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Sample records for abbreviated rating scales

  1. Adaptation of abbreviated mathematics anxiety rating scale for engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli; Sultan, Al Amin Mohamed; Halim, Bushra Abdul; Ismail, Siti Fatimah; Mafazi, Nurul Wirdah

    2015-05-01

    Mathematics is an essential and fundamental tool used by engineers to analyse and solve problems in their field. Due to this, most engineering education programs involve a concentration of study in mathematics courses whereby engineering students have to take mathematics courses such as numerical methods, differential equations and calculus in the first two years and continue to do so until the completion of the sequence. However, the students struggled and had difficulties in learning courses that require mathematical abilities. Hence, this study presents the factors that caused mathematics anxiety among engineering students using Abbreviated Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (AMARS) through 95 students of Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM). From 25 items in AMARS, principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that there are four mathematics anxiety factors, namely experiences of learning mathematics, cognitive skills, mathematics evaluation anxiety and students' perception on mathematics. Minitab 16 software was used to analyse the nonparametric statistics. Kruskal-Wallis Test indicated that there is a significant difference in the experience of learning mathematics and mathematics evaluation anxiety among races. The Chi-Square Test of Independence revealed that the experience of learning mathematics, cognitive skills and mathematics evaluation anxiety depend on the results of their SPM additional mathematics. Based on this study, it is recommended to address the anxiety problems among engineering students at the early stage of studying in the university. Thus, lecturers should play their part by ensuring a positive classroom environment which encourages students to study mathematics without fear.

  2. Validation Study of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Spanish Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer L.; Sifuentes, Lucía Macías

    2016-01-01

    With growing numbers of Hispanic students enrolling in post-secondary school, there is a need to increase retention and graduation rates. The purpose of this study was to validate the Spanish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS). The AMAS was translated and administered to 804 freshman students at a post-secondary institution in…

  3. Abbreviations

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    "AB" The official French logo for certified organic produce ("Agriculture Biologique") CF Conventional farming EF Ecological farming IFS Integrated farming systems LIF Low-input farming OF Organic farming OFgc Organic farming under group certification AFSAA Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments (French food safety agency) AMAP Association pour le Maintien d'une Agriculture Paysanne (Association for the maintenance of small-scale farming – there is a network of such associations ...

  4. Introduction of the Abbreviated Westmead Post-Traumatic Amnesia Scale and Impact on Length of Stay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watson, C. E.; Clous, E. A.; Jaeger, M.; D'Amours, S. K.

    2017-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury is a common presentation to Emergency Departments. Early identification of patients with cognitive deficits and provision of discharge advice are important. The Abbreviated Westmead Post-traumatic Amnesia Scale provides an early and efficient assessment of post-traumatic

  5. A comparison of global rating scale and checklist scores in the validation of an evaluation tool to assess performance in the resuscitation of critically ill patients during simulated emergencies (abbreviated as "CRM simulator study IB").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, John; Neilipovitz, David; Cardinal, Pierre; Chiu, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Crisis resource management (CRM) skills are a set of nonmedical skills required to manage medical emergencies. There is currently no gold standard for evaluation of CRM performance. A prior study examined the use of a global rating scale (GRS) to evaluate CRM performance. This current study compared the use of a GRS and a checklist as formal rating instruments to evaluate CRM performance during simulated emergencies. First-year and third-year residents participated in two simulator scenarios each. Three raters then evaluated resident performance in CRM using edited video recordings using both a GRS and a checklist. The Ottawa GRS provides a seven-point anchored ordinal scale for performance in five categories of CRM, and an overall performance score. The Ottawa CRM checklist provides 12 items in the five categories of CRM, with a maximum cumulative score of 30 points. Construct validity was measured on the basis of content validity, response process, internal structure, and response to other variables. T-test analysis of Ottawa GRS scores was conducted to examine response to the variable of level of training. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) scores were used to measure inter-rater reliability for both scenarios. Thirty-two first-year and 28 third-year residents participated in the study. Third-year residents produced higher mean scores for overall CRM performance than first-year residents (P CRM checklist (P CRM checklist. Users indicated a strong preference for the Ottawa GRS given ease of scoring, presence of an overall score, and the potential for formative evaluation. Construct validity seems to be present when using both the Ottawa GRS and CRM checklist to evaluate CRM performance during simulated emergencies. Data also indicate the presence of moderate inter-rater reliability when using both the Ottawa GRS and CRM checklist.

  6. Clinical utility of Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) among patients with first episode depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj

    2010-01-01

    for comorbid personality disorder among patients suffering from depression would be of clinical use. METHOD: The present study aimed to assess the utility of the Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) as a screen for personality disorder in a population of patients recently......BACKGROUND: Personality disorder frequently co-occurs with depression and seems to be associated with a poorer outcome of treatment and increased risk for recurrences. However, the diagnosing of personality disorder can be lengthy and requires some training. Therefore, a brief screening interview...... diagnosed with first episode depression. A total number of 394 patients with an ICD-10 diagnosis of a single depressive episode were sampled consecutively via the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register during a 2years inclusion period and assessed by the screening interview and, subsequently...

  7. Validity and Reliability of the Abbreviated Barratt Impulsiveness Scale in Spanish (BIS-15S)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Cabal, Luis; Rodríguez, Maritza; Herin, David V.; Gempeler, Juanita; Uribe, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study determined the validity and reliability of a new, abbreviated version of the Spanish Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-15S) in Colombian subjects. Method The BIS-15S was tested in non-clinical (n=283) and clinical (n=164) native Spanish-speakers. Intra-scale reliability was calculated using Cronbach’s α, and test-retest reliability was measured with Pearson correlations. Psychometric properties were determined using standard statistics. A factor analysis was performed to determine BIS-15S factor structure. Results 447 subjects participated in the study. Clinical subjects were older and more educated compared to non-clinical subjects. Impulsivity scores were normally distributed in each group. BIS-15S total, motor, non-planning and attention scores were significantly lower in non-clinical vs. clinical subjects. Subjects with substance-related disorders had the highest BIS-15S total scores, followed by subjects with bipolar disorders and bulimia nervosa/binge eating. Internal consistency was 0.793 and test-retest reliability was 0.80. Factor analysis confirmed a three-factor structure (attention, motor, non-planning) accounting for 47.87% of the total variance in BIS-15S total scores. Conclusions The BIS-15S is a valid and reliable self-report measure of impulsivity in this population. Further research is needed to determine additional components of impulsivity not investigated by this measure. PMID:21152412

  8. Reliability and validity of the Farsi version of the standardized assessment of personality-abbreviated scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sepehri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A short screening tool for high-risk individuals with personality disorder (PD is useful both for clinicians and researchers. The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Farsi version of the Standardized Assessment of Personality-Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS. Methods: The original English version of the SAPAS questionnaire was translated into Farsi, and then, translated back into English by two professionals. A survey was then conducted using the questionnaire on 150 clients of primary health care centers in Tabriz, Iran. A total of 235 medical students were also studied for the reliability assessment of the questionnaire. The SAPAS was compared to the short form of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI. The data analysis was performed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve technique, operating characteristic for diagnostic efficacy, Cronbach's alpha, and test-retest for reliability evaluation. Results: We found an area under the curve (AUC of 0.566 [95% confidence intervals (CI: 0.455-0.677]; sensitivity of 0.89 and specificity of 0.26 at the cut-off score of 2 and higher. The total Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.38 and Cohen's kappa ranged between 0.5 and 0.8. Conclusion: The current study showed that the Farsi version of the SAPAS was relatively less efficient, in term of validity and reliability, in the screening of PD in the population.

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of the Kampala Trauma Score using estimated Abbreviated Injury Scale scores and physician opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andrew; Forson, Paa Kobina; Oduro, George; Stewart, Barclay; Dike, Nkechi; Glover, Paul; Maio, Ronald F

    2017-01-01

    The Kampala Trauma Score (KTS) has been proposed as a triage tool for use in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study aimed to examine the diagnostic accuracy of KTS in predicting emergency department outcomes using timely injury estimation with Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score and physician opinion to calculate KTS scores. This was a diagnostic accuracy study of KTS among injured patients presenting to Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital A&E, Ghana. South African Triage Scale (SATS); KTS component variables, including AIS scores and physician opinion for serious injury quantification; and ED disposition were collected. Agreement between estimated AIS score and physician opinion were analyzed with normal, linear weighted, and maximum kappa. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of KTS-AIS and KTS-physician opinion was performed to evaluate each measure's ability to predict A&E mortality and need for hospital admission to the ward or theatre. A total of 1053 patients were sampled. There was moderate agreement between AIS criteria and physician opinion by normal (κ=0.41), weighted (κ lin =0.47), and maximum (κ max =0.53) kappa. A&E mortality ROC area for KTS-AIS was 0.93, KTS-physician opinion 0.89, and SATS 0.88 with overlapping 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Hospital admission ROC area for KTS-AIS was 0.73, KTS-physician opinion 0.79, and SATS 0.71 with statistical similarity. When evaluating only patients with serious injuries, KTS-AIS (ROC 0.88) and KTS-physician opinion (ROC 0.88) performed similarly to SATS (ROC 0.78) in predicting A&E mortality. The ROC area for KTS-AIS (ROC 0.71; 95%CI 0.66-0.75) and KTS-physician opinion (ROC 0.74; 95%CI 0.69-0.79) was significantly greater than SATS (ROC 0.57; 0.53-0.60) with regard to need for admission. KTS predicted mortality and need for admission from the ED well when early estimation of the number of serious injuries was used, regardless of method (i.e. AIS criteria or physician opinion

  10. Scaling metabolic rate fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Labra, Fabio A.; Marquet, Pablo A.; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Complex ecological and economic systems show fluctuations in macroscopic quantities such as exchange rates, size of companies or populations that follow non-Gaussian tent-shaped probability distributions of growth rates with power-law decay, which suggests that fluctuations in complex systems may be governed by universal mechanisms, independent of particular details and idiosyncrasies. We propose here that metabolic rate within individual organisms may be considered as an example of an emerge...

  11. Testing the Abbreviated Food Technology Neophobia Scale and its relation to satisfaction with food-related life in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Grunert, Klaus G; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo; Orellana, Ligia; Sepúlveda, José; Lobos, Germán; Hueche, Clementina; Höger, Yesli

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to test the relationships between food neophobia, satisfaction with food-related life and food technology neophobia, distinguishing consumer segments according to these variables and characterizing them according to willingness to purchase food produced with novel technologies. A survey was conducted with 372 university students (mean aged=20.4years, SD=2.4). The questionnaire included the Abbreviated version of the Food Technology Neophobia Scale (AFTNS), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and a 6-item version of the Food Neophobia Scale (FNS). Using confirmatory factor analysis, it was confirmed that SWFL correlated inversely with FNS, whereas FNS correlated inversely with AFTNS. No relationship was found between SWFL and AFTNS. Two main segments were identified using cluster analysis; these segments differed according to gender and family size. Group 1 (57.8%) possessed higher AFTNS and FNS scores than Group 2 (28.5%). However, these groups did not differ in their SWFL scores. Group 1 was less willing to purchase foods produced with new technologies than Group 2. The AFTNS and the 6-item version of the FNS are suitable instruments to measure acceptance of foods produced using new technologies in South American developing countries. The AFTNS constitutes a parsimonious alternative for the international study of food technology neophobia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Math Anxiety Assessment with the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Applicability and usefulness: insights from the Polish adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof eCipora

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS, known to have very good psychometric characteristics in its original, American-English version as well as in its Italian and Iranian adaptations.We also observed high reliability, both for internal consistency and test-retest stability of the AMAS in the Polish sample. The results also show very good construct, convergent and discriminant validity: The factorial structure in Polish adult participants (n = 857 was very similar to the one previously found in other samples; AMAS scores correlated moderately in expected directions with state and trait anxiety, self-assessed math achievement and skill as well temperamental traits of emotional reactivity, briskness, endurance and perseverance. Average scores obtained by participants as well as gender differences and correlations with external measures were also similar across cultures. Beyond the cultural comparison, we used path model analyses to show that math anxiety relates to math grades and self-competence when controlling for trait anxiety.The current study shows transcultural validity of math anxiety assessment with the AMAS.

  13. Some Common Abbreviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/appendixb.html Appendix B: Some Common Abbreviations To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. This is a list of some common abbreviations and acronyms. Abbreviation Stands for More information ABG ...

  14. Abbreviations in Maritime English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhirong

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the phenomena that more and more abbreviations occur in maritime English correspondences, the composing laws of the abbreviations in maritime English correspondence are analyzed, and the correct methods to answer the abbreviations are pointed out, and the translation method of abbreviations are summarized in this article, and the…

  15. An abbreviated Faecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale for Chinese-speaking population with colorectal cancer after surgery: cultural adaptation and item reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, L-F; Hung, C-L; Kuo, L-J; Tsai, P-S

    2017-09-01

    No instrument is available to assess the impact of faecal incontinence (FI) of quality of life for Chinese-speaking population. The purpose of the study was to adapt the Faecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale (FIQL) for patients with colorectal cancer, assess the factor structure and reduce the items for brevity. A sample of 120 participants were enrolled. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent and contrasted-groups validity were assessed. Construct validity was analysed using an exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). The internal consistency (Cronbach's α of the total scale and four subscales = 0.98 and 0.97, 0.96, 0.92, 0.82 respectively), test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients ≥.98 for all scales with p < .001) and significant correlations of all scales with selected subscales of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey and the Wexner scale suggested satisfactory reliability and validity. The severe FI group (with a Wexner score ≥9) scored significantly lower on the scale than the less severe FI group (with a Wexner score <9) did (p < .001). The CFA supported a two-factor structure and demonstrated an excellent model fit of the 15-item abbreviated version of the FIQL-Chinese. The FIQL-Chinese has satisfactory validity and reliability and the abbreviated version may be more practical and applicable. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Utility of an abbreviated version of the stanford-binet intelligence scales (5thed.) in estimating 'full scale' IQ for young children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Conal; O'Connell, Helen; Lillis, Mary; Tarpey, Sarah Louise; O'Reilly, Gary

    2018-03-01

    The fifth edition of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence scales allows 'full scale' IQ (FSIQ) to be estimated using an abridged version of the test-the abbreviated battery IQ (ABIQ). Set within a public early intervention team service, the current cross-sectional study investigated the utility of the ABIQ in estimating FSIQ for 40 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 3-5 years. A strong ABIQ-FSIQ association was yielded (r = 0.89; r 2  = 0.808) and the ABIQ did not over-estimate mean FSIQ above a clinically-relevant threshold; however, clinically significant over-estimation occurred in 17.5% of individual cases. While the findings provide support for the utility of the ABIQ in estimating FSIQ for young children with ASD, caution relating to the over-estimation of FSIQ is warranted. Careful clinical judgment-ideally based on examination of previous cognitive assessment results (if available), thorough interactional observations, and close multi-disciplinary consultation-is necessary to determine the applicability of the ABIQ to individual cases. Autism Res 2018, 11: 503-508. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. We investigated the utility of a shortened version of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales in estimating IQ for 40 young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The findings provide qualified support for the instrument: acceptably accurate IQ estimation was achieved for most cases; but not so for a sizeable minority (17.5%). Careful clinical judgment is necessary to determine the applicability of the ABIQ to individual cases. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Screening for personality disorder in a sample of incarcerated male youth: preliminary validation of the Standardised Assessment of Personality-Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongerslev, Mickey; Bo, Sune; Simonsen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To test the validity of an age-appropriate adaptation of the Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) in a sample of incarcerated male youth Method: A sample of incarcerated boys, age 15 to 18, were administered the SAPAS by social workers from the participating...... prisons and secure institutions Within one week a clinical psychologist administered the Structured Clinical Inter-view for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II) and the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) to assess for personality disorders and psychopathy In order to control for confounding...

  18. FDA Acronyms and Abbreviations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The FDA Acronyms and Abbreviations database provides a quick reference to acronyms and abbreviations related to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) activities

  19. NRC collection of abbreviations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff collected this list of abbreviations from NRC documents and nuclear industry documents, both foreign and domestic. Readers can use the collection, which is not all inclusive, to identify the terms from which the abbreviations are formed. The Editorial Section of the Division of Freedom of Information and Publications Services compiled this collection. In the introduction, the editorial staff offers suggestions for using abbreviations but does not recommend the use of one abbreviation over another

  20. Routine use of an abbreviated 4-item scale to assess dependence in essential activities of daily living amongst elderly hemodialysis patients: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, Farhat; Jassal, Sarbjit V

    2013-02-01

    Poor functional status is associated with reduced survival and poor outcomes in older dialysis patients. The Geriatric Nephrology Advisory Group recommends routine evaluation of functional status on all older patients; however, assessments can be time consuming and burdensome to clinical care providers. The objective of this study was to validate an abbreviated 4-item self-report screening tool for use in elderly hemodialysis patients. The functional dependence of community-dwelling hemodialysis patients, aged ≥65 years, was measured by trained evaluators. The accuracy of a 4-item self-report activities of daily living (ADL) score was compared against formal evaluation by the Barthel Index and the outcomes using agreement statistics and Cox regression analysis. The cohort included 167 patients with a mean age of 74.8 ± 5.9 years (57 % males). The 4-item scale correctly identified 83 % of the patients dependent in ≥1 ADL. Those incorrectly identified as independent on the abbreviated scale were uniformly unable to climb stairs without assistance. The sensitivity and specificity, and coefficient for agreement between the 4-item scale and the Barthel Index were 83.2, 100 and 0.78 %, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values of the 4-item scale were 100 and 76.9 %, respectively. Using the 4-item scale, the presence of severe disability was predictive of increased mortality (HR 12.5; 95 % CI 2.5-65.0; P = 0.03). The 4-item scale is a simple, valid screening test for disability which can be used in the elderly population on dialysis as a screening tool. Difficulties with stair climbing may be overlooked using this score.

  1. Screening for personality disorder in a sample of incarcerated male youth: preliminary validation of the Standardised Assessment of Personality-Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongerslev, Mickey; Bo, Sune; Simonsen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    prisons and secure institutions Within one week a clinical psychologist administered the Structured Clinical Inter-view for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II) and the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) to assess for personality disorders and psychopathy In order to control for confounding......, including assessment of the sensitivity and specificity of the SAPAS for various cut-off scores, will be presented Conclusions: The study provides a basis for preliminary conclusions regarding the validity of SAPAS as a brief routine screen for personality disorders amongst incarcerated male youth......Aims: To test the validity of an age-appropriate adaptation of the Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) in a sample of incarcerated male youth Method: A sample of incarcerated boys, age 15 to 18, were administered the SAPAS by social workers from the participating...

  2. Dystonia rating scales: critique and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Alberto; Sorbo, Francesca Del; Comella, Cynthia; Jinnah, H A; Mink, Jonathan W; Post, Bart; Vidailhet, Marie; Volkmann, Jens; Warner, Thomas T; Leentjens, Albert F G; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Stebbins, Glenn T; Goetz, Christopher G; Schrag, Anette

    2013-06-15

    Many rating scales have been applied to the evaluation of dystonia, but only few have been assessed for clinimetric properties. The Movement Disorders Society commissioned this task force to critique existing dystonia rating scales and place them in the clinical and clinimetric context. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify rating scales that have either been validated or used in dystonia. Thirty-six potential scales were identified. Eight were excluded because they did not meet review criteria, leaving 28 scales that were critiqued and rated by the task force. Seven scales were found to meet criteria to be "recommended": the Blepharospasm Disability Index is recommended for rating blepharospasm; the Cervical Dystonia Impact Scale and the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale for rating cervical dystonia; the Craniocervical Dystonia Questionnaire for blepharospasm and cervical dystonia; the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and the Vocal Performance Questionnaire (VPQ) for laryngeal dystonia; and the Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale for rating generalized dystonia. Two "recommended" scales (VHI and VPQ) are generic scales validated on few patients with laryngeal dystonia, whereas the others are disease-specific scales. Twelve scales met criteria for "suggested" and 7 scales met criteria for "listed." All the scales are individually reviewed in the online information. The task force recommends 5 specific dystonia scales and suggests to further validate 2 recommended generic voice-disorder scales in dystonia. Existing scales for oromandibular, arm, and task-specific dystonia should be refined and fully assessed. Scales should be developed for body regions for which no scales are available, such as lower limbs and trunk. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  3. The Abbreviated Westmead Post-traumatic Amnesia Scale and Pocket Concussion Recognition Tool: Data from amateur sports players in live-match conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayter, Christopher; Meares, Susanne; Shores, E Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Sports-related concussion is a growing public health concern. A short, simple sideline assessment tool is essential for evaluation of concussion at an amateur participation level. The current study examined responses to sideline assessment measures in a sample of amateur Australian Rules Football players competing in real-time live matches who had not sustained a concussion on the day of testing. Participants (N = 127) completed the Abbreviated Westmead Post-traumatic Amnesia Scale (A-WPTAS) and the Pocket Concussion Recognition Tool (Pocket CRT), which contains the Maddocks Questions (assessing orientation and recent memory) and the Postconcussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). The study showed 98.4% of participants passed the A-WPTAS, while 81.9% passed the Maddocks Questions. Participants endorsed a mean of 4.16 (SD = 4.02) symptoms on the PCSS, with 86.6% endorsing at least 1 symptom at a mild level or greater and 40.2% endorsing at least 1 symptom at a moderate or severe level. The current results suggest the Maddocks Questions may not be sufficient for use in an amateur sports context. To reduce the risk for a false positive diagnosis of concussion, it is recommended that the Pocket CRT be complemented with the A-WPTAS for use in an amateur sports context.

  4. Dystonia rating scales: critique and recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albanese, A.; Sorbo, F.D.; Comella, C.; Jinnah, H.A.; Mink, J.W.; Post, B.; Vidailhet, M.; Volkmann, J.; Warner, T.T.; Leentjens, A.F.; Martinez-Martin, P.; Stebbins, G.T.; Goetz, C.G.; Schrag, A.

    2013-01-01

    Many rating scales have been applied to the evaluation of dystonia, but only few have been assessed for clinimetric properties. The Movement Disorders Society commissioned this task force to critique existing dystonia rating scales and place them in the clinical and clinimetric context. A systematic

  5. Litteraturstudie af forskning om environment rating scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsby, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Litteraturstudiet omhandler forskning om de internationalt anvendte evalueringssmetoder ECERS (Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale) og ITERS (Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale), der begge er instrumenter til måling af kvalitet og værktøjer til evaluering og udvikling af kvalitet i...... dagtilbud (børnehave hhv. vuggestue) i den såkaldte ERS-line (Environment Rating Scale – linjen). Rapporten indgår som grundlag for arbejdet i projektet ”Evaluering af kvalitet i dagtilbud”. Formålet er at skabe et forskningsbaseret vidensgrundlag for hvordan og hvorvidt evalueringsværktøjer, der måler...

  6. Rating scales for observer performance studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Robert M.; Jiang, Yulei; Metz, Charles E.

    2010-02-01

    We compared the performance of radiologists reading a set of screening mammograms with and without CADe as measured by the BI-RADS assessment scale to that measured by a 9-point rating scale. Eight MQSA radiologists read 300 screening mammograms, of which 66 cases contained at least one cancer and 234 were normal based on two-year follow-up. Both without and then with CADe, the radiologists gave their BI-RADS assessment for each case and, for each suspicious lesion in the image, reported their confidence on a 9-point scale (1=no evidence for recall; 5=equivocal; 9=overwhelming evidence for recall) that the lesion needed to be worked up. The radiologists were instructed to read the cases as they would clinically. We used MRMC ROC analysis employing PROPROC curve fitting to analyze the data, once for the BI-RADS data and again for that collected on the 9-point scale. Given that the radiologists were reading screening mammograms and were instructed to read in their normal clinical manner, not all radiologists used the full BI-RADS scale. Two radiologists used only BI-RADS 0,1 and 2, three used the full scale, and three used the full scale but employed categories 3, 4 and 5 sparingly. This mimics what occurs clinically, according to the literature. The BI-RADS and the 9-point rating scales gave similar results in terms of AUC. However, the 95% CIs of the estimates of AUC were substantially smaller for the 9-point scale.

  7. Computer-Administered Interviews and Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garb, Howard N.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the value of computer-administered interviews and rating scales, the following topics are reviewed in the present article: (a) strengths and weaknesses of structured and unstructured assessment instruments, (b) advantages and disadvantages of computer administration, and (c) the validity and utility of computer-administered interviews…

  8. Scale Invariant Properties in Heart Rate Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowiec, D.; Dudkowska, A.; Zwierz, M.; Galaska, R.; Rynkiewicz, A.

    2006-05-01

    The rate of heart beat is controlled by autonomic nervous system: accelerated by the sympathetic system and slowed by the parasympathetic system. Scaling properties in heart rate are usually related to the intrinsic dynamics of this physiological regulatory system. The two packages calculating local exponent spectra: Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima and Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (accessible from Physionet home page http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/101/23/e215) are tested, and then used to investigate the spectrum of singularity exponents in series of heart rates obtained from patients suffering from reduced left ventricle systolic function. It occurs that this state of a heart could be connected to some perturbation in the regulatory system, because the heart rate appears to be less controlled than in a healthy human heart. The multifractality in the heart rate signal is weakened: the spectrum is narrower and moved to higher values what indicate the higher activity of the sympatethic nervous system.

  9. Cross-validation of the factorial structure of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS and its abbreviated form (NEWS-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerin Ester

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS and its abbreviated form (NEWS-A assess perceived environmental attributes believed to influence physical activity. A multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA conducted on a sample from Seattle, WA showed that, at the respondent level, the factor-analyzable items of the NEWS and NEWS-A measured 11 and 10 constructs of perceived neighborhood environment, respectively. At the census blockgroup (used by the US Census Bureau as a subunit of census tracts level, the MCFA yielded five factors for both NEWS and NEWS-A. The aim of this study was to cross-validate the individual- and blockgroup-level measurement models of the NEWS and NEWS-A in a geographical location and population different from those used in the original validation study. Methods A sample of 912 adults was recruited from 16 selected neighborhoods (116 census blockgroups in the Baltimore, MD region. Neighborhoods were stratified according to their socio-economic status and transport-related walkability level measured using Geographic Information Systems. Participants self-completed the NEWS. MCFA was used to cross-validate the individual- and blockgroup-level measurement models of the NEWS and NEWS-A. Results The data provided sufficient support for the factorial validity of the original individual-level measurement models, which consisted of 11 (NEWS and 10 (NEWS-A correlated factors. The original blockgroup-level measurement model of the NEWS and NEWS-A showed poor fit to the data and required substantial modifications. These included the combining of aspects of building aesthetics with safety from crime into one factor; the separation of natural aesthetics and building aesthetics into two factors; and for the NEWS-A, the separation of presence of sidewalks/walking routes from other infrastructure for walking. Conclusion This study provided support for the generalizability of the individual

  10. The Menopause Rating Scale (MRS scale: A methodological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strelow Frank

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper compiles data from different sources to get a first comprehensive picture of psychometric and other methodological characteristics of the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS scale. The scale was designed and standardized as a self-administered scale to (a to assess symptoms/complaints of aging women under different conditions, (b to evaluate the severity of symptoms over time, and (c to measure changes pre- and postmenopause replacement therapy. The scale became widespread used (available in 10 languages. Method A large multinational survey (9 countries in 4 continents from 2001/ 2002 is the basis for in depth analyses on reliability and validity of the MRS. Additional small convenience samples were used to get first impressions about test-retest reliability. The data were centrally analyzed. Data from a postmarketing HRT study were used to estimate discriminative validity. Results Reliability measures (consistency and test-retest stability were found to be good across countries, although the sample size for test-retest reliability was small. Validity: The internal structure of the MRS across countries was astonishingly similar to conclude that the scale really measures the same phenomenon in symptomatic women. The sub-scores and total score correlations were high (0.7–0.9 but lower among the sub-scales (0.5–0.7. This however suggests that the subscales are not fully independent. Norm values from different populations were presented showing that a direct comparison between Europe and North America is possible, but caution recommended with comparisons of data from Latin America and Indonesia. But this will not affect intra-individual comparisons within clinical trials. The comparison with the Kupperman Index showed sufficiently good correlations, illustrating an adept criterion-oriented validity. The same is true for the comparison with the generic quality-of-life scale SF-36 where also a sufficiently close association

  11. Psychometric evaluation of the characteristics of delusions rating scale as an expert rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentner, Nana Christina; Büche, Liesa; von Bock, Anique; Rückl, Sarah; Marx, Jens; Kaiser, Stephan; Barthel, Andreas; Vedder, Helmut; Mundt, Christoph; Kronmüller, Klaus-Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests delusions may be better viewed as multidimensional rather than dichotomous phenomena. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of a German version of the Characteristics of Delusions Rating Scale (CDRS) as an expert rating scale. 200 inpatients with schizophrenic spectrum and affective disorders with delusions were assessed with the CDRS and other delusion rating scales. Factorial validity was analysed, and differences between diagnostic groups on the CDRS subscales as well as on the total score were examined. The CDRS was found to have good inter-rater reliability and internal consistency as an expert rating. Factor analysis yielded an interpretable structure with 3 factors - cognition, emotion and bizarreness - accounting for 70% of the variance. The convergent and differential validity of the scales was supported. Compared to other scales, the CDRS measures all dimensions of delusional experience that have been suggested to date with the exception of behavioural aspects. The results support the view of delusions as multidimensional phenomena. The CDRS as an expert rating is a reliable and valid assessment tool for dimensions of delusional experience and an economical instrument for research and clinical practice. Further research is needed to examine the dimensional structure underlying delusional phenomena and the relationship of the dimensions to neurobiological and psychotherapeutic processes. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Modelling of rate effects at multiple scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, R.R.; Simone, A.; Sluys, L. J.

    2008-01-01

    , the length scale in the meso-model and the macro-model can be coupled. In this fashion, a bridging of length scales can be established. A computational analysis of  a Split Hopkinson bar test at medium and high impact load is carried out at macro-scale and meso-scale including information from  the micro-scale....

  13. Outcome Rating Scale and Session Rating Scale in Psychological Practice: Clinical Utility of Ultra-Brief Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Alistair; Hemsley, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    The validity and reliability of the Outcome Rating Scale (ORS) and the Session Rating Scale (SRS) were evaluated against existing longer measures, including the Outcome Questionnaire-45, Working Alliance Inventory, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, Quality of Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and General Self-efficacy Scale. The measures…

  14. Rating scales measuring the severity of psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, S. D.; Rothschild, A. J.; Flint, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Unipolar psychotic depression (PD) is a severe and debilitating syndrome, which requires intensive monitoring. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of the rating scales used to assess illness severity in PD. METHOD: Selective review of publications reporting results...... on non-self-rated, symptom-based rating scales utilized to measure symptom severity in PD. The clinical and psychometric validity of the identified rating scales was reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 14 rating scales meeting the predefined criteria were included in the review. These scales grouped...... into the following categories: (i) rating scales predominantly covering depressive symptoms, (ii) rating scales predominantly covering psychotic symptoms, (iii) rating scales covering delusions, and (iv) rating scales covering PD. For the vast majority of the scales, the clinical and psychometric validity had...

  15. Development of an Interview-Based Geriatric Depression Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Christine; Scogin, Forrest

    1992-01-01

    Developed interview-based Geriatric Depression Rating Scale (GDRS) and administered 35-item GDRS to 68 older adults with range of affective disturbance. Found scale to have internal consistency and split-half reliability comparable to those of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and Geriatric Depression Scale. Concurrent validity, construct…

  16. 40 CFR 300.4 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 300.4 Section 300.4... Introduction § 300.4 Abbreviations. (a) Department and Agency Title Abbreviations: ATSDR—Agency for Toxic... the abbreviation “NRC” only with respect to the National Response Center. (b) Operational...

  17. 49 CFR 172.308 - Authorized abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorized abbreviations. 172.308 Section 172.308... SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.308 Authorized abbreviations. (a) Abbreviations may not be used in a proper shipping name marking except as authorized in this section. (b) The abbreviation “ORM” may be used in place...

  18. 40 CFR 86.094-3 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.094-3 Section 86.094...-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.094-3 Abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations in § 86.090-3 remain effective. The abbreviations in this section apply beginning with the 1994 model year. (b...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1703-99 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.1703-99 Section 86....1703-99 Abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations in subpart A of this part apply to this subpart. (b) In addition, the following abbreviations shall apply to this subpart: ASTR—All States Trading Region HEV...

  20. 40 CFR 86.090-3 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.090-3 Section 86.090...-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.090-3 Abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations in § 86.078-3 remain effective. The abbreviations in this section apply beginning with the 1990 model year. (b...

  1. 40 CFR 88.103-94 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 88.103-94 Section 88...) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Emission Standards for Clean-Fuel Vehicles § 88.103-94 Abbreviations. The abbreviations of part 86 also apply to this subpart. The abbreviations in this section apply to all of part 88...

  2. 40 CFR 88.303-93 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 88.303-93 Section 88...) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.303-93 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in subpart A of this part and in 40 CFR part 86 apply to this subpart. The abbreviations in this section apply to...

  3. 40 CFR 86.000-3 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.000-3 Section 86.000...-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.000-3 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in § 86.098-3 continue to apply to 1998 and later model year vehicles. The abbreviations in this section apply beginning...

  4. 40 CFR 86.098-3 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.098-3 Section 86.098...-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-3 Abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations in § 86.096-3 continue to apply. The abbreviations in this section apply beginning with the 1998 model year...

  5. 40 CFR 86.096-3 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.096-3 Section 86.096...-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.096-3 Abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations in § 86.094-3 continue to apply. The abbreviation in this section applies beginning with the 1996 model year...

  6. Rating scales measuring the severity of psychotic depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, S D; Rothschild, A J; Flint, A J; Mulsant, B H; Whyte, E M; Leadholm, A K; Bech, P; Meyers, B S

    2015-11-01

    Unipolar psychotic depression (PD) is a severe and debilitating syndrome, which requires intensive monitoring. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of the rating scales used to assess illness severity in PD. Selective review of publications reporting results on non-self-rated, symptom-based rating scales utilized to measure symptom severity in PD. The clinical and psychometric validity of the identified rating scales was reviewed. A total of 14 rating scales meeting the predefined criteria were included in the review. These scales grouped into the following categories: (i) rating scales predominantly covering depressive symptoms, (ii) rating scales predominantly covering psychotic symptoms, (iii) rating scales covering delusions, and (iv) rating scales covering PD. For the vast majority of the scales, the clinical and psychometric validity had not been tested empirically. The only exception from this general tendency was the 11-item Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS), which was developed specifically to assess the severity of PD. In PD, the PDAS represents the only empirically derived rating scale for the measurement of overall severity of illness. The PDAS should be considered in future studies of PD and in clinical practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Optimal convergence rates for Tikhonov regularization in Besov scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, D A; Trede, D

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we deal with linear inverse problems and convergence rates for Tikhonov regularization. We consider regularization in a scale of Banach spaces, namely the scale of Besov spaces. We show that regularization in Banach scales differs from regularization in Hilbert scales in the sense that it is possible that stronger source conditions may lead to weaker convergence rates and vice versa. Moreover, we present optimal source conditions for regularization in Besov scales

  8. Rasch Analysis for Psychometric Improvement of Science Attitude Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oon, Pey-Tee; Fan, Xitao

    2017-01-01

    Students' attitude towards science (SAS) is often a subject of investigation in science education research. Survey of rating scale is commonly used in the study of SAS. The present study illustrates how Rasch analysis can be used to provide psychometric information of SAS rating scales. The analyses were conducted on a 20-item SAS scale used in an…

  9. Measuring Cognitive Load with Subjective Rating Scales during Problem Solving: Differences between Immediate and Delayed Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeck, Annett; Opfermann, Maria; van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred; Leutner, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    Subjective cognitive load (CL) rating scales are widely used in educational research. However, there are still some open questions regarding the point of time at which such scales should be applied. Whereas some studies apply rating scales directly after each step or task and use an average of these ratings, others assess CL only once after the…

  10. [Rating scale for osteoarthritis knee assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-González, Rubén; Pérez-Correa, Jesús; Gaytán-Morales, Lucio

    2006-01-01

    We undertook this study to develop a grading scale to assess knee osteoarthritis using the Bristol Score. Between August and November 2004, a clinimetrical, prospective, group-controlled, observational, cross-sectional and analytical study was done. The study sample was comprised of 55 patients, 35 years old and over, with clinical-radiographic diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis following the American Academy of Rheumatology criteria. The Bristol Score was used in 25 patients by two standardized orthopedic surgeons. Sensitivity, consistency and validity of the Bristol Score were determined. The new grading scale to assess osteoarthritis Magdalena de las Salinas H-1(MSH1) was used in 30 patients. Sensitivity, consistency and validity of the MSH1 were also determined. Both indexes were compared in these terms. An osteoarthritis radiographic score was developed to assess the validity of the MSH1. Inter-observer intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the Bristol Score in its categories was total 0.62, function 0.84, pain 0.40 and movement 0.89. Inter-observer ICC for MSH1 in its categories was total 0.91, function 0.92, pain 0.79 and movement 0.86 (p Bristol Score was 0.51 (p = 0.002), with 80% agreement. The weighed kappa for the MSH1 was 0.81 (p Bristol Score and the osteoarthritis radiographic score was -0.29 (p = 0.049). Correlation between the MSH1 and the radiographic score of osteoarthritis was -0.62 (p Bristol Score and can be considered a reliable instrument to assess knee osteoarthritis.

  11. [Abbreviations in daily language: stop it].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girbes, A C; Girbes, A R J

    2017-01-01

    Abbreviations are used more and more in physician common parlance and it seems they are on the way to becoming a new jargon. However, identical abbreviations may have different meanings, especially in different medical specialties. Moreover, many physicians do not know the meaning of specific abbreviations or are attributing the wrong meaning to the abbreviation. This will lead to misunderstanding and therefore danger to the patient. The authors are calling for a stop on the use of spoken abbreviations and for minimising the use of abbreviations in clinical notes and medical prescriptions.

  12. Decision Tree Rating Scales for Workload Estimation: Theme and Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietwille, W. W.; Skipper, J. H.; Rieger, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    The modified Cooper-Harper (MCH) scale has been shown to be a sensitive indicator of workload in several different types of aircrew tasks. The MCH scale was examined to determine if certain variations of the scale might provide even greater sensitivity and to determine the reasons for the sensitivity of the scale. The MCH scale and five newly devised scales were studied in two different aircraft simulator experiments in which pilot loading was treated as an independent variable. Results indicate that while one of the new scales may be more sensitive in a given experiment, task dependency is a problem. The MCH scale exhibits consistent sensitivity and remains the scale recommended for general use. The results of the rating scale experiments are presented and the questionnaire results which were directed at obtaining a better understanding of the reasons for the relative sensitivity of the MCH scale and its variations are described.

  13. Global change: Acronyms and abbreviations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodard, C.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Stoss, F.W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center

    1995-05-01

    This list of acronyms and abbreviations is compiled to provide the user with a ready reference to dicipher the linguistic initialisms and abridgements for the study of global change. The terms included in this first edition were selected from a wide variety of sources: technical reports, policy documents, global change program announcements, newsletters, and other periodicals. The disciplinary interests covered by this document include agriculture, atmospheric science, ecology, environmental science, oceanography, policy science, and other fields. In addition to its availability in hard copy, the list of acronyms and abbreviations is available in DOS-formatted diskettes and through CDIAC`s anonymous File Transfer Protocol (FTP) area on the Internet.

  14. Scales for assessment of depression in schizophrenia: Factor analysis of calgary depression rating scale and hamilton depression rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Sahoo, Swapnajeet; Dua, Devakshi; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the factor structure of Calgary depression rating scale (CDSS) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) among patients with schizophrenia in acute and remission phase of illness by using exploratory factor analysis. For this, 267 patients with schizophrenia were assessed on CDSS and HDRS. Exploratory factor analysis of CDSS yielded 2 factor models for the whole sample, patients in clinical remission and patients not in clinical remission phase of schizophrenia. Factor analysis of HDRS yielded 3 factor models; however, there was significant difference in the factor structure between those in clinical remission and those not in clinical remission phase of schizophrenia. CDSS total score did not correlate with PANSS positive and negative subscale scores. In contrast, HDRS total score correlated positively with PANSS positive subscale score, PANSS negative subscale score and PANSS general psychopathology subscale score. To conclude, present study suggests while CDSS items separate out into 2 factors, which are stable across different stages of illness, whereas HDRS factor structure appears to be less stable across different stages of illness. Correlation analysis suggests that rating on HDRS may be affected by positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, whereas CDSS do not correlate with positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of physician-rating and self-rating scales for patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Hua; Lu, Mei-Jou; Wong, Julielynn; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2014-12-01

    Physician-rating scales remain the standard in antidepressant clinical trials. The current study aimed to examine the discrepancies between physician-rating scales and self-rating scales for symptoms and functioning, before and after treatment, in newly hospitalized patients. A total of 131 acutely ill inpatients with major depressive disorder were enrolled to receive 20 mg of fluoxetine daily for 6 weeks. Symptom severity and functioning were assessed at baseline and again at week 6. Symptom severity was rated using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (ZDS). Functioning was measured by the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). Pearson correlation coefficients (r) between HDRS-17 and ZDS and between GAF and WSAS were calculated at week 0 and week 6. Sensitivity to change was measured using effect sizes. One-hundred twelve patients completed the 6-week trial. After 6 weeks of treatment, correlations between HDRS-17 and ZDS or correlations between GAF and WSAS became larger from baseline to end point. All correlations were statistically significant (P rating scales (ie, HDRS-17 and GAF) were larger than by self-rating scales (ie, ZDS and WSAS). Correlations between baseline physician-rating scale scores and self-rating scale scores improved after 6 weeks of treatment. Physician-rating scales had larger effect sizes than self-rating scales. Physician-rating scales were more sensitive in detecting symptom or functional changes than self-rating scales.

  16. Effective Rating Scale Development for Speaking Tests: Performance Decision Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred; Kemp, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Rating scale design and development for testing speaking is generally conducted using one of two approaches: the measurement-driven approach or the performance data-driven approach. The measurement-driven approach prioritizes the ordering of descriptors onto a single scale. Meaning is derived from the scaling methodology and the agreement of…

  17. Disruptive Behaviour Disorder (DBD) Rating Scale for Attention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 1384 subjects randomly selected from six primary schools were evaluated using the DBD rating scale for ADHD. Teachers were asked to rate the selected subjects on a scale of 1 to 4 on ADHD related symptoms. The raw scores were entered into SPSS 11.0 for Windows (2003) and the mean and 2 standard ...

  18. Sensitivity of School-Performance Ratings to Scaling Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Hui Leng; Koretz, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers usually leave decisions about scaling the scores used for accountability to their appointed technical advisory committees and the testing contractors. However, scaling decisions can have an appreciable impact on school ratings. Using middle-school data from New York State, we examined the consistency of school ratings based on two…

  19. Development and Validation of the Conduct Disorder Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Elgar, Frank J.

    2007-01-01

    Several rating scales for measuring externalizing problems in children are inconsistent with widely used diagnostic criteria for conduct disorder (CD). The Conduct Disorder Rating Scale (CDRS) was developed to provide valid measures of CD in children age 5 to 12 years. In Study 1, the CDRS was evaluated in a community sample of 1,554 children.…

  20. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H.; Kuiper, Marieke J.; Lunsing, Roelinka J.; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P.; Sival, Deborah A.

    AIM: To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. METHOD: Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean

  1. Factor Validity of a Proactive and Reactive Aggression Rating Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Kaat, Aaron; Farmer, Cristan; Gadow, Kenneth; Findling, Robert L.; Bukstein, Oscar; Arnold, L. Eugene; Bangalore, Srihari; McNamara, Nora; Aman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behaviors can be classified into proactive and reactive functions, though there is disagreement about whether these are distinct constructs. Data suggest that proactive and reactive aggression have different etiologies, correlates, and response to treatment. Several rating scales are available to characterize aggressive behavior as proactive or reactive; one commonly used scale was originally developed for teacher ratings, referred to here as the Antisocial Behavior Scale (ABS). Ho...

  2. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H; Kuiper, Marieke J; Lunsing, Roelinka J; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P; Sival, Deborah A

    2014-06-01

    To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean age 10y 5mo SD 3y 11mo). The investigated scales involved the commonly applied International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS), the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA), the Brief Ataxia Rating Scale (BARS), and PEG-board tests. We investigated the interrelatedness between individual ataxia scales, the influence of age and sex, inter- and intra-observer agreement, and test-retest reliability. Spearman's rank correlations revealed strong correlations between ICARS, SARA BARS, and PEG-board test (all prating scales are reliable, but should include age-dependent interpretation in children up to 12 years of age. To enable longitudinal interpretation of quantitative ataxia rating scales in children, European paediatric normative values are necessary. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  3. Evaluating the Measurement Structure of the Abbreviated HIV Stigma Scale in a Sample of African Americans Living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eboneé T.; Yaghmaian, Rana A.; Best, Andrew; Chan, Fong; Burrell, Reginald, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to validate the 10-item version of the HIV Stigma Scale (HSS-10) in a sample of African Americans with HIV/AIDS. Method: One hundred and ten African Americans living with HIV/AIDS were recruited from 3 case management agencies in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Measurement structure of the HSS-10 was evaluated using…

  4. Privacy Preserving Large-Scale Rating Data Publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxun Sun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Large scale rating data usually contains both ratings of sensitive and non-sensitive issues, and the ratings of sensitive issues belong to personal privacy. Even when survey participants do not reveal any of their ratings, their survey records are potentially identifiable by using information from other public sources. In order to protect the privacy in the large-scale rating data, it is important to propose new privacy principles which consider the properties of the rating data. Moreover, given the privacy principle, how to efficiently determine whether the rating data satisfied the required privacy principle is crucial as well. Furthermore, if the privacy principle is not satisfied, an efficient method is needed to securely publish the large-scale rating data. In this paper, all these problem will be addressed.

  5. MEDLARS Abbreviations for Medical Journal Titles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charen, Thelma; Gillespie, Constantine J.

    1971-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine announces its adoption of the Anglo-American standard for the formulation of journal title abbreviations according to the American National Standard for the Abbreviation of Titles of Periodicals (1969), with individual words abbreviated, in turn, according to the International List of Periodical Title Word Abbreviations (1970). The history of the activity of the specific Z39 Committee of USASI (now ANSI) concerned with journal title abbreviations is reviewed, covering the period from 1962 to the present. A history of the National Clearinghouse for Periodical Title Word Abbreviations and of the International List is also given. Former NLM usage is compared with the forms of the present International List and examples show the major changes in NLM abbreviations. The NLM Rules for Abbreviation of Periodical Titles as derived from the new standard are appended. PMID:5146764

  6. 40 CFR 129.3 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 129.3 Section 129.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS TOXIC POLLUTANT EFFLUENT STANDARDS Toxic Pollutant Effluent Standards and Prohibitions § 129.3 Abbreviations. The abbreviations used...

  7. 40 CFR 86.503-78 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.503-78 Section 86.503-78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.503-78 Abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations in § 86.403-78...

  8. 7 CFR 1945.5 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Abbreviations. 1945.5 Section 1945.5 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.5 Abbreviations. The following abbreviations are used in this subpart. (a) ASCS—Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service. (b) DAR...

  9. 40 CFR 600.003-77 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 600.003-77 Section 600.003-77 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL... Model Year Automobiles-General Provisions § 600.003-77 Abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations used in this...

  10. 40 CFR 600.503-78 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 600.503-78 Section 600... Automobiles)-Procedures for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy § 600.503-78 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in § 600.003 apply to this subpart. ...

  11. 40 CFR 94.3 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 94.3 Section 94.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Compression-Ignition Marine Engines § 94.3 Abbreviations. The abbreviations of this section apply to all...

  12. 40 CFR 600.203-77 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 600.203-77 Section 600... Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy Values § 600.203-77 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in § 600.003 apply to this subpart. ...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1503 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.1503 Section 86.1503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Abbreviations. The abbreviations in § 86.084-3 or in § 86.1804-01, as applicable, apply to this subpart. [64 FR...

  14. 40 CFR 92.3 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 92.3 Section 92.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR... Locomotives and Locomotive Engines § 92.3 Abbreviations. The abbreviations of this section apply to all...

  15. 16 CFR 500.22 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations. 500.22 Section 500.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT OF GENERAL POLICY OR... PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT § 500.22 Abbreviations. The following abbreviations and none other may be...

  16. 40 CFR 86.884-3 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.884-3 Section 86.884... New Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Smoke Exhaust Test Procedure § 86.884-3 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in § 86.078-3 apply to this subpart. ...

  17. 40 CFR 86.703-94 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.703-94 Section 86.703-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... § 86.703-94 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in subparts A and B of this part apply to this subpart. ...

  18. 40 CFR 86.103 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.103 Section 86.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF...; Test Procedures § 86.103 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in subpart A apply to this subpart. [45 FR...

  19. 40 CFR 86.078-3 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.078-3 Section 86.078-3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.078-3 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in this...

  20. 14 CFR 34.2 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations. 34.2 Section 34.2... EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES General Provisions § 34.2 Abbreviations. The abbreviations used in this part have the following meanings in both upper and lower case: COCarbon...

  1. 48 CFR 3002.270 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Abbreviations. 3002.270 Section 3002.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Abbreviations 3002.270 Abbreviations...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1303-84 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.1303-84 Section 86.1303-84 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED....1303-84 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in § 86.084-3 apply to this subpart. ...

  3. 40 CFR 600.103-78 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 600.103-78 Section 600.103-78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL... Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.103-78 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in § 600.003 apply...

  4. 40 CFR 600.403-77 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 600.403-77 Section 600... Model Year Automobiles-Dealer Availability of Fuel Economy Information § 600.403-77 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in § 600.003 apply to this subpart. ...

  5. 40 CFR 52.18 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 52.18 Section 52.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.18 Abbreviations. Abbreviations used in this part...

  6. 40 CFR 88.203-94 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 88.203-94 Section 88.203-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES California Pilot Test Program § 88.203-94 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1203-85 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.1203-85 Section 86.1203-85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1203-85 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in § 86.079-3 apply to...

  8. 40 CFR 86.403-78 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.403-78 Section 86.403-78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.403-78 Abbreviations. The abbreviations used in this...

  9. 40 CFR 600.303-77 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 600.303-77 Section 600.303-77 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL... Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.303-77 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in § 600.003 apply to this...

  10. 40 CFR 86.303-79 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.303-79 Section 86.303-79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Abbreviations. The abbreviations in § 86.078-3 apply to this subpart. ...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1403 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.1403 Section 86.1403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Short Test Procedures § 86.1403 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in § 86.096-3 apply to this subpart. ...

  12. Escape rate scaling in infinite measure preserving systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munday, Sara; Knight, Georgie

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the scaling of the escape rate from piecewise linear dynamical systems displaying intermittency due to the presence of an indifferent fixed point. Strong intermittent behaviour in the dynamics can result in the system preserving an infinite measure. We define a neighbourhood of the indifferent fixed point to be a hole through which points escape and investigate the scaling of the rate of this escape as the length of the hole decreases, both in the finite measure preserving case and infinite measure preserving case. In the infinite measure preserving systems we observe logarithmic corrections to and polynomial scaling of the escape rate with hole length. Finally we conjecture a relationship between the wandering rate and the observed scaling of the escape rate. (paper)

  13. [DAD-6: an abbreviated version of the DAD scale (disability assessment for dementia). An instrument for detection of loss of autonomy at an early stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rotrou, Jocelyne; Wu, Ya-Huei; Djabelkhir, Leila; Seux, Marie-Laure; Hugonot, Laurence; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie; Hanon, Olivier; Vidal, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the French version of DAD-6, a validated instrument for the assessment of IADL (instrumental activities of daily living) considered as intentional and complex activities. A loss of autonomy remains a major criterion in the diagnosis of dementia. In addition, IADL assessment is recommended as a primary outcome in dementia drug trials. Since the publication in 1969 by Lawton and Brody of an IADL scale, many instruments have been developed. However, their psychometric properties remain to be improved. The need for improving the early diagnosis yielded to the design of DAD-6, an instrument allowing capturing subtle difficulties in IADL management. The DAD-6 scale emphasizes the role of the cognitive function, mainly the executive function in early IADL impairment. DAD-6 requires the participation of an informant (a patient's proxy). Relative to patients' self-reports or performance-based methods, informant-based questionnaires are the most common and practical methods used in memory clinics. In previous work, DAD-6 score gradually decreased with increasing severity of the cognitive status. The present work shows the inter-rater reliability of DAD-6. The use of the scale with the same informants by one neurologist and two neuropsychologists, separately, indicated a high agreement between raters (alpha of Krippendorff>0.80).This work also highlights the main sources of bias in the context of evaluation based on subjective judgement. The authors stress the necessity of: 1--a clarification of the relationship between cognitive function and IADL; 2--the measurement of IADL performance in a routine neuropsychological assessment by experienced professionals.

  14. Internal consistency of the Human Behavior Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-Groves, Suzanne; Eaves, Ronald C; Williams, Thomas O

    2009-12-01

    The internal consistency of the Human Behavior Rating Scale (HBRS) was investigated. The 91-item Likert-type scale is designed to measure five dimensions: persistence, curiosity, externalizing affect, internalizing affect, and cognition. It is used as a research tool to investigate the tenets of Eaves' 1993 integrated theory of human behavior. Three separate sampling plans were employed. Teachers and nonteachers completed Human Behavior Rating Scale ratings of children ranging in age from 5 to 18 years old. Cronbach coefficients alpha were reported by sex, grade, or age for the three samples. Of the 185 reported alpha coefficients, 175 were at or above .90, while 10 had values between .80 and .89.

  15. Audit on the Use of Dangerous Abbreviations, Symbols, and Dose Designations in Paper Compared to Electronic Medication Orders: A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Stephanie; Hoi, Sannifer; Fernandes, Olavo; Huh, Jin; Kynicos, Sara; Murphy, Laura; Lowe, Donna

    2018-04-01

    Dangerous abbreviations on the Institute for Safe Medication Practices Canada's "Do Not Use" list have resulted in medication errors leading to harm. Data comparing rates of use of dangerous abbreviations in paper and electronic medication orders are limited. To compare rates of use of dangerous abbreviations from the "Do Not Use" list, in paper and electronic medication orders. Secondary objectives include determining the proportion of patients at risk for medication errors due to dangerous abbreviations and the most commonly used dangerous abbreviations. One-day cross-sectional audits of medication orders were conducted at a 6-site hospital network in Toronto, Canada, between December 2013 and January 2014. Proportions of paper and electronic medication orders containing dangerous abbreviation(s) were compared using a χ 2 test. The proportion of patients with at least 1 medication order containing dangerous abbreviation(s) and the top 5 dangerous abbreviations used were described. Overall, 255 patient charts were reviewed. The proportions of paper and electronic medication orders containing dangerous abbreviation(s) were 172/714 (24.1%) and 9/2207 (0.4%), respectively ( P abbreviation(s). The proportions of patients with at least 1 medication order during the audit period containing dangerous abbreviation(s) for patients with paper only, electronic only, or a hybrid of paper and electronic medication orders were 50.5%, 5%, and 47.2%, respectively. Those most commonly used were "D/C", drug name abbreviations, "OD," "cc," and "U." Electronic medication orders have significantly lower rates of dangerous abbreviation use compared to paper medication orders.

  16. Validation Study of the Abbreviated Version of the Lubben Social Network Scale Spanish Translation among Mexican and Mexican-American Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar-Compte, Mireya; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Lubben, James

    2018-03-01

    To perform a face validity study of the Spanish version of the Lubben Social Network Scale (LSNS-6) among Mexican and Mexican-American older adults. A cross-national qualitative descriptive approach, based on cognitive survey testing and cross-cultural equivalence analysis, was followed to assess the face validity of the Spanish version of the LSNS-6. Data were collected through 2 focus groups in Los Angeles (LA) and 4 in Mexico City (CDMX). Focus groups followed a semi-structured guide. Eligibility criteria included being 60 years and older, native Spanish speaking, and not suffering from significant cognitive impairments. Four initial focus groups were targeted at conducting a face validity assessment of the initial scale, which led to some modifications. The two remaining focus groups reassessed the face validity of the modified version of the Spanish LSNS-6. 56 older adults participated in the focus groups yielding 152 pages of verbatim transcripts. Analysis of the transcripts identified relevant themes affecting how Mexican and Mexican American older adults understood the items from the LSNS-6 Spanish version, among them: labelling of family members and friends, notions of neighborhood, identifying and counting people, and understanding of "private matters". This led to propose a modified Spanish version of the LSNS-6 following a name generating approach, as well as some language and instruction modifications. The face validity of the modified version suggested a better understanding. The study proposes that the LSNS-6 Spanish version needs to be adapted for its use among Mexican and Mexican American older adults, and we suggest a modified version. This potentially implies that social isolation may be more accurately measured in a vulnerable group of older adults. Further research is needed to ascertain the construct validity and psychometric properties of the modified version.

  17. User's Guide for Tactical Thinking Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, Jennifer K; Ross, Karol G; Shadrick, Scott B

    2006-01-01

    .... In conjunction, measurement techniques must be developed to assess tactical thinking skills. This research product is a user's guide for the Tactical Thinking Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (T-BARS...

  18. K-State Problem Identification Rating Scales for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, John M.; Benton, Stephen L.; Newton, Fred B.; Downey, Ronald G.; Marsh, Patricia A.; Benton, Sheryl A.; Tseng, Wen-Chih; Shin, Kang-Hyun

    2006-01-01

    The K-State Problem Identification Rating Scales, a new screening instrument for college counseling centers, gathers information about clients' presenting symptoms, functioning levels, and readiness to change. Three studies revealed 7 scales: Mood Difficulties, Learning Problems, Food Concerns, Interpersonal Conflicts, Career Uncertainties,…

  19. Factor structure of the Behavior Flexibility Rating Scale (BFRS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pituch, K.A.; Green, V.A.; Sigafoos, J.; Itchon, J.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lancioni, G.E.; Didden, H.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Behavior Flexibility Rating Scale (BFRS) is designed to assess insistence on sameness or lack of behavioral flexibility, which is often associated with autism and other developmental disabilities. This study was designed to assess the factor structure of this scale for a sample of 968

  20. Scaling relationship between tree respiration rates and biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dong-Liang; Li, Tao; Zhong, Quan-Lin; Wang, Gen-Xuan

    2010-10-23

    The WBE theory proposed by West, Brown and Enquist predicts that larger plant respiration rate, R, scales to the three-quarters power of body size, M. However, studies on the R versus M relationship for larger plants (i.e. trees larger than saplings) have not been reported. Published respiration rates of field-grown trees (saplings and larger trees) were examined to test this relationship. Our results showed that for larger trees, aboveground respiration rates RA scaled as the 0.82-power of aboveground biomass MA, and that total respiration rates RT scaled as the 0.85-power of total biomass MT, both of which significantly deviated from the three-quarters scaling law predicted by the WBE theory, and which agreed with 0.81-0.84-power scaling of biomass to respiration across the full range of measured tree sizes for an independent dataset reported by Reich et al. (Reich et al. 2006 Nature 439, 457-461). By contrast, R scaled nearly isometrically with M in saplings. We contend that the scaling exponent of plant metabolism is close to unity for saplings and decreases (but is significantly larger than three-quarters) as trees grow, implying that there is no universal metabolic scaling in plants.

  1. Pictorial versus Verbal Rating Scales in Music Preference Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Albert; Jin, Young Chang; Simpson, Charles S.; Stamou, Lelouda; McCrary, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Compares pictorial and verbal rating scales as measures of music preference opinions. Examines internal consistency and test-retest reliability of each type of scale, the overall preference scores generated through the use of each to measure preference for the same music stimuli, and student preferences for each type after using them. (DSK)

  2. New Abbreviations in Colloquial French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pogačnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article treats the process of abbreviations, which he explored forty years ago in his master thesis. The article is based on the corpus created on the basis of Télématin broadcast on French television network TV5. According to the author, clipping is a widespread process that occurs primarily in various forms of oral communication.

  3. Sourcing archaeological obsidian by an abbreviated NAA procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glascock, M.D.; Neff, H.; Stryker, K.S.; Jonhson, T.N.

    1994-01-01

    An abbreviated NAA procedure has been developed to fingerprint obsidian artifacts in the Mesoamerican region. Despite the large number of available sources, an NAA procedure, which relies on producing short-lived isotopes, has been applied with a success rate greater than 90 percent. The abbreviated NAA procedure is rapid and cost competitive with the XRF technique more often applied in obsidian sourcing. Results from the analysis of over 1,200 obsidian artifacts from throughout Mesoamerica are presented. (author) 8 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  4. Clinimetric testing of the comprehensive cervical dystonia rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comella, Cynthia L; Perlmutter, Joel S; Jinnah, Hyder A; Waliczek, Tracy A; Rosen, Ami R; Galpern, Wendy R; Adler, Charles A; Barbano, Richard L; Factor, Stewart A; Goetz, Christopher G; Jankovic, Joseph; Reich, Stephen G; Rodriguez, Ramon L; Severt, William L; Zurowski, Mateusz; Fox, Susan H; Stebbins, Glenn T

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test the clinimetric properties of the Comprehensive Cervical Dystonia Rating Scale. This is a modular scale with modifications of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (composed of three subscales assessing motor severity, disability, and pain) now referred to as the revised Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Scale-2; a newly developed psychiatric screening instrument; and the Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile-58 as a quality of life measure. Ten dystonia experts rated subjects with cervical dystonia using the comprehensive scale. Clinimetric techniques assessed each module of the scale for reliability, item correlation, and factor structure. There were 208 cervical dystonia patients (73% women; age, 59 ± 10 years; duration, 15 ± 12 years). Internal consistency of the motor severity subscale was acceptable (Cronbach's alpha = 0.57). Item to total correlations showed that elimination of items with low correlations (Rating Scale are internally consistent with a logical factor structure. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  5. Interrater Agreement of the Individualized Behavior Rating Scale Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovannone, Rose; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wang, Wei; Dunlap, Glen; Kincaid, Don

    2014-01-01

    Data assessment is critical for determining student behavior change in response to individualized behavior interventions in schools. This study examined the interrater agreement of the Individualized Behavior Rating Scale Tool (IBRST), a perceptual direct behavior rating tool that was used by typical school personnel to record behavior occurrence…

  6. Time scale bias in erosion rates of glaciated landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganti, Vamsi; von Hagke, Christoph; Scherler, Dirk; Lamb, Michael P; Fischer, Woodward W; Avouac, Jean-Philippe

    2016-10-01

    Deciphering erosion rates over geologic time is fundamental for understanding the interplay between climate, tectonic, and erosional processes. Existing techniques integrate erosion over different time scales, and direct comparison of such rates is routinely done in earth science. On the basis of a global compilation, we show that erosion rate estimates in glaciated landscapes may be affected by a systematic averaging bias that produces higher estimated erosion rates toward the present, which do not reflect straightforward changes in erosion rates through time. This trend can result from a heavy-tailed distribution of erosional hiatuses (that is, time periods where no or relatively slow erosion occurs). We argue that such a distribution can result from the intermittency of erosional processes in glaciated landscapes that are tightly coupled to climate variability from decadal to millennial time scales. In contrast, we find no evidence for a time scale bias in spatially averaged erosion rates of landscapes dominated by river incision. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of the proposed coupling between climate and tectonics, and interpreting erosion rate estimates with different averaging time scales through geologic time.

  7. List of abbreviation of nuclear energy term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    This book deals with abbreviation of nuclear energy terms, which are in alphabetical order. List of abbreviation of nuclear energy term can be used in various field like the medical world, power plant and research center of researchers and students. This book contains a lot of abbreviation of nuclear energy term like LWR, PWR, SG, MGE, MNE, MNF, AINS, AMS, ATWS, CARE, EOF, MCR, RIMS, SMS and TRF.

  8. The impact of frequency rating scale formats on the measurement of latent variables in web surveys - an experimental investigation using a measure of affectivity as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menold Natalja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of verbal and/or numerical labeling and number of categories on the measurement of latent variables in web surveys are addressed. Data were collected online in a quota sample of the German adult population (N = 741. A randomized 2x2x2 experimental design was applied, with variation of the number of categories, as well as of verbal and numerical labeling, using an abbreviated version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS. Experimental manipulation of the rating scale formats resulted in an effect on measurement model testing and reliability, as well as on factorial and convergent validity. In addition, measurement invariance between several rating scale formats was limited. With the five category end verbalized and fully labeled seven category formats, acceptable results for all measurement quality metrics could be obtained.

  9. Abbreviations used in scientific and technical reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Chang.

    1986-04-01

    Reports contain a large number of abbreviations which have not yet been included in the current specialized dictionaries or lists of abbreviations. It is therefore often time-consuming or even fruitless to search for such abbreviations. The present alphabetical list of more than 4,000 abbreviations gathered from the report inventory of the Central Library of the KFA Juelich in the period from 1982-1986, taking into consideration all the scientific and technical disciplines, is intended to remedy a deficiency and to offer assistance which will undoubtedly be welcomed by scientists and engineers. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Scaling of geochemical reaction rates via advective solute transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, A G; Ghanbarian, B; Skinner, T E; Ewing, R P

    2015-07-01

    Transport in porous media is quite complex, and still yields occasional surprises. In geological porous media, the rate at which chemical reactions (e.g., weathering and dissolution) occur is found to diminish by orders of magnitude with increasing time or distance. The temporal rates of laboratory experiments and field observations differ, and extrapolating from laboratory experiments (in months) to field rates (in millions of years) can lead to order-of-magnitude errors. The reactions are transport-limited, but characterizing them using standard solute transport expressions can yield results in agreement with experiment only if spurious assumptions and parameters are introduced. We previously developed a theory of non-reactive solute transport based on applying critical path analysis to the cluster statistics of percolation. The fractal structure of the clusters can be used to generate solute distributions in both time and space. Solute velocities calculated from the temporal evolution of that distribution have the same time dependence as reaction-rate scaling in a wide range of field studies and laboratory experiments, covering some 10 decades in time. The present theory thus both explains a wide range of experiments, and also predicts changes in the scaling behavior in individual systems with increasing time and/or length scales. No other theory captures these variations in scaling by invoking a single physical mechanism. Because the successfully predicted chemical reactions include known results for silicate weathering rates, our theory provides a framework for understanding changes in the global carbon cycle, including its effects on extinctions, climate change, soil production, and denudation rates. It further provides a basis for understanding the fundamental time scales of hydrology and shallow geochemistry, as well as the basis of industrial agriculture.

  11. Scaling of geochemical reaction rates via advective solute transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, A. G.; Ghanbarian, B.; Skinner, T. E.; Ewing, R. P.

    2015-07-01

    Transport in porous media is quite complex, and still yields occasional surprises. In geological porous media, the rate at which chemical reactions (e.g., weathering and dissolution) occur is found to diminish by orders of magnitude with increasing time or distance. The temporal rates of laboratory experiments and field observations differ, and extrapolating from laboratory experiments (in months) to field rates (in millions of years) can lead to order-of-magnitude errors. The reactions are transport-limited, but characterizing them using standard solute transport expressions can yield results in agreement with experiment only if spurious assumptions and parameters are introduced. We previously developed a theory of non-reactive solute transport based on applying critical path analysis to the cluster statistics of percolation. The fractal structure of the clusters can be used to generate solute distributions in both time and space. Solute velocities calculated from the temporal evolution of that distribution have the same time dependence as reaction-rate scaling in a wide range of field studies and laboratory experiments, covering some 10 decades in time. The present theory thus both explains a wide range of experiments, and also predicts changes in the scaling behavior in individual systems with increasing time and/or length scales. No other theory captures these variations in scaling by invoking a single physical mechanism. Because the successfully predicted chemical reactions include known results for silicate weathering rates, our theory provides a framework for understanding changes in the global carbon cycle, including its effects on extinctions, climate change, soil production, and denudation rates. It further provides a basis for understanding the fundamental time scales of hydrology and shallow geochemistry, as well as the basis of industrial agriculture.

  12. Rating scales for cognition in Huntington's disease: Critique and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, Tiago A; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine; Marinus, Johan; Stout, Julie C; Paulsen, Jane S; Como, Peter; Duff, Kevin; Sampaio, Cristina; Goetz, Christopher G; Cubo, Esther; Stebbins, Glenn T; Martinez-Martin, Pablo

    2018-02-01

    Cognitive impairment is one of the main features of Huntington's disease and is present across the disease spectrum. As part of the International Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorder Society-sponsored project to review all clinical rating scales used in Huntington's disease, a systematic review of the literature was performed to identify cognitive scales used in Huntington's disease and make recommendations for their use. A total of 17 cognitive scales were identified and evaluated. None of the scales met criteria for a "recommended" status. For assessing severity of cognitive dysfunction, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment was "recommended with caveats." The UHDRS Cognitive Assessment, the UHDRS-For Advanced Patients cognitive section, the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale, the Frontal Assessment Battery, the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale, the Mini-Mental State Examination, and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status were "suggested" for evaluating severity of cognitive impairment. The MoCA was "suggested" as a screening tool for cognitive impairment. The major challenge in the assessment of cognition in Huntington's disease is the lack of a formal definition of dementia and/or mild cognitive impairment in this disease. The committee concluded that there is a need to further validate currently available cognitive scales in Huntington's disease, but that it is premature to recommend the development of new scales. Recently developed Huntington's disease-specific scales, such as the Huntington's Disease-Cognitive Assessment Battery, hold promise but require the completion of more comprehensive clinimetric development. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  13. Exploring Incomplete Rating Designs with Mokken Scale Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Stefanie A.; Patil, Yogendra J.

    2018-01-01

    Recent research has explored the use of models adapted from Mokken scale analysis as a nonparametric approach to evaluating rating quality in educational performance assessments. A potential limiting factor to the widespread use of these techniques is the requirement for complete data, as practical constraints in operational assessment systems…

  14. Review: Design parameters of rating scales for Web sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon

    2007-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of the Internet, more and more online questionnaires are being conducted. However, little research is being done on their construction, in particular on their design. The authors of this paper have conducted such a study, within the scope of rating scales for Web

  15. Child Mania Rating Scale: Development, Reliability, and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuluri, Mani N.; Henry, David B.; Devineni, Bhargavi; Carbray, Julie A.; Birmaher, Boris

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To develop a reliable and valid parent-report screening instrument for mania, based on DSM-IV symptoms. Method: A 21-item Child Mania Rating Scale-Parent version (CMRS-P) was completed by parents of 150 children (42.3% female) ages 10.3 plus or minus 2.9 years (healthy controls = 50; bipolar disorder = 50;…

  16. Development of a modified Winchester disability scale--the elderly at risk rating scale.

    OpenAIRE

    Donald, I P

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To show that the elderly at risk rating scale (EARRS) satisfies the requirements of an assessment tool for routine health checks in people over 75 and would also be suitable as a method of collecting epidemiological data on the needs of the elderly in a locality. DESIGN: Development and validation of a questionnaire based on a modification of the Winchester rating scale, by a series of prospective, comparative studies before the use of the instrument in a community survey. SETTING:...

  17. Rate Equation and Scaling for Fragmentation with Mass Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Boyd F.; Cai, M.; Han, H.

    1990-01-01

    A linear rate equation describes fragmentation with continuous and discrete mass loss typified by consumption of porous reactive solids and two-phase heterogeneous solids. For a mass-dependent fragmentation rate xα and a continuous-mass-loss rate εxγ,σ=γ-α-1‘‘recession regime’’ where small particles lose mass continuously without breaking, σ>0 yields a ‘‘fragmentation regime’’ where all particles break, and σ=0 yields scaling for α>0. Shattering for ασ≥0 is runaway fragmentation produci...

  18. Detecting unapproved abbreviations in the electronic medical record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Andrew; Stack, Anne; Harper, Marvin B; Kimia, Amir

    2012-04-01

    At an emergency department (ED) in a tertiary care children's hospital with a level 1 pediatric trauma designation, unapproved abbreviations (UAAs) within electronic medical records (EMRs) were identified, and feedback was provided to providers regarding their types and use rates. Existing EMRs, including the ED physicians' patient notes were used as templates to develop a UAA list and an abbreviation detector. The detector was validated against human-screened samples of electronic ED notes from 2003 and then applied to all existing data to generate baseline rates of UAA, before intervention/implementation. Next, the validated abbreviation detector was applied prospectively in screening all EMRs monthly during a six-month period. In validation, the abbreviation detector had a sensitivity of 89%, a specificity of 99.9%, and a positive predictive value of 89%. Some 475,613 EMRs were screened, with UAAs identified at a rate of 26.4 +/- 4 per 1,000 EMRs. The most common nonmedication UAA was "qd" [11.8/1,000 EMRs], and the most common medication UAA was "PCN" [4.2/1,000 EMRs]. A total of 27,282 patient notes from 74 physicians were screened between January 1, 2007, and June 30, 2007, and 392 monthly reports were generated. Aggregate UAA use decreased by 8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6%-14%) per month-from 19.3 to > 12.1/100 charts, for a 37.3% decrease in UAA use in the six-month period. The estimated monthly decrease per physician was 0.9/100 (95% CI: 0.86-0.94, p abbreviation detector for surveillance of newly created EMRs, followed by consistent education and feedback, led to a significant decrease in UAA use in the study period.

  19. Scaling laws in the dynamics of crime growth rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luiz G. A.; Ribeiro, Haroldo V.; Mendes, Renio S.

    2013-06-01

    The increasing number of crimes in areas with large concentrations of people have made cities one of the main sources of violence. Understanding characteristics of how crime rate expands and its relations with the cities size goes beyond an academic question, being a central issue for contemporary society. Here, we characterize and analyze quantitative aspects of murders in the period from 1980 to 2009 in Brazilian cities. We find that the distribution of the annual, biannual and triannual logarithmic homicide growth rates exhibit the same functional form for distinct scales, that is, a scale invariant behavior. We also identify asymptotic power-law decay relations between the standard deviations of these three growth rates and the initial size. Further, we discuss similarities with complex organizations.

  20. A Comparison of EFL Raters' Essay-Rating Processes across Two Types of Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hang; He, Lianzhen

    2015-01-01

    This study used think-aloud protocols to compare essay-rating processes across holistic and analytic rating scales in the context of China's College English Test Band 6 (CET-6). A group of 9 experienced CET-6 raters scored the same batch of 10 CET-6 essays produced in an operational CET-6 administration twice, using both the CET-6 holistic…

  1. A Comparison of the Counselor Rating Form and the Counselor Effectiveness Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Donald R.; Wampold, Bruce E.

    1982-01-01

    Compared two measures of perceived counselor expertness, trustworthiness, and attractiveness: the Counselor Rating Form (CRF) and the Counselor Effectiveness Rating Scale (CERS). Results showed expertness, trustworthiness, and attractiveness as measured by both instruments are not independent and are components of a single dimension of perceived…

  2. Development of abbreviated eight-item form of the Penn Verbal Reasoning Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilker, Warren B; Wierzbicki, Michael R; Brensinger, Colleen M; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C

    2014-12-01

    The ability to reason with language is a highly valued cognitive capacity that correlates with IQ measures and is sensitive to damage in language areas. The Penn Verbal Reasoning Test (PVRT) is a 29-item computerized test for measuring abstract analogical reasoning abilities using language. The full test can take over half an hour to administer, which limits its applicability in large-scale studies. We previously described a procedure for abbreviating a clinical rating scale and a modified procedure for reducing tests with a large number of items. Here we describe the application of the modified method to reducing the number of items in the PVRT to a parsimonious subset of items that accurately predicts the total score. As in our previous reduction studies, a split sample is used for model fitting and validation, with cross-validation to verify results. We find that an 8-item scale predicts the total 29-item score well, achieving a correlation of .9145 for the reduced form for the model fitting sample and .8952 for the validation sample. The results indicate that a drastically abbreviated version, which cuts administration time by more than 70%, can be safely administered as a predictor of PVRT performance. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Development of Abbreviated Eight-Item Form of the Penn Verbal Reasoning Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilker, Warren B.; Wierzbicki, Michael R.; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to reason with language is a highly valued cognitive capacity that correlates with IQ measures and is sensitive to damage in language areas. The Penn Verbal Reasoning Test (PVRT) is a 29-item computerized test for measuring abstract analogical reasoning abilities using language. The full test can take over half an hour to administer, which limits its applicability in large-scale studies. We previously described a procedure for abbreviating a clinical rating scale and a modified procedure for reducing tests with a large number of items. Here we describe the application of the modified method to reducing the number of items in the PVRT to a parsimonious subset of items that accurately predicts the total score. As in our previous reduction studies, a split sample is used for model fitting and validation, with cross-validation to verify results. We find that an 8-item scale predicts the total 29-item score well, achieving a correlation of .9145 for the reduced form for the model fitting sample and .8952 for the validation sample. The results indicate that a drastically abbreviated version, which cuts administration time by more than 70%, can be safely administered as a predictor of PVRT performance. PMID:24577310

  4. Calibration of a Credit Rating Scale for Polish Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Wójcicka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing number of bankruptcy announcements means that even greater attention is being paid to the correct evaluation of the probability of default (PD and decisions made on the basis of it. Reliable estimation of the likelihood of a company's bankruptcy reduces risk, not only for the company itself but also for all co-operating companies and financial institutions. The financial crisis has led to a tightening up of the conditions for gaining finance from banks. However, it is not only the evaluation of PD itself that is so important but also the correct classification of companies according to their PD level ("good" or "bad" companies. There is very little consideration about possible adjustments of the credit risk scale, as usually the American scale is adopted with no changes which seems incorrect.This paper stresses the importance of correct calibration of the credit rating scale. It should not be assumed (as it was in the past that once a scale is defined it remains fixed and independent of the country. Therefore, the research carried out on Polish companies shows that the credit rating scale should be changed and the default point (i.e. "cut-off" point should be higher than in the past. The author uses a modified classification matrix based on the probability of default. The paper compares the classification of quoted Polish companies according to their credit risk level (PD with the actual occurrence of default when various default "cut-off" points are used. (original abstract

  5. Scale factor measure method without turntable for angular rate gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Fangyi; Han, Xuefei; Yao, Yanqing; Xiong, Yuting; Huang, Yuqiong; Wang, Hua

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a scale factor test method without turntable is originally designed for the angular rate gyroscope. A test system which consists of test device, data acquisition circuit and data processing software based on Labview platform is designed. Taking advantage of gyroscope's sensitivity of angular rate, a gyroscope with known scale factor, serves as a standard gyroscope. The standard gyroscope is installed on the test device together with a measured gyroscope. By shaking the test device around its edge which is parallel to the input axis of gyroscope, the scale factor of the measured gyroscope can be obtained in real time by the data processing software. This test method is fast. It helps test system miniaturized, easy to carry or move. Measure quarts MEMS gyroscope's scale factor multi-times by this method, the difference is less than 0.2%. Compare with testing by turntable, the scale factor difference is less than 1%. The accuracy and repeatability of the test system seems good.

  6. Dimensional approach to symptom factors of major depressive disorder in Koreans, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: The Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Cheol Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although major depressive disorder (MDD has a variety of symptoms beyond the affective dimensions, the factor structure and contents of comprehensive psychiatric symptoms of this disorder have rarely been explored using the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS. We aimed to identify the factor structure of the 18-item BPRS in Korean MDD patients. A total of 258 MDD patients were recruited from a multicenter sample of the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study. Psychometric scales were used to assess overall psychiatric symptoms (BPRS, depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, global severity (Clinical Global Impression of Severity Scale, suicidal ideation (Scale for Suicide Ideation, functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-abbreviated version. Common factor analysis with oblique rotation was used to yield factor structure. A four-factor structure was designed and interpreted by the symptom dimensions to reflect mood disturbance, positive symptoms/apathy, bipolarity, and thought distortion/mannerism. These individual factors were also significantly correlated with clinical variables. The findings of this study support the view that the BPRS may be a promising measuring tool for the initial assessment of MDD patients. In addition, the four-factor structure of the BPRS may be useful in understanding the mood and psychotic characteristics of these patients.

  7. Factor Validity of a Proactive and Reactive Aggression Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaat, Aaron; Farmer, Cristan; Gadow, Kenneth; Findling, Robert L; Bukstein, Oscar; Arnold, L Eugene; Bangalore, Srihari; McNamara, Nora; Aman, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Aggressive behaviors can be classified into proactive and reactive functions, though there is disagreement about whether these are distinct constructs. Data suggest that proactive and reactive aggression have different etiologies, correlates, and response to treatment. Several rating scales are available to characterize aggressive behavior as proactive or reactive; one commonly used scale was originally developed for teacher ratings, referred to here as the Antisocial Behavior Scale (ABS). However, no data are available on the psychometric properties of the ABS for parent ratings. This study examined the factor structure and convergent/divergent validity of the parent-rated ABS among 168 children aged 6-12 years with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, a disruptive behavior disorder, and severe aggression enrolled in a randomized clinical trial. Multidimensional item response theory was used to confirm the original factor structure. The proactive and reactive factors were distinct but moderately correlated; the algorithm items exhibited acceptable fit on the original factors. The non-algorithm items caused theoretical problems and model misfit. Convergent and divergent validity of the scale was explored between the ABS and other parent-report measures. Proactive and reactive aggression showed differential correlates consistent with expectations for externalizing symptoms. The subscales were correlated weakly or not at all with most non-externalizing symptoms, with some exceptions. Thus, the original factor structure was supported and we found preliminary evidence for the validity of the scale, though the results suggest that the constructs measured by the ABS may not be totally distinct from general behavior problems in this clinical sample.

  8. Eating disorder symptom severity scale: a new clinician rated measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Katherine A; Buchholz, Annick; Perkins, Julie; Norwood, Sarah; Obeid, Nicole; Spettigue, Wendy; Feder, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of the clinician-rated Eating Disorder Symptom Severity Scale (EDS(3)), created to address a gap in measurement options for youth with eating disorders. The EDS(3) is modeled on the Childhood Severity and Acuity of Psychiatric Illness Scales (Lyons, J. S, 1998). Factor analysis revealed a 5-factor solution and accounted for 78% of the variance, and internal consistency within the subscales was good (Cronbach alphas: 0.69 to 0.93). The EDS(3) is a valid and reliable measure designed for clinicians to help assess the severity of a youth's eating disorder and to facilitate outcomes research.

  9. Acronyms, initialisms, and abbreviations: Fourth Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolman, B.J. [comp.

    1994-04-01

    This document lists acronyms used in technical writing. The immense list is supplemented by an appendix containing chemical elements, classified information access, common abbreviations used for functions, conversion factors for selected SI units, a flowcharting template, greek alphabet, metrix terminology, proofreader`s marks, signs and symbols, and state abbreviations.

  10. 40 CFR 117.2 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 117.2 Section 117.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE QUANTITIES FOR HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES General Provisions § 117.2 Abbreviations. NPDES equals...

  11. 40 CFR 116.2 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 116.2 Section 116.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DESIGNATION OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES § 116.2 Abbreviations. ppm=parts per million mg=milligram(s) kg=kilogram(s) mg/l=milligrams(s) per...

  12. 15 CFR 995.5 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations. 995.5 Section 995.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC... HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS General § 995.5 Abbreviations. CEDCertified NOAA ENC Distributor CEVADCertified NOAA ENC...

  13. 32 CFR 552.162 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Abbreviations. 552.162 Section 552.162 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL..., and Camp Bonneville § 552.162 Abbreviations. See appendix F to this subpart. ...

  14. 48 CFR 1302.170 - Abbreviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Abbreviations 1302.170 Section 1302.170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL DEFINTIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions 1302.170 Abbreviations AIRAdditional Item Requirements BPOSenior Bureau...

  15. The effectiveness of a 'Do Not Use' list and perceptions of healthcare professionals on error-prone abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaranayake, Nithushi R; Cheung, Dixon S T; Lam, May P S; Cheung, Tommy T; Chui, William C M; Wong, Ian C K; Cheung, Bernard M Y

    2014-10-01

    The use of error-prone abbreviations has led to medication errors. Many safety organisations have introduced 'Do Not Use' lists (lists of error-prone abbreviations that should be avoided by prescribers), but the effectiveness of these lists have not been studied. We assessed the effectiveness of the 'Do Not Use' list introduced to the study hospital, and sought the attitudes of healthcare professionals on other potentially dangerous abbreviations (not included in the 'Do Not Use' list) used in prescriptions. The study was conducted in a university affiliated tertiary hospital in Hong Kong. An uncontrolled observational study was conducted. In-patient prescriptions were reviewed to assess the use of error-prone abbreviations included in the 'Do Not Use' list before, after its introduction, and following the first reinforcement. An on-line survey was also conducted among prescribers, pharmacists and nurses. Rate of using error-prone abbreviations and other unapproved abbreviations among reviewed prescriptions. 3,238 prescriptions (23,398 drug items) were reviewed. The use of abbreviations in the 'Do Not Use' list decreased from 7.8 to 3.3 % after its introduction (P abbreviations were used to denote prescribing instructions in 19.2 % of the drugs prescribed. 49 different types of unapproved abbreviations were used for drug names. A 'Do Not Use' list is effective in reducing error-prone abbreviations. Reinforcements of the 'Do Not Use' list further improves prescriber adherence. However, many other unapproved abbreviations (not included in current 'Do Not Use' lists) are used when prescribing. Periodic reminders on error-prone abbreviations and education of prescribers on associated risks may help to reduce the use of error-prone abbreviations in hospitals.

  16. Frequency, comprehension and attitudes of physicians towards abbreviations in the medical record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamiel, Uri; Hecht, Idan; Nemet, Achia; Pe'er, Liron; Man, Vitaly; Hilely, Assaf; Achiron, Asaf

    2018-03-14

    Abbreviations are common in the medical record. Their inappropriate use may ultimately lead to patient harm, yet little is known regarding the extent of their use and their comprehension. Our aim was to assess the extent of their use, their comprehension and physicians' attitudes towards them, using ophthalmology consults in a tertiary hospital as a model. We first mapped the frequency with which English abbreviations were used in the departments' computerised databases. We then used the most frequently used abbreviations as part of a cross-sectional survey designed to assess the attitudes of non-ophthalmologist physicians towards the abbreviations and their comprehension of them. Finally, we tested whether an online lecture would improve comprehension. 4375 records were screened, and 235 physicians responded to the survey. Only 42.5% knew at least 10% of the abbreviations, and no one knew them all. Ninety-two per cent of respondents admitted to searching online for the meanings of abbreviations, and 59.1% believe abbreviations should be prohibited in medical records. A short online lecture improved the number of respondents answering correctly at least 50% of the time from 1.2% to 42% (PAbbreviations are common in medical records and are frequently misinterpreted. Online teaching is a valuable tool for physician education. The majority of respondents believed that misinterpreting abbreviations could negatively impact patient care, and that the use of abbreviations should be prohibited in medical records. Due to low rates of comprehension and negative attitudes towards abbreviations in medical communications, we believe their use should be discouraged. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Kvalitetsvurdering med Early Childhood Envirionment Rating Scale (ECERS-3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsby, Torben; Pedersen, Birgitte Skov; Skytte, Karsten Brinkmann

    2017-01-01

    Denne rapport omhandler en undersøgelse af kvalitet i dagtilbud i Frederikshavn Kommune. I undersøgelsen anvendes den internationale evalueringssmetode ECERS-3 (Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, version 3 ), der er et instrument til måling af kvalitet og et værktøj til evaluering og...... udvikling af kvalitet i dagtilbud i den såkaldte ERS-line (Environment Rating Scale – linjen). Rapporten indgår som videre grundlag for arbejdet i forskningsprojektet ” Kvalitet i dagtilbud” ved University College Nordjylland. Formålet er her, dels at undersøge hvordan og hvorvidt et evalueringsværktøj, der...

  18. Reliability and validity of the Wolfram Unified Rating Scale (WURS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Chau; Foster, Erin R; Paciorkowski, Alexander R; Viehoever, Amy; Considine, Colleen; Bondurant, Aidena; Marshall, Bess A; Hershey, Tamara

    2012-11-14

    Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare, neurodegenerative disease that typically presents with childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, followed by optic atrophy, diabetes insipidus, deafness, and neurological and psychiatric dysfunction. There is no cure for the disease, but recent advances in research have improved understanding of the disease course. Measuring disease severity and progression with reliable and validated tools is a prerequisite for clinical trials of any new intervention for neurodegenerative conditions. To this end, we developed the Wolfram Unified Rating Scale (WURS) to measure the severity and individual variability of WFS symptoms. The aim of this study is to develop and test the reliability and validity of the Wolfram Unified Rating Scale (WURS). A rating scale of disease severity in WFS was developed by modifying a standardized assessment for another neurodegenerative condition (Batten disease). WFS experts scored the representativeness of WURS items for the disease. The WURS was administered to 13 individuals with WFS (6-25 years of age). Motor, balance, mood and quality of life were also evaluated with standard instruments. Inter-rater reliability, internal consistency reliability, concurrent, predictive and content validity of the WURS were calculated. The WURS had high inter-rater reliability (ICCs>.93), moderate to high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.78-0.91) and demonstrated good concurrent and predictive validity. There were significant correlations between the WURS Physical Assessment and motor and balance tests (rs>.67, pScale and reports of mood and behavior (rs>.76, pvalidity (Scale-Content Validity Index=0.83). These preliminary findings demonstrate that the WURS has acceptable reliability and validity and captures individual differences in disease severity in children and young adults with WFS.

  19. Comparative assessment of clinical rating scales in Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpert, Hanna M; Pfeiffenberger, Jan; Gröner, Jan B; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Gotthardt, Daniel N; Schäfer, Mark; Weiss, Karl Heinz; Weiler, Markus

    2017-07-21

    Wilson's disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism resulting in multifaceted neurological, hepatic, and psychiatric symptoms. The objective of the study was to comparatively assess two clinical rating scales for WD, the Unified Wilson's Disease Rating Scale (UWDRS) and the Global Assessment Scale for Wilson's disease (GAS for WD), and to test the feasibility of the patient reported part of the UWDRS neurological subscale (termed the "minimal UWDRS"). In this prospective, monocentric, cross-sectional study, 65 patients (median age 35 [range: 15-62] years; 33 female, 32 male) with treated WD were scored according to the two rating scales. The UWDRS neurological subscore correlated with the GAS for WD Tier 2 score (r = 0.80; p < 0.001). Correlations of the UWDRS hepatic subscore and the GAS for WD Tier 1 score with both the Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score (r = 0.44/r = 0.28; p < 0.001/p = 0.027) and the Child-Pugh score (r = 0.32/r = 0.12; p = 0.015/p = 0.376) were weak. The "minimal UWDRS" score significantly correlated with the UWDRS total score (r = 0.86), the UWDRS neurological subscore (r = 0.89), and the GAS for WD Tier 2 score (r = 0.86). The UWDRS neurological and psychiatric subscales and the GAS for WD Tier 2 score are valuable tools for the clinical assessment of WD patients. The "minimal UWDRS" is a practical prescreening tool outside scientific trials.

  20. Reliability and validity of the Wolfram Unified Rating Scale (WURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Chau

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wolfram syndrome (WFS is a rare, neurodegenerative disease that typically presents with childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, followed by optic atrophy, diabetes insipidus, deafness, and neurological and psychiatric dysfunction. There is no cure for the disease, but recent advances in research have improved understanding of the disease course. Measuring disease severity and progression with reliable and validated tools is a prerequisite for clinical trials of any new intervention for neurodegenerative conditions. To this end, we developed the Wolfram Unified Rating Scale (WURS to measure the severity and individual variability of WFS symptoms. The aim of this study is to develop and test the reliability and validity of the Wolfram Unified Rating Scale (WURS. Methods A rating scale of disease severity in WFS was developed by modifying a standardized assessment for another neurodegenerative condition (Batten disease. WFS experts scored the representativeness of WURS items for the disease. The WURS was administered to 13 individuals with WFS (6-25 years of age. Motor, balance, mood and quality of life were also evaluated with standard instruments. Inter-rater reliability, internal consistency reliability, concurrent, predictive and content validity of the WURS were calculated. Results The WURS had high inter-rater reliability (ICCs>.93, moderate to high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s α = 0.78-0.91 and demonstrated good concurrent and predictive validity. There were significant correlations between the WURS Physical Assessment and motor and balance tests (rs>.67, ps>.76, ps=-.86, p=.001. The WURS demonstrated acceptable content validity (Scale-Content Validity Index=0.83. Conclusions These preliminary findings demonstrate that the WURS has acceptable reliability and validity and captures individual differences in disease severity in children and young adults with WFS.

  1. Development of a work environment rating scale for kindergarten teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yau-ho P

    2015-08-01

    Kindergarten education in Hong Kong serves children aged 32-68 months. However, there is no extant scale that measures kindergarten teachers' perceived work environment, an important influence on their well-being. To develop a new instrument, the Teachers' Perceived Work Environment (TPWE) scale, and to assess whether kindergarten teachers with higher TPWE ratings had higher scores for job satisfaction, self-esteem and mental health. A 25-item rating scale was developed and used with a sample of in-service kindergarten teachers. Their perceived work environment was represented by five factors (ergonomics, staffing, teaching space, work hours and social space). These teachers also completed three well-being inventories: the Job Satisfaction Survey, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory and the General Health Questionnaire-12. In a second stage, a new sample of in-service kindergarten teachers was used to cross-validate the findings from the earlier assessment. In the first sample of 141 teachers and the second of 125, social space, staffing and work hours were associated with job satisfaction, while ergonomics was a significant negative predictor of mental health complaints. The TPWE exhibited satisfactory reliability and validity. Some factors were differentially associated with specific types of well-being. The results may inform future studies of the working conditions of kindergarten teachers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Repeatability and reproducibility of numerical rating scales and visual analogue scales for canine pruritus severity scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Jon D

    2007-10-01

    Although they are used frequently in veterinary dermatology, the reliability of canine pruritus severity scales has not been reported. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of pruritus severity numerical rating scales (NRS) and pruritus severity visual analogue scales (VAS). Videos of 16 dogs were evaluated for pruritus severity by 24 observers utilizing three NRS and three VAS. Intraobserver repeatability and interobserver reproducibility were evaluated with Cohen's kappa and Kendall's rank correlation statistics, respectively. The repeatability of pruritus severity NRS was fair, with mean Cohen's weighted kappa (kappa(w)) values ranging from 0.49 to 0.60. The mean Kendall's rank correlation coefficient (t) for the three VAS ranged from 0.62 to 0.73. The reproducibility of mid-range pruritus severity ranks was poor with both scale types. Scales describing overall pruritus severity were found to be reliable most consistently. Neither NRS nor VAS displayed the degree of reliability desired in a health measurement scale. Interpretation of research results evaluating canine pruritus severity with NRS and VAS scales should account for suboptimal reliability.

  3. Avoiding Potential Medication Errors Associated with Non-intuitive Medication Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Jonas; Strosher, Lisa; Nathoo, Shaheen Nenshi; Manley, Jim

    2011-07-01

    Pharmaceutical companies use a variety of abbreviations to denote short- and long-acting medications. Errors involving the administration of these medications are frequently reported. To evaluate comprehension rates for abbreviations used to denote short- and long-acting medications and to evaluate whether changes to medication labels could reduce potential errors in the selection and administration of medications. In phase 1 of the study, nursing staff were asked to define 4 abbreviations and then to categorize them by release rate. In phase 2, a simulation exercise, nursing staff were asked if it would be appropriate to administer a medication illustrated in a photograph (oxycodone CR 5-mg blister pack) on the basis of information highlighted in a screen shot of an electronic medication administration record (order for oxycodone 5 mg). Three different presentations were used to identify the medication in the medication administration record and on the drug label. In phase 1, 10 (28%) of 36 nursing staff members knew what all 4 abbreviations meant, and 14 (39%) correctly classified all 4 abbreviations as indicating a short- or a long-acting medication. In the simulation exercise (phase 2), labelling changes reduced the likelihood of a potential medication administration error. Most abbreviations used to indicate short- versus long-acting medications were not correctly understood by study participants. Of more concern was the incorrect interpretation of some abbreviations as indicating the opposite release rate (e.g., "ER" interpreted as meaning "emergency release", rather than "extended release", with incorrect classification as a short-acting medication). This evaluation highlighted the potential consequences of using non-intuitive abbreviations to differentiate high-risk medications having different release rates.

  4. 7 CFR 1951.852 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Definitions and abbreviations. 1951.852 Section 1951....852 Definitions and abbreviations. (a) General definitions. The following definitions are applicable... business. (b) Abbreviations. The following abbreviations are applicable: B&I—Business and Industry CSA...

  5. 38 CFR 21.8010 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... abbreviations. 21.8010 Section 21.8010 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... abbreviations. (a) Program-specific definitions and abbreviations. For the purposes of this subpart: Covered.... (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 101, 1802, 1804, 1811-1812, 1814, 1821) (b) Other terms and abbreviations. The...

  6. 7 CFR 771.2 - Abbreviations and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations and definitions. 771.2 Section 771.2... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.2 Abbreviations and definitions. The following abbreviations and definitions apply to this part: (a) Abbreviations: APHIS means the Animal and...

  7. A Comparison between School and Home Rating Scales and Reliability-Validity of the Scales-the Scales for Diagnosing Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu Meriçli, Ebru; Turan, Figen

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the present research is to compare the Turkish translations of school and home versions of the Scales for Diagnosing Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (SCALES) developed by Ryser and McConnell with respect to age and gender and to examine the correlation between the two scales. The research was conducted with 102 teachers and parents of 891 children aged between 5.0 and 14.11 years. 656 scale forms of parents returned to us were included in the study. The teachers filled in teacher information form, child information form, SCALES-School Rating Scale and the Turkish version of Conners' Teacher Rating Scale. The parents filled in family information form, child information form and SCALES-Home Rating Scale and the Turkish version of the Conners' Home Rating Scale. When SCALES-Home Rating Scale and SCALES-School Rating Scale scores of each age group were compared using t-test, it was observed that the difference in all sub-scale scores in the 5-9 age group was significant and it was also observed that in the 10-13 and 13+ age groups, the difference was significant only in the hyperactivity field. The correlation between SCALES-School Rating Scale and SCALES-Home Rating Scale was investigated. The correlation between sub-scales measuring the same abilities was found to be between 0.1 and 0.26. We assume that the Turkish version of the SCALES is a valid and reliable instrument for diagnosing ADHD. Since SCALES-Home Rating Scale scores were higher than SCALES-School Rating Scale scores and the correlation between the two scales was low, we assume that the objectivity of parents' ratings was limited. Future validity studies on diagnosed children are needed.

  8. Assessment of competence for caesarean section with global rating scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, R.N.; Ali, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish as reliable and valid the nine-point global rating scale for assessing residents' independent performance of Caesarean Section. Methods: The validation study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Aga Khan University Hospital, from April to December 2008, and comprised 15 residents during 40 Caesarean Sections over 9 months. Independently two evaluators rated each procedure and the difficulty of each case. Results: The observations per faculty ranged from 1-8 (mean 4.07+- 2.56). The Year 4 residents were observed the most i.e. 32 (40%), followed by Year 3, 30 (37.5%); Year 2; 14 (17.5%); and Year 1, 4 (5%). Mean time required for observation of the surgery was 43.81+-14.28 (range: 20-90) with a mode of 45 min. Mean aggregate rating on all items showed gradual progression with the year of residency. The assessment tool had an internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha) of 0.9097 with low inter-rater reliability. Conclusion: The evaluation tool was found to be reliable and valid for evaluating a resident's competence for performing Caesarean Section. Training of the assessors is required for a better inter-rater agreement. (author)

  9. Abbreviations in Swedish Clinical Text--use by three professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövestam, Elin; Velupillai, Sumithra; Kvist, Maria

    2014-01-01

    A list of 266 abbreviations from dieticians' notes in patient records was used to extract the same abbreviations from patient records written by three professions: dieticians, nurses and physicians. A context analysis of 40 of the abbreviations showed that ambiguous meanings were common. Abbreviations used by dieticians were found to be used by other professions, but not always with the same meaning. This ambiguity of abbreviations might cause misunderstandings and put patient safety at risk.

  10. Deriving health state utilities for the numerical pain rating scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retsa Peny

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of patient reported outcome measures within cost-effectiveness analysis has become commonplace. However, specific measures are required that produce values, referred to as 'utilities', that are capable of generating quality adjusted life years. One such measure - the EQ-5D - has come under criticism due to the inherent limitations of its three-level response scales. In evaluations of chronic pain, the numerical pain rating scale (NPRS which has eleven levels is routinely used which has a greater measurement range, but which can not be used in cost-effetiveness analyses. This study derived utility values for a series of EQ-5D health states that replace the pain dimensions with the NPRS, thereby allowing a potentially greater range of pain intensities to be captured and included in economic analyses. Methods Interviews were undertaken with 100 member of the general population. Health state valuations were elicited using the time trade-off approach with a ten year time horizon. Additionally, respondents were asked where the EQ-5D response scale descriptors of moderate and extreme pain lay on the 11-point NPRS scale. Results 625 valuations were undertaken across the study sample with the crude mean health state utilities showing a negative non-linear relationship with respect to increasing pain intensity. Relative to a NPRS of zero (NPRS0, the successive pain levels (NPRS1-10 had mean decrements in utility of 0.034, 0.043, 0.061, 0.121, 0.144, 0.252, 0.404, 0.575, 0.771 and 0.793, respectively. When respondents were asked to mark on the NPRS scale the EQ-5D pain descriptors of moderate and extreme pain, the median responses were '4' and '8', respectively. Conclusions These results demonstrate the potential floor effect of the EQ-5D with respect to pain and provide estimates of health reduction associated with pain intensity described by the NPRS. These estimates are in excess of the decrements produced by an application

  11. Inhomogeneous scaling behaviors in Malaysian foreign currency exchange rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniandy, S. V.; Lim, S. C.; Murugan, R.

    2001-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the fractal scaling behaviors of foreign currency exchange rates with respect to Malaysian currency, Ringgit Malaysia. These time series are examined piecewise before and after the currency control imposed in 1st September 1998 using the monofractal model based on fractional Brownian motion. The global Hurst exponents are determined using the R/ S analysis, the detrended fluctuation analysis and the method of second moment using the correlation coefficients. The limitation of these monofractal analyses is discussed. The usual multifractal analysis reveals that there exists a wide range of Hurst exponents in each of the time series. A new method of modelling the multifractal time series based on multifractional Brownian motion with time-varying Hurst exponents is studied.

  12. A consensus definition and rating scale for minimalist shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esculier, Jean-Francois; Dubois, Blaise; Dionne, Clermont E; Leblond, Jean; Roy, Jean-Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    While minimalist running shoes may have an influence on running biomechanics and on the incidence of overuse injuries, the term "minimalist" is currently used without standardisation. The objectives of this study were to reach a consensus on a standard definition of minimalist running shoes, and to develop and validate a rating scale that could be used to determine the degree of minimalism of running shoes, the Minimalist Index (MI). For this modified Delphi study, 42 experts from 11 countries completed four electronic questionnaires on an optimal definition of minimalist shoes and on elements to include within the MI. Once MI was developed following consensus, 85 participants subjectively ranked randomly assigned footwear models from the most to the least minimalist and rated their degree of minimalism using visual analog scales (VAS), before evaluating the same footwear models using MI. A subsample of thirty participants reassessed the same shoes on another occasion. Construct validity and inter- and intra-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC]; Gwet's AC1) of MI were evaluated. The following definition of minimalist shoes was agreed upon by 95 % of participants: "Footwear providing minimal interference with the natural movement of the foot due to its high flexibility, low heel to toe drop, weight and stack height, and the absence of motion control and stability devices". Characteristics to be included in MI were weight, flexibility, heel to toe drop, stack height and motion control/stability devices, each subscale carrying equal weighing (20 %) on final score. Total MI score was highly correlated with VAS (r = 0.91). A significant rank effect (p minimalism, and may help to decrease injuries related to footwear transition.

  13. Scaling of standard metabolic rate in estuarine crocodiles Crocodylus porosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Roger S; Gienger, C M; Brien, Matthew L; Tracy, Christopher R; Charlie Manolis, S; Webb, Grahame J W; Christian, Keith A

    2013-05-01

    Standard metabolic rate (SMR, ml O2 min(-1)) of captive Crocodylus porosus at 30 °C scales with body mass (kg) according to the equation, SMR = 1.01 M(0.829), in animals ranging in body mass of 3.3 orders of magnitude (0.19-389 kg). The exponent is significantly higher than 0.75, so does not conform to quarter-power scaling theory, but rather is likely an emergent property with no single explanation. SMR at 1 kg body mass is similar to the literature for C. porosus and for alligators. The high exponent is not related to feeding, growth, or obesity of captive animals. The log-transformed data appear slightly curved, mainly because SMR is somewhat low in many of the largest animals (291-389 kg). A 3-parameter model is scarcely different from the linear one, but reveals a declining exponent between 0.862 and 0.798. A non-linear model on arithmetic axes overestimates SMR in 70% of the smallest animals and does not satisfactorily represent the data.

  14. Pilot Validation Study: Canadian Global Rating Scale for Colonoscopy Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Carpentier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The United Kingdom Global Rating Scale (GRS-UK measures unit-level quality metrics processes in digestive endoscopy. We evaluated the psychometric properties of its Canadian version (GRS-C, endorsed by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG. Methods. Prospective data collection at three Canadian endoscopy units assessed GRS-C validity, reliability, and responsiveness to change according to responses provided by physicians, endoscopy nurses, and administrative personnel. These responses were compared to national CAG endoscopic quality guidelines and GRS-UK statements. Results. Most respondents identified the overarching theme each GRS-C item targeted, confirming face validity. Content validity was suggested as 18 out of 23 key CAG endoscopic quality indicators (78%, 95% CI: 56–93% were addressed in the GRS-C; statements not included pertained to educational programs and competency monitoring. Concordance ranged 75–100% comparing GRS-C and GRS-UK ratings. Test-retest reliability Kappa scores ranged 0.60–0.83, while responsiveness to change scores at 6 months after intervention implementations were greater (P<0.001 in two out of three units. Conclusion. The GRS-C exhibits satisfactory metrics, supporting its use in a national quality initiative aimed at improving processes in endoscopy units. Data collection from more units and linking to actual patient outcomes are required to ensure that GRS-C implementation facilitates improved patient care.

  15. Achievable Rates and Scaling Laws for Cognitive Radio Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devroye Natasha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cognitive radios have the potential to vastly improve communication over wireless channels. We outline recent information theoretic results on the limits of primary and cognitive user communication in single and multiple cognitive user scenarios. We first examine the achievable rate and capacity regions of single user cognitive channels. Results indicate that at medium SNR (0–20 dB, the use of cognition improves rates significantly compared to the currently suggested spectral gap-filling methods of secondary spectrum access. We then study another information theoretic measure, the multiplexing gain. This measure captures the number of point-to-point Gaussian channels contained in a cognitive channel as the SNR tends to infinity. Next, we consider a cognitive network with a single primary user and multiple cognitive users. We show that with single-hop transmission, the sum capacity of the cognitive users scales linearly with the number of users. We further introduce and analyze the primary exclusive radius, inside of which primary receivers are guaranteed a desired outage performance. These results provide guidelines when designing a network with secondary spectrum users.

  16. A comparative study between different pain rating scales in patients of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Mohammed Shakeel Mohammed; Khade, Ajay; Borkar, Praful; Saleem, Mohammed; Lingaswamy, Vanteddu; Reddy, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    Study was conducted to assess the sensitivity and simplicity of various pain rating scales in patients of osteoarthritis with chronic pain so that most appropriate scale can be identified. Scales included were Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale (WBS), Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), Faces Pain Scale- Revised (FPS-R), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Verbal Rating Scale (VRS). Patients were asked to indicate their pain on these scales and comment about the simplicity of scales. Median mark for WBS, NRS, FPS-R, VAS and VRS was 10, 10, 10, 9.1 and 10 respectively. P value between WBS, NRS, FPS-R, VAS and VRS was insignificant. Most simple, easy to answer scale (83%) was WBS followed by FPS-R (17%). We conclude that all the scales are sensitive for assessment of the chronic osteoarthritis pain and are not different from each others. The most simple and preferred pain rating scale is WBS for the regional population.

  17. Gait in children with cerebral palsy : observer reliability of Physician Rating Scale and Edinburgh Visual Gait Analysis Interval Testing scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maathuis, KGB; van der Schans, CP; van Iperen, A; Rietman, HS; Geertzen, JHB

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the inter- and intra-observer reliability of the Physician Rating Scale (PRS) and the Edinburgh Visual Gait Analysis Interval Testing (GAIT) scale for use in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Both assessment scales are quantitative observational scales, evaluating

  18. Clinical utility of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale for the detection of depression among bariatric surgery candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Guerra, Leorides Severo; Gorenstein, Clarice; Paiva-Medeiros, Paula Francinelle; Santo, Marco Aurélio; Lotufo Neto, Francisco; Wang, Yuan-Pang

    2016-04-30

    Clinical assessment of depression is an important part of pre-surgical assessment among individuals with morbid obesity. However, there is no agreed-upon instrument to identify mood psychopathology in this population. We examined the reliability and criterion validity of the clinician-administered Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the utility of a short version for bariatric surgery candidates. The sample was 374 patients with obesity, consecutively recruited from the waiting list of a bariatric surgery clinic of University Hospital, Brazil: women 80%, mean BMI 47 kg/m(2), mean age 43.0 years. The 10-item MADRS was analyzed against the SCID-I. Items that showed small relevance to sample's characteristics and contribution to data variability were removed to develop the short 5-item version of scale. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of cutoff points of both versions MADRS, and values were plotted as a receiver operating characteristic curve. For the 10-item MADRS, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.93. When compared against SCID-I, the best cut-off threshold was 13/14, yielding sensitivity of 0.81 and specificity 0.85. Following items were removed: reduced appetite, reduced sleep, concentration difficulties, suicide thought and lassitude. The 5-item version showed an alpha coefficient of 0.94 and a best cut-off threshold of 10/11, yielding sensitivity of 0.81 and specificity 0.87. Similar overall ability to discriminate depression of almost 90% was found for both 10-item and 5-item MADRS. The MADRS is a reliable and valid instrument to assess depressive symptoms among treatment-seeking bariatric patients. Systematic application of the abbreviated version of the MADRS can be recommended for enhancing the clinical detection of depression during perioperative period.

  19. The use and abuse of abbreviations in orthopaedic literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilshaw, Michael J; Rooker, Jemma; Harding, Ian J

    2010-04-01

    Abbreviations are commonly used in medical literature. Their use has been associated with medical errors and they can be a source of irritation and misunderstanding. There are strict guidelines for their use. This study analysed the use of abbreviations in orthopaedic literature and compared adherence with guidelines in a general orthopaedic and spinal journal. It also examined orthopaedic professionals' understanding of abbreviations. The use of abbreviations in articles over a 3-month period in a general orthopaedic and spinal journal was analysed. The number of abbreviations and adherence with guidelines was recorded. A group of orthopaedic healthcare professionals were tested for their understanding of abbreviations. Almost half of all abbreviations were not properly used and 30% of abbreviations were never defined. Abbreviations were used significantly more often in the spinal journal. Only 40% of abbreviations were correctly defined by the orthopaedic professionals tested. Guidelines regarding the use of abbreviations are not being adhered to by authors or editors. The poor understanding of abbreviations underlines the importance of minimising their use and defining abbreviations when they are used.

  20. MBA: a literature mining system for extracting biomedical abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun; Wang, ZhiHao; Lei, YiMing; Zhao, YuZhong; Xue, Yu

    2009-01-09

    The exploding growth of the biomedical literature presents many challenges for biological researchers. One such challenge is from the use of a great deal of abbreviations. Extracting abbreviations and their definitions accurately is very helpful to biologists and also facilitates biomedical text analysis. Existing approaches fall into four broad categories: rule based, machine learning based, text alignment based and statistically based. State of the art methods either focus exclusively on acronym-type abbreviations, or could not recognize rare abbreviations. We propose a systematic method to extract abbreviations effectively. At first a scoring method is used to classify the abbreviations into acronym-type and non-acronym-type abbreviations, and then their corresponding definitions are identified by two different methods: text alignment algorithm for the former, statistical method for the latter. A literature mining system MBA was constructed to extract both acronym-type and non-acronym-type abbreviations. An abbreviation-tagged literature corpus, called Medstract gold standard corpus, was used to evaluate the system. MBA achieved a recall of 88% at the precision of 91% on the Medstract gold-standard EVALUATION Corpus. We present a new literature mining system MBA for extracting biomedical abbreviations. Our evaluation demonstrates that the MBA system performs better than the others. It can identify the definition of not only acronym-type abbreviations including a little irregular acronym-type abbreviations (e.g., ), but also non-acronym-type abbreviations (e.g., ).

  1. [Diagnosis and symptom rating scale of restless legs syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuichi

    2009-05-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder, characterized by an irresistible urge to move the legs and usually accompanied or caused by uncomfortable and unpleasant sensations. It begins or worsens during periods of rest or inactivity, is partially or totally relieved by movement and is exacerbated or occurs mainly in the evening or night. People suffering from RLS are estimated to represent 2-3% of the general Japanese population, which is relatively lower than the estimated prevalence in western countries. Supportive diagnostic critevia include family history, the presence of periodic-leg movements (PLM) when awake or asleep, and a positive response to dopaminergic treatment. RLS phenotypes include an early onset form that is usually idiopathic with frequent familial history and a late onset form that is usually secondary to other somatic conditions that are causative factors in RLS occurrence. In all patients presenting with complaints of insomnia or discomfort in the lower limbs, diagnosis of RLS should be considered. RLS should be differentiated from akathisia, which is an urge to move the whole body in the absence of uncomfortable sensations. Polysomnographic studies and the suggested immobilization test (SIT) can detect PLM in patients that are asleep or awake. RLS may cause severe sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, depressive and anxious symptoms, and may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Secondary RLS may occur due to iron deficiency, end-stage renal disease, pregnancy, peripheral neuropathy and drug use including antipsychotics and antidepressants. Small fiber neuropathy can trigger RLS or mimic its symptoms. RLS is associated with many neurological disorders, including Parkinson disease and multiple system atrophy; althoughit does not predispose to these diseases. A symptom rating scale for RLS authorized by the International RLS Study Group (IRLS) would facilitate accurate diagnosis of this condition.

  2. The validity and reliability of the graphic rating scale and verbal rating scale for measuring pain across cultures: a study in egyptian and dutch women with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Klooster, Peter M.; Vlaar, Alexander P.J.; Taal, Erik; Gheith, Rasha E.; Rasker, Johannes J.; El-Garf, Ayman K.; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare the validity and reliability of a graphic rating scale (GRS) and a verbal rating scale (VRS) for measuring pain intensity in young female Egyptian and Dutch patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Data were obtained in a cross-cultural study of 42 Egyptian and 30

  3. The validity and reliability of the graphic rating scale and verbal rating scale for measuring pain across cultures: A study in Egyptian and Dutch women with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Klooster, Peter M.; Vlaar, Alexander P. J.; Taal, Erik; Gheith, Rasha E.; Rasker, Johannes J.; El-Garf, Ayman K.; van de Laar, Mart A. F. J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare the validity and reliability of a graphic rating scale (GRS) and a verbal rating scale (VRS) for measuring pain intensity in young female Egyptian and Dutch patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Data were obtained in a cross-cultural study of 42 Egyptian and 30

  4. The Effect of Rubric Rating Scale on the Evaluation of Engineering Design Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Ahn, Beung-uk

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of the rubric rating scale on the evaluation of projects from a first year engineering design course.Asmall experiment was conducted in which twenty-one experienced graders scored five technical posters using one of four rating scales. All rating scales tested...

  5. Abbreviations of nuclear power plant engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyberger, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    The edition of this English and German list of abbreviations comprises about 5200 entries in English and about 1400 entries in German as well as the most important American, English, German and other foreign Utilities and component manufacturers frequently quoted in nuclear engineering literature and documentation. (orig./HP) [de

  6. 40 CFR 86.203-94 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.203-94 Section 86.203-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty...

  7. Rating Scale Items: A Brief Review of Nomenclature, Components, and Formatting to Inform the Development of Direct Behavior Rating (DBR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Theodore J.; Boice, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Ratings scales are a common component of many multisource, multimethod frameworks for socioemotional and behavior assessment of children. There is a modest literature base to support the use of attitudinal, behavioral, and personality rating scales. Much of that historic literature focuses on the characteristics and interpretations of specific…

  8. Item Response Theory Analyses of the Parent and Teacher Ratings of the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson

    2008-01-01

    The graded response model (GRM), which is based on item response theory (IRT), was used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms in an ADHD rating scale. To accomplish this, parents and teachers completed the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale (DARS; Gomez et al., "Journal of Child Psychology and…

  9. Creating an online dictionary of abbreviations from MEDLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jeffrey T; Schütze, Hinrich; Altman, Russ B

    2002-01-01

    The growth of the biomedical literature presents special challenges for both human readers and automatic algorithms. One such challenge derives from the common and uncontrolled use of abbreviations in the literature. Each additional abbreviation increases the effective size of the vocabulary for a field. Therefore, to create an automatically generated and maintained lexicon of abbreviations, we have developed an algorithm to match abbreviations in text with their expansions. Our method uses a statistical learning algorithm, logistic regression, to score abbreviation expansions based on their resemblance to a training set of human-annotated abbreviations. We applied it to Medstract, a corpus of MEDLINE abstracts in which abbreviations and their expansions have been manually annotated. We then ran the algorithm on all abstracts in MEDLINE, creating a dictionary of biomedical abbreviations. To test the coverage of the database, we used an independently created list of abbreviations from the China Medical Tribune. We measured the recall and precision of the algorithm in identifying abbreviations from the Medstract corpus. We also measured the recall when searching for abbreviations from the China Medical Tribune against the database. On the Medstract corpus, our algorithm achieves up to 83% recall at 80% precision. Applying the algorithm to all of MEDLINE yielded a database of 781,632 high-scoring abbreviations. Of all the abbreviations in the list from the China Medical Tribune, 88% were in the database. We have developed an algorithm to identify abbreviations from text. We are making this available as a public abbreviation server at \\url[http://abbreviation.stanford.edu/].

  10. 40 CFR 89.303 - Symbols/abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbols/abbreviations. 89.303 Section... Provisions § 89.303 Symbols/abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations in § 86.094-3 or part 89.3 of this chapter apply to this subpart. (b) The abbreviations in table 1 in appendix A of this subpart apply to this...

  11. 40 CFR 89.403 - Symbols/abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbols/abbreviations. 89.403 Section... Procedures § 89.403 Symbols/abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations in § 86.094-3 or § 89.3 of this chapter apply to this subpart. (b) The abbreviations in Table 1 in appendix A to subpart D also apply to this...

  12. Abbreviations of polymer names and guidelines for abbreviating polymer names (IUPAC Recommendations 2014)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    He, J.; Chen, J.; Hellwich, K. H.; Hess, M.; Horie, K.; Jones, R. G.; Kahovec, Jaroslav; Kitayama, T.; Kratochvíl, Pavel; Meille, S. V.; Mita, I.; dos Santos, C.; Vert, M.; Vohlídal, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 6 (2014), s. 1003-1015 ISSN 0033-4545 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : abbreviations * IUPAC Polymer Division * polymer names Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.492, year: 2014

  13. Dependability of Two Scaling Approaches to Direct Behavior Rating Multi-Item Scales Assessing Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Robert J.; Briesch, Amy M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the dependability of two scaling approaches for using a five-item Direct Behavior Rating multi-item scale to assess student disruptive behavior. A series of generalizability theory studies were used to compare a traditional frequency-based scaling approach with an approach wherein the informant compares a target student's…

  14. 40 CFR 91.303 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acronyms and abbreviations. 91.303 Section 91.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS....303 Acronyms and abbreviations. (a) The acronyms and abbreviations in § 91.5 apply to this subpart. (b...

  15. 40 CFR 97.203 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and... Trading Program General Provisions § 97.203 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BBB through III are defined as follows: Btu...

  16. 40 CFR 60.3 - Units and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Units and abbreviations. 60.3 Section...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES General Provisions § 60.3 Units and abbreviations. Used in this part are abbreviations and symbols of units of measure. These are defined as follows: (a...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1804-01 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acronyms and abbreviations. 86.1804-01..., and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1804-01 Acronyms and abbreviations. The following abbreviations apply to this subpart: A/C—Air conditioning. AECD—Auxiliary emission control device. A/F—Air/Fuel...

  18. 40 CFR 91.4 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acronyms and abbreviations. 91.4...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES General § 91.4 Acronyms and abbreviations. The following acronyms and abbreviations apply to this part 91. AECD—Auxiliary emission control device ASME...

  19. 40 CFR 90.403 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.403 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. (a) The acronyms and abbreviations in § 90.5 apply to this subpart. (b) The symbols in Table 1 in Appendix A to Subpart D apply to...

  20. 7 CFR 766.2 - Abbreviations and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations and definitions. 766.2 Section 766.2... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN SERVICING-SPECIAL Overview § 766.2 Abbreviations and definitions. Abbreviations and definitions for terms used in this part are provided in § 761.2 of this chapter. ...

  1. 7 CFR 4274.302 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions and abbreviations. 4274.302 Section 4274... Relending Program (IRP) § 4274.302 Definitions and abbreviations. (a) General definitions. The following..., the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. (b) Abbreviations. The...

  2. 40 CFR 61.03 - Units and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Units and abbreviations. 61.03 Section...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS General Provisions § 61.03 Units and abbreviations. Used in this part are abbreviations and symbols of units of measure. These are defined as follows: (a...

  3. 40 CFR 72.3 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 72.3 Section 72.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR..., abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this part are defined as follows...

  4. 7 CFR 762.102 - Abbreviations and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations and definitions. 762.102 Section 762.102 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.102 Abbreviations and definitions. Abbreviations and...

  5. 7 CFR 770.2 - Abbreviations and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations and definitions. 770.2 Section 770.2... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDIAN TRIBAL LAND ACQUISITION LOANS § 770.2 Abbreviations and definitions. (a) Abbreviations. FSA Farm Service Agency, an Agency of the United States Department of Agriculture, including its...

  6. 7 CFR 765.2 - Abbreviations and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations and definitions. 765.2 Section 765.2... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN SERVICING-REGULAR Overview § 765.2 Abbreviations and definitions. Abbreviations and definitions for terms used in this part are provided in § 761.2 of this chapter. ...

  7. 40 CFR 63.3 - Units and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Units and abbreviations. 63.3 Section 63.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Units and abbreviations. Used in this part are abbreviations and symbols of units of measure. These are...

  8. 40 CFR 89.3 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acronyms and abbreviations. 89.3 Section 89.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... abbreviations. The following acronyms and abbreviations apply to part 89. AECD Auxiliary emission control device...

  9. 40 CFR 96.303 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 96.303 Section 96.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR..., abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BBBB...

  10. 32 CFR 245.6 - Abbreviations and acronyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations and acronyms. 245.6 Section 245.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED... Abbreviations § 245.6 Abbreviations and acronyms. AADC—Area Air Defense Commander ADE—Air Defense Emergency ADIZ...

  11. 7 CFR 767.2 - Abbreviations and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations and definitions. 767.2 Section 767.2... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Overview § 767.2 Abbreviations and definitions. Abbreviations and definitions for terms used in this part are provided in § 761.2 of this chapter. ...

  12. 40 CFR 60.4103 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 60.4103 Section 60.4103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....4103 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this...

  13. 24 CFR 50.2 - Terms and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Terms and abbreviations. 50.2... Terms and abbreviations. (a) The definitions for most of the key terms or phrases contained in this part... for HUD assistance or insurance. (b) The following abbreviations are used throughout this part: AS/CPD...

  14. 40 CFR 90.5 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acronyms and abbreviations. 90.5 Section 90.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... and abbreviations. The following acronyms and abbreviations apply to part 90. AECD—Auxiliary emission...

  15. 40 CFR 97.3 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and... Trading Program General Provisions § 97.3 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this part are defined as follows: Btu-British thermal unit. CO2-carbon...

  16. 40 CFR 96.3 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Budget Trading Program General Provisions § 96.3 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this part are defined as follows: Btu—British...

  17. 40 CFR 90.303 - Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. 90.303 Section 90.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Equipment Provisions § 90.303 Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. (a) The acronyms and abbreviations in § 90.5...

  18. 7 CFR 772.2 - Abbreviations and Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations and Definitions. 772.2 Section 772.2... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS SERVICING MINOR PROGRAM LOANS § 772.2 Abbreviations and Definitions. (a) Abbreviations. AMPAssociation-Type Minor Program loan; CFRCode of Federal Regulations; FOFarm Ownership Loan...

  19. 40 CFR 96.203 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR SO2 Trading Program General Provisions § 96.203 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BBB through III are...

  20. 40 CFR 96.103 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Annual Trading Program General Provisions § 96.103 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BB through II are...

  1. 24 CFR 58.2 - Terms, abbreviations and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Terms, abbreviations and... RESPONSIBILITIES Purpose, Legal Authority, Federal Laws and Authorities § 58.2 Terms, abbreviations and definitions... means a habitable structure that has been vacant for more than one year. (b) The following abbreviations...

  2. 40 CFR 97.303 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and... Ozone Season Trading Program General Provisions § 97.303 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BBBB through IIII are defined as...

  3. 7 CFR 764.2 - Abbreviations and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations and definitions. 764.2 Section 764.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN MAKING Overview § 764.2 Abbreviations and definitions. Abbreviations...

  4. 40 CFR 87.2 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acronyms and abbreviations. 87.2 Section 87.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... abbreviations. The abbreviations used in this part have the following meanings in both upper and lower case...

  5. 40 CFR 91.403 - Symbols and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbols and abbreviations. 91.403 Section 91.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Symbols and abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations in § 91.5 apply to this subpart. (b) The symbols in Table...

  6. 40 CFR 97.103 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and... Annual Trading Program General Provisions § 97.103 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BB through II are defined as...

  7. 40 CFR 92.102 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the number of carbon atoms in a molecule of that compound. Precision means the standard deviation of... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions and abbreviations. 92.102... Definitions and abbreviations. The definitions and abbreviations of subpart A of this part apply to this...

  8. Development of a scale to measure individuals’ ratings of peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The evolving concept of peace-building and the interplay between peace and health is examined in many venues, including at the World Health Assembly. However, without a metric to determine effectiveness of intervention programs all efforts are prone to subjective assessment. This paper develops a psychometric index that lays the foundation for measuring community peace stemming from intervention programs. Methods After developing a working definition of ‘peace’ and delineating a Peace Evaluation Across Cultures and Environments (PEACE) scale with seven constructs comprised of 71 items, a beta version of the index was pilot-tested. Two hundred and fifty subjects in three sites in the U.S. were studied using a five-point Likert scale to evaluate the psychometric functioning of the PEACE scale. Known groups validation was performed using the SOS-10. In addition, test-retest reliability was performed on 20 subjects. Results The preliminary data demonstrated that the scale has acceptable psychometric properties for measuring an individual’s level of peacefulness. The study also provides reliability and validity data for the scale. The data demonstrated internal consistency, correlation between data and psychological well-being, and test-retest reliability. Conclusions The PEACE scale may serve as a novel assessment tool in the health sector and be valuable in monitoring and evaluating the peace-building impact of health initiatives in conflict-affected regions. PMID:25298781

  9. Development of a scale to measure individuals' ratings of peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Howard; Ahn, Roy; Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Blais, Mark; Nelson, Brett D; Burke, Thomas F

    2014-01-01

    The evolving concept of peace-building and the interplay between peace and health is examined in many venues, including at the World Health Assembly. However, without a metric to determine effectiveness of intervention programs all efforts are prone to subjective assessment. This paper develops a psychometric index that lays the foundation for measuring community peace stemming from intervention programs. After developing a working definition of 'peace' and delineating a Peace Evaluation Across Cultures and Environments (PEACE) scale with seven constructs comprised of 71 items, a beta version of the index was pilot-tested. Two hundred and fifty subjects in three sites in the U.S. were studied using a five-point Likert scale to evaluate the psychometric functioning of the PEACE scale. Known groups validation was performed using the SOS-10. In addition, test-retest reliability was performed on 20 subjects. The preliminary data demonstrated that the scale has acceptable psychometric properties for measuring an individual's level of peacefulness. The study also provides reliability and validity data for the scale. The data demonstrated internal consistency, correlation between data and psychological well-being, and test-retest reliability. The PEACE scale may serve as a novel assessment tool in the health sector and be valuable in monitoring and evaluating the peace-building impact of health initiatives in conflict-affected regions.

  10. Use of Text Message Abbreviations and Literacy Skills in Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veater, Helen M.; Plester, Beverly; Wood, Clare

    2011-01-01

    This small-scale study compared 10 to 13-year-old dyslexic children's use of text message abbreviations with that of reading age- and chronological age-matched controls. There were no significant differences in the proportion of textisms used between the dyslexic children and the two control groups, although a preference for non-phonetic text…

  11. The importance of rating scales in measuring patient-reported outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background A critical component that influences the measurement properties of a patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument is the rating scale. Yet, there is a lack of general consensus regarding optimal rating scale format, including aspects of question structure, the number and the labels of response categories. This study aims to explore the characteristics of rating scales that function well and those that do not, and thereby develop guidelines for formulating rating scales. Methods Seventeen existing PROs designed to measure vision-related quality of life dimensions were mailed for self-administration, in sets of 10, to patients who were on a waiting list for cataract extraction. These PROs included questions with ratings of difficulty, frequency, severity, and global ratings. Using Rasch analysis, performance of rating scales were assessed by examining hierarchical ordering (indicating categories are distinct from each other and follow a logical transition from lower to higher value), evenness (indicating relative utilization of categories), and range (indicating coverage of the attribute by the rating scale). Results The rating scales with complicated question format, a large number of response categories, or unlabelled categories, tended to be dysfunctional. Rating scales with five or fewer response categories tended to be functional. Most of the rating scales measuring difficulty performed well. The rating scales measuring frequency and severity demonstrated hierarchical ordering but the categories lacked even utilization. Conclusion Developers of PRO instruments should use a simple question format, fewer (four to five) and labelled response categories. PMID:22794788

  12. Large Scale System Safety Integration for Human Rated Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, Michael J.

    2005-12-01

    Since the 1960s man has searched for ways to establish a human presence in space. Unfortunately, the development and operation of human spaceflight vehicles carry significant safety risks that are not always well understood. As a result, the countries with human space programs have felt the pain of loss of lives in the attempt to develop human space travel systems. Integrated System Safety is a process developed through years of experience (since before Apollo and Soyuz) as a way to assess risks involved in space travel and prevent such losses. The intent of Integrated System Safety is to take a look at an entire program and put together all the pieces in such a way that the risks can be identified, understood and dispositioned by program management. This process has many inherent challenges and they need to be explored, understood and addressed.In order to prepare truly integrated analysis safety professionals must gain a level of technical understanding of all of the project's pieces and how they interact. Next, they must find a way to present the analysis so the customer can understand the risks and make decisions about managing them. However, every organization in a large-scale project can have different ideas about what is or is not a hazard, what is or is not an appropriate hazard control, and what is or is not adequate hazard control verification. NASA provides some direction on these topics, but interpretations of those instructions can vary widely.Even more challenging is the fact that every individual/organization involved in a project has different levels of risk tolerance. When the discrete hazard controls of the contracts and agreements cannot be met, additional risk must be accepted. However, when one has left the arena of compliance with the known rules, there can be no longer be specific ground rules on which to base a decision as to what is acceptable and what is not. The integrator must find common grounds between all parties to achieve

  13. Rates of computational errors for scoring the SIRS primary scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyner, Elizabeth A; Frederick, Richard I

    2013-12-01

    We entered item scores for the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers, Bagby, & Dickens, 1991) into a spreadsheet and compared computed scores with those hand-tallied by examiners. We found that about 35% of the tests had at least 1 scoring error. Of SIRS scale scores tallied by examiners, about 8% were incorrectly summed. When the errors were corrected, only 1 SIRS classification was reclassified in the fourfold scheme used by the SIRS. We note that mistallied scores on psychological tests are common, and we review some strategies for reducing scale score errors on the SIRS. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Are self-report scales as effective as clinician rating scales in measuring treatment response in routine clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Walsh, Emily; Friedman, Michael; Boerescu, Daniela A; Attiullah, Naureen

    2018-01-01

    Recent treatment guidelines have suggested that outcome should be measured in routine clinical practice. In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, we compared three self-report scales of depressive symptoms and the two most widely used clinician administered scales in treatment studies in their sensitivity to change and evaluation of treatment response in depressed patients treated in routine practice. At baseline and 4-month follow-up 153 depressed outpatients with DSM-IV MDD completed the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS), Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-report version (QIDS-SR), and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). The patients were rated on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). On each scale treatment response was defined as a 50% or greater reduction in scores from baseline. While there were some differences in the percentage of patients considered to be responders on the different scales, a large effect size was found for each scale, with little variability amongst the scales. The level of agreement between the three self-report scales and the clinician rating scales was approximately the same LIMITATIONS: The present study was conducted in a single clinical practice in which the majority of the patients were white, female, and had health insurance. When measuring outcome in clinical practice the magnitude of change in depressive symptoms is as great on self-report scales as on clinician rating scales. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dysautonomia rating scales in Parkinson's disease: sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation--critique and recommendations by movement disorders task force on rating scales for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evatt, Marian L; Chaudhuri, K Ray; Chou, Kelvin L; Cubo, Ester; Hinson, Vanessa; Kompoliti, Katie; Yang, Chengwu; Poewe, Werner; Rascol, Olivier; Sampaio, Cristina; Stebbins, Glenn T; Goetz, Christopher G

    2009-04-15

    Upper and lower gastrointestinal dysautonomia symptoms (GIDS)--sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and often socially as well as physically disabling for patients. Available invasive quantitative measures for assessing these symptoms and their response to therapy are time-consuming, require specialized equipment, can cause patient discomfort and present patients with risk. The Movement Disorders Society commissioned a task force to assess available clinical rating scales, critique their clinimetric properties, and make recommendations regarding their clinical utility. Six clinical researchers and a biostatistician systematically searched the literature for scales of sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation, evaluated the scales' previous use, performance parameters, and quality of validation data (if available). A scale was designated "Recommended" if the scale was used in clinical studies beyond the group that developed it, has been specifically used in PD reports, and clinimetric studies have established that it is a valid, reliable, and sensitive. "Suggested" scales met at least part of the above criteria, but fell short of meeting all. Based on the systematic review, scales for individual symptoms of sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation were identified along with three global scales that include these symptoms in the context of assessing dysautonomia or nonmotor symptoms. Three sialorrhea scales met criteria for Suggested: Drooling Severity and Frequency Scale (DSFS), Drooling Rating Scale, and Sialorrhea Clinical Scale for PD (SCS-PD). Two dysphagia scales, the Swallowing Disturbance Questionnaire (SDQ) and Dysphagia-Specific Quality of Life (SWAL-QOL), met criteria for Suggested. Although Rome III constipation module is widely accepted in the gastroenterology community, and the earlier version from the Rome II criteria has been used in a single study of PD patients, neither met criteria for Suggested or Recommended

  16. Determining the Scoring Validity of a Co-Constructed CEFR-Based Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deygers, Bart; Van Gorp, Koen

    2015-01-01

    Considering scoring validity as encompassing both reliable rating scale use and valid descriptor interpretation, this study reports on the validation of a CEFR-based scale that was co-constructed and used by novice raters. The research questions this paper wishes to answer are (a) whether it is possible to construct a CEFR-based rating scale with…

  17. Purine cytokinins: a proposal of abbreviations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamínek, Miroslav; Březinová, Alena; Gaudinová, Alena; Motyka, Václav; Vaňková, Radomíra; Zažímalová, Eva

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 32, - (2001), s. 253-256 ISSN 0167-6903 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6038002; GA ČR GA522/00/1346; GA ČR GA522/99/1130 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : cytokinin abbreviations * cytokinins * plant nomenclature Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.761, year: 2001

  18. Relationship between the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale score and the success rate of 64-slice computed tomography coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Jin, Dan; Qiao, Fang; Chen, Jianchang; Gong, Jianping

    Computed tomography coronary angiography, a key method for obtaining coronary artery images, is widely used to screen for coronary artery diseases due to its noninvasive nature. In China, 64-slice computed tomography systems are now the most common models. As factors that directly affect computed tomography performance, heart rate and rhythm control are regulated by the autonomic nervous system and are highly related to the emotional state of the patient. The aim of this prospective study is to use a pre-computed tomography scan Self-Rating Anxiety Scale assessment to analyze the effects of tension and anxiety on computed tomography coronary angiography success. Subjects aged 18-85 years who were planned to undergo computed tomography coronary angiography were enrolled; 1 to 2 h before the computed tomography scan, basic patient data (gender, age, heart rate at rest, and family history) and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale score were obtained. The same group of imaging department doctors, technicians, and nurses performed computed tomography coronary angiography for all the enrolled subjects and observed whether those subjects could finish the computed tomography coronary angiography scan and provide clear, diagnostically valuable images. Participants were divided into successful (obtained diagnostically useful coronary images) and unsuccessful groups. Basic data and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale scores were compared between the groups. The Self-Rating Anxiety Scale standard score of the successful group was lower than that of the unsuccessful group (P = 0.001). As the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale standard score rose, the success rate of computed tomography coronary angiography decreased. The Self-Rating Anxiety Scale score has a negative relationship with computed tomography coronary angiography success. Anxiety can be a disadvantage in computed tomography coronary angiography examination. The pre-computed tomography coronary angiography scan Self-Rating Anxiety Scale

  19. Study on reasonable curtailment rate of large scale renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Yuan, Bo; Zhang, Fuqiang

    2018-02-01

    Energy curtailment rate of renewable energy generation is an important indicator to measure renewable energy consumption, it is also an important parameters to determine the other power sources and grids arrangement in the planning stage. In general, to consume the spike power of the renewable energy which is just a small proportion, it is necessary to dispatch a large number of peaking resources, which will reduce the safety and stability of the system. In planning aspect, if it is allowed to give up a certain amount of renewable energy, overall peaking demand of the system will be reduced, the peak power supply construction can be put off to avoid the expensive cost of marginal absorption. In this paper, we introduce the reasonable energy curtailment rate into the power system planning, and use the GESP power planning software, conclude that the reasonable energy curtailment rate of the regional grids in China is 3% -10% in 2020.

  20. Orbit width scaling of TAE instability growth rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, H.V.; Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.

    1995-07-01

    The growth rate of Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) driven unstable by resonant coupling of energetic charged particles is evaluated in the ballooning limit over a wide range of parameters. All damping effects are ignored. Variations in orbit width, aspect ratio, and the ratio of alfven velocity to energetic particle birth velocity, are explored. The relative contribution of passing and trapped particles, and finite Larmor radius effects, are also examined. The phase space location of resonant particles with interact strongly with the modes is described. The accuracy of the analytic results with respect to growth rate magnitude and parametric dependence is investigated by comparison with numerical results.

  1. Development of the Self-Esteem Rating Scale for Children (Revised).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Lian-Hwang

    1987-01-01

    Developed a teacher's rating scale of self-esteem for children. Participants were 231 school children in grades K-7. Used sociometric measures, popularity ranking by teachers, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory to estimate validity. The Self-Esteem Rating Scale for Children (SERSC) included 12 behavioral characteristics rated most…

  2. Rates of Return on University Education With Economies of Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottomley, Anthony; Dunworth, John

    The authors of the present document had as their purpose to determine somewhat the worth of a college education. In order to do this, they show (1) how much a university education costs; (2) what the rates of return on this cost are and who the beneficiary of these returns is; (3) how costs might be reduced with expanded enrollment; and (4) how…

  3. Adaptation and Assessment of a Public Speaking Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberri-Shea, Gina

    2017-01-01

    Prominent spoken language assessments such as the Oral Proficiency Interview and the Test of Spoken English have been primarily concerned with speaking ability as it relates to conversation. This paper looks at an additional aspect of spoken language ability, namely public speaking. This study used an adapted form of a public speaking rating scale…

  4. Rating scale for backstroke technique for children in early school age

    OpenAIRE

    Vetešníková, Barbora

    2017-01-01

    Title: Rating scale for backstroke technique for children in early school age Objectives: Objective of the project is to create a rating scale for valutation of backstroke technique in early school age children. The thesis should specify a model technique for the corresponding development stage and formulate standards for backstroke technique valutation. Thereafter using the created rating scale with a group of children from a swimming school and swimming preliminary preparation (age 6-8). Ut...

  5. Comparison between the spastic paraplegia rating scale, Kurtzke scale, and Osame scale in the tropical spastic paraparesis/myelopathy associated with HTLV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Antonio Rocha da Cruz Adry

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION:The objective of this study was to compare Osame's scale of motor incapacity and the expanded scale of the state of incapacity of Kurtzke with the spastic paraplegia rating scale for the clinical evaluation of patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. METHODS: Patients with the diagnosis of infection by HTLV-I/HTLV-II and with the clinical suspicion of HAM/TSP were included in the study. RESULTS: There were 45 patients who were evaluated. When analyzing the results of the scales, the researchers found the following averages of 21.08 points for the spastic paraplegia rating scale, 4.35 points for Osame's scale, and 4.77 points for Kurtzke's scale. The relation between the scale of paraplegia with Osame's was very significant with p < 0.0001, and regarding Kurtzke's scale, there was a similar result of p < 0.0001. When comparing Osame's, Kurtze's, and the spastic paraplegia rating scale with the time of disease, the researchers found a significant result of p = 0.0004 for the scale of spastic paraplegia, p = 0.0018 for Osame's scale, and p < 0.0001 for Kurtzke's scale. CONCLUSION: The spastic paraplegia rating scale has a good relation with Osame's and Kurtzke's scales showing a p index that is very significant that indicates that, although the scale was not initially made to be applied to patients with HAM/TSP because of the infection by HLTV, it showed to be as efficient as Osame's and Kurtzke's scales in evaluating the patients' neurological conditions.

  6. The Development of the Cleft Aesthetic Rating Scale: A New Rating Scale for the Assessment of Nasolabial Appearance in Complete Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosmuller, David G M; Mennes, Lisette M; Prahl, Charlotte; Kramer, Gem J C; Disse, Melissa A; van Couwelaar, Gijs M; Niessen, Frank B; Griot, J P W Don

    2017-09-01

      The development of the Cleft Aesthetic Rating Scale, a simple and reliable photographic reference scale for the assessment of nasolabial appearance in complete unilateral cleft lip and palate patients.   A blind retrospective analysis of photographs of cleft lip and palate patients was performed with this new rating scale.   VU Medical Center Amsterdam and the Academic Center for Dentistry of Amsterdam.   Complete unilateral cleft lip and palate patients at the age of 6 years.   Photographs that showed the highest interobserver agreement in earlier assessments were selected for the photographic reference scale. Rules were attached to the rating scale to provide a guideline for the assessment and improve interobserver reliability. Cropped photographs revealing only the nasolabial area were assessed by six observers using this new Cleft Aesthetic Rating Scale in two different sessions.   Photographs of 62 children (6 years of age, 44 boys and 18 girls) were assessed. The interobserver reliability for the nose and lip together was 0.62, obtained with the intraclass correlation coefficient. To measure the internal consistency, a Cronbach alpha of .91 was calculated. The estimated reliability for three observers was .84, obtained with the Spearman Brown formula.   A new, easy to use, and reliable scoring system with a photographic reference scale is presented in this study.

  7. An Evaluation of China's Kindergarten Quality Rating System through the Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale--The Zhejiang Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bi Ying; Vong, Keang-Ieng; Mak, Miranda Chi Kuan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of one province's Kindergarten Quality Rating System in differentiating quality levels using the Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (CECERS). Results confirmed that, except for the difference between the Standard and Level-3 Kindergartens, the CECERS was successful in detecting the differences…

  8. Large scale high strain-rate tests of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiefer R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the stages of development of some innovative equipment, based on Hopkinson bar techniques, for performing large scale dynamic tests of concrete specimens. The activity is centered at the recently upgraded HOPLAB facility, which is basically a split Hopkinson bar with a total length of approximately 200 m and with bar diameters of 72 mm. Through pre-tensioning and suddenly releasing a steel cable, force pulses of up to 2 MN, 250 μs rise time and 40 ms duration can be generated and applied to the specimen tested. The dynamic compression loading has first been treated and several modifications in the basic configuration have been introduced. Twin incident and transmitter bars have been installed with strong steel plates at their ends where large specimens can be accommodated. A series of calibration and qualification tests has been conducted and the first real tests on concrete cylindrical specimens of 20cm diameter and up to 40cm length have commenced. Preliminary results from the analysis of the recorded signals indicate proper Hopkinson bar testing conditions and reliable functioning of the facility.

  9. Using UMLS lexical resources to disambiguate abbreviations in clinical text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjun; Hurdle, John; Meystre, Stéphane M

    2011-01-01

    Clinical text is rich in acronyms and abbreviations, and they are highly ambiguous. As a pre-processing step before subsequent NLP analysis, we are developing and evaluating clinical abbreviation disambiguation methods. The evaluation of two sequential steps, the detection and the disambiguation of abbreviations, is reported here, for various types of clinical notes. For abbreviations detection, our result indicated the SPECIALIST Lexicon LRABR needed to be revised for better abbreviation detection. Our semi-supervised method using generated training data based on expanded form matching for 12 frequent abbreviations in our clinical notes reached over 90% accuracy in five-fold cross validation and unsupervised approach produced comparable results with the semi-supervised methods.

  10. A rating scale for the severity of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Z; Shang, L; Zhang, W; Guo, Y; Xue, Y; Li, X; Gong, Y; Liu, X

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a rating scale to assess the severity of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). The preliminary rating scale, which contained 11 items, was developed by the Delphi method, and data of 258 patients were collected to evaluate it. Item analysis was accomplished by 100 patients; the additional 158 patients were used to evaluate the reliability, validity, and discriminative ability of the rating scale. The structure of the rating scale was testified by the confirmatory factor analysis and also made a further evaluation by the correlation analysis. The rating scale contained 10 items. The three factors mainly generalized the motor function, cranial nerve function and autonomic function. The results of reliability and validity showed that the structure of the rating scale was good (χ 2 =68.25, df=32, χ 2 /df=2.13, normed fit index (NFI)=0.919, non-normed fit index (NNFI)=0.936, comparative fit index (CFI)=0.96, a root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA)=0.085), and the Cronbach's α coefficient for the scale was .852, with the three dimensions ranging from .585 to .752. Reliability and validity of the rating scale are all satisfied. The scale contained the main clinical presentations of GBS, and it is suitable to evaluate the severity of GBS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Abbreviations: the need for legibility and accuracy in documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimond, Bridgit

    This article explores the use of abbreviations in health care. It considers the current advice of the Nursing and Midwifery Council against the use of any abbreviations and suggests, in the interests of using time effectively, that it would be wise for directorates within trusts to create a list of approved abbreviations and symbols so that the dangers of misunderstandings are removed. It also considers how the problem of illegibility should be dealt with as a clinical governance issue.

  12. Conners' Teacher Rating Scale for Preschool Children: A Revised, Brief, Age-Specific Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpura, David J.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    The Conners' Teacher Rating Scale-Revised (CTRS-R) is one of the most commonly used measures of child behavior problems. However, the scale length and the appropriateness of some of the items on the scale may reduce the usefulness of the CTRS-R for use with preschoolers. In this study, a Graded Response Model analysis based on Item Response Theory…

  13. Development and Validation of a Rating Scale for Wind Jazz Improvisation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derek T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and validate a rating scale for collegiate wind jazz improvisation performance. The 14-item Wind Jazz Improvisation Evaluation Scale (WJIES) was constructed and refined through a facet-rational approach to scale development. Five wind jazz students and one professional jazz educator were asked to record…

  14. Same Constructs, Different Results: Examining the Consistency of Two Behavior-Rating Scales with Referred Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Carl L.; Bour, Jennifer L.; Sidebottom, Kristina J.; Murphy, Sara B.; Hakman, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Broad-band or multidimensional behavior-rating scales are common tools for evaluating children. Two popular behavior-rating scales, the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000), have undergone downward extensions so that…

  15. Validation of the Peripheral Ultrasound-guided Vascular Access Rating Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Stine C.; Weile, Jesper; Clemmesen, Louise

    2018-01-01

    ). Content and response process was ensured in the development of the rating scale and validity study. Internal consistency of the P-UGVA rating scale was excellent and sufficient high for certification purposes (Cronbach's alpha = 0.91). Proficiency groups were successfully discriminated by the UPGIVA...

  16. Reliability and discriminant validity of ataxia rating scales in early onset ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsma, Rick; Lawerman, Tjitske F; Kuiper, Marieke J; Lunsing, Roelineke J; Burger, Huibert; Sival, Deborah A

    2017-04-01

    To determine whether ataxia rating scales are reliable disease biomarkers for early onset ataxia (EOA). In 40 patients clinically identified with EOA (28 males, 12 females; mean age 15y 3mo [range 5-34y]), we determined interobserver and intraobserver agreement (interclass correlation coefficient [ICC]) and discriminant validity of ataxia rating scales (International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale [ICARS], Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia [SARA], and Brief Ataxia Rating Scale [BARS]). Three paediatric neurologists independently scored ICARS, SARA and BARS performances recorded on video, and also phenotyped the primary and secondary movement disorder features. When ataxia was the primary movement disorder feature, we assigned patients to the subgroup 'EOA with core ataxia' (n=26). When ataxia concurred with other prevailing movement disorders (such as dystonia, myoclonus, and chorea), we assigned patients to the subgroup 'EOA with comorbid ataxia' (n=12). ICC values were similar in both EOA subgroups of 'core' and 'comorbid' ataxia (0.92-0.99; ICARS, SARA, and BARS). Independent of the phenotype, the severity of the prevailing movement disorder predicted the ataxia rating scale scores (β=0.83-0.88; pataxia rating scales is high. However, the discriminative validity for 'ataxia' is low. For adequate interpretation of ataxia rating scale scores, application in uniform movement disorder phenotypes is essential. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  17. Validation of subjective rating scales for assessment of surgical workspace during laparoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nervil, G G; Medici, R; Thomsen, J L D

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, studies have focused on how to optimize laparoscopic surgical workspace by changes in intra-abdominal pressure, level of muscle relaxation or body position, typically evaluated by surgeons using subjective rating scales. We aimed to validate two rating scales by having surge...

  18. Quantum quenches in free field theory: universal scaling at any rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sumit R.; Galante, Damián A.; Myers, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum quenches display universal scaling in several regimes. For quenches which start from a gapped phase and cross a critical point, with a rate slow compared to the initial gap, many systems obey Kibble-Zurek scaling. More recently, a different scaling behaviour has been shown to occur when the quench rate is fast compared to all other physical scales, but still slow compared to the UV cutoff. We investigate the passage from fast to slow quenches in scalar and fermionic free field theories with time dependent masses for which the dynamics can be solved exactly for all quench rates. We find that renormalized one point functions smoothly cross over between the regimes.

  19. Quantum quenches in free field theory: universal scaling at any rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sumit R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky,Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Galante, Damián A. [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario,London, ON N6A 5B7 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Myers, Robert C. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2016-05-27

    Quantum quenches display universal scaling in several regimes. For quenches which start from a gapped phase and cross a critical point, with a rate slow compared to the initial gap, many systems obey Kibble-Zurek scaling. More recently, a different scaling behaviour has been shown to occur when the quench rate is fast compared to all other physical scales, but still slow compared to the UV cutoff. We investigate the passage from fast to slow quenches in scalar and fermionic free field theories with time dependent masses for which the dynamics can be solved exactly for all quench rates. We find that renormalized one point functions smoothly cross over between the regimes.

  20. Abbreviated guide pneumatic conveying design guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, David

    1990-01-01

    Abbreviated Guide: Pneumatic Conveying Design Guide describes the selection, design, and specification of conventional pneumatic conveying systems. The design procedure uses previous test data on the materials to be conveyed. The book also discusses system economics, operating costs, the choice of appropriate components or systems, system control, and system flexibility. The design system involves the type of conveying system for installation, the pipeline parameters, and also the plant components. System selection covers the properties of the material to be conveyed, plant layout, material pr

  1. Rating scale for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: scale development and clinimetric testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianci, Vittoria; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Condino, Francesca; Mauvais, Hélène Somma; Farnarier, Guy; Labate, Angelo; Latella, Maria Adele; Gasparini, Sara; Branca, Damiano; Pucci, Franco; Vazzana, Francesco; Gambardella, Antonio; Aguglia, Umberto

    2011-06-01

    Our aim was to develop a clinimetric scale evaluating motor phenomena, associated features, and severity of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). Sixty video/EEG-recorded PNES induced by suggestion maneuvers were evaluated. We examined the relationship between results from this scale and results from the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale to validate this technique. Interrater reliabilities of the PNES scale for three raters were analyzed using the AC1 statistic, Kendall's coefficient of concordance (KCC), and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). The relationship between the CGI and PNES scales was evaluated with Spearman correlations. The AC1 statistic demonstrated good interrater reliability for each phenomenon analyzed (tremor/oscillation, tonic; clonic/jerking, hypermotor/agitation, atonic/akinetic, automatisms, associated features). KCC and the ICC showed moderate interrater agreement for phenomenology, associated phenomena, and total PNES scores. Spearman's correlation of mean CGI score with mean total PNES score was 0.69 (Pscale described here accurately evaluates the phenomenology of PNES and could be used to assess and compare subgroups of patients with PNES. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Koukopoulos Mixed Depression Rating Scale (KMDRS): An International Mood Network (IMN) validation study of a new mixed mood rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Gabriele; Vöhringer, Paul A; Barroilhet, Sergio A; Koukopoulos, Alexia E; Ghaemi, S Nassir

    2018-05-01

    It has been proposed that the broad major depressive disorder (MDD) construct is heterogenous. Koukopoulos has provided diagnostic criteria for an important subtype within that construct, "mixed depression" (MxD), which encompasses clinical pictures characterized by marked psychomotor or inner excitation and rage/anger, along with severe depression. This study provides psychometric validation for the first rating scale specifically designed to assess MxD symptoms cross-sectionally, the Koukopoulos Mixed Depression Rating Scale (KMDRS). 350 patients from the international mood network (IMN) completed three rating scales: the KMDRS, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). KMDRS' psychometric properties assessed included Cronbach's alpha, inter-rater reliability, factor analysis, predictive validity, and Receiver Operator Curve analysis. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.76; 95% CI 0.57, 0.94) and interrater reliability (kappa = 0.73) were adequate. Confirmatory factor analysis identified 2 components: anger and psychomotor excitation (80% of total variance). Good predictive validity was seen (C-statistic = 0.82 95% CI 0.68, 0.93). Severity cut-off scores identified were as follows: none (0-4), possible (5-9), mild (10-15), moderate (16-20) and severe (> 21) MxD. Non DSM-based diagnosis of MxD may pose some difficulties in the initial use and interpretation of the scoring of the scale. Moreover, the cross-sectional nature of the evaluation does not verify the long-term stability of the scale. KMDRS was a reliable and valid instrument to assess MxD symptoms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Validation of subjective rating scales for assessment of surgical workspace during laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nervil, G G; Medici, R; Thomsen, J L D; Staehr-Rye, A K; Asadzadeh, S; Rosenberg, J; Gätke, M R; Madsen, M V

    2017-11-01

    Recently, studies have focused on how to optimize laparoscopic surgical workspace by changes in intra-abdominal pressure, level of muscle relaxation or body position, typically evaluated by surgeons using subjective rating scales. We aimed to validate two rating scales by having surgeons assess surgical workspace in video sequences recorded during laparoscopic surgery. Video sequences were obtained from laparoscopic procedures. Eight experienced surgeons assessed the video sequences on a categorical 5-point scale and a numerical 10-point rating scale. Intraclass correlations coefficients (ICC) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for intra- and inter-rater reliability. The 5-point rating scale had an intra-rater ICC of 0.76 (0.69; 0.83) and an inter-rater ICC of 0.57 (0.45; 0.68), corresponding to excellent and fair reliability, respectively. The 10-point scale had an intra-rater ICC of 0.86 (0.82; 0.89) and an inter-rater ICC of 0.54 (0.39; 0.68), corresponding to excellent and fair as well. All surgeons used the full range of the 5-point scale, but only one surgeon used the full range of the 10-point scale. In conclusion, both scales showed excellent intra-rater and fair inter-rater reliability for assessing surgical workspace in laparoscopy. The 5-point surgical rating scale had all categories employed by all surgeons. © 2017 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Developing and Validating an Abbreviated Version of the Microscale Audit for Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS-Abbreviated).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Kelli L; Gavand, Kavita A; Conway, Terry L; Geremia, Carrie M; Millstein, Rachel A; Frank, Lawrence D; Saelens, Brian E; Adams, Marc A; Glanz, Karen; King, Abby C; Sallis, James F

    2017-06-01

    Macroscale built environment factors (e.g., street connectivity) are correlated with physical activity. Less-studied but more modifiable microscale elements (e.g., sidewalks) may also influence physical activity, but shorter audit measures of microscale elements are needed to promote wider use. This study evaluated the relation of an abbreviated 54-item streetscape audit tool with multiple measures of physical activity in four age groups. We developed a 54-item version from the original 120-item Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS). Audits were conducted on 0.25-0.45 mile routes from participant residences toward the nearest nonresidential destination for children (N=758), adolescents (N=897), younger adults (N=1,655), and older adults (N=367). Active transport and leisure physical activity were measured with surveys, and objective physical activity was measured with accelerometers. Items to retain from original MAPS were selected primarily by correlations with physical activity. Mixed linear regression analyses were conducted for MAPS-Abbreviated summary scores, adjusting for demographics, participant clustering, and macroscale walkability. MAPS-Abbreviated and original MAPS total scores correlated r=.94 The MAPS-Abbreviated tool was related similarly to physical activity outcomes as the original MAPS. Destinations and land use, streetscape and walking path characteristics, and overall total scores were significantly related to active transport in all age groups. Street crossing characteristics were related to active transport in children and older adults. Aesthetics and social characteristics were related to leisure physical activity in children and younger adults, and cul-de-sacs were related with physical activity in youth. Total scores were related to accelerometer-measured physical activity in children and older adults. MAPS-Abbreviated is a validated observational measure for use in research. The length and related cost of implementation has

  5. Unified Wilson's Disease Rating Scale - a proposal for the neurological scoring of Wilson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Członkowska, Anna; Tarnacka, Beata; Möller, Jens Carsten; Leinweber, Barbara; Bandmann, Oliver; Woimant, France; Oertel, Wolfgang H

    2007-01-01

    The clinical forms of Wilson's disease (WD) neurological manifestations can be divided into three movement disorder syndromes: a) dystonic, b) ataxic, c) parkinsonian syndrome. These syndromes in WD seldom occur in isolation. Clinical rating scales such as the Unified Parkinson;s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS) and the Rating Scale for Dystonia (RSD), focusing on either parkinsonism or ataxia or dystonia alone, are not sufficient to reflect accurately the motor impairment of WD patients. The aim of the study was to develop a novel rating scale for WD, because as far as we know no scale for the clinical rating in WD has been designed before. In 2004 the EuroWilson consortium was founded, to create a European WD database. Members of the consortium from Poland, Germany, and France prepared a new scale using clinical rating scales as the UPDRS, ICARS, and RSD. Prepared drafts were discussed several times in detail at the first international neurological EuroWilson meeting in September 2004 in Paris and in November in Warsaw. The novel scale for WD consists of 3 parts, including: consciousness, a historical review based on the Barthel scale (2-11 items), and neurological examination (12-35, items). The maximum score for the first part is 3, for the second 39 points, and for the last 143 points. The initial reliability of the scale on the basis of 6 patients (on DVD) and 8 investigators was assessed. Inter-rater agreement was high. Now the scale is used by the EuroWilson and GeNeMove consortia.

  6. Normative data and psychometric properties of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) and the abbreviated version (CD-RISC2) among the general population in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Michael Y; Li, Tom K; Yu, Nancy X; Pang, Herbert; Chan, Brandford H Y; Leung, Gabriel M; Stewart, Sunita M

    2016-01-01

    To examine whether the two-item version (CD-RISC2) of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) has adequate internal consistency and construct validity, as well as significant correlation with the full scale, and to provide normative data for the CD-RISC and the CD-RISC2 in a Chinese general population in Hong Kong. In total, 10,997 randomly selected participants aged ≥20 years completed the Chinese version of the CD-RISC (including the 2 items of the CD-RISC2), the Patient Health Questionnaire, Family Harmony Scale, Family APGAR, and CAGE Questionnaire. Internal consistency and convergent and discriminant validity of the CD-RISC and CD-RISC2 were assessed. Cronbach's α for CD-RISC and CD-RISC2 was 0.97 and 0.79, respectively. CD-RISC2 was associated with the 25-item version of the CD-RISC (r = 0.88), depressive symptoms (r s = -0.18), family harmony (r = 0.20), family functioning (r = 0.27) and was not associated with alcohol consumption (r = 0.05). The mean score for the CD-RISC and CD-RISC2 was 59.99 (SD = 13.92) and 5.03 (SD = 1.37), respectively. Men, younger individuals, and those with higher education or higher household income reported higher resilience levels. The Chinese version of the CD-RISC2 was demonstrated to be a reliable and valid measure in assessing resilience among the general population in Hong Kong.

  7. New rate structure of the Dutch natural gas trading company Gasunie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koevoet, H.

    1999-01-01

    Starting January 1, 2000, many of Gasunie's large-scale consumers will have to deal with a new rate structure: the CDS (Dutch abbreviation for Commodity Services System). Unlike in the old zone system, the consumption profile is of great importance in the CDS. Those who must heat large spaces have a particular interest in sizing up the consequences of the CDS

  8. Validity and reliability of the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS) and the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) in multiple sclerosis patients with ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcı, Yeliz; Fil, Ayla; Keklicek, Hilal; Çetin, Barış; Armutlu, Kadriye; Dolgun, Anıl; Tuncer, Aslı; Karabudak, Rana

    2017-11-01

    Ataxia is an extremely common problem in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Thus, appropriate scales are required for detailed assessment of this issue. The aim of our study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS) and Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA), which are widely used in ataxia evaluation in the context of other cerebellar diseases. This cross-sectional study included 80 MS patients with Kurtzke cerebellar functional system score (C-FSS) greater than zero and slight pyramidal involvement. The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), C-FSS, and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) were administered. SARA and ICARS were assessed on first admission by two physical therapists. Seven days later, second assessments were repeated in same way for reliability. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability were found to be high for both ICARS and SARA (prating results were determined by five different factors that did not coincide with the ICARS sub-scales. Our study demonstrated that ICARS and SARA are both reliable in MS patients with ataxia. Although ICARS has some structural problems, it seems to be more valid given its high correlations with EDSS and C-FSS. SARA also can be preferred as a brief assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A clinical rating scale for the assessment of facial aging in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sumit; Choudhury, Supriyo; Gangopadhyay, Anusree; Halder, Chinmay; Biswas, Projna; Jain, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of facial aging has assumed growing importance due to the advent of several antiaging therapies. Evidence-based estimation of global facial aging is often necessary, especially for validation of these treatment modalities. Most available methods are expensive and have been used in fair skinned individuals. We attempted to develop a clinical rating scale for the estimation of global facial aging applied on an Indian population which has brown to black skin. We have also measured the association of this rating scale score with the chronological age. Initially, a 14- item summated rating scale was developed with inputs from five dermatologists and a clinical pharmacologist. The rating scale was applied to 105 consenting subjects with healthy facial skin between 30 to 90 years of age. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was assessed. The summated rating score showed a significant positive correlation with the chronological age (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.834, P rating scale was internally consistent (Cronbach's alpha: 0.905), with substantial inter- and intra-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.973 and 0.788, respectively). Principal components and predictive equation for perceptible age were identified on further computation. Participants of this study were limited to a particular ethnic group from West Bengal and other neighboring states of Eastern India. We have developed and validated a 13-item rating scale for the quantification of global facial aging suitable for Indian (brown to black) skin type. This scale can be utilized effectively for clinical estimation of global facial aging.

  10. Anxiety rating scales in Parkinson's disease: a critical review updating recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayaka, Nadeeka N W; Torbey, Elizabeth; Pachana, Nancy A

    2015-11-01

    Assessing anxiety in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been a recent focus, and a number of studies have extensively investigated the validity of anxiety rating scales in PD. The present review aims to provide an overview of anxiety scales widely used and/or validated in PD, and to highlight recommendations for future research required in this area. A literature search was performed using terms such as Parkinson* disease, psychiatric, depress*, anxiety, assessment, scales, and valid* in PsycInfo, PubMed, and Web of Science databases. Validation studies and reviews focussed on assessment of anxiety in PD were included. The literature search identified nine anxiety rating scales. The new Parkinson's Anxiety Scale (PAS) showed good psychometric properties. Having a simple design appropriate for older adults and items focussed on cognitive anxiety, the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) also appeared promising for use in PD. The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) did not demonstrate satisfactory psychometric characteristics when used in PD, while other scales had limited or no evidence of validity or reliability to infer judgments. PAS and GAI are can be recommended for use in PD without dementia. Usefulness of these scales to assess anxiety in dementia should be examined in the future. Moreover, the complex symptomatology of anxiety relating to "off" PD medication states were not addressed in these scales. Further research is required to develop an anxiety scale tailored for PD.

  11. Children's and Teachers' Perspectives on Children's Self-Control: The Development of Two Rating Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Laura Lynn

    1982-01-01

    Compared parallel scales of children's self-control developed for teachers and children. Self-control ratings by teachers and children related to naturalistic observations and to teacher ratings of frustration tolerance and acting-out/aggressive problems. Teachers' ratings of self-control related to IQ and achievement. Supported the validity of…

  12. A Behavior Rating Scale for Emotionally Disturbed Students: The Pupil Observation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong-Hugg, Robin L.; And Others

    The paper describes development of the Pupil Observation Schedule (POS), a computer based system which provides a framework for assessing, evaluating, and reporting behavioral progress of emotionally disturbed students. The POS is used to rate five skill areas--computation, language, reading, reference, and psychomotor skills; and nine behavioral…

  13. Validation of the Peripheral Ultrasound-guided Vascular Access Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primdahl, Stine C; Weile, Jesper; Clemmesen, Louise; Madsen, Kristian R; Subhi, Yousif; Petersen, Poul; Graumann, Ole

    2018-01-01

    Evidence-based standards in proficiency are needed for ultrasound-guided peripheral intravenous access. In this study, we explored the validity of the Peripheral Ultrasound-Guided Vascular Access (P-UGVA) Rating Scale.We recruited 3 groups of physicians (5 novices, 5 intermediates, and 5 experts) of increasing proficiency in peripheral ultrasound-guided intravenous access. All participants performed 3 peripheral ultrasound-guided intravenous accesses on three different patients. Performance was video-recorded by 3 cameras and the ultrasound image. Synchronized and anonymized split-screen film clips were rated using the P-UGVA rating scale by 2 assessors, which also assessed overall performance on a 1-5 Likert-scale. Evidence of validity was explored using the contemporary validity framework by Messick (content, response process, internal structure, relations to other variables, and consequences).Content and response process was ensured in the development of the rating scale and validity study. Internal consistency of the P-UGVA rating scale was excellent and sufficient high for certification purposes (Cronbach's alpha = 0.91). Proficiency groups were successfully discriminated by the UPGIVA rating scale (P = .029, one-way ANOVA), and the P-UGVA rating scale scores also correlated strongly with the overall performance evaluations (rho = 0.87, P rate of 26.5% and false negative rate of 8.5%.We present validity evidence for the P-UGVA rating scale and an evidence-based standard in proficiency for ultrasound-guided peripheral intravenous access. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gravity waves as a probe of the Hubble expansion rate during an electroweak scale phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Zhou Peng

    2010-01-01

    Just as big bang nucleosynthesis allows us to probe the expansion rate when the temperature of the Universe was around 1 MeV, the measurement of gravity waves from electroweak scale first order phase transitions may allow us to probe the expansion rate when the temperature of the Universe was at the electroweak scale. We compute the simple transformation rule for the gravity wave spectrum under the scaling transformation of the Hubble expansion rate. We then apply this directly to the scenario of quintessence kination domination and show how gravity wave spectra would shift relative to Laser Interferometer Space Antenna and Big Bang Observer projected sensitivities.

  15. Validating abbreviated measures of effort-reward imbalance at work in European cohort studies: the IPD-Work consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Johannes; Dragano, Nico; Nyberg, Solja T; Lunau, Thorsten; Alfredsson, Lars; Erbel, Raimund; Fahlén, Göran; Goldberg, Marcel; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Knutsson, Anders; Leineweber, Constanze; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Nordin, Maria; Rugulies, Reiner; Schupp, Jürgen; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Theorell, Töres; Wagner, Gert G; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Heikkilä, Katriina; Fransson, Eleonor I; Kivimäki, Mika

    2014-04-01

    Effort-reward imbalance (ERI) is an established conceptualisation of work stress. Although a validated effort-reward questionnaire is available for public use, many epidemiological studies adopt shortened scales and proxy measures. To examine the agreement between different abbreviated measures and the original instrument, we compared different versions of the effort-reward scales available in 15 European cohort studies participating in the IPD-Work (Individual-participant-data meta-analysis in working populations) consortium. Five of the 15 studies provide information on the original ('complete') scales measuring 'effort' and 'reward', whereas the 10 remaining studies used 'partial' scales. To compare different versions of the ERI scales, we analyse individual-level data from 31,790 participants from the five studies with complete scales. Pearson's correlation between partial and complete scales was very high in case of 'effort' (where 2 out of 3 items were used) and very high or high in case of 'reward', if at least 4 items (out of 7) were included. Reward scales composed of 3 items revealed good to satisfactory agreement, and in one case, a reward scale consisting of 2 items only demonstrated a modest, but still acceptable degree of agreement. Sensitivity and specificity of a composite measure, the ratio of effort and reward, comparing partial versus complete scales ranged between 59-93 and 85-99 %, respectively. Complete and partial scales were strongly associated with poor self-rated health. Our results support the notion that short proxy measures or partial versions of the original scales can be used to assess effort-reward imbalance.

  16. Abbreviations for device names: a proposed methodology with specific examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Murad; Dover, Jeffrey S; Alam, Murad; Goldman, Mitchel P; Kaminer, Michael S; Orringer, Jeffrey; Waldorf, Heidi; Alam, Murad; Avram, Mathew; Cohen, Joel L; Draelos, Zoe Diana; Dover, Jeffrey S; Hruza, George; Kilmer, Suzanne; Lawrence, Naomi; Lupo, Mary; Metelitsa, Andrei; Nestor, Mark; Ross, E Victor

    2013-04-01

    Many devices used in dermatology lack generic names. If investigators use commercial device names, they risk the appearance of bias. Alternatively, reliance on ad-hoc names and abbreviations may confuse readers who do not recognize these. To develop a system for assigning abbreviations to denote devices commonly used in dermatology. Secondarily, to use this system to create abbreviations for FDA-approved neurotoxins and prepackaged injectable soft-tissue augmentation materials. The American Society for Dermatologic Surgery convened a Lexicon Task Force in March 2012. One charge of this Task Force was to develop criteria for assigning abbreviations to medical devices. A modified consensus process was used. Abbreviations to denote devices were to be: based on a standardized approach; transparent to the casual reader; markedly brief; and in all cases, different than the commercial names. Three-letter all caps abbreviations, some with subscripts, were assigned to denote each of the approved neurotoxins and fillers. A common system of abbreviations for medical devices in dermatology may avoid the appearance of bias while ensuring effective communication. The proposed system may be expanded to name other devices, and the ensuing abbreviations may be suitable for journal articles, continuing medical education lectures, or other academic or clinical purposes. © 2013 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 806 - Abbreviations and Acronyms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations and Acronyms B Appendix B to Part 806 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM Pt. 806, App. B Appendix B to Part 806—Abbreviations and...

  18. 16 CFR 300.9 - Abbreviations, ditto marks, and asterisks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations, ditto marks, and asterisks. 300.9 Section 300.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.9 Abbreviations...

  19. 32 CFR Appendix F to Subpart M of... - Abbreviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Abbreviations F Appendix F to Subpart M of Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS...—Abbreviations AAOArea Access Officer ARArmy Regulation CBRCCamp Bonneville Range Control DEHDirector of...

  20. 7 CFR 635.1 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions and abbreviations. 635.1 Section 635.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE... abbreviations. The following terms apply to this part: Covered program means a natural resource conservation...

  1. 49 CFR 179.2 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions and abbreviations. 179.2 Section 179.2 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Introduction, Approvals and Reports § 179.2 Definitions and abbreviations. (a) The following apply in part 179...

  2. The use of abbreviations in surgical note keeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Collard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abbreviations are used to improve the speed of note keeping and to simplify patient notes. However studies have shown that they can reduce clarity, increase mistakes and cause confusion in management plans. Our review highlights the misuse of abbreviations in surgical note keeping.

  3. The use of abbreviations in surgical note keeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, B; Royal, A

    2015-06-01

    Abbreviations are used to improve the speed of note keeping and to simplify patient notes. However studies have shown that they can reduce clarity, increase mistakes and cause confusion in management plans. Our review highlights the misuse of abbreviations in surgical note keeping.

  4. 7 CFR 718.302 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions and abbreviations. 718.302 Section 718.302 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... MULTIPLE PROGRAMS Equitable Relief From Ineligibility § 718.302 Definitions and abbreviations. In addition...

  5. 16 CFR 301.4 - Abbreviations or ditto marks prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations or ditto marks prohibited. 301.4 Section 301.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.4 Abbreviations or ditto...

  6. 7 CFR 1421.400 - Applicability and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability and abbreviations. 1421.400 Section 1421.400 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT... Associations for Peanuts § 1421.400 Applicability and abbreviations. (a) This subpart sets forth the terms and...

  7. A Rasch Rating Scale Modeling of the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Scale in a Sample of International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Hong; Wang, Chuang; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (SSREI) scale in a sample of international students studying in the U.S. universities using Rasch analysis. The results indicated that the original five-category rating structure may not function effectively for the international student sample. The…

  8. McArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI: Proposal of an abbreviate version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamarrita Farkas Klein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The McArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI assesses language development en children, through a significant caregiver report. The first inventory assesses verbal and non verbal language in infants who are from 8 to 18 months old and it is composed of 949 items distributed in 6 scales. This study proposes an abbreviate form of this instrument, and was tested on families and educators of 130 Chilean children of 11-15 months old. Analyses related to the items, reliability and validity of the instrument and factorial analyses of subscales were realized. The abbreviate version consider 241 items distributed in 4 scales. The evaluation of the psychometric properties of the instrument was acceptable, demonstrating adequate reliability and validity.

  9. Genetic and evolutionary correlates of fine-scale recombination rate variation in Drosophila persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevison, Laurie S; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2010-12-01

    Recombination is fundamental to meiosis in many species and generates variation on which natural selection can act, yet fine-scale linkage maps are cumbersome to construct. We generated a fine-scale map of recombination rates across two major chromosomes in Drosophila persimilis using 181 SNP markers spanning two of five major chromosome arms. Using this map, we report significant fine-scale heterogeneity of local recombination rates. However, we also observed "recombinational neighborhoods," where adjacent intervals had similar recombination rates after excluding regions near the centromere and telomere. We further found significant positive associations of fine-scale recombination rate with repetitive element abundance and a 13-bp sequence motif known to associate with human recombination rates. We noted strong crossover interference extending 5-7 Mb from the initial crossover event. Further, we observed that fine-scale recombination rates in D. persimilis are strongly correlated with those obtained from a comparable study of its sister species, D. pseudoobscura. We documented a significant relationship between recombination rates and intron nucleotide sequence diversity within species, but no relationship between recombination rate and intron divergence between species. These results are consistent with selection models (hitchhiking and background selection) rather than mutagenic recombination models for explaining the relationship of recombination with nucleotide diversity within species. Finally, we found significant correlations between recombination rate and GC content, supporting both GC-biased gene conversion (BGC) models and selection-driven codon bias models. Overall, this genome-enabled map of fine-scale recombination rates allowed us to confirm findings of broader-scale studies and identify multiple novel features that merit further investigation.

  10. The un-making of a method: From rating scales to the study of psychological processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Philip J.; Valsiner, Jaan

    2011-01-01

    Rating scales are standard instruments in psychology. They force the research participant to provide a numerical estimate of an assumed “degree” of some characteristic along a linear scale. We prove that such numerical estimates are artifacts based on unknown psychological processes that are used...... estimates by the rating task overlooks the qualitative (structural) relation between the implied opposites. We propose the reconstruction of the rating tasks into a method that accesses the process of meaning construction by the rater. When the rater faces a rating task, a field of meanings is constructed...

  11. Reliability of delirium rating scale (DRS) and delirium rating scale-revised-98 (DRS-R98) using variance-based multivariate modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamis, Dimitrios; Slor, Chantal J; Leonard, Maeve; Witlox, Joost; de Jonghe, Jos F M; Macdonald, Alastair J D; Trzepacz, Paula; Meagher, David

    2013-07-01

    Delirium's characteristic fluctuation in symptom severity complicates the assessment of test-retest reliability of scales using classical analyses, but application of modelling to longitudinal data offers a new approach. We evaluated test-retest reliability of the delirium rating scale (DRS) and delirium rating scale-revised-98 (DRS-R98), two widely used instruments with high validity and inter-rater reliability. Two existing longitudinal datasets for each scale included DSM-IV criteria for delirium diagnosis and repeated measurements using the DRS or DRS-R98. To estimate the reliability coefficients RT and RΛ for each scale we used a macros provided by Dr. Laenen at http://www.ibiostat.be/software/measurement.asp. For each dataset a linear mixed-effects model was fitted to estimate the variance-covariance parameters. A total of 531 cases with between 4 and 9 measurement points across studies including both delirious and non-delirious patients. Comorbid dementia in the datasets varied from 27% to 55%. Overall RT for the DRS were 0.71 and 0.50 and for DRS-R98 0.75 and 0.84. RΛ values for DRS were 0.99 and 0.98 and for DRS-R98 were 0.92 and 0.96. Individual RT measures for DRS-R98 and DRS across visits within studies showed more range than overall values. Our models found high overall reliability for both scales. Multiple factors impact a scale's reliability values including sample size, repeated measurements, patient population, etc in addition to rater variability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reliability and validity of Brief Problem Monitor, an abbreviated form of the Child Behavior Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Brian J; Gray, Hilary M; Raber, Jacob; Birkett, Melissa A

    2014-10-01

    The parent form of the 113-item Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is widely utilized by child psychiatrists and psychologists. This report examines the reliability and validity of a recently developed abbreviated version of the CBCL, the Brief Problem Monitor (BPM). Caregivers (n = 567) completed the CBCL online and the 19 BPM items were examined separately. Internal consistency of the BPM was high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.91) and satisfactory for the Internalizing (0.78), Externalizing (0.86), and Attention (0.87) scales. High correlations between the CBCL and BPM were identified for the total score (r = 0.95) as well as the Internalizing (0.86), Externalizing (0.93), and Attention (0.97) scales. The BPM and scales were sensitive and identified significantly higher behavioral and emotional problems among children whose caregiver reported a psychiatric diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety, developmental disabilities, or autism spectrum disorders relative to a comparison group that had not been diagnosed with these disorders. BPM ratings also differed by the socioeconomic status and education of the caregiver. Mothers with higher annual incomes rated their children as having 38.8% fewer total problems (Cohen's d = 0.62) as well as 42.8% lower Internalizing (d = 0.53), 44.1% less Externalizing (d = 0.62), and 30.9% decreased Attention (d = 0.39). A similar pattern was evident for maternal education (d = 0.30-0.65). Overall, these findings provide strong psychometric support for the BPM, although the differences based on the characteristics of the parent indicate that additional information from other sources (e.g., teachers) should be obtained to complement parental reports. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  13. Scale dependence of the alignment between strain rate and rotation in turbulent shear flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiscaletti, D.; Elsinga, G.E.; Attili, A; Bisetti, F; Buxton, O.R.H.

    2016-01-01

    The scale dependence of the statistical alignment tendencies of the eigenvectors of the strain-rate tensor ei, with the vorticity vector ω, is examined in the self-preserving region of a planar turbulent mixing layer. Data from a direct numerical simulation are filtered at various length scales and

  14. The Palin Parent Rating Scales: Parents' Perspectives of Childhood Stuttering and Its Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Sharon K.; Davis, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study is to explore the psychometric properties of the Parent Rating Scales-V1 (S. K. Millard, S. Edwards, & F. M. Cook, 2009), an assessment tool for parents of children who stutter, and to refine the measure accordingly. Method: We included 259 scales completed prior to therapy. An exploratory factor analysis…

  15. PENGUKURAN BEBAN KERJA MENTAL DALAM SEARCHING TASK DENGAN METODE RATING SCALE MENTAL EFFORT (RSME)

    OpenAIRE

    Ari Widyanti; Addie Johnson; Dick de Waard

    2012-01-01

    Metode pengukuran beban kerja mental meliputi metode obyektif dan subyektif. Metode pengukuran beban kerja mental secara subyektif yang banyak diaplikasikan di Indonesia adalah Subjective Workload Assessment Technique (SWAT) dan NASA TLX (NASA Task Load Index). SWAT dan NASA TLX adalah pengukuran subyektif yang bersifat multidimensional (multidimensional scaling) yang relatif membutuhkan waktu dalam aplikasinya. Sebagai alternatif SWAT dan NASA TLX, Rating Scale Mental Effort (...

  16. Problem Families and the Circumplex Model: Observational Assessment Using the Clinical Rating Scale (CRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Volker; Olson, David H.

    1993-01-01

    Examined validity, reliability, and curvilinearity of Clinical Rating Scale and tested scale's ability to discriminate between clinical families and nonclinical families on family cohesion, adaptability, and communication. Data from two groups of problem families and two control groups supported curvilinear hypothesis that problem families are…

  17. The Development of a Behavior Patterns Rating Scale for Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Nihat; Kuzu, Okan; Kuzu, Yasemin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a rating scale that can be used to evaluate behavior patterns of the organization people pattern of preservice teachers (PSTs). By reviewing the related literature on people patterns, a preliminary scale of 38 items with a five-points Likert type was prepared. The number of items was reduced to 29 after…

  18. Analyzing data from a fuzzy rating scale-based questionnaire. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, María Ángeles; Lubiano, María Asunción; de la Rosa de Sáa, Sara; Sinova, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    The fuzzy rating scale was introduced to cope with the imprecision of human thought and experience in measuring attitudes in many fields of Psychology. The flexibility and expressiveness of this scale allow us to properly describe the answers to many questions involving psychological measurement. Analyzing the responses to a fuzzy rating scale-based questionnaire is indeed a critical problem. Nevertheless, over the last years, a methodology is being developed to analyze statistically fuzzy data in such a way that the information they contain is fully exploited. In this paper, a summary review of the main procedures is given. The methods are illustrated by their application on the dataset obtained from a case study with nine-year-old children. In this study, children replied to some questions from the well-known TIMSS/PIRLS questionnaire by using a fuzzy rating scale. The form could be filled in either on the computer or by hand. The study indicates that the requirements of background and training underlying the fuzzy rating scale are not too demanding. Moreover, it is clearly shown that statistical conclusions substantially often differ depending on the responses being given in accordance with either a Likert scale or a fuzzy rating scale.

  19. A clinical rating scale for the assessment of facial aging in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Sen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Estimation of facial aging has assumed growing importance due to the advent of several antiaging therapies. Evidence-based estimation of global facial aging is often necessary, especially for validation of these treatment modalities. Most available methods are expensive and have been used in fair skinned individuals. Aim: We attempted to develop a clinical rating scale for the estimation of global facial aging applied on an Indian population which has brown to black skin. We have also measured the association of this rating scale score with the chronological age. Methods: Initially, a 14- item summated rating scale was developed with inputs from five dermatologists and a clinical pharmacologist. The rating scale was applied to 105 consenting subjects with healthy facial skin between 30 to 90 years of age. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was assessed. Results: The summated rating score showed a significant positive correlation with the chronological age (Pearson′s correlation coefficient 0.834, P < 0.001. We omitted one item from the scale due to a low inter-rater agreement. The resulting 13-item rating scale was internally consistent (Cronbach′s alpha: 0.905, with substantial inter- and intra-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.973 and 0.788, respectively. Principal components and predictive equation for perceptible age were identified on further computation. Limitations: Participants of this study were limited to a particular ethnic group from West Bengal and other neighboring states of Eastern India. Conclusions: We have developed and validated a 13-item rating scale for the quantification of global facial aging suitable for Indian (brown to black skin type. This scale can be utilized effectively for clinical estimation of global facial aging.

  20. Evaluation of agreement between numerical rating scales, visual analogue scoring scales, and force plate gait analysis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Margaret M; Keuler, Nicholas S; Lu, Yan; Faria, Maria L E; Muir, Peter; Markel, Mark D

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of numerical rating (NRS) and visual analogue (VAS) scoring scales compared with force plate gait analysis and agreement between observers for each scoring scale. Experimental study. Mixed breed dogs (n=21) with a right limb tibial osteotomy repaired with an external fixator. Three small-animal veterinarians with orthopedic training scored lameness using NRS and VAS before surgery, and at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. Peak force and impulse were determined at the same time points using a force plate. Agreement between observers and with force plate data was assessed. Significance was set at Pscores. When evaluated at each time point, an acceptable level of agreement was present only at 4 weeks after surgery. Only impulse had a significant relationship with some of the observers' subjective scores. No significant relationships between any observer's scores and force plate data existed if very lame dogs were omitted. Subjective scoring scales do not replace force plate gait analysis. Agreement is low unless lameness is severe, and each observer uses an individually unique scale. Subjective scoring scales most accurately reflect force plate gait analysis when lameness is severe. Subjective lameness scoring scales may not accurately reflect lameness and do not replace force plate gait analysis. Observers must stay the same during the duration of a study for accurate analyses.

  1. Scale dependence of the alignment between strain rate and rotation in turbulent shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiscaletti, D.; Elsinga, G. E.; Attili, A.; Bisetti, F.; Buxton, O. R. H.

    2016-10-01

    The scale dependence of the statistical alignment tendencies of the eigenvectors of the strain-rate tensor ei, with the vorticity vector ω , is examined in the self-preserving region of a planar turbulent mixing layer. Data from a direct numerical simulation are filtered at various length scales and the probability density functions of the magnitude of the alignment cosines between the two unit vectors | ei.ω ̂| are examined. It is observed that the alignment tendencies are insensitive to the concurrent large-scale velocity fluctuations, but are quantitatively affected by the nature of the concurrent large-scale velocity-gradient fluctuations. It is confirmed that the small-scale (local) vorticity vector is preferentially aligned in parallel with the large-scale (background) extensive strain-rate eigenvector e1, in contrast to the global tendency for ω to be aligned in parallel with the intermediate strain-rate eigenvector [Hamlington et al., Phys. Fluids 20, 111703 (2008), 10.1063/1.3021055]. When only data from regions of the flow that exhibit strong swirling are included, the so-called high-enstrophy worms, the alignment tendencies are exaggerated with respect to the global picture. These findings support the notion that the production of enstrophy, responsible for a net cascade of turbulent kinetic energy from large scales to small scales, is driven by vorticity stretching due to the preferential parallel alignment between ω and nonlocal e1 and that the strongly swirling worms are kinematically significant to this process.

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Working Memory Rating Scale for Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Grimm, Ryan; Gerber, Michael; Orosco, Michael; Swanson, H. Lee; Lussier, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    The Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS) was designed as a behavioral rating tool to assist teachers in identifying students at risk of working memory difficulties. The instrument was originally normed on 417 monolingual English-speaking children from the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the WMRS…

  3. Exercise-induced maximum metabolic rate scaled to body mass by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The central postulation of the present approach to metabolic rate scaling is that exercise-induced maximum aerobic metabolic rate (MMR) is proportional to the fractal extent (V) of an animal. Total fractal extent can be calculated from the sum of the fractal extents of the capillary service units, as specified by the formula V ...

  4. The Treatment Engagement Rating scale (TER) for forensic outpatient treatment : Description, psychometric properties, and norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drieschner, Klaus Heinrich; Boomsma, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The Treatment Engagement Rating scale (TER) is a Dutch therapist rating instrument for treatment engagement (TE) of forensic outpatients. It yields scores for nine components of TE, which are aggregated in a total score. Following an analysis of the concept of TE, the TER is described, and various

  5. Should Global Items on Student Rating Scales Be Used for Summative Decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Ronald A.

    2013-01-01

    One of the simplest indicators of teaching or course effectiveness is student ratings on one or more global items from the entire rating scale. That approach seems intuitively sound and easy to use. Global items have even been recommended by a few researchers to get a quick-read, at-a-glance summary for summative decisions about faculty. The…

  6. Validity of pilot Adult ADHD Self- Report Scale (ASRS) to Rate Adult ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Lenard A; Spencer, Thomas; Faraone, Stephen V; Kessler, Ronald C; Howes, Mary J; Biederman, Joseph; Secnik, Kristina

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to validate the pilot Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (pilot ASRS) versus standard clinician ratings on the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD RS). Sixty adult ADHD patients took the self-administered ADHD RS and then raters administered the standard ADHD RS. Internal consistency of symptom scores was assessed by Cronbach's alpha. Agreement of raters was established by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) between scales. Internal consistency was high for both patient and rater-administered versions (Cronbach's alpha 0.88, 0.89, respectively). The ICC between scales for total scores was also high (0.84); ICCs for subset symptom scores were also high (both 0.83). There was acceptable agreement for individual items (% agreement: 43%-72%) and significant kappa coefficients for all items (p valid scale for evaluating ADHD for adults and shows a high internal consistency and high concurrent validity with the rater-administered ADHD RS.

  7. A Rasch rating scale modeling of the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence scale in a sample of international students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Hong; Wang, Chuang; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (SSREI) scale in a sample of international students studying in the U.S. universities using Rasch analysis. The results indicated that the original five-category rating structure may not function effectively for the international student sample. The results also revealed that although most of the items in the SSREI scale contributed to a single underlying construct, reverse-keyed items appeared to be problematic. Examination of the person-item map suggested that the items may be inappropriately targeted for this sample. In sum, the original version of the SSREI scale needs further improvement to adequately measure emotional intelligence.

  8. Construction and evaluation of a self rating scale for stress-induced exhaustion disorder, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besèr, Aniella; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Wahlberg, Kristina; Peterson, Ulla; Nygren, Ake; Asberg, Marie

    2014-02-01

    Prolonged stress (≥ six months) may cause a condition which has been named exhaustion disorder (ED) with ICD-10 code F43.8. ED is characterised by exhaustion, cognitive problems, poor sleep and reduced tolerance to further stress. ED can cause long term disability and depressive symptoms may develop. The aim was to construct and evaluate a self-rating scale, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS), for the assessment of ED symptoms. A second aim was to examine the relationship between self-rated symptoms of ED, depression, and anxiety using KEDS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD). Items were selected based on their correspondence to criteria for ED as formulated by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare (NBHW), with seven response alternatives in a Likert-format. Self-ratings performed by 317 clinically assessed participants were used to analyse the scale's psychometric properties. KEDS consists of nine items with a scale range of 0-54. Receiver operating characteristics analysis demonstrated that a cut-off score of 19 was accompanied by high sensitivity and specificity (each above 95%) in the discrimination between healthy subjects and patients with ED. Reliability was satisfactory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed that ED, depression and anxiety are best regarded as different phenomena. KEDS may be a useful tool in the assessment of symptoms of Exhaustion Disorder in clinical as well as research settings. There is evidence that the symptom clusters of ED, anxiety and depression, respectively, reflect three different underlying dimensions. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Revised Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (JEPQ-R): Dutch replications of the full length, short, and abbreviated forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, R.H.J.; Bruyn, E.E.J. De

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the full-length, short and abbreviated forms of the Revised Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (JEPQ-R) in a Dutch sample of 215 boys and 207 girls, aged 12–14. The reliability and concurrent validity of the scales of the full-length form (JEPQ-R, 81 items), short form

  10. Hypersexuality in Psychiatric Conditions Observer-Rated Scale (HIPCORS): Evaluation of Reliability and Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, C K Dennisa; Cheung, Gary; Jansen, Karl

    2017-04-03

    Hypersexual behavior is not uncommon in psychiatric presentations. Most available scales that measure hypersexual behavior are self-rated, often containing sexually explicit questions, unsuitable for use in mentally unwell people. Lack of a clinically suitable instrument may have resulted in underdetection and under-researching of hypersexuality in people with mental disorders, with potential to cause significant consequences for themselves and those around them, including family members, coclients, and clinicians. To address this need, we developed the Hypersexuality in Psychiatric Conditions Observer-Rated Scale (HIPCORS), a rater-rated, nonintrusive tool, designed for use in mentally unwell people. It has been shown to be a reliable and valid instrument.

  11. Assessment of Competence in EVAR Procedures: A Novel Rating Scale Developed by the Delphi Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strøm, M; Lönn, L; Bech, B; Schroeder, T V; Konge, L

    2017-07-01

    To develop a procedure specific global rating scale for assessment of operator competence in endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). A Delphi approach was used to achieve expert consensus. A panel of 32 international experts (median 300 EVAR procedures, range 200-3000) from vascular surgery (n = 21) and radiology (n = 11) was established. The first Delphi round was based on a review of endovascular skills assessment papers, stent graft instructions for use, and structured interviews. It led to a primary pool of 83 items that were formulated as global rating scale items with tentative anchors. Iterative Delphi rounds were executed. The panellists rated the importance of each item on a 5 point Likert scale. Consensus was defined as 80% of the panel rating an item 4 or 5 in the primary round and 90% in subsequent rounds. Consensus on the final assessment tool was defined as Cronbach's alpha > .8 after a minimum of three rounds. Thirty-two of 35 invited experts participated. Three rounds of surveys were completed with a completion rate of 100% in the first two rounds and 91% in round three. The 83 primary assessment items were supplemented with five items suggested by the panel and reduced to seven pivotal assessment items that reached consensus, Cronbach's alpha = 0.82. The seven item rating scale covers key elements of competence in EVAR stent placement and deployment. Each item has well defined grades with explicit anchors at unacceptable, acceptable, and superior performance on a 5 point Likert scale. The Delphi methodology allowed for international consensus on a new procedure specific global rating scale for assessment of competence in EVAR. The resulting scale, EndoVascular Aortic Repair Assessment of Technical Expertise (EVARATE), represents key elements in the procedure. EVARATE constitutes an assessment tool for providing structured feedback to endovascular operators in training. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier

  12. Turbulence-induced contact rates of plankton : the question of scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Andre; MacKenzie, Brian

    1998-01-01

    Modelling encounter rates between planktonic predators and prey in turbulent waters requires an estimate of a spatial scale. One spatial scale proposed in the literature based on prey concentration is shown to be systematically inconsistent and its use is shown to imply that plankton sampling met...... as the length scale produces encounter rates for small (e.g. 4 to 10 mm) fish larvae 2- to 3-fold lower than those using prey separation distance......Modelling encounter rates between planktonic predators and prey in turbulent waters requires an estimate of a spatial scale. One spatial scale proposed in the literature based on prey concentration is shown to be systematically inconsistent and its use is shown to imply that plankton sampling...... methodology can bias encounter rate estimates in turbulent situations. We show that a scale based on the predator's reactive distance is more appropriate, as it has clear theoretical support, and is consistent with other mathematical treatments of encounter problems. Applying the reactive distance...

  13. How Do Observational Scales Correlate the Ratings of Children's Behavior during Pediatric Procedural Sedation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Larissa da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is little information regarding the ability of observational scales to properly assess children's behavior during procedural sedation. Aim. To evaluate the characteristics of the Houpt scales, the Ohio State University Behavioral Rating Scale (OSUBRS) and the Venham Behavior Rating Scale when applied to preschool children undergoing conscious dental sedation. Design. This study included 27 children, 4–6 years old with early childhood caries that participated in a clinical trial (NCT02284204) that investigated two sedative regimes using oral midazolam/ketamine. Dental appointments were video-recorded; five calibrated observers assessed 1,209 minutes of video recording to score the children's behavior, following the instructions of the investigated scales. Data were analyzed by descriptive analysis and Spearman correlation tests (P behavior and the Venham scale were highly correlated (rho = −0.87; P behavior and Venham ratings, when compared to Houpt scores in the categories for movement and crying. Conclusions. The Houpt overall behavior and the Venham scores are global scales that properly measure children's behavior during dental sedation. Continuous assessment with OSUBRS through videos has a chance to give more precise data, while the Houpt categories can easily demonstrate children's behavior during procedures. PMID:28116299

  14. How Do Observational Scales Correlate the Ratings of Children’s Behavior during Pediatric Procedural Sedation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa da Silva Moura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is little information regarding the ability of observational scales to properly assess children’s behavior during procedural sedation. Aim. To evaluate the characteristics of the Houpt scales, the Ohio State University Behavioral Rating Scale (OSUBRS and the Venham Behavior Rating Scale when applied to preschool children undergoing conscious dental sedation. Design. This study included 27 children, 4–6 years old with early childhood caries that participated in a clinical trial (NCT02284204 that investigated two sedative regimes using oral midazolam/ketamine. Dental appointments were video-recorded; five calibrated observers assessed 1,209 minutes of video recording to score the children’s behavior, following the instructions of the investigated scales. Data were analyzed by descriptive analysis and Spearman correlation tests (P<0.05. Results. The Houpt overall behavior and the Venham scale were highly correlated (rho = −0.87; P<0.001. OSUBRS scores were better correlated with Houpt overall behavior and Venham ratings, when compared to Houpt scores in the categories for movement and crying. Conclusions. The Houpt overall behavior and the Venham scores are global scales that properly measure children’s behavior during dental sedation. Continuous assessment with OSUBRS through videos has a chance to give more precise data, while the Houpt categories can easily demonstrate children’s behavior during procedures.

  15. Heart rate detection from single-foot plantar bioimpedance measurements in a weighing scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Delia H; Casas, Oscar; Pallas-Areny, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    Electronic bathroom scales are an easy-to-use, affordable mean to measure physiological parameters in addition to body weight. They have been proposed to obtain the ballistocardiogram (BCG) and derive from it the heart rate, cardiac output and systolic blood pressure. Therefore, weighing scales may suit intermittent monitoring in e-health and patient screening. Scales intended for bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) have also been proposed to estimate the heart rate by amplifying the pulsatile impedance component superimposed on the basal impedance. However, electronic weighing scales cannot easily obtain the BCG from people that have a single leg neither are bioimpedance measurements between both feet recommended for people wearing a pacemaker or other electronic implants, neither for pregnant women. We propose a method to detect the heart rate (HR) from bioimpedance measured in a single foot while standing on an bathroom weighting scale intended for BIA. The electrodes built in the weighing scale are used to apply a 50 kHz voltage between the outer electrode pair and to measure the drop in voltage across the inner electrode pair. The agreement with the HR simultaneously obtained from the ECG is excellent. We have also compared the drop in voltage across the waist and the thorax with that obtained when measuring bioimpedance between both feet to compare the possible risk of the proposed method to that of existing BIA scales.

  16. Dental functional morphology predicts the scaling of chewing rate in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žliobaitė, Indrė; Fortelius, Mikael

    2018-01-23

    How food intake and mastication scale to satisfy the metabolic needs of mammals has been the subject of considerable scientific debate. Existing theory suggests that the negative allometric scaling of metabolic rate with body mass is compensated by a matching allometric scaling of the chewing rate. Why empirical studies have found that the scaling coefficients of the chewing rate seem to be systematically smaller than expected from theory remains unknown. Here we explain this imparity by decoupling the functional surface area of teeth from overall surface area. The functional surface area is relatively reduced in forms emphasizing linear edges (e.g., lophodont) compared with forms lacking linear structures (e.g., bunodont). In forms with reduced relative functional surface, the deficit in food processed per chew appears to be compensated for by increased chewing rate, such that the metabolic requirements are met. This compensation accounts for the apparent difference between theoretically predicted and observed scaling of chewing rates. We suggest that this reflects adaptive functional evolution to plant foods with different fracture properties and extend the theory to incorporate differences in functional morphology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A new statistical model for analyzing rating scale data pertaining to word meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Rubke, Felipe; Kafadar, Karen; James, Karin H

    2017-04-25

    The concrete-abstract categorization scheme has guided several research programs. A popular way to classify words into one of these categories is to calculate a word's mean value in a Concreteness or Imageability rating scale. However, this procedure has several limitations. For instance, results can be highly distorted by outliers, ascribe differences among words when none may exist, and neglect rating trends in participants. We suggest using an alternative procedure to analyze rating scale data called median polish analysis (MPA). MPA is tolerant to outliers and accounts for information in multiple dimensions, including trends among participants. MPA performance can be readily evaluated using an effect size measure called analog R 2 and be integrated with bootstrap 95% confidence intervals, which can prevent assigning inexistent differences among words. To compare these analysis procedures, we asked 80 participants to rate a set of nouns and verbs using four different rating scales: Action, Concreteness, Imageability, and Multisensory. We analyzed the data using both two-way and three-way MPA models. We also calculated 95% CIs for the two-way models. Categorizing words with the Action scale revealed a continuum of word meaning for both nouns and verbs. The remaining scales produced dichotomous or stratified results for nouns, and continuous results for verbs. While the sample mean analysis generated continua irrespective of the rating scale, MPA differentiated among dichotomies and continua. We conclude that MPA allowed us to better classify words by discarding outliers, focusing on main trends, and considering the differences in rating criteria among participants.

  18. Laboratory-Scale Melter for Determination of Melting Rate of Waste Glass Feeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Buchmiller, William C.; Matyas, Josef

    2012-01-09

    The purpose of this study was to develop the laboratory-scale melter (LSM) as a quick and inexpensive method to determine the processing rate of various waste glass slurry feeds. The LSM uses a 3 or 4 in. diameter-fused quartz crucible with feed and off-gas ports on top. This LSM setup allows cold-cap formation above the molten glass to be directly monitored to obtain a steady-state melting rate of the waste glass feeds. The melting rate data from extensive scaled-melter tests with Hanford Site high-level wastes performed for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant have been compiled. Preliminary empirical model that expresses the melting rate as a function of bubbling rate and glass yield were developed from the compiled database. The two waste glass feeds with most melter run data were selected for detailed evaluation and model development and for the LSM tests so the melting rates obtained from LSM tests can be compared with those from scaled-melter tests. The present LSM results suggest the LSM setup can be used to determine the glass production rates for the development of new glass compositions or feed makeups that are designed to increase the processing rate of the slurry feeds.

  19. Differential item functioning in the Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sheng; Liu, Yuanyuan; Teresi, Jeanne A; Stebbins, Glenn T; Goetz, Christopher G

    2017-08-01

    Test if differential item functioning due to gender, age, race/ethnicity, or education impacts Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale scores. Testing rating scales for differential item functioning is a core validation step. If differential item functioning exists, interpretation of item scores must consider secondary influences on dyskinesia ratings. Using Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale translation databases (N = 3,132), we tested uniform and nonuniform differential item functioning. We required confirmation by two independent methods and considered differential item functioning pertinent if McFadden pseudo R 2 magnitude statistics exceeded negligible ratings. No age, race/ethnicity, or education nonuniform differential item functioning was identified. Gender nonuniform differential item functioning occurred for 2 items, both with negligible magnitude. Gender, race, and education uniform differential item functioning was observed for multiple items, all with negligible magnitude. The Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale items effectively capture dyskinesia severity without pertinent gender, age, race/ ethnicity, or education influence. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  20. Up-Scaling Geochemical Reaction Rates for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in Deep Saline Aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindquist, W Brent

    2009-03-03

    The overall goal of the project was to bridge the gap between our knowledge of small-scale geochemical reaction rates and reaction rates meaningful for modeling transport at core scales. The working hypothesis was that reaction rates, determined from laboratory measurements based upon reactions typically conducted in well mixed batch reactors using pulverized reactive media may be significantly changed in in situ porous media flow due to rock microstructure heterogeneity. Specifically we hypothesized that, generally, reactive mineral surfaces are not uniformly accessible to reactive fluids due to the random deposition of mineral grains and to the variation in flow rates within a pore network. Expected bulk reaction rates would therefore have to be correctly up-scaled to reflect such heterogeneity. The specific objective was to develop a computational tool that integrates existing measurement capabilities with pore-scale network models of fluid flow and reactive transport. The existing measurement capabilities to be integrated consisted of (a) pore space morphology, (b) rock mineralogy, and (c) geochemical reaction rates. The objective was accomplished by: (1) characterizing sedimentary sandstone rock morphology using X-ray computed microtomography, (2) mapping rock mineralogy using back-scattered electron microscopy (BSE), X-ray dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and CMT, (3) characterizing pore-accessible reactive mineral surface area, and (4) creating network models to model acidic CO{sub 2} saturated brine injection into the sandstone rock samples.

  1. Creation of the physical appearance and the body image rating scale for the Czech context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Šrámková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem and methods: Physical appearance is one of the key components of selfperception from early childhood. An individual’s perceived physical attractiveness is largely conditioned by geographical, cultural and historical factors. Every culture develops its own criteria of attractiveness and any deviations to those are often a cause of ostracism, for example through exclusion or rejection. Still, there are certain universal principles of attractiveness (e.g. a higher waist-hip ratio, facial symmetry, sexually dimorphic features, which exist across cultures and time periods with little variation. To measure a person’s level of satisfaction with his/her physical appearance, psychologists regularly employ figure rating scales. The primary goal of our work was to develop and verify an updated visual body rating scale called the Basic Olomouc Body Rating (BOBR, making sure that it is widely usable, valid and reliable. The scale was created using the method of document analysis of academic papers according body-rating scales and a method of interview with potential probands. In the pilot data gathering phase, a group of respondents was presented with the 3 scales commonly used in the European context, i.e. FDS (Stunkard, Sorensen & Schulsinger, 1983, CDRS (Thompson & Gray, 1995 and BIAS-BD (Gardner, Jappe & Gardner, 2009. The purpose of this was to get feedback on these scales and find out if people are able to use these scales to rate themselves. New schematic figure rating scale for both men and women which would do away with the limitations of the scales used so far was developed. Results: The result is creation of a body-rating scale widely usable in further research and practical consulting. The paper briefly summarizes results of an additional study – the goal definition phase was followed by online research on the subject of body image and the self-perceived sexual attractiveness. Altogether, 5,616 respondents from the Czech Republic

  2. 40 CFR 1042.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1042.905 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. The following... Archives and Records Administration. NMHCnonmethane hydrocarbons. NOXoxides of nitrogen (NO and NO2.... SCRselective catalytic reduction. THCtotal hydrocarbon. THCEtotal hydrocarbon equivalent. ULSDultra low-sulfur...

  3. Rabies vaccinations: are abbreviated intradermal schedules the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieten, R. W.; Leenstra, T.; van Thiel, P. P. A. M.; van Vugt, M.; Stijnis, C.; Goorhuis, A.; Grobusch, M. P.

    2013-01-01

    Rabies is a deadly disease, and current preexposure vaccination schedules are lengthy and expensive. We identified nine studies investigating abbreviated schedules. Although initial responses were lower, accelerated adequate immune responses were elicited after booster vaccinations. Lower-dose (and

  4. The validity of self-rating depression scales in patients with chronic widespread pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amris, K; Omerovic, E; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    2016-01-01

    and further aspects of validity, including fit of individual scale items to a unidimensional model indicating assessment of a single construct (depression), as a prerequisite for measurement. RESULTS: The Rasch analysis revealed substantial problems with the rating scale properties of the MDI and lack......BACKGROUND: Assessment of depression in chronic pain patients by self-rating questionnaires developed and validated for use in normal and/or psychiatric populations is common. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) in a sample...... of females with chronic widespread pain (CWP). METHOD: A total of 263 females diagnosed with CWP and referred for rehabilitation completed the MDI as part of the baseline evaluation. Rasch analysis was applied to this dataset. Rasch measurement models allow detailed analyses of an instrument's rating scale...

  5. Combining Dual Scaling with Semi-Structured Interviews to Interpret Rating Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. Childs

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Dual scaling, a variation of multidimensional scaling, can reveal the dimensions underlying scores, such as raters' judgments. This study illustrates the use of a dual scaling analysis with semi-structured interviews of raters to investigate the differences among the raters as captured by the dimensions. Thirty applications to a one-year post-Bachelor's degree teacher education program were rated by nine teacher educators. Eight of the raters were subsequently interviewed about how they rated the responses. A three-dimensional model was found to explain most of the variance in the ratings for two of the questions and a two-dimensional model was most interpretable for the third question. The interviews suggested that the dimensions reflected, in addition to differences in raters' stringency, differences in their beliefs about their roles as raters and about the types of insights that were required of applicants.

  6. Rating catatonia in patients with chronic schizophrenia: Rasch analysis of the Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Eric; Ungvari, Gabor S; Leung, Siu-Kau; Tang, Wai-Kwong

    2007-01-01

    Catatonic signs and symptoms are frequently observed in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Clinical surveys have suggested that the composition of catatonic syndrome occurring in chronic schizophrenia may be different from what is found in acute psychiatric disorders or medical conditions. Consequently, this patient population may need tailor-made rating instruments for catatonia. The aim of the present study was to examine the suitability and accuracy of using the Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS) in chronic schizophrenia inpatients. The unidimensionality (optimal number of items; item fit), and the scoring scheme (the optimal number of scoring categories) of the BFCRS were determined in a random sample of 225 patients with chronic schizophrenia applying Rasch analysis. In addition, differential item functioning (DIF) analysis was also performed. The BFCRS proved to be unidimensional apart from three misfit and one marginally misfit items. The three misfit items were removed from the scale thereby constructing a revised version called BFCRS-R. Since the original BFCRS (BFCRS-O) showed no increase across items across steep gradients (poor endorsability of step calibrations), in BFCRS-R a binary scale ('absent' versus 'present' choices only) was constructed instead of the scoring scheme of 0-3. The 20-item BFCRS-R showed improved psychometric properties in that it had a higher item separation index than BFCRS-O. BFCRS-R mean logit was closer to zero indicating that the items on the scale and the subjects were better matched than in BFCRS-O. DIF analysis showed that certain items of both versions of BFCRS were influenced by the presence of negative symptoms. BFCRS-R is shorter and simpler than the original version and having better psychometric properties seems to be better suited for identifying and quantifying catatonia in chronic psychotic patients. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. [Perceptive evaluation of substitution voices: the I(I) NFVo rating scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerman, M; Martens, J P; Crevier-Buchman, L; Woisard, V; Dejonckere, P

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation of a perceptual specific rating scale for specific severe non laryngeral dysphonia. 113 speech samples from substitution voices were scored perceptually according to the IINFVo scale: overall quality impression (I), impression of Intelligibility (I), additive and unnecessary noise (N), speech fluency (F) and presence of voiced segments (Vo). Each parameter was scored on a visual analogue scale from 0 (minimally deviant) to 10 (maximally deviant substitution voicing). These samples were presented to semi-professional jury-members (second grade speech therapy students) and professional jury-members (phoniatricians and speech therapists, specialised in the oncological field). Interindividual agreement between semi-professionals was moderate (0.57-0.68). Interindividual agreement between professionals was higher (0.82-0.86). These figures are similar or even better compared to the classical perceptual evaluation scale for laryngeal speech (GRBAS). Our study suggests that the I(I)NFVo rating scale is suitable for perceptual evaluation of substitution voicing and consistency results are comparable with the classical perceptual rating scale (GRBAS).

  8. Fasting abbreviation among patients submitted to oncologic surgery: systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    PINTO, Andressa dos Santos; GRIGOLETTI, Shana Souza; MARCADENTI, Aline

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The abbreviation of perioperative fasting among candidates to elective surgery have been associated with shorter hospital stay and decreased postoperative complications. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review from randomized controlled trials to detect whether the abbreviation of fasting is beneficial to patients undergoing cancer surgery compared to traditional fasting protocols. METHOD: A literature search was performed in electronic databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), SciELO...

  9. Rating Scales for Diagnostic Assessment of Writing: What Should They Look Like and Where Should the Criteria Come from?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoch, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Rating scales act as the de facto test construct in a writing assessment, although inevitably as a simplification of the construct (North, 2003). However, it is often not reported how rating scales are constructed. Unless the underlying framework of a rating scale takes some account of linguistic theory and research in the definition of…

  10. [Psychometric properties of the French version of the Wender Utah Rating Scale and Brown's Attention Deficit Disorders Scale for adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, L; Legauffre, C; Mille, S; Chèze, N; Fougères, A-L; Marquez, S; Excoffier, A; Dubertret, C; Adès, J

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this work was to analyse the factorial structure of the two following instruments: (1) the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) evaluates the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) for adults, with 25 items: the subjects describe their own childhood behaviour when they were 7 years old, (from few to very much, 0 to 4). The items are grouped in four clusters: affects and emotional problems; impulsivity and conduct disorders; impulsivity-hyperactivity; and difficulties in attention. A score of 46 or more strongly suggests diagnosis of a hyperactivity disorder during infancy; (2) Brown's (1996) Attention Deficit Disorders Scale (ADD) is a 40-item self-report. This scale is composed of a range of symptoms beyond the DSM-IV inattention criteria for ADHD. A score of 50 or more is strongly suggestive of ADD. The five clusters of this scale are: organizing and activating work; sustaining attention and concentration; sustaining energy and effort; managing affective interference; utilizing "working memory" and accessing recall. For comparative purpose, we also used the Adult Self-Report Scale (ASRS), which evaluates ADHD with six items and accepts a cut-off of four or more; the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and the Personality Inventory Revised, essentially with the neuroticism cluster. A total of 259 adult subjects were enrolled in this study and allocated to three groups: healthy subjects, depressive patients and alcoholic patients. This study indicates that the internal consistency for the French version of the ADD and WURS scales is adequate (α=0.8-0.9). The WURS and ADD scales are not fully validated, as both sensitivity to change and concurrent validity for all groups are missing. However, these adapted versions are interesting because they facilitate the use of the questionnaires for research and clinical assessment within healthy general and clinical populations. The study confirmed the psychometric properties of the two scales evaluating ADHD

  11. Rasch analysis in the development of a rating scale for assessment of mobility after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, A; Garde, B; Kreiner, S

    1995-01-01

    The study describes the development of a rating scale for assessment of mobility after stroke. It was based on 74 first-stroke patients, 40 men and 34 women, each assessed three times during rehabilitation. Their median age was 69 years, and they represented all degrees of severity of paresis....... Content, construct, criterion and convergent validity were examined, as well as the inter-rater reliability. The final rating scale has three special characteristics: 1) it reflects the regularity in the recovery of mobility after stroke; 2) the sum of item scores comprises the information contained...

  12. Organelle Size Scaling of the Budding Yeast Vacuole Is Tuned by Membrane Trafficking Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yee-Hung Mark; Marshall, Wallace F.

    2014-01-01

    Organelles serve as biochemical reactors in the cell, and often display characteristic scaling trends with cell size, suggesting mechanisms that coordinate their sizes. In this study, we measure the vacuole-cell size scaling trends in budding yeast using optical microscopy and a novel, to our knowledge, image analysis algorithm. Vacuole volume and surface area both show characteristic scaling trends with respect to cell size that are consistent among different strains. Rapamycin treatment was found to increase vacuole-cell size scaling trends for both volume and surface area. Unexpectedly, these increases did not depend on macroautophagy, as similar increases in vacuole size were observed in the autophagy deficient mutants atg1Δ and atg5Δ. Rather, rapamycin appears to act on vacuole size by inhibiting retrograde membrane trafficking, as the atg18Δ mutant, which is defective in retrograde trafficking, shows similar vacuole size scaling to rapamycin-treated cells and is itself insensitive to rapamycin treatment. Disruption of anterograde membrane trafficking in the apl5Δ mutant leads to complementary changes in vacuole size scaling. These quantitative results lead to a simple model for vacuole size scaling based on proportionality between cell growth rates and vacuole growth rates. PMID:24806931

  13. A comparative assessment and gap analysis of commonly used team rating scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Carla M; Cohen, Elaine R; Kwan, Calvin; Cannon-Bowers, Janice A

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this article was to conduct a gap analysis of important team constructs that may be absent in widely used team assessments. Two assessment tools with known validity evidence (1) Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS) and (2) the Cannon-Bowers Scale were used to evaluate 11 teams of surgical residents (n = 33) performing simulated laparoscopic hernia repairs. Faculty raters' scores were used to compare the surveys and assess validity and reliability. Raters' detailed observation notes were used to indicate important behavioral constructs that were missing from the team rating scales. When assessing inter-item correlations (reliability) four of five NOTSS' scale items had significant correlations (r = 0.9-1.0, P scales. When evaluating the gap, key emerging themes included the need to focus on critical team errors, individual team member contributions, task performance, and overall team performance. These gaps, plus items from the NOTSS and Cannon-Bowers scales, were incorporated into a new rating scale. Despite continued evidence of validity and reliability, there were several behavioral constructs that were not represented when using the NOTSS and Cannon-Bowers scales. Critical team errors, individual team member contributions, task performance, and overall team performance appear important in our ability to understand teams and teamwork. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A visual MRI atrophy rating scale for the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-frontotemporal dementia continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambikairajah, Ananthan; Devenney, Emma; Flanagan, Emma; Yew, Belinda; Mioshi, Eneida; Kiernan, Matthew C; Hodges, John R; Hornberger, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Our objective was to distinguish ALS, ALS-FTD and bvFTD via a novel visual MRI cortical atrophy scale that can be employed in a clinical setting. MRI images of 100 participants (33 ALS, 11 ALS-FTD, 22 bvFTD and 34 controls) were rated in four brain areas: orbitofrontal cortex, anterior temporal pole, anterior cingulate, and motor cortex. Areas were rated on a 5- point Likert scale by two raters blinded to the diagnosis. Results demonstrated that bvFTD patients showed the highest levels of atrophy across all regions, while ALS patients had the lowest atrophy scores. ALS-FTD patients have higher atrophy ratings compared to ALS patients for the motor cortex, anterior cingulate and anterior temporal lobe, with a statistical trend for the orbitofrontal cortex. ALS-FTD patients were not significantly different from bvFTD for any of the brain regions. These findings were confirmed in a post hoc VBM analysis of the same participants. Our study demonstrates that a simple visual MRI rating scale can reliably distinguish ALS, ALS-FTD and bvFTD atrophy patterns in a clinical setting. Motor cortex, anterior cingulate and anterior temporal atrophy emerged as good diagnostic markers for ALS-FTD. Employment of this MRI rating scale can complement clinical diagnostics of patients in the ALS-FTD continuum.

  15. Quantitative regional validation of the visual rating scale for posterior cortical atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Christiane; Benedictus, Marije R.; Koedam, Esther L.G.M.; Scheltens, Philip; Flier, Wiesje M. van der; Versteeg, Adriaan; Wattjes, Mike P.; Barkhof, Frederik; Vrenken, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Validate the four-point visual rating scale for posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) on magnetic resonance images (MRI) through quantitative grey matter (GM) volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to justify its use in clinical practice. Two hundred twenty-nine patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and 128 with subjective memory complaints underwent 3T MRI. PCA was rated according to the visual rating scale. GM volumes of six posterior structures and the total posterior region were extracted using IBASPM and compared among PCA groups. To determine which anatomical regions contributed most to the visual scores, we used binary logistic regression. VBM compared local GM density among groups. Patients were categorised according to their PCA scores: PCA-0 (n = 122), PCA-1 (n = 143), PCA-2 (n = 79), and PCA-3 (n = 13). All structures except the posterior cingulate differed significantly among groups. The inferior parietal gyrus volume discriminated the most between rating scale levels. VBM showed that PCA-1 had a lower GM volume than PCA-0 in the parietal region and other brain regions, whereas between PCA-1 and PCA-2/3 GM atrophy was mostly restricted to posterior regions. The visual PCA rating scale is quantitatively validated and reliably reflects GM atrophy in parietal regions, making it a valuable tool for the daily radiological assessment of dementia. (orig.)

  16. Isometric size-scaling of metabolic rate and the size abundance distribution of phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete-Ortega, María; Cermeño, Pedro; Calvo-Díaz, Alejandra; Marañón, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between phytoplankton cell size and abundance has long been known to follow regular, predictable patterns in near steady-state ecosystems, but its origin has remained elusive. To explore the linkage between the size-scaling of metabolic rate and the size abundance distribution of natural phytoplankton communities, we determined simultaneously phytoplankton carbon fixation rates and cell abundance across a cell volume range of over six orders of magnitude in tropical and subtropical waters of the Atlantic Ocean. We found an approximately isometric relationship between carbon fixation rate and cell size (mean slope value: 1.16; range: 1.03–1.32), negating the idea that Kleiber's law is applicable to unicellular autotrophic protists. On the basis of the scaling of individual resource use with cell size, we predicted a reciprocal relationship between the size-scalings of phytoplankton metabolic rate and abundance. This prediction was confirmed by the observed slopes of the relationship between phytoplankton abundance and cell size, which have a mean value of −1.15 (range: −1.29 to −0.97), indicating that the size abundance distribution largely results from the size-scaling of metabolic rate. Our results imply that the total energy processed by carbon fixation is constant along the phytoplankton size spectrum in near steady-state marine ecosystems. PMID:22171079

  17. Psychometric Properties of the Parent and Teacher ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makransky, Guido; Bilenberg, Niels

    2014-01-01

    , was used to test the psychometric properties of this scale in a sample of 566 Danish school children between 6 and 16 years of age. The results indicated that parents and teachers had different frames of reference when rating symptoms in the mADHD-RS. There was support for the unidimensionality...... of the three subscales when parent and teacher ratings were analyzed independently. Nonetheless, evidence for differential item functioning was found across gender and age for specific items within each of the subscales. The findings expand existing psychometric information about the mADHD-RS and support its......Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Rating the severity of psychopathology and symptom load is essential in daily clinical practice and in research. The parent and teacher ADHD-Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) includes...

  18. Scaling relation between renormalized discharge rate and capacity in NaxCoO2 films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumu Yanagita

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Layered cobalt oxide, P2-NaxCoO2, is a prototypical cathode material for sodium-ion secondary battery. We systematically investigated the rate dependence of the discharge capacity (Q in three thin films of Na0.68CoO2 with different film thickness (d and in-plane grain radius (r. With subtracting conventional voltage drop effect on Q, we derived an intrinsic rate dependence of Q. We found a scaling relation between the renormalized discharge rate (γ ≡ r2/DT; D and T are the Na+ diffusion constant and discharge time, respectively and relative capacity (=Q/Q0; Q0 is the value at a low rate limit. The observed scaling relation is interpreted in terms of the Na+ intercalation process at the electrolyte-NaxCoO2 interface and Na+ diffusion process within NaxCoO2.

  19. Scale dependence of the alignment between strain rate and rotation in turbulent shear flow

    KAUST Repository

    Fiscaletti, D.

    2016-10-24

    The scale dependence of the statistical alignment tendencies of the eigenvectors of the strain-rate tensor e(i), with the vorticity vector omega, is examined in the self-preserving region of a planar turbulent mixing layer. Data from a direct numerical simulation are filtered at various length scales and the probability density functions of the magnitude of the alignment cosines between the two unit vectors vertical bar e(i) . (omega) over cap vertical bar are examined. It is observed that the alignment tendencies are insensitive to the concurrent large-scale velocity fluctuations, but are quantitatively affected by the nature of the concurrent large-scale velocity-gradient fluctuations. It is confirmed that the small-scale (local) vorticity vector is preferentially aligned in parallel with the large-scale (background) extensive strain-rate eigenvector e(1), in contrast to the global tendency for omega to be aligned in parallelwith the intermediate strain-rate eigenvector [Hamlington et al., Phys. Fluids 20, 111703 (2008)]. When only data from regions of the flow that exhibit strong swirling are included, the so-called high-enstrophy worms, the alignment tendencies are exaggerated with respect to the global picture. These findings support the notion that the production of enstrophy, responsible for a net cascade of turbulent kinetic energy from large scales to small scales, is driven by vorticity stretching due to the preferential parallel alignment between omega and nonlocal e(1) and that the strongly swirling worms are kinematically significant to this process.

  20. Measuring hunger and satiety in primary school children. Validation of a new picture rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Carmel; Blissett, Jackie

    2014-07-01

    Measuring hunger and satiety in children is essential to many studies of childhood eating behaviour. Few validated measures currently exist that allow children to make accurate and reliable ratings of hunger/satiety. Three studies aimed to validate the use of a new categorical rating scale in the context of estimated and real eating episodes. Forty-seven 6- to 8-year-olds participated in Study 1, which used a between-participant design. Results indicated that the majority of children were able to make estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character using the scale. No significant differences in the ratings of hunger/satiety of children measured before and after lunch were observed and likely causes are discussed. To account for inter-individual differences in hunger/satiety perceptions Study 2 employed a within-participant design. Fifty-four 5- to 7-year-olds participated and made estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character and real hunger/satiety ratings before and after lunch. The results indicated that the majority of children were able to use the scale to make estimated and real hunger and satiety ratings. Children were found to be significantly hungrier before compared to after lunch. As it was not possible to establish the types and quantities of food children ate for lunch a third study was carried out in a controlled laboratory environment. Thirty-six 6- to 9-year-olds participated in Study 3 and made hunger/satiety ratings before and after ingesting an ad libitum snack of known composition and quantity. Results indicated that children felt hungrier before than after the snack and that pre-snack hunger/satiety, and changes in hunger/satiety, were associated with snack intake. Overall, the studies indicate that the scale has potential for use with primary school children. Implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Scaling of black silicon processing time by high repetition rate femtosecond lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava Giorgio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Surface texturing of silicon substrates is performed by femtosecond laser irradiation at high repetition rates. Various fabrication parameters are optimized in order to achieve very high absorptance in the visible region from the micro-structured silicon wafer as compared to the unstructured one. A 70-fold reduction of the processing time is demonstrated by increasing the laser repetition rate from 1 kHz to 200 kHz. Further scaling up to 1 MHz can be foreseen.

  2. Effects of Contingency versus Constraints on the Body-Mass Scaling of Metabolic Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S. Glazier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available I illustrate the effects of both contingency and constraints on the body-mass scaling of metabolic rate by analyzing the significantly different influences of ambient temperature (Ta on metabolic scaling in ectothermic versus endothermic animals. Interspecific comparisons show that increasing Ta results in decreasing metabolic scaling slopes in ectotherms, but increasing slopes in endotherms, a pattern uniquely predicted by the metabolic-level boundaries hypothesis, as amended to include effects of the scaling of thermal conductance in endotherms outside their thermoneutral zone. No other published theoretical model explicitly predicts this striking variation in metabolic scaling, which I explain in terms of contingent effects of Ta and thermoregulatory strategy in the context of physical and geometric constraints related to the scaling of surface area, volume, and heat flow across surfaces. My analysis shows that theoretical models focused on an ideal 3/4-power law, as explained by a single universally applicable mechanism, are clearly inadequate for explaining the diversity and environmental sensitivity of metabolic scaling. An important challenge is to develop a theory of metabolic scaling that recognizes the contingent effects of multiple mechanisms that are modulated by several extrinsic and intrinsic factors within specified constraints.

  3. Mobile app rating scale: a new tool for assessing the quality of health mobile apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, Stoyan R; Hides, Leanne; Kavanagh, David J; Zelenko, Oksana; Tjondronegoro, Dian; Mani, Madhavan

    2015-03-11

    The use of mobile apps for health and well being promotion has grown exponentially in recent years. Yet, there is currently no app-quality assessment tool beyond "star"-ratings. The objective of this study was to develop a reliable, multidimensional measure for trialling, classifying, and rating the quality of mobile health apps. A literature search was conducted to identify articles containing explicit Web or app quality rating criteria published between January 2000 and January 2013. Existing criteria for the assessment of app quality were categorized by an expert panel to develop the new Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS) subscales, items, descriptors, and anchors. There were sixty well being apps that were randomly selected using an iTunes search for MARS rating. There were ten that were used to pilot the rating procedure, and the remaining 50 provided data on interrater reliability. There were 372 explicit criteria for assessing Web or app quality that were extracted from 25 published papers, conference proceedings, and Internet resources. There were five broad categories of criteria that were identified including four objective quality scales: engagement, functionality, aesthetics, and information quality; and one subjective quality scale; which were refined into the 23-item MARS. The MARS demonstrated excellent internal consistency (alpha = .90) and interrater reliability intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC = .79). The MARS is a simple, objective, and reliable tool for classifying and assessing the quality of mobile health apps. It can also be used to provide a checklist for the design and development of new high quality health apps.

  4. Using visual rating to diagnose dementia: a critical evaluation of MRI atrophy scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Lorna; Barkhof, Frederik; Fox, Nick C; Schott, Jonathan M

    2015-11-01

    Visual rating scales, developed to assess atrophy in patients with cognitive impairment, offer a cost-effective diagnostic tool that is ideally suited for implementation in clinical practice. By focusing attention on brain regions susceptible to change in dementia and enforcing structured reporting of these findings, visual rating can improve the sensitivity, reliability and diagnostic value of radiological image interpretation. Brain imaging is recommended in all current diagnostic guidelines relating to dementia, and recent guidelines have also recommended the application of medial temporal lobe atrophy rating. Despite these recommendations, and the ease with which rating scales can be applied, there is still relatively low uptake in routine clinical assessments. Careful consideration of atrophy rating scales is needed to verify their diagnostic potential and encourage uptake among clinicians. Determining the added value of combining scores from visual rating in different brain regions may also increase the diagnostic value of these tools. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Parsing the heterogeneity of depression: An exploratory factor analysis across commonly used depression rating scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Elizabeth D; Yarrington, Julia S; Farmer, Cristan A; Lener, Marc S; Kadriu, Bashkim; Lally, Níall; Williams, Deonte; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Niciu, Mark J; Park, Lawrence; Zarate, Carlos A

    2018-04-15

    Due to the heterogeneity of depressive symptoms-which can include depressed mood, anhedonia, negative cognitive biases, and altered activity levels-researchers often use a combination of depression rating scales to assess symptoms. This study sought to identify unidimensional constructs measured across rating scales for depression and to evaluate these constructs across clinical trials of a rapid-acting antidepressant (ketamine). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on baseline ratings from the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Rating Scale (SHAPS). Inpatients with major depressive disorder (n = 76) or bipolar depression (n = 43) were participating in clinical ketamine trials. The trajectories of the resulting unidimensional scores were evaluated in 41 subjects with bipolar depression who participated in clinical ketamine trials. The best solution, which exhibited excellent fit to the data, comprised eight factors: Depressed Mood, Tension, Negative Cognition, Impaired Sleep, Suicidal Thoughts, Reduced Appetite, Anhedonia, and Amotivation. Various response patterns were observed across the clinical trial data, both in treatment effect (ketamine versus placebo) and in degree of placebo response, suggesting that use of these unidimensional constructs may reveal patterns not observed with traditional scoring of individual instruments. Limitations include: 1) small sample (and related inability to confirm measurement invariance); 2) absence of an independent sample for confirmation of factor structure; and 3) the treatment-resistant nature of the population, which may limit generalizability. The empirical identification of unidimensional constructs creates more refined scores that may elucidate the connection between specific symptoms and underlying pathophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Factor Analysis of the Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale for Children in Head Start Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cress, Cynthia; Lambert, Matthew C.; Epstein, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Strength-based assessment of behaviors in preschool children provides evidence of emotional and behavioral skills in children, rather than focusing primarily on weaknesses identified by deficit-based assessments. The Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scales (PreBERS) is a normative assessment of emotional and behavioral strengths in…

  7. Development of a student rating scale to evaluate teachers' competencies for facilitating reflective learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Cohen-Schotanus; M. Verkerk; H. Dekker; J. Schönrock-Adema; Mirabelle Schaub-de Jong

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: teaching students in reflection calls for specific teacher competencies. We developed and validated a rating scale focusing on Student perceptions of their Teachers' competencies to Encourage Reflective Learning in small Groups (STERLinG). METHODS: we applied an iterative procedure to

  8. Development of a student rating scale to evaluate teachers' competencies for facilitating reflective learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaub-de Jong, Mirabelle A.; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; Dekker, Hanke; Verkerk, Marian; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    Context Teaching students in reflection calls for specific teacher competencies. We developed and validated a rating scale focusing on Student perceptions of their Teachers' competencies to Encourage Reflective Learning in small Groups (STERLinG). Methods We applied an iterative procedure to reduce

  9. Disagreements in meta-analyses using outcomes measured on continuous or rating scales: observer agreement study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tendal, Britta; Higgins, Julian P T; Jüni, Peter

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the inter-observer variation related to extraction of continuous and numerical rating scale data from trial reports for use in meta-analyses. DESIGN: Observer agreement study. DATA SOURCES: A random sample of 10 Cochrane reviews that presented a result as a standardised mean...

  10. Using Generalizability Theory to Examine the Dependability of Scores from the Learning Target Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Tara W.; Snyder, Patricia A.; Algina, James

    2017-01-01

    The Learning Target Rating Scale (LTRS) is a measure designed to evaluate the quality of teacher-developed learning targets for embedded instruction for early learning. In the present study, we examined the measurement dependability of LTRS scores by conducting a generalizability study (G-study). We used a partially nested, three-facet model to…

  11. Basal metabolic rate scaled to body mass within species by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basal metabolic rate scaled to body mass within species by the fractal dimension of the vascular system and body composition. ... The postulate bd = c is shown to hold for both these species within the limits of experimental error, with the crucian carp evidence being especially convincing, since b, c and d are estimated from ...

  12. Basal metabolic rate scaled to body mass between species by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The principal reason that basal metabolic rate (BMR) and MMR scale with different power exponents to whole body mass is that MMR is due mainly to respiration in skeletal muscle during exercise and BMR to respiration in the viscera during rest. It follows, therefore, from the self-similarity of the vascular system that BMR is ...

  13. Dependability and Treatment Sensitivity of Multi-Item Direct Behavior Rating Scales for Interpersonal Peer Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Brian; Volpe, Robert J.; Briesch, Amy M.; Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2017-01-01

    Direct behavior rating (DBR) represents a feasible method for monitoring student behavior in the classroom; however, limited work to date has focused on the use of multi-item scales. The purposes of the study were to examine the (a) dependability of data obtained from a multi-item DBR designed to assess peer conflict and (b) treatment sensitivity…

  14. The development and validation of a rating scale for ESL essay writing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article describes an empirical procedure for developing and validating a rating scale for assessing essays in English as a second language. The study was motivated by a concern for the validity of the scoring grid currently used to assess ESL essay writing at Grade 12 in the final end-of-year examination in South Africa ...

  15. Quality of Child Care Using the Environment Rating Scales: A Meta-Analysis of International Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Harriet J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Cárcamo, Rodrigo A.; Harrison, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    The current study provides a systematic examination of child care quality around the globe, using the Environment Rating Scales (ERS). Additional goals of this study are to examine associations between ERS process quality and structural features (group size, caregiver-child ratio) that underpin quality and between ERS and more proximal aspects of…

  16. Reliability and discriminant validity of ataxia rating scales in early onset ataxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, R.; Lawerman, T. F.; Kuiper, M. J.; Geffen, van Joke; Lunsing, I. J.; Burger, H.; de Koning, T. J.; de Vries, J. J.; de Koning-Tijssen, M. A. J.; Sival, D. A.

    Objective: To determine observer-agreement and discriminantvalidity of ataxia rating scales.Background: In children and young adults, Early Onset Ataxia(EOA) is frequently concurrent with other Movement Disorders,resulting in moderate inter-observer agreement among MovementDisorder professionals. To

  17. Reliability and discriminant validity of ataxia rating scales in early onset ataxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Rick; Lawerman, Tjitske F.; Kuiper, Marieke J.; Lunsing, Roelineke J.; Burger, Huibert; Sival, Deborah A.

    AIM To determine whether ataxia rating scales are reliable disease biomarkers for early onset ataxia (EOA). METHOD In 40 patients clinically identified with EOA (28 males, 12 females; mean age 15y 3mo [range 5-34y]), we determined interobserver and intraobserver agreement (interclass correlation

  18. Response Styles In Rating Scales: Evidence of Method Bias in Data from 6 EU Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herk, H.; Poortinga, Y.H.; Verhallen, T.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    In cross-cultural studies with social variables such as values or attitudes, it is often assumed that differences in scores can be compared at face value. However, response styles like acquiescence and extreme response style may affect answers, particularly on rating scales. In three sets of data

  19. Using visual rating to diagnose dementia: a critical evaluation of MRI atrophy scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harper, L.; Barkhof, F.; Fox, N.; Schott, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Visual rating scales, developed to assess atrophy in patients with cognitive impairment, offer a cost-effective diagnostic tool that is ideally suited for implementation in clinical practice. By focusing attention on brain regions susceptible to change in dementia and enforcing structured reporting

  20. Evidence Based Clinical Assessment of Child and Adolescent Social Phobia: A Critical Review of Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulbure, Bogdan T.; Szentagotai, Aurora; Dobrean, Anca; David, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Investigating the empirical support of various assessment instruments, the evidence based assessment approach expands the scientific basis of psychotherapy. Starting from Hunsley and Mash's evaluative framework, we critically reviewed the rating scales designed to measure social anxiety or phobia in youth. Thirteen of the most researched social…

  1. Response and Remission in Adolescent Mania: Signal Detection Analyses of the Young Mania Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nick C.; Patrick, Danielle M.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Strakowski, Stephen M.; Delbello, Melissa P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine optimal criteria for defining response and remission in adolescents with acute mania. Method: Data were analyzed from three treatment studies of adolescents with acute mania (N = 99). Trained raters completed the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and clinicians completed the Clinical Global…

  2. Identifying Dental Anxiety in Children's Drawings and correlating It with Frankl's Behavior Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Jyoti; Diwanji, Amish; Sarvaiya, Bhumi; Sharma, Dipal

    2017-01-01

    To develop a simple method to assess the level of anxiety by using children's drawings and correlating them with Frankl's behavior rating scale. A total of 178 patients aged of 3 to 14 years were handed out two-page forms which contained three sections on coloring and drawing, along with general information, and Frankl's behavior rating scale for the visit. The three types of drawing exercises given to the patients were geometric copy drawings, coloring a nonthreatening figure, and an empty sheet for freehand drawing. Out of 178 patients, 60 showed definitely positive behavior, 73 exhibited positive behavior, 37 showed negative behavior, and 8 were definitely negative on Frankl's behavior rating scale; 133 children had none or, 1 stress marker and 45 exhibited 2 or 3 stress markers in their drawings. Chi-square (χ 2 ) analysis was done with a 2 × 2 contingency table. Observed χ 2 value was 46.166, which at 1 degree of freedom was much greater than that at 0.995 percentile. Therefore, the result was highly significant. Children requiring specialized behavioral techniques can be identified by the presence of stress markers in their drawings. This nonverbal activity by itself can have an overall positive effect on the behavior displayed in the dental clinic. Mathur J, Diwanji A, Sarvaiya B, Sharma D. Identifying Dental Anxiety in Children's Drawings and correlating It with Frankl's Behavior Rating Scale. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):24-28.

  3. Identifying Young Gifted Children Using the Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Steven I; Petscher, Yaacov

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on an analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of a new teacher rating scale designed to assist in the identification of gifted preschool and kindergarten students. The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form (GRS-P) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness. An examination of the standardization sample using diagnostic efficiency statistics provides support for the diagnostic accuracy of the GRS-P Intellectual Ability and Academic Ability scales identifying intellectual giftedness, irrespective of the IQ cut score used to demarcate giftedness. The present findings extend the analysis of the standardization sample reported in the test manual and provide additional support for the GRS-P as a gifted screening tool.

  4. The Parenting Anxious Kids Ratings Scale-Parent Report (PAKRS-PR): Initial Scale Development and Psychometric Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flessner, Christopher A; Murphy, Yolanda E; Brennan, Elle; D'Auria, Alexandra

    2017-08-01

    Developmental models of pediatric anxiety posit multiple, maladaptive parenting behaviors as potential risk factors. Despite this, a standardized means of assessing multiple of these practices (i.e., anxiogenic parenting) in a comprehensive and efficient manner are lacking. In Study 1531 parents of children 7-17 years old completed an online survey via Amazon Mechanical Turk. In Study 2, a separate community sample (N = 109; 9-17 years old) was recruited and completed a comprehensive assessment battery as part of a larger study. All parents (Study 1 and 2 samples) completed the Parenting Anxious Kids Ratings Scale-Parent Report (PAKRS-PR), a measurement tool designed to assess anxiogenic parenting. Factor analysis conducted as part of Study 1 revealed a 32-item scale consisting of five factors: conflict, overinvolvement, accommodation/beliefs, modeling, and emotional warmth/support. Four of these factors were significantly correlated with parent-report of anxiety severity. Within Study 2, the parents of children diagnosed with an anxiety or related disorder reported significantly higher levels of anxiogenic parenting practices as compared to the parents of healthy controls. The PAKRS-PR and respective subscales demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity in both the internet (Study 1) and community (Study 2) samples. The PAKRS-PR may be a beneficial multidimensional parenting scale for use among anxious youths.

  5. Overcoming time scale and finite size limitations to compute nucleation rates from small scale well tempered metadynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvalaglio, Matteo; Tiwary, Pratyush; Maggioni, Giovanni Maria; Mazzotti, Marco; Parrinello, Michele

    2016-12-01

    Condensation of a liquid droplet from a supersaturated vapour phase is initiated by a prototypical nucleation event. As such it is challenging to compute its rate from atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. In fact at realistic supersaturation conditions condensation occurs on time scales that far exceed what can be reached with conventional molecular dynamics methods. Another known problem in this context is the distortion of the free energy profile associated to nucleation due to the small, finite size of typical simulation boxes. In this work the problem of time scale is addressed with a recently developed enhanced sampling method while contextually correcting for finite size effects. We demonstrate our approach by studying the condensation of argon, and showing that characteristic nucleation times of the order of magnitude of hours can be reliably calculated. Nucleation rates spanning a range of 10 orders of magnitude are computed at moderate supersaturation levels, thus bridging the gap between what standard molecular dynamics simulations can do and real physical systems.

  6. [Psychometric properties of three rating scales for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Chilean students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzúa, Alfonso; Domic, Marcos; Ramos, Mireya; Cerda, Andrea; Quiroz, Jael

    2010-03-01

    To assess, among Chilean students, the reliability and validity of three scales that measure attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-IV); the scale for evaluating attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (EDAH); and Spain's version of the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (Spa-ADHD-IV). A study of the instruments was conducted with the tutors (n = 612) and teachers (n = 82) of a controlled sample of 640 children 6-11 years of age, who were students attending public schools (n = 228, 35.6% of total), subsidized schools (n = 200, 31.3%), or private schools (n = 212, 33.1%) in Antofagasta, Chile. The convergent validity of the ADHD rating instruments was determined using Stroop and Wechsler tests. All three scales studied had satisfactory levels of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.88-0.97 for the scales; 0.76-0.97 for the items) and a factor structure that was theoretically-aligned for most of the assessment areas, although only the Spa-ADHD-IV with tutors and teachers and the ADHD-IV with teachers had comparative and relative fit indices greater than 0.90. Significant differences were found by age, gender, and type of evaluator (tutor or teacher). The ADHD-IV and Spa-ADHD-IV met all reliability and validity criteria; so both may be applied for screening and diagnosis in the Chilean population. The Spa-ADHD-IV scale offers the best psychometric properties based on its reliability and validity.

  7. A self-rating scale to measure tridoṣas in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchitra, S P; Nagendra, H R

    2013-10-01

    Self - rating inventories to assess the Prakṛti (constitution) and personality have been developed and validated for adults. To analyze the effect of personality development programs on Prakṛti of the children, standardized scale is not available. Hence, present study was carried out to develop and standardize Caraka Child Personality inventory (CCPI). The 77- item CCPI scale was developed on the basis of translation of Sanskrit verses describing vātaja (a), pittaja (b) and kaphaja prakṛti (c) characteristics described in Ayurveda texts and by taking the opinions of 5 Ayurveda experts and psychologists. The scale was administered on children of the age group 8-12 years in New Generation National public school, Bangalore. This inventory was named CCPI and showed excellent internal consistency. The Cronbach's alpha for A, B and C scales were 0.54, 0.64 and 0.64 respectively. The Split - Half reliability scores for A, B and C subscales were 0.64. 0.60 and 0.66 respectively. Factor validity coefficient Scores on each item was above 0.4. Scores on vātaja, pittaja and kaphaja scales were inversely correlated. Test-retest reliability scores for A,B and C scales were 0.87,0.88 and 0.89 respectively. The result of CCPI was compared with a parent rating scale Ayurveda Child Personality Inventory (ACPI). Subscales of CCPI correlated significantly highly (above 0.80) with subscales of ACPI which was done for the purpose of cross-validation with respect to ACPI. The prakṛti of the children can be measured consistently by this scale. Correlations with ACPI pointed toward concurrent validity.

  8. The Menopause Rating Scale (MRS as outcome measure for hormone treatment? A validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnitker Jörg

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The Menopause Rating Scale is a health-related Quality of Life scale developed in the early 1990s and step-by-step validated since then. No methodologically detailed work on the utility of the scale to assess health-related changes after treatment was published before. Method We analysed an open, uncontrolled post-marketing study with over 9000 women with pre- and post-treatment data of the MRS scale to critically evaluate the capacity of the scale to measure the health-related effects of hormone treatment independent from the severity of complaints at baseline. Results The improvement of complaints during treatment relative to the baseline score was 36% in average. Patients with little/no complaints before therapy improved by 11%, those with mild complaints at entry by 32%, with moderate by 44%, and with severe symptoms by 55% – compared with the baseline score. We showed that the distribution of complaints in women before therapy returned to norm values after 6 months of hormone treatment. We also provided weak evidence that the MRS results may well predict the assessment of the treating physician. Limitations of the study, however, may have lead to overestimating the utility of the MRS scale as outcome measure. Conclusion The MRS scale showed some evidence for its ability to measure treatment effects on quality of life across the full range of severity of complaints in aging women. This however needs confirmation in other and better-designed clinical/outcome studies.

  9. Development of abbreviated measures to assess patient trust in a physician, a health insurer, and the medical profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trachtenberg Felicia

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the recent proliferation in research on patient trust, it is seldom a primary outcome, and is often a peripheral area of interest. The length of our original scales to measure trust may limit their use because of the practical needs to minimize both respondent burden and research cost. The objective of this study was to develop three abbreviated scales to measure trust in: (1 a physician, (2 a health insurer, and (3 the medical profession. Methods Data from two samples were used. The first was a telephone survey of English-speaking adults in the United States (N = 1117 and the second was a telephone survey of English-speaking adults residing in North Carolina who were members of a health maintenance organization (N = 1024. Data were analyzed to examine data completeness, scaling assumptions, internal consistency properties, and factor structure. Results Abbreviated measures (5-items were developed for each of the three scales. Cronbach's alpha was 0.87 for trust in a physician (test-retest reliability = 0.71, 0.84 for trust in a health insurer (test-retest reliability = 0.73, and 0.77 for trust in the medical profession. Conclusion Assessment of data completeness, scale score dispersion characteristics, reliability and validity test results all provide evidence for the soundness of the abbreviated 5-item scales.

  10. Validation of computer-administered clinical rating scale: Hamilton Depression Rating Scale assessment with Interactive Voice Response technology--Japanese version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunugi, Hiroshi; Koga, Norie; Hashikura, Miyako; Noda, Takamasa; Shimizu, Yu; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Yamanaka, Jun; Kanemoto, Noriaki; Higuchi, Teruhiko

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Interactive Voice Response (IVR) program to rate the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) score in Japanese depressive patients. Depression severity was assessed in 60 patients by a clinician and psychologists using HAM-D. Scoring by the IVR program was conducted on the same and the following days. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and concurrent validity for total HAM-D scores were examined by calculating intraclass correlation coefficient, Cronbach's alpha, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Inter-rater consistency for each HAM-D item was examined by Cohen's kappa. Test-retest reliability of the IVR program was high (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.93). Internal consistency of each total score obtained by the clinician, psychologists, and IVR program was high (Cronbach's alpha: 0.77, 0.79, 0.78, and 0.83). Regarding concurrent validity, correlation coefficients between total scores obtained by the clinician versus IVR and that by the clinician versus psychologists were high (0.81 and 0.93). The HAM-D total score rated by the clinician was 3 points lower than that of IVR. Inter-rater consistency for each HAM-D item evaluated by the clinician versus IVR was estimated to be fair (Cohen's kappa coefficient: 0.02-0.50). Our results suggest that the Japanese IVR HAM-D program is reliable and valid to assess 17-item HAM-D total score in Japanese depressive patients. However, the current program tends to overestimate depression severity, and the score of each item did not always show high agreement with clinician's rating, which warrants further improvement in the program. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  11. REPAS, a summary rating scale for resistance to passive movement: item selection, reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platz, Thomas; Vuadens, P; Eickhof, Christel; Arnold, P; Van Kaick, Stefanie; Heise, Kirstin

    2008-01-01

    To establish: (i) item characteristics and item selection for the REPAS; (ii) internal consistency, inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the final REPAS version and its subtests; (iii) the association between the REPAS and selected other clinical scales of impairment and activity limitation. Thirty-three neurological patients with central paresis. Two REPAS assessments with a one-week interval by two independent raters. Concurrent assessment of the Motricity Index, Box-and-Block test, Functional Ambulation Category, Timed walking, Barthel Index, Disability Rating Scale, Carer Burden Scale, and Hygiene Score. Twenty-six of 52 REPAS items fulfilled the item selection criteria. The final test version showed a high internal consistency, inter-rater and test-retest reliability (correlation coefficients: 0.87-0.97, no significant difference between raters or with test repetition). Reliability of the arm and leg subtests was substantial (correlation coefficients: arm subtest 0.63-0.98, leg subtest 0.56-0.96). REPAS scores were moderately associated with basic ADL competence and a carer's burden with arm or leg adductor spasticity. The REPAS, arm subtest scores, degree of arm paresis and gross manual dexterity showed a moderately high association. The Ashworth scale-based guidelines assured comparability of test administration and scoring. The REPAS is a reliable and valid summary rating scale for resistance to passive movement.

  12. Discriminant of validity the Wender Utah rating scale in Iranian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Farokhzadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the normalization of the Wender Utah rating scale which is used to detect adults with Attention-Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. Available sampling method was used to choose 400 parents of children (200 parents of children with ADHD as compared to 200 parents of normal children. Wender Utah rating scale, which has been designed to diagnose ADHD in adults, is filled out by each of the parents to most accurately diagnose of ADHD in parents. Wender Utah rating scale was divided into 6 sub scales which consist of dysthymia, oppositional defiant disorder; school work problems, conduct disorder, anxiety, and ADHD were analyzed with exploratory factor analysis method. The value of (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin KMO was 86.5% for dysthymia, 86.9% for oppositional defiant disorder, 77.5% for school related problems, 90.9% for conduct disorder, 79.6% for anxiety and 93.5% for Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, also the chi square value based on Bartlett's Test was 2242.947 for dysthymia, 2239.112 for oppositional defiant disorder, 1221.917 for school work problems, 5031.511 for conduct, 1421.1 for anxiety, and 7644.122 for ADHD. Since mentioned values were larger than the chi square critical values (P<0.05, it found that the factor correlation matrix is appropriate for factor analysis. Based on the findings, we can conclude that Wender Utah rating scale can be appropriately used for predicting dysthymia, oppositional defiant disorder, school work problems, conduct disorder, anxiety, in adults with ADHD.

  13. Beyond the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale: deep brain stimulation in childhood secondary dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Hortensia; Tustin, Kylee; Selway, Richard; Lin, Jean-Pierre

    2012-09-01

    Deep brain stimulation is now widely accepted as an effective treatment for children with primary generalized dystonia. More variable results are reported in secondary dystonias and its efficacy in this heterogeneous group has not been fully elucidated. Deep brain stimulation outcomes are typically reported using impairment-focused measures, such as the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale, which provide little information about function and participation outcomes or changes in non-motor areas. The aim is to demonstrate that in some cases of secondary dystonia, the sole use of impairment level measures, such as the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale, may be insufficient to fully evaluate outcome following deep brain stimulation. Six paediatric cases who underwent deep brain stimulation surgery with a minimum of one year follow up were selected on the basis of apparent non-response to deep brain stimulation, defined as a clinically insignificant change in the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Movement Scale (<20%), but where other evaluation measures demonstrated clinical efficacy across several domains. Despite no significant change in Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale scores following deep brain stimulation, parallel outcome measures demonstrated significant benefit in a range of child and family-centred goal areas including: pain and comfort, school attendance, seating tolerance, access to assistive technology and in some cases carer burden. Sole use of impairment-focused measures, are limited in scope to evaluate outcome following deep brain stimulation, particularly in secondary dystonias. Systematic study of effects across multiple dimensions of disability is needed to determine what deep brain stimulation offers patients in terms of function, participation, care, comfort and quality of life. Deep brain stimulation may offer meaningful change across multiple domains of functioning, disability and health even in the absence of significant change in

  14. Evaluating machine learning algorithms estimating tremor severity ratings on the Bain-Findley scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohanandan, Shivanthan A. C.; Jones, Mary; Peppard, Richard; Tan, Joy L.; McDermott, Hugh J.; Perera, Thushara

    2016-12-01

    Tremor is a debilitating symptom of some movement disorders. Effective treatment, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), is contingent upon frequent clinical assessments using instruments such as the Bain-Findley tremor rating scale (BTRS). Many patients, however, do not have access to frequent clinical assessments. Wearable devices have been developed to provide patients with access to frequent objective assessments outside the clinic via telemedicine. Nevertheless, the information they report is not in the form of BTRS ratings. One way to transform this information into BTRS ratings is through linear regression models (LRMs). Another, potentially more accurate method is through machine learning classifiers (MLCs). This study aims to compare MLCs and LRMs, and identify the most accurate model that can transform objective tremor information into tremor severity ratings on the BTRS. Nine participants with upper limb tremor had their DBS stimulation amplitude varied while they performed clinical upper-extremity exercises. Tremor features were acquired using the tremor biomechanics analysis laboratory (TREMBAL). Movement disorder specialists rated tremor severity on the BTRS from video recordings. Seven MLCs and 6 LRMs transformed TREMBAL features into tremor severity ratings on the BTRS using the specialists’ ratings as training data. The weighted Cohen’s kappa ({κ\\text{w}} ) defined the models’ rating accuracy. This study shows that the Random Forest MLC was the most accurate model ({κ\\text{w}}   =  0.81) at transforming tremor information into BTRS ratings, thereby improving the clinical interpretation of tremor information obtained from wearable devices.

  15. Reliability and validity of a self-rated analogue scale for global measure of successful aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwee, Xinyi; Nyunt, Ma Shwe Zin; Kua, Ee Heok; Jeste, Dilip V; Kumar, Rajeev; Ng, Tze Pin

    2014-08-01

    Dimension-specific objective measures are criticized for their limited perspective and failure to endorse subjective perceptions by respondents, but the validity and correlates of a subjective global measure of successful aging (SA) are still not well established. We evaluated the reliability and validity of a self-rated analogue scale of global SA in an elderly Singaporean population. Cross-sectional data analysis using a comprehensive questionnaire survey. 489 community-dwelling Singaporeans aged 65 years and over. Self-rated SA on an analogue scale from 1 (least successful) to 10 (most successful) was analyzed for its relationship to criterion-based measures of five specific dimensions (physical health and function, mental well-being, social engagement, psychological well-being, and spirituality/religiosity), as well as outcome measures (life satisfaction and quality of life). Self-rated SA was significantly correlated to measures of specific dimensions (standardized β from 0.11 to 0.39), most strongly with psychological functioning (β = 0.391). The five dimension-specific measures together accounted for 16.7% of the variance in self-rated SA. Self-rated SA best predicted life satisfaction (R(2) = 0.26) more than any dimension-specific measure (R(2) from 0.05 to 0.17). Self-rated SA, vis-à-vis dimension-specific measures, was related to a different set of correlates, and was notably independent of chronological age, sex, education, socioeconomic status, and medical comorbidity, but was significantly related to ethnicity. The self-rated analogue scale is a sensitive global measure of SA encompassing a spectrum of underlying dimensions and subjective perspectives and its validity is well supported in this study. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Strain rate, temperature and representative length scale influence on plasticity and yield stress in copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, Virginie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Germann, Timothy C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-18

    Shock compression of materials constitutes a complex process involving high strain rates, elevated temperatures and compression of the lattice. Materials properties are greatly affected by temperature, the representative length scale and the strain rate of the deformation. Experimentally, it is difficult to study the dynamic microscopic mechanisms that affect materials properties following high intensity shock loading, but they can be investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Moreover, MD allows a better control over some parameters. We are using MD simulations to study the effect of the strain rate, representative length scale and temperature on the properties of metals during compression. A half-million-atom Cu sample is subjected to strain rates ranging from 10{sup 7} s{sup -1} to 10{sup 12} s{sup -1} at different temperatures ranging from 50K to 1500K. Single crystals as well as polycrystals are investigated. Plasticity mechanisms as well as the evolution of the micro- and macro-yield stress are observed. Our results show that the yield stress increases with increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature. We also show that the strain rate at which the transition between constant and increasing yield stress as a function of the temperature occurs increases with increasing temperature. Calculations at different grain sizes will give an insight into the grain size effect on the plasticity mechanisms and the yield stress.

  17. Psychometric properties of the communication Confidence Rating Scale for Aphasia (CCRSA): phase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Leora R; Babbitt, Edna M; Semik, Patrick; Heinemann, Allen W

    2011-01-01

    Confidence is a construct that has not been explored previously in aphasia research. We developed the Communication Confidence Rating Scale for Aphasia (CCRSA) to assess confidence in communicating in a variety of activities and evaluated its psychometric properties using rating scale (Rasch) analysis. The CCRSA was administered to 21 individuals with aphasia before and after participation in a computer-based language therapy study. Person reliability of the 8-item CCRSA was .77. The 5-category rating scale demonstrated monotonic increases in average measures from low to high ratings. However, one item ("I follow news, sports, stories on TV/movies") misfit the construct defined by the other items (mean square infit = 1.69, item-measure correlation = .41). Deleting this item improved reliability to .79; the 7 remaining items demonstrated excellent fit to the underlying construct, although there was a modest ceiling effect in this sample. Pre- to posttreatment changes on the 7-item CCRSA measure were statistically significant using a paired samples t test. Findings support the reliability and sensitivity of the CCRSA in assessing participants' self-report of communication confidence. Further evaluation of communication confidence is required with larger and more diverse samples.

  18. Not Worth the Extra Cost? Diluting the Differentiation Ability of Highly Rated Products by Altering the Meaning of Rating Scale Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meissner, Martin; Heinzle, Stefanie Lena; Decker, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, the use of rating scales has grown in popularity in various fields, including customer online reviews and energy labels. Rating scales convey important information on attributes of products or services that consumers evaluate in their purchase decisions. By applying multidim...

  19. Detecting abbreviations in discharge summaries using machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yonghui; Rosenbloom, S Trent; Denny, Joshua C; Miller, Randolph A; Mani, Subramani; Giuse, Dario A; Xu, Hua

    2011-01-01

    Recognition and identification of abbreviations is an important, challenging task in clinical natural language processing (NLP). A comprehensive lexical resource comprised of all common, useful clinical abbreviations would have great applicability. The authors present a corpus-based method to create a lexical resource of clinical abbreviations using machine-learning (ML) methods, and tested its ability to automatically detect abbreviations from hospital discharge summaries. Domain experts manually annotated abbreviations in seventy discharge summaries, which were randomly broken into a training set (40 documents) and a test set (30 documents). We implemented and evaluated several ML algorithms using the training set and a list of pre-defined features. The subsequent evaluation using the test set showed that the Random Forest classifier had the highest F-measure of 94.8% (precision 98.8% and recall of 91.2%). When a voting scheme was used to combine output from various ML classifiers, the system achieved the highest F-measure of 95.7%.

  20. Which Global Rating Scale? A Comparison of the ASSET, BAKSSS, and IGARS for the Assessment of Simulated Arthroscopic Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Robert M; Baldwin, Mathew J; Akhtar, Kash; Alvand, Abtin; Rees, Jonathan L

    2016-01-06

    With the move to competency-based models of surgical training, a number of assessment methods have been developed. Of these, global rating scales have emerged as popular tools, and several are specific to the assessment of arthroscopic skills. Our aim was to determine which one of a group of commonly used global rating scales demonstrated superiority in the assessment of simulated arthroscopic skills. Sixty-three individuals of varying surgical experience performed a number of arthroscopic tasks on a virtual reality simulator (VirtaMed ArthroS). Performance was blindly assessed by two observers using three commonly used global rating scales used to assess simulated skills. Performance was also assessed by validated objective motion analysis. All of the global rating scales demonstrated construct validity, with significant differences between each skill level and each arthroscopic task (p rating scale. Correlations of global rating scale ratings with motion analysis were high and strong for each global rating scale when correlated with time taken (Spearman rho, -0.95 to -0.76; p rating scale demonstrated superiority as an assessment tool. For these commonly used arthroscopic global rating scales, none was particularly superior and any one score could therefore be used. Agreement on using a single score seems sensible, and it would seem unnecessary to develop further scales with the same domains for these purposes. Copyright © 2016 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  1. Time Scale Analysis of Interest Rate Spreads and Output Using Wavelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Gallegati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper adds to the literature on the information content of different spreads for real activity by explicitly taking into account the time scale relationship between a variety of monetary and financial indicators (real interest rate, term and credit spreads and output growth. By means of wavelet-based exploratory data analysis we obtain richer results relative to the aggregate analysis by identifying the dominant scales of variation in the data and the scales and location at which structural breaks have occurred. Moreover, using the “double residuals” regression analysis on a scale-by-scale basis, we find that changes in the spread in several markets have different information content for output at different time frames. This is consistent with the idea that allowing for different time scales of variation in the data can provide a fruitful understanding of the complex dynamics of economic relationships between variables with non-stationary or transient components, certainly richer than those obtained using standard time domain methods.

  2. Analysis of abbreviations used by residents in admission notes and discharge summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilo, L; Shilo, G

    2018-03-01

    There are abbreviations that are used daily such as BP for blood pressure and ECG for electrocardiogram, but many of the abbreviations found in medical documents are unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency, type and comprehension of abbreviations in admission notes and discharge letters composed by orthopedic surgery and medical residents. Abbreviations were extracted from discharge letters and admission notes composed by residents from orthopedic surgery and medical wards. The frequency of use of the abbreviations was determined. Additionally, the fifty commonest abbreviations from each specialty were graded by three medical and three orthopedic surgery senior physicians as 1. understandable or 2. Ambiguous or unknown. The number of abbreviations found in the documents composed by medical and orthopedic surgery residents was 1525 with 80 different abbreviations and 493 with 51 different abbreviations respectively (9.3% and 4.9% of the total word number respectively). Analysis revealed that 14% of the abbreviations from medical ward documents were graded as ambiguous or unknown by medical senior physicians compared with 25% by senior orthopedic surgeons. When abbreviations from orthopedic surgery documents were presented to both groups, senior orthopedic surgeons graded 8% as ambiguous or unknown compared with 21% by the medical senior physicians. In order to prevent impairment of patient care, only standard abbreviations should be used in medical documents. Measures should be taken to decrease the use of non standard abbreviations such as the incorporation of authorized abbreviations to the electronic medical record.

  3. Mobile App Rating Scale: A New Tool for Assessing the Quality of Health Mobile Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, David J; Zelenko, Oksana; Tjondronegoro, Dian; Mani, Madhavan

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of mobile apps for health and well being promotion has grown exponentially in recent years. Yet, there is currently no app-quality assessment tool beyond “star”-ratings. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a reliable, multidimensional measure for trialling, classifying, and rating the quality of mobile health apps. Methods A literature search was conducted to identify articles containing explicit Web or app quality rating criteria published between January 2000 and January 2013. Existing criteria for the assessment of app quality were categorized by an expert panel to develop the new Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS) subscales, items, descriptors, and anchors. There were sixty well being apps that were randomly selected using an iTunes search for MARS rating. There were ten that were used to pilot the rating procedure, and the remaining 50 provided data on interrater reliability. Results There were 372 explicit criteria for assessing Web or app quality that were extracted from 25 published papers, conference proceedings, and Internet resources. There were five broad categories of criteria that were identified including four objective quality scales: engagement, functionality, aesthetics, and information quality; and one subjective quality scale; which were refined into the 23-item MARS. The MARS demonstrated excellent internal consistency (alpha = .90) and interrater reliability intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC = .79). Conclusions The MARS is a simple, objective, and reliable tool for classifying and assessing the quality of mobile health apps. It can also be used to provide a checklist for the design and development of new high quality health apps. PMID:25760773

  4. A Rating Scale for the Functional Assessment of Patients with Familial Dysautonomia (Riley Day Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Felicia B.; Rolnitzky, Linda; von Simson, Gabrielle Gold; Berlin, Dena; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop a reliable rating scale to assess functional capacity in children with familial dysautonomia, evaluate changes over time and determine whether severity within a particular functional category at a young age affected survival. Study design Ten functional categories were retrospectively assessed in 123 patients with familial dysautonomia at age 7 years ± 6 months. Each of the ten Functional Severity Scale (FuSS) categories (motor development, cognitive ability, psychological status, expressive speech, balance, oral coordination, frequency of dysautonomic crisis, respiratory, cardiovascular and nutritional status) was scored from 1 (worst or severely affected) to 5 (best or no impairment). Changes over time were analyzed further in 22 of the 123 patients who were also available at ages 17 and 27 years. Results Severely impaired cardiovascular function and high frequency of dysautonomic crisis negatively affected survival (pdysautonomia. The scale may prove useful in providing prognosis and as a complementary endpoint in clinical trials. PMID:22727867

  5. Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid in lab-scale precipitate reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannochie, C.J.; Marek, J.C.; Eibling, R.E.; Baich, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Removing aromatic carbon from an aqueous slurry of cesium-137 and other alkali tetraphenylborates by acid hydrolysis will be an important step in preparing high-level radioactive waste for vitrification at the Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Kinetic data obtained in bench-scale precipitate hydrolysis reactors suggest changes in operating parameters to improve product quality in the future plant-scale radioactive operation. The rate-determining step is the removal of the fourth phenyl group, i.e. hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid. Efforts to maximize this rate have established the importance of several factors in the system, including the ratio of copper(II) catalyst to formic acid, the presence of nitrite ion, reactions of diphenylmercury, and the purge gas employed in the system

  6. Validation of the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijun; Pfeiffer, Steven I; Petscher, Yaacov; Kumtepe, Alper T; Mo, Guofang

    2008-01-01

    The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S), a teacher-completed rating scale, is designed to identify five types of giftedness and motivation. This study examines the reliability and validity of a Chinese-translated version of the GRS-S with a sample of Chinese elementary and middle school students ( N = 499). The Chinese GRSS was found to have high internal consistency. Results of the confirmatory factor analysis corroborated the six-factor solution of the original GRS-S. Comparison of the GRS-S scores and measures of academic performance provide preliminary support for the criterion validity of the Chinese-translated GRS-S. Significant age and gender differences on the Chinese GRS-S were found. Results provide preliminary support for the Chinese version of the GRS-S as a reliable and valid measure of giftedness for Chinese students.

  7. The development of a rating scale to screen social and emotional detachment in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholte, E M; van der Ploeg, J D

    2007-01-01

    Rating scales to assess psychopathic characteristics in children and adolescents show a considerable item overlap with rating scales to assess attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms. The aim of this study is to preliminary test a short questionnaire clinicians can use to screen the unique characteristics of psychopathy. Parental ratings of psychopathic characteristics and symptoms of ADHD, ODD and CD were gathered in a community sample of 2535 4-18-year-old Dutch children. The dimensionality of the ratings was determined by factor analysis and related to ADHD, ODD and CD. Two factors emerged covering egocentric-narcissistic and callous-unemotional characteristics. To avoid unnecessary stigmatization of youngsters the first factor is referred to as the "social detachment dimension" and the second as the "emotional detachment dimension". Parental ratings were reliable across all age and gender groups, and correlated moderately with ODD and CD, but not with ADHD. Preliminary findings support a two-dimensional syndrome depicting respectively narcissistic and unemotional characteristics. The syndrome is associated with ODD and CD symptoms and possibly depicts a subtype of the ODD/CD childhood disorder. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Bioreactor scale-up and oxygen transfer rate in microbial processes: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ochoa, Felix; Gomez, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    In aerobic bioprocesses, oxygen is a key substrate; due to its low solubility in broths (aqueous solutions), a continuous supply is needed. The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) must be known, and if possible predicted to achieve an optimum design operation and scale-up of bioreactors. Many studies have been conducted to enhance the efficiency of oxygen transfer. The dissolved oxygen concentration in a suspension of aerobic microorganisms depends on the rate of oxygen transfer from the gas phase to the liquid, on the rate at which oxygen is transported into the cells (where it is consumed), and on the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) by the microorganism for growth, maintenance and production. The gas-liquid mass transfer in a bioprocess is strongly influenced by the hydrodynamic conditions in the bioreactors. These conditions are known to be a function of energy dissipation that depends on the operational conditions, the physicochemical properties of the culture, the geometrical parameters of the bioreactor and also on the presence of oxygen consuming cells. Stirred tank and bubble column (of various types) bioreactors are widely used in a large variety of bioprocesses (such as aerobic fermentation and biological wastewater treatments, among others). Stirred tanks bioreactors provide high values of mass and heat transfer rates and excellent mixing. In these systems, a high number of variables affect the mass transfer and mixing, but the most important among them are stirrer speed, type and number of stirrers and gas flow rate used. In bubble columns and airlifts, the low-shear environment compared to the stirred tanks has enabled successful cultivation of shear sensitive and filamentous cells. Oxygen transfer is often the rate-limiting step in the aerobic bioprocess due to the low solubility of oxygen in the medium. The correct measurement and/or prediction of the volumetric mass transfer coefficient, (k(L)a), is a crucial step in the design, operation and scale-up of

  9. Regional processes in mangrove ecosystems: Spatial scaling relationships, biomass, and turnover rates following catastrophic disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, G.A.; Smith, T. J.; Whelan, K.R.T.; Doyle, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Physiological processes and local-scale structural dynamics of mangroves are relatively well studied. Regional-scale processes, however, are not as well understood. Here we provide long-term data on trends in structure and forest turnover at a large scale, following hurricane damage in mangrove ecosystems of South Florida, U.S.A. Twelve mangrove vegetation plots were monitored at periodic intervals, between October 1992 and March 2005. Mangrove forests of this region are defined by a -1.5 scaling relationship between mean stem diameter and stem density, mirroring self-thinning theory for mono-specific stands. This relationship is reflected in tree size frequency scaling exponents which, through time, have exhibited trends toward a community average that is indicative of full spatial resource utilization. These trends, together with an asymptotic standing biomass accumulation, indicate that coastal mangrove ecosystems do adhere to size-structured organizing principles as described for upland tree communities. Regenerative dynamics are different between areas inside and outside of the primary wind-path of Hurricane Andrew which occurred in 1992. Forest dynamic turnover rates, however, are steady through time. This suggests that ecological, more-so than structural factors, control forest productivity. In agreement, the relative mean rate of biomass growth exhibits an inverse relationship with the seasonal range of porewater salinities. The ecosystem average in forest scaling relationships may provide a useful investigative tool of mangrove community biomass relationships, as well as offer a robust indicator of general ecosystem health for use in mangrove forest ecosystem management and restoration. ?? Springer 2006.

  10. Large-scale calculations of the beta-decay rates and r-process nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borzov, I.N.; Goriely, S. [Inst. d`Astronomie et d`Astrophysique, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, Bruxelles (Belgium); Pearson, J.M. [Inst. d`Astronomie et d`Astrophysique, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, Bruxelles (Belgium)]|[Lab. de Physique Nucleaire, Univ. de Montreal, Montreal (Canada)

    1998-06-01

    An approximation to a self-consistent model of the ground state and {beta}-decay properties of neutron-rich nuclei is outlined. The structure of the {beta}-strength functions in stable and short-lived nuclei is discussed. The results of large-scale calculations of the {beta}-decay rates for spherical and slightly deformed nuclides of relevance to the r-process are analysed and compared with the results of existing global calculations and recent experimental data. (orig.)

  11. Combining agreement and frequency rating scales to optimize psychometrics in measuring behavioral health functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Ni, Pengsheng; Chan, Leighton; Rasch, Elizabeth K; Jette, Alan M

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this article was to investigate optimal functioning of using frequency vs. agreement rating scales in two subdomains of the newly developed Work Disability Functional Assessment Battery: the Mood & Emotions and Behavioral Control scales. A psychometric study comparing rating scale performance embedded in a cross-sectional survey used for developing a new instrument to measure behavioral health functioning among adults applying for disability benefits in the United States was performed. Within the sample of 1,017 respondents, the range of response category endorsement was similar for both frequency and agreement item types for both scales. There were fewer missing values in the frequency items than the agreement items. Both frequency and agreement items showed acceptable reliability. The frequency items demonstrated optimal effectiveness around the mean ± 1-2 standard deviation score range; the agreement items performed better at the extreme score ranges. Findings suggest an optimal response format requires a mix of both agreement-based and frequency-based items. Frequency items perform better in the normal range of responses, capturing specific behaviors, reactions, or situations that may elicit a specific response. Agreement items do better for those whose scores are more extreme and capture subjective content related to general attitudes, behaviors, or feelings of work-related behavioral health functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fractal scaling behavior of heart rate variability in response to meditation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, J.; Rodríguez, E.; Echeverría, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The scaling properties of heart rate variability in premeditation and meditation states were studied. • Mindfulness meditation induces a decrement of the HRV long-range scaling correlations. • Mindfulness meditation can be regarded as a type of induced deep sleep-like dynamics. - Abstract: The rescaled range (R/S) analysis was used for analyzing the fractal scaling properties of heart rate variability (HRV) of subjects undergoing premeditation and meditation states. Eight novice subjects and four advanced practitioners were considered. The corresponding pre-meditation and meditation HRV data were obtained from the Physionet database. The results showed that mindfulness meditation induces a decrement of the HRV long-range scaling correlations as quantified with the time-variant Hurst exponent. The Hurst exponent for advanced meditation practitioners decreases up to values of 0.5, reflecting uncorrelated (e.g., white noise-like) HRV dynamics. Some parallelisms between mindfulness meditation and deep sleep (Stage 4) are discussed, suggesting that the former can be regarded as a type of induced deep sleep-like dynamics.

  13. The reliability of a severity rating scale to measure stuttering in an unfamiliar language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Laura; Wilson, Linda; Copley, Anna; Hewat, Sally; Lim, Valerie

    2014-06-01

    With increasing multiculturalism, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are likely to work with stuttering clients from linguistic backgrounds that differ from their own. No research to date has estimated SLPs' reliability when measuring severity of stuttering in an unfamiliar language. Therefore, this study was undertaken to estimate the reliability of SLPs' use of a 9-point severity rating (SR) scale, to measure severity of stuttering in a language that was different from their own. Twenty-six Australian SLPs rated 20 speech samples (10 Australian English [AE] and 10 Mandarin) of adults who stutter using a 9-point SR scale on two separate occasions. Judges showed poor agreement when using the scale to measure stuttering in Mandarin samples. Results also indicated that 50% of individual judges were unable to reliably measure the severity of stuttering in AE. The results highlight the need for (a) SLPs to develop intra- and inter-judge agreement when using the 9-point SR scale to measure severity of stuttering in their native language (in this case AE) and in unfamiliar languages; and (b) research into the development and evaluation of practice and/or training packages to assist SLPs to do so.

  14. Detection of sentence boundaries and abbreviations in clinical narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzthaler, Markus; Schulz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In Western languages the period character is highly ambiguous, due to its double role as sentence delimiter and abbreviation marker. This is particularly relevant in clinical free-texts characterized by numerous anomalies in spelling, punctuation, vocabulary and with a high frequency of short forms. The problem is addressed by two binary classifiers for abbreviation and sentence detection. A support vector machine exploiting a linear kernel is trained on different combinations of feature sets for each classification task. Feature relevance ranking is applied to investigate which features are important for the particular task. The methods are applied to German language texts from a medical record system, authored by specialized physicians. Two collections of 3,024 text snippets were annotated regarding the role of period characters for training and testing. Cohen's kappa resulted in 0.98. For abbreviation and sentence boundary detection we can report an unweighted micro-averaged F-measure using a 10-fold cross validation of 0.97 for the training set. For test set based evaluation we obtained an unweighted micro-averaged F-measure of 0.95 for abbreviation detection and 0.94 for sentence delineation. Language-dependent resources and rules were found to have less impact on abbreviation detection than on sentence delineation. Sentence detection is an important task, which should be performed at the beginning of a text processing pipeline. For the text genre under scrutiny we showed that support vector machines exploiting a linear kernel produce state of the art results for sentence boundary detection. The results are comparable with other sentence boundary detection methods applied to English clinical texts. We identified abbreviation detection as a supportive task for sentence delineation.

  15. Cross-cultural adaptation to Brazil of Medication Adherence Rating Scale for psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icaro Carvalho Moreira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The purpose of this research was to make a cross-cultural adaptation of the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS for psychiatric patients to the Brazilian context. Methods The procedure consisted of four phases: translation of the original scale, back-translation, review by an Expert Committee and Pre-test study with a patients’ sample. Results The Expert Committee corrected the items’ translation when necessary and modified the scale administration format and its instructions from self-report to face-to-face interview form in order to ensure easy understanding by the target population. During Pre-test, the instructions and most of the items were properly understood by patients, with the exception of three of them which had to be changed in order to ensure better understanding. The Pre-test sample was composed by 30 psychiatric patients, with severe and persistent disorders mainly single (46.7%, female (60.0%, with a mean age of 43.8 years old and an average of five years of education. Conclusion The Brazilian version of MARS scale is now adapted to the Brazilian Portuguese language and culture and is easily understood by the psychiatric target population. It is necessary to do further research to evaluate the scale psychometric qualities of validity and reliability in order to use it in Brazil.

  16. Global Scale Analysis of the Stream Power Law Parameters based on Worldwide 10Be Denudation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, M. A.; Mudd, S. M.; Attal, M.

    2015-12-01

    The stream power law, expressed as E = KAmSn where E is erosion rate [LT-1], K is erodibility [T-1L(1-2m)], A is drainage area [L2], S is channel gradient [L/L] and m and n are constants, is the most widely used model for bedrock channel incision. Despite its simplicity and limitations, the model has proved useful for a large number of applications such as topographic evolution, knickpoint migration, palaeotopography reconstruction, and the determination of uplift patterns and rates. However, the unknown parameters K, m and n are often fixed arbitrarily or are based on assumptions about the physics of the erosion processes that are not always valid, which considerably alters the use and interpretation of the model. In this study, we compile published 10Be basin-wide erosion rates (N= 1423) in order to assess the m/n ratio (or concavity index), the slope exponent n and erodibility coefficient K using the integral method of channel profile analysis. These three parameters are calculated for 67 areas and allow for a global scale analysis in terms of climatic, tectonic and environmental settings. Our results suggest that (i) many sites are too noisy or do not have enough data to predict n and K with a satisfying level of confidence; (ii) the slope exponent is predominantly greater than one, meaning that the relationship between erosion rate and the channel gradient is non-linear, supporting the idea that incision is a threshold controlled process. Furthermore, a multi-regression analysis and the calculation of n and K using a reference concavity index m/n = 0.45 demonstrates that (iii) many intuitive or previously demonstrated local-scale trends, such as the correlation between erosion rate and climate, do not appear at a global scale.

  17. Reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness of the neck disability index, patient-specific functional scale, and numeric pain rating scale in patients with cervical radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian A; Cleland, Joshua A; Michener, Lori A; Brown, Chris

    2010-10-01

    To examine the psychometric properties of the Neck Disability Index, Patient-Specific Functional Scale, and the Numeric Pain Rating Scale in a cohort of patients with cervical radiculopathy. A single-group repeated-measures design. Patients (n = 165) presenting to physical therapy with cervical radiculopathy completed the Neck Disability Index, Patient-Specific Functional Scale, and Numeric Pain Rating Scale at the baseline examination and at a follow-up. At the time of follow-up, all patients also completed the Global Rating of Change, which was used to dichotomize patients as improved or stable. Baseline and follow-up scores were used to determine the test-retest reliability, construct validity, and minimal levels of detectable and clinically important change for the Neck Disability Index, Patient-Specific Functional Scale, and Numeric Pain Rating Scale. Both the Neck Disability Index and Numeric Pain Rating Scale exhibited fair test-retest reliability, whereas the Patient-Specific Functional Scale exhibited poor reliability in patients with cervical radiculopathy. All three outcome measures showed adequate responsiveness in this patient population. The minimal detectable change was 13.4 for the Neck Disability Index, 3.3 for the Patient-Specific Functional Scale, and 4.1 for the Numeric Pain Rating Scale. The threshold for the minimal clinically important difference was 8.5 for the Neck Disability Index and 2.2 for both the Patient-Specific Functional Scale and Numeric Pain Rating Scale. In light of the varied distribution of symptoms in patients with cervical radiculopathy, future studies should investigate the psychometric properties of other neck-related disability measures in this patient population.

  18. A watershed scale spatially-distributed model for streambank erosion rate driven by channel curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Mitchell; Hu, Zhiyong

    2017-10-01

    Streambank erosion is a major source of fluvial sediment, but few large-scale, spatially distributed models exist to quantify streambank erosion rates. We introduce a spatially distributed model for streambank erosion applicable to sinuous, single-thread channels. We argue that such a model can adequately characterize streambank erosion rates, measured at the outsides of bends over a 2-year time period, throughout a large region. The model is based on the widely-used excess-velocity equation and comprised three components: a physics-based hydrodynamic model, a large-scale 1-dimensional model of average monthly discharge, and an empirical bank erodibility parameterization. The hydrodynamic submodel requires inputs of channel centerline, slope, width, depth, friction factor, and a scour factor A; the large-scale watershed submodel utilizes watershed-averaged monthly outputs of the Noah-2.8 land surface model; bank erodibility is based on tree cover and bank height as proxies for root density. The model was calibrated with erosion rates measured in sand-bed streams throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico coastal plain. The calibrated model outperforms a purely empirical model, as well as a model based only on excess velocity, illustrating the utility of combining a physics-based hydrodynamic model with an empirical bank erodibility relationship. The model could be improved by incorporating spatial variability in channel roughness and the hydrodynamic scour factor, which are here assumed constant. A reach-scale application of the model is illustrated on ∼1 km of a medium-sized, mixed forest-pasture stream, where the model identifies streambank erosion hotspots on forested and non-forested bends.

  19. The Apraxia of Speech Rating Scale: a tool for diagnosis and description of apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Edythe A; Duffy, Joseph R; Clark, Heather M; Josephs, Keith

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe an initial version of the Apraxia of Speech Rating Scale (ASRS), a scale designed to quantify the presence or absence, relative frequency, and severity of characteristics frequently associated with apraxia of speech (AOS). In this paper we report intra-judge and inter-judge reliability, as well as indices of validity, for the ASRS which was completed for 133 adult participants with a neurodegenerative speech or language disorder, 56 of whom had AOS. The overall inter-judge ICC among three clinicians was 0.94 for the total ASRS score and 0.91 for the number of AOS characteristics identified as present. Intra-judge ICC measures were high, ranging from 0.91 to 0.98. Validity was demonstrated on the basis of strong correlations with independent clinical diagnosis, as well as strong correlations of ASRS scores with independent clinical judgments of AOS severity. Results suggest that the ASRS is a potentially useful tool for documenting the presence and severity of characteristics of AOS. At this point in its development it has good potential for broader clinical use and for better subject description in AOS research. The Apraxia of Speech Rating Scale: A new tool for diagnosis and description of apraxia of speech 1. The reader will be able to explain characteristics of apraxia of speech. 2. The reader will be able to demonstrate use of a rating scale to document the presence and severity of speech characteristics. 3. The reader will be able to explain the reliability and validity of the ASRS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pittsburgh and Epworth sleep scale items: accuracy of ratings across different reporting periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Joan E; Junghaenel, Doerte U; Schneider, Stefan; Pilosi, John J; Stone, Arthur A

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the ecological validity of sleep experience reports across different lengths of reporting periods. The accuracy of item responses on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) across 3-, 7-, and 28-day reporting periods was examined in relation to electronic daily item ratings. Primary care clinic patients (N = 119) were recruited, and were not required to have sleep problems to participate. Analyses found few differences in item scores when electronic daily ratings were compared with recall ratings, regardless of the length of the reporting period. However, within-subjects analyses indicated low levels of accuracy in recall of sleep items for specific days in the last week. Thus, for the purpose of between-subject comparisons, patients generally can provide accurate recall of sleep experiences; studies requiring finer-grained analysis across time and within-subjects require daily diary methodology.

  1. 99Tc(VII) Retardation, Reduction, and Redox Rate Scaling in Naturally Reduced Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Chongxuan; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; McKinley, James P.; Zachara, John M.; Plymale, Andrew E.; Miller, Micah D.; Varga, Tamas; Resch, Charles T.

    2015-10-15

    Abstract: An experimental and modeling study was conducted to investigate pertechnetate (Tc(VII)) retardation, reduction, and rate scaling in three sediments from Ringold formation at U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford site, where 99Tc is a major contaminant in groundwater. Tc(VII) was reduced in all the sediments in both batch reactors and diffusion columns, with a faster rate in a sediment containing a higher concentration of HCl-extractable Fe(II). Tc(VII) migration in the diffusion columns was reductively retarded with retardation degrees correlated with Tc(VII) reduction rates. The reduction rates were faster in the diffusion columns than those in the batch reactors, apparently influenced by the spatial distribution of redox-reactive minerals along transport paths that supplied Tc(VII). X-ray computed tomography and autoradiography were performed to identify the spatial locations of Tc(VII) reduction and transport paths in the sediments, and results generally confirmed the newly found behavior of reaction rate changes from batch to column. The results from this study implied that Tc(VII) migration can be reductively retarded at Hanford site with a retardation degree dependent on reactive Fe(II) content and its distribution in sediments. This study also demonstrated that an effective reaction rate may be faster in transport systems than that in well-mixed reactors.

  2. Factor analysis of the catatonia rating scale and catatonic symptom distribution across four diagnostic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Stephanie; Bagby, R Michael; Höffler, Jürgen; Bräunig, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Catatonia is a frequent psychomotor syndrome, which has received increasing recognition over the last decade. The assessment of the catatonic syndrome requires systematic rating scales that cover the complex spectrum of catatonic motor signs and behaviors. The Catatonia Rating Scale (CRS) is such an instrument, which has been validated and which has undergone extensive reliability testing. In the present study, to further validate the CRS, the items composing this scale were submitted to principal components factor extraction followed by a varimax rotation. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to assess group differences on the extracted factors in patients with schizophrenia, pure mania, mixed mania, and major depression (N=165). Four factors were extracted, which accounted for 71.5% of the variance. The factors corresponded to the clinical syndromes of (1) catatonic excitement, (2) abnormal involuntary movements/mannerisms, (3) disturbance of volition/catalepsy, and (4) catatonic inhibition. The ANOVA revealed that each of the groups showed a distinctive catatonic symptom pattern and that the overlap between diagnostic groups was minimal. We conclude that this four-factor symptom structure of catatonia challenges the current conceptualization, which proposes only two symptom subtypes.

  3. A Real-Time Analysis Method for Pulse Rate Variability Based on Improved Basic Scale Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin Chou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Base scale entropy analysis (BSEA is a nonlinear method to analyze heart rate variability (HRV signal. However, the time consumption of BSEA is too long, and it is unknown whether the BSEA is suitable for analyzing pulse rate variability (PRV signal. Therefore, we proposed a method named sliding window iterative base scale entropy analysis (SWIBSEA by combining BSEA and sliding window iterative theory. The blood pressure signals of healthy young and old subjects are chosen from the authoritative international database MIT/PhysioNet/Fantasia to generate PRV signals as the experimental data. Then, the BSEA and the SWIBSEA are used to analyze the experimental data; the results show that the SWIBSEA reduces the time consumption and the buffer cache space while it gets the same entropy as BSEA. Meanwhile, the changes of base scale entropy (BSE for healthy young and old subjects are the same as that of HRV signal. Therefore, the SWIBSEA can be used for deriving some information from long-term and short-term PRV signals in real time, which has the potential for dynamic PRV signal analysis in some portable and wearable medical devices.

  4. Validation of a Spanish Version of the Lille Apathy Rating Scale for Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio García-Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To date, no rating scales for detecting apathy in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients have been validated in Spanish. For this reason, the aim of this study was to validate a Spanish version of Lille apathy rating scale (LARS in a cohort of PD patients from Spain. Participants and Methods. 130 PD patients and 70 healthy controls were recruited to participate in the study. Apathy was measured using the Spanish version of LARS and the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI. Reliability (internal consistency, test-retest, and interrater reliability and validity (construct, content, and criterion validity were measured. Results. Interrater reliability was 0.93. Cronbach’s α for LARS was 0.81. The test-retest correlation coefficient was 0.97. The correlation between LARS and NPI scores was 0.61. The optimal cutoff point under the ROC curve was -14, whereas the value derived from healthy controls was -11. The prevalence of apathy in our population tested by LARS was 42%. Conclusions. The Spanish version of LARS is a reliable and useful tool for diagnosing apathy in PD patients. Total LARS score is influenced by the presence of depression and cognitive impairment. However, both disorders are independent identities with respect to apathy. The satisfactory reliability and validity of the scale make it an appropriate instrument for screening and diagnosing apathy in clinical practice or for research purposes.

  5. Free energy of cluster formation and a new scaling relation for the nucleation rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kyoko K.; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Diemand, Jürg; Angélil, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Recent very large molecular dynamics simulations of homogeneous nucleation with (1 − 8) × 10 9 Lennard-Jones atoms [J. Diemand, R. Angélil, K. K. Tanaka, and H. Tanaka, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 074309 (2013)] allow us to accurately determine the formation free energy of clusters over a wide range of cluster sizes. This is now possible because such large simulations allow for very precise measurements of the cluster size distribution in the steady state nucleation regime. The peaks of the free energy curves give critical cluster sizes, which agree well with independent estimates based on the nucleation theorem. Using these results, we derive an analytical formula and a new scaling relation for nucleation rates: ln J ′ /η is scaled by ln S/η, where the supersaturation ratio is S, η is the dimensionless surface energy, and J ′ is a dimensionless nucleation rate. This relation can be derived using the free energy of cluster formation at equilibrium which corresponds to the surface energy required to form the vapor-liquid interface. At low temperatures (below the triple point), we find that the surface energy divided by that of the classical nucleation theory does not depend on temperature, which leads to the scaling relation and implies a constant, positive Tolman length equal to half of the mean inter-particle separation in the liquid phase

  6. A Real-Time Analysis Method for Pulse Rate Variability Based on Improved Basic Scale Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruilei; Feng, Yufeng; Lu, Zhenli

    2017-01-01

    Base scale entropy analysis (BSEA) is a nonlinear method to analyze heart rate variability (HRV) signal. However, the time consumption of BSEA is too long, and it is unknown whether the BSEA is suitable for analyzing pulse rate variability (PRV) signal. Therefore, we proposed a method named sliding window iterative base scale entropy analysis (SWIBSEA) by combining BSEA and sliding window iterative theory. The blood pressure signals of healthy young and old subjects are chosen from the authoritative international database MIT/PhysioNet/Fantasia to generate PRV signals as the experimental data. Then, the BSEA and the SWIBSEA are used to analyze the experimental data; the results show that the SWIBSEA reduces the time consumption and the buffer cache space while it gets the same entropy as BSEA. Meanwhile, the changes of base scale entropy (BSE) for healthy young and old subjects are the same as that of HRV signal. Therefore, the SWIBSEA can be used for deriving some information from long-term and short-term PRV signals in real time, which has the potential for dynamic PRV signal analysis in some portable and wearable medical devices. PMID:29065639

  7. A rating scale for the assessment of objective and subjective formal Thought and Language Disorder (TALD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, Tilo; Krug, Axel; Stratmann, Mirjam; Ghazi, Sayed; Schales, Christian; Frauenheim, Michael; Turner, Lena; Fährmann, Paul; Hornig, Tobias; Katzev, Michael; Grosvald, Michael; Müller-Isberner, Rüdiger; Nagels, Arne

    2014-12-01

    Formal thought disorder (FTD) is a core syndrome of schizophrenia. However, patients with other diagnoses, such as mania and depression amongst others, also present with FTD. We introduce a novel, comprehensive clinical rating scale, capturing the full variety of FTD phenomenology including subjective experiences. The 30-item Thought and Language Disorder (TALD) scale is based on a detailed review of the literature, encompassing all formal thought disorder symptoms reported from the early 20th century onwards. Objectively observable symptoms as well as subjective phenomena were included. Two hundred and ten participants (146 patients ICD-10 diagnoses: depression n=63, schizophrenia n=63, mania n=20; 64 healthy control subjects) were interviewed and symptoms rated with the TALD, TLC, HAMD, YMRS and SAPS/SANS. A principal component analyses was performed for the TALD to differentiate sub-syndromes. The principal component analysis revealed four FTD factors; objective and subjective as well as positive and negative factor dimensions. The correlation analyses with the TLC and the SAPS/SANS FTD sub-scores demonstrated the factor validity for the objective factors. The different diagnoses showed a distinct pattern of symptom severity in each of the factors, with mania patients exhibiting the highest value in the positive, objective dimension. The scale showed good psychometric results, which makes it a practicable, nosologically-open instrument for the detailed assessment of all FTD dimensions. The results strengthen the importance of subjective symptom assessment reported by the patient. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Active Negative Pressure Peritoneal Therapy After Abbreviated Laparotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Derek J.; Faris, Peter D.; Ball, Chad G.; Kubes, Paul; Tiruta, Corina; Xiao, Zhengwen; Holodinsky, Jessalyn K.; McBeth, Paul B.; Doig, Christopher J.; Jenne, Craig N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether active negative pressure peritoneal therapy with the ABThera temporary abdominal closure device reduces systemic inflammation after abbreviated laparotomy. Background: Excessive systemic inflammation after abdominal injury or intra-abdominal sepsis is associated with poor outcomes. Methods: We conducted a single-center, randomized controlled trial. Forty-five adults with abdominal injury (46.7%) or intra-abdominal sepsis (52.3%) were randomly allocated to the ABThera (n = 23) or Barker's vacuum pack (n = 22). On study days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 28, blood and peritoneal fluid were collected. The primary endpoint was the difference in the plasma concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) 24 and 48 hours after temporary abdominal closure application. Results: There was a significantly lower peritoneal fluid drainage from the ABThera at 48 hours after randomization. Despite this, there was no difference in plasma concentration of IL-6 at baseline versus 24 (P = 0.52) or 48 hours (P = 0.82) between the groups. There was also no significant intergroup difference in the plasma concentrations of IL-1β, −8, −10, or −12 p70 or tumor necrosis factor α between these time points. The cumulative incidence of primary fascial closure at 90 days was similar between groups (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.82–3.0; P = 0.17). However, 90-day mortality was improved in the ABThera group (hazard ratio, 0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.11–0.93; P = 0.04). Conclusions: This trial observed a survival difference between patients randomized to the ABThera versus Barker's vacuum pack that did not seem to be mediated by an improvement in peritoneal fluid drainage, fascial closure rates, or markers of systemic inflammation. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01355094. PMID:25536308

  9. Nitrogen rate strategies for reducing yield-scaled nitrous oxide emissions in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Nafziger, Emerson D.; Pittelkow, Cameron M.

    2017-12-01

    Mitigating nitrogen (N) losses from agriculture without negatively impacting crop productivity is a pressing environmental and economic challenge. Reductions in N fertilizer rate are often highlighted as a solution, yet the degree to which crop yields and economic returns may be impacted at the field-level remains unclear, in part due to limited data availability. Farmers are risk averse and potential yield losses may limit the success of voluntary N loss mitigation protocols, thus understanding field-level yield tradeoffs is critical to inform policy development. Using a case study of soil N2O mitigation in the US Midwest, we conducted an ex-post assessment of two economic and two environmental N rate reduction strategies to identify promising practices for maintaining maize yields and economic returns while reducing N2O emissions per unit yield (i.e. yield-scaled emissions) compared to an assumed baseline N input level. Maize yield response data from 201 on-farm N rate experiments were combined with an empirical equation predicting N2O emissions as a function of N rate. Results indicate that the economic strategy aimed at maximizing returns to N (MRTN) led to moderate but consistent reductions in yield-scaled N2O emissions with small negative impacts on yield and slight increases in median returns. The economic optimum N rate strategy reduced yield-scaled N2O emissions in 75% of cases but increased them otherwise, challenging the assumption that this strategy will automatically reduce environmental impacts per unit production. Both environmental strategies, one designed to increase N recovery efficiency and one to balance N inputs with grain N removal, further reduced yield-scaled N2O emissions but were also associated with negative yield penalties and decreased returns. These results highlight the inherent tension between achieving agronomic and economic goals while reducing environmental impacts which is often overlooked in policy discussions. To enable the

  10. Validity of the Brazilian version of the Venham's behavior rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cademartori, Mariana Gonzalez; Da Rosa, Denise Paiva; Oliveira, Luísa Jardim Correa; Corrêa, Marcos Britto; Goettems, Marília Leão

    2017-03-01

    Venham's Behavior Rating Scale (VBRS) is a measure of uncooperative behavior developed to assess children's responses to dental stress. To evaluate the validity of the Brazilian version of the VBRS. Children aged 7-13 years were invited to participate in this study. Child behavior was concurrently assessed with both the VBRS and the Frankl Scale. A receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was plotted to determine the cut-off points of the Brazilian version of the VBRS. Criterion validity was determined using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Discriminant validity was tested before and after scale dichotomization. A total of 265 children participated in this study. According to the ROC curve, the ≥1 cut-off point was best for this population (SENS 97.4%; SPEC 94.7%). The Brazilian version of the VBRS was significantly correlated with the Frankl Scale (r -0.69; behavior assessed was related to complexity of treatment, type of procedure, use of local anesthesia, and dental fear. The results provide strong evidence for the validity of Brazilian version of the VBRS in behavior assessment of children aged 7-13 years during dental care. © 2016 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. JPRS Report, Latin America, Reference Aid Glossary of Spanish Military and General Acronyms and Abbreviations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    Glossary of Spanish Military and general acronyms and abbreviations. This Reference Aid is a first attempt at making a systematic compilation of Spanish acronyms and abbreviations, particularly in the military field...

  12. An Abbreviated Protocol for High-risk Screening Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Impact on Performance Metrics and BI-RADS Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Babita; Mullen, Lisa; Falomo, Eniola; Panigrahi, Benita; Harvey, Susan

    2017-09-01

    Annual breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is recommended to screen high-risk populations for breast cancer, although costs are significant. This study assesses the performance of an abbreviated MRI protocol as a resource-efficient approach for screening patients at high-risk of breast cancer, and assesses whether the abbreviated protocol alters the assigned Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category. This is a prospective paired cohort study performed in an academic ambulatory setting. MRI images of women at high risk of breast cancer were reviewed using an abbreviated MRI protocol, followed by an immediate review of additional sequences included in a full diagnostic protocol. BI-RADS assessments, including all changes and interpretation times, were recorded for both the abbreviated and full protocol reviews. Cancer detection rate, positive predictive value 3 (PPV3), sensitivity, and specificity were calculated. A total of 1052 MRI cases were reviewed. The cancer detection rate was 13.3 per 1000 with a PPV3 of 30.4% based on the full protocol. Review of sequences included in the full protocol resulted in a change in the final BI-RADS assessments in 3.4% of the cases, the majority of which did not change clinical management with respect to biopsy. The sensitivity and specificity of the abbreviated and full protocols were not significantly different. This pilot study of an abbreviated MRI protocol demonstrates effective performance in cancer detection. BI-RADS assessments were rarely altered with the additional information afforded by the full protocol. The abbreviated protocol holds promise for resource-efficient breast cancer screening in high-risk women. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pressure Decay Testing Methodology for Quantifying Leak Rates of Full-Scale Docking System Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Daniels, Christopher C.; Wasowski, Janice L.; Garafolo, Nicholas G.; Penney, Nicholas; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is developing a new docking system to support future space exploration missions to low-Earth orbit and the Moon. This system, called the Low Impact Docking System, is a mechanism designed to connect the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle to the International Space Station, the lunar lander (Altair), and other future Constellation Project vehicles. NASA Glenn Research Center is playing a key role in developing the main interface seal for this docking system. This seal will be relatively large with an outside diameter in the range of 54 to 58 in. (137 to 147 cm). As part of this effort, a new test apparatus has been designed, fabricated, and installed to measure leak rates of candidate full-scale seals under simulated thermal, vacuum, and engagement conditions. Using this test apparatus, a pressure decay testing and data processing methodology has been developed to quantify full-scale seal leak rates. Tests performed on untreated 54 in. diameter seals at room temperature in a fully compressed state resulted in leak rates lower than the requirement of less than 0.0025 lbm, air per day (0.0011 kg/day).

  14. A test of the Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Systems using the Clinical Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, V; Ozechowski, T J

    2000-10-01

    Most studies of the Olson Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Systems have utilized a version of the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales (FACES). Because FACES does not appear to operationalize the curvilinear dimension of the Circumplex Model, researchers have been pessimistic about the model's validity. However, the Clinical Rating Scale (CRS) has received some support as a curvilinear measure of the Circumplex Model. Therefore, we used the CRS rather than FACES to test the validity of the Circumplex Model hypotheses. Using a structural equation-modeling analytical approach, we found support for the hypotheses pertaining to the effects of cohesion and communication on family functioning. However, we found no support for the hypotheses pertaining to the concept of adaptability. We discuss these results in the context of previous studies of the Circumplex Model using FACES. Based on the collective findings, we propose a preliminary reformulation of the Circumplex Model.

  15. Evaluation of Mackey Childbirth Satisfaction Rating Scale in Iran: What Are the Psychometric Properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moudi, Zahra; Tavousi, Mahmoud

    2016-06-01

    With the integration of the evaluation of patient satisfaction in the overall assessment of healthcare services, authorities can be assured about the alignment of these services with patient needs and the suitability of care provided at the local level. This study was conducted in 2013 in Zahedan, Iran, in order to assess the psychometric properties of the Iranian version of the mackey childbirth satisfaction rating scale (MCSRS). For this study, a methodological design was used. After translating the MCSRS and confirming its initial validity, the questionnaires were distributed among women with uncomplicated pregnancies and no prior history of cesarean section. The participants had given birth to healthy, full-term, singletons (with cephalic presentation) via normal vaginal delivery at hospitals within the past six months. Cronbach's alpha and test-retest (via the intraclass correlation coefficient) were applied to analyze the internal consistency and reliability of the scale. Moreover, the validity of the scale was tested via exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and convergent validity. The MCSRS consists of six subscales. Through the process of validation, two partner-related items ("partner" subscale) of the scale were excluded due to cultural barriers and hospital policies. Cronbach's alpha for the total scale was 0.78. It ranged between 0.70 and 0.86 for five subscales, and was 0.31 for the "baby" subscale. Factor analysis confirmed the subscales of "nurse," "physician," and "baby," which were identified in the original scale. However, in the translated version, the "self" subscale was divided into two separate dimensions. The six subscales explained 70.37% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fitness for the new model. Convergent validity showed a significant correlation between the MCSRS and the SERVQUAL scale (r = 0.72, P < 0.001). Moreover, the Farsi version of the MCSRS showed excellent repeatability (r = 0

  16. Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Planning Template for Primary Care Offices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT CHE

    2010-01-01

    The Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Plan Template for Primary Care Provider Offices is intended to assist primary care providers and office managers with preparing their offices for quickly putting a plan in place to handle an increase in patient calls and visits, whether during the 2009-2010 influenza season or future influenza seasons.

  17. 40 CFR 310.4 - What abbreviations should I know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RESPONSE TO HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE RELEASES General Information § 310.4 What abbreviations should I know? The.... 11000-11050). LEPC—Local Emergency Planning Committee. NCP—National Oil and Hazardous Substances... Response Center. OMB—Office of Management and Budget. PRP—Potentially Responsible Party. SARA—The Superfund...

  18. Abbreviations and acronyms: the case of Tlhalosi ya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Abstract: This paper looks at how abbreviations and acronyms are treated in African language dictionaries in general compared to selected mainstream English dictionaries. Specifically, the study looks at their treatment in T.J. Otlogetswe's (2012) Tlhalosi ya Medi ya Setswana dictionary. Altogether, a survey of twenty ...

  19. Children's Text Messaging: Abbreviations, Input Methods and Links with Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, N.; Bushnell, C.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of mobile phone text-messaging method (predictive and multi-press) and experience (in texters and non-texters) on children's textism use and understanding. It also examined popular claims that the use of text-message abbreviations, or "textese" spelling, is associated with poor literacy skills. A sample of 86…

  20. Interactive Hangman Teaches Amino Acid Structures and Abbreviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Britney O.; Sears, Duane; Clegg, Dennis O.

    2014-01-01

    We developed an interactive exercise to teach students how to draw the structures of the 20 standard amino acids and to identify the one-letter abbreviations by modifying the familiar game of "Hangman." Amino acid structures were used to represent single letters throughout the game. To provide additional practice in identifying…

  1. 32 CFR 634.3 - Explanation of abbreviations and terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Explanation of abbreviations and terms. 634.3 Section 634.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Introduction § 634.3 Explanation of...

  2. A Globally Stable Lyapunov Pointing and Rate Controller for the Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission (MMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Neerav

    2011-01-01

    The Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission (MMS) is scheduled to launch in late 2014. Its primary goal is to discover the fundamental plasma physics processes of reconnection in the Earth's magnetosphere. Each of the four MMS spacecraft is spin-stabilized at a nominal rate of 3 RPM. Traditional spin-stabilized spacecraft have used a number of separate modes to control nutation, spin rate, and precession. To reduce the number of modes and simplify operations, the Delta-H control mode is designed to accomplish nutation control, spin rate control, and precession control simultaneously. A nonlinear design technique, Lyapunov's method, is used to design the Delta-H control mode. A global spin rate controller selected as the baseline controller for MMS, proved to be insufficient due to an ambiguity in the attitude. Lyapunov's design method was used to solve this ambiguity, resulting in a controller that meets the design goals. Simulation results show the advantage of the pointing and rate controller for maneuvers larger than 90 deg and provide insight into the performance of this controller.

  3. Content analysis of 4 fear of falling rating scales by linking to the international classification of functioning, disability and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladh, Stina; Nilsson, Maria H; Carlsson, Gunilla; Lexell, Jan

    2013-07-01

    To gain a deeper understanding of the content of 4 fear of falling (FOF) rating scales by linking them to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Linking study according to the ICF linking rules. Not applicable. Not applicable. The rating scales were the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I), the Swedish version of the Falls Efficacy Scale (FES[S]), the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC), and the modified Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling in the Elderly (SAFFE). The process followed the established and updated linking rules. Three linkers independently identified all meaningful concepts in the rating scales and linked them to the most precise ICF categories. The linkers then discussed their results to reach consensus. If consensus was not attained, the linkers pursued the discussions with a fourth person to reach consensus. Not applicable. Most meaningful concepts from the overall questions were linked to the ICF component of body functions. Of the 62 items, all but one meaningful concept were linked to the component of activities and participation. All 4 rating scales covered the chapters of mobility and domestic life and had most linkages to the mobility chapter. The linking process revealed similarities and differences between the 4 FOF rating scales, as well as methodologic challenges in linking instruments to the ICF. By providing a content description that allows for a direct comparison of the rating scales, the results may be helpful when choosing an appropriate rating scale assessing FOF in clinical practice and research. A further head-to-head comparison through psychometric analyses is required to recommend appropriate FOF rating scales. Studies are also needed to investigate how the overall question and response categories of a rating scale affect respondents' answers. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Two-Locus Likelihoods Under Variable Population Size and Fine-Scale Recombination Rate Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamm, John A; Spence, Jeffrey P; Chan, Jeffrey; Song, Yun S

    2016-07-01

    Two-locus sampling probabilities have played a central role in devising an efficient composite-likelihood method for estimating fine-scale recombination rates. Due to mathematical and computational challenges, these sampling probabilities are typically computed under the unrealistic assumption of a constant population size, and simulation studies have shown that resulting recombination rate estimates can be severely biased in certain cases of historical population size changes. To alleviate this problem, we develop here new methods to compute the sampling probability for variable population size functions that are piecewise constant. Our main theoretical result, implemented in a new software package called LDpop, is a novel formula for the sampling probability that can be evaluated by numerically exponentiating a large but sparse matrix. This formula can handle moderate sample sizes ([Formula: see text]) and demographic size histories with a large number of epochs ([Formula: see text]). In addition, LDpop implements an approximate formula for the sampling probability that is reasonably accurate and scales to hundreds in sample size ([Formula: see text]). Finally, LDpop includes an importance sampler for the posterior distribution of two-locus genealogies, based on a new result for the optimal proposal distribution in the variable-size setting. Using our methods, we study how a sharp population bottleneck followed by rapid growth affects the correlation between partially linked sites. Then, through an extensive simulation study, we show that accounting for population size changes under such a demographic model leads to substantial improvements in fine-scale recombination rate estimation. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  5. [Standardization of the Greek version of Zung's Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samakouri, M; Bouhos, G; Kadoglou, M; Giantzelidou, A; Tsolaki, K; Livaditis, M

    2012-01-01

    Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), introduced by Zung, has been widely used in research and in clinical practice for the detection of anxiety. The present study aims at standardizing the Greek version of SAS. SAS consists of 20 items rated on a 1-4 likert type scale. The total SAS score may vary from 20 (no anxiety at all) to 80 (severe anxiety). Two hundred and fifty four participants (114 male and 140 female), psychiatric patients, physically ill and general population individuals, aged 45.40±11.35 years, completed the following: (a) a demographic characteristics' questionnaire, (b) the SAS Greek version, (c) the Spielberg's Modified Greek State-Trait Anxiety Scale (STAI-Gr.-X) and (d) the Zung Depression Rating Scale (ZDRS). Seventy six participants answered the SAS twice within a 12th-day median period of time. The following parameters were calculated: (a) internal consistency of the SAS in terms of Cronbach's α co-efficient, (b) its test-retest reliability in terms of the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and (c) its concurrent and convergent validities through its score's Spearman's rho correlations with both the state and trait subscales of STAI-Gr X and the ZDRS. In addition, in order to evaluate SAS' discriminant validity, the scale's scores of the three groups of participants (psychiatric patients, physically ill and general population individuals) were compared among each other, in terms of Kruskall Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests. SAS Cronbach's alpha equals 0.897 while ICC regarding its test-retest reliability equals 0.913. Spearman's rho concerning validity: (a) when SAS is compared to STAI-Gr.-X (state), equals it 0.767, (b) when SAS is compared to STAI-Gr. X (trait), it equals 0.802 and (c) when SAS is compared to ZDRS, it equals 0.835. The mentally ill scored significantly higher in SAS compared to both the healthy and the general population. In conclusion, the SAS Greek version presents very satisfactory psychometric properties regarding

  6. Defense mechanism rating scales: Uma revisão de estudos empíricos

    OpenAIRE

    Patrão, Carlo António Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado apresentada ao ISPA - Instituto Universitário Objetivo: O Defense Mechanism Rating Scale (DMRS) (Perry, 1990) é um instrumento de avaliação de mecanismos de defesa (MDs) amplamente utilizado na investigação empírica de processos psicoterapêuticos. O presente artigo pretende colmatar a ausência de uma revisão aos estudos de MDs que utilizam o DMRS. Método: Realizaram-se pesquisas sistemáticas nas bases electrónicas: PsycInfo, PsycARTICLES, PEP, Psychology and Behavio...

  7. Simultaneous biogas upgrading and centrate treatment in an outdoors pilot scale high rate algal pond

    OpenAIRE

    Posadas, Esther; Marín, David; Blanco, Saúl; Lebrero Fernández, Raquel; Muñoz Torre, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    Producción Científica The bioconversion of biogas to biomethane coupled to centrate treatment was evaluated in an outdoors pilot scale high rate algal pond interconnected to an external CO2-H2S absorption column (AC) via settled broth recirculation. CO2-removal efficiencies ranged from 50 to 95% depending on the alkalinity of the cultivation broth and environmental conditions, while a complete H2S removal was achieved regardless of the operational conditions. A maximum CH4 concentration of...

  8. Awareness of disease in dementia: Development of a multidimensional rating scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Dourado

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe the development of the Assessment Scale of Psychosocial Impact of the Diagnosis of Dementia (ASPIDD, a multidimensional scale to evaluate awareness of disease in dementia. Method: The development of this scale was conducted in four steps. In step one, questions were drawn up after a review of the literature. The second step involved the suggestions offered by a neurologist regarding the skills considered important for the scale. The third step involved the re-writing and review of the domains and questions in the scale followed by a semantic evaluation performed by two independent psychiatrists. Step four consisted of the preliminary study aimed at evaluating the applicability of the ASPIDD. Results: In the semantic evaluation only minor changes were proposed. The preliminary sample had 52 patients, comprising 23 CDR 1 (male=9; female=14 and 29 CDR2 (male=13; female=16. Mean age of patients was 69.7±5.51 (CDR1 and 73.6±9.4 (CDR2, and age at onset was 66.4±5.7 years (CDR1 and 68.3±9.3 year (CDR2. Mean schooling was 9.0±4.3 years (CDR1 and 8.8±4.4 years (CDR2. Mean MMSE was 21.0±3.3 (CDR1 and 17.6±3.5 (CDR2. Mean Cornell was 4.8±2.3 (CDR1 and 4.2±1.9 (CDR2. The patient and caregiver dyads were aware of problems, mainly of those related to social, family and affective relations. The higher rates of discrepant responses were found on the awareness of cognitive deficits and changes in ADL. Conclusion: The ASPIDD is a multidimensional instrument to assess awareness of disease among AD patients.

  9. A Person-Centered Approach to Financial Capacity Assessment: Preliminary Development of a New Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Peter A; Stoltman, Jonathan; Ficker, Lisa J; Iris, Madelyn; Mast, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Financial exploitation and financial capacity issues often overlap when a gerontologist assesses whether an older adult's financial decision is an autonomous, capable choice. Our goal is to describe a new conceptual model for assessing financial decisions using principles of person-centered approaches and to introduce a new instrument, the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS). We created a conceptual model, convened meetings of experts from various disciplines to critique the model and provide input on content and structure, and select final items. We then videotaped administration of the LFDRS to five older adults and had 10 experts provide independent ratings. The LFDRS demonstrated good to excellent inter-rater agreement. The LFDRS is a new tool that allows gerontologists to systematically gather information about a specific financial decision and the decisional abilities in question.

  10. Discrete-choice experiments versus rating scale exercises to evaluate the importance of attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Ben Fm; van der Putten, Inge M; Groothuis, Siebren; de Kinderen, Reina Ja; Noben, Cindy Yg; Paulus, Aggie Tg; Ramaekers, Bram Lt; Vogel, Gaston Cwm; Hiligsmann, Mickael

    2015-01-01

    To examine the difference between discrete-choice experiments (DCE) and rating scale exercises (RSE) in determining the most important attributes using a case study. Undergraduate health sciences students were asked to complete a DCE and a RSE. Six potentially important attributes were identified in focus groups. Fourteen unlabelled choice tasks were constructed using a statistically efficient design. Mixed multinomial logistic regression analysis was used for DCE data analysis. In total, 254 undergraduate students filled out the questionnaire. In the DCE, only four attributes were statistically significant, whereas in the RSE, all attributes except one were rated four or higher. Attribute importance differs between DCE and RSE. The DCE had a differentiating effect on the relative importance of the attributes; however, determining relative importance using DCE should be done with caution as a lack of statistically significant difference between levels does not necessarily imply that the attribute is not important.

  11. The reliability and validity of the rating scale of criminal responsibility for mentally disordered offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weixiong; Zhang, Qingting; Huang, Fuyin; Guan, Wei; Tang, Tao; Liu, Chao

    2014-03-01

    In China, the criminal responsibility of the mentally disordered offenders is divided into three levels, there are the whole responsibility, diminished responsibility and irresponsibility. According to the Criminal Law, "If a mental disordered patient causes harmful consequences at a time when he is unable to recognize or control his own conduct, upon verification and confirmation through legal procedure, he shall not bear criminal responsibility." That means there are two standards of assessing criminal responsibility, namely volitional and cognitive capacity. It is as equal as the Mc'Naughton Rule and the Irresistible Impulse Test. But for a long time, the criminal responsibility was assessed mainly by experience because of lacking of standardized assessment instrument. Recently, we have developed "the rating scale of criminal responsibility for mentally disordered offenders (RSCRs)". The scale includes eighteen items, namely criminal motivation, aura before offense, inducement of crime, time and place and object and tool selectivity of crime, emotion during the crime, shirking responsibility after offense, concealing the truth during inquest, camouflage, understanding the nature of the offense, estimating the consequence of the offense, impairment of life ability, impairment of learning or work, impairment of insight, impairment of reality testing, and impairment of self-control. This scale can be applicable for all cases and easy to use. This scale had been tried out in several forensic psychiatry institutes, the Cronbach α of the scale is 0.93, and all items have high correlation with the total score of the scale (r=0.50-0.89). Two factors were extracted by the factorial analysis, and the cumulative squared loading was 68.62%. The scores of the three levels were 9.66 ± 5.11, 26.54 ± 5.21 and 40.08 ± 7.90 respectively and highly significant differences were observed among groups. By establishing discrimination analysis among three levels, classification

  12. Shifts in mass-scaling of respiration, feeding, and growth rates across life-form transitions in marine pelagic organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Hirst, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic rate of organisms may be viewed as a basic property from which other vital rates and many ecological patterns emerge and that follows a universal allometric mass scaling law, or it may be considered a property of the organism that emerges as a result of the adaptation to the environ...... life-form-dependent allometries that have similar scaling but different intercepts, such that the mass-specific rates converge on a rather narrow size-independent range. In contrast, ingestion and growth rates follow a near-universal taxa-independent ~3/4 mass scaling power law.We argue...

  13. The performance quality rating scale (PQRS): reliability, convergent validity, and internal responsiveness for two scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Rose; Rios, Jorge; Polatajko, Helene; Wolf, Timothy; McEwen, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The performance quality rating scale (PQRS) is an observational measure of performance quality of client-selected, personally meaningful activities. It has been used inconsistently with different scoring systems, and there have been no formal publications on its psychometric properties. The purpose of this study was to test and compare the psychometric properties of two PQRS scoring systems in two populations. A secondary analysis of video recorded participant-selected activities from previous studies involving either adults living with stroke or children diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) was conducted. Three pairs of raters scored the video recorded performances with PQRS operational definitions (PQRS-OD) and a generic rating system (PQRS-G). For inter-rater reliability, PQRS-OD ICCs were substantial, ranging from 0.83 to 0.93; while the PQRS-G ICCs were moderate, ranging from 0.71 to 0.77. Test-retest reliability was substantial, >0.80 (ICC), for both rating systems across all rater pairs. Internal responsiveness was high for both rating systems. Convergent validity with the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) was inconsistent, with scores ranging from low to moderate. Both scoring systems have demonstrated they are reliable and have good internal responsiveness. The PQRS-OD demonstrated greater consistency across raters and is more sensitive to clinically important change than the PQRS-G and should be used when greater accuracy is required. Further exploration of validity with actual rather than perceived performance measures is required.

  14. Factor structure of Bech's version of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale in Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.S. Crippa

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the factor structure of Bech's version of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, translated into Portuguese. The BPRS was administered to a heterogeneous group of psychiatric inpatients (N = 98 and outpatients (N = 62 in a University Hospital. Each patient was evaluated from one to eight times. The interval between consecutive interviews was one week for the inpatients and one month for the outpatients. The results were submitted to factorial analysis. The internal consistency of the total scale and of each factor was also estimated. Factorial analysis followed by normalized orthogonal rotation (Varimax yielded four factors: Withdrawal-Retardation, Thinking Disorder, Anxious-Depression and Activation. Internal consistency measured by Cronbach's alpha coefficient ranged from 0.766 to 0.879. The data show that the factor structure of the present instrument is similar to that of the American version of the BPRS which contains 18 items, except for the absence of the fifth factor of the latter scale, Hostile-Suspiciousness.

  15. Factor analysis of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broen, M P G; Moonen, A J H; Kuijf, M L; Dujardin, K; Marsh, L; Richard, I H; Starkstein, S E; Martinez-Martin, P; Leentjens, A F G

    2015-02-01

    Several studies have validated the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and reported adequate reliability and construct validity. However, the factorial validity of the HAMD has not yet been investigated. The aim of our analysis was to explore the factor structure of the HAMD in a large sample of PD patients. A principal component analysis of the 17-item HAMD was performed on data of 341 PD patients, available from a previous cross sectional study on anxiety. An eigenvalue ≥1 was used to determine the number of factors. Factor loadings ≥0.4 in combination with oblique rotations were used to identify which variables made up the factors. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure (KMO), Cronbach's alpha, Bartlett's test, communality, percentage of non-redundant residuals and the component correlation matrix were computed to assess factor validity. KMO verified the sample's adequacy for factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha indicated a good internal consistency of the total scale. Six factors had eigenvalues ≥1 and together explained 59.19% of the variance. The number of items per factor varied from 1 to 6. Inter-item correlations within each component were low. There was a high percentage of non-redundant residuals and low communality. This analysis demonstrates that the factorial validity of the HAMD in PD is unsatisfactory. This implies that the scale is not appropriate for studying specific symptom domains of depression based on factorial structure in a PD population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale With Online Graduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVaney, Thomas A

    2016-04-01

    The Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale was examined using data from a convenience sample of 450 female and 65 male students enrolled in online, graduate-level introductory statistics courses. The mean age of the students was 33.1 (SD = 8.2), and 58.3% had completed six or fewer online courses. The majority of students were enrolled in education or counseling degree programs. Confirmatory factor analysis using unweighted least squares estimation was used to test three proposed models, and alpha coefficients were used to examine the internal consistency. The confirmatory factor analysis results supported the six-factor structure and indicated that proper models should include correlations among the six factors or two second-order factors (anxiety and attitude). Internal consistency estimates ranged from .82 to .95 and were consistent with values reported by previous researchers. The findings suggest that, when measuring statistics anxiety of online students using Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale, researchers and instructors can use scores from the individual subscales or generate two composite scores, anxiety and attitude, instead of a total score. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Development and Validation of the Controller Acceptance Rating Scale (CARS): Results of Empirical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Katharine K.; Kerns, Karol; Bone, Randall

    2001-01-01

    The measurement of operational acceptability is important for the development, implementation, and evolution of air traffic management decision support tools. The Controller Acceptance Rating Scale was developed at NASA Ames Research Center for the development and evaluation of the Passive Final Approach Spacing Tool. CARS was modeled after a well-known pilot evaluation rating instrument, the Cooper-Harper Scale, and has since been used in the evaluation of the User Request Evaluation Tool, developed by MITRE's Center for Advanced Aviation System Development. In this paper, we provide a discussion of the development of CARS and an analysis of the empirical data collected with CARS to examine construct validity. Results of intraclass correlations indicated statistically significant reliability for the CARS. From the subjective workload data that were collected in conjunction with the CARS, it appears that the expected set of workload attributes was correlated with the CARS. As expected, the analysis also showed that CARS was a sensitive indicator of the impact of decision support tools on controller operations. Suggestions for future CARS development and its improvement are also provided.

  18. Evaporation of Liquid Droplet in Nano and Micro Scales from Statistical Rate Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Fei; He, Bin; Wei, Tao

    2015-04-01

    The statistical rate theory (SRT) is applied to predict the average evaporation flux of liquid droplet after the approach is validated in the sessile droplet experiments of the water and heavy water. The steady-state experiments show a temperature discontinuity at the evaporating interface. The average evaporation flux is evaluated by individually changing the measurement at a liquid-vapor interface, including the interfacial liquid temperature, the interfacial vapor temperature, the vapor-phase pressure, and the droplet size. The parameter study shows that a higher temperature jump would reduce the average evaporation flux. The average evaporation flux can significantly be influenced by the interfacial liquid temperature and the vapor-phase pressure. The variation can switch the evaporation into condensation. The evaporation flux is found to remain relative constant if the droplet is larger than a micro scale, while the smaller diameters in nano scale can produce a much higher evaporation flux. In addition, a smaller diameter of droplets with the same liquid volume has a larger surface area. It is suggested that the evaporation rate increases dramatically as the droplet shrinks into nano size.

  19. Observable Social Cognition--A Rating Scale: an interview-based assessment for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Kristin M; Combs, Dennis R; Gibson, Clare M; Keefe, Richard S E; Roberts, David L; Penn, David L

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia consistently show impairments in social cognition (SC). SC has become a potential treatment target due to its association with functional outcomes. An alternative method of assessment is to administer an observer-based scale incorporating an informant's "first hand" impressions in ratings. The present study used the Observable Social Cognition: A Rating Scale (OSCARS) in 62 outpatients and 50 non-psychiatric controls (NPCs) to assess performance in domains of SC (e.g. emotion perception, theory of mind). The OSCARS demonstrated sufficient internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Construct validity was assessed through an exploratory factor analysis. Patient OSCARS indices were not significantly correlated with measures of SC with the exception of aggressive attributional style. Individuals with less impairment in SC reacted more aggressively to ambiguous situations. NPC OSCARS were significantly correlated with measures of theory of mind and attributional style. In a combined sample of patients and controls, six of eight items were significantly correlated with the SC task assessing the same domain, providing modest evidence of convergent validity. In patients, the OSCARS was significantly correlated with measures of functional outcome and neurocognition. Last, the OSCARS was found to be significantly associated with functional outcome after the influence of objective measures of SC was statistically removed. The present study provides preliminary evidence that the OSCARS may be useful for clinicians in collecting data about patients' potential real-world SC deficits, in turn increasing the degree to which these impairments may be targeted in treatment.

  20. Scaling rates of true polar wander in convecting planets and moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Ian; Buffett, Bruce

    2017-12-01

    Mass redistribution in the convecting mantle of a planet causes perturbations in its moment of inertia tensor. Conservation of angular momentum dictates that these perturbations change the direction of the rotation vector of the planet, a process known as true polar wander (TPW). Although the existence of TPW on Earth is firmly established, its rate and magnitude over geologic time scales remain controversial. Here we present scaling analyses and numerical simulations of TPW due to mantle convection over a range of parameter space relevant to planetary interiors. For simple rotating convection, we identify a set of dimensionless parameters that fully characterize true polar wander. We use these parameters to define timescales for the growth of moment of inertia perturbations due to convection and for their relaxation due to true polar wander. These timescales, as well as the relative sizes of convective anomalies, control the rate and magnitude of TPW. This analysis also clarifies the nature of so called "inertial interchange" TPW events, and relates them to a broader class of events that enable large and often rapid TPW. We expect these events to have been more frequent in Earth's past.

  1. Scaling A Moment-Rate Function For Small To Large Magnitude Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Ralph; Ji, Chen

    2017-04-01

    Since the 1980's seismologists have recognized that peak ground acceleration (PGA) and peak ground velocity (PGV) scale differently with magnitude for large and moderate earthquakes. In a recent paper (Archuleta and Ji, GRL 2016) we introduced an apparent moment-rate function (aMRF) that accurately predicts the scaling with magnitude of PGA, PGV, PWA (Wood-Anderson Displacement) and the ratio PGA/2πPGV (dominant frequency) for earthquakes 3.3 ≤ M ≤ 5.3. This apparent moment-rate function is controlled by two temporal parameters, tp and td, which are related to the time for the moment-rate function to reach its peak amplitude and the total duration of the earthquake, respectively. These two temporal parameters lead to a Fourier amplitude spectrum (FAS) of displacement that has two corners in between which the spectral amplitudes decay as 1/f, f denotes frequency. At higher or lower frequencies, the FAS of the aMRF looks like a single-corner Aki-Brune omega squared spectrum. However, in the presence of attenuation the higher corner is almost certainly masked. Attempting to correct the spectrum to an Aki-Brune omega-squared spectrum will produce an "apparent" corner frequency that falls between the double corner frequency of the aMRF. We reason that the two corners of the aMRF are the reason that seismologists deduce a stress drop (e.g., Allmann and Shearer, JGR 2009) that is generally much smaller than the stress parameter used to produce ground motions from stochastic simulations (e.g., Boore, 2003 Pageoph.). The presence of two corners for the smaller magnitude earthquakes leads to several questions. Can deconvolution be successfully used to determine scaling from small to large earthquakes? Equivalently will large earthquakes have a double corner? If large earthquakes are the sum of many smaller magnitude earthquakes, what should the displacement FAS look like for a large magnitude earthquake? Can a combination of such a double-corner spectrum and random

  2. Validation of a Spanish version of the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Halabí, Susana; Sáiz, Pilar A; Burón, Patricia; Garrido, Marlén; Benabarre, Antoni; Jiménez, Esther; Cervilla, Jorge; Navarrete, María Isabel; Díaz-Mesa, Eva M; García-Álvarez, Leticia; Muñiz, José; Posner, Kelly; Oquendo, María A; García-Portilla, María Paz; Bobes, Julio

    2016-01-01

    To examine the psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the C-SSRS (Sp-CSSRS). Data are from a naturalistic, cross-sectional, multicentre, validation study, including 467 psychiatric outpatients, 242 of whom had a history of suicide attempt. The study measures were: C-SSRS; the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS); the Beck Suicide Intent Scale; the Medical Damage Scale. Construct validity: Pearson coefficient between the C-SSRS severity (C-Sev) and intensity (C-Int) of ideation subscale scores was 0.44 (P<.000) for the total sample. Likewise, Pearson coefficient between C-Sev score and HDRS item 3 was 0.56 (P<.000). For the sub-sample of patients with suicide attempt, significant Pearson correlations were found between the C-Sev and the Beck Suicide Intent Scale scores (r=0.22; P=.001). Discriminant validity: Significant differences were found in C-Sev and C-Int scores between patients with and without suicide attempt (P<.000). The C-Sev score discriminated between patients based on HDRS item 3 (P<.009). Sensitivity to change: Linear regression showed that a one-unit decrease in HDRS item 3 corresponded to a decrease of 5.08 units in the C-Sev score (P=.141). A one-unit change in HDRS item 3 corresponded to a change of 13.51 on the C-Int assessments (P=.007). Cronbach's alpha was 0.53 for C-Int. The principal component analysis identified 2 components that explain 55.66% of the total variance (C-Int). The data support that the Sp-C-SSRS is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing suicidal ideation and behaviour in daily clinical practice and research settings. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. High pressure pulsed avalanche discharges: Scaling of required preionization rate for homogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenning, N.; Axnaes, I.; Nilsson, J.O.; Eninger, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Homogeneous high-pressure discharges can be formed by pulsed avalanche breakdown, provided that the individual avalanche heads have diffused to a large enough radius to overlap before streamer breakdown occurs. The overlap condition can be met by using an external mechanism to preionize the neutral gas, e.g., x-rays or uv radiation. There are several scenarios, (1) to preionize the gas, and then trigger the discharge by the sudden application of an electric field, (2) to apply an overvoltage over the discharge and trigger the discharge by external ionization, or (3) to have a continuous rate of external ionization and let the E field rise, with a comparatively long time constant τ, across the breakdown value (E/n) 0 . The authors here study the last of these scenarios, which gives a very efficient use of the preionization source because the avalanche startpoint can accumulate during the pre-avalanche phase. The authors have found that the required avalanche startpoint density N st.p , defined as the density of individual single, or clusters of, electrons at the time when the electric field crosses the breakdown value, scales with pressure and rise time as N st.p ∝ p 21/4 τ -3/4 . This pressure scaling disagrees with the p 3/2 scaling found by Levatter and Lin (J. Appl. Phys. 51(1), 210), while the rise time scaling agrees satisfactorily with their results. For an E field which rises slowly across the breakdown value, the pre-avalanche accumulation of electrons must be taken into account, as well as the fact that the density n e of free electrons becomes larger than the density N st.p of independent avalanche heads: when electron impact ionization closely balances attachment, individual electrons are replaced by clusters of electrons which are too close to form individual avalanche heads

  4. Psychometric evaluation of the altered states of consciousness rating scale (OAV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Studerus

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The OAV questionnaire has been developed to integrate research on altered states of consciousness (ASC. It measures three primary and one secondary dimensions of ASC that are hypothesized to be invariant across ASC induction methods. The OAV rating scale has been in use for more than 20 years and applied internationally in a broad range of research fields, yet its factorial structure has never been tested by structural equation modeling techniques and its psychometric properties have never been examined in large samples of experimentally induced ASC.The present study conducted a psychometric evaluation of the OAV in a sample of psilocybin (n = 327, ketamine (n = 162, and MDMA (n = 102 induced ASC that was obtained by pooling data from 43 experimental studies. The factorial structure was examined by confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory structural equation modeling, hierarchical item clustering (ICLUST, and multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC modeling. The originally proposed model did not fit the data well even if zero-constraints on non-target factor loadings and residual correlations were relaxed. Furthermore, ICLUST suggested that the "oceanic boundlessness" and "visionary restructuralization" factors could be combined on a high level of the construct hierarchy. However, because these factors were multidimensional, we extracted and examined 11 new lower order factors. MIMIC modeling indicated that these factors were highly measurement invariant across drugs, settings, questionnaire versions, and sexes. The new factors were also demonstrated to have improved homogeneities, satisfactory reliabilities, discriminant and convergent validities, and to differentiate well among the three drug groups.The original scales of the OAV were shown to be multidimensional constructs. Eleven new lower order scales were constructed and demonstrated to have desirable psychometric properties. The new lower order scales are most likely better suited to

  5. Comparing Cultural Differences in Two Quality Measures in Chinese Kindergartens: The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised and the Kindergarten Quality Rating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bi Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the degrees of congruence between two early childhood evaluation systems on various quality concepts: the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) and Zhejiang's Kindergarten Quality Rating System (KQRS). Analysis of variance and post hoc least significant difference tests were employed to show the extent to…

  6. Validation of the Lille's Apathy Rating Scale in Very Mild to Moderate Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Matarrubia, Marta; Matías-Guiu, Jordi A; Moreno-Ramos, Teresa; Valles-Salgado, María; Marcos-Dolado, Alberto; García-Ramos, Rocío; Matías-Guiu, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    Apathy is one of the most common and disabling syndromes of dementia and presents at all stages of the disease. Comprehensive and structured methods to assess apathy in dementia are still needed. Lille's Apathy Rating Scale (LARS) has shown good psychometric properties for apathy evaluation in Parkinson disease but has not been validated in dementia. The aim of this study was to validate the LARS in a cohort of patients with very mild to moderate dementia. 101 patients with cognitive impairment (Clinical Dementia Rating ≤ 2) and 50 healthy subjects were recruited. Patient diagnoses included 43 individuals with Alzheimer disease, 41 frontotemporal dementia, and 17 primary progressive aphasia. In addition to LARS, the following assessments were administered: Clinical Dementia Rating, Interview for Deterioration in Daily Living Activities in Dementia, Functional Activities Questionnaire, Frontal Behavioral Inventory, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Internal consistency for LARS (Cronbach's alpha) was 0.940. Test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.940 and inter-rater ICC was 0.987. The correlation among LARS and NPI apathy scores (concurrent validity) was 0.834. Receiver operating characteristic analysis estimated an area under the curve of 0.987. The optimal cutoff point was -10. Although total LARS score was influenced by the presence of depression, this disorder was independent with respect to apathy. LARS is reliable and valid for detecting and quantifying apathy in patients with dementia, even in very early stages of the disease. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of the continuous and discrete confidence rating scales in ROC observer studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Sahiner, Berkman; Helvie, Mark A.; Roubidoux, Marilyn A.

    2005-04-01

    We previously conducted an observer study evaluating radiologists' performance for characterization of mammographic masses on serial mammograms with and without CAD. 253 temporal image pairs (138 malignant and 115 benign) from 96 patients containing masses on serial mammograms were used. The interval change characteristics of the masses on each temporal pair were analyzed by our CAD program to differentiate malignant and benign masses. The classifier achieved a test Az value of 0.87 for the data set. Eight MQSA radiologists and 2 fellows assessed the temporal masses and provided estimates of the likelihood of malignancy (LM) and BI-RADS assessment without and then with CAD. The LM estimates were provided on a quasi-continuous confidence-rating scale (CRS) of 1 to 100. In the current study we investigated the effects of using discrete CRS with fewer categories on ROC analysis. We simulated three discrete CRSs containing 5, 10, and 20 categories by binning the radiologists" LM quasi-continuous ratings. For the ten radiologists, without CAD, the average Az in estimating the LM for the 5, 10, 20 and 100 category CRSs were 0.788, 0.786, 0.785, and 0.787, respectively. With CAD, the observers' Az improved to 0.845, 0.843, 0.844, and 0.843, respectively. The improvement was statistically significant (p<0.011) for each CRS. The partial area index for the four CRSs without CAD was 0.198, 0.204, 0.200, and 0.206, respectively. With CAD the partial area index was also significantly improved to 0.369, 0.365, 0.369, and 0.366, respectively (p<0.006 for all CRSs). The use of continuous and discrete confidence-rating scales in this study had minimal effect on the analysis of observer performance.

  8. Effects of small-scale clustering of flowers on pollinator foraging behaviour and flower visitation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Asma; Biella, Paolo; Klecka, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Plants often grow in clusters of various sizes and have a variable number of flowers per inflorescence. This small-scale spatial clustering affects insect foraging strategies and plant reproductive success. In our study, we aimed to determine how visitation rate and foraging behaviour of pollinators depend on the number of flowers per plant and on the size of clusters of multiple plants using Dracocephalum moldavica (Lamiaceae) as a target species. We measured flower visitation rate by observations of insects visiting single plants and clusters of plants with different numbers of flowers. Detailed data on foraging behaviour within clusters of different sizes were gathered for honeybees, Apis mellifera, the most abundant visitor of Dracocephalum in the experiments. We found that the total number of flower visitors increased with the increasing number of flowers on individual plants and in larger clusters, but less then proportionally. Although individual honeybees visited more flowers in larger clusters, they visited a smaller proportion of flowers, as has been previously observed. Consequently, visitation rate per flower and unit time peaked in clusters with an intermediate number of flowers. These patterns do not conform to expectations based on optimal foraging theory and the ideal free distribution model. We attribute this discrepancy to incomplete information about the distribution of resources. Detailed observations and video recordings of individual honeybees also showed that the number of flowers had no effect on handling time of flowers by honeybees. We evaluated the implications of these patterns for insect foraging biology and plant reproduction.

  9. Phenomenological features of dreams: Results from dream log studies using the Subjective Experiences Rating Scale (SERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Tracey L; Claudatos, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Self-ratings of dream experiences were obtained from 144 college women for 788 dreams, using the Subjective Experiences Rating Scale (SERS). Consistent with past studies, dreams were characterized by a greater prevalence of vision, audition, and movement than smell, touch, or taste, by both positive and negative emotion, and by a range of cognitive processes. A Principal Components Analysis of SERS ratings revealed ten subscales: four sensory, three affective, one cognitive, and two structural (events/actions, locations). Correlations (Pearson r) among subscale means showed a stronger relationship among the process-oriented features (sensory, cognitive, affective) than between the process-oriented and content-centered (structural) features--a pattern predicted from past research (e.g., Bulkeley & Kahan, 2008). Notably, cognition and positive emotion were associated with a greater number of other phenomenal features than was negative emotion; these findings are consistent with studies of the qualitative features of waking autobiographical memory (e.g., Fredrickson, 2001). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Full-Scale System for Quantifying Loads and Leak Rates of Seals for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Daniels, Christopher C.; Wasowski, Janice L.; Robbie, Malcolm G.; Erker, Arthur H.; Drlik, Gary J.; Mayer, John J.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is developing advanced space-rated vacuum seals in support of future space exploration missions to low-Earth orbit and other destinations. These seals may be 50 to 60 in. (127 to 152 cm) in diameter and must exhibit extremely low leak rates to ensure that astronauts have sufficient breathable air for extended missions to the International Space Station or the Moon. Seal compression loads must be below prescribed limits so as not to overload the mechanisms that compress them during docking or mating, and seal adhesion forces must be low to allow two mated systems to separate when required. NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a new test apparatus to measure leak rates and compression and adhesion loads of candidate full-scale seals under simulated thermal, vacuum, and engagement conditions. Tests can be performed in seal-on-seal or seal-on-flange configurations at temperatures from -76 to 140 F (-60 to 60 C) under operational pressure gradients. Nominal and off-nominal mating conditions (e.g., incomplete seal compression) can also be simulated. This paper describes the main design features of the test apparatus as well as techniques used to overcome some of the design challenges.

  11. Parkinson's disease-cognitive rating scale: psychometrics for mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Bobadilla, Ramón; Pagonabarraga, Javier; Martínez-Horta, Saül; Pascual-Sedano, Berta; Campolongo, Antonia; Kulisevsky, Jaime

    2013-09-01

    Lack of validated data on cutoff scores for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and sensitivity to change in predementia stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) limit the utility of instruments measuring global cognition as screening and outcome measures in therapeutic trials. Investigators who were blinded to PD-Cognitive Rating Scale (PD-CRS) scores classified a cohort of prospectively recruited, nondemented patients into a PD with normal cognition (PD-NC) group and a PD with MCI (PD-MCI) group using Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) and the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale-2 (MDRS-2). The discriminative power of the PD-CRS for PD-MCI was examined in a representative sample of 234 patients (145 in the PD-NC group; 89 in the PD-MCI group) and in a control group of 98 healthy individuals. Sensitivity to change in the PD-CRS score (the minimal clinically important difference was examined with the Clinical Global Impression of Change scale and was calculated with a combination of distribution-based and anchor-based approaches) was explored in a 6-month observational multicenter trial involving a subset of 120 patients (PD-NC, 63; PD-MCI, 57). Regression analysis demonstrated that PD-CRS total scores (P < 0.001) and age (P = 0.01) independently differentiated PD-NC from PD-MCI. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis (AUC, 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.90) indicated that a score ≤ 81 of 134 was the optimal cutoff point on the total score for the PD-CRS (sensitivity, 79%; specificity, 80%; positive predictive value, 59%; negative predictive value, 91%). A range of change from 10 to 13 points on the PD-CRS total score was indicative of clinically significant change. These findings suggest that the PD-CRS is a useful tool to identify PD-MCI and to track cognitive changes in nondemented patients with PD. © 2013 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  12. Assessing Communication Skills of Medical Students in Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE) - A Systematic Review of Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömert, Musa; Zill, Jördis Maria; Christalle, Eva; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Scholl, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Teaching and assessment of communication skills have become essential in medical education. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has been found as an appropriate means to assess communication skills within medical education. Studies have demonstrated the importance of a valid assessment of medical students’ communication skills. Yet, the validity of the performance scores depends fundamentally on the quality of the rating scales used in an OSCE. Thus, this systematic review aimed at providing an overview of existing rating scales, describing their underlying definition of communication skills, determining the methodological quality of psychometric studies and the quality of psychometric properties of the identified rating scales. Methods We conducted a systematic review to identify psychometrically tested rating scales, which have been applied in OSCE settings to assess communication skills of medical students. Our search strategy comprised three databases (EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed), reference tracking and consultation of experts. We included studies that reported psychometric properties of communication skills assessment rating scales used in OSCEs by examiners only. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the COnsensus based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. The quality of psychometric properties was evaluated using the quality criteria of Terwee and colleagues. Results Data of twelve studies reporting on eight rating scales on communication skills assessment in OSCEs were included. Five of eight rating scales were explicitly developed based on a specific definition of communication skills. The methodological quality of studies was mainly poor. The psychometric quality of the eight rating scales was mainly intermediate. Discussion Our results reveal that future psychometric evaluation studies focusing on improving the methodological quality are needed

  13. Assessing Communication Skills of Medical Students in Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE)--A Systematic Review of Rating Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömert, Musa; Zill, Jördis Maria; Christalle, Eva; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Scholl, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Teaching and assessment of communication skills have become essential in medical education. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has been found as an appropriate means to assess communication skills within medical education. Studies have demonstrated the importance of a valid assessment of medical students' communication skills. Yet, the validity of the performance scores depends fundamentally on the quality of the rating scales used in an OSCE. Thus, this systematic review aimed at providing an overview of existing rating scales, describing their underlying definition of communication skills, determining the methodological quality of psychometric studies and the quality of psychometric properties of the identified rating scales. We conducted a systematic review to identify psychometrically tested rating scales, which have been applied in OSCE settings to assess communication skills of medical students. Our search strategy comprised three databases (EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed), reference tracking and consultation of experts. We included studies that reported psychometric properties of communication skills assessment rating scales used in OSCEs by examiners only. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the COnsensus based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. The quality of psychometric properties was evaluated using the quality criteria of Terwee and colleagues. Data of twelve studies reporting on eight rating scales on communication skills assessment in OSCEs were included. Five of eight rating scales were explicitly developed based on a specific definition of communication skills. The methodological quality of studies was mainly poor. The psychometric quality of the eight rating scales was mainly intermediate. Our results reveal that future psychometric evaluation studies focusing on improving the methodological quality are needed in order to yield psychometrically

  14. Monitoring improvement using a patient-rated depression scale during treatment with anti-depressants in general practice. A validation study on the Goldberg Depression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, J; Holm, L; Bech, P

    2001-12-01

    To perform a pilot study on the value of the Goldberg Depression Scale as an instrument for monitoring improvement in depressed patients treated with anti-depressants in general practice. A comparative study using simultaneous ratings on the observer-based 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale and the patient-rated Goldberg Depression Scale. General practice. Twenty-one patients meeting the ICD-10 criteria of a moderate depressive episode were assessed at the time of inclusion and through three follow-up visits. Scores on the Goldberg Depression Scale compared to the Hamilton Depression Scale. An acceptable internal and external validity of the Goldberg Depression Scale was demonstrated. The Loevinger coefficient varied from 0.25 at the time of diagnosis to 0.57, 0.65 and 0.69 by visits two, three and four. Factor analysis identified only one general factor explaining 50% or more of the variants, except at visit 1. When the Goldberg Depression Scale was correlated to the Hamilton Depression Scales, a coefficient of 0.74 was obtained (p Depression Scale is suitable for monitoring improvement in depressed patients treated in general practice. Further studies are recommended.

  15. Dysautonomia Rating Scales in Parkinson’s Disease: Sialorrhea, Dysphagia, and Constipation—Critique and Recommendations by Movement Disorders Task Force on Rating Scales for Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evatt, Marian L.; Chaudhuri, K. Ray; Chou, Kelvin L.; Cubo, Ester; Hinson, Vanessa; Kompoliti, Katie; Yang, Chengwu; Poewe, Werner; Rascol, Olivier; Sampaio, Cristina; Stebbins, Glenn T.; Goetz, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Upper and lower gastrointestinal dysautonomia symptoms (GIDS)—sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation are common in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and often socially as well as physically disabling for patients. Available invasive quantitative measures for assessing these symptoms and their response to therapy are time-consuming, require specialized equipment, can cause patient discomfort and present patients with risk. The Movement Disorders Society commissioned a task force to assess available clinical rating scales, critique their clinimetric properties, and make recommendations regarding their clinical utility. Six clinical researchers and a biostatistician systematically searched the literature for scales of sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation, evaluated the scales’ previous use, performance parameters, and quality of validation data (if available). A scale was designated “Recommended” if the scale was used in clinical studies beyond the group that developed it, has been specifically used in PD reports, and clinimetric studies have established that it is a valid, reliable, and sensitive. “Suggested” scales met at least part of the above criteria, but fell short of meeting all. Based on the systematic review, scales for individual symptoms of sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation were identified along with three global scales that include these symptoms in the context of assessing dysautonomia or nonmotor symptoms. Three sialorrhea scales met criteria for Suggested: Drooling Severity and Frequency Scale (DSFS), Drooling Rating Scale, and Sialorrhea Clinical Scale for PD (SCS-PD). Two dysphagia scales, the Swallowing Disturbance Questionnaire (SDQ) and Dysphagia-Specific Quality of Life (SWAL-QOL), met criteria for Suggested. Although Rome III constipation module is widely accepted in the gastroenterology community, and the earlier version from the Rome II criteria has been used in a single study of PD patients, neither met criteria for Suggested

  16. Web-based training and interrater reliability testing for scoring the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Jules; Mulsant, Benoit H; Marino, Patricia; Groening, Christopher; Young, Robert C; Fox, Debra

    2008-10-30

    Despite the importance of establishing shared scoring conventions and assessing interrater reliability in clinical trials in psychiatry, these elements are often overlooked. Obstacles to rater training and reliability testing include logistic difficulties in providing live training sessions, or mailing videotapes of patients to multiple sites and collecting the data for analysis. To address some of these obstacles, a web-based interactive video system was developed. It uses actors of diverse ages, gender and race to train raters how to score the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and to assess interrater reliability. This system was tested with a group of experienced and novice raters within a single site. It was subsequently used to train raters of a federally funded multi-center clinical trial on scoring conventions and to test their interrater reliability. The advantages and limitations of using interactive video technology to improve the quality of clinical trials are discussed.

  17. Reliability and Validity of the Daily Parent Rating of Evening and Morning Behavior Scale, Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V; Childress, Ann; Wigal, Sharon B; Kollins, Scott H; McDonnell, Mary Ann; DeSousa, Norberto J; Sallee, F Randy

    2015-12-23

    Children with ADHD frequently manifest behavioral difficulties in the morning prior to school. We sought to assess the reliability and validity of the Daily Parent Rating of Evening and Morning Behavior Scale, Revised (DPREMB-R) morning score as a measure of morning behaviors impaired by ADHD. We used data from a clinical trial of HLD200 treatment in pediatric participants with ADHD to address our objectives. The DPREMB-R morning score showed significant internal homogeneity, test-retest reliability (r = .52-.45), and good concurrent validity (r = .50-.71). The DPREMB-R morning score could be a useful instrument for assessing treatment efficacy in the morning before school. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Validation of cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling factors through direct measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, I J; Ditchburn, R G; Whitehead, N E

    2000-01-01

    sup 7 Be produced in water targets by nuclear interactions of cosmic rays has been measured to determine cosmogenic nuclide production rates as a function of altitude (sea level to 2 km) and geomagnetic latitude (20-79 deg. S). Relative intensities of low energy cosmic ray neutrons have at the same time been measured using neutron monitors based on IGY/NM-64 designed to efficiently thermalise ca. 2-30 MeV neutrons. The research is on-going and we present here preliminary data from the past two years. Water target and neutron flux results are in general agreement, and are consistent with the altitude-dependent scaling factors of Lal [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 104 (1991) 4241]. Significant differences between the sea level, latitude-dependent neutron flux data and Lal's predictions are possibly related to the response function of the detector.

  19. Predictive Validity of the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale for Short-Term Suicidal Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Erlangsen, Annette; Teasdale, Thomas William

    2016-01-01

    on a sample of 85 adolescents (90.6% females) who participated at follow-up (85.9%) out of the 99 (49.7%) baseline respondents. All adolescents were recruited from a specialized suicide-prevention clinic in Denmark. Through multivariate logistic regression analyses, we examined whether baseline suicidal......Objectives: Using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), we examined the predictive and incremental predictive validity of past-month suicidal behavior and ideation for short-term suicidal behavior among adolescents at a high risk of suicide. Methods: The study was conducted in 2014...... behavior predicted subsequent suicidal behavior (actual attempts and suicidal behavior of any type, including preparatory acts, aborted, interrupted and actual attempts; mean follow-up of 80.8 days, SD = 52.4). Furthermore, we examined whether suicidal ideation severity and intensity incrementally...

  20. Validity and reliability of a new, short symptom rating scale in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härdén, Marie; Nyström, Britta; Kulich, Károly; Carlsson, Jonas; Bengtson, Ann; Edvardsson, Nils

    2009-07-15

    Symptoms related to atrial fibrillation and their impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are often evaluated in clinical trials. However, there remains a need for a properly validated instrument. We aimed to develop and validate a short symptoms scale for patients with AF. One hundred and eleven patients with a variety of symptoms related to AF were scheduled for DC cardioversion. The mean age was 67.1 +/- 12.1 years, and 80% were men. The patients completed the new symptoms scale, the Toronto Symptoms Check List (SCL) and the generic Short Form 36 (SF-36) the day before the planned DC cardioversion. Compliance was excellent, with only 1 of 666 answers missing. One item, 'limitations in working capability', was deleted because of a low numerical response rate, as many of the patients were retired. The internal consistency reliability of the remaining six items was 0.81 (Cronbach's alpha). Patients scored highest in the items of 'dyspnoea on exertion', 'limitations in daily life due to AF' and 'fatigue due to AF', with scores of 4.5, 3.3 and 4.5, respectively. There was a good correlation to all relevant SF-36 domains and to the relevant questions of the SCL. The Rasch analyses showed that the items are unidimensional and that they are clearly separated and cover an adequate range. Test-retest reliability was performed in patients who failed DC and was adequate for three of six items, > 0.70. The psychometric characteristics of the new short symptoms scale were found to have satisfactory reliability and validity.

  1. Validity and reliability of a new, short symptom rating scale in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengtson Ann

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symptoms related to atrial fibrillation and their impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL are often evaluated in clinical trials. However, there remains a need for a properly validated instrument. We aimed to develop and validate a short symptoms scale for patients with AF. Methods One hundred and eleven patients with a variety of symptoms related to AF were scheduled for DC cardioversion. The mean age was 67.1 ± 12.1 years, and 80% were men. The patients completed the new symptoms scale, the Toronto Symptoms Check List (SCL and the generic Short Form 36 (SF-36 the day before the planned DC cardioversion. Compliance was excellent, with only 1 of 666 answers missing. Results One item, 'limitations in working capability', was deleted because of a low numerical response rate, as many of the patients were retired. The internal consistency reliability of the remaining six items was 0.81 (Cronbach's α. Patients scored highest in the items of 'dyspnoea on exertion', 'limitations in daily life due to AF' and 'fatigue due to AF', with scores of 4.5, 3.3 and 4.5, respectively. There was a good correlation to all relevant SF-36 domains and to the relevant questions of the SCL. The Rasch analyses showed that the items are unidimensional and that they are clearly separated and cover an adequate range. Test-retest reliability was performed in patients who failed DC and was adequate for three of six items, >0.70. Conclusion The psychometric characteristics of the new short symptoms scale were found to have satisfactory reliability and validity.

  2. The Revised Body Awareness Rating Questionnaire: Development Into a Unidimensional Scale Using Rasch Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragesund, Tove; Strand, Liv Inger; Grotle, Margreth

    2018-02-01

    The Body Awareness Rating Questionnaire (BARQ) is a self-report questionnaire aimed at capturing how people with long-lasting musculoskeletal pain reflect on their own body awareness. Methods based on classical test theory were applied to the development of the instrument and resulted in 4 subscales. However, the scales were not correlated, and construct validity might be questioned. The primary purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of developing a unidimensional scale from items initially collected for the BARQ using Rasch analysis. A secondary purpose was to investigate the test-retest reliability of a revised version of the BARQ. This was a methodological study. Rasch and reliability analyses were performed for 3 samples of participants with long-lasting musculoskeletal pain. The first Rasch analysis was carried out on 66 items generated for the original BARQ and scored by 300 participants. The items supported by the first analysis were scored by a new group of 127 participants and analyzed in a second Rasch analysis. For the test-retest reliability analysis, 48 participants scored the revised BARQ items twice within 1 week. The 2-step Rasch analysis resulted in a unidimensional 12-item revised version of the BARQ with a 4-point response scale (scores from 0 to 36). It showed a good fit to the Rasch model, with acceptable internal consistency, satisfactory fit residuals, and no disordered thresholds. Test-retest reliability was high, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of .83 (95% CI = .71-.89) and a smallest detectable change of 6.3 points. The small sample size in the second Rasch analysis was a study limitation. The revised BARQ is a unidimensional and feasible measurement of body awareness, recommended for use in the context of body-mind physical therapy approaches for musculoskeletal conditions.

  3. Evaluating acute pain intensity relief: challenges when using an 11-point numerical rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauny, Jean-Marc; Paquet, Jean; Lavigne, Gilles; Marquis, Martin; Daoust, Raoul

    2016-02-01

    Percentage of pain intensity difference (PercentPID) is a recognized way of evaluating pain relief with an 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS) but is not without flaws. A new metric, the slope of relative pain intensity difference (SlopePID), which consists in dividing PercentPID by the time between 2 pain measurements, is proposed. This study aims to validate SlopePID with 3 measures of subjective pain relief: a 5-category relief scale (not, a little, moderate, very, complete), a 2-category relief question ("I'm relieved," "I'm not relieved"), and a single-item question, "Wanting other medication to treat pain?" (Yes/No). This prospective cohort study included 361 patients in the emergency department who had an initial acute pain NRS > 3 and a pain intensity assessment within 90 minutes after analgesic administration. Mean age was 50.2 years (SD = 19.3) and 59% were women. Area under the curves of receiver operating characteristic curves analyses revealed similar discriminative power for PercentPID (0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79-0.88) and SlopePID (0.82; 95% CI, 0.77-0.86). Considering the "very" category from the 5-category relief scale as a substantial relief, the average cutoff for substantial relief was a decrease of 64% (95% CI, 59-69) for PercentPID and of 49% per hour (95% CI, 44-54) for SlopePID. However, when a cutoff criterion of 50% was used as a measure of pain relief for an individual patient, PercentPID underestimated pain-relieved patients by 12.1% (P pain intensity at baseline was an odd number compared with an even number (32.9% vs 45.0%, respectively). SlopePID should be used instead of PercentPID as a metric to evaluate acute pain relief on a 0 to 10 NRS.

  4. Physical origin of the large-scale conformity in the specific star formation rates of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann, Guinevere

    2015-12-01

    Two explanations have been put forward to explain the observed conformity between the colours and specific star formation rates (SFR/M*) of galaxies on large scales: (1) the formation times of their surrounding dark matter haloes are correlated (commonly referred to as `assembly bias'), (2) gas is heated over large scales at early times, leading to coherent modulation of cooling and star formation between well-separated galaxies (commonly referred to as `pre-heating'). To distinguish between the pre-heating and assembly bias scenarios, we search for relics of energetic feedback events in the neighbourhood of central galaxies with different specific SFRs. We find a significant excess of very high mass (log M* > 11.3) galaxies out to a distance of 2.5 Mpc around low SFR/M* central galaxies compared to control samples of higher SFR/M* central galaxies with the same stellar mass and redshift. We also find that very massive galaxies in the neighbourhood of low-SFR/M* galaxies have much higher probability of hosting radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN). The radio-loud AGN fraction in neighbours with log M* > 11.3 is four times higher around passive, non star-forming centrals at projected distances of 1 Mpc and two times higher at projected distances of 4 Mpc. Finally, we carry out an investigation of conformity effects in the recently publicly released Illustris cosmological hydrodynamical simulation, which includes energetic input both from quasars and from radio mode accretion on to black holes. We do not find conformity effects of comparable amplitude on large scales in the simulations and we propose that gas needs to be pushed out of dark matter haloes more efficiently at high redshifts.

  5. The use of global rating scales for OSCEs in veterinary medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma K Read

    Full Text Available OSCEs (Objective Structured Clinical Examinations are widely used in health professions to assess clinical skills competence. Raters use standardized binary checklists (CL or multi-dimensional global rating scales (GRS to score candidates performing specific tasks. This study assessed the reliability of CL and GRS scores in the assessment of veterinary students, and is the first study to demonstrate the reliability of GRS within veterinary medical education. Twelve raters from two different schools (6 from University of Calgary [UCVM] and 6 from Royal (Dick School of Veterinary Studies [R(DSVS] were asked to score 12 students (6 from each school. All raters assessed all students (video recordings during 4 OSCE stations (bovine haltering, gowning and gloving, equine bandaging and skin suturing. Raters scored students using a CL, followed by the GRS. Novice raters (6 R(DSVS were assessed independently of expert raters (6 UCVM. Generalizability theory (G theory, analysis of variance (ANOVA and t-tests were used to determine the reliability of rater scores, assess any between school differences (by student, by rater, and determine if there were differences between CL and GRS scores. There was no significant difference in rater performance with use of the CL or the GRS. Scores from the CL were significantly higher than scores from the GRS. The reliability of checklist scores were .42 and .76 for novice and expert raters respectively. The reliability of the global rating scale scores were .7 and .86 for novice and expert raters respectively. A decision study (D-study showed that once trained using CL, GRS could be utilized to reliably score clinical skills in veterinary medicine with both novice and experienced raters.

  6. Utility of a Validated Rating Scale for Self-Assessment in Microsurgical Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Aaron L; Temple-Oberle, Claire

    The purpose of this study is to determine the utility of self-assessment in microsurgical training using a previously validated rating scale. A prospective study of surgical residents taking a hands-on 5-day microsurgical training course. Learners completed multiple self-assessments of their technical skills using the University of Western Ontario Microsurgical Acquisition/Assessment instrument. Simultaneously, preceptors assessed the learners using the same scale. Self-assessment and preceptor scores were compared using the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC). There was a significant agreement noted between the 32 preceptor assessments and 36 self-assessments that were completed. Correlation between scores for the knot-tying (PCC = 0.62) and anastomosis modules (PCC = 0.77) was good and excellent, respectively. Preceptor scores and self-scores improved over the duration of the course: for preceptors, knot-tying scores increased from 58% on day 1 to 78% on day 5 (p = 0.02) and anastomosis scores improved from 56% to 82% (p = 0.004); for self-scores, knot-tying scores increased from 44% to 81% (p = 0.001) and anastomosis scores from 49% to 84% (p = 0.001). Learners with greater experience (higher postgraduate year level) tended to have higher self as well as preceptor ratings, albeit not statistically significant. Self-assessment using the University of Western Ontario Microsurgical Acquisition/Assessment instrument has good to excellent agreement with preceptor-assessment scores suggesting good interrater reliability. Self-assessment using such tools may, therefore, be used along with preceptor supervision and assessment to potentially improve self-directed learning during these courses. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The use of global rating scales for OSCEs in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Emma K; Bell, Catriona; Rhind, Susan; Hecker, Kent G

    2015-01-01

    OSCEs (Objective Structured Clinical Examinations) are widely used in health professions to assess clinical skills competence. Raters use standardized binary checklists (CL) or multi-dimensional global rating scales (GRS) to score candidates performing specific tasks. This study assessed the reliability of CL and GRS scores in the assessment of veterinary students, and is the first study to demonstrate the reliability of GRS within veterinary medical education. Twelve raters from two different schools (6 from University of Calgary [UCVM] and 6 from Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies [R(D)SVS] were asked to score 12 students (6 from each school). All raters assessed all students (video recordings) during 4 OSCE stations (bovine haltering, gowning and gloving, equine bandaging and skin suturing). Raters scored students using a CL, followed by the GRS. Novice raters (6 R(D)SVS) were assessed independently of expert raters (6 UCVM). Generalizability theory (G theory), analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-tests were used to determine the reliability of rater scores, assess any between school differences (by student, by rater), and determine if there were differences between CL and GRS scores. There was no significant difference in rater performance with use of the CL or the GRS. Scores from the CL were significantly higher than scores from the GRS. The reliability of checklist scores were .42 and .76 for novice and expert raters respectively. The reliability of the global rating scale scores were .7 and .86 for novice and expert raters respectively. A decision study (D-study) showed that once trained using CL, GRS could be utilized to reliably score clinical skills in veterinary medicine with both novice and experienced raters.

  8. Observable Social Cognition: A Rating Scale (OSCARS): An Interview-Based Assessment for Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Kristin M.; Combs, Dennis R.; Gibson, Clare M.; Keefe, Richard S.E.; Roberts, David L.; Penn, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Individuals with schizophrenia consistently show impairments in social cognition (SC). SC has become a potential treatment target due to its association with functional outcomes. An alternative method of assessment is to administer an observer-based scale incorporating an informant’s “first hand” impressions in ratings. Methods The present study used the Observable Social Cognition: A Rating Scale (OSCARS) in 62 outpatients and 50 non-psychiatric controls (NPCs) to assess performance in domains of SC (e.g. emotion perception, theory of mind). Results The OSCARS demonstrated sufficient internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Construct validity was assessed through an exploratory factor analysis. Patient OSCARS indices were not significantly correlated with measures of SC with the exception of aggressive attributional style. Individuals with less impairment in SC reacted more aggressively to ambiguous situations. NPC OSCARS were significantly correlated with measures of theory of mind and attributional style. In a combined sample of patients and controls, six of eight items were significantly correlated with the SC task assessing the same domain, providing modest evidence of convergent validity. In patients, the OSCARS was significantly correlated with measures of functional outcome and neurocognition. Lastly, the OSCARS was found to be significantly associated with functional outcome after the influence of objective measures of SC was statistically removed. Conclusions The present study provides preliminary evidence that the OSCARS may be useful for clinicians in collecting data about patients’ potential real-world SC deficits, in turn increasing the degree to which these impairments may be targeted in treatment. PMID:25675960

  9. Monitoring granulation rate processes using three PAT tools in a pilot-scale fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tok, Ai Tee; Goh, Xueping; Ng, Wai Kiong; Tan, Reginald B H

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze and compare the responses of three Process Analytical Technology (PAT) techniques applied simultaneously to monitor a pilot-scale fluidized bed granulation process. Real-time measurements using focused beam reflectance measurement (Lasentec FBRM) and near-infra red spectroscopy (Bruker NIR) were taken by inserting in-line probes into the fluidized bed. Non-intrusive acoustic emission measurements (Physical Acoustic AE) were performed by attaching piezoelectric sensors on the external wall of the fluidized bed. Powder samples were collected at regular intervals during the granulation process and characterized offline using laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, stereo-optical microscopy and loss on drying method. PAT data comprising chord length distribution and chord count (from FBRM), absorption spectra (from NIR) and average signal levels and counts (from AE) were compared with the particle properties measured using offline samples. All three PAT techniques were able to detect the three granulation regimes or rate processes (wetting and nucleation, consolidation and growth, breakage) to varying degrees of sensitivity. Being dependent on optical signals, the sensitivities of the FBRM and NIR techniques were susceptible to fouling on probe windows. The AE technique was sensitive to background fluidizing air flows and external interferences. The sensitivity, strengths and weaknesses of the PAT techniques examined may facilitate the selection of suitable PAT tools for process development and scale-up studies.

  10. Fine scale distribution constrains cadmium accumulation rates in two geographical groups of Franciscana dolphin from Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polizzi, P.S.; Chiodi Boudet, L.N.; Romero, M.B.; Denuncio, P.E.; Rodríguez, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Fine scale distribution of two Argentine stocks constrains the Cd accumulation rates. • Cadmium levels and accumulation patterns were different between geographic groups. • Marine diet has a major influence than the impact degree of origin environment. • Engraulis anchoita is the main Cd vector species in Argentine shelf for Franciscana. • Information is valuable for the conservation of Franciscana, a vulnerable species. -- Abstract: Franciscana dolphin is an endemic cetacean in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean and is classified as Vulnerable A3d by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Cadmium accumulation was assessed in two geographic groups from Argentina; one inhabits the La Plata River estuary, a high anthropogenic impacted environment, and the other is distributed in marine coastal, with negligible pollution. Despite the environment, marine dolphins showed an increase of renal Cd concentrations since trophic independence; while in estuarine dolphins was from 6 years. This is associated with dietary Argentine anchovy which was absent in the diet of estuarine dolphins, being a trophic vector of cadmium in shelf waters of Argentina. Cluster analysis also showed high levels of cd in association with the presence of anchovy in the stomach. The difference in the fine scale distribution of species influences dietary exposure to Cd and, along with other data, indicates two stocks in Argentina

  11. Development and validation of the Affect in Play Scale-brief rating version (APS-BR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiano, Tori J Sacha; Russ, Sandra W; Short, Elizabeth J

    2008-01-01

    The Affect in Play Scale (APS; Russ, 1987, 2004) is one of few reliable, standardized measures of pretend play, yet the fact that it requires videotaping and extensive training to score compromises its clinical utility. In this study, we developed and validated a brief rating version (APS-BR) that does not require videotaping. Construct validity was established by comparing scores from the original APS and the APS-BR using an existing data set of videotaped play (n = 46). We examined associations between scores on the APS-BR and theoretically relevant measures of divergent thinking and emotional memories. Scores on the APS-BR related strongly to those on the APS, and the pattern of correlations for each scale and relevant criterion measures was similar in strength and direction, supporting the APS-BR as an alternate form of the APS. In addition, we completed a pilot study to examine the efficacy of using the APS-BR in its intended in vivo format (n = 28). Results from both studies suggest that the APS-BR is a promising brief measure of children's pretend play that can be substituted for the APS in clinical and research settings.

  12. Interactive Hangman teaches amino acid structures and abbreviations

    OpenAIRE

    Pennington, BO; Sears, D; Clegg, DO

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 42(6):495-500, 2014. We developed an interactive exercise to teach students how to draw the structures of the 20 standard amino acids and to identify the one-letter abbreviations by modifying the familiar game of "Hangman." Amino acid structures were used to represent single letters throughout the game. To provide additional practice in identifying structures, hints to the answers were written in "amino acid sentences" f...

  13. The relationship between nasalance scores and nasality ratings obtained with equal appearing interval and direct magnitude estimation scaling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancamp, Tami U; Lewis, Kerry E; Watterson, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    To assess the nasalance/nasality relationship and Nasometer test sensitivity and specificity when nasality ratings are obtained with both equal appearing interval (EAI) and direct magnitude estimation (DME) scaling procedures. To test the linearity of the relationship between nasality ratings obtained from different perceptual scales. STIMULI: Audio recordings of the Turtle Passage. Participants' nasalance scores and audio recordings were obtained simultaneously. A single judge rated the samples for nasality using both EAI and DME scaling procedures. Thirty-nine participants 3 to 17 years of age. Across participants, resonance ranged from normal to severely hypernasal. Nasalance scores and two nasality ratings. The magnitude of the correlation between nasalance scores and EAI ratings of nasality (r  =  .63) and between nasalance and DME ratings of nasality (r  =  .59) was not significantly different. Nasometer test sensitivity and specificity for EAI-rated nasality were .71 and .73, respectively. For DME-rated nasality, sensitivity and specificity were .62 and .70, respectively. Regression of EAI nasality ratings on DME nasality ratings did not depart significantly from linearity. No difference was found in the relationship between nasalance and nasality when nasality was rated using EAI as opposed to DME procedures. Nasometer test sensitivity and specificity were similar for EAI- and DME-rated nasality. A linear model accounted for the greatest proportion of explained variance in EAI and DME ratings. Consequently, clinicians should be able to obtain valid and reliable estimates of nasality using EAI or DME.

  14. The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form: An Analysis of the Standardization Sample Based on Age, Gender, and Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Steven L; Petscher, Yaacov; Jarosewich, Tania

    This study reports on an analysis of the standardization sample of a rating scale designed to assist in identification of gifted students. The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form (GRS-P) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness designed for preschool and kindergarten students. Results provide support for: the internal structure of the scale; no age differences across the 3-year age span 4:0-6:11; gender differences on only one of the five scales; artistic talent; and small but statistically significant race/ethnicity differences with Asian Americans rated, on average, 1.5 scale-score points higher than whites and Native Americans and 7 points higher than African American and Hispanic students. The present findings provide support for the GRS-P as a valid screening test for giftedness.

  15. Abbreviated RD and D program portfolio selection workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, D.W.; Cohan, D.; Regulinski, S.G.

    1979-12-01

    A workbook for implementing an abbreviated version of the RD and D portfolio selection methodology described in A Resource Allocation Methodology for Establishing RD and D Budgetary Priorities is presented. The purpose of the abbreviated methodology is to allow a fast, first-cut analysis of a set of programs and to provide a means of discovering important issues that deserve more detailed analysis. The use of the abbreviated methodology in the overall process of evaluating RD and D programs is outlined. The effect of the program on a process is represented by the process model. Those process cost and performance characteristics that are important to the market for an energy product are described. The product cost model takes the cost and performance characteristics and the feedstock price and calculates the cost of producing a unit of energy using the technology in question. The market model takes this cost, the demand for the energy product, and the characteristics of alternative sources of the same product, and specifies the market share captured by the new technology. From this point it is relatively straightforward to infer the impacts of the new technology on the energy system. The benefit model evaluates the impacts in a consistent way, given the cost of the Federal support.

  16. Multiscale Investigation on Biofilm Distribution and Its Impact on Macroscopic Biogeochemical Reaction Rates: BIOFILM DISTRIBUTION AND RATE SCALING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Zhifeng [Institute of Surface-Earth System Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin China; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Liu, Chongxuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen China; Liu, Yuanyuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; School of Earth Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing China; Bailey, Vanessa L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2017-11-01

    Biofilms are critical locations for biogeochemical reactions in the subsurface environment. The occurrence and distribution of biofilms at microscale as well as their impacts on macroscopic biogeochemical reaction rates are still poorly understood. This paper investigated the formation and distributions of biofilms in heterogeneous sediments using multiscale models, and evaluated the effects of biofilm heterogeneity on local and macroscopic biogeochemical reaction rates. Sediment pore structures derived from X-ray computed tomography were used to simulate the microscale flow dynamics and biofilm distribution in the sediment column. The response of biofilm formation and distribution to the variations in hydraulic and chemical properties was first examined. One representative biofilm distribution was then utilized to evaluate its effects on macroscopic reaction rates using nitrate reduction as an example. The results revealed that microorganisms primarily grew on the surfaces of grains and aggregates near preferential flow paths where both electron donor and acceptor were readily accessible, leading to the heterogeneous distribution of biofilms in the sediments. The heterogeneous biofilm distribution decreased the macroscopic rate of biogeochemical reactions as compared with those in homogeneous cases. Operationally considering the heterogeneous biofilm distribution in macroscopic reactive transport models such as using dual porosity domain concept can significantly improve the prediction of biogeochemical reaction rates. Overall, this study provided important insights into the biofilm formation and distribution in soils and sediments as well as their impacts on the macroscopic manifestation of reaction rates.

  17. STANFORD IN-SITU HIGH RATE YBCO PROCESS: TRANSFER TO METAL TAPES AND PROCESS SCALE UP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm R. Beasley; Robert H.Hammond

    2009-04-14

    Executive Summary The materials science understanding of high rate low cost processes for Coated Conductor will benefit the application to power utilities for low loss energy transportation and power generation as well for DOD applications. The research in this program investigated several materials processing approaches that are new and original, and are not being investigated elsewhere. This work added to the understanding of the material science of high rate PVD growth of HTSC YBCO assisted by a liquid phase. A new process discovered uses amorphous glassy precursors which can be made at high rate under flexible conditions of temperature and oxygen, and later brought to conditions of oxygen partial pressure and temperature for rapid conversion to YBCO superconductor. Good critical current densities were found, but further effort is needed to optimize the vortex pinning using known artificial inclusions. A new discovery of the physics and materials science of vortex pinning in the HTSC system using Sm in place of Y came at growth at unusually low oxygen pressure resulting in clusters of a low or non superconducting phase within the nominal high temperature phase. The driving force for this during growth is new physics, perhaps due to the low oxygen. This has the potential for high current in large magnetic fields at low cost, applicable to motors, generators and transformers. The technical demands of this project were the motivation for the development of instrumentation that could be essential to eventual process scale up. These include atomic absorption based on tunable diode lasers for remote monitoring and control of evaporation sources (developed under DARPA support), and the utility of Fourier Transform Infrared Reflectivity (FTIR) for aid in the synthesis of complex thin film materials (purchased by a DURIP-AFOSR grant).

  18. The Factor Structure of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (Expanded Version) in a Sample of Forensic Psychiatric Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, J. van; Vuijk, P.J.; Harte, J.M.; Smit, B.L.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Severe behavioral problems, aggression, unlawful behavior, and uncooperativeness make the forensic psychiatric population both hard to treat and study. To fine-tune treatment and evaluate results, valid measurement is vital. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale-Extended (BPRS-E) is a widely used scale

  19. The factor structure of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (Expanded version) in a sample of forensic psychiatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, J.; Vuijk, P.J.; Harte, J.M.; Smit, B.L.; Nijman, H.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Severe behavioral problems, aggression, unlawful behavior, and uncooperativeness make the forensic psychiatric population both hard to treat and study. To fine-tune treatment and evaluate results, valid measurement is vital. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale-Extended (BPRS-E) is a widely used scale

  20. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Caustic Leach Rate Constants from PEP and Laboratory-Scale Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Hanson, Brady D.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2009-08-14

    concentrated to nominally 20 wt% solids using cross-flow ultrafiltration before adding caustic. The work described in this report addresses the kinetics of caustic leach under WTP conditions, based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. The tests were completed at the lab-scale and in the PEP, which is a 1/4.5-scale mock-up of key PTF process equipment. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results from both scales that are related to caustic leach chemistry to support a scale-up factor for the submodels to be used in the G2 model, which predicts WTP operating performance. The scale-up factor will take the form of an adjustment factor for the rate constant in the boehmite leach kinetic equation in the G2 model.

  1. Development of a New Attention Rating Scale for Children with Intellectual Disability: The Scale of Attention in Intellectual Disability (SAID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Nerelie C.; Gray, Kylie M.; Taffe, John R.; Cornish, Kim M.

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties with attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity are thought to be as common among children with intellectual disability (ID) as they are in children without ID. Despite this, there is a lack of scales to specifically assess ADHD symptomatology in children and adolescents with ID. This article describes the development and evaluation of…

  2. Assessing the Accuracy of the Modified Chinese Autism Spectrum Rating Scale and Social Responsiveness Scale for Screening Autism Spectrum Disorder in Chinese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Bingrui; Zhou, Hao; Wu, Lijie; Zou, Xiaobing; Luo, Xuerong; Fombonne, Eric; Wang, Yi; Yan, Weili; Xu, Xiu

    2017-01-01

    The reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been increasing rapidly in many parts of the world. However, data on its prevalence in China are largely missing. Here, we assessed the suitability of the modified Chinese version of a newly-developed ASD screening tool, the Modified Chinese Autism Spectrum Rating Scales (MC-ASRS) in screening for ASD in Chinese children aged 6?12 years, through comparison with the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) that has been widely used for ASD...

  3. Interpretation of response categories in patient-reported rating scales: a controlled study among people with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knutsson Ida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unambiguous interpretation of ordered rating scale response categories requires distinct meanings of category labels. Also, summation of item responses into total scores assumes equal intervals between categories. While studies have identified problems with rating scale response category functioning there is a paucity of empirical studies regarding how respondents interpret response categories. We investigated the interpretation of commonly used rating scale response categories and attempted to identify distinct and roughly equally spaced response categories for patient-reported rating scales in Parkinson's disease (PD and age-matched control subjects. Methods Twenty-one rating scale response categories representing frequency, intensity and level of agreement were presented in random order to 51 people with PD (36 men; mean age, 66 years and 36 age-matched controls (14 men; mean age, 66. Respondents indicated their interpretation of each category on 100-mm visual analog scales (VAS anchored by Never - Always, Not at all - Extremely, and Totally disagree - Completely agree. VAS values were compared between groups, and response categories with mean values and non-overlapping 95% CIs corresponding to equally spaced locations on the VAS line were sought to identify the best options for three-, four-, five-, and six-category scales. Results VAS values did not differ between the PD and control samples (P = 0.286 or according to educational level (P = 0.220, age (P = 0.220, self-reported physical functioning (P = 0.501 and mental health (P = 0.238, or (for the PD sample PD duration (P = 0.213 or presence of dyskinesias (P = 0.212. Attempts to identify roughly equally spaced response categories for three-, four-, five-, and six-category scales were unsuccessful, as the 95% CIs of one or several of the identified response categories failed to include the criterion values for equal distances. Conclusions This study offers an evidence

  4. Psychometric Properties of the Orgasm Rating Scale in Context of Sexual Relationship in a Spanish Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos-Romero, Ana Isabel; Moyano, Nieves; Sierra, Juan Carlos

    2018-03-29

    The Orgasm Rating Scale (ORS) is one of the few self-reported measures that evaluates the multidimensional subjective experience of orgasm. The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the ORS in context of sex-with-partner in a Spanish sample. We examined a sample of 842 adults from the general Spanish population (310 men, 532 women; mean age = 27.12 years, SD = 9.8). The sample was randomly divided into two, with a balanced proportion of men and women between each sub-sample. Sub-sample 1 consisted of 100 men and 200 women (33.3% and 66.6%) with a mean age of 27.77 years (SD = 10.05). Sub-sample 2 consisted of 210 men and 332 women (38.7% and 61.3%) with a mean age of 26.77 years (SD = 9.65). The ORS, together with the Sexual Opinion Survey-6 and the Massachusetts General Hospital-Sexual Functioning Questionnaire, was administered online. The survey included a consent form, in which confidentiality and anonymity were guaranteed. Based on exploratory factor analysis, we obtained a reduced 25-item version of the ORS, distributed along 4 dimensions (affective, sensory, intimacy, and rewards). We performed both exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The Spanish version of the ORS had adequate values of reliability that ranged from .78-.93. The 4 factors explained 59.78% of the variance. The factor structure was invariant across gender at a configural level. Scores from the ORS positively correlated with erotophilia and sexual satisfaction. The scale was useful to differentiate between individuals with orgasmic difficulties and individuals with no difficulties. We found that individuals with orgasmic difficulties showed a lower intensity in the affective, intimacy, and sensorial manifestations of orgasm. This version of the ORS could provide an optimum measure for the clinical assessment to identify individuals with difficulties in their orgasmic capacity, thus, it could be used as screening device for orgasmic

  5. Content Validity of the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD RS-IV) and Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) in Phenylketonuria

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen W. Wyrwich PhD; Shannon Shaffer BA; Katharine Gries PharmD, PhD; Priscilla Auguste MHS; Kim Hart Mooney MS, CGC; Suyash Prasad MD; Deborah A. Bilder MD

    2016-01-01

    The ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD RS-IV; parent report) and Adult ADHD Self-Rating Scale (ASRS; self-report) are validated instruments for measuring symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objectives of this study were to elicit descriptions of phenylketonuria (PKU) symptoms and assess content validity of these instruments in PKU. Parents (N = 15) of children with PKU (≥8 years old) and adults with PKU (N=13) described PKU-related symptoms and commented on the scale’s clari...

  6. Lille Apathy Rating Scale and MDS-UPDRS for Screening Apathy in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraut, Rita; Karádi, Kázmér; Lucza, Tivadar; Kovács, Márton; Makkos, Attila; Janszky, József; Kovács, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Apathy is a syndrome characterized primarily by lack of motivation which may be associated with cognitive, affective and behavioral changes. Although the Lille Apathy Scale (LARS) has been extensively utilized in PD for detecting apathy and testing the effectiveness of specific therapeutic interventions, the highly variable cut-off values (between -11 and -22 points) ensures the applicability of the LARS degree of difficulty as a superb screening tool. The aim of this study is to determine more reliable threshold values based on the neuropsychiatric status of patients. Depression was assessed utilizing the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale and neurocognitive status by Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination. The presence of apathy was assessed by the proposed diagnostic criteria of Drijgers et al, and graded by both LARS and the 'Apathy' item of MDS-UPDRS. Based on multivariate regression analysis, we revealed the neurocognitive status, severity of depression, and also gender while applying dosage of dopamine agonists to determine the degree of patient apathy. Based on whether or not depression and neurocognitive disorders were indeed present, we established four different threshold values for the LARS: patients with normal cognition and without depression: -22.5; patients with normal cognition and with depression: -18.5; patients with NCD and without depression: -19.5; patients with NCD and with depression: -14.5. The LARS and the 'Apathy' item of MDS-UPDRS were confirmed to be potentially operational, beneficial and easy-to-assess instruments for detecting apathy syndrome in PD. However, there is no universal threshold value for the LARS suitable in all types of Parkinson's patients.

  7. Validity and reliability of menopause rating scale in colombian indigenous population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Monterrosa-Castro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Menopause Rating Scale (MRS measures quality of life in menopausal women. It compounds of three dimensions that assess somatic, psychological and urogenital menopausal-related symptoms. However, the validity of the scales may vary according to population characteristics, and there are no validations to date of MRS in American indigenous population. To assess the validity of MRS in Indigenous Colombian women during menopause. A research was done a sample of 914 indigenous women, 507 postmenopausal women and 407 premenopausal. They were between 40-49 years-old, with a mean age of 59.3 ± 5.9years. MRS was applied to all enrolled women. Cronbach's alpha was applied for the original proposed dimensions, and the dimensions from the results of factor analysis and maximum likelihood methods. A Promax rotation was applied to analysis. MRS showed a Cronbach's alpha: 0.86. The somatic dimension: 0.63, the psychological dimension: 0.75, and urogenital: 0.84. Score was greater in postmenopausal compared to premenopausal, 14.4 (±SD, 6.4 versus 8.4 (±SD, 5.9 (P<0.001. The factor analysis showed two dimensions. The first dimension included items 1,7,8,9,10,11; and accounted for 39.9% of variance. The second dimension included items 2,3,4,5,6; explaining 14.2% of variance. Cronbach's alpha was 0.86 for the first dimension and 0.81 for the second dimension. MRS showed high internal consistency and adequate nomological validity. The factor analysis resulted in two dimensions. These results evidence the need to better assess the validity of the instruments in different populations.

  8. Use of an abbreviated neuroscience education approach in the treatment of chronic low back pain: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Adriaan; Puentedura, Emilio Louie; Mintken, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) remains prevalent in society, and conservative treatment strategies appear to have little effect. It is proposed that patients with CLBP may have altered cognition and increased fear, which impacts their ability to move, perform exercise, and partake in activities of daily living. Neuroscience education (NE) aims to change a patient's cognition regarding their pain state, which may result in decreased fear, ultimately resulting in confrontation of pain barriers and a resumption of normal activities. A 64-year-old female with history of CLBP was the patient for this case report. A physical examination, the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ), and Zung Depression Scale were assessed during her initial physical therapy visit, immediately after her first physical therapy session, and at 7-month follow-up. Treatment consisted of an abbreviated NE approach, exercises (range of motion, stretches, and cardiovascular), and aquatic therapy. She attended twice a week for 4 weeks, or 8 visits total. Pre-NE, the patient reported NPRS = 9/10; ODI = 54%; FABQ-W = 25/42,; FABQ-PA = 20/24, and Zung = 58. Immediately following the 75-minute evaluation and NE session, the patient reported improvement in all four outcome measures, most notably a reduction in the FABQ-W score to 2/42 and the FABQ-PA to 1/24. At a 7-month follow-up, all outcome measures continued to be improved. NE aimed at decreasing fear associated with movement may be a valuable adjunct to movement-based therapy, such as exercise, for patients with CLBP.

  9. Rating

    OpenAIRE

    Karas, Vladimír

    2006-01-01

    Charakteristika ratingu. Dělení a druhy ratingu (rating emise × rating emitenta; dlouhodobý rating × krátkodobý rating; mezinárodní rating × lokální rating). Obecné požadavky kladené na rating. Proces tvorby ratingu. Vyžádaný rating. Nevyžádaný rating. Ratingový proces na bázi volně přístupných informací. Uplatňované ratingové systémy. Ratingová kriteria. Využití a interpretace ratingové známky. Funkce ratingu. Rating v souvislosti s BASEL II. Rating v souvislosti s hospodářskými krizemi....

  10. Reliability and validity of the subjective component of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society clinical rating scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Talal; Beiri, Almoghera; Azzabi, Mohamed; Best, Alistair J; Taylor, Grahame J; Menon, Dipen K

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the criterion validity of the subjective component of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) clinical rating scales by correlating scores obtained with these rating scales to scores obtained with the Foot Function Index (FFI) in patients with foot and ankle conditions. To date, the AOFAS scoring scales have not been shown to provide valid information despite their popularity. The FFI, on the other hand, has previously been shown to provide valid information in regard to conditions affecting the foot and ankle. A moderately strong inverse criterion validity correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient = -0.68) was shown when preoperative patients were administered both the AOFAS and FFI questionnaires, and the resultant scores were compared. Test-retest reliability measurements showed no significant difference (P = .27) between preoperative AOFAS scale scores measured at least 2 weeks apart. Construct validity was shown (P = .006) when dependent preoperative and postoperative (at least 3 months) AOFAS scale scores were compared, indicative of the clinical rating scales' ability to discriminate and predict quality of life related to foot and ankle conditions. The moderate level of correlation, satisfactory degree of reliability, and responsiveness (ability to distinguish differences between preoperative and postoperative conditions in the same patient) observed in this study suggest that the subjective component of the AOFAS clinical rating scales provides quality-of-life information that conveys acceptable validity regarding conditions affecting the foot and ankle.

  11. Feasibility of the Korean version of the Bipolar Depression Rating Scale in Adolescents with Early-Onset Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da-Young; Won, Eun-Kyung; Choi, Jung-Won; Min, Hye Ji; Kim, Jayoun; Ha, Kyooseob; Lee, Yunglyul; Chang, Jae Seung; Kim, Yeni

    2017-09-01

    This study explores the feasibility and psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Bipolar Depression Rating Scale (BDRS) in adolescents with Early-onset bipolar disorders. Fifty-three participants (aged 13-18) with early-onset bipolar disorders (40 depressed and 18 euthymic, 5 patients were assessed at depressed state and reassessed after remission) were recruited. All participants were assessed using the BDRS, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), the Montgomery-Asperg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and the Modified Overt Aggression scale (MOAS). BDRS exhibited good internal validity and significant correlations with the HAM-D and the MADRS. In item to scale correlations, all items on the BDRS were significantly correlated with the BDRS total scores except for 'increased motor drive' and 'increased speech', 'depressed mood' and 'worthlessness' showed the highest mean scores and endorsement rates. BDRS score of the depressed group was significantly higher compared with the euthymic group. Three factors (i.e., psychosomatic, mood, and mixed) were identified in the principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis of the BDRS. In this study, we report that the Korean version of BDRS is a feasible and reliable tool for the assessment of depression in adolescents with Early-onset bipolar disorders.

  12. Turbulence-enhanced prey encounter rates in larval fish : Effects of spatial scale, larval behaviour and size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; MacKenzie, Brian

    1995-01-01

    Turbulent water motion has several effects on the feeding ecology of larval fish and other planktivorous predators. In this paper, we consider the appropriate spatial scales for estimating relative velocities between larval fish predators and their prey, and the effect that different choices...... of scales might have on encounter and ingestion rates. Four possible scaling choices have been used in the literature, giving rise to varying estimates of the effect of turbulence on encounter rate. We argue that the correct scale is that based on the larval reactive distance, and that this interpretation...... are more likely to benefit from turbulence-increased encounter than larger larvae. Overall ingestion rate probability (= probability of encounter x probability of successful pursuit) is likely to be highest at moderate-high levels of turbulence. In most larval fish habitats, turbulence levels appear to lie...

  13. Using the Alberta Continuity of Services Observer-Rated Scale to Measure Continuity of Care in a Psychiatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandyk, Amanda Digel; VanDenkerkhof, Elizabeth G; Graham, Ian D; Harrison, Margaret B

    2016-01-01

    Continuity of care (CoC) is an important component in the delivery of quality mental health care. Yet, its measurement is inconsistent. We explored the use of the Alberta Continuity of Services Scale for Mental Health (ACSS-MH) observer-rated scale and compared CoC scores in 2 groups (N = 140) of individuals with mental health complaints (5+ and 1 emergency department [ED] visits/year). Secondary analysis of health record data. The application of the ACSS-MH observer-rated scale in our population is discussed, as well as differences in CoC scores by group. The ACSS-MH observer-rated scale may be useful for obtaining CoC scores in several mental health populations. Minor modifications (e.g., to response options) are suggested that may improve scoring accuracy. Research is needed to further explore the relationship between CoC and ED use.

  14. Criterion Noise in Ratings-Based Recognition: Evidence from the Effects of Response Scale Length on Recognition Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Aaron S.; Tullis, Jonathan G.; Lee, Ji Hae

    2013-01-01

    Rating scales are a standard measurement tool in psychological research. However, research has suggested that the cognitive burden involved in maintaining the criteria used to parcel subjective evidence into ratings introduces "decision noise" and affects estimates of performance in the underlying task. There has been debate over whether…

  15. Classification of contour deformities after massive weight loss: the applicability of the Pittsburgh Rating Scale in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Beek, E S J; Verveld, C J; van Ramshorst, B; Kon, M; Mink van der Molen, A B

    2013-08-01

    The Pittsburgh Rating Scale is the only validated classification system of skin deformities occurring after massive weight loss. The purpose of this study was to replicate the validation of the Pittsburgh Rating Scale classification and to evaluate its usefulness in the treatment of massive weight-loss patients in The Netherlands. Thirteen trained observers applied the Pittsburgh Rating Scale to photographs of 25 patients. These photographs showed the 10 regions of the body for which the Pittsburgh Rating Scale is designed. Six of the observers were medical specialists, three were medical interns in plastic surgery and four observers were specialised nurse practitioners. As a measure of inter-rater agreement we calculated the intraclass correlation with a threshold value of 0.6 for good validity. The observers also answered 11 questions about the scale's usefulness in daily practice. In two consecutive tests the photographs of 10 regions were scored, which resulted in a total of 20 observations per patient. Sixty percent of the intraclass correlation values were below the threshold of 0.6 for good validity. The mean intraclass correlation value was 0.577. The Pittsburgh Rating Scale could not be validated as a reliable classification system for skin deformities after massive weight loss. The scale however seems to be a good first step in a challenging task. There was no doubt among the observers that a good classification system would be beneficial for adequate treatment. A modified Pittsburgh Rating Scale should include, besides anatomical parameters, functional disability and hygienic impairment scores and perioperative risk factors. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Construction of behaviourally anchored rating scales (BARS for the measurement of managerial performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Spangenberg

    1989-05-01

    Full Text Available BARS were initially developed as indices of behavioural change and to ensure greater comparability of ratings from different raters. In this study, BARS were developed for a major producer-wholesaler company in the liquor industry to serve as an independent criterion in the validation of the company's assessment center, to assess the impact of development activities on the skill levels of assessment centre participants and as a diagnostic tool in identifying performance deficiencies. A step-by-step account of the four stages in the development of BARS is presented, together with examples of actual scales for the final steps. Opsomming Gedragsgeankerde skale (BARS is oorspronklik ontwikkel as indekse van verandering, en om die vergelykbaarheid tussen beroordelings van verskillende beoordelaars te verhoog. In hierdie studie is BARS vir 'n groothandelaar in die drankbedryf ontwikkel ten einde te dien as 'n onafhanklike kriterium in die validering van hulle takseersentrum; om die invloed van ontwikkelingsaktiwiteite op die vaardigheidsvlakke van deelnemers aan die takseersentrum te meet; en as 'n diagnostiese hulpmiddel in die indentifisering van ontoereikende prestasie. 'n Stap-vir-stap beskrywing van die vier stadia in die ontwikkeling van BARS word gegee, met voorbeelde van werklike skale vir die finale stappe.

  17. Psychometric properties of the gaze anxiety rating scale: convergent, discriminant, and factorial validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Julia K; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Menatti, Andrew R; Weeks, Justin W; Schneier, Franklin R

    2014-01-01

    Fear and avoidance of gaze are two features thought to be associated with problematic social anxiety. Avoidance of eye contact has been linked with such undesirable traits as deceptiveness, insincerity, and lower self-esteem. The Gaze Anxiety Rating Scale (GARS) is a self-report measure designed to assess gaze anxiety and avoidance, but its psychometric properties have only been assessed in one preliminary study. We further investigated psychometric properties of the GARS by assessing convergent and factorial validity. We obtained a two-factor solution: gaze anxiety and avoidance across situations (1) in general (GARS-General) and (2) related to dominance communication (GARS-Dominance). The GARS-General factor related more strongly to social anxiety than the GARS-Dominance, and convergent validity of the factors was supported by expected relationships with personality and social anxiety variables. Our results indicate that the GARS subscales are psychometrically valid measures of gaze aversion, supporting their use in future study of the relationship between social anxiety and eye contact behavior.

  18. Psychometric properties of the adjective rating scale for withdrawal across treatment groups, gender, and over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; McPherson, Sterling; Mamey, Mary Rose; Burns, G Leonard; Roll, John

    2014-02-01

    The adjective rating scale for withdrawal (ARSW) is commonly used to assess opiate withdrawal in clinical practice and research. The aims of this study were to examine the factor structure of the ARSW, test measurement invariance across gender and treatment groups, and assess longitudinal measurement invariance across the clinical trial. Secondary data analysis of the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network 000-3, a randomized clinical trial comparing two tapering strategies, was performed. The ARSW was analyzed at baseline, end of taper and 1-month follow-up (N=515 opioid-dependent individuals). A 1-factor model of the ARSW fit the data and demonstrated acceptable reliability. Measurement invariance was supported across gender and taper groups. Longitudinal measurement invariance was not found across the course of the trial, with baseline assessment contributing to the lack of invariance. If change over time is of interest, change from post-treatment through follow-up may offer the most valid comparison. © 2013.

  19. Relationship between Fractal Dimension and Spectral Scaling Decay Rate in Computer-Generated Fractals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Bies

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Two measures are commonly used to describe scale-invariant complexity in images: fractal dimension (D and power spectrum decay rate (β. Although a relationship between these measures has been derived mathematically, empirical validation across measurements is lacking. Here, we determine the relationship between D and β for 1- and 2-dimensional fractals. We find that for 1-dimensional fractals, measurements of D and β obey the derived relationship. Similarly, in 2-dimensional fractals, measurements along any straight-line path across the fractal’s surface obey the mathematically derived relationship. However, the standard approach of vision researchers is to measure β of the surface after 2-dimensional Fourier decomposition rather than along a straight-line path. This surface technique provides measurements of β that do not obey the mathematically derived relationship with D. Instead, this method produces values of β that imply that the fractal’s surface is much smoother than the measurements along the straight lines indicate. To facilitate communication across disciplines, we provide empirically derived equations for relating each measure of β to D. Finally, we discuss implications for future research on topics including stress reduction and the perception of motion in the context of a generalized equation relating β to D.

  20. Evaluation of Estimating Missed Answers in Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (Screening Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Farnaz; Moradi, Mohammad Hassan; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi

    2010-01-01

    Objective Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) is among the valid questionnaires for evaluating Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in adults. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the validity of the estimation of missed answers in scoring the screening version of the Conners questionnaire, and to extract its principal components. Method This study was performed on 400 participants. Answer estimation was calculated for each question (assuming the answer was missed), and then a Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to evaluate the difference between the original answer and its estimation. In the next step, principal components of the questionnaire were extracted by means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Finally the evaluation of differences in the whole groups was provided using the Multiple Comparison Procedure (MCP). Results Findings indicated that a significant difference existed between the original and estimated answers for some particular questions. However, the results of MCP showed that this estimation, when evaluated in the whole group, did not show a significant difference with the original value in neither of the questionnaire subscales. The results of PCA revealed that there are eight principal components in the CAARS questionnaire. Conclusion The obtained results can emphasize the fact that this questionnaire is mainly designed for screening purposes, and this estimation does not change the results of groups when a question is missed randomly. Notwithstanding this finding, more considerations should be paid when the missed question is a critical one. PMID:22952502

  1. A rating scale experiment on loudness, noisiness and annoyance of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, K.; Takagi, K.; Yamamoto, T.

    1988-12-01

    How people judge loudness, noisiness and annoyance of sounds was investigated by using a variety of environmental sounds. Fifty male and female subjects, aged from 18 to 60 years, heard 59 environmental sounds as well as seven kinds of white noise and judged their loudness, noisiness and annoyance on rating scales. Average scores on the three concepts given to the steady white noises are approximately in linear proportion to the level of the noise, with high correlation coefficients. The relationships were used to convert the scores given to the sounds to the levels of white noise which would have the same scores and can be regarded as points of subjective equality ( PSE's) of the sounds. It is found that the PSE thus obtained concerning loudness is best correlated among the three with Perceived Level and that concerning annoyance is least correlated with the level. Scattergrams of PSE's between the three concepts plotted against each other showed considerably high correlations. They are more correlated when sounds such as music, church bell, birds, etc., being on average judged pleasant or neutral, are excluded. This suggests that the human responses concerning those three concepts of auditory sensation and/or perception are mutually correlated. Lower correlation between loudness and annoyance, however, suggests sounds heard as equally loud could be differently annoying. More detailed analysis of the results showed that the judgement of loudness was not independent of noisiness and/or annoyance of the sound.

  2. Evaluation of Estimating Missed Answers in Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (Screening Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Abootalebi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS is among the valid questionnaires for evaluating Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in adults. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the validity of the estimation of missed answers in scoring the screening version of the Conners questionnaire, and to extract its principal components. "n Method: This study was performed on 400 participants. Answer estimation was calculated for each question (assuming the answer was missed, and then a Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to evaluate the difference between the original answer and its estimation. In the next step, principal components of the questionnaire were extracted by means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Finally the evaluation of differences in the whole groups was provided using the Multiple Comparison Procedure (MCP. Results: Findings indicated that a significant difference existed between the original and estimated answers for some particular questions. However, the results of MCP showed that this estimation, when evaluated in the whole group, did not show a significant difference with the original value in neither of the questionnaire subscales. The results of PCA revealed that there are eight principal components in the CAARS questionnaire. Conclusion: The obtained results can emphasize the fact that this questionnaire is mainly designed for screening purposes, and this estimation does not change the results of groups when a question is missed randomly. Notwithstanding this finding, more considerations should be paid when the missed question is a critical one.

  3. Assessing nursing students' basic communication and interviewing skills: the development and testing of a rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, D

    1999-03-01

    This study explores the communication skills of a group of nursing students who were required to interview a simulated client as part of their studies. In order to assess the students and to improve the process of learning discrete skills, an instrument was developed and tested as part of this process. The subjects were 212 nurses enrolled in a bachelor of nursing programme, in New South Wales, Australia, who were studying a problem-based learning package the focus of which was 'alcohol early intervention'. The sub-groups within the sample included registered nurses, a significant percentage of whom had completed their basic nursing education in overseas countries. The Simulated Client Interview Rating Scale (SCIRS) was developed to assess basic humanistic communication skills as well as beginning motivational interviewing skills. The students were required to interview a simulated client and demonstrate competence in interviewing. This was assessed by the SCIRS which was completed by the students and the simulated clients. The instrument proved to be a reliable and valid means of assessing student interview technique as well as a flexible educational tool, while valuable insights into students' interviewing techniques were gained.

  4. Psychometric Properties and Validation of the Arabic Academic Performance Rating Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. A. Q. Quadri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To validate the Arabic version of Academic Performance Rating Scale. Method. Translation and test-retest reliability were computed. Exploratory factor analysis and Rasch analysis were conducted to report on the validity. EFA factor structures were evaluated using a Scree plot and the standard multiple criteria included eigenvalue greater than 1. Average measures and step measures were ordered and the mean-square outfit statistic for each category was also evaluated. Results. Cronbach’s Alpha value of 0.90 was obtained. No differences across category of educational levels were seen (P>0.05. Pattern matrix analysis revealed items to be significantly correlated with each other with a chi square goodness of fit value 0.02. Results supported the interpretation of adequate fit of items, since the infit ZSTD (1.55–0.46, outfit ZSTD (1.59–0.99, infit MNSQ (0.74–1.47, and outfit MNSQ (0.50–1.37 for the items were within acceptable ranges. Conclusion. Valid and reliable A-APRS-15 can be used in future studies to see its relation with other variables such as general health and oral health.

  5. Simultaneous biogas upgrading and centrate treatment in an outdoors pilot scale high rate algal pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadas, Esther; Marín, David; Blanco, Saúl; Lebrero, Raquel; Muñoz, Raúl

    2017-05-01

    The bioconversion of biogas to biomethane coupled to centrate treatment was evaluated in an outdoors pilot scale high rate algal pond interconnected to an external CO 2 -H 2 S absorption column (AC) via settled broth recirculation. CO 2 -removal efficiencies ranged from 50 to 95% depending on the alkalinity of the cultivation broth and environmental conditions, while a complete H 2 S removal was achieved regardless of the operational conditions. A maximum CH 4 concentration of 94% with a limited O 2 and N 2 stripping was recorded in the upgraded biogas at recycling liquid/biogas ratios in the AC of 1 and 2. Process operation at a constant biomass productivity of 15gm -2 d -1 and the minimization of effluent generation supported high carbon and nutrient recoveries in the harvested biomass (C=66±8%, N=54±18%, P≈100% and S=16±3%). Finally, a low diversity in the structure of the microalgae population was promoted by the environmental and operational conditions imposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Rating Scale for Countertransference (RSCT to American English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mondrzak

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The Rating Scale for Countertransference (RSCT - originally, Escala para Avaliação de Contratransferência (EACT - is a self-administered instrument comprising questions that assess 23 feelings (divided into three blocs, closeness, distance, and indifference that access conscious countertransferential emotions and sentiments. This paper describes the process of translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the RSCT into American English. Methods: This study employed the guidelines proposed by the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation which define 10 steps for translation and cross-cultural adaptation of self-report instruments. Additionally, semantic equivalence tools were employed to select the final versions of terms used. The author of the RSCT gave permission for translation and took part in the process. The instrument is available for use free of charge. Results: Analysis of the back-translation showed that just seven of the 23 terms needed to be adjusted to arrive at the final version in American English. Conclusions: This study applied rigorous standards to construct a version of the RSCT in American English. This version of the RSCT translated and adapted into American English should be of great use for accessing and researching countertransferential feelings that are part of psychodynamic treatment.

  7. Measuring Supportive Music and Imagery Interventions: The Development of the Music Therapy Self-Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Anthony; Burns, Debra S; Perkins, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated modest benefits from music-based interventions, specifically music and imagery interventions, during cancer care. However, little attention has been paid to measuring the benefits of music-based interventions using measurement instruments specifically designed to account for the multidimensional nature of music-imagery experiences. The purpose of this study was to describe the development of, and psychometrically evaluate, the Music Therapy Self-Rating Scale (MTSRS) as a measure for cancer patients engaged in supportive music and imagery interventions. An exploratory factor analysis using baseline data from 76 patients who consented to participate in a music-based intervention study during chemotherapy. Factor analysis of 14 items revealed four domains: Awareness of Body, Emotionally Focused, Personal Resources, and Treatment Specific. Internal reliability was excellent (Cronbach alphas ranging from 0.75 to 0.88) and construct and divergent-discriminant validity supported. The MTSRS is a psychometrically sound, brief instrument that captures essential elements of patient experience during music and imagery interventions. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Fixed dynamometry is more sensitive than vital capacity or ALS rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Patricia L; Allred, Margaret Peggy; Stephens, Helen E; Proffitt Bunnell, Mary; Siener, Catherine; Macklin, Eric A; Haines, Travis; English, Robert A; Fetterman, Katherine A; Kasarskis, Edward J; Florence, Julaine; Simmons, Zachary; Cudkowicz, Merit E

    2017-10-01

    Improved outcome measures are essential to efficiently screen the growing number of potential amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) therapies. This longitudinal study of 100 (70 male) participants with ALS compared Accurate Test of Limb Isometric Strength (ATLIS), using a fixed, wireless load cell, with ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) and vital capacity (VC). Participants enrolled at 5 U.S. sites. Data were analyzed from 66 participants with complete ATLIS, ALSFRS-R, and VC data over at least 3 visits. Change in ATLIS was less variable both within- and among-person than change in ALSFRS-R or VC. Additionally, participants who had normal ALSFRS-R arm and leg function averaged 12 to 32% below expected strength values measured by ATLIS. ATLIS was more sensitive to change than ALSFRS-R or VC and could decrease sample size requirements by approximately one-third. The ability of ATLIS to detect prefunctional change has potential value in early trials. Muscle Nerve 56: 710-715, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The scale for the assessment and rating of ataxia correlates with dysarthria assessment in Friedreich's ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigentler, Andreas; Rhomberg, Johanna; Nachbauer, Wolfgang; Ritzer, Irmgard; Poewe, Werner; Boesch, Sylvia

    2012-03-01

    Dysarthria is an acquired neurogenic sensorimotor speech symptom and an integral part within the clinical spectrum of ataxia syndromes. Ataxia measurements and disability scores generally focus on the assessment of motor functions. Since comprehensive investigations of dysarthria in ataxias are sparse, we assessed dysarthria in ataxia patients using the Frenchay Dysarthria Assessment. The Frenchay Dysarthria Assessment is a ten-item validated test in which eight items focus on the observation of oral structures and speech functions. Fifteen Friedreich's ataxia patients and 15 healthy control individuals were analyzed using clinical and logopedic methodology. All patients underwent neurological assessment applying the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia. In Friedreich's ataxia patients, the Frenchay sub-item voice showed to be most affected compared to healthy individuals followed by items such as reflexes, palate, tongue, and intelligibility. Scoring of lips, jaw, and respiration appeared to be mildly affected. Ataxia severity in Friedreich's ataxia patients revealed a significant correlation with the Frenchay dysarthria sum score. The introduction of a binary Adapted Dysarthria Score additionally allowed allocation to distinct dysarthria pattern in ataxias. The Frenchay Dysarthria Assessment proved to be a valid dysarthria measure in Friedreich's ataxia. Its availability in several languages provides a major advantage regarding the applicability in international clinical studies. Shortcomings of the Frenchay test are the multiplicity of items tested and its alphabetic coding. Numerical scoring and condensation of assessments in a modified version may, however, provide an excellent clinical tool for the measurement and scoring of dysarthria in ataxic speech disorders.

  10. [Construct validity of the Autism Spectrum Rating Scale of the Revised Chinese Version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Zhang, Li-Li; Yan, Wei-Li; Xu, Xiu; Wang, Yi

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the construct validity of the Autism Spectrum Rating Scale of Revised Chinese Version (RC-ASRS). Seven hundred and one children aged 6-12 years old were recruited from one primary school in the Minhang District of Shanghai. The parents of the children completed the RC-ASRS questionnaire. Mpuls 6.0 Software was used to conduct the construct validity analysis. A total of 671 questionnaires (95.7%) were retrieved, involving 368 boys (54.8%) and 303 girls (45.2%). The 3 factor structure of the RC-ASRS had better model fitting indices, 0.051 for root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), 0.889 for comparative fit index (CFI) and 0.884 for Tucker-Lewis index (TLI), compared with the original ASRS, 0.060 for RMSEA, 0.829 for CFI and 0.823 for TLI. The RC-ASRS may serve as a reliable and valid tool for screening autistic symptoms in China.

  11. A rate-dependent multi-scale crack model for concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karamnejad, A.; Nguyen, V.P.; Sluys, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    A multi-scale numerical approach for modeling cracking in heterogeneous quasi-brittle materials under dynamic loading is presented. In the model, a discontinuous crack model is used at macro-scale to simulate fracture and a gradient-enhanced damage model has been used at meso-scale to simulate

  12. Cut points on 0-10 numeric rating scales for symptoms included in the edmonton symptom assessment scale in cancer patients: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. Oldenmenger (Wendy); P.J. de Raaf (Pleun); C. de Klerk (Cora); C.C.D. van der Rijt (Carin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractContext: To improve the management of cancer-related symptoms, systematic screening is necessary, often performed by using 0-10 numeric rating scales. Cut points are used to determine if scores represent clinically relevant burden. Objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to

  13. Consistency between kinetics and thermodynamics: general scaling conditions for reaction rates of nonlinear chemical systems without constraints far from equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, Marcel O; Popa, Vlad T; Ross, John

    2011-02-03

    We examine the problem of consistency between the kinetic and thermodynamic descriptions of reaction networks. We focus on reaction networks with linearly dependent (but generally kinetically independent) reactions for which only some of the stoichiometric vectors attached to the different reactions are linearly independent. We show that for elementary reactions without constraints preventing the system from approaching equilibrium there are general scaling relations for nonequilibrium rates, one for each linearly dependent reaction. These scaling relations express the ratios of the forward and backward rates of the linearly dependent reactions in terms of products of the ratios of the forward and backward rates of the linearly independent reactions raised to different scaling powers; the scaling powers are elements of the transformation matrix, which relates the linearly dependent stoichiometric vectors to the linearly independent stoichiometric vectors. These relations are valid for any network of elementary reactions without constraints, linear or nonlinear kinetics, far from equilibrium or close to equilibrium. We show that similar scaling relations for the reaction routes exist for networks of nonelementary reactions described by the Horiuti-Temkin theory of reaction routes where the linear dependence of the mechanistic (elementary) reactions is transferred to the overall (route) reactions. However, in this case, the scaling conditions are valid only at the steady state. General relationships between reaction rates of the two levels of description are presented. These relationships are illustrated for a specific complex reaction: radical chlorination of ethylene.

  14. The importance of rating scale design in the measurement of patient-reported outcomes using questionnaires or item banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Jyoti; McAlinden, Colm; Gothwal, Vijaya K; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Pesudovs, Konrad

    2012-06-26

    To investigate the effect of rating scale designs (question formats and response categories) on item difficulty calibrations and assess the impact that rating scale differences have on overall vision-related activity limitation (VRAL) scores. Sixteen existing patient-reported outcome instruments (PROs) suitable for cataract assessment, with different rating scales, were self-administered by patients on a cataract surgery waiting list. A total of 226 VRAL items from these PROs in their native rating scales were included in an item bank and calibrated using Rasch analysis. Fifteen item/content areas (e.g., reading newspapers) appearing in at least three different PROs were identified. Within each content area, item calibrations were compared and their range calculated. Similarly, five PROs having at least three items in common with the Visual Function (VF-14) were compared in terms of average item measures. A total of 614 patients (mean age ± SD, 74.1 ± 9.4 years) participated. Items with the same content varied in their calibration by as much as two logits; "reading the small print" had the largest range (1.99 logits) followed by "watching TV" (1.60). Compared with the VF-14 (0.00 logits), the rating scale of the Visual Disability Assessment (1.13 logits) produced the most difficult items and the Cataract Symptom Scale (0.24 logits) produced the least difficult items. The VRAL item bank was suboptimally targeted to the ability level of the participants (2.00 logits). Rating scale designs have a significant effect on item calibrations. Therefore, constructing item banks from existing items in their native formats carries risks to face validity and transmission of problems inherent in existing instruments, such as poor targeting.

  15. Development and validation of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) induced angioedema investigator rating scale and proposed discharge criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Nicola; Panter, Charlotte; Kimura, Alan; Sinert, Rich; Moellman, Joseph; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2017-05-22

    The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) has been associated with the development of bradykinin-mediated angioedema. With ever-widening indications for ACEI in diseases including hypertension, congestive heart failure and diabetic nephropathy, a concomitant increase in ACEI-Angioedema (ACEI-A) has been reported. At present there is no validated severity scoring or discharge criteria for ACEI-A. We sought to develop and validate an investigator rating scale with corresponding discharge criteria using clinicians experienced in treating ACEI-A. In-depth, 60-min qualitative telephone interviews were conducted with 12 US-based emergency physicians. Beforehand, clinicians were sent four case studies describing patients experiencing different severities of angioedema attacks. Clinicians were initially asked open-ended questions about their experience of patients' symptoms, treatment and discharge decisions. Clinicians then rated each patient case study and discussed patient diagnoses, ratings of symptom severity and discharge evaluation. The ratings were used to assess inter-rater reliability of the scale using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) using IBM SPSS analysis Version 19 software. The findings provide support focusing on four key symptoms of airway compromise scored on a 0-4 scale: 1) Difficulty Breathing, 2) Difficulty Swallowing, 3) Voice Changes and 4) Tongue Swelling and the corresponding discharge criteria of a score of 0 or 'No symptoms' for Difficulty Breathing and Difficulty Swallowing and a score of 0 or 1 indicating mild or absence of symptoms for Voice Change and Tongue Swelling. Eleven clinicians agreed the absence of standardized discharge criteria supported the use of this scale. All physicians concurred with the recommended discharge criteria. The clinician ratings provided evidence of strong inter-rater reliability for the rating scale (ICC > 0.80). The investigator rating scale and discharge criteria are

  16. New bilingual version of the VGB abbreviation catalogue for power plant technology released

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantschel, Jochen; Seiffert, Joerg [E.ON New Build and Technology GmbH, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Froehner, Joerg [ct.e Controltechnology Engineering GmbH, Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the VGB Standard for power plant technology VGB-S-891-00 (abbreviation catalogue) is to regulate the systematic creation of abbreviations. The determination of abbreviations for terms related to power plants provides a common basis for planners, erectors, and operators of power plants and their systems. In combination with VGB-B 108 ''Rules for the creation of denominations and their application for power plant engineering'' the abbreviation catalogue is the basis for the creation of denominations.

  17. [Abbreviations of special terms for presentation/paper titles in magnetic resonance study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komi, Masanori; Shiraishi, Junji

    2013-08-01

    A large number of abbreviations have been created for various special terms, and used in magnetic resonance (MR) study. However, the use of these abbreviations in the paper title has been restricted by the majority of societies and journals. In this study, we investigated the use of various abbreviations for special terms in MR study in order to clarify which abbreviation could be used in the paper title without spelling. We used two journals, Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (MRM) and Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (JMRI) published by the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM), which has been considered to be the most advanced society for MR study in the world, as the reference standard for use of the abbreviations. Except for some basic abbreviations and specific abbreviations that were used on a long-term basis, the majority of abbreviations were used in the paper title with its full spelling in order to ensure generality. It is preferable that abbreviations not be used in the title of the or title of the paper.

  18. The use of Stunkard's figure rating scale to identify underweight and overweight in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Wing-Sze; Ho, Sai-Yin; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2012-01-01

    To compare the performance of Stunkard's current body size (CBS) with self-reported body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist to stature ratio (WSR) in predicting weight status in Chinese adolescents, and to determine the CBS cutoffs for overweight/obesity and underweight. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 5,418 secondary school students (45.2% boys; mean age 14.7 years). Height and weight were measured by trained teachers or researchers. Subjects were classified as underweight, normal weight, or overweight/obese according to the International Obesity Task Force cutoffs. Subjects were asked to select the figure that best resembled their CBS on the Stunkard's figure rating scale. Self-reported height, weight, WC and WSR were also obtained. The performance of CBS, self-reported BMI, WC and WSR as a weight status indicator was analysed by sex-specific receiver operating characteristic curves. The optimal CBS cutoffs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined based on the Youden Index. Apart from self-reported BMI, CBS had the greatest area under curve (AUC) for underweight in boys (0.82) and girls (0.81). For overweight/obesity, CBS also had a greater AUC (0.85) than self-reported WC and WSR in boys, and an AUC (0.81) comparable to self-reported WC and WSR in girls. In general, CBS values of 3 and 5 appeared to be the optimal cutoffs for underweight and overweight/obesity, respectively, in different sex-age subgroups. CBS is a potentially useful indicator to assess weight status of adolescents when measured and self-reported BMI are not available.

  19. Differential Item Functioning of the Psychological Domain of the Menopause Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela-Buelvas, Katherin; Oviedo, Heidi C.; Herazo, Edwin; Campo-Arias, Adalberto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Quality of life could be quantified with the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS), which evaluates the severity of somatic, psychological, and urogenital symptoms in menopause. However, differential item functioning (DIF) analysis has not been applied previously. Objective. To establish the DIF of the psychological domain of the MRS in Colombian women. Methods. 4,009 women aged between 40 and 59 years, who participated in the CAVIMEC (Calidad de Vida en la Menopausia y Etnias Colombianas) project, were included. Average age was 49.0 ± 5.9 years. Women were classified in mestizo, Afro-Colombian, and indigenous. The results were presented as averages and standard deviation (X ± SD). A p value <0.001 was considered statistically significant. Results. In mestizo women, the highest X ± SD were obtained in physical and mental exhaustion (PME) (0.86 ± 0.93) and the lowest ones in anxiety (0.44 ± 0.79). In Afro-Colombian women, an average score of 0.99 ± 1.07 for PME and 0.63 ± 0.88 for anxiety was gotten. Indigenous women obtained an increased average score for PME (1.33 ± 0.93). The lowest score was evidenced in depressive mood (0.50 ± 0.81), which is different from other Colombian women (p < 0.001). Conclusions. The psychological items of the MRS show differential functioning according to the ethnic group, which may induce systematic error in the measurement of the construct. PMID:27847825

  20. Differential Item Functioning of the Psychological Domain of the Menopause Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrosa-Castro, Alvaro; Portela-Buelvas, Katherin; Oviedo, Heidi C; Herazo, Edwin; Campo-Arias, Adalberto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Quality of life could be quantified with the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS), which evaluates the severity of somatic, psychological, and urogenital symptoms in menopause. However, differential item functioning (DIF) analysis has not been applied previously. Objective . To establish the DIF of the psychological domain of the MRS in Colombian women. Methods . 4,009 women aged between 40 and 59 years, who participated in the CAVIMEC (Calidad de Vida en la Menopausia y Etnias Colombianas) project, were included. Average age was 49.0 ± 5.9 years. Women were classified in mestizo, Afro-Colombian, and indigenous. The results were presented as averages and standard deviation ( X ± SD). A p value <0.001 was considered statistically significant. Results . In mestizo women, the highest X ± SD were obtained in physical and mental exhaustion (PME) (0.86 ± 0.93) and the lowest ones in anxiety (0.44 ± 0.79). In Afro-Colombian women, an average score of 0.99 ± 1.07 for PME and 0.63 ± 0.88 for anxiety was gotten. Indigenous women obtained an increased average score for PME (1.33 ± 0.93). The lowest score was evidenced in depressive mood (0.50 ± 0.81), which is different from other Colombian women ( p < 0.001). Conclusions . The psychological items of the MRS show differential functioning according to the ethnic group, which may induce systematic error in the measurement of the construct.