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Sample records for abc class member

  1. Static Members of Classes in C#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian LUPASC

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The C# language is object-oriented, which is why the declared member data must be part of a class. Thus, there is no possibility to declare certain variables that can be accessed from anywhere within the application, as it happens, for example, with global variables at the C language level. Making this work in C# is possible through static members of the class. Declaring a class implies defining some of its member data that later receive values when creating each object. A static member of the class can be interpreted as belonging only to the class, not to the objects subsequently created, which means that for the non-static data, there are as many children as there were objects created, while for the static ones there is only one copy, regardless of the number of created objects. In this regard, this paper presents the main aspects that characterize these abstract concepts of object oriented programming in general and C# language in particular, detailing how to develop an application that includes both static and non-static members. At the same time, particularities in the mirror for the two types of data, restrictions on use and potential limitations are presented.

  2. Polymorphism in a second ABC transproter gene located within the class II region of the human major histocompatibility complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powis, S.H.; Mockridge, I.; Kelly, A.; Glynne, R.; Beck, S.; Trowsdale, J. (Imperial Cancer Research Fund Labs., London (United Kingdom)); Kerr, L.A. (Guy' s Campus, London (United Kingdom)); Gileadi, U. (Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom))

    1992-02-15

    Recent studies have identified genes within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) that may play a role in presentation of antigenic peptides to T cells. The authors have previously described RING4, a gene within the human MHC class II region that has sequence homology with members of the ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter superfamily. They now report the nucleotide sequence of RING11, a second ABC transporter gene located approximately 7 kilobases telomeric to RING4. RING11 is {gamma}-interferon inducible, a property shared with other genes involved in antigen presentation. Comparison between the amino acid sequences of RING11 and RING4 reveals strong homology. They propose that they form a heterodimer that transports peptides from the cytoplasm into the endoplasmic reticulum. They have identified two RING11 alleles, which differ in length of their derived protein sequence by 17 amino acids. The more common of these alleles is present in a Caucasoid population at a frequency of 79%.

  3. Class B Gene Expression and the Modified ABC Model in Nongrass Monocots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Kanno

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the MADS-box genes and the study of model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Antirrhinum majus have greatly improved our understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving the diversity in floral development. The class B genes, which belong to the MADS-box gene family, are important regulators of the development of petals and stamens in flowering plants. Many nongrass monocot flowers have two whorls of petaloid organs, which are called tepals. To explain this floral morphology, the modified ABC model was proposed. This model was exemplified by the tulip, in which expansion and restriction of class B gene expression is linked to the transition of floral morphologies in whorl 1. The expression patterns of class B genes from many monocot species nicely fit this model; however, those from some species, such as asparagus, do not. In this review, we summarize the relationship between class B gene expression and floral morphology in nongrass monocots, such as Liliales (Liliaceae and Asparagales species, and discuss the applicability of the modified ABC model to monocot flowers.

  4. Congruence ABC implies ABC

    OpenAIRE

    Ellenberg, Jordan S.

    2000-01-01

    The ABC conjecture of Masser and Oesterle' states that if (a,b,c) are coprime integers with a + b + c = 0, then sup(|a|,|b|,|c|) 0. Oesterle' has observed that if the ABC conjecture holds for all (a,b,c) with 16 | abc, then the full ABC conjecture holds. We extend that result to show that, for every integer N, the "congruence ABC conjecture" that ABC holds for all (a,b,c) with N|abc implies the full ABC conjecture.

  5. Heterotopic expression of class B floral homeotic genes supports a modified ABC model for tulip (Tulipa gesneriana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Akira; Saeki, Hiroshi; Kameya, Toshiaki; Saedler, Heinz; Theissen, Günter

    2003-07-01

    In higher eudicotyledonous angiosperms the floral organs are typically arranged in four different whorls, containing sepals, petals, stamens and carpels. According to the ABC model, the identity of these organs is specified by floral homeotic genes of class A, A+B, B+C and C, respectively. In contrast to the sepal and petal whorls of eudicots, the perianths of many plants from the Liliaceae family have two outer whorls of almost identical petaloid organs, called tepals. To explain the Liliaceae flower morphology, van Tunen et al. (1993) proposed a modified ABC model, exemplified with tulip. According to this model, class B genes are not only expressed in whorls 2 and 3, but also in whorl 1. Thus the organs of both whorls 1 and 2 express class A plus class B genes and, therefore, get the same petaloid identity. To test this modified ABC model we have cloned and characterized putative class B genes from tulip. Two DEF- and one GLO-like gene were identified, named TGDEFA, TGDEFB and TGGLO. Northern hybridization analysis showed that all of these genes are expressed in whorls 1, 2 and 3 (outer and inner tepals and stamens), thus corroborating the modified ABC model. In addition, these experiments demonstrated that TGGLO is also weakly expressed in carpels, leaves, stems and bracts. Gel retardation assays revealed that TGGLO alone binds to DNA as a homodimer. In contrast, TGDEFA and TGDEFB cannot homodimerize, but make heterodimers with PI. Homodimerization of GLO-like protein has also been reported for lily, suggesting that this phenomenon is conserved within Liliaceae plants or even monocot species.

  6. Cross-Sections Classes of Structural Steel Members

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    Daniela Preda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional classification, introduced in EUROCODE 3, is destined to comply with any type of cross-section, disregarding the slenderness of cross-sectional wall plates. From practical reasons, this classification refers to cross-sections considered as a general matter. But in the same cross-section, the plates loaded with compression stresses, thus exposed to local buckling can belong to different classes of sections depending upon the loads acting on that cross-section. Furthermore, the stress diagrams corresponding to these cross-sectional plates are themselves closely related to applied loads and they influence directly the degrees of sensitivity to local buckling. On the other hand, the different degrees of sensitivity to local buckling depend on the slenderness of cross-sectional plates. A cross-section is normally classified by quoting the highest (least favourable class of its compression elements. The strength calculation (and general stability of structural members depends on the cross-section classes.

  7. A burst of ABC genes in the genome of the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The ABC (ATP-binding cassette) gene superfamily is widespread across all living species. The majority of ABC genes encode ABC transporters, which are membrane-spanning proteins capable of transferring substrates across biological membranes by hydrolyzing ATP. Although ABC transporters have often been associated with resistance to drugs and toxic compounds, within the Arthropoda ABC gene families have only been characterized in detail in several insects and a crustacean. In this study, we report a genome-wide survey and expression analysis of the ABC gene superfamily in the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, a chelicerate ~ 450 million years diverged from other Arthropod lineages. T. urticae is a major agricultural pest, and is among of the most polyphagous arthropod herbivores known. The species resists a staggering array of toxic plant secondary metabolites, and has developed resistance to all major classes of pesticides in use for its control. Results We identified 103 ABC genes in the T. urticae genome, the highest number discovered in a metazoan species to date. Within the T. urticae ABC gene set, all members of the eight currently described subfamilies (A to H) were detected. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the high number of ABC genes in T. urticae is due primarily to lineage-specific expansions of ABC genes within the ABCC, ABCG and ABCH subfamilies. In particular, the ABCC subfamily harbors the highest number of T. urticae ABC genes (39). In a comparative genomic analysis, we found clear orthologous relationships between a subset of T. urticae ABC proteins and ABC proteins in both vertebrates and invertebrates known to be involved in fundamental cellular processes. These included members of the ABCB-half transporters, and the ABCD, ABCE and ABCF families. Furthermore, one-to-one orthologues could be distinguished between T. urticae proteins and human ABCC10, ABCG5 and ABCG8, the Drosophila melanogaster sulfonylurea receptor and ecdysone

  8. Evaluation of three 3ABC ELISAs for foot-and-mouth disease non-structural antibodies using latent class analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malirat Viviane

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is a highly contagious viral disease of even-toed ungulates. Serological diagnosis/surveillance of FMD presents several problems as there are seven serotypes worldwide and in the event of vaccination it may be necessary to be able to identify FMD infected/exposed animals irrespective of their vaccination status. The recent development of non-structural 3ABC protein (NSP ELISA tests has greatly advanced sero-diagnosis/surveillance as these tests detect exposure to live virus for any of the seven serotypes of FMD, even in vaccinated populations. This paper analyses the performance of three NSP tests using a Bayesian formulation of the Hui-Walter latent class model to estimate test sensitivity and specificity in the absence of a "gold-standard" test, using sera from a well described cattle population in Cameroon with endemic FMD. Results The analysis found a high sensitivity and specificity for both the Danish C-ELISA and the World Organisation for Animal Health (O.I.E. recommended South American I-ELISA. However, the commercial CHEKIT kit, though having high specificity, has very low sensitivity. The results of the study suggests that for NSP ELISAs, latent class models are a useful alternative to the traditional approach of evaluating diagnostic tests against a known "gold-standard" test as imperfections in the "gold-standard" may give biased test characteristics. Conclusion This study demonstrates that when applied to naturally infected zebu cattle managed under extensive rangeland conditions, the FMD ELISAs may not give the same parameter estimates as those generated from experimental studies. The Bayesian approach allows for full posterior probabilities and capture of the uncertainty in the estimates. The implications of an imperfect specificity are important for the design and interpretation of sero-surveillance data and may result in excessive numbers of false positives in low prevalence

  9. Professionsbachelorens ABC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Christian Bundgaard

    2008-01-01

    På baggrund af Lars-Henrik Schmidts "Sociale ABC" og Bloom og Dreyfus' taksonomier gives der et teoretiske bud på professionsbachelorbegrebet......På baggrund af Lars-Henrik Schmidts "Sociale ABC" og Bloom og Dreyfus' taksonomier gives der et teoretiske bud på professionsbachelorbegrebet...

  10. Measuring the consumer satisfaction of class members of a law suit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, J R; Calhoun, M L; Ahlgrim-Delzell, L; Conroy, J

    1998-06-01

    The present article describes a study of consumer satisfaction in a group of class members who are part of a mental disability law reform suit Consumer satisfaction was considered one aspect of compliance with this lawsuit. The class members have a primary diagnosis of intellectual disability, and in most cases, a secondary diagnosis of mental illness. Conducting consumer satisfaction studies among people with intellectual disabilities is often challenging because some of these consumers have difficulty articulating their needs and concerns. An interview schedule with simple quantitative and qualitative satisfaction questions was used. The present study investigated the satisfaction of a subgroup of these class members prior to and after having a court-supported service plan. The results reveal that these consumers became considerably more satisfied, and many of their specific satisfactions and dissatisfaction were identified. The results suggest that both quantitative and qualitative consumer responses can be helpful in determining compliance with court issues.

  11. A Survey of the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC Gene Superfamily in the Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Carmona-Antoñanzas

    Full Text Available Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837, are fish ectoparasites causing significant economic damage in the mariculture of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758. The control of L. salmonis at fish farms relies to a large extent on treatment with anti-parasitic drugs. A problem related to chemical control is the potential for development of resistance, which in L. salmonis is documented for a number of drug classes including organophosphates, pyrethroids and avermectins. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC gene superfamily is found in all biota and includes a range of drug efflux transporters that can confer drug resistance to cancers and pathogens. Furthermore, some ABC transporters are recognised to be involved in conferral of insecticide resistance. While a number of studies have investigated ABC transporters in L. salmonis, no systematic analysis of the ABC gene family exists for this species. This study presents a genome-wide survey of ABC genes in L. salmonis for which, ABC superfamily members were identified through homology searching of the L. salmonis genome. In addition, ABC proteins were identified in a reference transcriptome of the parasite generated by high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq of a multi-stage RNA library. Searches of both genome and transcriptome allowed the identification of a total of 33 genes / transcripts coding for ABC proteins, of which 3 were represented only in the genome and 4 only in the transcriptome. Eighteen sequences were assigned to ABC subfamilies known to contain drug transporters, i.e. subfamilies B (4 sequences, C (11 and G (2. The results suggest that the ABC gene family of L. salmonis possesses fewer members than recorded for other arthropods. The present survey of the L. salmonis ABC gene superfamily will provide the basis for further research into potential roles of ABC transporters in the toxicity of salmon delousing agents and as potential mechanisms of drug resistance.

  12. A Survey of the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Gene Superfamily in the Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Antoñanzas, Greta; Carmichael, Stephen N; Heumann, Jan; Taggart, John B; Gharbi, Karim; Bron, James E; Bekaert, Michaël; Sturm, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837), are fish ectoparasites causing significant economic damage in the mariculture of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758. The control of L. salmonis at fish farms relies to a large extent on treatment with anti-parasitic drugs. A problem related to chemical control is the potential for development of resistance, which in L. salmonis is documented for a number of drug classes including organophosphates, pyrethroids and avermectins. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene superfamily is found in all biota and includes a range of drug efflux transporters that can confer drug resistance to cancers and pathogens. Furthermore, some ABC transporters are recognised to be involved in conferral of insecticide resistance. While a number of studies have investigated ABC transporters in L. salmonis, no systematic analysis of the ABC gene family exists for this species. This study presents a genome-wide survey of ABC genes in L. salmonis for which, ABC superfamily members were identified through homology searching of the L. salmonis genome. In addition, ABC proteins were identified in a reference transcriptome of the parasite generated by high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of a multi-stage RNA library. Searches of both genome and transcriptome allowed the identification of a total of 33 genes / transcripts coding for ABC proteins, of which 3 were represented only in the genome and 4 only in the transcriptome. Eighteen sequences were assigned to ABC subfamilies known to contain drug transporters, i.e. subfamilies B (4 sequences), C (11) and G (2). The results suggest that the ABC gene family of L. salmonis possesses fewer members than recorded for other arthropods. The present survey of the L. salmonis ABC gene superfamily will provide the basis for further research into potential roles of ABC transporters in the toxicity of salmon delousing agents and as potential mechanisms of drug resistance.

  13. An inventory of the human ABC proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, I; Sarkadi, B; Váradi, A

    1999-12-06

    Currently 30 human ABC proteins are represented by full sequences in various databases, and this paper provides a brief overview of these proteins. ABC proteins are composed of transmembrane domains (TMDs), and nucleotide binding domains (NBDs, or ATP-binding cassettes, ABSs). The arrangement of these domains, together with available membrane topology models of the family members, are presented. Based on their sequence similarity scores, the members of the human ABC protein family can be grouped into eight subfamilies. At present the MDR/TAP, the ALD, the MRP/CFTR, the ABC1, the White, the RNAseL inhibitor, the ANSA, and the GCN20 subfamilies are identified. Mutations of many human ABC proteins are known to be causative in inherited diseases, and a short description of the molecular pathology of these ABC gene-related genetic diseases is also provided.

  14. Abc1: a new ABC transporter from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P U; Davis, K; Nielsen, O

    1997-01-01

    We have isolated the abc1 gene from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Sequence analysis suggests that the Abc1 protein is a member of the ABC superfamily of transporters and is composed of two structurally homologous halves, each consisting of a hydrophobic region of six transmembrane...... domains and a hydrophilic region containing one ATP-binding site. The abc1 gene appears to be expressed under all growth conditions but gene disruption experiments indicate that it is not essential for growth. The sequence of the abc1 gene has been deposited in the EMBL data library under the Accession...

  15. ABC-F Proteins Mediate Antibiotic Resistance through Ribosomal Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Liam K R; Edwards, Thomas A; O'Neill, Alex J

    2016-03-22

    Members of the ABC-F subfamily of ATP-binding cassette proteins mediate resistance to a broad array of clinically important antibiotic classes that target the ribosome of Gram-positive pathogens. The mechanism by which these proteins act has been a subject of long-standing controversy, with two competing hypotheses each having gained considerable support: antibiotic efflux versus ribosomal protection. Here, we report on studies employing a combination of bacteriological and biochemical techniques to unravel the mechanism of resistance of these proteins, and provide several lines of evidence that together offer clear support to the ribosomal protection hypothesis. Of particular note, we show that addition of purified ABC-F proteins to anin vitrotranslation assay prompts dose-dependent rescue of translation, and demonstrate that such proteins are capable of displacing antibiotic from the ribosomein vitro To our knowledge, these experiments constitute the first direct evidence that ABC-F proteins mediate antibiotic resistance through ribosomal protection.IMPORTANCEAntimicrobial resistance ranks among the greatest threats currently facing human health. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which microorganisms resist the effect of antibiotics is central to understanding the biology of this phenomenon and has the potential to inform the development of new drugs capable of blocking or circumventing resistance. Members of the ABC-F family, which includelsa(A),msr(A),optr(A), andvga(A), collectively yield resistance to a broader range of clinically significant antibiotic classes than any other family of resistance determinants, although their mechanism of action has been controversial since their discovery 25 years ago. Here we present the first direct evidence that proteins of the ABC-F family act to protect the bacterial ribosome from antibiotic-mediated inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Sharkey et al.

  16. ABC classification : service levels and inventory costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, R.H.; Babai, M.; Syntetos, A.

    2010-01-01

    ABC inventory classifications are widely used in practice, with demand value and demand volume as the most common ranking criteria. The standard approach in ABC applications is to set the same service level for all stock keeping units (SKUs) in a class. In this paper, we show (for three large real

  17. Civilsamfundets ABC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anker Brink; Meyer, Gitte

    Filantropiske fonde og foreninger får stadig større indflydelse på udviklingen af det danske samfund – fra kunst, kultur, byggeri og byudvikling til forskning og udvikling af den danske velfærdsstat. Gennem 32 essays giver Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer en oplysende – og polemisk – analyse af de...... for almenvelllet? CIVILSAMFUNDETS ABC er skrevet på baggrund af et udredningsprojekt om civilsamfundets rolle i det danske samfund. Såvel udredningsprojektet som ABC’en er finansieret af Realdania...

  18. Distribution of the multidrug efflux pump genes, adeABC, adeDE and adeIJK, and class 1 integron genes in multiple-antimicrobial-resistant clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii-Acinetobacter calcoaceticus complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Ling, Bao-Dong; Li, Xian-Zhi

    2009-01-01

    Of 112 non-repetitive clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii-Acinetobacter calcoaceticus complex, 80% were resistant to a variety of structurally unrelated antimicrobials although all isolates were susceptible to minocycline and polymyxin. Resistance to carbapenems occurred in 8% of the isolates. The presence of adeSR-adeABC, adeDE and adeIJK drug efflux system genes and class 1 integron genes (integrase gene int1) was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in relation to the susceptibility of the isolates to 20 antimicrobials. The majority of isolates (75%) with high levels of multidrug resistance were positive for adeSR-adeABC and adeIJK as well as int1 and thus belong to A. baumannii (i.e. genomospecies 2). Positive adeE was only observed in adeSR-adeABC/adeIJK/int1-negative isolates (8%; likely belonging to Acinetobacter genomospecies 3) that were relatively susceptible to several agents, and adeE expression was undetectable. The results reveal a possible association between adeABC/adeIJK and int1 in multidrug-resistant isolates of A. baumannii. In addition, differential distribution of the resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) genes can likely be used as indicators for differentiating Acinetobacter species.

  19. ABCdb: an ABC transporter database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quentin, Y; Fichant, G

    2000-10-01

    We present the first release of a database devoted to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein domains (ABCdb). The ABC proteins are involved in a wide variety of physiological processes in Archea, Bacteria and Eucaryota where they are encoded by large families of paralogous genes. The majority of ABC domains energize the transport of compounds across the membranes. In bacteria, ABC transporters are involved in the uptake of a wide range of molecules and in mechanisms of virulence and antibiotic resistance. In eukaryotes, most of them are involved in drug resistance and in human cells, many are associated with diseases. Sequence analysis reveals that members of the ABC superfamily can be organized into sub-families and suggests that they have diverged from common ancestral forms. In this release, ABCdb includes the inventory and assembly of the ABC transporter systems of completely sequenced genomes. In addition to the protein entries, the database comprises information on functional domains, sequence motifs, predicted trans-membrane segments, and signal peptides. It also includes a classification in sub-families of the ABC systems as well as a classification of the different partners of the systems. Evolutionary trees and specific sequence patterns are provided for each sub-family. The database is endowed with a powerful query system and it was interfaced with blastP2 program for similarity searches. ABCdb has been developed in the ACeDB format, a database system developed by Jean Thierry-Mieg and Richard Durbin. ABCdb can be accessed via the World Wide Web (http://ir2lcb.cnrs-mrs.fr/ABCdb/).

  20. ABC transporters in adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyffer, Fabian; Tampé, Robert

    2015-03-01

    ABC transporters ubiquitously found in all kingdoms of life move a broad range of solutes across membranes. Crystal structures of four distinct types of ABC transport systems have been solved, shedding light on different conformational states within the transport process. Briefly, ATP-dependent flipping between inward- and outward-facing conformations allows directional transport of various solutes. The heterodimeric transporter associated with antigen processing TAP1/2 (ABCB2/3) is a crucial element of the adaptive immune system. The ABC transport complex shuttles proteasomal degradation products into the endoplasmic reticulum. These antigenic peptides are loaded onto major histocompatibility complex class I molecules and presented on the cell surface. We detail the functional modules of TAP, its ATPase and transport cycle, and its interaction with and modulation by other cellular components. In particular, we emphasize how viral factors inhibit TAP activity and thereby prevent detection of the infected host cell by cytotoxic T-cells. Merging functional details on TAP with structural insights from related ABC transporters refines the understanding of solute transport. Although human ABC transporters are extremely diverse, they still may employ conceptually related transport mechanisms. Appropriately, we delineate a working model of the transport cycle and how viral factors arrest TAP in distinct conformations. Deciphering the transport cycle of human ABC proteins is the major issue in the field. The defined peptidic substrate, various inhibitory viral factors, and its role in adaptive immunity provide unique tools for the investigation of TAP, making it an ideal model system for ABC transporters in general. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Structural biochemistry and biophysics of membrane proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of fungal ABC transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driessen Arnold JM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superfamily of ABC proteins is among the largest known in nature. Its members are mainly, but not exclusively, involved in the transport of a broad range of substrates across biological membranes. Many contribute to multidrug resistance in microbial pathogens and cancer cells. The diversity of ABC proteins in fungi is comparable with those in multicellular animals, but so far fungal ABC proteins have barely been studied. Results We performed a phylogenetic analysis of the ABC proteins extracted from the genomes of 27 fungal species from 18 orders representing 5 fungal phyla thereby covering the most important groups. Our analysis demonstrated that some of the subfamilies of ABC proteins remained highly conserved in fungi, while others have undergone a remarkable group-specific diversification. Members of the various fungal phyla also differed significantly in the number of ABC proteins found in their genomes, which is especially reduced in the yeast S. cerevisiae and S. pombe. Conclusions Data obtained during our analysis should contribute to a better understanding of the diversity of the fungal ABC proteins and provide important clues about their possible biological functions.

  2. ABC Kinga kauplused = ABC King shoe stores

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Tallinnas Kristiine keskuses, Tartu Kaubamajas ja Pärnus Port Artur 2 asuvate ABC Kinga kaupluste sisekujundusest. Sisearhitekid Andres Labi ja Janno Roos (Ruumilabor OÜ), loetletud nende ühiselt tehtud töid

  3. Enhancing the ABC Cross

    OpenAIRE

    Euske, K.J.; Vercio, Alan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the ABC Cross was to portray both a cost and process view of an organization as simply as possible. Unfortunately, the model’s simplified form does not capture the real value of activity-based costing (ABC) for cost accounting that emerged in the mid-1980s. Here we present several ABC models that can help functional and process managers make better decisions.

  4. The ABC and AUSSAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarritty, Ian

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's (ABC) utilization of the AUSSAT telecommunications satellite to extend its television and radio transmission range to reach remote Australian audiences; the satellite's program gathering and interchange capabilities; and ABC's generation of other benefits to offset cost of satellite services.…

  5. Structure and mechanism of benzaldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633, a member of the Class 3 aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahniser, Megan P D; Prasad, Shreenath; Kneen, Malea M; Kreinbring, Cheryl A; Petsko, Gregory A; Ringe, Dagmar; McLeish, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida (PpBADH) belongs to the Class 3 aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) family. The Class 3 ALDHs are unusual in that they are generally dimeric (rather than tetrameric), relatively non-specific and utilize both NAD+ and NADP+. To date, X-ray structures of three Class 3 ALDHs have been determined, of which only two have cofactor bound, both in the NAD+ form. Here we report the crystal structure of PpBADH in complex with NADP+ and a thioacyl intermediate adduct. The overall architecture of PpBADH resembles that of most other members of the ALDH superfamily, and the cofactor binding residues are well conserved. Conversely, the pattern of cofactor binding for the rat Class 3 ALDH differs from that of PpBADH and other ALDHs. This has been interpreted in terms of a different mechanism for the rat enzyme. Comparison with the PpBADH structure, as well as multiple sequence alignments, suggest that one of two conserved glutamates, at positions 215 (209 in rat) and 337 (333 in rat), would act as the general base necessary to hydrolyze the thioacyl intermediate. While the latter is the general base in the rat Class 3 ALDH, site-specific mutagenesis indicates that Glu215 is the likely candidate for PpBADH, a result more typical of the Class 1 and 2 ALDH families. Finally, this study shows that hydride transfer is not rate limiting, lending further credence to the suggestion that PpBADH is more similar to the Class 1 and 2 ALDHs than it is to other Class 3 ALDHs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of fungal ABC transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovalchuk, Andriy; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The superfamily of ABC proteins is among the largest known in nature. Its members are mainly, but not exclusively, involved in the transport of a broad range of substrates across biological membranes. Many contribute to multidrug resistance in microbial pathogens and cancer cells. The

  7. Rapportering med ABC modellen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiese, Lars Ole

    2006-01-01

    I denne artikel diskuteres Activity Based Costing (ABC) som rapporterings-teknik for kunde profitabilitet. Der argumenteres for, at indtægtserhvervel-sen inkl. dens direkte omkostningsforbrug bør adskilles fra omkostnings-beskrivelsen til produktfremstilling. Dvs. der gennemføres en aktivitetsba......-seret rapportering for indtægter og en ABC model for omkostningsforbrug til produktfremstilling. Modellen er tilført logiske beslutningsobjekter (klas-sifikationer), som er opbygget niveaubaseret. Samtidigt føres belæg for, at ABC modellen bør baseres på logiske fordelinger til kalkulationsobjektet i stedet...

  8. Thermodynamics of ABC transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejun C. Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT ABC transporters form the largest of all transporter families, and their structural study has made tremendous progress over recent years. However, despite such advances, the precise mechanisms that determine the energy-coupling between ATP hydrolysis and the conformational changes following substrate binding remain to be elucidated. Here, we present our thermodynamic analysis for both ABC importers and exporters, and introduce the two new concepts of differential-binding energy and elastic conformational energy into the discussion. We hope that the structural analysis of ABC transporters will henceforth take thermodynamic aspects of transport mechanisms into account as well.

  9. Iowa ABC connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    For several years the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT), Iowa State University, the Federal Highway Administration, : and several Iowa counties have been working to develop accelerated bridge construction (ABC) concepts, details, and processes....

  10. Discovery and phylogenetic analysis of novel members of class b enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli adhesive fimbriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, Rania A; Shaheen, Hind I; Khalil, Sami B; Mansour, Adel; El-Sayed, Nasr; Touni, Iman; Weiner, Matthew; Armstrong, Adam W; Klena, John D

    2011-04-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is recognized to be a common cause of acute watery diarrhea in children from developing countries. Colonization factors (CFAs) have been identified predominantly in ETEC isolates secreting heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) or cosecreting ST with a heat-labile toxin (LT). We hypothesized that LT-only-secreting ETEC produces unique colonization factors not previously described in ST and LTST-secreting ETEC. A set of degenerate primers based on nucleotide sequence similarities between the major structural genes of CS20 (csnA), CS18 (fotA), CS12 (cswA), and porcine antigen 987 (fasA) was developed and used to screen a collection of 266 LT-secreting ETEC isolates in which no known CFA was detected. PCR-amplified products of different molecular masses were obtained from 49 (18.4%) isolates. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the PCR amplicons followed by GenBank nucleotide BLASTn analysis revealed five novel DNA sequences; translated amino acid BLASTx analysis confirmed sequence similarity to class 1b major structural proteins encoded by csnA, fotA, and fasA. Strains expressing the novel CFAs were phylotyped and analyzed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST; Achtman scheme), and the types detected were compared to those of a collection of archived global E. coli strains. In conclusion, application of the degenerate primer sets to ETEC isolates from surveillance studies increased the total number of ETEC isolates with detectable CFAs by almost 20%. Additionally, MLST analysis suggests that for many CFAs, there may be a requirement for certain genetic backgrounds to acquire and maintain plasmids carrying genes encoding CFAs.

  11. Discovery and Phylogenetic Analysis of Novel Members of Class b Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Adhesive Fimbriae▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, Rania A.; Shaheen, Hind I.; Khalil, Sami B.; Mansour, Adel; El-Sayed, Nasr; Touni, Iman; Weiner, Matthew; Armstrong, Adam W.; Klena, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is recognized to be a common cause of acute watery diarrhea in children from developing countries. Colonization factors (CFAs) have been identified predominantly in ETEC isolates secreting heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) or cosecreting ST with a heat-labile toxin (LT). We hypothesized that LT-only-secreting ETEC produces unique colonization factors not previously described in ST and LTST-secreting ETEC. A set of degenerate primers based on nucleotide sequence similarities between the major structural genes of CS20 (csnA), CS18 (fotA), CS12 (cswA), and porcine antigen 987 (fasA) was developed and used to screen a collection of 266 LT-secreting ETEC isolates in which no known CFA was detected. PCR-amplified products of different molecular masses were obtained from 49 (18.4%) isolates. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the PCR amplicons followed by GenBank nucleotide BLASTn analysis revealed five novel DNA sequences; translated amino acid BLASTx analysis confirmed sequence similarity to class 1b major structural proteins encoded by csnA, fotA, and fasA. Strains expressing the novel CFAs were phylotyped and analyzed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST; Achtman scheme), and the types detected were compared to those of a collection of archived global E. coli strains. In conclusion, application of the degenerate primer sets to ETEC isolates from surveillance studies increased the total number of ETEC isolates with detectable CFAs by almost 20%. Additionally, MLST analysis suggests that for many CFAs, there may be a requirement for certain genetic backgrounds to acquire and maintain plasmids carrying genes encoding CFAs. PMID:21289147

  12. Inventory and analysis of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) systems in Brugia malayi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardelli, B F; Stitt, L E; Tompkins, J B

    2010-07-01

    ABC systems are one of the largest described protein superfamilies. These systems have a domain organization that may contain 1 or more transmembrane domains (ABC_TM1F) and 1 or 2 ATP-binding domains (ABC_2). The functions (e.g., import, export and DNA repair) of these proteins distinguish the 3 classes of ABC systems. Mining and PCR-based cloning were used to identify 33 putative ABC systems from the Brugia malayi genome. There were 31 class 2 genes, commonly called ABC transporters, and 2 class 3 genes. The ABC transporters were divided into subfamilies. Three belonged to subfamily A, 16 to subfamily B, 5 to subfamily C, 1 to subfamily E and 3 to subfamilies F and G, respectively. None were placed in subfamilies D and H. Similar to other ABC systems, the ABC_2 domain of B. malayi genes was conserved and contained the Walker A and B motifs, the signature sequence/linker region and the switch region with the conserved histidine. The ABC_TM1F domain was less conserved. The relative abundance of ABC systems was quantified using real-time reverse transcription PCR and was significantly higher in female adults of B. malayi than in males and microfilaria, particularly those in subfamilies B and C, which are associated with drug resistance.

  13. Current advances on ABC drug transporters in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckenbach, Till; Fischer, Stephan; Sturm, Armin

    2014-09-01

    Most members of the large ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene family are transporters involved in substrate translocation across biological membranes. In eukaryotes, ABC proteins functioning as drug transporters are located in the plasma membrane and mediate the cellular efflux of a wide range of organic chemicals, with some transporters also transporting certain metals. As the enhanced expression of ABC drug transporters can confer multidrug resistance (MDR) to cancers and multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) to organisms from polluted habitats, these ABC family members are also referred to as MDR or MXR proteins. In mammals, ABC drug transporters show predominant expression in tissues involved in excretion or constituting internal or external body boundaries, where they facilitate the excretion of chemicals and their metabolites, and limit chemical uptake and penetration into "sanctuary" sites of the body. Available knowledge about ABC proteins is still limited in teleost fish, a large vertebrate group of high ecological and economic importance. Using transport activity measurements and immunochemical approaches, early studies demonstrated similarities in the tissue distribution of ABC drug transporters between teleosts and mammals, suggesting conserved roles of the transporters in the biochemical defence against toxicants. Recently, the availability of teleost genome assemblies has stimulated studies of the ABC family in this taxon. This review summarises the current knowledge regarding the genetics, functional properties, physiological function, and ecotoxicological relevance of teleostean ABC transporters. The available literature is reviewed with emphasis on recent studies addressing the tissue distribution, substrate spectrum, regulation, physiological function and phylogenetic origin of teleostean ABC transporters. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of five complete genome sequences for members of the class Peribacteria in the recently recognized Peregrinibacteria bacterial phylum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Anantharaman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Five closely related populations of bacteria from the Candidate Phylum (CP Peregrinibacteria, part of the bacterial Candidate Phyla Radiation (CPR, were sampled from filtered groundwater obtained from an aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River near the town of Rifle, CO, USA. Here, we present the first complete genome sequences for organisms from this phylum. These bacteria have small genomes and, unlike most organisms from other lineages in the CPR, have the capacity for nucleotide synthesis. They invest significantly in biosynthesis of cell wall and cell envelope components, including peptidoglycan, isoprenoids via the mevalonate pathway, and a variety of amino sugars including perosamine and rhamnose. The genomes encode an intriguing set of large extracellular proteins, some of which are very cysteine-rich and may function in attachment, possibly to other cells. Strain variation in these proteins is an important source of genotypic variety. Overall, the cell envelope features, combined with the lack of biosynthesis capacities for many required cofactors, fatty acids, and most amino acids point to a symbiotic lifestyle. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that these bacteria likely represent a new class within the Peregrinibacteria phylum, although they ultimately may be recognized as members of a separate phylum. We propose the provisional taxonomic assignment as ‘Candidatus Peribacter riflensis’, Genus Peribacter, Family Peribacteraceae, Order Peribacterales, Class Peribacteria in the phylum Peregrinibacteria.

  15. Mode of action of closthioamide: the first member of the polythioamide class of bacterial DNA gyrase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriac, Alina Iulia; Kloss, Florian; Krämer, Jonas; Vuong, Cuong; Hertweck, Christian; Sahl, Hans-Georg

    2015-09-01

    The spread of MDR bacteria represents a serious threat to human society and novel antibiotic drugs, preferably from new chemical classes, are urgently needed. Closthioamide was isolated from the strictly anaerobic bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum and belongs to a new class of natural products, the polythioamides. Here, we investigated the antimicrobial activity and mechanism of action of closthioamide. For assessing the antimicrobial activity of closthioamide, MIC values and killing kinetics were determined. To identify its target pathway, whole-cell-based assays were used including analysis of macromolecular synthesis and recording the susceptibility profile of a library of clones with down-regulated potential target genes. Subsequently, the inhibitory effect of closthioamide on the activity of isolated target enzymes, e.g. DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, was evaluated. Closthioamide had broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Notably, closthioamide was very potent against MRSA and VRE strains. Closthioamide impaired DNA replication and inhibited DNA gyrase activity, in particular the ATPase function of gyrase and of topoisomerase IV, whereas there was little effect on the cleavage-rejoining function. Closthioamide also inhibited the relaxation activity of DNA gyrase, which does not require ATP hydrolysis, and thus may allosterically rather than directly interfere with the ATPase activity of gyrase. Cross-resistance to ciprofloxacin and novobiocin could not be detected in experimental mutants and clinical isolates. Closthioamide, a member of an unprecedented class of antibiotics, is a potent inhibitor of bacterial DNA gyrase; however, its molecular mechanism differs from that of the quinolones and aminocoumarins. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Plant ABC Transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joohyun; Park, Jiyoung; Choi, Hyunju; Burla, Bo; Kretzschmar, Tobias; Lee, Youngsook; Martinoia, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    ABC transporters constitute one of the largest protein families found in all living organisms. ABC transporters are driven by ATP hydrolysis and can act as exporters as well as importers. The plant genome encodes for more than 100 ABC transporters, largely exceeding that of other organisms. In Arabidopsis, only 22 out of 130 have been functionally analyzed. They are localized in most membranes of a plant cell such as the plasma membrane, the tonoplast, chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes and fulfill a multitude of functions. Originally identified as transporters involved in detoxification processes, they have later been shown to be required for organ growth, plant nutrition, plant development, response to abiotic stresses, pathogen resistance and the interaction of the plant with its environment. To fulfill these roles they exhibit different substrate specifies by e.g. depositing surface lipids, accumulating phytate in seeds, and transporting the phytohormones auxin and abscisic acid. The aim of this review is to give an insight into the functions of plant ABC transporters and to show their importance for plant development and survival. PMID:22303277

  17. ABC's of Being Smart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Determining what giftedness is all about means focusing on many aspects of the individual. In this paper, the author focuses on letter D of the ABC's of being smart. She starts with specifics about giftedness (details), and then moves on to some ways of thinking (dispositions).

  18. Inventory and comparative analysis of rice and Arabidopsis ATP-binding cassette (ABC) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Olivier; Bouige, Philippe; Forestier, Cyrille; Dassa, Elie

    2004-10-08

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins constitute a large superfamily found in all kingdoms of living organisms. The recent completion of two draft sequences of the rice (Oryza sativa) genome allowed us to analyze and classify its ABC proteins and to compare to those in Arabidopsis thaliana. We identified a similar number of ABC proteins in rice and Arabidopsis (121 versus 120), despite the rice genome being more than three times the size of Arabidopsis. Both Arabidopsis and rice have representative members in all seven major subfamilies of ABC ATPases (A to G) commonly found in eukaryotes. This comparative analysis allowed the detection of 29 potential orthologous sequences in Arabidopsis and rice. However, plant share with prokaryotes a specific set of ABC systems that is not detected in animals. These ABC systems might be inherited from the cyanobacterial ancestor of chloroplasts. The present work provides the first complete inventory of rice ABC proteins and an updated inventory of those proteins in Arabidopsis.

  19. Class-Specific Evolution and Transcriptional Differentiation of 14-3-3 Family Members in Mesohexaploid Brassica rapa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandna, Ruby; Augustine, Rehna; Kanchupati, Praveena; Kumar, Roshan; Kumar, Pawan; Arya, Gulab C.; Bisht, Naveen C.

    2016-01-01

    14-3-3s are highly conserved, multigene family proteins that have been implicated in modulating various biological processes. The presence of inherent polyploidy and genome complexity has limited the identification and characterization of 14-3-3 proteins from globally important Brassica crops. Through data mining of Brassica rapa, the model Brassica genome, we identified 21 members encoding 14-3-3 proteins namely, BraA.GRF14.a to BraA.GRF14.u. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that B. rapa contains both ε (epsilon) and non-ε 14-3-3 isoforms, having distinct intron-exon structural organization patterns. The non-ε isoforms showed lower divergence rate (Ks 0.48), suggesting class-specific divergence pattern. Synteny analysis revealed that mesohexaploid B. rapa genome has retained 1–5 orthologs of each Arabidopsis 14-3-3 gene, interspersed across its three fragmented sub-genomes. qRT-PCR analysis showed that 14 of the 21 BraA.GRF14 were expressed, wherein a higher abundance of non-ε transcripts was observed compared to the ε genes, indicating class-specific transcriptional bias. The BraA.GRF14 genes showed distinct expression pattern during plant developmental stages and in response to abiotic stress, phytohormone treatments, and nutrient deprivation conditions. Together, the distinct expression pattern and differential regulation of BraA.GRF14 genes indicated the occurrence of functional divergence of B. rapa 14-3-3 proteins during plant development and stress responses. PMID:26858736

  20. [Research progress in chondroitinase ABC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Chen, Zhenya; Yuan, Qipeng

    2015-05-01

    As the components of proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear polysaccharides consisting of hexose and uronic acid units linked by β-1,3-glycosidic bond. GAGs mainly distribute in extracellular matrix and on cell surfaces. They guide many biological processes, such as proliferation of cells, transmission of signals and mediation of inflammation. Because of their large molecular weights, GAGs have limited biological functions in vitro. However, the appearance of chondroitinase ABC (ChSase ABC), which can lyse polysaccharides, solves the difficulties. Based on our work, we summarized the classification and the crystal structure of ChSase ABC, as well as other recent research progress on ChSase ABCs. The separation and purification methods of ChSase ABC and construction of engineering bacteria are illustrated. The stability and immobilization are also analyzed by taking account of the characterization of ChSase ABC. Finally, problems and future prospect of the ChSase ABC study are summarized.

  1. Plasmid borne Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing Class D β-Lactamases (CHDLs) and AdeABC efflux pump conferring carbapenem-tigecycline resistance among Acinetobacter baumannii isolates harboring TnAbaRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savari, Mohammad; Ekrami, Alireza; Shoja, Saeed; Bahador, Abbas

    2017-03-01

    Here we studied the prevalence and mechanisms of simultaneous resistance to carbapenem and tigecycline and accumulation of resistance determinants reservoirs in genome of Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) clinical isolates. Susceptibility of the isolates were measured to 18 antimicrobial agents. Genetic diversity of the microbial population was determined using the International Clonal lineage typing (IC typing), multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) and plasmid profiling methods. To detect the AbaRs, Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing Class D β-Lactamases (CHDLs) genes, AdeABC efflux pump genes and resistance determinants, PCR was used. Filter mating experiments were used to prove that if carbapenem resistance genes are located on conjugative plasmids or not. Among the A. baumannii clinical isolates, 40.8% were carbapenem-tigecycline resistant and in this population, 46.9% were belonging to IC I, IC II or IC III and 53.1% were IC variants. These isolates had fallen in 40 MLVA types and were harboring plasmids in multiple numbers and sizes. In this study, bla OXA-23-like was the most prevalent CHDL and conjugation analysis proved that the carbapenem resistance genes are located on conjugative plasmids. All efflux pump genes, except for adeC, were detected in all carbapenem-tigecycline resistant A. baumannii (CTRAb) isolates. Resistance determinants were distributed in both TnAbaRs and R plasmids with a shift toward the R plasmids. Emerging of carbapenem resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) with simultaneous resistance to the last line therapy including tigecycline represent emerging of extensively drug resistance (XDR) and pandrug resistance (PDR) phenotypes that would be a great threat to our public health system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Scavenger receptor class B member 1 protein: hepatic regulation and its effects on lipids, reverse cholesterol transport, and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent AP

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthony P Kent, Ioannis M StylianouDepartment of Medicine and Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SR-BI, also known as SCARB1 is the primary receptor for the selective uptake of cholesterol from high-density lipoprotein (HDL. SR-BI is present in several key tissues; however, its presence and function in the liver is deemed the most relevant for protection against atherosclerosis. Cholesterol is transferred from HDL via SR-BI to the liver, which ultimately results in the excretion of cholesterol via bile and feces in what is known as the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Much of our knowledge of SR-BI hepatic function and regulation is derived from mouse models and in vitro characterization. Multiple independent regulatory mechanisms of SR-BI have been discovered that operate at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In this review we summarize the critical discoveries relating to hepatic SR-BI cholesterol metabolism, atherosclerosis, and regulation of SR-BI, as well as alternative functions that may indirectly affect atherosclerosis.Keywords: SR-BI, SCARB1, lipids, atherosclerosis, CAD, mouse models

  3. Human ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliou Vasilis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There exist four fundamentally different classes of membrane-bound transport proteins: ion channels; transporters; aquaporins; and ATP-powered pumps. ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters are an example of ATP-dependent pumps. ABC transporters are ubiquitous membrane-bound proteins, present in all prokaryotes, as well as plants, fungi, yeast and animals. These pumps can move substrates in (influx or out (efflux of cells. In mammals, ABC transporters are expressed predominantly in the liver, intestine, blood-brain barrier, blood-testis barrier, placenta and kidney. ABC proteins transport a number of endogenous substrates, including inorganic anions, metal ions, peptides, amino acids, sugars and a large number of hydrophobic compounds and metabolites across the plasma membrane, and also across intracellular membranes. The human genome contains 49 ABC genes, arranged in eight subfamilies and named via divergent evolution. That ABC genes are important is underscored by the fact that mutations in at least I I of these genes are already known to cause severe inherited diseases (eg cystic fibrosis and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy [X-ALD]. ABC transporters also participate in the movement of most drugs and their metabolites across cell surface and cellular organelle membranes; thus, defects in these genes can be important in terms of cancer therapy, pharmacokinetics and innumerable pharmacogenetic disorders.

  4. Evolutionary relationships of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) uptake porters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei Hao; Västermark, Åke; Shlykov, Maksim A; Reddy, Vamsee; Sun, Eric I; Saier, Milton H

    2013-05-06

    The ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) functional superfamily includes integral transmembrane exporters that have evolved three times independently, forming three families termed ABC1, ABC2 and ABC3, upon which monophyletic ATPases have been superimposed for energy-coupling purposes [e.g., J Membr Biol 231(1):1-10, 2009]. The goal of the work reported in this communication was to understand how the integral membrane constituents of ABC uptake transporters with different numbers of predicted or established transmembrane segments (TMSs) evolved. In a few cases, high resolution 3-dimensional structures were available, and in these cases, their structures plus primary sequence analyses allowed us to predict evolutionary pathways of origin. All of the 35 currently recognized families of ABC uptake proteins except for one (family 21) were shown to be homologous using quantitative statistical methods. These methods involved using established programs that compare native protein sequences with each other, after having compared each sequence with thousands of its own shuffled sequences, to gain evidence for homology. Topological analyses suggested that these porters contain numbers of TMSs ranging from four or five to twenty. Intragenic duplication events occurred multiple times during the evolution of these porters. They originated from a simple primordial protein containing 3 TMSs which duplicated to 6 TMSs, and then produced porters of the various topologies via insertions, deletions and further duplications. Except for family 21 which proved to be related to ABC1 exporters, they are all related to members of the previously identified ABC2 exporter family. Duplications that occurred in addition to the primordial 3 → 6 duplication included 5 → 10, 6 → 12 and 10 → 20 TMSs. In one case, protein topologies were uncertain as different programs gave discrepant predictions. It could not be concluded with certainty whether a 4 TMS ancestral protein or a 5 TMS ancestral protein

  5. ABC+SCM=Sant?

    OpenAIRE

    Dahl, Jonas; Porelius, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Background: Companies of today commonly search to gain competitive advantages throughout different forms of co-operation, one of which is referred to as Supply Chain Management. Although little research has been assigned to the topic of how to manage and control this type of relation, lately a growing number of academics has been arguing that ABC is an appropriate mean of controlling this type of relationships. Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to investigate to what degree the ongoing d...

  6. Structural diversity of ABC transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Beek, Josy; Guskov, Albert

    2014-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters form a large superfamily of ATP-dependent protein complexes that mediate transport of a vast array of substrates across membranes. The 14 currently available structures of ABC transporters have greatly advanced insight into the transport mechanism and revealed a tremendous structural diversity. Whereas the domains that hydrolyze ATP are structurally related in all ABC transporters, the membrane-embedded domains, where the substrates are translocated, adopt four different unrelated folds. Here, we review the structural characteristics of ABC transporters and discuss the implications of this structural diversity for mechanistic diversity. PMID:24638992

  7. ABC and MFS transporters from Botrytis cinerea involved in sensitivity to fungicides and natural toxic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayashi, K.

    2003-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporters are two major classes of proteins involved in drug resistance. ABC transporter proteins are primary transporters that use the energy generated by ATP hydrolysis to transport drugs over membranes, while MFS transport

  8. Enhanced expression in vivo of HLA-ABC antigens and beta 2-microglobulin on human lymphoid cells induced by human interferon-alpha in patients with lung cancer. Enhanced expression of class I major histocompatibility antigens prior to treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Holst; Plesner, T; Larsen, J K

    1985-01-01

    than 0.5, respectively) by day-to-day analysis of an untreated healthy control group. An increased expression of both HLA-ABC (mean 55%, P less than 0.0005) and beta 2m (mean 23%, P less than 0.01) was also observed prior to treatment in the lung cancer patients when compared to a group of age matched......The effect of cloned human interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) on the expression of HLA-ABC antigens (HLA-ABC) and beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) on human peripheral lymphoid cells in vivo was studied by cytofluorometry using monoclonal antibodies and fluorescein-labelled rabbit anti-mouse immunoglobulin....... A significant increase in the mean fluorescence intensity of HLA-ABC (median 59%, P less than 0.001) and beta 2m (median 57%, P less than 0.001) on small lymphoid cells was observed 24 h after initiation of IFN-alpha treatment (50 X 10(6) units IFN-alpha/m2 three times a week). The enhanced expression...

  9. Curva ABC de fornecedores

    OpenAIRE

    Solano, Renato da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. Este trabalho faz uma revisão e busca dar uma contribuição aos gerentes de Planejamento, Programação, Controle e Gerenciamento de Empreendimentos e Obras através do uso das Curvas ABC. O trabalho utilizou 10 empreendimentos de classificação Alta (NBR 12721), incorporados por oito empresas do setor e fez uma análise dos projetos-padrão da NBR 12721. Foi f...

  10. Characterisation of a novel paralog of scavenger receptor class B member I (SCARB1 in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omholt Stig W

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Red flesh colour is a unique trait found in some salmonid genera. Carotenoid pigments are not synthesized de novo in the fish, but are provided by dietary uptake. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular uptake and deposition of carotenoids could potentially be used to improve the low muscle deposition rate that is typically found in farmed Atlantic salmon. In addition, from an evolutionary point of view, the establishment and maintenance of this trait is still poorly understood. It has been demonstrated in several species that scavenger receptor class B, member 1 (SCARB1 is involved in intestinal absorption of carotenoids, which makes this gene a possible source of genetic variation in salmonid flesh pigmentation. Results In this study, a novel paralog of SCARB1 (SCARB1-2 was detected through screening for genetic variation in Atlantic salmon SCARB1. Full length SCARB1-2 encodes a protein with 89% identity to Atlantic salmon SCARB1, except for the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail that shows only 12% identity. The most prominent site of SCARB1 mRNA expression was in the mid gut, while a five-fold lower level was detected in Atlantic salmon skeletal muscle and liver. The SCARB1-2 mRNA was equally expressed in liver, muscle and mid gut, and at a lower level than SCARB1 mRNA. A total of seven different SCARB1-2 alleles comprising repetitive enhancer of zeste motifs (EZH2 were identified in the founding parents of a resource Atlantic salmon population. We mapped the SCARB1-2 paralog to a region on Atlantic salmon chromosome 1, containing a putative QTL for flesh colour. Addition of the SCARB1-2 marker increased the significance of this QTL, however the large confidence interval surrounding the QTL precludes confirmation of SCARB1-2 as a causative gene underlying variation in this trait. Conclusion We have characterised a novel paralog of SCARB1 (SCARB1-2, have mapped it to Atlantic salmon chromosome 1

  11. Characterisation of a novel paralog of scavenger receptor class B member I (SCARB1) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundvold, Hilde; Helgeland, Hanna; Baranski, Matthew; Omholt, Stig W; Våge, Dag Inge

    2011-05-30

    Red flesh colour is a unique trait found in some salmonid genera. Carotenoid pigments are not synthesized de novo in the fish, but are provided by dietary uptake. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular uptake and deposition of carotenoids could potentially be used to improve the low muscle deposition rate that is typically found in farmed Atlantic salmon. In addition, from an evolutionary point of view, the establishment and maintenance of this trait is still poorly understood. It has been demonstrated in several species that scavenger receptor class B, member 1 (SCARB1) is involved in intestinal absorption of carotenoids, which makes this gene a possible source of genetic variation in salmonid flesh pigmentation. In this study, a novel paralog of SCARB1 (SCARB1-2) was detected through screening for genetic variation in Atlantic salmon SCARB1. Full length SCARB1-2 encodes a protein with 89% identity to Atlantic salmon SCARB1, except for the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail that shows only 12% identity. The most prominent site of SCARB1 mRNA expression was in the mid gut, while a five-fold lower level was detected in Atlantic salmon skeletal muscle and liver. The SCARB1-2 mRNA was equally expressed in liver, muscle and mid gut, and at a lower level than SCARB1 mRNA. A total of seven different SCARB1-2 alleles comprising repetitive enhancer of zeste motifs (EZH2) were identified in the founding parents of a resource Atlantic salmon population. We mapped the SCARB1-2 paralog to a region on Atlantic salmon chromosome 1, containing a putative QTL for flesh colour. Addition of the SCARB1-2 marker increased the significance of this QTL, however the large confidence interval surrounding the QTL precludes confirmation of SCARB1-2 as a causative gene underlying variation in this trait. We have characterised a novel paralog of SCARB1 (SCARB1-2), have mapped it to Atlantic salmon chromosome 1 and have described its expression in various tissues

  12. ABCE1 is a highly conserved RNA silencing suppressor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kairi Kärblane

    Full Text Available ATP-binding cassette sub-family E member 1 (ABCE1 is a highly conserved protein among eukaryotes and archaea. Recent studies have identified ABCE1 as a ribosome-recycling factor important for translation termination in mammalian cells, yeast and also archaea. Here we report another conserved function of ABCE1. We have previously described AtRLI2, the homolog of ABCE1 in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, as an endogenous suppressor of RNA silencing. In this study we show that this function is conserved: human ABCE1 is able to suppress RNA silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, in mammalian HEK293 cells and in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans. Using co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we found a number of potential ABCE1-interacting proteins that might support its function as an endogenous suppressor of RNA interference. The interactor candidates are associated with epigenetic regulation, transcription, RNA processing and mRNA surveillance. In addition, one of the identified proteins is translin, which together with its binding partner TRAX supports RNA interference.

  13. Getting from A to B-exploring the activation motifs of the class B adhesion G protein-coupled receptor subfamily G member 4/GPR112

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelia Peeters, Miriam; Mos, Iris; Lenselink, Eelke B

    2016-01-01

    The adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (ADGRs/class B2 G protein-coupled receptors) constitute an ancient family of G protein-coupled receptors that have recently been demonstrated to play important roles in cellular and developmental processes. Here, we describe a first insight...... important motifs resembling class A, class B, and combined elements, but also a unique highly conserved ADGR motif (H3.33). Given the high conservation of these motifs and residues across the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor family, it can be assumed that these are general elements of adhesion GPCR...... function.-Peeters, M. C., Mos, I., Lenselink, E. B., Lucchesi, M., IJzerman, A. P., Schwartz, T. W. Getting from A to B-Exploring the activation motifs of the class B adhesion G protein-coupled receptor subfamily G member 4/GPR112....

  14. ABC Transport Proteins in Cardiovascular Disease-A Brief Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Toni; Benndorf, Ralf A

    2017-04-06

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters may play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic vascular diseases due to their involvement in cholesterol homeostasis, blood pressure regulation, endothelial function, vascular inflammation, as well as platelet production and aggregation. In this regard, ABC transporters, such as ABCA1, ABCG5 and ABCG8, were initially found to be responsible for genetically-inherited syndromes like Tangier diseases and sitosterolemia. These findings led to the understanding of those transporter's function in cellular cholesterol efflux and thereby also linked them to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Subsequently, further ABC transporters, i.e., ABCG1, ABCG4, ABCB6, ABCC1, ABCC6 or ABCC9, have been shown to directly or indirectly affect cellular cholesterol efflux, the inflammatory response in macrophages, megakaryocyte proliferation and thrombus formation, as well as vascular function and blood pressure, and may thereby contribute to the pathogenesis of CVD and its complications. Furthermore, ABC transporters, such as ABCB1, ABCC2 or ABCG2, may affect the safety and efficacy of several drug classes currently in use for CVD treatment. This review will give a brief overview of ABC transporters involved in the process of atherogenesis and CVD pathology. It also aims to briefly summarize the role of ABC transporters in the pharmacokinetics and disposition of drugs frequently used to treat CVD and CVD-related complications.

  15. Do You Know Your ABC?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Within primary schools, the core subjects of literacy and numeracy are highly regarded, and rightly so, as children need to learn to read, write and be numerically literate. This means that all children learn their ABCs at an early age, But, what about the "other ABC"--"Airway, Breathing and Circulation?" Accidents and medical…

  16. ABC Technology Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) facility will be designed to accomplish the following mission: 'Provide a weapon's grade plutonium disposition capability in a safe, economical, and environmentally sound manner on a prudent schedule for [50] tons of weapon's grade plutonium to be disposed on in [20] years.' This mission is supported by four major objectives: provide a reliable plutonium disposition capability within the next [15] years; provide a level of safety and of safety assurance that meets or exceeds that afforded to the public by modern commercial nuclear power plants; meet or exceed all applicable federal, state, and local regulations or standards for environmental compliance; manage the program in a cost effective manner. The ABC Technology Development Program defines the technology development activities that are required to accomplish this mission. The technology development tasks are related to the following topics: blanket system; vessel systems; reactivity control systems; heat transport system components; energy conversion systems; shutdown heat transport systems components; auxiliary systems; technology demonstrations - large scale experiments

  17. Polymorphism in ABC transporter genes of Dirofilaria immitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangadurai Mani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilaria immitis, a filarial nematode, causes dirofilariasis in dogs, cats and occasionally in humans. Prevention of the disease has been mainly by monthly use of the macrocyclic lactone (ML endectocides during the mosquito transmission season. Recently, ML resistance has been confirmed in D. immitis and therefore, there is a need to find new classes of anthelmintics. One of the mechanisms associated with ML resistance in nematodes has been the possible role of ATP binding cassette (ABC transporters in reducing drug concentrations at receptor sites. ABC transporters, mainly from sub-families B, C and G, may contribute to multidrug resistance (MDR by active efflux of drugs out of the cell. Gene products of ABC transporters may thus serve as the targets for agents that may modulate susceptibility to drugs, by inhibiting drug transport. ABC transporters are believed to be involved in a variety of physiological functions critical to the parasite, such as sterol transport, and therefore may also serve as the target for drugs that can act as anthelmintics on their own. Knowledge of polymorphism in these ABC transporter genes in nematode parasites could provide useful information for the process of drug design. We have identified 15 ABC transporter genes from sub-families A, B, C and G, in D. immitis, by comparative genomic approaches and analyzed them for polymorphism. Whole genome sequencing data from four ML susceptible (SUS and four loss of efficacy (LOE pooled populations were used for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping. Out of 231 SNPs identified in those 15 ABC transporter genes, 89 and 75 of them were specific to the SUS or LOE populations, respectively. A few of the SNPs identified may affect gene expression, protein function, substrate specificity or resistance development and may be useful for transporter inhibitor/anthelmintic drug design, or in order to anticipate resistance development. Keywords: Dirofilaria immitis

  18. Diversity of ABC transporter genes across the plant kingdom and their potential utility in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Thomas S; Rempe, Caroline S; Davitt, Jack; Staton, Margaret E; Peng, Yanhui; Soltis, Douglas Edward; Melkonian, Michael; Deyholos, Michael; Leebens-Mack, James H; Chase, Mark; Rothfels, Carl J; Stevenson, Dennis; Graham, Sean W; Yu, Jun; Liu, Tao; Pires, J Chris; Edger, Patrick P; Zhang, Yong; Xie, Yinlong; Zhu, Ying; Carpenter, Eric; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Stewart, C Neal

    2016-05-31

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene superfamily is ubiquitous among extant organisms and prominently represented in plants. ABC transporters act to transport compounds across cellular membranes and are involved in a diverse range of biological processes. Thus, the applicability to biotechnology is vast, including cancer resistance in humans, drug resistance among vertebrates, and herbicide and other xenobiotic resistance in plants. In addition, plants appear to harbor the highest diversity of ABC transporter genes compared with any other group of organisms. This study applied transcriptome analysis to survey the kingdom-wide ABC transporter diversity in plants and suggest biotechnology applications of this diversity. We utilized sequence similarity-based informatics techniques to infer the identity of ABC transporter gene candidates from 1295 phylogenetically-diverse plant transcriptomes. A total of 97,149 putative (approximately 25 % were full-length) ABC transporter gene members were identified; each RNA-Seq library (plant sample) had 88 ± 30 gene members. As expected, simpler organisms, such as algae, had fewer unique members than vascular land plants. Differences were also noted in the richness of certain ABC transporter subfamilies. Land plants had more unique ABCB, ABCC, and ABCG transporter gene members on average (p plant groups (p plant groups. An increase in the number of gene family members present in the ABCB, ABCC, and ABCD transporter subfamilies may indicate an expansion of the ABC transporter superfamily among green land plants, which include all crop species. The striking difference between the number of ABCA subfamily transporter gene members between ferns and other plant taxa is surprising and merits further investigation. Discussed is the potential exploitation of ABC transporters in plant biotechnology, with an emphasis on crops.

  19. The chemistry of ABC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, R.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    ABC stand for accelerator based conversion of Pu. It is a unique approach to Pu destruction that allows for a well controlled and complete burn of Pu as may be required by treaty or policy. The central idea of the approach is to provide a spallation source of neutrons that allows the operation of a fissioning system without a critical mass and at a K effective less than one. Material to be fissioned is suspended in a molten salt medium for high temperature control and on-line removal of neutron absorbing fission products. This paper discusses the issues associated with the selection and operation of a molten salt chemical system: redox control, product removal, material feed, solubilities, deposition control, and a host of operational procedures.

  20. Identification of ABC transporter genes of Fusarium graminearum with roles in azole tolerance and/or virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Abou Ammar

    Full Text Available Fusarium graminearum is a plant pathogen infecting several important cereals, resulting in substantial yield losses and mycotoxin contamination of the grain. Triazole fungicides are used to control diseases caused by this fungus on a worldwide scale. Our previous microarray study indicated that 15 ABC transporter genes were transcriptionally upregulated in response to tebuconazole treatment. Here, we deleted four ABC transporter genes in two genetic backgrounds of F. graminearum representing the DON (deoxynivalenol and the NIV (nivalenol trichothecene chemotypes. Deletion of FgABC3 and FgABC4 belonging to group I of ABC-G and to group V of ABC-C subfamilies of ABC transporters, respectively, considerably increased the sensitivity to the class I sterol biosynthesis inhibitors triazoles and fenarimol. Such effects were specific since they did not occur with any other fungicide class tested. Assessing the contribution of the four ABC transporters to virulence of F. graminearum revealed that, irrespective of their chemotypes, deletion mutants of FgABC1 (ABC-C subfamily group V and FgABC3 were impeded in virulence on wheat, barley and maize. Phylogenetic context and analyses of mycotoxin production suggests that FgABC3 may encode a transporter protecting the fungus from host-derived antifungal molecules. In contrast, FgABC1 may encode a transporter responsible for the secretion of fungal secondary metabolites alleviating defence of the host. Our results show that ABC transporters play important and diverse roles in both fungicide resistance and pathogenesis of F. graminearum.

  1. The multidrug-resistant phenotype associated with overexpression of the new ABC half-transporter, MXR (ABCG2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litman, Thomas; Brangi, M; Hudson, E

    2000-01-01

    Mechanisms of drug resistance other than P-glycoprotein are of increasing interest as the list of newly identified members of the ABC transport family has grown. We sought to characterize the phenotype of the newly discovered ABC transporter encoded by the mitoxantrone resistance gene, MXR, also...... that the ABC half-transporter, MXR, is a potent, new mechanism for conferring multiple drug resistance. Definition of its mechanism of transport and its role in clinical oncology is required....

  2. The ABCs of Sex Ed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    Cites statistics on extent of sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancies among adolescents; describes ideological dispute over how to teach sex education; advocates teaching the ABCs of sex education: Abstinence, Be Monogamous, and Condoms. (PKP)

  3. Politseiniku lustlik ABC / Pekka Erelt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erelt, Pekka, 1965-

    1999-01-01

    Politsei on välja andnud 'Politseiniku ABC', mis antakse igale politseinikule. Karikaturist Heiki Ernits on peaaegu igale taskuraamatu leheküljele joonistanud pildikese mundrimeestest kentsakates situatsioonides.

  4. Polymorphism in ABC transporter genes of Dirofilaria immitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Thangadurai; Bourguinat, Catherine; Prichard, Roger K

    2017-08-01

    Dirofilaria immitis, a filarial nematode, causes dirofilariasis in dogs, cats and occasionally in humans. Prevention of the disease has been mainly by monthly use of the macrocyclic lactone (ML) endectocides during the mosquito transmission season. Recently, ML resistance has been confirmed in D. immitis and therefore, there is a need to find new classes of anthelmintics. One of the mechanisms associated with ML resistance in nematodes has been the possible role of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters in reducing drug concentrations at receptor sites. ABC transporters, mainly from sub-families B, C and G, may contribute to multidrug resistance (MDR) by active efflux of drugs out of the cell. Gene products of ABC transporters may thus serve as the targets for agents that may modulate susceptibility to drugs, by inhibiting drug transport. ABC transporters are believed to be involved in a variety of physiological functions critical to the parasite, such as sterol transport, and therefore may also serve as the target for drugs that can act as anthelmintics on their own. Knowledge of polymorphism in these ABC transporter genes in nematode parasites could provide useful information for the process of drug design. We have identified 15 ABC transporter genes from sub-families A, B, C and G, in D. immitis, by comparative genomic approaches and analyzed them for polymorphism. Whole genome sequencing data from four ML susceptible (SUS) and four loss of efficacy (LOE) pooled populations were used for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. Out of 231 SNPs identified in those 15 ABC transporter genes, 89 and 75 of them were specific to the SUS or LOE populations, respectively. A few of the SNPs identified may affect gene expression, protein function, substrate specificity or resistance development and may be useful for transporter inhibitor/anthelmintic drug design, or in order to anticipate resistance development. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by

  5. The Arabidopsis thaliana ABC protein superfamily, a complete inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fernández, R; Davies, T G; Coleman, J O; Rea, P A

    2001-08-10

    We describe the first complete inventory of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins from a multicellular organism, the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. By the application of several search criteria, Arabidopsis was found to contain a total of 129 open reading frames (ORFs) capable of encoding ABC proteins, of which 103 possessed contiguous transmembrane spans and were identified as putative intrinsic membrane proteins. Fifty-two of the putative intrinsic membrane proteins contained at least two transmembrane domains (TMDs) and two nucleotide-binding folds (NBFs) and could be classified as belonging to one of five subfamilies of full-molecule transporters. The other 51 putative membrane proteins, all of which were half-molecule transporters, fell into five subfamilies. Of the remaining ORFs identified, all of which encoded proteins lacking TMDs, 11 could be classified into three subfamilies. There were no obvious homologs in other organisms for 15 of the ORFs which encoded a heterogeneous group of non-intrinsic ABC proteins (NAPs). Unrooted phylogenetic analyses substantiated the subfamily designations. Notable features of the Arabidopsis ABC superfamily was the presence of a large yeast-like PDR subfamily, and the absence of genes encoding bona fide cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), sulfonylurea receptor (SUR), and heavy metal tolerance factor 1 (HMT1) homologs. Arabidopsis was unusual in its large allocation of ORFs (a minimum of 0.5%) to members of the ABC protein superfamily.

  6. Design and study of piracetam-like nootropics, controversial members of the problematic class of cognition-enhancing drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Fulvio; Manetti, Dina; Romanelli, Maria Novella; Ghelardini, Carla

    2002-01-01

    Cognition enhancers are drugs able to facilitate attentional abilities and acquisition, storage and retrieval of information, and to attenuate the impairment of cognitive functions associated with head traumas, stroke, age and age-related pathologies. Development of cognition enhancers is still a difficult task because of complexity of the brain functions, poor predictivity of animal tests and lengthy and expensive clinical trials. After the early serendipitous discovery of first generation cognition enhancers, current research is based on a variety of working hypotheses, derived from the progress of knowledge in the neurobiopathology of cognitive processes. Among other classes of drugs, piracetam-like cognition enhancers (nootropics) have never reached general acceptance, in spite of their excellent tolerability and safety. In the present review, after a general discussion of the problems connected with the design and development of cognition enhancers, the class is examined in more detail. Reasons for the problems encountered by nootropics, compounds therapeutically available and those in development, their structure activity relationships and mechanisms of action are discussed. Recent developments which hopefully will lead to a revival of the class are reviewed.

  7. Iowa ABC connections : [tech transfer summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT) and other organizations have : been developing accelerated bridge construction (ABC) concepts, details, and : processes, and Iowa has come to be viewed as a national leader in the area of : ABC. However, th...

  8. In a Class of their own – RXFP1 and RXFP2 are unique members of the LGR family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma June Petrie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptors (LGRs family consists of three groups: type A, B and C and all contain a large extracellular domain made up of the structural motif – the leucine rich repeat. In the LGRs the extracellular domain binds the hormone or ligand, usually through the leucine rich repeats, that ultimately results in activation and signalling. Structures are available for the extracellular domain of type A and B LGRs, but not the type C LGRs. This review discusses the structural features of leucine rich repeat proteins, and describes the known structures of the type A and B LGRs and predictions that can be made for the type C LGRs. The mechanism of activation of the LGRs is discussed with a focus on the role of the LDLa (low density lipoprotein class A module, a unique feature of the type C LGRs. While the LDLa module is essential for activation of the type C LGRs, the molecular mechanism for this process is unknown. Experimental data for the potential interactions of the type C LGR ligands with the leucine rich repeat domain, the transmembrane domain and the LDLa module are summarized.

  9. The ABCs of particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Biron, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    For lovers of rhymes and anthropomorphic Higgs bosons, Symmetry presents its first published board book, The ABCs of Particle Physics. Use it as an illustrated guide to basic particle- and astrophysics terms, or read it to your infant at bedtime, if you don’t mind their first word being “quark.”

  10. The peroxisomal ABC transporter family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Visser, Wouter F.; van Roermund, Carlo W. T.; Kemp, Stephan; Waterham, Hans R.

    2007-01-01

    This review describes the current state of knowledge about the ABCD family of peroxisomal half adenosine-triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABCDs are predicted to be present in a variety of eukaryotic organisms, although at present, only ABCDs in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae,

  11. Genome organisation and expression profiling of ABC protein-encoding genes in Heterobasidion annosum s.l. complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Bikash; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2016-03-01

    Members of Heterobasidion annosum species complex are widely regarded as the most destructive fungal pathogens of conifer trees in the boreal and temperate zones of Northern hemisphere. To invade and colonise their host trees, Heterobasidion fungi must overcome components of host chemical defence, including terpenoid oleoresin and phenolic compounds. ABC transporters may play an important role in this process participating in the export of toxic host metabolites and maintaining their intracellular concentration below the critical level. We have identified and phylogenetically classified Heterobasidion genes encoding ABC transporters and closely related ABC proteins. The number of ABC proteins in the Heterobasidion genome is one of the lowest among analysed species of Agaricomycotina. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we have analysed transcriptional response of Heterobasidion ABC transporter-encoding genes to monoterpenes as well as their expression profile during growth on pine wood in comparison to the growth on defined media. Several ABC transporters were up-regulated during growth on pine wood. The ABC-transporter encoding gene ABCG1.1 was induced both during growth of H. annosum on pine wood and upon exposure to monoterpenes. Our experimental data demonstrate the differential responses of Heterobasidion ABC genes to growth conditions and chemical stressors. The presented results suggest a potential role of Heterobasidion ABC-G transporters in the resistance to the components of conifer chemical defence. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Wireless technology for ABC Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Margit; Kyng, Morten; Christensen, Erika Frischknecht

    be just beside a victim to assess the ABC status. Consequently - in situations with many victims - monitoring equipment is only used for the (few) most seriously injured. Our ongoing research builds on data collected through extensive field studies and is described in several published papers. We......  In medical emergency service (EMS) the ABC status (Airway-Breathing-Circulation) of victims is essential in the decision making process regarding prioritizing and treatment. Today's use of information technology does, however, not inform directly about "A" and "B". The parameters are evaluated...... indirectly through assessment of collected biosensor data, such as ECG, and directly by the rescuer regarding how the patient looks and sounds. Moreover, the monitoring equipment used today is connected with displays by wires and thus only utilizes one display at a time. This means that the rescuers must...

  13. Inventory, assembly and analysis of Bacillus subtilis ABC transport systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quentin, Y; Fichant, G; Denizot, F

    1999-04-02

    We have undertaken the inventory and assembly of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter systems in the complete genome of Bacillus subtilis. We combined the identification of the three protein partners that compose an ABC transporter (nucleotide-binding domain, NBD; membrane spanning domain, MSD; and solute-binding protein, SBP) with constraints on the genetic organization. This strategy allowed the identification of 86 NBDs in 78 proteins, 103 MSD proteins and 37 SBPs. The analysis of transcriptional units allows the reconstruction of 59 ABC transporters, which include at least one NBD and one MSD. A particular class of five dimeric ATPases was not associated to MSD partners and is assumed to be involved either in macrolide resistance or regulation of translation elongation. In addition, we have detected five genes encoding ATPases without any gene coding for MSD protein in their neighborhood and 11 operons that encode only the membrane and solute-binding proteins. On the bases of similarities, three ATP-binding proteins are proposed to energize ten incomplete systems, suggesting that one ATPase may be recruited by more than one transporter. Finally, we estimate that the B. subtilis genome encodes for at least 78 ABC transporters that have been split in 38 importers and 40 extruders. The ABC systems have been further classified into 11 sub-families according to the tree obtained from the NBDs and the clustering of the MSDs and the SBPs. Comparisons with Escherichia coli show that the extruders are over-represented in B. subtilis, corresponding to an expansion of the sub-families of antibiotic and drug resistance systems. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  14. INVENTORY CLASSIFICATION WITH ABC ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Kıyak, Erkan; Timuş, Oğuz Han; Karayel, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    For a substantial organization, managing the expansive inventory is a serious problem. One of the methods to solve this problem used widely is classifying the inventory according to some criteria and managing inventory according to this classisifation. In this study, ABC classification methods are researched and Ng's model, which is one of the most widely used, selected for further investigation. An illustrative example is presented to show the usability of the Ng's method.

  15. Identification of ABC transporters acting in vitamin B12metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Megan K; Fritz, Julie-Anne; Jia, Dongxin; Scheuchner, Deborah; Snyder, Floyd F; Stanislaus, Avalyn; Curle, Jared; Li, Liang; Stabler, Sally P; Allen, Robert H; Mains, Paul E; Gravel, Roy A

    2017-12-01

    Vitamin B 12 (cobalamin, Cbl) is a micronutrient essential to human health. Cbl is not utilized as is but must go through complex subcellular and metabolic processing to generate two cofactor forms: methyl-Cbl for methionine synthase, a cytosolic enzyme; and adenosyl-Cbl for methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, a mitochondrial enzyme. Some 10-12 human genes have been identified responsible for the intracellular conversion of Cbl to cofactor forms, including genes that code for ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters acting at the lysosomal and plasma membranes. However, the gene for mitochondrial uptake is not known. We hypothesized that ABC transporters should be candidates for other uptake and efflux functions, including mitochondrial transport, and set out to screen ABC transporter mutants for blocks in Cbl utilization using the nematode roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. Thirty-seven mutant ABC transporters were screened for the excretion of methylmalonic acid (MMA), which should result from loss of Cbl transport into the mitochondria. One mutant, wht-6, showed elevated MMA excretion and reduced [ 14 C]-propionate incorporation, pointing to a functional block in methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. In contrast, the wht-6 mutant appeared to have a normal cytosolic pathway based on analysis of cystathionine excretion, suggesting that cytosolic methionine synthase was functioning properly. Further, the MMA excretion in wht-6 could be partially reversed by including vitamin B 12 in the assay medium. The human ortholog of wht-6 is a member of the G family of ABC transporters. We propose wht-6 as a candidate for the transport of Cbl into mitochondria and suggest that a member of the corresponding ABCG family of ABC transporters has this role in humans. Our ABC transporter screen also revealed that mrp-1 and mrp-2 mutants excreted lower MMA than wild type, suggesting they were concentrating intracellular Cbl, consistent with the cellular efflux defect proposed for the mammalian MRP1 ABC

  16. ABC transporters in the CNS - an inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartz, A M S; Bauer, B

    2011-04-01

    In the present review we provide a summary of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in the central nervous system (CNS). Our review is focused on transporters of the ABC A, B, C, D, and G families that have been detected in the cells of the neurovascular unit/blood-brain barrier including brain capillary endothelial cells, pericytes, astrocytes, and neurons, as well as in other brain cells, such as microglia, oligodendrocytes, and choroid plexus epithelial cells. In this review, we provide an overview, organized by ABC family, of transporter expression, localization, and function. We summarize recent findings on ABC transporter regulation in the CNS and address the role of ABC transporters in CNS diseases including brain cancer, seizures/epilepsy, and Alzheimer's disease. Finally, we discuss new therapeutic strategies focused on ABC transporters in CNS disease.

  17. Enterprise Architecture Data Pada Hotel ABC

    OpenAIRE

    Soesatyo, Stephanie; Wibowo, Adi; Handojo, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Hotel ABC is a company engaged in hospitality management, i.e. room rental, rental of meeting rooms and coffee shop. Hotel ABC has a branch that has the same specifications of the hotel. In business process, Hotel ABC has information systems to support existing business processes. However, existing information systems have not been integrated as a whole. Based on the condition stated above, analysis and design of enterprise architecture information system is created for the company. The proce...

  18. Bioinformatic survey of ABC transporters in dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzalski, Marek; Ciesielska, Anita; Stączek, Paweł

    2016-01-15

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters constitute a very large and ubiquitous superfamily of membrane proteins. They are responsible for ATP hydrolysis driven translocation of countless substrates. Being a very old and diverse group of proteins present in all organisms they share a common feature, which is the presence of an evolutionary conservative nucleotide binding domain (NBD)--the engine that drives the transport. Another common domain is a transmembrane domain (TMD) which consists of several membrane-spanning helices. This part of protein is substrate-specific, thus it is much more variable. ABC transporters are known for driving drug efflux in many pathogens and cancer cells, therefore they are the subject of extensive studies. There are many examples of conferring a drug resistance phenotype in fungal pathogens by ABC transporters, however, little is known about these proteins in dermatophytes--a group of fungi causing superficial mycoses. So far only a single ABC transporter has been extensively studied in this group of pathogens. We analyzed available genomic sequences of seven dermatophyte species in order to provide an insight into dermatophyte ABC protein inventory. Phylogenetic studies of ABC transporter genes and their products were conducted and included ABC transporters of other fungi. Our results show that each dermatophyte genome studied possesses a great variety of ABC transporter genes. Detailed analysis of selected genes and their products indicates that relatively recent duplication of ABC transporter genes could lead to novel substrate specificity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Tissue-Specific Transcript Profiling for ABC Transporters in the Sequestering Larvae of the Phytophagous Leaf Beetle Chrysomela populi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretscher, René R.; Groth, Marco; Boland, Wilhelm; Burse, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Background Insects evolved ingenious adaptations to use extraordinary food sources. Particularly, the diet of herbivores enriched with noxious plant secondary metabolites requires detoxification mechanisms. Sequestration, which involves the uptake, transfer, and concentration of occasionally modified phytochemicals into specialized tissues or hemolymph, is one of the most successful detoxification strategies found in most insect orders. Due to the ability of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) carriers to transport a wide range of molecules including phytochemicals and xenobiotics, it is highly likely that they play a role in this sequestration process. To shed light on the role of ABC proteins in sequestration, we describe an inventory of putative ABC transporters in various tissues in the sequestering juvenile poplar leaf beetle, Chrysomela populi. Results In the transcriptome of C. populi, we predicted 65 ABC transporters. To link the proteins with a possible function, we performed comparative phylogenetic analyses with ABC transporters of other insects and of humans. While tissue-specific profiling of each ABC transporter subfamily suggests that ABCB, C and G influence the plant metabolite absorption in the gut, ABCC with 14 members is the preferred subfamily responsible for the excretion of these metabolites via Malpighian tubules. Moreover, salicin, which is sequestered from poplar plants, is translocated into the defensive glands for further deterrent production. In these glands and among all identified ABC transporters, an exceptionally high transcript level was observed only for Cpabc35 (Cpmrp). RNAi revealed the deficiency of other ABC pumps to compensate the function of CpABC35, demonstrating its key role during sequestration. Conclusion We provide the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of the ABC family in a phytophagous beetle species. RNA-seq data from different larval tissues propose the importance of ABC pumps to achieve a homeostasis of plant

  20. Tissue-specific transcript profiling for ABC transporters in the sequestering larvae of the phytophagous leaf beetle Chrysomela populi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja S Strauss

    Full Text Available Insects evolved ingenious adaptations to use extraordinary food sources. Particularly, the diet of herbivores enriched with noxious plant secondary metabolites requires detoxification mechanisms. Sequestration, which involves the uptake, transfer, and concentration of occasionally modified phytochemicals into specialized tissues or hemolymph, is one of the most successful detoxification strategies found in most insect orders. Due to the ability of ATP-binding cassette (ABC carriers to transport a wide range of molecules including phytochemicals and xenobiotics, it is highly likely that they play a role in this sequestration process. To shed light on the role of ABC proteins in sequestration, we describe an inventory of putative ABC transporters in various tissues in the sequestering juvenile poplar leaf beetle, Chrysomela populi.In the transcriptome of C. populi, we predicted 65 ABC transporters. To link the proteins with a possible function, we performed comparative phylogenetic analyses with ABC transporters of other insects and of humans. While tissue-specific profiling of each ABC transporter subfamily suggests that ABCB, C and G influence the plant metabolite absorption in the gut, ABCC with 14 members is the preferred subfamily responsible for the excretion of these metabolites via Malpighian tubules. Moreover, salicin, which is sequestered from poplar plants, is translocated into the defensive glands for further deterrent production. In these glands and among all identified ABC transporters, an exceptionally high transcript level was observed only for Cpabc35 (Cpmrp. RNAi revealed the deficiency of other ABC pumps to compensate the function of CpABC35, demonstrating its key role during sequestration.We provide the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of the ABC family in a phytophagous beetle species. RNA-seq data from different larval tissues propose the importance of ABC pumps to achieve a homeostasis of plant-derived compounds and

  1. Tissue-specific transcript profiling for ABC transporters in the sequestering larvae of the phytophagous leaf beetle Chrysomela populi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Anja S; Wang, Ding; Stock, Magdalena; Gretscher, René R; Groth, Marco; Boland, Wilhelm; Burse, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Insects evolved ingenious adaptations to use extraordinary food sources. Particularly, the diet of herbivores enriched with noxious plant secondary metabolites requires detoxification mechanisms. Sequestration, which involves the uptake, transfer, and concentration of occasionally modified phytochemicals into specialized tissues or hemolymph, is one of the most successful detoxification strategies found in most insect orders. Due to the ability of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) carriers to transport a wide range of molecules including phytochemicals and xenobiotics, it is highly likely that they play a role in this sequestration process. To shed light on the role of ABC proteins in sequestration, we describe an inventory of putative ABC transporters in various tissues in the sequestering juvenile poplar leaf beetle, Chrysomela populi. In the transcriptome of C. populi, we predicted 65 ABC transporters. To link the proteins with a possible function, we performed comparative phylogenetic analyses with ABC transporters of other insects and of humans. While tissue-specific profiling of each ABC transporter subfamily suggests that ABCB, C and G influence the plant metabolite absorption in the gut, ABCC with 14 members is the preferred subfamily responsible for the excretion of these metabolites via Malpighian tubules. Moreover, salicin, which is sequestered from poplar plants, is translocated into the defensive glands for further deterrent production. In these glands and among all identified ABC transporters, an exceptionally high transcript level was observed only for Cpabc35 (Cpmrp). RNAi revealed the deficiency of other ABC pumps to compensate the function of CpABC35, demonstrating its key role during sequestration. We provide the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of the ABC family in a phytophagous beetle species. RNA-seq data from different larval tissues propose the importance of ABC pumps to achieve a homeostasis of plant-derived compounds and offer a basis for

  2. Tungsten transport protein A (WtpA) in Pyrococcus furiosus: the first member of a new class of tungstate and molybdate transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevers, Loes E; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Krijger, Gerard C; Hagen, Wilfred R

    2006-09-01

    A novel tungstate and molybdate binding protein has been discovered from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. This tungstate transport protein A (WtpA) is part of a new ABC transporter system selective for tungstate and molybdate. WtpA has very low sequence similarity with the earlier-characterized transport proteins ModA for molybdate and TupA for tungstate. Its structural gene is present in the genome of numerous archaea and some bacteria. The identification of this new tungstate and molybdate binding protein clarifies the mechanism of tungstate and molybdate transport in organisms that lack the known uptake systems associated with the ModA and TupA proteins, like many archaea. The periplasmic protein of this ABC transporter, WtpA (PF0080), was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, WtpA was observed to bind tungstate (dissociation constant [K(D)] of 17 +/- 7 pM) and molybdate (K(D) of 11 +/- 5 nM) with a stoichiometry of 1.0 mol oxoanion per mole of protein. These low K(D) values indicate that WtpA has a higher affinity for tungstate than do ModA and TupA and an affinity for molybdate similar to that of ModA. A displacement titration of molybdate-saturated WtpA with tungstate showed that the tungstate effectively replaced the molybdate in the binding site of the protein.

  3. Abc Amino Acids: Design, Synthesis, and Properties of New Photoelastic Amino Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standaert, Robert F [ORNL; Park, Dr Seung Bum [Seoul National University

    2006-01-01

    Photoisomerizable amino acids provide a direct avenue to the experimental manipulation of bioactive polypeptides, potentially allowing real-time, remote control of biological systems and enabling useful applications in nanobiotechnology. Herein, we report a new class of photoisomerizable amino acids intended to cause pronounced expansion and contraction in the polypeptide backbone, i.e., to be photoelastic. These compounds, termed Abc amino acids, employ a photoisomerizable azobiphenyl chromophore to control the relative disposition of aminomethyl and carboxyl substituents. Molecular modeling of nine Abc isomers led to the identification of one with particularly attractive properties, including the ability to induce contractions up to 13A in the backbone upon transa?cis photoisomerization. This isomer, designated mpAbc, has substituents at meta and para positions on the inner (azo-linked) and outer rings, respectively. An efficient synthesis of Fmoc-protected mpAbc was executed in which the biaryl components were formed via Suzuki couplings and the azo linkage was formed via amine/nitroso condensation; protected forms of three other Abc isomers were prepared similarly. A decapeptide incorporating mpAbc was synthesized by conventional solid-phase methods and displayed characteristic azobenzene photochemical behavior with optimal conversion to the cis isomer at 360 nm and a thermal cisa?trans half life of 100 min. at 80 AoC.

  4. Playware ABC: Engineering Play for Everybody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the Playware ABC concept, and how it allows anybody, anywhere, anytime to be building bodies and brains, which facilitates users to construct, combine and create. The Playware ABC concept focuses engineering and IT system development on creating solutions that are usable by a...

  5. The ABC transporters in Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenlin; Cong, Qian; Pei, Jimin; Kinch, Lisa N; Grishin, Nick V

    2012-01-01

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Ca. L. asiaticus) is a Gram-negative bacterium and the pathogen of Citrus Greening disease (Huanglongbing, HLB). As a parasitic bacterium, Ca. L. asiaticus harbors ABC transporters that play important roles in exchanging chemical compounds between Ca. L. asiaticus and its host. Here, we analyzed all the ABC transporter-related proteins in Ca. L. asiaticus. We identified 14 ABC transporter systems and predicted their structures and substrate specificities. In-depth sequence and structure analysis including multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree reconstruction, and structure comparison further support their function predictions. Our study shows that this bacterium could use these ABC transporters to import metabolites (amino acids and phosphates) and enzyme cofactors (choline, thiamine, iron, manganese, and zinc), resist to organic solvent, heavy metal, and lipid-like drugs, maintain the composition of the outer membrane (OM), and secrete virulence factors. Although the features of most ABC systems could be deduced from the abundant experimental data on their orthologs, we reported several novel observations within ABC system proteins. Moreover, we identified seven nontransport ABC systems that are likely involved in virulence gene expression regulation, transposon excision regulation, and DNA repair. Our analysis reveals several candidates for further studies to understand and control the disease, including the type I virulence factor secretion system and its substrate that are likely related to Ca. L. asiaticus pathogenicity and the ABC transporter systems responsible for bacterial OM biosynthesis that are good drug targets. PMID:22807026

  6. Human ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABC1): Genomic organization and identification of the genetic defect in the original Tangier disease kindred

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remaley, Alan T.; Rust, Stephan; Rosier, Marie; Knapper, Cathy; Naudin, Laurent; Broccardo, Cyril; Peterson, Katherine M.; Koch, Christine; Arnould, Isabelle; Prades, Catherine; Duverger, Nicholas; Funke, Harald; Assman, Gerd; Dinger, Maria; Dean, Michael; Chimini, Giovanna; Santamarina-Fojo, Silvia; Fredrickson, Donald S.; Denefle, Patrice; Brewer, H. Bryan

    1999-01-01

    Tangier disease is characterized by low serum high density lipoproteins and a biochemical defect in the cellular efflux of lipids to high density lipoproteins. ABC1, a member of the ATP-binding cassette family, recently has been identified as the defective gene in Tangier disease. We report here the organization of the human ABC1 gene and the identification of a mutation in the ABC1 gene from the original Tangier disease kindred. The organization of the human ABC1 gene is similar to that of the mouse ABC1 gene and other related ABC genes. The ABC1 gene contains 49 exons that range in size from 33 to 249 bp and is over 70 kb in length. Sequence analysis of the ABC1 gene revealed that the proband for Tangier disease was homozygous for a deletion of nucleotides 3283 and 3284 (TC) in exon 22. The deletion results in a frameshift mutation and a premature stop codon starting at nucleotide 3375. The product is predicted to encode a nonfunctional protein of 1,084 aa, which is approximately half the size of the full-length ABC1 protein. The loss of a Mnl1 restriction site, which results from the deletion, was used to establish the genotype of the rest of the kindred. In summary, we report on the genomic organization of the human ABC1 gene and identify a frameshift mutation in the ABC1 gene of the index case of Tangier disease. These results will be useful in the future characterization of the structure and function of the ABC1 gene and the analysis of additional ABC1 mutations in patients with Tangier disease. PMID:10535983

  7. The Assessment of Burden of COPD (ABC) Scale: A Reliable and Valid Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slok, Annerika H M; Bemelmans, Thomas C H; Kotz, Daniel; van der Molen, Thys; Kerstjens, Huib A M; In 't Veen, Johannes C C M; Chavannes, Niels H; Asijee, Guus M; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P M H; van Schayck, Onno C P

    2016-08-01

    The newly developed Assessment of Burden of COPD (ABC) scale is a 14-item self-administered questionnaire which measures the physical, psychological, emotional and/or social burden as experienced by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The ABC scale is part of the ABC tool that visualises the outcomes of the questionnaire. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and construct validity of the ABC scale. This multi-centre survey study was conducted in the practices of 19 general practitioners and 9 pulmonologists throughout the Netherlands. Next to the ABC scale, patients with COPD completed the Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Reliability analyses were performed with data from 162 cases. Cronbach's alpha was 0.91 for the total scale. Test-retest reliability, measured at a two week interval (n = 137), had an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.92. Analyses for convergent validity were performed with data from 133 cases. Discriminant and known-groups validity was analysed with data from 162 cases. The ABC scale total score had a strong correlation with the total score of the SGRQ (r = 0.72, p < 0.001) but a weak correlation with the forced expired volume in 1 second predicted (r = -0.28, p < 0.001). Subgroups with more severe disease, defined by GOLD-stage, frequency of exacerbations, activity level and depression scored statistically significantly (p < 0.05) worse on almost all domains of the ABC scale than the less severe subgroups. The ABC scale seems a valid and reliable tool with good discriminative properties.

  8. Complete inventory of ABC proteins in human pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Manisha; Choudhury, Devapriya; Prasad, Rajendra

    2005-01-01

    The recent completion of the sequencing project of the opportunistic human pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/), led us to analyze and classify its ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins, which constitute one of the largest superfamilies of proteins. Some of its members are multidrug transporters responsible for the commonly encountered problem of antifungal resistance. TBLASTN searches together with domain analysis identified 81 nucleotide-binding domains, which belong to 51 different putative open reading frames. Considering that each allelic pair represents a single ABC protein of the Candida genome, the total number of putative members of this superfamily is 28. Domain organization, sequence-based analysis and self-organizing map-based clustering led to the classification of Candida ABC proteins into 6 distinct subfamilies. Each subfamily from C. albicans has an equivalent in Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggesting a close evolutionary relationship between the two yeasts. Our searches also led to the identification of a new motif to each subfamily in Candida that could be used to identify sequences from the corresponding subfamily in other organisms. It is hoped that the inventory of Candida ABC transporters thus created will provide new insights into the role of ABC proteins in antifungal resistance as well as help in the functional characterization of the superfamily of these proteins. 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Optimal ABC inventory classification using interval programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Jafar; Salimi, Negin

    2015-08-01

    Inventory classification is one of the most important activities in inventory management, whereby inventories are classified into three or more classes. Several inventory classifications have been proposed in the literature, almost all of which have two main shortcomings in common. That is, the previous methods mainly rely on an expert opinion to derive the importance of the classification criteria which results in subjective classification, and they need precise item parameters before implementing the classification. While the problem has been predominantly considered as a multi-criteria, we examine the problem from a different perspective, proposing a novel optimisation model for ABC inventory classification in the form of an interval programming problem. The proposed interval programming model has two important features compared to the existing methods: it provides optimal results instead of an expert-based classification and it does not require precise values of item parameters, which are not almost always available before classification. Finally, by illustrating the proposed classification model in the form of numerical example, conclusion and suggestions for future works are presented.

  10. ABC transporters in megakaryopoiesis and platelet activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Buitrago, Lorena; Wang, Ying

    2017-08-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) is a family of transporters that facilitates the translocation of substrates across cell membrane using its ATPase subunit. These transporters have key roles in multidrug resistance, lipid homeostasis, antigen processing, immunity, cell proliferation and hematopoiesis. Some ABC transporters are selectively expressed on megakaryocyte progenitor, megakaryocyte and its cellular fragment platelet. However, the role of ABC transporters in hemostasis and thrombosis were not well explored until recently. Studies of both human genetic diseases and genetically-manipulated animal models have greatly improved our understanding of ABC transporters in regulating hematopoiesis particularly megakaryopoiesis and/or platelet activity. Human genome wide association studies (GWAS) have also unraveled the association between ABC transporters and thrombopoiesis in general population. Therefore, this review aims to summarize the recent advances in our understanding of how ABC transporters regulate megakaryopoiesis and platelet activity, the underlining mechanisms and their association with atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis. Last, the emerging therapeutic targets to slow down atherosclerosis development and prevent atherothrombosis via ABC transporters or downstream pathways will also be discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An ABC for decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Luiz Henrique Costa, E-mail: luiz_mogi@yahoo.com.br [Associacao de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira (AMIB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Bruna Cortez [Hospital de Base de Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    The present study was aimed at proposing a systematic evaluation of cranial computed tomography, identifying the main aspects to be analyzed in order to facilitate the decision making process regarding diagnosis and management in emergency settings. The present descriptive study comprised a literature review at the following databases: Access Medicine and Access Emergency Medicine (McGraw-Hill Education); British Medical Journal Evidence Center; UptoDate; Bireme; PubMed; Lilacs; SciELO; ProQuest; Micromedex (Thomson Reuters); Embase. Once the literature review was completed, the authors identified the main diseases with tomographic repercussions and proposed the present system to evaluate cranial computed tomography images. An easy-to-memorize ABC system will facilitate the decision making in emergency settings, as it covers the main diseases encountered by intensivists and emergency physicians, and provides a sequential guidance about anatomical structures to be investigated as well as their respective alterations. (author)

  12. An ABC for decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Luiz Henrique Costa; Ferreira, Bruna Cortez

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at proposing a systematic evaluation of cranial computed tomography, identifying the main aspects to be analyzed in order to facilitate the decision making process regarding diagnosis and management in emergency settings. The present descriptive study comprised a literature review at the following databases: Access Medicine and Access Emergency Medicine (McGraw-Hill Education); British Medical Journal Evidence Center; UptoDate; Bireme; PubMed; Lilacs; SciELO; ProQuest; Micromedex (Thomson Reuters); Embase. Once the literature review was completed, the authors identified the main diseases with tomographic repercussions and proposed the present system to evaluate cranial computed tomography images. An easy-to-memorize ABC system will facilitate the decision making in emergency settings, as it covers the main diseases encountered by intensivists and emergency physicians, and provides a sequential guidance about anatomical structures to be investigated as well as their respective alterations. (author)

  13. An ABC for decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Costa Garcia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at proposing a systematic evaluation of cranial computed tomography, identifying the main aspects to be analyzed in order to facilitate the decision making process regarding diagnosis and management in emergency settings. The present descriptive study comprised a literature review at the following databases: Access Medicine and Access Emergency Medicine (McGraw- Hill Education; British Medical Journal Evidence Center; UptoDate; Bireme; PubMed; Lilacs; SciELO; ProQuest; Micromedex (Thomson Reuters; Embase. Once the literature review was completed, the authors identified the main diseases with tomographic repercussions and proposed the present system to evaluate cranial computed tomography images. An easy-to-memorize ABC system will facilitate the decision making in emergency settings, as it covers the main diseases encountered by intensivists and emergency physicians, and provides a sequential guidance about anatomical structures to be investigated as well as their respective alterations.

  14. Isolation and Characterization of the Colletotrichum acutatum ABC Transporter CaABC1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyoung Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungi tolerate exposure to various abiotic stresses, including cytotoxic compounds and fungicides, via their ATP-driven efflux pumps belonging to ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters. To clarify the molecular basis of interaction between the fungus and various abiotic stresses including fungicides, we constructed a cDNA library from germinated conidia of Colletotrichum acutatum, a major anthracnose pathogen of pepper (Capsicum annum L.. Over 1,000 cDNA clones were sequenced, of which single clone exhibited significant nucleotide sequence homology to ABC transporter genes. We isolated three fosmid clones containing the C. acutatum ABC1 (CaABC1 gene in full-length from genomic DNA library screening. The CaABC1 gene consists of 4,059 bp transcript, predicting a 1,353-aa protein. The gene contains the typical ABC signature and Walker A and B motifs. The 5′-flanking region contains a CAAT motif, a TATA box, and a Kozak region. Phylogenetic and structural analysis suggested that the CaABC1 is a typical ABC transporter gene highly conserved in various fungal species, as well as in Chromista, Metazoans, and Viridiplantae. We also found that CaABC1 was up-regulated during conidiation and a minimal medium condition. Moreover, CaABC1 was induced in iprobenfos, kresoxim-methyl, thiophanate-methyl, and hygromycin B. These results demonstrate that CaABC1 is necessary for conidiation, abiotic stress, and various fungicide resistances. These results will provide the basis for further study on the function of ABC transporter genes in C. acutatum.

  15. ABCs of Oral Health: Nutrition - Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... higher risk for heart attacks More ABCs of Oral Health A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | ... Children Home | InfoBites | Find a Dentist | Your Family's Oral Health | RSS About AGD | Contact AGD | Site Map | Reprints ...

  16. Yeast ABC proteins involved in multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecuch, Agata; Obłąk, Ewa

    2014-03-01

    Pleiotropic drug resistance is a complex phenomenon that involves many proteins that together create a network. One of the common mechanisms of multidrug resistance in eukaryotic cells is the active efflux of a broad range of xenobiotics through ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is often used as a model to study such activity because of the functional and structural similarities of its ABC transporters to mammalian ones. Numerous ABC transporters are found in humans and some are associated with the resistance of tumors to chemotherapeutics. Efflux pump modulators that change the activity of ABC proteins are the most promising candidate drugs to overcome such resistance. These modulators can be chemically synthesized or isolated from natural sources (e.g., plant alkaloids) and might also be used in the treatment of fungal infections. There are several generations of synthetic modulators that differ in specificity, toxicity and effectiveness, and are often used for other clinical effects.

  17. RxClass

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The RxClass Browser is a web application for exploring and navigating through the class hierarchies to find the RxNorm drug members associated with each class....

  18. ABC Inventory classification application: Özdemirler

    OpenAIRE

    Duru, Mehmet

    1989-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Management and the Institute of Management Sciences of Bilkent Univ. , 1989. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1989. Includes bibliographical references leaves 37. ABC inventory classification can result in more effective control of business. In this work, ABC method is applied to Ozdemirler to examine the inventory profile of the store, and to be able to aid the management in allocating control effort among items more effectively. Dur...

  19. Scavenger receptor class A member 5 (SCARA5) and suprabasin (SBSN) are hub genes of coexpression network modules associated with peripheral vein graft patency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenagy, Richard D; Civelek, Mete; Kikuchi, Shinsuke; Chen, Lihua; Grieff, Anthony; Sobel, Michael; Lusis, Aldons J; Clowes, Alexander W

    2016-07-01

    stenosis (P = .005 and P = .02, respectively). In response to PDGF, yellow was also associated with increased cell growth. For serum, skyblue was also associated with inhibition of collagen gel contraction. The hub genes for yellow and skyblue (ie, the gene most connected to other genes in the module), scavenger receptor class A member 5 (SCARA5) and suprabasin (SBSN), respectively, were tested for effects on proliferation and collagen contraction. Knockdown of SCARA5 increased proliferation by 29.9% ± 7.8% (P < .01), whereas knockdown of SBSN had no effect. Knockdown of SBSN increased collagen gel contraction by 24.2% ± 8.6% (P < .05), whereas knockdown of SCARA5 had no effect. Using weighted gene coexpression network analysis of cultured vein graft cell gene expression, we have discovered two small gene modules, which comprise 42 genes, that are associated with vein graft failure. Further experiments are needed to delineate the venous cells that express these genes in vivo and the roles these genes play in vein graft healing, starting with the module hub genes SCARA5 and SBSN, which have been shown to have modest effects on cell proliferation or collagen gel contraction. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Critical View on ABC Transporters and Their Interacting Partners in Auxin Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Markus; Aryal, Bibek; di Donato, Martin; Hao, Pengchao

    2017-10-01

    Different subclasses of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have been implicated in the transport of native variants of the phytohormone auxin. Here, the putative, individual roles of key members belonging to the ABCB, ABCD and ABCG families, respectively, are highlighted and the knowledge of their assumed expression and transport routes is reviewed and compared with their mutant phenotypes. Protein-protein interactions between ABC transporters and regulatory components during auxin transport are summarized and their importance is critically discussed. There is a focus on the functional interaction between members of the ABCB family and the FKBP42, TWISTED DWARF1, acting as a chaperone during plasma membrane trafficking of ABCBs. Further, the mode and relevance of functional ABCB-PIN interactions is diagnostically re-evaluated. A new nomenclature describing precisely the most likely ABCB-PIN interaction scenarios is suggested. Finally, available tools for the detection and prediction of ABC transporter interactomes are summarized and the potential of future ABC transporter interactome maps is highlighted. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The Role of Faculty Members' Cross-Cultural Competencies in Their Perceived Teaching Quality: Evidence from Culturally-Diverse Classes in Four European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beuckelaer, Alain; Lievens, Filip; Bucker, Joost

    2012-01-01

    In the field of higher education, it has often been claimed that in culturally-diverse classes high levels of cross-cultural competence will result in better teaching performance among faculty. Unfortunately, to date this relationship has not been tested empirically. In this study, we examine the nature of this relationship using course-related…

  2. Yeast ABC transporters in lipid trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Khandelwal, Nitesh Kumar; Banerjee, Atanu

    2016-08-01

    Throughout its evolution, the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily has experienced a rapid expansion in its substrate repertoire and functions. Of the diverse functions that these pumps offer, their drug transport properties have attracted considerable attention primarily owing to their clinical significance. Despite this fact, emerging evidence suggests that physiological substrates of transporters also affect the overall functioning of an organism. Lipids, as substrates of ABC transporters, constitute one feature found in all representative groups of the living kingdom. Due to the importance of lipid species in the cellular physiology of an organism, their proper distribution within cells is crucial. This fact is well exemplified by the vast number of medical conditions that have been caused as a result of perturbations in ABC transporter-mediated lipid transport in higher organisms. In yeasts, apart from providing transport functions, ABC transporters also coordinate regulatory networks with lipids. This review focuses on yeast ABC transporters involved in the transport of lipids and briefly discusses the integration of their regulatory network with that of the lipid species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Osabc1k8, an abc1-like kinase gene, mediates abscisic acid sensitivity and dehydration tolerance response in rice seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Li, T.; Yang, C.

    2015-01-01

    The activity of bc1 complex kinase (ABC1K) protein family, which widely exists in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, consists of 15 members in rice, and the role of this family in plants has not yet been studied in details. In this study, a novel function of OsABC1K8 (LOC-Os06g48770), a member of rice ABC1K family, was characterized. The transcript level of OsABC1K8 changes in response to salt, dehydration, cold, PEG, oxidative (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/) stresses, or abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Overexpression of OsABC1K8 significantly increased sensitivity to dehydration and reduced sensitivity to ABA. In the contrast, RNAi transgenic lines displayed significantly reduced sensitivity to dehydration stress and increased sensitivity to ABA. Furthermore, the transcriptional levels of several ABA/stress-regulated responsive genes were suppressed in OsABC1K8 over-expressing plants under dehydration stress. In conclusion, our results suggested that OsABC1K8 is a negative regulator in response to dehydration stress through an ABA-dependent pathway. (author)

  4. abc: An extensible AspectJ compiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avgustinov, Pavel; Christensen, Aske Simon; Hendren, Laurie

    2005-01-01

    Research in the design of aspect-oriented programming languages requires a workbench that facilitates easy experimentation with new language features and implementation techniques. In particular, new features for AspectJ have been proposed that require extensions in many dimensions: syntax, type...... checking and code generation, as well as data flow and control flow analyses. The AspectBench Compiler (abc) is an implementation of such a workbench. The base version of abc implements the full AspectJ language. Its frontend is built, using the Polyglot framework, as a modular extension of the Java...... language. The use of Polyglot gives flexibility of syntax and type checking. The backend is built using the Soot framework, to give modular code generation and analyses. In this paper, we outline the design of abc, focusing mostly on how the design supports extensibility. We then provide a general overview...

  5. Structural analysis of DNA binding by C.Csp231I, a member of a novel class of R-M controller proteins regulating gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevtsov, M. B.; Streeter, S. D.; Thresh, S.-J.; Swiderska, A.; McGeehan, J. E.; Kneale, G. G., E-mail: geoff.kneale@port.ac.uk [University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 2DY (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-01

    The structure of the new class of controller proteins (exemplified by C.Csp231I) in complex with its 21 bp DNA-recognition sequence is presented, and the molecular basis of sequence recognition in this class of proteins is discussed. An unusual extended spacer between the dimer binding sites suggests a novel interaction between the two C-protein dimers. In a wide variety of bacterial restriction–modification systems, a regulatory ‘controller’ protein (or C-protein) is required for effective transcription of its own gene and for transcription of the endonuclease gene found on the same operon. We have recently turned our attention to a new class of controller proteins (exemplified by C.Csp231I) that have quite novel features, including a much larger DNA-binding site with an 18 bp (∼60 Å) spacer between the two palindromic DNA-binding sequences and a very different recognition sequence from the canonical GACT/AGTC. Using X-ray crystallography, the structure of the protein in complex with its 21 bp DNA-recognition sequence was solved to 1.8 Å resolution, and the molecular basis of sequence recognition in this class of proteins was elucidated. An unusual aspect of the promoter sequence is the extended spacer between the dimer binding sites, suggesting a novel interaction between the two C-protein dimers when bound to both recognition sites correctly spaced on the DNA. A U-bend model is proposed for this tetrameric complex, based on the results of gel-mobility assays, hydrodynamic analysis and the observation of key contacts at the interface between dimers in the crystal.

  6. Union Members Are Community Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David

    2013-01-01

    Unions serve their members' interests. But union members are also community members, and their interests go well beyond increasing pay and benefits. A local union president has found that his members are best served by participating in a community-wide coalition. Providing eyeglasses to needy students, promoting healthy eating, and increasing…

  7. ABC model and the management of costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravdić Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When a company has multiple objectives at the same time, they all must be considered and balanced when making any business decisions. Linking the markets, capital and resources so as to thus ensure the highest yield is, In fact, the search for competitive advantage as a basic condition for survival in a market economy. In highly detailed systems based on the management of costs or ABC (activity based costing systems, the cost of activities often result in erroneous evaluation of aggregate costs of the action. Improvements in information technology and monitoring decrease of technology costs enabled the ABC system to become a feasible system calculating costs in many organizations.

  8. Assessment of the ABC/2 Method of Epidural Hematoma Volume Measurement as Compared to Computer-Assisted Planimetric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ting-Ting; Yan, Ling; Yan, Peng-Fei; Wang, Xuan; Yue, Ge-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Epidural hematoma volume (EDHV) is an independent predictor of prognosis in patients with epidural hematoma (EDH) and plays a central role in treatment decision making. This study's objective was to determine the accuracy and reliability of the widely used volume measurement method ABC/2 in estimating EDHV by comparing it to the computer-assisted planimetric method. A data set of computerized tomography (CT) scans of 35 patients with EDH was evaluated to determine the accuracy of ABC/2 method, using computer-assisted planimetric technique to establish the reference criterion of EDHV for each patient. Another data set was constructed by randomly selecting 5 patients then replicating each case twice to yield 15 patients. Intra- and interobserver reliability were evaluated by asking four observers to independently estimate EDHV for the latter data set using the ABC/2 method. Estimation of EDHV using the ABC/2 method showed high intra- and interobserver reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient = .99). These estimates were closely correlated with planimetric measures (r = .99). But the ABC/2 method generally overestimated EDHV, especially in the nonellipsoid-like group. The difference between the ABC/2 measures and planimetric measures was statistically significant (p ABC/2 method could be used for EDHV measurement, which would contribute to treatment decision making as well as clinical outcome prediction. However, clinicians should be aware that the ABC/2 method results in a general volume overestimation. Future studies focusing on justification of the technique to improve its accuracy would be of practical value. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. ABC transporters : Lessons from a bacterial oligopeptide uptake system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeven, Mark Koop

    2006-01-01

    ABC transporters are proteins that are involved in the uptake of nutrients and excretion of harmful substances in biological cells. Defects in human ABC transporters can result in severe diseases. Too high ABC transporter activity can lead to non-responsiveness of cancercells to chemotherapy, and

  10. Single-Cell Genome and Group-Specific dsrAB Sequencing Implicate Marine Members of the Class Dehalococcoidia (Phylum Chloroflexi) in Sulfur Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasmund, Kenneth; Cooper, Myriel; Schreiber, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The marine subsurface sediment biosphere is widely inhabited by bacteria affiliated with the class Dehalococcoidia (DEH), phylum Chloroflexi, and yet little is known regarding their metabolisms. In this report, genomic content from a single DEH cell (DEH-C11) with a 16S rRNA gene that was affilia......The marine subsurface sediment biosphere is widely inhabited by bacteria affiliated with the class Dehalococcoidia (DEH), phylum Chloroflexi, and yet little is known regarding their metabolisms. In this report, genomic content from a single DEH cell (DEH-C11) with a 16S rRNA gene...... that was affiliated with a diverse cluster of 16S rRNA gene sequences prevalent in marine sediments was obtained from sediments of Aarhus Bay, Denmark. The distinctive gene content of this cell suggests metabolic characteristics that differ from those of known DEH and Chloroflexi. The presence of genes encoding...... dissimilatory sulfite reductase (Dsr) suggests that DEH could respire oxidized sulfur compounds, although Chloroflexi have never been implicated in this mode of sulfur cycling. Using long-range PCR assays targeting DEH dsr loci, dsrAB genes were amplified and sequenced from various marine sediments. Many...

  11. The ABC-paradox: is Time Driven ABC relevant for small and Medium sized enterprises (SME)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fladkjær, Henrik Find; Jensen, Erling

    -books and in curriculum at most business schools. But ABC is not used very much by the compa-nies. Especially in small and medium enterprises ABC is rarely implemented. This is primarily due to two things: First, the ABC model is too difficult to implement. Second, the data foundation for the model is not available...... in the required quality in the ERP systems used by the businesses. In this article we will explore ways of overcoming these two related problems. We will explore these issues particularly in relation to small and medium enterprises. Through a theoretical analysis and practical implementation in a medium sized...... manufacturing company we will analyse whether it is possible to create a satisfactory decision making foundation using a TDABC as a less complex cost model in the company. We have analysed our way to the conclusion that compared to ABC, the TDABC model provides the management with a number of pragmatic...

  12. The role of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in pathogenesis and multidrug resistance of the wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stergiopoulos, I.

    2003-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are membrane proteins that utilise the energy derived from the hydrolysis of ATP to drive the transport of compounds over biological membranes. They are members of one of the largest protein families to date, present in both pro- and eukaryotic

  13. Step 2: Know Your Diabetes ABCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Type 2 Diabetes Step 2: Know Your Diabetes ABCs Past Issues / Fall 2014 Table of Contents ... cholesterol helps remove cholesterol from your blood vessels. Diabetes HealthSense Find tools and programs that can help ...

  14. ABC – Advocates for Breast Cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer 2008;113(S8):221-224. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.23844]. ARTICLE. ABC – Advocates for Breast Cancer. A Steyn,1 Dip DA (Lond), LRAM (Speech and Drama) (Lond); J du Plessis;2 S Meyer,3 MSocSc (SW). 1 Immediate Past President, Reach to Recovery International, Queensland, Australia. 2 Chief Executive ...

  15. Importance of ABC Transporters in Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benadiba, Marcel; Maor, Yehoshua

    2016-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a huge family of ATP-dependent transmembrane proteins whose main function is exporting or importing substances or molecules through the cell membranes, plasma cell membrane, or inner membranes in organelles. They fulfill these functions by maintaining cell integrity, metabolism, and homeostasis. They are expressed in a variety of tissues as they transport numerous essential compounds including lipids and other signaling molecules. ABC transporters became widely studied since the discovery of their ability to carry a multitude of xenobiotics, including therapeutic drugs, and in light of the fact that they represent a hurdle for the treatment of resistant cancers. In contrast, the role of ABC transporters in neurological diseases like Alzheimer`s and Parkinson`s, depression, schizophrenia, and epilepsy remains controversial and their mechanism of action in these pathologies remains elusive, thus hindering the implementation of therapies aimed at modulating the functions of these transporters. To date, a number of natural and synthetic compounds are known to act as inhibitors, substrates, and even inducers of these transporters, being able to modulate their expression and/or function; however, their implication as therapeutic agents is far from reaching wide clinical utilization. This review highlights the importance of overcoming the challenges posed by ABC transporters in drug development.

  16. ABC transporters in fish species: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eFerreira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ATP-binding cassette (ABC proteins were first recognized for their role in multidrug resistance (MDR in chemotherapeutic treatments, which is a major impediment for the successful treatment of many forms of malignant tumors in humans. These proteins, highly conserved throughout vertebrate species, were later related to cellular detoxification and accounted as responsible for protecting aquatic organisms from xenobiotic insults in the so-called multixenobiotic resistance mechanism (MXR. In recent years, research on these proteins in aquatic species has highlighted their importance in the detoxification mechanisms in fish thus it is of extreme added value to continue these studies. Several transporters have been pointed out as relevant in the ecotoxicological context associated to the transport of xenobiotics, such as P-glycoproteins (Pgps, multidrug-resistance-associated proteins (MRPs 1-5 and breast resistance associated protein (BCRP. In mammals, several nuclear receptors have been identified as mediators of phase I and II metabolizing enzymes and ABC transporters. In aquatic species, knowledge on co-regulation of detoxification mechanism is scarce and needs to be addressed. The interaction of emergent contaminants, with chemosensitizer potential, with ABC transporters in aquatic organisms can compromise detoxification processes and have population effects and should be studied in more detail. This review intends to summarize the recent advances in research on MXR mechanisms in fish species, focusing in 1 regulation and functioning of ABC proteins; 2 cooperation with phase I and II biotransformation enzymes; and 3 ecotoxicological relevance and information on emergent pollutants with ability to modulate ABC transporters expression and activity. Several lines of evidence are clear suggesting the important role of these transporters in detoxification mechanisms and must be further investigated in fish.

  17. MadR1, a Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell cycle stress response protein that is a member of a widely conserved protein class of prokaryotic, eukaryotic and archeal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, Rebecca; Ramirez, Melissa V; England, Kathleen; Slayden, Richard A

    2015-05-01

    Stress-induced molecular programs designed to stall division progression are nearly ubiquitous in bacteria, with one well-known example being the participation of the SulA septum inhibiting protein in the SOS DNA damage repair response. Mycobacteria similarly demonstrate stress-altered growth kinetics, however no such regulators have been found in these organisms. We therefore set out to identify SulA-like regulatory proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A bioinformatics modeling-based approach led to the identification of rv2216 as encoding for a protein with weak similarity to SulA, further analysis distinguished this protein as belonging to a group of uncharacterized growth promoting proteins. We have named the mycobacterial protein encoded by rv2216 morphology altering division regulator protein 1, MadR1. Overexpression of madR1 modulated cell length while maintaining growth kinetics similar to wild-type, and increased the proportion of bent or V-form cells in the population. The presence of MadR1-GFP at regions of cellular elongation (poles) and morphological differentiation (V-form) suggests MadR1 involvement in phenotypic heterogeneity and longitudinal cellular growth. Global transcriptional analysis indicated that MadR1 functionality is linked to lipid editing programs required for growth and persistence. This is the first report to differentiate the larger class of these conserved proteins from SulA proteins and characterizes MadR1 effects on the mycobacterial cell. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Loss of plastoglobule kinases ABC1K1 and ABC1K3 causes conditional degreening, modified prenyl-lipids, and recruitment of the jasmonic acid pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastoglobules (PGs) are plastid lipid-protein particles. This study examines the function of PG-localized kinases ABC1K1 and ABC1K3 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Several lines of evidence suggested that ABC1K1 and ABC1K3 form a protein complex. Null mutants for both genes (abc1k1 and abc1k3) and the dou...

  19. SsaA, a Member of a Novel Class of Transcriptional Regulators, Controls Sansanmycin Production in Streptomyces sp. Strain SS through a Feedback Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinglian; Wang, Lifei; Xie, Yunying; Wang, Songmei; Chen, Ruxian

    2013-01-01

    Sansanmycins, produced by Streptomyces sp. strain SS, are uridyl peptide antibiotics with activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this work, the biosynthetic gene cluster of sansanmycins, comprised of 25 open reading frames (ORFs) showing considerable amino acid sequence identity to those of the pacidamycin and napsamycin gene cluster, was identified. SsaA, the archetype of a novel class of transcriptional regulators, was characterized in the sansanmycin gene cluster, with an N-terminal fork head-associated (FHA) domain and a C-terminal LuxR-type helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif. The disruption of ssaA abolished sansanmycin production, as well as the expression of the structural genes for sansanmycin biosynthesis, indicating that SsaA is a pivotal activator for sansanmycin biosynthesis. SsaA was proved to directly bind several putative promoter regions of biosynthetic genes, and comparison of sequences of the binding sites allowed the identification of a consensus SsaA binding sequence, GTMCTGACAN2TGTCAGKAC. The DNA binding activity of SsaA was inhibited by sansanmycins A and H in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, sansanmycins A and H were found to directly interact with SsaA. These results indicated that SsaA strictly controls the production of sansanmycins at the transcriptional level in a feedback regulatory mechanism by sensing the accumulation of the end products. As the first characterized regulator of uridyl peptide antibiotic biosynthesis, the understanding of this autoregulatory process involved in sansanmycin biosynthesis will likely provide an effective strategy for rational improvements in the yields of these uridyl peptide antibiotics. PMID:23475969

  20. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of recent literature and research on word classes, focusing in particular on typological approaches to word classification. The cross-linguistic classification of word class systems (or parts-of-speech systems) presented in this article is based on statements found...... in grammatical descriptions of some 50 languages, which together constitute a representative sample of the world’s languages (Hengeveld et al. 2004: 529). It appears that there are both quantitative and qualitative differences between word class systems of individual languages. Whereas some languages employ...... a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective...

  1. Describing the role of Drosophila melanogaster ABC transporters in insecticide biology using CRISPR-Cas9 knockouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denecke, Shane; Fusetto, Roberto; Batterham, Philip

    2017-12-01

    ABC transporters have a well-established role in drug resistance, effluxing xenobiotics from cells and tissues within the organism. More recently, research has been dedicated to understanding the role insect ABC transporters play in insecticide toxicity, but progress in understanding the contribution of specific transporters has been hampered by the lack of functional genetic tools. Here, we report knockouts of three Drosophila melanogaster ABC transporter genes, Mdr49, Mdr50, and Mdr65, that are homologous to the well-studied mammalian ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein). Each knockout mutant was created in the same wild type background and tested against a panel of insecticides representing different chemical classes. Mdr65 knockouts were more susceptible to all neuroactive insecticides tested, but Mdr49 and Mdr50 knockouts showed increased susceptibility or resistance depending on the insecticide used. Mdr65 was chosen for further analysis. Calculation of LC 50 values for the Mdr65 knockout allowed the substrate specificity of this transporter to be examined. No obvious distinguishing structural features were shared among MDR65 substrates. A role for Mdr65 in insecticide transport was confirmed by testing the capacity of the knockout to synergize with the ABC inhibitor verapamil and by measuring the levels of insecticide retained in the body of knockout flies. These data unambiguously establish the influence of ABC transporters on the capacity of wild type D. melanogaster to tolerate insecticide exposure and suggest that both tissue and substrate specificity underpin this capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mistranslation induced by streptomycin provokes a RecABC/RuvABC-dependent mutator phenotype in Escherichia coli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, Sergey; Humayun, M Zafri

    2002-01-25

    Translational stress-induced mutagenesis (TSM) refers to the mutator phenotype observed in Escherichia coli cells expressing a mutant allele (mutA or mutC) of the glycine tRNA gene glyV (or glyW). Because of an anticodon mutation, expression of the mutA allele results in low levels of Asp-->Gly mistranslation. The mutA phenotype does not require lexA-regulated SOS mutagenesis functions, and appears to be suppressed in cells defective for RecABC-dependent homologous recombination functions. To test the hypothesis that the TSM response is mediated by non-specific mistranslation rather than specific Asp-->Gly misreading, we asked if streptomycin (Str), an aminoglycoside antibiotic known to promote mistranslation, can provoke a mutator phenotype. We report that Str induces a strong mutator phenotype in cells bearing certain alleles of rpsL, the gene encoding S12, an essential component of the ribosomal 30 S subunit. The phenotype is strikingly similar to that observed in mutA cells in its mutational specificity, as well as in its requirement for RecABC-mediated homologous recombination functions. Expression of Str-inducible mutator phenotype correlates with mistranslation efficiency in response to Str. Thus, mistranslation in general is able to induce the TSM response. The Str-inducible mutator phenotype described here defines a new functional class of rpsL alleles, and raises interesting questions on the mechanism of action of Str, and on bacterial response to antibiotic stress. Copyright 2002 Academic Press.

  3. Plant ABC proteins--a unified nomenclature and updated inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, Paul J; Bird, David; Burla, Bo; Dassa, Elie; Forestier, Cyrille; Geisler, Markus; Klein, Markus; Kolukisaoglu, Uner; Lee, Youngsook; Martinoia, Enrico; Murphy, Angus; Rea, Philip A; Samuels, Lacey; Schulz, Burkhard; Spalding, Edgar J; Yazaki, Kazufumi; Theodoulou, Frederica L

    2008-04-01

    The ABC superfamily comprises both membrane-bound transporters and soluble proteins involved in a broad range of processes, many of which are of considerable agricultural, biotechnological and medical potential. Completion of the Arabidopsis and rice genome sequences has revealed a particularly large and diverse complement of plant ABC proteins in comparison with other organisms. Forward and reverse genetics, together with heterologous expression, have uncovered many novel roles for plant ABC proteins, but this progress has been accompanied by a confusing proliferation of names for plant ABC genes and their products. A consolidated nomenclature will provide much-needed clarity and a framework for future research.

  4. IMG-ABC: A Knowledge Base To Fuel Discovery of Biosynthetic Gene Clusters and Novel Secondary Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjithomas, Michalis; Chen, I-Min Amy; Chu, Ken; Ratner, Anna; Palaniappan, Krishna; Szeto, Ernest; Huang, Jinghua; Reddy, T B K; Cimermančič, Peter; Fischbach, Michael A; Ivanova, Natalia N; Markowitz, Victor M; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Pati, Amrita

    2015-07-14

    In the discovery of secondary metabolites, analysis of sequence data is a promising exploration path that remains largely underutilized due to the lack of computational platforms that enable such a systematic approach on a large scale. In this work, we present IMG-ABC (https://img.jgi.doe.gov/abc), an atlas of biosynthetic gene clusters within the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system, which is aimed at harnessing the power of "big" genomic data for discovering small molecules. IMG-ABC relies on IMG's comprehensive integrated structural and functional genomic data for the analysis of biosynthetic gene clusters (BCs) and associated secondary metabolites (SMs). SMs and BCs serve as the two main classes of objects in IMG-ABC, each with a rich collection of attributes. A unique feature of IMG-ABC is the incorporation of both experimentally validated and computationally predicted BCs in genomes as well as metagenomes, thus identifying BCs in uncultured populations and rare taxa. We demonstrate the strength of IMG-ABC's focused integrated analysis tools in enabling the exploration of microbial secondary metabolism on a global scale, through the discovery of phenazine-producing clusters for the first time in Alphaproteobacteria. IMG-ABC strives to fill the long-existent void of resources for computational exploration of the secondary metabolism universe; its underlying scalable framework enables traversal of uncovered phylogenetic and chemical structure space, serving as a doorway to a new era in the discovery of novel molecules. IMG-ABC is the largest publicly available database of predicted and experimental biosynthetic gene clusters and the secondary metabolites they produce. The system also includes powerful search and analysis tools that are integrated with IMG's extensive genomic/metagenomic data and analysis tool kits. As new research on biosynthetic gene clusters and secondary metabolites is published and more genomes are sequenced, IMG-ABC will continue to

  5. The role of the atypical kinases ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 in abscisic acid responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eManara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ABC1K family of atypical kinases (activity of bc1 complex kinase is represented in bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. In plants they regulate diverse physiological processes in the chloroplasts and mitochondria, but their precise functions are poorly defined. ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 are probably involved in oxidative stress responses, isoprenyl lipid synthesis and distribution of iron within chloroplasts. Because reactive oxygen species take part in abscisic acid (ABA-mediated processes, we investigated the functions of ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 during germination, stomatal movement and leaf senescence. Both genes were upregulated by ABA treatment and some ABA-responsive physiological processes were affected in abc1k7 and abc1k8 mutants. Germination was more severely affected by ABA, osmotic stress and salt stress in the single and double mutants; the stomatal aperture was smaller in the mutants under standard growth conditions and was not further reduced by exogenous ABA application; ABA-induced senescence symptoms were more severe in the leaves of the single and double mutants compared to wild type leaves. Taken together, our results suggest that ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 might be involved in the cross-talk between ABA and ROS signaling.

  6. Nonlinear resonances in the ABC-flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didov, A. A.; Uleysky, M. Yu.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we study resonances of the ABC-flow in the near integrable case ( C ≪1 ). This is an interesting example of a Hamiltonian system with 3/2 degrees of freedom in which simultaneous existence of two resonances of the same order is possible. Analytical conditions of the resonance existence are received. It is shown numerically that the largest n :1 (n = 1, 2, 3) resonances exist, and their energies are equal to theoretical energies in the near integrable case. We provide analytical and numerical evidences for existence of two branches of the two largest n :1 (n = 1, 2) resonances in the region of finite motion.

  7. ABC's "Person of the Week": American Values in Television News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Stephanie Greco; Bailey, Martha

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on values and ideologies in the media by analyzing five years of ABC's "Person of the Week" segments to identify prominent types of people and values endorsed by mainstream news media. Finds that individuals most frequently selected for ABC's honor lived in the United States; worked in politics and…

  8. Measuring Academic Behavioural Confidence: The ABC Scale Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Paul; Sanders, Lalage

    2009-01-01

    The Academic Behavioural Confidence (ABC) scale has been shown to be valid and can be useful to teachers in understanding their students, enabling the design of more effective teaching sessions with large cohorts. However, some of the between-group differences have been smaller than expected, leading to the hypothesis that the ABC scale many not…

  9. Dashboard Auditing of Activity-Based Costing (ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorinel Capusneanu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to define the dashboard auditing according to the specifics of Activity-Based Costing method (ABC. It describes the main objectives of dashboard auditing, the criteria that a dashboard auditor should meet and the step-by-step stages of the entire dashboard auditing process according to the Activity-Based Costing method (ABC.

  10. Dashboard Auditing of Activity-Based Costing (ABC)

    OpenAIRE

    Sorinel Capusneanu

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to define the dashboard auditing according to the specifics of Activity-Based Costing method (ABC). It describes the main objectives of dashboard auditing, the criteria that a dashboard auditor should meet and the step-by-step stages of the entire dashboard auditing process according to the Activity-Based Costing method (ABC).

  11. Dashboard auditing of ABC (Activity-Based Costing). Theoretical approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Căpuşneanu, Sorinel/I

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to define the dashboard auditing according to the specifics of Activity-Based Costing method (ABC). It describes the main objectives of dashboard auditing, the criteria that a dashboard auditor should meet and the step-by-step stages of the entire dashboard auditing process of an enterprise from steel industry according to the Activity-Based Costing method (ABC).

  12. MicroRNA-299-3p promotes the sensibility of lung cancer to doxorubicin through directly targeting ABCE1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dawei; Dai, Yan; Wang, Song; Xing, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous, small non-coding RNAs which play important roles in various biological and cellular processes, including chemoresistance. The expression level of miR-299-3p was dysregulated in doxorubicin-resistance lung cancer cell lines. However, the exact role of miR-299-3p in doxorubicin-resistance is still unknown. In the present study, miR-299-3p was down-expressed in doxorubicin-resistant or -sensitive lung cancer samples and it was identified to directly targeted adenosine triphosphate binding cassette E1 (ABCE1) 3'-untranslated region (UTR) in lung cancer H69 cells by luciferase assay. After transfection of miR-299-3p mimics or ABCE1-siRNA, MTT assay confirmed that the H69/ADR cell proliferation was inhibited, as well as the enhanced cell inhibitory rate in the presence of doxorubicin. H69/ADR cell apoptosis rate was promoted after miR-299-3p or ABCE1-siRNA transfection. The results indicated that miR-299-3p promotes the sensibility of lung cancer to doxorubicin through suppression of ABCE1, at least partly. Therefore, the disordered decreased of miR-299-3p and resulting ABCE1 up-expression may contribute to chemoresistance of lung cancer, and miR-299-3p-ABCE1 may represent a new potential therapeutic target for the treatment of chemoresistance of lung cancer.

  13. Sustained Delivery of Chondroitinase ABC from Hydrogel System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Rossi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the injured spinal cord, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs are the principal responsible of axon growth inhibition and they contribute to regenerative failure, promoting glial scar formation. Chondroitinase ABC (chABC is known for being able to digest proteoglycans, thus degrading glial scar and favoring axonal regrowth. However, its classic administration is invasive, infection-prone and clinically problematic. An agarose-carbomer (AC1 hydrogel, already used in SCI repair strategies, was here investigated as a delivery system capable of an effective chABC administration: the material ability to include chABC within its pores and the possibility to be injected into the target tissue were firstly proved. Subsequently, release kinetic and the maintenance of enzymatic activity were positively assessed: AC1 hydrogel was thus confirmed to be a feasible tool for chABC delivery and a promising device for spinal cord injury topic repair strategies.

  14. PPAR Medicines and Human Disease: The ABCs of It All

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Apostoli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ATP-dependent binding cassette (ABC transporters are a family of transmembrane proteins that pump a variety of hydrophobic compounds across cellular and subcellular barriers and are implicated in human diseases such as cancer and atherosclerosis. Inhibition of ABC transporter activity showed promise in early preclinical studies; however, the outcomes in clinical trials with these agents have not been as encouraging. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate genes involved in fat and glucose metabolism, and inflammation. Activation of PPAR signaling is also reported to regulate ABC gene expression. This suggests the potential of PPAR medicines as a novel means of controlling ABC transporter activity at the transcriptional level. This paper summarizes the advances made in understanding how PPAR medicines affect ABC transporters, and the potential implications for impacting on human diseases, in particular with respect to cancer and atherosclerosis.

  15. Fuzzy Continuous Review Inventory Model using ABC Multi-Criteria Classification Approach: A Single Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriastuti - Ginting

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Inventory is considered as the most expensive, yet important,to any companies. It representsapproximately 50% of the total investment. Inventory cost has become one of the majorcontributorsto inefficiency, therefore it should be managed effectively. This study aims to propose an alternative inventory model, by using ABC multi-criteria classification approach to minimize total cost. By combining FANP (Fuzzy Analytical Network Process and TOPSIS (Technique of Order Preferences by Similarity to the Ideal Solution, the ABC multi-criteria classification approach identified 12 items of 69 inventory items as “outstanding important class” that contributed to 80% total inventory cost. This finding is then used as the basis to determine the proposed continuous review inventory model.This study found that by using fuzzy trapezoidal cost, the inventory turnover ratio can be increased, and inventory cost can be decreased by 78% for each item in “class A” inventory. Keywords:ABC multi-criteria classification, FANP-TOPSIS, continuous review inventory model lead-time demand distribution, trapezoidal fuzzy number

  16. Fuzzy Continuous Review Inventory Model using ABC Multi-Criteria Classification Approach: A Single Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriastuti - Ginting

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Inventory is considered as the most expensive, yet important,to any companies. It representsapproximately 50% of the total investment. Inventory cost has become one of the majorcontributorsto inefficiency, therefore it should be managed effectively. This study aims to propose an alternative inventory model,  by using ABC multi-criteria classification approach to minimize total cost. By combining FANP (Fuzzy Analytical Network Process and TOPSIS (Technique of Order Preferences by Similarity to the Ideal Solution, the ABC multi-criteria classification approach identified 12 items of 69 inventory items as “outstanding important class” that contributed to 80% total inventory cost. This finding  is then used as the basis to determine the proposed continuous review inventory model.This study found that by using fuzzy trapezoidal cost, the inventory  turnover ratio can be increased, and inventory cost can be decreased by 78% for each item in “class A” inventory.Keywords:ABC multi-criteria classification, FANP-TOPSIS, continuous review inventory model lead-time demand distribution, trapezoidal fuzzy number 

  17. The ABC of ABC : An analysis of attribute-based credentials in the light of data protection, privacy and identity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korenhof, P.E.I.; Koning, Merel; Alpár, Gergely; Hoepman, J.H.; Padullés, Joan Balcells; i Martínez, Agustí Cerrillo; Poch, Miquel Peguera; López, Ismael Peña; de Moner, María José Pifarré; Solana, Mònica Vilasau

    2014-01-01

    Our networked society increasingly needs secure identity sys- tems. The Attribute-based credential (ABC) technology is designed to be privacy-friendlier than contemporary authentication methods, which often suffer from information leakage. So far, however, some of the wider implications of ABC have

  18. Immunoelectron Microscopic Localization of MHC Class 1 and 2 Antigens on Bile Duct Epithelial Cells in Patients with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Yamada, Gotaro; Mizuno, Motowo; Tsuji, Takao

    1994-01-01

    We studied the distribution of class 1 and class 2 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens on bile duct epithelial cells in liver from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) by an immunohistochemical method using monoclonal antibodies to HLA-ABC products and HLA-D subregion products (HLA-DR, -DP, -DQ). By light microscopy, the expression of MHC class 1 antigens (HLA-ABC antigens) was enhanced in PBC compared with controls. While negligible staining of MHC class 2 antigens was d...

  19. Purification and biochemical characterisation of the yeast ABC transporter Pdr11p

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laub, Katrine Rude

    Sterols constitute an essential lipid class in eukaryotic membranes where intracellular distributions are highly regulated. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae sterol uptake has been attributed to the two plasma membrane-localised ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, Aus1p and Pdr11p...... understanding of their action and molecular functioning, it is helpful to focus on homogeneous preparations of membrane proteins reconstituted into model membranes like detergent micelles, liposomes, and nanodiscs. In the present study, I report the first successful expression, purification, and reconstitution...

  20. Assotiativism, Generation and Language: The Case of the Abc Paulista Metallurgist Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnaldo Dos Santos

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The trade unions as traditional tools of assotiativism of the working class, are encountering more difficulties in communicating with their younger social basis, due to the changes in the world of working and in the forms of communication that the traditional political participation mechanisms adopt for the convocation processes. In this article, we will discuss the strategies used by the ABC Metallurgist Trade Union on the beginning of this decade as an answer to the distance between its coordination and the metallurgist youth, through a commission structured in the institution and composed by young workers, and the use of the metallurgist press with a renewed language.

  1. A burst of ABC genes in the genome of the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dermauw, W.; Osborne, E.J.; Clark, R.M.; Grbić, M.; Tirry, L.; Van Leeuwen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The ABC (ATP-binding cassette) gene superfamily is widespread across all living species. The majority of ABC genes encode ABC transporters, which are membrane-spanning proteins capable of transferring substrates across biological membranes by hydrolyzing ATP. Although ABC transporters

  2. ABC's of Being Smart: I Can "C" Clearly Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author focuses on C of the ABC's of being smart. She continues to categorize the points for readers. These categories include the following: (1) being; (2) doing; and (3) stretching.

  3. Compilation of accelerated bridge construction (ABC) bridges : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Development of accelerated bridge construction (ABC) technologies has been occurring across the country, many times in : isolation. Although FHWA and others have worked to facilitate communication between these efforts, there was not a : comprehensiv...

  4. ABC proteins protect the human body and maintain optimal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Kazumitsu

    2011-01-01

    Human MDR1, a multi-drug transporter gene, was isolated as the first of the eukaryote ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) proteins from a multidrug-resistant carcinoma cell line in 1986. To date, over 25 years, many ABC proteins have been found to play important physiological roles by transporting hydrophobic compounds. Defects in their functions cause various diseases, indicating that endogenous hydrophobic compounds, as well as water-soluble compounds, are properly transported by transmembrane proteins. MDR1 transports a large number of structurally unrelated drugs and is involved in their pharmacokinetics, and thus is a key factor in drug interaction. ABCA1, an ABC protein, eliminates excess cholesterol in peripheral cells by generating HDL. Because ABCA1 is a key molecule in cholesterol homeostasis, its function and expression are highly regulated. Eukaryote ABC proteins function on the body surface facing the outside and in organ pathways to adapt to the extracellular environment and protect the body to maintain optimal health.

  5. Trastuzumab upregulates expression of HLA-ABC and T cell costimulatory molecules through engagement of natural killer cells and stimulation of IFNγ secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaganty, Bharat K R; Lu, Yang; Qiu, Songbo; Somanchi, Srinivas S; Lee, Dean A; Fan, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that trastuzumab, an antibody approved for treating human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-overexpressing breast cancer, exerts some of its antitumor effects through enhanced T cell responses. Full activation of CD8 + T cells requires both expression of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules (HLA-ABC) and expression of the T cell costimulatory molecule CD80 or CD86; however, the impact of trastuzumab treatment on the expression of HLA-ABC and CD80 and CD86 has not been investigated in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. In this study, we found that, while there is no direct correlation between the expression of HER2 and HLA-ABC in breast cancer, knockdown of HER2 or inhibition of HER2 kinase by lapatinib downregulated HLA-ABC expression. Trastuzumab had no meaningful effects on HLA-ABC expression in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells in monoculture; however, treatment of such cells with trastuzumab in co-culture with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) significantly upregulated not only HLA-ABC expression but also CD86 expression. We showed that this upregulation was mediated by interferon gamma (IFNγ) secreted from the natural killer (NK) cells in PBMC as a result of engagement of NK cells by trastuzumab. We further confirmed this effect of trastuzumab in vivo using a mouse mammary tumor model transduced to overexpress human HER2. Together, our data provide evidence that trastuzumab upregulates expression of HLA-ABC and T cell costimulatory molecules in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells in the presence of PBMC, which supports the view that T-cell-mediated immune responses are involved in trastuzumab-mediated antitumor effects.

  6. ABC-B transporter genes in Dirofilaria immitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguinat, Catherine; Che, Hua; Mani, Thangadurai; Keller, Kathy; Prichard, Roger K

    2016-08-01

    Dirofilaria immitis is a filarial nematode causing infection and heartworm disease in dogs and other canids, cats, and occasionally in humans. Prevention with macrocyclic lactones (ML) is recommended during the mosquito transmission season. Recently, ML resistance has been reported. ABC-B transporter genes are thought to be involved in the mechanism of ML resistance in other nematodes. This study aimed to identify all the ABC-B transporter genes in D. immitis using as a reference the nDi.2.2 D. immitis whole genome, which is not completely annotated. Using bioinformatic tools and PCR amplification on pooled D. immitis genomic DNA and on pooled cDNA, nine ABC transporter genes including one pseudogene were characterized. Bioinformatic and phylogenetic analyses allowed identification of three P-glycoproteins (Pgps) (Dim-pgp-3 Dim-pgp-10, Dim-pgp-11), of two ABC-B half transporter genes (one ortholog of Cel-haf-4 and Cel-haf-9; and one ortholog of Cel-haf-1 and Cel-haf-3), of one ABC half transporter gene (ortholog of Cel-haf-5) that contained an ABC-C motif, and of one additional half transporter that would require functional study for characterization. The number of ABC-B transporter genes identified was lower than in Caenorhabditis elegans and Haemonchus contortus. Further studies are needed to understand their possible role in ML resistance in D. immitis. These ABC transporters constitute a base for ML resistance investigation in D. immitis and advance our understanding of the molecular biology of this parasite. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Application of the ABC analysis in management of food inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Radek Toušek

    2009-01-01

    The article is focused on managing stock inventory with help of the ABC method. The theory is explained on an actual company dealing with retail grocery distribution within the south bohemian region. The ABC method is applied on 4,405 inventory items regarding their 2008 year turnover. Results of the analysis are processed into a system plan to reduce the asset liability and decrease the stock inventory while maintaining the requested quality of logistic services.

  8. ABC transporter research: going strong 40 years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoulou, Frederica L; Kerr, Ian D

    2015-10-01

    In most organisms, ABC transporters constitute one of the largest families of membrane proteins. In humans, their functions are diverse and underpin numerous key physiological processes, as well as being causative factors in a number of clinically relevant pathologies. Advances in our understanding of these diseases have come about through combinations of genetic and protein biochemical investigations of these transporters and the power of in vitro and in vivo investigations is helping to develop genotype-phenotype understanding. However, the importance of ABC transporter research goes far beyond human biology; microbial ABC transporters are of great interest in terms of understanding virulence and drug resistance and industrial biotechnology researchers are exploring the potential of prokaryotic ABC exporters to increase the capacity of synthetic biology systems. Plant ABC transporters play important roles in transport of hormones, xenobiotics, metals and secondary metabolites, pathogen responses and numerous aspects of development, all of which are important in the global food security area. For 3 days in Chester, this Biochemical Society Focused Meeting brought together researchers with diverse experimental approaches and with different fundamental questions, all of which are linked by the commonality of ABC transporters. © 2015 Authors.

  9. Structural basis for the mechanism of ABC transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beis, Konstantinos

    2015-10-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are primary transporters that couple the energy stored in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to the movement of molecules across the membrane. ABC transporters can be divided into exporters and importers; importers mediate the uptake of essential nutrients into cells and are found predominantly in prokaryotes whereas exporters transport molecules out of cells or into organelles and are found in all organisms. ABC exporters have been linked with multi-drug resistance in both bacterial and eukaryotic cells. ABC transporters are powered by the hydrolysis of ATP and transport their substrate via the alternating access mechanism, whereby the protein alternates between a conformation in which the substrate-binding site is accessible from the outside of the membrane, outward-facing and one in which it is inward-facing. In this mini-review, the structures of different ABC transporter types in different conformations are presented within the context of the alternating access mechanism and how they have shaped our current understanding of the mechanism of ABC transporters. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  10. ABC Transporters in Cancer Stem Cells: Beyond Chemoresistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begicevic, Romana-Rea; Falasca, Marco

    2017-11-08

    The efficacy of chemotherapy is one of the main challenges in cancer treatment and one of the major obstacles to overcome in achieving lasting remission and a definitive cure in patients with cancer is the emergence of cancer resistance. Indeed, drug resistance is ultimately accountable for poor treatment outcomes and tumour relapse. There are various molecular mechanisms involved in multidrug resistance, such as the change in the activity of membrane transporters primarily belonging to the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. In addition, it has been proposed that this common feature could be attributed to a subpopulation of slow-cycling cancer stem cells (CSCs), endowed with enhanced tumorigenic potential and multidrug resistance. CSCs are characterized by the overexpression of specific surface markers that vary in different cancer cell types. Overexpression of ABC transporters has been reported in several cancers and more predominantly in CSCs. While the major focus on the role played by ABC transporters in cancer is polarized by their involvement in chemoresistance, emerging evidence supports a more active role of these proteins, in which they release specific bioactive molecules in the extracellular milieu. This review will outline our current understanding of the role played by ABC transporters in CSCs, how their expression is regulated and how they support the malignant metabolic phenotype. To summarize, we suggest that the increased expression of ABC transporters in CSCs may have precise functional roles and provide the opportunity to target, particularly these cells, by using specific ABC transporter inhibitors.

  11. ABC Transporters in Cancer Stem Cells: Beyond Chemoresistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana-Rea Begicevic

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of chemotherapy is one of the main challenges in cancer treatment and one of the major obstacles to overcome in achieving lasting remission and a definitive cure in patients with cancer is the emergence of cancer resistance. Indeed, drug resistance is ultimately accountable for poor treatment outcomes and tumour relapse. There are various molecular mechanisms involved in multidrug resistance, such as the change in the activity of membrane transporters primarily belonging to the ATP binding cassette (ABC transporter family. In addition, it has been proposed that this common feature could be attributed to a subpopulation of slow-cycling cancer stem cells (CSCs, endowed with enhanced tumorigenic potential and multidrug resistance. CSCs are characterized by the overexpression of specific surface markers that vary in different cancer cell types. Overexpression of ABC transporters has been reported in several cancers and more predominantly in CSCs. While the major focus on the role played by ABC transporters in cancer is polarized by their involvement in chemoresistance, emerging evidence supports a more active role of these proteins, in which they release specific bioactive molecules in the extracellular milieu. This review will outline our current understanding of the role played by ABC transporters in CSCs, how their expression is regulated and how they support the malignant metabolic phenotype. To summarize, we suggest that the increased expression of ABC transporters in CSCs may have precise functional roles and provide the opportunity to target, particularly these cells, by using specific ABC transporter inhibitors.

  12. Loosely coupled class families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2001-01-01

    are expressed using virtual classes seem to be very tightly coupled internally. While clients have achieved the freedom to dynamically use one or the other family, it seems that any given family contains a xed set of classes and we will need to create an entire family of its own just in order to replace one...... of the members with another class. This paper shows how to express class families in such a manner that the classes in these families can be used in many dierent combinations, still enabling family polymorphism and ensuring type safety....

  13. Repeated Measurements of Cardiac Biomarkers in Atrial Fibrillation and Validation of the ABC Stroke Score Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijazi, Ziad; Lindahl, Bertil; Oldgren, Jonas; Andersson, Ulrika; Lindbäck, Johan; Granger, Christopher B; Alexander, John H; Gersh, Bernard J; Hanna, Michael; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Hylek, Elaine M; Lopes, Renato D; Siegbahn, Agneta; Wallentin, Lars

    2017-06-23

    Cardiac biomarkers are independent risk markers in atrial fibrillation, and the novel biomarker-based ABC stroke score (age, biomarkers, and clinical history of prior stroke) was recently shown to improve the prediction of stroke risk in patients with atrial fibrillation. Our aim was to investigate the short-term variability of the cardiac biomarkers and evaluate whether the ABC stroke risk score provides a stable short-term risk estimate. According to the study protocol, samples were obtained at entry and also at 2 months in 4796 patients with atrial fibrillation followed for a median of 1.8 years in the ARISTOTLE (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation) trial. Cardiac troponin I, cardiac troponin T, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide were measured with high-sensitivity immunoassays. Associations with outcomes were evaluated by Cox regression. C indices and calibration plots were used to evaluate the ABC stroke score at 2 months. The average changes in biomarker levels during 2 months were small (median change cardiac troponin T +2.8%, troponin I +2.0%, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide +13.5%) and within-subject correlation was high (all ≥0.82). Repeated measurement of cardiac biomarkers provided some incremental prognostic value for mortality but not for stroke when combined with clinical risk factors and baseline levels of the biomarkers. Based on 8702 person-years of follow-up and 96 stroke/systemic embolic events, the ABC stroke score at 2 months achieved a similar C index of 0.70 (95% CI, 0.65-0.76) as compared with 0.70 (95% CI, 0.65-0.75) at baseline. The ABC stroke score remained well calibrated using predefined risk classes. In patients with stable atrial fibrillation, the variability of the cardiac biomarkers and the biomarker-based ABC stroke score during 2 months are small. The prognostic information by the ABC stroke score remains consistent and well calibrated with

  14. Export of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli using ABC transporter with an attached lipase ABC transporter recognition domain (LARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Yuseok

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ATP binding cassette (ABC transporter secretes the protein through inner and outer membranes simultaneously in gram negative bacteria. Thermostable lipase (TliA of Pseudomonas fluorescens SIK W1 is secreted through the ABC transporter. TliA has four glycine-rich repeats (GGXGXD in its C-terminus, which appear in many ABC transporter-secreted proteins. From a homology model of TliA derived from the structure of P. aeruginosa alkaline protease (AprA, lipase ABC transporter domains (LARDs were designed for the secretion of fusion proteins. Results The LARDs included four glycine-rich repeats comprising a β-roll structure, and were added to the C-terminus of test proteins. Either Pro-Gly linker or Factor Xa site was added between fusion proteins and LARDs. We attached different length of LARDs such as LARD0, LARD1 or whole TliA (the longest LARD to three types of proteins; green fluorescent protein (GFP, epidermal growth factor (EGF and cytoplasmic transduction peptide (CTP. These fusion proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli together with ABC transporter of either P. fluorescens or Erwinia chrysanthemi. Export of fusion proteins with the whole TliA through the ABC transporter was evident on the basis of lipase enzymatic activity. Upon supplementation of E. coli with ABC transporter, GFP-LARDs and EGF-LARDs were excreted into the culture supernatant. Conclusion The LARDs or whole TliA were attached to C-termini of model proteins and enabled the export of the model proteins such as GFP and EGF in E. coli supplemented with ABC transporter. These results open the possibility for the extracellular production of recombinant proteins in Pseudomonas using LARDs or TliA as a C-terminal signal sequence.

  15. ABC transporters in the liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A; Ershov, Nikita I; Pirozhkova, Darya S; Pakharukov, Yuri V; Pakharukova, Maria Y

    2017-09-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) are essential components of normal cellular physiological machinery in all eukaryotic and prokaryotic species, including parasites. Some ABC transporters, e.g., P-glycoproteins, are involved in the efflux of toxins and xenobiotics from the cell. At present, nothing is known about ABC transporter genes in epidemiologically important liver flukes from the Opisthorchiidae family, including European liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus. Opisthorchiasis caused by O. felineus is a serious public health problem on the territory of Russia and other Eastern European countries. ABC drug transporters are attractive objects of research on molecular markers of resistance and on ways to potentiate sensitivity to anthelmintics through suppression of the transporters themselves with specific inhibitors. Here we aimed at the identification of ABC transporters in the O. felineus transcriptome and identification of P-glycoproteins. In addition, our aim was to assess ABC transcript abundance in the RNA-seq data, to study the mRNA expression of P-glycoprotein genes by Droplet Digital PCR throughout the life cycle of O. felineus, and to test the gene induction in response to xenobiotics or anthelminthic agents. We found 23 nucleotide sequences encoding ABC transporters belonging to different subfamilies, including four sequences of P-glycoproteins. According to the transcript abundance in the RNA-seq data, one of P-glycoproteins (P4) has the highest expression among all ABC genes in the adult worm. P-glycoproteins showed substantially differential mRNA expression throughout the fluke life cycle, with high expression in the adult worms. Putative activity of P-glycoproteins as xenobiotic efflux pumps was found to be linked to the excretory system of O. felineus and to be inhibited by verapamil or tariquidar. Thus, ABC drug transporters in the liver fluke O. felineus are functionally active, indicating that ABC drug transporters are likely

  16. ROLE OF ATP BINDING CASSETTE SUB-FAMILY MEMBER 2 (ABCG2) IN MOUSE EMBRYONIC STEM CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATP binding cassette sub-family member 2 (ABCG2), is a member of the ABC transporter superfamily and a principal xenobiotic transporter. ABCG2 is also highly expressed in certain stem cell populations where it is thought to be related to stem cell plasticity, although the role o...

  17. Metodologia ABC: implantação numa microempresa ABC methodology: implementation on a micro firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Duran

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata a implantação da metodologia de custos baseados em atividades numa microempresa do ramo metalúrgico. A proposta pretende demonstrar a viabilidade de aplicar esta técnica em empresas sem importar seu tamanho, só realizando algumas adaptações que garantam baixo investimento e curto espaço de tempo para obter os resultados. Na parte final do trabalho se realiza uma análise dos resultados obtidos verificando-se o potencial da informação gerada pela metodologia e seu uso como ferramenta de gestão.This paper presents an implementation of the activity based costing (ABC methodology in a small firm. The approach presented is intended to demonstrate the feasibility of applying the ABC methodology at any sized firm, only through few adaptations for ensuring low investments fees and speed in obtaining results and information from the system. Discussion about the results obtained during the implementation case are presented and the potential of using the information generated from the system as a managing tool is commented.

  18. ABC3 Consensus: Assessment by a German Group of Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomssen, Christoph; Augustin, Doris; Ettl, Johannes; Haidinger, Renate; Lück, Hans-Joachim; Lüftner, Diana; Marmé, Frederik; Marschner, Norbert; Müller, Lothar; Overkamp, Friedrich; Ruckhäberle, Eugen; Thill, Marc; Untch, Michael; Wuerstlein, Rachel; Harbeck, Nadia

    2016-02-01

    The Advanced Breast Cancer Third International Consensus Conference on the diagnosis and treatment of advanced breast cancer took place in Lisbon, Portugal, on November 5-7, 2015. This year's conference (ABC3) was focused on the treatment of metastatic breast cancer (stage IV), as it was 4 years ago at the first consensus meeting (ABC1). A matter of particular interest was the patients' perspective. Thus, patient-relevant issues were addressed by the consensus discussions, such as those on treatment goals, quality of life, care of long-term survivors ('survivorship issues'), and coping with disease-related symptoms and the side effects of treatment. Further important issues on the agenda were the use of standardized instruments for the assessment of individual treatment success ('patient-reported outcome measures') and the evaluation of the benefit of novel drugs (e.g. the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale). Diagnosis and treatment of inoperable locally advanced breast cancer had already been discussed 2 years earlier at the ABC2 Consensus and were not dealt with in the framework of this year's ABC3 Consensus. With regard to country-specific peculiarities, which unavoidably found their way into the ABC Consensus, a working group of German breast cancer experts commented on the voting results of the ABC panelists. As for the past consensus, the group specially considered the German guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer (AGO (Gyneco-Oncology Working Group), S3, DGHO (German Society of Hematology and Medical Oncology)) in order to adapt the ABC3 consensus for everyday therapy in Germany.

  19. "ABC's Earthquake" (Experiments and models in seismology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Ana Almeida, Portugal Almeida, Ana Escola Básica e Secundária Dr. Vieira de Carvalho Moreira da Maia, Portugal The purpose of this presentation, in poster format, is to disclose an activity which was planned and made by me, in a school on the north of Portugal, using a kit of materials simple and easy to use - the sismo-box. The activity "ABC's Earthquake" was developed under the discipline of Natural Sciences, with students from 7th grade, geosciences teachers and other areas. The possibility of work with the sismo-box was seen as an exciting and promising opportunity to promote science, seismology more specifically, to do science, when using the existing models in the box and with them implement the scientific method, to work and consolidate content and skills in the area of Natural Sciences, to have a time of sharing these materials with classmates, and also with other teachers from the different areas. Throughout the development of the activity, either with students or teachers, it was possible to see the admiration by the models presented in the earthquake-box, as well as, the interest and the enthusiasm in wanting to move and understand what the results after the proposed procedure in the script. With this activity, we managed to promote: - educational success in this subject; a "school culture" with active participation, with quality, rules, discipline and citizenship values; fully integration of students with special educational needs; strengthen the performance of the school as a cultural, informational and formation institution; provide activities to date and innovative; foment knowledge "to be, being and doing" and contribute to a moment of joy and discovery.Learn by doing!

  20. Comparison of mechanistic transport cycle models of ABC exporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szöllősi, Dániel; Rose-Sperling, Dania; Hellmich, Ute A; Stockner, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    ABC (ATP binding cassette) transporters, ubiquitous in all kingdoms of life, carry out essential substrate transport reactions across cell membranes. Their transmembrane domains bind and translocate substrates and are connected to a pair of nucleotide binding domains, which bind and hydrolyze ATP to energize import or export of substrates. Over four decades of investigations into ABC transporters have revealed numerous details from atomic-level structural insights to their functional and physiological roles. Despite all these advances, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanistic principles of ABC transporter function remains elusive. The human multidrug resistance transporter ABCB1, also referred to as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), is one of the most intensively studied ABC exporters. Using ABCB1 as the reference point, we aim to compare the dominating mechanistic models of substrate transport and ATP hydrolysis for ABC exporters and to highlight the experimental and computational evidence in their support. In particular, we point out in silico studies that enhance and complement available biochemical data. "This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Beyond the Structure-Function Horizon of Membrane Proteins edited by Ute Hellmich, Rupak Doshi and Benjamin McIlwain." Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Asymmetric switching in a homodimeric ABC transporter: a simulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Aittoniemi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available ABC transporters are a large family of membrane proteins involved in a variety of cellular processes, including multidrug and tumor resistance and ion channel regulation. Advances in the structural and functional understanding of ABC transporters have revealed that hydrolysis at the two canonical nucleotide-binding sites (NBSs is co-operative and non-simultaneous. A conserved core architecture of bacterial and eukaryotic ABC exporters has been established, as exemplified by the crystal structure of the homodimeric multidrug exporter Sav1866. Currently, it is unclear how sequential ATP hydrolysis arises in a symmetric homodimeric transporter, since it implies at least transient asymmetry at the NBSs. We show by molecular dynamics simulation that the initially symmetric structure of Sav1866 readily undergoes asymmetric transitions at its NBSs in a pre-hydrolytic nucleotide configuration. MgATP-binding residues and a network of charged residues at the dimer interface are shown to form a sequence of putative molecular switches that allow ATP hydrolysis only at one NBS. We extend our findings to eukaryotic ABC exporters which often consist of two non-identical half-transporters, frequently with degeneracy substitutions at one of their two NBSs. Interestingly, many residues involved in asymmetric conformational switching in Sav1866 are substituted in degenerate eukaryotic NBS. This finding strengthens recent suggestions that the interplay of a consensus and a degenerate NBS in eukaroytic ABC proteins pre-determines the sequence of hydrolysis at the two NBSs.

  2. Structure of the MacAB-TolC ABC-type tripartite multidrug efflux pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llabrés, Salomé; Neuberger, Arthur; Blaza, James N.; Bai, Xiao-chen; Okada, Ui; Murakami, Satoshi; van Veen, Hendrik W.; Zachariae, Ulrich; Scheres, Sjors H.W.; Luisi, Ben F.

    2017-01-01

    The MacA-MacB-TolC assembly of Escherichia coli is a transmembrane machine that spans the cell envelope and actively extrudes substrates, including macrolide antibiotics and polypeptide virulence factors. These transport processes are energized by the ATPase MacB, a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. We present an electron cryo-microscopy structure of the ABC-type tripartite assembly at near-atomic resolution. A hexamer of the periplasmic protein MacA bridges between a TolC trimer in the outer membrane and a MacB dimer in the inner membrane, generating a quaternary structure with a central channel for substrate translocation. A gating ring found in MacA is proposed to act as a one-way valve in substrate transport. The MacB structure features an atypical transmembrane domain (TMD) with a closely packed dimer interface and a periplasmic opening that is the likely portal for substrate entry from the periplasm, with subsequent displacement through an allosteric transport mechanism. PMID:28504659

  3. Second-order nonlinear optical metamaterials: ABC-type nanolaminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloatti, L.; Kieninger, C.; Lauermann, M.; Köhnle, K.; Froelich, A.; Wegener, M.; Frenzel, T.; Freude, W.; Leuthold, J.; Koos, C.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a concept for second-order nonlinear metamaterials that can be obtained from non-metallic centrosymmetric constituents with inherently low optical absorption. The concept is based on iterative atomic-layer deposition of three different materials, A = Al 2 O 3 , B = TiO 2 , and C = HfO 2 . The centrosymmetry of the resulting ABC stack is broken since the ABC and the inverted CBA sequences are not equivalent—a necessary condition for non-zero second-order nonlinearity. In our experiments, we find that the bulk second-order nonlinear susceptibility depends on the density of interfaces, leading to a nonlinear susceptibility of 0.26 pm/V at a wavelength of 800 nm. ABC-type nanolaminates can be deposited on virtually any substrate and offer a promising route towards engineering of second-order optical nonlinearities at both infrared and visible wavelengths

  4. Functional analysis of candidate ABC transporter proteins for sitosterol transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecht, C; Elliott, J I; Sardini, A

    2002-01-01

    Two ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins, ABCG5 and ABCG8, have recently been associated with the accumulation of dietary cholesterol in the sterol storage disease sitosterolemia. These two 'half-transporters' are assumed to dimerize to form the complete sitosterol transporter which reduces...... the absorption of sitosterol and related molecules in the intestine by pumping them back into the lumen. Although mutations altering ABCG5 and ABCG8 are found in affected patients, no functional demonstration of sitosterol transport has been achieved. In this study, we investigated whether other ABC transporters......-specific ABC transporters have acquired specificity to exclude sitosterol and related sterols like cholesterol presumably because the abundance of cholesterol in the membrane would interfere with their action; in consequence, specific transporters have evolved to handle these sterols....

  5. Insight into Two ABC Transporter Families Involved in Lantibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Clemens

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides, which contain (methyl-lanthionine-rings are called lantibiotics. They are produced by several Gram-positive bacteria and are mainly active against these bacteria. Although these are highly potent antimicrobials, some human pathogenic bacteria express specific ABC transporters that confer resistance and counteract their antimicrobial activity. Two distinct ABC transporter families are known to be involved in this process. These are the Cpr- and Bce-type ABC transporter families, named after their involvement in cationic peptide resistance in Clostridium difficile, and bacitracin efflux in Bacillus subtilis, respectively. Both resistance systems differentiate to each other in terms of the proteins involved. Here, we summarize the current knowledge and describe the divergence as well as the common features present in both the systems to confer lantibiotic resistance.

  6. Laboratory investigation of grouted coupler connection details for ABC bridge projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    With an ever increasing desire to utilize accelerated bridge construction (ABC) techniques, it is becoming critical that bridge : designers and contractors have confidence in typical details. The Keg Creek Bridge on US 6 in Iowa was a recent ABC exam...

  7. Playware ABC 2: a Disruptive Technology for Global Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2017-01-01

    The Playware ABC concept is used to create solutions that are usable by all kinds of users and contexts in our globalized society. In this paper, the Playware ABC can be exemplified with the development of the modular interactive tiles for health prevention and rehabilitation of anybody, anywhere......, anytime. The paper gives examples of how playware becomes a disruptive technology for global development, for instance in the health sector. For instance, in Tanzania doctors and community-based rehabilitation workers are constructing and combining modular playware tiles to easily create the right kind...

  8. Sistema de costos ABC, en la mediana empresa industrial mexicana

    OpenAIRE

    López-Mejía, María Rosa; Universidad Autónoma de Puebla; Gómez-Martínez, Alicia; Universidad Autónoma de Puebla; Marín-Hernández, Salvador; Universidad de Murcia

    2011-01-01

    La gestión de costos en las empresas es un tema relevante en el ámbito de fuerte competencia de los mercados globales. En aras de mejorar su eficiencia, algunas compañías han adoptado el Sistema de Costos Basado en Actividades (ABC). Por tal motivo, el objetivo de este trabajo es analizar, en la práctica, por qué una empresa ha adoptado el ABC. La investigación se realizó con una empresa mediana industrial de Puebla, México, a la cual se le aplicó un estudio de caso y se buscó conocer: los mo...

  9. Costs equations for cost modeling: application of ABC Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Fabiano Bertollo Santana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed at providing an application of the ABC Matrix model - a management tool that models processes and activities. The ABC Matrix is based on matrix multiplication, using a fast algorithm for the development of costing systems and the subsequent translation of the costs in cost equations and systems. The research methodology is classified as a case study, using the simulation data to validate the model. The conclusion of the research is that the algorithm presented is an important development, because it is an effective approach to calculating the product cost and because it provides simple and flexible algorithm design software for controlling the cost of products

  10. Tonoplast-localized Abc2 transporter mediates phytochelatin accumulation in vacuoles and confers cadmium tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Zhai, Zhiyang; Jobe, Timothy O; Akmakjian, Garo Z; Song, Won-Yong; Limbo, Oliver; Russell, Matthew R; Kozlovskyy, Volodymyr I; Martinoia, Enrico; Vatamaniuk, Olena K; Russell, Paul; Schroeder, Julian I

    2010-12-24

    Phytochelatins mediate tolerance to heavy metals in plants and some fungi by sequestering phytochelatin-metal complexes into vacuoles. To date, only Schizosaccharomyces pombe Hmt1 has been described as a phytochelatin transporter and attempts to identify orthologous phytochelatin transporters in plants and other organisms have failed. Furthermore, recent data indicate that the hmt1 mutant accumulates significant phytochelatin levels in vacuoles, suggesting that unidentified phytochelatin transporters exist in fungi. Here, we show that deletion of all vacuolar ABC transporters abolishes phytochelatin accumulation in S. pombe vacuoles and abrogates (35)S-PC(2) uptake into S. pombe microsomal vesicles. Systematic analysis of the entire S. pombe ABC transporter family identified Abc2 as a full-size ABC transporter (ABCC-type) that mediates phytochelatin transport into vacuoles. The S. pombe abc1 abc2 abc3 abc4 hmt1 quintuple and abc2 hmt1 double mutant show no detectable phytochelatins in vacuoles. Abc2 expression restores phytochelatin accumulation into vacuoles and suppresses the cadmium sensitivity of the abc quintuple mutant. A novel, unexpected, function of Hmt1 in GS-conjugate transport is also shown. In contrast to Hmt1, Abc2 orthologs are widely distributed among kingdoms and are proposed as the long-sought vacuolar phytochelatin transporters in plants and other organisms.

  11. The Assessment of Burden of COPD (ABC) Scale : A Reliable and Valid Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slok, Annerika H. M.; Bemelmans, Thomas C. H.; Kotz, Daniel; van der Molen, Thys; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; in 't Veen, Johannes C. C. M.; Chavannes, Niels H.; Asijee, Guus M.; Rutten-van Molken, Maureen P. M. H.; van Schayck, Onno C. P.

    2016-01-01

    The newly developed Assessment of Burden of COPD (ABC) scale is a 14-item self-administered questionnaire which measures the physical, psychological, emotional and/or social burden as experienced by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The ABC scale is part of the ABC tool

  12. Transportomics: screening for substrates of ABC transporters in body fluids using vesicular transport assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krumpochova, Petra; Sapthu, Sunny; Brouwers, Jos F.; de Haas, Marcel; de Vos, Ric; Borst, Piet; van de Wetering, Koen

    2012-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) genes encode the largest family of transmembrane proteins. ABC transporters translocate a wide variety of substrates across membranes, but their physiological function is often incompletely understood. We describe a new method to study the substrate spectrum of ABC

  13. Reversal of resistance by GF120918 in cell lines expressing the ABC half-transporter, MXR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bruin, M; Miyake, K; Litman, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    The emergence of several newly identified members of the ABC transporter family has necessitated the development of antagonists that are able to inhibit more than one transporter. We assessed the ability of the chemosensitizer GF120918 to function as a multispecific antagonist using cytotoxicity...... assays, rhodamine and calcein efflux assays, and confocal microscopy in cell lines expressing different multidrug resistance transporters. At a concentration of 1 microM in cytotoxicity assays, GF120918 was able to sensitize both S1-B1-20, a subline expressing P-glycoprotein (Pgp), and S1-M1......-80, a subline expressing a newly identified mitoxantrone transporter, MXR. GF120918 was ineffective in sensitizing MRP-overexpressing MCF-7 VP-16 cells to etoposide as determined by cytotoxicity studies. In flow cytometry experiments, rhodamine 123 efflux in S1-B1-20 cells was decreased at GF120918...

  14. Classification of a Haemophilus influenzae ABC Transporter HI1470/71 through Its Cognate Molybdate Periplasmic Binding Protein, MolA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirado-Lee, Leidamarie; Lee, Allen; Rees, Douglas C.; Pinkett, Heather W. (CIT); (NWU)

    2014-10-02

    molA (HI1472) from H. influenzae encodes a periplasmic binding protein (PBP) that delivers substrate to the ABC transporter MolB{sub 2}C{sub 2} (formerly HI1470/71). The structures of MolA with molybdate and tungstate in the binding pocket were solved to 1.6 and 1.7 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. The MolA-binding protein binds molybdate and tungstate, but not other oxyanions such as sulfate and phosphate, making it the first class III molybdate-binding protein structurally solved. The {approx}100 {mu}M binding affinity for tungstate and molybdate is significantly lower than observed for the class II ModA molybdate-binding proteins that have nanomolar to low micromolar affinity for molybdate. The presence of two molybdate loci in H. influenzae suggests multiple transport systems for one substrate, with molABC constituting a low-affinity molybdate locus.

  15. "Racializing" Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatt-Echeverria, Beth; Urrieta, Luis, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to explore how racial and class oppressions intersect, the authors use their autobiographical narratives to depict cultural and experiential continuity and discontinuity in growing up white working class versus Chicano working class. They specifically focus on "racializing class" due to the ways class is often used as a copout by…

  16. Accelerated bridge construction (ABC) decision making and economic modeling tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    In this FHWA-sponsored pool funded study, a set of decision making tools, based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was developed. This tool set is prepared for transportation specialists and decision-makers to determine if ABC is more effective ...

  17. ABC transporter genes and risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jesper; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Møller, Holger Jon

    2012-01-01

    Alterations of pancreatic β-cell cholesterol content may contribute to β-cell dysfunction. Two important determinants of intracellular cholesterol content are the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters A1 (ABCA1) and -G1 (ABCG1). Whether genetic variation in ABCA1 and ABCG1 predicts risk of type 2...... diabetes in the general population is unknown....

  18. Some observations on the comparative performance of two 3-ABC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of Chekit and Priocheck (Ceditest) 3-ABC ELISAs was evaluated in an area of endemicity using 196 sheep and 45 bovine sera. The Checkit ELISA failed to detect 8 positive sheep sera out of 10 detected by the Priocheck ELISA whilst both ELISAs detected 13 bovine sera as positive or borderline.

  19. The Reign of Confusion: ABC and the "Crisis in Iran."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmerton, Patricia R.

    A study examined reports broadcast by ABC News between November 8, 1979 and December 7, 1979 in its series entitled "Crisis in Iran: America Held Hostage." Transcripts of approximately 50% of actual broadcasts were subjected to rhetorical critical analysis, from which the finding emerged that confusion was the predominant characteristic…

  20. Selections from the ABC 2011 Annual Convention, Montreal, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, D. Joel; Andersen, Ken; Campbell, Gloria; Crenshaw, Cheri; Cross, Geoffrey A.; Grinols, Anne Bradstreet; Hildebrand, John; Newman, Amy; Ortiz, Lorelei A.; Paulson, Edward; Phillabaum, Melinda; Powell, Elizabeth A.; Sloan, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    The 12 Favorite Assignments featured in this article were presented at the 2011 Annual Convention of the Association for Business Communication (ABC), Montreal, Canada. A variety of learning objectives are featured: delivering bad news, handling difficult people, persuasion, reporting financial analysis, electronic media, face-to-face…

  1. The ABCs for Pre-Service Teacher Cultural Competency Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ye; Cooper, Jewell E.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to combine pre-service teachers' self-reflection with their field experiences to enhance their cultural competency, this study adopted Schmidt's ABC's (Autobiography, Biography, and Cross-cultural Comparison) Model in two courses in a pre-service teacher education program. Through group comparisons, this study measured the impact that…

  2. Selections from the ABC 2012 Annual Convention, Honolulu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, D. Joel

    2013-01-01

    The 13 Favorite Assignments featured here were presented at the 2012 Association for Business Communication (ABC) Annual Convention, Honolulu, Hawaii. A variety of learning objectives are featured, including the following: enhancing resume's visual impact, interpersonal skills, social media, team building, web design, community service projects,…

  3. The Value of Green Technology at ABC Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Bernadette

    2012-01-01

    A challenge facing community colleges nationwide is to reduce the carbon footprint of campuses by initiating green technology initiatives. This case study assessed the effect of switching from paper assignments to a learning management system at ABC Community College. The topic is important because federal and state funding, as well as…

  4. Selections from the ABC 2009 Annual Convention, Portsmouth, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, D. Joel

    2010-01-01

    The "My Favorite Assignment" Session at the 2009 Association for Business Communication (ABC) annual convention in Portsmouth, Virginia, featured over a dozen teachers sharing pedagogical innovations in a fast-paced, 4-minute format designed by Dan Dietrich. The wide variety of ideas and techniques presented makes these sessions popular…

  5. ABC – Advocates for Breast Cancer | Steyn | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early detection of breast cancer is imperative to improve survival rates. However, public awareness is lacking and healthcare facilities for the diagnosis and treatment of the disease, particularly in the public sector, are inadequate. A cancer alliance, Advocates for Breast Cancer (ABC), was formed in 2014 to campaign for a ...

  6. ABC implementation in the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropole: How far ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activity-based costing (ABC) success factors have been studied in past research, mostly by using commonly known success factors. In this qualitative study, ... Extensive identifi cation of cost drivers is benefi cial to the extent where the product loses its relationship with the overhead cost. It is evident from this research that ...

  7. Preconceptual ABC design definition and system configuration layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthold, W.

    1995-03-01

    This document is the conceptual design document for the follow-on to the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor, known as the ABC type reactor. It addresses blanket design options, containment options, off-gas systems, drainage systems, and components/layouts of the primary, secondary, and tertiary systems, and it contains a number of diagrams for the configuration of the major systems

  8. abc: An Extensible AspectJ Compiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avgustinov, Pavel; Christensen, Aske Simon; Hendren, Laurie J.

    2006-01-01

    Research in the design of aspect-oriented programming languages requires a workbench that facilitates easy experimentation with new language features and implementation techniques. In particular, new features for AspectJ have been proposed that require extensions in many dimensions: syntax, type ...... design decisions. Finally, we review a few examples of projects by others that extend abc in interesting ways...

  9. Relationships Between the ABC Inventory and the Metropolitan Readiness Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, K. Roger; Holland, Jean M.

    1974-01-01

    The predictive validity and factor structure of the ABC Inventory were analyzed by comparing scores obtained by preschoolers on this test with scores on the Metropolitan Reading Test. The correlational and factor analyses results reveal significant empirical and conceptual relationships between the two tests. (Author/PC)

  10. ABC transporters of the wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwiers, L.H.

    2002-01-01

    A TP- b inding c assette (ABC) transporters belong to one of the largest protein families known. They play a role in numerous vital processes in the cell and are characterised by their

  11. ABC transporters van Botrytis cinerea in biotische en abiotische interacties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonbeek, H.

    2005-01-01

    Op 29 november 2004 promoveerde Henk-jan Schoonbeek aan Wageningen Universiteit op het proefschrift getiteld 'ABC transporters from Botrytis cinerea in biotic and abiotic interactions'. Promotor was Prof. dr. ir. P.J.G.M. de Wit en co-promotor was dr.ir. M.A. de Waard, leerstoelgroep Fytopathologie,

  12. Dynamics of 'abc' and 'qd' constant parameters induction generator model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajardo-R, L.A.; Medina, A.; Iov, F.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, parametric sensibility effects on dynamics of the induction generator in the presence of local perturbations are investigated. The study is conducted in a 3x2 MW wind park dealing with abc, qd0 and qd reduced order, induction generator model respectively, and with fluxes as state...

  13. ABC transporters from Botrytis cinerea in biotic and abiotic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonbeek, H.

    2004-01-01

    Botrytis cinereais the causal agent of grey mould disease on a wide variety of crop plants. It is relatively insensitive to natural and synthetic fungitoxic compounds. This thesis describes how ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters contribute to protection by actively

  14. Functional analysis of candidate ABC transporter proteins for sitosterol transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecht, C; Elliott, J I; Sardini, A

    2002-01-01

    Two ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins, ABCG5 and ABCG8, have recently been associated with the accumulation of dietary cholesterol in the sterol storage disease sitosterolemia. These two 'half-transporters' are assumed to dimerize to form the complete sitosterol transporter which reduces the ab...

  15. GPS-ABC radiated chamber testing overview and results : GPS-ABC Workshop VI : RTCA Washington, DC, March 30, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-30

    This presentation, which was given during the GPS-ABC Workshop VI in Washington, DC on March 30, 2017 details the authors' radiated testing protocols and results. GPS receiver testing was carried out April 25-29, 2016 at the Army : Research Laborator...

  16. 75 FR 49549 - ABC & D Recycling, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-a Line of Railroad in Ware, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35397] ABC & D Recycling, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption--a Line of Railroad in Ware, MA ABC & D Recycling, Inc. (ABC & D...\\ The line is currently operated by the Massachusetts Central Railroad Corporation.\\2\\ \\1\\ ABC & D...

  17. Dependent Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasiunas, Vaidas; Mezini, Mira; Ostermann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    of dependent classes and a machine-checked type soundness proof in Isabelle/HOL [29], the first of this kind for a language with virtual classes and path-dependent types. [29] T.Nipkow, L.C. Poulson, and M. Wenzel. Isabelle/HOL -- A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order Logic, volume 2283 of LNCS, Springer, 2002......Virtual classes allow nested classes to be refined in subclasses. In this way nested classes can be seen as dependent abstractions of the objects of the enclosing classes. Expressing dependency via nesting, however, has two limitations: Abstractions that depend on more than one object cannot...... be modeled and a class must know all classes that depend on its objects. This paper presents dependent classes, a generalization of virtual classes that expresses similar semantics by parameterization rather than by nesting. This increases expressivity of class variations as well as the flexibility...

  18. Downregulation of eIF4G by microRNA-503 enhances drug sensitivity of MCF-7/ADR cells through suppressing the expression of ABC transport proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xia; Yang, Xiaoyan; Zang, Jinglei; Zhang, Si; Huang, Nan; Guan, Xinxin; Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Zhihui; Li, Xi; Lei, Xiaoyong

    2017-06-01

    Overexpression of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transport protein is emerging as a critical contributor to anticancer drug resistance. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4F complex, the key modulator of mRNA translation, is regulated by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin pathway in anticancer drug-resistant tumors. The present study demonstrated the roles of ABC translation protein alterations in the acquisition of the Adriamycin (ADM)-resistant phenotype of MCF-7 human breast cells. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were applied to examine the differences in mRNA and protein levels, respectively. It was found that the expression of the ABC sub-family B member 1, ABC sub-family C member 1 and ABC sub-family G member 2 transport proteins were upregulated in MCF-7/ADR cells. An MTT assay was used to detect the cell viability, from the results MCF-7/ADR cells were less sensitive to ADM, tamoxifen (TAM) and taxol (TAX) treatment compared with MCF-7 cells. We predicted that the 3'-untranslated region of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4-γ 1 (eIF4G) contains a potential miRNA binding site for microRNA (miR)-503 through using computational programs. These binding sites were confirmed by luciferase reporter assays. eIF4G mRNA degradation was accelerated in cells transfected with miR-503 mimics. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that eIF4G and ABC translation proteins were significantly downregulated in MCF-7/ADR cells after transfection with miR-503. It was found that miR-503 mimics could sensitize the cells to treatment with ADM, TAM and TAX. These findings demonstrated for the first time that eIF4G acted as a key factor in MCF-7/ADR cells, and may be an efficient agent for preventing and reversing multi-drug resistance in breast cancer.

  19. Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.63) is Palau which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 2 March 2007. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 144 Member States became Members [es

  20. The predicted ABC transporter AbcEDCBA is required for type IV secretion system expression and lysosomal evasion by Brucella ovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teane M A Silva

    Full Text Available Brucella ovis is a major cause of reproductive failure in rams and it is one of the few well-described Brucella species that is not zoonotic. Previous work showed that a B. ovis mutant lacking a species-specific ABC transporter (ΔabcBA was attenuated in mice and was unable to survive in macrophages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of this ABC transporter during intracellular survival of B. ovis. In HeLa cells, B. ovis WT was able to survive and replicate at later time point (48 hpi, whereas an ΔabcBA mutant was attenuated at 24 hpi. The reduced survival of the ΔabcBA mutant was associated with a decreased ability to exclude the lysosomal marker LAMP1 from its vacuolar membrane, suggesting a failure to establish a replicative niche. The ΔabcBA mutant showed a reduced abundance of the Type IV secretion system (T4SS proteins VirB8 and VirB11 in both rich and acid media, when compared to WT B. ovis. However, mRNA levels of virB1, virB8, hutC, and vjbR were similar in both strains. These results support the notion that the ABC transporter encoded by abcEDCBA or its transported substrate acts at a post-transcriptional level to promote the optimal expression of the B. ovis T4SS within infected host cells.

  1. Genome-wide comparative analysis of ABC systems in the Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Chen, Huan; Williams, Henry N

    2015-05-10

    Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms (BALOs) are gram-negative, predatory bacteria with wide variations in genome sizes and GC content and ecological habitats. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) systems have been identified in several prokaryotes, fungi and plants and have a role in transport of materials in and out of cells and in cellular processes. However, knowledge of the ABC systems of BALOs remains obscure. A total of 269 putative ABC proteins were identified in BALOs. The genes encoding these ABC systems occupy nearly 1.3% of the gene content in freshwater Bdellovibrio strains and about 0.7% in their saltwater counterparts. The proteins found belong to 25 ABC system families based on their structural characteristics and functions. Among these, 16 families function as importers, 6 as exporters and 3 are involved in various cellular processes. Eight of these 25 ABC system families were deduced to be the core set of ABC systems conserved in all BALOs. All Bacteriovorax strains have 28 or less ABC systems. On the contrary, the freshwater Bdellovibrio strains have more ABC systems, typically around 51. In the genome of Bdellovibrio exovorus JSS (CP003537.1), 53 putative ABC systems were detected, representing the highest number among all the BALO genomes examined in this study. Unexpected high numbers of ABC systems involved in cellular processes were found in all BALOs. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the majority of ABC proteins can be assigned into many separate families with high bootstrap supports (>50%). In this study, a general framework of sequence-structure-function connections for the ABC systems in BALOs was revealed providing novel insights for future investigations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. ABC Transporters and the Alzheimer’s Disease Enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eWolf

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is considered the disease of the 21st century. With a 10-fold increase in global incidence over the past 100 years, AD is now reaching epidemic proportions and by all projections, AD patient numbers will continue to rise. Despite intense research efforts, AD remains a mystery and effective therapies are still unavailable. This represents an unmet need resulting in clinical, social, and economic problems.Over the last decade, a new AD research focus has emerged: ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters. In this article, we provide an overview of the ABC transporters ABCA1, ABCA2, P-glycoprotein (ABCB1, Mrp1 (ABCC1 and BCRP (ABCG2, all of which are expressed in the brain and have been implicated in AD. We summarize recent findings on the role of these five transporters in AD, and discuss their potential to serve as therapeutic targets.

  3. Magneto-optical properties of ABC-stacked trilayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Ping; Lin, Chiun-Yan; Ho, Yen-Hung; Do, Thi-Nga; Lin, Ming-Fa

    2015-06-28

    The generalized tight-binding model is developed to investigate the magneto-optical absorption spectra of ABC-stacked trilayer graphene. The absorption peaks can be classified into nine categories of inter-Landau-level optical excitations, including three intra-group and six inter-group ones. Most of them belong to the twin-peak structures because of the asymmetric Landau level spectrum. The threshold absorption peak alone comes from a certain excitation channel, and its frequency is associated with a specific interlayer atomic interaction. The Landau-level anticrossings cause extra absorption peaks. Moreover, a simple relationship between the absorption frequency and the field strength is absent. The magneto-optical properties of ABC-stacked trilayer graphene are totally different from those of AAA- and ABA-stacked ones, such as the number, intensity and frequency of absorption peaks.

  4. [Peroxisomal ABC transporters and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geillon, Flore; Trompier, Doriane; Gondcaille, Catherine; Lizard, Gérard; Savary, Stéphane

    2012-12-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease associated with mutations in the ABCD1 gene, which encodes for a peroxisomal ABC transporter. Thanks to the efforts of the ELA foundation and to the recent successes of gene therapy published in Science in 2009, X-ALD is better known but still remains poorly understood. The exact role of ABCD1 and its homologs, as well as the exact link between the biochemical and metabolic peroxisomal defects and the clinical symptoms of the disease remain to be elucidated. This review summarizes the knowledge concerning the subfamily D of the ABC transporter family and concerning X-ALD, the most frequent peroxisomal disorder. © 2012 médecine/sciences – Inserm / SRMS.

  5. Arnold Diffusion of Charged Particles in ABC Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Alejandro; Peralta-Salas, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    We prove the existence of diffusing solutions in the motion of a charged particle in the presence of ABC magnetic fields. The equations of motion are modeled by a 3DOF Hamiltonian system depending on two parameters. For small values of these parameters, we obtain a normally hyperbolic invariant manifold and we apply the so-called geometric methods for a priori unstable systems developed by A. Delshams, R. de la Llave and T.M. Seara. We characterize explicitly sufficient conditions for the existence of a transition chain of invariant tori having heteroclinic connections, thus obtaining global instability (Arnold diffusion). We also check the obtained conditions in a computer-assisted proof. ABC magnetic fields are the simplest force-free-type solutions of the magnetohydrodynamics equations with periodic boundary conditions, and can be considered as an elementary model for the motion of plasma-charged particles in a tokamak.

  6. Learning the ABCs: Activity based costing in waste operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zocher, Marc A.

    1992-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is facing a challenging new national role based on current world events, changing public perception and awareness, and a legacy of wastes generated in the past. Clearly, the DOE must put mechanisms in place to comply with environmental rules, regulations, and good management practices so that public health risk is minimized while programmatic costs are controlled. DOE has begun this process and has developed a Five-Year Plan to describe the activities necessary to comply with both cleanup, or environmental restoration, and waste management of existing waste streams. The focus of this paper is how to best manage the treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation of waste throughout the DOE weapons complex by using Activity Based Costing (ABC) to both plan and control expenditures in DOE Waste Management (WM). The basics of ABC, along with an example, will be detailed. (author)

  7. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ABC COSTING IN A SERVICES PROVIDER COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo Aguena Jacintho Gil de Castro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of the Activity-Based Cost (ABC method in a company of taxes and accounting services and outlines the positive and negative aspects encountered during implementation. It should be taken into account that this work has been developed in the fiscal area of cost verification. Bibliographical references, internal company documents and interviews with industry officials and the administrator responsible for the company were used. In the evolving of operations, the costs of the fiscal area and their main activities have been described monthly and through this information, drivers have been developed and the ABC (Activity-Based Costing method has been adopted. With the implementation it became clear that the system provides better visualization for the decision making process, it also provided learning for the company, so that the method should be used for an undetermined period of time.

  8. Second-order nonlinear optical metamaterials: ABC-type nanolaminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alloatti, L., E-mail: alloatti@mit.edu; Kieninger, C.; Lauermann, M.; Köhnle, K. [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Electronics (IPQ), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Froelich, A.; Wegener, M. [Institute of Applied Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Frenzel, T. [Institute of Applied Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Freude, W. [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Electronics (IPQ), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute for Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Leuthold, J.; Koos, C., E-mail: christian.koos@kit.edu [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Electronics (IPQ), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute for Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2015-09-21

    We demonstrate a concept for second-order nonlinear metamaterials that can be obtained from non-metallic centrosymmetric constituents with inherently low optical absorption. The concept is based on iterative atomic-layer deposition of three different materials, A = Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B = TiO{sub 2}, and C = HfO{sub 2}. The centrosymmetry of the resulting ABC stack is broken since the ABC and the inverted CBA sequences are not equivalent—a necessary condition for non-zero second-order nonlinearity. In our experiments, we find that the bulk second-order nonlinear susceptibility depends on the density of interfaces, leading to a nonlinear susceptibility of 0.26 pm/V at a wavelength of 800 nm. ABC-type nanolaminates can be deposited on virtually any substrate and offer a promising route towards engineering of second-order optical nonlinearities at both infrared and visible wavelengths.

  9. ABC and VED Analysis in Medical Stores Inventory Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R; Gupta, K K; Jain, B R; Garg, R K

    2007-10-01

    The basic principle of inventory control is ABC based on cost criteria and VED on criticality. Based on ABC-VED matrix, economic analysis of drug expenditure of priced vocabulary of medical stores (PVMS) section 01 for the year 2003 of a 190 bedded service hospital was under taken. Out of 493 drugs in PVMS section 01, only 325 drugs were being used in the reference hospital. The total cost of drugs used was Rupees 55,23,503. Of these 325 drugs, 47(14.4%) drugs were Category A, consuming 70% of total expenditure, 73 (22.46 %) drugs Category B consuming 20% and rest 205 drugs (63.7 %) Category C drugs cost only 10% of expenditure. VED categorization done by consensus opinion of medical officers, found 24 (7.3%) drugs vital, 160 (49.3%) essential and rest 141 (43.3 %) desirable. On coupling the two techniques ABC-VED matrix was made and drugs were classified in to Category I (AV+BV+CV+AE+AD) comprising 68 drugs, Category II (BE + CE +BD) 159 and Category III (CD) 98 drugs. The management of Category I drugs was monitored by top management resulting in better control on the annual expenses and at the same time making available the vital Category II by middle and Category III at lower mangerial level.

  10. High-level assessment of LANL ABC Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-15

    An annual weapon`s grade Pu disposition goal should be stated and related to the amount of Pu that needs to be disposed of. It needs to be determined to what extent it is possible to destroy Pu without building up any new Pu, i.e., how realistic this goal is. The strong positive Doppler coefficient for a Pu core might require the addition of some fertile material to ensure a negative Doppler coefficient. This in turn will affect the net Pu disposition rate. If a fertile material is required throughout the life of the ABC to ensure a negative Doppler coefficient, the difference between the molten salt ABC and other reactors in regard to Pu disposition is not a principled difference anymore but one of degree. A rationale has then to be developed that explains why {open_quotes}x{close_quotes} kg production of fissile material are acceptable but {open_quotes}y{close_quotes} kg are not. It is important to determine how a requirement for electricity production will impact on the ABC design choices. It is conceivable that DOE will not insist on electricity generation. In this case advantage has to be taken in terms of design simplifications and relaxed operating conditions.

  11. Characterization and Functional Analysis of Five MADS-Box B Class Genes Related to Floral Organ Identification in Tagetes erecta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Ai

    Full Text Available According to the floral organ development ABC model, B class genes specify petal and stamen identification. In order to study the function of B class genes in flower development of Tagetes erecta, five MADS-box B class genes were identified and their expression and putative functions were studied. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that there were one PI-like gene-TePI, two euAP3-like genes-TeAP3-1 and TeAP3-2, and two TM6-like genes-TeTM6-1 and TeTM6-2 in T. erecta. Strong expression levels of these genes were detected in stamens of the disk florets, but little or no expression was detected in bracts, receptacles or vegetative organs. Yeast hybrid experiments of the B class proteins showed that TePI protein could form a homodimer and heterodimers with all the other four B class proteins TeAP3-1, TeAP3-2, TeTM6-1 and TeTM6-2. No homodimer or interaction was observed between the euAP3 and TM6 clade members. Over-expression of five B class genes of T. erecta in Nicotiana rotundifolia showed that only the transgenic plants of 35S::TePI showed altered floral morphology compared with the non-transgenic line. This study could contribute to the understanding of the function of B class genes in flower development of T. erecta, and provide a theoretical basis for further research to change floral organ structures and create new materials for plant breeding.

  12. Backbone NMR resonance assignments of the nucleotide binding domain of the ABC multidrug transporter LmrA from Lactococcus lactis in its ADP-bound state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmich, Ute A; Duchardt-Ferner, Elke; Glaubitz, Clemens; Wöhnert, Jens

    2012-04-01

    LmrA from Lactococcus lactis is a multidrug transporter and a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. ABC transporters consist of a transmembrane domain (TMD) and a nucleotide binding domain (NBD). The NBD contains the highly conserved signature motifs of this transporter superfamily. In the case of LmrA, the TMD and the NBD are expressed as a single polypeptide. LmrA catalyzes the extrusion of hydrophobic compounds including antibiotics from the cell membrane at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. ATP binds to the NBD, where binding and hydrolysis induce conformational changes that lead to the extrusion of the substrate via the TMD. Here, we report the (1)H, (13)C and (15)N backbone chemical shift assignments of the isolated 263 amino acid containing NBD of LmrA in its ADP bound state.

  13. Object Detection Based on Template Matching through Use of Best-So-Far ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anan Banharnsakun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Best-so-far ABC is a modified version of the artificial bee colony (ABC algorithm used for optimization tasks. This algorithm is one of the swarm intelligence (SI algorithms proposed in recent literature, in which the results demonstrated that the best-so-far ABC can produce higher quality solutions with faster convergence than either the ordinary ABC or the current state-of-the-art ABC-based algorithm. In this work, we aim to apply the best-so-far ABC-based approach for object detection based on template matching by using the difference between the RGB level histograms corresponding to the target object and the template object as the objective function. Results confirm that the proposed method was successful in both detecting objects and optimizing the time used to reach the solution.

  14. Object Detection Based on Template Matching through Use of Best-So-Far ABC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Best-so-far ABC is a modified version of the artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm used for optimization tasks. This algorithm is one of the swarm intelligence (SI) algorithms proposed in recent literature, in which the results demonstrated that the best-so-far ABC can produce higher quality solutions with faster convergence than either the ordinary ABC or the current state-of-the-art ABC-based algorithm. In this work, we aim to apply the best-so-far ABC-based approach for object detection based on template matching by using the difference between the RGB level histograms corresponding to the target object and the template object as the objective function. Results confirm that the proposed method was successful in both detecting objects and optimizing the time used to reach the solution. PMID:24812556

  15. ABC Dementia Scale: A Quick Assessment Tool for Determining Alzheimer’s Disease Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Mori

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, we examined the construct validity, concurrent validity concerning other standard scales, intrarater reliability, and changes in scores at 12 weeks of the previously developed ABC Dementia Scale (ABC-DS, a novel assessment tool for Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Methods: Data were obtained from 312 patients diagnosed with either AD or mild cognitive impairment. The scores on the ABC-DS and standard scales were compared. Results: The 13 items of the ABC-DS are grouped into three domains, and the domain-level scores were highly correlated with the corresponding conventional scales. Statistically significant changes in assessment scores after 12 weeks were observed for the total ABC-DS scores. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate the ABC-DS to have good validity and reliability, and its usefulness in busy clinical settings.

  16. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Sammenfatning af de mest væsentlige pointer fra hovedrapporten: Dokumentation og evaluering af Coding Class......Sammenfatning af de mest væsentlige pointer fra hovedrapporten: Dokumentation og evaluering af Coding Class...

  17. Applying ABC Analysis to the Navy’s Inventory Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE APPLYING ABC ANALYSIS TO THE NAVY’S INVENTORY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...Parts, Navy Enterprise Resource Planning, ABC Inventory Classification. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 101 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...for public release; distribution is unlimited APPLYING ABC ANALYSIS TO THE NAVY’S INVENTORY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Benjamin May Lieutenant

  18. Drainage trans vesical d'un abces prostatique chez un sujet infecte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nous rapportons un cas d'abcès prostatique drainé avec succès par voie chirurgicale transvésicale chez un homme infecté par le VIH. Nous discutons les différentes méthodes de drainage de l'abcès prostatique et situons la place du drainage trans-vésical. Mots clés: abcès prostatique, VIH, chirurgie, Lomé, Togo.

  19. Creating an iPhone application for collecting continuous ABC data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Seth W; Dixon, Mark R

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview and task analysis for creating a continuous ABC data-collection application using Xcode on a Mac computer. Behavior analysts can program an ABC data collection system, complete with a customized list of target clients, antecedents, behaviors, and consequences to be recorded, and have the data automatically sent to an e-mail account after observations have concluded. Further suggestions are provided to customize the ABC data- collection system for individual preferences and clinical needs.

  20. Class Actions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the relatively new Danish Act on Class Action (Danish: gruppesøgsmål) which was suggested by The Permanent Council on Civil procedure (Retsplejerådet) of which the article's author is a member. The operability of the new provisions is illustrated through some wellknown Danish...... cases: Hafnia case (investment prospectus), and Danish Eternit (roof elements) where the existence of Danish provisions on class actions might have made a difference, and the article also deals with the delicate questions of opt-in and opt-out....

  1. The use of active breathing control (ABC) to reduce margin for breathing motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, John W.; Sharpe, Michael B.; Jaffray, David A.; Kini, Vijay R.; Robertson, John M.; Stromberg, Jannifer S.; Martinez, Alavro A.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: For tumors in the thorax and abdomen, reducing the treatment margin for organ motion due to breathing reduces the volume of normal tissues that will be irradiated. A higher dose can be delivered to the target, provided that the risk of marginal misses is not increased. To ensure safe margin reduction, we investigated the feasibility of using active breathing control (ABC) to temporarily immobilize the patient's breathing. Treatment planning and delivery can then be performed at identical ABC conditions with minimal margin for breathing motion. Methods and Materials: An ABC apparatus is constructed consisting of 2 pairs of flow monitor and scissor valve, 1 each to control the inspiration and expiration paths to the patient. The patient breathes through a mouth-piece connected to the ABC apparatus. The respiratory signal is processed continuously, using a personal computer that displays the changing lung volume in real-time. After the patient's breathing pattern becomes stable, the operator activates ABC at a preselected phase in the breathing cycle. Both valves are then closed to immobilize breathing motion. Breathing motion of 12 patients were held with ABC to examine their acceptance of the procedure. The feasibility of applying ABC for treatment was tested in 5 patients by acquiring volumetric scans with a spiral computed tomography (CT) scanner during active breath-hold. Two patients had Hodgkin's disease, 2 had metastatic liver cancer, and 1 had lung cancer. Two intrafraction ABC scans were acquired at the same respiratory phase near the end of normal or deep inspiration. An additional ABC scan near the end of normal expiration was acquired for 2 patients. The ABC scans were also repeated 1 week later for a Hodgkin's patient. In 1 liver patient, ABC scans were acquired at 7 different phases of the breathing cycle to facilitate examination of the liver motion associated with ventilation. Contours of the lungs and livers were outlined when applicable

  2. Deciphering the Routes of invasion of Drosophila suzukii by Means of ABC Random Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraimout, Antoine; Debat, Vincent; Fellous, Simon; Hufbauer, Ruth A.; Foucaud, Julien; Pudlo, Pierre; Marin, Jean-Michel; Price, Donald K.; Cattel, Julien; Chen, Xiao; Deprá, Marindia; François Duyck, Pierre; Guedot, Christelle; Kenis, Marc; Kimura, Masahito T.; Loeb, Gregory; Loiseau, Anne; Martinez-Sañudo, Isabel; Pascual, Marta; Polihronakis Richmond, Maxi; Shearer, Peter; Singh, Nadia; Tamura, Koichiro; Xuéreb, Anne; Zhang, Jinping

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Deciphering invasion routes from molecular data is crucial to understanding biological invasions, including identifying bottlenecks in population size and admixture among distinct populations. Here, we unravel the invasion routes of the invasive pest Drosophila suzukii using a multi-locus microsatellite dataset (25 loci on 23 worldwide sampling locations). To do this, we use approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), which has improved the reconstruction of invasion routes, but can be computationally expensive. We use our study to illustrate the use of a new, more efficient, ABC method, ABC random forest (ABC-RF) and compare it to a standard ABC method (ABC-LDA). We find that Japan emerges as the most probable source of the earliest recorded invasion into Hawaii. Southeast China and Hawaii together are the most probable sources of populations in western North America, which then in turn served as sources for those in eastern North America. European populations are genetically more homogeneous than North American populations, and their most probable source is northeast China, with evidence of limited gene flow from the eastern US as well. All introduced populations passed through bottlenecks, and analyses reveal five distinct admixture events. These findings can inform hypotheses concerning how this species evolved between different and independent source and invasive populations. Methodological comparisons indicate that ABC-RF and ABC-LDA show concordant results if ABC-LDA is based on a large number of simulated datasets but that ABC-RF out-performs ABC-LDA when using a comparable and more manageable number of simulated datasets, especially when analyzing complex introduction scenarios. PMID:28122970

  3. Diversity and evolution of ABC proteins in mycorrhiza-forming fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Andriy; Kohler, Annegret; Martin, Francis; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2015-12-28

    Transporter proteins are predicted to have an important role in the mycorrhizal symbiosis, due to the fact that this type of an interaction between plants and fungi requires a continuous nutrient and signalling exchange. ABC transporters are one of the large groups of transporter proteins found both in plants and in fungi. The crucial role of plant ABC transporters in the formation of the mycorrhizal symbiosis has been demonstrated recently. Some of the fungal ABC transporter-encoding genes are also induced during the mycorrhiza formation. However, no experimental evidences of the direct involvement of fungal ABC transporters in this process are available so far. To facilitate the identification of fungal ABC proteins with a potential role in the establishment of the mycorrhizal symbiosis, we have performed an inventory of the ABC protein-encoding genes in the genomes of 25 species of mycorrhiza-forming fungi. We have identified, manually annotated and curated more than 1300 gene models of putative ABC protein-encoding genes. Out of those, more than 1000 models are predicted to encode functional proteins, whereas about 300 models represent gene fragments or putative pseudogenes. We have also performed the phylogenetic analysis of the identified sequences. The sets of ABC proteins in the mycorrhiza-forming species were compared to the related saprotrophic or plant-pathogenic fungal species. Our results demonstrate the high diversity of ABC genes in the genomes of mycorrhiza-forming fungi. Via comparison of transcriptomics data from different species, we have identified candidate groups of ABC transporters that might have a role in the process of the mycorrhiza formation. Results of our inventory will facilitate the identification of fungal transporters with a role in the mycorrhiza formation. We also provide the first data on ABC protein-coding genes for the phylum Glomeromycota and for orders Pezizales, Atheliales, Cantharellales and Sebacinales, contributing to

  4. The ABC gene family in arthropods: comparative genomics and role in insecticide transport and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermauw, Wannes; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    About a 100 years ago, the Drosophila white mutant marked the birth of Drosophila genetics. The white gene turned out to encode the first well studied ABC transporter in arthropods. The ABC gene family is now recognized as one of the largest transporter families in all kingdoms of life. The majority of ABC proteins function as primary-active transporters that bind and hydrolyze ATP while transporting a large diversity of substrates across lipid membranes. Although extremely well studied in vertebrates for their role in drug resistance, less is known about the role of this family in the transport of endogenous and exogenous substances in arthropods. The ABC families of five insect species, a crustacean and a chelicerate have been annotated in some detail. We conducted a thorough phylogenetic analysis of the seven arthropod and human ABC protein subfamilies, to infer orthologous relationships that might suggest conserved function. Most orthologous relationships were found in the ABCB half transporter, ABCD, ABCE and ABCF subfamilies, but specific expansions within species and lineages are frequently observed and discussed. We next surveyed the role of ABC transporters in the transport of xenobiotics/plant allelochemicals and their involvement in insecticide resistance. The involvement of ABC transporters in xenobiotic resistance in arthropods is historically not well documented, but an increasing number of studies using unbiased differential gene expression analysis now points to their importance. We give an overview of methods that can be used to link ABC transporters to resistance. ABC proteins have also recently been implicated in the mode of action and resistance to Bt toxins in Lepidoptera. Given the enormous interest in Bt toxicology in transgenic crops, such findings will provide an impetus to further reveal the role of ABC transporters in arthropods. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. ABA, AAB and ABC renewal in taste aversion learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Nieto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Existe evidencia de que los cambios en los estímulos ambientales afectan activamente la ocurrencia de la respuesta condicionada (RC. La renovación contextual o la reaparición de una RC extinguida se observa cuando se continúa la extinción de dicha respuesta en un contexto diferente. Se diseñaron dos experimentos con el propósito de evaluar la renovación contextual en un procedimiento de condicionamiento de aversión al sabor. En el Experimento 1, se analizó la renovación contextual ABA y AAB, mientras que el Experimento 2 se evaluó la renovación ABA, AAB y ABC. Ambos experimentos constaron de tres fases: adquisición, extinción y prueba. En ambos experimentos, la fase de adquisición se condujo en el Contexto A para todos los grupos y en ella, se inyectó i.p. Cloruro de Litio (LiCl a los sujetos inmediatamente después de que ingirieron una solución de sacarosa. En la fase de extinción, se expuso a los sujetos únicamente a la solución de sacarosa, sin la inyección. Los grupos AAB y AAA recibieron esta fase en el Contexto A, mientras que los sujetos de los grupos ABA y ABC la recibieron en el Contexto B. En la fase de prueba, se continúo la extinción. Los grupos ABA y AAA recibieron esta fase en el Contexto A, el grupo AAB en el contexto B, mientras el grupo ABC la recibió en un tercer contexto. Los resultados mostraron renovación de la aversión condicionada al sabor en los grupos ABA, AAB y ABC. Se analiza la relación de estos hallazgos con el modelo de recuperación de información de Bouton (1994.

  6. Design of the storage location based on the ABC analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemelka, Milan; Chramcov, Bronislav; Kříž, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    The paper focuses on process efficiency and saving storage costs. Maintaining inventory through putaway strategy takes personnel time and costs money. The aim is to control inventory in the best way. The ABC classification based on Villefredo Pareto theory is used for a design of warehouse layout. New design of storage location reduces the distance of fork-lifters, total costs and it increases inventory process efficiency. The suggested solutions and evaluation of achieved results are described in detail. Proposed solutions were realized in real warehouse operation.

  7. TetAB46, a predicted heterodimeric ABC transporter conferring tetracycline resistance in Streptococcus australis isolated from the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Philip J; Ciric, Lena; Lerner, Avigdor; Seville, Lorna A; Roberts, Adam P; Mullany, Peter; Allan, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    To identify the genes responsible for tetracycline resistance in a strain of Streptococcus australis isolated from pooled saliva from healthy volunteers in France. S. australis is a viridans Streptococcus, originally isolated from the oral cavity of children in Australia, and subsequently reported in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients and as a cause of invasive disease in an elderly patient. Agar containing 2 mg/L tetracycline was used for the isolation of tetracycline-resistant organisms. A genomic library in Escherichia coli was used to isolate the tetracycline resistance determinant. In-frame deletions and chromosomal repair were used to confirm function. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by agar dilution and disc diffusion assay. The tetracycline resistance determinant from S. australis FRStet12 was isolated from a genomic library in E. coli and DNA sequencing showed two open reading frames predicted to encode proteins with similarity to multidrug resistance-type ABC transporters. Both genes were required for tetracycline resistance (to both the naturally occurring and semi-synthetic tetracyclines) and they were designated tetAB(46). This is the first report of a predicted ABC transporter conferring tetracycline resistance in a member of the oral microbiota.

  8. Plasmid-Encoded RepA Proteins Specifically Autorepress Individual repABC Operons in the Multipartite Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii Genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Żebracki

    Full Text Available Rhizobia commonly have very complex genomes with a chromosome and several large plasmids that possess genes belonging to the repABC family. RepA and RepB are members of the ParA and ParB families of partitioning proteins, respectively, whereas RepC is crucial for plasmid replication. In the repABC replicons, partitioning and replication functions are transcriptionally linked resulting in complex regulation of rep gene expression. The genome of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii TA1 (RtTA1 consists of a chromosome and four plasmids (pRleTA1a-d, equipped with functional repABC genes. In this work, the regulation of transcription of the individual repABC cassettes of the four RtTA1 plasmids was studied. The involvement of the RepA and RepB as well as parS-like centromere sites in this process was depicted, demonstrating some dissimilarity in expression of respective rep regions. RtTA1 repABC genes of individual plasmids formed operons, which were negatively regulated by RepA and RepB. Individual RepA were able to bind to DNA without added nucleotides, but in the presence of ADP, bound specifically to their own operator sequences containing imperfect palindromes, and caused operon autorepression, whereas the addition of ATP stimulated non-specific binding of RepA to DNA. The RepA proteins were able to dimerize/oligomerize: in general dimers formed independently of ATP or ADP, although ATP diminished the concentration of oligomers that were produced. By the comprehensive approach focusing on a set of plasmids instead of individual replicons, the work highlighted subtle differences between the organization and regulation of particular rep operons as well as the structures and specificity of RepA proteins, which contribute to the fine-tuned coexistence of several replicons with similar repABC cassettes in the complex bacterial genome.

  9. abc: The AspectBench Compiler for AspectJ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allan, Chris; Avgustinov, Pavel; Christensen, Aske Simon

    2005-01-01

    abc is an extensible, optimising compiler for AspectJ. It has been designed as a workbench for experimental research in aspect-oriented programming languages and compilers. We outline a programme of research in these areas, and we review how abc can help in achieving those research goals...

  10. Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC): Establishing Construct Validity for Israeli Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Rosenblum, Sara; Josman, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) is one of the most accepted tools, both in clinical practice and in research, for the diagnosis of Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCDs) in children. The present study aimed to: (1) establish the construct validity of M-ABC in Israel by comparing the motor performance of typically…

  11. Reducing the overall HIV-burden in South Africa: is 'reviving ABC' an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article questions the recommendations to 'revive ABC (abstain, be faithful, condomise)' as a mechanism to 'educate' people in South Africa about HIV prevention as the South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey, 2012, suggests. We argue that ABC was designed as a response to a ...

  12. Creating an iPhone Application for Collecting Continuous ABC Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Seth W.; Dixon, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview and task analysis for creating a continuous ABC data- collection application using Xcode on a Mac computer. Behavior analysts can program an ABC data collection system, complete with a customized list of target clients, antecedents, behaviors, and consequences to be recorded, and have the data automatically sent to…

  13. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart II of... - Summary of Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements abc

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Summary of Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements abc 3 Table 3 to Subpart II of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... abc Requirement All Opts. Rec Rep Option 1 Rec Rep Option 2 Rec Rep Option 3 Rec Rep Notification...

  14. Structural Validity of the Movement ABC-2 Test: Factor Structure Comparisons across Three Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Joerg; Henderson, Sheila E.; Sugden, David A.; Barnett, Anna L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Movement ABC test is one of the most widely used assessments in the field of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Improvements to the 2nd edition of the test (M-ABC-2) include an extension of the age range and reduction in the number of age bands as well as revision of tasks. The total test score provides a measure of motor…

  15. Applying the Post-Modern Double ABC-X Model to Family Food Insecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Samantha; Anderson, Melinda; Swafford, Melinda

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops the argument that using the Double ABC-X model in family and consumer sciences (FCS) curricula is a way to educate nutrition and dietetics students regarding a family's perceptions of food insecurity. The Double ABC-X model incorporates ecological theory as a basis to explain family stress and the resulting adjustment and…

  16. The ABC of handover: impact on shift handover in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhan, Maisse; Brown, Ruth; Vincent, Charles; Woloshynowych, Maria

    2012-12-01

    A study was undertaken to test the impact of a new tool for shift handover, 'The ABC of Handover', in the emergency department (ED). The impact on shift handover following implementation of this structured tool, the effect on clinical and organisational aspects of the subsequent shift and the opinions of users of this new tool are reported. A prospective observational before and after study was performed to explore the effect of implementing 'The ABC of Handover' on clinical and organisational practice using a questionnaire. 41 handovers were observed before implementation of 'The ABC of Handover' and 42 were observed after. The new tool was successfully implemented and resulted in a change of practice which led to a significant increase in the operational issues mentioned at handover from a mean of 34% to a mean of 86% of essential items with the ABC method. Over the study period, middle-grade staff demonstrated improved situational awareness as they adopted proactive management of operational issues such as staffing or equipment shortages. All participants reported that 'The ABC of Handover' improved handover regardless of the seniority of the doctor giving it, and found the ABC method easy to learn. Successful implementation of 'The ABC of Handover' led to a change of practice in the ED. Improving handover resulted in better organisation of the shift and heightened awareness of potential patient safety issues. The ABC method provides a framework for organising the shift and preparing for events in the subsequent shift.

  17. The Assessment of Burden of COPD (ABC) Scale: A Reliable and Valid Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H.M. Slok (Annerika); Bemelmans, T.C.H. (Thomas C. H.); D. Kotz (Daniel); T. van der Molen (Thys); H.A.M. Kerstjens (Huib); in ‘t Veen, J.C.C.M. (Johannes C. C. M.); N.H. Chavannes (Nicolas); G.M. Asijee (Guus); M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen); O.C.P. Schayck (Onno)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe newly developed Assessment of Burden of COPD (ABC) scale is a 14-item self-administered questionnaire which measures the physical, psychological, emotional and/or social burden as experienced by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The ABC scale is part of the

  18. Abrasive wear behavior of heat-treated ABC-silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiao Feng; Lee, Gun Y.; Chen, Da; Ritchie, Robert O.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2002-06-17

    Hot-pressed silicon carbide, containing aluminum, boron, and carbon additives (ABC-SiC), was subjected to three-body and two-body wear testing using diamond abrasives over a range of sizes. In general, the wear resistance of ABC-SiC, with suitable heat treatment, was superior to that of commercial SiC.

  19. Use of anti-horseradish peroxidase antibody-gold complex in the ABC technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, B; Warhol, M J; Roth, J

    1991-06-01

    We report a modification of the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) technique for the light and electron microscopic detection of antigens in tissue sections. An immunological approach was used instead of the DAB reaction to reveal ABC bound to antigen-antibody complexes. Affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies against horseradish peroxidase were complexed to particles of colloidal gold and applied for reaction with the horseradish peroxidase molecules of the ABC. For light microscopic immunolabeling, the signal produced by the anti-horseradish peroxidase antibody-gold complex required silver intensification. The ABC immunogold reaction as compared with the standard ABC technique, in particular with silver intensification of the DAB reaction product, provided superior resolution in paraffin sections. Furthermore, section pre-treatment to block endogenous peroxidase activity could be omitted and no potentially hazardous substrate was used. The ABC immunogold reaction was successfully applied for electron microscopic immunolabeling on Lowicryl K4M thin sections. We propose that the ABC immunogold reaction is a useful alternative to the standard ABC technique and can be equally well applied to light and electron microscopy.

  20. The Role of Activity Based Costing (ABC) in Educational Support Services: A White Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edds, Daniel B.

    Many front-line managers who are assuming more financial responsibility for their organizations find traditional cost accounting inadequate for their needs and are turning to Activity Based Costing (ABC). ABC is not a financial reporting system to serve the needs of regulatory agencies, but a tool that tracks costs from the general ledger…

  1. The ABCs of Activity-Based Costing: A Cost Containment and Reallocation Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Frederick J.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes activity-based costing (ABC) and how this tool may help management understand the costs of major activities and identify possible alternatives. Also discussed are the traditional costing systems used by higher education and ways of applying ABC to higher education. (GLR)

  2. ABC transporters in Arthropods: genomic comparison and role in insecticide transport and resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dermauw, W.; Van Leeuwen, T.

    2014-01-01

    About a 100 years ago, the Drosophila white mutant marked the birth of Drosophila genetics. The white gene turned out to encode the first well studied ABC transporter in arthropods. The ABC gene family is now recognized as one of the largest transporter families in all kingdoms of life. The majority

  3. Transportomics: screening for substrates of ABC transporters in body fluids using vesicular transport assays.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krumpochova, P; Sapthu, S.; Brouwers, J.F.H.M.; de Haas, M.; de Vos, R.; Borst, P.; van de Wetering, K.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) genes encode the largest family of transmembrane proteins. ABC transporters translocate a wide variety of substrates across membranes, but their physiological function is often incompletely understood. We describe a new method to study the substrate spectrum

  4. Energy Coupling Factor-Type ABC Transporters for Vitamin Uptake in Prokaryotes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkens, Guus B.; Dosz-Majsnerowska, Maria; ter Beek, Josy; Slotboom, Dirk Jan

    2012-01-01

    Energy coupling factor (ECF) transporters are a subgroup of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters involved in the uptake of vitamins and micronutrients in prokaryotes. In contrast to classical ABC importers, ECF transporters do not make use of water-soluble substrate binding proteins or domains

  5. Structural and mechanistic insights into ABC-type ECF transporters for vitamin uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dosz-Majsnerowska, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Dit proefschrift gaat over de relatie tussen de structuur en het mechanisme van ABC-type ECF transporters voor vitamines, uit de bacterie Lactococcus lactis. Energy-Coupling Factor (ECF) transporters vormen een subgroep van de ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters en zijn betrokken bij de opname

  6. ABC transporters from Aspergillus nidulans are involved in protection against cytotoxic agents and antibiotic production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrade, A.C.; Nistelrooy, van J.G.M.; Peery, R.B.; Skatrud, P.L.; Waard, de M.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the characterization of atrC and atrD (ABC transporters C and D), two novel ABC transporter-encoding genes from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, and provides evidence for the involvement of atrD in multidrug transport and antibiotic production. BLAST analysis of the

  7. The ABCs of molecular dynamics simulations on B-DNA, circa 2012

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... This article provides a retrospective on the ABC initiative in the area of all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations including explicit solvent on all tetranucleotide steps of duplex B-form DNA duplex, ca. 2012. The ABC consortium has completed two phases of simulations, the most current being a set of ...

  8. Is the ABC pain scale reliable for premature babies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, Cv; Maffei, M; Ancora, G; Cordelli, D; Mastrocola, M; Faldella, G; Ferretti, E; Buonocore, G

    2007-07-01

    We recently developed the ABC scale to assess pain in term newborns. The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability of the scale in preterm babies. The scale consists of three cry parameters: (a) pitch of the first cry, (b) rhythmicity of the bout of crying and (c) cry constancy. Changes in these parameters were previously found to distinguish medium and high levels of pain as evaluated by spectral analysis of crying. We enrolled 72 babies to perform the steps usually requested to validate a scale, namely the study of the concurrent validity, specificity and sensibility. Moreover, we assessed the interjudge reliability and the clinical utility and ease of the scale. A good correlation (r = 0.68; r(2)= 0.45; p babies who underwent pain and babies who underwent non-painful stimulus.) Interobserver reliability was good: Cohen's kappa = 0.7. The good correlation between the two scales shows that the ABC scale is also reliable for premature babies.

  9. A STUDY ON THE ABC APPROACH IN COST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta ISAI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Activity-based costing (ABC, an alternative approach to traditional accounting, represents a costing methodology that identifies the main cost drivers, or the main activities in an organization, thus assigning the cost of the products and services according to the number of specific activities or transactions used in the development process of a product or service. This system is based on the measurement of all the activities performed within an organization and provides the companies with the opportunity to efficiently improve their activity or to reduce the costs with no quality loss for their customers. The primary aim of ABC method was to implement a logical system of additional allocation with a better information and improvement in the field of managerial policies, a real cost structure on the basis of which strategic managerial decisions could be further adopted. Under the terms of a continuous growth of fixed cost weighting, we will become more interested in the calculation system of process costing. This costs calculation method can bring on important benefits, especially for service provider companies, considering the high share of common- indirect costs (overhead, in their unit.

  10. Evolutionary Pattern of N-Glycosylation Sequon Numbers in Eukaryotic ABC Protein Superfamilies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, R Shyama Prasad; Buus, Ole Thomsen; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    and their underlying causes have largely been unexplored. We computed the actual and probabilistic occurrence of NXS/T sequons in ABC protein superfamilies from eight diverse eukaryotic organisms. The ABC proteins contained significantly higher NXS/T sequon numbers compared to respective genome-wide average......, but the sequon density was significantly lower owing to the increase in protein size and decrease in sequon specific amino acids. However, mammalian ABC proteins have significantly higher sequon density, and both serine and threonine containing sequons (NXS and NXT) have been positively selected...... higher than expected in plant ABC proteins which have the lowest number of NXS/T sequons. Accord- ingly, compared to overall proteins, N-glycosylation sequons in ABC protein superfamilies have a distinct pattern of occurrence, and the results are discussed in an evolutionary perspective...

  11. Inventory and function of yeast ABC proteins: about sex, stress, pleiotropic drug and heavy metal resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, B E; Wolfger, H; Kuchler, K

    1999-12-06

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the first eukaryotic organism whose complete genome sequence has been determined, uncovering the existence of numerous genes encoding proteins of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family. Fungal ABC proteins are implicated in a variety of cellular functions, ranging from clinical drug resistance development, pheromone secretion, mitochondrial function, peroxisome biogenesis, translation elongation, stress response to cellular detoxification. Moreover, some yeast ABC proteins are orthologues of human disease genes, which makes yeast an excellent model system to study the molecular mechanisms of ABC protein-mediated disease. This review provides a comprehensive discussion and update on the function and transcriptional regulation of all known ABC genes from yeasts, including those discovered in fungal pathogens.

  12. Classificação ABC dos materiais: uma ferramenta gerencial de custos em enfermagem Clasificación ABC de materiales: una herramienta gerencial de costos en enfermería ABC supplies classification: a managment tool of costs in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Gomes Lourenço

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A implementação de sistemas que auxiliam no gerenciamento de custos é importante para a área de saúde, quando visa contenção de gastos e melhoria da qualidade do serviço. A classificação ABC dos materiais é uma estratégia aplicada para controle de gastos com estoque. A finalidade deste estudo é conhecer o perfil dos gastos com material de consumo do Hospital Universitário da Universidade de São Paulo no período de um ano. Trata-se de um estudo exploratório-descritivo com análise quantitativa dos dados. Dos 1938 materiais classificados, 67 itens foram Classe A, que correspondem aos materiais com maiores custos para o hospital. 31,3% destes itens correspondem a materiais assistenciais, mais utilizados pela equipe de enfermagem.La implementación de los sistemas que auxilian en la gerencia de costos es importante para la área del servicio médico, por la contención de costos y mejoría de la calida de los servicios. La clasificación ABC de los materiales es una estrategia aplicada para el control de costos del inventario. La finalidad del trabajo es conocer el perfil de costos con materiales de consumo del Hospital Universitario de la Universidad de São Paulo en el periodo de uno año. Consiste en un análisis cuantitativo de exploratorio-descriptivo de los datos. De los 1938 materiales clasificados, 67 ítems fueron Classe A, que corresponden a los materiales de mayores costos para el hospital. 31.3% de los ítems corresponden a los materiales asistenciales, mas utilizados por el equipo de enfermera.The implementation of costs management systems has been extremely helpful to healthcare area owing to their efficacy in cutting expenditures as well as improving service quality. The ABC classification is an applied strategy to stocktaking and control. The research, which consists of an exploratory/descriptive quantitative analysis, has been carried out in order to identify, in a year time period, the demand for supplies at

  13. HLA class Ia and Ib molecules and FOXP3+ TILs in relation to the prognosis of malignant melanoma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melsted, Wenna Nascimento; Johansen, Lasse Lindholm; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    HLA class Ia (HLA-ABC) and HLA class Ib (HLA-E, -F and -G) molecules and FOXP3+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are often reported as relevant factors of tumor immune regulation. We investigated their expression as prognostic factors in 200 patients with primary cutaneous melanoma (PCM...... prognosis for the patients, being associated with thick tumors (30% vs 12%, P = 0.017), ulceration (24% vs 5%, P PCM. High HLA-ABC and HLA-G were associated with tumor...

  14. Hematopoietic stem cells exhibit a specific ABC transporter gene expression profile clearly distinct from other stem cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, L.; Bergevoet, S.M.; Gilissen, C.F.H.A.; Witte, T.J.M. de; Jansen, J.H.; Reijden, B.A. van der; Raymakers, R.A.P.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters protect cells against unrelated (toxic) substances by pumping them across cell membranes. Earlier we showed that many ABC transporters are highly expressed in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) compared to more committed progenitor cells. The ABC

  15. ABC/2 Method Does not Accurately Predict Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, Christopher; Vadlamudi, Venu; Chaudhary, Neeraj; Gemmete, Joseph J; Seinfeld, Joshua; Thompson, B Gregory; Pandey, Aditya S

    2018-02-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a treatment option for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) to prevent intracranial hemorrhage. The decision to proceed with SRS is usually based on calculated nidal volume. Physicians commonly use the ABC/2 formula, based on digital subtraction angiography (DSA), when counseling patients for SRS. To determine whether AVM volume calculated using the ABC/2 method on DSA is accurate when compared to the exact volume calculated from thin-cut axial sections used for SRS planning. Retrospective search of neurovascular database to identify AVMs treated with SRS from 1995 to 2015. Maximum nidal diameters in orthogonal planes on DSA images were recorded to determine volume using ABC/2 formula. Nidal target volume was extracted from operative reports of SRS. Volumes were then compared using descriptive statistics and paired t-tests. Ninety intracranial AVMs were identified. Median volume was 4.96 cm3 [interquartile range (IQR) 1.79-8.85] with SRS planning methods and 6.07 cm3 (IQR 1.3-13.6) with ABC/2 methodology. Moderate correlation was seen between SRS and ABC/2 (r = 0.662; P ABC/2 (t = -3.2; P = .002). When AVMs were dichotomized based on ABC/2 volume, significant differences remained (t = 3.1, P = .003 for ABC/2 volume ABC/2 volume > 7 cm3). The ABC/2 method overestimates cerebral AVM volume when compared to volumetric analysis from SRS planning software. For AVMs > 7 cm3, the overestimation is even greater. SRS planning techniques were also significantly different than values derived from equations for cones and cylinders. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  16. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Denne rapport rummer evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet1. Coding Class projektet blev igangsat i skoleåret 2016/2017 af IT-Branchen i samarbejde med en række medlemsvirksomheder, Københavns kommune, Vejle Kommune, Styrelsen for IT- og Læring (STIL) og den frivillige forening......, design tænkning og design-pædagogik, Stine Ejsing-Duun fra Forskningslab: It og Læringsdesign (ILD-LAB) ved Institut for kommunikation og psykologi, Aalborg Universitet i København. Vi har fulgt og gennemført evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet i perioden november 2016 til maj 2017....... Coding Class projektet er et pilotprojekt, hvor en række skoler i København og Vejle kommuner har igangsat undervisningsaktiviteter med fokus på kodning og programmering i skolen. Evalueringen og dokumentationen af projektet omfatter kvalitative nedslag i udvalgte undervisningsinterventioner i efteråret...

  17. The AbcA Transporter of Staphylococcus aureus Affects Cell Autolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader-Fischer, Gesine; Berger-Bächi, Brigitte

    2001-01-01

    Increased production of penicillin-binding protein PBP 4 is known to increase peptidoglycan cross-linking and contributes to methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. The pbp4 gene shares a 400-nucleotide intercistronic region with the divergently transcribed abcA gene, encoding an ATP-binding cassette transporter of unknown function. Our study revealed that methicillin stimulated abcA transcription but had no effects on pbp4 transcription. Analysis of abcA expression in mutants defective for global regulators showed that abcA is under the control of agr. Insertional inactivation of abcA by an erythromycin resistance determinant did not influence pbp4 transcription, nor did it alter resistance to methicillin and other cell wall-directed antibiotics. However, abcA mutants showed spontaneous partial lysis on plates containing subinhibitory concentrations of methicillin due to increased spontaneous autolysis. Since the autolytic zymograms of cell extracts were identical in mutants and parental strains, we postulate an indirect role of AbcA in control of autolytic activities and in protection of the cells against methicillin. PMID:11158733

  18. Applying Activity Based Costing (ABC) Method to Calculate Cost Price in Hospital and Remedy Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, A; Dabiri, A

    2012-01-01

    Activity Based Costing (ABC) is one of the new methods began appearing as a costing methodology in the 1990's. It calculates cost price by determining the usage of resources. In this study, ABC method was used for calculating cost price of remedial services in hospitals. To apply ABC method, Shahid Faghihi Hospital was selected. First, hospital units were divided into three main departments: administrative, diagnostic, and hospitalized. Second, activity centers were defined by the activity analysis method. Third, costs of administrative activity centers were allocated into diagnostic and operational departments based on the cost driver. Finally, with regard to the usage of cost objectives from services of activity centers, the cost price of medical services was calculated. The cost price from ABC method significantly differs from tariff method. In addition, high amount of indirect costs in the hospital indicates that capacities of resources are not used properly. Cost price of remedial services with tariff method is not properly calculated when compared with ABC method. ABC calculates cost price by applying suitable mechanisms but tariff method is based on the fixed price. In addition, ABC represents useful information about the amount and combination of cost price services.

  19. Obstacles to Brain Tumor Therapy: Key ABC Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juwina Wijaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The delivery of cancer chemotherapy to treat brain tumors remains a challenge, in part, because of the inherent biological barrier, the blood–brain barrier. While its presence and role as a protector of the normal brain parenchyma has been acknowledged for decades, it is only recently that the important transporter components, expressed in the tightly knit capillary endothelial cells, have been deciphered. These transporters are ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters and, so far, the major clinically important ones that functionally contribute to the blood–brain barrier are ABCG2 and ABCB1. A further limitation to cancer therapy of brain tumors or brain metastases is the blood–tumor barrier, where tumors erect a barrier of transporters that further impede drug entry. The expression and regulation of these two transporters at these barriers, as well as tumor derived alteration in expression and/or mutation, are likely obstacles to effective therapy.

  20. Progressive muscle relaxation, yoga stretching, and ABC relaxation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Shahyad; Smith, Jonathan C

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the psychological effects of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and yoga stretching (hatha) exercises. Forty participants were randomly divided into two groups and taught PMR or yoga stretching exercises. Both groups practiced once a week for five weeks and were given the Smith Relaxation States Inventory before and after each session. As hypothesized, practitioners of PMR displayed higher levels of relaxation states (R-States) Physical Relaxation and Disengagement at Week 4 and higher levels of Mental Quiet and Joy as a posttraining aftereffect at Week 5. Contrary to what was hypothesized, groups did not display different levels of R-States Energized or Aware. Results suggest the value of supplementing traditional somatic conceptualizations of relaxation with the psychological approach embodied in ABC relaxation theory. Clinical and research implications are discussed. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol.

  1. Expression pattern of the human ABC transporters in pluripotent embryonic stem cells and in their derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Zsuzsa; Lőrincz, Réka; Szebényi, Kornélia; Péntek, Adrienn; Varga, Nóra; Likó, István; Várady, György; Szakács, Gergely; Orbán, Tamás I; Sarkadi, Balázs; Apáti, Agota

    2014-09-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have key roles in various physiological functions as well as providing chemical defense and stress tolerance in human tissues. In this study, we have examined the expression pattern of all ABC proteins in pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and in their differentiated progenies. We paid special attention to the cellular expression and localization of multidrug transporter ABC proteins. Stem cell differentiation was carried out without chemical induction or cell sorting, and specialized cell types were separated mechanically. Cellular features regarding pluripotency and tissue identity, as well as ABC transporter expression were studied by flow cytomtery, immuno-microscopy, and qPCR-based low-density arrays. Pluripotent hESCs and differentiated cell types (cardiomyocytes, neuronal cells, and mesenchymal stem cells) were distinguished by morphology, immunostaining markers, and selected mRNA expression patterns. We found that the mRNA expression levels of the 48 human ABC proteins also clearly distinguished the pluripotent and the respective differentiated cell types. When multidrug and lipid transporter ABC protein expression was examined by using well characterized specific antibodies by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, the protein expression data corresponded well to the mRNA expression results. Moreover, the cellular localization of these important human ABC transporter proteins could be established in the pluripotent and differentiated hESC derived samples. These studies provide valuable information regarding ABC protein expression in human stem cells and their differentiated offspring. The results may also help to obtain further information concerning the specialized cellular functions of selected ABC transporters. © 2014 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  2. Lung volume reproducibility under ABC control and self-sustained breath-holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaza, Evangelia; Dunlop, Alex; Panek, Rafal; Collins, David J; Orton, Matthew; Symonds-Tayler, Richard; McQuaid, Dualta; Scurr, Erica; Hansen, Vibeke; Leach, Martin O

    2017-03-01

    An Active Breathing Coordinator (ABC) can be employed to induce breath-holds during CT imaging and radiotherapy of lung, breast and liver cancer, and recently during lung cancer MRI. The apparatus measures and controls respiratory volume, hence subject lung volume reproducibility is its principal measure of effectiveness. To assess ABC control quality, the intra-session reproducibility of ABC-induced lung volumes was evaluated and compared with that reached by applying the clinical standard of operator-guided self-sustained breath-holds on healthy volunteers during MRI. Inter-session reproducibility was investigated by repeating ABC-controlled breath-holds on a second visit. Additionally, lung volume agreement with ABC devices used with different imaging modalities in the same institution (MR, CT), or for a breast trial treatment, was assessed. Lung volumes were derived from three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted MRI datasets by three observers employing semiautomatic lung delineation on a radiotherapy treatment planning system. Inter-observer variability was less than 6% of the delineated lung volumes. Lung volume agreement between the different conditions over all subjects was investigated using descriptive statistics. The ABC equipment dedicated for MR application exhibited good intra-session and inter-session lung volume reproducibility (1.8% and 3% lung volume variability on average, respectively). MR-assessed lung volumes were similar using different ABC equipment dedicated to MR, CT, or breast radiotherapy. Overall, lung volumes controlled by the same or different ABC devices agreed better than with self-controlled breath-holds, as suggested by the average ABC variation of 1.8% of the measured lung volumes (99 mL), compared to the 4.1% (226 mL) variability observed on average with self-sustained breath-holding. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in

  3. A multidrug ABC transporter with a taste for salt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Velamakanni

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available LmrA is a multidrug ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter from Lactococcus lactis with no known physiological substrate, which can transport a wide range of chemotherapeutic agents and toxins from the cell. The protein can functionally replace the human homologue ABCB1 (also termed multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein MDR1 in lung fibroblast cells. Even though LmrA mediates ATP-dependent transport, it can use the proton-motive force to transport substrates, such as ethidium bromide, across the membrane by a reversible, H(+-dependent, secondary-active transport reaction. The mechanism and physiological context of this reaction are not known.We examined ion transport by LmrA in electrophysiological experiments and in transport studies using radioactive ions and fluorescent ion-selective probes. Here we show that LmrA itself can transport NaCl by a similar secondary-active mechanism as observed for ethidium bromide, by mediating apparent H(+-Na(+-Cl(- symport. Remarkably, LmrA activity significantly enhances survival of high-salt adapted lactococcal cells during ionic downshift.The observations on H(+-Na(+-Cl(- co-transport substantiate earlier suggestions of H(+-coupled transport by LmrA, and indicate a novel link between the activity of LmrA and salt stress. Our findings demonstrate the relevance of investigations into the bioenergetics of substrate translocation by ABC transporters for our understanding of fundamental mechanisms in this superfamily. This study represents the first use of electrophysiological techniques to analyze substrate transport by a purified multidrug transporter.

  4. Social Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    , and the Vaiśyas, the fourth underprivileged class, the Śūdras, and, at the bottom of the society, the lowest so-called ‘untouchable’ castes. It also discusses the understanding of human differences that lies at the center of the system and the possible economic and political motivations of the Brahmin authors......The notions of class (varṇa) and caste (jāti) run through the dharmaśāstra literature (i.e. Hindu Law Books) on all levels. They regulate marriage, economic transactions, work, punishment, penance, entitlement to rituals, identity markers like the sacred thread, and social interaction in general....... Although this social structure was ideal in nature and not equally confirmed in other genres of ancient and medieval literature, it has nevertheless had an immense impact on Indian society. The chapter presents an overview of the system with its three privileged classes, the Brahmins, the Kṣatriyas...

  5. Social Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    The notions of class (varṇa) and caste (jāti) run through the dharmaśāstra literature (i.e. Hindu Law Books) on all levels. They regulate marriage, economic transactions, work, punishment, penance, entitlement to rituals, identity markers like the sacred thread, and social interaction in general....... Although this social structure was ideal in nature and not equally confirmed in other genres of ancient and medieval literature, it has nevertheless had an immense impact on Indian society. The chapter presents an overview of the system with its three privileged classes, the Brahmins, the Kṣatriyas......, and the Vaiśyas, the fourth underprivileged class, the Śūdras, and, at the bottom of the society, the lowest so-called ‘untouchable’ castes. It also discusses the understanding of human differences that lies at the center of the system and the possible economic and political motivations of the Brahmin authors...

  6. ABC1 Consensus Conference - a German Perspective: First International Consensus Conference on Advanced Breast Cancer (ABC1), Lisbon, November 5, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomssen, Christoph; Marschner, Norbert; Untch, Michael; Decker, Thomas; Hegewisch-Becker, Susanna; Jackisch, Christian; Janni, Wolfgang; Hans-Joachim, Lück; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Scharl, Anton; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Tesch, Hans; Welt, Anja; Harbeck, Nadia

    2012-02-01

    A group of German breast cancer experts (medical oncologists and gynaecologists) reviewed and commented on the results of the first international 'Advanced Breast Cancer First Consensus Conference' (ABC1) for the diagnosis and treatment of advanced breast cancer. The ABC1 Conference is an initiative of the European School of Oncology (ESO) Metastatic Breast Cancer Task Force in cooperation with the EBCC (European Breast Cancer Conference), ESMO (European Society of Medical Oncology) and the American JNCI (Journal of the National Cancer Institute). The main focus of the ABC1 Conference was metastatic breast cancer (stage IV). The ABC1 consensus is based on the vote of 33 breast cancer experts from different countries and has been specified as a guideline for therapeutic practice by the German expert group. It is the objective of the ABC1 consensus as well as of the German comments to provide an internationally standardized and evidence-based foundation for qualified decision-making in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.

  7. Transfer of a conditional ordering response through conditional equivalence classes

    OpenAIRE

    Wulfert, Edelgard; Hayes, Steven C.

    1988-01-01

    Eight adult humans were taught conditional discriminations in a matching-to-sample format that led to the formation of two four-member equivalence classes. When subjects were taught to select one comparison stimulus from each class in a set order, they then ordered all other members of the equivalence classes without explicit training. When the ordering response itself was brought under conditional control, conditional sequencing also transferred to all other members of the two equivalence cl...

  8. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management options. Breastfeeding basics. Caring for baby at home. Birthing classes are not just for new parents, though. ... midwife. Postpartum care. Caring for your baby at home, including baby first aid. Lamaze One of the most popular birthing techniques in the U.S., Lamaze has been around ...

  9. Class Trash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemecology, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents a classroom activity in which students calculate the amount and types of trash thrown out by their class at school to investigate how much trash is generated, where it goes, and speculate about alternatives. Students need to be familiar with the concepts of weight, volume, and numbers. (MCO)

  10. ABC News correspondent Pierre Thomas to deliver 2004 Virginia Tech commencement address

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2004-01-01

    ABC News Justice Department Correspondent Pierre Thomas will address the 2004 graduates of Virginia Tech during the University Commencement exercises at 7:30 p.m. Friday, May 14, at Lane Stadium/Worsham Field.

  11. A description of the apparatus to be used in interaction experiments with the ABC laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, A.; Strangio, M.; Andreoli, P.L.; Cerioni, I.; Di Paolo, A.; Di Virgilio, L.

    1988-01-01

    This report contains the part of the Frascati Laboratorio Fusione Laser activity related to the Apparatus (target chamber, position and alignement system, diagnostics) to be used in the interaction experiments with the ABC laser system

  12. Armpits, Belly Buttons and Chronic Wounds: The ABCs of Our Body Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Chronic Wounds: The ABCs of Our Body Bacteria By Alisa Machalek and Allison MacLachlan Posted April ... treating skin and other conditions. Chronic Wounds and Bacteria Bacteria from human skin grown on agar in ...

  13. Laboratory investigation of grouted coupler connection details for ABC bridge projects : [tech transfer summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Advancements and increased use of accelerated bridge construction (ABC) : often result in the use of newly developed, or modified, technologies and/or : construction techniques that are sometimes untested in this new application. : For designers and ...

  14. A putative ABC transporter is involved in negative regulation of biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xinna; Long, Fei; Chen, Yonghui

    2008-01-01

    with enhanced ability of biofilm-formation generated via transposon Tn917 mutagenesis of L. monocytogenes 4b G. In this mutant, a Tn917 insertion has disrupted the coding region of the gene encoding a putative ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter permease identical to Lmof2365_1771 (a putative ABC...... regulation of biofilm formation by L. monocytogenes 4b G. The immediate gene upstream of lm.G_1771 encoded an ATP-binding protein. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that these two genes were organized into an operon and that their proteins formed an export ABC transporter. Here, we report...... the characterization of the mutant and identification of a novel ABC transporter that functions in negative regulation of biofilm formation in L. monocytogenes....

  15. The Role of ABC Proteins in Drug Resistant Breast Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lekostaj, Jacqueline K

    2008-01-01

    ...) of the Office of the Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs (CDMRP), aims to study the possible role of ABC transporters in pleitropic drug resistance, using a combination of molecular biological, biochemical, and biophysical methods...

  16. Vipsi ABC Grupp teatas kavatsusest börsile minna / Anne Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Anne, 1970-

    2010-01-01

    Kaubanduskontsern ABC Grupp maksis tagasi 97,2 mln. krooni eest võlakirju, juhatuse esimehe teatel kasutab ettevõtte meeskond saadud kogemusi naasmaks tulevikus avaliku ettevõtte staatusesse juba aktsiaemitendina

  17. Working Together in Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pateşan Marioara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The scores obtained by the military students are very important as a lot of opportunities depend on them: the choice of the branch, selection for different in and off-campus activities, the appointment to the workplace and so on. A qualifier, regardless of its form of effective expression, can make a difference in a given context of issuing a value judgment, in relation to the student's performance assessment. In our research we tried to find out what motives students, what determines them to get actively involved in the tasks they are given and the ways we can improve their participation in classes and assignments. In order to have an educated generation we need to have not only well prepared teachers but ones that are open-minded, flexible and in pace with the methodological novelties that can improve the teaching learning process in class. Along the years we have noticed that in classes where students constituted a cohesive group with an increasing degree of interaction between members, the results were better than in a group that did not appreciate team-work. In this article we want to highlight the fact that a teacher can bring to class the appropriate methods and procedures can contribute decisively to the strengthening of the group cohesion and high scores.

  18. Class size versus class composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam

    Raising schooling quality in low-income countries is a pressing challenge. Substantial research has considered the impact of cutting class sizes on skills acquisition. Considerably less attention has been given to the extent to which peer effects, which refer to class composition, also may affect...... outcomes. This study uses new microdata from East Africa, incorporating test score data for over 250,000 children, to compare the likely efficacy of these two types of interventions. Endogeneity bias is addressed via fixed effects and instrumental variables techniques. Although these may not fully mitigate...

  19. ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters: expression and clinical value in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dréan, Antonin; Rosenberg, Shai; Lejeune, François-Xavier; Goli, Larissa; Nadaradjane, Aravindan Arun; Guehennec, Jérémy; Schmitt, Charlotte; Verreault, Maïté; Bielle, Franck; Mokhtari, Karima; Sanson, Marc; Carpentier, Alexandre; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Idbaih, Ahmed

    2018-03-08

    ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) regulate traffic of multiple compounds, including chemotherapeutic agents, through biological membranes. They are expressed by multiple cell types and have been implicated in the drug resistance of some cancer cells. Despite significant research in ABC transporters in the context of many diseases, little is known about their expression and clinical value in glioblastoma (GBM). We analyzed expression of 49 ABC transporters in both commercial and patient-derived GBM cell lines as well as from 51 human GBM tumor biopsies. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort as a training dataset and our cohort as a validation dataset, we also investigated the prognostic value of these ABC transporters in newly diagnosed GBM patients, treated with the standard of care. In contrast to commercial GBM cell lines, GBM-patient derived cell lines (PDCL), grown as neurospheres in a serum-free medium, express ABC transporters similarly to parental tumors. Serum appeared to slightly increase resistance to temozolomide correlating with a tendency for an increased expression of ABCB1. Some differences were observed mainly due to expression of ABC transporters by microenvironmental cells. Together, our data suggest that the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents may be misestimated in vitro if they are the targets of efflux pumps whose expression can be modulated by serum. Interestingly, several ABC transporters have prognostic value in the TCGA dataset. In our cohort of 51 GBM patients treated with radiation therapy with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide, ABCA13 overexpression is associated with a decreased progression free survival in univariate (p ABC transporters is: (i) detected in GBM and microenvironmental cells and (ii) better reproduced in GBM-PDCL. ABCA13 expression is an independent prognostic factor in newly diagnosed GBM patients. Further prospective studies are warranted to investigate whether ABCA13 expression can be

  20. Multi-Drug Resistance ABC Transporter Inhibition Enhances Murine Ventral Prostate Stem/Progenitor Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Mugdha D; Jackson, Courtney M; Felix, Carina L; Jones, Anthony J; Goodrich, David W; Foster, Barbara A; Huss, Wendy J

    2015-05-15

    Multi-drug resistance (MDR)-ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, ABCB1, ABCC1, and ABCG2 participate in the efflux of steroid hormones, estrogens, and androgens, which regulate prostate development and differentiation. The role of MDR-ABC efflux transporters in prostate epithelial proliferation and differentiation remains unclear. We hypothesized that MDR-ABC transporters regulate prostate differentiation and epithelium regeneration. Prostate epithelial differentiation was studied using histology, sphere formation assay, and prostate regeneration induced by cycles of repeated androgen withdrawal and replacement. Embryonic deletion of Abcg2 resulted in a decreased number of luminal cells in the prostate and increased sphere formation efficiency, indicating an imbalance in the prostate epithelial differentiation pattern. Decreased luminal cell number in the Abcg2 null prostate implies reduced differentiation. Enhanced sphere formation efficiency in Abcg2 null prostate cells implies activation of the stem/progenitor cells. Prostate regeneration was associated with profound activation of the stem/progenitor cells, indicating the role of Abcg2 in maintaining stem/progenitor cell pool. Since embryonic deletion of Abcg2 may result in compensation by other ABC transporters, pharmacological inhibition of MDR-ABC efflux was performed. Pharmacological inhibition of MDR-ABC efflux enhanced prostate epithelial differentiation in sphere culture and during prostate regeneration. In conclusion, Abcg2 deletion leads to activation of the stem/progenitor cells and enhances differentiating divisions; and pharmacological inhibition of MDR-ABC efflux leads to epithelial differentiation. Our study demonstrates for the first time that MDR-ABC efflux transporter inhibition results in enhanced prostate epithelial cell differentiation.

  1. "ABC"-The Awareness-Body-Chart: A new tool assessing body awareness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Danner

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of body awareness for health and well-being there is still a lack of valid assessment tools to scan proper body awareness. To respond to the limitations of questionnaires (reading/interpretation problems the Awareness-Body-Chart (ABC was designed to assess body awareness by colouring 51 regions according to their awareness. The objective of this study was to investigate the psychometric characteristics of the ABC.In a questionnaire-study, 106 students in Graz (79 females, 27 males, age median 21 (IQR 20-23 years filled in the ABC, furthermore a German body awareness questionnaire "KEKS", and the Beck Depression Inventory II. Factor structure, internal consistency, and retest reliability of the ABC were investigated. Correlations of the ABC with the KEKS and the Beck Depression Inventory II and comparisons of subgroups were conducted.Through factor analyses, 14 factors with clear assignments to body parts could be categorized: cranium, face, cervical/lumbar region, chest/abdomen, back, shoulder, upper arm, lower arm/elbow, hand, genital area, thigh/hip, knee, lower leg, and foot. The 14 body parts and the total score showed acceptable to high Cronbach's alphas (α = .64 - .97. The test-retest reliability showed values between ρ = .71 and ρ = .96. The correlation of the ABC and KEKS (r = .66, p < .001 confirmed validity. Further indications of validity could be seen in comparisons of subgroups and in correlations with the Beck Depression Inventory II.The ABC proved good psychometric properties with acceptable to high internal consistency, acceptable to high retest reliability and high construct validity. It is an easy-to-use tool for clinical settings and research. The ABC opens new insights into body awareness-patterns of various subgroups.

  2. "ABC"-The Awareness-Body-Chart: A new tool assessing body awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Ursula; Avian, Alexander; Macheiner, Tanja; Salchinger, Beate; Dalkner, Nina; Fellendorf, Frederike T; Birner, Armin; Bengesser, Susanne A; Platzer, Martina; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Probst, Michel; Reininghaus, Eva Z

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of body awareness for health and well-being there is still a lack of valid assessment tools to scan proper body awareness. To respond to the limitations of questionnaires (reading/interpretation problems) the Awareness-Body-Chart (ABC) was designed to assess body awareness by colouring 51 regions according to their awareness. The objective of this study was to investigate the psychometric characteristics of the ABC. In a questionnaire-study, 106 students in Graz (79 females, 27 males, age median 21 (IQR 20-23) years) filled in the ABC, furthermore a German body awareness questionnaire "KEKS", and the Beck Depression Inventory II. Factor structure, internal consistency, and retest reliability of the ABC were investigated. Correlations of the ABC with the KEKS and the Beck Depression Inventory II and comparisons of subgroups were conducted. Through factor analyses, 14 factors with clear assignments to body parts could be categorized: cranium, face, cervical/lumbar region, chest/abdomen, back, shoulder, upper arm, lower arm/elbow, hand, genital area, thigh/hip, knee, lower leg, and foot. The 14 body parts and the total score showed acceptable to high Cronbach's alphas (α = .64 - .97). The test-retest reliability showed values between ρ = .71 and ρ = .96. The correlation of the ABC and KEKS (r = .66, p Inventory II. The ABC proved good psychometric properties with acceptable to high internal consistency, acceptable to high retest reliability and high construct validity. It is an easy-to-use tool for clinical settings and research. The ABC opens new insights into body awareness-patterns of various subgroups.

  3. LARS Artificial Ligament Versus ABC Purely Polyester Ligament for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadis, Dimitrios Ph.; Bourlos, Dimitrios N.; Mastrokalos, Dimitrios S.; Chronopoulos, Efstathios; Babis, George C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Graft choice for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is of critical importance. Various grafts have been used so far, with autografts long considered the optimal solution for the treatment of ACL-deficient knees. Limited data are available on the long-term survivorship of synthetic grafts. Purpose: To compare the functional outcome and survivorship of ACL reconstructions performed using the LARS (ligament augmentation and reconstruction system) ligament and the ABC (active biosynthetic composite) purely polyester ligament. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: The results of 72 patients who underwent primary arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with the LARS ligament and 31 cases with an ABC purely polyester ligament were reviewed. The mean follow-up periods for the LARS and ABC groups were 9.5 and 5.1 years, respectively. A survivorship analysis of the 2 synthetic grafts was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method with a log-rank test (Mantel-Cox, 95% CI). Lysholm, Tegner activity, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores as well as laxity measurements obtained using a KT-1000 arthrometer were recorded for all intact grafts, and a Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison reasons. Results: The rupture rates for LARS and ABC grafts were 31% (95% CI, 20%-42%) and 42% (95% CI, 25%-59%), respectively. For intact grafts, the mean Lysholm score was good for both groups (90 for the LARS group and 89 for the ABC group), with the majority of patients returning to their preinjury level of activities, and the mean IKDC score was 90 for the LARS group and 86 for the ABC group. Conclusion: The rupture rates of both LARS and ABC grafts were both high. However, the LARS ligament provided significantly better survivorship compared with the ABC ligament at short- to midterm follow-up (95% CI). PMID:27453894

  4. Diversity and evolution of ABC proteins in mycorrhiza-forming fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalchuk, Andriy; Kohler, Annegret; Martin, Francis; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Transporter proteins are predicted to have an important role in the mycorrhizal symbiosis, due to the fact that this type of an interaction between plants and fungi requires a continuous nutrient and signalling exchange. ABC transporters are one of the large groups of transporter proteins found both in plants and in fungi. The crucial role of plant ABC transporters in the formation of the mycorrhizal symbiosis has bee...

  5. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) coupled with Bayesian model averaging method for estimating mean and standard deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Deukwoo; Reis, Isildinha M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We proposed approximate Bayesian computation with single distribution selection (ABC-SD) for estimating mean and standard deviation from other reported summary statistics. The ABC-SD generates pseudo data from a single parametric distribution thought to be the true distribution of underlying study data. This single distribution is either an educated guess, or it is selected via model selection using posterior probability criterion for testing two or more candidate distributions. F...

  6. ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters in normal and pathological lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timmer-Bosscha Hetty

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters are a family of transmembrane proteins that can transport a wide variety of substrates across biological membranes in an energy-dependent manner. Many ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp, multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP are highly expressed in bronchial epithelium. This review aims to give new insights in the possible functions of ABC molecules in the lung in view of their expression in different cell types. Furthermore, their role in protection against noxious compounds, e.g. air pollutants and cigarette smoke components, will be discussed as well as the (malfunction in normal and pathological lung. Several pulmonary drugs are substrates for ABC transporters and therefore, the delivery of these drugs to the site of action may be highly dependent on the presence and activity of many ABC transporters in several cell types. Three ABC transporters are known to play an important role in lung functioning. Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR gene can cause cystic fibrosis, and mutations in ABCA1 and ABCA3 are responsible for respectively Tangier disease and fatal surfactant deficiency. The role of altered function of ABC transporters in highly prevalent pulmonary diseases such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD have hardly been investigated so far. We especially focused on polymorphisms, knock-out mice models and in vitro results of pulmonary research. Insight in the function of ABC transporters in the lung may open new ways to facilitate treatment of lung diseases.

  7. A Short Proof of Euler's Inequality R ≥ 2r Theorem. Let ∆ ABC be an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    A Short Proof of Euler's Inequality R ≥ 2r. Theorem. Let ∆ ABC be an arbitrary triangle with circumradius R and inradius r. Then R ≥ 2r with equality holding if and only if ∆ABC is equilateral. This was first published by Euler in 1765. Since then several proofs have followed, some geometric and some algebraic. We will use ...

  8. SOME IMPORTANT FACTORS AFFECTING EVOLUTION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC SYSTEM IN EGYPTIAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim MAMDOUH ABBAS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to determine the factors affecting evolution of Activity Based Costing (ABC system in Egyptian case. The study used the survey method to describe and analyze these factors in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. Accordingly, the number of received questionnaires was 392 (23 Egyptian manufacturing firms in the first half of 2013. Finally, the study stated some influencing factors for evolution this system (ABC in Egyptian manufacturing firms.

  9. Synthesis of [N(CH3)4]2O3SOSO2(s) and [N(CH3)4]2[(O2SO)2SO2]·SO2(s) containing (SO4)(SO2)x(2-) x = 1, 2, members of a new class of sulfur oxydianions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruna, Pablo; Decken, Andreas; Grein, Friedrich; Passmore, Jack; Rautiainen, J Mikko; Richardson, Stephanie; Whidden, Tom

    2013-06-17

    One mole equivalent of SO2 reversibly reacts with [N(CH3)4]2SO4(s) to give [N(CH3)4]2S2O6(s) (1) containing the [O3SOSO2](2-), shown by Raman and IR to be an isomer of the [O3SSO3](2-) dianion. The experimental and calculated (B3PW91/6-311+G(3df)) vibrational spectra are in excellent agreement, and the IR spectrum is similar to that of the isoelectronic O3ClOClO2. Crystals of [N(CH3)4]2(O2SO)2SO2·SO2 (2) were isolated from solutions of [N(CH3)4]2SO4 in liquid SO2. The X-ray structure showed that 2 contained the [(O2SO)2SO2](2-) dianion. The characterized N(CH3)4(+) salts 1 and 2 are the first two members of the (SO4)(SO2)x(2-) class of sulfur oxydianions analogous to the well-known small cation salts of the SO4(SO3)x(2-) polysulfates.

  10. The mitochondrial transporter ABC-me (ABCB10), a downstream target of GATA-1, is essential for erythropoiesis in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, B B; Liesa, M; Elorza, A A; Qiu, W; Haigh, S E; Richey, L; Mikkola, H K; Schlaeger, T M; Shirihai, O S

    2012-01-01

    The mitochondrial transporter ATP binding cassette mitochondrial erythroid (ABC-me/ABCB10) is highly induced during erythroid differentiation by GATA-1 and its overexpression increases hemoglobin production rates in vitro. However, the role of ABC-me in erythropoiesis in vivo is unknown. Here we report for the first time that erythrocyte development in mice requires ABC-me. ABC-me−/− mice die at day 12.5 of gestation, showing nearly complete eradication of primitive erythropoiesis and lack of hemoglobinized cells at day 10.5. ABC-me−/− erythroid cells fail to differentiate because they exhibit a marked increase in apoptosis, both in vivo and ex vivo. Erythroid precursors are particularly sensitive to oxidative stress and ABC-me in the heart and its yeast ortholog multidrug resistance-like 1 have been shown to protect against oxidative stress. Thus, we hypothesized that increased apoptosis in ABC-me−/− erythroid precursors was caused by oxidative stress. Within this context, ABC-me deletion causes an increase in mitochondrial superoxide production and protein carbonylation in erythroid precursors. Furthermore, treatment of ABC-me−/− erythroid progenitors with the mitochondrial antioxidant MnTBAP (superoxide dismutase 2 mimetic) supports survival, ex vivo differentiation and increased hemoglobin production. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that ABC-me is essential for erythropoiesis in vivo. PMID:22240895

  11. A 6-Nucleotide Regulatory Motif within the AbcR Small RNAs of Brucella abortus Mediates Host-Pathogen Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Lauren M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Brucella abortus, two small RNAs (sRNAs), AbcR1 and AbcR2, are responsible for regulating transcripts encoding ABC-type transport systems. AbcR1 and AbcR2 are required for Brucella virulence, as a double chromosomal deletion of both sRNAs results in attenuation in mice. Although these sRNAs are responsible for targeting transcripts for degradation, the mechanism utilized by the AbcR sRNAs to regulate mRNA in Brucella has not been described. Here, two motifs (M1 and M2) were identified in AbcR1 and AbcR2, and complementary motif sequences were defined in AbcR-regulated transcripts. Site-directed mutagenesis of M1 or M2 or of both M1 and M2 in the sRNAs revealed transcripts to be targeted by one or both motifs. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed direct, concentration-dependent binding of both AbcR sRNAs to a target mRNA sequence. These experiments genetically and biochemically characterized two indispensable motifs within the AbcR sRNAs that bind to and regulate transcripts. Additionally, cellular and animal models of infection demonstrated that only M2 in the AbcR sRNAs is required for Brucella virulence. Furthermore, one of the M2-regulated targets, BAB2_0612, was found to be critical for the virulence of B. abortus in a mouse model of infection. Although these sRNAs are highly conserved among Alphaproteobacteria, the present report displays how gene regulation mediated by the AbcR sRNAs has diverged to meet the intricate regulatory requirements of each particular organism and its unique biological niche. PMID:28588127

  12. Radiation shielding member

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Nobuo; Ito, Masato; Nihei, Ken-ichi; Takeshi, Tetsu

    1998-01-01

    A radiation shielding member comprises a metal vessel and a liquid therein, and is disposed to the upper surface of a lower flange of a reactor core shroud. Waterproof hot wires are contained in the liquid and are connected to a power source disposed at the outside. Electric current is supplied to the hot wires to elevate the temperature of the liquid, and the temperature of the vessel is kept higher than an atmospheric temperature thereby suppressing generation of dew condensation or water droplets. In addition, a water repellent coating is applied to the shielding member itself to prevent deposition of water droplets. Further, the bottom of the shielding member is inclined, and a water droplet-recovering vessel is disposed at the lower portion of the shielding member, so that the water droplets collected by the inclination of the bottom are recovered to the water droplet recovering vessel. With such a constitution, access of an operator to the inside of a reactor pressure vessel is facilitated, and at the same time, the working circumstance at the reactor bottom can be improved. (I.N.)

  13. DUBNA: Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The political upheaval in what was the Soviet Union was reflected in an Extraordinary Plenipotentiaries Committee of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) Member States, held in Dubna, near Moscow, on 10-13 December, with representatives of eleven sovereign republics of the former Soviet State taking part

  14. Radiation shielding member

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuochi, Akira; Narita, Takuya; Omori, Tetsu; Nemezawa, Isao; Kimura, Kunihiro.

    1997-01-01

    A radiation shielding member comprising a lead plate or a lead fabrication product is covered integrally with a rubber, a synthetic resin or a flame retardant fabric having a thickness greater than that of an oxidation preventive membrane made of a copper material. Radiation rays are shielded by the lead material, and not only oxidation but also failure of the lead material and generation of lead pieces or powder can be prevented by the coating of the rubber, the synthetic resin or the flame retardant fabric. The shape of the radiation shielding member can be conformed to constitutional products, a reinforcing frame or plate is formed integrally with the radiation shielding plate, alternatively, lowering of strength of the structure by fabrication of the shape is reinforced by the reinforcing frame or plate. The radiation shielding member is suspended by hanging a rope on a grommet, or disposed on constitutional products, or adjacent radiation shielding members are combined with each other by fixing metals. The thickness of the coating made of rubber, synthetic rubber or flame retardant fabric is determined to 0.1mm or greater to prevent failures of the lead material or formation of lead powder. (N.H.)

  15. Current Understanding of Interactions between Nanoparticles and ABC Transporters in Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jian; Deng, Xudong; Zhang, Jie; Lin, Jun

    2018-03-14

    Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporters-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) remains as a obstacle for effective cancer therapy. Nanoparticles (NPs)-based delivery systems are promising to overcome MDR, but only a few of them have been accepted for clinical treatment, due to characteristics such as insufficient transportation and potential toxicity. In this respect, mounting attention has been attracted towards interactions between NPs and ABC transporters, which hold a key role in the treatment of multidrug-resistant cancer and NP toxicity. In this review article, current knowledge on the involvement of ABC transporters in MDR and their inhibitors is provided. More importantly, recent literatures about the interactions between NPs and ABC transporters are summarized here. Organic and inorganic NPs inhibit the function of ABC transporters based on distinct mechanisms. The effects of organic NPs are caused by several excipients like surfactants, polymers, lipids and cyclodextrin, whereas inorganic NPs act as substrates of ABC transporters and competitively inhibit the efflux of drugs. Based on these interesting phenomena, a more thorough understanding of the specific mechanisms is necessary and essential in the hope to develop more efficient NPs to overcome MDR and decrease environmental toxicity of NPs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Nonrigid registration method to assess reproducibility of breath-holding with ABC in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrut, David; Boldea, Vlad; Ayadi, Myriam; Badel, Jean-Noel; Ginestet, Chantal; Clippe, Sebastien; Carrie, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To study the interfraction reproducibility of breath-holding using active breath control (ABC), and to develop computerized tools to evaluate three-dimensional (3D) intrathoracic motion in each patient. Methods and materials: Since June 2002, 11 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer enrolled in a Phase II trial have undergone four CT scans: one during free-breathing (reference) and three using ABC. Patients left the room between breath-hold scans. The patient's breath was held at the same predefined phase of the breathing cycle (about 70% of the vital capacity) using the ABC device, then patients received 3D-conformal radiotherapy. Automated computerized tools for breath-hold CT scans were developed to analyze lung and tumor interfraction residual motions with 3D nonrigid registration. Results: All patients but one were safely treated with ABC for 7 weeks. For 6 patients, the lung volume differences were 300 cm 3 and displacements >10 mm, probably owing to atelectasia and emphysema. One patient was excluded, and two others had incomplete data sets. Conclusion: Breath-holding with ABC was effective in 6 patients, and discrepancies were clinically accountable in 2. The proposed 3D nonrigid registration method allows for personalized evaluation of breath-holding reproducibility with ABC. It will be used to adapt the patient-specific internal margins

  17. Neuroprotective effect of chondroitinase ABC on primary and secondary brain injury after stroke in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin-ran; Liao, Song-jie; Ye, Lan-xiang; Gong, Qiong; Ding, Qiao; Zeng, Jin-sheng; Yu, Jian

    2014-01-16

    Focal cerebral infarction causes secondary damage in the ipsilateral ventroposterior thalamic nucleus (VPN). Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are a family of putative inhibitory components, and its degradation by chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) promotes post-injury neurogenesis. This study investigated the role of ChABC in the primary and secondary injury post stroke in hypertension. Renovascular hypertensive Sprague-Dawley rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and were subjected to continuous intra-infarct infusion of ChABC (0.12 U/d for 7 days) 24 h later. Neurological function was evaluated by a modified neurologic severity score. Neurons were counted in the peri-infarct region and the ipsilateral VPN 8 and 14 days after MCAO by Nissl staining and NeuN labeling. The expressions of CSPGs, growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) and synaptophysin (SYN) were detected with immunofluorescence or Western blotting. The intra-infarct infusion of ChABC, by degrading accumulated CSPGs, rescued neuronal loss and increased the levels of GAP-43 and SYN in both the ipsilateral cortex and VPN, indicating enhancd neuron survival as well as augmented axonal growth and synaptic plasticity, eventually improving overall neurological function. The study demonstrated that intra-infarct ChABC infusion could salvage the brain from both primary and secondary injury by the intervention on the neuroinhibitory environment post focal cerebral infarction. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Feldenkrais Method Balance Classes Improve Balance in Older Adults: A Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol A. Connors

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Feldenkrais Method balance classes on balance and mobility in older adults. This was a prospective non-randomized controlled study with pre/post measures. The setting for this study was the general community. A convenience sample of 26 community-dwelling older adults (median age 75 years attending Feldenkrais Method balance classes formed the Intervention group. Thirty-seven volunteers were recruited for the Control group (median age 76.5 years. A series of Feldenkrais Method balance classes (the 33312Getting Grounded Gracefully33313 series, two classes per week for 10 weeks, were conducted. Main outcome measures were Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC questionnaire, Four Square Step Test (FSST, self-selected gait speed (using GAITRite instrumented gait mat. At re-testing, the Intervention group showed significant improvement on all of the measures (ABC, P = .016, FSST, P = .001, gait speed, P < .001. The Control group improved significantly on one measure (FSST, P < .001. Compared to the Control group, the Intervention group made a significant improvement in their ABC score (P = .005, gait speed (P = .017 and FSST time (P = .022. These findings suggest that Feldenkrais Method balance classes may improve mobility and balance in older adults.

  19. 16-membered macrolide antibiotics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsic, Biljana; Barber, Jill; Čikoš, Ana; Mladenovic, Milan; Stankovic, Nevena; Novak, Predrag

    2018-03-01

    The 16-membered macrolide antibiotics (e.g. tylosin A and josamycin) are mainly used in veterinary medicine, and are much less studied than their 14- and 15-membered erythromycin-based cousins. Although these antibiotics have similar antibacterial profiles, with activity primarily against Gram-positive and a limited range of Gram-negative organisms, the 16-membered macrolides show some advantages. These include better gastrointestinal tolerance, lack of drug-drug interactions, and activity against certain resistant bacterial strains by extension of the peptide tunnel reach allowing additional interactions. In addition to antibacterial activity, the most famous representative of the class, tylosin A, as well as some derivatives of desmycosin (tylosin B), have shown antimalarial activity. Such activity has also been observed in the 14-membered macrolide antibiotics, azithromycin, solithromycin and clindamycin. This antimalarial activity provides the opportunity to investigate these drugs as cheap and effective antimalarials. This is an overview of the latest research on biosynthesis, structure, chemical properties and mode of action of 16-membered macrolides, with special emphasis on their most explored members: tylosin A and josamycin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  20. Qigong in Injured Military Service Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reb, Anne Marie; Saum, Nancy Seaby; Murphy, Deborah Ann; Breckenridge-Sproat, Sara Todd; Su, Xiaogang; Bormann, Jill Ellen

    2017-03-01

    Wounded, ill, and injured (WII) Military Service members experience significant stress and are at risk for developing chronic conditions including posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. Qigong, a meditative movement practice, may positively affect their ability to engage in successful rehabilitation. We assessed the feasibility of Qigong practice in WII Service members returning from combat; effects on stress, sleep, and somatic symptoms; satisfaction; and participants' experience with the practice. Single-group, pre- and posttest, mixed methods approach. Twenty-six WII were enrolled. The program was designed to include 20 classes over 10 weeks. Participants completed self-report questionnaires, practice logs, and an exit interview. Average attendance was 8.14 classes ( SD = 4.9); mean engagement was 5.7 ( SD = 3.5) weeks. Participants endorsed a high level of satisfaction with the practice. Qualitative themes included coping with stress; feeling more resilient and empowered; improvement in symptoms including sleep and physical function; and factors affecting practice. Participant-reported facilitators included accessibility and portability of the practice; barriers included scheduling conflicts and personal challenges. Participants recommended offering shorter programs with flexible scheduling options, increasing program awareness, and including significant others in future classes. Qigong was safe, portable, and easily adapted for WII Service members.

  1. Fuzzy Multicriteria ABC Supplier Classification in Global Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Kefer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the optimal purchasing strategy in enterprise that is a part of global supply chain could be performed in two steps. In step one, a classification of potential suppliers is performed in order to determine the optimal portfolio of suppliers. This is delivered by using the fuzzy multicriteria proposed ABC classification method. Uncertainties in relative importance of criteria and their values are described by linguistic expressions. Modelling of linguistic expressions is based on the fuzzy sets theory. In the second step, ranking of optimal portfolio of suppliers is performed by using the modified ELECTRE method. The obtained results represent valuable input for determining the long time purchasing strategy and building partnership with the best suppliers. The developed two-step model is verified on real life data. The obtained results indicate good compliance with the opinions management in this type of industry. It is worth to mention that the proposed model can be easily extended and adopted to the analysis of other issues of management which could be applicable in different research areas.

  2. O novo perfil econômico do Grande ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pedreschi Rodrigues

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata de questões referentes às mudanças econômicas e urbanas na região do Grande ABC. Para tanto, inicialmente, apresentamos dados sobre a implantação da indústria automobilística e o desenvolvimento urbano decorrente dessas mudanças, bem como a composição da força de trabalho vinda de outros Estados do país. A partir da reestruturação econômica ocorrida na região, surgem as parcerias público-privadas estabelecidas para a criação de Arranjos Produtivos Locais (APLs, e as alternativas de recuperação por meio da criação do Eixo Tamanduatehy Axle também são analisadas. Concluímos com uma abordagem sobre a reestruturação econômica da região, considerando especialmente os pólos industriais e os arranjos produtivos locais, os quais agrupam organizações de variados segmentos econômicos, bem como a formação da Agência de Desenvolvimento Regional.

  3. Phase diagram of the ABC model with nonconserving processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederhendler, A; Cohen, O; Mukamel, D

    2010-01-01

    The three species ABC model of driven particles on a ring is generalized to include vacancies and particle-nonconserving processes. The model exhibits phase separation at high densities. For equal average densities of the three species, it is shown that although the dynamics is local, it obeys detailed balance with respect to a Hamiltonian with long-range interactions, yielding a nonadditive free energy. The phase diagrams of the conserving and nonconserving models, corresponding to the canonical and grand-canonical ensembles, respectively, are calculated in the thermodynamic limit. Both models exhibit a transition from a homogeneous to a phase-separated state, although the phase diagrams are shown to differ from each other. This conforms with the expected inequivalence of ensembles in equilibrium systems with long-range interactions. These results are based on a stability analysis of the homogeneous phase and exact solution of the continuum equations of the models. They are supported by Monte Carlo simulations. This study may serve as a useful starting point for analyzing the phase diagram for unequal densities, where detailed balance is not satisfied and thus a Hamiltonian cannot be defined

  4. Band structure of ABC-trilayer graphene superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, Salah; Chan, K. S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effect of one-dimensional periodic potentials on the low energy band structure of ABC trilayer graphene first by assuming that all the three layers have the same potential. Extra Dirac points having the same electron hole crossing energy as that of the original Dirac point are generated by superlattice potentials with equal well and barrier widths. When the potential height is increased, the numbers of extra Dirac points are increased. The dispersions around the Dirac points are not isotropic. It is noted that the dispersion along the k y direction for k x  = 0 oscillates between a non-linear dispersion and a linear dispersion when the potential height is increased. When the well and barrier widths are not identical, the symmetry of the conduction and valence bands is broken. The extra Dirac points are shifted either upward or downward depending on the barrier and well widths from the zero energy, while the position of the central Dirac point oscillates with the superlattice potential height. By considering different potentials for different layers, extra Dirac points are generated not from the original Dirac points but from the valleys formed in the energy spectrum. Two extra Dirac points appear from each pair of touched valleys, so four Dirac points appeared in the spectrum at particular barrier height. By increasing the barrier height of superlattice potential two Dirac points merge into the original Dirac point. This emerging and merging of extra Dirac points is different from the equal potential case

  5. The Benefits of the ABC Method Application in Croatian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Pekanov-Starčević

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available New business environment has changed the structure and behaviour of company costs. The changes are primarily reflected in the increasing share of overhead costs in the total costs. Given that competitiveness is reflected in the unit product cost, the exact determination of unit costs by cost drivers, primarily the precise allocation of overhead costs to cost drivers, have become crucial to the survival of companies in a turbulent market environment. The biggest problem in determining the exact product costs is incorrect allocation of overhead costs to cost drivers. In the 1980s, a new method of allocating overhead costs was developed – activity-based costing (ABC method. Advocates of this method claim that it allows a more accurate determination of product costs and identification and elimination of activities that do not add value to the company, thereby reducing costs and increasing profits, and ultimately creating and sustaining a competitive advantage. Using a sample of Croatian companies listed on the Zagreb Stock Exchange, we investigated to which extent they applied activity-based costing; its benefits to the cost management system, and which factors influenced the application of this methodology. This study provides a new insight into the development of cost management systems in Croatian companies.

  6. 16 CFR 1025.18 - Class actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... efficient presentation of evidence or argument; (2) Requiring (for the protection of the members of the class, or otherwise for the fair conduct of the action) that notice be given, in such manner as the... opportunity for members to inform the Presiding Officer whether they consider the representation to be fair...

  7. A 6-Nucleotide Regulatory Motif within the AbcR Small RNAs of Brucella abortus Mediates Host-Pathogen Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Lauren M; Caswell, Clayton C

    2017-06-06

    In Brucella abortus , two small RNAs (sRNAs), AbcR1 and AbcR2, are responsible for regulating transcripts encoding ABC-type transport systems. AbcR1 and AbcR2 are required for Brucella virulence, as a double chromosomal deletion of both sRNAs results in attenuation in mice. Although these sRNAs are responsible for targeting transcripts for degradation, the mechanism utilized by the AbcR sRNAs to regulate mRNA in Brucella has not been described. Here, two motifs (M1 and M2) were identified in AbcR1 and AbcR2, and complementary motif sequences were defined in AbcR-regulated transcripts. Site-directed mutagenesis of M1 or M2 or of both M1 and M2 in the sRNAs revealed transcripts to be targeted by one or both motifs. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed direct, concentration-dependent binding of both AbcR sRNAs to a target mRNA sequence. These experiments genetically and biochemically characterized two indispensable motifs within the AbcR sRNAs that bind to and regulate transcripts. Additionally, cellular and animal models of infection demonstrated that only M2 in the AbcR sRNAs is required for Brucella virulence. Furthermore, one of the M2-regulated targets, BAB2_0612, was found to be critical for the virulence of B. abortus in a mouse model of infection. Although these sRNAs are highly conserved among Alphaproteobacteria , the present report displays how gene regulation mediated by the AbcR sRNAs has diverged to meet the intricate regulatory requirements of each particular organism and its unique biological niche. IMPORTANCE Small RNAs (sRNAs) are important components of bacterial regulation, allowing organisms to quickly adapt to changes in their environments. The AbcR sRNAs are highly conserved throughout the Alphaproteobacteria and negatively regulate myriad transcripts, many encoding ABC-type transport systems. In Brucella abortus , AbcR1 and AbcR2 are functionally redundant, as only a double abcR1 abcR2 ( abcR1 / 2 ) deletion results in attenuation in

  8. Supporting Members and Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Thank you! Over the past year, AGU has received 12,104 gifts, both large and small, from members and friends. The Union has also received corporate contributions, National Science Foundation grants, and support from the National Oceanographic Partnership Program and National Association of Geoscience Teachers. Together their generosity has benefited AGU non revenue producing programs that are critical to our science and the future health of the Union. The following list gratefully acknowledges annual gifts of $100 or more and cumulative giving of $5,000 or more. The 1919 Society ($100,000 or more) and Benefactors ($5,000-$99,999) recognize single major gifts and cumulative contributions. Three circles acknowledge annual giving: President's Circle ($1,000 or more), Leadership Circle ($200-$999), and Supporters Circle ($100-$199). Supporting Life Members, who contribute a one-time gift of $1,200 in addition to lifetime dues, are among our most loyal Supporters.

  9. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 24 € instead of 30 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 6 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children under 100 cm. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  10. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Summer is coming, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 24 € instead of 30 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 6 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children under 100 cm. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  11. Differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus infected animals from vaccinated animals using a blocking ELISA based on baculovirus expressed FMDV 3ABC antigen and a 3ABC monoclonal antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.J.; de Stricker, K.; Dyrting, K.C.

    2005-01-01

    A blocking ELISA that differentiated foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infected animals from vaccinated animals was developed which uses baculovirus expressed FMDV 3ABC non-structural protein as antigen and monoclonal antibody against FMDV 3ABC non-structural protein as capture and detector...... and sheep collected after experimental or natural infection. The blocking ELISA based on recombinant FMDV 3ABC antigen and a monoclonal antibody to 3ABC is a promising tool for FMD control and eradication campaigns, where vaccination has been carried out....

  12. [Comment on] BOSP members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The new Board on Ocean Science and Policy (BOSP) (Eos, June 7, 1983, p. 402) met for the first time on May 4. John B. Slaughter, former director of the National Science Foundation and now chancellor of the University of Maryland in College Park, is the board's chairman. Other board members are D. James Baker, Jr. (University of Washington, Seattle); Kirk Bryan (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton University); John P. Craven (University of Hawaii); Charles L. Drake (Dartmouth College); Paul M. Fye (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); Edward D. Goldberg (Scripps Institution of Oceanography); G. Ross Heath (Oregon State University); Judith T. Kildow (Massachusetts Institute of Technology); John A. Knauss (University of Rhode Island); James J. McCarthy (Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University); H. William Menard (Scripps Institution of Oceanography); C. Barry Raleigh (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory); Roger Revelle (University of California, San Diego); David A. Ross (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); Brian J. Rothschild (University of Maryland); William M. Sackett (University of South Florida); John H. Steele (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); and Carl Wunsch (MIT). Wallace Broecker (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory), an original board member, resigned after the first meeting. Broecker told Eos that combining the science and policy boards resulted in a new board whose mission is too broad. A new board member will be appointed in Broecker's place

  13. Our Class as an Icosahedral Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Elizabeth Ann

    Multicultural study, visual and language arts, social studies, and geometry are integrated into this 2-month unit for the elementary classroom. The unit is divided into 3 segments, centering around the creation of a class icosahedron in which each of the shape's 20 faces represents 1 class member. Actual construction of the icosahedron constitutes…

  14. Comparison of learning styles of pharmacy students and faculty members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Stephanie Y; Alhreish, Suhail K; Popovich, Nicholas G

    2012-12-12

    To compare dominant learning styles of pharmacy students and faculty members and between faculty members in different tracks. Gregorc Style Delineator (GSD) and Zubin's Pharmacists' Inventory of Learning Styles (PILS) were administered to students and faculty members at an urban, Midwestern college of pharmacy. Based on responses from 299 students (classes of 2008, 2009, and 2010) and 59 faculty members, GSD styles were concrete sequential (48%), abstract sequential (18%), abstract random (13%), concrete random (13%), and multimodal (8%). With PILS, dominant styles were assimilator (47%) and converger (30%). There were no significant differences between faculty members and student learning styles nor across pharmacy student class years (p>0.05). Learning styles differed between men and women across both instruments (pstyles (p=0.01). Learning styles differed among respondents based on gender and faculty track.

  15. Accuracy of shock index versus ABC score to predict need for massive transfusion in trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroll, Rebecca; Swift, David; Tatum, Danielle; Couch, Stuart; Heaney, Jiselle B; Llado-Farrulla, Monica; Zucker, Shana; Gill, Frances; Brown, Griffin; Buffin, Nicholas; Duchesne, Juan

    2018-01-01

    Various scoring systems have been developed to predict need for massive transfusion in traumatically injured patients. Assessments of Blood Consumption (ABC) score and Shock Index (SI) have been shown to be reliable predictors for Massive Transfusion Protocol (MTP) activation. However, no study has directly compared these two scoring systems to determine which is a better predictor for MTP activation. The primary objective was to determine whether ABC or SI better predicted the need for MTP in adult trauma patients with severe hemorrhage. This was a retrospective cohort study which included all injured patients who were trauma activations between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013 at an urban Level I trauma center. Patients ABC and SI were calculated for each patient. MTP was defined as need for >10 units PRBC transfusion within 24h of emergency department arrival. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) were used to evaluate scoring systems' ability to predict effective MTP utilization. A total of 645 patients had complete data for analysis. Shock Index ≥1 had sensitivity of 67.7% (95% CI 49.5%-82.6%) and specificity of 81.3% (95% CI 78.0%-84.3%) for predicting MTP, and ABC score ≥2 had sensitivity of 47.0% (95% CI 29.8%-64.9%) and specificity of 89.8% (95% CI 87.2%-92.1%). AUROC analyses showed SI to be the strongest predictor followed by ABC score with AUROC values of 0.83 and 0.74, respectively. SI had a significantly greater sensitivity (P=0.035), but a significantly weaker specificity (PABC score. ABC score and Shock Index can both be used to predict need for massive transfusion in trauma patients, however SI is more sensitive and requires less technical skill than ABC score. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Frequent down-regulation of ABC transporter genes in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demidenko, Rita; Razanauskas, Deividas; Daniunaite, Kristina; Lazutka, Juozas Rimantas; Jankevicius, Feliksas; Jarmalaite, Sonata

    2015-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are transmembrane proteins responsible for the efflux of a wide variety of substrates, including steroid metabolites, through the cellular membranes. For better characterization of the role of ABC transporters in prostate cancer (PCa) development, the profile of ABC transporter gene expression was analyzed in PCa and noncancerous prostate tissues (NPT). TaqMan Low Density Array (TLDA) human ABC transporter plates were used for the gene expression profiling in 10 PCa and 6 NPT specimens. ABCB1 transcript level was evaluated in a larger set of PCa cases (N = 78) and NPT (N = 15) by real-time PCR, the same PCa cases were assessed for the gene promoter hypermethylation by methylation-specific PCR. Expression of eight ABC transporter genes (ABCA8, ABCB1, ABCC6, ABCC9, ABCC10, ABCD2, ABCG2, and ABCG4) was significantly down-regulated in PCa as compared to NPT, and only two genes (ABCC4 and ABCG1) were up-regulated. Down-regulation of ABC transporter genes was prevalent in the TMPRSS2-ERG-negative cases. A detailed analysis of ABCB1 expression confirmed TLDA results: a reduced level of the transcript was identified in PCa in comparison to NPT (p = 0.048). Moreover, the TMPRSS2-ERG-negative PCa cases showed significantly lower expression of ABCB1 in comparison to NPT (p = 0.003) or the fusion-positive tumors (p = 0.002). Promoter methylation of ABCB1 predominantly occurred in PCa and was rarely detected in NPT (p < 0.001). The study suggests frequent down-regulation of the ABC transporter genes in PCa, especially in the TMPRSS2-ERG-negative tumors. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1689-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  17. astroABC : An Approximate Bayesian Computation Sequential Monte Carlo sampler for cosmological parameter estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, E.; Madigan, M.

    2017-04-01

    Given the complexity of modern cosmological parameter inference where we arefaced with non-Gaussian data and noise, correlated systematics and multi-probecorrelated data sets, the Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) method is apromising alternative to traditional Markov Chain Monte Carlo approaches in thecase where the Likelihood is intractable or unknown. The ABC method is called"Likelihood free" as it avoids explicit evaluation of the Likelihood by using aforward model simulation of the data which can include systematics. Weintroduce astroABC, an open source ABC Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) sampler forparameter estimation. A key challenge in astrophysics is the efficient use oflarge multi-probe datasets to constrain high dimensional, possibly correlatedparameter spaces. With this in mind astroABC allows for massive parallelizationusing MPI, a framework that handles spawning of jobs across multiple nodes. Akey new feature of astroABC is the ability to create MPI groups with differentcommunicators, one for the sampler and several others for the forward modelsimulation, which speeds up sampling time considerably. For smaller jobs thePython multiprocessing option is also available. Other key features include: aSequential Monte Carlo sampler, a method for iteratively adapting tolerancelevels, local covariance estimate using scikit-learn's KDTree, modules forspecifying optimal covariance matrix for a component-wise or multivariatenormal perturbation kernel, output and restart files are backed up everyiteration, user defined metric and simulation methods, a module for specifyingheterogeneous parameter priors including non-standard prior PDFs, a module forspecifying a constant, linear, log or exponential tolerance level,well-documented examples and sample scripts. This code is hosted online athttps://github.com/EliseJ/astroABC

  18. Cutting edge SRU control : improved environmental compliance with Jacobs advanced burner control+ (ABC+)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molenaar, G. [Jacobs Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Henning, A.; Kobussen, S. [Jacobs Nederland BV, Hoogvliet (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    Oil sands bitumen contains approximately 4 to 5 per cent sulphur by weight and the bitumen is upgraded to produce lighter fractions. During coking the bitumen is heated and cracked into lighter molecules and a mixture of kerosene, naphtha and gas oil is recovered via fractionation. Then, the vapors leaving the fractionator are processed through hydrodesulphurization, followed by removal by amine based sweetening units. The acid gas from the ASUs is sent to the sulphur recovery units (SRUs) where most of the sulphur is recovered as elemental sulphur. The oil sands industry faces many challenges with respect to environmental impact, energy use and greenhouse gas emissions including the recovery of sulphur and minimizing hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions from the oil sands production facilities. In order to improve the SRU control response to acid gas feed variations, Jacobs Comprimo Sulphur Solutions implemented advanced burner control+ (ABC+) at Suncor's Simonette Gas Plant's SRU in northern Alberta. This control system used an acid gas feed analyzer and dynamic algorithms to control the combustion air to the reaction furnace. The analyzer measures H{sub 2}S, total hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and water (H{sub 2}O) accurately and quickly, which is important for having effective and fast air-to-acid gas ratio control. The paper provided background information on the Suncor Simonette Gas Plant and discussed ABC+ versus conventional control. An overview of the simplified ABC and ABC+ systems was then illustrated and presented. The ABB multiwave process photometer was also explained. Last, a dynamic simulation of the potential benefits of ABC+ was discussed and the ABC+ benefits for oil sands were presented. It was concluded that ABC+ provides improved SRU performance, reduced SO{sub 2} emissions and violations, and reduced flaring. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  19. Genome-wide analysis of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lixia; Song, Tianxue; He, Rongjun; Zeng, Yang; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2017-04-26

    ABC transporter superfamily is one of the largest and ubiquitous groups of proteins. Because of their role in detoxification, insect ABC transporters have gained more attention in recent years. In this study, we annotated ABC transporters from a newly sequenced sweetpotato whitefly genome. Bemisia tabaci Q biotype is an emerging global invasive species that has caused extensive damages to field crops as well as ornamental plants. A total of 55 ABC transporters containing all eight described subfamilies (A to H) were identified in the B. tabaci Q genome, including 8 ABCAs, 3 ABCBs, 6 ABCCs, 2 ABCDs, 1 ABCE, 3 ABCFs, 23 ABCGs and 9 ABCHs. In comparison to other species, subfamilies G and H in both phloem- and blood-sucking arthropods are expanded. The temporal expression profiles of these 55 ABC transporters throughout B. tabaci developmental stages and their responses to imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, were investigated using RNA-seq analysis. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of 24 ABC transporters (44% of the total) representing all eight subfamilies was confirmed by the quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Furthermore, mRNA expression levels estimated by RT-qPCR and RNA-seq analyses were significantly correlated (r = 0.684, p ABC transporters in B. tabaci. The identification of these ABC transporters, their temporal expression profiles during B. tabaci development, and their response to a neonicotinoid insecticide lay the foundation for functional genomic understanding of their contribution to the invasiveness of B. tabaci.

  20. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.60) is Chad, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 2 November 2005. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 139 Member States became Members

  1. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.59) is the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 23 November 2004. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 138 Member States became Members

  2. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.58) is Kyrgyzstan, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 10 September 2003. The list shows the dates on which the present 137 Member States became Members

  3. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.65) is the Sultanate of Oman which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 5 February 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 146 Member States became Members [es

  4. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.67) is Cambodia which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 November 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 151 Member States became Members [es

  5. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.66) are Bahrain, Burundi, Congo and Lesotho which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 June 2009, 24 June 2009, 15 July 2009 and 13 July 2009, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 150 Member States became Members [es

  6. Imagining class: A study into material social class position, subjective identification, and voting behavior across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hooge, Lorenzo; Achterberg, Peter; Reeskens, Tim

    2018-02-01

    The traditional approach to class voting has largely ignored the question whether material class positions coincide with subjective class identification. Following Sosnaud et al. (2013), this study evaluates party preferences when Europeans' material and subjective social class do not coincide. Seminal studies on voting behavior have suggested that members of lower classes are more likely to vote for the economic left and cultural right and that higher classes demonstrate the opposite pattern. Yet, these studies have on the one hand overlooked the possibility that there is a mismatch between the material class people can be classified in and the class they think they are part of, and on the other hand the consequences of this discordant class identification on voting behavior. Analyzing the 2009 wave of the European Elections Study, we find that the majority of the Europeans discordantly identify with the middle class, whereas only a minority of the lower and higher classes concordantly identify with their material social class. Further, material class only seems to predict economic voting behavior when it coincides with subjective class; for instance, individuals who have an inflated class identification are more likely to vote for the economic left, even when they materially can be classified as middle or high class. We conclude this paper with a discussion on scholarly debates concerning class and politics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 23 € instead of 29 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 6 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12:00 p.m. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  8. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 21,50 € instead of 27 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 6 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12:00 p.m. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  9. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 21 € instead of 26 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 8 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12 h 00. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 30 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 36 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  10. Effect of iron on expression of efflux pump (adeABC) and quorum sensing (luxI, luxR) genes in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarresi, Farzan; Azizi, Omid; Shakibaie, Mohammad Reza; Motamedifar, Mohammad; Valibeigi, Behnaz; Mansouri, Shahla

    2015-11-01

    Resistance-nodulation-division efflux system (RND) adeABC contributes to intrinsic resistance to various drug classes in Acinetobacter baumannii. Similarly, quorum sensing (QS) plays an important role in the biofilm formation and pathogenicity of this bacterium. The aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of iron limitation on the expression of efflux pump (adeABC) genes and QS (luxI, luxR) system by relative quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In addition, DNA sequence and phylogenetic relatedness of biofilm-associated protein (Bap) gene was also investigated. Sixty-five multidrug-resistant isolates of A. baumannii were recovered from ICU patients of three hospitals in Kerman, Iran. The isolates were highly resistant to at least 11 antibiotics (MIC ≥64 μg/mL); however, 87% and 89% were susceptible to colistin and tigecycline, respectively (MIC 0.05 μg/mL) (p ≤ 0.05). We detected the presence of RND efflux pump, QS, and bap genes with the frequencies of 92% (adeA), 61.5% (adeB), 84.6% (adeC), 80% (luxI), 61% (luxR), and 66% (bap), respectively. qRT-PCR analysis showed that in some isolates, expression of both adeABC and luxI/R was increased more than fourfold in the presence of low iron (20 μm), suggesting the additional regulatory role of iron on both efflux pump and QS system. Alignment and phylogenetic analysis on the strong biofilm forming isolates confirmed that the fragments amplified were indeed part of bap gene and deduced sequence was similar to A. baumannii K9B410. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Operating cost analysis of anaesthesia: Activity based costing (ABC analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majstorović Branislava M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cost of anaesthesiology represent defined measures to determine a precise profile of expenditure estimation of surgical treatment, which is important regarding planning of healthcare activities, prices and budget. Objective. In order to determine the actual value of anaestesiological services, we started with the analysis of activity based costing (ABC analysis. Methods. Retrospectively, in 2005 and 2006, we estimated the direct costs of anestesiological services (salaries, drugs, supplying materials and other: analyses and equipment. of the Institute of Anaesthesia and Resuscitation of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. The group included all anesthetized patients of both sexes and all ages. We compared direct costs with direct expenditure, “each cost object (service or unit” of the Republican Health-care Insurance. The Summary data of the Departments of Anaesthesia documented in the database of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. Numerical data were utilized and the numerical data were estimated and analyzed by computer programs Microsoft Office Excel 2003 and SPSS for Windows. We compared using the linear model of direct costs and unit costs of anaesthesiological services from the Costs List of the Republican Health-care Insurance. Results. Direct costs showed 40% of costs were spent on salaries, (32% on drugs and supplies, and 28% on other costs, such as analyses and equipment. The correlation of the direct costs of anaestesiological services showed a linear correlation with the unit costs of the Republican Healthcare Insurance. Conclusion. During surgery, costs of anaesthesia would increase by 10% the surgical treatment cost of patients. Regarding the actual costs of drugs and supplies, we do not see any possibility of costs reduction. Fixed elements of direct costs provide the possibility of rationalization of resources in anaesthesia.

  12. Tiling patterns from ABC star molecules: 3-colored foams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkensgaard, Jacob J K; Pedersen, Martin C; Hyde, Stephen T

    2014-10-07

    We present coarse-grained simulations of the self-assembly of 3-armed ABC star polyphiles. In systems of star polyphiles with two arms of equal length the simulations corroborate and expand previous findings from related miktoarm star terpolymer systems on the formation of patterns containing columnar domains whose sections are 2D planar tilings. However, the systematic variation of face topologies as the length of the third (unequal) arm is varied differs from earlier findings regarding the compositional dependence. We explore 2D 3-colored foams to establish the optimal patterns based on interfacial energy alone. A generic construction algorithm is described that accounts for all observed 2D tiling patterns and suggests other patterns likely to be found beyond the range of the simulations reported here. Patterns resulting from this algorithm are relaxed using Surface Evolver calculations to form 2D foams with minimal interfacial length as a function of composition. This allows us to estimate the interfacial enthalpic contributions to the free energy of related star molecular assemblies assuming strong segregation. We compare the resulting phase sequence with a number of theoretical results from particle-based simulations and field theory, allowing us to tease out relative enthalpic and entropic contributions as a function of the chain lengths making up the star molecules. Our results indicate that a richer polymorphism is to be expected in systems not dominated by chain entropy. Further, analysis of corresponding planar tiling patterns suggests that related two-periodic columnar structures are unlikely hypothetical phases in 4-arm star polyphile melts in the absence of sufficient arm configurational freedom for minor domains to form lens-shaped di-gons, which require higher molecular weight polymeric arms. Finally, we discuss the possibility of forming a complex tiling pattern that is a quasi-crystalline approximant for 3-arm star polyphiles with unequal arm

  13. [Operating cost analysis of anaesthesia: activity based costing (ABC analysis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majstorović, Branislava M; Kastratović, Dragana A; Vučović, Dragan S; Milaković, Branko D; Miličić, Biljana R

    2011-01-01

    Cost of anaesthesiology represent defined measures to determine a precise profile of expenditure estimation of surgical treatment, which is important regarding planning of healthcare activities, prices and budget. In order to determine the actual value of anaestesiological services, we started with the analysis of activity based costing (ABC) analysis. Retrospectively, in 2005 and 2006, we estimated the direct costs of anestesiological services (salaries, drugs, supplying materials and other: analyses and equipment.) of the Institute of Anaesthesia and Resuscitation of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. The group included all anesthetized patients of both sexes and all ages. We compared direct costs with direct expenditure, "each cost object (service or unit)" of the Republican Healthcare Insurance. The Summary data of the Departments of Anaesthesia documented in the database of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. Numerical data were utilized and the numerical data were estimated and analyzed by computer programs Microsoft Office Excel 2003 and SPSS for Windows. We compared using the linear model of direct costs and unit costs of anaesthesiological services from the Costs List of the Republican Healthcare Insurance. Direct costs showed 40% of costs were spent on salaries, (32% on drugs and supplies, and 28% on other costs, such as analyses and equipment. The correlation of the direct costs of anaestesiological services showed a linear correlation with the unit costs of the Republican Healthcare Insurance. During surgery, costs of anaesthesia would increase by 10% the surgical treatment cost of patients. Regarding the actual costs of drugs and supplies, we do not see any possibility of costs reduction. Fixed elements of direct costs provide the possibility of rationalization of resources in anaesthesia.

  14. Glycolysis inhibition inactivates ABC transporters to restore drug sensitivity in malignant cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Nakano

    Full Text Available Cancer cells eventually acquire drug resistance largely via the aberrant expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters, ATP-dependent efflux pumps. Because cancer cells produce ATP mostly through glycolysis, in the present study we explored the effects of inhibiting glycolysis on the ABC transporter function and drug sensitivity of malignant cells. Inhibition of glycolysis by 3-bromopyruvate (3BrPA suppressed ATP production in malignant cells, and restored the retention of daunorubicin or mitoxantrone in ABC transporter-expressing, RPMI8226 (ABCG2, KG-1 (ABCB1 and HepG2 cells (ABCB1 and ABCG2. Interestingly, although side population (SP cells isolated from RPMI8226 cells exhibited higher levels of glycolysis with an increased expression of genes involved in the glycolytic pathway, 3BrPA abolished Hoechst 33342 exclusion in SP cells. 3BrPA also disrupted clonogenic capacity in malignant cell lines including RPMI8226, KG-1, and HepG2. Furthermore, 3BrPA restored cytotoxic effects of daunorubicin and doxorubicin on KG-1 and RPMI8226 cells, and markedly suppressed subcutaneous tumor growth in combination with doxorubicin in RPMI8226-implanted mice. These results collectively suggest that the inhibition of glycolysis is able to overcome drug resistance in ABC transporter-expressing malignant cells through the inactivation of ABC transporters and impairment of SP cells with enhanced glycolysis as well as clonogenic cells.

  15. Analysis of behavioral intention on ABC system adoption: Model of information systems technology and success acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiq Nensi Veni Indipenrian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the effect of individual behavioral change on the adoption of activity- based costing (ABC system and its usage, using Unified Theory of Accep-tance and Use of Technology (UTAUT and Information System Success Model. The sample involves 78 respondents who have positions as financial manager, controller manager, accounting manager, and production manager in mid-sized manufacturing companies in East java. The data were collected by survey method. This study used a Partial Least Square (PLS as the data analysis method. It was found that not all of the main UTAUT models were supported, because performance expectancy and effort expectancy have no effect on behavioral intention and use behavior to adopt ABC system. Whereas, social factors, information quality and facilitating conditions had a positive effect on behavioral intention and use behavior to adopt ABC system. The different results of this study with several previous studies are probably caused by the differences in the context of system, culture and characteristics of the sample. The implication of this study is not only to propose a theoretical framework for researches in future, but also useful for companies to optimize the use of ABC system that should be supported by top level and mid-level management and the readiness of the individu-als to accept the adoption of the ABC system.

  16. The therapeutic potential of targeting ABC transporters to combat multi-drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugde, Piyush; Biswas, Riya; Merien, Fabrice; Lu, Jun; Liu, Dong-Xu; Chen, Mingwei; Zhou, Shufeng; Li, Yan

    2017-05-01

    Most disseminated cancers remain fatal despite the availability of a variety of conventional and novel treatments including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, and biologically targeted therapy. A major factor responsible for the failure of chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer is the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). The overexpression of various ABC transporters in cancer cells can efficiently remove the anticancer drug from the cell, thus causing the drug to lose its effect. Areas covered: In this review, we summarised the ongoing research related to the mechanism, function, and regulation of ABC transporters. We integrated our current knowledge at different levels from molecular biology to clinical trials. We also discussed potential therapeutic strategies of targeting ABC transporters to reverse MDR in cancer cells. Expert opinion: Involvement of various ABC transporters to cancer MDR lays the foundation for developing tailored therapies that can overcome MDR. An ideal MDR reversal agent should have broad-spectrum ABC-transporter inhibitory activity, be potent, have good pharmacokinetics, have no trans-stimulation effects, and have low or no toxicity. Alternatively, nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems containing both the cytotoxic drug and reversing agent may represent a useful approach to reversing MDR with minimal off-target toxicity.

  17. Overcoming ABC transporter-mediated multidrug resistance: Molecular mechanisms and novel therapeutic drug strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Zhang, Han; Assaraf, Yehuda G; Zhao, Kun; Xu, Xiaojun; Xie, Jinbing; Yang, Dong-Hua; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Multidrug resistance is a key determinant of cancer chemotherapy failure. One of the major causes of multidrug resistance is the enhanced efflux of drugs by membrane ABC transporters. Targeting ABC transporters projects a promising approach to eliminating or suppressing drug resistance in cancer treatment. To reveal the functional mechanisms of ABC transporters in drug resistance, extensive studies have been conducted from identifying drug binding sites to elucidating structural dynamics. In this review article, we examined the recent crystal structures of ABC proteins to depict the functionally important structural elements, such as domains, conserved motifs, and critical amino acids that are involved in ATP-binding and drug efflux. We inspected the drug-binding sites on ABC proteins and the molecular mechanisms of various substrate interactions with the drug binding pocket. While our continuous battle against drug resistance is far from over, new approaches and technologies have emerged to push forward our frontier. Most recent developments in anti-MDR strategies include P-gp inhibitors, RNA-interference, nano-medicines, and delivering combination strategies. With the advent of the 'Omics' era - genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics - these disciplines play an important role in fighting the battle against chemoresistance by further unraveling the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance and shed light on medical therapies that specifically target MDR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Expression, purification and thermostability of MBP-chondroitinase ABC I from Proteus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenya; Li, Ye; Yuan, Qipeng

    2015-01-01

    Chondroitinase ABC I (ChSase ABC I) which can degrade chondroitin sulfate (CS) and other glycosaminoglycan to oligosaccharide or unsaturated disaccharide, was fusionally expressed with maltose-binding protein (MBP) in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) (E. coli BL21(DE3)) and purified for the first time in this study. The result showed that the productivity of recombinant MBP-ChSase ABC I was 3180 IU/(L fermentation liquor) with CS A as substrate, and the productivity might be the highest level when compared to the reported ones. The specific activity of recombinant MBP-ChSase ABC I was 76 IU/(mg protein) after purification. The Vmax, Km and kcat were 18.7 ± 0.3 μmol/Ls, 73.1 ± 4.1 μmol/L and 586.7 ± 10.8 s(-1), respectively. Enzyme activity of the purified enzyme remained about 78% after 210 min when the enzyme incubated at 30 °C. This study introduces a rapid method for highly expressing ChSase ABC I, and the method could be adopted in the process of industrial production. Furthermore the investigation of thermostability might lead to an important guide in clinical treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Role of Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic ABC Transporter Family in Failure of Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Awady, Raafat; Saleh, Ekram; Hashim, Amna; Soliman, Nehal; Dallah, Alaa; Elrasheed, Azza; Elakraa, Ghada

    2016-01-01

    Over the years chemotherapy failure has been a vital research topic as researchers have been striving to discover reasons behind it. The extensive studies carried out on chemotherapeutic agents confirm that resistance to chemotherapy is a major reason for treatment failure. "Resistance to chemotherapy," however, is a comprehensive phrase that refers to a variety of different mechanisms in which ATP-binding cassette (ABC) mediated efflux dominates. The ABC is one of the largest gene superfamily of transporters among both eukaryotes and prokaryotes; it represents a variety of genes that code for proteins, which perform countless functions, including drug efflux - a natural process that protects cells from foreign chemicals. Up to date, chemotherapy failure due to ABC drug efflux is an active research topic that continuously provides further evidence on multiple drug resistance (MDR), aiding scientists in tackling and overcoming this issue. This review focuses on drug resistance by ABC efflux transporters in human, viral, parasitic, fungal and bacterial cells and highlights the importance of the MDR permeability glycoprotein being the mutual ABC transporter among all studied organisms. Current developments and future directions to overcome this problem are also discussed.

  20. A Common Weight Linear Optimization Approach for Multicriteria ABC Inventory Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Hatefi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizations typically employ the ABC inventory classification technique to have an efficient control on a huge amount of inventory items. The ABC inventory classification problem is classification of a large amount of items into three groups: A, very important; B, moderately important; and C, relatively unimportant. The traditional ABC classification only accounts for one criterion, namely, the annual dollar usage of the items. But, there are other important criteria in real world which strongly affect the ABC classification. This paper proposes a novel methodology based on a common weight linear optimization model to solve the multiple criteria inventory classification problem. The proposed methodology enables the classification of inventory items via a set of common weights which is very essential in a fair classification. It has a remarkable computational saving when compared with the existing approaches and at the same time it needs no subjective information. Furthermore, it is easy enough to apply for managers. The proposed model is applied on an illustrative example and a case study taken from the literature. Both numerical results and qualitative comparisons with the existing methods reveal several merits of the proposed approach for ABC analysis.

  1. Accelerator-based conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium: Plant layout study and related design issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowell, B.S.; Fontana, M.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Krakowski, R.A.; Beard, C.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Davidson, J.W.; Sailor, W.C.; Williamson, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-04-01

    In preparation for and in support of a detailed R and D Plan for the Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium, an ABC Plant Layout Study was conducted at the level of a pre-conceptual engineering design. The plant layout is based on an adaptation of the Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) detailed conceptual design that was completed in the early 1070s. Although the ABC Plant Layout Study included the Accelerator Equipment as an essential element, the engineering assessment focused primarily on the Target; Primary System (blanket and all systems containing plutonium-bearing fuel salt); the Heat-Removal System (secondary-coolant-salt and supercritical-steam systems); Chemical Processing; Operation and Maintenance; Containment and Safety; and Instrumentation and Control systems. Although constrained primarily to a reflection of an accelerator-driven (subcritical) variant of MSBR system, unique features and added flexibilities of the ABC suggest improved or alternative approaches to each of the above-listed subsystems; these, along with the key technical issues in need of resolution through a detailed R&D plan for ABC are described on the bases of the ``strawman`` or ``point-of-departure`` plant layout that resulted from this study.

  2. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins in aquatic invertebrates: Evolutionary significance and application in marine ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kim, Hui-Su; Kang, Hye-Min; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-04-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein superfamily is known to play a fundamental role in biological processes and is highly conserved across animal taxa. The ABC proteins function as active transporters for multiple substrates across the cellular membrane by ATP hydrolysis. As this superfamily is derived from a common ancestor, ABC genes have evolved via lineage-specific duplications through the process of adaptation. In this review, we summarized information about the ABC gene families in aquatic invertebrates, considering their evolution and putative functions in defense mechanisms. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted to examine the evolutionary significance of ABC gene families in aquatic invertebrates. Particularly, a massive expansion of multixenobiotic resistance (MXR)-mediated efflux transporters was identified in the absence of the ABCG2 (BCRP) gene in Ecdysozoa and Platyzoa, suggesting that a loss of Abcg2 gene occurred sporadically in these species during divergence of Protostome to Lophotrochozoa. Furthermore, in aquatic invertebrates, the ecotoxicological significance of MXR is discussed while considering the role of MXR-mediated efflux transporters in response to various environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evolutionary Pattern of N-Glycosylation Sequon Numbers  in Eukaryotic ABC Protein Superfamilies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Shyama Prasad Rao

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins contain a large number of NXS/T sequences (where X is any amino acid except proline which are the potential sites of asparagine (N linked glycosylation. However, the patterns of occurrence of these N-glycosylation sequons in related proteins or groups of proteins and their underlying causes have largely been unexplored. We computed the actual and probabilistic occurrence of NXS/T sequons in ABC protein superfamilies from eight diverse eukaryotic organisms. The ABC proteins contained significantly higher NXS/T sequon numbers compared to respective genome-wide average, but the sequon density was significantly lower owing to the increase in protein size and decrease in sequon specific amino acids. However, mammalian ABC proteins have significantly higher sequon density, and both serine and threonine containing sequons (NXS and NXT have been positively selected—against the recent findings of only threonine specific Darwinian selection of sequons in proteins. The occurrence of sequons was positively correlated with the frequency of sequon specific amino acids and negatively correlated with proline and the NPS/T sequences. Further, the NPS/T sequences were significantly higher than expected in plant ABC proteins which have the lowest number of NXS/T sequons. Accord- ingly, compared to overall proteins, N-glycosylation sequons in ABC protein superfamilies have a distinct pattern of occurrence, and the results are discussed in an evolutionary perspective.

  4. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The warm weather arrives, it's time to take advantage of our offers Walibi and Aquapark! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 21 € instead of 26 € Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 8 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12 h 00. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Half-day ticket (5 hours): – Children: 26 CHF instead of 35 CHF – Adults : 32 CHF instead of 43 CHF Day ticket: – Children: 30 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 36 CHF instead of 49 CHF Free for children under 5.

  5. Offers for our members

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    Association du personnel

    2013-01-01

    La banque LCL propose aux membres de l’Association du personnel les avantages suivants : – Un barème Privilège sur le Prêt immobilier – Des avantages tarifaires sur l’épargne, notamment l’assurance-vie. – Un taux préférentiel de prêt à la consommation. En outre, jusqu’au 30 septembre 2013, elle offre 50€ à tous les nouveaux clients, membres de l'Association du personnel. Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Tickets "Zone terrestre" : 21 € instead of de 26 €. Access to Aqualibi : 5 euros instead of 8 euros on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12 h 00. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Free car park. * * * * * * * Full day ticket: – Children : 30 CHF instead of 39 CHF &...

  6. Offers for our members

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    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The Courir shops propose the following offer: 15% discount on all articles (not on sales) in the Courir shops (Val Thoiry, Annemasse and Neydens) and 5% discount on sales upon presentation of your Staff Association membership card and an identity card before payment. Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 21 € instead of 26 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 8 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12 h 00. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 30 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 36 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  7. Custeio ABC no ambiente hospitalar: um estudo nos hospitais universitários e de ensino brasileiros ABC costing in hospital environment: a study in brazilian university hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto José Miranda

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O Custeio Baseado em Atividades tem se mostrado como uma alternativa promissora para fazer frente à complexidade que caracteriza os custos hospitalares. Nos últimos dez anos, somente na Plataforma Lattes, foram encontrados mais de uma centena de estudos dessa natureza. Este trabalho tem como objetivo, conhecer, empiricamente, a utilização do Custeio ABC nos hospitais universitários e de ensino brasileiros e comparar os resultados, conforme as possibilidades, com as pesquisas realizadas nas maiores empresas brasileiras pelos autores: Khoury (1999, Beuren e Roedel (2002 e Azevedo, Santos e Pamplona (2004. Dos 115 questionários enviados aos hospitais universitários, 34 foram respondidos. O estudo levou a conclusões importantes, como: Os sistemas de custos atuais dos hospitais têm poucas condições de fornecer informações úteis à gestão; o Custeio ABC é bastante conhecido no ambiente, mas o número de usuários ainda é relativamente pequeno: apenas 15% da amostra; mas existe expectativa por parte de 44% dos hospitais com relação ao uso futuro da abordagem. As principais causas apresentadas para a não-utilização do Sistema ABC foram: (a o sistema utilizado atende às necessidades da organização e (b o Custeio Baseado em Atividades é muito complexo.The Cost Based Activity has been a promising alternative to deal with the complexity that characterizes hospital costs. In the last ten years, only in the Plataforma Lattes, more than a hundred studies of this nature had been found. This work aims to find out, empirically, the use of ABC Costing in Brazilian university hospitals and to compare the results, according to the possibilities, with the researches that have been made in the biggest Brazilian companies by the authors: Khoury (1999, Beuren and Roedel (2002 and Azevedo, Santos and Pamplona (2004. A hundred and fifteen questionnaires were sent to the university hospitals, 34 had been answered. The study relates important

  8. Exploiting Synthetic Lethality for the Therapy of ABC Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yibin; Shaffer, Arthur L.; Emre, N.C. Tolga; Ceribelli, Michele; Zhang, Meili; Wright, George; Xiao, Wenming; Powell, John; Platig, John; Kohlhammer, Holger; Young, Ryan M.; Zhao, Hong; Yang, Yandan; Xu, Weihong; Buggy, Joseph J.; Balasubramanian, Sriram; Mathews, Lesley A.; Shinn, Paul; Guha, Rajarshi; Ferrer, Marc; Thomas, Craig; Waldmann, Thomas A.; Staudt, Louis M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Knowledge of oncogenic mutations can inspire therapeutic strategies that are synthetically lethal, affecting cancer cells while sparing normal cells. Lenalidomide is an active agent in the activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), but its mechanism of action is unknown. Lenalidomide kills ABC DLBCL cells by augmenting interferon β (IFNβ) production, owing to the oncogenic MYD88 mutations in these lymphomas. In a cereblon-dependent fashion, lenalidomide downregulates IRF4 and SPIB, transcription factors that together prevent IFNβ production by repressing IRF7 and also amplify pro-survival NF-κB signaling by transactivating CARD11. Blockade of B cell receptor (BCR) signaling using the BTK inhibitor ibrutinib also downregulates IRF4 and consequently synergizes with lenalidomide in killing ABC DLBCLs, suggesting attractive therapeutic strategies. PMID:22698399

  9. Anger and the ABC model underlying Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Daniel J; Smith, Phillip N

    2004-06-01

    The ABC model underlying Ellis's Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy predicts that people who think more irrationally should display greater trait anger than do people who think less irrationally. This study tested this prediction regarding the ABC model. 186 college students were administered the Survey of Personal Beliefs and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-Second Edition to measure irrational thinking and trait anger, respectively. Students who scored higher on Overall Irrational Thinking and Low Frustration Tolerance scored significantly higher on Trait Anger than did those who scored lower on Overall Irrational Thinking and Low Frustration Tolerance. This indicates support for the ABC model, especially Ellis's construct of irrational beliefs which is central to the model.

  10. Surface roughness optimization in machining of AZ31 magnesium alloy using ABC algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijith

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys serve as excellent substitutes for materials traditionally used for engine block heads in automobiles and gear housings in aircraft industries. AZ31 is a magnesium alloy finds its applications in orthopedic implants and cardiovascular stents. Surface roughness is an important parameter in the present manufacturing sector. In this work optimization techniques namely firefly algorithm (FA, particle swarm optimization (PSO and artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC which are based on swarm intelligence techniques, have been implemented to optimize the machining parameters namely cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut in order to achieve minimum surface roughness. The parameter Ra has been considered for evaluating the surface roughness. Comparing the performance of ABC algorithm with FA and PSO algorithm, which is a widely used optimization algorithm in machining studies, the results conclude that ABC produces better optimization when compared to FA and PSO for optimizing surface roughness of AZ 31.

  11. ABC transporters as multidrug resistance mechanisms and the development of chemosensitizers for their reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Cheol-Hee

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the major problems related with anticancer chemotherapy is resistance against anticancer drugs. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters are a family of transporter proteins that are responsible for drug resistance and a low bioavailability of drugs by pumping a variety of drugs out cells at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. One strategy for reversal of the resistance of tumor cells expressing ABC transporters is combined use of anticancer drugs with chemosensitizers. In this review, the physiological functions and structures of ABC transporters, and the development of chemosensitizers are described focusing on well-known proteins including P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance associated protein, and breast cancer resistance protein.

  12. A test of the ABC model underlying rational emotive behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Daniel J; Leslie, Yvonne M

    2003-02-01

    The ABC model underlying Ellis's Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy predicts that people who think more irrationally should respond to daily stressors or hassles differently than do people who think less irrationally. This study tested this aspect of the ABC model. 192 college students were administered the Survey of Personal Beliefs and the Hassles Scale to measure irrational thinking and daily hassles, respectively. Students who scored higher on overall irrational thinking reported a significantly higher frequency of hassles than did those who scored lower on overall irrational thinking, while students who scored higher on awfulizing and low frustration tolerance reported a significantly greater intensity of hassles than did those who scored lower on awfulizing and low frustration tolerance. This indicates support for the ABC model, especially Ellis's construct of irrational beliefs central to this model.

  13. ASPECTS OF OBSTACLES FOR APPLYING ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC SYSTEM IN EGYPTIAN FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru STEFEA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The following investigation aims to determine the aspects of obstacles for applying Activity Based Costing (ABC system in the Egyptian case and the significant differences among the effects of such obstacles . The Study used the survey method to describe and analyze the obstacles in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. This survey used the number of 392 questionnaires that were used throughout the total of 23 Egyptian manufacturing firms, during the first half of 2013. Finally, the study found some influencing obstacles for applying this system (ABC and there were significant differences among the aspects of obstacles for applying ABC system in the Egyptian manufacturing firms.

  14. Age-associated B cells (ABC) inhibit B lymphopoiesis and alter antibody repertoires in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Richard L; Khomtchouk, Kelly; Blomberg, Bonnie B

    2017-11-01

    With old age (∼2y old), mice show substantial differences in B cell composition within the lymphoid tissues. In particular, a novel subset of IgM + CD21/35 lo/- CD23 - mature B cells, the age-associated B cells or ABC, increases numerically and proportionately. This occurs at the expense of other B cell subsets, including B2 follicular B cells in spleen and recirculating primary B cells in bone marrow. Our studies suggest that ABC have a distinctive antibody repertoire, as evidenced by relatively high reactivity to the self-antigens phosphorylcholine (PC) and malondialdehyde (MDA). While PC and MDA are found on apoptotic cells and oxidized lipoproteins, antibodies to these antigens are also cross-reactive with epitopes on bacterial species. In old mice, ABC express TNFα and are pro-inflammatory. ABC can inhibit growth and/or survival in pro-B cells as well as common lymphoid progenitors (CLP). In particular, ABC cause apoptosis in pro-B cells with relatively high levels of the surrogate light chain (SLC) and, consequently, promote an "SLC low" pathway of B cell differentiation in old mice. SLC together with μ heavy chain comprises the pre-B cell receptor (preBCR) critical for pre-B cell expansion and selection of the μ heavy chain Vh repertoire. The low level of SLC likely impairs normal preBCR driven proliferation and alters μ heavy chain Vh selection thereby affecting the antibody specificities of new B cells. In this manner, ABC may contribute to both qualitative and quantitative disruptions of normal B lymphopoiesis in old age. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Putative ABC transporter responsible for acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter aceti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Shigeru; Fukaya, Masahiro; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2006-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis of the membrane fraction of Acetobacter aceti revealed the presence of several proteins that were produced in response to acetic acid. A 60-kDa protein, named AatA, which was mostly induced by acetic acid, was prepared; aatA was cloned on the basis of its NH2-terminal amino acid sequence. AatA, consisting of 591 amino acids and containing ATP-binding cassette (ABC) sequences and ABC signature sequences, belonged to the ABC transporter superfamily. The aatA mutation with an insertion of the neomycin resistance gene within the aatA coding region showed reduced resistance to acetic acid, formic acid, propionic acid, and lactic acid, whereas the aatA mutation exerted no effects on resistance to various drugs, growth at low pH (adjusted with HCl), assimilation of acetic acid, or resistance to citric acid. Introduction of plasmid pABC101 containing aatA under the control of the Escherichia coli lac promoter into the aatA mutant restored the defect in acetic acid resistance. In addition, pABC101 conferred acetic acid resistance on E. coli. These findings showed that AatA was a putative ABC transporter conferring acetic acid resistance on the host cell. Southern blot analysis and subsequent nucleotide sequencing predicted the presence of aatA orthologues in a variety of acetic acid bacteria belonging to the genera Acetobacter and Gluconacetobacter. The fermentation with A. aceti containing aatA on a multicopy plasmid resulted in an increase in the final yield of acetic acid.

  16. Early Observations of the Type Ia Supernova iPTF 16abc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam; iPTF Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Early observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe) provide a unique probe of their progenitor systems and explosion physics. Here, we report the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) discovery of an extraordinarily young SN Ia, iPTF 16abc. By fitting a power law to our early light curve, we infer that first light for the SN only occurred 0.15 +0.15-0.07 d before our first detection. In the ~24 hr after discovery, iPTF 16abc rose by ~2 mag, following a near-linear rise in flux for ~3 d. Strong C II absorption is detected in the early spectra of iPTF 16abc, before disappearing after ~7 d. Unlike the extensively-observed Type Ia SN 2011fe, the (B-V)_0 colors of iPTF 16abc are blue and nearly constant in the days after explosion. We show that our early observations of iPTF 16abc cannot be explained by either SN shock breakout and the associated, subsequent cooling, or the SN ejecta colliding with a stellar companion. Instead, we argue that the early characteristics of iPTF 16abc, including: (i) the rapid, near-linear rise, (ii) the non-evolving blue colors, and (iii) the strong absorption from ionized carbon, are the result of either vigorous mixing of radioactive-Ni in the SN ejecta, or ejecta interaction with diffuse material, or a combination of the two. In the next few years, dozens of very young normal SNe Ia will be discovered, and observations similar to those presented here will constrain the white dwarf explosion mechanism.

  17. Custeio baseado em atividades (ABC aplicado aos processos de compra e venda de distribuidora de mercadorias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Wernke

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de estudo de caso sobre a aplicação do Custeio Baseado em Atividades (ABC efetuada em empresa que atua na distribuição de mercadorias. O estudo teve por objetivo identificar o efetivo consumo de recursos destinados aos processos de compra e de venda pelos três principais segmentos de mercado em que a entidade atua, no sentido de melhorar sua análise de rentabilidade. Após efetuar uma revisão da literatura sobre os principais aspectos do ABC, descreve-se o estudo efetuado. Inicialmente, faz-se a caracterização da empresa em que foi efetuada a pesquisa. Em seguida, apresentam-se os detalhes da implementação do ABC, comentando os procedimentos realizados para tal finalidade. Por último, são mencionadas as informações gerenciais mais relevantes que puderam ser obtidas pelo uso dessa forma de custeio.This case study discussed the application of activity-based costing (ABC in a merchandise distribution company and aimed to identify the effective consumption of purchase and sales process resources by the three main market segments the entity is active in, so as to improve its profitability analysis. After a literature review on the main aspects of ABC, the case study was described. First, the study company was characterized. Next, the details of ABC implementation were presented, including what procedures were realized for this purpose. Finally, the most relevant management information obtained through this costing method were mentioned.

  18. O desafio da interdisciplinaridade na Faculdade de Medicina do ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Castilho Leite

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Vivemos a emergência de ações movidas interprofissionalmente, e caminhamos para superação da lógica multiprofissional fragmentada, para tanto, agenciamos maneiras para vivenciar as fronteiras criadas entre os distintos e necessários conhecimentos que demarcam a diversidade identitária de cada profissional. Diante dessa realidade, o presente estudo teve por objetivo discutir o posicionamento interdisciplinar da Faculdade de Medicina do ABC (FMABC em suas ações de ensinagem, em atenção especial para o campo da extensão universitária. Relato de experiência: As práticas diárias de ensinagem na FMABC, guiadas pelo tripé ensino, pesquisa e extensão, têm nos mostrado como resultado que, de fato as experiências de extensão, sustentadas pela Saúde Coletiva, nos parecem ser um núcleo que permite uma dialogicidade de saberes e práticas num campo amplo como a saúde e a suas interfaces, uma vez que é sua essência ser um núcleo multiprofissional e interdisciplinar, pois se constitui como um paradigma da realidade e de interpretações e intervenções na saúde. Conclusão: Portanto, é justamente pela ação interdisciplinar que o ensino superior em saúde consegue preconizar o pensamento complexo e formar profissionais capazes de compreender que o saber e a prática de intervenção se fazem em uma produção de compreensões e acordos para a ação das mudanças das barreiras e dos determinantes que impedem a qualidade de vida da população e os efeitos dessa implicação na formação universitária.

  19. Starting with ABC and Finishing with XYZ: What Financial Reporting Model Best Fits a Faculty and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Prudence Jane

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the range of financial reporting models available for use in the Australian higher education sector, the possible application of activity-based costing (ABC) in faculties and the eventual rejection of ABC in favour of a more qualitative model designed specifically for use in one institution, in a particular Faculty. The…

  20. 75 FR 11991 - ABC & D Recycling, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-a Line of Railroad in Ware, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... solid waste, as defined in the Clean Railroads Act of 2008, it must: (1) Obtain all state and local permits necessary in order to handle such solid waste, or (2) obtain a land-use exemption from the Board... Recycling, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption--a Line of Railroad in Ware, MA ABC & D Recycling, Inc. (ABC...

  1. mRMR-ABC: A Hybrid Gene Selection Algorithm for Cancer Classification Using Microarray Gene Expression Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshamlan, Hala; Badr, Ghada; Alohali, Yousef

    2015-01-01

    An artificial bee colony (ABC) is a relatively recent swarm intelligence optimization approach. In this paper, we propose the first attempt at applying ABC algorithm in analyzing a microarray gene expression profile. In addition, we propose an innovative feature selection algorithm, minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR), and combine it with an ABC algorithm, mRMR-ABC, to select informative genes from microarray profile. The new approach is based on a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to measure the classification accuracy for selected genes. We evaluate the performance of the proposed mRMR-ABC algorithm by conducting extensive experiments on six binary and multiclass gene expression microarray datasets. Furthermore, we compare our proposed mRMR-ABC algorithm with previously known techniques. We reimplemented two of these techniques for the sake of a fair comparison using the same parameters. These two techniques are mRMR when combined with a genetic algorithm (mRMR-GA) and mRMR when combined with a particle swarm optimization algorithm (mRMR-PSO). The experimental results prove that the proposed mRMR-ABC algorithm achieves accurate classification performance using small number of predictive genes when tested using both datasets and compared to previously suggested methods. This shows that mRMR-ABC is a promising approach for solving gene selection and cancer classification problems.

  2. 78 FR 54464 - ABC Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-2260-000] ABC Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of ABC Energy, LLC...

  3. Functional expression and characterization of plant ABC transporters in Xenopus laevis oocytes for transport engineering purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Deyang; Veres, Dorottya; Belew, Zeinu Mussa

    2016-01-01

    Transport engineering in bioengineering is aimed at efficient export of the final product to reduce toxicity and feedback inhibition and to increase yield. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters with their highly diverse substrate specificity and role in cellular efflux are potentially...... suitable in transport engineering approaches, although their size and high number of introns make them notoriously difficult to clone. Here, we report a novel in planta “exon engineering” strategy for cloning of full-length coding sequence of ABC transporters followed by methods for biochemical...... provided will hopefully contribute to more successful transport engineering in synthetic biology....

  4. Marketing Research of Construction Sites based on ABC-XYZ Analysis and Relational Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konikov Aleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ABC-XYZ analysis is well known in marketing. It allows identifying sites that yield maximum profits when sold, sites that enjoy stable demand, or sites have both qualities specified above. However, the methods are quite abstract and are not designed to study specific factors that impact the results of ABC-XYZ analysis. Meanwhile, for some applications, particularly for marketing research of construction sites, it is critical not only to identify high-profit and stable sites but also to find out what combination of technical parameters, factors related to their location, transport accessibility, etc. are typical of them. This work suggests an approach to address the issue.

  5. The human ABC transporter pseudogene family: Evidence for transcription and gene-pseudogene interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piehler, Armin P; Hellum, Marit; Wenzel, Jürgen J; Kaminski, Ellen; Haug, Kari Bente Foss; Kierulf, Peter; Kaminski, Wolfgang E

    2008-04-11

    Pseudogenes are an integral component of the human genome. Little attention, however, has so far been paid to the phenomenon that some pseudogenes are transcriptionally active. Recently, we demonstrated that the human ortholog of the rodent testis-specific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter Abca17 is a ubiquitously transcribed pseudogene (ABCA17P). The aim of the present study was to establish a complete inventory of all ABC transporter pseudogenes in the human genome and to identify transcriptionally active ABC transporter pseudogenes. Moreover, we tested the hypothesis that a regulatory interdependency exists between ABC transporter pseudogenes and their parental protein coding equivalents. Systematic bioinformatic analysis revealed the existence of 22 ABC transporter pseudogenes within the human genome. We identified two clusters on chromosomes 15 and 16, respectively, which harbor almost half of all pseudogenes (n = 10). Available information from EST and mRNA databases and RT-PCR expression profiling indicate that a large portion of the ABC transporter pseudogenes (45%, n = 10) are transcriptionally active and some of them are expressed as alternative splice variants. We demonstrate that both pseudogenes of the pseudoxanthoma elasticum gene ABCC6, ABCC6P1 and ABCC6P2, are transcribed. ABCC6P1 and ABCC6 possess near-identical promoter sequences and their tissue-specific expression profiles are strikingly similar raising the possibility that they form a gene-pseudogene dual transcription unit. Intriguingly, targeted knockdown of the transcribed pseudogene ABCC6P1 resulted in a significant reduction of ABCC6 mRNA expression levels. The human genome contains a surprisingly small number of ABC transporter pseudogenes relative to other known gene families. They are unevenly distributed across the chromosomes. Importantly, a significant portion of the ABC transporter pseudogenes is transcriptionally active. The downregulation of ABCC6 mRNA levels by targeted

  6. The human ABC transporter pseudogene family: Evidence for transcription and gene-pseudogene interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Kari

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudogenes are an integral component of the human genome. Little attention, however, has so far been paid to the phenomenon that some pseudogenes are transcriptionally active. Recently, we demonstrated that the human ortholog of the rodent testis-specific ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter Abca17 is a ubiquitously transcribed pseudogene (ABCA17P. The aim of the present study was to establish a complete inventory of all ABC transporter pseudogenes in the human genome and to identify transcriptionally active ABC transporter pseudogenes. Moreover, we tested the hypothesis that a regulatory interdependency exists between ABC transporter pseudogenes and their parental protein coding equivalents. Results Systematic bioinformatic analysis revealed the existence of 22 ABC transporter pseudogenes within the human genome. We identified two clusters on chromosomes 15 and 16, respectively, which harbor almost half of all pseudogenes (n = 10. Available information from EST and mRNA databases and RT-PCR expression profiling indicate that a large portion of the ABC transporter pseudogenes (45%, n = 10 are transcriptionally active and some of them are expressed as alternative splice variants. We demonstrate that both pseudogenes of the pseudoxanthoma elasticum gene ABCC6, ABCC6P1 and ABCC6P2, are transcribed. ABCC6P1 and ABCC6 possess near-identical promoter sequences and their tissue-specific expression profiles are strikingly similar raising the possibility that they form a gene-pseudogene dual transcription unit. Intriguingly, targeted knockdown of the transcribed pseudogene ABCC6P1 resulted in a significant reduction of ABCC6 mRNA expression levels. Conclusion The human genome contains a surprisingly small number of ABC transporter pseudogenes relative to other known gene families. They are unevenly distributed across the chromosomes. Importantly, a significant portion of the ABC transporter pseudogenes is transcriptionally active

  7. Transport mechanism of acyl-CoA into peroxisomes by a peroxisomal ABC transporter, ABCD1

    OpenAIRE

    Agustina, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Transport mechanism of acyl-CoA into peroxisomes by a peroxisomal ABC protein, ABCD1 ABCD1, belonging to the ABC protein subfamily D, is aperoxisomal membrane protein and involves in the transport of very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA)-CoA into peroxisomes. Its mutation causes X-linked adrenoleukodystophy; an inborn error of peroxisomal VLCFA ??-oxidation. It has been reported that COMATOSE, a homolog of human ABCD1 in plant possess acyl-CoA thioesterase (ACOT) activity and t...

  8. Regulation of expression of the tricarballylate utilization operon (tcuABC) of Salmonella enterica

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Jeffrey A.; Stamper, Lisa W.; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.

    2009-01-01

    The tricarballylate utilization locus (tcuRABC) of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is comprised of a 3-gene operon (tcuABC) that encodes functions that allow this bacterium to use tricarballylate as a source of carbon and energy, and the tcuR gene, which encodes a putative LysR-type transcriptional regulator. In our studies, transcription of the tcuABC operon peaked at mid-log phase, and declined moderately during stationary phase. This pattern was not due to a change in the amount of...

  9. Análise dos recursos do programa ABC - Visão regional

    OpenAIRE

    Gurgel, Angelo Costa; Costa, Cecília Fagan

    2014-01-01

    Este' é' o' segundo' de' uma' série' de' quatro' relatórios' que' compõem,' entre' outras,' as' atividades' do' segundo' ano' de' trabalho' de' Observatório' do' Plano' ABC.' Seu' principal objetivo' é' analisar' quantitativamente'e'qualitativamente'o'desempenho'– desembolso'– do'Programa'ABC,'principal'linha' de'crédito'para'o' financiamento'da'agricultura'de'baixa'emissão'de'carbono'no'Brasil.'Além'de' trazer' destaques' referentes' ao' resultado' da safra' 2013/14,' traz também...

  10. O controle urbano nas favelas urbanizadas : o caso da Região do ABC

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Milton Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Orientadora: Profa. Dra. Rosana Denaldi Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do ABC, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Planejamento e Gestão do Território, 2014. Este trabalho trata do controle urbano nas favelas urbanizadas, a partir do estudo das experiências realizadas em municípios do ABC. A pesquisa procura analisar os processos de urbanização e regularização de favelas nos municípios de Diadema, Santo André e São Bernardo do Campo e identifica o arcabouço jurídico estabelecido...

  11. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The document lists the 135 Member States of the Agency as of 19 March 2003. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/56) is the Republic of Honduras. The dates on which the present 135 Member States became Members are given in an Attachment. It also shows the States whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  12. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.55) is the Republic of Botswana, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 20 March 2002. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 134 Member States became Members. It also shows the State whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference, but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  13. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document lists the 130 Member States of the Agency as of 1 December 1999. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/52) is Angola. The dates on which the present 130 Member States became Members, and the state Honduras) whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute are given in an Attachment

  14. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The document lists the 132 Member States of the Agency as of 1 June 2001. The new Members since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/53) are Central African Republic and Azerbaijan. The dates on which the present 132 Member States became Members are given in an Attachment. It also shows the States whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  15. Comparison of Group Cohesion, Class Participation, and Exam Performance in Live and Online Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galyon, Charles E.; Heaton, Eleanore C. T.; Best, Tiffany L.; Williams, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Though class participation and group cohesion have shown some potential to promote student performance in conventional classrooms, their efficacy has not yet been demonstrated in an online-class setting. Group cohesion, defined as member attraction to and self-identification with a group, is thought to promote positive interdependence and the…

  16. Talking about consumption. How an Indian middle class dissociates from middle-Class life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, van M.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Members of the middle class in the Indian city of Baroda employ a common moral discourse on consumption, one that is shaped through the operationalization of historically rooted ideals of community, family solidarity and asceticism. These ideals are set against the experience of urban middle-class

  17. The members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The 42nd revision of INFCIRC/2 lists the 113 Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency as of 1 January 1993. It includes Slovenia as a new Member State as of 21 September 1992, Cambodia replaces the former name ''Democratic Kampuchea'' and Czechoslovakia was deleted as it ceased to be a member of the Agency as of 1 January 1993 (INFCIRC/417)

  18. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.70) is Papua New Guinea, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 April 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 154 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  19. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.69) is the Commonwealth of Dominica, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 17 February 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 153 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  20. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.68) is the Lao People's Democratic Republic which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 November 2011. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 152 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statue with the depositary Government [es

  1. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.73) is Trinidad and Tobago, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 9 November 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 158 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  2. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.76) is Brunei Darussalam, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 18 February 2014. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 162 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  3. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.71) is Rwanda, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 September 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 155 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  4. Family members' experiences of autopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppewal, F; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    Background. The experiences of family members will teach us how to handle an autopsy, the ultimate quality assessment tool. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine surviving family members' experience of autopsy. Method. Seven GPs were asked to approach surviving family members of

  5. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.73) is Trinidad and Tobago, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 9 November 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 158 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  6. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.68) is the Lao People's Democratic Republic which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 November 2011. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 152 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statue with the depositary Government

  7. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.72) are Fiji and Togo, which deposited their instruments of acceptance of the Statute on 2 November 2012 and 1 November 2012, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 157 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  8. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.76) is Brunei Darussalam, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 18 February 2014. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 162 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  9. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.74) is Swaziland, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 15 February 2013. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 159 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  10. Finanční analýza účetní jednotky ABC/Financial Analysis of Company ABC

    OpenAIRE

    Kaprálová, Aneta

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is focused on financial analysis of company ABC that works in rubber industry. First part is aimed at theoretical interpretation of financial analysis, its goals, history, users and sources. Attention is paid to sources of information especially financial statements. Further basic methods are defined, which financial analysis uses. Ratios are described in this thesis above all. At the close there is practical display of financial analysis based on data from financial statements of...

  11. The reproducibility of organ position using active breathing control (ABC) during liver radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, Laura A.; Brock, Kristy K.; Kazanjian, Sahira; Fitch, Dwight; McGinn, Cornelius J.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Haken, Randall K. ten; Balter, James

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the intrafraction and interfraction reproducibility of liver immobilization using active breathing control (ABC). Methods and Materials: Patients with unresectable intrahepatic tumors who could comfortably hold their breath for at least 20 s were treated with focal liver radiation using ABC for liver immobilization. Fluoroscopy was used to measure any potential motion during ABC breath holds. Preceding each radiotherapy fraction, with the patient setup in the nominal treatment position using ABC, orthogonal radiographs were taken using room-mounted diagnostic X-ray tubes and a digital imager. The radiographs were compared to reference images using a 2D alignment tool. The treatment table was moved to produce acceptable setup, and repeat orthogonal verification images were obtained. The positions of the diaphragm and the liver (assessed by localization of implanted radiopaque intra-arterial microcoils) relative to the skeleton were subsequently analyzed. The intrafraction reproducibility (from repeat radiographs obtained within the time period of one fraction before treatment) and interfraction reproducibility (from comparisons of the first radiograph for each treatment with a reference radiograph) of the diaphragm and the hepatic microcoil positions relative to the skeleton with repeat breath holds using ABC were then measured. Caudal-cranial (CC), anterior-posterior (AP), and medial-lateral (ML) reproducibility of the hepatic microcoils relative to the skeleton were also determined from three-dimensional alignment of repeat CT scans obtained in the treatment position. Results: A total of 262 fractions of radiation were delivered using ABC breath holds in 8 patients. No motion of the diaphragm or hepatic microcoils was observed on fluoroscopy during ABC breath holds. From analyses of 158 sets of positioning radiographs, the average intrafraction CC reproducibility (σ) of the diaphragm and hepatic microcoil position relative to the skeleton

  12. NLRC5: a newly discovered MHC class I transactivator (CITA)

    OpenAIRE

    Meissner, Torsten B.; Li, Amy; Kobayashi, Koichi S.

    2011-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II are crucial for the function of the human adaptive immune system. An NLR protein, CIITA (MHC class II transactivator), is a master regulator of MHC class II gene expression as well as of some of the genes involved in MHC class II antigen presentation. It has recently been discovered that another member of the NLR protein family, NLRC5, transcriptionally activates MHC class I genes, and thus acts as “CITA” (MHC class I transactivator)...

  13. Using a Virtual Class to Demonstrate Computer-Mediated Group Dynamics Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Timothy M.; Vicker, Lauren A.

    2010-01-01

    We report about an active learning demonstration designed to use a virtual class to present computer-mediated group communication course concepts to show that students can learn about these concepts in a virtual class. We designated 1 class period as a virtual rather than face-to-face class, when class members "attended" virtually using…

  14. 75 FR 41887 - Request for Nominations of Members To Serve on the Bureau of Indian Education Advisory Board for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... member's employer, other than as part of a class. The provisions of this paragraph do not affect any other statutory or regulatory ethical obligations to which a member may be subject. (c) The Advisory...

  15. Development, Maintenance, and Reversal of Multiple Drug Resistance: At the Crossroads of TFPI1, ABC Transporters, and HIF1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terra Arnason

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Early detection and improved therapies for many cancers are enhancing survival rates. Although many cytotoxic therapies are approved for aggressive or metastatic cancer; response rates are low and acquisition of de novo resistance is virtually universal. For decades; chemotherapeutic treatments for cancer have included anthracyclines such as Doxorubicin (DOX; and its use in aggressive tumors appears to remain a viable option; but drug resistance arises against DOX; as for all other classes of compounds. Our recent work suggests the anticoagulant protein Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor 1α (TFPI1α plays a role in driving the development of multiple drug resistance (MDR; but not maintenance; of the MDR state. Other factors; such as the ABC transporter drug efflux pumps MDR-1/P-gp (ABCB1 and BCRP (ABCG2; are required for MDR maintenance; as well as development. The patient population struggling with therapeutic resistance specifically requires novel treatment options to resensitize these tumor cells to therapy. In this review we discuss the development, maintenance, and reversal of MDR as three distinct phases of cancer biology. Possible means to exploit these stages to reverse MDR will be explored. Early molecular detection of MDRcancers before clinical failure has the potential to offer new approaches to fighting MDRcancer.

  16. Penerapan Metode Tutor Sebaya dalam Meningkatkan Hasil Belajar Kognitif Siswa Kelas XI SMA ABC Yogyakarta pada Topik Sistem Gerak [The Implementation of Peer Tutoring to Increase Cognitive Achievment about the Movement System for Grade XI Students at SMA ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshelly Christyanna da Lopez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on low student test scores in a grade XI science class at ABC Senior High School in Yogyakarta, the observer found that the students had difficulties understanding the Movement System. This happened because the learning process in the classroom focused on the teacher and was monotone in nature so the instructional objective was not reached as proven by the low test results. Based on this problem, the observer planned and designed a peer tutor learning process to increase the students' cognitive results. The observer used Classroom Action Research which went from October 20, 2015 to October 29, 2015. There were two cycles that involved 22 students. The instruments used were test sheets, student feedback sheets, observation sheets, mentor interviews with the observer, and the observer’s journal reflections. In the process of analyzing the instruments, the observer used simple mathematic calculations and qualitative analysis techniques. The research showed that the students’ cognitive level (knowledge increased from 77.27% to 86.36% and the cognitive level (understanding increased from 63.64% to 90.9% which suggests that cognitive learning can be increased through the implementation of peer tutoring learning method.  BAHASA INDONESIA ABSTRAK: Dari hasil tes siswa XI MIPA di SMA ABC Yogyakarta, peneliti menemukan siswa kesulitan dalam mengerjakan tes yang diberikan sehingga berdampak pada rendahnya hasil belajar kognitif siswa. Hal ini dikarenakan kegiatan pembelajaran di dalam kelas yang berpusat pada guru dan berjalan monoton sehingga tujuan instruksional tidak tercapai yang dibuktikan dengan hasil tes yang rendah. Berdasarkan permasalahan ini, peneliti merencanakan dan merancang metode tutor sebaya dalam pembelajaran. Hal ini ditujukan untuk melihat peningkatan hasil belajar kognitif siswa. Peneliti menggunakan metode Penelitian Tindakan Kelas yang dilakukan sejak 15 Oktober 2015 hingga 29 Oktober 2015. Penelitian yang dilaksanakan

  17. Plant ABC transporters enable many unique aspects of a terrestrial plant's lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, Jae-Ung; Song, Won-Yong; Hong, Daewoong

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial plants have two to four times more ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes than other organisms, including their ancestral microalgae. Recent studies found that plants harboring mutations in these transporters exhibit dramatic phenotypes, many of which are related to developmental...

  18. The role of ABC transporters of the blood-brain barrier in opioid tolerance development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Środa-Pomianek

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Opioids constitute an important group of drugs used in chronic pain treatment, e.g. cancer pain. Unfortunately, the development of the organism’s tolerance to the analgesic activity of opioids, the tendency to develop addictions and undesirable side effects are the main causes reducing opioid efficiency in chronic pain treatment. Among many mechanisms connected to emerging of opioid resistance the ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters present at the blood-brain barrier may play an important role. These transporter proteins, especially P-glycoprotein (ABCB1, MDR1, affect pharmacokinetics of many drugs and xenobiotics that are their substrates. ABC transporters reduce cellular uptake of drugs and/or increase their export from brain tissue to blood. Substrate specificity of P-glycoprotein is extremely wide and comprises many structurally and functionally unrelated compounds. What is interesting, substrate specificity of P-glycoprotein overlaps to a great extent the specificity of the isoforms of cytochrome P450 involved in drug metabolism. In the present review, the ABC proteins-mediated transport of opioids was discussed as well as the mechanisms of transport regulation. Cellular metabolism of various opioid drugs and the role of ABC transporters in their absorption, distribution and elimination were also described.

  19. The Critic and the Computer: A Multiple Technique Analysis of the "ABC Evening News."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantz, Charles R.

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes "ABC Evening News" coverage of the 1972 presidential campaign with a rhetorical analytic technique and a computerized text analysis technique. Compares results and considers three possibilities: (1) the role of technique in research results; (2) different aspects of a phenomenon; and (3) the degree of confidence of results. (JMF)

  20. Chondroitinase ABC plus bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for repair of spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun; He, Xijing; Li, Haopeng; Wang, Guoyu

    2013-04-15

    As chondroitinase ABC can improve the hostile microenvironment and cell transplantation is proven to be effective after spinal cord injury, we hypothesized that their combination would be a more effective treatment option. At 5 days after T8 spinal cord crush injury, rats were injected with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell suspension or chondroitinase ABC 1 mm from the edge of spinal cord damage zone. Chondroitinase ABC was first injected, and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell suspension was injected on the next day in the combination group. At 14 days, the mean Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan score of the rats in the combination group was higher than other groups. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the necrotic area was significantly reduced in the combination group compared with other groups. Glial fibrillary acidic protein-chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan double staining showed that the damage zone of astrocytic scars was significantly reduced without the cavity in the combination group. Glial fibrillary acidic protein/growth associated protein-43 double immunostaining revealed that positive fibers traversed the damage zone in the combination group. These results suggest that the combination of chondroitinase ABC and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation contributes to the repair of spinal cord injury.

  1. My Favorite Assignment: From the ABC 2010 Annual Convention, Chicago, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, D. Joel

    2011-01-01

    The seven Favorite Assignments featured in this article were originally presented at the 2010 ABC Annual Convention, Chicago, Illinois. The reader can consider a variety of learning objectives from team building to persuasion, application of electronic media to face-to-face communication, and much more. Some Favorite Assignments take a full…

  2. A wheat ABC transporter contributes to both grain formation and mycotoxin tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium fungi which acts as a disease virulence factor, aiding fungal pathogenesis of cereals spikelets and spread of the economically important Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease. Previously, a fragment of a wheat ABC transporter gene was shown to be...

  3. Genetic variation in ABC transporter A1 contributes to HDL cholesterol in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B

    2004-01-01

    Homozygosity for mutations in ABC transporter A1 (ABCA1) causes Tangier disease, a rare HDL-deficiency syndrome. Whether heterozygosity for genetic variation in ABCA1 also contributes to HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in the general population is presently unclear. We determined whether mutations...

  4. Energy Coupling Efficiency in the Type I ABC Transporter GlnPQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycklama A Nijeholt, Jelger A; Vietrov, Ruslan; Schuurman-Wolters, Gea K; Poolman, Bert

    2018-03-16

    Solute transport via ATP binding cassette (ABC) importers involves receptor-mediated substrate binding, which is followed by ATP-driven translocation of the substrate across the membrane. How these steps are exactly initiated and coupled, and how much ATP it takes to complete a full transport cycle, are subject of debate. Here, we reconstitute the ABC importer GlnPQ in nanodiscs and in proteoliposomes and determine substrate-(in)dependent ATP hydrolysis and transmembrane transport. We determined the conformational states of the substrate-binding domains (SBDs) by single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer measurements. We find that the basal ATPase activity (ATP hydrolysis in the absence of substrate) is mainly caused by the docking of the closed-unliganded state of the SBDs onto the transporter domain of GlnPQ and that, unlike glutamine, arginine binds both SBDs but does not trigger their closing. Furthermore, comparison of the ATPase activity in nanodiscs with glutamine transport in proteoliposomes shows that the stoichiometry of ATP per substrate is close to two. These findings help understand the mechanism of transport and the energy coupling efficiency in ABC transporters with covalently linked SBDs, which may aid our understanding of Type I ABC importers in general. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Structural basis for antibacterial peptide self-immunity by the bacterial ABC transporter McjD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bountra, Kiran; Hagelueken, Gregor; Choudhury, Hassanul G; Corradi, Valentina; El Omari, Kamel; Wagner, Armin; Mathavan, Indran; Zirah, Séverine; Yuan Wahlgren, Weixiao; Tieleman, D Peter; Schiemann, Olav; Rebuffat, Sylvie; Beis, Konstantinos

    2017-10-16

    Certain pathogenic bacteria produce and release toxic peptides to ensure either nutrient availability or evasion from the immune system. These peptides are also toxic to the producing bacteria that utilize dedicated ABC transporters to provide self-immunity. The ABC transporter McjD exports the antibacterial peptide MccJ25 in Escherichia coli Our previously determined McjD structure provided some mechanistic insights into antibacterial peptide efflux. In this study, we have determined its structure in a novel conformation, apo inward-occluded and a new nucleotide-bound state, high-energy outward-occluded intermediate state, with a defined ligand binding cavity. Predictive cysteine cross-linking in E. coli membranes and PELDOR measurements along the transport cycle indicate that McjD does not undergo major conformational changes as previously proposed for multi-drug ABC exporters. Combined with transport assays and molecular dynamics simulations, we propose a novel mechanism for toxic peptide ABC exporters that only requires the transient opening of the cavity for release of the peptide. We propose that shielding of the cavity ensures that the transporter is available to export the newly synthesized peptides, preventing toxic-level build-up. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  6. Transcriptome-based identification of ABC transporters in the western tarnished plant bug lygus hesperus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a large superfamily of proteins that mediate diverse physiological functions by coupling ATP hydrolysis with substrate transport across lipid membranes. In insects, these proteins play roles in metabolism, development, eye pigmentation, and xenobiotic cle...

  7. ABCE1: A special factor that orchestrates translation at the crossroad between recycling and initiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mancera-Martínez, E.; Brito Querido, J.; Valášek, Leoš Shivaya; Simonetti, A.; Hashem, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 10 (2017), s. 1279-1285 ISSN 1547-6286 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05394S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : ABCE1 * cryo-EM * ribosome Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.900, year: 2016

  8. ABC Analysis for Inventory Management: Bridging the Gap between Research and Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinder, Handanhal; Misra, Ram B.

    2014-01-01

    ABC analysis is a well-established categorization technique based on the Pareto Principle for determining which items should get priority in the management of a company's inventory. In discussing this topic, today's operations management and supply chain textbooks focus on dollar volume as the sole criterion for performing the categorization. The…

  9. As Easy as ABC: Re-engineering the Cost Accounting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussel, John M.; Bitner, Larry N.

    1996-01-01

    To be useful for management decision making, the college or university's cost accounting system must capture and measure improvements. Activity-based costing (ABC), which determines more accurately the full costs of services and products, tracks improvements and should proceed alongside reengineering of institutional accounting. Guidelines are…

  10. Sustainable urban stormwater management in the tropics: An evaluation of Singapore's ABC Waters Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. S.; Lu, X. X.

    2016-07-01

    The Active Beautiful Clean (ABC) Waters Program was implemented in 2006 as part of Singapore's stormwater management strategy and reflects the country's move towards Water Sensitive Urbanism through the adoption of Low-Impact Development (LID) ideology and practices. It is the first holistic and comprehensive LID program in the tropics and holds promise for extension to other tropical cities. This paper presents a comprehensive summary of the goals, LID practices (ABC design features) and design considerations as well as results of several monitored sites, including a constructed wetland, two rain gardens, green roofs and three canal restoration projects. We evaluate the ABC Waters Program based on these initial results and consider the challenges, issues and the research needs for it to meet its hydrological and water quality remediation goals. So far, the ABC design features evaluated perform well in removing particulates. Performance in nutrient removal is poor. With over 60 projects completed within 10 years, post-project monitoring and evaluation is necessary and complements on-going laboratory and modelling research projects conducted by local academic institutions.

  11. Gangliosides do not affect ABC transporter function in human neuroblastoma cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuis, Anne-Jan; Klappe, Karin; Kamps, Willem; Sietsma, Hannie; Kok, Jan Willem

    Previous studies have indicated a role for glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) in multidrug resistance (MDR), either related to turnover of ceramide (Cer) or generation of gangliosides, which modulate apoptosis and/or the activity of ABC transporters. This study challenges the hypothesis that

  12. Transmembrane Domain Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Impair Expression and Transport Activity of ABC Transporter ABCG2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjostedt, N.; Heuvel, J.J.M.W. van den; Koenderink, J.B.; Kidron, H.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the function and expression of nine naturally occurring single-nucleotide polymorphisms (G406R, F431L, S441N, P480L, F489L, M515R, L525R, A528T and T542A) that are predicted to reside in the transmembrane regions of the ABC transporter ABCG2. METHODS: The transport activity of the

  13. Comparison between hybridized algorithm of GA–SA and ABC, GA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper compares the formulation and results of four recent optimization algorithms: artificial bee colony (ABC), genetic algorithm(GA), differential evolution (DE), and particle swarm optimization (PSO). Moreover, a cost function is used to sustain the desired QoS during the transition between networks, which is measured ...

  14. Variations on a theme: changes in the floral ABCs in angiosperms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpkema, A.S.; Vandenbussche, M.; Koes, R.E.; Heijmans, K.; Gerats, T.

    2009-01-01

    Angiosperms display a huge variety of floral forms. The development of the ABC-model for floral organ identity, almost 20 years ago, has created an excellent basis for comparative floral development (evo-devo) studies. These have resulted in an increasingly more detailed understanding of the

  15. Variations on a theme: changes in the floral ABCs in angiosperms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpkema, A.S.; Vandenbussche, M.; Koes, R.E.; Heijmans, K.; Gerats, T.

    2010-01-01

    Angiosperms display a huge variety of floral forms. The development of the ABC-model for floral organ identity, almost 20 years ago, has created an excellent basis for comparative floral development (evo-devo) studies. These have resulted in an increasingly more detailed understanding of the

  16. Psychometric Properties and Norms of the German ABC-Community and PAS-ADD Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Elisabeth L.; Weber, Germain; Haveman, Meindert J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to standardize and generate psychometric evidence of the German language versions of two well-established English language mental health instruments: the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community" (ABC-C) and the "Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disabilities" (PAS-ADD) Checklist. New…

  17. Functional Diversity of Tandem Substrate-Binding Domains in ABC Transporters from Pathogenic Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fulyani, Faizah; Schuurman-Wolters, Gea K.; Vujicic - Zagar, Andreja; Guskov, Albert; Slotboom, Dirk-Jan; Poolman, Bert

    2013-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter GInPQ is an essential uptake system for amino acids in gram-positive pathogens and related nonpathogenic bacteria. The transporter has tandem substrate-binding domains (SBDs) fused to each transmembrane domain, giving rise to four SBDs per functional

  18. Structural and functional diversity of substrate-binding domains in ABC importers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fulyani, Faizah

    2015-01-01

    In dit proefschrift heb ik de structuur en functie van GlnPQ, een ATP- bindingscassette (ABC) transporter, bepaald. GlnPQ heeft twee verschillende, met elkaar verbonden substraatbindende domeinen (SBDs), die aan het transmembraan domein van de transporter vast zitten. Ondanks het feit dat de

  19. Chondroitinase ABC plus bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for repair of spinal cord injury☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun; He, Xijing; Li, Haopeng; Wang, Guoyu

    2013-01-01

    As chondroitinase ABC can improve the hostile microenvironment and cell transplantation is proven to be effective after spinal cord injury, we hypothesized that their combination would be a more effective treatment option. At 5 days after T8 spinal cord crush injury, rats were injected with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell suspension or chondroitinase ABC 1 mm from the edge of spinal cord damage zone. Chondroitinase ABC was first injected, and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell suspension was injected on the next day in the combination group. At 14 days, the mean Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan score of the rats in the combination group was higher than other groups. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the necrotic area was significantly reduced in the combination group compared with other groups. Glial fibrillary acidic protein-chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan double staining showed that the damage zone of astrocytic scars was significantly reduced without the cavity in the combination group. Glial fibrillary acidic protein/growth associated protein-43 double immunostaining revealed that positive fibers traversed the damage zone in the combination group. These results suggest that the combination of chondroitinase ABC and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation contributes to the repair of spinal cord injury. PMID:25206389

  20. Influence of detergents on the activity of the ABC transporter LmrA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Infed, Nacera; Hanekop, Nils; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Smits, Sander H. J.; Schmitt, Lutz

    The ABC transporter LmrA from Lactococcus lactis has been intensively studied and a role in multidrug resistance was proposed. Here, we performed a comprehensive detergent screen to analyze the impact of detergents for a successful solubilization, purification and retention of functional properties

  1. Comparison between hybridized algorithm of GA–SA and ABC, GA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shidrokh Goudarzi

    algorithms: artificial bee colony (ABC), genetic algorithm (GA), differential evolution (DE), and particle swarm optimization (PSO). Moreover, a cost function is used to sustain the desired QoS during the transition between networks, which is measured in terms of the bandwidth, BER, ABR, SNR, and monetary cost. Simulation ...

  2. O ABC em uma empresa de desenvolvimento de Software: um estudo de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Diomário de Queiroz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims at showing the applicability of the ABC, as a tool of strategic cost management, in the measurement of the service costs of a software development organization located in the area of Florianópolis.

  3. 1993 ABC of Sexually Transmitted Diseases· Introduction to Minimal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    covering the major sexually transmitted disease syndromes such as urethral and vaginal discharges and genital ... will certainly be a worthwhile investment. J. Terblanche. ABC of Brainstem Death· ... In the early 1980's the cultural implications of brainstem death were largely unexplored. Today the criteria must be.

  4. Phosphorylation is required for the pathogen defense function of the Arabidopsis PEN3 ABC transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Arabidopsis PEN3 ABC transporter accumulates at sites of pathogen detection, where it is involved in defense against multiple pathogens. Perception of PAMPs by pattern recognition receptors initiates recruitment of PEN3 and also leads to PEN3 phosphorylation at multiple amino acid residues. Whet...

  5. Una mirada al 23 F. Los editoriales de El País y ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitor Pérez Blázquez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo pretendemos realizar un acercamiento a uno de los hechos más graves de la democracía española. Nos referimos al fallido intento de golpe de estado del 23 de Febrero. Nos hemos fijado en las líneas editoriales de dos periodicos, ABC y EL Pais, para observar como percibieron y se posicionaron durante los días claves tras el golpe militar.Palabras clave: 23F; Editoriales; El País; ABC 23F, editorials, El País, ABC_________________A look to 23 F. The editorials of El País and ABCAbstract:In the present paper we try to realize an approximation to one of the most serious facts of the Spanish democracy. We refer to 23 F. We have concentrated on the publishing lines of two newspapers, ABC and El País, to observe since they perceived and were positioned during the key days after the militar strike.Keywords:

  6. Comparison between hybridized algorithm of GA–SA and ABC, GA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shidrokh Goudarzi

    described in section 2. Then, the methodology of opti- mization algorithms and comparison of optimization algorithms is explained based on recent optimization algorithms: artificial bee colony (ABC), genetic algorithm. (GA), differential evolution (DE), and particle swarm optimization (PSO) in section 3. The system model is.

  7. Measurement properties of the Danish version of the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer (ABC) measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidberg, Line; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Wulff, Christian Nielsen; Carlsen, Anders Helles; Vedsted, Peter

    2017-04-26

    The International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership aims to study international differences in cancer survival and the possible causes. Participating countries are Australia, Canada, Norway, Sweden, Denmark and the UK and a particular focus area is differences in awareness and beliefs about cancer. In this connection, the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer (ABC) measure has been translated into multiple languages. The aim of this study is to appraise the translation process and measurement properties of the Danish version of the ABC measure. The translation process included forward and backward translations and a pilot-test. Data quality was assessed using survey data from 3000 Danish respondents and content validity indexes were calculated based on judgments from ten academic researchers. Construct validity was determined by a confirmative factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analyses (EFA) using survey data and a known group comparison analysis including 56 persons. Test-retest reliability was assessed based on responses from 123 person whom completed the interview twice with an interval of 2-3 weeks. The translation process resulted in a Danish ABC measure conceptually equivalent to the English ABC measure. Data quality was acceptable in relation to non-response to individual items which was maximum 0.3%, but the percentage of respondents answering 'don't know' was above 3% for 16 out of 48 items. Content validity indexes showed that items adequately reflected and represented the constructs to be measured (item content validity indexes: 0.9-1.0; construct content validity indexes: 0.8-1.0). The hypothesised factor structure could not be replicated by a CFA, but EFA on each individual subscale showed that six out of seven subscales were unidimensional. The ABC measure discriminated well between non-medical academics and medical academics, but had some difficulties in discriminating between educational groups. Test-retest reliability was moderate to

  8. Comparing the results of DAADD and ABC of children included in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Milene Rossi Pereira; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2014-01-01

    To verify if there are characteristic behaviors of the different diagnosis included in the autism spectrum according to the Differential Assessment of Autism and Other Developmental Disorders (DAADD) and to the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC). Participants were 45 individuals and their respective speech-language therapists. All therapists are graduate students working with the children for at least 1 year. This time was considered sufficient to the therapists to have the information required by the DAADD questionnaire. It is comprised by 3 protocols specifically designed to children with 2 to 4 years, 4 to 6 years and 6 to 8 years, the same criteria used to separate the research groups, G1, G2 and G3, respectively. Data referring to the ABC were retrieved from the subject's files at the Laboratório de Investigação Fonoaudiológica nos Distúrbios do Espectro do Autismo (Research Laboratory on Language Disorders in the Autism Spectrum) of the School of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo, where it is routinely applied during the annual assessment. Answers to the different areas of DAADD are similar to the different areas of ABC. These data show data the diagnosis by DAADD is easier in older children. Although there is no significant difference, the large occurrence of Rett's syndrome diagnosis according to the DAADD was associated to higher risk for autism according to the ABC in G1. With increasing age this tendency decreases and either in G2 and G3 Autism is the most frequent diagnosis. Although the results of both questionnaires tend to agree more with increasing age, the DAADD is more sensitive in the different ages while the ABC if more specific only to older children.

  9. ANALISISKINERJA KEUANGAN DEBITUR INTI BANK ABC DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN ANALISA Z-SCORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windy Wijaya Kesuma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This present study purposed to know the result from applied of Altman Z-Score Analysis  (Second  Model  for  Financialperformance  analysis  of  prime  credit customer ABC  Bank. And  also  to  knowing  that  analysis  method  can  be  used in credit analysis process of ABC Bank expecially for early warning system in fi nancial condition of credit customer. This research using seven prime credit customer ABC Bank for sample and the result of this study shows that almost all prime credit customer in the sample predicted  will  be  bancrupcy  (grey  area  and  distrees  area  at  fi rst  lending conditions and fi nancial review conditions. The result of this research is obtained the fact than Altman Z-Score Analysis can be used as the one of analysis tools in the credit analysis process at ABC Bank. Z-Score Analysis can be giving the information about real fi nancial condition of  prime  credit  customer  than  the  information  will  be  advising  for  board  of management ABC Bank to increasing the quality of credit analysis their Credit Offi cer. Keyword :Financial Perpormance, Prime Credit Customer, Altman’s Z-Score Analysis

  10. ANALISISKINERJA KEUANGAN DEBITUR INTI BANK ABC DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN ANALISA Z-SCORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windy Wijaya Kesuma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This present study purposed to know the result from applied of Altman Z-Score Analysis  (Second  Model  for  Financialperformance  analysis  of  prime  credit customer ABC  Bank. And  also  to  knowing  that  analysis  method  can  be  used in credit analysis process of ABC Bank expecially for early warning system in fi nancial condition of credit customer. This research using seven prime credit customer ABC Bank for sample and the result of this study shows that almost all prime credit customer in the sample predicted  will  be  bancrupcy  (grey  area  and  distrees  area  at  fi rst  lending conditions and fi nancial review conditions. The result of this research is obtained the fact than Altman Z-Score Analysis can be used as the one of analysis tools in the credit analysis process at ABC Bank. Z-Score Analysis can be giving the information about real fi nancial condition of  prime  credit  customer  than  the  information  will  be  advising  for  board  of management ABC Bank to increasing the quality of credit analysis their Credit Offi cer. Keyword :Financial Perpormance, Prime Credit Customer, Altman’s Z-Score Analysis

  11. Análise dos recursos do Programa ABC - Foco na Amazônia Legal - Petencial de redução de GEE e estudo de caso sobre o Programa ABC em Paragominas

    OpenAIRE

    Gurgel, Angelo Costa; Costa, Cecília Fagan

    2015-01-01

    Este é o relatório final acerca do desembolso do Programa ABC e que compõe, entre outras, as atividades do segundo ano de trabalho do Observatório do Plano ABC. Seu principal objetivo é analisar quantitativa e qualitativamente o desempenho – contratação – da principal linha de crédito para o financiamento da agricultura de baixa emissão de carbono no Brasil, o Programa ABC. O relatório apresenta as atualizações referentes à parcela da safra 2014/15 (de julho de 2014 a fevereiro...

  12. Inventory and general analysis of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene superfamily in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Kaiyuan; Li, Yanjiao; Liu, Menghan; Meng, Zhaodong; Yu, Yanli

    2013-09-10

    The metabolic functions of ATP-binding cassette (or ABC) proteins, one of the largest families of proteins presented in all organisms, have been investigated in many protozoan, animal and plant species. To facilitate more systematic and complicated studies on maize ABC proteins in the future, we present the first complete inventory of these proteins, including 130 open reading frames (ORFs), and provide general descriptions of their classifications, basic structures, typical functions, evolution track analysis and expression profiles. The 130 ORFs were assigned to eight subfamilies based on their structures and homological features. Five of these subfamilies consist of 109 proteins, containing transmembrane domains (TM) performing as transporters. The rest three subfamilies contain 21 soluble proteins involved in various functions other than molecular transport. A comparison of ABC proteins among nine selected species revealed either convergence or divergence in each of the ABC subfamilies. Generally, plant genomes contain far more ABC genes than animal genomes. The expression profiles and evolution track of each maize ABC gene were further investigated, the results of which could provide clues for analyzing their functions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction experiments (PCR) were conducted to detect induced expression in select ABC genes under several common stresses. This investigation provides valuable information for future research on stress tolerance in plants and potential strategies for enhancing maize production under stressful conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Genome-wide identification, characterization and phylogenetic analysis of 50 catfish ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikai Liu

    Full Text Available Although a large set of full-length transcripts was recently assembled in catfish, annotation of large gene families, especially those with duplications, is still a great challenge. Most often, complexities in annotation cause mis-identification and thereby much confusion in the scientific literature. As such, detailed phylogenetic analysis and/or orthology analysis are required for annotation of genes involved in gene families. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter gene superfamily is a large gene family that encodes membrane proteins that transport a diverse set of substrates across membranes, playing important roles in protecting organisms from diverse environment.In this work, we identified a set of 50 ABC transporters in catfish genome. Phylogenetic analysis allowed their identification and annotation into seven subfamilies, including 9 ABCA genes, 12 ABCB genes, 12 ABCC genes, 5 ABCD genes, 2 ABCE genes, 4 ABCF genes and 6 ABCG genes. Most ABC transporters are conserved among vertebrates, though cases of recent gene duplications and gene losses do exist. Gene duplications in catfish were found for ABCA1, ABCB3, ABCB6, ABCC5, ABCD3, ABCE1, ABCF2 and ABCG2.The whole set of catfish ABC transporters provide the essential genomic resources for future biochemical, toxicological and physiological studies of ABC drug efflux transporters. The establishment of orthologies should allow functional inferences with the information from model species, though the function of lineage-specific genes can be distinct because of specific living environment with different selection pressure.

  14. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Li, Shangqi; Peng, Wenzhu; Feng, Shuaisheng; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Xu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene family is considered to be one of the largest gene families in all forms of prokaryotic and eukaryotic life. Although the ABC transporter genes have been annotated in some species, detailed information about the ABC superfamily and the evolutionary characterization of ABC genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are still unclear. In this research, we identified 61 ABC transporter genes in the common carp genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be classified into seven subfamilies, namely 11 ABCAs, six ABCBs, 19 ABCCs, eight ABCDs, two ABCEs, four ABCFs, and 11 ABCGs. Comparative analysis of the ABC genes in seven vertebrate species including common carp, showed that at least 10 common carp genes were retained from the third round of whole genome duplication, while 12 duplicated ABC genes may have come from the fourth round of whole genome duplication. Gene losses were also observed for 14 ABC genes. Expression profiles of the 61 ABC genes in six common carp tissues (brain, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, and gill) revealed extensive functional divergence among the ABC genes. Different copies of some genes had tissue-specific expression patterns, which may indicate some gene function specialization. This study provides essential genomic resources for future studies in common carp.

  15. The members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The new members since the last list of Member States of the Agency was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.42) are: Armenia, Coratia, the Czech Republic, Lithuania, the Marshall Islands, the Slovak Republic and Uzbekistan. The Attachment to the circular shows the dates on which the 120 States became members of the Agency, as well as those States whose application for membership of the Agency was approved by the General Conference, but who have not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  16. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document lists the 128 Member States of the Agency as of 18 September 1998. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/50) is Burkina Faso. In an attachment the dates on which the present 128 states became Members, and the state (Benin) whose application for membership of the Agency has been recommended by the Board of Governors to be considered at the 42nd session of the General Conference are given

  17. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The new member since the last list of Member States of the Agency was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.44) is Yemen. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the 122 States became members of the Agency, as well as the State whose application for membership of the Agency was approved by the General Conference, but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  18. The members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document lists the 127 Member States of the Agency as of 1 January 1998. The new Members since the last issue of of the list (INFCIRC/2/49) are Malta and the Republic of Moldova. In an attachment are given the dates on which the present 127 states become Members, the state (Burkina Faso) whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  19. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document lists the 129 Member States of the Agency as of 1 June 1999. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/51) is Benin. The dates on which the present 129 states became Members, and the state (Honduras) whose application for membership of the Agency has been recommended by the Board of Governors to be considered at the 43rd session of the General Conference are given in an Attachment

  20. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.72) are Fiji and Togo, which deposited their instruments of acceptance of the Statute on 2 November 2012 and 1 November 2012, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 157 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  1. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.75) are San Marino and the Bahamas, which deposited their instruments of acceptance of the Statute on 25 November 2013 and 7 January 2014, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 161 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  2. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.75) are San Marino and the Bahamas, which deposited their instruments of acceptance of the Statute on 25 November 2013 and 7 January 2014, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 161 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  3. The members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The document lists the 124 Member States of the Agency as of 1 September 1996. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/Rev.47) is Georgia. In an attachment are given the dates on which the 124 Member States became Members, the State (Latvia) whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute and the State (Republic of Moldova) whose application for membership has been recommended by the Board of Governors for approval by the General Conference

  4. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    No new Member has joined the Agency since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.45). The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 122 Member States became Members. It also shows the State whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute and the States whose applications for membership have been recommended by the Board of Governors for approval by the General Conference

  5. The members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.46) is Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 123 Member States became Members. It also shows the States whose applications for membership of the Agency have been approved by the General Conference but which have not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute and the State whose application for membership has been recommended by the Board of Governors for approval by the General Conference

  6. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The document lists the 136 Member States of the Agency as of 6 May 2003. The new Members since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/57) are Eritrea and the Republic of Seychelles. Cambodia withdrew from the Agency with effect from 26 March 2003. The dates on which the present 136 Member States became Members are given in an Attachment. It also shows the States whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  7. Faculty Member's Guide to U.S. Immigration Law. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eugene H.; Baron, Marvin J.

    Immigration laws and regulations pertaining to foreign students and scholars are summarized as an aid to faculty members. Basic immigration documents and terminology are explained, including the passport, visa, immigration status or classification, Form 1-20 ID, the "green card", and Departure Record. Classes of nonimmigrants are described,…

  8. Network class superposition analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl A B Pearson

    Full Text Available Networks are often used to understand a whole system by modeling the interactions among its pieces. Examples include biomolecules in a cell interacting to provide some primary function, or species in an environment forming a stable community. However, these interactions are often unknown; instead, the pieces' dynamic states are known, and network structure must be inferred. Because observed function may be explained by many different networks (e.g., ≈ 10(30 for the yeast cell cycle process, considering dynamics beyond this primary function means picking a single network or suitable sample: measuring over all networks exhibiting the primary function is computationally infeasible. We circumvent that obstacle by calculating the network class ensemble. We represent the ensemble by a stochastic matrix T, which is a transition-by-transition superposition of the system dynamics for each member of the class. We present concrete results for T derived from boolean time series dynamics on networks obeying the Strong Inhibition rule, by applying T to several traditional questions about network dynamics. We show that the distribution of the number of point attractors can be accurately estimated with T. We show how to generate Derrida plots based on T. We show that T-based Shannon entropy outperforms other methods at selecting experiments to further narrow the network structure. We also outline an experimental test of predictions based on T. We motivate all of these results in terms of a popular molecular biology boolean network model for the yeast cell cycle, but the methods and analyses we introduce are general. We conclude with open questions for T, for example, application to other models, computational considerations when scaling up to larger systems, and other potential analyses.

  9. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials which Members had delivered up to the end of 1972, in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  10. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials which Members had delivered up to 30 June 1975, in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  11. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials which Members had delivered up to 31 March 1974, in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  12. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials delivered by Members up to 30 June 1969 in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  13. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials which Members had delivered up to the end of 1970, in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  14. Life Expectancy of Kibbutz Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviatan, Uri; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Data are presented demonstrating that the life expectancy of kibbutz members--both men and women--is higher than that of the overall Jewish population in Israel. These data add to and support other research findings illustrating the more positive mental health and well-being found among kibbutz members than among other comparative populations.…

  15. HLA class Ia and Ib molecules and FOXP3+ TILs in relation to the prognosis of malignant melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsted, Wenna Nascimento; Johansen, Lasse Lindholm; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen; Behrendt, Nille; Eriksen, Jens Ole; Bzorek, Michael; Scheike, Thomas; Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2017-10-01

    HLA class Ia (HLA-ABC) and HLA class Ib (HLA-E, -F and -G) molecules and FOXP3+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are often reported as relevant factors of tumor immune regulation. We investigated their expression as prognostic factors in 200 patients with primary cutaneous melanoma (PCM). In our cohort, patients with tumors showing upregulation of HLA-ABC molecules had significantly thicker tumors (32% vs 7%, Pnodular melanomas (20% vs 4%, P=0.001). Additionally, high expression of HLA-G in the tumor was a sign of bad prognosis for the patients, being associated with thick tumors (30% vs 12%, P=0.017), ulceration (24% vs 5%, Pmelanoma tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Feldenkrais method balance classes improve balance in older adults: a controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Karol A; Galea, Mary P; Said, Catherine M

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Feldenkrais Method balance classes on balance and mobility in older adults. This was a prospective non-randomized controlled study with pre/post measures. The setting for this study was the general community. A convenience sample of 26 community-dwelling older adults (median age 75 years) attending Feldenkrais Method balance classes formed the Intervention group. Thirty-seven volunteers were recruited for the Control group (median age 76.5 years). A series of Feldenkrais Method balance classes (the 33312Getting Grounded Gracefully33313 series), two classes per week for 10 weeks, were conducted. Main outcome measures were Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC) questionnaire, Four Square Step Test (FSST), self-selected gait speed (using GAITRite instrumented gait mat). At re-testing, the Intervention group showed significant improvement on all of the measures (ABC, P = .016, FSST, P = .001, gait speed, P Feldenkrais Method balance classes may improve mobility and balance in older adults.

  17. Análise dos recursos do Programa ABC : Safra 2013/2014 (até abril)

    OpenAIRE

    Belinky, Aron; Monzoni, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Este é o primeiro de uma série de quatro relatórios que compõem as atividades do segundo ano de trabalho do Observatório ABC. Estes relatórios têm como objetivo analisar quantitativa e qualitativamente o desempenho do Programa ABC – o financiamento da agricultura de baixa emissão de carbono no Brasil.

  18. An Analysis of the Romanian General Accounting Plan. Opportunities for Adaptation to the Activity-Based Costing (ABC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Alina Preda

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyze the causes that have led to the improvement of the Romanian general accounting plan according to the Activity- Based Costing (ABC method. We explain the advantages presented by the dissociated organization of management accounting, in contrast with the tabular- statistical form. The article also describes the methodological steps to be taken in the process of recording book entries, according to the Activity-Based Costing (ABC method in Romania.

  19. First-Class Object Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    Typically, objects are monolithic entities with a fixed interface. To increase the flexibility in this area, this paper presents first-class object sets as a language construct. An object set offers an interface which is a disjoint union of the interfaces of its member objects. It may also be used...... for a special kind of method invocation involving multiple objects in a dynamic lookup process. With support for feature access and late-bound method calls object sets are similar to ordinary objects, only more flexible. The approach is made precise by means of a small calculus, and the soundness of its type...

  20. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The document lists the 125 Member States of the Agency as of 1 September 1997. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/Rev.48) is Latvia. In an Attachment are given the dates on which the present 125 States became Members, the State (Republic of Moldova) whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute and the States (Malta and Burkina Faso) whose applications for membership have been recommended by the Board of Governors for approval by the General Conference

  1. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The new members since the last list of Member States of the Agency was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.43) are: Kazakhstan and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea withdrew from membership of the Agency as of 13 June 1994. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the 121 States became members of the Agency, as well as those States whose application for membership of the Agency was approved by the General Conference, but who have not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  2. Reliability and validity of the German short version of the Activities specific Balance Confidence (ABC-D6) scale in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Nadja

    2014-01-01

    The Activities specific Balance Confidence (ABC) is a questionnaire which was developed to assess falls-associated self-efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate reliability and validity of the German abbreviated 6-item version of the ABC scores in community-dwelling older people. The study sample included 384 subjects (age 71.1 ± 9.7). In order to determine the psychometric properties, reliability and validity were assessed through administration of the German adaptation of the ABC-D16 to participants twice, 10 days apart, and comparison of the ABC-D16 and the ABC-D6 with functional measures of balance and mobility (one-leg stance; 10 m walk; TUG; Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale (FAB)), physical activity (Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE)), physical fitness (30s arm curl, 30s chair stand, 6 min walk), cognition (Trail-Making-Test (TMT)), falls status, and quality of life (SF36). Factor analyses suggested a 1-factor solution for the ABC-D6 scale (explained variance 79.8%). Internal consistency (.95) and test-retest reliability (.98) for the ABC-D6 scores were excellent. Scores on the ABC-D6 were significantly lower than on the ABC-D16, but ABC-D16 and ABC-D6 scores were highly correlated (.94). There was an increasing difference in the ABC-scores between men and women with increasing age. Fallers reported lower balance confidence than non-fallers. The ABC-D6 score significantly correlated with functional measures of balance and mobility, physical activity, physical fitness, cognition, and quality of life (-.698valid instrument to asses falls-associated self-efficacy and may be used in future research projects and clinical trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. ABC-model analysis of gain-switched pulse characteristics in low-dimensional semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xumin; Liu, Yuejun; Weng, Guoen; Hu, Xiaobo; Chen, Shaoqiang

    2018-01-01

    The gain-switching dynamics of low-dimensional semiconductor lasers is simulated numerically by using a two-dimensional rate-equation model. Use is also made of the ABC model, where the carrier recombination rate is described by a function of carrier densities including Shockley – Read – Hall (SRH) recombination coefficient A, spontaneous emission coefficient B and Auger recombination coefficient C. Effects of the ABC parameters on the ultrafast gain-switched pulse characteristics with high-density pulse excitation are analysed. It is found that while the parameter A has almost no obvious effects, the parameters B and C have distinctly different effects: B influences significantly the delay time of the gain-switched pulse, while C affects mainly the pulse intensity.

  4. Brain barriers and functional interfaces with sequential appearance of ABC efflux transporters during human development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgård, Kjeld; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M.; Holst, Camilla B.

    2017-01-01

    Adult brain is protected from entry of drugs and toxins by specific mechanisms such as ABC (ATP-binding Cassette) efflux transporters. Little is known when these appear in human brain during development. Cellular distribution of three main ABC transporters (ABCC1, ABCG2, ABCB1) was determined...... at blood-brain barriers and interfaces in human embryos and fetuses in first half of gestation. Antibodies against claudin-5 and-11 and antibodies to α-fetoprotein were used to describe morphological and functional aspects of brain barriers. First exchange interfaces to be established, probably at 4......-5 weeks post conception, are between brain and embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (eCSF) and between outer surface of brain anlage and primary meninx. They already exclude α-fetoprotein and are immunopositive for both claudins, ABCC1 and ABCG2. ABCB1 is detectable within a week of blood vessels first...

  5. Activity Based Costing (ABC as an Approach to Optimize Purchasing Performance in Hospitality Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. El-Deeb

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ABC (Activity Based Costing system has proved success in both products and services. The researchers propose using a new model through the application of ABC approach that can be implemented in purchasing department as one of the most dynamic departments in service sector to optimize purchasing activities performance. The researchers propose purchasing measures, targeting customers’ loyalty ensuring the continuous flow of supplies. The researchers used the questionnaire as a tool of data collection method for verifying the hypothesis of the research. Data obtained was analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. The results of the research based on limited survey that have been distributed to number of hotels in Great Cairo region. Our research was targeting three hundred purchasing manager and staff through five star hotels. It is recognized that further research is necessary to establish the exact nature of the causal linkages between proposed performance measures and strategic intent in order to gain insights into practice elsewhere.

  6. The jABC Approach to Rigorous Collaborative Development of SCM Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörmann, Martina; Margaria, Tiziana; Mender, Thomas; Nagel, Ralf; Steffen, Bernhard; Trinh, Hong

    Our approach to the model-driven collaborative design of IKEA's P3 Delivery Management Process uses the jABC [9] for model driven mediation and choreography to complement a RUP-based (Rational Unified Process) development process. jABC is a framework for service development based on Lightweight Process Coordination. Users (product developers and system/software designers) easily develop services and applications by composing reusable building-blocks into (flow-) graph structures that can be animated, analyzed, simulated, verified, executed, and compiled. This way of handling the collaborative design of complex embedded systems has proven to be effective and adequate for the cooperation of non-programmers and non-technical people, which is the focus of this contribution, and it is now being rolled out in the operative practice.

  7. Technology and the Class of 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The class of 2020 includes some of the youngest members of the millennial generation. Most having been born in 1998, these students are so-called "digital natives." The academy must be ready to accept, welcome, and instruct these students. Doing so effectively may mean increasing the understanding of the issues that have shaped their…

  8. Negotiations of Acknowledgement among Middle Class Residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of communication processes between residents, between residents and people in the broader societal context as well as of media coverage of a fireworks disaster in a Danish suburb. It demonstrates how residents (all members of the Danish middle class) were able...

  9. Distinct double flower varieties in Camellia japonica exhibit both expansion and contraction of C-class gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yingkun; Fan, Zhengqi; Li, Xinlei; Liu, Zhongchi; Li, Jiyuan; Yin, Hengfu

    2014-01-01

    Background Double flower domestication is of great value in ornamental plants and presents an excellent system to study the mechanism of morphological alterations by human selection. The classic ABC model provides a genetic framework underlying the control of floral organ identity and organogenesis from which key regulators have been identified and evaluated in many plant species. Recent molecular studies have underscored the importance of C-class homeotic genes, whose functional attenuation ...

  10. ABC and VED Analysis of the Pharmacy Store of a Tertiary Care Teaching, Research and Referral Healthcare Institute of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devnani, M; Gupta, Ak; Nigah, R

    2010-04-01

    The ABC and VED (vital, essential, desirable) analysis of the pharmacy store of Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India, was conducted to identify the categories of items needing stringent management control. The annual consumption and expenditure incurred on each item of pharmacy for the year 2007-08 was analyzed and inventory control techniques, i.e. ABC, VED and ABC-VED matrix analysis, were applied. The drug formulary of the pharmacy consisted of 421 items. The total annual drug expenditure (ADE) on items issued in 2007-08 was Rs. 40,012,612. ABC analysis revealed 13.78%, 21.85% and 64.37% items as A, B and C category items, respectively, accounting for 69.97%, 19.95% and 10.08% of ADE of the pharmacy. VED analysis showed 12.11%, 59.38% and 28.51% items as V, E, and D category items, respectively, accounting for 17.14%, 72.38% and 10.48% of ADE of the pharmacy. On ABC-VED matrix analysis, 22.09%, 54.63% and 23.28% items were found to be category I, II and III items, respectively, accounting for 74.21%, 22.23% and 3.56% of ADE of the pharmacy. The ABC and VED techniques need to be adopted as a routine practice for optimal use of resources and elimination of out-of-stock situations in the hospital pharmacy.

  11. Adaptive protection coordination scheme for distribution network with distributed generation using ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Ibrahim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive protection coordination scheme for optimal coordination of DOCRs in interconnected power networks with the impact of DG, the used coordination technique is the Artificial Bee Colony (ABC. The scheme adapts to system changes; new relays settings are obtained as generation-level or system-topology changes. The developed adaptive scheme is applied on the IEEE 30-bus test system for both single- and multi-DG existence where results are shown and discussed.

  12. Effectiveness of Runoff Control Legislation and Active, Beautiful, Clean (ABC Waters Design Features in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Ping Goh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Storm water management in Singapore has always been a challenge due to intense rainfall in a flat, low-lying and urbanised catchment. PUB’s (Singapore’s National Water Agency recent runoff control regulation limits the runoff coefficient to 0.55 for developments larger than or equal to 0.2 ha. The use of Active, Beautiful, Clean (ABC Waters design features are encouraged to attain peak runoff reduction. Hence the paper focuses on (i determining the actual hydrological response regime of Singapore using the relationship between runoff coefficient (C, land use and slope; and (ii investigating the effectiveness of ABC Waters design features in delaying and reducing peak runoff using a modelling approach. Based on a Storm Water Management Model (SWMM model and using elevation, land use and soil data as inputs, the peak C-values were obtained for 50 m × 50 m grid cells. The results show that for the same land use, the one with steeper slope resulted in a higher runoff coefficient. Simulations were carried out in two study areas, Green Walk District and Tengah Subcatchment, where ABC Waters design features (such as porous pavements, green roofs, rain gardens and detention tanks were incorporated to reduce C-values. Results showed that peak C-values can be reduced to less than 0.55 after increasing the green areas and constructing detention facilities. Reduction in peak discharge (22% to 63% and a delay in peak discharge by up to 30 min were also observed. Hence, it is recommended to consider the relationship between slope and land use while determining runoff coefficients; and to incorporate ABC Waters design features in urban design to reduce the peak flow and runoff coefficient (C.

  13. Computed ABC Analysis for Rational Selection of Most Informative Variables in Multivariate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultsch, Alfred; Lötsch, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    Objective Multivariate data sets often differ in several factors or derived statistical parameters, which have to be selected for a valid interpretation. Basing this selection on traditional statistical limits leads occasionally to the perception of losing information from a data set. This paper proposes a novel method for calculating precise limits for the selection of parameter sets. Methods The algorithm is based on an ABC analysis and calculates these limits on the basis of the mathematical properties of the distribution of the analyzed items. The limits im-plement the aim of any ABC analysis, i.e., comparing the increase in yield to the required additional effort. In particular, the limit for set A, the “important few”, is optimized in a way that both, the effort and the yield for the other sets (B and C), are minimized and the additional gain is optimized. Results As a typical example from biomedical research, the feasibility of the ABC analysis as an objective replacement for classical subjective limits to select highly relevant variance components of pain thresholds is presented. The proposed method improved the biological inter-pretation of the results and increased the fraction of valid information that was obtained from the experimental data. Conclusions The method is applicable to many further biomedical problems in-cluding the creation of diagnostic complex biomarkers or short screening tests from comprehensive test batteries. Thus, the ABC analysis can be proposed as a mathematically valid replacement for traditional limits to maximize the information obtained from multivariate research data. PMID:26061064

  14. Split tasks of asymmetric nucleotide-binding sites in the heterodimeric ABC exporter EfrCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hürlimann, Lea M; Hohl, Michael; Seeger, Markus A

    2017-06-01

    Many heterodimeric ATP-binding cassette (ABC) exporters evolved asymmetric ATP-binding sites containing a degenerate site incapable of ATP hydrolysis due to noncanonical substitutions in conserved sequence motifs. Recent studies revealed that nucleotide binding to the degenerate site stabilizes contacts between the nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) of the inward-facing transporter and regulates ATP hydrolysis at the consensus site via allosteric coupling mediated by the D-loops. However, it is unclear whether nucleotide binding to the degenerate site is strictly required for substrate transport. In this study, we examined the functional consequences of a systematic set of mutations introduced at the degenerate and consensus site of the multidrug efflux pump EfrCD of Enterococcus faecalis. Mutating motifs which differ among the two ATP-binding sites (Walker B, switch loop, and ABC signature) or which are involved in interdomain communication (D-loop and Q-loop) led to asymmetric results in the functional assays and were better tolerated at the degenerate site. This highlights the importance of the degenerate site to allosterically regulate the events at the consensus site. Mutating invariant motifs involved in ATP binding and NBD closure (A-loop and Walker A) resulted in equally reduced transport activities, regardless at which ATP-binding site they were introduced. In contrast to previously investigated heterodimeric ABC exporters, mutation of the degenerate site Walker A lysine completely inactivated ATPase activity and substrate transport, indicating that ATP binding to the degenerate site is essential for EfrCD. This study provides novel insights into the split tasks of asymmetric ATP-binding sites of heterodimeric ABC exporters. © 2017 The Authors. The FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  15. Evidence for an ABC-Type Riboflavin Transporter System in Pathogenic Spirochetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Ranjit K.; Brautigam, Chad A.; Biddy, Brent A.; Liu, Wei Z.; Norgard, Michael V.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial transporter proteins are involved in the translocation of many essential nutrients and metabolites. However, many of these key bacterial transport systems remain to be identified, including those involved in the transport of riboflavin (vitamin B2). Pathogenic spirochetes lack riboflavin biosynthetic pathways, implying reliance on obtaining riboflavin from their hosts. Using structural and functional characterizations of possible ligand-binding components, we have identified an ABC-type riboflavin transport system within pathogenic spirochetes. The putative lipoprotein ligand-binding components of these systems from three different spirochetes were cloned, hyperexpressed in Escherichia coli, and purified to homogeneity. Solutions of all three of the purified recombinant proteins were bright yellow. UV-visible spectra demonstrated that these proteins were likely flavoproteins; electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and thin-layer chromatography confirmed that they contained riboflavin. A 1.3-Å crystal structure of the protein (TP0298) encoded by Treponema pallidum, the syphilis spirochete, demonstrated that the protein’s fold is similar to the ligand-binding components of ABC-type transporters. The structure also revealed other salient details of the riboflavin binding site. Comparative bioinformatics analyses of spirochetal genomes, coupled with experimental validation, facilitated the discovery of this new ABC-type riboflavin transport system(s). We denote the ligand-binding component as riboflavin uptake transporter A (RfuA). Taken together, it appears that pathogenic spirochetes have evolved an ABC-type transport system (RfuABCD) for survival in their host environments, particularly that of the human host. PMID:23404400

  16. An ABC transporter mutation is correlated with insect resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J Gahan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic crops producing insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt are commercially successful in reducing pest damage, yet knowledge of resistance mechanisms that threaten their sustainability is incomplete. Insect resistance to the pore-forming Cry1Ac toxin is correlated with the loss of high-affinity, irreversible binding to the mid-gut membrane, but the genetic factors responsible for this change have been elusive. Mutations in a 12-cadherin-domain protein confer some Cry1Ac resistance but do not block this toxin binding in in vitro assays. We sought to identify mutations in other genes that might be responsible for the loss of binding. We employed a map-based cloning approach using a series of backcrosses with 1,060 progeny to identify a resistance gene in the cotton pest Heliothis virescens that segregated independently from the cadherin mutation. We found an inactivating mutation of the ABC transporter ABCC2 that is genetically linked to Cry1Ac resistance and is correlated with loss of Cry1Ac binding to membrane vesicles. ABC proteins are integral membrane proteins with many functions, including export of toxic molecules from the cell, but have not been implicated in the mode of action of Bt toxins before. The reduction in toxin binding due to the inactivating mutation suggests that ABCC2 is involved in membrane integration of the toxin pore. Our findings suggest that ABC proteins may play a key role in the mode of action of Bt toxins and that ABC protein mutations can confer high levels of resistance that could threaten the continued utilization of Bt-expressing crops. However, such mutations may impose a physiological cost on resistant insects, by reducing export of other toxins such as plant secondary compounds from the cell. This weakness could be exploited to manage this mechanism of Bt resistance in the field.

  17. An ABC transporter mutation is correlated with insect resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahan, Linda J; Pauchet, Yannick; Vogel, Heiko; Heckel, David G

    2010-12-16

    Transgenic crops producing insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are commercially successful in reducing pest damage, yet knowledge of resistance mechanisms that threaten their sustainability is incomplete. Insect resistance to the pore-forming Cry1Ac toxin is correlated with the loss of high-affinity, irreversible binding to the mid-gut membrane, but the genetic factors responsible for this change have been elusive. Mutations in a 12-cadherin-domain protein confer some Cry1Ac resistance but do not block this toxin binding in in vitro assays. We sought to identify mutations in other genes that might be responsible for the loss of binding. We employed a map-based cloning approach using a series of backcrosses with 1,060 progeny to identify a resistance gene in the cotton pest Heliothis virescens that segregated independently from the cadherin mutation. We found an inactivating mutation of the ABC transporter ABCC2 that is genetically linked to Cry1Ac resistance and is correlated with loss of Cry1Ac binding to membrane vesicles. ABC proteins are integral membrane proteins with many functions, including export of toxic molecules from the cell, but have not been implicated in the mode of action of Bt toxins before. The reduction in toxin binding due to the inactivating mutation suggests that ABCC2 is involved in membrane integration of the toxin pore. Our findings suggest that ABC proteins may play a key role in the mode of action of Bt toxins and that ABC protein mutations can confer high levels of resistance that could threaten the continued utilization of Bt-expressing crops. However, such mutations may impose a physiological cost on resistant insects, by reducing export of other toxins such as plant secondary compounds from the cell. This weakness could be exploited to manage this mechanism of Bt resistance in the field.

  18. Effects of Chondroitinase ABC-Mediated Proteoglycan Digestion on Decellularization and Recellularization of Articular Cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Bautista

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage has a limited capacity to heal itself and thus focal defects often result in the development of osteoarthritis. Current cartilage tissue engineering strategies seek to regenerate injured tissue by creating scaffolds that aim to mimic the unique structure and composition of native articular cartilage. Decellularization is a novel strategy that aims to preserve the bioactive factors and 3D biophysical environment of the native extracellular matrix while removing potentially immunogenic factors. The purpose of this study was to develop a procedure that can enable decellularization and recellularization of intact articular cartilage matrix. Full-thickness porcine articular cartilage plugs were decellularized with a series of freeze-thaw cycles and 0.1% (w/v sodium dodecyl sulfate detergent cycles. Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC was applied before the detergent cycles to digest glycosaminoglycans in order to enhance donor chondrocyte removal and seeded cell migration. Porcine synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells were seeded onto the decellularized cartilage scaffolds and cultured for up to 28 days. The optimized decellularization protocol removed 94% of native DNA per sample wet weight, while collagen content and alignment were preserved. Glycosaminoglycan depletion prior to the detergent cycles increased removal of nuclear material. Seeded cells infiltrated up to 100 μm into the cartilage deep zone after 28 days in culture. ChABC treatment enhances decellularization of the relatively dense, impermeable articular cartilage by reducing glycosaminoglycan content. ChABC treatment did not appear to affect cell migration during recellularization under static, in vitro culture, highlighting the need for more dynamic seeding methods.

  19. ABC Transporter for Corrinoids in Halobacterium sp. Strain NRC-1†

    OpenAIRE

    Woodson, Jesse D.; Reynolds, April A.; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.

    2005-01-01

    We report evidence for the existence of a putative ABC transporter for corrinoid utilization in the extremely halophilic archaeon Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1. Results from genetic and nutritional analyses of Halobacterium showed that mutants with lesions in open reading frames (ORFs) Vng1370G, Vng1371Gm, and Vng1369G required a 105-fold higher concentration of cobalamin for growth than the wild-type or parent strain. The data support the conclusion that these ORFs encode orthologs of the b...

  20. Diagnostic et prise en charge des abcès prostatiques au CHU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Du 01 Janvier 2001 au 31 Décembre 2005, 11 cas d'abcès de prostate ont été colligés au service d'urologie du CHU-Tokoin. Le diagnostic clinique a été évoqué sur la base des signes ... The diagnosis has been confirmed by the known scan-pubic or endorectale. The goal of this retrospective survey was to show the ...

  1. ABC transporters and xenobiotic defense systems in early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropf, Christian; Segner, Helmut; Fent, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Embryos of oviparous fish, in contrast to (ovo) viviparous species, develop in the aquatic environment, and therefore need solute transport systems at their body surfaces for maintaining internal homeostasis and defending against potentially harmful substances. We hypothesized that solute transporters undergo changes in tissue distribution from the embryo to the larval stage. We therefore studied the mRNA profiles of eight ABC transporters (abcb1a, abcb1b, abcc1, abcc2, abcc3, abcc4, abcc5, abcg2) and three solute carriers (oatp1d, putative oatp2 putative, mate1) in different body regions (head, yolk sac epithelium, abdominal viscera, skin/muscles) of developing rainbow trout. Additionally, we investigated mRNA levels of phase I (cyp1a, cyp3a) and phase II (gstp, putative ugt1, putative ugt2) biotransformation enzymes. The study covered the developmental period from the eleuthero-embryo stage to the first-feeding larval stage (1-20days post-hatch, dph). At 1dph, transcripts of abcc2, abcc4, abcg2, cyp3a, gstp, putative mate1, and putative oatp2 occurred primarily in the yolk sac epithelium, whereas at later stages expression of these genes was predominantly observed in the abdominal viscera. The functional activity of ABC transporters in fish early life stages was assessed by rhodamine B accumulation assays. Finally, we investigated the potential impact of xenobiotics (clotrimazole, clofibric acid) on the ABC and biotransformation systems of trout early life stages. While clofibric acid had no effect, clotrimazole lead to an increased rhodamine B accumulation. The results provide evidence that the transition from the eleuthero-embryo to the larval stage is accompanied by a major alteration in tissue expression of ABC transporters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Double pionic fusion. Towards an understanding of the ABC puzzle by exclusive measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashkanov, M.

    2006-01-01

    The ABC effect is a huge unexpected enhancement at twice the pion mass in the invariant mass spectrum of two pions, which are generated in double-pionic fusion to bound nuclear systems. This peculiar phenomenon has been missing a conclusive explanation all the time since it has been discovered 1960 in single-arm measurements of 3 He ejectiles in the reaction pd→ 3 HeX. One reason for this failure has been that all measurements to this subject have been inclusive, i.e., lacking the full experimentally accessible information. Hence exclusive measurements were performed at CELSIUS/WASA at an energy of T p =0.895 GeV, where the ABC effect is expected to be strongest. For the first time exclusive data of solid statistics for both the pd→ 3 Heπ 0 π 0 and pd→ 3 Heπ + π - reactions were obtained including also results for the three-pion production total cross-section. The new data are consistent with the previous inclusive data. They provide, however, much more additional information, which rule out all previous explications of the ABC effect. The now available kinematically complete set of data reveals that the low ππ-mass enhancement (ABC-effect): - is not necessarily associated with a high ππ-mass enhancement, - is always connected with the simultaneous excitation of two Δ resonances, - is of scalar-isoscalar nature, i.e. a σ-channel phenomenon, - requires dynamics in the reaction system, which has not been considered hitherto. Various possible solutions are discussed, however, all of them demand a high attraction in the ΔΔ system - a point, which has never been touched so far in theoretical and experimental investigations. For this data analysis new powerful methods based on neural nets have been developed. Their current and possible future applications are discussed. (orig.)

  3. ABC3 Consensus Commented from the Perspective of the German Guidelines*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untch, M.; Augustin, D.; Ettl, J.; Haidinger, R.; Harbeck, N.; Lück, H.-J.; Lüftner, D.; Marmé, F.; Müller, L.; Overkamp, F.; Ruckhäberle, E.; Thill, M.; Thomssen, C.; Wuerstlein, R.; Marschner, N.

    2016-01-01

    The Third International Consensus Conference for Advanced Breast Cancer ABC3 on the diagnosis and treatment of advanced breast cancer was held in Lisbon from 5 to 7 November 2015. This year the focus was the treatment of metastatic breast cancer (stage IV) – including the patient perspectives. Important topics were questions relating to quality of life, the care for long-term survivors as well as the management of disease-related symptoms and treatment-based side effects. The use of standardised tools to assess individual treatment success and the benefits of new substances were important points for discussion. The diagnosis and treatment of inoperable locally advanced breast cancer were discussed two years ago during the ABC2 consensus 1. A working group of German breast cancer experts commented on the results of the ABC panellists, paying particular attention to the German guidelines (AGO, S3, DGHO) on the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer 2, 3, 4, 5 in Germany. PMID:26941448

  4. Teaching the ABCs of bioinformatics: a brief introduction to the Applied Bioinformatics Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jingchu

    2014-11-01

    With the development of the Internet and the growth of online resources, bioinformatics training for wet-lab biologists became necessary as a part of their education. This article describes a one-semester course 'Applied Bioinformatics Course' (ABC, http://abc.cbi.pku.edu.cn/) that the author has been teaching to biological graduate students at the Peking University and the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences for the past 13 years. ABC is a hands-on practical course to teach students to use online bioinformatics resources to solve biological problems related to their ongoing research projects in molecular biology. With a brief introduction to the background of the course, detailed information about the teaching strategies of the course are outlined in the 'How to teach' section. The contents of the course are briefly described in the 'What to teach' section with some real examples. The author wishes to share his teaching experiences and the online teaching materials with colleagues working in bioinformatics education both in local and international universities. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Regulation of ABC transporters blood-brain barrier: the good, the bad, and the ugly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David S

    2015-01-01

    The brain capillary endothelial cells that constitute the blood-brain barrier express multiple ABC transport proteins on the luminal, blood-facing, plasma membrane. These transporters function as ATP-driven efflux pumps for xenobiotics and endogenous metabolites. High expression of these ABC transporters at the barrier is a major obstacle to the delivery of therapeutics, including chemotherapeutics, to the CNS. Here, I review the signals that alter ABC transporter expression and transport function with an emphasis on P-glycoprotein, Mrp2, and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), the efflux transporters for which we have the most detailed picture of regulation. Recent work shows that transporter protein expression can be upregulated in response to inflammatory and oxidative stress, therapeutic drugs, diet, and persistent environmental pollutants; as a consequence, drug delivery to the brain is reduced (potentially bad and ugly). In contrast, basal transport activity of P-glycoprotein and BCRP can be reduced through complex signaling pathways that involve events in and on the brain capillary endothelial cells. Targeting these signaling events provides opportunities to rapidly and reversibly increase brain accumulation of drugs that are substrates for the transporters (potentially good). The clinical usefulness of targeting signaling to reduce efflux transporter activity and improve drug delivery to the CNS remains to be established. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Alzheimer's and ABC transporters--new opportunities for diagnostics and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahnke, Jens; Langer, Oliver; Krohn, Markus

    2014-12-01

    Much has been said about the increasing number of demented patients and the main risk factor 'age'. Frustratingly, we do not know the precise pattern and all modulating factors that provoke the pathologic changes in the brains of affected elderly. We have to diagnose early to be able to stop the progression of diseases that irreversibly destroy brain substance. Familiar AD cases have mislead some researchers for almost 20 years, which has unfortunately narrowed the scientific understanding and has, thus, lead to insufficient funding of independent approaches. Therefore, basic researchers hardly have been able to develop causative treatments and clinicians still do not have access to prognostic and early diagnostic tools. During the recent years it became clear that insufficient Aβ export, physiologically facilitated by the ABC transporter superfamily at the brain's barriers, plays a fundamental role in disease initiation and progression. Furthermore, export mechanisms that are deficient in affected elderly are new targets for activation and, thus, treatment, but ideally also for prevention. In sporadic AD disturbed clearance of β-amyloid from the brain is so far the most important factor for its accumulation in the parenchyma and vessel walls. Here, we review findings about the contribution of ABC transporters and of the perivascular drainage/glymphatic system on β-amyloid clearance. We highlight their potential value for innovative early diagnostics using PET and describe recently described, effective ABC transporter-targeting agents as potential causative treatment for neurodegenerative proteopathies/dementias. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Cutting Performance of Diamond Saw Machine Using Artificial Bee Colony (ABC Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Akhyani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Intelligence (AI techniques are used for solving the intractable engineering problems. In this study, it is aimed to study the application of artificial bee colony algorithm for predicting the performance of circular diamond saw in sawing of hard rocks. For this purpose, varieties of fourteen types of hard rocks were cut in laboratory using a cutting rig at 5 mm depth of cut, 40 cm/min feed rate and 3000 rpm peripheral speed. Four major mechanical and physical properties of studied rocks such as uniaxial compressive strength (UCS, Schimazek abrasivity factor (SF-a, Mohs hardness (Mh, and Young’s modulus (Ym were determined in rock mechanic laboratory. Artificial bee colony (ABC was used to classify the performance of circular diamond saw based on mentioned mechanical properties of rocks. Ampere consumption and wear rate of diamond saw were selected as criteria to evaluate the result of ABC algorithm. Ampere consumption was determined during cutting process and the average wear rate of diamond saw was calculated from width, length and height loss. The results of comparison between ABC’s results and cutting performance (ampere consumption and wear rate of diamond saw indicated the ability of metaheuristic algorithm such as ABC to evaluate the cutting performance.

  8. Surface charge-specific interactions between polymer nanoparticles and ABC transporters in Caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Sourav; van Opstal, Edward J.; Alink, Gerrit M.; Marcelis, Antonius T. M.; Zuilhof, Han; Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M.

    2013-06-01

    The surface charge-dependent transport of polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) across Caco-2 monolayers grown on transwell culture systems as an in vitro model for intestinal transport was tested. The transport of well-characterized, monodisperse, and fluorescent tri-block copolymer nanoparticles (TCNPs/size 45 nm) and polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs/size 50 nm), with different surface charges (positive and negative), was quantified. The positive PNPs showed a higher intracellular uptake and flux across the Caco-2 monolayers than the negative PNPs. Multidrug resistance/P-glycoprotein (MDR1/P-gp), a specific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, was found to play a major role in the cellular efflux of positive PNPs, whereas the multidrug resistance protein 1 took part in the efflux of negative PNPs from Caco-2 cells. The positive PNPs also caused an increased cellular uptake and apical to basolateral transport of the carcinogen PhIP across the Caco-2 monolayer. The flavonoid quercetin, which is known to interact with ABC transporters, promoted the intracellular uptake of different PNPs and interfered with the normal distribution patterns of PNPs in the transwell system. These results indicate that PNPs display surface charge-specific interactions with ABC transporters and can even affect the bioavailability of toxic food-borne compounds (like pro-carcinogens).

  9. Surface charge-specific interactions between polymer nanoparticles and ABC transporters in Caco-2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, Sourav, E-mail: sourav.bhattacharjee@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry (Netherlands); Opstal, Edward J. van; Alink, Gerrit M. [Wageningen University, Division of Toxicology (Netherlands); Marcelis, Antonius T. M.; Zuilhof, Han [Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry (Netherlands); Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M. [Wageningen University, Division of Toxicology (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    The surface charge-dependent transport of polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) across Caco-2 monolayers grown on transwell culture systems as an in vitro model for intestinal transport was tested. The transport of well-characterized, monodisperse, and fluorescent tri-block copolymer nanoparticles (TCNPs/size {approx}45 nm) and polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs/size {approx}50 nm), with different surface charges (positive and negative), was quantified. The positive PNPs showed a higher intracellular uptake and flux across the Caco-2 monolayers than the negative PNPs. Multidrug resistance/P-glycoprotein (MDR1/P-gp), a specific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, was found to play a major role in the cellular efflux of positive PNPs, whereas the multidrug resistance protein 1 took part in the efflux of negative PNPs from Caco-2 cells. The positive PNPs also caused an increased cellular uptake and apical to basolateral transport of the carcinogen PhIP across the Caco-2 monolayer. The flavonoid quercetin, which is known to interact with ABC transporters, promoted the intracellular uptake of different PNPs and interfered with the normal distribution patterns of PNPs in the transwell system. These results indicate that PNPs display surface charge-specific interactions with ABC transporters and can even affect the bioavailability of toxic food-borne compounds (like pro-carcinogens).

  10. Predictive Structure and Topology of Peroxisomal ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoletti, Pierre; Raas, Quentin; Gondcaille, Catherine; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha; Trompier, Doriane; Savary, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    The peroxisomal ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) transporters, which are called ABCD1, ABCD2 and ABCD3, are transmembrane proteins involved in the transport of various lipids that allow their degradation inside the organelle. Defective ABCD1 leads to the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids and is associated with a complex and severe neurodegenerative disorder called X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD). Although the nucleotide-binding domain is highly conserved and characterized within the ABC transporters family, solid data are missing for the transmembrane domain (TMD) of ABCD proteins. The lack of a clear consensus on the secondary and tertiary structure of the TMDs weakens any structure-function hypothesis based on the very diverse ABCD1 mutations found in X-ALD patients. Therefore, we first reinvestigated thoroughly the structure-function data available and performed refined alignments of ABCD protein sequences. Based on the 2.85  Å resolution crystal structure of the mitochondrial ABC transporter ABCB10, here we propose a structural model of peroxisomal ABCD proteins that specifies the position of the transmembrane and coupling helices, and highlight functional motifs and putative important amino acid residues. PMID:28737695

  11. Predictive Structure and Topology of Peroxisomal ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Andreoletti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The peroxisomal ATP-binding Cassette (ABC transporters, which are called ABCD1, ABCD2 and ABCD3, are transmembrane proteins involved in the transport of various lipids that allow their degradation inside the organelle. Defective ABCD1 leads to the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids and is associated with a complex and severe neurodegenerative disorder called X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD. Although the nucleotide-binding domain is highly conserved and characterized within the ABC transporters family, solid data are missing for the transmembrane domain (TMD of ABCD proteins. The lack of a clear consensus on the secondary and tertiary structure of the TMDs weakens any structure-function hypothesis based on the very diverse ABCD1 mutations found in X-ALD patients. Therefore, we first reinvestigated thoroughly the structure-function data available and performed refined alignments of ABCD protein sequences. Based on the 2.85  Å resolution crystal structure of the mitochondrial ABC transporter ABCB10, here we propose a structural model of peroxisomal ABCD proteins that specifies the position of the transmembrane and coupling helices, and highlight functional motifs and putative important amino acid residues.

  12. Surface charge-specific interactions between polymer nanoparticles and ABC transporters in Caco-2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, Sourav; Opstal, Edward J. van; Alink, Gerrit M.; Marcelis, Antonius T. M.; Zuilhof, Han; Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M.

    2013-01-01

    The surface charge-dependent transport of polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) across Caco-2 monolayers grown on transwell culture systems as an in vitro model for intestinal transport was tested. The transport of well-characterized, monodisperse, and fluorescent tri-block copolymer nanoparticles (TCNPs/size ∼45 nm) and polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs/size ∼50 nm), with different surface charges (positive and negative), was quantified. The positive PNPs showed a higher intracellular uptake and flux across the Caco-2 monolayers than the negative PNPs. Multidrug resistance/P-glycoprotein (MDR1/P-gp), a specific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, was found to play a major role in the cellular efflux of positive PNPs, whereas the multidrug resistance protein 1 took part in the efflux of negative PNPs from Caco-2 cells. The positive PNPs also caused an increased cellular uptake and apical to basolateral transport of the carcinogen PhIP across the Caco-2 monolayer. The flavonoid quercetin, which is known to interact with ABC transporters, promoted the intracellular uptake of different PNPs and interfered with the normal distribution patterns of PNPs in the transwell system. These results indicate that PNPs display surface charge-specific interactions with ABC transporters and can even affect the bioavailability of toxic food-borne compounds (like pro-carcinogens).

  13. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter expression and localization in sea urchin development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, Lauren E; Hamdoun, Amro

    2012-06-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are membrane proteins that regulate intracellular concentrations of myriad compounds and ions. There are >100 ABC transporter predictions in the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome, including 40 annotated ABCB, ABCC, and ABCG "multidrug efflux" transporters. Despite the importance of multidrug transporters for protection and signaling, their expression patterns have not been characterized in deuterostome embryos. Sea urchin embryos expressed 20 ABCB, ABCC, and ABCG transporter genes in the first 58 hr of development, from unfertilized egg to early prism. We quantified transcripts of ABCB1a, ABCB4a, ABCC1, ABCC5a, ABCC9a, and ABCG2b, and found that ABCB1a mRNA was 10-100 times more abundant than other transporter mRNAs. In situ hybridization showed ABCB1a was expressed ubiquitously in embryos, while ABCC5a was restricted to secondary mesenchyme cells and their precursors. Fluorescent protein fusions showed localization of ABCB1a on apical cell surfaces, and ABCC5a on basolateral surfaces. Embryos use many ABC transporters with predicted functions in cell signaling, lysosomal and mitochondrial homeostasis, potassium channel regulation, pigmentation, and xenobiotic efflux. Detailed characterization of ABCB1a and ABCC5a revealed that they have different temporal and spatial gene expression profiles and protein localization patterns that correlate to their predicted functions in protection and development, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Role of ABC transporters in veterinary medicine: pharmaco-toxicological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkel, Guillermo; Ballent, Mariana; Lanusse, Carlos; Lifschitz, Adrian

    2018-01-31

    Unlike physicians, veterinary practitioners must deal with a number of animal species with crucial differences in anatomy, physiology and metabolism. Accordingly, the pharmacokinetic behaviour, the clinical efficacy and the adverse or toxic effects of drugs may differ across domestic animals. Moreover, the use of drugs in food-producing species may impose a risk for humans due to the generation of chemical residues in edible products, a major concern for public health and consumer's safety. As is clearly known in human beings, the ATP binding cassette (ABC) of transport proteins may influence the bioavailability and elimination of numerous drugs and other xenobiotics in domestic animals as well. A number of drugs, currently available in the veterinary market, are substrates of one or more transporters. Therefore, significant drug-drug interactions among ABC substrates may have unpredictable pharmaco-toxicological consequences in different species of veterinary interest. In this context, different investigations revealed the major relevance of P-gp and other transport proteins, like breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs), in both companion and livestock animals. Undoubtedly, the discovery of the ABC transporters and the deep understanding of their physiological role in the different species introduced a new paradigm into the veterinary pharmacology. This review focus on the expression and function of the major transport proteins expressed in species of veterinary interest, and their impact in drug disposition, efficacy and toxicity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Extruded edge members for honeycombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Edge members in bonded honeycomb panel structures are conventionally made by machining channels in aluminum bars. Open ends are stuffed with honeycomb core, using intumescent adhesive. Less expensive technique eliminates need for stuffing. Extended edges are more reliable, lighter, and easier to install. New manufacturing method may prove useful in fabricating structures such as air-frames, recreational-vehicle frame members, and the like in which weight savings is primary goal.

  16. Effects of deletion of the Streptococcus pneumoniae lipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase gene lgt on ABC transporter function and on growth in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneeta Chimalapati

    Full Text Available Lipoproteins are an important class of surface associated proteins that have diverse roles and frequently are involved in the virulence of bacterial pathogens. As prolipoproteins are attached to the cell membrane by a single enzyme, prolipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase (Lgt, deletion of the corresponding gene potentially allows the characterisation of the overall importance of lipoproteins for specific bacterial functions. We have used a Δlgt mutant strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae to investigate the effects of loss of lipoprotein attachment on cation acquisition, growth in media containing specific carbon sources, and virulence in different infection models. Immunoblots of triton X-114 extracts, flow cytometry and immuno-fluorescence microscopy confirmed the Δlgt mutant had markedly reduced lipoprotein expression on the cell surface. The Δlgt mutant had reduced growth in cation depleted medium, increased sensitivity to oxidative stress, reduced zinc uptake, and reduced intracellular levels of several cations. Doubling time of the Δlgt mutant was also increased slightly when grown in medium with glucose, raffinose and maltotriose as sole carbon sources. These multiple defects in cation and sugar ABC transporter function for the Δlgt mutant were associated with only slightly delayed growth in complete medium. However the Δlgt mutant had significantly reduced growth in blood or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and a marked impairment in virulence in mouse models of nasopharyngeal colonisation, sepsis and pneumonia. These data suggest that for S. pneumoniae loss of surface localisation of lipoproteins has widespread effects on ABC transporter functions that collectively prevent the Δlgt mutant from establishing invasive infection.

  17. Identification and characterization of the emhABC efflux system for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Pseudomonas fluorescens cLP6a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Elizabeth M; Dennis, Jonathan J; Gray, Murray R; Foght, Julia M

    2003-11-01

    The hydrocarbon-degrading environmental isolate Pseudomonas fluorescens LP6a possesses an active efflux mechanism for the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons phenanthrene, anthracene, and fluoranthene but not for naphthalene or toluene. PCR was used to detect efflux pump genes belonging to the resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) superfamily in a plasmid-cured derivative, P. fluorescens cLP6a, which is unable to metabolize hydrocarbons. One RND pump, whose gene was identified in P. fluorescens cLP6a and was designated emhB, showed homology to the multidrug and solvent efflux pumps in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida. The emhB gene is located in a gene cluster with the emhA and emhC genes, which encode the membrane fusion protein and outer membrane protein components of the efflux system, respectively. Disruption of emhB by insertion of an antibiotic resistance cassette demonstrated that the corresponding gene product was responsible for the efflux of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The emhB gene disruption did not affect the resistance of P. fluorescens cLP6a to tetracycline, erythromycin, trimethoprim, or streptomycin, but it did decrease resistance to chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid, indicating that the EmhABC system also functions in the efflux of these compounds and has an unusual selectivity. Phenanthrene efflux was observed in P. aeruginosa, P. putida, and Burkholderia cepacia but not in Azotobacter vinelandii. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons represent a new class of nontoxic, highly hydrophobic compounds that are substrates of RND efflux systems, and the EmhABC system in P. fluorescens cLP6a has a narrow substrate range for these hydrocarbons and certain antibiotics.

  18. Linsitinib (OSI-906) antagonizes ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 and subfamily C member 10-mediated drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Kathawala, Rishil J; Wang, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Patel, Atish; Shukla, Suneet; Robey, Robert W; Talele, Tanaji T; Ashby, Charles R; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Bates, Susan E; Fu, Li-Wu; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2014-06-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of linsitinib on the reversal of multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by the overexpression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) subfamily members ABCB1, ABCG2, ABCC1 and ABCC10. Our results indicate for the first time that linsitinib significantly potentiate the effect of anti-neoplastic drugs mitoxantrone (MX) and SN-38 in ABCG2-overexpressing cells; paclitaxel, docetaxel and vinblastine in ABCC10-overexpressing cells. Linsitinib moderately enhanced the cytotoxicity of vincristine in cell lines overexpressing ABCB1, whereas it did not alter the cytotoxicity of substrates of ABCC1. Furthermore, linsitinib significantly increased the intracellular accumulation and decreased the efflux of [(3)H]-MX in ABCG2-overexpressing cells and [(3)H]-paclitaxel in ABCC10-overexpressing cells. However, linsitinib, at a concentration that reversed MDR, did not significantly alter the expression levels of either the ABCG2 or ABCC10 transporter proteins. Furthermore, linsitinib did not significantly alter the intracellular localization of ABCG2 or ABCC10. Moreover, linsitinib stimulated the ATPase activity of ABCG2 in a concentration-dependent manner. Overall, our study suggests that linsitinib attenuates ABCG2- and ABCC10-mediated MDR by directly inhibiting their function as opposed to altering ABCG2 or ABCC10 protein expression. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Method for assessing balances of materials whose ecological effects are difficult to quantify (ABC numeric assessment and weighting method); Methodik zur Bewertung von Stoffstroemen mit schlecht quantifizierbaren Umweltauswirkungen (Nutzwert-ABC-Analyse)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pick, E.; Marquardt, R.

    1999-12-01

    Industry and science have developed several methods of establishing eco-balances which are more or less based on the ISO 14040 ff. guidelines. However, these methods tend to be too complex for a short, preliminary analysis of weak points. It is desirable to have a simple method for this purpose and to refer to the more complex methods afterwards. Faster methods are, e.g., the verbal-argumentative method and the ABC analysis. While the former is too subjective and does not have enough structural elements, the ABC analysis is a promising approach. In this investigation, the ABC analysis was modified into a numeric assessment and weighting method. [German] Zur konkreten Ausgestaltung der Oekobilanzierung wurden international in Industrie und Wissenschaft einige Verfahren entwickelt, die mehr oder weniger in das Normenschema nach ISO 14040 ff. passen. Je mehr sie aber in dieses Schema passen, desto komplexer ist meist die Vorgehensweise. Fuer eine erste Schwachstellenanalyse sind sie daher nicht sehr praktikabel. Daher entstand der Wunsch, eine moeglichst einfache Methode zur Auswahl der relevanten Stoffe zu benutzen, um daran anschliessend eine komplexere Methode nach Norm auf eine nun reduzierte Stoffanzahl anwenden zu koennen. Schnelle Verfahren zur Schwachstellenanalyse sind z.B. die verbal-argumentative Methode und die ABC-Analyse. Die verbal-argumentative Methode ist jedoch stark subjektiv und bietet zu wenig strukturelle Elemente, um sie an eine strukturierte Methode nach Norm ankoppeln zu koennen. Die ABC-Analyse passt ebenfalls nicht in das Normenschema ISO 14040 ff. und birgt zudem noch andere Nachteile z.B. bzgl. der Informationsverdichtung in sich. Sie bietet aber ein strukturierteres Vorgehen als die verbal-argumentative Methode und soll daher naeher betrachtet werden. In dem vorliegenden Arbeitsbericht wird die ABC-Analyse in eine Nutzwertanalyse umgewandelt, um die strukturellen Nachteile der ABC-Analyse zu mindern. (orig.)

  20. ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporters of the Human Respiratory Tract Pathogen, Moraxella catarrhalis: Role in Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F; Brauer, Aimee L; Johnson, Antoinette; Kirkham, Charmaine

    2016-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a human respiratory tract pathogen that causes otitis media (middle ear infections) in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In view of the huge global burden of disease caused by M. catarrhalis, the development of vaccines to prevent these infections and better approaches to treatment have become priorities. In previous work, we used a genome mining approach that identified three substrate binding proteins (SBPs) of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters as promising candidate vaccine antigens. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive assessment of 19 SBPs of 15 ABC transporter systems in the M. catarrhalis genome by engineering knockout mutants and studying their role in assays that assess mechanisms of infection. The capacity of M. catarrhalis to survive and grow in the nutrient-limited and hostile environment of the human respiratory tract, including intracellular growth, account in part for its virulence. The results show that ABC transporters that mediate uptake of peptides, amino acids, cations and anions play important roles in pathogenesis by enabling M. catarrhalis to 1) grow in nutrient-limited conditions, 2) invade and survive in human respiratory epithelial cells and 3) persist in the lungs in a murine pulmonary clearance model. The knockout mutants of SBPs and ABC transporters showed different patterns of activity in the assay systems, supporting the conclusion that different SBPs and ABC transporters function at different stages in the pathogenesis of infection. These results indicate that ABC transporters are nutritional virulence factors, functioning to enable the survival of M catarrhalis in the diverse microenvironments of the respiratory tract. Based on the role of ABC transporters as virulence factors of M. catarrhalis, these molecules represent potential drug targets to eradicate the organism from the human respiratory tract.