aureus NorA EPIs. Almost all derivatives evaluated showed good activity in combination with ciprofloxacin against S. aureus ATCC 25923; some were capable of completely restoring ciprofloxacin activity in a norA-overexpressing strain (SA-K2378). Compounds 6k and 7j displayed good activity against SA-1199B, a strain that also overexpresses norA, in an ethidium bromide (EtBr) efflux inhibition assay.

  5. Over expression of AdeABC and AcrAB-TolC efflux systems confers tigecycline resistance in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Yuhan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Due to the wide use of tigecycline in the treatment of severe infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR bacteria, clinical resistance to tigecycline has increased in recent years. Here, we investigated the relationship between tigecycline resistance and the expression of efflux pumps. METHODS: Clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae were consecutively collected from hospitalized patients in three hospitals. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of tigecycline was determined using the broth microdilution method. Expression levels of efflux pump genes and regulators were examined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The correlations between tigecycline MICs and gene expression levels were analyzed. RESULTS: Overall, 1,026 A. baumannii and 725 K. pneumoniae strains were collected. Most strains were isolated from sputum. The tigecycline resistance rate was 13.4% in A. baumannii isolates and 6.5% in K. pneumoniae isolates. Overexpression of AdeABC and AcrAB-TolC efflux systems was observed found in clinical tigecycline-resistant isolates. The tigecycline MIC had a linear relationship with the adeB expression level in A. baumannii isolates, but not with the acrB expression level in K. pneumoniae isolates. There were significant linear trends in the overexpression of ramA as the tigecycline MIC increased in K. pneumoniae isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Tigecycline resistance in A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae was strongly associated with the overexpression of efflux systems. More studies are needed to elucidate whether there are other regulators that affect the expression of adeB in A. baumannii and how ramA affects the expression of acrB in K. pneumoniae.

  6. Expression of Sme efflux pumps and multilocus sequence typing in clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hye Hyun; Sung, Ji Youn; Kwon, Kye Chul; Koo, Sun Hoe

    2012-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen, which causes infections that are often difficult to manage because of the inherent resistance of the pathogen to a variety of antimicrobial agents. In this study, we analyzed the expressions of smeABC and smeDEF and their correlation with antimicrobial susceptibility. We also evaluated the genetic relatedness and epidemiological links among 33 isolates of S. maltophilia. In total, 33 S. maltophilia strains were isolated from patients in a tertiary hospital in Daejeon. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 11 antimicrobial agents were determined by using agar dilution method and E-test (BioMérieux, France). Real-time PCR analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of the Sme efflux systems in the S. maltophilia isolates. Additionally, an epidemiological investigation was performed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) assays. The findings of susceptibility testing showed that the majority of the S. maltophilia isolates were resistant to β-lactams and aminoglycosides. Twenty-one clinical isolates overexpressed smeABC and showed high resistance to ciprofloxacin. Moreover, a high degree of genetic diversity was observed among the S. maltophilia isolates; 3 sequence types (STs) and 23 allelic profiles were observed. The smeABC efflux pump was associated with multidrug resistance in clinical isolates of S. maltophilia. In particular, smeABC efflux pumps appear to perform an important role in ciprofloxacin resistance of S. maltophilia. The MLST scheme for S. maltophilia represents a discriminatory typing method with stable markers and is appropriate for studying population structures.

  7. The ABC-Type Multidrug Resistance Transporter LmrCD Is Responsible for an Extrusion-Based Mechanism of Bile Acid Resistance in Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaidi, Arsalan Haseeb; Bakkes, Patrick J.; Lubelski, Jacek; Agustiandari, Herfita; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Upon prolonged exposure to cholate and other toxic compounds, Lactococcus lactis develops a multidrug resistance phenotype that has been attributed to an elevated expression of the heterodimeric ABC-type multidrug transporter LmrCD. To investigate the molecular basis of bile acid resistance in L.

  8. Switch-loop flexibility affects transport of large drugs by the promiscuous AcrB multidrug efflux transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hi-jea; Müller, Reinke T; Pos, Klaas M

    2014-08-01

    Multidrug efflux transporters recognize a variety of structurally unrelated compounds for which the molecular basis is poorly understood. For the resistance nodulation and cell division (RND) inner membrane component AcrB of the AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux system from Escherichia coli, drug binding occurs at the access and deep binding pockets. These two binding areas are separated by an 11-amino-acid-residue-containing switch loop whose conformational flexibility is speculated to be essential for drug binding and transport. A G616N substitution in the switch loop has a distinct and local effect on the orientation of the loop and on the ability to transport larger drugs. Here, we report a distinct phenotypical pattern of drug recognition and transport for the G616N variant, indicating that drug substrates with minimal projection areas of >70 Å(2) are less well transported than other substrates. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. New methods for the identification of efflux mediated MDR bacteria, genetic assessment of regulators and efflux pump constituents, characterization of efflux systems and screening for inhibitors of efflux pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viveiros, M; Martins, M; Couto, I

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a number of methods that identify efflux pump mediated multi-drug resistant bacteria, characterize efflux systems and screen for inhibitors of efflux pumps. These approaches were complemented by the quantification of the expression of genes that regulate and code for constituents...

  10. Dual effects of the PI3K inhibitor ZSTK474 on multidrug efflux pumps in resistant cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthiah, Divya; Callaghan, Richard

    2017-11-15

    ZSTK474 is a potent phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor that reduces cell proliferation via G 1 -arrest. However, there is little information on the susceptibility of this anticancer drug to resistance conferred by the multidrug pumps P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and ABCG2. We have demonstrated that ZSTK474 generated cytotoxicity in cells over-expressing either pump with potency similar to that in drug sensitive cells. In addition, the co-administration of ZSTK474 with the cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs vinblastine and mitoxantrone caused a potentiated cytotoxic effect in both drug sensitive and efflux pump expressing cells. These observations suggest that ZSTK474 is unaffected by the presence of multidrug efflux pumps and may circumvent their activities. Indeed, ZSTK474 increased the cellular accumulation of calcein-AM and mitoxantrone in cells expressing ABCB1 and ABCG2, respectively. ZSTK474 treatment also resulted in reduced expression of both efflux pumps in multidrug resistant cancer cells. Measurement of ABCB1 or ABCG2 mRNA levels demonstrated that the reduction was not due to altered transcription. Similarly, inhibitor studies showed that the proteasomal degradation pathway for ABCB1 and the lysosomal route for ABCG2 degradation were unaffected by ZSTK474. Thus the mechanism underlying reduced ABCB1 and ABCG2 levels caused by ZSTK474 was due to a reduction in overall protein synthesis; a process influenced by the PI3K pathway. In summary, ZSTK474 is not susceptible to efflux by the resistance mediators ABCB1 and ABCG2. Moreover, it inhibits the drug transport function of the pumps and leads to a reduction in their cellular expression levels. Our observations demonstrate that ZSTK474 is a powerful anticancer drug. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fluoroquinolone resistance protein NorA of Staphylococcus aureus is a multidrug efflux transporter.

    OpenAIRE

    Neyfakh, A A; Borsch, C M; Kaatz, G W

    1993-01-01

    The gene of the Staphylococcus aureus fluoroquinolone efflux transporter protein NorA confers resistance to a number of structurally dissimilar drugs, not just to fluoroquinolones, when it is expressed in Bacillus subtilis. NorA provides B. subtilis with resistance to the same drugs and to a similar extent as the B. subtilis multidrug transporter protein Bmr does. NorA and Bmr share 44% sequence similarity. Both the NorA- and Bmr-conferred resistances can be completely reversed by reserpine.

  12. Response to Bile Salts in Clinical Strains of Acinetobacter baumannii Lacking the AdeABC Efflux Pump: Virulence Associated with Quorum Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria López

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen associated with multiple infections. This pathogen usually colonizes (first stage of microbial infection host tissues that are in contact with the external environment. As one of the sites of entry in human hosts is the gastrointestinal tract, the pathogen must be capable of tolerating bile salts. However, studies analyzing the molecular characteristics involved in the response to bile salts in clinical strains of A. baumannii are scarce.Material and Methods: Microbiological and transcriptional studies (arrays and RT-PCR in the response to bile salts were carried out in isogenic (A. baumanni ΔadeB ATCC 17978 and A. baumannii ΔadeL ATCC 17978 and clinical strains from clone ST79/PFGE-HUI-1 which is characterized by lacking the AdeABC efflux pump and by overexpression the AdeFGH efflux pump.Results and Discussion: In presence of bile salts, in addition to the glutamate/aspartate transporter were found overexpressed in A. baumannii ΔadeB ATCC 17978, the virulence factors (surface motility, biofilm, and Type VI Secretion System which are associated with activation of the Quorum Sensing system. Overexpression of these factors was confirmed in clinical strains of clone ST79/PFGE-HUI-1.Conclusions: This the first study about the adaptive response to bile salts investigating the molecular and microbiological characteristics in response to bile salts of an isogenic model of A. baumannii ATCC 17978 and clinical isolates of A. baumannii (clinical strains of ST79/PFGE-HUI-1 lacking the main RND efflux pump (AdeABC. Clinical isolates of A. baumannii lacking the AdeABC efflux pump (clone ST79/PFGE-HUI-1 displayed a new clinical profile (increased invasiveness possibly associated with the response to stress conditions (such as the presence of bile salts.

  13. Response to Bile Salts in Clinical Strains of Acinetobacter baumannii Lacking the AdeABC Efflux Pump: Virulence Associated with Quorum Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Maria; Blasco, Lucia; Gato, Eva; Perez, Astrid; Fernández-Garcia, Laura; Martínez-Martinez, Luis; Fernández-Cuenca, Felipe; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús; Pascual, Alvaro; Bou, German; Tomás, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen associated with multiple infections. This pathogen usually colonizes (first stage of microbial infection) host tissues that are in contact with the external environment. As one of the sites of entry in human hosts is the gastrointestinal tract, the pathogen must be capable of tolerating bile salts. However, studies analyzing the molecular characteristics involved in the response to bile salts in clinical strains of A. baumannii are scarce. Material and Methods: Microbiological and transcriptional studies (arrays and RT-PCR) in the response to bile salts were carried out in isogenic ( A. baumanni Δ adeB ATCC 17978 and A. baumannii Δ adeL ATCC 17978) and clinical strains from clone ST79/PFGE-HUI-1 which is characterized by lacking the AdeABC efflux pump and by overexpression the AdeFGH efflux pump. Results and Discussion: In presence of bile salts, in addition to the glutamate/aspartate transporter were found overexpressed in A. baumannii Δ adeB ATCC 17978, the virulence factors (surface motility, biofilm, and Type VI Secretion System) which are associated with activation of the Quorum Sensing system. Overexpression of these factors was confirmed in clinical strains of clone ST79/PFGE-HUI-1. Conclusions: This the first study about the adaptive response to bile salts investigating the molecular and microbiological characteristics in response to bile salts of an isogenic model of A. baumannii ATCC 17978 and clinical isolates of A. baumannii (clinical strains of ST79/PFGE-HUI-1) lacking the main RND efflux pump (AdeABC). Clinical isolates of A. baumannii lacking the AdeABC efflux pump (clone ST79/PFGE-HUI-1) displayed a new clinical profile (increased invasiveness) possibly associated with the response to stress conditions (such as the presence of bile salts).

  14. Efflux pumps as antimicrobial resistance mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance continues to hamper antimicrobial chemotherapy of infectious disease, and while biocide resistance outside of the laboratory is as yet unrealized, in vitro and in vivo episodes of reduced biocide susceptibility are not uncommon. Efflux mechanisms, both drug-specific and multidrug, are important determinants of intrinsic and/or acquired resistance to these antimicrobials in important human pathogens. Multidrug efflux mechanisms are generally chromosome-encoded, with their expression typically resultant from mutations in regulatory genes, while drug-specific efflux mechanisms are encoded by mobile genetic elements whose acquisition is sufficient for resistance. While it has been suggested that drug-specific efflux systems originated from efflux determinants of self-protection in antibiotic-producing Actinomycetes, chromosomal multidrug efflux determinants, at least in Gram-negative bacteria, are appreciated as having an intended housekeeping function unrelated to drug export and resistance. Thus, it will be important to elucidate the intended natural function of these efflux mechanisms in order, for example, to anticipate environmental conditions or circumstances that might promote their expression and, so, compromise antimicrobial chemotherapy. Given the clinical significance of antimicrobial exporters, it is clear that efflux must be considered in formulating strategies for treatment of drug-resistant infections, both in the development of new agents, for example, less impacted by efflux or in targeting efflux directly with efflux inhibitors.

  15. Identification of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1) as a molecular gate for cellular export of cobalamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beedholm-Ebsen, Rasmus; van de Wetering, Koen; Hardlei, Tore

    2010-01-01

    transporters by cellular gene silencing showed a role in cellular Cbl efflux of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-drug transporter, ABCC1, alias multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1), which is present in the basolateral membrane of intestinal epithelium and in other cells. The ability of MRP1 to mediate ATP...... and kidney. In contrast, Cbl accumulates in the terminal part of the intestine of these mice, suggesting a functional malabsorption because of a lower epithelial basolateral Cbl efflux. The identification of this Cbl export mechanism now allows the delineation of a coherent pathway for Cbl trafficking from...

  16. Gallic acid-based indanone derivative interacts synergistically with tetracycline by inhibiting efflux pump in multidrug resistant E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Gaurav Raj; Tiwari, Nimisha; Singh, Aastha; Kumar, Akhil; Roy, Sudeep; Negi, Arvind Singh; Pal, Anirban; Chanda, Debabrata; Sharma, Ashok; Darokar, Mahendra P

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to study the synergy potential of gallic acid-based derivatives in combination with conventional antibiotics using multidrug resistant cultures of Escherichia coli. Gallic acid-based derivatives significantly reduced the MIC of tetracycline against multidrug resistant clinical isolate of E. coli. The best representative, 3-(3',4,'5'-trimethoxyphenyl)-4,5,6-trimethoxyindanone-1, an indanone derivative of gallic acid, was observed to inhibit ethidium bromide efflux and ATPase which was also supported by in silico docking. This derivative extended the post-antibiotic effect and decreased the mutation prevention concentration of tetracycline. This derivative in combination with TET was able to reduce the concentration of TNFα up to 18-fold in Swiss albino mice. This derivative was nontoxic and well tolerated up to 300 mg/kg dose in subacute oral toxicity study in mice. This is the first report of gallic acid-based indanone derivative as drug resistance reversal agent acting through ATP-dependent efflux pump inhibition.

  17. Salinomycin overcomes ABC transporter-mediated multidrug and apoptosis resistance in human leukemia stem cell-like KG-1a cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Dominik; Daniel, Volker; Sadeghi, Mahmoud; Opelz, Gerhard; Naujokat, Cord

    2010-01-01

    Leukemia stem cells are known to exhibit multidrug resistance by expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters which constitute transmembrane proteins capable of exporting a wide variety of chemotherapeutic drugs from the cytosol. We show here that human promyeloblastic leukemia KG-1a cells exposed to the histone deacetylase inhibitor phenylbutyrate resemble many characteristics of leukemia stem cells, including expression of functional ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein, BCRP and MRP8. Consequently, KG-1a cells display resistance to the induction of apoptosis by various chemotherapeutic drugs. Resistance to apoptosis induction by chemotherapeutic drugs can be reversed by cyclosporine A, which effectively inhibits the activity of P-glycoprotein and BCRP, thus demonstrating ABC transporter-mediated drug resistance in KG-1a cells. However, KG-1a are highly sensitive to apoptosis induction by salinomycin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic that has recently been shown to kill human breast cancer stem cell-like cells and to induce apoptosis in human cancer cells displaying multiple mechanisms of drug and apoptosis resistance. Whereas KG-1a cells can be adapted to proliferate in the presence of apoptosis-inducing concentrations of bortezomib and doxorubicin, salinomycin does not permit long-term adaptation of the cells to apoptosis-inducing concentrations. Thus, salinomycin should be regarded as a novel and effective agent for the elimination of leukemia stem cells and other tumor cells exhibiting ABC transporter-mediated multidrug resistance.

  18. The MerR-like regulator BrlR confers biofilm tolerance by activating multidrug efflux pumps in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Julie; Schurr, Michael J; Sauer, Karin

    2013-08-01

    A defining characteristic of biofilms is antibiotic tolerance that can be up to 1,000-fold greater than that of planktonic cells. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, biofilm tolerance to antimicrobial agents requires the biofilm-specific MerR-type transcriptional regulator BrlR. However, the mechanism by which BrlR mediates biofilm tolerance has not been elucidated. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling indicated that brlR was required for maximal expression of genes associated with antibiotic resistance, in particular those encoding the multidrug efflux pumps MexAB-OprM and MexEF-OprN. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis revealed a direct regulation of these genes by BrlR, with DNA binding assays confirming BrlR binding to the promoter regions of the mexAB-oprM and mexEF-oprN operons. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis further indicated BrlR to be an activator of mexAB-oprM and mexEF-oprN gene expression. Moreover, immunoblot analysis confirmed increased MexA abundance in cells overexpressing brlR. Inactivation of both efflux pumps rendered biofilms significantly more susceptible to five different classes of antibiotics by affecting MIC but not the recalcitrance of biofilms to killing by bactericidal agents. Overexpression of either efflux pump in a ΔbrlR strain partly restored tolerance of ΔbrlR biofilms to antibiotics. Expression of brlR in mutant biofilms lacking both efflux pumps partly restored antimicrobial tolerance of biofilms to wild-type levels. Our results indicate that BrlR acts as an activator of multidrug efflux pumps to confer tolerance to P. aeruginosa biofilms and to resist the action of antimicrobial agents.

  19. Genome-wide identification of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and their roles in response to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Kang, Hye-Min; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Hui-Su; Kim, Il-Chan; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-02-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein superfamily is one of the largest gene families and is highly conserved in all domains. The ABC proteins play roles in several biological processes, including multi-xenobiotic resistance (MXR), by functioning as transporters in the cellular membrane. They also mediate the cellular efflux of a wide range of substrates against concentration gradients. In this study, 37 ABC genes belonging to eight distinct subfamilies were identified in the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana and annotated based on a phylogenetic analysis. Also, the functions of P-glycoproteins (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs), conferring MXR, were verified using fluorescent substrates and specific inhibitors. The activities of MXR-mediated ABC proteins and their transcriptional level were examined in response to polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), main components of the water-accommodated fraction. This study increases the understanding of the protective role of MXR in response to PAHs over the comparative evolution of ABC gene families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Biocide Selective TolC-Independent Efflux Pumps in Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slipski, Carmine J; Zhanel, George G; Bay, Denice C

    2018-02-01

    Bacterial resistance to biocides used as antiseptics, dyes, and disinfectants is a growing concern in food preparation, agricultural, consumer manufacturing, and health care industries, particularly among Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae, some of the most common community and healthcare-acquired bacterial pathogens. Biocide resistance is frequently associated with antimicrobial cross-resistance leading to reduced activity and efficacy of both antimicrobials and antiseptics. Multidrug resistant efflux pumps represent an important biocide resistance mechanism in Enterobacteriaceae. An assortment of structurally diverse efflux pumps frequently co-exist in these species and confer both unique and overlapping biocide and antimicrobial selectivity. TolC-dependent multicomponent systems that span both the plasma and outer membranes have been shown to confer clinically significant resistance to most antimicrobials including many biocides, however, a growing number of single component TolC-independent multidrug resistant efflux pumps are specifically associated with biocide resistance: small multidrug resistance (SMR), major facilitator superfamily (MFS), multidrug and toxin extruder (MATE), cation diffusion facilitator (CDF), and proteobacterial antimicrobial compound efflux (PACE) families. These efflux systems are a growing concern as they are rapidly spread between members of Enterobacteriaceae on conjugative plasmids and mobile genetic elements, emphasizing their importance to antimicrobial resistance. In this review, we will summarize the known biocide substrates of these efflux pumps, compare their structural relatedness, Enterobacteriaceae distribution, and significance. Knowledge gaps will be highlighted in an effort to unravel the role that these apparent "lone wolves" of the efflux-mediated resistome may offer.

  1. Efflux pumps of Mycobacterium tuberculosis play a significant role in antituberculosis activity of potential drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balganesh, Meenakshi; Dinesh, Neela; Sharma, Sreevalli; Kuruppath, Sanjana; Nair, Anju V; Sharma, Umender

    2012-05-01

    Active efflux of drugs mediated by efflux pumps that confer drug resistance is one of the mechanisms developed by bacteria to counter the adverse effects of antibiotics and chemicals. To understand these efflux mechanisms in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we generated knockout (KO) mutants of four efflux pumps of the pathogen belonging to different classes. We measured the MICs and kill values of two different compound classes on the wild type (WT) and the efflux pump (EP) KO mutants in the presence and absence of the efflux inhibitors verapamil and l-phenylalanyl-l-arginyl-β-naphthylamide (PAβN). Among the pumps studied, the efflux pumps belonging to the ABC (ATP-binding cassette) class, encoded by Rv1218c, and the SMR (small multidrug resistance) class, encoded by Rv3065, appear to play important roles in mediating the efflux of different chemical classes and antibiotics. Efflux pumps encoded by Rv0849 and Rv1258c also mediate the efflux of these compounds, but to a lesser extent. Increased killing is observed in WT M. tuberculosis cells by these compounds in the presence of either verapamil or PAβN. The efflux pump KO mutants were more susceptible to these compounds in the presence of efflux inhibitors. We have shown that these four efflux pumps of M. tuberculosis play a vital role in mediating efflux of different chemical scaffolds. Inhibitors of one or several of these efflux pumps could have a significant impact in the treatment of tuberculosis. The identification and characterization of Rv0849, a new efflux pump belonging to the MFS (major facilitator superfamily) class, are reported.

  2. Efflux as a mechanism of antimicrobial drug resistance in clinical relevant microorganisms: the role of efflux inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, Clarissa; Wentzel, Johannes Frederik; du Plessis, Lissinda Hester; Gouws, Chrisna; Hamman, Josias Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    Microbial resistance against antibiotics is a serious threat to the effective treatment of infectious diseases. Several mechanisms exist through which microorganisms can develop resistance against antimicrobial drugs, of which the overexpression of genes to produce efflux pumps is a major concern. Several efflux transporters have been identified in microorganisms, which infer resistance against specific antibiotics and even multidrug resistance. Areas covered: This paper focuses on microbial resistance against antibiotics by means of the mechanism of efflux and gives a critical overview of studies conducted to overcome this problem by combining efflux pump inhibitors with antibiotics. Information was obtained from a literature search done with MEDLINE, Pubmed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, OneSearch and EBSCO host. Expert opinion: Efflux as a mechanism of multidrug resistance has presented a platform for improved efficacy against resistant microorganisms by co-administration of efflux pump inhibitors with antimicrobial agents. Although proof of concept has been shown for this approach with in vitro experiments, further research is needed to develop more potent inhibitors with low toxicity which is clinically effective.

  3. Polymorphism in ABC transporter genes of Dirofilaria immitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangadurai Mani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilaria immitis, a filarial nematode, causes dirofilariasis in dogs, cats and occasionally in humans. Prevention of the disease has been mainly by monthly use of the macrocyclic lactone (ML endectocides during the mosquito transmission season. Recently, ML resistance has been confirmed in D. immitis and therefore, there is a need to find new classes of anthelmintics. One of the mechanisms associated with ML resistance in nematodes has been the possible role of ATP binding cassette (ABC transporters in reducing drug concentrations at receptor sites. ABC transporters, mainly from sub-families B, C and G, may contribute to multidrug resistance (MDR by active efflux of drugs out of the cell. Gene products of ABC transporters may thus serve as the targets for agents that may modulate susceptibility to drugs, by inhibiting drug transport. ABC transporters are believed to be involved in a variety of physiological functions critical to the parasite, such as sterol transport, and therefore may also serve as the target for drugs that can act as anthelmintics on their own. Knowledge of polymorphism in these ABC transporter genes in nematode parasites could provide useful information for the process of drug design. We have identified 15 ABC transporter genes from sub-families A, B, C and G, in D. immitis, by comparative genomic approaches and analyzed them for polymorphism. Whole genome sequencing data from four ML susceptible (SUS and four loss of efficacy (LOE pooled populations were used for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping. Out of 231 SNPs identified in those 15 ABC transporter genes, 89 and 75 of them were specific to the SUS or LOE populations, respectively. A few of the SNPs identified may affect gene expression, protein function, substrate specificity or resistance development and may be useful for transporter inhibitor/anthelmintic drug design, or in order to anticipate resistance development. Keywords: Dirofilaria immitis

  4. pH-induced conformational changes of AcrA, the membrane fusion protein of Escherichia coli multidrug efflux system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hermia; Stratton, Kelly; Zgurskaya, Helen; Liu, Jun

    2003-12-12

    The multidrug efflux system AcrA-AcrB-TolC of Escherichia coli expels a wide range of drugs directly into the external medium from the bacterial cell. The mechanism of the efflux process is not fully understood. Of an elongated shape, AcrA is thought to span the periplasmic space coordinating the concerted operation of the inner and outer membrane proteins AcrB and TolC. In this study, we used site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) spectroscopy to investigate the molecular conformations of AcrA in solution. Ten AcrA mutants, each with an alanine to cysteine substitution, were engineered, purified, and labeled with a nitroxide spin label. EPR analysis of spin-labeled AcrA variants indicates that the side chain mobilities are consistent with the predicted secondary structure of AcrA. We further demonstrated that acidic pH induces oligomerization and conformational change of AcrA, and that the structural changes are reversible. These results suggest that the mechanism of action of AcrA in drug efflux is similar to the viral membrane fusion proteins, and that AcrA actively mediates the efflux of substrates.

  5. An ace up their sleeve: a transcriptomic approach exposes the AceI efflux protein of Acinetobacter baumannii and reveals the drug efflux potential hidden in many microbial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl A Hassan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The era of antibiotics as a cure-all for bacterial infections appears to be coming to an end. The emergence of multidrug resistance in many hospital-associated pathogens has resulted in superbugs that are effectively untreatable. Multidrug efflux pumps are well known mediators of bacterial drug resistance. Genome sequencing efforts have highlighted an abundance of putative efflux pump genes in bacteria. However, it is not clear how many of these pumps play a role in antimicrobial resistance. Several studies have demonstrated that efflux pump genes that participate in drug resistance are typically under tight regulatory control and expressed only in response to their substrates. Consequently, changes in gene expression following antimicrobial shock treatments may be used to identify efflux pumps that mediate antimicrobial resistance, informing targeted functional analyses of these proteins. Using this approach we have characterised novel efflux pumps in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Notably, we recently applied this strategy to characterise the AceI efflux pump from Acinetobacter. AceI is a prototype for a new family of multidrug efflux proteins that is conserved across many proteobacterial lineages. Different efflux pumps in this family have been shown to confer resistance to biocides including chlorhexidine, dequalinium, benzalkonium, proflavine and/or acriflavine. The discovery of this novel family of multidrug efflux proteins raises the possibility that additional undiscovered intrinsic resistance proteins may be encoded in the core genomes of pathogenic bacteria.

  6. Modulation of the multidrug efflux pump EmrD-3 from Vibrio cholerae by Allium sativum extract and the bioactive agent allyl sulfide plus synergistic enhancement of antimicrobial susceptibility by A. sativum extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Merissa M; Kakarla, Prathusha; Floyd, Jared T; Mukherjee, Mun Mun; Ponce, Robert C; Garcia, John A; Ranaweera, Indrika; Sanford, Leslie M; Hernandez, Alberto J; Willmon, T Mark; Tolson, Grace L; Varela, Manuel F

    2017-10-01

    The causative agent of cholera, Vibrio cholerae, is a public health concern. Multidrug-resistant V. cholerae variants may reduce chemotherapeutic efficacies of severe cholera. We previously reported that the multidrug efflux pump EmrD-3 from V. cholerae confers resistance to multiple structurally distinct antimicrobials. Medicinal plant compounds are potential candidates for EmrD-3 efflux pump modulation. The antibacterial activities of garlic Allium sativum, although poorly understood, predicts that a main bioactive component, allyl sulfide, modulates EmrD-3 efflux. Thus, we tested whether A. sativum extract acts in synergy with antimicrobials and that a main bioactive component allyl sulfide inhibits EmrD-3 efflux. We found that A. sativum extract and allyl sulfide inhibited ethidium bromide efflux in cells harboring EmrD-3 and that A. sativum lowered the MICs of multiple antibacterials. We conclude that A. sativum and allyl sulfide inhibit EmrD-3 and that A. sativum extract synergistically enhances antibacterial agents.

  7. Marine Natural Products as Models to Circumvent Multidrug Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solida Long

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance (MDR to anticancer drugs is a serious health problem that in many cases leads to cancer treatment failure. The ATP binding cassette (ABC transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp, which leads to premature efflux of drugs from cancer cells, is often responsible for MDR. On the other hand, a strategy to search for modulators from natural products to overcome MDR had been in place during the last decades. However, Nature limits the amount of some natural products, which has led to the development of synthetic strategies to increase their availability. This review summarizes the research findings on marine natural products and derivatives, mainly alkaloids, polyoxygenated sterols, polyketides, terpenoids, diketopiperazines, and peptides, with P-gp inhibitory activity highlighting the established structure-activity relationships. The synthetic pathways for the total synthesis of the most promising members and analogs are also presented. It is expected that the data gathered during the last decades concerning their synthesis and MDR-inhibiting activities will help medicinal chemists develop potential drug candidates using marine natural products as models which can deliver new ABC transporter inhibitor scaffolds.

  8. Optimized efflux assay for the NorA multidrug efflux pump in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Saskia; Tuchscherr, Lorena; Rödel, Jürgen; Löffler, Bettina; Bohnert, Jürgen A

    2017-11-01

    Real-time fluorescent efflux assays are commonly used for measuring the efflux of bacterial pumps. Here we describe an optimized protocol for the NorA efflux pump in S. aureus using DiOC 3 instead of ethidium bromide. Glucose and sodium formate were tested as energy carriers. This novel method is fast and reproducible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Efflux pump-mediated benzalkonium chloride resistance in Listeria monocytogenes isolated from retail food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaobing; Yu, Tao; Liang, Yu; Ji, Shengdong; Guo, Xiaowei; Ma, Jianmin; Zhou, Lijun

    2016-01-18

    In this study, efflux pump-mediated benzalkonium chloride (BC) resistance, including plasmid-encoded (Qac protein family and BcrABC) and chromosome-borne efflux pumps, was investigated in Listeria monocytogenes from retail food in China. Among the 59 L. monocytogenes strains, 13 (22.0%) strains were resistant to BC. The PCR results showed that bcrABC was harbored by 2 of 13 BC resistant strains. However, none of the qac genes were detected among the 59 strains. The bcrABC was absent in both of the plasmid cured strains, indicating that this BC resistance determinant was plasmid-encoded in the two bcrABC-positive strains. In the presence of reserpine, most of the bcrABC-negative strains had decreases in the MICs of BC, suggesting the existence of other efflux pumps and their role in BC resistance. After exposed to reserpine, the reduction in BC MICs was observed in the two cured strains, indicating that efflux pumps located on chromosome was also involved in BC resistance. Our findings suggest that food products may act as reservoirs for BC resistant isolates of L. monocytogenes and plasmid- and chromosome-encoded efflux pumps could mediate the BC resistance of L. monocytogenes, which is especially relevant to the adaption of this organism in food-related environments with frequent BC use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Vitamin K3 Induces the Expression of the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SmeVWX Multidrug Efflux Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, P; Corona, F; Sánchez, M B; Martínez, J L

    2017-05-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunistic pathogen with increasing prevalence, which is able to cause infections in immunocompromised patients or in those with a previous pathology. The treatment of the infections caused by this bacterium is often complicated due to the several intrinsic antibiotic resistance mechanisms that it presents. Multidrug efflux pumps are among the best-studied mechanisms of S. maltophilia antibiotic resistance. Some of these efflux pumps have a basal expression level but, in general, their expression is often low and only reaches high levels when the local regulator is mutated or bacteria are in the presence of an effector. In the current work, we have developed a yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-based sensor with the aim to identify effectors able to trigger the expression of SmeVWX, an efflux pump that confers resistance to quinolones, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline when it is expressed at high levels. With this purpose in mind, we tested a variety of different compounds and analyzed the fluorescence signal given by the expression of YFP under the control of the smeVWX promoter. Among the tested compounds, vitamin K 3 , which is a compound belonging to the 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone family, is produced by plants in defense against infection, and has increasing importance in human therapy, was able to induce the expression of the SmeVWX efflux pump. In addition, a decrease in the susceptibility of S. maltophilia to ofloxacin and chloramphenicol was observed in the presence of vitamin K 3 , in both wild-type and smeW -deficient strains. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Expression of multidrug resistance associated protein 5 (MRP5) on cornea and its role in drug efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karla, Pradeep K; Quinn, Tim L; Herndon, Betty L; Thomas, Priscilla; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to investigate the presence of nucleoside/nucleotide efflux transporter in cornea and to evaluate the role in ocular drug efflux. RT-PCR, immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis and immunostaining were employed to establish molecular presence of multidrug resistance associated protein 5 (MRP5) on cornea. Corneal efflux by MRP5 was studied with bis(POM)-PMEA and acyclovir using rabbit and human corneal epithelial cells along with MRP5 over expressing cells (MDCKII-MRP5). Ex vivo studies using excised rabbit cornea and in vivo ocular microdialysis in male New Zealand white rabbits were used to further evaluate the role of MRP5 in conferring ocular drug resistance. RT-PCR confirms the expression of MRP5 in both rabbit and human corneal epithelial cells along with MDCKII-MRP5 cells. Immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis using a rat (M511-54) monoclonal antibody that reacts with human epitope confirms the expression of MRP5 protein in human corneal epithelial cells and MDCKII-MRP5 cells. Immunostaining performed on human cornea indicates the localization of this efflux pump on both epithelium and endothelium. Efflux studies reveal that depletion of ATP decreased PMEA efflux significantly. MRP5 inhibitors also diminished PMEA and acyclovir efflux. However, depletion of glutathione did not alter efflux. MDR1 and MRP2 did not contribute to PMEA efflux. However, MRP2 is involved in acyclovir efflux while MDR1 do not participate in this process. TLC/autoradiography suggested the conversion of bis(POM)-PMEA to PMEA in rabbit and human corneal epithelial cells. Two well known antiglaucoma drugs, bimatoprost and latanoprost were rapidly effluxed by MRP5. Ex vivo study on intact rabbit corneas demonstrated accumulation of PMEA in cornea in the presence of ATP-depleting medium. In vivo ocular pharmacokinetics also revealed a significant increase in maximum aqueous humor concentration (C(max)) and area under the

  12. The naphthoquinones, vitamin K3 and its structural analog plumbagin, are substrates of the multidrug resistance-linked ABC drug transporter ABCG2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Suneet; Wu, Chung-Pu; Nandigama, Krishnamachary; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin K3 (Menadione; 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) is a structural precursor of vitamins K1 and K2 which are essential for blood clotting. The naturally occurring structural analog of this vitamin, plumbagin (5-hydroxy-menadione), is known to modulate cellular proliferation, apoptosis, carcinogenesis, and radioresistance. We, here, report that both vitamin K3 and plumbagin are substrates of the multidrug resistance-linked ATP binding cassette (ABC) drug transporter, ABCG2. Vitamin K3 and plumbagin specifically inhibited the ABCG2-mediated efflux of mitoxantrone, but did not have any effect on the ABCB1-mediated efflux of rhodamine 123. This inhibition of ABCG2 function was due to their interaction at the substrate-binding site(s). They inhibited the binding of [125I]-Iodoarylazidoprazosin (IAAP), a substrate of ABCG2, to this transporter in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values of 7.3 and 22.6 μM, respectively, but had no effect on the binding of this photoaffinity analog to ABCB1. Both compounds stimulated ABCG2-mediated ATP hydrolysis and also inhibited the mitoxantrone-stimulated ATPase activity of this transporter, but did not have any significant effect on the ATPase activity of ABCB1. In a cytotoxicity assay, ABCG2-expressing HEK cells were 2.8- and 2.3-fold resistant to plumbagin and vitamin K3, respectively, compared to the control cells, suggesting that they are substrates of this transporter. Collectively, these data demonstrate for the first time that vitamin K3 is a substrate of the ABCG2 transporter. Thus, ABCG2 may have a role in the regulation of vitamin K3 levels in the body. In addition, vitamin K3 and its structural derivative, plumbagin, could potentially be used to modulate ABCG2 function. PMID:18065489

  13. Antibiotics: Pharmacokinetics, toxicity, resistance and multidrug efflux pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Çiğdem; Özcengiz, Gülay

    2017-06-01

    The discovery of penicillin followed by streptomycin, tetracycline, cephalosporins and other natural, semi-synthetic and synthetic antimicrobials completely revolutionized medicine by reducing human morbidity and mortality from most of the common infections. However, shortly after they were introduced to clinical practice, the development of resistance was emerged. The decreasing interest from antibiotic industry in spite of rapid global emergence of antibiotic resistance is a tough dilemma from the pointview of public health. The efficiency of antimicrobial treatment is determined by both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. In spite of their selective toxicity, antibiotics still cause severe, life-threatening adverse reactions in host body mostly due to defective drug metabolism or excessive dosing regimen. The present article aims at updating current knowledge on pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics concepts and models, toxicity of antibiotics as well as antibiotic resistance mechanisms, resistome analyses and search for novel antibiotic resistance determinants with special emphasis given to the-state-of-the-art regarding multidrug efflux pumps and their additional physiological functions in stress adaptation and virulence of bacteria. All these issues are highly linked to each other and not only important for most efficient and prolonged use of current antibiotics, but also for discovery and development of new antibiotics and novel inhibitors of antibiotic resistance determinants of pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The multidrug ABC transporter BmrC/BmrD of Bacillus subtilis is regulated via a ribosome-mediated transcriptional attenuation mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Reilman, E.; Mars, R. A. T.; van Dijl, J. M.; Denham, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Expression of particular drug transporters in response to antibiotic pressure is a critical element in the development of bacterial multidrug resistance, and represents a serious concern for human health. To obtain a better understanding of underlying regulatory mechanisms, we have dissected the transcriptional activation of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter BmrC/BmrD of the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis. By using promoter-GFP fusions and live cell array technology,...

  15. Influence of multidrug resistance and drug transport proteins on chemotherapy drug metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Helena; McCann, Andrew; Clynes, Martin; Larkin, Annemarie

    2015-05-01

    Chemotherapy involving the use of anticancer drugs remains an important strategy in the overall management of patients with metastatic cancer. Acquisition of multidrug resistance remains a major impediment to successful chemotherapy. Drug transporters in cell membranes and intracellular drug metabolizing enzymes contribute to the resistance phenotype and determine the pharmacokinetics of anticancer drugs in the body. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters mediate the transport of endogenous metabolites and xenobiotics including cytotoxic drugs out of cells. Solute carrier (SLC) transporters mediate the influx of cytotoxic drugs into cells. This review focuses on the substrate interaction of these transporters, on their biology and what role they play together with drug metabolizing enzymes in eliminating therapeutic drugs from cells. The majority of anticancer drugs are substrates for the ABC transporter and SLC transporter families. Together, these proteins have the ability to control the influx and the efflux of structurally unrelated chemotherapeutic drugs, thereby modulating the intracellular drug concentration. These interactions have important clinical implications for chemotherapy because ultimately they determine therapeutic efficacy, disease progression/relapse and the success or failure of patient treatment.

  16. Influence of multidrug resistance on 18F-FCH cellular uptake in a glioblastoma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanpouille, Claire; Jeune, Nathalie le; Clotagatide, Anthony; Dubois, Francis; Kryza, David; Janier, Marc; Perek, Nathalie

    2009-01-01

    Multidrug resistance, aggressiveness and accelerated choline metabolism are hallmarks of malignancy and have motivated the development of new PET tracers like 18 F-FCH, an analogue of choline. Our aim was to study the relationship of multidrug resistance of cultured glioma cell lines and 18 F-FCH tracer uptake. We used an in vitro multidrug-resistant (MDR) glioma model composed of sensitive parental U87MG and derived resistant cells U87MG-CIS and U87MG-DOX. Aggressiveness, choline metabolism and transport were studied, particularly the expression of choline kinase (CK) and high-affinity choline transporter (CHT1). FCH transport studies were assessed in our glioblastoma model. As expected, the resistant cell lines express P-glycoprotein (Pgp), multidrug resistance-associated protein isoform 1 (MRP1) and elevated glutathione (GSH) content and are also more mobile and more invasive than the sensitive U87MG cells. Our results show an overexpression of CK and CHT1 in the resistant cell lines compared to the sensitive cell lines. We found an increased uptake of FCH (in % of uptake per 200,000 cells) in the resistant cells compared to the sensitive ones (U87MG: 0.89±0.14; U87MG-CIS: 1.27±0.18; U87MG-DOX: 1.33±0.13) in line with accelerated choline metabolism and aggressive phenotype. FCH uptake is not influenced by the two ATP-dependant efflux pumps: Pgp and MRP1. FCH would be an interesting probe for glioma imaging which would not be effluxed from the resistant cells by the classic MDR ABC transporters. Our results clearly show that FCH uptake reflects accelerated choline metabolism and is related to tumour aggressiveness and drug resistance. (orig.)

  17. Isolation and Characterization of the Colletotrichum acutatum ABC Transporter CaABC1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyoung Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungi tolerate exposure to various abiotic stresses, including cytotoxic compounds and fungicides, via their ATP-driven efflux pumps belonging to ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters. To clarify the molecular basis of interaction between the fungus and various abiotic stresses including fungicides, we constructed a cDNA library from germinated conidia of Colletotrichum acutatum, a major anthracnose pathogen of pepper (Capsicum annum L.. Over 1,000 cDNA clones were sequenced, of which single clone exhibited significant nucleotide sequence homology to ABC transporter genes. We isolated three fosmid clones containing the C. acutatum ABC1 (CaABC1 gene in full-length from genomic DNA library screening. The CaABC1 gene consists of 4,059 bp transcript, predicting a 1,353-aa protein. The gene contains the typical ABC signature and Walker A and B motifs. The 5′-flanking region contains a CAAT motif, a TATA box, and a Kozak region. Phylogenetic and structural analysis suggested that the CaABC1 is a typical ABC transporter gene highly conserved in various fungal species, as well as in Chromista, Metazoans, and Viridiplantae. We also found that CaABC1 was up-regulated during conidiation and a minimal medium condition. Moreover, CaABC1 was induced in iprobenfos, kresoxim-methyl, thiophanate-methyl, and hygromycin B. These results demonstrate that CaABC1 is necessary for conidiation, abiotic stress, and various fungicide resistances. These results will provide the basis for further study on the function of ABC transporter genes in C. acutatum.

  18. Coupling of remote alternating-access transport mechanisms for protons and substrates in the multidrug efflux pump AcrB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, Thomas; Seeger, Markus A; Anselmi, Claudio; Zhou, Wenchang; Brandstätter, Lorenz; Verrey, François; Diederichs, Kay; Faraldo-Gómez, José D; Pos, Klaas M

    2014-09-19

    Membrane transporters of the RND superfamily confer multidrug resistance to pathogenic bacteria, and are essential for cholesterol metabolism and embryonic development in humans. We use high-resolution X-ray crystallography and computational methods to delineate the mechanism of the homotrimeric RND-type proton/drug antiporter AcrB, the active component of the major efflux system AcrAB-TolC in Escherichia coli, and one most complex and intriguing membrane transporters known to date. Analysis of wildtype AcrB and four functionally-inactive variants reveals an unprecedented mechanism that involves two remote alternating-access conformational cycles within each protomer, namely one for protons in the transmembrane region and another for drugs in the periplasmic domain, 50 Å apart. Each of these cycles entails two distinct types of collective motions of two structural repeats, coupled by flanking α-helices that project from the membrane. Moreover, we rationalize how the cross-talk among protomers across the trimerization interface might lead to a more kinetically efficient efflux system.

  19. The Nucleotide-Free State of the Multidrug Resistance ABC Transporter LmrA: Sulfhydryl Cross-Linking Supports a Constant Contact, Head-to-Tail Configuration of the Nucleotide-Binding Domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Jones

    Full Text Available ABC transporters are integral membrane pumps that are responsible for the import or export of a diverse range of molecules across cell membranes. ABC transporters have been implicated in many phenomena of medical importance, including cystic fibrosis and multidrug resistance in humans. The molecular architecture of ABC transporters comprises two transmembrane domains and two ATP-binding cassettes, or nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs, which are highly conserved and contain motifs that are crucial to ATP binding and hydrolysis. Despite the improved clarity of recent structural, biophysical, and biochemical data, the seemingly simple process of ATP binding and hydrolysis remains controversial, with a major unresolved issue being whether the NBD protomers separate during the catalytic cycle. Here chemical cross-linking data is presented for the bacterial ABC multidrug resistance (MDR transporter LmrA. These indicate that in the absence of nucleotide or substrate, the NBDs come into contact to a significant extent, even at 4°C, where ATPase activity is abrogated. The data are clearly not in accord with an inward-closed conformation akin to that observed in a crystal structure of V. cholerae MsbA. Rather, they suggest a head-to-tail configuration 'sandwich' dimer similar to that observed in crystal structures of nucleotide-bound ABC NBDs. We argue the data are more readily reconciled with the notion that the NBDs are in proximity while undergoing intra-domain motions, than with an NBD 'Switch' mechanism in which the NBD monomers separate in between ATP hydrolysis cycles.

  20. Expression of multidrug resistance markers ABCB1 (MDR-1/P-gp) and ABCC1 (MRP-1) in renal cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Naomi

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma patients respond poorly to conventional chemotherapy, this unresponsiveness may be attributable to multidrug resistance (MDR). The mechanisms of MDR in renal cancer are not fully understood and the specific contribution of ABC transporter proteins which have been implicated in the chemoresistance of various cancers has not been fully defined in this disease. METHODS: In this retrospective study the expression of two of these transporter efflux pumps, namely MDR-1 P-gp (ABCB1) and MRP-1 (ABCC1) were studied by immunohistochemistry in archival material from 95 renal cell carcinoma patients. RESULTS: In the first study investigating MDR-1 P-gp and MRP-1 protein expression patterns in renal cell carcinoma patients, high levels of expression of both efflux pumps are observed with 100% of tumours studied showing MDR-1 P-gp and MRP-1 positivity. CONCLUSION: Although these findings do not prove a causal role, the high frequency of tumours expressing these efflux pumps suggests that they may be important contributors to the chemoresistance of this tumour type.

  1. The role of efflux pumps in Bacteroides fragilis resistance to antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghotaslou, Reza; Yekani, Mina; Memar, Mohammad Yousef

    2018-05-01

    The resistance of Bacteroides fragilis to the most antimicrobial agents has been reported in the world. Identification of the microbial resistance mechanisms can play an important role in controlling these resistances. Currently, B. fragilis is resistant to most antibiotics. The multi-drug efflux pumps have been shown to underlie the antimicrobial resistance in B. fragilis strains. Two types of these efflux pumps including RND and MATE can be regarded as main structures responsible for antibiotic resistance. Therefore, the strategy for suppressing of this efflux system may be useful in the treatment and control of the multidrug-resistant B. fragilis. The purpose of this study is to review the B. fragilis efflux pumps and their functions in the resistance to antibiotics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in normal and pathological lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Deen, M; de Vries, EGE; Timens, W; Scheper, RJ; Timmer-Bosscha, H; Postma, DS

    2005-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette ( ABC) transporters are a family of transmembrane proteins that can transport a wide variety of substrates across biological membranes in an energy-dependent manner. Many ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein ( P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 ( MRP1) and

  3. The impact of ColRS two-component system and TtgABC efflux pump on phenol tolerance of Pseudomonas putida becomes evident only in growing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kivisaar Maia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently found that Pseudomonas putida deficient in ColRS two-component system is sensitive to phenol and displays a serious defect on solid glucose medium where subpopulation of bacteria lyses. The latter phenotype is significantly enhanced by the presence of phenol in growth medium. Here, we focused on identification of factors affecting phenol tolerance of the colR-deficient P. putida. Results By using transposon mutagenesis approach we identified a set of phenol-tolerant derivatives of colR-deficient strain. Surprisingly, half of independent phenol tolerant clones possessed miniTn5 insertion in the ttgABC operon. However, though inactivation of TtgABC efflux pump significantly enhanced phenol tolerance, it did not affect phenol-enhanced autolysis of the colR mutant on glucose medium indicating that phenol- and glucose-caused stresses experienced by the colR-deficient P. putida are not coupled. Inactivation of TtgABC pump significantly increased the phenol tolerance of the wild-type P. putida as well. Comparison of phenol tolerance of growing versus starving bacteria revealed that both ColRS and TtgABC systems affect phenol tolerance only under growth conditions and not under starvation. Flow cytometry analysis showed that phenol strongly inhibited cell division and to some extent also caused cell membrane permeabilization to propidium iodide. Single cell analysis of populations of the ttgC- and colRttgC-deficient strains revealed that their membrane permeabilization by phenol resembles that of the wild-type and the colR mutant, respectively. However, cell division of P. putida with inactivated TtgABC pump seemed to be less sensitive to phenol than that of the parental strain. At the same time, cell division appeared to be more inhibited in the colR-mutant strain than in the wild-type P. putida. Conclusions ColRS signal system and TtgABC efflux pump are involved in the phenol tolerance of P. putida. However, as

  4. Regulation of the aceI multidrug efflux pump gene in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Hassan, Karl A; Ashwood, Heather E; Gamage, Hasinika K A H; Li, Liping; Mabbutt, Bridget C; Paulsen, Ian T

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the function of AceR, a putative transcriptional regulator of the chlorhexidine efflux pump gene aceI in Acinetobacter baumannii. Chlorhexidine susceptibility and chlorhexidine induction of aceI gene expression were determined by MIC and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively, in A. baumannii WT and ΔaceR mutant strains. Recombinant AceR was prepared as both a full-length protein and as a truncated protein, AceR (86-299), i.e. AceRt, which has the DNA-binding domain deleted. The binding interaction of the purified AceR protein and its putative operator region was investigated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting assays. The binding of AceRt with its putative ligand chlorhexidine was examined using surface plasmon resonance and tryptophan fluorescence quenching assays. MIC determination assays indicated that the ΔaceI and ΔaceR mutant strains both showed lower resistance to chlorhexidine than the parental strain. Chlorhexidine-induced expression of aceI was abolished in a ΔaceR background. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting assays demonstrated chlorhexidine-stimulated binding of AceR with two sites upstream of the putative aceI promoter. Surface plasmon resonance and tryptophan fluorescence quenching assays suggested that the purified ligand-binding domain of the AceR protein was able to bind with chlorhexidine with high affinity. This study provides strong evidence that AceR is an activator of aceI gene expression when challenged with chlorhexidine. This study is the first characterization, to our knowledge, of a regulator controlling expression of a PACE family multidrug efflux pump.

  5. The AcrB efflux pump: conformational cycling and peristalsis lead to multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Markus A; Diederichs, Kay; Eicher, Thomas; Brandstätter, Lorenz; Schiefner, André; Verrey, François; Pos, Klaas M

    2008-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of human pathogenic bacteria is an emerging problem for global public health. This resistance is often associated with the overproduction of membrane transport proteins that are capable to pump chemotherapeutics, antibiotics, detergents, dyes and organic solvents out of the cell. In Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, tripartite multidrug efflux systems extrude a large variety of cytotoxic substances from the cell membrane directly into the medium bypassing the periplasm and the outer membrane. In E. coli, the tripartite efflux system AcrA/AcrB/TolC is the pump in charge of the efflux of multiple antibiotics, dyes, bile salts and detergents. The trimeric outer membrane factor (OMF) TolC forms a beta-barrel pore in the outer membrane and exhibits a long periplasmic alpha-helical conduit. The periplasmic membrane fusion protein (MFP) AcrA serves as a linker between TolC and the trimeric resistance nodulation cell division (RND) pump AcrB, located in the inner membrane acting as a proton/drug antiporter. The newly elucidated asymmetric structure of trimeric AcrB reveals three different monomer conformations representing consecutive states in a transport cycle. The monomers show tunnels with occlusions at different sites leading from the lateral side through the periplasmic porter (pore) domains towards the funnel of the trimer and TolC. The structural changes create a hydrophobic pocket in one monomer, which is not present in the other two monomers. Minocyclin and doxorubicin, both AcrB substrates, specifically bind to this pocket substantiating its role as drug binding pocket. The energy transduction from the proton motive force into drug efflux includes proton binding in (and release from) the transmembrane part. The conformational changes observed within a triad of essential, titratable residues (Asp407/Asp408/Lys940) residing in the hydrophobic transmembrane domain appear to be transduced by

  6. Detection of efflux pump activity among clinical isolates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To detect efflux pump activity (EPA) and screening a suspected efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) [1- (3-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl]-piperazine (TFMBP)], which could help in reducing multi-drug resistance (MDR). Methods: Eighteen isolates, viz, 14 S. aureus, 2 S. lentus, 1 S. xylosus and 1 Micrococcus species from various ...

  7. The multidrug ABC transporter BmrC/BmrD of Bacillus subtilis is regulated via a ribosome-mediated transcriptional attenuation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilman, Ewoud; Mars, Ruben A T; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Denham, Emma L

    2014-10-01

    Expression of particular drug transporters in response to antibiotic pressure is a critical element in the development of bacterial multidrug resistance, and represents a serious concern for human health. To obtain a better understanding of underlying regulatory mechanisms, we have dissected the transcriptional activation of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter BmrC/BmrD of the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis. By using promoter-GFP fusions and live cell array technology, we demonstrate a temporally controlled transcriptional activation of the bmrCD genes in response to antibiotics that target protein synthesis. Intriguingly, bmrCD expression only occurs during the late-exponential and stationary growth stages, irrespective of the timing of the antibiotic challenge. We show that this is due to tight transcriptional control by the transition state regulator AbrB. Moreover, our results show that the bmrCD genes are co-transcribed with bmrB (yheJ), a small open reading frame immediately upstream of bmrC that harbors three alternative stem-loop structures. These stem-loops are apparently crucial for antibiotic-induced bmrCD transcription. Importantly, the antibiotic-induced bmrCD expression requires translation of bmrB, which implies that BmrB serves as a regulatory leader peptide. Altogether, we demonstrate for the first time that a ribosome-mediated transcriptional attenuation mechanism can control the expression of a multidrug ABC transporter. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Tyrosine and aurora kinase inhibitors diminish transport function of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP 4 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiannon N. Hardwick

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosine and aurora kinases are important effectors in signal transduction pathways that are often involved in aberrant cancer cell growth. Tyrosine (TKI and aurora (AKI kinase inhibitors are anti-cancer agents specifically designed to target such signaling pathways through TKI/AKI binding to the ATP-binding pocket of kinases thereby leading to diminished kinase activity. Some TKIs have been identified as inhibitors of ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, which are commonly upregulated in malignant cells. TKI/AKIs have been investigated as ABC transporter inhibitors in order to facilitate the accumulation of concomitantly administered chemo-therapeutics within cancer cells. However, ABC transporters are prominently expressed in the liver and other eliminating organs, and their inhibition has been linked to intracellular accumulation of drugs, altered disposition, and toxicity. The potential for TKIs/AKIs to inhibit other important hepatic efflux transporters, particularly multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs, remains unknown. The aim of the current study was to compare the inhibitory potency of 20 selected TKI/AKIs against MRP4 and BCRP through the use of inverted membrane vesicle assays. Relative IC50 values were estimated by determining TKI/AKI inhibition of MRP4-mediated [3H]-dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate uptake and BCRP-mediated [3H]-estrone sulfate uptake. To provide insight to the clinical relevance of TKI/AKI inhibition of ABC efflux transporters, the ratio of the steady-state maximum total plasma concentration (Css to the IC50 for each compound was calculated with Css/IC50 ratio >0.1 deemed potentially clinically relevant. Such analysis identified several potentially clinically relevant inhibitors of MRP4: alisertib, danusertib, erlotinib, lapatinib, neratinib, nilotinib, pazopanib, sorafenib, and tozasertib. The potentially clinically relevant inhibition of

  9. Differential contributions of five ABC transporters to mutidrug resistance, antioxidion and virulence of Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting Song

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance (MDR confers agrochemical compatibility to fungal cells-based mycoinsecticdes but mechanisms involved in MDR remain poorly understood for entomopathogenic fungi, which have been widely applied as biocontrol agents against arthropod pests. Here we characterized the functions of five ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters, which were classified to the subfamilies ABC-B (Mdr1, ABC-C (Mrp1 and ABC-G (Pdr1, Pdr2 and Pdr5 and selected from 54 full-size ABC proteins of Beauveria bassiana based on their main domain architecture, membrane topology and transcriptional responses to three antifungal inducers. Disruption of each transporter gene resulted in significant reduction in resistance to four to six of eight fungicides or antifungal drugs tested due to their differences in structure and function. Compared with wild-type and complemented (control strains, disruption mutants of all the five transporter genes became significantly less tolerant to the oxidants menadione and H₂O₂ based on 22-41% and 10-31% reductions of their effective concentrations required for the suppression of 50% colony growth at 25°C. Under a standardized spray, the killing actions of ΔPdr5 and ΔMrp1 mutants against Spodoptera litura second-instar larvae were delayed by 59% and 33% respectively. However, no significant virulence change was observed in three other delta mutants. Taken together, the examined five ABC transporters contribute differentially to not only the fungal MDR but antioxidant capability, a phenotype rarely associated with ABC efflux pumps in previous reports; at least some of them are required for the full virulence of B. bassiana, thereby affecting the fungal biocontrol potential. Our results indicate that ABC pump-dependent MDR mechanisms exist in entomopathogenic fungi as do in yeasts and human and plant pathogenic fungi.

  10. Bafetinib (INNO-406) reverses multidrug resistance by inhibiting the efflux function of ABCB1 and ABCG2 transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-Kai; Zhang, Guan-Nan; Wang, Yi-Jun; Patel, Bhargav A.; Talele, Tanaji T.; Yang, Dong-Hua; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2016-05-01

    ATP-Binding Cassette transporters are involved in the efflux of xenobiotic compounds and are responsible for decreasing drug accumulation in multidrug resistant (MDR) cells. Discovered by structure-based virtual screening algorithms, bafetinib, a Bcr-Abl/Lyn tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was found to have inhibitory effects on both ABCB1- and ABCG2-mediated MDR in this in-vitro investigation. Bafetinib significantly sensitized ABCB1 and ABCG2 overexpressing MDR cells to their anticancer substrates and increased the intracellular accumulation of anticancer drugs, particularly doxorubicin and [3H]-paclitaxel in ABCB1 overexpressing cells; mitoxantrone and [3H]-mitoxantrone in ABCG2 overexpressing cells, respectively. Bafetinib stimulated ABCB1 ATPase activities while inhibited ABCG2 ATPase activities. There were no significant changes in the expression level or the subcellular distribution of ABCB1 and ABCG2 in the cells exposed to 3 μM of bafetinib. Overall, our study indicated that bafetinib reversed ABCB1- and ABCG2-mediated MDR by blocking the drug efflux function of these transporters. These findings might be useful in developing combination therapy for MDR cancer treatment.

  11. The naphthoquinones, vitamin K3 and its structural analog plumbagin, are substrates of the multidrug resistance-linked ABC drug transporter ABCG2

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Suneet; Wu, Chung-Pu; Nandigama, Krishnamachary; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin K3 (Menadione; 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) is a structural precursor of vitamins K1 and K2 which are essential for blood clotting. The naturally occurring structural analog of this vitamin, plumbagin (5-hydroxy-menadione), is known to modulate cellular proliferation, apoptosis, carcinogenesis, and radioresistance. We, here, report that both vitamin K3 and plumbagin are substrates of the multidrug resistance-linked ATP binding cassette (ABC) drug transporter, ABCG2. Vitamin K3 and plu...

  12. Diversity and evolution of ABC proteins in basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Andriy; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2013-01-01

    ABC proteins constitute one of the largest families of proteins. They are implicated in wide variety of cellular processes ranging from ribosome biogenesis to multidrug resistance. With the advance of fungal genomics, the number of known fungal ABC proteins increases rapidly but the information on their biological functions remains scarce. In this work we extended the previous analysis of fungal ABC proteins to include recently sequenced species of basidiomycetes. We performed an identification and initial cataloging of ABC proteins from 23 fungal species representing 10 orders within class Agaricomycotina. We identified more than 1000 genes coding for ABC proteins. Comparison of sets of ABC proteins present in basidiomycetes and ascomycetes revealed the existence of two groups of ABC proteins specific for basidiomycetes. Results of survey should contribute to the better understanding of evolution of ABC proteins in fungi and support further experimental work on their characterization.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of fungal ABC transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Andriy; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2010-03-16

    The superfamily of ABC proteins is among the largest known in nature. Its members are mainly, but not exclusively, involved in the transport of a broad range of substrates across biological membranes. Many contribute to multidrug resistance in microbial pathogens and cancer cells. The diversity of ABC proteins in fungi is comparable with those in multicellular animals, but so far fungal ABC proteins have barely been studied. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of the ABC proteins extracted from the genomes of 27 fungal species from 18 orders representing 5 fungal phyla thereby covering the most important groups. Our analysis demonstrated that some of the subfamilies of ABC proteins remained highly conserved in fungi, while others have undergone a remarkable group-specific diversification. Members of the various fungal phyla also differed significantly in the number of ABC proteins found in their genomes, which is especially reduced in the yeast S. cerevisiae and S. pombe. Data obtained during our analysis should contribute to a better understanding of the diversity of the fungal ABC proteins and provide important clues about their possible biological functions.

  14. Substrate binding accelerates the conformational transitions and substrate dissociation in multidrug efflux transporter AcrB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei eWang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The tripartite efflux pump assembly AcrAB-TolC is the major multidrug resistance transporter in E. coli. The inner membrane transporter AcrB is a homotrimer, energized by the proton movement down the transmembrane electrochemical gradient. The asymmetric crystal structures of AcrB with three monomers in distinct conformational states (access (A, binding (B and extrusion (E support a functional rotating mechanism, in which each monomer of AcrB cycles among the three states in a concerted way. However, the relationship between the conformational changes during functional rotation and drug translocation has not been totally understood. Here, we explored the conformational changes of the AcrB homotrimer during the ABE→BEA transition in different substrate-binding states using targeted MD simulations. It was found that the dissociation of substrate from the distal binding pocket of B monomer is closely related to the concerted conformational changes in the translocation pathway, especially the side chain reorientation of Phe628 and Tyr327. A second substrate binding at the proximal binding pocket of A monomer evidently accelerates the conformational transitions as well as substrate dissociation in B monomer. The acceleration effect of the multi-substrate binding mode provides a molecular explanation for the positive cooperativity observed in the kinetic studies of substrate efflux and deepens our understanding of the functional rotating mechanism of AcrB.

  15. Overcoming the heterologous bias: An in vivo functional analysis of multidrug efflux transporter, CgCdr1p in matched pair clinical isolates of Candida glabrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, Nidhi; Manoharlal, Raman; Sharma, Monika; Sanglard, Dominique; Prasad, Rajendra

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → First report to demonstrate an in vivo expression system of an ABC multidrug transporter CgCdr1p of C. glabrata. → First report on the structure and functional characterization of CgCdr1p. → Functional conservation of divergent but typical residues of CgCdr1p. → CgCdr1p elicits promiscuity towards substrates and has a large drug binding pocket with overlapping specificities. -- Abstract: We have taken advantage of the natural milieu of matched pair of azole sensitive (AS) and azole resistant (AR) clinical isolates of Candida glabrata for expressing its major ABC multidrug transporter, CgCdr1p for structure and functional analysis. This was accomplished by tagging a green fluorescent protein (GFP) downstream of ORF of CgCDR1 and integrating the resultant fusion protein at its native chromosomal locus in AS and AR backgrounds. The characterization confirmed that in comparison to AS isolate, CgCdr1p-GFP was over-expressed in AR isolates due to its hyperactive native promoter and the GFP tag did not affect its functionality in either construct. We observed that in addition to Rhodamine 6 G (R6G) and Fluconazole (FLC), a recently identified fluorescent substrate of multidrug transporters Nile Red (NR) could also be expelled by CgCdr1p. Competition assays with these substrates revealed the presence of overlapping multiple drug binding sites in CgCdr1p. Point mutations employing site directed mutagenesis confirmed that the role played by unique amino acid residues critical to ATP catalysis and localization of ABC drug transporter proteins are well conserved in C. glabrata as in other yeasts. This study demonstrates a first in vivo novel system where over-expression of GFP tagged MDR transporter protein can be driven by its own hyperactive promoter of AR isolates. Taken together, this in vivo system can be exploited for the structure and functional analysis of CgCdr1p and similar proteins wherein the arte-factual concerns encountered in using

  16. Overcoming the heterologous bias: An in vivo functional analysis of multidrug efflux transporter, CgCdr1p in matched pair clinical isolates of Candida glabrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puri, Nidhi; Manoharlal, Raman; Sharma, Monika [Membrane Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Sanglard, Dominique [Institut de Microbiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, 1011 Lausanne (Switzerland); Prasad, Rajendra, E-mail: rp47jnu@gmail.com [Membrane Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} First report to demonstrate an in vivo expression system of an ABC multidrug transporter CgCdr1p of C. glabrata. {yields} First report on the structure and functional characterization of CgCdr1p. {yields} Functional conservation of divergent but typical residues of CgCdr1p. {yields} CgCdr1p elicits promiscuity towards substrates and has a large drug binding pocket with overlapping specificities. -- Abstract: We have taken advantage of the natural milieu of matched pair of azole sensitive (AS) and azole resistant (AR) clinical isolates of Candida glabrata for expressing its major ABC multidrug transporter, CgCdr1p for structure and functional analysis. This was accomplished by tagging a green fluorescent protein (GFP) downstream of ORF of CgCDR1 and integrating the resultant fusion protein at its native chromosomal locus in AS and AR backgrounds. The characterization confirmed that in comparison to AS isolate, CgCdr1p-GFP was over-expressed in AR isolates due to its hyperactive native promoter and the GFP tag did not affect its functionality in either construct. We observed that in addition to Rhodamine 6 G (R6G) and Fluconazole (FLC), a recently identified fluorescent substrate of multidrug transporters Nile Red (NR) could also be expelled by CgCdr1p. Competition assays with these substrates revealed the presence of overlapping multiple drug binding sites in CgCdr1p. Point mutations employing site directed mutagenesis confirmed that the role played by unique amino acid residues critical to ATP catalysis and localization of ABC drug transporter proteins are well conserved in C. glabrata as in other yeasts. This study demonstrates a first in vivo novel system where over-expression of GFP tagged MDR transporter protein can be driven by its own hyperactive promoter of AR isolates. Taken together, this in vivo system can be exploited for the structure and functional analysis of CgCdr1p and similar proteins wherein the arte-factual concerns

  17. THE ROLE OF MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE ASSOCIATED PROTEIN (MRP) IN THE BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER AND OPIOID ANALGESIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wendy; Pasternak, Gavril W.

    2013-01-01

    The blood brain barrier protects the brain from circulating compounds and drugs. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is involved with the barrier, both preventing the influx of agent from the blood into the brain and facilitating the efflux of compounds from the brain into the blood, raising the possibility of a similar role for other transporters. Multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP), a 190 kDa protein similar to Pgp is also ABC transport that has been implicated in the blood brain barrier. The current study explores its role in opioid action. Immunohistochemically, it is localized in the choroid plexus in ratsand can be selectively downregulated by antisense treatment at both the level of mRNA, as shown by RT-PCR, and protein, as demonstrated immunohistochemically. Behaviorally, downregulation of MRP significantly enhances the analgesic potency of systemic morphine in MRP knockout mice and in antisense-treated rats by lowering the blood brain barrier. Following intracerebroventricular administration, a number of compounds, including some opioids, are rapidly secreted from the brain into the blood where they contribute to the overall analgesic effects by activating peripheral systems. MRP plays a role in this efflux. Downregulating MRP expression leads to a corresponding decrease in the transport and a diminished analgesic response from opioids administered intracerebroventricularly. Thus, the transporter protein MRP plays a role in maintaining the blood-brain barrier and modulates the activity of opioids. PMID:23508590

  18. Single-step selection of drug resistant Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 mutants reveals a functional redundancy in the recruitment of multidrug efflux systems.

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    Anthony J Brzoska

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Acinetobacter have been the focus recent attention due to both their clinical significance and application to molecular biology. The soil commensal bacterium Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 has been proposed as a model system for molecular and genetic studies, whereas in a clinical environment, Acinetobacter spp. are of increasing importance due to their propensity to cause serious and intractable systemic infections. Clinically, a major factor in the success of Acinetobacter spp. as opportunistic pathogens can be attributed to their ability to rapidly evolve resistance to common antimicrobial compounds. Whole genome sequencing of clinical and environmental Acinetobacter spp. isolates has revealed the presence of numerous multidrug transporters within the core and accessory genomes, suggesting that efflux is an important host defense response in this genus. In this work, we used the drug-susceptible organism A. baylyi ADP1 as a model for studies into the evolution of efflux mediated resistance in genus Acinetobacter, due to the high level of conservation of efflux determinants across four diverse Acinetobacter strains, including clinical isolates. A single exposure of therapeutic concentrations of chloramphenicol to populations of A. baylyi ADP1 cells produced five individual colonies displaying multidrug resistance. The major facilitator superfamily pump craA was upregulated in one mutant strain, whereas the resistance nodulation division pump adeJ was upregulated in the remaining four. Within the adeJ upregulated population, two different levels of adeJ mRNA transcription were observed, suggesting at least three separate mutations were selected after single-step exposure to chloramphenicol. In the craA upregulated strain, a T to G substitution 12 nt upstream of the craA translation initiation codon was observed. Subsequent mRNA stability analyses using this strain revealed that the half-life of mutant craA mRNA was significantly

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of fungal ABC transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovalchuk, A.; Driessen, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The superfamily of ABC proteins is among the largest known in nature. Its members are mainly, but not exclusively, involved in the transport of a broad range of substrates across biological membranes. Many contribute to multidrug resistance in microbial pathogens and cancer cells. The

  20. Expression and activity of multidrug resistance protein 1 in a murine thymoma cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria-Lima, Juliana; Kyle-Cezar, Fernanda; Leite, Daniela F P; Capella, Luiz; Capella, Márcia A M; Rumjanek, Vivian M

    2005-01-01

    Multidrug resistance proteins [MRPs and P-glycoprotein (Pgp)] are members of the family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins, originally described as being involved in the resistance against anti-cancer agents in tumour cells. These proteins act as ATP-dependent efflux pumps and have now been described in normal cells where they exert physiological roles. The aim of this work was to investigate the expression and activity of MRP and Pgp in the thymoma cell line, EL4. It was observed that EL4 cells expressed mRNA for MRP1, but not for MRP2, MRP3 or Pgp. The activity of ABC transport proteins was evaluated by using the efflux of the fluorescent probes carboxy-2′-7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (CFDA) and rhodamine 123 (Rho 123). EL4 cells did not retain CFDA intracellularly, and MRP inhibitors (probenecid, indomethacin and MK 571) decreased MRP1 activity in a concentration-dependent manner. As expected, EL4 cells accumulated Rho 123, and the presence of cyclosporin A and verapamil did not modify this accumulation. Most importantly, when EL4 cells were incubated in the presence of the MRP1 inhibitors indomethacin and MK 571 for 6 days, they started to express CD4 and CD8 molecules on their surface, producing double-positive cells and CD8 single-positive cells. Our results suggest that MRP activity is important for the maintenance of the undifferentiated state in this cell type. This finding might have implications in the physiological process of normal thymocyte maturation. PMID:15804283

  1. Distribution of different efflux pump genes in clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and their correlation with antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Feng; Lin, Yun-You; Tu, Chi-Chao; Lan, Chung-Yu

    2017-04-01

    Efflux pumps are one of the major mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii. This study aimed to understand the distribution of different types of pump genes in clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDRAB) and to reveal the relationship between their presence and expression with antimicrobial resistance. MDRAB isolates were collected from five hospitals in Taiwan. Different categories of pump genes, including adeB, adeJ, macB, abeM, abeS, emrA-like, emrB-like, and craA, were chosen, and their presence in the collected isolates was determined. Three induced resistant strains of A. baumannii ATCC 17978 to tigecycline, imipenem, and amikacin were also included. The expressions of the selected pump genes were determined using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Twenty-one MDRAB clinical isolates were obtained from five hospitals. All of the studied pump genes were present in the collected MDRAB isolates except one isolate that lacked the emrA-like gene. The gene expression of these efflux pumps was variable among the strains. The upregulation of the adeB, adeJ, and macB genes was responsible for tigecycline resistance, and the increased abeS expression was strongly related to amikacin resistance. Of all the antibiotics studied, tigecycline was the strongest inducer of gene expression for many efflux pumps in A. baumannii. Efflux pump genes are universally present in the collected clinical MDRAB isolates. The upregulation of the adeB, adeJ, macB and abeS genes is more related with antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Interaction of antibacterial compounds with RND efflux pumps in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    Juerg eDreier

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat due to intrinsic antibiotic resistance and the propensity of this pathogen to accumulate diverse resistance mechanisms. Hyperexpression of efflux pumps of the Resistance-Nodulation-Division-type multidrug efflux pumps (e.g. MexAB-OprM, chromosomally encoded by mexAB-oprM, mexCD-oprJ, mexEF-oprN, and mexXY (-oprA is often detected in clinical isolates and contributes to worrying multi-drug resistance phenotypes.Not all antibiotics are affected to the same extent by the aforementioned RND efflux pumps. The impact of efflux on antibiotic activity varies not only between different classes of antibiotics but also between members of the same family of antibiotics. Subtle differences in physicochemical features of compound-pump and compound-solvent interactions largely determine how compounds are affected by efflux activity.The combination of different high-resolution techniques helps to gain insight into the functioning of these molecular machineries. This review discusses substrate recognition patterns based on experimental evidence and computer simulations with a focus on MexB, the pump subunit of the main RND transporter in P. aeruginosa.

  3. Purple perilla extracts with α-asarone enhance cholesterol efflux from oxidized LDL-exposed macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin-Hye; Paek, Ji Hun; Shin, Daekeun; Lee, Jae-Yong; Lim, Soon Sung; Kang, Young-Hee

    2015-04-01

    The cellular accumulation of cholesterol is critical in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play an essential role in mediating the efflux of excess cholesterol. In the current study, we investigated whether purple Perilla frutescens extracts (PPE) at a non-toxic concentration of 1-10 µg/ml stimulate the induction of the ABC transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1, and cholesterol efflux from lipid-laden J774A.1 murine macrophages exposed to 50 ng/ml oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Purple perilla, an annual herb in the mint family and its constituents, have been reported to exhibit antioxidant and cytostatic activity, as well as to exert anti-allergic effects. Our results revealed that treatment with oxidized LDL for 24 h led to the accumulation of lipid droplets in the macrophages. PPE suppressed the oxidized LDL-induced foam cell formation by blocking the induction of scavenger receptor B1. However, PPE promoted the induction of the ABC transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1, and subsequently accelerated cholesterol efflux from the lipid-loaded macrophages. The liver X receptor (LXR) agonist, TO-091317, and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonist, pioglitazone, increased ABCA1 expression and treatment with 10 µg/ml PPE further enhanced this effect. PPE did not induce LXRα and PPARγ expression per se, but enhanced their expression in the macrophages exposed to oxidized LDL. α-asarone was isolated from PPE and characterized as a major component enhancing the induction of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in macrophages exposed to oxidized LDL. α-asarone, but not β-asarone was effective in attenuating foam cell formation and enhancing cholesterol efflux, revealing an isomeric difference in their activity. The results from the present study demonstrate that PPE promotes cholesterol efflux from macrophages by activating the interaction of PPARγ-LXRα-ABC transporters.

  4. Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Leukemia Cells by Novel Artemisinin-, Egonol-, and Thymoquinone-Derived Hybrid Compounds

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    Lisa Gruber

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Two major obstacles for successful cancer treatment are the toxicity of cytostatics and the development of drug resistance in cancer cells during chemotherapy. Acquired or intrinsic drug resistance is responsible for almost 90% of treatment failure. For this reason, there is an urgent need for new anticancer drugs with improved efficacy against cancer cells, and with less toxicity on normal cells. There are impressive examples demonstrating the success of natural plant compounds to fight cancer, such as Vinca alkaloids, taxanes, and anthracyclines. Artesunic acid (ARTA, a drug for malaria treatment, also exerts cytotoxic activity towards cancer cells. Multidrug resistance often results from drug efflux pumps (ABC-transporters that reduce intracellular drug levels. Hence, it would be interesting to know, whether ARTA could overcome drug resistance of tumor cells, and in what way ABC-transporters are involved. Different derivatives showing improved features concerning cytotoxicity and pharmacokinetic behavior have been developed. Considering both drug sensitivity and resistance, we chose a sensitive and a doxorubicin-resistant leukemia cell line and determined the killing effect of ARTA on these cells. Molecular docking and doxorubicin efflux assays were performed to investigate the interaction of the derivatives with P-glycoprotein. Using single-cell gel electrophoresis (alkaline comet assay, we showed that the derivatives of ARTA induce DNA breakage and accordingly programmed cell death, which represents a promising strategy in cancer treatment. ARTA activated apoptosis in cancer cells by the iron-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. In conclusion, ARTA derivatives may bear the potential to be further developed as anticancer drugs.

  5. Detection of potential AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux pump inhibitor in calyces extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa

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    Nehaya Al-Karablieh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate occurrence of potential efflux pump inhibitor (EPI against AcrAB-TolC efflux pump in the methanol extract of H. sabdariffa. Materials and Methods: Calyces of H. sabdariffa were purchased from the local market in April 2014, methanol extract of H. sabdariffa was subjected to agar plate diffusion against Escherichia coli TG1 and its ∆acrB-∆tolC and thin layer chromatography (TLC bioassay. The corresponding EPI fraction was eluted by methanol. The synergistic effect of antimicrobials and EPI fraction was measured by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC determination for E. coli and Erwinia amylovora strains, and the ability of EPI fraction to enhance EtBr accumulation was conducted. Results: E. coli TG1 was more sensitive to the methanol extracts of H. sabdariffa than E. coli ∆acrB-∆tolC, and inhibition zone corresponding to flavones on TLC bioassay plate has been formed which might be related to the fraction of potential EPI. The MIC values revealed that EPI fraction enhanced the activity of the used antimicrobials by 4 to 8 folds in E. coli TG1 and by 4 to 10 folds in E. amylovora 1189. Addition of EPI fraction in a dose-dependent manner increased the intercellular accumulation of Ethidium Bromide (EtBr in the wild type stains of E. coli TG1 and E. amylovora 1189. Conclusion: EPI fraction behaves like a multidrug efflux pump inhibitor and further investigation should be conducted for determination of the chemical structure of EPI fraction. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(4.000: 357-363

  6. Molecular characterization of ABC transporters in marine ciliate, Euplotes crassus: Identification and response to cadmium and benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hokyun; Yim, Bora; Kim, Jisoo; Kim, Haeyeon; Lee, Young-Mi

    2017-11-30

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters participate in transporting various substances, including xenobiotics, in or out of cells. However, their genetic information and function in ciliates remain still unclear. In this study, we sequenced and characterized two ABC transporter genes (EcABCB and EcABCC), and investigated the effect of cadmium (Cd) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) on their function and gene expression, using efflux assay and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), respectively, in the marine ciliate, Euplotes crassus. Sequencing analysis and efflux assay showed that EcABCB and EcABCC are typical ABC transporters, possessing conserved function. Exposure to Cd (≥5mg/L) and B[a]P (≥50.5μg/L) enhanced accumulation of a substrate. A significant increase in the expression of EcABCB and EcABC mRNA was observed at lower concentration in response to Cd and B[a]P. Our findings indicate that Cd and B[a]P could inhibit the efflux function of ABC transporters, leading to cellular toxicity in the ciliate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Divide and conquer: processive transport enables multidrug transporters to tackle challenging drugs

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    Nir Fluman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug transporters are membrane proteins that catalyze efflux of antibiotics and other toxic compounds from cells, thereby conferring drug resistance on various organisms. Unlike most solute transporters that transport a single type of compound or similar analogues, multidrug transporters are extremely promiscuous. They transport a broad spectrum of dissimilar drugs and represent a serious obstacle to antimicrobial or anticancer chemotherapy. Many challenging aspects of multidrug transporters, which are unique, have been studied in detail, including their ability to interact with chemically unrelated drugs, and how they utilize energy to drive efflux of compounds that are not only structurally but electrically different. A new and surprising dimension of the promiscuous nature of multidrug transporters has been described recently: they can move long molecules through the membrane in a processive manner.

  8. RND-type Drug Efflux Pumps from Gram-negative bacteria: Molecular Mechanism and Inhibition

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    Henrietta eVenter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Drug efflux protein complexes confer multidrug resistance on bacteria by transporting a wide spectrum of structurally diverse antibiotics. Moreover, organisms can only acquire resistance in the presence of an active efflux pump. The substrate range of drug efflux pumps is not limited to antibiotics, but it also includes toxins, dyes, detergents, lipids and molecules involved in quorum sensing; hence efflux pumps are also associated with virulence and biofilm formation. Inhibitors of efflux pumps are therefore attractive compounds to reverse multidrug resistance and to prevent the development of resistance in clinically relevant bacterial pathogens. Recent successes on the structure determination and functional analysis of the AcrB and MexB components of the AcrAB-TolC and MexAB-OprM drug efflux systems as well as the structure of the fully assembled, functional triparted AcrAB-TolC complex significantly contributed to our understanding of the mechanism of substrate transport and the options for inhibition of efflux. These data, combined with the well-developed methodologies for measuring efflux pump inhibition, could allow the rational design and subsequent experimental verification of potential efflux pump inhibitors. In this review we will explore how the available biochemical and structural information can be translated into the discovery and development of new compounds that could reverse drug resistance in Gram-negative pathogens. The current literature on efflux pump inhibitors will also be analysed and the reasons why no compounds have yet progressed into clinical use will be explored.

  9. High-throughput screening identifies Ceefourin 1 and Ceefourin 2 as highly selective inhibitors of multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Leanna; Flemming, Claudia L; Watt, Fujiko; Masada, Nanako; Yu, Denise M T; Huynh, Tony; Conseil, Gwenaëlle; Tivnan, Amanda; Polinsky, Alexander; Gudkov, Andrei V; Munoz, Marcia A; Vishvanath, Anasuya; Cooper, Dermot M F; Henderson, Michelle J; Cole, Susan P C; Fletcher, Jamie I; Haber, Michelle; Norris, Murray D

    2014-09-01

    Multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4/ABCC4), a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily, is an organic anion transporter capable of effluxing a wide range of physiologically important signalling molecules and drugs. MRP4 has been proposed to contribute to numerous functions in both health and disease; however, in most cases these links remain to be unequivocally established. A major limitation to understanding the physiological and pharmacological roles of MRP4 has been the absence of specific small molecule inhibitors, with the majority of established inhibitors also targeting other ABC transporter family members, or inhibiting the production, function or degradation of important MRP4 substrates. We therefore set out to identify more selective and well tolerated inhibitors of MRP4 that might be used to study the many proposed functions of this transporter. Using high-throughput screening, we identified two chemically distinct small molecules, Ceefourin 1 and Ceefourin 2, that inhibit transport of a broad range of MRP4 substrates, yet are highly selective for MRP4 over other ABC transporters, including P-glycoprotein (P-gp), ABCG2 (Breast Cancer Resistance Protein; BCRP) and MRP1 (multidrug resistance protein 1; ABCC1). Both compounds are more potent MRP4 inhibitors in cellular assays than the most widely used inhibitor, MK-571, requiring lower concentrations to effect a comparable level of inhibition. Furthermore, Ceefourin 1 and Ceefourin 2 have low cellular toxicity, and high microsomal and acid stability. These newly identified inhibitors should be of great value for efforts to better understand the biological roles of MRP4, and may represent classes of compounds with therapeutic application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. ABC transporters in fish species: a review

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    Marta eFerreira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ATP-binding cassette (ABC proteins were first recognized for their role in multidrug resistance (MDR in chemotherapeutic treatments, which is a major impediment for the successful treatment of many forms of malignant tumors in humans. These proteins, highly conserved throughout vertebrate species, were later related to cellular detoxification and accounted as responsible for protecting aquatic organisms from xenobiotic insults in the so-called multixenobiotic resistance mechanism (MXR. In recent years, research on these proteins in aquatic species has highlighted their importance in the detoxification mechanisms in fish thus it is of extreme added value to continue these studies. Several transporters have been pointed out as relevant in the ecotoxicological context associated to the transport of xenobiotics, such as P-glycoproteins (Pgps, multidrug-resistance-associated proteins (MRPs 1-5 and breast resistance associated protein (BCRP. In mammals, several nuclear receptors have been identified as mediators of phase I and II metabolizing enzymes and ABC transporters. In aquatic species, knowledge on co-regulation of detoxification mechanism is scarce and needs to be addressed. The interaction of emergent contaminants, with chemosensitizer potential, with ABC transporters in aquatic organisms can compromise detoxification processes and have population effects and should be studied in more detail. This review intends to summarize the recent advances in research on MXR mechanisms in fish species, focusing in 1 regulation and functioning of ABC proteins; 2 cooperation with phase I and II biotransformation enzymes; and 3 ecotoxicological relevance and information on emergent pollutants with ability to modulate ABC transporters expression and activity. Several lines of evidence are clear suggesting the important role of these transporters in detoxification mechanisms and must be further investigated in fish.

  11. Overcoming Multidrug Resistance in Cancer Stem Cells

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    Karobi Moitra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle mechanism of protection of stem cells is through the expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters. These transporters serve as the guardians of the stem cell population in the body. Unfortunately these very same ABC efflux pumps afford protection to cancer stem cells in tumors, shielding them from the adverse effects of chemotherapy. A number of strategies to circumvent the function of these transporters in cancer stem cells are currently under investigation. These strategies include the development of competitive and allosteric modulators, nanoparticle mediated delivery of inhibitors, targeted transcriptional regulation of ABC transporters, miRNA mediated inhibition, and targeting of signaling pathways that modulate ABC transporters. The role of ABC transporters in cancer stem cells will be explored in this paper and strategies aimed at overcoming drug resistance caused by these particular transporters will also be discussed.

  12. Multidrug resistance in lactic acid bacteria : molecular mechanisms and clinical relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, HW; Margolles, A; Putman, M; Sakamoto, K; Konings, WN

    The active extrusion of cytotoxic compounds from the cell by multidrug transporters is one of the major causes of failure of chemotherapeutic treatment of tumor cells and of infections by pathogenic microorganisms. The secondary multidrug transporter LmrP and the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) type

  13. Identification of natural compound inhibitors for multidrug efflux pumps of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using in silico high-throughput virtual screening and in vitro validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparna, Vasudevan; Dineshkumar, Kesavan; Mohanalakshmi, Narasumani; Velmurugan, Devadasan; Hopper, Waheeta

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli are resistant to wide range of antibiotics rendering the treatment of infections very difficult. A main mechanism attributed to the resistance is the function of efflux pumps. MexAB-OprM and AcrAB-TolC are the tripartite efflux pump assemblies, responsible for multidrug resistance in P. aeruginosa and E. coli respectively. Substrates that are more susceptible for efflux are predicted to have a common pharmacophore feature map. In this study, a new criterion of excluding compounds with efflux substrate-like features was used, thereby refining the selection process and enriching the inhibitor identification process. An in-house database of phytochemicals was created and screened using high-throughput virtual screening against AcrB and MexB proteins and filtered by matching with the common pharmacophore models (AADHR, ADHNR, AAHNR, AADHN, AADNR, AAADN, AAADR, AAANR, AAAHN, AAADD and AAADH) generated using known efflux substrates. Phytochemical hits that matched with any one or more of the efflux substrate models were excluded from the study. Hits that do not have features similar to the efflux substrate models were docked using XP docking against the AcrB and MexB proteins. The best hits of the XP docking were validated by checkerboard synergy assay and ethidium bromide accumulation assay for their efflux inhibition potency. Lanatoside C and diadzein were filtered based on the synergistic potential and validated for their efflux inhibition potency using ethidium bromide accumulation study. These compounds exhibited the ability to increase the accumulation of ethidium bromide inside the bacterial cell as evidenced by these increase in fluorescence in the presence of the compounds. With this good correlation between in silico screening and positive efflux inhibitory activity in vitro, the two compounds, lanatoside C and diadzein could be promising efflux pump inhibitors and effective to use in combination therapy against drug

  14. Identification of natural compound inhibitors for multidrug efflux pumps of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using in silico high-throughput virtual screening and in vitro validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasudevan Aparna

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli are resistant to wide range of antibiotics rendering the treatment of infections very difficult. A main mechanism attributed to the resistance is the function of efflux pumps. MexAB-OprM and AcrAB-TolC are the tripartite efflux pump assemblies, responsible for multidrug resistance in P. aeruginosa and E. coli respectively. Substrates that are more susceptible for efflux are predicted to have a common pharmacophore feature map. In this study, a new criterion of excluding compounds with efflux substrate-like features was used, thereby refining the selection process and enriching the inhibitor identification process. An in-house database of phytochemicals was created and screened using high-throughput virtual screening against AcrB and MexB proteins and filtered by matching with the common pharmacophore models (AADHR, ADHNR, AAHNR, AADHN, AADNR, AAADN, AAADR, AAANR, AAAHN, AAADD and AAADH generated using known efflux substrates. Phytochemical hits that matched with any one or more of the efflux substrate models were excluded from the study. Hits that do not have features similar to the efflux substrate models were docked using XP docking against the AcrB and MexB proteins. The best hits of the XP docking were validated by checkerboard synergy assay and ethidium bromide accumulation assay for their efflux inhibition potency. Lanatoside C and diadzein were filtered based on the synergistic potential and validated for their efflux inhibition potency using ethidium bromide accumulation study. These compounds exhibited the ability to increase the accumulation of ethidium bromide inside the bacterial cell as evidenced by these increase in fluorescence in the presence of the compounds. With this good correlation between in silico screening and positive efflux inhibitory activity in vitro, the two compounds, lanatoside C and diadzein could be promising efflux pump inhibitors and effective to use in combination

  15. Effect of methylglyoxal on multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    Katsuhiko eHayashi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Honey has a complex chemistry, and its broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity varies with floral source, climate, and harvesting conditions. Methylglyoxal was identified as the dominant antibacterial component of manuka honey. Although it has been known that methylglyoxal has antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, there is not much information describing its activity against gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we report the effect of methylglyoxal against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP using 53 clinically isolated strains. We also assessed the effect of deleting the five multidrug efflux systems in P. aeruginosa, as well as the efflux systems in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, on MICs of methylglyoxal. Our results indicate that methylglyoxal inhibits the growth of MDRP at concentrations of 128–512 µg/ml (1.7–7.1 mM and is not recognized by drug efflux systems.

  16. Fluconazole Resistance Associated with Drug Efflux and Increased Transcription of a Drug Transporter Gene, PDH1, in Candida glabrata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Haruko; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu; Geber, Antonia; Parkinson, Tanya; Hitchcock, Christopher; Falconer, Derek J.; Ward, Douglas J.; Marsden, Katherine; Bennett, John E.

    1998-01-01

    Sequential Candida glabrata isolates were obtained from the mouth of a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 who was receiving high doses of fluconazole for oropharyngeal thrush. Fluconazole-susceptible colonies were replaced by resistant colonies that exhibited both increased fluconazole efflux and increased transcripts of a gene which codes for a protein with 72.5% identity to Pdr5p, an ABC multidrug transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The deduced protein had a molecular mass of 175 kDa and was composed of two homologous halves, each with six putative transmembrane domains and highly conserved sequences of ATP-binding domains. When the earliest and most azole-susceptible isolate of C. glabrata from this patient was exposed to fluconazole, increased transcripts of the PDR5 homolog appeared, linking azole exposure to regulation of this gene. PMID:9661006

  17. Genome-wide analysis of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene family in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaodong; Cheng, Tingcai; Wang, Genhong; Duan, Jun; Niu, Weihuan; Xia, Qingyou

    2012-07-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily is a larger protein family with diverse physiological functions in all kingdoms of life. We identified 53 ABC transporters in the silkworm genome, and classified them into eight subfamilies (A-H). Comparative genome analysis revealed that the silkworm has an expanded ABCC subfamily with more members than Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, or Homo sapiens. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the ABCE and ABCF genes were highly conserved in the silkworm, indicating possible involvement in fundamental biological processes. Five multidrug resistance-related genes in the ABCB subfamily and two multidrug resistance-associated-related genes in the ABCC subfamily indicated involvement in biochemical defense. Genetic variation analysis revealed four ABC genes that might be evolving under positive selection. Moreover, the silkworm ABCC4 gene might be important for silkworm domestication. Microarray analysis showed that the silkworm ABC genes had distinct expression patterns in different tissues on day 3 of the fifth instar. These results might provide new insights for further functional studies on the ABC genes in the silkworm genome.

  18. Bioinformatic survey of ABC transporters in dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzalski, Marek; Ciesielska, Anita; Stączek, Paweł

    2016-01-15

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters constitute a very large and ubiquitous superfamily of membrane proteins. They are responsible for ATP hydrolysis driven translocation of countless substrates. Being a very old and diverse group of proteins present in all organisms they share a common feature, which is the presence of an evolutionary conservative nucleotide binding domain (NBD)--the engine that drives the transport. Another common domain is a transmembrane domain (TMD) which consists of several membrane-spanning helices. This part of protein is substrate-specific, thus it is much more variable. ABC transporters are known for driving drug efflux in many pathogens and cancer cells, therefore they are the subject of extensive studies. There are many examples of conferring a drug resistance phenotype in fungal pathogens by ABC transporters, however, little is known about these proteins in dermatophytes--a group of fungi causing superficial mycoses. So far only a single ABC transporter has been extensively studied in this group of pathogens. We analyzed available genomic sequences of seven dermatophyte species in order to provide an insight into dermatophyte ABC protein inventory. Phylogenetic studies of ABC transporter genes and their products were conducted and included ABC transporters of other fungi. Our results show that each dermatophyte genome studied possesses a great variety of ABC transporter genes. Detailed analysis of selected genes and their products indicates that relatively recent duplication of ABC transporter genes could lead to novel substrate specificity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Prevalence of the OqxAB Multidrug Efflux Pump amongst Olaquindox-Resistant Escherichia coli in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Jørgensen, Helle S.

    2005-01-01

    The quinoxaline olaquindox has been used extensively as a growth promoter for pigs. Recently, we isolated a plasmid (pOLA52) conferring resistance to olaquindox from swine manure. On this plasmid, the oqxA and oqxB genes encode an RND-family multidrug efflux pump, OqxAB. It facilitates resistance...... to olaquindox as well as resistance to other antimicrobials like chloramphenicol. In this study, 10 of the 556 (1.8%) previously isolated Escherichia coli strains were shown to have an MIC = 64 µg/ml olaquindox. In nine of the ten strains, the oqxA gene was detected. Sequencing of an internal fragment of oqx......A from the oqxA-positive strains showed no variation, indicating highly conserved oqxA genes. All of the oqxA-positive strains contain plasmids with replicons similar to that of pOLA52. It was verified by Southern hybridization that the oqxAB operon was situated on plasmids in most, if not all, resistant...

  20. The prevalence of the OqxAB amongst olaquindox-resistant multidrug efflux pump Escherichia coli in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.H.; Sørensen, S.J.; Jørgensen, H.S.

    2005-01-01

    The quinoxaline olaquindox has been used extensively as a growth promoter for pigs. Recently, we isolated a plasmid (pOLA52) conferring resistance to olaquindox from swine manure. On this plasmid, the oqxA and oqxB genes encode an RND-family multidrug efflux pump, OqxAB. It facilitates resistance...... to olaquindox as well as resistance to other antimicrobials like chloramphenicol. In this study, 10 of the 556 (1.8%) previously isolated Escherichia coli strains were shown to have an MIC >= 64 mu g/ml olaquindox. In nine of the ten strains, the oqxA gene was detected. Sequencing of an internal fragment of oqx......A from the oqxA-positive strains showed no variation, indicating highly conserved oqxA genes. All of the oqxA-positive strains contain plasmids with replicons similar to that of pOLA52. It was verified by Southern hybridization that the oqxAB operon was situated on plasmids in most, if not all, resistant...

  1. ABC transporters from Aspergillus nidulans are involved in protection against cytotoxic agents and antibiotic production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrade, A.C.; Nistelrooy, van J.G.M.; Peery, R.B.; Skatrud, P.L.; Waard, de M.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the characterization of atrC and atrD (ABC transporters C and D), two novel ABC transporter-encoding genes from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, and provides evidence for the involvement of atrD in multidrug transport and antibiotic production. BLAST analysis of the

  2. Asymmetric switching in a homodimeric ABC transporter: a simulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Aittoniemi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available ABC transporters are a large family of membrane proteins involved in a variety of cellular processes, including multidrug and tumor resistance and ion channel regulation. Advances in the structural and functional understanding of ABC transporters have revealed that hydrolysis at the two canonical nucleotide-binding sites (NBSs is co-operative and non-simultaneous. A conserved core architecture of bacterial and eukaryotic ABC exporters has been established, as exemplified by the crystal structure of the homodimeric multidrug exporter Sav1866. Currently, it is unclear how sequential ATP hydrolysis arises in a symmetric homodimeric transporter, since it implies at least transient asymmetry at the NBSs. We show by molecular dynamics simulation that the initially symmetric structure of Sav1866 readily undergoes asymmetric transitions at its NBSs in a pre-hydrolytic nucleotide configuration. MgATP-binding residues and a network of charged residues at the dimer interface are shown to form a sequence of putative molecular switches that allow ATP hydrolysis only at one NBS. We extend our findings to eukaryotic ABC exporters which often consist of two non-identical half-transporters, frequently with degeneracy substitutions at one of their two NBSs. Interestingly, many residues involved in asymmetric conformational switching in Sav1866 are substituted in degenerate eukaryotic NBS. This finding strengthens recent suggestions that the interplay of a consensus and a degenerate NBS in eukaroytic ABC proteins pre-determines the sequence of hydrolysis at the two NBSs.

  3. Multidrug ATP-binding cassette transporters are essential for hepatic development of Plasmodium sporozoites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpma, S.R.; Velden, M. van der; Gonzalez-Pons, M.; Annoura, T.; Schaijk, B.C.L. van; Gemert, G.J.A. van; Heuvel, J.M.W. van den; Ramesar, J.; Chevalley-Maurel, S.; Ploemen, I.H.; Khan, S.M.; Franetich, J.F.; Mazier, D.; Wilt, J.H.W. de; Serrano, A.E.; Russel, F.G.; Janse, C.J.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Koenderink, J.B.; Franke-Fayard, B.M.

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) belong to the C-family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins and are known to transport a variety of physiologically important compounds and to be involved in the extrusion of pharmaceuticals. Rodent malaria parasites encode a single ABC

  4. Analysis of the inhibition potential of zosuquidar derivatives on selected bacterial and fungal ABC transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Infed, Nacera; Smits, Sander H. J.; Dittrich, Torsten; Braun, Manfred; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Hanekop, Nils; Schmitt, Lutz

    The increasing number of multidrug-resistant pathogenic microorganisms is a serious public health issue. Among the multitude of mechanisms that lead to multidrug resistance, the active extrusion of toxic compounds, mediated by MDR efflux pumps, plays an important role. In our study we analyzed the

  5. Evaluation of the tannic acid inhibitory effect against the NorA efflux pump of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintino, Saulo R; Oliveira-Tintino, Cícera D M; Campina, Fábia F; Silva, Raimundo L P; Costa, Maria do S; Menezes, Irwin R A; Calixto-Júnior, João T; Siqueira-Junior, José P; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Leal-Balbino, Tereza C; Balbino, Valdir Q

    2016-08-01

    During the early periods of antibiotic usage, bacterial infections were considered tamed. However, widespread antibiotic use has promoted the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, including multidrug resistant strains. Active efflux is a mechanism for bacterial resistance to inhibitory substances, known simply as drug efflux pumps. The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogenic bacterium responsible for an array of infections. The NorA efflux pump has been shown to be responsible for moderate fluoroquinolone resistance of S. aureus. The inhibition of the efflux pump was assayed using a sub-inhibitory concentration of standard efflux pump inhibitors and tannic acid (MIC/8), where its capacity to decrease the MIC of Ethidium bromide (EtBr) and antibiotics due to the possible inhibitory effect of these substances was observed. The MICs of EtBr and antibiotics were significantly reduced in the presence of tannic acid, indicating the inhibitory effect of this agent against the efflux pumps of both strains causing a three-fold reduction of the MIC when compared with the control. These results indicate the possible usage of tannic acid as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy against multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ABC- and SLC-Transporters in Murine and Bovine Mammary Epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yagdiran, Yagmur; Oskarsson, Agneta; Knight, Christopher H.

    2016-01-01

    Some chemicals are ligands to efflux transporters which may result in high concentrations in milk. Limited knowledge is available on the influence of maternal exposure to chemicals on the expression and function of transporters in the lactating mammary gland. We determined gene expression of ABC ...

  7. Architecture and roles of periplasmic adaptor proteins in tripartite efflux assemblies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassiliy N. Bavro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen major advances in the structural understanding of the different components of tripartite efflux assemblies, which encompass the multidrug efflux (MDR pumps and type I secretion systems. The majority of these investigations have focused on the role played by the inner membrane transporters and the outer membrane factor (OMF, leaving the third component of the system – the Periplasmic Adaptor Proteins (PAPs - relatively understudied. Here we review the current state of knowledge of these versatile proteins which, far from being passive linkers between the OMF and the transporter, emerge as active architects of tripartite assemblies, and play diverse roles in the transport process. Recognition between the PAPs and OMFs is essential for pump assembly and function, and targeting this interaction may provide a novel avenue for combating multidrug resistance. With the recent advances elucidating the drug-efflux and energetics of the tripartite assemblies, the understanding of the interaction between the OMFs and PAPs is the last piece remaining in the complete structure of the tripartite pump assembly puzzle.

  8. Substrate specificities and efflux efficiencies of RND efflux pumps of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leus, Inga V; Weeks, Jon W; Bonifay, Vincent; Smith, Lauren; Richardson, Sophie; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2018-04-16

    Antibiotic resistant Acinetobacter baumannii causes infections that are extremely difficult to treat. A significant role in these resistance profiles is attributed to multidrug efflux pumps, especially those belonging to Resistance-Nodulation-cell Division (RND) superfamily of transporters. In this study, we analyzed functions and properties of RND efflux pumps in A. baumannii ATCC 17978. This strain is susceptible to antibiotics and does not contain mutations that are commonly selected upon exposure to high concentrations of antibiotics. We constructed derivatives of ATCC 17978 lacking chromosomally encoded RND pumps and complemented these strains by the plasmid-borne genes. We analyzed the substrate selectivities and efficiencies of the individual pumps in the context of native outer membranes and their hyperporinated variants. Our results show that inactivation of AdeIJK provides the strongest potentiation of antibiotic activities, whereas inactivation of AdeFGH triggers the overexpression of AdeAB. The plasmid-borne overproduction complements the hypersusceptible phenotypes of the efflux deletion mutants to the levels of the parental ATCC 17978. Only a few antibiotics strongly benefitted from the overproduction of efflux pumps and antibacterial activities of some of those depended on the synergistic interaction with the low permeability barrier of the outer membrane. Either overproduction or inactivation of efflux pumps change dramatically the lipidome of ATCC 17978. We conclude that efflux pumps of A. baumannii are tightly integrated into physiology of this bacterium and that clinical levels of antibiotic resistance in A. baumannii isolates are unlikely to be reached solely due to overproduction of RND efflux pumps. Importance RND-type efflux pumps are important contributors in development of clinical antibiotic resistance in A. baumannii However, their specific roles and the extent of contribution to antibiotic resistance remain unclear. We analyzed

  9. The ins and outs of RND efflux pumps in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anes, João; McCusker, Matthew P; Fanning, Séamus; Martins, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases remain one of the principal causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Relevant authorities including the WHO and CDC have expressed serious concern regarding the continued increase in the development of multidrug resistance among bacteria. They have also reaffirmed the urgent need for investment in the discovery and development of new antibiotics and therapeutic approaches to treat multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. The extensive use of antimicrobial compounds in diverse environments, including farming and healthcare, has been identified as one of the main causes for the emergence of MDR bacteria. Induced selective pressure has led bacteria to develop new strategies of defense against these chemicals. Bacteria can accomplish this by several mechanisms, including enzymatic inactivation of the target compound; decreased cell permeability; target protection and/or overproduction; altered target site/enzyme and increased efflux due to over-expression of efflux pumps. Efflux pumps can be specific for a single substrate or can confer resistance to multiple antimicrobials by facilitating the extrusion of a broad range of compounds including antibiotics, heavy metals, biocides and others, from the bacterial cell. To overcome antimicrobial resistance caused by active efflux, efforts are required to better understand the fundamentals of drug efflux mechanisms. There is also a need to elucidate how these mechanisms are regulated and how they respond upon exposure to antimicrobials. Understanding these will allow the development of combined therapies using efflux inhibitors together with antibiotics to act on Gram-negative bacteria, such as the emerging globally disseminated MDR pathogen Escherichia coli ST131 (O25:H4). This review will summarize the current knowledge on resistance-nodulation-cell division efflux mechanisms in E. coli, a bacteria responsible for community and hospital-acquired infections, as well as foodborne outbreaks worldwide.

  10. The Ins and Outs of RND Efflux Pumps in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João eAnes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases remain one of the principal causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Relevant authorities including the WHO and CDC have expressed serious concern regarding the continued increase in the development of multidrug resistance among bacteria. They have also reaffirmed the urgent need for investment in the discovery and development of new antibiotics and therapeutic approaches to treat multidrug resistant (MDR bacteria.The extensive use of antimicrobial compounds in diverse environments, including farming and healthcare, has been identified as one of the main causes for the emergence of MDR bacteria. Induced selective pressure has led bacteria to develop new strategies of defence against these chemicals. Bacteria can accomplish this by several mechanisms, including enzymatic inactivation of the target compound; decreased cell permeability; target protection and/or overproduction; altered target site/enzyme and increased efflux due to over-expression of efflux pumps.Efflux pumps can be specific for a single substrate or can confer resistance to multiple antimicrobials by facilitating the extrusion of a broad range of compounds including antibiotics, heavy metals, biocides and others, from the bacterial cell. To overcome antimicrobial resistance caused by active efflux, efforts are required to better understand the fundamentals of drug efflux mechanisms. There is also a need to elucidate how these mechanisms are regulated and how they respond upon exposure to antimicrobials. Understanding these will allow the development of combined therapies using efflux inhibitors together with antibiotics to act on Gram-negative bacteria, such as the emerging globally disseminated MDR pathogen Escherichia coli ST131 (O25:H4. This review will summarise the current knowledge on resistance-nodulation-cell division efflux mechanisms in E. coli, a bacteria responsible for community and hospital-acquired infections, as well as foodborne

  11. The ins and outs of RND efflux pumps in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anes, João; McCusker, Matthew P.; Fanning, Séamus; Martins, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases remain one of the principal causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Relevant authorities including the WHO and CDC have expressed serious concern regarding the continued increase in the development of multidrug resistance among bacteria. They have also reaffirmed the urgent need for investment in the discovery and development of new antibiotics and therapeutic approaches to treat multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. The extensive use of antimicrobial compounds in diverse environments, including farming and healthcare, has been identified as one of the main causes for the emergence of MDR bacteria. Induced selective pressure has led bacteria to develop new strategies of defense against these chemicals. Bacteria can accomplish this by several mechanisms, including enzymatic inactivation of the target compound; decreased cell permeability; target protection and/or overproduction; altered target site/enzyme and increased efflux due to over-expression of efflux pumps. Efflux pumps can be specific for a single substrate or can confer resistance to multiple antimicrobials by facilitating the extrusion of a broad range of compounds including antibiotics, heavy metals, biocides and others, from the bacterial cell. To overcome antimicrobial resistance caused by active efflux, efforts are required to better understand the fundamentals of drug efflux mechanisms. There is also a need to elucidate how these mechanisms are regulated and how they respond upon exposure to antimicrobials. Understanding these will allow the development of combined therapies using efflux inhibitors together with antibiotics to act on Gram-negative bacteria, such as the emerging globally disseminated MDR pathogen Escherichia coli ST131 (O25:H4). This review will summarize the current knowledge on resistance-nodulation-cell division efflux mechanisms in E. coli, a bacteria responsible for community and hospital-acquired infections, as well as foodborne outbreaks worldwide

  12. PPAR-α, a lipid-sensing transcription factor, regulates blood-brain barrier efflux transporter expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Vijay R; Campos, Christopher R; Evans, Rebecca A; Oliver, Keith D; Chan, Gary Ny; Miller, David S; Cannon, Ronald E

    2017-04-01

    Lipid sensor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR- α) is the master regulator of lipid metabolism. Dietary release of endogenous free fatty acids, fibrates, and certain persistent environmental pollutants, e.g. perfluoroalkyl fire-fighting foam components, are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha ligands. Here, we define a role for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in regulating the expression of three ATP-driven drug efflux transporters at the rat and mouse blood-brain barriers: P-glycoprotein (Abcb1), breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp/Abcg2), and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2/Abcc2). Exposing isolated rat brain capillaries to linoleic acid, clofibrate, or PKAs increased the transport activity and protein expression of the three ABC transporters. These effects were blocked by the PPAR- α antagonist, GW6471. Dosing rats with 20 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg of clofibrate decreased the brain accumulation of the P-glycoprotein substrate, verapamil, by 50% (in situ brain perfusion; effects blocked by GW6471) and increased P-glycoprotein expression and activity in capillaries ex vivo. Fasting C57Bl/6 wild-type mice for 24 h increased both serum lipids and brain capillary P-glycoprotein transport activity. Fasting did not alter P-glycoprotein activity in PPAR- α knockout mice. These results indicate that hyperlipidemia, lipid-lowering fibrates and exposure to certain fire-fighting foam components activate blood-brain barrier peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, increase drug efflux transporter expression and reduce drug delivery to the brain.

  13. Antibiotic Resistance Mediated by the MacB ABC Transporter Family: A Structural and Functional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas P. Greene

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The MacB ABC transporter forms a tripartite efflux pump with the MacA adaptor protein and TolC outer membrane exit duct to expel antibiotics and export virulence factors from Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we review recent structural and functional data on MacB and its homologs. MacB has a fold that is distinct from other structurally characterized ABC transporters and uses a unique molecular mechanism termed mechanotransmission. Unlike other bacterial ABC transporters, MacB does not transport substrates across the inner membrane in which it is based, but instead couples cytoplasmic ATP hydrolysis with transmembrane conformational changes that are used to perform work in the extra-cytoplasmic space. In the MacAB-TolC tripartite pump, mechanotransmission drives efflux of antibiotics and export of a protein toxin from the periplasmic space via the TolC exit duct. Homologous tripartite systems from pathogenic bacteria similarly export protein-like signaling molecules, virulence factors and siderophores. In addition, many MacB-like ABC transporters do not form tripartite pumps, but instead operate in diverse cellular processes including antibiotic sensing, cell division and lipoprotein trafficking.

  14. Antibiotic Resistance Mediated by the MacB ABC Transporter Family: A Structural and Functional Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Nicholas P.; Kaplan, Elise; Crow, Allister; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2018-01-01

    The MacB ABC transporter forms a tripartite efflux pump with the MacA adaptor protein and TolC outer membrane exit duct to expel antibiotics and export virulence factors from Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we review recent structural and functional data on MacB and its homologs. MacB has a fold that is distinct from other structurally characterized ABC transporters and uses a unique molecular mechanism termed mechanotransmission. Unlike other bacterial ABC transporters, MacB does not transport substrates across the inner membrane in which it is based, but instead couples cytoplasmic ATP hydrolysis with transmembrane conformational changes that are used to perform work in the extra-cytoplasmic space. In the MacAB-TolC tripartite pump, mechanotransmission drives efflux of antibiotics and export of a protein toxin from the periplasmic space via the TolC exit duct. Homologous tripartite systems from pathogenic bacteria similarly export protein-like signaling molecules, virulence factors and siderophores. In addition, many MacB-like ABC transporters do not form tripartite pumps, but instead operate in diverse cellular processes including antibiotic sensing, cell division and lipoprotein trafficking. PMID:29892271

  15. Gangliosides do not affect ABC transporter function in human neuroblastoma cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuis, Anne-Jan; Klappe, Karin; Kamps, Willem; Sietsma, Hannie; Kok, Jan Willem

    Previous studies have indicated a role for glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) in multidrug resistance (MDR), either related to turnover of ceramide (Cer) or generation of gangliosides, which modulate apoptosis and/or the activity of ABC transporters. This study challenges the hypothesis that

  16. Reversal of multidrug resistance by surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, D. M.; Linsenmeyer, M. E.; Chojnowski, G.; Kriegler, A. B.; Nink, V.; Webster, L. K.; Sawyer, W. H.

    1992-01-01

    Cremophor EL, a pharmacologically inactive solubilising agent, has been shown to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR). Using flow cytometric evaluation of equilibrium intracellular levels of daunorubicin (DNR), we found that eight other surface active agents will also reverse MDR. All the active detergents contain polyethoxylated moieties but have no similarities in their hydrophobic components. The properties of three polyethoxylated surfactants that showed the lowest toxicities, Cremophor, Tween 80 and Solutol HS15, were examined in more detail. The concentrations of Tween 80 and Solutol required to reverse DNR exclusion were 10-fold lower than for Cremophor. However while concentrations greater than or equal to 1:10(2) of the former two surfactants resulted in breakdown of cells, even 1:10 of Cremophor did not lyse cells. Studies of the effects of Cremophor on the uptake and efflux of DNR in normal and MDR cell types showed that Cremophor increases intracellular DNR primarily by locking the rapid efflux from the cells. This blockage of drug efflux may be mediated by a substantial alteration in the fluidity of cell membranes induced by Cremophor, as shown by decreased fluorescence anisotropy of a membrane probe. Consistent with these data, coinjection of adriamycin plus Cremophor into mice carrying a multidrug resistant P388 transplantable tumour significantly increased the survival time of the mice compared with adriamycin treatment alone. PMID:1637678

  17. Evolutionary Trajectories of Entomopathogenic Fungi ABC Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Bikash

    2017-01-01

    The ABC protein superfamily-also called traffic ATPases-are energy-dependent ubiquitous proteins, representing one of the crucial and the largest family in the fungal genomes. The ATP-binding cassette endows a characteristic 200-250 amino acids and is omnipresent in all organisms ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Unlike in bacteria with nutrient import functions, ABC transporters in fungal entomopathogens serve as effective efflux pumps that are largely involved in the shuttle of metabolites across the biological membranes. Thus, the search for ABC proteins may prove of immense importance in elucidating the functional and molecular mechanism at the host-pathogen (insect-fungus) interface. Their sequence homology, domain topology, and functional traits led to the actual identification of nine different families in fungal entomopathogens. Evolutionary relationships within the ABC superfamily are discussed, concentrating on computational approaches for comparative identification of ABC transporters in insect-pathogenic fungi (entomopathogens) with those of animals, plants, and their bacterial orthologs. Ancestors of some fungal candidates have duplicated extensively in some phyla, while others were lost in one lineage or the other, and predictions for the cause of their duplications and/or loss in some phyla are made. ABC transporters of fungal insect-pathogens serve both defensive and offensive functions effective against land-dwelling and ground foraging voracious insects. This study may help to unravel the molecular cascades of ABC proteins to illuminate the means through which insects cope with fungal infection and fungal-related diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural and functional aspects of the multidrug efflux pump AcrB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, Thomas; Brandstätter, Lorenz; Pos, Klaas M

    2009-08-01

    The tripartite efflux system AcrA/AcrB/TolC is the main pump in Escherichia coli for the efflux of multiple antibiotics, dyes, bile salts and detergents. The inner membrane component AcrB is central to substrate recognition and energy transduction and acts as a proton/drug antiporter. Recent structural studies show that homotrimeric AcrB can adopt different monomer conformations representing consecutive states in an allosteric functional rotation transport cycle. The conformational changes create an alternate access drug transport tunnel including a hydrophobic substrate binding pocket in one of the cycle intermediates.

  19. Insight into Two ABC Transporter Families Involved in Lantibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Clemens

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides, which contain (methyl-lanthionine-rings are called lantibiotics. They are produced by several Gram-positive bacteria and are mainly active against these bacteria. Although these are highly potent antimicrobials, some human pathogenic bacteria express specific ABC transporters that confer resistance and counteract their antimicrobial activity. Two distinct ABC transporter families are known to be involved in this process. These are the Cpr- and Bce-type ABC transporter families, named after their involvement in cationic peptide resistance in Clostridium difficile, and bacitracin efflux in Bacillus subtilis, respectively. Both resistance systems differentiate to each other in terms of the proteins involved. Here, we summarize the current knowledge and describe the divergence as well as the common features present in both the systems to confer lantibiotic resistance.

  20. Role of bacterial efflux pumps in biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alav, Ilyas; Sutton, J Mark; Rahman, Khondaker Miraz

    2018-02-28

    Efflux pumps are widely implicated in antibiotic resistance because they can extrude the majority of clinically relevant antibiotics from within cells to the extracellular environment. However, there is increasing evidence from many studies to suggest that the pumps also play a role in biofilm formation. These studies have involved investigating the effects of efflux pump gene mutagenesis and efflux pump inhibitors on biofilm formation, and measuring the levels of efflux pump gene expression in biofilms. In particular, several key pathogenic species associated with increasing multidrug resistance, such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, have been investigated, whilst other studies have focused on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium as a model organism and problematic pathogen. Studies have shown that efflux pumps, including AcrAB-TolC of E. coli, MexAB-OprM of P. aeruginosa, AdeFGH of A. baumannii and AcrD of S. enterica, play important roles in biofilm formation. The substrates for such pumps, and whether changes in their efflux activity affect biofilm formation directly or indirectly, remain to be determined. By understanding the roles that efflux pumps play in biofilm formation, novel therapeutic strategies can be developed to inhibit their function, to help disrupt biofilms and improve the treatment of infections. This review will discuss and evaluate the evidence for the roles of efflux pumps in biofilm formation and the potential approaches to overcome the increasing problem of biofilm-based infections.

  1. The lactococcal secondary multidrug transporter LmrP confers resistance to lincosamides, macrolides, streptogramins and tetracyclines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, M; van Veen, HW; Degener, JE; Konings, WN

    2001-01-01

    The active efflux of toxic compounds by (multi)drug transporters is one of the mechanisms that bacteria have developed to resist cytotoxic drugs. The authors describe the role of the lactococcal secondary multidrug transporter LmrP in the resistance to a broad range of clinically important

  2. Identification of ABC transporters acting in vitamin B12 metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Megan K; Fritz, Julie-Anne; Jia, Dongxin; Scheuchner, Deborah; Snyder, Floyd F; Stanislaus, Avalyn; Curle, Jared; Li, Liang; Stabler, Sally P; Allen, Robert H; Mains, Paul E; Gravel, Roy A

    2017-12-01

    Vitamin B 12 (cobalamin, Cbl) is a micronutrient essential to human health. Cbl is not utilized as is but must go through complex subcellular and metabolic processing to generate two cofactor forms: methyl-Cbl for methionine synthase, a cytosolic enzyme; and adenosyl-Cbl for methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, a mitochondrial enzyme. Some 10-12 human genes have been identified responsible for the intracellular conversion of Cbl to cofactor forms, including genes that code for ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters acting at the lysosomal and plasma membranes. However, the gene for mitochondrial uptake is not known. We hypothesized that ABC transporters should be candidates for other uptake and efflux functions, including mitochondrial transport, and set out to screen ABC transporter mutants for blocks in Cbl utilization using the nematode roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. Thirty-seven mutant ABC transporters were screened for the excretion of methylmalonic acid (MMA), which should result from loss of Cbl transport into the mitochondria. One mutant, wht-6, showed elevated MMA excretion and reduced [ 14 C]-propionate incorporation, pointing to a functional block in methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. In contrast, the wht-6 mutant appeared to have a normal cytosolic pathway based on analysis of cystathionine excretion, suggesting that cytosolic methionine synthase was functioning properly. Further, the MMA excretion in wht-6 could be partially reversed by including vitamin B 12 in the assay medium. The human ortholog of wht-6 is a member of the G family of ABC transporters. We propose wht-6 as a candidate for the transport of Cbl into mitochondria and suggest that a member of the corresponding ABCG family of ABC transporters has this role in humans. Our ABC transporter screen also revealed that mrp-1 and mrp-2 mutants excreted lower MMA than wild type, suggesting they were concentrating intracellular Cbl, consistent with the cellular efflux defect proposed for the mammalian MRP1 ABC

  3. Inhibition or knockdown of ABC transporters enhances susceptibility of adult and juvenile schistosomes to Praziquantel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S Kasinathan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma cause schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease that affects hundreds of millions. Treatment of schistosomiasis depends almost entirely on the drug praziquantel (PZQ. Though essential to treating and controlling schistosomiasis, a major limitation of PZQ is that it is not active against immature mammalian-stage schistosomes. Furthermore, there are reports of field isolates with heritable reductions in PZQ susceptibility, and researchers have selected for PZQ-resistant schistosomes in the laboratory. P-glycoprotein (Pgp; ABCB1 and other ATP binding cassette (ABC transporters remove a wide variety of toxins and xenobiotics from cells, and have been implicated in multidrug resistance (MDR. Changes in ABC transporter structure or expression levels are also associated with reduced drug susceptibility in parasitic helminths, including schistosomes. Here, we show that the activity of PZQ against schistosome adults and juveniles ex vivo is potentiated by co-administration of either the highly potent Pgp inhibitor tariquidar or combinations of inhibitors targeting multiple ABC multidrug transporters. Adult worms exposed to sublethal PZQ concentrations remain active, but co-administration of ABC transporter inhibitors results in complete loss of motility and disruption of the tegument. Notably, juvenile schistosomes (3-4 weeks post infection, normally refractory to 2 µM PZQ, become paralyzed when transporter inhibitors are added in combination with the PZQ. Experiments using the fluorescent PZQ derivative (R-PZQ-BODIPY are consistent with the transporter inhibitors increasing effective intraworm concentrations of PZQ. Adult worms in which expression of ABC transporters has been suppressed by RNA interference show increased responsiveness to PZQ and increased retention of (R-PZQ-BODIPY consistent with an important role for these proteins in setting levels of PZQ susceptibility. These results indicate that

  4. ATP-binding cassette transporters in reproduction: a new frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloise, E.; Ortiga-Carvalho, T.M.; Reis, F.M.; Lye, S.J.; Gibb, W.; Matthews, S.G.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The transmembrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters actively efflux an array of clinically relevant compounds across biological barriers, and modulate biodistribution of many physiological and pharmacological factors. To date, over 48 ABC transporters have been identified and shown to be directly and indirectly involved in peri-implantation events and fetal/placental development. They efflux cholesterol, steroid hormones, vitamins, cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins, diverse xenobiotics and environmental toxins, playing a critical role in regulating drug disposition, immunological responses and lipid trafficking, as well as preventing fetal accumulation of drugs and environmental toxins. METHODS This review examines ABC transporters as important mediators of placental barrier functions and key reproductive processes. Expression, localization and function of all identified ABC transporters were systematically reviewed using PubMed and Google Scholar websites to identify relevant studies examining ABC transporters in reproductive tissues in physiological and pathophysiological states. Only reports written in English were incorporated with no restriction on year of publication. While a major focus has been placed on the human, extensive evidence from animal studies is utilized to describe current understanding of the regulation and function of ABC transporters relevant to human reproduction. RESULTS ABC transporters are modulators of steroidogenesis, fertilization, implantation, nutrient transport and immunological responses, and function as ‘gatekeepers’ at various barrier sites (i.e. blood-testes barrier and placenta) against potentially harmful xenobiotic factors, including drugs and environmental toxins. These roles appear to be species dependent and change as a function of gestation and development. The best-described ABC transporters in reproductive tissues (primarily in the placenta) are the multidrug transporters p-glycoprotein and

  5. Increased expression of the yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter Pdr18 leads to increased ethanol tolerance and ethanol production in high gravity alcoholic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Miguel C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The understanding of the molecular basis of yeast tolerance to ethanol may guide the design of rational strategies to increase process performance in industrial alcoholic fermentations. A set of 21 genes encoding multidrug transporters from the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC Superfamily and Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS in S. cerevisiae were scrutinized for a role in ethanol stress resistance. Results A yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter encoded by the PDR18 gene, proposed to play a role in the incorporation of ergosterol in the yeast plasma membrane, was found to confer resistance to growth inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 expression was seen to contribute to decreased 3 H-ethanol intracellular concentrations and decreased plasma membrane permeabilization of yeast cells challenged with inhibitory ethanol concentrations. Given the increased tolerance to ethanol of cells expressing PDR18, the final concentration of ethanol produced during high gravity alcoholic fermentation by yeast cells devoid of PDR18 was lower than the final ethanol concentration produced by the corresponding parental strain. Moreover, an engineered yeast strain in which the PDR18 promoter was replaced in the genome by the stronger PDR5 promoter, leading to increased PDR18 mRNA levels during alcoholic fermentation, was able to attain a 6 % higher ethanol concentration and a 17 % higher ethanol production yield than the parental strain. The improved fermentative performance of yeast cells over-expressing PDR18 was found to correlate with their increased ethanol tolerance and ability to restrain plasma membrane permeabilization induced throughout high gravity fermentation. Conclusions PDR18 gene over-expression increases yeast ethanol tolerance and fermentation performance leading to the production of highly inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 overexpression in industrial yeast strains appears to be a promising approach to

  6. Influence of detergents on the activity of the ABC transporter LmrA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Infed, Nacera; Hanekop, Nils; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Smits, Sander H. J.; Schmitt, Lutz

    The ABC transporter LmrA from Lactococcus lactis has been intensively studied and a role in multidrug resistance was proposed. Here, we performed a comprehensive detergent screen to analyze the impact of detergents for a successful solubilization, purification and retention of functional properties

  7. Characterization of putative multidrug resistance transporters of the major facilitator-superfamily expressed in Salmonella Typhi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaheen, Aqsa; Ismat, Fouzia; Iqbal, Mazhar

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance mediated by efflux pumps is a well-known phenomenon in infectious bacteria. Although much work has been carried out to characterize multidrug efflux pumps in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, such information is still lacking for many deadly pathogens. The aim...... of this study was to gain insight into the substrate specificity of previously uncharacterized transporters of Salmonella Typhi to identify their role in the development of multidrug resistance. S. Typhi genes encoding putative members of the major facilitator superfamily were cloned and expressed in the drug......-hypersensitive Escherichia coli strain KAM42, and tested for transport of 25 antibacterial compounds, including representative antibiotics of various classes, antiseptics, dyes and detergents. Of the 15 tested putative transporters, STY0901, STY2458 and STY4874 exhibited a drug-resistance phenotype. Among these, STY4874...

  8. Multidrug Resistance-associated Protein-1 (MRP-1)-dependent Glutathione Disulfide (GSSG) Efflux as a Critical Survival Factor for Oxidant-enriched Tumorigenic Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, Gayle M; Biswas, Ayan; Khanna, Savita; Spieldenner, James M; Pan, Xueliang; Sen, Chandan K

    2016-05-06

    Endothelial cell tumors are the most common soft tissue tumors in infants. Tumor-forming endothelial (EOMA) cells are able to escape cell death fate despite excessive nuclear oxidant burden. Our previous work recognized perinuclear Nox-4 as a key contributor to EOMA growth. The objective of this work was to characterize the mechanisms by which EOMA cells evade oxidant toxicity and thrive. In EOMA cells, compared with in the cytosol, the nuclear GSSG/GSH ratio was 5-fold higher. Compared to the ratio observed in healthy murine aortic endothelial (MAE) cells, GSSG/GSH was over twice as high in EOMA cells. Multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 (MRP-1), an active GSSG efflux mechanism, showed 2-fold increased activity in EOMA compared with MAE cells. Hyperactive YB-1 and Ape/Ref-1 were responsible for high MRP-1 expression in EOMA. Proximity ligand assay demonstrated MRP-1 and YB-1 binding. Such binding enabled the nuclear targeting of MRP-1 in EOMA in a leptomycin-B-sensitive manner. MRP-1 inhibition as well as knockdown trapped nuclear GSSG, causing cell death of EOMA. Disulfide loading of cells by inhibition of GSSG reductase (bischoloronitrosourea) or thioredoxin reductase (auranofin) was effective in causing EOMA death as well. In sum, EOMA cells survive a heavy oxidant burden by rapid efflux of GSSG, which is lethal if trapped within the cell. A hyperactive MRP-1 system for GSSG efflux acts as a critical survival factor for these cells, making it a potential target for EOMA therapeutics. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Multidrug Resistance-associated Protein-1 (MRP-1)-dependent Glutathione Disulfide (GSSG) Efflux as a Critical Survival Factor for Oxidant-enriched Tumorigenic Endothelial Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, Gayle M.; Biswas, Ayan; Khanna, Savita; Spieldenner, James M.; Pan, Xueliang; Sen, Chandan K.

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cell tumors are the most common soft tissue tumors in infants. Tumor-forming endothelial (EOMA) cells are able to escape cell death fate despite excessive nuclear oxidant burden. Our previous work recognized perinuclear Nox-4 as a key contributor to EOMA growth. The objective of this work was to characterize the mechanisms by which EOMA cells evade oxidant toxicity and thrive. In EOMA cells, compared with in the cytosol, the nuclear GSSG/GSH ratio was 5-fold higher. Compared to the ratio observed in healthy murine aortic endothelial (MAE) cells, GSSG/GSH was over twice as high in EOMA cells. Multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 (MRP-1), an active GSSG efflux mechanism, showed 2-fold increased activity in EOMA compared with MAE cells. Hyperactive YB-1 and Ape/Ref-1 were responsible for high MRP-1 expression in EOMA. Proximity ligand assay demonstrated MRP-1 and YB-1 binding. Such binding enabled the nuclear targeting of MRP-1 in EOMA in a leptomycin-B-sensitive manner. MRP-1 inhibition as well as knockdown trapped nuclear GSSG, causing cell death of EOMA. Disulfide loading of cells by inhibition of GSSG reductase (bischoloronitrosourea) or thioredoxin reductase (auranofin) was effective in causing EOMA death as well. In sum, EOMA cells survive a heavy oxidant burden by rapid efflux of GSSG, which is lethal if trapped within the cell. A hyperactive MRP-1 system for GSSG efflux acts as a critical survival factor for these cells, making it a potential target for EOMA therapeutics. PMID:26961872

  10. Involvement of the efflux pumps in chloramphenicol selected strains of Burkholderia thailandensis: proteomic and mechanistic evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice V Biot

    Full Text Available Burkholderia is a bacterial genus comprising several pathogenic species, including two species highly pathogenic for humans, B. pseudomallei and B. mallei. B. thailandensis is a weakly pathogenic species closely related to both B. pseudomallei and B. mallei. It is used as a study model. These bacteria are able to exhibit multiple resistance mechanisms towards various families of antibiotics. By sequentially plating B. thailandensis wild type strains on chloramphenicol we obtained several resistant variants. This chloramphenicol-induced resistance was associated with resistance against structurally unrelated antibiotics including quinolones and tetracyclines. We functionally and proteomically demonstrate that this multidrug resistance phenotype, identified in chloramphenicol-resistant variants, is associated with the overexpression of two different efflux pumps. These efflux pumps are able to expel antibiotics from several families, including chloramphenicol, quinolones, tetracyclines, trimethoprim and some β-lactams, and present a partial susceptibility to efflux pump inhibitors. It is thus possible that Burkholderia species can develop such adaptive resistance mechanisms in response to antibiotic pressure resulting in emergence of multidrug resistant strains. Antibiotics known to easily induce overexpression of these efflux pumps should be used with discernment in the treatment of Burkholderia infections.

  11. Transcriptional expression analysis of ABC efflux transporters and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the Chinese rare minnow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lilai; Lv, Biping; Zha, Jinmiao; Wang, Zijian

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, the cDNA fragments of five ABC transporter genes (ABCB1, ABCB11, ABCC1, ABCC2, and ABCG2) in the rare minnow were cloned, and their tissue-specific expression patterns were evaluated across eight rare minnow tissues (liver, gill, intestine, kidney, spleen, brain, skin, and muscle). Furthermore, the transcriptional effects on these ABC transporter genes and five xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme genes (CYP1A, GSTm, GSTp1, GCLC, and UGT1a) were determined in the rare minnow liver after 12 days of pyrene exposure. Basal expression analysis showed that the tissues with high expression of the ABC transporters included the liver, kidney, and intestine. Moreover, the most highly expressed of the ABC genes were ABCB1 and ABCC2 in all eight of the tissues tested. The ABCB11 gene was almost exclusively expressed in the liver of the rare minnow, whereas ABCC1 and ABCG2 showed weak expression in all eight tissues compared to ABCB1 and ABCC2. Our results provide the first thorough examination of the expression patterns of toxicologically relevant ABC transporters in the rare minnow and serve as a necessary basis for further studies of these ABC transporters in fish. Furthermore, synergistic up-regulation of CYP1A, GSTp1, GCLC, UGT1a, and ABCC2 was observed in the rare minnow liver following pyrene exposure, while GSTm, ABCB1, ABCB11, ABCC1, and ABCG2 were not significantly affected (p ABC transporters by pyrene suggests a possible involvement and cooperation of these genes in the detoxification process in rare minnows. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of cytochalasin congeners, microtubule-directed agents, and doxorubicin alone or in combination against human ovarian carcinoma cell lines in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trendowski, Matthew; Christen, Timothy D.; Acquafondata, Christopher; Fondy, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Although the actin cytoskeleton is vital for carcinogenesis and subsequent pathology, no microfilament-directed agent has been approved for cancer chemotherapy. One of the most studied classes of microfilament-directed agents has been the cytochalasins, mycotoxins known to disrupt the formation of actin polymers. In the present study, we sought to determine the effects of cytochalasin congeners toward human drug sensitive and multidrug resistant cell lines. SKOV3 human ovarian carcinoma and several multidrug resistant derivatives were tested for sensitivity against a panel of nine cytochalasin congeners, as well as three clinically approved chemotherapeutic agents (doxorubicin, paclitaxel, and vinblastine). In addition, verapamil, a calcium ion channel blocker known to reverse P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated drug resistance, was used in combination with multiple cytochalasin congeners to determine whether drug sensitivity could be increased. While multidrug resistant SKVLB1 had increased drug tolerance (was more resistant) to most cytochalasin congeners in comparison to drug sensitive SKOV3, the level of resistance was 10 to 1000-fold less for the cytochalasins than for any of the clinically approved agents. While cytochalasins did not appear to alter the expression of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, several cytochalasins appeared to inhibit the activity of ABC transporter-mediated efflux of rhodamine 123 (Rh123), suggesting that these congeners do have affinity for drug efflux pumps. Cytochalasins also appeared to significantly decrease the F/G-actin ratio in both drug sensitive and drug resistant cells, indicative of marked microfilament inhibition. The cytotoxicity of most cytochalasin congeners could be increased with the addition of verapamil, and the drug sensitivity of resistant SKVLB1 to the clinically approved antineoplastic agents could be increased with the addition of cytochalasins. As assessed by isobolographic analysis and Chou

  13. Are lipid rafts involved in ABC transporter-mediated drug resistance of tumor cells?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Jan Willem; Klappe, Karin; Hummel, Ina; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; Sietsma, Hannie; Meszaros, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Since their discovery, lipid rafts have been implicated in several cellular functions, including protein transport in polarized cells and signal transduction. Also in multidrug resistance lipid rafts may be important with regard to the localization of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in these

  14. Heterocyclic cyclohexanone monocarbonyl analogs of curcumin can inhibit the activity of ATP-binding cassette transporters in cancer multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revalde, Jezrael L; Li, Yan; Hawkins, Bill C; Rosengren, Rhonda J; Paxton, James W

    2015-02-01

    Curcumin (CUR) is a phytochemical that inhibits the xenobiotic ABC efflux transporters implicated in cancer multidrug resistance (MDR), such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins 1 and 5 (MRP1 and MRP5). The use of CUR in the clinic however, is complicated by its instability and poor pharmacokinetic profile. Monocarbonyl analogs of CUR (MACs) are compounds without CUR's unstable β-diketone moiety and were reported to have improved stability and in vivo disposition. Whether the MACs can be used as MDR reversal agents is less clear, as the absence of a β-diketone may negatively impact transporter inhibition. In this study, we investigated 23 heterocyclic cyclohexanone MACs for inhibitory effects against P-gp, BCRP, MRP1 and MRP5. Using flow cytometry and resistance reversal assays, we found that many of these compounds inhibited the transport activity of the ABC transporters investigated, often with much greater potency than CUR. Overall the analogs were most effective at inhibiting BCRP and we identified three compounds, A12 (2,6-bis((E)-2,5-dimethoxy-benzylidene)cyclohexanone), A13 (2,6-bis((E)-4-hydroxyl-3-methoxybenzylidene)-cyclohexanone) and B11 (3,5-bis((E)-2-fluoro-4,5-dimethoxybenzylidene)-1-methylpiperidin-4-one), as the most promising BCRP inhibitors. These compounds inhibited BCRP activity in a non-cell line, non-substrate-specific manner. Their inhibition occurred by direct transporter interaction rather than modulating protein or cell surface expression. From these results, we concluded that MACs, such as the heterocyclic cyclohexanone analogs in this study, also have potential as MDR reversal agents and may be superior alternatives to the unstable parent compound, CUR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lack of AcrB Efflux Function Confers Loss of Virulence on Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium

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    Xuan Wang-Kan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AcrAB-TolC is the paradigm resistance-nodulation-division (RND multidrug resistance efflux system in Gram-negative bacteria, with AcrB being the pump protein in this complex. We constructed a nonfunctional AcrB mutant by replacing D408, a highly conserved residue essential for proton translocation. Western blotting confirmed that the AcrB D408A mutant had the same native level of expression of AcrB as the parental strain. The mutant had no growth deficiencies in rich or minimal medium. However, compared with wild-type SL1344, the mutant had increased accumulation of Hoechst 33342 dye and decreased efflux of ethidium bromide and was multidrug hypersusceptible. The D408A mutant was attenuated in vivo in mouse and Galleria mellonella models and showed significantly reduced invasion into intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages in vitro. A dose-dependent inhibition of invasion was also observed when two different efflux pump inhibitors were added to the wild-type strain during infection of epithelial cells. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq revealed downregulation of bacterial factors necessary for infection, including those in the Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1, 2, and 4; quorum sensing genes; and phoPQ. Several general stress response genes were upregulated, probably due to retention of noxious molecules inside the bacterium. Unlike loss of AcrB protein, loss of efflux function did not induce overexpression of other RND efflux pumps. Our data suggest that gene deletion mutants are unsuitable for studying membrane transporters and, importantly, that inhibitors of AcrB efflux function will not induce expression of other RND pumps.

  16. Overexpression of the ATP-binding cassette half-transporter, ABCG2 (Mxr/BCrp/ABCP1), in flavopiridol-resistant human breast cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robey, R W; Medina-Pérez, W Y; Nishiyama, K

    2001-01-01

    We sought to characterize the interactions of flavopiridol with members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. Cells overexpressing multidrug resistance-1 (MDR-1) and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) did not exhibit appreciable flavopiridol resistance, whereas cell lines...... overexpressing the ABC half-transporter, ABCG2 (MXR/BCRP/ABCP1), were found to be resistant to flavopiridol. Flavopiridol at a concentration of 10 microM was able to prevent MRP-mediated calcein efflux, whereas Pgp-mediated transport of rhodamine 123 was unaffected at flavopiridol concentrations of up to 100...... analysis revealed overexpression of the ABCG2 gene. Western blot confirmed overexpression of ABCG2; neither P-glycoprotein nor MRP overexpression was detected. These results suggest that ABCG2 plays a role in resistance to flavopiridol....

  17. Multidrug resistance in enteric and other gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, A M

    1996-05-15

    In Gram-negative bacteria, multidrug resistance is a term that is used to describe mechanisms of resistance by chromosomal genes that are activated by induction or mutation caused by the stress of exposure to antibiotics in natural and clinical environments. Unlike plasmid-borne resistance genes, there is no alteration or degradation of drugs or need for genetic transfer. Exposure to a single drug leads to cross-resistance to many other structurally and functionally unrelated drugs. The only mechanism identified for multidrug resistance in bacteria is drug efflux by membrane transporters, even though many of these transporters remain to be identified. The enteric bacteria exhibit mostly complex multidrug resistance systems which are often regulated by operons or regulons. The purpose of this review is to survey molecular mechanisms of multidrug resistance in enteric and other Gram-negative bacteria, and to speculate on the origins and natural physiological functions of the genes involved.

  18. MarA-like regulator of multidrug resistance in Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Rupa A; Levy, Stuart B

    2006-09-01

    MarA47(Yp) from Yersinia pestis, showing 47% identity to Escherichia coli MarA in its N terminus, caused resistance to antibiotics and to organic solvents when expressed in both E. coli and Y. pestis. Resistance was linked to increased expression of the AcrAB multidrug efflux pump. In four of five spontaneous multidrug-resistant mutants of Y. pestis independently selected by growth on tetracycline, the marA47(Yp) gene was overexpressed. The findings suggest that marA47(Yp) is a marA ortholog in Y. pestis.

  19. Different phenotypic and molecular mechanisms associated with multidrug resistance in Gram-negative clinical isolates from Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy OM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Omneya M Helmy, Mona T Kashef Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt Objectives: We set out to investigate the prevalence, different mechanisms, and clonal relatedness of multidrug resistance (MDR among third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative clinical isolates from Egypt.Materials and methods: A total of 118 third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative clinical isolates were included in this study. Their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined using Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method. Efflux pump-mediated resistance was tested by the efflux-pump inhibitor-based microplate assay using chlorpromazine. Detection of different aminoglycoside-, β-lactam-, and quinolone-resistance genes was done using polymerase chain reaction. The genetic diversity of MDR isolates was investigated using random amplification of polymorphic DNA.Results: Most of the tested isolates exhibited MDR phenotypes (84.75%. The occurrence of efflux pump-mediated resistance in the different MDR species tested was 40%–66%. Acinetobacter baumannii isolates showed resistance to most of the tested antibiotics, including imipenem. The blaOXA-23-like gene was detected in 69% of the MDR A. baumannii isolates. The MDR phenotype was detected in 65% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, of which only 23% exhibited efflux pump-mediated resistance. On the contrary, efflux-mediated resistance to piperacillin and gentamicin was recorded in 47.5% of piperacillin-resistant and 25% of gentamicin-resistant MDR Enterobacteriaceae. Moreover, the plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance genes (aac(6’-Ib-cr, qnrB, and qnrS were detected in 57.6% and 83.33% of quinolone-resistant MDR Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, respectively. The β-lactamase-resistance gene blaSHV-31 was detected for the first time in one MDR K. pneumoniae isolate from an endotracheal tube specimen in Egypt

  20. Natural lignans from Arctium lappa modulate P-glycoprotein efflux function in multidrug resistant cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shan; Cheng, Xinlai; Wink, Michael

    2015-02-15

    Arctium lappa is a well-known traditional medicinal plant in China (TCM) and Europe that has been used for thousands of years to treat arthritis, baldness or cancer. The plant produces lignans as secondary metabolites which have a wide range of bioactivities. Yet, their ability to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells has not been explored. In this study, we isolated six lignans from A. lappa seeds, namely arctigenin, matairesinol, arctiin, (iso)lappaol A, lappaol C, and lappaol F. The MDR reversal potential of the isolated lignans and the underlying mechanism of action were studied using two MDR cancer cell lines, CaCo2 and CEM/ADR 5000 which overexpress P-gp and other ABC transporters. In two-drug combinations of lignans with the cytotoxic doxorubicin, all lignans exhibited synergistic effects in CaCo2 cells and matairesinol, arctiin, lappaol C and lappaol F display synergistic activity in CEM/ADR 5000 cells. Additionally, in three-drug combinations of lignans with the saponin digitonin and doxorubicin MDR reversal activity was even stronger enhanced. The lignans can increase the retention of the P-gp substrate rhodamine 123 in CEM/ADR 5000 cells, indicating that lignans can inhibit the activity of P-gp. Our study provides a first insight into the potential chemosensitizing activity of a series of natural lignans, which might be candidates for developing novel adjuvant anticancer agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhanced Efflux Pump Activity in Old Candida glabrata Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Somanon; Fries, Bettina C

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the effect of replicative aging on antifungal resistance in Candida glabrata Our studies demonstrate significantly increased transcription of ABC transporters and efflux pump activity in old versus young C. glabrata cells of a fluconazole-sensitive and -resistant strain. In addition, higher tolerance to killing by micafungin and amphotericin B was noted and is associated with higher transcription of glucan synthase gene FKS1 and lower ergosterol content in older cells. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Efflux pump genes of the resistance-nodulation-division family in Burkholderia cenocepacia genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manina Giulia

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia cenocepacia is recognized as opportunistic pathogen that can cause lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients. A hallmark of B. cenocepacia infections is the inability to eradicate the organism because of multiple intrinsic antibiotic resistance. As Resistance-Nodulation-Division (RND efflux systems are responsible for much of the intrinsic multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria, this study aims to identify RND genes in the B. cenocepacia genome and start to investigate their involvement into antimicrobial resistance. Results Genome analysis and homology searches revealed 14 open reading frames encoding putative drug efflux pumps belonging to RND family in B. cenocepacia J2315 strain. By reverse transcription (RT-PCR analysis, it was found that orf3, orf9, orf11, and orf13 were expressed at detectable levels, while orf10 appeared to be weakly expressed in B. cenocepacia. Futhermore, orf3 was strongly induced by chloramphenicol. The orf2 conferred resistance to fluoroquinolones, tetraphenylphosphonium, streptomycin, and ethidium bromide when cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli KAM3, a strain lacking the multidrug efflux pump AcrAB. The orf2-overexpressing E. coli also accumulate low concentrations of ethidium bromide, which was restored to wild type level in the presence of CCCP, an energy uncoupler altering the energy of the drug efflux pump. Conclusion The 14 RND pumps gene we have identified in the genome of B. cenocepacia suggest that active efflux could be a major mechanism underlying antimicrobial resistance in this microorganism. We have characterized the ORF2 pump, one of these 14 potential RND efflux systems. Its overexpression in E. coli conferred resistance to several antibiotics and to ethidium bromide but it remains to be determined if this pump play a significant role in the antimicrobial intrinsic resistance of B. cenocepacia. The characterization of antibiotic efflux pumps in B

  3. Novel structural analogues of piperine as inhibitors of the NorA efflux pump of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Khan, Inshad Ali; Koul, Surrinder

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of novel synthetic analogues of piperine as inhibitors of multidrug efflux pump NorA of Staphylococcus aureus. METHODS: A library of piperine-derived compounds was evaluated for their potential to inhibit ethidium bromide efflux in NorA-overexpressing S. aureus SA 1199B...... inhibitors of the NorA efflux pump. These inhibitors acted in a synergistic manner with ciprofloxacin, by substantially increasing its activity against both NorA-overexpressing and wild-type S. aureus isolates. These analogues were 2- to 4-fold more potent than piperine at a significantly lower minimal...... of ciprofloxacin through the inhibition of the NorA efflux pump. These molecules may prove useful in augmenting the antibacterial activities of fluoroquinolones in a clinical setting....

  4. Expression of multidrug resistance efflux pump gene norA is iron responsive in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xin; Sun, Fei; Ji, Quanjiang; Liang, Haihua; Missiakas, Dominique; Lan, Lefu; He, Chuan

    2012-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus utilizes efflux transporter NorA to pump out a wide range of structurally dissimilar drugs, conferring low-level multidrug resistance. The regulation of norA expression has yet to be fully understood although past studies have revealed that this gene is under the control of the global transcriptional regulator MgrA and the two-component system ArlRS. To identify additional regulators of norA, we screened a transposon library in strain Newman expressing the transcriptional fusion norA-lacZ for altered β-galactosidase activity. We identify a transposon insertion in fhuB, a gene that encodes a ferric hydroxamate uptake system permease, and propose that the norA transcription is iron responsive. In agreement with this observation, addition of FeCl(3) repressed the induction of norA-lacZ, suggesting that bacterial iron uptake plays an important role in regulating norA transcription. In addition, a fur (ferric uptake regulator) deletion exhibited compromised norA transcription and reduced resistance to quinolone compared to the wild-type strain, indicating that fur functions as a positive regulator of norA. A putative Fur box identified in the promoter region of norA was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift and DNase I footprint assays. Finally, by employing a siderophore secretion assay, we reveal that NorA may contribute to the export of siderophores. Collectively, our experiments uncover some novel interactions between cellular iron level and norA regulation in S. aureus.

  5. An Electrically Tight In Vitro Blood-Brain Barrier Model Displays Net Brain-to-Blood Efflux of Substrates for the ABC Transporters, P-gp, Bcrp and Mrp-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Hans Christian; Hersom, Maria; Kuhlmann, Louise Borella

    2014-01-01

    Efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily including breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp/Abcg2), P-glycoprotein (P-gp/Abcb1) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrp's/Abcc's) are expressed in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of this study was to investigate......, zosuquidar, reversan and MK 571 alone or in combinations. Digoxin was mainly transported via P-gp, estrone-3-sulphate via Bcrp and Mrp's and etoposide via P-gp and Mrp's. The expression of P-gp, Bcrp and Mrp-1 was confirmed using immunocytochemistry. The findings indicate that P-gp, Bcrp and at least one...... isoform of Mrp are functionally expressed in our bovine/rat co-culture model and that the model is suitable for investigations of small molecule transport....

  6. Chalcone inhibitors of the NorA efflux pump in Staphylococcus aureus whole cells and enriched everted membrane vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holler, Jes Gitz; Slotved, Hans-Christian; Mølgaard, Per; Olsen, Carl Erik; Christensen, Søren Brøgger

    2012-07-15

    A library of 117 chalcones was screened for efflux pump inhibitory (EPI) activity against NorA mediated ethidium bromide efflux. Five of the chalcones (5-7, 9, and 10) were active and two chalcones (9 and 10) were equipotent to reserpine with IC(50)-values of 9.0 and 7.7 μM, respectively. Twenty chalcones were subsequently proved to be inhibitors of the NorA efflux pump in everted membrane vesicles. Compounds 5, 7, and 9 synergistically increased the effect of ciprofloxacin on Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that chalcones might be developed into drugs for overcoming multidrug resistance based on efflux transporters of microorganisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. ABC-Transporter Expression Does Not Correlate with Response to Irinotecan in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trumpi, K.; Emmink, B. L.; Prins, A. M.; van Oijen, M. G. H.; van Diest, P. J.; Punt, C. J. A.; Koopman, M.; Kranenburg, O.; Borel Rinkes, I. H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Active efflux of irinotecan by ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-transporters, in particular ABCB1 and ABCG2, is a well-established drug resistance mechanism in vitro and in pre-clinical mouse models, but its relevance in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients is unknown. Therefore, we assessed the

  8. Interaction of dipeptide prodrugs of saquinavir with multidrug resistance protein-2 (MRP-2): evasion of MRP-2 mediated efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ritesh; Agarwal, Sheetal; Mandava, Nanda Kishore; Sheng, Ye; Mitra, Ashim K

    2008-10-01

    Saquinavir (SQV), the first protease inhibitor approved by FDA to treat HIV-1 infection. This drug is a well-known substrate for multidrug resistance protein-2 (MRP-2). The objective of this study was to investigate whether derivatization of SQV to dipeptide prodrugs, valine-valine-saquinavir (Val-Val-SQV) and glycine-valine-saquinavir (Gly-Val-SQV), targeting peptide transporter can circumvent MRP-2 mediated efflux. Uptake and transport studies were carried out across MDCKII-MRP2 cell monolayers to investigate the interaction of SQV and its prodrugs with MRP-2. In situ single pass intestinal perfusion experiments in rat jejunum were performed to calculate intestinal absorption rate constants and permeabilities of SQV, Val-Val-SQV and Gly-Val-SQV. Uptake studies demonstrated that the prodrugs have significantly lower interaction with MRP-2 relative to SQV. Transepithelial transport of Val-Val-SQV and Gly-Val-SQV across MDCKII-MRP2 cells exhibited an enhanced absorptive flux and reduced secretory flux as compared to SQV. Intestinal perfusion studies revealed that synthesized prodrugs have higher intestinal permeabilities relative to SQV. Enhanced absorption of Val-Val-SQV and Gly-Val-SQV relative to SQV can be attributed to their translocation by the peptide transporter in the jejunum. In the presence of MK-571, a MRP family inhibitor, there was a significant increase in the permeabilities of SQV and Gly-Val-SQV indicating that these compounds are probably substrates for MRP-2. However, there was no change in the permeability of Val-Val-SQV with MK-571 indicating lack of any interaction of Val-Val-SQV with MRP-2. In conclusion, peptide transporter targeted prodrug modification of MRP-2 substrates may lead to shielding of these drug molecules from MRP-2 efflux pumps.

  9. Frequent down-regulation of ABC transporter genes in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidenko, Rita; Razanauskas, Deividas; Daniunaite, Kristina; Lazutka, Juozas Rimantas; Jankevicius, Feliksas; Jarmalaite, Sonata

    2015-10-12

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are transmembrane proteins responsible for the efflux of a wide variety of substrates, including steroid metabolites, through the cellular membranes. For better characterization of the role of ABC transporters in prostate cancer (PCa) development, the profile of ABC transporter gene expression was analyzed in PCa and noncancerous prostate tissues (NPT). TaqMan Low Density Array (TLDA) human ABC transporter plates were used for the gene expression profiling in 10 PCa and 6 NPT specimens. ABCB1 transcript level was evaluated in a larger set of PCa cases (N = 78) and NPT (N = 15) by real-time PCR, the same PCa cases were assessed for the gene promoter hypermethylation by methylation-specific PCR. Expression of eight ABC transporter genes (ABCA8, ABCB1, ABCC6, ABCC9, ABCC10, ABCD2, ABCG2, and ABCG4) was significantly down-regulated in PCa as compared to NPT, and only two genes (ABCC4 and ABCG1) were up-regulated. Down-regulation of ABC transporter genes was prevalent in the TMPRSS2-ERG-negative cases. A detailed analysis of ABCB1 expression confirmed TLDA results: a reduced level of the transcript was identified in PCa in comparison to NPT (p = 0.048). Moreover, the TMPRSS2-ERG-negative PCa cases showed significantly lower expression of ABCB1 in comparison to NPT (p = 0.003) or the fusion-positive tumors (p = 0.002). Promoter methylation of ABCB1 predominantly occurred in PCa and was rarely detected in NPT (p ABC transporter genes in PCa, especially in the TMPRSS2-ERG-negative tumors.

  10. Phytosterols Differentially Influence ABC transporter Expression, Cholesterol Efflux and Inflammatory Cytokine Secretion in Macrophage Foam Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeva, Nadezhda S; McPhaul, Christopher M; Li, Xiangan; Cory, Theodore J.; Feola, David J.; Graf, Gregory A

    2010-01-01

    Phytosterol supplements lower low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, but accumulate in vascular lesions of patients and limit the anti-atherosclerotic effects of LDL lowering in apolipoprotein E deficient mice, suggesting that the cholesterol lowering benefit of phytosterol supplementation may not be fully realized. Individual phytosterols have cell-type specific effects that may either be beneficial or deleterious with respect to atherosclerosis, but little is known concerning their effects on macrophage function. The effects of phytosterols on ABCA1 and ABCG1 abundance, cholesterol efflux, and inflammatory cytokine secretion were determined in cultured macrophage foam cells. Among the commonly consumed phytosterols, stigmasterol increased expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 and increased efflux of cholesterol to apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and high density lipoprotein (HDL). Campesterol and sitosterol had no effect on ABCA1 or ABCG1 levels. Sitosterol had no effect of cholesterol efflux to Apo AI or HDL, whereas campesterol had a modest, but significant reduction in cholesterol efflux to HDL in THP-1 macrophages. Whereas stigmasterol blunted aggregated LDL-induced increases in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β secretion, sitosterol exacerbated these effects. The presence of campesterol had no effect on agLDL-induced inflammatory cytokine secretion from THP-1 macrophages. In conclusion, the presence of stigmasterol in modified lipoproteins promoted cholesterol efflux and suppressed inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to lipid loading in macrophage foam cells. While campesterol was largely inert, the presence of sitosterol increased the proinflammatory cytokine secretion. PMID:21111593

  11. Anaerobic expression of the gadE-mdtEF multidrug efflux operon is primarily regulated by the two-component system ArcBA through antagonizing the H-NS mediated repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ziqing; Shan, Yue; Pan, Qing; Gao, Xiang; Yan, Aixin

    2013-01-01

    The gadE-mdtEF operon encodes a central acid resistance regulator GadE and two multidrug efflux proteins MdtEF. Although transcriptional regulation of gadE in the context of acid resistance under the aerobic growth environment of Escherichia coli has been extensively studied, regulation of the operon under the physiologically relevant environment of anaerobic growth and its effect on the expression of the multidrug efflux proteins MdtEF in the operon has not been disclosed. Our previous study revealed that anaerobic induction of the operon was dependent on ArcA, the response regulator of the ArcBA two-component system, in the M9 glucose minimal medium. However, the detailed regulatory mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we showed that anaerobic activation of mdtEF was driven by the 798 bp unusually long gadE promoter. Deletion of evgA, ydeO, rpoS, and gadX which has been shown to activate the gadE expression during acid stresses under aerobic condition did not have a significant effect on the anaerobic activation of the operon. Rather, anaerobic activation of the operon was largely dependent on the global regulator ArcA and a GTPase MnmE. Under aerobic condition, transcription of gadE was repressed by the global DNA silencer H-NS in M9 minimal medium. Interestingly, under anaerobic condition, while ΔarcA almost completely abolished transcription of gadE-mdtEF, further deletion of hns in ΔarcA mutant restored the transcription of the full-length PgadE-lacZ, and P1- and P3-lacZ fusions, suggesting an antagonistic effect of ArcA on the H-NS mediated repression. Taken together, we conclude that the anaerobic activation of the gadE-mdtEF was primarily mediated by the two-component system ArcBA through antagonizing the H-NS mediated repression.

  12. Anaerobic expression of the gadE-mdtEF multidrug efflux operon is primarily regulated by the two-component system ArcBA through antagonizing the H-NS mediated repression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqing eDeng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The gadE-mdtEF operon encodes a central acid resistance regulator GadE and two multidrug efflux proteins MdtEF. Although transcriptional regulation of gadE in the context of acid resistance under the aerobic growth environment of E. coli has been extensively studied, regulation of the operon under the physiologically relevant environment of anaerobic growth and its effect on the expression of the multidrug efflux proteins MdtEF has not been disclosed. Our previous study revealed that anaerobic induction of the operon was dependent on ArcA, the response regulator of the ArcBA two-component system, in the M9 glucose minimal medium. However, the detailed regulatory mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we showed that anaerobic activation of mdtEF was driven by the 798bp unusually long gadE promoter. Deletion of evgA, ydeO, rpoS, and gadX which has been shown to activate the gadE expression during acid stresses under aerobic condition did not have a significant effect on the anaerobic activation of the operon. Rather, anaerobic activation of the operon was largely dependent on the global regulator ArcA and a GTPase MnmE. Under aerobic condition, transcription of gadE was repressed by the global DNA silencer H-NS in M9 minimal medium. Interestingly, under anaerobic condition, while ΔarcA almost completely abolished transcription of gadE-mdtEF, further deletion of hns in ΔarcA mutant restored the transcription of the full length PgadE-lacZ, and P1- and P3-lacZ fusions, suggesting an antagonistic effect of ArcA on the H-NS mediated repression. Taken together, we conclude that the anaerobic activation of the gadE-mdtEF was primarily mediated by the two-component system ArcBA through antagonizing the H-NS mediated repression.

  13. The drug-binding activity of the multidrug-responding transcriptional regulator BmrR resides in its C-terminal domain.

    OpenAIRE

    Markham, P N; Ahmed, M; Neyfakh, A A

    1996-01-01

    Rhodamine and tetraphenylphosphonium, the substrates of the Bacillus subtilis multidrug efflux transporter Bmr, induce the expression of Bmr through direct interaction with its transcriptional activator BmrR. Here we show that the C-terminal domain of BmrR, expressed individually, binds both these compounds and therefore can be used as a model for molecular analysis of the phenomenon of multidrug recognition.

  14. Fluorometric determination of ethidium bromide efflux kinetics in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro Gabriel A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efflux pump activity has been associated with multidrug resistance phenotypes in bacteria, compromising the effectiveness of antimicrobial therapy. The development of methods for the early detection and quantification of drug transport across the bacterial cell wall is a tool essential to understand and overcome this type of drug resistance mechanism. This approach was developed to study the transport of the efflux pump substrate ethidium bromide (EtBr across the cell envelope of Escherichia coli K-12 and derivatives, differing in the expression of their efflux systems. Results EtBr transport across the cell envelope of E. coli K-12 and derivatives was analysed by a semi-automated fluorometric method. Accumulation and efflux of EtBr was studied under limiting energy supply (absence of glucose and low temperature and in the presence and absence of the efflux pump inhibitor, chlorpromazine. The bulk fluorescence variations were also observed by single-cell flow cytometry analysis, revealing that once inside the cells, leakage of EtBr does not occur and that efflux is mediated by active transport. The importance of AcrAB-TolC, the main efflux system of E. coli, in the extrusion of EtBr was evidenced by comparing strains with different levels of AcrAB expression. An experimental model was developed to describe the transport kinetics in the three strains. The model integrates passive entry (influx and active efflux of EtBr, and discriminates different degrees of efflux between the studied strains that vary in the activity of their efflux systems, as evident from the calculated efflux rates: = 0.0173 ± 0.0057 min-1; = 0.0106 ± 0.0033 min-1; and = 0.0230 ± 0.0075 min-1. Conclusion The combined use of a semi-automated fluorometric method and an experimental model allowed quantifying EtBr transport in E. coli strains that differ in their overall efflux activity. This methodology can be used for the early detection of differences in

  15. The Reversal Effects of 3-Bromopyruvate on Multidrug Resistance In Vitro and In Vivo Derived from Human Breast MCF-7/ADR Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Long; Xu, Jun; Yuan, Weiqi; Wu, Baojian; Wang, Hao; Liu, Guangquan; Wang, Xiaoxiong; Du, Jun; Cai, Shaohui

    2014-01-01

    Purpose P-glycoprotein mediated efflux is one of the main mechanisms for multidrug resistance in cancers, and 3-Bromopyruvate acts as a promising multidrug resistance reversal compound in our study. To test the ability of 3-Bromopyruvate to overcome P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance and to explore its mechanisms of multidrug resistance reversal in MCF-7/ADR cells, we evaluate the in vitro and in vivo modulatory activity of this compound. Methods The in vitro and in vivo activity wa...

  16. Structure of the transcriptional regulator LmrR and its mechanism of multidrug recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madoori, Pramod Kumar; Agustiandari, Herfita; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Thunnissen, Andy-Mark W. H.

    2009-01-01

    LmrR is a PadR-related transcriptional repressor that regulates the production of LmrCD, a major multidrug ABC transporter in Lactococcus lactis. Transcriptional regulation is presumed to follow a drug-sensitive induction mechanism involving the direct binding of transporter ligands to LmrR. Here,

  17. Impact of BCRP/MXR, MRP1 and MDR1/P-Glycoprotein on thermoresistant variants of atypical and classical multidrug resistant cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Ulrike; Lage, Hermann; Jordan, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    The impact of the ABC transporters breast cancer resistance protein/mitoxantrone resistance associated transporter (BCRP/MXR), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) and multidrug resistance gene-1/P-glycoprotein (MDR1/PGP) on the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype in chemoresistance...... expression of BCRP/MXR and of MRP1 were clearly enhanced (vs. parental and classical MDR lines). MDR1/PGP expression was distinctly elevated in the classical MDR subline EPG85-257RDB (vs. parental and atypical MDR sublines). In all thermoresistant counterparts basal expression of BCRP/MXR, MRP1 and MDR1/PGP...... was increased relative to thermosensitive sublines. Although it could be shown that the overexpressed ABC transporters were functionally active, however, no decreased drug accumulations of doxorubicin, mitoxantrone and rhodamine 123 were observed. Thus, expression of BCRP/MXR, MRP1 and MDR1/PGP was found...

  18. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of an ATP-binding cassette transporter OtrC from Streptomyces rimosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The otrC gene of Streptomyces rimosus was previously annotated as an oxytetracycline (OTC resistance protein. However, the amino acid sequence analysis of OtrC shows that it is a putative ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter with multidrug resistance function. To our knowledge, none of the ABC transporters in S. rimosus have yet been characterized. In this study, we aimed to characterize the multidrug exporter function of OtrC and evaluate its relevancy to OTC production. Results In order to investigate OtrC’s function, otrC is cloned and expressed in E. coli The exporter function of OtrC was identified by ATPase activity determination and ethidium bromide efflux assays. Also, the susceptibilities of OtrC-overexpressing cells to several structurally unrelated drugs were compared with those of OtrC-non-expressing cells by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC assays, indicating that OtrC functions as a drug exporter with a broad range of drug specificities. The OTC production was enhanced by 1.6-fold in M4018 (P = 0.000877 and 1.4-fold in SR16 (P = 0.00973 duplication mutants, while it decreased to 80% in disruption mutants (P = 0.0182 and 0.0124 in M4018 and SR16, respectively. Conclusions The results suggest that OtrC is an ABC transporter with multidrug resistance function, and plays an important role in self-protection by drug efflux mechanisms. This is the first report of such a protein in S. rimosus, and otrC could be a valuable target for genetic manipulation to improve the production of industrial antibiotics.

  19. Multidrug Resistance in Breast Cancer: From In Vitro Models to Clinical Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind, N.S.; Holen, I.

    2011-01-01

    The development of multidrug resistance (MDR) and subsequent relapse on therapy is a widespread problem in breast cancer, but our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is incomplete. Numerous studies have aimed to establish the role of drug transporter pumps in MDR and to link their expression to response to chemotherapy. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are central to breast cancer MDR, and increases in ABC expression levels have been shown to correlate with decreases in response to various chemotherapy drugs and a reduction in overall survival. But as there is a large degree of redundancy between different ABC transporters, this correlation has not been seen in all studies. This paper provides an introduction to the key molecules associated with breast cancer MDR and summarises evidence of their potential roles reported from model systems and clinical studies. We provide possible explanations for why despite several decades of research, the precise role of ABC transporters in breast cancer MDR remains elusive

  20. Frequent down-regulation of ABC transporter genes in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demidenko, Rita; Razanauskas, Deividas; Daniunaite, Kristina; Lazutka, Juozas Rimantas; Jankevicius, Feliksas; Jarmalaite, Sonata

    2015-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are transmembrane proteins responsible for the efflux of a wide variety of substrates, including steroid metabolites, through the cellular membranes. For better characterization of the role of ABC transporters in prostate cancer (PCa) development, the profile of ABC transporter gene expression was analyzed in PCa and noncancerous prostate tissues (NPT). TaqMan Low Density Array (TLDA) human ABC transporter plates were used for the gene expression profiling in 10 PCa and 6 NPT specimens. ABCB1 transcript level was evaluated in a larger set of PCa cases (N = 78) and NPT (N = 15) by real-time PCR, the same PCa cases were assessed for the gene promoter hypermethylation by methylation-specific PCR. Expression of eight ABC transporter genes (ABCA8, ABCB1, ABCC6, ABCC9, ABCC10, ABCD2, ABCG2, and ABCG4) was significantly down-regulated in PCa as compared to NPT, and only two genes (ABCC4 and ABCG1) were up-regulated. Down-regulation of ABC transporter genes was prevalent in the TMPRSS2-ERG-negative cases. A detailed analysis of ABCB1 expression confirmed TLDA results: a reduced level of the transcript was identified in PCa in comparison to NPT (p = 0.048). Moreover, the TMPRSS2-ERG-negative PCa cases showed significantly lower expression of ABCB1 in comparison to NPT (p = 0.003) or the fusion-positive tumors (p = 0.002). Promoter methylation of ABCB1 predominantly occurred in PCa and was rarely detected in NPT (p < 0.001). The study suggests frequent down-regulation of the ABC transporter genes in PCa, especially in the TMPRSS2-ERG-negative tumors. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1689-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  1. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 is a bile transporter of Clonorchis sinensis simulated by in silico docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fuhong; Yoo, Won Gi; Lee, Ji-Yun; Lu, Yanyan; Pak, Jhang Ho; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Hong, Sung-Jong

    2017-11-21

    Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4) is a member of the C subfamily of the ABC family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. MRP4 regulates ATP-dependent efflux of various organic anionic substrates and bile acids out of cells. Since Clonorchis sinensis lives in host's bile duct, accumulation of bile juice can be toxic to the worm's tissues and cells. Therefore, C. sinensis needs bile transporters to reduce accumulation of bile acids within its body. We cloned MRP4 (CsMRP4) from C. sinensis and obtained a cDNA encoding an open reading frame of 1469 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that CsMRP4 belonged to the MRP/SUR/CFTR subfamily. A tertiary structure of CsMRP4 was generated by homology modeling based on multiple structures of MRP1 and P-glycoprotein. CsMRP4 had two membrane-spanning domains (MSD1 & 2) and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBD1 & 2) as common structural folds. Docking simulation with nine bile acids showed that CsMRP4 transports bile acids through the inner cavity. Moreover, it was found that CsMRP4 mRNA was more abundant in the metacercariae than in the adults. Mouse immune serum, generated against the CsMRP4-NBD1 (24.9 kDa) fragment, localized CsMRP4 mainly in mesenchymal tissues and oral and ventral suckers of the metacercariae and the adults. Our findings shed new light on MRPs and their homologs and provide a platform for further structural and functional investigations on the bile transporters and parasites' survival.

  2. Computer simulations of the activity of RND efflux pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargiu, Attilio Vittorio; Ramaswamy, Venkata Krishnan; Malloci, Giuliano; Malvacio, Ivana; Atzori, Alessio; Ruggerone, Paolo

    2018-01-31

    The putative mechanism by which bacterial RND-type multidrug efflux pumps recognize and transport their substrates is a complex and fascinating enigma of structural biology. How a single protein can recognize a huge number of unrelated compounds and transport them through one or just a few mechanisms is an amazing feature not yet completely unveiled. The appearance of cooperativity further complicates the understanding of structure-dynamics-activity relationships in these complex machineries. Experimental techniques may have limited access to the molecular determinants and to the energetics of key processes regulating the activity of these pumps. Computer simulations are a complementary approach that can help unveil these features and inspire new experiments. Here we review recent computational studies that addressed the various molecular processes regulating the activity of RND efflux pumps. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of a combined effect model approach for discriminating between ABCB1- and ABCC1-type efflux activities in native bivalve gill tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Melissa [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); CESAM & Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pavlichenko, Vasiliy [Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (SIPPB SB RAS), Lermontov Str. 132, 664033, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, UFZ — Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Burkhardt-Medicke, Kathleen [Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, UFZ — Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Institute of Hydrobiology, Dresden University of Technology, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Soares, Amadeu M.V.M. [CESAM & Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Altenburger, Rolf [Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, UFZ — Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Barata, Carlos [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Luckenbach, Till, E-mail: till.luckenbach@ufz.de [Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, UFZ — Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Aquatic organisms, such as bivalves, employ ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters for efflux of potentially toxic chemicals. Anthropogenic water contaminants can, as chemosensitizers, disrupt efflux transporter function enabling other, putatively toxic compounds to enter the organism. Applying rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR we identified complete cDNAs encoding ABCB1- and ABCC1-type transporter homologs from zebra mussel providing the molecular basis for expression of both transporter types in zebra mussel gills. Further, efflux activities of both transporter types in gills were indicated with dye accumulation assays where efflux of the dye calcein-am was sensitive to both ABCB1- (reversin 205, verapamil) and ABCC1- (MK571) type specific inhibitors. The assumption that different inhibitors targeted different efflux pump types was confirmed when comparing measured effects of binary inhibitor compound mixtures in dye accumulation assays with predictions from mixture effect models. Effects by the MK571/reversin 205 mixture corresponded better with independent action, whereas reversin 205/verapamil joint effects were better predicted by the concentration addition model indicating different and equal targets, respectively. The binary mixture approach was further applied to identify the efflux pump type targeted by environmentally relevant chemosensitizing compounds. Pentachlorophenol and musk ketone, which were selected after a pre-screen of twelve compounds that previously had been identified as chemosensitizers, showed mixture effects that corresponded better with concentration addition when combined with reversine 205 but with independent action predictions when combined with MK571 indicating targeting of an ABCB1-type efflux pump by these compounds. - Highlights: • Sequences and function of ABC efflux transporters in bivalve gills were explored. • Full length Dreissena polymorpha abcb1 and abcc1 cDNA sequences were identified. • A mixture effect

  4. Use of a combined effect model approach for discriminating between ABCB1- and ABCC1-type efflux activities in native bivalve gill tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Melissa; Pavlichenko, Vasiliy; Burkhardt-Medicke, Kathleen; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Altenburger, Rolf; Barata, Carlos; Luckenbach, Till

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic organisms, such as bivalves, employ ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters for efflux of potentially toxic chemicals. Anthropogenic water contaminants can, as chemosensitizers, disrupt efflux transporter function enabling other, putatively toxic compounds to enter the organism. Applying rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR we identified complete cDNAs encoding ABCB1- and ABCC1-type transporter homologs from zebra mussel providing the molecular basis for expression of both transporter types in zebra mussel gills. Further, efflux activities of both transporter types in gills were indicated with dye accumulation assays where efflux of the dye calcein-am was sensitive to both ABCB1- (reversin 205, verapamil) and ABCC1- (MK571) type specific inhibitors. The assumption that different inhibitors targeted different efflux pump types was confirmed when comparing measured effects of binary inhibitor compound mixtures in dye accumulation assays with predictions from mixture effect models. Effects by the MK571/reversin 205 mixture corresponded better with independent action, whereas reversin 205/verapamil joint effects were better predicted by the concentration addition model indicating different and equal targets, respectively. The binary mixture approach was further applied to identify the efflux pump type targeted by environmentally relevant chemosensitizing compounds. Pentachlorophenol and musk ketone, which were selected after a pre-screen of twelve compounds that previously had been identified as chemosensitizers, showed mixture effects that corresponded better with concentration addition when combined with reversine 205 but with independent action predictions when combined with MK571 indicating targeting of an ABCB1-type efflux pump by these compounds. - Highlights: • Sequences and function of ABC efflux transporters in bivalve gills were explored. • Full length Dreissena polymorpha abcb1 and abcc1 cDNA sequences were identified. • A mixture effect

  5. Functional characterization of the human multidrug transporter, ABCG2, expressed in insect cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozvegy, C.; Litman, Thomas; Szakacs, G.

    2001-01-01

    ABCG2 (also called MXR (3), BCRP (4), or ABCP (5) is a recently-identified ABC half-transporter, which causes multidrug resistance in cancer. Here we report that the expression of the ABCG2 protein in Sf9 insect cells resulted in a high-capacity, vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity in isolated...

  6. Putative role for ABC multidrug exporters in yeast quorum sensing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváček, Otakar; Kučerová, Helena; Harant, Karel; Palková, Z.; Váchová, Libuše

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 583, č. 7 (2009), s. 1107-1113 ISSN 0014-5793 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/05/0297; GA ČR GP204/05/P175; GA MŠk(CZ) LC531 Grant - others:GB(GB) Howard Hughes Medical Institute International Research Award Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : multidrug resistance * pdr transporter * yeast physiology Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.541, year: 2009

  7. Glycolysis inhibition inactivates ABC transporters to restore drug sensitivity in malignant cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Nakano

    Full Text Available Cancer cells eventually acquire drug resistance largely via the aberrant expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters, ATP-dependent efflux pumps. Because cancer cells produce ATP mostly through glycolysis, in the present study we explored the effects of inhibiting glycolysis on the ABC transporter function and drug sensitivity of malignant cells. Inhibition of glycolysis by 3-bromopyruvate (3BrPA suppressed ATP production in malignant cells, and restored the retention of daunorubicin or mitoxantrone in ABC transporter-expressing, RPMI8226 (ABCG2, KG-1 (ABCB1 and HepG2 cells (ABCB1 and ABCG2. Interestingly, although side population (SP cells isolated from RPMI8226 cells exhibited higher levels of glycolysis with an increased expression of genes involved in the glycolytic pathway, 3BrPA abolished Hoechst 33342 exclusion in SP cells. 3BrPA also disrupted clonogenic capacity in malignant cell lines including RPMI8226, KG-1, and HepG2. Furthermore, 3BrPA restored cytotoxic effects of daunorubicin and doxorubicin on KG-1 and RPMI8226 cells, and markedly suppressed subcutaneous tumor growth in combination with doxorubicin in RPMI8226-implanted mice. These results collectively suggest that the inhibition of glycolysis is able to overcome drug resistance in ABC transporter-expressing malignant cells through the inactivation of ABC transporters and impairment of SP cells with enhanced glycolysis as well as clonogenic cells.

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of MacA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao, Shunfu; Xu, Yongbin; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2008-01-01

    A periplasmic membrane-fusion protein MacA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria, was crystallized. Periplasmic membrane-fusion proteins (MFPs) are an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria. They play a crucial role in bridging the outer membrane porin TolC and two distinct types of inner membrane transporters. The MFP MacA bridges the inner membrane ABC-type multidrug transporter MacB and the outer membrane porin TolC. MacA from the pathogenic bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was expressed in Escherichia coli B834 (DE3) and the recombinant protein was purified using Ni–NTA affinity, Q anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The purified MacA protein was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. A MAD diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 3.0 Å at 100 K. The crystal belongs to space group P622, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 109.2, c = 255.4 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°, and contains one molecule in the asymmetric unit

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of MacA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piao, Shunfu; Xu, Yongbin; Ha, Nam-Chul, E-mail: hnc@pusan.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy and Research Institute for Drug Development, Pusan National University, Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-01

    A periplasmic membrane-fusion protein MacA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria, was crystallized. Periplasmic membrane-fusion proteins (MFPs) are an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria. They play a crucial role in bridging the outer membrane porin TolC and two distinct types of inner membrane transporters. The MFP MacA bridges the inner membrane ABC-type multidrug transporter MacB and the outer membrane porin TolC. MacA from the pathogenic bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was expressed in Escherichia coli B834 (DE3) and the recombinant protein was purified using Ni–NTA affinity, Q anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The purified MacA protein was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. A MAD diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 3.0 Å at 100 K. The crystal belongs to space group P622, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 109.2, c = 255.4 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°, and contains one molecule in the asymmetric unit.

  10. Functional analysis of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance associated protein related multidrug resistance in AML-blasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brügger, D; Herbart, H; Gekeler, V; Seitz, G; Liu, C; Klingebiel, T; Orlikowsky, T; Einsele, H; Denzlinger, C; Bader, P; Niethammer, D; Beck, J F

    1999-05-01

    Despite the high effectiveness of various P-glycoprotein (P-gp) modulating substances in vitro their clinical value e.g. for combination treatment of acute myelogenous leukemias (AML) remains still unclear. This might be explainable by recent findings that other factors than P-gp (e.g. the multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP)) may also be involved in clinical occurring drug resistance. To study P-gp and MRP mediated MDR in AML blasts from patients with relapses at the functional level we measured rhodamine 123 (RHO) efflux in combination with a P-gp specific (SDZ PSC 833) or a MRP specific (MK571) modulator, respectively. Furthermore, direct antineoplastic drug action was monitored by determination of damaged cell fraction of a blast population using flow cytometry. We generally found strongly modulated RHO efflux by SDZ PSC 833 but slight RHO-efflux modulation by MK571 in blasts from relapsed states of AML expressing MDR1 or MRP mRNA at various levels. We could not demonstrate, though, significant PSC 833 or MK571 mediated modulation of the cytotoxic effects of etoposide. The results point to the possibility that combination of etoposide and a modulator might not improve responses to chemotherapy by targeting P-gp or MRP exclusively.

  11. Genetic relatedness and molecular characterization of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated in central Ohio, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadesse Daniel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last decade, nosocomial infections due to Acinetobacter baumannii have been described with an increasing trend towards multidrug resistance, mostly in intensive care units. The aim of the present study was to determine the clonal relatedness of clinical isolates and to elucidate the genetic basis of imipenem resistance. Methods A. baumannii isolates (n = 83 originated from two hospital settings in central Ohio were used in this study. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for clinically relevant antimicrobials were performed. Resistance determinants were characterized by using different phenotypic (accumulation assay for efflux and genotypic (PCR, DNA sequencing, plasmid analysis and electroporation approaches. Results The isolates were predominantly multidrug resistant (>79.5% and comprised of thirteen unique pulsotypes, with genotype VII circulating in both hospitals. The presence of blaOXA-23 in 13% (11/83 and ISAba1 linked blaOXA-66 in 79.5% (66/83 of clinical isolates was associated with high level imipenem resistance. In this set of OXA producing isolates, multidrug resistance was bestowed by blaADC-25, class 1 integron-borne aminoglycoside modifying enzymes, presence of sense mutations in gyrA/parC and involvement of active efflux (with evidence for the presence of adeB efflux gene. Conclusion This study underscores the major role of carbapenem-hydrolyzing class D β-lactamases, and in particular the acquired OXA-23, in the dissemination of imipenem-resistant A. baumannii. The co-occurrence of additional resistance determinant could also be a significant threat.

  12. Potential strategies for the eradication of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwaitat, Rawan; McCloskey, Alice P; Gilmore, Brendan F; Laverty, Garry

    2016-07-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is one of the leading threats to society. The increasing burden of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infection is particularly concerning as such bacteria are demonstrating resistance to nearly all currently licensed therapies. Various strategies have been hypothesized to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections including: targeting the Gram-negative outer membrane; neutralization of lipopolysaccharide; inhibition of bacterial efflux pumps and prevention of protein folding. Silver and silver nanoparticles, fusogenic liposomes and nanotubes are potential strategies for extending the activity of licensed, Gram-positive selective, antibiotics to Gram-negatives. This may serve as a strategy to fill the current void in pharmaceutical development in the short term. This review outlines the most promising strategies that could be implemented to solve the threat of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections.

  13. Vital and dispensable roles of Plasmodium multidrug resistance transporters during blood- and mosquito-stage development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpma, S.R.; Velden, M. van der; Annoura, T.; Matz, J.M.; Kenthirapalan, S.; Kooij, T.W.; Matuschewski, K.; Gemert, G.J.A. van; Vegte-Bolmer, M.G. van de; Siebelink-Stoter, R.; Graumans, W.; Ramesar, J.; Klop, O.; Russel, F.G.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Janse, C.J.; Franke-Fayard, B.M.; Koenderink, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins belong to the B subfamily of the ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters, which export a wide range of compounds including pharmaceuticals. In this study, we used reverse genetics to study the role of all seven Plasmodium MDR proteins during the life cycle of

  14. Bone marrow-derived multidrug resistance protein ABCB4 protects against atherosclerotic lesion development in LDL receptor knockout mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, Marieke; Hildebrand, Reeni B.; Ye, Dan; Kunne, Cindy; van Berkel, Theo J. C.; Groen, Albert K.; van Eck, Miranda

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Several members of the ATP binding cassette (ABC)-transporter super family expressed in macrophages protect against atherosclerosis by promoting macrophage cholesterol and phospholipid efflux. Systemic disruption of ABCB4 in mice results in a virtual absence of phospholipids in bile and a

  15. Bypassing multidrug resistance in human breast cancer cells with lipid/polymer particle assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bo Li1, Hui Xu2, Zhen Li1, Mingfei Yao1, Meng Xie1, Haijun Shen1, Song Shen1, Xinshi Wang1, Yi Jin11College of Pharmaceutical sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 2No. 202 Hospital of People's Liberation Army, Shenyang, ChinaBackground: Multidrug resistance (MDR mediated by the overexpression of adenosine triphosphate (ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters, such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp, remains one of the major obstacles to effective cancer chemotherapy. In this study, lipid/particle assemblies named LipoParticles (LNPs, consisting of a dimethyldidodecylammonium bromide (DMAB-modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticle core surrounded by a 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC shell, were specially designed for anticancer drugs to bypass MDR in human breast cancer cells that overexpress P-gp.Methods: Doxorubicin (DOX, a chemotherapy drug that is a P-gp substrate, was conjugated to PLGA and encapsulated in the self-assembled LNP structure. Physiochemical properties of the DOX-loaded LNPs were characterized in vitro. Cellular uptake, intracellular accumulation, and cytotoxicity were compared in parental Michigan Cancer Foundation (MCF-7 cells and P-gp-overexpressing, resistant MCF-7/adriamycin (MCF-7/ADR cells.Results: This study found that the DOX formulated in LNPs showed a significantly increased accumulation in the nuclei of drug-resistant cells relative to the free drug, indicating that LNPs could alter intracellular traffic and bypass drug efflux. The cytotoxicity of DOX loaded-LNPs had a 30-fold lower half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 value than free DOX in MCF-7/ADR, measured by the colorimetric cell viability (MTT assay, correlated with the strong nuclear retention of the drug.Conclusion: The results show that this core-shell lipid/particle structure could be a promising strategy to bypass MDR.Keywords: chemotherapy, drug delivery, polymeric nanoparticles, multidrug resistance

  16. Role of multidrug resistance protein (MRP) in glutathione S-conjugate transport in mammalian cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, M.; de Vries, E. G.; Jansen, P. L.

    1996-01-01

    The human multidrug resistance protein (MRP), a 190-kDa member of the ABC-protein superfamily, is an ATP-dependent glutathione S-conjugate carrier (GS-X pump) and is present in membranes of many, if not all, cells. Overexpression of MRP in tumor cells contributes to resistance to natural product

  17. Role of multidrug resistance protein (MRP) in glutathione S-conjugate transport in mammalian cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M; deVries, EGE; Jansen, PLM

    1996-01-01

    The human multidrug resistance protein (MRP), a 190-kDa member of the ABC-protein superfamily, is an ATP-dependent glutathione S-conjugate carrier (GS-X pump) and is present in membranes of many, if not all, cells, Overexpression of MRP in tumor cells contributes to resistance to natural product

  18. Efflux pump induction by quaternary ammonium compounds and fluoroquinolone resistance in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet-Bataillon, Sylvie; Tattevin, Pierre; Maillard, Jean-Yves; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Biocides, primarily those containing quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC), are heavily used in hospital environments and various industries (e.g., food, water, cosmetic). To date, little attention has been paid to potential implications of QAC use in the emergence of antibiotic resistance, especially fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria in patients and in the environment. QAC-induced overexpression of efflux pumps can lead to: cross resistance with fluoroquinolones mediated by multidrug efflux pumps; stress response facilitating mutation in the Quinolone Resistance Determining Region; and biofilm formation increasing the risk of transfer of mobile genetic elements carrying fluoroquinolone or QAC resistance determinants. By following the European Biocidal Product Regulation, manufacturers of QAC are required to ensure that their QAC-based biocidal products are safe and will not contribute to emerging bacterial resistance.

  19. A Survey of the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Gene Superfamily in the Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Antoñanzas, Greta; Carmichael, Stephen N; Heumann, Jan; Taggart, John B; Gharbi, Karim; Bron, James E; Bekaert, Michaël; Sturm, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837), are fish ectoparasites causing significant economic damage in the mariculture of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758. The control of L. salmonis at fish farms relies to a large extent on treatment with anti-parasitic drugs. A problem related to chemical control is the potential for development of resistance, which in L. salmonis is documented for a number of drug classes including organophosphates, pyrethroids and avermectins. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene superfamily is found in all biota and includes a range of drug efflux transporters that can confer drug resistance to cancers and pathogens. Furthermore, some ABC transporters are recognised to be involved in conferral of insecticide resistance. While a number of studies have investigated ABC transporters in L. salmonis, no systematic analysis of the ABC gene family exists for this species. This study presents a genome-wide survey of ABC genes in L. salmonis for which, ABC superfamily members were identified through homology searching of the L. salmonis genome. In addition, ABC proteins were identified in a reference transcriptome of the parasite generated by high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of a multi-stage RNA library. Searches of both genome and transcriptome allowed the identification of a total of 33 genes / transcripts coding for ABC proteins, of which 3 were represented only in the genome and 4 only in the transcriptome. Eighteen sequences were assigned to ABC subfamilies known to contain drug transporters, i.e. subfamilies B (4 sequences), C (11) and G (2). The results suggest that the ABC gene family of L. salmonis possesses fewer members than recorded for other arthropods. The present survey of the L. salmonis ABC gene superfamily will provide the basis for further research into potential roles of ABC transporters in the toxicity of salmon delousing agents and as potential mechanisms of drug resistance.

  20. Effect of bisphenol A on P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux and ultrastructure of the sea urchin embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bošnjak, Ivana; Borra, Marco; Iamunno, Franco; Benvenuto, Giovanna; Ujević, Ivana; Bušelić, Ivana; Roje-Busatto, Romana; Mladineo, Ivona

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of BPA on embryonic development of Paracentrotus lividus were determined. • Transport assay, intracellular BPA measurements and gene expression surveys were made. • Multidrug efflux transporter P-gp/ABCB1 is involved in BPA elimination. • Endocrine disruption is inferred by orphan steroid hormone receptor (shr2) upregulation. • BPA delayed mitosis, inducing aberrant karyokinesis and dysfunctional microfilaments. - Abstract: Usage of bisphenol A (BPA) in production of polycarbonate plastics has resulted in global distribution of BPA in the environment. These high concentrations cause numerous negative effects to the aquatic biota, among which the most known is the induction of endocrine disruption. The focus of this research was to determine the effects of two experimentally determined concentrations of BPA (100 nM and 4 μM) on cellular detoxification mechanisms during the embryonic development (2-cell, pluteus) of the rocky sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus), primarily the potential involvement of multidrug efflux transport in the BPA intercellular efflux. The results of transport assay, measurements of the intracellular BPA and gene expression surveys, for the first time indicate the importance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) in defense against BPA. Cytotoxic effects of BPA, validated by the immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), induced the aberrant karyokinesis, and consequently, the impairment of embryo development through the first cell division and retardation

  1. Effect of bisphenol A on P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux and ultrastructure of the sea urchin embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bošnjak, Ivana [Laboratory for Biology and Microbial Genetics, Department of Biochemical Engineering, Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, Pierottijeva 6, Zagreb (Croatia); Borra, Marco [Molecular Biology Service, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale 80121, Napoli (Italy); Iamunno, Franco; Benvenuto, Giovanna [Electron Microscopy Service, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale 80121, Napoli (Italy); Ujević, Ivana [Laboratory of Plankton and Shellfish Toxicity, Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Setaliste Ivana Mestrovica 63, 21000 Split (Croatia); Bušelić, Ivana [Laboratory for Aquaculture, Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Setaliste Ivana Mestrovica 63, 21000 Split (Croatia); Roje-Busatto, Romana [Laboratory of Plankton and Shellfish Toxicity, Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Setaliste Ivana Mestrovica 63, 21000 Split (Croatia); Mladineo, Ivona, E-mail: mladineo@izor.hr [Laboratory for Aquaculture, Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Setaliste Ivana Mestrovica 63, 21000 Split (Croatia); Assemble Marine Laboratory, Stazione Zoological Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, Naples (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Effects of BPA on embryonic development of Paracentrotus lividus were determined. • Transport assay, intracellular BPA measurements and gene expression surveys were made. • Multidrug efflux transporter P-gp/ABCB1 is involved in BPA elimination. • Endocrine disruption is inferred by orphan steroid hormone receptor (shr2) upregulation. • BPA delayed mitosis, inducing aberrant karyokinesis and dysfunctional microfilaments. - Abstract: Usage of bisphenol A (BPA) in production of polycarbonate plastics has resulted in global distribution of BPA in the environment. These high concentrations cause numerous negative effects to the aquatic biota, among which the most known is the induction of endocrine disruption. The focus of this research was to determine the effects of two experimentally determined concentrations of BPA (100 nM and 4 μM) on cellular detoxification mechanisms during the embryonic development (2-cell, pluteus) of the rocky sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus), primarily the potential involvement of multidrug efflux transport in the BPA intercellular efflux. The results of transport assay, measurements of the intracellular BPA and gene expression surveys, for the first time indicate the importance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) in defense against BPA. Cytotoxic effects of BPA, validated by the immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), induced the aberrant karyokinesis, and consequently, the impairment of embryo development through the first cell division and retardation.

  2. ABC-F Proteins Mediate Antibiotic Resistance through Ribosomal Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Liam K R; Edwards, Thomas A; O'Neill, Alex J

    2016-03-22

    Members of the ABC-F subfamily of ATP-binding cassette proteins mediate resistance to a broad array of clinically important antibiotic classes that target the ribosome of Gram-positive pathogens. The mechanism by which these proteins act has been a subject of long-standing controversy, with two competing hypotheses each having gained considerable support: antibiotic efflux versus ribosomal protection. Here, we report on studies employing a combination of bacteriological and biochemical techniques to unravel the mechanism of resistance of these proteins, and provide several lines of evidence that together offer clear support to the ribosomal protection hypothesis. Of particular note, we show that addition of purified ABC-F proteins to anin vitrotranslation assay prompts dose-dependent rescue of translation, and demonstrate that such proteins are capable of displacing antibiotic from the ribosomein vitro To our knowledge, these experiments constitute the first direct evidence that ABC-F proteins mediate antibiotic resistance through ribosomal protection.IMPORTANCEAntimicrobial resistance ranks among the greatest threats currently facing human health. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which microorganisms resist the effect of antibiotics is central to understanding the biology of this phenomenon and has the potential to inform the development of new drugs capable of blocking or circumventing resistance. Members of the ABC-F family, which includelsa(A),msr(A),optr(A), andvga(A), collectively yield resistance to a broader range of clinically significant antibiotic classes than any other family of resistance determinants, although their mechanism of action has been controversial since their discovery 25 years ago. Here we present the first direct evidence that proteins of the ABC-F family act to protect the bacterial ribosome from antibiotic-mediated inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Sharkey et al.

  3. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 is a bile transporter of Clonorchis sinensis simulated by in silico docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhong Dai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4 is a member of the C subfamily of the ABC family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters. MRP4 regulates ATP-dependent efflux of various organic anionic substrates and bile acids out of cells. Since Clonorchis sinensis lives in host’s bile duct, accumulation of bile juice can be toxic to the worm’s tissues and cells. Therefore, C. sinensis needs bile transporters to reduce accumulation of bile acids within its body. Results We cloned MRP4 (CsMRP4 from C. sinensis and obtained a cDNA encoding an open reading frame of 1469 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that CsMRP4 belonged to the MRP/SUR/CFTR subfamily. A tertiary structure of CsMRP4 was generated by homology modeling based on multiple structures of MRP1 and P-glycoprotein. CsMRP4 had two membrane-spanning domains (MSD1 & 2 and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBD1 & 2 as common structural folds. Docking simulation with nine bile acids showed that CsMRP4 transports bile acids through the inner cavity. Moreover, it was found that CsMRP4 mRNA was more abundant in the metacercariae than in the adults. Mouse immune serum, generated against the CsMRP4-NBD1 (24.9 kDa fragment, localized CsMRP4 mainly in mesenchymal tissues and oral and ventral suckers of the metacercariae and the adults. Conclusions Our findings shed new light on MRPs and their homologs and provide a platform for further structural and functional investigations on the bile transporters and parasites’ survival.

  4. Expression of the human multidrug transporter in insect cells by a recombinant baculovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germann, U.A.; Willingham, M.C.; Pastan, I.; Gottesman, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The plasma membrane associated human multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene product, known as the 170-kDa P-glycoprotein or the multidrug transporter, acts as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for various cytotoxic agents. The authors expressed recombinant human multidrug transporter in a baculovirus expression system to obtain large quantities and further investigate its structure and mechanism of action. MDR1 cDNA was inserted into the genome of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells synthesized high levels of recombinant multidrug transporter 2-3 days after infection. The transporter was localized by immunocytochemical methods on the external surface of the plasma membranes, in the Golgi apparatus, and within the nuclear envelope. The human multidrug transporter expressed in insect cells is not susceptible to endoglycosidase F treatment and has a lower apparent molecular weight of 140,000, corresponding to the nonglycosylated precursor of its authentic counterpart expressed in multidrug-resistant cells. Labeling experiments showed that the recombinant multidrug transporter is phosphorylated and can be photoaffinity labeled by [ 3 H]azidopine, presumably at the same two sites as the native protein. Various drugs and reversing agents compete with the [ 3 H]azidopine binding reaction when added in excess, indicating that the recombinant human multidrug transporter expressed in insect cells is functionally similar to its authentic counterpart

  5. Antibacterial activity of exogenous glutathione and its synergism on antibiotics sensitize carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbe, Roaa; Almansour, Ayidh; Kwon, Dong H

    2017-10-01

    A major clinical impact of A. baumannii is hospital-acquired infections including ventilator-associated pneumonia. The treatment of this pathogen is often difficult due to its innate and acquired resistance to almost all commercially available antibiotics. Infections with carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant A. baumannii is the most problematic. Glutathione is a tripeptide thiol-antioxidant and antibacterial activity of exogenous glutathione was reported in some bacteria. However, clinical relevance and molecular details of the antibacterial activity of glutathione are currently unclear. Seventy clinical isolates of A. baumannii including 63 carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant isolates and a type strain A. baumannii ATCC 19606 were used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) and time-killing activity with meropenem and/or glutathione were also determined in the carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant isolates. In addition, the roles of exogenous glutathione in multidrug efflux pumps and β-lactamase production were examined. Levels of MIC and MBC were ranged from 10 to 15mM of exogenous glutathione. All tested carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant isolates were sensitized by all tested antibiotics in combination with subinhibitory concentrations of glutathione. FIC levels of glutathione with carbapenem (meropenem) were allcarbapenem-associated multidrug resistant isolates were killed by subinhibitory concentrations of both glutathione and meropenem at>2log10 within 12h, suggesting glutathione synergistically interacts with meropenem. The roles of multidrug efflux pumps and β-lactamase production were excluded for the glutathione-mediated antibiotic susceptibility. Overall results demonstrate that the antibacterial activity of glutathione is clinically relevant and its synergism on antibiotics sensitizes clinical isolates of A. baumannii regardless

  6. Plasmid borne Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing Class D β-Lactamases (CHDLs) and AdeABC efflux pump conferring carbapenem-tigecycline resistance among Acinetobacter baumannii isolates harboring TnAbaRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savari, Mohammad; Ekrami, Alireza; Shoja, Saeed; Bahador, Abbas

    2017-03-01

    Here we studied the prevalence and mechanisms of simultaneous resistance to carbapenem and tigecycline and accumulation of resistance determinants reservoirs in genome of Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) clinical isolates. Susceptibility of the isolates were measured to 18 antimicrobial agents. Genetic diversity of the microbial population was determined using the International Clonal lineage typing (IC typing), multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) and plasmid profiling methods. To detect the AbaRs, Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing Class D β-Lactamases (CHDLs) genes, AdeABC efflux pump genes and resistance determinants, PCR was used. Filter mating experiments were used to prove that if carbapenem resistance genes are located on conjugative plasmids or not. Among the A. baumannii clinical isolates, 40.8% were carbapenem-tigecycline resistant and in this population, 46.9% were belonging to IC I, IC II or IC III and 53.1% were IC variants. These isolates had fallen in 40 MLVA types and were harboring plasmids in multiple numbers and sizes. In this study, bla OXA-23-like was the most prevalent CHDL and conjugation analysis proved that the carbapenem resistance genes are located on conjugative plasmids. All efflux pump genes, except for adeC, were detected in all carbapenem-tigecycline resistant A. baumannii (CTRAb) isolates. Resistance determinants were distributed in both TnAbaRs and R plasmids with a shift toward the R plasmids. Emerging of carbapenem resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) with simultaneous resistance to the last line therapy including tigecycline represent emerging of extensively drug resistance (XDR) and pandrug resistance (PDR) phenotypes that would be a great threat to our public health system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genome-wide identification, characterization and phylogenetic analysis of 50 catfish ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shikai; Li, Qi; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2013-01-01

    Although a large set of full-length transcripts was recently assembled in catfish, annotation of large gene families, especially those with duplications, is still a great challenge. Most often, complexities in annotation cause mis-identification and thereby much confusion in the scientific literature. As such, detailed phylogenetic analysis and/or orthology analysis are required for annotation of genes involved in gene families. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene superfamily is a large gene family that encodes membrane proteins that transport a diverse set of substrates across membranes, playing important roles in protecting organisms from diverse environment. In this work, we identified a set of 50 ABC transporters in catfish genome. Phylogenetic analysis allowed their identification and annotation into seven subfamilies, including 9 ABCA genes, 12 ABCB genes, 12 ABCC genes, 5 ABCD genes, 2 ABCE genes, 4 ABCF genes and 6 ABCG genes. Most ABC transporters are conserved among vertebrates, though cases of recent gene duplications and gene losses do exist. Gene duplications in catfish were found for ABCA1, ABCB3, ABCB6, ABCC5, ABCD3, ABCE1, ABCF2 and ABCG2. The whole set of catfish ABC transporters provide the essential genomic resources for future biochemical, toxicological and physiological studies of ABC drug efflux transporters. The establishment of orthologies should allow functional inferences with the information from model species, though the function of lineage-specific genes can be distinct because of specific living environment with different selection pressure.

  8. Multidrug resistance gene expression is controlled by steroid hormones in the secretory epithelium of the uterus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arceci, R. J.; Baas, F.; Raponi, R.; Horwitz, S. B.; Housman, D.; Croop, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The multidrug resistance (mdr) gene family has been shown to encode a membrane glycoprotein, termed the P-glycoprotein, which functions as a drug efflux pump with broad substrate specificity. This multigene family is expressed in a tissue-specific fashion in a wide variety of normal and neoplastic

  9. ramR Mutations Affecting Fluoroquinolone Susceptibility in Epidemic Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Kentucky ST198

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel eCloeckaert

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A screening for non-target mutations affecting fluoroquinolone susceptibility was conducted in epidemic multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky ST198. Among a panel of representative isolates (n=30, covering the epidemic, only three showed distinct mutations in ramR resulting in enhanced expression of genes encoding the AcrAB-TolC efflux system and low increase in ciprofloxacin MIC. No mutations were detected in other regulatory regions of this efflux system. Ciprofloxacin resistance in serovar Kentucky ST198 is thus currently mainly due to multiple target gene mutations.

  10. Action of cholecalciferol and alpha-tocopherol on Staphylococcus aureus efflux pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintino, Saulo R; Morais-Tintino, Cícera D; Campina, Fábia F; Pereira, Raimundo L; Costa, Maria do S; Braga, Maria Flaviana B M; Limaverde, Paulo W; Andrade, Jacqueline C; Siqueira-Junior, José P; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Balbino, Valdir Q; Leal-Balbino, Tereza C; Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-tocopherol is one the most abundant and biologically active isoforms of vitamin E. This compound is a potent antioxidant and one of most studied isoforms of vitamin E. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is an important nutrient for calcium homeostasis and bone health, that has also been recognized as a potent modulator of the immune response. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most important causative agent of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of alpha-tocopherol and cholecalciferol on both S. aureus and multidrug resistant S. aureus efflux pumps. The RN4220 strain has the plasmid pUL5054 that is the carrier of gene that encodes the macrolide resistance protein (an efflux pump) MsrA; the IS-58 strain possesses the TetK tetracycline efflux protein in its genome and the 1199B strain resists to hydrophilic fluoroquinolones via a NorA-mediated mechanism. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by determining the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and a possible inhibition of efflux pumps was associated to a reduction of the MIC. In this work we observed that in the presence of the treatments there was a decrease in the MIC for the RN4220 and IS-58 strains, suggesting that the substances presented an inhibitory effect on the efflux pumps of these strains. Significant efforts have been done to identify efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) from natural sources and, therefore, the antibacterial properties of cholecalciferol and alpha-tocopherol might be attributed to a direct effect on the bacterial cell depending on their amphipathic structure.

  11. Detection and characterisation of multi-drug resistance protein 1 (MRP-1) in human mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roundhill, E A; Burchill, S A

    2012-03-13

    Overexpression of plasma membrane multi-drug resistance protein 1 (MRP-1) can lead to multidrug resistance. In this study, we describe for the first time the expression of mitochondrial MRP-1 in untreated human normal and cancer cells and tissues. MRP-1 expression and subcellular localisation in normal and cancer cells and tissues was examined by differential centrifugation and western blotting, and immunofluorescence microscopy. Viable mitochondria were isolated and MRP-1 efflux activity measured using the calcein-AM functional assay. MRP-1 expression was increased using retroviral infection and specific overexpression confirmed by RNA array. Cell viability was determined by trypan blue exclusion and annexin V-propidium iodide labelling of cells. MRP-1 was detected in the mitochondria of cancer and normal cells and tissues. The efflux activity of mitochondrial MRP-1 was more efficient (55-64%) than that of plasma membrane MRP-1 (11-22%; PMRP-1 expression resulted in a preferential increase in mitochondrial MRP-1, suggesting selective targeting to this organelle. Treatment with a non-lethal concentration of doxorubicin (0.85 nM, 8 h) increased mitochondrial and plasma membrane MRP-1, increasing resistance to MRP-1 substrates. For the first time, we have identified MRP-1 with efflux activity in human mitochondria. Mitochondrial MRP-1 may be an exciting new therapeutic target where historically MRP-1 inhibitor strategies have limited clinical success.

  12. [Antimicrobial activity of fosfomycin under various conditions against standard strains, beta-lactam resistant strains, and multidrug efflux system mutants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuniya, Takeshi; Hiraishi, Toru; Maebashi, Kazunori; Ida, Takashi; Takata, Toshihiko; Hikida, Muneo; Yamada, Sakuo; Gotoh, Naomasa; Nishino, Takeshi

    2005-04-01

    -positive and Gram-negative bacteria causing postoperative infections. Further, FOM would not select/concentrate beta-lactamase producing bacteria in the clinical fields and would not be a substrate for multidrug efflux system of P. aeruginosa.

  13. Constitutive androstane receptor upregulates Abcb1 and Abcg2 at the blood-brain barrier after CITCO activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmen, Julia; Tozakidis, Iasson E P; Bele, Prachee; Galla, Hans-Joachim

    2013-03-21

    ATP-driven efflux transporters are considered to be the major hurdle in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Abcb1 (P-glycoprotein) and Abcg2 (breast cancer resistance protein/brain multidrug resistance protein) belong to the best known ABC-transporters. These ABC-transporters limit the permeability of the blood-brain barrier and protect the brain against toxic compounds in the blood but on the other hand they also reduce the efficacy of CNS pharmacotherapy. Even after 40 years of extensive research, the regulatory mechanisms of these efflux transporters are still not completely understood. To unravel the efflux transporter regulation, we analyzed the effect of the nuclear receptor CAR (constitutive androstane receptor) on the expression of Abcb1 and Abcg2 in primary cultures of porcine brain capillary endothelial cells (PBCEC). CAR is a xenobiotic-activated transcription factor, which is, like the other important nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR), highly expressed in barrier tissue and known to be a positive regulator of ABC-transporters. We demonstrate that activation of porcine CAR by the human CAR (hCAR) ligand CITCO (6-(4-chlorophenyl)-imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole-5-carbaldehyde) leads to an up-regulation of both transporters, whereas the mouse-specific CAR ligand TCPOBOP (1,4-bis-[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene) had no effect on transporter expression. The stimulation of PBCEC with CITCO caused a significant up-regulation of both efflux-transporters on RNA-level, protein level and transport level. Furthermore the additional application of a CAR inhibitor significantly decreased the transporter expression to control niveau. In conclusion our data prove CAR activation only by the human ligand CITCO leading to an increased ABC-transporter expression and transport activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Contribution of AcrAB-ToIC to multidrug resistance in an Escherichia coli sequence type 131 isolate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuster, Sabine; Vavra, Martina; Schweigger, Tobias M.; Rossen, John W. A.; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Kern, Winfried V.

    Drug efflux by resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type transporters, such as AcrAB-ToIC of Escherichia can, is an important resistance mechanism in Gram-negative bacteria; however, its contribution to multidrug resistance (MDR) in clinical isolates is poorly defined. We inactivated acrB of a

  15. In Vivo Exposure of Kaempferol Is Driven by Phase II Metabolic Enzymes and Efflux Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liang; Zhu, Lijun; Zhao, Min; Shi, Jian; Li, Yuhuan; Yu, Jia; Jiang, Huangyu; Wu, Jinjun; Tong, Yunli; Liu, Yuting; Hu, Ming; Lu, Linlin; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2016-09-01

    Kaempferol is a well-known flavonoid; however, it lacks extensive pharmacokinetic studies. Phase II metabolic enzymes and efflux transporters play an important role in the disposition of flavonoids. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which phase II metabolic enzymes and efflux transporters determine the in vivo exposure of kaempferol. Pharmacokinetic analysis in Sprague-Dawley rats revealed that kaempferol was mostly biotransformed to conjugates, namely, kaempferol-3-glucuronide (K-3-G), kaempferol-7-glucuronide (K-7-G), and kaempferol-7-sulfate, in plasma. K-3-G represented the major metabolite. Compared with that in wild-type mice, pharmacokinetics in knockout FVB mice demonstrated that the absence of multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) significantly increased the area under the curve (AUC) of the conjugates. The lack of MRP1 resulted in a much lower AUC of the conjugates. Intestinal perfusion in rats revealed that the glucuronide conjugates were mainly excreted in the small intestine, but 7-sulfate was mainly excreted in the colon. In Caco-2 monolayers, K-7-G efflux toward the apical (AP) side was significantly higher than K-3-G efflux. In contrast, K-3-G efflux toward the basolateral (BL) side was significantly higher than K-7-G efflux. The BL-to-AP efflux was significantly reduced in the presence of the MRP2 inhibitor LTC4. The AP-to-BL efflux was significantly decreased in the presence of the BL-side MRPs inhibitor MK571. The BCRP inhibitor Ko143 decreased the glucuronide conjugate efflux. Therefore, kaempferol is mainly exposed as K-3-G in vivo, which is driven by phase II metabolic enzymes and efflux transporters (i.e., BCRP and MRPs).

  16. Amurensin G, a potent natural SIRT1 inhibitor, rescues doxorubicin responsiveness via down-regulation of multidrug resistance 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, Won Keun; Cho, Kyoung Bin; Hien, Tran Thi

    2010-01-01

    The transition from a chemotherapy-responsive cancer to a chemotherapy-resistant one is accompanied by increased expression of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1, p-glycoprotein), which plays an important role in the efflux from the target cell of many anticancer agents. We recently showed that a Forkh...

  17. The role of active efflux in antibiotic - resistance of clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falsafi T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In gram-negative bacteria, active efflux pumps that excrete drugs can confer resistance to antibiotics however, in Helicobacter pylori this role is not well established. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of active efflux in resistance of H. pylori isolates to antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Twelve multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR isolates resistant to at least four antibiotics, including β-lactams, metronidazole, tetracycline, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin; three resistant to only β-lactams, and two hyper-susceptible isolates, were obtained from screening of 96 clinical isolates of H. pylori . Their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs for antibiotics and ethidium-bromide (EtBr were compared in the presence- and absence of a proton-conductor, carbonyl cyanide-m chlorophenyl-hydrazone (CCCP using agar-dilution and disc diffusion. Drug accumulation studies for EtBr and antibiotics were assessed in the presence and absence of CCCP using spectrofluorometry. Results: MIC of EtBr for eight MAR-isolates was decreased two- to four-folds in the presence of CCCP, of which five showed reduced MICs for β-lactam, metronidazole, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin with CCCP. Accumulation of EtBr by the MAR-isolates was rapid and not dependant on the pattern of multiple resistance. Antibiotic accumulation assay confirmed the presence of energy-dependant efflux of β-lactam, metronidazole, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin, but no erythromycin in five MAR isolates. Energy-dependant efflux of EtBr or antibiotics was not observed for four MAR-isolates, and three isolates were resistant only to β-lactams. Conclusion: Energy-dependant efflux plays a role in the resistance of H. pylori clinical isolates to structurally unrelated antibiotics in a broadly specific multidrug efflux manner. Difference in the efflux potential of MAR isolates may be related to the presence or absence of functional efflux-pumps in diverse H. pylori

  18. Novel structural analogues of piperine as inhibitors of the NorA efflux pump of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Khan, Inshad Ali; Koul, Surrinder; Koul, Jawahir Lal; Taneja, Subhash Chandra; Ali, Intzar; Ali, Furqan; Sharma, Sandeep; Mirza, Zahid Mehmood; Kumar, Manoj; Sangwan, Pyare Lal; Gupta, Pankaj; Thota, Niranjan; Qazi, Ghulam Nabi

    2008-06-01

    Evaluation of novel synthetic analogues of piperine as inhibitors of multidrug efflux pump NorA of Staphylococcus aureus. A library of piperine-derived compounds was evaluated for their potential to inhibit ethidium bromide efflux in NorA-overexpressing S. aureus SA 1199B. The active compounds were then individually combined with ciprofloxacin to study the potentiation of ciprofloxacin's activity. Based on the efflux inhibition assay, a library of 200 compounds was screened. Three piperine analogues, namely SK-20, SK-56 and SK-29, were found to be the most potent inhibitors of the NorA efflux pump. These inhibitors acted in a synergistic manner with ciprofloxacin, by substantially increasing its activity against both NorA-overexpressing and wild-type S. aureus isolates. These analogues were 2- to 4-fold more potent than piperine at a significantly lower minimal effective concentration. Furthermore, these inhibitors also significantly suppressed the in vitro emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant S. aureus. A newly identified class of compounds derived from a natural amide, piperine, is more potent than the parent molecule in potentiating the activity of ciprofloxacin through the inhibition of the NorA efflux pump. These molecules may prove useful in augmenting the antibacterial activities of fluoroquinolones in a clinical setting.

  19. Structures of BmrR-Drug Complexes Reveal a Rigid Multidrug Binding Pocket And Transcription Activation Through Tyrosine Expulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newberry, K.J.; Huffman, J.L.; Miller, M.C.; Vazquez-Laslop, N.; Neyfakh, A.A.; Brennan, R.G.

    2009-05-22

    BmrR is a member of the MerR family and a multidrug binding transcription factor that up-regulates the expression of the bmr multidrug efflux transporter gene in response to myriad lipophilic cationic compounds. The structural mechanism by which BmrR binds these chemically and structurally different drugs and subsequently activates transcription is poorly understood. Here, we describe the crystal structures of BmrR bound to rhodamine 6G (R6G) or berberine (Ber) and cognate DNA. These structures reveal each drug stacks against multiple aromatic residues with their positive charges most proximal to the carboxylate group of Glu-253 and that, unlike other multidrug binding pockets, that of BmrR is rigid. Substitution of Glu-253 with either alanine (E253A) or glutamine (E253Q) results in unpredictable binding affinities for R6G, Ber, and tetraphenylphosphonium. Moreover, these drug binding studies reveal that the negative charge of Glu-253 is not important for high affinity binding to Ber and tetraphenylphosphonium but plays a more significant, but unpredictable, role in R6G binding. In vitro transcription data show that E253A and E253Q are constitutively active, and structures of the drug-free E253A-DNA and E253Q-DNA complexes support a transcription activation mechanism requiring the expulsion of Tyr-152 from the multidrug binding pocket. In sum, these data delineate the mechanism by which BmrR binds lipophilic, monovalent cationic compounds and suggest the importance of the redundant negative electrostatic nature of this rigid drug binding pocket that can be used to discriminate against molecules that are not substrates of the Bmr multidrug efflux pump.

  20. Tannic acid affects the phenotype of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to tetracycline and erythromycin by inhibition of efflux pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintino, Saulo R; Morais-Tintino, Cícera D; Campina, Fábia F; Costa, Maria do S; Menezes, Irwin R A; de Matos, Yedda Maria L S; Calixto-Júnior, João T; Pereira, Pedro S; Siqueira-Junior, José P; Leal-Balbino, Teresa C; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Balbino, Valdir Q

    2017-10-01

    The widespread use of antibiotics created selective pressure for the emergence of strains that would persist despite antibiotic toxicity. The bacterial resistance mechanisms are several, with efflux pumps being one of the main ones. These pumps are membrane proteins with the function of removing antibiotics from the cell cytoplasm. Due to this importance, the aim of this work was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of tannic acid against efflux pumps expressed by the Staphylococcus aureus RN4220 and IS-58 strains. The efflux pump inhibition was assayed using a sub-inhibitory concentration of efflux pump standard inhibitors and tannic acid (MIC/8), observing their capacity to decrease the MIC of Ethidium bromide (EtBr) and antibiotics due the possible inhibitory effect of these substances. The MICs of EtBr and antibiotics were significantly different in the presence of tannic acid, indicating the inhibitory effect of this product against efflux pumps of both strains. These results indicate the possible usage of tannic acid asan inhibitor and an adjuvant in the antibiotic therapy against multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1/Abcg2) limits net intestinal uptake of quercetin in rats by facilitating apical efflux of glucuronides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sesink, A.L.A.; Arts, I.C.W.; Boer, de V.C.J.; Breedveld, P.; Schellens, J.H.M.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Russel, F.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The intestinal absorption of the flavonoid quercetin in rats is limited by the secretion of glucuronidated metabolites back into the gut lumen. The objective of this study was to determine the role of the intestinal efflux transporters breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1)/Abcg2 and multidrug

  2. Breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1/Abcg2) limits net intestinal uptake of quercetin in rats by facilitating apical efflux of glucuronides.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sesink, A.L.; Arts, I.C.; Boer, V.C. de; Breedveld, P.; Schellens, J.H.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Russel, F.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The intestinal absorption of the flavonoid quercetin in rats is limited by the secretion of glucuronidated metabolites back into the gut lumen. The objective of this study was to determine the role of the intestinal efflux transporters breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1)/Abcg2 and multidrug

  3. Deciphering the role of RND efflux transporters in Burkholderia cenocepacia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bazzini

    Full Text Available Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 is representative of a highly problematic group of cystic fibrosis (CF pathogens. Eradication of B. cenocepacia is very difficult with the antimicrobial therapy being ineffective due to its high resistance to clinically relevant antimicrobial agents and disinfectants. RND (Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division efflux pumps are known to be among the mediators of multidrug resistance in gram-negative bacteria. Since the significance of the 16 RND efflux systems present in B. cenocepacia (named RND-1 to -16 has been only partially determined, the aim of this work was to analyze mutants of B. cenocepacia strain J2315 impaired in RND-4 and RND-9 efflux systems, and assess their role in the efflux of toxic compounds. The transcriptomes of mutants deleted individually in RND-4 and RND-9 (named D4 and D9, and a double-mutant in both efflux pumps (named D4-D9, were compared to that of the wild-type B. cenocepacia using microarray analysis. Microarray data were confirmed by qRT-PCR, phenotypic experiments, and by Phenotype MicroArray analysis. The data revealed that RND-4 made a significant contribution to the antibiotic resistance of B. cenocepacia, whereas RND-9 was only marginally involved in this process. Moreover, the double mutant D4-D9 showed a phenotype and an expression profile similar to D4. The microarray data showed that motility and chemotaxis-related genes appeared to be up-regulated in both D4 and D4-D9 strains. In contrast, these gene sets were down-regulated or expressed at levels similar to J2315 in the D9 mutant. Biofilm production was enhanced in all mutants. Overall, these results indicate that in B. cenocepacia RND pumps play a wider role than just in drug resistance, influencing additional phenotypic traits important for pathogenesis.

  4. The culturable soil antibiotic resistome: a community of multi-drug resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Fiona; Duffy, Brion

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the soil bacterial resistome is essential to understanding the evolution and development of antibiotic resistance, and its spread between species and biomes. We have identified and characterized multi-drug resistance (MDR) mechanisms in the culturable soil antibiotic resistome and linked the resistance profiles to bacterial species. We isolated 412 antibiotic resistant bacteria from agricultural, urban and pristine soils. All isolates were multi-drug resistant, of which greater than 80% were resistant to 16-23 antibiotics, comprising almost all classes of antibiotic. The mobile resistance genes investigated, (ESBL, bla NDM-1, and plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) resistance genes) were not responsible for the respective resistance phenotypes nor were they present in the extracted soil DNA. Efflux was demonstrated to play an important role in MDR and many resistance phenotypes. Clinically relevant Burkholderia species are intrinsically resistant to ciprofloxacin but the soil Burkholderia species were not intrinsically resistant to ciprofloxacin. Using a phenotypic enzyme assay we identified the antibiotic specific inactivation of trimethoprim in 21 bacteria from different soils. The results of this study identified the importance of the efflux mechanism in the soil resistome and variations between the intrinsic resistance profiles of clinical and soil bacteria of the same family.

  5. The culturable soil antibiotic resistome: a community of multi-drug resistant bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Walsh

    Full Text Available Understanding the soil bacterial resistome is essential to understanding the evolution and development of antibiotic resistance, and its spread between species and biomes. We have identified and characterized multi-drug resistance (MDR mechanisms in the culturable soil antibiotic resistome and linked the resistance profiles to bacterial species. We isolated 412 antibiotic resistant bacteria from agricultural, urban and pristine soils. All isolates were multi-drug resistant, of which greater than 80% were resistant to 16-23 antibiotics, comprising almost all classes of antibiotic. The mobile resistance genes investigated, (ESBL, bla NDM-1, and plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR resistance genes were not responsible for the respective resistance phenotypes nor were they present in the extracted soil DNA. Efflux was demonstrated to play an important role in MDR and many resistance phenotypes. Clinically relevant Burkholderia species are intrinsically resistant to ciprofloxacin but the soil Burkholderia species were not intrinsically resistant to ciprofloxacin. Using a phenotypic enzyme assay we identified the antibiotic specific inactivation of trimethoprim in 21 bacteria from different soils. The results of this study identified the importance of the efflux mechanism in the soil resistome and variations between the intrinsic resistance profiles of clinical and soil bacteria of the same family.

  6. Effect of vildagliptin and pravastatin combination on cholesterol efflux in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Ahmed M; Hamdy, Nadia M; Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z; El-Mesallamy, Hala O

    2016-07-01

    Many reports suggested that some statins are almost ineffective in reducing triglycerides or enhancing HDL-C plasma levels, although statin treatment was still efficacious in reducing LDL-C. In diabetic dyslipidemic patients, it may therefore be necessary to use a combination therapy with other drugs to achieve either LDL-C- and triglyceride-lowering or HDL-C-enhancing goals. Such ineffectiveness of statins can be attributed to their effect on the liver X receptor (LXR) which regulates the expression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1. A decrease in the expression of these transporters eventually leads to decreased cholesterol efflux from peripheral tissues leading to low levels of HDL-C. Although manipulating the LXR pathway may complement the effects of statins, LXR synthetic ligands as T091317 have shown significant hypertriglyceridemic action which limits their use. We recently found that the antidiabetic drug vildagliptin stimulates LXR expression leading to increased ABCB1/ABCG1 expression which improves cholesterol efflux from adipocytes. Therefore, a combination of vildagliptin and statin may provide a solution without the hypertriglyceridemic action observed with LXR agonist. We hypothesize that a combination of vildagliptin and pravastatin will improve cholesterol efflux in adipocytes. Statin-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with vildagliptin, and the expression of LXR-ABCA1/ABCG1 cascade and the cholesterol efflux were then determined. Our data indicate that a combination of vildagliptin and pravastatin significantly induces the expression of LXR-ABCA1/ABCG1 cascade and improves cholesterol efflux (P > 0.05) in adipocytes. Our data may explain, at least in part, the improvement in HDL-C levels observed in patients receiving both medications. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(7):535-543, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  7. Mutations affecting substrate specificity of the Bacillus subtilis multidrug transporter Bmr.

    OpenAIRE

    Klyachko, K A; Schuldiner, S; Neyfakh, A A

    1997-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis multidrug transporter Bmr, a member of the major facilitator superfamily of transporters, causes the efflux of a number of structurally unrelated toxic compounds from cells. We have shown previously that the activity of Bmr can be inhibited by the plant alkaloid reserpine. Here we demonstrate that various substitutions of residues Phe143 and Phe306 of Bmr not only reduce its sensitivity to reserpine inhibition but also significantly change its substrate specificity. Cros...

  8. Differential roles of RND efflux pumps in antimicrobial drug resistance of sessile and planktonic Burkholderia cenocepacia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buroni, Silvia; Matthijs, Nele; Spadaro, Francesca; Van Acker, Heleen; Scoffone, Viola C; Pasca, Maria Rosalia; Riccardi, Giovanna; Coenye, Tom

    2014-12-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia is notorious for causing respiratory tract infections in people with cystic fibrosis. Infections with this organism are particularly difficult to treat due to its high level of intrinsic resistance to most antibiotics. Multidrug resistance in B. cenocepacia can be ascribed to different mechanisms, including the activity of efflux pumps and biofilm formation. In the present study, the effects of deletion of the 16 operons encoding resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type efflux pumps in B. cenocepacia strain J2315 were investigated by determining the MICs of various antibiotics and by investigating the antibiofilm effect of these antibiotics. Finally, the expression levels of selected RND genes in treated and untreated cultures were investigated using reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Our data indicate that the RND-3 and RND-4 efflux pumps are important for resistance to various antimicrobial drugs (including tobramycin and ciprofloxacin) in planktonic B. cenocepacia J2315 populations, while the RND-3, RND-8, and RND-9 efflux systems protect biofilm-grown cells against tobramycin. The RND-8 and RND-9 efflux pumps are not involved in ciprofloxacin resistance. Results from the RT-qPCR experiments on the wild-type strain B. cenocepacia J2315 suggest that there is little regulation at the level of mRNA expression for these efflux pumps under the conditions tested. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Hamiltonian ABC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeds, E.; Leenders, R.; Welling, M.; Meila, M.; Heskes, T.

    2015-01-01

    Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) is a powerful and elegant framework for performing inference in simulation-based models. However, due to the difficulty in scaling likelihood estimates, ABC remains useful for relatively lowdimensional problems. We introduce Hamiltonian ABC (HABC), a set of

  10. Hepatocyte SLAMF3 reduced specifically the multidrugs resistance protein MRP-1 and increases HCC cells sensitization to anti-cancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Grégory; Debuysscher, Véronique; Ouled-Haddou, Hakim; Eugenio, Mélanie Simoes; Demey, Baptiste; Singh, Amrathlal Rabbind; Ossart, Christèle; Al Bagami, Mohammed; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc; Nguyen-Khac, Eric; Naassila, Mickael; Marcq, Ingrid; Bouhlal, Hicham

    2016-05-31

    Multidrug resistance MDR proteins (MRPs) are members of the C family of a group of proteins named ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters. MRPs can transport drugs including anticancer drugs, nucleoside analogs, antimetabolites and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Drugs used in HCC therapy, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib, are substrates of uptake and/or efflux transporters. Variable expression of MRPs at the plasma membrane of tumor cells may contribute to drug resistance and subsequent clinical response. Recently, we reported that the hepatocyte SLAMF3 expression (Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule Family member 3) was reduced in tumor cells from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared to its high expression in adjacent tissues. In the present study, we make a strong correlation between induced SLAMF3 overexpression and the specific loss of MRP-1 expression and its functionalities as a drugs resistance transporter. No changes were observed on expression of ABCG2 and MDR. More importantly, we highlight a strong inverse correlation between MRP-1 and SLAMF3 expression in patients with HCC. We propose that the SLAMF3 overexpression in cancerous cells could represent a potential therapeutic strategy to improve the drugs sensibility of resistant cells and thus control the therapeutic failure in HCC patients.

  11. Structure of the transcriptional regulator LmrR and its mechanism of multidrug recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madoori, Pramod Kumar; Agustiandari, Herfita; Driessen, Arnold J M; Thunnissen, Andy-Mark W H

    2009-01-21

    LmrR is a PadR-related transcriptional repressor that regulates the production of LmrCD, a major multidrug ABC transporter in Lactococcus lactis. Transcriptional regulation is presumed to follow a drug-sensitive induction mechanism involving the direct binding of transporter ligands to LmrR. Here, we present crystal structures of LmrR in an apo state and in two drug-bound states complexed with Hoechst 33342 and daunomycin. LmrR shows a common topology containing a typical beta-winged helix-turn-helix domain with an additional C-terminal helix involved in dimerization. Its dimeric organization is highly unusual with a flat-shaped hydrophobic pore at the dimer centre serving as a multidrug-binding site. The drugs bind in a similar manner with their aromatic rings sandwiched in between the indole groups of two dimer-related tryptophan residues. Multidrug recognition is facilitated by conformational plasticity and the absence of drug-specific hydrogen bonds. Combined analyses using site-directed mutagenesis, fluorescence-based drug binding and protein-DNA gel shift assays reveal an allosteric coupling between the multidrug- and DNA-binding sites of LmrR that most likely has a function in the induction mechanism.

  12. News in the studies of multidrug resistance of breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Stavrovskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer (BC is the most common cancer among women in Russia. One of the main treatment methods of BC is systemic chemotherapy. Multidrug resistance of tumor cells (MDR is the important hindrance on the way to successful chemotherapy. The new data concerning molecular mechanisms of MDR will be presented in this review. The recent data concerning some new biological prognostic markers will be also discussed. There are data showing that transporters of ABC family (ABC transporters influence tumor progression not only by MDR induction but also by the influence on the traits of malignancy in tumor cells. The results of the studies of ABC transporters, participation in the processes of accumulation of tumor stem cells under the influence of chemotherapy will be discussed. The problem of the participation of ABC transporters in the phenomenon of influence of PI3K/AKT/PTEN signal transduction pathway on the MDR regulation is discussed. The results of the studies of the role of microRNA deregulation in breast cancer drug resistance as well as studies of some epigenetic mechanisms of MDR regulation will be considered. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A, serine/threonine phosphatase, PTK7 (protein tyrosine kinase 7. fascin (an actin bundling cytoskeletal protein multifunctional YB-1 protein will considered as new BC prognostic markers. The perspectives of MDR studies will be discussed as well.

  13. In vivo detection of multidrug-resistant (MDR1) phenotype by technetium-99m sestamibi scan in untreated breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Vecchio, S.; Ciarmiello, A.; Potena, M.I.; Carriero, M.V.; Mainolfi, C.; Botti, G.; Thomas, R.; Cerra, M.; D'Aiuto, G.; Tsuruo, T.; Salvatore, M.

    1997-01-01

    Technetium-99m sestamibi is a transport substrate recognised by the multidrug-resistant P-glycoprotein (Pgp). To test whether 99m Tc-sestamibi efflux is enhanced in breast carcinomas overexpressing Pgp, we determined the efflux rates of 99m Tc-sestamibi and Pgp levels in tumours from 30 patients with untreated breast carcinoma. Patients were intravenously injected with 740 MBq of 99m Tc-sestamibi and underwent a 15-min dynamic study followed by the acquisition of static planar images at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 h. Tumour specimens were obtained from each patient 24 h after 99m Tc-sestamibi scan and Pgp levels were determined using 125 I-MRK16 monoclonal antibody and in vitro quantitative autoradiography. All breast carcinomas showed high uptake of 99m Tc-sestamibi and data from region of interest analysis on sequential images were fitted with a monoexponential function. The efflux rates of 99m Tc-sestamibi, calculated from decay-corrected time-activity curves, ranged between 0.00121 and 0.01690 min -1 and were directly correlated with Pgp levels measured in the same tumours (r=0.62; P 99m Tc-sestamibi efflux from tumours of group A was 2.7 times higher than that observed in tumours of group B (0.00686 ±0.00390 min -1 vs 0.00250 ±0.00090 min -1 , P 99m Tc-sestamibi showed a sensitivity and a specificity of 80% and 95%, respectively. In conclusion, the efflux rate of 99m Tc-sestamibi may be used for the in vivo identification of the multidrug resistant (MDR1) phenotype in untreated breast cancer patients. (orig.). With 7 figs., 3 tabs

  14. First identification of boronic species as novel potential inhibitors of the Staphylococcus aureus NorA efflux pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Fanny; Hequet, Arnaud; Voisin-Chiret, Anne-Sophie; Bouillon, Alexandre; Lesnard, Aurélien; Cresteil, Thierry; Jolivalt, Claude; Rault, Sylvain

    2014-03-27

    Overexpression of efflux pumps is an important mechanism of bacterial resistance that results in the extrusion of antimicrobial agents outside the bacterial cell. Inhibition of such pumps appears to be a promising strategy that could restore the potency of existing antibiotics. The NorA efflux pump of Staphylococcus aureus confers resistance to a wide range of unrelated substrates, such as hydrophilic fluoroquinolones, leading to a multidrug-resistance phenotype. In this work, approximately 150 heterocyclic boronic species were evaluated for their activity against susceptible and resistant strains of S. aureus. Twenty-four hit compounds, although inactive when tested alone, were found to potentiate ciprofloxacin activity by a 4-fold increase at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 8 μg/mL against S. aureus 1199B, which overexpresses NorA. Boron-free analogues showed no biological activity, thus revealing that the boron atom is crucial for biological activity. This work describes the first reported efflux pump inhibitory activity of boronic acid derivatives.

  15. Development of Conformation Independent Computational Models for the Early Recognition of Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Edith Gantner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABC efflux transporters are polyspecific members of the ABC superfamily that, acting as drug and metabolite carriers, provide a biochemical barrier against drug penetration and contribute to detoxification. Their overexpression is linked to multidrug resistance issues in a diversity of diseases. Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP is the most expressed ABC efflux transporter throughout the intestine and the blood-brain barrier, limiting oral absorption and brain bioavailability of its substrates. Early recognition of BCRP substrates is thus essential to optimize oral drug absorption, design of novel therapeutics for central nervous system conditions, and overcome BCRP-mediated cross-resistance issues. We present the development of an ensemble of ligand-based machine learning algorithms for the early recognition of BCRP substrates, from a database of 262 substrates and nonsubstrates compiled from the literature. Such dataset was rationally partitioned into training and test sets by application of a 2-step clustering procedure. The models were developed through application of linear discriminant analysis to random subsamples of Dragon molecular descriptors. Simple data fusion and statistical comparison of partial areas under the curve of ROC curves were applied to obtain the best 2-model combination, which presented 82% and 74.5% of overall accuracy in the training and test set, respectively.

  16. Inhibition of bacterial multidrug resistance by celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalle, Arunasree M; Rizvi, Arshad

    2011-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major problem in the treatment of infectious diseases and cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-specific inhibitor celecoxib would not only inhibit COX-2 but also help in the reversal of drug resistance in cancers by inhibiting the MDR1 efflux pump. Here, we demonstrate that celecoxib increases the sensitivity of bacteria to the antibiotics ampicillin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin by accumulating the drugs inside the cell, thus reversing MDR in bacteria.

  17. Constitutive mRNA expression and protein activity levels of nine ABC efflux transporters in seven permanent cell lines derived from different tissues of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Stephan; Loncar, Jovica; Zaja, Roko; Schnell, Sabine; Schirmer, Kristin; Smital, Tvrtko; Luckenbach, Till

    2011-01-25

    Permanent fish cell lines have become common model systems for determining ecotoxicological effects of pollutants. For these cell lines little is known on the cellular active transport mechanisms that control the amount of a compound entering the cell, such as the MXR (multixenobiotic resistance) system mediated by ATP binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins. Therefore, for toxic evaluation of chemicals with those cells information on MXR is important. We here present data on constitutive mRNA expression and protein activity levels of a series of ABC efflux transporters in seven permanent cell lines derived from liver (RTL-W1; R1) and liver hepatoma (RTH-149), gill (RTgill-W1), gonad (RTG-2), gut (RTgutGC) and brain (RTbrain) of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In addition to known transporters abcb1 (designated here abcb1a), abcb11, abcc1-3, abcc5 and abcg2, we quantified expression levels of a newly identified abcb1 isoform (abcb1b) and abcc4, previously unknown in trout. Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) indicated that mRNA of the examined ABC transporters was constitutively expressed in all cell lines. Transporter mRNA expression patterns were similar in all cell lines, with expression levels of abcc transporters being 80 to over 1000 fold higher than for abcg2, abcb1a/b and abcb11 (abcc1-5>abcg2>abcb1a/b, 11). Transporter activity in the cell lines was determined by measuring uptake of transporter type specific fluorescent substrates in the presence of activity inhibitors. The combination of the ABCB1 and ABCC transporter substrate calcein-AM with inhibitors cyclosporine A, PSC833 and MK571 resulted in a concentration-dependent fluorescence increase of up to 3-fold, whereas reversin 205 caused a slight, but not concentration-dependent fluorescence increase. Accumulation of the dyes Hoechst 33342 and 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate was basically unchanged in the presence of Ko134 and taurocholate, respectively, indicating low Abcg2 and Abcb11

  18. Efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs as new antimicrobial agents against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momen Askoura

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen and one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. The difficulty in treatment of pseudomonas infections arises from being multidrug resistant (MDR and exhibits resistance to most antimicrobial agents due to the expression of different mechanisms overcoming their effects. Of these resistance mechanisms, the active efflux pumps in Pseudomonas aeruginosa that belong to the resistance nodulation division (RND plays a very important role in extruding the antibiotics outside the bacterial cells providing a protective means against their antibacterial activity. Beside its role against the antimicrobial agents, these pumps can extrude biocides, detergents, and other metabolic inhibitors. It is clear that efflux pumps can be targets for new antimicrobial agents. Peptidomimetic compounds such as phenylalanine arginyl β-naphthylamide (PAβN have been introduced as efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs; their mechanism of action is through competitive inhibition with antibiotics on the efflux pump resulting in increased intracellular concentration of antibiotic, hence, restoring its antibacterial activity. The advantage of EPIs is the difficulty to develop bacterial resistance against them, but the disadvantage is their toxic property hindering their clinical application. The structure activity relationship of these compounds showed other derivatives from PAβN that are higher in their activity with higher solubility in biological fluids and decreased toxicity level. This raises further questions on how can we compact Pseudomonas infections. Of particular importance, the recent resurgence in the use of older antibiotics such as polymyxins and probably applying stricter control measures in order to prevent their spread in clinical sittings.

  19. The human multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP is a plasma membrane drug-efflux pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaman, G. J.; Flens, M. J.; van Leusden, M. R.; de Haas, M.; Mülder, H. S.; Lankelma, J.; Pinedo, H. M.; Scheper, R. J.; Baas, F.; Broxterman, H. J.

    1994-01-01

    The multidrug-resistance associated protein MRP is a 180- to 195-kDa membrane protein associated with resistance of human tumor cells to cytotoxic drugs. We have investigated how MRP confers drug resistance in SW-1573 human lung carcinoma cells by generating a subline stably transfected with an

  20. Bacillus subtilis from Soybean Food Shows Antimicrobial Activity for Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii by Affecting the adeS Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tieshan; Su, Jianrong

    2016-12-28

    Exploring novel antibiotics is necessary for multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. Because the probiotics in soybean food have antimicrobial activities, we investigated their effects on multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii . Nineteen multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains were clinifcally isolated as an experimental group and 11 multidrug-sensitive strains as controls. The growth rates of all bacteria were determined by using the analysis for xCELLigence Real-Time Cell. The combination of antibiotics showed synergistic effects on the strains in the control group but no effect on the strains in the experimental group. Efflux pump gene adeS was absent in all the strains from the control group, whereas it exists in all the strains from the experimental group. Furthermore, all the strains lost multidrug resistance when an adeS inhibitor was used. One strain of probiotics isolated from soybean food showed high antimicrobial activity for multidrug-resistant A. baumannii . The isolated strain belongs to Bacillus subtilis according to 16S RNA analysis. Furthermore, E. coli showed multidrug resistance when it was transformed with the adeS gene from A. baumannii whereas the resistant bacteria could be inhibited completely by isolated Bacillus subtilis . Thus, probiotics from soybean food provide potential antibiotics against multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria.

  1. Expression of the AcrAB Components of the AcrAB-TolC Multidrug Efflux Pump of Yersinia enterocolitica Is Subject to Dual Regulation by OmpR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Raczkowska

    Full Text Available OmpR is a transcriptional regulator implicated in the control of various cellular processes and functions in Enterobacteriaceae. This study was undertaken to identify genes comprising the OmpR regulon in the human gastrointestinal pathogen Yersinia enterocolitica. Derivatives of an ompR-negative strain with random transposon insertions creating transcriptional fusions with the reporter gene lacZ were isolated. These were supplied with the wild-type ompR allele in trans and then screened for OmpR-dependent changes in β-galactosidase activity. Using this strategy, five insertions in genes/operons positively regulated by OmpR and two insertions in genes negatively regulated by this protein were identified. Genetic analysis of one of these fusion strains revealed that the gene acrR, encoding transcriptional repressor AcrR is negatively regulated by OmpR. Differential analysis of membrane proteins by SDS-PAGE followed by mass spectrometry identified the protein AcrB, a component of the AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux pump, as being positively regulated by OmpR. Analysis of the activity of the acrR and acrAB promoters using gfp fusions confirmed their OmpR-dependent repression and activation, respectively. The identification of putative OmpR-binding sites and electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed that this regulator binds specifically to both promoter regions with different affinity. Examination of the activity of the acrR and acrAB promoters after the exposure of cells to different chemicals showed that bile salts can act as an OmpR-independent inducer. Taken together, our findings suggest that OmpR positively controls the expression of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump involved in the adaptive response of Y. enterocolitica O:9 to different chemical stressors, thus conferring an advantage in particular ecological niches.

  2. Expression of the CDR1 efflux pump in clinical Candida albicans isolates is controlled by a negative regulatory element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, Naseem Akhtar; Manoharlal, Raman; Saini, Preeti; Prasad, Tulika; Mukhopadhyay, Gauranga; Hoefer, Milan; Morschhaeuser, Joachim; Prasad, Rajendra

    2005-01-01

    Resistance to azole antifungal drugs in clinical isolates of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans is often caused by constitutive overexpression of the CDR1 gene, which encodes a multidrug efflux pump of the ABC transporter superfamily. To understand the relevance of a recently identified negative regulatory element (NRE) in the CDR1 promoter for the control of CDR1 expression in the clinical scenario, we investigated the effect of mutation or deletion of the NRE on CDR1 expression in two matched pairs of azole-sensitive and resistant clinical isolates of C. albicans. Expression of GFP or lacZ reporter genes from the wild type CDR1 promoter was much higher in the azole-resistant C. albicans isolates than in the azole-susceptible isolates, reflecting the known differences in CDR1 expression in these strains. Deletion or mutation of the NRE resulted in enhanced reporter gene expression in azole-sensitive strains, but did not further increase the already high CDR1 promoter activity in the azole-resistant strains. In agreement with these findings, electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed a reduced binding to the NRE of nuclear extracts from the resistant C. albicans isolates as compared with extracts from the sensitive isolates. These results demonstrate that the NRE is involved in maintaining CDR1 expression at basal levels and that this repression is overcome in azole-resistant clinical C. albicans isolates, resulting in constitutive CDR1 overexpression and concomitant drug resistance

  3. Attaching the NorA Efflux Pump Inhibitor INF55 to Methylene Blue Enhances Antimicrobial Photodynamic Inactivation of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Vitro and in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rineh, Ardeshir; Dolla, Naveen K; Ball, Anthony R; Magana, Maria; Bremner, John B; Hamblin, Michael R; Tegos, George P; Kelso, Michael J

    2017-10-13

    Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI) uses photosensitizers (PSs) and harmless visible light to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and kill microbes. Multidrug efflux systems can moderate the phototoxic effects of PSs by expelling the compounds from cells. We hypothesized that increasing intracellular concentrations of PSs by inhibiting efflux with a covalently attached efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) would enhance bacterial cell phototoxicity and reduce exposure of neighboring host cells to damaging ROS. In this study, we tested the hypothesis by linking NorA EPIs to methylene blue (MB) and examining the photoantimicrobial activity of the EPI-MB hybrids against the human pathogen methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Photochemical/photophysical and in vitro microbiological evaluation of 16 hybrids carrying four different NorA EPIs attached to MB via four linker types identified INF55-(Ac)en-MB 12 as a lead. Compound 12 showed increased uptake into S. aureus cells and enhanced aPDI activity and wound healing effects (relative to MB) in a murine model of an abrasion wound infected by MRSA. The study supports a new approach for treating localized multidrug-resistant MRSA infections and paves the way for wider exploration of the EPI-PS hybrid strategy in aPDI.

  4. Describing the role of Drosophila melanogaster ABC transporters in insecticide biology using CRISPR-Cas9 knockouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denecke, Shane; Fusetto, Roberto; Batterham, Philip

    2017-12-01

    ABC transporters have a well-established role in drug resistance, effluxing xenobiotics from cells and tissues within the organism. More recently, research has been dedicated to understanding the role insect ABC transporters play in insecticide toxicity, but progress in understanding the contribution of specific transporters has been hampered by the lack of functional genetic tools. Here, we report knockouts of three Drosophila melanogaster ABC transporter genes, Mdr49, Mdr50, and Mdr65, that are homologous to the well-studied mammalian ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein). Each knockout mutant was created in the same wild type background and tested against a panel of insecticides representing different chemical classes. Mdr65 knockouts were more susceptible to all neuroactive insecticides tested, but Mdr49 and Mdr50 knockouts showed increased susceptibility or resistance depending on the insecticide used. Mdr65 was chosen for further analysis. Calculation of LC 50 values for the Mdr65 knockout allowed the substrate specificity of this transporter to be examined. No obvious distinguishing structural features were shared among MDR65 substrates. A role for Mdr65 in insecticide transport was confirmed by testing the capacity of the knockout to synergize with the ABC inhibitor verapamil and by measuring the levels of insecticide retained in the body of knockout flies. These data unambiguously establish the influence of ABC transporters on the capacity of wild type D. melanogaster to tolerate insecticide exposure and suggest that both tissue and substrate specificity underpin this capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Circumvention of the multidrug-resistance protein (MRP-1) by an antitumor drug through specific inhibition of gene transcription in breast tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilla, Sylvia; Rojas, Marta; Bataller, Marc; Priebe, Waldemar; Portugal, José

    2007-04-01

    Multidrug-resistance protein 1 (MRP-1) confers resistance to a number of clinically important chemotherapeutic agents. The promoter of the mrp-1 gene contains an Sp1-binding site, which we targeted using the antitumor bis-anthracycline WP631. When MCF-7/VP breast cancer cells, which overexpress MRP-1 protein, were incubated with WP631 the expression of the multidrug-resistance protein gene decreased. Conversely, doxorubicin did not alter mrp-1 gene expression. The inhibition of gene expression was followed by a decrease in the activity of the MRP-1 protein. The IC(75) for WP631 (drug concentration required to inhibit cell growth by 75%) circumvented the drug-efflux pump, without addition of resistant modifiers. After treatment with WP631, MCF-7/VP cells were committed to die after entering mitosis (mitotic catastrophe), while treatment with doxorubicin did not affect cell growth. This is the first report on an antitumor drug molecule inhibiting the mrp-1 gene directly, rather than being simply a poor substrate for the transporter-mediated efflux. However, both situations appeared to coexist, thereby a superior cytotoxic effect was attained. Ours results suggest that WP631 offers great potential for the clinical treatment of tumors displaying a multidrug-resistance phenotype.

  6. CD44-engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticles for overcoming multidrug resistance in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Ying; Wang, Shouju; Shi, Donghong; Zhou, Xianguang; Wang, Chunyan; Wu, Jiang; Zeng, Zhiyong; Li, Yanjun; Sun, Jing; Wang, Jiandong; Zhang, Longjiang; Teng, Zhaogang; Lu, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CD44-engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticles are synthesized. • The mechanism of CD44-engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticles is revealed. • This new delivery system increased the drug accumulation in vitro and in vivo. • This new delivery system offers an effective approach to treat multidrug resistance. - Abstract: Multidrug resistance is a major impediment for the successful chemotherapy in breast cancer. CD44 is over-expressed in multidrug resistant human breast cancer cells. CD44 monoclonal antibody exhibits anticancer potential by inhibiting proliferation and regulating P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux activity in multidrug resistant cells. Thereby, CD44 monoclonal antibody in combination with chemotherapeutic drug might be result in enhancing chemosensitivity and overcoming multidrug resistance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the CD44 monoclonal antibody functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles containing doxorubicin on human breast resistant cancer MCF-7 cells. The data showed that CD44-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles increased cytotoxicity and enhanced the downregulation of P-glycoprotein in comparison to CD44 antibody. Moreover, CD44-engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticles provided active target, which promoted more cellular uptake of DOX in the resistant cells and more retention of DOX in tumor tissues than unengineered counterpart. Animal studies of the resistant breast cancer xenografts demonstrated that CD44-engineered drug delivery system remarkably induced apoptosis and inhibited the tumor growth. Our results indicated that the CD44-engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticle-based drug delivery system offers an effective approach to overcome multidrug resistance in human breast cancer

  7. Evolution from a natural flavones nucleus to obtain 2-(4-Propoxyphenyl)quinoline derivatives as potent inhibitors of the S. aureus NorA efflux pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Stefano; Gosetto, Francesca; Manfroni, Giuseppe; Tabarrini, Oriana; Kaatz, Glenn W; Patel, Diixa; Cecchetti, Violetta

    2011-08-25

    Overexpression of efflux pumps is an important mechanism by which bacteria evade the effects of substrate antimicrobial agents. Inhibition of such pumps is a promising strategy to circumvent this resistance mechanism. NorA is a Staphylococcus aureus efflux pump that confers reduced susceptibility to many structurally unrelated agents, including fluoroquinolones, resulting in a multidrug resistant phenotype. In this work, a series of 2-phenyl-4(1H)-quinolone and 2-phenyl-4-hydroxyquinoline derivatives, obtained by modifying the flavone nucleus of known efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs), were synthesized in an effort to identify more potent S. aureus NorA EPIs. The 2-phenyl-4-hydroxyquinoline derivatives 28f and 29f display potent EPI activity against SA-1199B, a strain that overexpresses norA, in an ethidium bromide efflux inhibition assay. The same compounds, in combination with ciprofloxacin, were able to completely restore its antibacterial activity against both S. aureus SA-K2378 and SA-1199B, norA-overexpressing strains. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  8. Conserved allosteric hot spots in the transmembrane domains of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channels and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shipeng; Roessler, Bryan C; Chauvet, Sylvain; Guo, Jingyu; Hartman, John L; Kirk, Kevin L

    2014-07-18

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are an ancient family of transmembrane proteins that utilize ATPase activity to move substrates across cell membranes. The ABCC subfamily of the ABC transporters includes active drug exporters (the multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs)) and a unique ATP-gated ion channel (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)). The CFTR channel shares gating principles with conventional ligand-gated ion channels, but the allosteric network that couples ATP binding at its nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) with conformational changes in its transmembrane helices (TMs) is poorly defined. It is also unclear whether the mechanisms that govern CFTR gating are conserved with the thermodynamically distinct MRPs. Here we report a new class of gain of function (GOF) mutation of a conserved proline at the base of the pore-lining TM6. Multiple substitutions of this proline promoted ATP-free CFTR activity and activation by the weak agonist, 5'-adenylyl-β,γ-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP). TM6 proline mutations exhibited additive GOF effects when combined with a previously reported GOF mutation located in an outer collar of TMs that surrounds the pore-lining TMs. Each TM substitution allosterically rescued the ATP sensitivity of CFTR gating when introduced into an NBD mutant with defective ATP binding. Both classes of GOF mutations also rescued defective drug export by a yeast MRP (Yor1p) with ATP binding defects in its NBDs. We conclude that the conserved TM6 proline helps set the energy barrier to both CFTR channel opening and MRP-mediated drug efflux and that CFTR channels and MRP pumps utilize similar allosteric mechanisms for coupling conformational changes in their translocation pathways to ATP binding at their NBDs. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Role of the Caenorhabditis elegans multidrug resistance gene, mrp-4, in gut granule differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Erin; King, Brian; Lawrenson, Andrea L; Schroeder, Lena K; Kershner, Aaron M; Hermann, Greg J

    2007-11-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans gut granules are lysosome-related organelles with birefringent contents. mrp-4, which encodes an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter homologous to mammalian multidrug resistance proteins, functions in the formation of gut granule birefringence. mrp-4(-) embryos show a delayed appearance of birefringent material in the gut granule but otherwise appear to form gut granules properly. mrp-4(+) activity is required for the extracellular mislocalization of birefringent material, body-length retraction, and NaCl sensitivity, phenotypes associated with defective gut granule biogenesis exhibited by embryos lacking the activity of GLO-1/Rab38, a putative GLO-1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor GLO-4, and the AP-3 complex. Multidrug resistance protein (MRP)-4 localizes to the gut granule membrane, consistent with it playing a direct role in the transport of molecules that compose and/or facilitate the formation of birefringent crystals within the gut granule. However, MRP-4 is also present in oocytes and early embryos, and our genetic analyses indicate that its site of action in the formation of birefringent material may not be limited to just the gut granule in embryos. In a search for genes that function similarly to mrp-4(+), we identified WHT-2, another ABC transporter that acts in parallel to MRP-4 for the formation of birefringent material in the gut granule.

  10. Inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pdr5p by a natural compound extracted from Brazilian Red Propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Lotti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance of cancer cells and pathogenic microorganisms leading to the treatment failure of some forms of cancer or life-threatening bacterial or fungal infections is often caused by the overexpression of multidrug efflux pumps belonging to the ATP-binding cassette transporters superfamily. The multidrug resistance of fungal cells often involves the overexpression of efflux pumps belonging to the pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR family of ABC transporters. Possibly the best-studied fungal PDR transporter is the multidrug resistance transporter Pdr5p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Some research groups have been searching for new inhibitors of these efflux pumps in order to alleviate resistance. Natural products are a great source for the discovery of new compounds with biological activity. Propolis is a complex resinous material collected by honeybees from exudates and buds of certain plant sources and this material is thought to serve as a defense substance for bee hives. Propolis is widely used in traditional medicine and is reported to have a broad spectrum of pharmacological properties. Literature reported some biological functionalities of propolis, such as antibacterial, antiviral, fungicidal, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities. The chemical composition of propolis is qualitatively and quantitatively variable. Components isolated from methanolic extract of red Brazilian propolis (Alagoas, Northeast of Brazil are isoflavonoids (including pterocarpans, isoflavans, isoflavones, flavanones and polyprenylated benzophenones. In this work we demonstrated the effects of five different isolated compounds on the ATPase activity of Pdr5p. Out of all five substances tested, only BRP-1 was able to completely abolish the enzymatic activity while others worked as positive modulators of the enzyme activity. BRP-1also inhibited the efflux of Rhodamine 6G from yeast cells overexpressing Pdr5p. Taken together, these results

  11. Inhibition of the NorA multi-drug transporter by oxygenated monoterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coêlho, Mayara Ladeira; Ferreira, Josie Haydée Lima; de Siqueira Júnior, José Pinto; Kaatz, Glenn W; Barreto, Humberto Medeiros; de Carvalho Melo Cavalcante, Ana Amélia

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate intrinsic antimicrobial activity of three monoterpenes nerol, dimethyl octanol and estragole, against bacteria and yeast strains, as well as, investigate if these compounds are able to inhibit the NorA efflux pump related to fluoroquinolone resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the monoterpenes against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans strains were determined by micro-dilution assay. MICs of the norfloxacin against a S. aureus strain overexpressing the NorA protein were determined in the absence or in the presence of the monoterpenes at subinhibitory concentrations, aiming to verify the ability of this compounds act as efflux pump inhibitors. The monoterpenes were inactive against S. aureus however the nerol was active against E. coli and C. albicans. The addition of the compounds to growth media at sub-inhibitory concentrations enhanced the activity of norfloxacin against S. aureus SA1199-B. This result shows that bioactives tested, especially the nerol, are able to inhibit NorA efflux pump indicating a potential use as adjuvants of norfloxacin for therapy of infections caused by multi-drug resistant S. aureus strains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Water-mediated interactions enable smooth substrate transport in a bacterial efflux pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargiu, Attilio Vittorio; Ramaswamy, Venkata Krishnan; Malvacio, Ivana; Malloci, Giuliano; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich; Ruggerone, Paolo

    2018-04-01

    Efflux pumps of the Resistance-Nodulation-cell Division superfamily confer multi-drug resistance to Gram-negative bacteria. The most-studied polyspecific transporter belonging to this class is the inner-membrane trimeric antiporter AcrB of Escherichia coli. In previous studies, a functional rotation mechanism was proposed for its functioning, according to which the three monomers undergo concerted conformational changes facilitating the extrusion of substrates. However, the molecular determinants and the energetics of this mechanism still remain unknown, so its feasibility must be proven mechanistically. A computational protocol able to mimic the functional rotation mechanism in AcrB was developed. By using multi-bias molecular dynamics simulations we characterized the translocation of the substrate doxorubicin driven by conformational changes of the protein. In addition, we estimated for the first time the free energy profile associated to this process. We provided a molecular view of the process in agreement with experimental data. Moreover, we showed that the conformational changes occurring in AcrB enable the formation of a layer of structured waters on the internal surface of the transport channel. This water layer, in turn, allows for a fairly constant hydration of the substrate, facilitating its diffusion over a smooth free energy profile. Our findings reveal a new molecular mechanism of polyspecific transport whereby water contributes by screening potentially strong substrate-protein interactions. We provided a mechanistic understanding of a fundamental process related to multi-drug transport. Our results can help rationalizing the behavior of other polyspecific transporters and designing compounds avoiding extrusion or inhibitors of efflux pumps. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Antibiotic combination therapy can select for broad-spectrum multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Paulander, Wilhelm; Marvig, Rasmus L.

    2016-01-01

    with the resistance evolved after single-drug exposure. Combination therapy selected for mutants that displayed broad-spectrum resistance, and a major resistance mechanism was mutational inactivation of the repressor gene mexR that regulates the multidrug efflux operon mexAB–oprM. Deregulation of this operon led...... to a broad-spectrum resistance phenotype that decreased susceptibility to the combination of drugs applied during selection as well as to unrelated antibiotic classes. Mutants isolated after single-drug exposure displayed narrow-spectrum resistance and carried mutations in the MexCD–OprJ efflux pump...... regulator gene nfxB conferring ciprofloxacin resistance, or in the gene encoding the non-essential penicillin-binding protein DacB conferring ceftazidime resistance. Reconstruction of resistance mutations by allelic replacement and in vitro fitness assays revealed that in contrast to single antibiotic use...

  14. Evaluation of a series of 2-napthamide derivatives as inhibitors of the drug efflux pump AcrB for the reversal of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinhu; Mowla, Rumana; Guo, Liwei; Ogunniyi, Abiodun D; Rahman, Taufiq; De Barros Lopes, Miguel A; Ma, Shutao; Venter, Henrietta

    2017-02-15

    Drug efflux pumps confer multidrug resistance to dangerous pathogens which makes these pumps important drug targets. We have synthesised a novel series of compounds based on a 2-naphthamide pharmacore aimed at inhibiting the efflux pumps from Gram-negative bacteria. The archeatypical transporter AcrB from Escherichia coli was used as model efflux pump as AcrB is widely conserved throughout Gram-negative organisms. The compounds were tested for their antibacterial action, ability to potentiate the action of antibiotics and for their ability to inhibit Nile Red efflux by AcrB. None of the compounds were antimicrobial against E. coli wild type cells. Most of the compounds were able to inhibit Nile Red efflux indicating that they are substrates of the AcrB efflux pump. Three compounds were able to synergise with antibiotics and reverse resistance in the resistant phenotype. Compound A3, 4-(isopentyloxy)-2-naphthamide, reduced the MICs of erythromycin and chloramphenicol to the MIC levels of the drug sensitive strain that lacks an efflux pump. A3 had no effect on the MIC of the non-substrate rifampicin indicating that this compound acts specifically through the AcrB efflux pump. A3 also does not act through non-specific mechanisms such as outer membrane or inner membrane permeabilisation and is not cytotoxic against mammalian cell lines. Therefore, we have designed and synthesised a novel chemical compound with great potential to further optimisation as inhibitor of drug efflux pumps. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Trans-Cinnamaldehyde and Eugenol Increase Acinetobacter baumannii Sensitivity to Beta-Lactam Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti P. Karumathil

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Multi-drug resistant (MDR Acinetobacter baumannii is a major nosocomial pathogen causing a wide range of clinical conditions with significant mortality rates. A. baumannii strains are equipped with a multitude of antibiotic resistance mechanisms, rendering them resistant to most of the currently available antibiotics. Thus, there is a critical need to explore novel strategies for controlling antibiotic resistance in A. baumannii. This study investigated the efficacy of two food-grade, plant-derived antimicrobials (PDAs, namely trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC and eugenol (EG in decreasing A. baumannii’s resistance to seven β-lactam antibiotics, including ampicillin, methicillin, meropenem, penicillin, aztreonam, amoxicillin, and piperacillin. Two MDR A. baumannii isolates (ATCC 17978 and AB 251847 were separately cultured in tryptic soy broth (∼6 log CFU/ml containing the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of TC or EG with or without the MIC of each antibiotic at 37°C for 18 h. A. baumannii strains not exposed to the PDAs or antibiotics served as controls. Following incubation, A. baumannii counts were determined by broth dilution assay. In addition, the effect of PDAs on the permeability of outer membrane and efflux pumps in A. baumannii was measured. Further, the effect of TC and EG on the expression of A. baumannii genes encoding resistance to β-lactam antibiotics (blaP, efflux pumps (adeABC, and multi-drug resistant protein (mdrp was studied using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR. The experiment was replicated three times with duplicate samples of each treatment and control. The results from broth dilution assay indicated that both TC and EG in combination with antibiotics increased the sensitivity of A. baumannii to all the tested antibiotics (P < 0.05. The two PDAs inhibited the function of A. baumannii efflux pump, (AdeABC, but did not increase the permeability of its outer membrane. Moreover, RT-qPCR data revealed that TC and EG

  16. Contribution of efflux pumps in fluroquinolone resistance in multi-drug resistant nosocomial isolates of Pseudomanas aeruginosa from a tertiary referral hospital in north east India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Choudhury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the leading opportunistic pathogen and its ability to acquire resistance against series of antimicrobial agents confine treatment option for nosocomial infections. Increasing resistance to fluroquinolone (FQ agents has further worsened the scenario. The major mechanism of resistance to FQs includes mutation in FQs target genes in bacteria (DNA gyrase and/or topoisomerases and overexpression of antibiotic efflux pumps. Objective: We have investigated the role of efflux pump mediated FQ resistance in nosocomial isolates of P. aeruginosa from a tertiary referral hospital in north eastern part of India. Materials and Methods: A total of 234 non-duplicate, consecutive clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were obtained from a tertiary referral hospital of north-east India. An efflux pump inhibitor (EPI, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP based method was used for determination of efflux pump activity and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR was performed for molecular characterisation of efflux pump. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC reduction assay was also performed for all the isolates. Results and Conclusion: A total number of 56 (23% have shown efflux mediated FQ resistance. MexAB-OprM efflux system was predominant type. This is the first report of efflux pump mediated FQ resistance from this part of the world and the continued emergence of these mutants with such high MIC range from this part of the world demands serious awareness, diagnostic intervention, and proper therapeutic option.

  17. Abc1: a new ABC transporter from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P U; Davis, K; Nielsen, O

    1997-01-01

    We have isolated the abc1 gene from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Sequence analysis suggests that the Abc1 protein is a member of the ABC superfamily of transporters and is composed of two structurally homologous halves, each consisting of a hydrophobic region of six transmembrane...

  18. Inhibition of the NorA efflux pump of Staphylococcus aureus by synthetic riparins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, L M; de Macedo, E V; Oliveira, F A A; Ferreira, J H L; Gutierrez, S J C; Peláez, W J; Lima, F C A; de Siqueira Júnior, J P; Coutinho, H D M; Kaatz, G W; de Freitas, R M; Barreto, H M

    2016-11-01

    The goal of this study was to increase knowledge about the antimicrobial activity of some synthetic Riparin-derived compounds, alone or in combination with fluoroquinolone antibiotics, against a strain of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to fluoroquinolone by way of overexpression of the NorA efflux pump. Microdilution tests showed that Riparins A and B did not show any significant antibacterial activity against Staph. aureus strains. On the other hand, the intrinsic antibacterial activity increased with increasing lipophilicity of the compounds, in the following order: Riparin-D (MIC 256 μg ml -1 ; Log P 2·95) NorA-overexpressing test strain. Riparin-B, which has two methoxyl groups at the phenethyl moiety, showed the best modulatory effect. Riparin-E is a good anti-staphylococci agent, while Riparin-B functions as a NorA efflux pump inhibitor. Our data suggest the possibility of using Riparin-B in combination with norfloxacin or ciprofloxacin for therapy of infections caused by multi-drug resistant Staph. aureus. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Mdr65 decreases toxicity of multiple insecticides in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haina; Buchon, Nicolas; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2017-10-01

    ABC transporters are ubiquitous membrane-bound proteins, present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The major function of eukaryotic ABC transporters is to mediate the efflux of a variety of substrates (including xenobiotics) out of cells. ABC transporters have been widely investigated in humans, particularly for their involvement in multidrug resistance (MDR). Considerably less is known about their roles in transport and/or excretion in insects. ABC transporters are only known to function as exporters in insects. Drosophila melanogaster has 56 ABC transporter genes, including eight which are phylogenetically most similar to the human Mdr genes (ABCB1 clade). We investigated the role of ABC transporters in the ABCB1 clade in modulating the susceptibility to insecticides. We took advantage of the GAL4/UAS system in D. melanogaster to knockdown the expression levels of Mdr65, Mdr50, Mdr49 and ABCB6 using transgenic UAS-RNAi lines and conditional driver lines. The most notable effects were increased sensitivities to nine different insecticides by silencing of Mdr65. Furthermore, a null mutation of Mdr65 decreased the malathion, malaoxon and fipronil LC 50 values by a factor of 1.9, 2.1 and 3.9, respectively. Altogether, this data demonstrates the critical role of ABC transporters, particularly Mdr65, in altering the toxicity of specific, structurally diverse, insecticides in D. melanogaster. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Focus on the Outer Membrane Factor OprM, the Forgotten Player from Efflux Pumps Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Phan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics have been used extensively during several decades and we are now facing the emergence of multidrug resistant strains. It has become a major public concern, urging the need to discover new strategies to combat them. Among the different ways used by bacteria to resist antibiotics, the active efflux is one of the main mechanisms. In Gram-negative bacteria the efflux pumps are comprised of three components forming a long edifice crossing the complete cell wall from the inside to the outside of the cell. Blocking these pumps would permit the restoration of the effectiveness of the current antibiotherapy which is why it is important to increase our knowledge on the different proteins involved in these complexes. A tremendous number of experiments have been performed on the inner membrane protein AcrB from Escherichia coli and, to a lesser extent, the protein partners forming the AcrAB-TolC pump, but less information is available concerning the efflux pumps from other virulent Gram-negative bacteria. The present review will focus on the OprM outer membrane protein from the MexAB-OprM pump of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, highlighting similarities and differences compare to the archetypal AcrAB-TolC in terms of structure, function, and assembly properties.

  1. Multidrug ATP-binding cassette transporters are essential for hepatic development of Plasmodium sporozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijpma, Sanna R; van der Velden, Maarten; González-Pons, Maria; Annoura, Takeshi; van Schaijk, Ben C L; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; van den Heuvel, Jeroen J M W; Ramesar, Jai; Chevalley-Maurel, Severine; Ploemen, Ivo H; Khan, Shahid M; Franetich, Jean-Francois; Mazier, Dominique; de Wilt, Johannes H W; Serrano, Adelfa E; Russel, Frans G M; Janse, Chris J; Sauerwein, Robert W; Koenderink, Jan B; Franke-Fayard, Blandine M

    2016-03-01

    Multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) belong to the C-family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins and are known to transport a variety of physiologically important compounds and to be involved in the extrusion of pharmaceuticals. Rodent malaria parasites encode a single ABC transporter subfamily C protein, whereas human parasites encode two: MRP1 and MRP2. Although associated with drug resistance, their biological function and substrates remain unknown. To elucidate the role of MRP throughout the parasite life cycle, Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium falciparum mutants lacking MRP expression were generated. P. berghei mutants lacking expression of the single MRP as well as P. falciparum mutants lacking MRP1, MRP2 or both proteins have similar blood stage growth kinetics and drug-sensitivity profiles as wild type parasites. We show that MRP1-deficient parasites readily invade primary human hepatocytes and develop into mature liver stages. In contrast, both P. falciparum MRP2-deficient parasites and P. berghei mutants lacking MRP protein expression abort in mid to late liver stage development, failing to produce mature liver stages. The combined P. berghei and P. falciparum data are the first demonstration of a critical role of an ABC transporter during Plasmodium liver stage development. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Cloning, characterization and tissue distribution of the rat ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABC2/ABCA2.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, L X; Zhou, C J; Tanaka, A; Nakata, M; Hirabayashi, T; Amachi, T; Shioda, S; Ueda, K; Inagaki, N

    2000-01-01

    The ABC1 (ABCA) subfamily of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily has a structural feature that distinguishes it from other ABC transporters. Here we report the cloning, molecular characterization and tissue distribution of ABC2/ABCA2, which belongs to the ABC1 subfamily. Rat ABC2 is a protein of 2434 amino acids that has 44.5%, 40.0% and 40.8% identity with mouse ABC1/ABCA1, human ABC3/ABCA3 and human ABCR/ABCA4 respectively. Immunoblot analysis showed that proteins of 260 ...

  3. Antibacterial activity of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and its synergism with β-lactam antibiotics sensitizing carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Spencer; Razqan, Ghaida Saleh Al; Kwon, Dong H

    2017-01-15

    Infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii were responsive to conventional antibiotic therapy. However, recently, carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant isolates have been reported worldwide and present a major therapeutic challenge. Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG) extracted from green tea exhibits antibacterial activity. We evaluated the antibacterial activity of EGCG and possible synergism with antibiotics in carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant A. baumannii. A potential mechanism for synergism was also explored. Seventy clinical isolates of A. baumannii collected from geographically different areas were analyzed by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of EGCG. Checkerboard and time-killing assays were performed to exam the synergism between EGCG and antibiotics. The effects of EGCG on a multidrug efflux pump inhibitor (1-[1-naphthylmethyl] piperazine; NMP) and β-lactamase production were also examined in A. baumannii. Sixty-three of 70 clinical isolates of A. baumannii carried carbapenemase-encoding genes with carbapenem-associated multidrug resistance. Levels of MIC and MBC of EGCG ranged from 64 to 512µg/ml and from 128 to ≥1024µg/ml, respectively among the clinical isolates. MIC 90 and MBC 86 levels were 256µg/ml and 512µg/ml of EGCG, respectively. Subinhibitory concentration of EGCG in combination with all antibiotics tested, including carbapenem, sensitized (MICs fall≤1.0µg/ml) all carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant isolates. Checkerboard and time-killing assays showed synergism between EGCG and meropenem (or carbenicillin) counted as fractional inhibitory concentration of 2log10 within 12h, respectively. EGCG significantly increased the effect of NMP but was unrelated to β-lactamase production in A. baumannii, suggesting EGCG may be associated with inhibition of efflux pumps. Overall we suggest that EGCG-antibiotic combinations might provide an alternative approach to treat

  4. Regulation of Multidrug Resistance Proteins by Genistein in a Hepatocarcinoma Cell Line: Impact on Sorafenib Cytotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Rigalli, Juan Pablo; Ciriaci, Nadia; Arias, Agostina; Ceballos, Mar?a Paula; Villanueva, Silvina Stella Maris; Luquita, Marcelo Gabriel; Mottino, Aldo Domingo; Ghanem, Carolina In?s; Catania, Viviana Alicia; Ruiz, Mar?a Laura

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most frequent cancer worldwide. Sorafenib is the only drug available that improves the overall survival of HCC patients. P-glycoprotein (P-gp), Multidrug resistance-associated proteins 2 and 3 (MRP2 and 3) and Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are efflux pumps that play a key role in cancer chemoresistance. Their modulation by dietary compounds may affect the intracellular accumulation and therapeutic efficacy of drugs that are substrates of t...

  5. Cytotoxicity of South-African medicinal plants towards sensitive and multidrug-resistant cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Mohamed E M; Meyer, Marion; Hussein, Ahmed; Efferth, Thomas

    2016-06-20

    Traditional medicine plays a major role for primary health care worldwide. Cancer belongs to the leading disease burden in industrialized and developing countries. Successful cancer therapy is hampered by the development of resistance towards established anticancer drugs. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxicity of 29 extracts from 26 medicinal plants of South-Africa against leukemia cell lines, most of which are used traditionally to treat cancer and related symptoms. We have investigated the plant extracts for their cytotoxic activity towards drug-sensitive parental CCRF-CEM leukemia cells and their multidrug-resistant P-glycoprotein-overexpressing subline, CEM/ADR5000 by means of the resazurin assay. A panel of 60 NCI tumor cell lines have been investigated for correlations between selected phytochemicals from medicinal plants and the expression of resistance-conferring genes (ABC-transporters, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes). Seven extracts inhibited both cell lines (Acokanthera oppositifolia, Hypoestes aristata, Laurus nobilis, Leonotis leonurus, Plectranthus barbatus, Plectranthus ciliates, Salvia apiana). CEM/ADR5000 cells exhibited a low degree of cross-resistance (3.35-fold) towards the L. leonurus extract, while no cross-resistance was observed to other plant extracts, although CEM/ADR5000 cells were highly resistant to clinically established drugs. The log10IC50 values for two out of 14 selected phytochemicals from these plants (acovenoside A and ouabain) of 60 tumor cell lines were correlated to the expression of ABC-transporters (ABCB1, ABCB5, ABCC1, ABCG2), oncogenes (EGFR, RAS) and tumor suppressors (TP53). Sensitivity or resistance of the cell lines were not statistically associated with the expression of these genes, indicating that multidrug-resistant, refractory tumors expressing these genes may still respond to acovenoside A and ouabain. The bioactivity of South African medicinal plants may represent a basis for the development

  6. Novel understanding of ABC transporters ABCB1/MDR/P-glycoprotein, ABCC2/MRP2, and ABCG2/BCRP in colorectal pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Svenningsen, Katrine; Almind Knudsen, Lina

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in colonic pathophysiology as they had recently been related to colorectal cancer (CRC) development. METHODS: Literature search was conducted on PubMed using combinations of the following terms: ABC transporters, ATP binding cassette...... with glucocorticoids. The evidence for the involvement of ABCC2 and ABCG2 in colonic pathophysiology was weak. CONCLUSION: ABCB1, diet, and gut microbes mutually interact in colonic inflammation, a well-known risk factor for CRC. Further insight may be translated into preventive and treatment strategies....... transporter proteins, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative, colitis, Crohns disease, colorectal cancer, colitis, intestinal inflammation, intestinal carcinogenesis, ABCB1/P-glycoprotein (P-gp/CD243/MDR1), ABCC2/multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) and ABCG2/breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), Abcb1...

  7. Nose-to-Brain Delivery of Antiviral Drugs: A Way to Overcome Their Active Efflux?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Dalpiaz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Although several viruses can easily infect the central nervous system (CNS, antiviral drugs often show dramatic difficulties in penetrating the brain from the bloodstream since they are substrates of active efflux transporters (AETs. These transporters, located in the physiological barriers between blood and the CNS and in macrophage membranes, are able to recognize their substrates and actively efflux them into the bloodstream. The active transporters currently known to efflux antiviral drugs are P-glycoprotein (ABCB1 or P-gp or MDR1, multidrug resistance-associated proteins (ABCC1 or MRP1, ABCC4 or MRP4, ABCC5 or MRP5, and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2 or BCRP. Inhibitors of AETs may be considered, but their co-administration causes serious unwanted effects. Nasal administration of antiviral drugs is therefore proposed in order to overcome the aforementioned problems, but innovative devices, formulations (thermoreversible gels, polymeric micro- and nano-particles, solid lipid microparticles, nanoemulsions, absorption enhancers (chitosan, papaverine, and mucoadhesive agents (chitosan, polyvinilpyrrolidone are required in order to selectively target the antiviral drugs and, possibly, the AET inhibitors in the CNS. Moreover, several prodrugs of antiretroviral agents can inhibit or elude the AET systems, appearing as interesting substrates for innovative nasal formulations able to target anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV agents into macrophages of the CNS, which are one of the most important HIV Sanctuaries of the body.

  8. Maize ZmALMT2 is a root anion transporter that mediates constitutive root malate efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligaba, Ayalew; Maron, Lyza; Shaff, Jon; Kochian, Leon; Piñeros, Miguel

    2012-07-01

    Root efflux of organic acid anions underlies a major mechanism of plant aluminium (Al) tolerance on acid soils. This efflux is mediated by transporters of the Al-activated malate transporter (ALMT) or the multi-drug and toxin extrusion (MATE) families. ZmALMT2 was previously suggested to be involved in Al tolerance based on joint association-linkage mapping for maize Al tolerance. In the current study, we functionally characterized ZmALMT2 by heterologously expressing it in Xenopus laevis oocytes and transgenic Arabidopsis. In oocytes, ZmALMT2 mediated an Al-independent electrogenic transport product of organic and inorganic anion efflux. Ectopic overexpression of ZmALMT2 in an Al-hypersensitive Arabidopsis KO/KD line lacking the Al tolerance genes, AtALMT1 and AtMATE, resulted in Al-independent constitutive root malate efflux which partially restored the Al tolerance phenotype. The lack of correlation between ZmALMT2 expression and Al tolerance (e.g., expression not localized to the root tip, not up-regulated by Al, and higher in sensitive versus tolerance maize lines) also led us to question ZmALMT2's role in Al tolerance. The functional properties of the ZmALMT2 transporter presented here, along with the gene expression data, suggest that ZmALMT2 is not involved in maize Al tolerance but, rather, may play a role in mineral nutrient acquisition and transport. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. The role of multidrug resistance protein (MRP-1) as an active efflux transporter on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingineni, Karthik; Belekar, Vilas; Tangadpalliwar, Sujit R; Garg, Prabha

    2017-05-01

    Drugs acting on central nervous system (CNS) may take longer duration to reach the market as these compounds have a higher attrition rate in clinical trials due to the complexity of the brain, side effects, and poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability compared to non-CNS-acting compounds. The roles of active efflux transporters with BBB are still unclear. The aim of the present work was to develop a predictive model for BBB permeability that includes the MRP-1 transporter, which is considered as an active efflux transporter. A support vector machine model was developed for the classification of MRP-1 substrates and non-substrates, which was validated with an external data set and Y-randomization method. An artificial neural network model has been developed to evaluate the role of MRP-1 on BBB permeation. A total of nine descriptors were selected, which included molecular weight, topological polar surface area, ClogP, number of hydrogen bond donors, number of hydrogen bond acceptors, number of rotatable bonds, P-gp, BCRP, and MRP-1 substrate probabilities for model development. We identified 5 molecules that fulfilled all criteria required for passive permeation of BBB, but they all have a low logBB value, which suggested that the molecules were effluxed by the MRP-1 transporter.

  10. Functional imaging of the multidrug resistance in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Tae

    2001-01-01

    Although diverse mechanisms are involved in multidrug resistance for chemotherapeutic drugs, the development of cellular P-glycoprotein(Pgp) and multidrug-resistance associated protein (MRP) are improtant factors in the chemotherapy failure to cancer. Various detection assays provide information about the presence of drug efflux pumps at the mRNA and protein levels. However these methods do not yield information about dynamic function of Pgp and MRP in vivo. Single photon emission tomograpy (SPECT) and positron emission tomograpy (PET) are available for the detection of Pgp and MRP-mediated transport. 99m Tc-sestaMIBI and other 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals are substrates for Pgp and MRP, and have been used in clinical studies of tumor imaging, and to visualize blockade of Pgp-mediated transport after modulation of Pgp pump. Colchicine, verapamil and daunorubicin labeled with 11 C have been evaluated for the quantification of Pgp-mediated transport with PET in vivo and reported to be feasible substrates with which to image Pgp function in tumors. Leukotrienes are specific substrates for MRP and N- (11 C]acetyl-leukotriene E4 provides an opportunity to study MRP function non-invasively in vivo. Results obtained from recent publications are reviewed to confirm the feasibility of using SPECT and PET to study the functionality of MDR transportes in vivo

  11. Factors influencing [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) accumulation in melanoma cells. Is FDG a substrate of multidrug resistance (MDR)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kiyoshi; Brink, I.; Engelhardt, R.

    2005-01-01

    In order to specify the influence of multidrug-resistance (MDR) on the accumulation of the PET tracer, F-18 FDG ([Fluorine-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose, in melanoma cells, both the MDR function and expression of two human melanoma cell lines SK-MEL 23 and 24, were evaluated. The effects of MDR modulators on FDG accumulation and efflux were also investigated. A functional analysis using representative MDR fluorescent substrates and inhibitors clarified the following characteristics: SK-MEL 23 possesses a highly active function of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP), but not P-gp. SK-MEL 24 possesses weak functions of both MRP and P-gp. Western blot analysis using monoclonal antibodies for MDR expression demonstrated an exceedingly high MRP expression of SK-MEL 23 and only slight P-gp and MRP expression of SK-MEL 24, corresponding to the functional data. The efflux inhibition assay using F-18 FDG revealed a considerable retention of FDG in SK-MEL 23 in the presence of the MRP inhibitor probenecid. It was also found that the P-gp inhibitor verapamil depressed the FDG efflux of SK-MEL 24. Our present in vitro study suggests that FDG may be a substrate of MDR in some melanoma cells and further MDR may be one of the important factors affecting FDG-PET melanoma imaging. (author)

  12. ABC transporters in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma synoviae: insights into evolution and pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Fabiana Nicolás

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ABC transporters represent one of the largest superfamilies of active membrane transport proteins (MTPs with a highly conserved ATPase domain that binds and hydrolyzes ATP, supplying energy for the uptake of a variety of nutrients and for the extrusion of drugs and metabolic wastes. The complete genomes of a non-pathogenic (J and pathogenic (7448 strain of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, as well as of a pathogenic (53 strain of Mycoplasma synoviae have been recently sequenced. A detailed study revealed a high percentage of CDSs encoding MTPs in M. hyopneumoniae strains J (13.4%, 7448 (13.8%, and in M. synoviae 53 (11.2%, and the ABC systems represented from 85.0 to 88.6% of those CDSs. Uptake systems are mainly involved in cell nutrition and some might be associated with virulence. Exporter systems include both drug and multidrug resistant systems (MDR, which may represent mechanisms of resistance to toxic molecules. No relation was found between the phylogeny of the ATPase domains and the lifestyle or pathogenicity of Mycoplasma, but several proteins, potentially useful as targets for the control of infections, were identified.

  13. Re-evolution of the 2-phenylquinolines: ligand-based design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a potent new class of Staphylococcus aureus NorA efflux pump inhibitors to combat antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Stefano; Gosetto, Francesca; Iraci, Nunzio; Barreca, Maria Letizia; Massari, Serena; Sancineto, Luca; Manfroni, Giuseppe; Tabarrini, Oriana; Dimovska, Mirjana; Kaatz, Glenn W; Cecchetti, Violetta

    2013-06-27

    Overexpression of efflux pumps is an important mechanism by which bacteria evade the effects of antimicrobial agents that are substrates. NorA is a Staphylococcus aureus efflux pump that confers reduced susceptibility to many structurally unrelated agents, including fluoroquinolones, biocides, and dyes, resulting in a multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotype. In this work, a series of 2-phenylquinoline derivatives was designed by means of ligand-based pharmacophore modeling in an attempt to identify improved S. aureus NorA efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs). Most of the 2-phenylquinoline derivatives displayed potent EPI activity against the norA overexpressing strain SA-1199B. The antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin, when used in combination with some of the synthesized compounds, was completely restored in SA-1199B and SA-K2378, a strain overexpressing norA from a multicopy plasmid. Compounds 3m and 3q also showed potent synergistic activity with the ethidium bromide dye in a strain overexpressing the MepA MDR efflux pump.

  14. Identification of an Efflux Transporter LmrB Regulating Stress Response and Extracellular Polysaccharide Synthesis in Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Efflux transporters have been implicated in regulating bacterial virulence properties such as resistance to antibiotics, biofilm formation and colonization. The pathogenicity of Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiologic agent of human dental caries, relies on the bacterium’s ability to form biofilms on tooth surface. However, the studies on efflux transporters in S. mutans are scare and the function of these transporters remained to be clarified. In this study, we identified an efflux transporter (LmrB in S. mutans through cloning the lmrB gene into Escherichia coli. Introducing lmrB into E. coli conferred a multidrug-resistant phenotype and resulted in higher EtBr efflux activity which could be suppressed by efflux inhibitor. To explore whether LmrB was involved in S. mutans virulence properties regulation, we constructed the lmrB inactivation mutant and examined the phenotypes of the mutant. It was found that LmrB deficiency resulted in increased IPS storage and prolonged acid production. Enhanced biofilm formation characterized by increased extracellular polysaccharides (EPS production and elevated resistance to hydrogen peroxide and antimicrobials were also observed in lmrB mutant. To gain a better understanding of the global role of LmrB, a transcriptome analysis was performed using lmrB mutant strain. The expression of 107 genes was up- or down-regulated in the lmrB mutant compared with the wild type. Notably, expression of genes in several genomic islands was differentially modulated, such as stress-related GroELS and scnRK, sugar metabolism associated glg operons and msmREFGK transporter. The results presented here indicate that LmrB plays a vital global role in the regulation of several important virulence properties in S. mutans.

  15. Structure, mechanism and cooperation of bacterial multidrug transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Dijun; van Veen, Hendrik W; Murakami, Satoshi; Pos, Klaas M; Luisi, Ben F

    2015-08-01

    Cells from all domains of life encode energy-dependent trans-membrane transporters that can expel harmful substances including clinically applied therapeutic agents. As a collective body, these transporters perform as a super-system that confers tolerance to an enormous range of harmful compounds and consequently aid survival in hazardous environments. In the Gram-negative bacteria, some of these transporters serve as energy-transducing components of tripartite assemblies that actively efflux drugs and other harmful compounds, as well as deliver virulence agents across the entire cell envelope. We draw together recent structural and functional data to present the current models for the transport mechanisms for the main classes of multi-drug transporters and their higher-order assemblies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. The reversal effects of 3-bromopyruvate on multidrug resistance in vitro and in vivo derived from human breast MCF-7/ADR cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Wu

    Full Text Available P-glycoprotein mediated efflux is one of the main mechanisms for multidrug resistance in cancers, and 3-Bromopyruvate acts as a promising multidrug resistance reversal compound in our study. To test the ability of 3-Bromopyruvate to overcome P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance and to explore its mechanisms of multidrug resistance reversal in MCF-7/ADR cells, we evaluate the in vitro and in vivo modulatory activity of this compound.The in vitro and in vivo activity was determined using the MTT assay and human breast cancer xenograft models. The gene and protein expression of P-glycoprotein were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction and the Western blotting technique, respectively. ABCB-1 bioactivity was tested by fluorescence microscopy, multi-mode microplate reader, and flow cytometry. The intracellular levels of ATP, HK-II, and ATPase activity were based on an assay kit according to the manufacturer's instructions.3-Bromopyruvate treatment led to marked decreases in the IC50 values of selected chemotherapeutic drugs [e.g., doxorubicin (283 folds, paclitaxel (85 folds, daunorubicin (201 folds, and epirubicin (171 folds] in MCF-7/ADR cells. 3-Bromopyruvate was found also to potentiate significantly the antitumor activity of epirubicin against MCF-7/ADR xenografts. The intracellular level of ATP decreased 44%, 46% in the presence of 12.5.25 µM 3-Bromopyruvate, whereas the accumulation of rhodamine 123 and epirubicin (two typical P-glycoprotein substrates in cells was significantly increased. Furthermore, we found that the mRNA and the total protein level of P-glycoprotein were slightly altered by 3-Bromopyruvate. Moreover, the ATPase activity was significantly inhibited when 3-Bromopyruvate was applied.We demonstrated that 3-Bromopyruvate can reverse P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux in MCF-7/ADR cells. Multidrug resistance reversal by 3-Bromopyruvate occurred through at least three approaches, namely, a decrease in the

  17. The reversal effects of 3-bromopyruvate on multidrug resistance in vitro and in vivo derived from human breast MCF-7/ADR cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Long; Xu, Jun; Yuan, Weiqi; Wu, Baojian; Wang, Hao; Liu, Guangquan; Wang, Xiaoxiong; Du, Jun; Cai, Shaohui

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein mediated efflux is one of the main mechanisms for multidrug resistance in cancers, and 3-Bromopyruvate acts as a promising multidrug resistance reversal compound in our study. To test the ability of 3-Bromopyruvate to overcome P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance and to explore its mechanisms of multidrug resistance reversal in MCF-7/ADR cells, we evaluate the in vitro and in vivo modulatory activity of this compound. The in vitro and in vivo activity was determined using the MTT assay and human breast cancer xenograft models. The gene and protein expression of P-glycoprotein were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction and the Western blotting technique, respectively. ABCB-1 bioactivity was tested by fluorescence microscopy, multi-mode microplate reader, and flow cytometry. The intracellular levels of ATP, HK-II, and ATPase activity were based on an assay kit according to the manufacturer's instructions. 3-Bromopyruvate treatment led to marked decreases in the IC50 values of selected chemotherapeutic drugs [e.g., doxorubicin (283 folds), paclitaxel (85 folds), daunorubicin (201 folds), and epirubicin (171 folds)] in MCF-7/ADR cells. 3-Bromopyruvate was found also to potentiate significantly the antitumor activity of epirubicin against MCF-7/ADR xenografts. The intracellular level of ATP decreased 44%, 46% in the presence of 12.5.25 µM 3-Bromopyruvate, whereas the accumulation of rhodamine 123 and epirubicin (two typical P-glycoprotein substrates) in cells was significantly increased. Furthermore, we found that the mRNA and the total protein level of P-glycoprotein were slightly altered by 3-Bromopyruvate. Moreover, the ATPase activity was significantly inhibited when 3-Bromopyruvate was applied. We demonstrated that 3-Bromopyruvate can reverse P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux in MCF-7/ADR cells. Multidrug resistance reversal by 3-Bromopyruvate occurred through at least three approaches, namely, a decrease in the intracellular

  18. Enhancing the ABC Cross

    OpenAIRE

    Euske, K.J.; Vercio, Alan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the ABC Cross was to portray both a cost and process view of an organization as simply as possible. Unfortunately, the model’s simplified form does not capture the real value of activity-based costing (ABC) for cost accounting that emerged in the mid-1980s. Here we present several ABC models that can help functional and process managers make better decisions.

  19. Effect of ABCG2/BCRP Expression on Efflux and Uptake of Gefitinib in NSCLC Cell Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricla Galetti

    Full Text Available BCRP/ABCG2 emerged as an important multidrug resistance protein, because it confers resistance to several classes of cancer chemotherapeutic agents and to a number of novel molecularly-targeted therapeutics such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Gefitinib is an orally active, selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor used in the treatment of patients with advanced non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC carrying activating EGFR mutations. Membrane transporters may affect the distribution and accumulation of gefitinib in tumour cells; in particular a reduced intracellular level of the drug may result from poor uptake, enhanced efflux or increased metabolism.The present study, performed in a panel of NSCLC cell lines expressing different ABCG2 plasma membrane levels, was designed to investigate the effect of the efflux transporter ABCG2 on intracellular gefitinib accumulation, by dissecting the contribution of uptake and efflux processes.Our findings indicate that gefitinib, in lung cancer cells, inhibits ABCG2 activity, as previously reported. In addition, we suggest that ABCG2 silencing or overexpression affects intracellular gefitinib content by modulating the uptake rather than the efflux. Similarly, overexpression of ABCG2 affected the expression of a number of drug transporters, altering the functional activities of nutrient and drug transport systems, in particular inhibiting MPP, glucose and glutamine uptake.Therefore, we conclude that gefitinib is an inhibitor but not a substrate for ABCG2 and that ABCG2 overexpression may modulate the expression and activity of other transporters involved in the uptake of different substrates into the cells.

  20. ABCC4/MRP4: a MYCN-regulated transporter and potential therapeutic target in neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, Tony; Norris, Murray D.; Haber, Michelle; Henderson, Michelle J., E-mail: mhenderson@ccia.unsw.edu.au [Experimental Therapeutics Program, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, Children’s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, University of New South Wales and Sydney Children’s Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2012-12-19

    Resistance to cytotoxic drugs is thought to be a major cause of treatment failure in childhood neuroblastoma, and members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily may contribute to this phenomenon by active efflux of chemotherapeutic agents from cancer cells. As a member of the C subfamily of ABC transporters, multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP4/ABCC4 has the ability to export a variety of endogenous and exogenous substances across the plasma membrane. In light of its capacity for chemotherapeutic drug efflux, MRP4 has been studied in the context of drug resistance in a number of cancer cell types. However, MRP4 also influences cancer cell biology independently of chemotherapeutic drug exposure, which highlights the potential importance of endogenous MRP4 substrates in cancer biology. Furthermore, MRP4 is a direct transcriptional target of Myc family oncoproteins and expression of this transporter is a powerful independent predictor of clinical outcome in neuroblastoma. Together, these features suggest that inhibition of MRP4 may be an attractive therapeutic approach for neuroblastoma and other cancers that rely on MRP4. In this respect, existing options for MRP4 inhibition are relatively non-selective and thus development of more specific anti-MRP4 compounds should be a major focus of future work in this area.

  1. ABCC4/MRP4: a MYCN-regulated transporter and potential therapeutic target in neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, Tony; Norris, Murray D.; Haber, Michelle; Henderson, Michelle J.

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to cytotoxic drugs is thought to be a major cause of treatment failure in childhood neuroblastoma, and members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily may contribute to this phenomenon by active efflux of chemotherapeutic agents from cancer cells. As a member of the C subfamily of ABC transporters, multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP4/ABCC4 has the ability to export a variety of endogenous and exogenous substances across the plasma membrane. In light of its capacity for chemotherapeutic drug efflux, MRP4 has been studied in the context of drug resistance in a number of cancer cell types. However, MRP4 also influences cancer cell biology independently of chemotherapeutic drug exposure, which highlights the potential importance of endogenous MRP4 substrates in cancer biology. Furthermore, MRP4 is a direct transcriptional target of Myc family oncoproteins and expression of this transporter is a powerful independent predictor of clinical outcome in neuroblastoma. Together, these features suggest that inhibition of MRP4 may be an attractive therapeutic approach for neuroblastoma and other cancers that rely on MRP4. In this respect, existing options for MRP4 inhibition are relatively non-selective and thus development of more specific anti-MRP4 compounds should be a major focus of future work in this area.

  2. Emergence of carbapenem non-susceptible multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains of clonal complexes 103(B) and 92(B) harboring OXA-type carbapenemases and metallo-β-lactamases in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranathan, Rajagopalan; Vasanth, Vaidyanathan; Vasanth, Thamodharan; Shabareesh, Pidathala Raghavendra Venkata; Shashikala, P; Devi, Chandrakesan Sheela; Kalaivani, Ramakrishnan; Asir, Johny; Sudhakar, Pagal; Prashanth, K

    2015-05-01

    The molecular epidemiology and carbapenem resistance mechanisms of clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii obtained from a south Indian tertiary care hospital were investigated by repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence PCR (REP-PCR) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Analysis of resistant determinants was achieved by PCR screening for the presence of genes encoding OXA-carbapenemases, metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) and efflux pumps. REP-PCR generated around eight clusters of high heterogeneity; of these, two major clusters (I and V) appeared to be clonal in origin. Analysis of representative isolates from different clusters by MLST revealed that most of the isolates belonged to sequence type 103 of CC103(B) . Second most prevalent ST belonged to clonal complex (CC) 92(B) which is also referred to as international clone II. Most of the isolates were multi-drug resistant, being susceptible only to polymyxin-B and newer quinolones. Class D β-lactamases such as blaOXA-51-like (100%), blaOXA-23-like (56.8%) and blaOXA-24-like (14.8%) were found to be predominant, followed by a class B β-lactamase, namely blaIMP-1 (40.7%); none of the isolates had blaOXA-58 like, blaNDM-1 or blaSIM-1 . Genes of efflux-pump adeABC were predominant, most of isolates being biofilm producers that were PCR-positive for autoinducer synthase gene (>94%). Carbapenem non-susceptible isolates were highly diverse and present throughout the hospital irrespective of type of ward or intensive care unit. Although previous reports have documented diverse resistant mechanisms in A. baumannii, production of MBL and OXA-type of carbapenamases were found to be the predominant mechanism(s) of carbapenem resistance identified in strains isolated from Southern India. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Multiple efflux pumps are involved in the transepithelial transport of colchicine: combined effect of p-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 leads to decreased intestinal absorption throughout the entire small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Arik; Sabit, Hairat; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to thoroughly characterize the efflux transporters involved in the intestinal permeability of the oral microtubule polymerization inhibitor colchicine and to evaluate the role of these transporters in limiting its oral absorption. The effects of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) inhibitors on colchicine bidirectional permeability were studied across Caco-2 cell monolayers, inhibiting one versus multiple transporters simultaneously. Colchicine permeability was then investigated in different regions of the rat small intestine by in situ single-pass perfusion. Correlation with the P-gp/MRP2 expression level throughout different intestinal segments was investigated by immunoblotting. P-gp inhibitors [N-(4-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-isoquinolinyl)ethyl]-phenyl)-9,10-dihydro-5-methoxy-9-oxo-4-acridine carboxamide (GF120918), verapamil, and quinidine], and MRP2 inhibitors [3-[[3-[2-(7-chloroquinolin-2-yl)vinyl]phenyl]-(2-dimethylcarbamoylethylsulfanyl)methylsulfanyl] propionic acid (MK571), indomethacin, and p-aminohippuric acid (p-AH)] significantly increased apical (AP)-basolateral (BL) and decreased BL-AP Caco-2 transport in a concentration-dependent manner. No effect was obtained by the BCRP inhibitors fumitremorgin C (FTC) and pantoprazole. P-gp/MRP2 inhibitors combinations greatly reduced colchicine mucosal secretion, including complete abolishment of efflux (GF120918/MK571). Colchicine displayed low (versus metoprolol) and constant permeability along the rat small-intestine. GF120918 significantly increased colchicine permeability in the ileum with no effect in the jejunum, whereas MK571 augmented jejunal permeability without changing the ileal transport. The GF120918/MK571 combination caused an effect similar to that of MK571 alone in the jejunum and to that of GF120918 alone in the ileum. P-gp expression followed a gradient increasing from

  4. Purification of a Multidrug Resistance Transporter for Crystallization Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamela O. Alegre

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Crystallization of integral membrane proteins is a challenging field and much effort has been invested in optimizing the overexpression and purification steps needed to obtain milligram amounts of pure, stable, monodisperse protein sample for crystallography studies. Our current work involves the structural and functional characterization of the Escherichia coli multidrug resistance transporter MdtM, a member of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS. Here we present a protocol for isolation of MdtM to increase yields of recombinant protein to the milligram quantities necessary for pursuit of structural studies using X-ray crystallography. Purification of MdtM was enhanced by introduction of an elongated His-tag, followed by identification and subsequent removal of chaperonin contamination. For crystallization trials of MdtM, detergent screening using size exclusion chromatography determined that decylmaltoside (DM was the shortest-chain detergent that maintained the protein in a stable, monodispersed state. Crystallization trials of MdtM performed using the hanging-drop diffusion method with commercially available crystallization screens yielded 3D protein crystals under several different conditions. We contend that the purification protocol described here may be employed for production of high-quality protein of other multidrug efflux members of the MFS, a ubiquitous, physiologically and clinically important class of membrane transporters.

  5. Sustaining an Effective ABC-ABM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary COKINS

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the Activity- Based Costing (ABC and Activity-Based Management (ABM system and techniques to sustain them as a permanent and repeatable production reporting system, not just for one-off analysis. A comparison is made between ABC/ABM modeling software that extracts source data and business systems that include ABC/ABM modeling features. There are presented the stages of updating, running and rerunning the ABC/ABM system. The resulting information calculated and provided by the ABC/ABM system are analyzed and interpreted in terms of a multidimensional data analysis. The article ends with the authors' conclusions about the benefits of continued operation of sustaining the ABC/ABM system.

  6. ABC at Insteel Industries

    OpenAIRE

    V.G. Narayanan; Ratna G. Sarkar

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we seek to provide empirical documentation of the effect of Activity-Based Costing (ABC) information on product and customer-related decisions made by managers in a company. Proponents of ABC argue that when an entity implements ABC, it reaps at least two important benefits: process improvements that promote more efficient use of resources and hence reduce costs, and a set of overhead cost numbers that, relative to traditional volume-based methods of costing, better represent t...

  7. Coupling of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases and multidrug resistance-associated proteins is responsible for the intestinal disposition and poor bioavailability of emodin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wei; Feng, Qian; Li, Ye; Ye, Ling; Hu, Ming; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2012-01-01

    Emodin is a poorly bioavailable but promising plant-derived anticancer drug candidate. The low oral bioavailability of emodin is due to its extensive glucuronidation in the intestine and liver. Caco-2 cell culture model was used to investigate the interplay between UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and efflux transporters in the intestinal disposition of emodin. Bidirectional transport assays of emodin at different concentrations were performed in the Caco-2 monolayers with or without multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) efflux transporter chemical inhibitors. The bidirectional permeability of emodin and its glucuronide in the Caco-2 monolayers was determined. Emodin was rapidly metabolized to emodin glucuronide in Caco-2 cells. LTC4, a potent inhibitor of MRP2, decreased the efflux of emodin glucuronide and also substantially increased the intracellular glucuronide level in the basolateral-to-apical (B–A) direction. MK-571, chemical inhibitor of MRP2, MRP3, and MRP4, significantly reduced the efflux of glucuronide in the apical-to-basolateral (A–B) and B–A directions in a dose-dependent manner. However, dipyridamole, a BCRP chemical inhibitor demonstrated no effect on formation and efflux of emodin glucuronide in Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, UGT is a main metabolic pathway for emodin in the intestine, and the MRP family is composed of major efflux transporters responsible for the excretion of emodin glucuronide in the intestine. The coupling of UGTs and MRP efflux transporters causes the extensive metabolism, excretion, and low bioavailability of emodin. -- Highlights: ► Glucuronidation is the main reason for the poor oral bioavailability of emodin. ► Efflux transporters are involved in the excretion of emodin glucuronide. ► The intestine is the main organ for metabolism of emodin.

  8. Coupling of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases and multidrug resistance-associated proteins is responsible for the intestinal disposition and poor bioavailability of emodin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei; Feng, Qian; Li, Ye; Ye, Ling [Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Hu, Ming, E-mail: mhu@uh.edu [Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, 1441 Moursund Street, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Liu, Zhongqiu, E-mail: liuzq@smu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2012-12-15

    Emodin is a poorly bioavailable but promising plant-derived anticancer drug candidate. The low oral bioavailability of emodin is due to its extensive glucuronidation in the intestine and liver. Caco-2 cell culture model was used to investigate the interplay between UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and efflux transporters in the intestinal disposition of emodin. Bidirectional transport assays of emodin at different concentrations were performed in the Caco-2 monolayers with or without multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) efflux transporter chemical inhibitors. The bidirectional permeability of emodin and its glucuronide in the Caco-2 monolayers was determined. Emodin was rapidly metabolized to emodin glucuronide in Caco-2 cells. LTC4, a potent inhibitor of MRP2, decreased the efflux of emodin glucuronide and also substantially increased the intracellular glucuronide level in the basolateral-to-apical (B–A) direction. MK-571, chemical inhibitor of MRP2, MRP3, and MRP4, significantly reduced the efflux of glucuronide in the apical-to-basolateral (A–B) and B–A directions in a dose-dependent manner. However, dipyridamole, a BCRP chemical inhibitor demonstrated no effect on formation and efflux of emodin glucuronide in Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, UGT is a main metabolic pathway for emodin in the intestine, and the MRP family is composed of major efflux transporters responsible for the excretion of emodin glucuronide in the intestine. The coupling of UGTs and MRP efflux transporters causes the extensive metabolism, excretion, and low bioavailability of emodin. -- Highlights: ► Glucuronidation is the main reason for the poor oral bioavailability of emodin. ► Efflux transporters are involved in the excretion of emodin glucuronide. ► The intestine is the main organ for metabolism of emodin.

  9. Comparing the accuracy of ABC and time-driven ABC in complex and dynamic environments: a simulation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    S. HOOZÉE; M. VANHOUCKE; W. BRUGGEMAN; -

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares the accuracy of traditional ABC and time-driven ABC in complex and dynamic environments through simulation analysis. First, when unit times in time-driven ABC are known or can be flawlessly estimated, time-driven ABC coincides with the benchmark system and in this case our results show that the overall accuracy of traditional ABC depends on (1) existing capacity utilization, (2) diversity in the actual mix of productive work, and (3) error in the estimated percentage mix. ...

  10. Effect of bisphenol A on P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux and ultrastructure of the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bošnjak, Ivana; Borra, Marco; Iamunno, Franco; Benvenuto, Giovanna; Ujević, Ivana; Bušelić, Ivana; Roje-Busatto, Romana; Mladineo, Ivona

    2014-11-01

    Usage of bisphenol A (BPA) in production of polycarbonate plastics has resulted in global distribution of BPA in the environment. These high concentrations cause numerous negative effects to the aquatic biota, among which the most known is the induction of endocrine disruption. The focus of this research was to determine the effects of two experimentally determined concentrations of BPA (100nM and 4μM) on cellular detoxification mechanisms during the embryonic development (2-cell, pluteus) of the rocky sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus), primarily the potential involvement of multidrug efflux transport in the BPA intercellular efflux. The results of transport assay, measurements of the intracellular BPA and gene expression surveys, for the first time indicate the importance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) in defense against BPA. Cytotoxic effects of BPA, validated by the immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), induced the aberrant karyokinesis, and consequently, the impairment of embryo development through the first cell division and retardation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Combating multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ze-Qi; Flavin, Michael T; Flavin, John

    2014-02-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections, especially those caused by Gram-negative pathogens, have emerged as one of the world's greatest health threats. The development of novel antibiotics to treat MDR Gram-negative bacteria has, however, stagnated over the last half century. This review provides an overview of recent R&D activities in the search for novel antibiotics against MDR Gram-negatives. It provides emphasis in three key areas. First, the article looks at new analogs of existing antibiotic molecules such as β-lactams, tetracyclines, and aminoglycoside as well as agents against novel bacterial targets such as aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and peptide deformylase. Second, it also examines alternative strategies to conventional approaches including cationic antimicrobial peptides, siderophores, efflux pump inhibitors, therapeutic antibodies, and renewed interest in abandoned treatments or those with limited indications. Third, the authors aim to provide an update on the current clinical development status for each drug candidate. The traditional analog approach is insufficient to meet the formidable challenge brought forth by MDR superbugs. With the disappointing results of the genomics approach for delivering novel targets and drug candidates, alternative strategies to permeate the bacterial cell membrane, enhance influx, disrupt efflux, and target specific pathogens via therapeutic antibodies are attractive and promising. Coupled with incentivized business models, governmental policies, and a clarified regulatory pathway, it is hoped that the antibiotic pipeline will be filled with an effective armamentarium to safeguard global health.

  12. Evaluation of multidrug efflux pump inhibitors by a new method using microfluidic channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Fluorescein-di-β-D-galactopyranoside (FDG, a fluorogenic compound, is hydrolyzed by β-galactosidase in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli to produce a fluorescent dye, fluorescein. We found that both FDG and fluorescein were substrates of efflux pumps, and have developed a new method to evaluate efflux-inhibitory activities in E. coli using FDG and a microfluidic channel device. We used E. coli MG1655 wild-type, ΔacrB (ΔB, ΔtolC (ΔC and ΔacrBΔtolC (ΔBC harboring plasmids carrying the mexAB-oprM (pABM or mexXY-oprM (pXYM genes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Two inhibitors, MexB-specific pyridopyrimidine (D13-9001 and non-specific Phe-Arg-β-naphthylamide (PAβN were evaluated. The effects of inhibitors on pumps were observed using the microfluidic channel device under a fluorescence microscope. AcrAB-TolC and analogous pumps effectively prevented FDG influx in wild-type cells, resulting in no fluorescence. In contrast, ΔB or ΔC easily imported and hydrolyzed FDG to fluorescein, which was exported by residual pumps in ΔB. Consequently, fluorescent medium in ΔB and fluorescent cells of ΔC and ΔBC were observed in the microfluidic channels. D13-9001 substantially increased fluorescent cell number in ΔBC/pABM but not in ΔBC/pXYM. PAβN increased medium fluorescence in all strains, especially in the pump deletion mutants, and caused fluorescein accumulation to disappear in ΔC. The checkerboard method revealed that D13-9001 acts synergistically with aztreonam, ciprofloxacin, and erythromycin only against the MexAB-OprM producer (ΔBC/pABM, and PAβN acts synergistically, especially with erythromycin, in all strains including the pump deletion mutants. The results obtained from PAβN were similar to the results from membrane permeabilizer, polymyxin B or polymyxin B nonapeptide by concentration. The new method clarified that D13-9001 specifically inhibited MexAB-OprM in contrast to PAβN, which appeared to be a substrate of the pumps and

  13. Visualization of multidrug resistance in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrikse, N.H.; Franssen, E.J.F.; Graaf, W.T.A. van der; Vries, E.G.E. de; Vaalburg, W.

    1999-01-01

    Various mechanisms are involved in multidrug resistance (MDR) for chemotherapeutic drugs, such as the drug efflux pumps, P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP). In this review the mechanisms involved in MDR are described and results are reviewed with particular attention to the in vivo imaging of Pgp and MRP. Various detection assays provide information about the presence of drug efflux pumps at the mRNA and protein levels. However, these methods do not yield information about the dynamic function of Pgp and MRP in vivo. For the study of Pgp- and MRP-mediated transport, single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and positron emission tomography (PET) are available. Technetium-99m sestamibi is a substrate for Pgp and MRP, and has been used in clinical studies for tumour imaging, and to visualize blockade of Pgp-mediated transport after modulation of the Pgp pump. Other 99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals, such as 99m Tc-tetrofosmin and several 99 Tc-Q complexes, are also substrates for Pgp, but to date only results from in vitro and animal studies are available for these compounds. Several agents, including [ 11 C]colchicine, [ 11 C]verapamil and [ 11 C]daunorubicin, have been evaluated for the quantification of Pgp-mediated transport with PET in vivo. The results suggest that radiolabelled colchicine, verapamil and daunorubicin are feasible substrates with which to image Pgp function in tumours. Uptake of [ 11 C]colchicine and [ 11 C]verapamil is relatively high in the chest area, reducing the value of both tracers for monitoring Pgp-mediated drug transport in tumours located in this region. In addition, it has to be borne in mind that only comparison of Pgp-mediated transport of radioalabelled substrates in the absence and in the presence of Pgp blockade gives quantitative information on Pgp-mediated pharmacokinetics. Leukotrienes are specific substrates for MRP. Therefore, N-[ 11 C]acetyl-leukotriene E 4 provides an opportunity to study MRP

  14. Drug transport mechanism of the AcrB efflux pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pos, Klaas M

    2009-05-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, tripartite multidrug efflux systems extrude cytotoxic substances from the cell directly into the medium bypassing periplasm and the outer membrane. In E. coli, the tripartite efflux system AcrA/AcrB/TolC is the pump that extrudes multiple antibiotics, dyes, bile salts and detergents. The inner membrane component AcrB, a member of the Resistance Nodulation cell Division (RND) family, is the major site for substrate recognition and energy transduction of the entire tripartite system. The drug/proton antiport processes in this secondary transporter are suggested to be spatially separated, a feature frequently observed for primary transporters like membrane-bound ATPases. The recently elucidated asymmetric structure of the AcrB trimer reveals three different monomer conformations proposed to represent consecutive states in a directional transport cycle. Each monomer shows a distinct tunnel system with entrances located at the boundary of the outer leaflet of the inner membrane and the periplasm through the periplasmic porter (pore) domain towards the funnel of the trimer and TolC. In one monomer a hydrophobic pocket is present which has been shown to bind the AcrB substrates minocyclin and doxorubicin. The energy conversion from the proton motive force into drug efflux includes proton binding in (and release from) the transmembrane part. The conformational changes observed within a triad of essential, titratable residues (D407/D408/K940) residing in the hydrophobic transmembrane domain appear to be transduced by transmembrane helix 8 and associated with the conformational changes seen in the periplasmic domain. From the asymmetric structure a possible peristaltic pump transport mechanism based on a functional rotation of the AcrB trimer has been postulated. The novel drug transport model combines the alternate access pump mechanism with the rotating site catalysis of F(1)F(o) ATPase as

  15. Efflux of inorganic substances from young barley roots. I. Efflux in water culture under various conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, H; Kojima, S [Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan)

    1977-09-01

    The efflux of elements from the roots of hydropomically grown young barley plants was studied. The effects of different mutrient compositions and pH values of the solutions was also studied using /sup 22/Na and /sup 45/Ca as the indexes. In all culture conditions, there was efflux of both elements. In two media with dilute hydrochloric acid and AlCl/sub 3/, respectively, the tendencies of Na and Ca efflux were similar in both media at first, but after 72 hr, the Na efflux in AlCl/sub 3/ decreased and that in dilute hydrochloric acid medium increased. The Ca efflux was high in AlCl/sub 3/ medium,however. The efflux of both Na and Ca was higher in the standard medium than in the media with some bases of high concentrations.

  16. Molecular evidence and functional expression of multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP) in rabbit corneal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karla, Pradeep K; Pal, Dananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2007-01-01

    Multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP) is a major family of efflux transporters involved in drug efflux leading to drug resistance. The objective of this study was to explore physical barriers for ocular drug absorption and to verify if the role of efflux transporters. MRP-2 is a major homologue of MRP family and found to express on the apical side of cell membrane. Cultured Rabbit Corneal Epithelial Cells (rCEC) were selected as an in vitro model for corneal epithelium. [14C]-erythromycin which is a proven substrate for MRP-2 was selected as a model drug for functional expression studies. MK-571, a known specific and potent inhibitor for MRP-2 was added to inhibit MRP mediated efflux. Membrane fraction of rCEC was used for western blot analysis. Polarized transport of [14C]-erythromycin was observed in rCEC and transport from B-->A was significantly high than from A-->B. Permeability's increased significantly from A-->B in the presence of MK-571 and ketoconozole. Uptake of [14C]-erythromycin in the presence of MK-571 was significantly higher than control in rCEC. RT-PCR analysis indicated a unique and distinct band at approximately 498 bp corresponding to MRP-2 in rCEC and MDCK11-MRP-2 cells. Immunoprecipitation followed by Western Blot analysis indicated a specific band at approximately 190 kDa in membrane fraction of rCEC and MDCK11-MRP-2 cells. For the first time we have demonstrated high expression of MRP-2 in rabbit corneal epithelium and its functional activity causing drug efflux. RT-PCR, immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis further confirms the result.

  17. A Novel Submicron Emulsion System Loaded with Doxorubicin Overcome Multi-Drug Resistance in MCF-7/ADR Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W P; Hua, H Y; Sun, P C; Zhao, Y X

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop the Solutol HS15-based doxorubicin submicron emulsion with good stability and overcoming multi-drug resistance. In this study, we prepared doxorubicin submicron emulsion, and examined the stability after autoclaving, the in vitro cytotoxic activity, the intracellular accumulation and apoptpsis of doxorubicin submicron emulsion in MCF-7/ADR cells. The physicochemical properties of doxorubicin submicron emulsion were not significantly affected after autoclaving. The doxorubicin submicron emulsion significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin submicron emulsion and enhanced cytotoxic activity and apoptotic effects of doxorubicin. These results may be correlated to doxorubicin submicron emulsion inhibitory effects on efflux pumps through the progressive release of intracellular free Solutol HS15 from doxorubicin submicron emulsion. Furthermore, these in vitro results suggest that the Solutol HS15-based submicron emulsion may be a potentially useful drug delivery system to circumvent multi-drug resistance of tumor cells.

  18. ABC transporter Cdr1p harbors charged residues in the intracellular loop and nucleotide-binding domain critical for protein trafficking and drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Abdul Haseeb; Banerjee, Atanu; Rawal, Manpreet Kaur; Saxena, Ajay Kumar; Mondal, Alok Kumar; Prasad, Rajendra

    2015-08-01

    The ABC transporter Cdr1 protein of Candida albicans, which plays a major role in antifungal resistance, has two transmembrane domains (TMDs) and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). The 12 transmembrane helices of TMDs that are interconnected by extracellular and intracellular loops (ICLs) mainly harbor substrate recognition sites where drugs bind while cytoplasmic NBDs hydrolyze ATP which powers drug efflux. The coupling of ATP hydrolysis to drug transport requires proper communication between NBDs and TMDs typically accomplished by ICLs. This study examines the role of cytoplasmic ICLs of Cdr1p by rationally predicting the critical residues on the basis of their interatomic distances. Among nine pairs that fall within a proximity of trafficking. These results point to a new role for ICL/NBD interacting residues in PDR ABC transporters in protein folding and trafficking. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Mercury toxicokinetics of the healthy human term placenta involve amino acid transporters and ABC transporters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straka, Elisabeth; Ellinger, Isabella; Balthasar, Christina; Scheinast, Matthias; Schatz, Jasmin; Szattler, Tamara; Bleichert, Sonja; Saleh, Leila; Knöfler, Martin; Zeisler, Harald; Hengstschläger, Markus; Rosner, Margit; Salzer, Hans; Gundacker, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • It is known that MeHg is able to pass the placenta and to affect fetal brain development. • Uptake and efflux transporters were examined in human primary trophoblast cells and BeWo cells. • Involvement in mercury transfer was assessed by measurement of cellular mercury content upon siRNA mediated gene knockdown. • Localization of transporters was determined by immunofluorescence microscopy. • LAT1 and rBAT at the apical membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast (STB) are involved in MeHg uptake. • MRP1 located at basal membrane of STB mediates mercury efflux. - Abstract: Background: The capacity of the human placenta to handle exogenous stressors is poorly understood. The heavy metal mercury is well-known to pass the placenta and to affect brain development. An active transport across the placenta has been assumed. The underlying mechanisms however are virtually unknown. Objectives: Uptake and efflux transporters (17 candidate proteins) assumed to play a key role in placental mercury transfer were examined for expression, localization and function in human primary trophoblast cells and the trophoblast-derived choriocarcinoma cell line BeWo. Methods: To prove involvement of the transporters, we used small interfering RNA (siRNA) and exposed cells to methylmercury (MeHg). Total mercury contents of cells were analyzed by Cold vapor-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS). Localization of the proteins in human term placenta sections was determined via immunofluorescence microscopy. Results: We found the amino acid transporter subunits L-type amino acid transporter (LAT)1 and rBAT (related to b 0,+ type amino acid transporter) as well as the efflux transporter multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP)1 to be involved in mercury kinetics of trophoblast cells (t-test P < 0.05). Conclusion: The amino acid transporters located at the apical side of the syncytiotrophoblast (STB) manage uptake of MeHg. Mercury conjugated to glutathione (GSH) is

  20. [Efflux systems in Serratia marcescens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardanova, A M; Bogomol'naia, L M; Romanova, Iu D; Sharipova, M R

    2014-01-01

    A widespread bacterium Serratia marcescens (family Enterobacteriaceae) is an opportunistic and exhibits multiple drug resistance. Active removal of antibiotics and other antimicrobials from pathogen and exhibits multiple drug resistance. Active removal of antibiotics and other antimicrobials from the cells by efflux systems is one of the mechanisms responsible for microbial resistance to these compounds. Among enterobacteria, efflux systems of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica var. Typhimurium have been studied most extensively. Few efflux systems that belong to different families have been reported for S. marcescens. In this review, we analyzed available literature about S. marcescens efflux systems and carried out the comparative analysis of the genes encoding the RND type systems in different Serratia species and in other enterobacteria. Bioinformatical analysis of the S. marcescens genome allowed us to identify the previously unknown efflux systems based on their homology with the relevant E. coli genes. Identification of additional efflux systems in S. marcescens genome will promote our understanding of physiology of these bacteria, will detect new molecular mechanisms of resistance and will reveal their resistance potential.

  1. Sustaining an Effective ABC-ABM System

    OpenAIRE

    Gary COKINS; Sorinel CĂPUŞNEANU

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the Activity- Based Costing (ABC) and Activity-Based Management (ABM) system and techniques to sustain them as a permanent and repeatable production reporting system, not just for one-off analysis. A comparison is made between ABC/ABM modeling software that extracts source data and business systems that include ABC/ABM modeling features. There are presented the stages of updating, running and rerunning the ABC/ABM system. The resul...

  2. The ABC and AUSSAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarritty, Ian

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's (ABC) utilization of the AUSSAT telecommunications satellite to extend its television and radio transmission range to reach remote Australian audiences; the satellite's program gathering and interchange capabilities; and ABC's generation of other benefits to offset cost of satellite services.…

  3. Characterization of a novel domain ‘GATE’ in the ABC protein DrrA and its role in drug efflux by the DrrAB complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Han; Rahman, Sadia; Li, Wen; Fu, Guoxing; Kaur, Parjit

    2015-01-01

    A novel domain, GATE (Glycine-loop And Transducer Element), is identified in the ABC protein DrrA. This domain shows sequence and structural conservation among close homologs of DrrA as well as distantly-related ABC proteins. Among the highly conserved residues in this domain are three glycines, G215, G221 and G231, of which G215 was found to be critical for stable expression of the DrrAB complex. Other conserved residues, including E201, G221, K227 and G231, were found to be critical for the catalytic and transport functions of the DrrAB transporter. Structural analysis of both the previously published crystal structure of the DrrA homolog MalK and the modeled structure of DrrA showed that G215 makes close contacts with residues in and around the Walker A motif, suggesting that these interactions may be critical for maintaining the integrity of the ATP binding pocket as well as the complex. It is also shown that G215A or K227R mutation diminishes some of the atomic interactions essential for ATP catalysis and overall transport function. Therefore, based on both the biochemical and structural analyses, it is proposed that the GATE domain, located outside of the previously identified ATP binding and hydrolysis motifs, is an additional element involved in ATP catalysis. - Highlights: • A novel domain ‘GATE’ is identified in the ABC protein DrrA. • GATE shows high sequence and structural conservation among diverse ABC proteins. • GATE is located outside of the previously studied ATP binding and hydrolysis motifs. • Conserved GATE residues are critical for stability of DrrAB and for ATP catalysis

  4. Strategies to overcome or circumvent P-glycoprotein mediated multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hongyu; Li, Xun; Wu, Jifeng; Li, Jinpei; Qu, Xianjun; Xu, Wenfang; Tang, Wei

    2008-01-01

    Cancer patients who receive chemotherapy often experience intrinsic or acquired resistance to a broad spectrum of chemotherapeutic agents. The phenomenon, termed multidrug resistance (MDR), is often associated with the over-expression of P-glycoprotein, a transmembrane protein pump, which can enhance efflux of a various chemicals structurally unrelated at the expense of ATP depletion, resulting in decrease of the intracellular cytotoxic drug accumulation. The MDR has been a big threaten to the human health and the war fight for it continues. Although several other mechanisms for MDR are elucidated in recent years, considerable efforts attempting to inverse MDR are involved in exploring P-glycoprotein modulators and suppressing P-glycoprotein expression. In this review, we will report on the recent advances in various strategies for overcoming or circumventing MDR mediated by P-glycoprotein.

  5. ABC Kinga kauplused = ABC King shoe stores

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Tallinnas Kristiine keskuses, Tartu Kaubamajas ja Pärnus Port Artur 2 asuvate ABC Kinga kaupluste sisekujundusest. Sisearhitekid Andres Labi ja Janno Roos (Ruumilabor OÜ), loetletud nende ühiselt tehtud töid

  6. The TolC protein of Legionella pneumophila plays a major role in multi-drug resistance and the early steps of host invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Ferhat

    Full Text Available Pneumonia associated with Iegionnaires's disease is initiated in humans after inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In the environment, Legionella pneumophila is thought to survive and multiply as an intracellular parasite within free-living amoeba. In the genome of L. pneumophila Lens, we identified a unique gene, tolC, encoding a protein that is highly homologous to the outer membrane protein TolC of Escherichia coli. Deletion of tolC by allelic exchange in L. pneumophila caused increased sensitivity to various drugs. The complementation of the tolC mutation in trans restored drug resistance, indicating that TolC is involved in multi-drug efflux machinery. In addition, deletion of tolC caused a significant attenuation of virulence towards both amoebae and macrophages. Thus, the TolC protein appears to play a crucial role in virulence which could be mediated by its involvement in efflux pump mechanisms. These findings will be helpful in unraveling the pathogenic mechanisms of L. pneumophila as well as in developing new therapeutic agents affecting the efflux of toxic compounds.

  7. Global regulator SoxR is a negative regulator of efflux pump gene expression and affects antibiotic resistance and fitness in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Henan; Wang, Qi; Wang, Ruobing; Zhang, Yawei; Wang, Xiaojuan; Wang, Hui

    2017-06-01

    SoxR is a global regulator contributing to multidrug resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. However, the contribution of SoxR to antibiotic resistance and fitness in Acinetobacter baumannii has not yet been studied. Comparisons of molecular characteristics were performed between 32 multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolates and 11 susceptible isolates. A soxR overexpression mutant was constructed, and its resistance phenotype was analyzed. The impact of SoxR on efflux pump gene expression was measured at the transcription level. The effect of SoxR on the growth and fitness of A. baumannii was analyzed using a growth rate assay and an in vitro competition assay. The frequency of the Gly39Ser mutation in soxR was higher in multidrug-resistant A. baumannii, whereas the soxS gene was absent in all strains analyzed. SoxR overexpression led to increased susceptibility to chloramphenicol (4-fold), tetracycline (2-fold), tigecycline (2-fold), ciprofloxacin (2-fold), amikacin (2-fold), and trimethoprim (2-fold), but it did not influence imipenem susceptibility. Decreased expression of abeS (3.8-fold), abeM (1.3-fold), adeJ (2.4-fold), and adeG (2.5-fold) were correlated with soxR overexpression (P baumannii.

  8. Multidrug Resistance Protein-4 Influences Aspirin Toxicity in Human Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Massimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Overexpression of efflux transporters, in human cells, is a mechanism of resistance to drug and also to chemotherapy. We found that multidrug resistance protein-4 (MRP4 overexpression has a role in reducing aspirin action in patients after bypass surgery and, very recently, we found that aspirin enhances platelet MRP4 levels through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα. In the present paper, we verified whether exposure of human embryonic kidney-293 cells (Hek-293 to aspirin modifies MRP4 gene expression and its correlation with drug elimination and cell toxicity. We first investigated the effect of high-dose aspirin in Hek-293 and we showed that aspirin is able to increase cell toxicity dose-dependently. Furthermore, aspirin effects, induced at low dose, already enhance MRP4 gene expression. Based on these findings, we compared cell viability in Hek-293, after high-dose aspirin treatment, in MRP4 overexpressing cells, either after aspirin pretreatment or in MRP4 transfected cells; in both cases, a decrease of selective aspirin cell growth inhibition was observed, in comparison with the control cultures. Altogether, these data suggest that exposing cells to low nontoxic aspirin dosages can induce gene expression alterations that may lead to the efflux transporter protein overexpression, thus increasing cellular detoxification of aspirin.

  9. Gly[14]-humanin inhibits ox-LDL uptake and stimulates cholesterol efflux in macrophage-derived foam cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wa-Wa; Wang, Shu-Rong; Liu, Zhi-Hua; Cao, Yong-Jun; Wang, Fen; Wang, Jing; Liu, Chun-Feng; Xie, Ying; Xie, Ying; Zhang, Yan-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Foam cell formation, which is caused by imbalanced cholesterol influx and efflux by macrophages, plays a vital role in the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis. Humanin (HN), a mitochondria-derived peptide, can prevent the production of reactive oxygen species and death of human aortic endothelial cells exposed to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and has a protective effect on patients with in early atherosclerosis. However, the effects of HN on the regulation of cholesterol metabolism in RAW 264.7 macrophages are still unknown. This study was designed to investigate the role of [Gly14]-humanin (HNG) in lipid uptake and cholesterol efflux in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Flow cytometry and live cell imaging results showed that HNG reduced Dil-ox-LDL accumulation in the RAW 264.7 macrophages. A similar result was obtained for lipid accumulation by measuring cellular cholesterol content. Western blot analysis showed that ox-LDL treatment upregulated not only the protein expression of CD36 and LOX-1, which mediate ox-LDL endocytosis, but also ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter A1 and ABCG1, which mediate ox-LDL exflux. HNG pretreatment inhibited the upregulation of CD36 and LOX-1 levels, prompting the upregulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1 levels induced by ox-LDL. Therefore we concluded that HNG could inhibit ox-LDL-induced macrophage-derived foam cell formation, which occurs because of a decrease in lipid uptake and an increase in cholesterol efflux from macrophage cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of the atypical kinases ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 in abscisic acid responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eManara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ABC1K family of atypical kinases (activity of bc1 complex kinase is represented in bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. In plants they regulate diverse physiological processes in the chloroplasts and mitochondria, but their precise functions are poorly defined. ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 are probably involved in oxidative stress responses, isoprenyl lipid synthesis and distribution of iron within chloroplasts. Because reactive oxygen species take part in abscisic acid (ABA-mediated processes, we investigated the functions of ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 during germination, stomatal movement and leaf senescence. Both genes were upregulated by ABA treatment and some ABA-responsive physiological processes were affected in abc1k7 and abc1k8 mutants. Germination was more severely affected by ABA, osmotic stress and salt stress in the single and double mutants; the stomatal aperture was smaller in the mutants under standard growth conditions and was not further reduced by exogenous ABA application; ABA-induced senescence symptoms were more severe in the leaves of the single and double mutants compared to wild type leaves. Taken together, our results suggest that ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 might be involved in the cross-talk between ABA and ROS signaling.

  11. Lapatinib potentiates cytotoxicity of YM155 in neuroblastoma via inhibition of the ABCB1 efflux transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radic-Sarikas, Branka; Halasz, Melinda; Huber, Kilian V. M.

    2017-01-01

    and simultaneously help to overcome drug resistance. Neuroblastoma is the most common cancer in infancy and extremely heterogeneous in clinical presentation and features. Applying a systematic pairwise drug combination screen we observed a highly potent synergy in neuroblastoma cells between the EGFR kinase...... inhibitor lapatinib and the anticancer compound YM155 that is preserved across several neuroblastoma variants. Mechanistically, the synergy was based on a lapatinib induced inhibition of the multidrug-resistance efflux transporter ABCB1, which is frequently expressed in resistant neuroblastoma cells, which...... allowed prolonged and elevated cytotoxicity of YM155. In addition, the drug combination (i.e. lapatinib plus YM155) decreased neuroblastoma tumor size in an in vivo model....

  12. ABCC4/MRP4: a MYCN-regulated transporter and potential therapeutic target in neuroblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony eHuynh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to cytotoxic drugs is thought to be a major cause of treatment failure in childhood neuroblastoma, and members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter superfamily may contribute to this phenomenon by active efflux of chemotherapeutic agents from cancer cells. As a member of the C subfamily of ABC transporters, multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP4/ABCC4 has the ability to export a variety of endogenous and exogenous substances across the plasma membrane. In light of its capacity for chemotherapeutic drug efflux, MRP4 has been studied in the context of drug resistance in a number of cancer cell types. However, MRP4 also influences cancer cell biology independently of chemotherapeutic drug exposure, which highlights the potential importance of endogenous MRP4 substrates in cancer biology. Furthermore, MRP4 is a direct transcriptional target of Myc family oncoproteins and expression of this transporter is a powerful independent predictor of clinical outcome in neuroblastoma. Together these features suggest that inhibition of MRP4 may be an attractive therapeutic approach for neuroblastoma and other cancers that rely on MRP4. In this respect, existing options for MRP4 inhibition are relatively non-selective and thus development of more specific anti-MRP4 compounds should be a major focus of future work in this area.

  13. Whole genome sequence to decipher the resistome of Shewanella algae, a multidrug-resistant bacterium responsible for pneumonia, Marseille, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, Teresa; Olaitan, Abiola Olumuyiwa; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    We characterize and decipher the resistome and the virulence factors of Shewanella algae MARS 14, a multidrug-resistant clinical strain using the whole genome sequencing (WGS) strategy. The bacteria were isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage of a hospitalized patient in the Timone Hospital in Marseille, France who developed pneumonia after plunging into the Mediterranean Sea. The genome size of S. algae MARS 14 was 5,005,710 bp with 52.8% guanine cytosine content. The resistome includes members of class C and D beta-lactamases and numerous multidrug-efflux pumps. We also found the presence of several hemolysins genes, a complete flagellum system gene cluster and genes responsible for biofilm formation. Moreover, we reported for the first time in a clinical strain of Shewanella spp. the presence of a bacteriocin (marinocin). The WGS analysis of this pathogen provides insight into its virulence factors and resistance to antibiotics.

  14. Development of Classification Models for Identifying “True” P-glycoprotein (P-gp Inhibitors Through Inhibition, ATPase Activation and Monolayer Efflux Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Bianucci

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available P-glycoprotein (P-gp is an efflux pump involved in the protection of tissues of several organs by influencing xenobiotic disposition. P-gp plays a key role in multidrug resistance and in the progression of many neurodegenerative diseases. The development of new and more effective therapeutics targeting P-gp thus represents an intriguing challenge in drug discovery. P-gp inhibition may be considered as a valid approach to improve drug bioavailability as well as to overcome drug resistance to many kinds of tumours characterized by the over-expression of this protein. This study aims to develop classification models from a unique dataset of 59 compounds for which there were homogeneous experimental data on P-gp inhibition, ATPase activation and monolayer efflux. For each experiment, the dataset was split into a training and a test set comprising 39 and 20 molecules, respectively. Rational splitting was accomplished using a sphere-exclusion type algorithm. After a two-step (internal/external validation, the best-performing classification models were used in a consensus predicting task for the identification of compounds named as “true” P-gp inhibitors, i.e., molecules able to inhibit P-gp without being effluxed by P-gp itself and simultaneously unable to activate the ATPase function.

  15. Anticancer Effects of the Nitric Oxide-Modified Saquinavir Derivative Saquinavir-NO against Multidrug-Resistant Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Rothweiler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV protease inhibitor saquinavir shows anticancer activity. Although its nitric oxide-modified derivative saquinavir-NO (saq-NO was less toxic to normal cells, it exerted stronger inhibition of B16 melanoma growth in syngeneic C57BL/6 mice than saquinavir did. Saq-NO has been shown to block proliferation, upregulate p53 expression, and promote differentiation of C6 glioma and B16 cells. The anticancer activity of substances is frequently hampered by cancer cell chemoresistance mechanisms. Therefore, we here investigated the roles of p53 and the ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp, multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1, and breast cancer resistance protein 1 (BCRP1 in cancer cell sensitivity to saq-NO to get more information about the potential of saq-NO as anticancer drug. Saq-NO exerted anticancer effects in lower concentrations than saquinavir in a panel of human cancer cell lines. Neither p53 mutation or depletion nor expression of P-gp, MRP1, or BCRP1 affected anticancer activity of saq-NO or saquinavir. Moreover, saq-NO sensitized P-gp-, MRP1-, or BCRP1-expressing cancer cells to chemotherapy. Saq-NO induced enhanced sensitization of P-gp- or MRP1-expressing cancer cells to chemotherapy compared with saquinavir, whereas both substances similarly sensitized BCRP1-expressing cells. Washout kinetics and ABC transporter ATPase activities demonstrated that saq-NO is a substrate of P-gp as well as of MRP1. These data support the further investigation of saq-NO as an anticancer drug, especially in multidrug-resistant tumors.

  16. Evaluation of HP0605 and HP0971 genes of efflux pumps in Helicobacter pylori resistance to Metronidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad hasan Shirazi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of antibiotic resistance has been reported in H.pylori and it is a major cause of treatment failure. Five families of multidrug efflux pumps are defined in bacteria and resistance-nodulation-division (RND pumps are found mainly in gram negative bacteria. TolC is one of RND pump components and play a critical role in drug resistance. It hasn’t been established that RND family has a role in drug resistance in H.pylori. In this study, we assessed the role of two efflux genes in resistant to metronidazole in H.pylori by evaluation of overexpression TolC genes by RT-PCR method. Methods: In five metronidazole resistant strains of H.pylori, total RNA was extracted. RNA treated with DNase and RNA reverse transcribed to cDNA. Aliquots of the cDNA solution were assayed by RT- PCR for HP0605 and HP0971 genes. The levels of mRNA expression were evaluated by densitometry analysis. Results: All five strains displayed overexpression for HP0605 basis of increased concentration of metronidazole. Three strains showed transcripts for HP0971. One of these had transcripts for HP0971 only in Metronidazole concentration equaled to 16 µg/ml but two strains overexpressed adapt to increase concentration of metronidazole. Conclusion: According to current study, HP0605 and HP0971 genes overexpressed due to increase metronidazole. So, increasing of Metronidazole affects in H.pylori΄s efflux system in transcription level.

  17. GenBank blastx search result: AK104832 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK104832 001-042-A09 L25604.2 Bacillus subtilis bmrU (bmrU) and multidrug-efflux transporter (bmr...) genes, complete cds; bmrR gene, complete sequence; multidrug-efflux transporter regulator (bmr

  18. Novel understanding of ABC transporters ABCB1/MDR/P-glycoprotein, ABCC2/MRP2, and ABCG2/BCRP in colorectal pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Svenningsen, Katrine; Knudsen, Lina Almind

    2015-01-01

    transporter proteins, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative, colitis, Crohns disease, colorectal cancer, colitis, intestinal inflammation, intestinal carcinogenesis, ABCB1/P-glycoprotein (P-gp/CD243/MDR1), ABCC2/multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) and ABCG2/breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), Abcb1....../Mdr1a, abcc2/Mrp2, abcg2/Bcrp, knock-out mice, tight junction, membrane lipid function. RESULTS: Recently, human studies reported that changes in the levels of ABC transporters were early events in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence leading to CRC. A link between ABCB1, high fat diet and gut microbes...

  19. Fallopia japonica, a Natural Modulator, Can Overcome Multidrug Resistance in Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa Yehia Eid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy is controlled by the decrease of intracellular drug accumulation, increase of detoxification, and diminished propensity of cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. ATP-binding cassette (ABC membrane transporters with intracellular metabolic enzymes contribute to the complex and unresolved phenomenon of multidrug resistance (MDR. Natural products as alternative medicine have great potential to discover new MDR inhibitors with diverse modes of action. In this study, we characterized several extracts of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM plants (N = 16 for their interaction with ABC transporters, cytochrome P3A4 (CYP3A4, and glutathione-S-transferase (GST activities and their cytotoxic effect on different cancer cell lines. Fallopia japonica (FJ (Polygonaceae shows potent inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 P-glycoprotein activity about 1.8-fold when compared to verapamil as positive control. FJ shows significant inhibitory effect (39.81% compared with the known inhibitor ketoconazole and 100 μg/mL inhibited GST activity to 14 μmol/min/mL. FJ shows moderate cytotoxicity in human Caco-2, HepG-2, and HeLa cell lines; IC50 values were 630.98, 198.80, and 317.37 µg/mL, respectively. LC-ESI-MS were used to identify and quantify the most abundant compounds, emodin, polydatin, and resveratrol, in the most active extract of FJ. Here, we present the prospect of using Fallopia japonica as natural products to modulate the function of ABC drug transporters. We are conducting future study to evaluate the ability of the major active secondary metabolites of Fallopia japonica to modulate MDR and their impact in case of failure of chemotherapy.

  20. Coarse-grained Simulations of Substrate Export through Multidrug Efflux Transporter AcrB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewel, Yead; Dutta, Prashanta; Liu, Jin

    2017-11-01

    The treatment of bacterial infectious diseases hampered by the overexpression of multidrug resistance (MDR) systems. The MDR system actively pumps the antibiotic drugs as well as other toxic compounds out of the cells. During the pumping, AcrB (one of the key MDR components) undergoes a series of large-scale proton/substrate dependent conformational changes. In this work, we implement a hybrid coarse-grained PACE force field that couples the united-atom protein model with the coarse-grained MARTINI water/lipid, to investigate the conformational changes of AcrB. We first develop the substrate force field which is compatible with PACE, then we implement the force field to explore large scale structural changes of AcrB in microsecond simulations. The effects of the substrate and the protonation states of two key residues: Asp407 and Asp408, are investigated. Our results show that the drug export through AcrB is proton as well as substrate dependent. Our simulations explain molecular mechanisms of substrate transport through AcrB complex, as well as provide valuable insights for designing proper antibiotic drugs. Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01GM122081.

  1. Impact of anatase and rutile titanium dioxide nanoparticles on uptake carriers and efflux pumps in Caco-2 gut epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorier, M.; Brun, E.; Veronesi, G.; Barreau, F.; Pernet-Gallay, K.; Desvergne, C.; Rabilloud, T.; Carapito, C.; Herlin-Boime, N.; Carrière, M.

    2015-04-01

    TiO2 microparticles are widely used in food products, where they are added as a white food colouring agent. This food additive contains a significant amount of nanoscale particles; still the impact of TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) on gut cells is poorly documented. Our study aimed at evaluating the impact of rutile and anatase TiO2-NPs on the main functions of enterocytes, i.e. nutrient absorption driven by solute-liquid carriers (SLC transporters) and protection against other xenobiotics driven by efflux pumps from the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family. We show that acute exposure of Caco-2 cells to both anatase (12 nm) and rutile (20 nm) TiO2-NPs induce early upregulation of a battery of efflux pumps and nutrient transporters. In addition they cause overproduction of reactive oxygen species and misbalance redox repair systems, without inducing cell mortality or DNA damage. Taken together, these data suggest that TiO2-NPs may increase the functionality of gut epithelial cells, particularly their property to form a protective barrier against exogenous toxicants and to absorb nutrients.TiO2 microparticles are widely used in food products, where they are added as a white food colouring agent. This food additive contains a significant amount of nanoscale particles; still the impact of TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) on gut cells is poorly documented. Our study aimed at evaluating the impact of rutile and anatase TiO2-NPs on the main functions of enterocytes, i.e. nutrient absorption driven by solute-liquid carriers (SLC transporters) and protection against other xenobiotics driven by efflux pumps from the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family. We show that acute exposure of Caco-2 cells to both anatase (12 nm) and rutile (20 nm) TiO2-NPs induce early upregulation of a battery of efflux pumps and nutrient transporters. In addition they cause overproduction of reactive oxygen species and misbalance redox repair systems, without inducing cell mortality or DNA damage. Taken

  2. Multiple resistance to carcinogens and xenobiotics: P-glycoproteins as universal detoxifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efferth, Thomas; Volm, Manfred

    2017-07-01

    The detoxification of toxic substances is of general relevance in all biological systems. The plethora of exogenous xenobiotic compounds and endogenous toxic metabolic products explains the evolutionary pressure of all organisms to develop molecular mechanisms to detoxify and excrete harmful substances from the body. P-glycoprotein and other members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family extrude innumerous chemical compounds out of cells. Their specific expression in diverse biological contexts cause different phenotypes: (1) multidrug resistance (MDR) and thus failure of cancer chemotherapy, (2) avoidance of accumulation of carcinogens and prevention of carcinogenesis in healthy tissues, (3) absorption, distribution, metabolization and excretion (ADME) of pharmacological drugs in human patients, (4) protection from environmental toxins in aquatic organisms (multi-xenobiotic resistance, MXR). Hence ABC-transporters may have opposing effects for organismic health reaching from harmful in MDR of tumors to beneficial for maintenance of health in MXR. While their inhibition by specific inhibitors may improve treatment success in oncology and avoid carcinogenesis, blocking of ABC-transporter-driven efflux by environmental pollutants leads to ecotoxicological consequences in marine biotopes. Poisoned seafood may enter the food-chain and cause intoxications in human beings. As exemplified with ABC-transporters, joining forces in interdisciplinary research may, therefore, be a wise strategy to fight problems in human medicine and environmental sciences.

  3. Mechanism of RPE cell death in α-crystallin deficient mice: a novel and critical role for MRP1-mediated GSH efflux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameswaran G Sreekumar

    Full Text Available Absence of α-crystallins (αA and αB in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells renders them susceptible to oxidant-induced cell death. We tested the hypothesis that the protective effect of α-crystallin is mediated by changes in cellular glutathione (GSH and elucidated the mechanism of GSH efflux. In α-crystallin overexpressing cells resistant to cell death, cellular GSH was >2 fold higher than vector control cells and this increase was seen particularly in mitochondria. The high GSH levels associated with α-crystallin overexpression were due to increased GSH biosynthesis. On the other hand, cellular GSH was decreased by 50% in murine retina lacking αA or αB crystallin. Multiple multidrug resistance protein (MRP family isoforms were expressed in RPE, among which MRP1 was the most abundant. MRP1 was localized to the plasma membrane and inhibition of MRP1 markedly decreased GSH efflux. MRP1-suppressed cells were resistant to cell death and contained elevated intracellular GSH and GSSG. Increased GSH in MRP1-supressed cells resulted from a higher conversion of GSSG to GSH by glutathione reductase. In contrast, GSH efflux was significantly higher in MRP1 overexpressing RPE cells which also contained lower levels of cellular GSH and GSSG. Oxidative stress further increased GSH efflux with a decrease in cellular GSH and rendered cells apoptosis-prone. In conclusion, our data reveal for the first time that 1 MRP1 mediates GSH and GSSG efflux in RPE cells; 2 MRP1 inhibition renders RPE cells resistant to oxidative stress-induced cell death while MRP1 overexpression makes them susceptible and 3 the antiapoptotic function of α-crystallin in oxidatively stressed cells is mediated in part by GSH and MRP1. Our findings suggest that MRP1 and α crystallin are potential therapeutic targets in pathological retinal degenerative disorders linked to oxidative stress.

  4. Proteome analysis of multidrug-resistant, breast cancer–derived microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Pokharel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer multidrug resistance (MDR occurs when cancer cells evade the cytotoxic actions of chemotherapeutics through the active efflux of drugs from within the cells. Our group have previously demonstrated that multidrug-resistant breast cancer cells spontaneously shed microparticles (MPs and that these MPs can transfer resistance to drug-responsive cells and confer MDR on those cells in as little as 4 h. Furthermore, we also showed that, unlike MPs derived from leukaemia cells, breast cancer–derived MPs display a tissue selectivity in the transfer of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, transferring the resistance protein only to malignant breast cells. This study aims to define the proteome of breast cancer–derived MPs in order to understand the differences in protein profiles between those shed from drug-resistant versus drug-sensitive breast cancer cells. In doing so, we detail the protein cargo required for the intercellular transfer of MDR to drug-sensitive recipient cells and the factors governing the transfer selectivity to malignant breast cells. We describe the first proteomic analysis of MPs derived from human breast cancer cells using SDS PAGE and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS, in which we identify 120 unique proteins found only in drug-resistant, breast cancer–derived MPs. Our results demonstrate that the MP-mediated transfer of P-gp to recipient cells occurs alongside CD44; the Ezrin, Radixin and Moesin protein family (ERM; and cytoskeleton motor proteins within the MP cargo.

  5. Anticancer Effects of the Nitric Oxide-Modified Saquinavir Derivative Saquinavir-NO against Multidrug-Resistant Cancer Cells12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothweiler, Florian; Michaelis, Martin; Brauer, Peter; Otte, Jürgen; Weber, Kristoffer; Fehse, Boris; Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Wiese, Michael; Kreuter, Jörg; Al-Abed, Yousef; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2010-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor saquinavir shows anticancer activity. Although its nitric oxide-modified derivative saquinavir-NO (saq-NO) was less toxic to normal cells, it exerted stronger inhibition of B16 melanoma growth in syngeneic C57BL/6 mice than saquinavir did. Saq-NO has been shown to block proliferation, upregulate p53 expression, and promote differentiation of C6 glioma and B16 cells. The anticancer activity of substances is frequently hampered by cancer cell chemoresistance mechanisms. Therefore, we here investigated the roles of p53 and the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), and breast cancer resistance protein 1 (BCRP1) in cancer cell sensitivity to saq-NO to get more information about the potential of saq-NO as anticancer drug. Saq-NO exerted anticancer effects in lower concentrations than saquinavir in a panel of human cancer cell lines. Neither p53 mutation or depletion nor expression of P-gp, MRP1, or BCRP1 affected anticancer activity of saq-NO or saquinavir. Moreover, saq-NO sensitized P-gp-, MRP1-, or BCRP1-expressing cancer cells to chemotherapy. Saq-NO induced enhanced sensitization of P-gp- or MRP1-expressing cancer cells to chemotherapy compared with saquinavir, whereas both substances similarly sensitized BCRP1-expressing cells. Washout kinetics and ABC transporter ATPase activities demonstrated that saq-NO is a substrate of P-gp as well as of MRP1. These data support the further investigation of saq-NO as an anticancer drug, especially in multidrug-resistant tumors. PMID:21170266

  6. Anethole potentiates dodecanol's fungicidal activity by reducing PDR5 expression in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Ken-Ichi; Ishikura, Takayuki; Jono, Yui; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Ogita, Akira; Kubo, Isao; Tanaka, Toshio

    2017-02-01

    trans-Anethole (anethole), a major component of anise oil, has a broad antimicrobial spectrum and a weaker antimicrobial potency than other available antibiotics. When combined with polygodial, nagilactone E, and n-dodecanol, anethole has been shown to exhibit synergistic antifungal activity against a budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and a human opportunistic pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans. However, the mechanism underlying this synergistic effect of anethole has not been characterized. We studied this mechanism using dodecanol-treated S. cerevisiae cells and focusing on genes related to multidrug efflux. Although dodecanol transiently reduced the number of colony forming units, this recovered to levels similar to those of untreated cells with continued incubation beyond 24h. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed overexpression of an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene, PDR5, in addition to a slight increase in PDR11, PDR12, and PDR15 transcriptions in dodecanol-treated cells. In the presence of anethole, these effects were attenuated and the fungicidal activity of dodecanol was extended. Dodecanol showed longer lasting fungicidal activity against a Δpdr5. In addition, Δpdr3 and Δlge1, lack transcription factors of PDR5 and PDR3, were partly and completely susceptible to dodecanol, respectively. Furthermore, combination of anethole with fluconazole was also found to exhibit synergy on C. albicans. These results indicated that although anethole reduced the transcription of several transporters, PDR5 expression was particularly relevant to dodecanol efflux. Anethole is expected to be a promising candidate drug for the inhibition of efflux by reducing the transcription of several ABC transporters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel nanostructured enoxaparin sodium-PLGA hybrid carriers overcome tumor multidrug resistance of doxorubicin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Wu, Lei; Kou, Longfa; Xu, Meng; Sun, Jin; Wang, Yongjun; Fu, Qiang; Zhang, Peng; He, Zhonggui

    2016-11-20

    Novel enoxaparin sodium-PLGA hybrid nanocarries (EPNs) were successfully designed for sustained delivery of hydrophilic cationic doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) and to overcome multidrug resistance (MDR). By incorporation of the negative polymer of enoxaparin sodium (ES), DOX was highly encapsulated into EPNs with an encapsulation efficiency of 92.49%, and ES effectively inhibited the proliferation of HUVEC cell lines. The in vivo pharmacokinetics study after intravenous injection indicated that DOX-loaded EPNs (DOX-EPNs) exhibited a higher area under the curve (AUC) and a longer half-life (t 1/2 ) in comparison with DOX solution (DOX-Sol). The biodistribution study demonstrated that DOX-EPNs increased the DOX level in plasma and decreased the accumulation of DOX in liver and spleen. Compared with DOX-Sol, DOX-EPNs increased the cytotoxicity in P-gp over-expressing MCF-7/Adr cells, attributed to the higher intracellular efficiency of DOX produced by the EPNs. DOX-EPNs entered into resistant tumor cells by multiple endocytosis pathways, which resulted in overcoming the multidrug resistance of MCF-7/Adr cells by escaping the efflux induced by P-gp transporters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The multidrug ABC transporter BmrC/BmrD of Bacillus subtilis is regulated via a ribosome-mediated transcriptional attenuation mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reilman, Ewoud; Mars, Ruben A. T.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Denham, Emma L.

    2014-01-01

    Expression of particular drug transporters in response to antibiotic pressure is a critical element in the development of bacterial multidrug resistance, and represents a serious concern for human health. To obtain a better understanding of underlying regulatory mechanisms, we have dissected the

  9. The ABC transporters in Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenlin; Cong, Qian; Pei, Jimin; Kinch, Lisa N; Grishin, Nick V

    2012-11-01

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Ca. L. asiaticus) is a Gram-negative bacterium and the pathogen of Citrus Greening disease (Huanglongbing, HLB). As a parasitic bacterium, Ca. L. asiaticus harbors ABC transporters that play important roles in exchanging chemical compounds between Ca. L. asiaticus and its host. Here, we analyzed all the ABC transporter-related proteins in Ca. L. asiaticus. We identified 14 ABC transporter systems and predicted their structures and substrate specificities. In-depth sequence and structure analysis including multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree reconstruction, and structure comparison further support their function predictions. Our study shows that this bacterium could use these ABC transporters to import metabolites (amino acids and phosphates) and enzyme cofactors (choline, thiamine, iron, manganese, and zinc), resist to organic solvent, heavy metal, and lipid-like drugs, maintain the composition of the outer membrane (OM), and secrete virulence factors. Although the features of most ABC systems could be deduced from the abundant experimental data on their orthologs, we reported several novel observations within ABC system proteins. Moreover, we identified seven nontransport ABC systems that are likely involved in virulence gene expression regulation, transposon excision regulation, and DNA repair. Our analysis reveals several candidates for further studies to understand and control the disease, including the type I virulence factor secretion system and its substrate that are likely related to Ca. L. asiaticus pathogenicity and the ABC transporter systems responsible for bacterial OM biosynthesis that are good drug targets. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Hop resistance in the beer spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus brevis is mediated by the ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporter HorA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, K; Margolles, A; van Veen, H W; Konings, W N

    2001-09-01

    Lactobacillus brevis is a major contaminant of spoiled beer. The organism can grow in beer in spite of the presence of antibacterial hop compounds that give the beer a bitter taste. The hop resistance in L. brevis is, at least in part, dependent on the expression of the horA gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of HorA is 53% identical to that of LmrA, an ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporter in Lactococcus lactis. To study the role of HorA in hop resistance, HorA was functionally expressed in L. lactis as a hexa-histidine-tagged protein using the nisin-controlled gene expression system. HorA expression increased the resistance of L. lactis to hop compounds and cytotoxic drugs. Drug transport studies with L. lactis cells and membrane vesicles and with proteoliposomes containing purified HorA protein identified HorA as a new member of the ABC family of multidrug transporters.

  11. Bodipy-FL-Verapamil: A Fluorescent Probe for the Study of Multidrug Resistance Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rosati

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the substances used as fluorescent probes to study drug transport and the effect of efflux blockers in multidrug resistant cells have many drawbacks, such as toxicity, unspecific background, accumulation in mitochondria. New fluorescent compounds, among which Bodipy‐FL‐verapamil (BV, have been therefore proposed as more useful tools. The uptake of BV has been evaluated by cytofluorimetry and fluorescence microscopy using cell lines that overexpress P‐glycoprotein (P388/ADR and LLC‐PK1/ADR or MRP (multidrug resistance‐related protein (PANC‐1 and clinical specimens from patients. The effect of specific inhibitors for P‐glycoprotein (verapamil and vinblastine or MRP (MK571 and probenecid has been also studied. BV intracellular concentrations were significantly lower in the two P‐glycoprotein overexpressing cell lines in comparison with the parental lines. In addition, verapamil and vinblastine increased the intracellular concentrations of the dye; MK571 and probenecid, two MRP inhibitors, increased BV levels in PANC‐1 cells, that express this protein. These findings were confirmed in clinical specimens from patients. Fluorescence microscopy revealed a faint fluorescence emission in P‐glycoprotein or MRP expressing cell lines; however, treatment with specific inhibitors significantly increased the fluorescence. BV is a useful tool for studying multidrug resistance proteins with different techniques such as cytofluorimetry and fluorescence microscopy, but does not discriminate between P‐glycoprotein and MRP. In comparison with other classic fluorescent probes, the assay with this dye is extremely rapid, simple, not toxic for cells, devoid of fluorescent background, and can be useful in the clinical settings.

  12. Enterprise Architecture Data Pada Hotel ABC

    OpenAIRE

    Soesatyo, Stephanie; Wibowo, Adi; Handojo, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Hotel ABC is a company engaged in hospitality management, i.e. room rental, rental of meeting rooms and coffee shop. Hotel ABC has a branch that has the same specifications of the hotel. In business process, Hotel ABC has information systems to support existing business processes. However, existing information systems have not been integrated as a whole. Based on the condition stated above, analysis and design of enterprise architecture information system is created for the company. The proce...

  13. NFκBP65 transcription factor modulates resistance to doxorubicin through ABC transporters in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velaei, Kobra; Samadi, Nasser; Soltani, Sina; Barazvan, Balal; Soleimani Rad, Jafar

    2017-07-01

    Shedding light on chemoresistance biology of breast cancer could contribute to enhance the clinical outcome. Intrinsic or acquired resistance to chemotherapy is a major problem in breast cancer treatment. The NFκB pathway by siRNAP65 and JSH-23 as a translocational inhibitor of NFκBP65 in the doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7 (MCF-7/Dox) and MCF-7 cells was blocked. Then, the ABC transporter expression and function were assessed by real-time qRT-PCR and flow cytometry, respectively. Induction of apoptosis was evaluated after inhibition of the NFΚB pathway as well. Our study underlined the upregulation of NFκBP65 and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and downregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax in the MCF-7/Dox cells compared with control MCF-7 cells. Here, we showed that interplay between nuclear factor kappa B P65 (NFkBP65) as a transcriptional regulator and ABC transporters in the MCF-7/Dox cancer cells. We found that inhibition of the elevated expression of NFκBP65 in the resistant breast cancer, whether translocational inhibition or silencing by siRNA, decreased the expression and function of MDR1 and MRP1 efflux pumps. Furthermore, the blockade of NFκBP65 promoted apoptosis via modulating Bcl-2 and BAX expression. After inhibition of the NFκBP65 signaling pathway, elevated baseline expression of survival Bcl-2 gene in the resistant breast cells significantly decreased. Suppression of the NFκB pathway has a profound dual impact on promoting the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and reducing ABC transporter function and expression, which are some of the chemoresistance features. It was speculated that the NFκB pathway directly acts on doxorubicin-induced MDR1 and MRP1 expression in MCF-7/Dox cells.

  14. The ABC-paradox: is Time Driven ABC relevant for small and Medium sized enterprises (SME)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fladkjær, Henrik Find; Jensen, Erling

    Several articles suggest that Activity Based Costing (ABC) has failed to succeed in practical use. It is even argued that we have an ABC-paradox. Activity Based Costing has won theoretically in nu-merous articles in journals, through books, being included in all major Business Accounting text-books...

  15. Boronic species as promising inhibitors of the Staphylococcus aureus NorA efflux pump: study of 6-substituted pyridine-3-boronic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Fanny; Héquet, Arnaud; Voisin-Chiret, Anne-Sophie; Bouillon, Alexandre; Lesnard, Aurélien; Cresteil, Thierry; Jolivalt, Claude; Rault, Sylvain

    2015-05-05

    In response to the extensive use of antibiotics, bacteria have evolved numerous mechanisms of defense against antimicrobial agents. Among them, extrusion of the antimicrobial agents outside the bacterial cell through efflux pumps is a major cause of concern. At first limited to one or few structurally-related antibiotics, bacterial resistance have then progressed towards cross-resistance between different classes of antibiotics, leading to multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Emergence of these pathogens requires development of novel therapeutic strategies and inhibition of efflux pumps appears to be a promising strategy that could restore the potency of existing antibiotics. NorA is the most studied chromosomal efflux pump of Staphylococcus aureus; it is known to be implied in resistance of Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains against a wide range of unrelated substrates, including hydrophilic fluoroquinolones. Starting from 6-benzyloxypyridine-3-boronic acid I that we previously identified as a potential inhibitor of the NorA efflux pump against the NorA-overexpressing S. aureus 1199B strain (SA1199B), we describe here the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of 6-(aryl)alkoxypyridine-3-boronic acids. 6-(3-Phenylpropoxy)pyridine-3-boronic acid 3i and 6-(4-phenylbutoxy)pyridine-3-boronic acid 3j were found to potentiate ciprofloxacin activity by a 4-fold increase compared to the parent compound I. In addition, it has been shown that both compounds promote Ethidium Bromide (EtBr) accumulation in SA1199B, thus corroborating their potential mode of action as NorA inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Overcoming Multidrug Resistance via Photodestruction of ABCG2-Rich Extracellular Vesicles Sequestering Photosensitive Chemotherapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goler-Baron, Vicky; Assaraf, Yehuda G.

    2012-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a dominant impediment to curative cancer chemotherapy. Efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily including ABCG2, ABCB1 and ABCC1 mediate MDR to multiple structurally and functionally distinct antitumor agents. Recently we identified a novel mechanism of MDR in which ABCG2-rich extracellular vesicles (EVs) form in between attached neighbor breast cancer cells and highly concentrate various chemotherapeutics in an ABCG2-dependent manner, thereby sequestering them away from their intracellular targets. Hence, development of novel strategies to overcome MDR modalities is a major goal of cancer research. Towards this end, we here developed a novel approach to selectively target and kill MDR cancer cells. We show that illumination of EVs that accumulated photosensitive cytotoxic drugs including imidazoacridinones (IAs) and topotecan resulted in intravesicular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and severe damage to the EVs membrane that is shared by EVs-forming cells, thereby leading to tumor cell lysis and the overcoming of MDR. Furthermore, consistent with the weak base nature of IAs, MDR cells that are devoid of EVs but contained an increased number of lysosomes, highly accumulated IAs in lysosomes and upon photosensitization were efficiently killed via ROS-dependent lysosomal rupture. Combining targeted lysis of IAs-loaded EVs and lysosomes elicited a synergistic cytotoxic effect resulting in MDR reversal. In contrast, topotecan, a bona fide transport substrate of ABCG2, accumulated exclusively in EVs of MDR cells but was neither detected in lysosomes of normal breast epithelial cells nor in non-MDR breast cancer cells. This exclusive accumulation in EVs enhanced the selectivity of the cytotoxic effect exerted by photodynamic therapy to MDR cells without harming normal cells. Moreover, lysosomal alkalinization with bafilomycin A1 abrogated lysosomal accumulation of IAs, consequently preventing

  17. The Impact of Efflux Pump Inhibitors on the Activity of Selected Non-Antibiotic Medicinal Products against Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka E. Laudy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential role of non-antibiotic medicinal products in the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria has recently been investigated. It is highly likely that the presence of efflux pumps may be one of the reasons for the weak activity of non-antibiotics, as in the case of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, against Gram-negative rods. The activity of eight drugs of potential non-antibiotic activity, active substance standards, and relevant medicinal products were analysed with and without of efflux pump inhibitors against 180 strains of five Gram-negative rod species by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value determination in the presence of 1 mM MgSO4. Furthermore, the influence of non-antibiotics on the susceptibility of clinical strains to quinolones with or without PAβN (Phe-Arg-β-naphthylamide was investigated. The impacts of PAβN on the susceptibility of bacteria to non-antibiotics suggests that amitriptyline, alendronate, nicergoline, and ticlopidine are substrates of efflux pumps in Gram-negative rods. Amitriptyline/Amitriptylinum showed the highest direct antibacterial activity, with MICs ranging 100–800 mg/L against all studied species. Significant decreases in the MIC values of other active substances (acyclovir, atorvastatin, and famotidine tested with pump inhibitors were not observed. The investigated non-antibiotic medicinal products did not alter the MICs of quinolones in the absence and in the presence of PAβN to the studied clinical strains of five groups of species.

  18. Neurosteroid Transport in the Brain: Role of ABC and SLC Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Grube

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurosteroids, comprising pregnane, androstane, and sulfated steroids can alter neuronal excitability through interaction with ligand-gated ion channels and other receptors and have therefore a therapeutic potential in several brain disorders. They can be formed in brain cells or are synthesized by an endocrine gland and reach the brain by penetrating the blood–brain barrier (BBB. Especially sulfated steroids such as pregnenolone sulfate (PregS and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS depend on transporter proteins to cross membranes. In this review, we discuss the involvement of ATP-binding cassette (ABC- and solute carrier (SLC-type membrane proteins in the transport of these compounds at the BBB and in the choroid plexus (CP, but also in the secretion from neurons and glial cells. Among the ABC transporters, especially BCRP (ABCG2 and several MRP/ABCC subfamily members (MRP1, MRP4, MRP8 are expressed in the brain and known to efflux conjugated steroids. Furthermore, several SLC transporters have been shown to mediate cellular uptake of steroid sulfates. These include members of the OATP/SLCO subfamily, namely OATP1A2 and OATP2B1, as well as OAT3 (SLC22A3, which have been reported to be expressed at the BBB, in the CP and in part in neurons. Furthermore, a role of the organic solute transporter OSTα-OSTβ (SLC51A/B in brain DHEAS/PregS homeostasis has been proposed. This transporter was reported to be localized especially in steroidogenic cells of the cerebellum and hippocampus. To date, the impact of transporters on neurosteroid homeostasis is still poorly understood. Further insights are desirable also with regard to the therapeutic potential of these compounds.

  19. Distribution of adeB and NDM-1 genes in multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from infected wound of patients admitted in a tertiary care hospital in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M J; Shamsuzzaman, S M

    2017-12-01

    The adeB gene in Acinetobacter baumannii regulates the bacterial internal drug efflux pump that plays a significant role in drug resistance. The aim of our study was to determine the occurrence of adeB gene in multidrug resistant and New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM- 1) gene in imipenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from wound swab samples in a tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh. A total of 345 wound swab samples were tested for bacterial pathogens. Acinetobacter baumannii was identified by culture and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined by the disc diffusion method according to CLSI standards. Extended spectrum beta-lactamases were screened using the double disc synergy technique. Gene encoding AdeB efflux pump and NDM-1 were detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). A total 22 (6.37%) Acinetobacter baumannii were identified from 345 wound swab samples and 20 (91%) of them were multidrug resistant. High resistance rates to some antibiotics were seen namely, cefotaxime (95%), amoxyclavulanic acid (90%) and ceftriaxone (82%). All the identified Acinetobacter baumannii were sensitive to colistin and 82% to imipenem. Two (9%) ESBL producing Acinetobacter baumannii strains were detected. adeB gene was detected in 16 (80%) out of 20 multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. 4 (18%) of 22 Acinetobacter baumannii were imipenem resistant. NDM-1 gene was detected in 2 (50%) of the imipenem resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii. The results of this study provide insight into the role of adeB gene as a potential regulator of drug resistance in Acinetobacter baumanni in Bangladesh. NDM-1 gene also contributes in developing such resistance for Acinetobacter baumannii.

  20. ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter VcaM from Vibrio cholerae is Dependent on the Outer Membrane Factor Family for Its Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jung Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae ATP-binding cassette transporter VcaM (V. cholerae ABC multidrug resistance pump has previously been shown to confer resistance to a variety of medically important drugs. In this study, we set to analyse its properties both in vitro in detergent-solubilised state and in vivo to differentiate its dependency on auxiliary proteins for its function. We report the first detailed kinetic parameters of purified VcaM and the rate of phosphate (Pi production. To determine the possible functional dependencies of VcaM on the tripartite efflux pumps we then utilized different E. coli strains lacking the principal secondary transporter AcrB (Acriflavine resistance protein, as well as cells lacking the outer membrane factor (OMF TolC (Tolerance to colicins. Consistent with the ATPase function of VcaM we found it to be susceptible to sodium orthovanadate (NaOV, however, we also found a clear dependency of VcaM function on TolC. Inhibitors targeting secondary active transporters had no effects on either VcaM-conferred resistance or Hoechst 33342 accumulation, suggesting that VcaM might be capable of engaging with the TolC-channel without periplasmic mediation by additional transporters. Our findings are indicative of VcaM being capable of a one-step substrate translocation from cytosol to extracellular space utilising the TolC-channel, making it the only multidrug ABC-transporter outside of the MacB-family with demonstrable TolC-dependency.

  1. In vitro, in vivo and ex vivo characterization of ibrutinib: a potent inhibitor of the efflux function of the transporter MRP1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Patel, Atish; Ma, Shao-Lin; Li, Xiao Jie; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Yang, Pei-Qi; Kathawala, Rishil J; Wang, Yi-Jun; Anreddy, Nagaraju; Fu, Li-Wu; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The transporter, multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1, ABCC1), plays a critical role in the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). Ibrutinib is an inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase. Here we investigated the reversal effect of ibrutinib on MRP1-mediated MDR. Experimental Approach Cytotoxicity was determined by MTT assay. The expression of protein was detected by Western blot. RT-PCR and Q-PCR were performed to detect the expression of MRP1 mRNA. The intracellular accumulation and efflux of substrates for MRP1 were measured by scintillation counter and flow cytometry. HEK293/MRP1 cell xenografts in nude mice were established to study the effects of ibrutinib in vivo. Key Results Ibrutinib significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of MRP1 substrates in HEK293/MRP1 and HL60/Adr cells overexpressing MRP1. Furthermore, ibrutinib increased the accumulation of substrates in these MRP1-overexpressing cells by inhibiting the drug efflux function of MRP1. However, mRNA and protein expression of MRP1 remained unaltered after treatment with ibrutinib in MRP1-overexpressing cells. In vivo, ibrutinib enhanced the efficacy of vincristine to inhibit the growth of HEK293/MRP1 tumour xenografts in nude mice. Importantly, ibrutinib also enhances the cytotoxicity of vincristine in primary cultures of leukaemia blasts, derived from patients. Conclusions and Implications Our results indicated that ibrutinib significantly increased the efficacy of the chemotherapeutic agents which were MRP1 substrates, in MRP1-overexpressing cells, in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo. These findings will lead to further studies on the effects of a combination of ibrutinib with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer patients overexpressing MRP1. PMID:25164592

  2. 22Na and 86Rb effluxes from bull spermatozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzoldt, R.; Steffens, T.; Bernhardt, I.

    1986-01-01

    Active transport of sodium and potassium has been postulated for bull sperms by various authors. In the present paper the sodium and rubidium efflux was determined by tracer kinetics. For uninhibited sodium and rubidium efflux a rate constant of 8.9 +- 2.13/min and 13.9 +- 3.89 min, respectively, was found for a bull sperm suspension (20 vol.%, 310 K). After ouabain treatment (0.1 mM), a reduction of the rate constant of sodium efflux to 5.1 +- 1.06/min was found. After cryopreserving (pelletizing process) the majority of samples investigated did not exhibit any inhibition of sodium and rubidium efflux as compared with fresh bull sperms. The inhibition of sodium efflux observed in some cases corresponds to the reduction of the rate constant of sodium efflux caused by ouabain. At storage in seminal plasma (24 h, 278 K) the rate constant of sodium efflux is reduced to 2.7 +- 0.25/min. Both after ouabain treatment and after cryopreserving of sperms having a reduced rate constant the motility of bull sperms is reduced. It is concluded from the results that in bull sperms there exists an ouabain-sensitive sodium efflux, the inhibition of which reduces the rate constant of sodium efflux by 42%. The ouabain-sensitive sodium efflux is related to the motility of the bull sperm cell. (author)

  3. Export of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli using ABC transporter with an attached lipase ABC transporter recognition domain (LARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Yuseok

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ATP binding cassette (ABC transporter secretes the protein through inner and outer membranes simultaneously in gram negative bacteria. Thermostable lipase (TliA of Pseudomonas fluorescens SIK W1 is secreted through the ABC transporter. TliA has four glycine-rich repeats (GGXGXD in its C-terminus, which appear in many ABC transporter-secreted proteins. From a homology model of TliA derived from the structure of P. aeruginosa alkaline protease (AprA, lipase ABC transporter domains (LARDs were designed for the secretion of fusion proteins. Results The LARDs included four glycine-rich repeats comprising a β-roll structure, and were added to the C-terminus of test proteins. Either Pro-Gly linker or Factor Xa site was added between fusion proteins and LARDs. We attached different length of LARDs such as LARD0, LARD1 or whole TliA (the longest LARD to three types of proteins; green fluorescent protein (GFP, epidermal growth factor (EGF and cytoplasmic transduction peptide (CTP. These fusion proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli together with ABC transporter of either P. fluorescens or Erwinia chrysanthemi. Export of fusion proteins with the whole TliA through the ABC transporter was evident on the basis of lipase enzymatic activity. Upon supplementation of E. coli with ABC transporter, GFP-LARDs and EGF-LARDs were excreted into the culture supernatant. Conclusion The LARDs or whole TliA were attached to C-termini of model proteins and enabled the export of the model proteins such as GFP and EGF in E. coli supplemented with ABC transporter. These results open the possibility for the extracellular production of recombinant proteins in Pseudomonas using LARDs or TliA as a C-terminal signal sequence.

  4. abc: An extensible AspectJ compiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avgustinov, Pavel; Christensen, Aske Simon; Hendren, Laurie

    2005-01-01

    checking and code generation, as well as data flow and control flow analyses. The AspectBench Compiler (abc) is an implementation of such a workbench. The base version of abc implements the full AspectJ language. Its frontend is built, using the Polyglot framework, as a modular extension of the Java...... language. The use of Polyglot gives flexibility of syntax and type checking. The backend is built using the Soot framework, to give modular code generation and analyses. In this paper, we outline the design of abc, focusing mostly on how the design supports extensibility. We then provide a general overview...

  5. Implementation of ABC method in real company

    OpenAIRE

    Kazhimova, Dina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this Bachelor thesis is a thorough analysis of the modern calculation method Activity-based costing (ABC), that identifies the activities that a firm performs, and then assigns indirect costs to products. An ABC system recognizes the relationship between costs, activities and products, and through this relationship assigns indirect costs to products less arbitrarily than traditional methods. Comparison ABC method with traditional methods of cost allocation. Basing on the knowledge ...

  6. Playware ABC: Engineering Play for Everybody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the Playware ABC concept, and how it allows anybody, anywhere, anytime to be building bodies and brains, which facilitates users to construct, combine and create. The Playware ABC concept focuses engineering and IT system development on creating solutions that are usable by a...

  7. An ABC analysis for power generation project

    OpenAIRE

    Batool Hasani; Younos Vakilalroaia

    2013-01-01

    One of the primary concerns on performance measurement is to know how much a particular project cost. However, using traditional method on project-based products often leads to inappropriate results. In this paper, we re-examine this issue by comparing the cost of a power station construction project using ABC versus traditional method. The results of survey show that ABC method is capable of providing better estimates for overhead costs compared with traditional method. In other words, ABC m...

  8. Association of ABCB1, β tubulin I, and III with multidrug resistance of MCF7/DOC subline from breast cancer cell line MCF7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wentao; Zhai, Baoping; Zhi, Hui; Li, Yuhong; Jia, Linjiao; Ding, Chao; Zhang, Bin; You, Wei

    2014-09-01

    Docetaxel is a first-line chemotherapeutic agent for treating advanced breast cancer. The development of chemoresistance or multidrug resistance (MDR), however, results in breast cancer chemotherapy failure. This study aims to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying docetaxel-resistance in treatment of breast cancer. The docetaxel-resistant subline MCF7/DOC, derived from the parental sensitive breast cancer cell line MCF7, was established by intermittent exposure to moderate concentrations of docetaxel, followed by examination of its phenotypes. The MCF7/DOC subline showed cross resistance against paclitaxel, doxorubicin, methotrexate, and 5-Fu. Compared to the parental MCF7, MCF7/DOC cells were enlarged with heterogeneous sizes and a cobblestone and polygonal appearance. They were arrested at G2/M phase and proliferated slowly. The colony formation potential of MCF7/DOC in soft agar was significantly increased. MCF7/DOC cells showed reduced intracellular accumulation and increased efflux of rhodamine 123. The mRNA expression level of adenosine triphosphate binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, i.e., ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCG2, and β tubulin isotypes were characterized by quantitative PCR. High-level expression of ABCB1, βI, and βIII tubulin mRNA in MCF7/DOC was detected. Downregulation of ABCB1, βI, and βIII tubulin mediated by three combined siRNAs resulted in stronger growth inhibition of MCF7/DOC than inhibition of the expression of individual genes. ABCB1, βI, and βIII tubulin might contribute to the MDR of MCF7/DOC and be potential therapeutic targets for overcoming MDR of breast cancer.

  9. Functional study of the novel multidrug resistance gene HA117 and its comparison to multidrug resistance gene 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Tingfu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The novel gene HA117 is a multidrug resistance (MDR gene expressed by all-trans retinoic acid-resistant HL-60 cells. In the present study, we compared the multidrug resistance of the HA117 with that of the classical multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1 in breast cancer cell line 4T1. Methods Transduction of the breast cancer cell line 4T1 with adenoviral vectors encoding the HA117 gene and the green fluorescence protein gene (GFP (Ad-GFP-HA117, the MDR1 and GFP (Ad-GFP-MDR1 or GFP (Ad-GFP was respectively carried out. The transduction efficiency and the multiplicity of infection (MOI were detected by fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry. The transcription of HA117 gene and MDR1 gene were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Western blotting analysis was used to detect the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp but the expression of HA117 could not be analyzed as it is a novel gene and its antibody has not yet been synthesized. The drug-excretion activity of HA117 and MDR1 were determined by daunorubicin (DNR efflux assay. The drug sensitivities of 4T1/HA117 and 4T1/MDR1 to chemotherapeutic agents were detected by Methyl-Thiazolyl-Tetrazolium (MTT assay. Results The transducted efficiency of Ad-GFP-HA117 and Ad-GFP-MDR1 were 75%-80% when MOI was equal to 50. The transduction of Ad-GFP-HA117 and Ad-GFP-MDR1 could increase the expression of HA117 and MDR1. The drug resistance index to Adriamycin (ADM, vincristine (VCR, paclitaxel (Taxol and bleomycin (BLM increased to19.8050, 9.0663, 9.7245, 3.5650 respectively for 4T1/HA117 and 24.2236, 11.0480, 11.3741, 0.9630 respectively for 4T1/MDR1 as compared to the control cells. There were no significant differences in drug sensitivity between 4T1/HA117 and 4T1/MDR1 for the P-gp substrates (ADM, VCR and Taxol (P Conclusions These results confirm that HA117 is a strong MDR gene in both HL-60 and 4T1 cells. Furthermore, our results indicate that the MDR

  10. Efflux Pump-mediated Drug Resistance in Burkholderia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Podnecky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Several members of the genus Burkholderia are prominent pathogens. Infections caused by these bacteria are difficult to treat because of significant antibiotic resistance. Virtually all Burkholderia species are also resistant to polymyxin, prohibiting use of drugs like colistin that are available for treatment of infections caused by most other drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Despite clinical significance and antibiotic resistance of Burkholderia species, characterization of efflux pumps lags behind other non-enteric Gram-negative pathogens such as Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Although efflux pumps have been described in several Burkholderia species, they have been best studied in B. cenocepacia and B. pseudomallei. As in other non-enteric Gram-negatives, efflux pumps of the resistance nodulation cell division (RND family are the clinically most significant efflux systems in these two species. Several efflux pumps were described in B. cenocepacia, which when expressed confer resistance to clinically significant antibiotics, including aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, fluoroquinolones, and tetracyclines. Three RND pumps have been characterized in B. pseudomallei, two of which confer either intrinsic or acquired resistance to aminoglycosides, macrolides, chloramphenicol, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, trimethoprim, and in some instances trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole. Several strains of the host-adapted B. mallei, a clone of B. pseudomallei, lack AmrAB-OprA and are therefore aminoglycoside and macrolide susceptible. B. thailandensis is closely related to B. pseudomallei, but non-pathogenic to humans. Its pump repertoire and ensuing drug resistance profile parallels that of B. pseudomallei. An efflux pump in B. vietnamiensis plays a significant role in acquired aminoglycoside resistance. Summarily, efflux pumps are significant players in Burkholderia drug resistance.

  11. Costeo ABC - Gestión ABM

    OpenAIRE

    Cuevas Villegas, Carlos Fernando

    2010-01-01

    El presente artículo pretende mostrar en forma práctica la problemática de los sistemas actuales de costeo y plantear la alternativa conocida como costeo ABC, sus fundamentos, dificultades y utilidad. Así mismo se enfatiza el uso de la llamada Gerencia ABM, como complemento del costeo ABC.

  12. Repressive mutations restore function-loss caused by the disruption of trimerization in Escherichia coli multidrug transporter AcrB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoshuai eWang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AcrAB-TolC and their homologs are major multidrug efflux systems in Gram-negative bacteria. The inner membrane component AcrB functions as a trimer. Replacement of Pro223 by Gly in AcrB decreases the trimer stability and drastically reduces the drug efflux activity. The goal of this study is to identify suppressor mutations that restore function to mutant AcrBP223G and explore the mechanism of function recovery. Two methods were used to introduce random mutations into the plasmid of AcrBP223G. Mutants with elevated drug efflux activity were identified, purified, and characterized to examine their expression level, trimer stability, interaction with AcrA, and substrate binding. Nine single-site repressor mutations were identified, including T199M, D256N, A209V, G257V, M662I, Q737L, D788K, P800S, and E810K. Except for M662I, all other mutations located in the docking region of the periplasmic domain. While three mutations, T199M, A209V, and D256N, significantly increased the trimer stability, none of them restored the trimer affinity to the wild type level. M662, the only site of mutation that located in the porter domain, was involved in substrate binding. Our results suggest that the function loss resulted from compromised AcrB trimerization could be restored through various mechanisms involving the compensation of trimer stability and substrate binding.

  13. Downregulation of eIF4G by microRNA-503 enhances drug sensitivity of MCF-7/ADR cells through suppressing the expression of ABC transport proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xia; Yang, Xiaoyan; Zang, Jinglei; Zhang, Si; Huang, Nan; Guan, Xinxin; Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Zhihui; Li, Xi; Lei, Xiaoyong

    2017-06-01

    Overexpression of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transport protein is emerging as a critical contributor to anticancer drug resistance. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4F complex, the key modulator of mRNA translation, is regulated by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin pathway in anticancer drug-resistant tumors. The present study demonstrated the roles of ABC translation protein alterations in the acquisition of the Adriamycin (ADM)-resistant phenotype of MCF-7 human breast cells. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were applied to examine the differences in mRNA and protein levels, respectively. It was found that the expression of the ABC sub-family B member 1, ABC sub-family C member 1 and ABC sub-family G member 2 transport proteins were upregulated in MCF-7/ADR cells. An MTT assay was used to detect the cell viability, from the results MCF-7/ADR cells were less sensitive to ADM, tamoxifen (TAM) and taxol (TAX) treatment compared with MCF-7 cells. We predicted that the 3'-untranslated region of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4-γ 1 (eIF4G) contains a potential miRNA binding site for microRNA (miR)-503 through using computational programs. These binding sites were confirmed by luciferase reporter assays. eIF4G mRNA degradation was accelerated in cells transfected with miR-503 mimics. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that eIF4G and ABC translation proteins were significantly downregulated in MCF-7/ADR cells after transfection with miR-503. It was found that miR-503 mimics could sensitize the cells to treatment with ADM, TAM and TAX. These findings demonstrated for the first time that eIF4G acted as a key factor in MCF-7/ADR cells, and may be an efficient agent for preventing and reversing multi-drug resistance in breast cancer.

  14. Pharmacogenomics of the human ABC transporter ABCG2: from functional evaluation to drug molecular design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Toshihisa; Tamura, Ai; Saito, Hikaru; Wakabayashi, Kanako; Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    2005-10-01

    In the post-genome-sequencing era, emerging genomic technologies are shifting the paradigm for drug discovery and development. Nevertheless, drug discovery and development still remain high-risk and high-stakes ventures with long and costly timelines. Indeed, the attrition of drug candidates in preclinical and development stages is a major problem in drug design. For at least 30% of the candidates, this attrition is due to poor pharmacokinetics and toxicity. Thus, pharmaceutical companies have begun to seriously re-evaluate their current strategies of drug discovery and development. In that light, we propose that a transport mechanism-based design might help to create new, pharmacokinetically advantageous drugs, and as such should be considered an important component of drug design strategy. Performing enzyme- and/or cell-based drug transporter, interaction tests may greatly facilitate drug development and allow the prediction of drug-drug interactions. We recently developed methods for high-speed functional screening and quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis to study the substrate specificity of ABC transporters and to evaluate the effect of genetic polymorphisms on their function. These methods would provide a practical tool to screen synthetic and natural compounds, and these data can be applied to the molecular design of new drugs. In this review article, we present an overview on the genetic polymorphisms of human ABC transporter ABCG2 and new camptothecin analogues that can circumvent AGCG2-associated multidrug resistance of cancer.

  15. Cytotoxicity and Efflux Pump Inhibition Induced by Molybdenum Disulfide and Boron Nitride Nanomaterials with Sheetlike Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su; Shen, Zhuoyan; Wu, Bing; Yu, Yue; Hou, Hui; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Ren, Hong-Qiang

    2017-09-19

    Sheetlike molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) and boron nitride (BN) nanomaterials have attracted attention in the past few years due to their unique material properties. However, information on adverse effects and their underlying mechanisms for sheetlike MoS 2 and BN nanomaterials is rare. In this study, cytotoxicities of sheetlike MoS 2 and BN nanomaterials on human hepatoma HepG2 cells were systematically investigated at different toxic end points. Results showed that MoS 2 and BN nanomaterials decreased cell viability at 30 μg/mL and induced adverse effects on intracellular ROS generation (≥2 μg/mL), mitochondrial depolarization (≥4 μg/mL), and membrane integrity (≥8 μg/mL for MoS 2 and ≥2 μg/mL for BN). Furthermore, this study first found that low exposure concentrations (0.2-2 μg/mL) of MoS 2 and BN nanomaterials could increase plasma membrane fluidity and inhibit transmembrane ATP binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporter activity, which make both nanomaterials act as a chemosensitizer (increasing arsenic toxicity). Damage to plasma membrane and release of soluble Mo or B species might be two reasons that both nanomaterials inhibit efflux pump activities. This study provides a systematic understanding of the cytotoxicity of sheetlike MoS 2 and BN nanomaterials at different exposure levels, which is important for their safe use.

  16. Synthesis of Nanodiamond-Daunorubicin Conjugates to Overcome Multidrug Chemoresistance in Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Han B.; Kim, Hansung; Kim, Ho-Joong; Robinson, Erik; Liu, Wing Kam; Chow, Edward Kai-Hua; Ho, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are promising candidates in nanomedicine, demonstrating significant potential as gene/drug delivery platforms for cancer therapy. We have synthesized ND vectors capable of chemotherapeutic loading and delivery with applications towards chemoresistant leukemia. The loading of Daunorubicin (DNR) onto NDs was optimized by adjusting reaction parameters such as acidity and concentration. The resulting conjugate, a novel therapeutic payload for NDs, was characterized extensively for size, surface charge, and loading efficiency. A K562 human myelogenous leukemia cell line, with multidrug resistance conferred by incremental DNR exposure, was used to demonstrate the efficacy enhancement resulting from ND-based delivery. While resistant K562 cells were able to overcome treatment from DNR alone, as compared with non-resistant K562 cells, NDs were able to improve DNR delivery into resistant K562 cells. By overcoming efflux mechanisms present in this resistant leukemia line, ND-enabled therapeutics have demonstrated the potential to improve cancer treatment efficacy, especially towards resistant strains. PMID:23916889

  17. Evolutionary relationships of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) uptake porters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei Hao; Västermark, Åke; Shlykov, Maksim A; Reddy, Vamsee; Sun, Eric I; Saier, Milton H

    2013-05-06

    The ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) functional superfamily includes integral transmembrane exporters that have evolved three times independently, forming three families termed ABC1, ABC2 and ABC3, upon which monophyletic ATPases have been superimposed for energy-coupling purposes [e.g., J Membr Biol 231(1):1-10, 2009]. The goal of the work reported in this communication was to understand how the integral membrane constituents of ABC uptake transporters with different numbers of predicted or established transmembrane segments (TMSs) evolved. In a few cases, high resolution 3-dimensional structures were available, and in these cases, their structures plus primary sequence analyses allowed us to predict evolutionary pathways of origin. All of the 35 currently recognized families of ABC uptake proteins except for one (family 21) were shown to be homologous using quantitative statistical methods. These methods involved using established programs that compare native protein sequences with each other, after having compared each sequence with thousands of its own shuffled sequences, to gain evidence for homology. Topological analyses suggested that these porters contain numbers of TMSs ranging from four or five to twenty. Intragenic duplication events occurred multiple times during the evolution of these porters. They originated from a simple primordial protein containing 3 TMSs which duplicated to 6 TMSs, and then produced porters of the various topologies via insertions, deletions and further duplications. Except for family 21 which proved to be related to ABC1 exporters, they are all related to members of the previously identified ABC2 exporter family. Duplications that occurred in addition to the primordial 3 → 6 duplication included 5 → 10, 6 → 12 and 10 → 20 TMSs. In one case, protein topologies were uncertain as different programs gave discrepant predictions. It could not be concluded with certainty whether a 4 TMS ancestral protein or a 5 TMS ancestral protein

  18. Solutol HS 15, nontoxic polyoxyethylene esters of 12-hydroxystearic acid, reverses multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, J S; Knudson, W; Clodfelter, K; Lu, B; Weinstein, R S

    1991-02-01

    A recently developed non-ionic surfactant called Solutol HS 15 (poly-oxyethylene esters of 12-hydroxystearic acid), with low toxicity in vivo, was shown to reverse completely the multidrug resistance of KB 8-5 and KB 8-5-11 human epidermoid carcinoma cells in vitro but did not potentiate drug toxicity in drug-sensitive KB 3-1 cells. At a concentration of 10% of its own IC50 (mean concentration of drug that causes 50% inhibition of cell growth compared to controls), Solutol HS 15 produced a 35-, 28-, and 42-fold reduction in the resistance of KB 8-5-11 cells to colchicine, vinblastine, and doxorubicin, respectively. Solutol HS 15 was relatively much more potent than the prototypic reversing agent, verapamil, for reversing colchicine resistance, compared to the ability of each agent to reverse colchicine resistance, compared to the ability of each agent to reverse vinblastine resistance. Like verapamil, Solutol HS 15 promoted a 50-fold accumulation of rhodamine 123 in KB 8-5-11 cells, as measured by flow cytometry. Also, Solutol HS 15 and verapamil reduced the efflux of rhodamine 123 from KB 8-5-11 cells previously loaded with rhodamine 123 to a similar low rate. Solutol HS 15 did not affect the transport of alanine or glucose into KB 8-5-11 cells, indicating that its effect upon membrane active transport is not entirely nonspecific. Considering their different structure and different relative potency for reversing colchicine resistance, Solutol HS 15 and verapamil probably reverse multidrug resistance by different mechanisms. Solutol HS 15 merits consideration as a potential therapeutic agent because of its effectiveness for reversing multidrug resistance in vitro and its low toxicity in vivo.

  19. Resistência a antimicrobianos dependente do sistema de efluxo multidrogas em Escherichia coli isoladas de leite mastítico Antimicrobial resistance dependent on multidrugs efflux in Escherichia coli isolated from the mastitic milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.S. Moreira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Identificaram-se e caracterizaram-se a resistência e a multirresistência aos principais antimicrobianos usados no tratamento de mastite bovina causada por Escherichia coli. A concentração inibitória mínima (MIC e o sistema de efluxo foram detectados pelas curvas de crescimento, com base na densidade óptica, em diferentes concentrações da droga e na presença e na ausência do desacoplador da força próton-motora (PMF. E. coli 1 foi resistente à neomicina e à gentamicina; E. coli 3 e 4, à tetraciclina e à estreptomicina; e E. coli 2 e 6 à gentamicina. E. coli 5 apresentou modelo de sensibilidade. Observou-se que MICs de todos os antimicrobianos dos multirresistentes (E. coli 1, 3 e 4 diminuíram na presença do desacoplador, o que sugere sistema de efluxo multidrogas. Após cura, apenas E. coli 1 apresentou modelo de sensibilidade, porém não houve alterações das MICs, antes e após adição do desacoplador. Os resultados indicam possível presença de mecanismo de resistência dependente da PMF codificado, ou parte dele, em plasmídeo.Resistance and multiresistance to main antimicrobials used for treating bovine mastitis caused by Escherichia coli were identified and characterized. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and efflux systems were detected by the use of growth curves based on optical density at different drug concentrations and both presence and absence of uncoupler of the proton-motive force (PMF. E. coli 1 was resistant to neomycin and gentamycin, E. coli 3 and 4 were resistant to tetracycline and streptomycin, whereas E. coli 2 and 6 were resistant to gentamycin. E. coli 5 showed sensibility model. MICs of all antimicrobials of the multiresistant samples (E. coli 1, 3, and 4 were decreased in presence of the uncoupler, therefore suggesting the presence of the multidrug efflux system. After healing, only E. coli 1 showed sensibility model, however no alteration occurred in MIC(s before and after adding the

  20. Self-assembled Multifunctional DNA Nanoflowers for the Circumvention of Multidrug Resistance in Targeted Anticancer Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lei; Zhu, Guizhi; Qiu, Liping; Wu, Cuichen; Chen, Huapei; Liang, Hao; Cansiz, Sena; Lv, Yifan; Zhang, Xiaobing; Tan, Weihong

    2015-11-01

    Cancer chemotherapy has been impeded by side effects and multidrug resistance (MDR) partially caused by drug efflux from cancer cells, which call for targeted drug delivery systems additionally able to circumvent MDR. Here we report multifunctional DNA nanoflowers (NFs) for targeted drug delivery to both chemosensitive and MDR cancer cells and circumvent MDR in both leukemia and breast cancer cell models. NFs are self-assembled via liquid crystallization of DNA generated by Rolling Circle Replication, during which NFs are incorporated with aptamers for specific cancer cell recognition, fluorophores for bioimaging, and Doxorubicin (Dox)-binding DNA for drug delivery. NF sizes are tunable (down to ~200 nm in diameter), and the densely packed drug-binding motifs and porous intrastructures endow NFs with high drug loading capacity (71.4%, wt/wt). The Dox-loaded NFs (NF-Dox) are stable at physiological pH, yet drug release is facilitated in acidic or basic conditions. NFs deliver Dox into target chemosensitive and MDR cancer cells, preventing drug efflux and enhancing drug retention in MDR cells. Consequently, NF-Dox induces potent cytotoxicity in both target chemosensitive cells and MDR cells, but not nontarget cells, thus concurrently circumventing MDR and reducing side effects. Overall, these NFs are promising to circumvent MDR in targeted cancer therapy.

  1. The ABC of ABC : An analysis of attribute-based credentials in the light of data protection, privacy and identity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korenhof, P.E.I.; Koning, Merel; Alpár, Gergely; Hoepman, J.H.; Padullés, Joan Balcells; i Martínez, Agustí Cerrillo; Poch, Miquel Peguera; López, Ismael Peña; de Moner, María José Pifarré; Solana, Mònica Vilasau

    2014-01-01

    Our networked society increasingly needs secure identity sys- tems. The Attribute-based credential (ABC) technology is designed to be privacy-friendlier than contemporary authentication methods, which often suffer from information leakage. So far, however, some of the wider implications of ABC have

  2. ABCE1 is a highly conserved RNA silencing suppressor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kairi Kärblane

    Full Text Available ATP-binding cassette sub-family E member 1 (ABCE1 is a highly conserved protein among eukaryotes and archaea. Recent studies have identified ABCE1 as a ribosome-recycling factor important for translation termination in mammalian cells, yeast and also archaea. Here we report another conserved function of ABCE1. We have previously described AtRLI2, the homolog of ABCE1 in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, as an endogenous suppressor of RNA silencing. In this study we show that this function is conserved: human ABCE1 is able to suppress RNA silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, in mammalian HEK293 cells and in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans. Using co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we found a number of potential ABCE1-interacting proteins that might support its function as an endogenous suppressor of RNA interference. The interactor candidates are associated with epigenetic regulation, transcription, RNA processing and mRNA surveillance. In addition, one of the identified proteins is translin, which together with its binding partner TRAX supports RNA interference.

  3. The H2 receptor antagonist nizatidine is a P-glycoprotein substrate: characterization of its intestinal epithelial cell efflux transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Arik; Sabit, Hairat; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the intestinal epithelial cell efflux transport processes that are involved in the intestinal transport of the H(2) receptor antagonist nizatidine. The intestinal epithelial efflux transport mechanisms of nizatidine were investigated and characterized across Caco-2 cell monolayers, in the concentration range 0.05-10 mM in both apical-basolateral (AP-BL) and BL-AP directions, and the transport constants of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux activity were calculated. The concentration-dependent effects of various P-gp (verapamil, quinidine, erythromycin, ketoconazole, and cyclosporine A), multidrug resistant-associated protein 2 (MRP2; MK-571, probenecid, indomethacin, and p-aminohipuric acid), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; Fumitremorgin C) inhibitors on nizatidine bidirectional transport were examined. Nizatidine exhibited 7.7-fold higher BL-AP than AP-BL Caco-2 permeability, indicative of net mucosal secretion. All P-gp inhibitors investigated displayed concentration-dependent inhibition on nizatidine secretion in both directions. The IC(50) of verapamil on nizatidine P-gp secretion was 1.2 x 10(-2) mM. In the absence of inhibitors, nizatidine displayed concentration-dependent secretion, with one saturable (J(max) = 5.7 x 10(-3) nmol cm(-2) s(-1) and K(m) = 2.2 mM) and one nonsaturable component (K(d) = 7 x 10(-4) microL cm(-2) s(-1)). Under complete P-gp inhibition, nizatidine exhibited linear secretory flux, with a slope similar to the nonsaturable component. V(max) and K(m) estimated for nizatidine P-gp-mediated secretion were 4 x 10(-3) nmol cm(-2) s(-1) and 1.2 mM, respectively. No effect was obtained with the MRP2 or the BCRP inhibitors. Being a drug commonly used in pediatrics, adults, and elderly, nizatidine susceptibility to efflux transport by P-gp revealed in this paper may be of significance in its absorption, distribution, and clearance, as well as possible drug-drug interactions.

  4. The AbcA Transporter of Staphylococcus aureus Affects Cell Autolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader-Fischer, Gesine; Berger-Bächi, Brigitte

    2001-01-01

    Increased production of penicillin-binding protein PBP 4 is known to increase peptidoglycan cross-linking and contributes to methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. The pbp4 gene shares a 400-nucleotide intercistronic region with the divergently transcribed abcA gene, encoding an ATP-binding cassette transporter of unknown function. Our study revealed that methicillin stimulated abcA transcription but had no effects on pbp4 transcription. Analysis of abcA expression in mutants defective for global regulators showed that abcA is under the control of agr. Insertional inactivation of abcA by an erythromycin resistance determinant did not influence pbp4 transcription, nor did it alter resistance to methicillin and other cell wall-directed antibiotics. However, abcA mutants showed spontaneous partial lysis on plates containing subinhibitory concentrations of methicillin due to increased spontaneous autolysis. Since the autolytic zymograms of cell extracts were identical in mutants and parental strains, we postulate an indirect role of AbcA in control of autolytic activities and in protection of the cells against methicillin. PMID:11158733

  5. Investigating the Role of the Host Multidrug Resistance Associated Protein Transporter Family in Burkholderia cepacia Complex Pathogenicity Using a Caenorhabditis elegans Infection Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Pietro; Visone, Marco; Parrilli, Ermenegilda; Tutino, Maria Luisa; Perrin, Elena; Maida, Isabel; Fani, Renato; Ballestriero, Francesco; Santos, Radleigh; Pinilla, Clemencia; Di Schiavi, Elia; Tegos, George; de Pascale, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between host efflux system of the non-vertebrate nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) strain virulence. This is the first comprehensive effort to profile host-transporters within the context of Bcc infection. With this aim, two different toxicity tests were performed: a slow killing assay that monitors mortality of the host by intestinal colonization and a fast killing assay that assesses production of toxins. A Virulence Ranking scheme was defined, that expressed the toxicity of the Bcc panel members, based on the percentage of surviving worms. According to this ranking the 18 Bcc strains were divided in 4 distinct groups. Only the Cystic Fibrosis isolated strains possessed profound nematode killing ability to accumulate in worms' intestines. For the transporter analysis a complete set of isogenic nematode single Multidrug Resistance associated Protein (MRP) efflux mutants and a number of efflux inhibitors were interrogated in the host toxicity assays. The Bcc pathogenicity profile of the 7 isogenic C. elegans MRP knock-out strains functionality was classified in two distinct groups. Disabling host transporters enhanced nematode mortality more than 50% in 5 out of 7 mutants when compared to wild type. In particular mrp-2 was the most susceptible phenotype with increased mortality for 13 out 18 Bcc strains, whereas mrp-3 and mrp-4 knock-outs had lower mortality rates, suggesting a different role in toxin-substrate recognition. The use of MRP efflux inhibitors in the assays resulted in substantially increased (>40% on average) mortality of wild-type worms.

  6. Identification of residues in ABCG2 affecting protein trafficking and drug transport, using co-evolutionary analysis of ABCG sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Ameena J; Cox, Megan H; Jones, Natalie; Goode, Alice J; Bridge, Katherine S; Wong, Kelvin; Briggs, Deborah; Kerr, Ian D

    2015-07-17

    ABCG2 is an ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter with a physiological role in urate transport in the kidney and is also implicated in multi-drug efflux from a number of organs in the body. The trafficking of the protein and the mechanism by which it recognizes and transports diverse drugs are important areas of research. In the current study, we have made a series of single amino acid mutations in ABCG2 on the basis of sequence analysis. Mutant isoforms were characterized for cell surface expression and function. One mutant (I573A) showed disrupted glycosylation and reduced trafficking kinetics. In contrast with many ABC transporter folding mutations which appear to be 'rescued' by chemical chaperones or low temperature incubation, the I573A mutation was not enriched at the cell surface by either treatment, with the majority of the protein being retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Two other mutations (P485A and M549A) showed distinct effects on transport of ABCG2 substrates reinforcing the role of TM helix 3 in drug recognition and transport and indicating the presence of intracellular coupling regions in ABCG2. © 2015 Authors.

  7. Diversity and evolution of ABC proteins in mycorrhiza-forming fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Andriy; Kohler, Annegret; Martin, Francis; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2015-12-28

    Transporter proteins are predicted to have an important role in the mycorrhizal symbiosis, due to the fact that this type of an interaction between plants and fungi requires a continuous nutrient and signalling exchange. ABC transporters are one of the large groups of transporter proteins found both in plants and in fungi. The crucial role of plant ABC transporters in the formation of the mycorrhizal symbiosis has been demonstrated recently. Some of the fungal ABC transporter-encoding genes are also induced during the mycorrhiza formation. However, no experimental evidences of the direct involvement of fungal ABC transporters in this process are available so far. To facilitate the identification of fungal ABC proteins with a potential role in the establishment of the mycorrhizal symbiosis, we have performed an inventory of the ABC protein-encoding genes in the genomes of 25 species of mycorrhiza-forming fungi. We have identified, manually annotated and curated more than 1300 gene models of putative ABC protein-encoding genes. Out of those, more than 1000 models are predicted to encode functional proteins, whereas about 300 models represent gene fragments or putative pseudogenes. We have also performed the phylogenetic analysis of the identified sequences. The sets of ABC proteins in the mycorrhiza-forming species were compared to the related saprotrophic or plant-pathogenic fungal species. Our results demonstrate the high diversity of ABC genes in the genomes of mycorrhiza-forming fungi. Via comparison of transcriptomics data from different species, we have identified candidate groups of ABC transporters that might have a role in the process of the mycorrhiza formation. Results of our inventory will facilitate the identification of fungal transporters with a role in the mycorrhiza formation. We also provide the first data on ABC protein-coding genes for the phylum Glomeromycota and for orders Pezizales, Atheliales, Cantharellales and Sebacinales, contributing to

  8. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles loading doxorubicin reverse multidrug resistance: performance and mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianan; He, Qianjun; Gao, Yu; Shi, Jianlin; Li, Yaping

    2011-10-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the major obstacles for successful chemotherapy in cancer. One of the effective approaches to overcome MDR is to use nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery to increase drug accumulation in drug resistant cancer cells. In this work, we first report that the performance and mechanism of an inorganic engineered delivery system based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) loading doxorubicin (DMNs) to overcome the MDR of MCF-7/ADR (a DOX-resistant and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) over-expression cancer cell line). The experimental results showed that DMNs could enhance the cellular uptake of doxorubicin (DOX) and increase the cell proliferation suppression effect of DOX against MCF-7/ADR cells. The IC50 of DMNs against MCF-7/ADR cells was 8-fold lower than that of free DOX. However, an improved effect of DOX in DMNs against MCF-7 cells (a DOX-sensitive cancer cell line) was not found. The increased cellular uptake and nuclear accumulation of DOX delivered by DMNs in MCF-7/ADR cells was confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and could result from the down-regulation of P-gp and bypassing the efflux action by MSNs themselves. The cellular uptake mechanism of DMNs indicated that the macropinocytosis was one of the pathways for the uptake of DMNs by MCF-7/ADR cells. The in vivo biodistribution showed that DMNs induced a higher accumulation of DOX in drug resistant tumors than free DOX. These results suggested that MSNs could be an effective delivery system to overcome multidrug resistance.

  9. Sustained Delivery of Chondroitinase ABC from Hydrogel System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Rossi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the injured spinal cord, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs are the principal responsible of axon growth inhibition and they contribute to regenerative failure, promoting glial scar formation. Chondroitinase ABC (chABC is known for being able to digest proteoglycans, thus degrading glial scar and favoring axonal regrowth. However, its classic administration is invasive, infection-prone and clinically problematic. An agarose-carbomer (AC1 hydrogel, already used in SCI repair strategies, was here investigated as a delivery system capable of an effective chABC administration: the material ability to include chABC within its pores and the possibility to be injected into the target tissue were firstly proved. Subsequently, release kinetic and the maintenance of enzymatic activity were positively assessed: AC1 hydrogel was thus confirmed to be a feasible tool for chABC delivery and a promising device for spinal cord injury topic repair strategies.

  10. Efflux of inorganic substances from young barley roots. II. Movement in roots and efflux of sodium in plants with divided root systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, H; Kojima, S [Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan)

    1977-09-01

    The root system of young barley was almost halved, and the two portions were planted in culture grounds with different composition after severing the capillary connection between both root groups. With one portion in the acid medium solution of various compositions and the other in the /sup 22/Na-absorbing medium solution, the sodium absorbed from one root group moved to and flowed out from the other root group, and this state was observed. Also, the efflux of potassium from the root was observed. (1) The Na efflux was small in the culture ground with dilute hydrochloric acid, and larger in that with AlCl/sub 3/ or phosphate. (2) The K efflux was large under short-day condition. (3) Under short-day condition, in the culture ground with soluble Al, the K efflux was promoted by nitrogen-source addition, but the Na efflux was suppressed.

  11. Efflux of rhodamine from CD56+ cells as a surrogate marker for reversal of P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux by PSC 833

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robey, R; Bakke, S; Stein, W

    1999-01-01

    minutes. A dose-response relationship was shown between the concentration of PSC 833 in the blood and the inhibition of rhodamine efflux, with an apparent plateau of the inhibition of rhodamine efflux at approximately 1,000 ng/mL. The Ki, defined as the concentration required for half-maximal inhibition...... of Pgp-mediated rhodamine efflux, was determined to be in the range of 29 to 181 ng/mL; although results in two patients were distinctly different, with Ki values of 914 and 916 ng/mL. MRK-16 staining was similar among all patients. We conclude that measurement of rhodamine efflux from CD56(+) cells...

  12. Inventory and analysis of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) systems in Brugia malayi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardelli, B F; Stitt, L E; Tompkins, J B

    2010-07-01

    ABC systems are one of the largest described protein superfamilies. These systems have a domain organization that may contain 1 or more transmembrane domains (ABC_TM1F) and 1 or 2 ATP-binding domains (ABC_2). The functions (e.g., import, export and DNA repair) of these proteins distinguish the 3 classes of ABC systems. Mining and PCR-based cloning were used to identify 33 putative ABC systems from the Brugia malayi genome. There were 31 class 2 genes, commonly called ABC transporters, and 2 class 3 genes. The ABC transporters were divided into subfamilies. Three belonged to subfamily A, 16 to subfamily B, 5 to subfamily C, 1 to subfamily E and 3 to subfamilies F and G, respectively. None were placed in subfamilies D and H. Similar to other ABC systems, the ABC_2 domain of B. malayi genes was conserved and contained the Walker A and B motifs, the signature sequence/linker region and the switch region with the conserved histidine. The ABC_TM1F domain was less conserved. The relative abundance of ABC systems was quantified using real-time reverse transcription PCR and was significantly higher in female adults of B. malayi than in males and microfilaria, particularly those in subfamilies B and C, which are associated with drug resistance.

  13. Attaching NorA efflux pump inhibitors to methylene blue enhances antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation of Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rineh, Ardeshir; Bremner, John B; Hamblin, Michael R; Ball, Anthony R; Tegos, George P; Kelso, Michael J

    2018-02-24

    Resistance of bacteria to antibiotics is a public health concern worldwide due to the increasing failure of standard antibiotic therapies. Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI) is a promising non-antibiotic alternative for treating localized bacterial infections that uses non-toxic photosensitizers and harmless visible light to produce reactive oxygen species and kill microbes. Phenothiazinium photosensitizers like methylene blue (MB) and toluidine blue O are hydrophobic cations that are naturally expelled from bacterial cells by multidrug efflux pumps, which reduces their effectiveness. We recently reported the discovery of a NorA efflux pump inhibitor-methylene blue (EPI-MB) hybrid compound INF55-(Ac)en-MB that shows enhanced photodynamic inactivation of the Gram-positive bacterium methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) relative to MB, both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we report the surprising observation that INF55-(Ac)en-MB and two related hybrids bearing the NorA efflux pump inhibitors INF55 and INF271 also show enhanced aPDI activity in vitro (relative to MB) against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii, despite neither species expressing the NorA pump. Two of the hybrids showed superior effects to MB in murine aPDI infection models. The findings motivate wider exploration of aPDI with EPI-MB hybrids against Gram-negative pathogens and more detailed studies into the molecular mechanisms underpinning their activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigating the dynamic nature of the ABC transporters: ABCB1 and MsbA as examples for the potential synergies of MD theory and EPR applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockner, Thomas; Mullen, Anna; MacMillan, Fraser

    2015-10-01

    ABC transporters are primary active transporters found in all kingdoms of life. Human multidrug resistance transporter ABCB1, or P-glycoprotein, has an extremely broad substrate spectrum and confers resistance against chemotherapy drug treatment in cancer cells. The bacterial ABC transporter MsbA is a lipid A flippase and a homolog to the human ABCB1 transporter, with which it partially shares its substrate spectrum. Crystal structures of MsbA and ABCB1 have been solved in multiple conformations, providing a glimpse into the possible conformational changes the transporter could be going through during the transport cycle. Crystal structures are inherently static, while a dynamic picture of the transporter in motion is needed for a complete understanding of transporter function. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy can provide structural information on ABC transporters, but the strength of these two methods lies in the potential to characterise the dynamic regime of these transporters. Information from the two methods is quite complementary. MD simulations provide an all atom dynamic picture of the time evolution of the molecular system, though with a narrow time window. EPR spectroscopy can probe structural, environmental and dynamic properties of the transporter in several time regimes, but only through the attachment sites of an exogenous spin label. In this review the synergistic effects that can be achieved by combining the two methods are highlighted, and a brief methodological background is also presented. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  15. Complex interplay between the P-glycoprotein multidrug efflux pump and the membrane: its role in modulating protein function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Jane Sharom

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance in cancer is linked to expression of the P-glycoprotein multidrug transporter (Pgp, ABCB1, which exports many structurally diverse compounds from cells. Substrates first partition into the bilayer and then interact with a large flexible binding pocket within the transporter’s transmembrane regions. Pgp has been described as a hydrophobic vacuum cleaner or an outwardly-directed drug/lipid flippase. Recent X-ray crystal structures have shed some light on the nature of the drug-binding pocket and suggested routes by which substrates can enter it from the membrane. Detergents have profound effects on Pgp function, and several appear to be substrates. Biochemical and biophysical studies in vitro, some using purified reconstituted protein, have explored the effects of the membrane environment. They have demonstrated that Pgp is involved in a complex relationship with its lipid environment, which modulates the behaviour of its substrates, as well as various functions of the protein, including ATP hydrolysis, drug binding and drug transport. Membrane lipid composition and fluidity, phospholipid headgroup and acyl chain length all influence Pgp function. Recent studies focusing on thermodynamics and kinetics have revealed some important principles governing Pgp-lipid and substrate-lipid interactions, and how these affect drug binding and transport. In some cells, Pgp is associated with cholesterol-rich microdomains which may modulate its functions. The relationship between Pgp and cholesterol remains an open question; however it clearly affects several aspects of its function in addition to substrate-membrane partitioning. The action of Pgp modulators appears to depend on their membrane permeability, and membrane fluidizers and surfactants reverse drug resistance, likely via an indirect mechanism. A detailed understanding of how the membrane affects Pgp substrates and Pgp’s catalytic cycle may lead to new strategies to combat

  16. Dashboard Auditing of Activity-Based Costing (ABC)

    OpenAIRE

    Sorinel Capusneanu

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to define the dashboard auditing according to the specifics of Activity-Based Costing method (ABC). It describes the main objectives of dashboard auditing, the criteria that a dashboard auditor should meet and the step-by-step stages of the entire dashboard auditing process according to the Activity-Based Costing method (ABC).

  17. An ABC analysis for power generation project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Hasani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns on performance measurement is to know how much a particular project cost. However, using traditional method on project-based products often leads to inappropriate results. In this paper, we re-examine this issue by comparing the cost of a power station construction project using ABC versus traditional method. The results of survey show that ABC method is capable of providing better estimates for overhead costs compared with traditional method. In other words, ABC method helps reduce some of the unnecessary overhead cost items and increase on some other cost components. This helps increase the relative efficiency of the system by reducing total cost of project.

  18. Inactivation of Efflux Pumps Abolishes Bacterial Biofilm Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Malin; Hancock, Viktoria; Klemm, Per

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms cause numerous problems in health care and industry; notably, biofilms are associated with a large number of infections. Biofilm-dwelling bacteria are particularly resistant to antibiotics, making it hard to eradicate biofilm-associated infections. Bacteria rely on efflux pumps...... to get rid of toxic substances. We discovered that efflux pumps are highly active in bacterial biofilms, thus making efflux pumps attractive targets for antibiofilm measures. A number of efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) are known. EPIs were shown to reduce biofilm formation, and in combination they could...... abolish biofilm formation completely. Also, EPIs were able to block the antibiotic tolerance of biofilms. The results of this feasibility study might pave the way for new treatments for biofilm-related infections and may be exploited for prevention of biofilms in general....

  19. Dashboard Auditing of Activity-Based Costing (ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorinel Capusneanu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to define the dashboard auditing according to the specifics of Activity-Based Costing method (ABC. It describes the main objectives of dashboard auditing, the criteria that a dashboard auditor should meet and the step-by-step stages of the entire dashboard auditing process according to the Activity-Based Costing method (ABC.

  20. Efflux of inorganic substances from young barley roots, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Hiroshi; Kojima, Shigeru

    1977-01-01

    The root system of young barley was almost halved, and the two portions were planted in culture grounds with different composition after severing the capillary connection between both root groups. With one portion in the acid medium solution of various compositions and the other in the 22 Na-absorbing medium solution, the sodium absorbed from one root group moved to and flowed out from the other root group, and this state was observed. Also, the efflux of potassium from the root was observed. (1) The Na efflux was small in the culture ground with dilute hydrochloric acid, and larger in that with AlCl 3 or phosphate. (2) The K efflux was large under short-day condition. (3) Under short-day condition, in the culture ground with soluble Al, the K efflux was promoted by nitrogen-source addition, but the Na efflux was suppressed. (Mori, K.)

  1. Glaucarubinone sensitizes KB cells to paclitaxel by inhibiting ABC transporters via ROS-dependent and p53-mediated activation of apoptotic signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Subburayan; Hoti, Sugeerappa Laxmanappa; Nazeer, Yasin; Hegde, Harsha Vasudev

    2016-07-05

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is considered to be the major contributor to failure of chemotherapy in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). This study was aimed to explore the effects and mechanisms of glaucarubinone (GLU), one of the major quassinoids from Simarouba glauca DC, in potentiating cytotoxicity of paclitaxel (PTX), an anticancer drug in KB cells. Our data showed that the administration of GLU pre-treatment significantly enhanced PTX anti-proliferative effect in ABCB1 over-expressing KB cells. The Rh 123 drug efflux studies revealed that there was a significant transport function inhibition by GLU-PTX treatment. Interestingly, it was also found that this enhanced anticancer efficacy of GLU was associated with PTX-induced cell arrest in the G2/M phase of cell cycle. Further, the combined treatment of GLU-PTX had significant decrease in the expression levels of P-gp, MRPs, and BCRP in resistant KB cells at both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, the combination treatments showed significant reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, chromatin condensation and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential in resistant KB cells. The results from DNA fragmentation analysis also demonstrated the GLU induced apoptosis in KB cells and its synergy with PTX. Importantly, GLU and/or PTX triggered apoptosis through the activation of pro-apoptotic proteins such as p53, Bax, and caspase-9. Our findings demonstrated for the first time that GLU causes cell death in human oral cancer cells via the ROS-dependent suppression of MDR transporters and p53-mediated activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Additionally, the present study also focussed on investigation of the protective effect of GLU and combination drugs in human normal blood lymphocytes. Normal blood lymphocytes assay indicated that GLU is able to induce selective toxicity in cancer cells and in silico molecular docking studies support the choice of GLU as ABC inhibitor to enhance PTX efficacy

  2. ABC/2 Method Does not Accurately Predict Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, Christopher; Vadlamudi, Venu; Chaudhary, Neeraj; Gemmete, Joseph J; Seinfeld, Joshua; Thompson, B Gregory; Pandey, Aditya S

    2018-02-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a treatment option for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) to prevent intracranial hemorrhage. The decision to proceed with SRS is usually based on calculated nidal volume. Physicians commonly use the ABC/2 formula, based on digital subtraction angiography (DSA), when counseling patients for SRS. To determine whether AVM volume calculated using the ABC/2 method on DSA is accurate when compared to the exact volume calculated from thin-cut axial sections used for SRS planning. Retrospective search of neurovascular database to identify AVMs treated with SRS from 1995 to 2015. Maximum nidal diameters in orthogonal planes on DSA images were recorded to determine volume using ABC/2 formula. Nidal target volume was extracted from operative reports of SRS. Volumes were then compared using descriptive statistics and paired t-tests. Ninety intracranial AVMs were identified. Median volume was 4.96 cm3 [interquartile range (IQR) 1.79-8.85] with SRS planning methods and 6.07 cm3 (IQR 1.3-13.6) with ABC/2 methodology. Moderate correlation was seen between SRS and ABC/2 (r = 0.662; P ABC/2 (t = -3.2; P = .002). When AVMs were dichotomized based on ABC/2 volume, significant differences remained (t = 3.1, P = .003 for ABC/2 volume ABC/2 volume > 7 cm3). The ABC/2 method overestimates cerebral AVM volume when compared to volumetric analysis from SRS planning software. For AVMs > 7 cm3, the overestimation is even greater. SRS planning techniques were also significantly different than values derived from equations for cones and cylinders. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  3. CO2 efflux from cleared mangrove peat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Lovelock

    Full Text Available CO(2 emissions from cleared mangrove areas may be substantial, increasing the costs of continued losses of these ecosystems, particularly in mangroves that have highly organic soils.We measured CO(2 efflux from mangrove soils that had been cleared for up to 20 years on the islands of Twin Cays, Belize. We also disturbed these cleared peat soils to assess what disturbance of soils after clearing may have on CO(2 efflux. CO(2 efflux from soils declines from time of clearing from ∼10,600 tonnes km(-2 year(-1 in the first year to 3000 tonnes km(2 year(-1 after 20 years since clearing. Disturbing peat leads to short term increases in CO(2 efflux (27 umol m(-2 s(-1, but this had returned to baseline levels within 2 days.Deforesting mangroves that grow on peat soils results in CO(2 emissions that are comparable to rates estimated for peat collapse in other tropical ecosystems. Preventing deforestation presents an opportunity for countries to benefit from carbon payments for preservation of threatened carbon stocks.

  4. abc: An Extensible AspectJ Compiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avgustinov, Pavel; Christensen, Aske Simon; Hendren, Laurie J.

    2006-01-01

    checking and code generation, as well as data flow and control flow analyses. The AspectBench Compiler (abc) is an implementation of such a workbench. The base version of abc implements the full AspectJ language. Its front end is built using the Polyglot framework, as a modular extension of the Java...... language. The use of Polyglot gives flexibility of syntax and type checking. The back end is built using the Soot framework, to give modular code generation and analyses. In this paper, we outline the design of abc, focusing mostly on how the design supports extensibility. We then provide a general...

  5. In vivo evaluation of thiolated poly(acrylic acid) as a drug absorption modulator for MRP2 efflux pump substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greindl, Melanie; Föger, Florian; Hombach, Juliane; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2009-08-01

    Recently, several polymers have been reported to modulate drug absorption by inhibition of intestinal efflux pumps such as multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of thiolated poly(acrylic acid) (PAA-Cys) to act as a drug absorption modulator for MRP2 efflux pump substrates in vivo, using sulforhodamine 101 as representative MRP2 substrate. In vitro, the permeation-enhancing effect of unmodified PAA and PAA(250)-Cys(,) displaying 580 micromol free thiol groups per gram polymer, was evaluated by using freshly excised rat intestinal mucosa mounted in Ussing-type chambers. In comparison to that of the buffer control, the sulforhodamine 101 transport in the presence of 0.5% unmodified PAA(250) and 0.5% (w/v) PAA(250)-Cys was 1.3- and 4.0-fold improved, respectively. In vivo, sulforhodamine 101 solutions containing 4% (w/v) unmodified PAA(250) or 4% (w/v) thiolated PAA(250) were orally given to rats. The PAA(250)-Cys solution increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-12)) of sulforhodamine 101 3.8-fold in comparison to control and 2.2-fold in comparison to unmodified PAA(250). This in vivo study revealed that PAA(250)-Cys significantly increased the oral bioavailability of MRP2 substrate sulforhodamine 101.

  6. A New Natural Product Analog of Blasticidin S Reveals Cellular Uptake Facilitated by the NorA Multidrug Transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Jack R; Lohith, Katheryn M; Wang, Xiaoning; Bobyk, Kostyantyn; Mandadapu, Sivakoteswara R; Lee, Su-Lin; Cencic, Regina; Nelson, Justin; Simpkins, Scott; Frank, Karen M; Pelletier, Jerry; Myers, Chad L; Piotrowski, Jeff; Smith, Harold E; Bewley, Carole A

    2017-06-01

    The permeation of antibiotics through bacterial membranes to their target site is a crucial determinant of drug activity but in many cases remains poorly understood. During screening efforts to discover new broad-spectrum antibiotic compounds from marine sponge samples, we identified a new analog of the peptidyl nucleoside antibiotic blasticidin S that exhibited up to 16-fold-improved potency against a range of laboratory and clinical bacterial strains which we named P10. Whole-genome sequencing of laboratory-evolved strains of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to blasticidin S and P10, combined with genome-wide assessment of the fitness of barcoded Escherichia coli knockout strains in the presence of the antibiotics, revealed that restriction of cellular access was a key feature in the development of resistance to this class of drug. In particular, the gene encoding the well-characterized multidrug efflux pump NorA was found to be mutated in 69% of all S. aureus isolates resistant to blasticidin S or P10. Unexpectedly, resistance was associated with inactivation of norA , suggesting that the NorA transporter facilitates cellular entry of peptidyl nucleosides in addition to its known role in the efflux of diverse compounds, including fluoroquinolone antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Small intestinal efflux mediated by MRP2 and BCRP shifts sulfasalazine intestinal permeability from high to low, enabling its colonic targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Arik; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-08-01

    Sulfasalazine is characterized by low intestinal absorption, which essentially enables its colonic targeting and therapeutic action. The mechanisms behind this low absorption have not yet been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of efflux transporters in the intestinal absorption of sulfasalazine as a potential mechanism for its low small-intestinal absorption and colonic targeting following oral administration. The effects of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) inhibitors on sulfasalazine bidirectional permeability were studied across Caco-2 cell monolayers, including dose-response analysis. Sulfasalazine in vivo permeability was then investigated in the rat jejunum by single-pass perfusion, in the presence vs. absence of inhibitors. Sulfasalazine exhibited 19-fold higher basolateral-to-apical (BL-AP) than apical-to-basolateral (AP-BL) Caco-2 permeability, indicative of net mucosal secretion. MRP2 inhibitors (MK-571 and indomethacin) and BCRP inhibitors [fumitremorgin C (FTC) and pantoprazole] significantly increased AP-BL and decreased BL-AP sulfasalazine Caco-2 transport in a concentration-dependent manner. No effect was observed with the P-gp inhibitors verapamil and quinidine. The IC50 values of the specific MRP2 and BCRP inhibitors MK-571 and FTC on sulfasalazine secretion were 21.5 and 2.0 microM, respectively. Simultaneous inhibition of MRP2 and BCRP completely abolished sulfasalazine Caco-2 efflux. Without inhibitors, sulfasalazine displayed low (vs. metoprolol) in vivo intestinal permeability in the rat model. MK-571 or FTC significantly increased sulfasalazine permeability, bringing it to the low-high permeability boundary. With both MK-571 and FTC present, sulfasalazine displayed high permeability. In conclusion, efflux transport mediated by MRP2 and BCRP, but not P-gp, shifts sulfasalazine permeability from high to low, thereby enabling its

  8. Multidrug resistance in Botrytis cinerea associated with decreased accumulation of the azole fungicide oxpoconazole and increased transcription of the ABC transporter gene BcatrD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayashi, K.; Schoonbeek, H.; Sugiura, H.; Waard, De M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Azole-resistant mutants of Botrytis cinerea have a multidrug resistance phenotype since they exhibit cross-resistance to unrelated chemicals. These mutants also display resistance to the new azole fungicide oxpoconazole. Resistance to oxpoconazole is associated with decreased accumulation of the

  9. Nrf2 activation ameliorates cytotoxic effects of arsenic trioxide in acute promyelocytic leukemia cells through increased glutathione levels and arsenic efflux from cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimoto, Shoichi; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Koike, Shin [Department of Analytical Biochemistry, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, 2-522-1 Noshio, Kiyose, Tokyo 204-8588 (Japan); Yuan, Bo; Takagi, Norio [Department of Applied Biochemistry, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Ogasawara, Yuki, E-mail: yo@my-pharm.ac.jp [Department of Analytical Biochemistry, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, 2-522-1 Noshio, Kiyose, Tokyo 204-8588 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    Carnosic acid (CA), a phenolic diterpene isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis, has been shown to activate nuclear transcription factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which plays a central role in cytoprotective responses to oxidative and electrophilic stress. Recently, the Nrf2-Kelch ECH associating protein 1 (Keap1) pathway has been associated with cancer drug resistance attributable to modulation of the expression and activation of antioxidant and detoxification enzymes. However, the exact mechanisms by which Nrf2 activation results in chemoresistance are insufficiently understood to date. This study investigated the mechanisms by which the cytotoxic effects of arsenic trioxide (ATO), an anticancer drug, were decreased in acute promyelocytic leukemia cells treated with CA, a typical activator of Nrf2 used to stimulate the Nrf2/Keap1 system. Our findings suggest that arsenic is non-enzymatically incorporated into NB4 cells and forms complexes that are dependent on intracellular glutathione (GSH) concentrations. In addition, the arsenic complexes are recognized as substrates by multidrug resistance proteins and subsequently excreted from the cells. Therefore, Nrf2-associated activation of the GSH biosynthetic pathway, followed by increased levels of intracellular GSH, are key mechanisms underlying accelerated arsenic efflux and attenuation of the cytotoxic effects of ATO. - Highlights: • Nrf2 activation attenuates the effect of arsenic trioxide to acute promyelocytic leukemia cells. • The sensitivity of arsenic trioxide to NB4 cells was dependent on efflux rate of arsenic. • Activation of the GSH biosynthesis is essential in Nrf2-regulated responses for arsenic efflux.

  10. INTEGRATING ABC AND EVA TO EVALUATE INVESTMENT DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chiadamrong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The significance of investment is transparent in the world of competitive business. Traditional costing systems in which their emphasizes are for short term savings rather than long term benefits have shown some lacking in providing accurate and reliable cost data for the investment decisions. Activity-based Costing (ABC, which is developed to satisfy some of the weaknesses of the traditional costing systems, can provide valuable insights into the operating processes and come up with more accurate cost data. In this paper, ABC is used to provide significant information for investment decisions. Although, the ABC method provides accurate operating product costs, it does not identify which products are economic valued added creators and so contribute to companies’ wealth. This drawback can be overcome by applying Economic Value Added (EVA. The adoption of ABC and EVA can represent a considerable change in the managerial thinking and to corporate strategies and business performance.

  11. Natural and Synthetic Polymers as Inhibitors of Drug Efflux Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Inhibition of efflux pumps is an emerging approach in cancer therapy and drug delivery. Since it has been discovered that polymeric pharmaceutical excipients such as Tweens® or Pluronics® can inhibit efflux pumps, various other polymers have been investigated regarding their potential efflux pump inhibitory activity. Among them are polysaccharides, polyethylene glycols and derivatives, amphiphilic block copolymers, dendrimers and thiolated polymers. In the current review article, natural and synthetic polymers that are capable of inhibiting efflux pumps as well as their application in cancer therapy and drug delivery are discussed. PMID:17896100

  12. Preconceptual ABC design definition and system configuration layout: Appendix A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    The mission of the ABC system is to destroy as effectively as possible the fissile material inserted into the core without producing any new fissile material. The contents of this report are as follows: operating conditions for the steam-cycle ABC system; flow rates and component dimensions; drawings of the ABC layout; and impact of core design parameters on containment size

  13. Genome-wide comparative analysis of ABC systems in the Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Chen, Huan; Williams, Henry N

    2015-05-10

    Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms (BALOs) are gram-negative, predatory bacteria with wide variations in genome sizes and GC content and ecological habitats. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) systems have been identified in several prokaryotes, fungi and plants and have a role in transport of materials in and out of cells and in cellular processes. However, knowledge of the ABC systems of BALOs remains obscure. A total of 269 putative ABC proteins were identified in BALOs. The genes encoding these ABC systems occupy nearly 1.3% of the gene content in freshwater Bdellovibrio strains and about 0.7% in their saltwater counterparts. The proteins found belong to 25 ABC system families based on their structural characteristics and functions. Among these, 16 families function as importers, 6 as exporters and 3 are involved in various cellular processes. Eight of these 25 ABC system families were deduced to be the core set of ABC systems conserved in all BALOs. All Bacteriovorax strains have 28 or less ABC systems. On the contrary, the freshwater Bdellovibrio strains have more ABC systems, typically around 51. In the genome of Bdellovibrio exovorus JSS (CP003537.1), 53 putative ABC systems were detected, representing the highest number among all the BALO genomes examined in this study. Unexpected high numbers of ABC systems involved in cellular processes were found in all BALOs. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the majority of ABC proteins can be assigned into many separate families with high bootstrap supports (>50%). In this study, a general framework of sequence-structure-function connections for the ABC systems in BALOs was revealed providing novel insights for future investigations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Synergistic and complete reversal of the multidrug resistance of mitoxantrone hydrochloride by three-in-one multifunctional lipid-sodium glycocholate nanocarriers based on simultaneous BCRP and Bcl-2 inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Guixia; Zhang, Tianhong; Zhang, Peng; Sun, Jin; He, Zhonggui

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a severe obstacle to successful chemotherapy due to its complicated nature that involves multiple mechanisms, such as drug efflux by transporters (P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein, BCRP) and anti-apoptotic defense (B-cell lymphoma, Bcl-2). To synergistically and completely reverse MDR by simultaneous inhibition of pump and non-pump cellular resistance, three-in-one multifunctional lipid-sodium glycocholate (GcNa) nanocarriers (TMLGNs) have been designed for controlled co-delivery of water-soluble cationic mitoxantrone hydrochloride (MTO), cyclosporine A (CsA - BCRP inhibitor), and GcNa (Bcl-2 inhibitor). GcNa and dextran sulfate were incorporated as anionic compounds to enhance the encapsulation efficiency of MTO (up to 97.8%±1.9%) and sustain the release of cationic MTO by electrostatic interaction. The results of a series of in vitro and in vivo investigations indicated that the TMLGNs were taken up by the resistant cancer cells by an endocytosis pathway that escaped the efflux induced by BCRP, and the simultaneous release of CsA with MTO further efficiently inhibited the efflux of the released MTO by BCRP; meanwhile GcNa induced the apoptosis process, and an associated synergistic antitumor activity and reversion of MDR were achieved because the reversal index was almost 1.0.

  15. ABCs of Being Smart: S Is for Supporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Joanne Foster's article "R We There Yet?" was first published in "Parenting for High Potential" ("PHP") in 2006, which became the springboard for the "ABCs of Being Smart" series of columns. At that time, Foster invited "PHP" readers to think about their own versions of the "ABCs of Being…

  16. Modulation of human multidrug-resistance MDR-1 gene by natural curcuminoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddhasukh Duang

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multidrug resistance (MDR is a phenomenon that is often associated with decreased intracellular drug accumulation in patient's tumor cells resulting from enhanced drug efflux. It is related to the overexpression of a membrane protein, P-glycoprotein (Pgp-170, thereby reducing drug cytotoxicity. A variety of studies have tried to find MDR modulators which increase drug accumulation in cancer cells. Methods In this study, natural curcuminoids, pure curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn, were compared for their potential ability to modulate the human MDR-1 gene expression in multidrug resistant human cervical carcinoma cell line, KB-V1 by Western blot analysis and RT-PCR. Results Western blot analysis and RT-PCR showed that all the three curcuminoids inhibited MDR-1 gene expression, and bisdemethoxycurcumin produced maximum effect. In additional studies we found that commercial grade curcuminoid (approximately 77% curcumin, 17% demethoxycurcumin and 3% bisdemthoxycurcumin decreased MDR-1 gene expression in a dose dependent manner and had about the same potent inhibitory effect on MDR-1 gene expression as our natural curcuminoid mixtures. Conclusion These results indicate that bisdemethoxycurcumin is the most active of the curcuminoids present in turmeric for modulation of MDR-1 gene. Treatment of drug resistant KB-V1 cells with curcumin increased their sensitivity to vinblastine, which was consistent with a decreased MDR-1 gene product, a P-glycoprotein, on the cell plasma membrane. Although many drugs that prevent the P-glycoprotein function have been reported, this report describes the inhibition of MDR-1 expression by a phytochemical. The modulation of MDR-1 expression may be an attractive target for new chemosensitizing agents.

  17. Modulation of human multidrug-resistance MDR-1 gene by natural curcuminoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limtrakul, Pornngarm; Anuchapreeda, Songyot; Buddhasukh, Duang

    2004-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a phenomenon that is often associated with decreased intracellular drug accumulation in patient's tumor cells resulting from enhanced drug efflux. It is related to the overexpression of a membrane protein, P-glycoprotein (Pgp-170), thereby reducing drug cytotoxicity. A variety of studies have tried to find MDR modulators which increase drug accumulation in cancer cells. In this study, natural curcuminoids, pure curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn), were compared for their potential ability to modulate the human MDR-1 gene expression in multidrug resistant human cervical carcinoma cell line, KB-V1 by Western blot analysis and RT-PCR. Western blot analysis and RT-PCR showed that all the three curcuminoids inhibited MDR-1 gene expression, and bisdemethoxycurcumin produced maximum effect. In additional studies we found that commercial grade curcuminoid (approximately 77% curcumin, 17% demethoxycurcumin and 3% bisdemthoxycurcumin) decreased MDR-1 gene expression in a dose dependent manner and had about the same potent inhibitory effect on MDR-1 gene expression as our natural curcuminoid mixtures. These results indicate that bisdemethoxycurcumin is the most active of the curcuminoids present in turmeric for modulation of MDR-1 gene. Treatment of drug resistant KB-V1 cells with curcumin increased their sensitivity to vinblastine, which was consistent with a decreased MDR-1 gene product, a P-glycoprotein, on the cell plasma membrane. Although many drugs that prevent the P-glycoprotein function have been reported, this report describes the inhibition of MDR-1 expression by a phytochemical. The modulation of MDR-1 expression may be an attractive target for new chemosensitizing agents

  18. HIV-1 integrase inhibitors are substrates for the multidrug transporter MDR1-P-glycoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Andrea

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discovery of diketoacid-containing derivatives as inhibitors of HIV-1 Integrase (IN (IN inhibitors, IINs has played a major role in validating this enzyme as an important target for antiretroviral therapy. Since the in vivo efficacy depends on access of these drugs to intracellular sites where HIV-1 replicates, we determined whether the IINs are recognized by the multidrug transporter MDR1-P-glycoprotein (P-gp thereby reducing their intracellular accumulation. To address the effect of IINs on drug transport, nine quinolonyl diketo acid (DKA derivatives active on the HIV-1 IN strand transfer (ST step and with EC50 ranging from 1.83 to >50 μm in cell-based assays were tested for their in vitro interaction with P-gp in the CEM-MDR cell system. IINs were investigated for the inhibition and induction of the P-gp function and expression as well as for multidrug resistance (MDR reversing ability. Results The HIV-1 IINs act as genuine P-gp substrates by inhibiting doxorubicin efflux and inducing P-gp functional conformation changes as evaluated by the modulation of UIC2 mAb epitope. Further, IINs chemosensitize MDR cells to vinblastine and induce P-gp expression in drug sensitive revertants of CEM-MDR cells. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that HIV-1 IINs are P-gp substrates. This biological property may influence the absorption, distribution and elimination of these novels anti HIV-1 compounds.

  19. Whole genome sequencing for deciphering the resistome of Chryseobacterium indologenes, an emerging multidrug-resistant bacterium isolated from a cystic fibrosis patient in Marseille, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Cimmino

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We decipher the resistome of Chryseobacterium indologenes MARS15, an emerging multidrug-resistant clinical strain, using the whole genome sequencing strategy. The bacterium was isolated from the sputum of a hospitalized patient with cystic fibrosis in the Timone Hospital in Marseille, France. Genome sequencing was done with Illumina MiSeq using a paired-end strategy. The in silico analysis was done by RAST, the resistome by the ARG-ANNOT database and detection of polyketide synthase (PKS by ANTISMAH. The genome size of C. indologenes MARS15 is 4 972 580 bp with 36.4% GC content. This multidrug-resistant bacterium was resistant to all β-lactams, including imipenem, and also to colistin. The resistome of C. indologenes MARS15 includes Ambler class A and B β-lactams encoding blaCIA and blaIND-2 genes and MBL (metallo-β-lactamase genes, the CAT (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene and the multidrug efflux pump AcrB. Specific features include the presence of an urease operon, an intact prophage and a carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. Interestingly, we report for the first time in C. indologenes a PKS cluster that might be responsible for secondary metabolite biosynthesis, similar to erythromycin. The whole genome sequence analysis provides insight into the resistome and the discovery of new details, such as the PKS cluster.

  20. Whole genome sequencing for deciphering the resistome of Chryseobacterium indologenes, an emerging multidrug-resistant bacterium isolated from a cystic fibrosis patient in Marseille, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, T; Rolain, J-M

    2016-07-01

    We decipher the resistome of Chryseobacterium indologenes MARS15, an emerging multidrug-resistant clinical strain, using the whole genome sequencing strategy. The bacterium was isolated from the sputum of a hospitalized patient with cystic fibrosis in the Timone Hospital in Marseille, France. Genome sequencing was done with Illumina MiSeq using a paired-end strategy. The in silico analysis was done by RAST, the resistome by the ARG-ANNOT database and detection of polyketide synthase (PKS) by ANTISMAH. The genome size of C. indologenes MARS15 is 4 972 580 bp with 36.4% GC content. This multidrug-resistant bacterium was resistant to all β-lactams, including imipenem, and also to colistin. The resistome of C. indologenes MARS15 includes Ambler class A and B β-lactams encoding bla CIA and bla IND-2 genes and MBL (metallo-β-lactamase) genes, the CAT (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) gene and the multidrug efflux pump AcrB. Specific features include the presence of an urease operon, an intact prophage and a carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. Interestingly, we report for the first time in C. indologenes a PKS cluster that might be responsible for secondary metabolite biosynthesis, similar to erythromycin. The whole genome sequence analysis provides insight into the resistome and the discovery of new details, such as the PKS cluster.

  1. A Compute Environment of ABC95 Array Computer Based on Multi-FPGA Chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    ABC95 array computer is a multi-function network's computer based on FPGA technology, The multi-function network supports processors conflict-free access data from memory and supports processors access data from processors based on enhanced MESH network.ABC95 instruction's system includes control instructions, scalar instructions, vectors instructions.Mostly net-work instructions are introduced.A programming environment of ABC95 array computer assemble language is designed.A programming environment of ABC95 array computer for VC++ is advanced.It includes load function of ABC95 array computer program and data, store function, run function and so on.Specially, The data type of ABC95 array computer conflict-free access is defined.The results show that these technologies can develop programmer of ABC95 array computer effectively.

  2. Multidrug resistance transporters Snq2p and Pdr5p mediate caffeine efflux in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Yoshiyuki; Shimizu, Yoshihiro; Otake, Kazuya; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Okada, Ryutaro; Miyazaki, Toshitaka; Watanabe, Kunihiko

    2015-01-01

    SNQ2 was identified as a caffeine-resistance gene by screening a genomic library of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a multicopy vector YEp24. SNQ2 encodes an ATP-binding cassette transporter and is highly homologous to PDR5. Multicopy of PDR5 also conferred resistance to caffeine, while its resistance was smaller than that of SNQ2. Residual caffeine contents were analyzed after transiently exposing cells to caffeine. The ratios of caffeine contents were 21.3 ± 8.8% (YEp24-SNQ2) and 81.9 ± 8.7% (YEp24-PDR5) relative to control (YEp24, 100%). In addition, multicopies of SNQ2 or PDR5 conferred resistance to rhodamine 6G (R6G), which was widely used as a substrate for transport assay. R6G was exported by both transporters, and their efflux activities were inhibited by caffeine with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of 5.3 ± 1.9 (YEp24-SNQ2) and 17.2 ± 9.6 mM (YEp24-PDR5). These results demonstrate that Snq2p is a more functional transporter of caffeine than Pdr5p in yeast cells.

  3. Boeravinone B, A Novel Dual Inhibitor of NorA Bacterial Efflux Pump of Staphylococcus aureus and Human P-Glycoprotein, Reduces the Biofilm Formation and Intracellular Invasion of Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Samsher; Kalia, Nitin P; Joshi, Prashant; Kumar, Ajay; Sharma, Parduman R; Kumar, Ashok; Bharate, Sandip B; Khan, Inshad A

    2017-01-01

    This study elucidated the role of boeravinone B, a NorA multidrug efflux pump inhibitor, in biofilm inhibition. The effects of boeravinone B plus ciprofloxacin, a NorA substrate, were evaluated in NorA-overexpressing, wild-type, and knocked-out Staphylococcus aureus (SA-1199B, SA-1199, and SA-K1758, respectively). The mechanism of action was confirmed using the ethidium bromide accumulation and efflux assay. The role of boeravinone B as a human P -glycoprotein ( P -gp) inhibitor was examined in the LS-180 (colon cancer) cell line. Moreover, its role in the inhibition of biofilm formation and intracellular invasion of S. aureus in macrophages was studied. Boeravinone B reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ciprofloxacin against S. aureus and its methicillin-resistant strains; the effect was stronger in SA-1199B. Furthermore, time-kill kinetics revealed that boeravinone B plus ciprofloxacin, at subinhibitory concentration (0.25 × MIC), is as equipotent as that at the MIC level. This combination also had a reduced mutation prevention concentration. Boeravinone B reduced the efflux of ethidium bromide and increased the accumulation, thus strengthening the role as a NorA inhibitor. Biofilm formation was reduced by four-eightfold of the minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin, effectively preventing bacterial entry into macrophages. Boeravinone B effectively inhibited P -gp with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) of 64.85 μM. The study concluded that boeravinone B not only inhibits the NorA-mediated efflux of fluoroquinolones but also considerably inhibits the biofilm formation of S. aureus. Its P -gp inhibition activity demonstrates its potential as a bioavailability and bioefficacy enhancer.

  4. ATP binding cassette G1-dependent cholesterol efflux during inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Maria C; Ji, Ailing; Jahangiri, Anisa; Vaughan, Ashley M; de Beer, Frederick C; van der Westhuyzen, Deneys R; Webb, Nancy R

    2011-02-01

    ATP binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) mediates the transport of cellular cholesterol to HDL, and it plays a key role in maintaining macrophage cholesterol homeostasis. During inflammation, HDL undergoes substantial remodeling, acquiring lipid changes and serum amyloid A (SAA) as a major apolipoprotein. In the current study, we investigated whether remodeling of HDL that occurs during acute inflammation impacts ABCG1-dependent efflux. Our data indicate that lipid free SAA acts similarly to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in mediating sequential efflux from ABCA1 and ABCG1. Compared with normal mouse HDL, acute phase (AP) mouse HDL containing SAA exhibited a modest but significant 17% increase in ABCG1-dependent efflux. Interestingly, AP HDL isolated from mice lacking SAA (SAAKO mice) was even more effective in promoting ABCG1 efflux. Hydrolysis with Group IIA secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)-IIA) significantly reduced the ability of AP HDL from SAAKO mice to serve as a substrate for ABCG1-mediated cholesterol transfer, indicating that phospholipid (PL) enrichment, and not the presence of SAA, is responsible for alterations in efflux. AP human HDL, which is not PL-enriched, was somewhat less effective in mediating ABCG1-dependent efflux compared with normal human HDL. Our data indicate that inflammatory remodeling of HDL impacts ABCG1-dependent efflux independent of SAA.

  5. Trans-Cinnamaldehyde and Eugenol Increase Acinetobacter baumannii Sensitivity to Beta-Lactam Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karumathil, Deepti P; Nair, Meera Surendran; Gaffney, James; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Multi-drug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii is a major nosocomial pathogen causing a wide range of clinical conditions with significant mortality rates. A. baumannii strains are equipped with a multitude of antibiotic resistance mechanisms, rendering them resistant to most of the currently available antibiotics. Thus, there is a critical need to explore novel strategies for controlling antibiotic resistance in A. baumannii . This study investigated the efficacy of two food-grade, plant-derived antimicrobials (PDAs), namely trans -cinnamaldehyde (TC) and eugenol (EG) in decreasing A. baumannii 's resistance to seven β-lactam antibiotics, including ampicillin, methicillin, meropenem, penicillin, aztreonam, amoxicillin, and piperacillin. Two MDR A. baumannii isolates (ATCC 17978 and AB 251847) were separately cultured in tryptic soy broth (∼6 log CFU/ml) containing the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of TC or EG with or without the MIC of each antibiotic at 37°C for 18 h. A. baumannii strains not exposed to the PDAs or antibiotics served as controls. Following incubation, A. baumannii counts were determined by broth dilution assay. In addition, the effect of PDAs on the permeability of outer membrane and efflux pumps in A. baumannii was measured. Further, the effect of TC and EG on the expression of A. baumannii genes encoding resistance to β-lactam antibiotics ( blaP ), efflux pumps ( adeABC ), and multi-drug resistant protein ( mdrp ) was studied using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The experiment was replicated three times with duplicate samples of each treatment and control. The results from broth dilution assay indicated that both TC and EG in combination with antibiotics increased the sensitivity of A. baumannii to all the tested antibiotics ( P increase the permeability of its outer membrane. Moreover, RT-qPCR data revealed that TC and EG down-regulated the expression of majority of the genes associated with β-lactam antibiotic

  6. Antibacterial Efficacy of Polysaccharide Capped Silver Nanoparticles Is Not Compromised by AcrAB-TolC Efflux Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali Mishra

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial therapy is of paramount importance in treatment of several acute and chronic infectious diseases caused by pathogens. Over the years extensive use and misuse of antimicrobial agents has led to emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR and extensive drug resistant (XDR pathogens. This drastic escalation in resistant phenotype has limited the efficacy of available therapeutic options. Thus, the need of the hour is to look for alternative therapeutic approaches to mitigate healthcare concerns caused due to MDR bacterial infections. Nanoparticles have gathered much attention as potential candidates for antibacterial therapy. Equipped with advantages of, wide spectrum bactericidal activity at very low dosage, inhibitor of biofilm formation and ease of permeability, nanoparticles have been considered as leading therapeutic candidates to curtail infections resulting from MDR bacteria. However, substrate non-specificity of efflux pumps, particularly those belonging to resistance nodulation division super family, have been reported to reduce efficacy of many potent antibacterial therapeutic drugs. Previously, we had reported antibacterial activity of polysaccharide-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs toward MDR bacteria. We showed that AgNPs inhibits biofilm formation and alters expression of cytoskeletal proteins FtsZ and FtsA, with minimal cytotoxicity toward mammalian cells. In the present study, we report no reduction in antibacterial efficacy of silver nanoparticles in presence of AcrAB-TolC efflux pump proteins. Antibacterial tests were performed according to CLSI macrobroth dilution method, which revealed that both silver nanoparticles exhibited bactericidal activity at very low concentrations. Further, immunoblotting results indicated that both the nanoparticles modulate the transporter AcrB protein expression. However, expression of the membrane fusion protein AcrA did show a significant increase after exposure to AgNPs. Our results

  7. Lapatinib potentiates cytotoxicity of  YM155 in neuroblastoma via inhibition of the ABCB1 efflux transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radic-Sarikas, Branka; Halasz, Melinda; Huber, Kilian V M; Winter, Georg E; Tsafou, Kalliopi P; Papamarkou, Theodore; Brunak, Søren; Kolch, Walter; Superti-Furga, Giulio

    2017-06-08

    Adverse side effects of cancer agents are of great concern in the context of childhood tumors where they can reduce the quality of life in young patients and cause life-long adverse effects. Synergistic drug combinations can lessen potential toxic side effects through lower dosing and simultaneously help to overcome drug resistance. Neuroblastoma is the most common cancer in infancy and extremely heterogeneous in clinical presentation and features. Applying a systematic pairwise drug combination screen we observed a highly potent synergy in neuroblastoma cells between the EGFR kinase inhibitor lapatinib and the anticancer compound YM155 that is preserved across several neuroblastoma variants. Mechanistically, the synergy was based on a lapatinib induced inhibition of the multidrug-resistance efflux transporter ABCB1, which is frequently expressed in resistant neuroblastoma cells, which allowed prolonged and elevated cytotoxicity of YM155. In addition, the drug combination (i.e. lapatinib plus YM155) decreased neuroblastoma tumor size in an in vivo model.

  8. ABC versus CAB for cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a prospective, randomized simulator-based trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsch, Stephan; Tschan, Franziska; Semmer, Norbert K; Zobrist, Roger; Hunziker, Patrick R; Hunziker, Sabina

    2013-09-06

    After years of advocating ABC (Airway-Breathing-Circulation), current guidelines of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) recommend CAB (Circulation-Airway-Breathing). This trial compared ABC with CAB as initial approach to CPR from the arrival of rescuers until the completion of the first resuscitation cycle. 108 teams, consisting of two physicians each, were randomized to receive a graphical display of either the ABC algorithm or the CAB algorithm. Subsequently teams had to treat a simulated cardiac arrest. Data analysis was performed using video recordings obtained during simulations. The primary endpoint was the time to completion of the first resuscitation cycle of 30 compressions and two ventilations. The time to execution of the first resuscitation measure was 32 ± 12 seconds in ABC teams and 25 ± 10 seconds in CAB teams (P = 0.002). 18/53 ABC teams (34%) and none of the 55 CAB teams (P = 0.006) applied more than the recommended two initial rescue breaths which caused a longer duration of the first cycle of 30 compressions and two ventilations in ABC teams (31 ± 13 vs.23 ± 6 sec; P = 0.001). Overall, the time to completion of the first resuscitation cycle was longer in ABC teams (63 ± 17 vs. 48 ± 10 sec; P ABC with an earlier start of CPR and a shorter time to completion of the first 30:2 resuscitation cycle. These findings endorse the change from ABC to CAB in international resuscitation guidelines.

  9. Photochemical internalisation of chemotherapy potentiates killing of multidrug-resistant breast and bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adigbli, D K; Wilson, D G G; Farooqui, N; Sousi, E; Risley, P; Taylor, I; Macrobert, A J; Loizidou, M

    2007-08-20

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the major confounding factor in adjuvant solid tumour chemotherapy. Increasing intracellular amounts of chemotherapeutics to circumvent MDR may be achieved by a novel delivery method, photochemical internalisation (PCI). PCI consists of the co-administration of drug and photosensitiser; upon light activation the latter induces intracellular release of organelle-bound drug. We investigated whether co-administration of hypericin (photosensitiser) with mitoxantrone (MTZ, chemotherapeutic) plus illumination potentiates cytotoxicity in MDR cancer cells. We mapped the extent of intracellular co-localisation of drug/photosensitiser. We determined whether PCI altered drug-excreting efflux pump P-glycoprotein (Pgp) expression or function in MDR cells. Bladder and breast cancer cells and their Pgp-overexpressing MDR subclones (MGHU1, MGHU1/R, MCF-7, MCF-7/R) were given hypericin/MTZ combinations, with/without blue-light illumination. Pilot experiments determined appropriate sublethal doses for each. Viability was determined by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Intracellular localisation was mapped by confocal microscopy. Pgp expression was detected by immunofluorescence and Pgp function investigated by Rhodamine123 efflux on confocal microscopy. MTZ alone (0.1-0.2 microg ml(-1)) killed up to 89% of drug-sensitive cells; MDR cells exhibited less cytotoxicity (6-28%). Hypericin (0.1-0.2 microM) effects were similar for all cells; light illumination caused none or minimal toxicity. In combination, MTZ /hypericin plus illumination, potentiated MDR cell killing, vs hypericin or MTZ alone. (MGHU1/R: 38.65 and 36.63% increase, Phypericin increased killing by 28.15% (Phypericin was evident before illumination and at serial times post-illumination. MTZ was always found in sensitive cell nuclei, but not in dark resistant cell nuclei. In illuminated resistant cells there was some mobilisation of MTZ into the nucleus. Pgp

  10. Politseiniku lustlik ABC / Pekka Erelt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erelt, Pekka, 1965-

    1999-01-01

    Politsei on välja andnud 'Politseiniku ABC', mis antakse igale politseinikule. Karikaturist Heiki Ernits on peaaegu igale taskuraamatu leheküljele joonistanud pildikese mundrimeestest kentsakates situatsioonides.

  11. Optimization of Straight Cylindrical Turning Using Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanth, Rajanampalli Seshasai Srinivasa; Hans Raj, Kandikonda

    2017-04-01

    Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm, that mimics the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bees, is increasingly gaining acceptance in the field of process optimization, as it is capable of handling nonlinearity, complexity and uncertainty. Straight cylindrical turning is a complex and nonlinear machining process which involves the selection of appropriate cutting parameters that affect the quality of the workpiece. This paper presents the estimation of optimal cutting parameters of the straight cylindrical turning process using the ABC algorithm. The ABC algorithm is first tested on four benchmark problems of numerical optimization and its performance is compared with genetic algorithm (GA) and ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm. Results indicate that, the rate of convergence of ABC algorithm is better than GA and ACO. Then, the ABC algorithm is used to predict optimal cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool nose radius to achieve good surface finish. Results indicate that, the ABC algorithm estimated a comparable surface finish when compared with real coded genetic algorithm and differential evolution algorithm.

  12. [Bacterial efflux pumps - their role in antibiotic resistance and potential inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hricová, Kristýna; Kolář, Milan

    2014-12-01

    Efflux pumps capable of actively draining antibiotic agents from bacterial cells may be considered one of potential mechanisms of the development of antimicrobial resistance. The most important group of efflux pumps capable of removing several types of antibiotics include RND (resistance - nodulation - division) pumps. These are three proteins that cross the bacterial cell wall, allowing direct expulsion of the agent out from the bacterial cell. The most investigated efflux pumps are the AcrAB-TolC system in Escherichia coli and the MexAB-OprM system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Moreover, efflux pumps are able to export other than antibacterial agents such as disinfectants, thus decreasing their effectiveness. One potential approach to inactivation of an efflux pump is to use the so-called efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs). Potential inhibitors tested in vitro involve, for example, phenylalanyl-arginyl-b-naphthylamide (PAbN), carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) or agents of the phenothiazine class.

  13. Reversal of P-glycoprotein-medicated multidrug resistance by LBM-A5 in vitro and a study of its pharmacokinetics in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tianxiao; Song, Yun; Liu, Baomin; Qiu, Qianqian; Jiao, Lei; Li, Yunman; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

    2015-01-01

    The overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in tumors leads to multidrug resistance (MDR), which is a significant obstacle in clinical cancer chemotherapy. The co-administration of anticancer drugs and MDR modulators is a promising strategy for overcoming this problem. Our study aimed to explore the reversal mechanism and safety of the MDR modulator LBM-A5 in vitro, and evaluate its pharmacokinetics and effects on doxorubicin metabolism in vivo. We evaluated an MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay of anticancer agents mediated by LBM-A5, the effect of LBM-A5 on rhodamine123 intracellular accumulation, and the efflux in K562/DOX cells to investigate the reversal mechanisms of LBM-A5. The results showed that LBM-A5 inhibits rhodamine123 efflux and increases intracellular accumulation by inhibiting the efflux pump function of P-gp. Furthermore, the therapeutic index and CYP3A4 activity analysis in vitro suggested that LBM-A5 is reasonably safe to use. Also, LBM-A5 (10 mg/kg body mass) achieved the required plasma concentration in sufficient time to reverse MDR in vivo. Importantly, the LBM-A5 treatment group shared similar doxorubicin (DOX) pharmacokinetics with the free DOX group. Our results suggest that LBM-A5 effectively reverses MDR (EC50 = 483.6 ± 81.7 nmol·L(-1)) by inhibiting the function of P-gp, with relatively ideal pharmacokinetics and in a safe manner, and so may be a promising candidate for cancer chemotherapy research.

  14. The cellular uptake mechanism, intracellular transportation, and exocytosis of polyamidoamine dendrimers in multidrug-resistant breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Mengjun; Sun, Yuqi; Zhang, Xiaojun; Guan, Guannan; Zhao, Xiuli; Qiao, Mingxi; Chen, Dawei; Hu, Haiyang

    2016-01-01

    Polyamidoamine dendrimers, which can deliver drugs and genetic materials to resistant cells, are attracting increased research attention, but their transportation behavior in resistant cells remains unclear. In this paper, we performed a systematic analysis of the cellular uptake, intracellular transportation, and efflux of PAMAM-NH2 dendrimers in multidrug-resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR cells) using sensitive breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells) as the control. We found that the uptake rate of PAMAM-NH2 was much lower and exocytosis of PAMAM-NH2 was much greater in MCF-7/ADR cells than in MCF-7 cells due to the elimination of PAMAM-NH2 from P-glycoprotein and the multidrug resistance-associated protein in MCF-7/ADR cells. Macropinocytosis played a more important role in its uptake in MCF-7/ADR cells than in MCF-7 cells. PAMAM-NH2 aggregated and became more degraded in the lysosomal vesicles of the MCF-7/ADR cells than in those of the MCF-7 cells. The endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex were found to participate in the exocytosis rather than endocytosis process of PAMAM-NH2 in both types of cells. Our findings clearly showed the intracellular transportation process of PAMAM-NH2 in MCF-7/ADR cells and provided a guide of using PAMAM-NH2 as a drug and gene vector in resistant cells.

  15. Application of activity-based costing (ABC) for a Peruvian NGO healthcare provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, H; Abdallah, H; Santillán, D

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the application of activity-based costing (ABC) to calculate the unit costs of the services for a health care provider in Peru. While traditional costing allocates overhead and indirect costs in proportion to production volume or to direct costs, ABC assigns costs through activities within an organization. ABC uses personnel interviews to determine principal activities and the distribution of individual's time among these activities. Indirect costs are linked to services through time allocation and other tracing methods, and the result is a more accurate estimate of unit costs. The study concludes that applying ABC in a developing country setting is feasible, yielding results that are directly applicable to pricing and management. ABC determines costs for individual clinics, departments and services according to the activities that originate these costs, showing where an organization spends its money. With this information, it is possible to identify services that are generating extra revenue and those operating at a loss, and to calculate cross subsidies across services. ABC also highlights areas in the health care process where efficiency improvements are possible. Conclusions about the ultimate impact of the methodology are not drawn here, since the study was not repeated and changes in utilization patterns and the addition of new clinics affected applicability of the results. A potential constraint to implementing ABC is the availability and organization of cost information. Applying ABC efficiently requires information to be readily available, by cost category and department, since the greatest benefits of ABC come from frequent, systematic application of the methodology in order to monitor efficiency and provide feedback for management. The article concludes with a discussion of the potential applications of ABC in the health sector in developing countries.

  16. The use of active breathing control (ABC) to reduce margin for breathing motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, John W.; Sharpe, Michael B.; Jaffray, David A.; Kini, Vijay R.; Robertson, John M.; Stromberg, Jannifer S.; Martinez, Alavro A.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: For tumors in the thorax and abdomen, reducing the treatment margin for organ motion due to breathing reduces the volume of normal tissues that will be irradiated. A higher dose can be delivered to the target, provided that the risk of marginal misses is not increased. To ensure safe margin reduction, we investigated the feasibility of using active breathing control (ABC) to temporarily immobilize the patient's breathing. Treatment planning and delivery can then be performed at identical ABC conditions with minimal margin for breathing motion. Methods and Materials: An ABC apparatus is constructed consisting of 2 pairs of flow monitor and scissor valve, 1 each to control the inspiration and expiration paths to the patient. The patient breathes through a mouth-piece connected to the ABC apparatus. The respiratory signal is processed continuously, using a personal computer that displays the changing lung volume in real-time. After the patient's breathing pattern becomes stable, the operator activates ABC at a preselected phase in the breathing cycle. Both valves are then closed to immobilize breathing motion. Breathing motion of 12 patients were held with ABC to examine their acceptance of the procedure. The feasibility of applying ABC for treatment was tested in 5 patients by acquiring volumetric scans with a spiral computed tomography (CT) scanner during active breath-hold. Two patients had Hodgkin's disease, 2 had metastatic liver cancer, and 1 had lung cancer. Two intrafraction ABC scans were acquired at the same respiratory phase near the end of normal or deep inspiration. An additional ABC scan near the end of normal expiration was acquired for 2 patients. The ABC scans were also repeated 1 week later for a Hodgkin's patient. In 1 liver patient, ABC scans were acquired at 7 different phases of the breathing cycle to facilitate examination of the liver motion associated with ventilation. Contours of the lungs and livers were outlined when applicable

  17. Membrane fusion proteins of type I secretion system and tripartite efflux pumps share a binding motif for TolC in gram-negative bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minho Lee

    Full Text Available The Hly translocator complex of Escherichia coli catalyzes type I secretion of the toxin hemolysin A (HlyA. In this complex, HlyB is an inner membrane ABC (ATP Binding Cassette-type transporter, TolC is an outer membrane channel protein, and HlyD is a periplasmic adaptor anchored in the inner membrane that bridges HlyB to TolC. This tripartite organization is reminiscent of that of drug efflux systems such as AcrA-AcrB-TolC and MacA-MacB-TolC of E. coli. We have previously shown the crucial role of conserved residues located at the hairpin tip region of AcrA and MacA adaptors during assembly of their cognate systems. In this study, we investigated the role of the putative tip region of HlyD using HlyD mutants with single amino acid substitutions at the conserved positions. In vivo and in vitro data show that all mutations abolished HlyD binding to TolC and resulted in the absence of HlyA secretion. Together, our results suggest that, similarly to AcrA and MacA, HlyD interacts with TolC in a tip-to-tip manner. A general model in which these conserved interactions induce opening of TolC during drug efflux and type I secretion is discussed.

  18. Energetics of sodium efflux from Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbolla, M.G.; Rosen, B.P.

    1984-01-01

    When energy-starved cells of Escherichia coli were passively loaded with 22 Na+, efflux of sodium could be initiated by addition of a source of metabolic energy. Conditions were established where the source of energy was phosphate bond energy, an electrochemical proton gradient, or both. Only an electrochemical proton gradient was required for efflux from intact cells. These results are consistent with secondary exchange of Na+ for H+ catalyzed by a sodium/proton antiporter

  19. Crystal structures of two transcriptional regulators from Bacillus cereus define the conserved structural features of a PadR subfamily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guntur Fibriansah

    Full Text Available PadR-like transcriptional regulators form a structurally-related family of proteins that control the expression of genes associated with detoxification, virulence and multi-drug resistance in bacteria. Only a few members of this family have been studied by genetic, biochemical and biophysical methods, and their structure/function relationships are still largely undefined. Here, we report the crystal structures of two PadR-like proteins from Bacillus cereus, which we named bcPadR1 and bcPadR2 (products of gene loci BC4206 and BCE3449 in strains ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10987, respectively. BC4206, together with its neighboring gene BC4207, was previously shown to become significantly upregulated in presence of the bacteriocin AS-48. DNA mobility shift assays reveal that bcPadR1 binds to a 250 bp intergenic region containing the putative BC4206-BC4207 promoter sequence, while in-situ expression of bcPadR1 decreases bacteriocin tolerance, together suggesting a role for bcPadR1 as repressor of BC4206-BC4207 transcription. The function of bcPadR2 (48% identical in sequence to bcPadR1 is unknown, but the location of its gene just upstream from genes encoding a putative antibiotic ABC efflux pump, suggests a role in regulating antibiotic resistance. The bcPadR proteins are structurally similar to LmrR, a PadR-like transcription regulator in Lactococcus lactis that controls expression of a multidrug ABC transporter via a mechanism of multidrug binding and induction. Together these proteins define a subfamily of conserved, relatively small PadR proteins characterized by a single C-terminal helix for dimerization. Unlike LmrR, bcPadR1 and bcPadR2 lack a central pore for ligand binding, making it unclear whether the transcriptional regulatory roles of bcPadR1 and bcPadR2 involve direct ligand recognition and induction.

  20. Effect of Promoter Region Mutations and mgrA Overexpression on Transcription of norA, Which Encodes a Staphylococcus aureus Multidrug Efflux Transporter

    OpenAIRE

    Kaatz, Glenn W.; Thyagarajan, Rama V.; Seo, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    NorA is a Staphylococcus aureus multidrug transporter that confers resistance to structurally distinct compounds. The MgrA global regulatory protein is reported to augment norA expression when mgrA is overexpressed from an undefined plasmid-based promoter. Further details about norA regulatory mechanisms are scant. A chromosomal norA::lacZ transcriptional fusion was constructed in different S. aureus strains, and allele replacement was used to define the relevance of promoter region sequences...

  1. Prognostic significance of multidrug-resistance protein (MDR-1 in renal clear cell carcinomas: A five year follow-up analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strazzullo Viviana

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large number of renal cancer patients shows poor or partial response to chemotherapy and the mechanisms have not been still understood. Multi-drug resistance is the principal mechanism by which many cancers develop resistance to chemotherapic drugs. The role of the multi-drug resistant transporter (MDR-1/P-glycoprotein, the gene product of MDR-1, and that one of the so-called multi-drug resistance associated protein (MRP, two energy-dependent efflux pumps, are commonly known to confer drug resistance. We studied MDR-1 expression in selected cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC, clear cell type, with long-term follow-up, in order to establish its prognostic role and its possible contribution in the choice of post-surgical therapy. Methods MDR-1 has been studied by standard LSAB-HRP immunohistochemical technique, in paraffin embedded RCC samples. Protein expression has been compared to clinical and histopathological data and to disease specific survival of RCC patients, by Kaplan-Meier curve and Cox multivariate regression analyses. Results Two groups of RCCs were obtained by esteeming MDR-1 expression and disease specific survival (obtained with Kaplan-Meier curve and Cox multivariate regression analyses: the first one presents low or absent MDR-1 expression and good survival; the second one is characterized by high MDR-1 expression and significant poor outcome (p p p p Conclusion In our opinion, the results of this study well prove the relationship between MDR-1 expression and worse clinical prognosis in RCC, because MDR-1 over-expressing RCCs can be considered a group of tumours with a more aggressive behavior. This finding outlines a possible role of MDR-1 as prognostic factor, dependent and independent of multidrug resistance. These results could be useful to predict cancer evolution and to choose the appropriate treatment: this is another step that can stimulate further promising and interesting investigations on broader

  2. Anticipated Benefits of Care (ABC): psychometrics and predictive value in psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, D; Trivedi, M H; Carmody, T J; Gollan, J K; Kashner, T M; Lind, L; Crismon, M L; Rush, A J

    2010-06-01

    Attitudes and expectations about treatment have been associated with symptomatic outcomes, adherence and utilization in patients with psychiatric disorders. No measure of patients' anticipated benefits of treatment on domains of everyday functioning has previously been available. The Anticipated Benefits of Care (ABC) is a new, 10-item questionnaire used to measure patient expectations about the impact of treatment on domains of everyday functioning. The ABC was collected at baseline in adult out-patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) (n=528), bipolar disorder (n=395) and schizophrenia (n=447) in the Texas Medication Algorithm Project (TMAP). Psychometric properties of the ABC were assessed, and the association of ABC scores with treatment response at 3 months was evaluated. Evaluation of the ABC's internal consistency yielded Cronbach's alpha of 0.90-0.92 for patients across disorders. Factor analysis showed that the ABC was unidimensional for all patients and for patients with each disorder. For patients with MDD, lower anticipated benefits of treatment was associated with less symptom improvement and lower odds of treatment response [odds ratio (OR) 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57-0.87, p=0.0011]. There was no association between ABC and symptom improvement or treatment response for patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia, possibly because these patients had modest benefits with treatment. The ABC is the first self-report that measures patient expectations about the benefits of treatment on everyday functioning, filling an important gap in available assessments of attitudes and expectations about treatment. The ABC is simple, easy to use, and has acceptable psychometric properties for use in research or clinical settings.

  3. Object Detection Based on Template Matching through Use of Best-So-Far ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anan Banharnsakun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Best-so-far ABC is a modified version of the artificial bee colony (ABC algorithm used for optimization tasks. This algorithm is one of the swarm intelligence (SI algorithms proposed in recent literature, in which the results demonstrated that the best-so-far ABC can produce higher quality solutions with faster convergence than either the ordinary ABC or the current state-of-the-art ABC-based algorithm. In this work, we aim to apply the best-so-far ABC-based approach for object detection based on template matching by using the difference between the RGB level histograms corresponding to the target object and the template object as the objective function. Results confirm that the proposed method was successful in both detecting objects and optimizing the time used to reach the solution.

  4. Interplay between Mutations and Efflux in Drug Resistant Clinical Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Viveiros

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies show efflux as a universal bacterial mechanism contributing to antibiotic resistance and also that the activity of the antibiotics subject to efflux can be enhanced by the combined use of efflux inhibitors. Nevertheless, the contribution of efflux to the overall drug resistance levels of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is poorly understood and still is ignored by many. Here, we evaluated the contribution of drug efflux plus target-gene mutations to the drug resistance levels in clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis. A panel of 17 M. tuberculosis clinical strains were characterized for drug resistance associated mutations and antibiotic profiles in the presence and absence of efflux inhibitors. The correlation between the effect of the efflux inhibitors and the resistance levels was assessed by quantitative drug susceptibility testing. The bacterial growth/survival vs. growth inhibition was analyzed through the comparison between the time of growth in the presence and absence of an inhibitor. For the same mutation conferring antibiotic resistance, different MICs were observed and the different resistance levels found could be reduced by efflux inhibitors. Although susceptibility was not restored, the results demonstrate the existence of a broad-spectrum synergistic interaction between antibiotics and efflux inhibitors. The existence of efflux activity was confirmed by real-time fluorometry. Moreover, the efflux pump genes mmr, mmpL7, Rv1258c, p55, and efpA were shown to be overexpressed in the presence of antibiotics, demonstrating the contribution of these efflux pumps to the overall resistance phenotype of the M. tuberculosis clinical isolates studied, independently of the genotype of the strains. These results showed that the drug resistance levels of multi- and extensively-drug resistant M. tuberculosis clinical strains are a combination between drug efflux and the presence of target-gene mutations, a reality

  5. Evaluating the Role of Multidrug Resistance Protein 3 (MDR3) Inhibition in Predicting Drug-Induced Liver Injury Using 125 Pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleo, Michael D; Shah, Falgun; He, Kan; Bonin, Paul D; Rodrigues, A David

    2017-05-15

    The role of bile salt export protein (BSEP) inhibition in drug-induced liver injury (DILI) has been investigated widely, while inhibition of the canalicular multidrug resistant protein 3 (MDR3) has received less attention. This transporter plays a pivotal role in secretion of phospholipids into bile and functions coordinately with BSEP to mediate the formation of bile acid-containing biliary micelles. Therefore, inhibition of MDR3 in human hepatocytes was examined across 125 drugs (70 of Most-DILI-concern and 55 of No-DILI-concern). Of these tested, 41% of Most-DILI-concern and 47% of No-DILI-concern drugs had MDR3 IC 50 values of <50 μM. A better distinction across DILI classifications occurred when systemic exposure was considered where safety margins of 50-fold had low sensitivity (0.29), but high specificity (0.96). Analysis of physical chemical property space showed that basic compounds were twice as likely to be MDR3 inhibitors as acids, neutrals, and zwitterions and that inhibitors were more likely to have polar surface area (PSA) values of <100 Å 2 and cPFLogD values between 1.5 and 5. These descriptors, with different cutoffs, also highlighted a group of compounds that shared dual potency as MDR3 and BSEP inhibitors. Nine drugs classified as Most-DILI-concern compounds (four withdrawn, four boxed warning, and one liver injury warning in their approved label) had intrinsic potency features of <20 μM in both assays, thereby reinforcing the notion that multiple inhibitory mechanisms governing bile formation (bile acid and phospholipid efflux) may confer additional risk factors that play into more severe forms of DILI as shown by others for BSEP inhibitors combined with multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP2, MRP3, MRP4) inhibitory properties. Avoiding physical property descriptors that highlight dual BSEP and MDR3 inhibition or testing drug candidates for inhibition of multiple efflux transporters (e.g., BSEP, MDR3, and MRPs) may be an effective

  6. ABC Technology Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) facility will be designed to accomplish the following mission: 'Provide a weapon's grade plutonium disposition capability in a safe, economical, and environmentally sound manner on a prudent schedule for [50] tons of weapon's grade plutonium to be disposed on in [20] years.' This mission is supported by four major objectives: provide a reliable plutonium disposition capability within the next [15] years; provide a level of safety and of safety assurance that meets or exceeds that afforded to the public by modern commercial nuclear power plants; meet or exceed all applicable federal, state, and local regulations or standards for environmental compliance; manage the program in a cost effective manner. The ABC Technology Development Program defines the technology development activities that are required to accomplish this mission. The technology development tasks are related to the following topics: blanket system; vessel systems; reactivity control systems; heat transport system components; energy conversion systems; shutdown heat transport systems components; auxiliary systems; technology demonstrations - large scale experiments

  7. The ABC of handover: impact on shift handover in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhan, Maisse; Brown, Ruth; Vincent, Charles; Woloshynowych, Maria

    2012-12-01

    A study was undertaken to test the impact of a new tool for shift handover, 'The ABC of Handover', in the emergency department (ED). The impact on shift handover following implementation of this structured tool, the effect on clinical and organisational aspects of the subsequent shift and the opinions of users of this new tool are reported. A prospective observational before and after study was performed to explore the effect of implementing 'The ABC of Handover' on clinical and organisational practice using a questionnaire. 41 handovers were observed before implementation of 'The ABC of Handover' and 42 were observed after. The new tool was successfully implemented and resulted in a change of practice which led to a significant increase in the operational issues mentioned at handover from a mean of 34% to a mean of 86% of essential items with the ABC method. Over the study period, middle-grade staff demonstrated improved situational awareness as they adopted proactive management of operational issues such as staffing or equipment shortages. All participants reported that 'The ABC of Handover' improved handover regardless of the seniority of the doctor giving it, and found the ABC method easy to learn. Successful implementation of 'The ABC of Handover' led to a change of practice in the ED. Improving handover resulted in better organisation of the shift and heightened awareness of potential patient safety issues. The ABC method provides a framework for organising the shift and preparing for events in the subsequent shift.

  8. Characterisation of multidrug-resistant Ehrlich ascites tumour cells selected in vivo for resistance to etoposide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D; Maare, C; Eriksen, J

    2000-01-01

    -extractable immunoreactive topoisomerase IIalpha and beta in EHR2/VP16 was reduced by 30-40% relative to that in EHR2. The multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) mRNA was increased 20-fold in EHR2/VP16 as compared with EHR2, whereas the expression of P-glycoprotein was unchanged. In EHR2/VP16, the steady......M. ATPase activity was slightly stimulated by daunorubicin, whereas vinblastine, verapamil, and cyclosporin A had no effect. In conclusion, development of resistance to VP16 in EHR2 is accompanied by a significant reduction in topoisomerase II (alpha and beta) and by increased expression of MRP mRNA (20......-fold). MRP displays several points of resemblance to P-glycoprotein in its mode of action: 1) like P-glycoprotein, MRP causes resistance to a range of hydrophobic drugs; 2) MRP decreases drug accumulation in the cells and this decrease is abolished by omission of energy; and 3) MRP increases efflux...

  9. Arsenic efflux from Microcystis aeruginosa under different phosphate regimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changzhou Yan

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton plays an important role in arsenic speciation, distribution, and cycling in freshwater environments. Little information, however, is available on arsenic efflux from the cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa under different phosphate regimes. This study investigated M. aeruginosa arsenic efflux and speciation by pre-exposing it to 10 µM arsenate or arsenite for 24 h during limited (12 h and extended (13 d depuration periods under phosphate enriched (+P and phosphate depleted (-P treatments. Arsenate was the predominant species detected in algal cells throughout the depuration period while arsenite only accounted for no greater than 45% of intracellular arsenic. During the limited depuration period, arsenic efflux occurred rapidly and only arsenate was detected in solutions. During the extended depuration period, however, arsenate and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA were found to be the two predominant arsenic species detected in solutions under -P treatments, but arsenate was the only species detected under +P treatments. Experimental results also suggest that phosphorus has a significant effect in accelerating arsenic efflux and promoting arsenite bio-oxidation in M. aeruginosa. Furthermore, phosphorus depletion can reduce arsenic efflux from algal cells as well as accelerate arsenic reduction and methylation. These findings can contribute to our understanding of arsenic biogeochemistry in aquatic environments and its potential environmental risks under different phosphorus levels.

  10. A mass spectrometry-based assay for improved quantitative measurements of efflux pump inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R Brown

    Full Text Available Bacterial efflux pumps are active transport proteins responsible for resistance to selected biocides and antibiotics. It has been shown that production of efflux pumps is up-regulated in a number of highly pathogenic bacteria, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Thus, the identification of new bacterial efflux pump inhibitors is a topic of great interest. Existing assays to evaluate efflux pump inhibitory activity rely on fluorescence by an efflux pump substrate. When employing these assays to evaluate efflux pump inhibitory activity of plant extracts and some purified compounds, we observed severe optical interference that gave rise to false negative results. To circumvent this problem, a new mass spectrometry-based method was developed for the quantitative measurement of bacterial efflux pump inhibition. The assay was employed to evaluate efflux pump inhibitory activity of a crude extract of the botanical Hydrastis Canadensis, and to compare the efflux pump inhibitory activity of several pure flavonoids. The flavonoid quercetin, which appeared to be completely inactive with a fluorescence-based method, showed an IC50 value of 75 μg/mL with the new method. The other flavonoids evaluated (apigenin, kaempferol, rhamnetin, luteolin, myricetin, were also active, with IC50 values ranging from 19 μg/mL to 75 μg/mL. The assay described herein could be useful in future screening efforts to identify efflux pump inhibitors, particularly in situations where optical interference precludes the application of methods that rely on fluorescence.

  11. Regorafenib overcomes chemotherapeutic multidrug resistance mediated by ABCB1 transporter in colorectal cancer: In vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Zhang, Guan-Nan; Al Rihani, Sweilem B; Wei, Meng-Ning; Gupta, Pranav; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Shukla, Suneet; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Kaddoumi, Amal; Shi, Zhi; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2017-06-28

    Chemotherapeutic multidrug resistance (MDR) is a significant challenge to overcome in clinic practice. Several mechanisms contribute to MDR, one of which is the augmented drug efflux induced by the upregulation of ABCB1 in cancer cells. Regorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor targeting the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway, was approved by the FDA to treat metastatic colorectal cancer and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. We investigated whether and how regorafenib overcame MDR mediated by ABCB1. The results showed that regorafenib reversed the ABCB1-mediated MDR and increased the accumulation of [ 3 H]-paclitaxel in ABCB1-overexpressing cells by suppressing efflux activity of ABCB1, but not altering expression level and localization of ABCB1. Regorafenib inhibited ATPase activity of ABCB1. In mice bearing resistant colorectal tumors, regorafenib raised the intratumoral concentration of paclitaxel and suppressed the growth of resistant colorectal tumors. But regorafenib did not induce cardiotoxicity/myelosuppression of paclitaxel in mice. Strategy to reposition one FDA-approved anticancer drug regorafenib to overcome the resistance of another FDA-approved, widely used chemotherapeutic paclitaxel, may be a promising direction for the field of adjuvant chemotherapy. This study provides clinical rationale for combination of conventional chemotherapy and targeted anticancer agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Antibacterial and Antibiotic-Modifying Activity of Methanol Extracts from Six Cameroonian Food Plants against Multidrug-Resistant Enteric Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim K. Dzotam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was designed to investigate the antibacterial activities of methanol extracts from six Cameroonian edible plants and their synergistic effects with some commonly used antibiotics against multidrug-resistant (MDR Gram-negative bacteria expressing active efflux pumps. The extracts were subjected to qualitative phytochemical screening and the microdilution broth method was used for antibacterial assays. The results of phytochemical tests indicate that all tested crude extracts contained polyphenols, flavonoids, triterpenes, and steroids. Extracts displayed selective antibacterial activities with the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranging from 32 to 1024 μg/mL. The lowest MIC value (32 μg/mL was recorded with Coula edulis extract against E. coli AG102 and K. pneumoniae K2 and with Mangifera indica bark extract against P. aeruginosa PA01 and Citrus sinensis extract against E. coli W3110 which also displayed the best MBC (256 μg/mL value against E. coli ATCC8739. In combination with antibiotics, extracts from M. indica leaves showed synergistic effects with 75% (6/8 of the tested antibiotics against more than 80% of the tested bacteria. The findings of the present work indicate that the tested plants may be used alone or in combination in the treatment of bacterial infections including the multidrug-resistant bacteria.

  13. Note on the ABC Conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    Carella, N. A.

    2006-01-01

    This note imparts heuristic arguments and theorectical evidences that contradict the abc conjecture over the rational numbers. In addition, the rudimentary datails for transforming this problem into the doimain of equidistribution theory are provided.

  14. ABC optimized RBF network for classification of EEG signal for epileptic seizure identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar Satapathy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The brain signals usually generate certain electrical signals that can be recorded and analyzed for detection in several brain disorder diseases. These small signals are expressly called as Electroencephalogram (EEG signals. This research work analyzes the epileptic disorder in human brain through EEG signal analysis by integrating the best attributes of Artificial Bee Colony (ABC and radial basis function networks (RBFNNs. We have used Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT technique for extraction of potential features from the signal. In our study, for classification of these signals, in this paper, the RBFNNs have been trained by a modified version of ABC algorithm. In the modified ABC, the onlooker bees are selected based on binary tournament unlike roulette wheel selection of ABC. Additionally, kernels such as Gaussian, Multi-quadric, and Inverse-multi-quadric are used for measuring the effectiveness of the method in numerous mixtures of healthy segments, seizure-free segments, and seizure segments. Our experimental outcomes confirm that RBFNN with inverse-multi-quadric kernel trained with modified ABC is significantly better than RBFNNs with other kernels trained by ABC and modified ABC.

  15. Abrasive wear behavior of heat-treated ABC-silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiao Feng; Lee, Gun Y.; Chen, Da; Ritchie, Robert O.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2002-06-17

    Hot-pressed silicon carbide, containing aluminum, boron, and carbon additives (ABC-SiC), was subjected to three-body and two-body wear testing using diamond abrasives over a range of sizes. In general, the wear resistance of ABC-SiC, with suitable heat treatment, was superior to that of commercial SiC.

  16. Inducer expulsion in Streptococcus pyogenes: properties and mechanism of the efflux reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutrina, S.L.; Reizer, J.; Saier, M.H Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Expulsion of preaccumulated methyl-β-D-thiogalactoside-phosphate (TMG-P) from Streptococcus pyogenes is a two-step process comprising intracellular dephosphorylation of TMG-P followed by rapid efflux of the intracellularly formed free galactoside. The present study identifies the mechanism and the order and characterizes the temperature dependency of the efflux step. Unidirectional efflux of the intracellularly formed [ 14 C]TMG was only slightly affected when measured in the presence of unlabeled TMG (25 to 400 mM) in the extracellular medium. In contrast, pronounced inhibition of net efflux was observed in the presence of relatively low concentrations (1 to 16 mM) of extracellular [ 14 C]TMG. Since net efflux was nearly arrested when the external concentration of [ 14 C]TMG approached the intracellular concentration of this sugar, we propose that a facilitated diffusion mechanism is responsible for efflux and equilibration of TMG between the intracellular and extracellular milieus. The exit reaction was markedly dependent upon temperature, exhibited a high energy of activation (23 kcal [ca. 96 kJ] per mol), and followed first-order kinetics, indicating that the permease mediating this efflux was not saturated under the conditions of expulsion employed

  17. CO2 efflux from soils with seasonal water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Emilia; Doerr, Stefan H.

    2017-10-01

    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are strongly dependent on pore water distribution, which in turn can be modified by reduced wettability. Many soils around the world are affected by soil water repellency (SWR), which reduces infiltration and results in diverse moisture distribution. SWR is temporally variable and soils can change from wettable to water-repellent and vice versa throughout the year. Effects of SWR on soil carbon (C) dynamics, and specifically on CO2 efflux, have only been studied in a few laboratory experiments and hence remain poorly understood. Existing studies suggest soil respiration is reduced with increasing severity of SWR, but the responses of soil CO2 efflux to varying water distribution created by SWR are not yet known.Here we report on the first field-based study that tests whether SWR indeed reduces soil CO2 efflux, based on in situ measurements carried out over three consecutive years at a grassland and pine forest sites under the humid temperate climate of the UK.Soil CO2 efflux was indeed very low on occasions when soil exhibited consistently high SWR and low soil moisture following long dry spells. Low CO2 efflux was also observed when SWR was absent, in spring and late autumn when soil temperatures were low, but also in summer when SWR was reduced by frequent rainfall events. The highest CO2 efflux occurred not when soil was wettable, but when SWR, and thus soil moisture, was spatially patchy, a pattern observed for the majority of the measurement period. Patchiness of SWR is likely to have created zones with two different characteristics related to CO2 production and transport. Zones with wettable soil or low persistence of SWR with higher proportion of water-filled pores are expected to provide water with high nutrient concentration resulting in higher microbial activity and CO2 production. Soil zones with high SWR persistence, on the other hand, are dominated by air-filled pores with low microbial activity, but facilitating O2

  18. A burst of ABC genes in the genome of the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermauw, Wannes; Osborne, Edward John; Clark, Richard M; Grbić, Miodrag; Tirry, Luc; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2013-05-10

    The ABC (ATP-binding cassette) gene superfamily is widespread across all living species. The majority of ABC genes encode ABC transporters, which are membrane-spanning proteins capable of transferring substrates across biological membranes by hydrolyzing ATP. Although ABC transporters have often been associated with resistance to drugs and toxic compounds, within the Arthropoda ABC gene families have only been characterized in detail in several insects and a crustacean. In this study, we report a genome-wide survey and expression analysis of the ABC gene superfamily in the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, a chelicerate ~ 450 million years diverged from other Arthropod lineages. T. urticae is a major agricultural pest, and is among of the most polyphagous arthropod herbivores known. The species resists a staggering array of toxic plant secondary metabolites, and has developed resistance to all major classes of pesticides in use for its control. We identified 103 ABC genes in the T. urticae genome, the highest number discovered in a metazoan species to date. Within the T. urticae ABC gene set, all members of the eight currently described subfamilies (A to H) were detected. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the high number of ABC genes in T. urticae is due primarily to lineage-specific expansions of ABC genes within the ABCC, ABCG and ABCH subfamilies. In particular, the ABCC subfamily harbors the highest number of T. urticae ABC genes (39). In a comparative genomic analysis, we found clear orthologous relationships between a subset of T. urticae ABC proteins and ABC proteins in both vertebrates and invertebrates known to be involved in fundamental cellular processes. These included members of the ABCB-half transporters, and the ABCD, ABCE and ABCF families. Furthermore, one-to-one orthologues could be distinguished between T. urticae proteins and human ABCC10, ABCG5 and ABCG8, the Drosophila melanogaster sulfonylurea receptor and ecdysone-regulated transporter E

  19. Rapid efflux of Ca2+ from heart mitochondria in the presence of inorganic pyrophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercesi, A; Lehninger, A L

    1984-01-13

    Inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) in the intracellular concentration range causes rapid efflux of Ca2+ from rat heart mitochondria oxidizing pyruvate + malate in a low Na+ medium. Half-maximal rates of Ca2+ efflux were given by 20 microM PPi. During and after PPi-stimulated Ca2+ efflux the mitochondria retain their structural integrity and complete respiratory control. Carboxyatractyloside inhibits PPi-stimulated Ca2+ efflux, indicating PPi must enter the matrix in order to promote Ca2+ efflux. Heart mitochondria have a much higher affinity for PPi uptake and PPi-induced Ca2+ efflux than liver mitochondria.

  20. A burst of ABC genes in the genome of the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dermauw, W.; Osborne, E.J.; Clark, R.M.; Grbić, M.; Tirry, L.; Van Leeuwen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The ABC (ATP-binding cassette) gene superfamily is widespread across all living species. The majority of ABC genes encode ABC transporters, which are membrane-spanning proteins capable of transferring substrates across biological membranes by hydrolyzing ATP. Although ABC transporters

  1. Efflux inhibitor suppresses Streptococcus mutans virulence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huihui; Liu, Jia; Ling, Junqi

    2017-04-01

    It is well established that efflux pumps play important roles in bacterial pathogenicity and efflux inhibitors (EIs) have been proved to be effective in suppressing bacterial virulence properties. However, little is known regarding the EI of Streptococcus mutans, a well-known caries-inducing bacterium. In this study, we identified the EI of S. mutans through ethidium bromide efflux assay and investigated how EI affected S. mutans virulence regarding the cariogenicity and stress response. Results indicated that reserpine, the identified EI, suppressed acid tolerance, mutacin production and transformation efficiency of S. mutans, and modified biofilm architecture and extracellular polysaccharide distribution. Suppressed glycosyltransferase activity was also noted after reserpine exposure. The data from quantitative real-time-PCR demonstrated that reserpine significantly altered the expression profile of quorum-sensing and virulence-associated genes. These findings suggest that reserpine represents a promising adjunct anticariogenic agent in that it suppresses virulence properties of S. mutans. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Reconstitution of the activity of RND efflux pumps: a "bottom-up" approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvanendran, Dhenesh; Cece, Quentin; Picard, Martin

    2017-12-05

    Efflux pumps are systems devoted to the extrusion of noxious compounds. In this review, we discuss the various strategies that have thus far been undertaken for the investigation of efflux pumps after reconstitution into liposomes. It is challenging to uncover mechanisms and dynamics of efflux pumps due to a number of characteristics: their function depends on the correct assembly of three components and they span two adjacent membranes whose lipid compositions are very different. In addition, efflux pumps are active transporters that need energy to work. We present possible lines of improvement for the study of such systems and provide insights into future goals and challenges of efflux pump reconstitution and transport. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. A mutation within the extended X loop abolished substrate-induced ATPase activity of the human liver ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter MDR3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluth, Marianne; Stindt, Jan; Dröge, Carola; Linnemann, Doris; Kubitz, Ralf; Schmitt, Lutz

    2015-02-20

    The human multidrug resistance protein 3 (MDR3/ABCB4) belongs to the ubiquitous family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and is located in the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. There it flops the phospholipids of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) family from the inner to the outer leaflet. Here, we report the characterization of wild type MDR3 and the Q1174E mutant, which was identified previously in a patient with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 3 (PFIC-3). We expressed different variants of MDR3 in the yeast Pichia pastoris, purified the proteins via tandem affinity chromatography, and determined MDR3-specific ATPase activity in the presence or absence of phospholipids. The ATPase activity of wild type MDR3 was stimulated 2-fold by liver PC or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine lipids. Furthermore, the cross-linking of MDR3 with a thiol-reactive fluorophore blocked ATP hydrolysis and exhibited no PC stimulation. Similarly, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and sphingomyelin lipids did not induce an increase of wild type MDR3 ATPase activity. The phosphate analogues beryllium fluoride and aluminum fluoride led to complete inhibition of ATPase activity, whereas orthovanadate inhibited exclusively the PC-stimulated ATPase activity of MDR3. The Q1174E mutation is located in the nucleotide-binding domain in direct proximity of the leucine of the ABC signature motif and extended the X loop, which is found in ABC exporters. Our data on the Q1174E mutant demonstrated basal ATPase activity, but PC lipids were incapable of stimulating ATPase activity highlighting the role of the extended X loop in the cross-talk of the nucleotide-binding domain and the transmembrane domain. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Evidence of MexT-independent overexpression of MexEF-OprN multidrug efflux pump of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in presence of metabolic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayush Kumar

    Full Text Available The Pseudomonas aeruginosa MexEF-OprN efflux pump confers resistance to clinically significant antibiotics. Regulation of mexEF-oprN operon expression is multifaceted with the MexT activator being one of the most prominent regulatory proteins.We have exploited the impaired metabolic fitness of a P. aeruginosa mutant strain lacking several efflux pump of the resistance nodulation cell division superfamily and the TolC homolog OpmH, and isolated derivatives (large colony variants that regained fitness by incubation on nutrient-rich medium in the absence of antibiotics. Although the mexEF-oprN operon is uninducible in this mutant due to a 8-bp mexT insertion present in some P. aeruginosa PAO1 strains, the large colony variants expressed high levels of MexEF-OprN. Unlike large colony variants obtained after plating on antibiotic containing medium which expressed mexEF-oprN in a MexT-dependent fashion as evidenced by clean excision of the 8-bp insertion from mexT, mexEF-oprN expression was MexT-independent in the large colony variants obtained by plating on LB alone since the mexT gene remained inactivated. A search for possible regulators of mexEF-oprN expression using transposon mutagenesis and genomic library expression approaches yielded several candidates but proved inconclusive.Our results show that antibiotic and metabolic stress lead to up-regulation of MexEF-OprN expression via different mechanisms and that MexEF-OprN does not only extrude antimicrobials but rather serves other important metabolic functions.

  5. MetaABC--an integrated metagenomics platform for data adjustment, binning and clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chien-Hao; Hsu, Ming-Tsung; Wang, Tse-Yi; Chiang, Sufeng; Cheng, Jen-Hao; Weng, Francis C; Kao, Cheng-Yan; Wang, Daryi; Tsai, Huai-Kuang

    2011-08-15

    MetaABC is a metagenomic platform that integrates several binning tools coupled with methods for removing artifacts, analyzing unassigned reads and controlling sampling biases. It allows users to arrive at a better interpretation via series of distinct combinations of analysis tools. After execution, MetaABC provides outputs in various visual formats such as tables, pie and bar charts as well as clustering result diagrams. MetaABC source code and documentation are available at http://bits2.iis.sinica.edu.tw/MetaABC/ CONTACT: dywang@gate.sinica.edu.tw; hktsai@iis.sinica.edu.tw Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  6. CO2 efflux from subterranean nests of ant communities in a seasonal tropical forest, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, Sasitorn; Ohashi, Mizue; Yamada, Akinori; Hashimoto, Yoshiaki; Tasen, Wattanachai; Kume, Tomonori; Yamane, Seiki

    2014-10-01

    Many ant species construct subterranean nests. The presence of their nests may explain soil respiration "hot spots", an important factor in the high CO2 efflux from tropical forests. However, no studies have directly measured CO2 efflux from ant nests. We established 61 experimental plots containing 13 subterranean ant species to evaluate the CO2 efflux from subterranean ant nests in a tropical seasonal forest, Thailand. We examined differences in nest CO2 efflux among ant species. We determined the effects of environmental factors on nest CO2 efflux and calculated an index of nest structure. The mean CO2 efflux from nests was significantly higher than those from the surrounding soil in the wet and dry seasons. The CO2 efflux was species-specific, showing significant differences among the 13 ant species. The soil moisture content significantly affected nest CO2 efflux, but there was no clear relationship between nest CO2 efflux and nest soil temperature. The diameter of the nest entrance hole affected CO2 efflux. However, there was no significant difference in CO2 efflux rates between single-hole and multiple-hole nests. Our results suggest that in a tropical forest ecosystem the increase in CO2 efflux from subterranean ant nests is caused by species-specific activity of ants, the nest soil environment, and nest structure.

  7. Phase behavior of model ABC triblock copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Joon

    The phase behavior of poly(isoprene-b-styrene- b-ethylene oxide) (ISO), a model ABC triblock copolymer has been studied. This class of materials exhibit self-assembly, forming a large array of ordered morphologies at length scales of 5-100 nm. The formation of stable three-dimensionally continuous network morphologies is of special interest in this study. Since these nanostructures considerably impact the material properties, fundamental knowledge for designing ABC systems have high technological importance for realizing applications in the areas of nanofabrication, nanoporous media, separation membranes, drug delivery and high surface area catalysts. A comprehensive framework was developed to describe the phase behavior of the ISO triblock copolymers at weak to intermediate segregation strengths spanning a wide range of composition. Phases were characterized through a combination of characterization techniques, including small angle x-ray scattering, dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and birefringence measurements. Combined with previous investigations on ISO, six different stable ordered state symmetries have been identified: lamellae (LAM), Fddd orthorhombic network (O70), double gyroid (Q230), alternating gyroid (Q214), hexagonal (HEX), and body-centered cubic (BCC). The phase map was found to be somewhat asymmetric around the fI = fO isopleth. This work provides a guide for theoretical studies and gives insight into the intricate effects of various parameters on the self-assembly of ABC triblock copolymers. Experimental SAXS data evaluated with a simple scattering intensity model show that local mixing varies continuously across the phase map between states of two- and three-domain segregation. Strategies of blending homopolymers with ISO triblock copolymer were employed for studying the swelling properties of a lamellar state. Results demonstrate that lamellar domains swell or shrink depending upon the type of homopolymer that

  8. Small-molecule synthetic compound norcantharidin reverses multi-drug resistance by regulating Sonic hedgehog signaling in human breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jen Chen

    Full Text Available Multi-drug resistance (MDR, an unfavorable factor compromising treatment efficacy of anticancer drugs, involves upregulated ATP binding cassette (ABC transporters and activated Sonic hedgehog (Shh signaling. By preparing human breast cancer MCF-7 cells resistant to doxorubicin (DOX, we examined the effect and mechanism of norcantharidin (NCTD, a small-molecule synthetic compound, on reversing multidrug resistance. The DOX-prepared MCF-7R cells also possessed resistance to vinorelbine, characteristic of MDR. At suboptimal concentration, NCTD significantly inhibited the viability of DOX-sensitive (MCF-7S and DOX-resistant (MCF-7R cells and reversed the resistance to DOX and vinorelbine. NCTD increased the intracellular accumulation of DOX in MCF-7R cells and suppressed the upregulated the mdr-1 mRNA, P-gp and BCRP protein expression, but not the MRP-1. The role of P-gp was strengthened by partial reversal of the DOX and vinorelbine resistance by cyclosporine A. NCTD treatment suppressed the upregulation of Shh expression and nuclear translocation of Gli-1, a hallmark of Shh signaling activation in the resistant clone. Furthermore, the Shh ligand upregulated the expression of P-gp and attenuated the growth inhibitory effect of NCTD. The knockdown of mdr-1 mRNA had not altered the expression of Shh and Smoothened in both MCF-7S and MCF-7R cells. This indicates that the role of Shh signaling in MDR might be upstream to mdr-1/P-gp, and similar effect was shown in breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and BT-474 cells. This study demonstrated that NCTD may overcome multidrug resistance through inhibiting Shh signaling and expression of its downstream mdr-1/P-gp expression in human breast cancer cells.

  9. Tacrolimus is a class II low-solubility high-permeability drug: the effect of P-glycoprotein efflux on regional permeability of tacrolimus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Shigeki; Ohike, Atsuo; Ibuki, Rinta; Amidon, Gordon L; Yamashita, Shinji

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a membrane efflux pump associated with multidrug resistance (MDR) and a known substrate for tacrolimus, in determining the regional intestinal permeability of tacrolimus in rats. Thus, isolated segments of rat jejunum, ileum, or colon were perfused with tacrolimus solutions containing polyethoxylated hydrogenated castor oil 60 surfactant, and with or without verapamil, a P-gp substrate used to reverse the MDR phenotype. The results indicated that the intrinsic permeability of tacrolimus in the jejunum, calculated on the basis of the concentration of non-micellized free tacrolimus, was quite high ( approximately 1.4 x 10(-4) cm/s). The apparent permeability (P(app)) in the jejunum was unaffected by the presence of verapamil; however, the P(app) in the ileum and the colon increased significantly in the presence of verapamil and were similar to the values observed in the jejunum. The results suggest that systemic absorption of tacrolimus from the gastrointestinal tract could be significantly affected by P-gp efflux mechanisms. It is also possible that differences in P-gp function at various intestinal sites in a subject or at a given intestinal site in various subjects could lead to large intra- and interindividual variability in bioavailability of tacrolimus following oral administration. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association .

  10. A Neisseria meningitidis fbpABC mutant is incapable of using nonheme iron for growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khun, H H; Kirby, S D; Lee, B C

    1998-05-01

    The neisserial fbpABC locus has been proposed to act as an iron-specific ABC transporter system. To confirm this assigned function, we constructed an fbpABC mutant in Neisseria meningitidis by insertional inactivation of fbpABC with a selectable antibiotic marker. The mutant was unable to use iron supplied from human transferrin, human lactoferrin, or iron chelates. However, the use of iron from heme and human hemoglobin was unimpaired. These results support the obligatory participation of fbpABC in neisserial periplasmic iron transport and do not indicate a role for this genetic locus in the heme iron pathway.

  11. Implementation of the ABC Model in a Company Dealing with Extraction of Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslav Bajus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABC method is a new system for accurate product pricing, cost analysis of the causes of individual products and their optimization. The prices of products are accurately taken into account according to all relevant overhead costs in their actual context and relationships. Except of product costs, ABC method follows costs regarding customers, suppliers, distribution, transport, manufacturing, operational and security processes, management processes and other business activities. ABC method sees the company as a complex of interrelated activities and processes. ABC method represents more precise cost calculation for the product. The aim of the present article is to highlight the introduction of the ABC method to the enterprise and compare it with the traditional method. The result is to reduce costs by introducing ABC method to the enterprise.

  12. Role of MexAB-OprM and MexXY-OprM efflux pumps and class 1 integrons in resistance to antibiotics in burn and Intensive Care Unit isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Hamid Reza; Nahaei, Mohammad Reza; Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, Mohammad; Hasani, Alka; Samadi Kafil, Hossein; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Nikbakht, Mojtaba; Khalili, Younes

    2017-10-06

    The overexpression of efflux pumps and existence of class 1 integrons are the most important mechanisms that contribute to antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa especially in burn and Intensive Care Units (ICUs). The present study evaluated the role of MexAB-OprM and MexXY-OprM efflux pumps and class 1 integrons in resistance to antibiotics in burn and ICU isolates of P. aeruginosa. Fifteen burn and forty-two ICU isolates were obtained from four hospitals in Northwest Iran. The isolates were identified and evaluated by the disk diffusion and agar dilution methods for determining antibiotic resistances. The presence of class 1 integrons and associated resistance gene cassettes were detected by PCR and sequencing of the products. The expression levels of efflux pumps were evaluated by phenotypic and genotypic (Quantitative Real-time PCR) methods. The isolates were genotyped by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Typing (RAPD-PCR). All burn isolates were integron positive and Multi-drug resistant (MDR), while 78.5% and 69% of ICU isolates were found as MDR and integron positive, respectively. The aadB gene was the most prevalent gene cassette (63.6%) followed by aacA4 (47.7%). Thirty-nine (68.4%) and 43 (75.4%) isolates exhibited an overexpression of MexAB-OprM and MexXY-OprM. Among burn isolates, 80% and 86.6% of them were mexB and mexY overexpressed, while 64.2% and 71.4% of ICU isolates exhibited mexB and mexY overexpression, correspondingly. The isolates were genotyped as 24 different RAPD profiles and were grouped into 15 clusters. The data suggested that class 1 integron had a more significant role than efflux pumps in resistance to beta-lactams and aminoglycosides in burn and ICUs except for gentamicin in burn isolates. Based on our data, it is possible that efflux pumps were not the main cause of high-level resistance to antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. ABCB; auxin efflux; apple; dwarf; expression pattern. Abstract. The B subfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins (ABCB) plays a vital role in auxin efflux. However, no systematic study has been done in apple. In this study, we performed genomewide identification and expression analyses of the ABCB ...

  14. abc: The AspectBench Compiler for AspectJ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allan, Chris; Avgustinov, Pavel; Christensen, Aske Simon

    2005-01-01

    abc is an extensible, optimising compiler for AspectJ. It has been designed as a workbench for experimental research in aspect-oriented programming languages and compilers. We outline a programme of research in these areas, and we review how abc can help in achieving those research goals...

  15. Genetic modification of haematopoietic cells for combined resistance to podophyllotoxins, other agents covered by MDR1-mediated efflux activity and nitrosoureas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, C; Peinert, S; Carpinteiro, A; Eckert, H G; Fairbairn, L J

    2000-05-01

    Genetic transfer and expression of drug-resistance functions into haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is a promising means to overcome both the acute and longterm side-effects of cytotoxic drugs in bone marrow. Here, we describe a functional analysis of a retroviral vector that co-expresses human cDNAs for multidrug resistance 1/P-glycoprotein (MDR1) and a double mutant of O(6)-alkylguanine-alkyltransferase (hATPA/GA) to high levels. The hATPA/GA protein contains two amino acid substitutions that render it resistant to compounds such as O(6)-benzylguanine that inhibit the wild-type protein which is often overexpressed in resistant tumour cells. Evidence for simultaneous drug resistance of genetically modified primary murine progenitor cells to colchicine or the podophyllotoxin etoposide, both covered by MDR1-mediated efflux activity, and the nitrosourea BCNU, which is counteracted by hATPA/GA, is presented using in vitro colony assays.

  16. Dashboard auditing of ABC (Activity-Based Costing). Theoretical approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Căpuşneanu, Sorinel/I

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to define the dashboard auditing according to the specifics of Activity-Based Costing method (ABC). It describes the main objectives of dashboard auditing, the criteria that a dashboard auditor should meet and the step-by-step stages of the entire dashboard auditing process of an enterprise from steel industry according to the Activity-Based Costing method (ABC).

  17. IP3 stimulates CA++ efflux from fusogenic carrot protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincon, M.; Boss, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    Polyphosphoinositide breakdown plays an important role in signal transduction in animal cells (Berridge and Irvine, 1984, Nature, 312:315). Upon stimulation, phospholipase C hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 ) and diacylglycerol both of which act as cellular second messengers. IP 3 mobilizes Ca ++ from internal stores, hence the cytosolic free Ca ++ concentration increases and those physiological activities regulated by Ca ++ are stimulated. To test if plant cells also responded to IP 3 , Ca ++ efflux studies were done with fusogenic carrot protoplasts released in EGTA. The protoplasts were preloaded with 45 Ca ++ placed in a Ca ++ -free medium, and efflux determined as 45 Ca ++ loss from the protoplasts. IP 3 (10-20μM) caused enhanced 45 Ca ++ efflux and the response was sustained for at least 15 min. In plants, as in animals, the observed IP 3 -enhanced 45 Ca ++ efflux suggested that IP 3 released Ca ++ from internal stores, and the increased free cytosolic Ca ++ activated Ca ++ pumping mechanisms which restored the Ca ++ concentration in the cytosol to the normal level

  18. Multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins as transporters of antimicrobial drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nies, Anne T; Damme, Katja; Schaeffeler, Elke; Schwab, Matthias

    2012-12-01

    Antimicrobial drugs are essential in the treatment of infectious diseases. A better understanding of transport processes involved in drug disposition will improve the predictability of drug-drug interactions with consequences for drug response. Multidrug And Toxin Extrusion (MATE; SLC47A) proteins are efflux transporters mediating the excretion of several antimicrobial drugs as well as other organic compounds into bile and urine, thereby contributing to drug disposition. This review summarizes current knowledge of the structural and molecular features of human MATE transporters including their functional role in drug transport with a specific focus on antimicrobial drugs. The PubMed database was searched using the terms "MATE1," "MATE-2K," "MATE2," "SLC47A1," "SLC47A2," and "toxin extrusion protein" (up to June 2012). MATE proteins have been recognized as important transporters mediating the final excretion step of cationic drugs into bile and urine. These include the antiviral drugs acyclovir, amprenavir, and ganciclovir, the antibiotics cephalexin, cephradine and levofloxacin, as well as the antimalarial agents chloroquine and quinine. It is therefore important to enhance our understanding of the role of MATEs in drug extrusion with particular emphasis on the functional consequences of genetic variants on disposition of these antimicrobial drugs.

  19. Volume-activated trimethylamine oxide efflux in red blood cells of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koomoa, D L; Musch, M W; MacLean, A V; Goldstein, L

    2001-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the pathway of swelling-activated trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) efflux and its regulation in spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) red blood cells and compare the characteristics of this efflux pathway with the volume-activated osmolyte (taurine) channel present in erythrocytes of fishes. The characteristics of the TMAO efflux pathway were similar to those of the taurine efflux pathway. The swelling-activated effluxes of both TMAO and taurine were significantly inhibited by known anion transport inhibitors (DIDS and niflumic acid) and by the general channel inhibitor quinine. Volume expansion by hypotonicity, ethylene glycol, and diethyl urea activated both TMAO and taurine effluxes similarly. Volume expansion by hypotonicity, ethylene glycol, and diethyl urea also stimulated the activity of tyrosine kinases p72syk and p56lyn, although the stimulations by the latter two treatments were less than by hypotonicity. The volume activations of both TMAO and taurine effluxes were inhibited by tyrosine kinase inhibitors, suggesting that activation of tyrosine kinases may play a role in activating the osmolyte effluxes. These results indicate that the volume-activated TMAO efflux occurs via the organic osmolyte (taurine) channel and may be regulated by the volume activation of tyrosine kinases.

  20. Second-order nonlinear optical metamaterials: ABC-type nanolaminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloatti, L.; Kieninger, C.; Lauermann, M.; Köhnle, K.; Froelich, A.; Wegener, M.; Frenzel, T.; Freude, W.; Leuthold, J.; Koos, C.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a concept for second-order nonlinear metamaterials that can be obtained from non-metallic centrosymmetric constituents with inherently low optical absorption. The concept is based on iterative atomic-layer deposition of three different materials, A = Al 2 O 3 , B = TiO 2 , and C = HfO 2 . The centrosymmetry of the resulting ABC stack is broken since the ABC and the inverted CBA sequences are not equivalent—a necessary condition for non-zero second-order nonlinearity. In our experiments, we find that the bulk second-order nonlinear susceptibility depends on the density of interfaces, leading to a nonlinear susceptibility of 0.26 pm/V at a wavelength of 800 nm. ABC-type nanolaminates can be deposited on virtually any substrate and offer a promising route towards engineering of second-order optical nonlinearities at both infrared and visible wavelengths

  1. Non-p-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance in detransformed rat cells selected for resistance to methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J M; Sircar, S; Horvath, J; Dion, P

    1989-11-01

    Three independent variants (G2, G4, G5), resistant to methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), an anticancer drug, have been isolated by single step selection from an adenovirus-transformed rat brain cell line (1). These variants display selective cross-resistance to several natural product drugs of dissimilar structure and action. Multidrug resistance has recently been shown to be caused by overexpression of the membrane-associated p-glycoprotein, most often caused by amplification of the mdr gene. Several types of experiments were conducted to determine whether the observed drug resistance in our cell lines could be due to changes at the mdr locus. The following results were obtained: (a) the mdr locus was not amplified; (b) transcription of the mdr gene and p-glycoprotein synthesis were not increased; (c) multidrug resistance cell lines, which carry an amplified mdr locus, were not cross-resistant to methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone); (d) verapamil did not reverse the resistance of G cells or mdr cells to methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), nor that of G cells to vincristine; and (e) methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) resistance was recessive and depended on a block to drug uptake, as opposed to mdr cells which are dominant and express increased drug efflux. The results obtained suggest that the drug resistance in the G2, G4, and G5 cells was atypical and may be due to a mechanism distinct from that mediated by the mdr locus.

  2. The imaging feature of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jun; Zhou Xinhua; Li Xi; Fu Yuhong; Zheng Suhua; Lv Pingxin; Ma Daqing

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the imaging features of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis by collecting multidrug-resistant tuberculosis verified by test of drug-sensitivity, which defined as resistance to three anti-tuberculosis drugs. Methods:Fifty-one cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis were categorized as group of observed, and 46 cases of drug sensitive tuberculosis were categorized as control. Cultures were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in all cases with no other illness such as diabetes mellitus. All patients had chest radiographs available for review, while 64 cases had tomography and 30 cases had CT during the same time. All images were analyzed by three of the radiologists, disagreement among them was discussed and a consensus was reached. Results: There was no difference in the distribution of lesions between the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis group and control group. However, the radiological findings in the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis group were significantly more common than in control group, such as multiple nodules (10 cases), disseminated foci (23 cases), cavity (9 cases), and complications (10 cases). Comparing the dynamic cases, deteriorating cases were more commonly seen in observed group than in control group, while improved cases were less in observed group than in control group. Conclusion: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is the most serious tuberculosis, which is characterized with significant activity, more disseminated foci, cavity, and complications. The lesion deteriorated while correct anti-tuberculosis treatment is applied. (authors)

  3. ABCB1 (MDR1) polymorphisms and ovarian cancer progression and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnatty, Sharon E; Beesley, Jonathan; Gao, Bo

    2013-01-01

    ABCB1 encodes the multi-drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and has been implicated in multi-drug resistance. We comprehensively evaluated this gene and flanking regions for an association with clinical outcome in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC)....

  4. Ezetimibe Promotes Brush Border Membrane-to-Lumen Cholesterol Efflux in the Small Intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanari Nakano

    Full Text Available Ezetimibe inhibits Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1, an apical membrane cholesterol transporter of enterocytes, thereby reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption. This treatment also increases extrahepatic reverse cholesterol transport via an undefined mechanism. To explore this, we employed a trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE assay, which directly detects circulation-to-intestinal lumen 3H-cholesterol transit in a cannulated jejunal segment, and found an increase of TICE by 45%. To examine whether such increase in efflux occurs at the intestinal brush border membrane(BBM-level, we performed luminal perfusion assays, similar to TICE but the jejunal wall was labelled with orally-given 3H-cholesterol, and determined elevated BBM-to-lumen cholesterol efflux by 3.5-fold with ezetimibe. Such increased efflux probably promotes circulation-to-lumen cholesterol transit eventually; thus increases TICE. Next, we wondered how inhibition of NPC1L1, an influx transporter, resulted in increased efflux. When we traced orally-given 3H-cholesterol in mice, we found that lumen-to-BBM 3H-cholesterol transit was rapid and less sensitive to ezetimibe treatment. Comparison of the efflux and fractional cholesterol absorption revealed an inverse correlation, indicating the efflux as an opposite-regulatory factor for cholesterol absorption efficiency and counteracting to the naturally-occurring rapid cholesterol influx to the BBM. These suggest that the ezetimibe-stimulated increased efflux is crucial in reducing cholesterol absorption. Ezetimibe-induced increase in cholesterol efflux was approximately 2.5-fold greater in mice having endogenous ATP-binding cassette G5/G8 heterodimer, the major sterol efflux transporter of enterocytes, than the knockout counterparts, suggesting that the heterodimer confers additional rapid BBM-to-lumen cholesterol efflux in response to NPC1L1 inhibition. The observed framework for intestinal cholesterol fluxes may provide ways to

  5. Vertical variations in wood CO2 efflux for live emergent trees in a Bornean tropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Ayumi; Kume, Tomonori; Komatsu, Hikaru; Ohashi, Mizue; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Ichihashi, Ryuji; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Otsuki, Kyoichi

    2014-05-01

    Difficult access to 40-m-tall emergent trees in tropical rainforests has resulted in a lack of data related to vertical variations in wood CO2 efflux, even though significant variations in wood CO2 efflux are an important source of errors when estimating whole-tree total wood CO2 efflux. This study aimed to clarify vertical variations in wood CO2 efflux for emergent trees and to document the impact of the variations on the whole-tree estimates of stem and branch CO2 efflux. First, we measured wood CO2 efflux and factors related to tree morphology and environment for seven live emergent trees of two dipterocarp species at four to seven heights of up to ∼ 40 m for each tree using ladders and a crane. No systematic tendencies in vertical variations were observed for all the trees. Wood CO2 efflux was not affected by stem and air temperature, stem diameter, stem height or stem growth. The ratios of wood CO2 efflux at the treetop to that at breast height were larger in emergent trees with relatively smaller diameters at breast height. Second, we compared whole-tree stem CO2 efflux estimates using vertical measurements with those based on solely breast height measurements. We found similar whole-tree stem CO2 efflux estimates regardless of the patterns of vertical variations in CO2 efflux because the surface area in the canopy, where wood CO2 efflux often differed from that at breast height, was very small compared with that at low stem heights, resulting in little effect of the vertical variations on the estimate. Additionally, whole-tree branch CO2 efflux estimates using measu