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Sample records for abbreviated emergency laparotomy

  1. Abbreviated laparotomy or damage control laparotomy: Why, when and how to do it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voiglio, E J; Dubuisson, V; Massalou, D; Baudoin, Y; Caillot, J L; Létoublon, C; Arvieux, C

    2016-08-01

    The goal of abbreviated laparotomy is to treat severely injured patients whose condition requires an immediate surgical operation but for whom a prolonged procedure would worsen physiological impairment and metabolic failure. Indeed, in severely injured patients, blood loss and tissue injuries enhance the onset of the "bloody vicious circle", triggered by the triad of acidosis-hypothermia-coagulopathy. Abbreviated laparotomy is a surgical strategy that forgoes the completeness of operation in favor of a physiological approach, the overriding preference going to rapidity and limiting the procedure to control the injuries. Management is based on sequential association of the shortest possible preoperative resuscitation with surgery limited to essential steps to control injury (stop the bleeding and contamination), without definitive repair. The latter will be ensured during a scheduled re-operation after a period of resuscitation aiming to correct physiological abnormalities induced by the trauma and its treatment. This strategy necessitates a pre-defined plan and involvement of the entire medical and nursing staff to reduce time loss to a strict minimum. PMID:27542655

  2. Emergency laparotomy in patients with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, T; Allen-Mersh, T G; Miles, A J; Gazzard, B; Wastell, C; Vipond, M; Stotter, A; Miller, R F; Fieldman, N R; Slack, W W

    1991-08-01

    The presentation, operative management and final diagnosis were reviewed in 28 patients with AIDS (27 men and one woman) who underwent emergency laparotomy. On clinical and radiological examination, six patients showed features of toxic megacolon, five patients had small bowel obstruction, six patients had localized peritonitis and three had perforated viscus with generalized peritonitis. The most common disease processes were acute colitis in seven patients (associated with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in six), intra-abdominal lymphoma in five patients, acute appendicitis in five patients (associated with CMV infection in two), and atypical mycobacterial (MAI) infection in four patients. Two perioperative deaths occurred; one in a patient with acute pancreatitis and a second with generalized peritonitis. Later deaths were due to progression of AIDS, and patient survival at 1 month, 3 months and 6 months was 89 per cent, 64 per cent and 48 per cent, respectively. Lower operative mortality than in previously reported series may be due to earlier intervention in CMV toxic megacolon. Surgery, however, conferred less benefit in patients with acute abdominal pain from MAI infection or lymphoma. With careful patient selection, emergency laparotomy may achieve worthwhile palliation in patients with AIDS. PMID:1655153

  3. PROSPECTIVE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF COMPLICATIONS OF LAPAROTOMY WOUND IN ELECTIVE AND EMERGENCY SURGERY

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    Deepak R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postoperative wound complications are of common occurrence. The incidence of postoperative wound infections ranged from <2% to 38%. Based on NNIS (National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance system reports, surgical site infections are the third most frequently reported nosocomial infections among hospitalized patient. Aim is to compare the complications of laparotomy wound in elective and emergency surgery and to study the various determinants affecting it. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is a prospective randomized study of 216 patients undergoing emergency and elective laparotomy. Postoperative wound complications and various factors affecting it are compared between emergency and elective surgery. RESULTS: The study was conducted on 216 patients, aged between 13-80 years, who underwent major elective and emergency laparotomy surgery in Shri B. M. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre Bijapur, between October 2008 – May 2014 (5 year 6 month. Among the 216 patients, 15(14% out of 108 patients were in elective laparotomy group and 27(25% out of 108 patients were in emergency laparotomy who developed complications. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, laparotomy wound complications are multifactorial, this study demonstrated no significant increase in incidence of postoperative tissue and wound complications in emergency (25% and elective surgery (14% p=0.08. It mainly depends on higher ASA score, anemia and higher wound class who are more likely to be associated with development of wound complications.

  4. From NELA to EPOCH and beyond: enhancing the evidence base for emergency laparotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odor, Peter M; Grocott, Michael P W

    2016-01-01

    Around 35,000 patients undergo emergency laparotomy surgery in the UK each year with an in-hospital 30-day mortality estimated as between 11 and 15 %. The recent publication of the First Patient Report of the National Emergency Laparotomy Audit (NELA) has provided a detailed description of individual hospital performance against national standards of care in emergency laparotomy in England and Wales. Although the standards used for audit purposes in NELA are based upon the best currently available evidence, none of the source data derives from randomised controlled studies. This commentary explores the evidence base for the standards evaluated by NELA and highlights recent and forthcoming studies that may substantially contribute to improving the evidence base in this area, thereby improving patient care and strengthening the validity of the NELA audit standards. PMID:27594991

  5. Abbreviations

    OpenAIRE

    Brine, Kevin R.; Ciletti, Elena; Lähnemann, Henrike

    2013-01-01

    List of abbreviations of books of the Bible and versions of the Bible as used in this volume (according to The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed., 2003, sections 15.50–54). The Jewish Bible/Old Testament Am Amos 1 Chr 1 Chronicles 2 Chr 2 Chronicles Dn Daniel Dt Deuteronomy Eccl Ecclesiastes Est Esther Ex Exodus Ez Ezekiel Gn Genesis Hg Haggai Hos Hosea Is Isaiah Jer Jeremiah Jb Job Jl Joel Jon Jonah Jo Joshua Jgs Judges 1 Kgs 1 Kings 2 Kgs 2 Kings Lam Lamentations Lv Leviticus Mal Malachi Mi ...

  6. A review of anaesthesia for emergency laparotomy in paediatric intestinal obstruction in Enugu, Nigeria

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    Ugochukwu Vincent Okafor

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: To review the anaesthetic management and outcome for emergency laparotomy for paediatric intestinal obstruction in the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. Methods:The anaesthetic charts and folders of pediatric patients that had emergency laparotomy for intestinal obstruction in the general operating theatre of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH, Enugu, Nigeria, from October 2007 - September 2008 were reviewed. The records were examined for anaesthetic technique, patient primary diagnosis, intra-operative events, blood and fluid therapy and patient outcome. Patients above thirteen years were excluded. Results: Forty-four out of 285 (15.7% paediatric patients underwent emergency laparotomy for intestinal obstruction in the general operating theatre. There were 29 males and 15 females. The average age of the patients was 3.75 years. There were a total of 1674 anesthetics in the general operating theatre during the study. The leading causes of intestinal obstruction in this study were typhoid peritonitis (14 or 31.8%, intussusceptions (14 or 31.8% and congenital anomalies (11 or 25%. Six patients (13% had a preoperative packed cell volume of less than 30%, while ten patients received intra-operative blood transfusion (21.7%. There was one anesthetic death to give a case mortality rate of 2.2%. Conclusion: The mortality rate in this study shows the importance and relevance of trained providers of anaesthesia managing paediatric patients in the developing world. Early presentation of patients allowed time for resuscitation and fewer complications before surgery

  7. Diagnostic Yield and Clinical Utility of Abdominopelvic CT Following Emergent Laparotomy for Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haste, Adam K; Brewer, Brian L; Steenburg, Scott D

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To determine the incidence of unexpected injuries that are diagnosed with computed tomography (CT) after emergent exploratory laparotomy for trauma and whether identification of such injuries results in additional surgery or angiography. Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. The trauma databases of two urban level 1 trauma centers were queried over a period of more than 5 years for patients who underwent abdominopelvic CT within 48 hours of emergent exploratory laparotomy for trauma. Comparisons were made between CT findings and those described in the surgical notes. Descriptive statistics were generated, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined by using an exact method based on a binomial distribution. Results The study cohort consisted of 90 patients, including both blunt and penetrating trauma victims with a median injury severity score of 17.5 (interquartile range, 9.25-34). Seventy-three percent (66 of 90) of patients sustained penetrating trauma, 82% (74 of 90) of whom were male. A total of 19 patients (21.1%; 95% CI: 13.2, 31.0) had additional injuries within the surgical field that were not identified during laparotomy. There were 17 unidentified solid organ injuries, and eight patients had active bleeding within the surgical field. Eight patients (8.9%; 95% CI: 3.9, 16.8) had unexpected injuries at CT that were substantial enough to warrant additional surgery or angiography. In addition, previously undiagnosed fractures were found in 45 patients (50%; 95% CI: 39.3, 60.7). Conclusion Performing CT after emergent exploratory laparotomy for trauma is useful in identifying unexpected injuries and confirming suspected injuries that were not fully explored at initial surgery. (©) RSNA, 2016. PMID:26963577

  8. Transversus abdominis plane block for an emergency laparotomy in a high-risk, elderly patient

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    Surekha S Patil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 72-year-old male patient with gall bladder perforation and small intestinal obstruction from impacted gall stone was posted for emergency laparotomy. He had congestive heart failure, severe hypertension at admission and history of multiple other coexisting diseases. On admission, he developed pulmonary oedema from systolic hypertension which was controlled by ventilatory support, nitroglycerine and furosemide. Preoperative international normalized ratio was 2.34 and left ventricular ejection fraction was only 20%. Because of risk of exaggerated fall in blood pressure during induction of anaesthesia (general or neuraxial, a transversus abdominis plane block via combined Petit triangle and subcostal technique was administered and supplemented with Propofol sedation.

  9. CLINICAL STUDY ON FACTORS INFLUENCING WOUND DEHISCENCE IN EMERGENCY EXPLORATORY LAPAROTOMY

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    Mrinal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Wound dehiscence is a mental, financial and physical trauma to patients and has an equivalent effect on surgeon too. Wound dehiscence etches profound morbidity in a patient’s life. There arises an expanding demand in the cost of care, both in terms of increased hospital stay and manpower in nursing and managing of burst wound and its complications. Thus understanding of factors contributing to dehiscence, correctable measures and precautionary steps are very much essential in day-to-day practice of all surgeons. This ignited our thoughts to conduct a study and understand wound healing and dehiscence in a better way. AIM This study was made to find the factors that significantly contribute to wound dehiscence in midline emergency exploratory laparotomy. METHODS The study was conducted in 213 patients who underwent midline emergency exploratory laparotomy in Silchar Medical College and Hospital in Barak Valley, Assam, India, from March 2015 to February 2016. Factors such as age, preoperative albumin, body mass index, haemoglobin, post-operative pulmonary complication, diabetes mellitus, duration of surgery, time of presentation, intraabdominal sepsis/wound infection, raised intra-abdominal pressure, raised creatinine, ascites and malignancy were observed and analysed with odds ratio and P value. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION Risk factors for abdominal wound dehiscence identified in this study include anaemia, hypoalbuminemia, post-operative pulmonary complications, increased intra-abdominal pressure, intra-abdominal sepsis/wound infection, delayed presentation and malignancy.

  10. Add on dexmedetomidine in the treatment of severe alcohol withdrawal in a patient of emergency laparotomy

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    Roshan Madan Shende

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available According to American statistics 90% of people drink alcohol at some time in life. The estimated prevalence of alcohol abuse among hospitalized in patients is 20 % and 10- 33 % in patients admitted to the ICU. Approximately 18% of these patients will develop alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS whose symptoms can include physical and psychological manifestations that range from mild to life threatening. Although AWS has been reported in literature in post-operative periods and in intensive care unit, there is less information on treatment and preparing of a patient with AWS, coming for emergency surgical procedure. The surgical stress and deranged liver functions possess an additional challenge to the anesthesiologist. Here we are reporting the successful management of a case of delirium tremens by using Dexmedetomidine in pre, intra and post-operative period in a patient with hollow viscous perforation for emergency laparotomy. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(9.000: 2446-2449

  11. EVALUATION OF PULMONARY ASPIRATION AND SELLICK’S MANEUVER IN EMERGENCY LAPAROTOMIES

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    Rajesh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Sellick’s maneuver is used for the prevention of pulmonary aspiration in emergency situation. To evaluate the efficacy of Sellick’s maneuver controlled trials were not done up till now because of ethical and legal issue. On the background of recent updates, we have planned to evaluate the emergency laparotomy and obstetric cases of last four and a half years for the risk of pulmonary. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To evaluate the incidence rate of pulmonary aspiration, the morbidity and mortality of pulmonary aspiration and to discuss the efficacy of Sellick’s maneuver. MATERIAL AND METHODS Cases selected are from the period January 2011 to June 2015. Total 807 cases were for evaluation. After permission of record section of our hospital case sheets are evaluated. Where ever required the concerned assistant professor of anesthesiology was interviewed. OBSERVATIONS The incidence of pulmonary aspiration is 1:807. This patient did not need intensive pulmonary management. There is no mortality because of pulmonary aspiration. Two cases of vomiting immediately after extubation are observed, but there was nothing to suggest for pulmonary aspiration. CONCLUSION There are chances of regurgitation even with all preventive measures are applied. The incidence rate is 1:807 in emergency surgical procedures under general anesthesia. Out of three main groups, i.e. obstetric group, pediatric group and adult patients of emergency laparotomy group no group can be labeled as more high risk group for risk of aspiration. There is no mortality because of regurgitation. The training of assistant is crucial to prevent the incidence of aspiration. We are of opinion that Sellick’s maneuver will remain beneficial during induction of general anesthesia to prevent pulmonary aspiration.

  12. Evaluating the Causes of Emergent Laparotomy in Two Treatment Centers of Babol City: Shahid Beheshti and Yahya Nejad (1999-2001

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    A. Gholizadeh Pasha

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Emergent laparotomy has many usages in abdomen trauma and acute abdomen. Knowing its common causes and patient's conditions will be useful for good management of these patients. This study determined the common etiologies of emergent laparotomy and evaluated these causes.Materials & Methods: This descriptive and retrospective study was carried out on patients who had received laparotomy and their dossiers were available in archives of Beheshty and Yahya Nejad hospitals. Results: 300 patients were laparotomised (201 male and 99 female. 69 out of these patients had received laparotomy because of trauma (48 blunt and 21 penetrating and 231 of them for acute abdomen. The most common signs were tenderness and guarding. Most of the patients were in 11-20 and 21-30 years age groups. In trauma: most common causes of injury were car accident and stab wounds. It usually happens in the third decade of the life. Accuracy of physical examinations was 91% by using three criteria of hypotension, tenderness and guarding. Negative laparotomy was 4 in blunt and 10 in penetrating trauma. Most common injured organs were spleen in blunt and intestine in penetrating traumas. In acute abdomen: most common causes for emergent laparotomy were peritonitis (43% and obstruction (25%. Negative laparotomy was 3 in acute abdomen. P.U (4.46% and perforated appendicitis (4.36% were the most common causes of peritonitis. Rate of mortality in 5 cases was for trauma patients and 4 in cases for acute abdomen patients.Conclusion: This study proved that acute abdomen was the most common cause of emergent laparotomy and peritonitis and intestine obstruction were the common causes of acute abdomen which lead in laparotomy. In traumatic patients, blunt trauma (resulting from car accident was the most regardable factor of emergent laparotomy (resulting from car accident

  13. Retained Intra-Abdominal Surgical Clamp Complicating Emergency Laparotomy: Incidental Finding on Hysterosalpingogram for Evaluation of Tubal Infertility

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    Adebiyi Gbadebo Adesiyun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The finding of intraperitoneal foreign body complicating surgical intervention broadly remains as an issue of safety in the operative room, a source of emotive concern for the patient, and an upsetting but equally embarrassing situation to the surgeon and the team. However, in the media world, it is a source of sumptuous and captivating headline on the newspaper and to the legal profession, an attractive case to prosecute. A middle age teacher presented with secondary infertility. She had emergency laparotomy fifteen years ago for ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy in a private hospital and postoperative period was uneventful. Amongst other investigations to find out the cause of infertility, she had hysterosalpingography and a radio-opaque clamp was visualized on the films. She was counselled and had laparotomy. A pair of surgical Kocher clamps was retrieved buried in the mesentery.

  14. ANAESTHETIC MANAGEMENT OF A GERIATRIC PATIENT WITH PARKINSON`S DISEASE AND DIABETES MELLITUS POSTED FOR EMERGENCY LAPAROTOMY

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    Prajwal Patel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD, one of the most common disabling neurological diseases, affects about 1% of the population over 60 years of age. It is a degenerative disease of the central nervous system caused by the loss of dopaminergic fibers in basal ganglia of the brain. PD is an important cause of perioperative morbidity and with an increasingly elderly population; it is being encountered with greater frequency in surgical patients. Here we report a case of 79year old male with Parkinsonism and diabetes mellitus posted for emergency laparotomy, which we managed successfully with general anesthesia.

  15. Design and current status of CONTINT: continuous versus interrupted abdominal wall closure after emergency midline laparotomy - a randomized controlled multicenter trial [NCT00544583

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    Rahbari Nuh N

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal strategy for abdominal wall closure has been an issue of ongoing debate. Available studies do not specifically enroll patients who undergo emergency laparotomy and thus do not consider the distinct biological characteristics of these patients. The present randomized controlled trial evaluates the efficacy and safety of two commonly applied abdominal wall closure strategies in patients undergoing primary emergency midline laparotomy. Methods/design The CONTINT trial is a multicenter, open label, randomized controlled trial with a two-group parallel design. Patients undergoing a primary emergency midline laparotomy are enrolled in the trial. The two most commonly applied strategies of abdominal wall closure after midline laparotomy are compared: the continuous, all-layer suture technique using slowly absorbable monofilament material (two Monoplus® loops and the interrupted suture technique using rapidly absorbable braided material (Vicryl® sutures. The primary endpoint within the CONTINT trial is an incisional hernia within 12 months or a burst abdomen within 30 days after surgery. As reliable data on this primary endpoint is not available for patients undergoing emergency surgery, an adaptive interim analysis will be conducted after the inclusion of 80 patients, allowing early termination of the trial if necessary or modification of design characteristics such as recalculation of sample size. Discussion This is a randomized controlled multicenter trial with a two-group parallel design to assess the efficacy and safety of two commonly applied abdominal wall closure strategies in patients undergoing primary emergency midline laparotomy. Trial registration NCT00544583

  16. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome following an inadvertent dural puncture during an emergency laparotomy for ischemic colitis – a case report

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    Shah R

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reena Shah, Agnieszka Kubisz-Pudelko, Jeremy Reid Yeovil District Hospital, Yeovil, UK Abstract: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES is a clinico-neuroradiological syndrome characterized by various symptoms of neurological disease. It has commonly been reported in association with acute hypertension, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, sepsis, and exposure to immunosuppressants. Here, we report on a normotensive woman who developed a severe frontal headache, visual disturbances, and hypertension 3 days after undergoing an emergency laparotomy for ischemic colitis during which she suffered an inadvertent dural puncture. Neuro-imaging revealed features consistent with PRES. The patient went on to make a good recovery, being discharged 21 days postoperatively, with only minor visual disturbances and memory problems. This case highlights the importance of awareness of PRES to all specialties. On reviewing the literature, we feel that PRES may be a potential differential diagnosis to post-procedural neurological symptoms in those patients undergoing routine procedures such as spinal anesthetics or lumbar punctures. Keywords: PRES, neurological disease, lumbar puncture, spinal anesthetic

  17. EMERGENCY LAPAROTOMY AND DEATH IN ECTOPIC PREGNANCY: A RARITY NOWADAYS? A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF ECTOPIC PREGNANCY CASES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Suja Mary

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy implanted outside the endometrial cavity constitutes ectopic gestation. The reproductive performance can be poor following an ectopic pregnancy. The purpose of the study is to emphasize the importance of public awareness about the need for early reporting to hospital in doubtful cases, to analyze the risk factors for ectopic, to study the role of βHCG estimation and transvaginal sonography in early detection in order to preserve the fallopian tube by medical therapy and/or to do early elective surgery preventing emergency laparotomy and death from ectopic pregnancy. METHODOLOGY: All cases of ectopic gestations managed in a tertiary care hospital for a period of one year is reviewed, roughly around 70 cases. The objectives were to analyze demographic characteristics, risk factors, methods of diagnosis and to evaluate the protocol for ectopic management in the hospital. RESULTS: The study showed that the maximum number of ectopic was seen in the 26 - 30 age group and more commonly among multies. Maximum number of ectopic cases is seen between 5.1 to 6 weeks and 80% of the cases are seen in ≤8 weeks. 42/70 patients showed one or more risk factors like previous history of ectopic, LSCS, infertility treatment, sterilization and use of IUCD.82.9% patients presented either with pain alone or pain along with spotting/bleeding p/v. Earlier, majority of the cases were reported after tubal rupture resulting in shock, which sometimes even lead to death. In the present scenario, however, only 2 patients developed hypotension, 11 out of 70 alone required blood transfusion and none required laparotomy. Majority of cases of unruptured ectopic (83% showed <66% rise in βHCG in 48 hours. Pelvic ultrasound and serum βHCG estimation has revolutionized the diagnostic proce ss of ectopic pregnancy enabling detection in the unruptured stage itself in 50% of the cases and the rest in early stages of rupture. In most cases, medical line of management with

  18. Theatrical fire pursuant exploratory laparotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Bellevue, Oliver C.; Johnson, Bennett M.; Feczko, Andrew F.; Nadig, Daniel E.; White, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Fire in the operating theater is a rare but potentially fatal complication. We report igniting an intraperitoneal fire while preforming an exploratory laparotomy for perforated viscus. Fortunately, the patient suffered no injuries as a result.

  19. Early laparotomy after lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Pia; Zemtsovski, Mikhail; Perch, Michael;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal complications after lung transplantation have been reported with incidence rates ranging from 3% to 51%, but the reasons are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the correlations between pulmonary diseases leading to lung transplantation and early gastrointestinal...... complications requiring laparotomy after transplantation with outcomes for patients at increased risk. METHODS: In this study we performed a retrospective analysis of data of patients who underwent lung transplantation at our institution from 2004 to 2012. The study period was limited to the first 90 days after...... for time on mechanical ventilation. Among pulmonary diseases and demographics of the patients, no other risk factors were identified for laparotomy. CONCLUSIONS: A1AD was the only significant risk factor identified for gastrointestinal complications that required laparotomy within 3 months after lung...

  20. FDA Acronyms and Abbreviations

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    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The FDA Acronyms and Abbreviations database provides a quick reference to acronyms and abbreviations related to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) activities

  1. 急诊腹腔镜与传统开腹手术治疗输卵管异位妊娠疗效观察%Observation on curative effect of emergent laparoscopy and routine laparotomy in treatment of tubal ectopic pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董毅; 黄子娇

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To observe and compare the clinical efficacies of emergent laparoscopy and routine laparotomy in treatment of tubal ectopic pregnancy. Methods: The clinical data of 75 patients with tubal ectopic pregnancy treated with emergent laparoscopy and 75 patients with tubal ectopic pregnancy treated with routine laparotomy were analyzed retrospectively, the operation times, the amounts of blood loss during operation, anal exhausting times after operation, tubal patency situations after operation in the two groups were compared. Results; There was no significant difference in the operation time between emergent laparoscopy group ( (40.43 ±2.45) minutes] and routine laparotomy group ( (40. 52 ±2.78) minutes] ; there was significant difference in the amount of blood loss during operation between emergent laparoscopy group [ (16.23 ±2. 27) ml] and routine laparotomy group [ (48.65 ± 12. 23) ml] ; there was significant difference in the anal exhausting time after operation between emergent laparoscopy group ( ( 1. 23 ±0. 6) days] and routine laparotomy group [ (2. 35 ±0. 8) days] ; there was significant difference in patency rate of fallopian tubes between emergent laparoscopy group [ (83. 5 ± 2. 3)% ] and routine laparotomy group ( (52. 7 ±3. 9)% ] . Conclusion; Laparoscopy has the advantages of less blood loss, rapid recover-y, and high patency rate of fallopian tubes in treatment of tubal ectopic pregnancy, its curative effect is superior to routine laparotomy, and it is the first choice for treatment of tubal ectopic pregnancy.%目的:观察比较急诊腹腔镜与传统开腹手术在治疗输卵管异位妊娠中的临床效果.方法:回顾性分析输卵管异位妊娠患者在行急诊腹腔镜手术与传统手术治疗的临床资料各75例患者,比较两组患者手术时间、术中出血量、术后肛门排气时间、术后输卵管通畅情况.结果:急诊腹腔镜组手术时间(40.43±2.45) min与传统开腹手术组手术时间(40.52

  2. Acute Abdomen; Pre and Post-Laparotomy Diagnosis

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    Marjan Laal

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abdominal pain is a common presentation that requires almost immediate management. It is sometimes crucial to diagnose at the earliest and make a decision as to operate. Therefore it is necessary for the physician to be familiar both with the presentations of common causes of abdominal pain and the validity of diagnostic tests.  Diagnosis of acute abdomen before laparotomy is essential in reducing the morbidity and mortality while preventing from unnecessary operations especially where the diagnostic facilities are limited and clinical awareness plays an important role in the diagnosis and management. Objectives: This study attempted to compare pre and post-operative diagnosis in acute abdomen.Materials & Methods: This was an observational study, conducted from February to December 2005. The study included 139 consecutive patients referred to Sina hospital (Tehran, Iran presented with symptoms of acute abdomen, operated to see the negative laparotomy rate, the diagnostic accuracy and predictive values of different investigations in acute abdomen. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 11.5. P value of Results: All 139 patients with diagnosis of acute abdomen underwent emergency laparotomy. Acute abdomen was most common in the age group 20-29 years with male predominance. Acute appendicitis (57.6% was the most common cause of surgical condition, and then the most common causes of acute abdomen were peritonitis (14.4% and bowel obstruction (7.9% in male and ovarian cyst torsion (24.5% in female patients. The negative laparotomy rate was 12.2% (P value Conclusion: The decision to operate is based on the results of a good history and thorough physical examination(s with the guidance of investigative tools. Diagnostic modalities could guide the physician in confirming the diagnosis. An accurate diagnosis of acute abdomen can avoid from unnecessary operations so reduces the rate of negative laparotomies.

  3. Peritoneal sepsis: re laparotomy characteristic patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients suffering from severe sepsis originating in the abdominal peritoneal region frequently require re-interventions, as this condition persist with high morbidity.Management of therapy is difficult and tends to be controversial; existing studies consider a universe which that is far from homogenic.The analysis covers a five year period.Case material involved 55 patients with severe abdominal sepsis requiring at least one re laparotomy.It takes into considerations the incidence, clinical manifestations leading to a positive re laparotomy, death rate and factors involved in prognosis.The absence of multi organic dysfunction (MOD) was considered a valid criteria for exclusion. A total of 121 relapses with corresponding laparotomy were performed, of which 17(14%) showed no relapse.The latter was less frequently associated with the presence of prolonged symptomatology, gastrointestinal anastomosis and /or MOD at the time of re-laparotomizing the patient (p<0,05).Local signs proved to be poor indicators of the advisability to re laparotomize. When comparing programmed re-laparotomy with this procedure undertaken whenever it be required, no differences were established as to the number of interventions performed, mean hospital days of patients and mortality. Crude mortality was 76% and related death-rate was 55%.The oldest patient was 70 years of age, the A:P:A:C:H:E: II points exceeded 17 and the presence of 3 or more sys functions were significantly associated with death rate in the range of 90%.The conclusion of this stud was that, given the high mortality of patients with 3 or more dysfunctions, the strategy for improving death rate is to re operate at an early stage those patients with 1 or 2 dysfunctions,particularity those presenting prolonged symptoms and/or gastrointestinal anastomosis

  4. Global change: Acronyms and abbreviations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodard, C.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Stoss, F.W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center

    1995-05-01

    This list of acronyms and abbreviations is compiled to provide the user with a ready reference to dicipher the linguistic initialisms and abridgements for the study of global change. The terms included in this first edition were selected from a wide variety of sources: technical reports, policy documents, global change program announcements, newsletters, and other periodicals. The disciplinary interests covered by this document include agriculture, atmospheric science, ecology, environmental science, oceanography, policy science, and other fields. In addition to its availability in hard copy, the list of acronyms and abbreviations is available in DOS-formatted diskettes and through CDIAC`s anonymous File Transfer Protocol (FTP) area on the Internet.

  5. 40 CFR 86.094-3 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.094-3 Abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations in § 86... Petroleum Gas NMHC—Nonmethane Hydrocarbons NMHCE—Non-Methane Hydrocarbon Equivalent PM—Particulate...

  6. Evaluating clinical abdominal scoring system in predict- ing the necessity of laparotomy in blunt abdominal trauma

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    Erfantalab-Avini Peyman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objectives: Trauma is among the lead- ing causes of death. Medical management of blunt abdomi- nal trauma (BAT relies on judging patients for whom lap- arotomy is mandatory. This study aimed to determine BAT patients’ signs, as well as paraclinical data, and to clarify the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of clinical abdominal scoring system (CASS, a new scoring system based on clinical signs, in predicting whether a BAT patient needs laparotomy or not. Methods: Totally 400 patients suspected of BAT that arrived at the emergency department of two university hos- pitals in Tehran from March 20, 2007 to March 19, 2009 were included in this study. They were evaluated for age, sex, type of trauma, systolic blood pressure, Glasgow coma scale (GCS, pulse rate, time of presentation after trauma, abdomi- nal clinical findings, respiratory rate, temperature, hemoglo- bin (Hb concentration, focused abdominal sonography in trauma (FAST and CASS. Results: Our measurements showed that CASS had an accuracy of 94%, sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 88%, positive predictive value of 90% and negative predictive value of 100% in determining the necessity of laparotomy in BAT patients. Moreover, in our analysis, systolic blood pressure, GCS, pulse rate, Hb concentration, time of presen- tation after trauma, abdominal clinical findings and FAST were also shown to be helpful in confirming the need for laparotomy (P<0.05. Conclusion: CASS is a promising scoring system in rapid detection of the need for laparotomy as well as in minimizing auxiliary expense for further evaluation in BAT patients, thus to promote the cost-benefit ratio and accu- racy of diagnosis. Key words: Abdominal injuries; Laparotomy; Patients; Wounds, nonpenetrating

  7. Classification and Translation of Chinese Abbreviations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭颖婷

    2014-01-01

    Chinese abbreviation, containing fewer words and delivering a wealth of information, is a vital component of Chinese language. But the tremendous differences between Chinese and English make it an arduous task to translate Chinese abbreviations into English. Based on the analyses of the structure and patterns of word-formation of Chinese abbreviations, it makes a classifi-cation of Chinese abbreviations, summarize the translation methods, and point out some attention points in translation. A system-atic analysis on the structure and classification of Chinese abbreviations will be beneficial to reduce the mistakes in its translation.

  8. Neuromuscular blockade for improvement of surgical conditions during laparotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Matias Vested; Scheppan, Susanne; Kissmeyer, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: During laparotomy, surgeons frequently experience difficult surgical conditions if the patient's abdominal wall or diaphragm is tense. This issue is particularly pertinent while closing the fascia and placing the intestines into the abdominal cavity. Establishment of a deep neuromus......INTRODUCTION: During laparotomy, surgeons frequently experience difficult surgical conditions if the patient's abdominal wall or diaphragm is tense. This issue is particularly pertinent while closing the fascia and placing the intestines into the abdominal cavity. Establishment of a deep...

  9. Abbreviations

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    ACAME Association des centrales d’achat de médicaments essentiels (Association of central medical stores for essential generic drugs) AMPOT Association malienne pour la promotion des ophtalmologues traditionnels (Malian association for the promotion of traditional ophthalmologists) CT Cicatricial (scar) trachoma DALY Disability Adjusted Life-Years DDT Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane DMT Department of traditional medicine DOTS Directly Observed Therapy Short Course FT Follicular trachoma GIS G...

  10. Abbreviations

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    "AB" The official French logo for certified organic produce ("Agriculture Biologique") CF Conventional farming EF Ecological farming IFS Integrated farming systems LIF Low-input farming OF Organic farming OFgc Organic farming under group certification AFSAA Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments (French food safety agency) AMAP Association pour le Maintien d'une Agriculture Paysanne (Association for the maintenance of small-scale farming – there is a network of such associations ...

  11. Abbreviations used in scientific and technical reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reports contain a large number of abbreviations which have not yet been included in the current specialized dictionaries or lists of abbreviations. It is therefore often time-consuming or even fruitless to search for such abbreviations. The present alphabetical list of more than 4,000 abbreviations gathered from the report inventory of the Central Library of the KFA Juelich in the period from 1982-1986, taking into consideration all the scientific and technical disciplines, is intended to remedy a deficiency and to offer assistance which will undoubtedly be welcomed by scientists and engineers. (orig./HP)

  12. Rescue bedside laparotomy in the intensive care unit in patients too unstable for transport to the operating room

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, Joerg; Nierhaus, Axel; Vettorazzi, Eik; Braune, Stephan A; Frings, Daniel P; Vashist, Yogesh; Izbicki, Jakob R; Kluge, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The prognoses of critically ill patients with a requirement for emergency laparotomy and severe respiratory and/or hemodynamic instability precluding transport to the operating room (OR) are often fatal without surgery. Attempting emergency surgery at the bedside might equally result in an adverse outcome. However, risk factors and predictors that could support clinical decision making have not been identified so far. This study describes the clinical characteristics, indicative ...

  13. Acronyms, initialisms, and abbreviations: Fourth Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolman, B.J. [comp.

    1994-04-01

    This document lists acronyms used in technical writing. The immense list is supplemented by an appendix containing chemical elements, classified information access, common abbreviations used for functions, conversion factors for selected SI units, a flowcharting template, greek alphabet, metrix terminology, proofreader`s marks, signs and symbols, and state abbreviations.

  14. Body Packing: From Seizures to Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna M. Janczak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Body packing is a common method for illegal drug trafficking. Complications associated with body packing can be severe and even lead to rapid death. Thus, a timely diagnosis is warranted. As most body packers initially do not show any symptoms, making a correct diagnosis can be rather challenging. We describe a case of a 41-year-old male, who was admitted with an epileptic seizure and who turned out to be a cocaine intoxicated body packer. Due to neurological and cardiovascular deterioration an emergency surgery was performed. Four bags of cocaine could be removed. We discuss the current management regimen in symptomatic and asymptomatic body packers and highlight pearls and pitfalls with diagnosis and treatment.

  15. 40 CFR 600.403-77 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Dealer Availability of Fuel Economy Information § 600.403-77 Abbreviations....

  16. Generating abbreviations using Google Books library

    OpenAIRE

    Solovyev, Valery D.; Bochkarev, Vladimir V.

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the original method of creating a dictionary of abbreviations based on the Google Books Ngram Corpus. The dictionary of abbreviations is designed for Russian, yet as its methodology is universal it can be applied to any language. The dictionary can be used to define the function of the period during text segmentation in various applied systems of text processing. The article describes difficulties encountered in the process of its construction as well as the ways to over...

  17. Abbreviation definition identification based on automatic precision estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Won; Comeau Donald C; Sohn Sunghwan; Wilbur W John

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The rapid growth of biomedical literature presents challenges for automatic text processing, and one of the challenges is abbreviation identification. The presence of unrecognized abbreviations in text hinders indexing algorithms and adversely affects information retrieval and extraction. Automatic abbreviation definition identification can help resolve these issues. However, abbreviations and their definitions identified by an automatic process are of uncertain validity. ...

  18. Laparotomy for post chemotherapy residue in ovarian germ cell tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Primary conservative surgery and cisplatin-based chemotherapy have resulted in high cure ratesin malignant ovarian germ cell tumors. A significant proportion of advanced tumors may have post-chemotherapyresidue and it is important to distinguish necrosis or fibrosis without viable tumor from persistent viable tumorand teratoma. Aims : To evaluate the role of laparotomy in assessing the nature of post-chemotherapy residue in ovariangerm cell tumors. Materials and Methods : Eighty-three patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors seen at Cancer Institute,Chennai between 1992 and 2002 were studied. Sixty-eight patients completed combination chemotherapywith cisplatin regimes, of whom 35 had radiological residual masses. Twenty-nine out of these 35 patientsunderwent laparotomy to assess the nature of the residue. Results : On laparotomy, three patients had viable tumor, seven immature teratoma, three mature teratomaand 16 only necrosis or fibrosis. None of our patients with dysgerminoma, embryonal carcinoma, absence ofteratoma element in the primary tumor and radiological residue of < 5 cm had viable tumor whereas all patientswith tumors containing teratoma component initially had residual tumor. Absence of viable disease was higherin patients who had normalization of serum markers by two cycles of chemotherapy. Conclusion : Our study suggests that patients with absence of teratoma element initially, radiological residue of< 5 cm and normalization of serum markers after two cycles of chemotherapy do not require surgery to assessthe nature of post-chemotherapy residue. However, laparotomy should be performed in patients with tumorsthat initially contain teratoma element and in those with sluggish tumor marker response after two cycles ofchemotherapy since they have a high chance of having viable postchemotherapy residue.

  19. Management of Ovarian Dermoid Cysts by Laparoscopy Compared With Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Liyi

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty patients with ovarian dermoid cysts removed by laparoscopic surgery were compared with 42 patients with ovarian dermoid cysts removed by laparotomy, with respect to the selection criteria, surgical procedures, operating time, intraoperative and postoperative complications, blood loss, and hospital stay. Although the operating time for unilateral cystectomy, unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and bilateral cystectomy performed by laparoscopic surgery was longer (120.3 ± 43.7 min, mean ± SD than those for the same procedures performed by laparotomy (73.9 ± 21.6 min, p < 0.01, we observed a learning curve with a remarkable declining tendency (linear regression model, p < 0.01. At the end of this study, the times taken for laparoscopic procedures were almost the same as those for laparotomy. Less blood loss (18.2 ± 1.7 ml versus 105.9 ± 84.3 ml, p < 0.01 and shorter hospital stay (5.9 ± 1.9 days versus 12.0 ± 2.9 days, p < 0.01 were also found to be advantages of laparoscopic surgery. This article discusses the technical procedures of laparoscopic surgery. The efficiency and safety of operative laparoscopy as an alternative access route for the management of ovarian dermoid cysts were recognized. We stress that strict criteria for selection of patients should always be followed and the necessity of retraining schedules for gynecologists and nursing staff in the speciality of laparoscopic surgery.

  20. Abbreviations [Annex to The Fukushima Daiichi Accident, Technical Volume 5/5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annex is a list of abbreviations used in the publication The Fukushima Daiichi Accident, Technical Volume 5/5. The list includes the abbreviations for: • General Safety Requirements; • International Commission on Radiological Protection; • Intensive Contamination Survey Area; • International Experts Meeting; • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology; • Ministry of the Environment; • Nuclear Damage Compensation and Decommissioning Facilitation Corporation; • Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters; • nuclear power plant; • Nuclear Safety Commission; • OECD Nuclear Energy Agency; • Special Decontamination Area; • Specific Safety Requirements; • technical cooperation; • Three Mile Island; • United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation

  1. 40 CFR 86.203-94 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.203-94 Section 86.203-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New...

  2. 40 CFR 600.203-77 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....203-77 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy Values § 600.203-77 Abbreviations....

  3. The stylistic coloring of abbreviation in Business English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李美玲

    2011-01-01

    It is obvious to apply different vocabulary in various styles. As application of vocabulary becomes more, the distinct stylistic coloring is forming gradually. In this paper, it studies the definitions, structures, features ,of abbreviation in Business English. After that, it summarizes the stylistic coloring of abbreviation in Business English, and proves the necessity and importance to study abbreviation in Business English.

  4. Acute peritoneal dialysis in a Jehovah's Witness post laparotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appalsawmy, Usha Devi; Akbani, Habib

    2016-01-01

    A 56-year-old man who was a Jehovah's Witness with an advanced directive against autologous procedures developed acute kidney injury needing renal replacement therapy while he was intubated and ventilated on the intensive care unit. He was being treated for hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state. He also had a healing laparotomy wound, having undergone a splenectomy less than a month ago following a road traffic accident. His hyperkalaemia and metabolic acidosis were refractory to medical treatment. As he became oligoanuric, decision was taken to carry out acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) by inserting a Tenckhoff catheter in his abdomen using peritoneoscopic technique. The patient was started on automated PD without any complications. His urine output gradually improved, and his renal function eventually recovered. On discharge from hospital, his renal function was within normal range, and he had no abdominal complications from the acute PD. PMID:27581233

  5. Nasogastric intubation causes gastroesophageal reflux in patients undergoing elective laparotomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Manning, B J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The routine use of nasogastric tubes in patients undergoing elective abdominal operation is associated with an increased incidence of postoperative fever, atelectasis, and pneumonia. Previous studies have shown that nasogastric tubes have no significant effect on the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux or on lower esophageal sphincter pressure in healthy volunteers. We hypothesized that nasogastric intubation in patients undergoing laparotomy reduces lower esophageal sphincter pressure and promotes gastroesophageal reflux in the perioperative period. METHODS: A prospective randomized case-control study was undertaken in which 15 consenting patients, admitted electively for bowel surgery, were randomized into 2 groups. Group 1 underwent nasogastric intubation after induction of anesthesia, and Group 2 did not. All patients had manometry and pH probes placed with the aid of endoscopic vision at the lower esophageal sphincter and distal esophagus, respectively. Nasogastric tubes, where present, were left on free drainage, and sphincter pressures and pH were recorded continuously during a 24-hour period. Data were analyzed with 1-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: The mean number of reflux episodes (defined as pH < 4) in the nasogastric tube group was 137 compared with a median of 8 episodes in the group managed without nasogastric tubes (P =.006). The median duration of the longest episode of reflux was 132 minutes in Group 1 and 1 minute in Group 2 (P =.001). A mean of 13.3 episodes of reflux lasted longer than 5 minutes in Group 1, with pH less than 4 for 37.4% of the 24 hours. This was in contrast to Group 2 where a mean of 0.13 episodes lasted longer than 5 minutes (P =.001) and pH less than 4 for 0.2% of total time (P =.001). The mean lower esophageal sphincter pressures were lower in Group 1. CONCLUSIONS. These findings demonstrate that patients undergoing elective laparotomy with routine nasogastric tube placement have significant gastroesophageal

  6. Abbreviated guide pneumatic conveying design guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, David

    1990-01-01

    Abbreviated Guide: Pneumatic Conveying Design Guide describes the selection, design, and specification of conventional pneumatic conveying systems. The design procedure uses previous test data on the materials to be conveyed. The book also discusses system economics, operating costs, the choice of appropriate components or systems, system control, and system flexibility. The design system involves the type of conveying system for installation, the pipeline parameters, and also the plant components. System selection covers the properties of the material to be conveyed, plant layout, material pr

  7. The Postoperative Analgesic Effect of Morphine and Paracetamol in the Patients Undergoing Laparotomy, Using PCA Method

    OpenAIRE

    Yaghoubi, Siamak; Pourfallah, Reza; Barikani, Ameneh; Kayalha, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Objective: postoperative pain increases the activity of the sympathetic system, causes hypermetabolic conditions, retains salt and water, increases glucose, fatty acid lactate and oxygen consumption, weakens the immunity system which delays wound healing. Our object was comparison of the analgesic effect of morphine and paracetamol in the patients undergoing laparotomy, using PCA method. Method: Seventy patients who had undergone laparotomy were studied using double blind randomized clinical ...

  8. Imaging of a retained laparotomy towel that migrated into the colon lumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retention of surgical instruments, most commonly small laparotomy sponges, is a known complication of surgery. Such retained instruments may remain silent or may cause a variety of complications. We report a case in which a retained laparotomy towel migrated into the colon. This is an infrequently reported complication. We were able to document the passage of the towel through the colon on plain radiographs. The USG and MRI findings are also described

  9. The use of abbreviations in surgical note keeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Collard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abbreviations are used to improve the speed of note keeping and to simplify patient notes. However studies have shown that they can reduce clarity, increase mistakes and cause confusion in management plans. Our review highlights the misuse of abbreviations in surgical note keeping.

  10. Sequenced Contractions and Abbreviations for Model 2 Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronnell, Bruce

    The nature and use of contractions and abbreviations in beginning reading is discussed and applied to the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) Mod 2 Reading Program, a four-year program (K-3) for teaching reading skills to primary-grade children. The contractions and abbreviations are listed and sequenced for the reading program. The results of…

  11. 32 CFR 516.3 - Explanation of abbreviations and terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Explanation of abbreviations and terms. 516.3 Section 516.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.3 Explanation of abbreviations and terms. (a)...

  12. Test Review: Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Sarah M.; Floyd, Randy G.

    2013-01-01

    The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II; Wechsler, 2011) is a brief intelligence test designed for individuals aged 6 through 90 years. It is a revision of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI; Wechsler, 1999). During revision, there were three goals: enhancing the link between the Wechsler…

  13. THE ISSUES OF LATIN ABBREVIATIONS IN THE DIPLOMATICES DOCUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Иван Балта

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues of Latin abbreviations in the diplomatic documents are a very complex problem in the diplomatic word processing and deciphering the historiography documents. Abbreviations originated from Latin letters caused a favorable advantage for the scribe, but created difficulties for the reader, since they were complicated and questionable at the time. The Romans called the Latin abbreviations notae-or-sigla, using them just to save space and materials on which the letters were written. Increased use of abbreviations in medieval manuscripts emphasized a need for a manual in both the Code and Charter, specifying the form of abbreviations and centuries which they belonged to. Steffens divided the abbreviations of the Roman epoch according to the chronological development into the five ways of shortening: suspension, notes Tironianae, contraction, notes iuris, and signs for numbers, which were retained and added new shortcuts in the Middle Ages, especially in the territory of today's Pannonia and the Eastern Adriatic coast. Punctuation, which was alike the abbreviations, had a long process of development, which began as an antique-scriptura continua, trying to clarify the meaning of putting points in various positions between the individual words. Abbreviations differed not only by the type of Latin letters, but also by the territory in which they evolved, at different time periods. Abbreviations of Latin letters from the Beneventan East Adriatic coast were specific, were formed gradually, could be used as a criterion for dating, and were carried out with more ways of shortening the letters. Schiaparelli probably entered the deepest essence of the development of Latin minuscule in which he noted that the Frankish influences were much stronger in the first period of the development of the Beneventan East Adriatic coast. However, perhaps no other medieval script was developed better than a system of abbreviations in the Gothic style, especially in

  14. Conventional laparotomy for management of caesarean scar ectopic pregnancy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh C. Mhaske

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Increase in the rates of caesarean deliveries has led to a concurrent rise in the number of caesarean scar ectopic pregnancies (CSEP. With recent advances, diagnosis can be made at an early gestational age, hence facilitating a prompt intervention. With the varied treatment options available, choosing the right one may possess a clinical dilemma. However, in a low resource setting, conventional laparotomy may be the only option feasible. A case of CSEP managed with laparotomy is presented. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1581-1584

  15. CLINICAL STUDY ON FACTORS INFLUENCING WOUND DEHISCENCE IN EMERGENCY EXPLORATORY LAPAROTOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Mrinal; Sankamithra; Rajesh; Abdul Rahi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Wound dehiscence is a mental, financial and physical trauma to patients and has an equivalent effect on surgeon too. Wound dehiscence etches profound morbidity in a patient’s life. There arises an expanding demand in the cost of care, both in terms of increased hospital stay and manpower in nursing and managing of burst wound and its complications. Thus understanding of factors contributing to dehiscence, correctable measures and precautionary steps are very much ess...

  16. Transfusion practice and complications after laparotomy - an observational analysis of a randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kamilla; Meyhoff, C S; Johansson, P I;

    2012-01-01

    Background  Transfusion of allogeneic red blood cells (RBC) may be associated with side effects. This study aimed to assess whether an association could be detected between transfusion practice and the occurrence of complications after laparotomy. Study design and methods  This study is an observ...

  17. Hoofdpijn na een laparotomie : een chronisch subduraal hematoom na epidurale anesthesie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeman, Annelies E; Reidinga, Auke C; Groen, Rob J M; Wierda, J M K H Mark; Schiere, Sjouke

    2009-01-01

    A 63-year-old man underwent an exploratory laparotomy because of rectal carcinoma. The operation was performed under general anaesthesia in combination with epidural anaesthesia. Since the operation the patient complained of a headache. Eight weeks after the operation he was hospitalized because of

  18. Laparotomy in mice induces blood cell expression of inflammatory and stress genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Fred; Isoda, Fumiko; Mobbs, Charles

    2015-04-01

    Surgical trauma induces immune and stress responses although its effects on postsurgical inflammatory and stress gene expression remain poorly characterized. This study sought to improve current scientific knowledge by investigating the effects of laparotomy on mouse blood cell inflammatory and stress gene expression. Three-month-old male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 2% isoflurane or 2% isoflurane with laparotomy and sacrificed 4 h postintervention. Blood was collected and blood cell expression of 158 genes central to inflammatory and stress responses was assayed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction arrays. Mice subjected to isoflurane with laparotomy, compared with mice receiving isoflurane alone, had >2-fold upregulation of genes in inflammation (Osm, IL1rn, IL1b, and Csf1), oxidative stress (Hmox1), heat shock (Hspa1b), growth arrest (Cdkn1a), and DNA repair (Ugt1a2). These genes demonstrated similar expression patterns by Pearson correlation and cluster analysis. Thus, laparotomy induces coordinated, postsurgical blood cell expression of unique inflammatory and stress genes whose roles in influencing surgical outcomes need further investigation.

  19. Minimal laparotomy management of a giant ovarian cystic teratoma in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Yasui

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Giant ovarian cysts in adolescents are very rare. Those treatment by laparotomy or laparoscopic surgery is discussed with gynecologists and pediatric surgeons because its limited working space and risk of rupture and malignancy. We present a case of minimal laparotomy management of a giant ovarian cystic teratoma in adolescent. A 13-year-old girl presented with abdominal pain and constipation. A CT scan showed a giant simple ovarian cystic tumor in her abdomen measuring 29 × 13 × 24 cm. We made a 3-cm Pfannenstiel incision and inserted an Alexis wound retractor XS. The cyst was completely aspirated without spillage in the intraperitoneal space. In total, 6L of murky brown fluid was aspirated from the cyst. There was no ovarian tissue visible on the cyst wall. The left tube and right ovary and tube were intact. The cyst wall and left ovary tube were dissected free by using a LigaSure. Postoperative recovery was uneventful. Pathological assessment revealed a mature cystic teratoma. The ovarian tissue was included in the part of the cyst wall. We were able to safely perform with minimal laparotomy. Therefore, we consider the for cases of giant ovarian tumors, minimal laparotomy surgery is useful from the safety and cosmetic perspective.

  20. Application of abbreviated injury scale and injury severity score in fatal cases with abdominopelvic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Nuwadatta; Yadav, Bishwanath; Jha, Shivendra

    2014-12-01

    In forensic casework, investigation of injury severity is important in evaluating the mortality, occasionally in terms of the adequacy of clinical management. The study was conducted with an objective to study the relationship of severity of the injuries using Abbreviated Injury Scale and Injury Severity Score (ISS) with survival period and place of death among fatal cases with abdominopelvic trauma.The total number of cases studied was 80. The injuries in all the body parts were allotted using the Abbreviated Injury Scale 2005, Update 2008, and the ISS was calculated. The male/female ratio was 4:1, and the mean (SD) age was 30.76 (15.2) years. The cause of trauma was road traffic accidents in 82.5% of the cases. The median duration of survival was 2 hours. The mean (SD) ISS was 38.90 (14.89). Abbreviated Injury Scale scores of 5 and 4 were the most common in the region. With increase in the ISS, the survival period was decreased. There was a highly significant difference between the mean ISS of the victims who died prehospital and that of who died in the emergency department (P < 0.005). The mean ISS of the victims who died in the emergency department and of those who died in the ward, intensive care unit, or after discharge was also significantly different (P < 0.05).Although the cases with more severe injuries died sooner, there should be provision of treatment on the spot without delay. More time taken to start the treatment increases the fatalities. PMID:25354224

  1. 40 CFR 300.4 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Agriculture Note: Reference is made in the NCP to both the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the National Response Center. In order to avoid confusion, the NCP will spell out Nuclear Regulatory Commission and use... Response Plan FS—Feasibility Study HRS—Hazard Ranking System LEPC—Local Emergency Planning Committee...

  2. Abdominal damage control surgery and reconstruction: world society of emergency surgery position paper

    OpenAIRE

    Godat, Laura; Kobayashi, Leslie; Costantini, Todd; Coimbra, Raul

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Damage control laparotomy was first described by Dr. Harlan Stone in 1983 when he suggested that patients with severe trauma should have their primary procedures abbreviated when coagulopathy was encountered. He recommended temporizing patients with abdominal packing and temporary closure to allow restoration of normal physiology prior to returning to the operating room for definitive repair. The term damage control in the trauma setting was coined by Rotondo et al., in 1993. ...

  3. [Should routine exploratory laparotomy be performed in the presence of an abdominal wound? Discussion apropos of 176 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiberteau, B; Kohen, M; Borde, L; Sartre, J Y; Bourseau, J C; Le Neel, J C

    1992-10-01

    Management of abdominal wounds is presently the subject of discussion between the partisans of routine laparotomy and those preferring "armed" surveillance. Results of study of a series of 176 abdominal wounds subjected to surgical dogma showed: that the diagnosis of non penetrating wounds (17.6%) was not always evident, due either to their anatomical localization (frontier region wounds) or to insufficient local exploration in urgent cases (6.6% of false-negatives), that the existence of serious clinical signs (50 cases) was always associated with one or more visceral lesions, requiring urgent laparotomy with a morbidity of 20% and a mortality of 8% (4 cases), that in the case of asymptomatic penetrating wounds (96 cases), routine laparotomy did nevertheless allow the diagnosis of visceral lesions in 50 cases (including 23 major lesions) but was of no utility in 46 cases (31.5% of blind laparotomies for the total series). The elevated proportion of useless laparotomies (30% in the literature), the result of a dogmatic attitude, or the risk of a delayed intervention (5 to 8%) in the series practising the selective method, led to a modification in the authors' attitude. The existence of serious signs should obviously result in a laparotomy. In their absence, and when confronted with a penetrating or doubtful (frontier region) wound, an exploratory celioscopy is proposed to ensure complete abdominal exploration, to confirm the presence or absence of penetration, to treat minimal lesions and to perform a classical laparotomy in case of evident necessity.

  4. [Should routine exploratory laparotomy be performed in the presence of an abdominal wound? Discussion apropos of 176 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiberteau, B; Kohen, M; Borde, L; Sartre, J Y; Bourseau, J C; Le Neel, J C

    1992-10-01

    Management of abdominal wounds is presently the subject of discussion between the partisans of routine laparotomy and those preferring "armed" surveillance. Results of study of a series of 176 abdominal wounds subjected to surgical dogma showed: that the diagnosis of non penetrating wounds (17.6%) was not always evident, due either to their anatomical localization (frontier region wounds) or to insufficient local exploration in urgent cases (6.6% of false-negatives), that the existence of serious clinical signs (50 cases) was always associated with one or more visceral lesions, requiring urgent laparotomy with a morbidity of 20% and a mortality of 8% (4 cases), that in the case of asymptomatic penetrating wounds (96 cases), routine laparotomy did nevertheless allow the diagnosis of visceral lesions in 50 cases (including 23 major lesions) but was of no utility in 46 cases (31.5% of blind laparotomies for the total series). The elevated proportion of useless laparotomies (30% in the literature), the result of a dogmatic attitude, or the risk of a delayed intervention (5 to 8%) in the series practising the selective method, led to a modification in the authors' attitude. The existence of serious signs should obviously result in a laparotomy. In their absence, and when confronted with a penetrating or doubtful (frontier region) wound, an exploratory celioscopy is proposed to ensure complete abdominal exploration, to confirm the presence or absence of penetration, to treat minimal lesions and to perform a classical laparotomy in case of evident necessity. PMID:1294583

  5. Leukocyte scintigraphy compared to intraoperative small bowel enteroscopy and laparotomy findings in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almen, Sven; Granerus, Göran; Ström, Magnus;

    2007-01-01

    Background: Leukocyte scintigraphy is a noninvasive investigation to assess inflammation. We evaluated the utility of labeled leukocytes to detect small bowel inflammation and disease complications in Crohn's disease and compared it to whole small bowel enteroscopy and laparotomy findings. Methods......: Scintigraphy with technetium-99m exametazime-labeled leukocytes was prospectively performed in 48 patients with Crohn's disease a few days before laparotomy; 41 also had an intraoperative small bowel enteroscopy. The same procedures were performed in 8 control patients. Independent grading of scans...... was compared with the results of enteroscopy and with surgical, histopathologic, and clinical data. Results: In the 8 control patients leukocyte scan, endoscopy, and histopathology were all negative for the small bowel. In patients with Crohn's disease and small bowel inflammation seen at enteroscopy and...

  6. Second look laparotomy in the management of epithelial cell carcinoma of the ovary.

    OpenAIRE

    Mead, G. M.; Williams, C. J.; MacBeth, F. R.; Boyd, I. E.; Whitehouse, J M

    1984-01-01

    Case histories from 20 patients undergoing postchemotherapy "second look" laparotomy for metastatic epithelial cell carcinoma of the ovary were reviewed in an attempt to evaluate the usefulness of this procedure and its likely impact on patient survival. The patient population comprised 18 patients treated with a combination of cisplatin, adriamycin and cyclophosphamide (PACe) and 2 patients treated with chlorambucil. The findings at second look were often predictable, and related to the adeq...

  7. Comparison of polydioxanone (PDS and polyamid (nylon sutures complications in abdominal midline repair (laparotomy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Eshghi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Despite progresss in the techniques of surgery, there is still a lot of controversy about selection of the best technique and suture material. Many post operation complications such as infection, wound dehiscence, pain and sinus formation are related to the type of the suture used. In this study we compared the complications due to the absorbent suture (PDS with a non absorbent suture (nylon in laparotomy operation.Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was performed on 120 patients referring to Imam Khomeini hospital, Sari, 2003-2005 for laparotomy. They were randomly divided in tow groups of equal number. The incision was repaired with PDS sutures in case and with nylon suture in control group. All patients under study were followed up for one year. Data about chronic pain,wound dehiscence, infection, hernia and sinus formation were recorded and analyzed using SPSS software and Chi- square test.Results: In this study 120 patients (60 in case and 60 in control groups were enrolled. After laparotomy, the incidence of chronic pain and sinus formation in case group was significantly less than the control group. There were no significant differences between the rate of infection, hernia and wound dehiscence in the two groups.Conclusion: No significant differences in the rate of infection, hernia and wound dehiscence between two types of suture materials were observed. However, application of PDS leads to less pain and sinus formation. Therefore, it can be a better choice in surgical incisions.

  8. Sonographic Appearance of Abdominal Wall at the Left Flank of Laparotomy Incision Site in Ettawah Grade Does

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. Ulum; D. R. Setiadi; B. Panjaitan; M. Noordin; Amrozi .

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the sonographic appearance of abdominal wall at the left flank of laparotomy incision site in 11 mated Ettawah grade does. Brightness-mode ultrasound examination by using transducer with frequency of 5.0-6.0 MHz was conducted to grouping the does based on their pregnancy statuses. The incision site of the abdominal wall at left flank laparotomy was transcutaneous-scanned as long as 8 cm vertically. The sonographic appearance of the laparotomy wall thickne...

  9. 27 CFR 19.726 - Authorized abbreviations to identify spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... records: Kinds of spirits Abbreviations Alcohol A Brandy BR Bourbon Whisky BW Canadian Whisky CNW Completely Denatured Alcohol CDA Corn Whisky CW Grain Spirits GS Irish Whisky IW Light Whisky LW Malt Whisky MW Neutral Spirits NS Neutral Spirits Grain NSG Rye Whisky RW Scotch Whisky SW Specially...

  10. 40 CFR 205.155 - Motorcycle class and manufacturer abbreviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motorcycle class and manufacturer...) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.155 Motorcycle class and manufacturer abbreviation. (a) Motorcycles must be grouped into classes determined...

  11. Interactive Hangman Teaches Amino Acid Structures and Abbreviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Britney O.; Sears, Duane; Clegg, Dennis O.

    2014-01-01

    We developed an interactive exercise to teach students how to draw the structures of the 20 standard amino acids and to identify the one-letter abbreviations by modifying the familiar game of "Hangman." Amino acid structures were used to represent single letters throughout the game. To provide additional practice in identifying…

  12. Is It Necessary To Create Abbreviations of Signed Languages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Yerker

    2001-01-01

    Suggests considering the following before creating abbreviations of sign languages: the recognition of signed languages as official languages; the standardization of signed languages; the existence of different signed languages using the same spoken language as a substitute language; whether attention should be given to countries whose names share…

  13. 40 CFR 86.1804-01 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acronyms and abbreviations. 86.1804-01 Section 86.1804-01 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. hp—Horsepower. HPLC—High-pressure liquid chromatography....

  14. Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Planning Template for Primary Care Offices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT CHE

    2010-01-01

    The Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Plan Template for Primary Care Provider Offices is intended to assist primary care providers and office managers with preparing their offices for quickly putting a plan in place to handle an increase in patient calls and visits, whether during the 2009-2010 influenza season or future influenza seasons.

  15. Predicting Chinese Abbreviations from Definitions: An Empirical Learning Approach Using Support Vector Regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Sun; Hou-Feng Wang; Bo Wang

    2008-01-01

    In Chinese, phrases and named entities play a central role in information retrieval. Abbreviations, however,make keyword-based approaches less effective. This paper presents an empirical learning approach to Chinese abbreviation prediction. In this study, each abbreviation is taken as a reduced form of the corresponding definition (expanded form),and the abbreviation prediction is formalized as a scoring and ranking problem among abbreviation candidates, which are automatically generated from the corresponding definition. By employing Support Vector Regression (SVR) for scoring,we can obtain multiple abbreviation candidates together with their SVR values, which are used for candidate ranking.Experimental results show that the SVR method performs better than the popular heuristic rule of abbreviation prediction.In addition, in abbreviation prediction, the SVR method outperforms the hidden Markov model (HMM).

  16. Hodgkin's disease in children: Treatment with MOPP and low-dose, extended field irradiation without laparotomy. Late results and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 10 year results of a trial of bimodal treatment of Hodgkin's disease in children with 6 cycles of MOPP and low-dose extended field irradiation, without staging laparotomy, were for 57 children in all stages as follows: survival 85%, relapse-free survival 80%, and survival-free of second relapse 86%. There were three fatal toxic events, two due to viral infection and one to a second malignant tumor (NHL). Three other patients developed a second malignant tumour, and one developed a thyroid adenoma. No patient developed acute leukemia. These results are compared with the results of treatment of surgically staged children by extended field irradiation alone, with bimodal treatment reserved for relapse or advanced disease at diagnosis. Initial bimodal treatment improved the overall 10 year survival free from a second relapse rate by 20% (86% vs. 66%). No major difference in treatment toxicity between these two groups has emerged during the first 10 years of follow-up. We conclude that, except for favourable CS-1 presentations, children with Hodgkin's disease confined to the lymphatic system should be given bimodal treatment, but that the least morbid effective combination remains to be determined

  17. Efficacy of Sustained-Release Buprenorphine in an Experimental Laparotomy Model in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Lon V; Wegenast, Daniel J; Smith, Brian J; Dorsey, Kathryn M; Kang, Sooah; Lee, Na Young; Hess, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    Mice purportedly require dosing with the opioid buprenorphine (Bup-HCl) at least every 8 to 12 h to maintain an adequate plane of analgesia. Here we used an experimental laparotomy model to determine the clinical efficacy of sustained-release formulations of buprenorphine (Bup-SR) after surgery in mice. Female CD1 mice underwent laparotomy and received either Bup-SR (0.6 mg/kg), Bup-HCl (0.1 mg/kg every 12 h), or saline (every 12 h). Pain was assessed at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h according to the frequency of several behaviors (general activity, wheel-running activity, rearing, grooming, wound licking, orbital tightening, and percentage of integrated nest material) and daily body weight. Over time, wheel running was increased and wound licking was decreased in Bup-SR-treated mice compared with Bup-HCl- and saline-treated mice. Compared with Bup-HCl- and saline-treated mice, Bup-SR-treated mice had increased general activity and percentage of integrated nest material and decreased orbital tightening for 1 to 6 h after surgery. The Bup-HCl- and saline-treated mice had similar general activity, orbital tightening scores, and wheel running activity. Rearing activity and body weight did not differ throughout the study, and none of the observed behaviors differed between groups at 24, 48, and 72 h after surgery. These results suggest that Bup-SR at 0.6 mg/kg provides adequate analgesia after laparotomy in mice and can be used as an alternative analgesic in this context. Furthermore, Bup-HCl at 0.1 mg/kg every 12 h may be inadequate in providing analgesia for abdominal procedures in mice.

  18. Computed tomography, lymphography, and staging laparotomy: correlations in initial staging of Hodgkin disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellino, R.A.; Hoppe, R.T.; Blank, N.; Young, S.W.; Neumann, C.; Rosenberg, S.A.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1984-07-01

    One hundred twenty-one patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated Hodgkin disease underwent abdominal and pelvic computed tomographic (CT) scanning and bipedal lymphography. These studies were followed by staging laparotomy, which included biopsy of the liver, retroperitoneal and mesenteric lymph nodes, and splenectomy. Correlation of the results of the imaging studies with the histopathologic diagnoses revealed a small - but significant - increased accuracy of lymphography compared with CT in assessing the retroperitoneal lymph nodes. The theoretical advantages of CT scanning in detecting lymphomatous deposits in lymph nodes about the celiac axis and the mesentery, or in the liver and spleen, were not confirmed.

  19. COMPARISON OF SURGICAL STRESS RESPONSE UNDER GENERAL ANAESTHESIA IN OPEN LAPAROTOMY VS LAPAROSCOPIC ABDOMINAL SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Reddy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The stress response is the name given to the hormonal and metabolic changes which follow injury or trauma. The systemic reactions to surgical injury encompass a wide range of endocrinological, immunological and haematological effects. The ability of anaesthetic agents modifies the endocrine and metabolic responses have been studied enthusiastically. This research describes the endocrine and metabolic changes which occur during different types of surgical techniques, effects of anaesthetic and analgesic regimens to modify their responses. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of stress response on blood glucose levels and hemodynamics in patients undergoing open Laparotomy surgeries v/s laparoscopic surgeries. METHODS: Sixty surgical patients were enrolled in this clinical trial. The pulse, BP records were taken and blood sugar levels were tested peri-operatively. RESULTS: The results were analyzed and found that raise pulse rate, blood pressure and blood sugar levels due to stress in proportionate to surgical trauma, and duration of surgery under anaesthesia. Blood sugar levels gradually increased 90.5±4.88 to 115±7.18 and at post op119.4±6.93 in laparotomy group when compared to 91.07±4.93 to 118.33±5.06 and at post-op120.1±4.51 in laparoscopy group. CONCLUSION: Lap surgery causes minimum tissue injury and less stress response more so during postoperative period.

  20. Review of Subcutaneous Wound Drainage in Reducing Surgical Site Infections after Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Manzoor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Surgical site infections (SSIs remain a significant problem after laparotomies. The aim of this review was to assess the evidence on the efficacy of subcutaneous wound drainage in reducing SSI. Methods. MEDLINE database was searched. Studies were identified and screened according to criteria to determine their eligibility for meta-analysis. Meta-analysis was performed using the Mantel-Haenszel method and a fixed effects model. Results. Eleven studies were included with two thousand eight hundred and sixty-four patients. One thousand four hundred and fifty patients were in the control group and one thousand four hundred and fourteen patients were in the drain group. Wound drainage in all patients shows no statistically significant benefit in reducing SSI incidence. Use of drainage in high risk patients, contaminated wound types, and obese patients appears beneficial. Conclusion. Using subcutaneous wound drainage after laparotomy in all patients is unnecessary as it does not reduce SSI risk. Similarly, there seems to be no benefit in using it in clean and clean contaminated wounds. However, there may be benefit in using drains in patients who are at high risk, including patients who are obese and/or have contaminated wound types. A well designed trial is needed which examines these factors.

  1. A comparative study of outcome of the absorbable suture polydioxanone and nonabsorbable suture polypropylene in laparotomy wound closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Shankar H.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abdominal wound closure is one of the common operations for a general surgeon. Prevention of complications is important to reduce post-operative morbidity and mortality. Post-operative wound pain, wound infection, wound dehiscence, suture sinus formation; palpable knots and incisional hernia are the parameters are to be studied. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to compare polydioxanone and polypropylene suture material for abdominal fascial closure regarding morbidity in terms of post-operative wound complications. Methods: Patients admitted in the department of surgery, who undergo laparotomy operations, with midline abdominal incisions were included in the study. The recruited subjects were divided into Group-A, whom abdominal incisions are closed with non-absorbable suture material polypropylene and Group-B whom abdominal incisions are closed with absorbable suture material polydioxanone. Data was expressed as percentages. Results: The incidence of wound pain was observed in all the patients in both immediate and delayed post-operative period in the polypropylene suture material compared to polydioxanone. The incidence of wound infection was higher in polypropylene (24% compared to PDS (2%. There were 4% cases of wound dehiscence in the present study. The incidence of suture sinus formation was higher in the polypropylene suture material (9% compared to the polydioxanone suture material (2% in the delayed postoperative period. The incidence of palpable knots was higher in the polypropylene suture material (23% compared to the polydioxanone suture material. No cases of incisional hernia were reported with polydioxanone suture material. Conclusions: The overall morbidity from abdominal closure was considerably reduced in the Polydioxanone group. We encountered reduction in wound complications like burst abdomen, wound infection, wound pain, suture sinus formation, palpable knots and incisional hernia. Therefore

  2. Implantation of peritoneal catheters by laparotomy: nephrologists obtained similar results to general surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo CA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cesar A Restrepo, Carlos Alberto Buitrago, Cielo Holguin Division of Nephrology, Department of Health Sciences, Caldas University, Caldas, ColombiaPurpose: To analyze the complications and costs of minilaparotomies performed by a nephrologist (group A compared with conventional laparotomies performed by a surgeon (group B for peritoneal catheter implantation.Setting: Two university hospitals (Santa Sofia and Caldas in Manizales, Caldas, Colombia.Methods: The study included stage 5 chronic kidney disease patients, with indication of renal replacement therapy, who were candidates for peritoneal dialysis and gave informed consent for a peritoneal catheter implant. Minilaparotomies were performed by a nephrologist in a minor surgery room under local anesthesia. Conventional laparotomies were performed by a surgeon in an operating room under general anesthesia.Results: Two nephrologists inserted 157 peritoneal catheters, and seven general surgeons inserted 185 peritoneal catheters. The groups had similar characteristics: the mean age was 55 years, 49.5% were men, and the primary diagnoses were diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephropathy, and unknown etiology. The implant was successful for 98.09% of group A and 99.46% of group B. There was no procedure-related mortality. The most frequent complications in the first 30 days postsurgery in group A versus group B, respectively, were: peritonitis (6.37% versus 3.78%, exit-site infection (3.82% versus 2.16%, tunnel infection (0% versus 0.54%, catheter entrapment by omentum (1.27% versus 3.24%, peritoneal effluent spillover (1.91% versus 2.16%, draining failure (4.46% versus 6.49%, hematoma (0% versus 1.08%, catheter migration with kinking (3.18% versus 2.70%, hemoperitoneum (1.27% versus 0%, and hollow viscera accidental puncture (1.91% versus 0.54%. There were no statistically significant differences in the number of complications between groups. In 2013, the cost of a surgeon-implanted peritoneal

  3. Sonographic Appearance of Abdominal Wall at the Left Flank of Laparotomy Incision Site in Ettawah Grade Does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Ulum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the sonographic appearance of abdominal wall at the left flank of laparotomy incision site in 11 mated Ettawah grade does. Brightness-mode ultrasound examination by using transducer with frequency of 5.0-6.0 MHz was conducted to grouping the does based on their pregnancy statuses. The incision site of the abdominal wall at left flank laparotomy was transcutaneous-scanned as long as 8 cm vertically. The sonographic appearance of the laparotomy wall thickness showed that in all groups of does were similar and not different statistically. The thickness of oblique external and oblique internal abdominal muscles increased in the pregnant does as compared to non-pregnant does (P<0.05.

  4. Echinococcosis of Iliopsoas Muscle and Anaphylaxis as the Cause of Urgent Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Petrić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis is an infectious disease which in humans is caused by the larval stadium of two types of parasites (Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis. It is most frequently localized in the liver, lungs and rarely in muscles. The parasite significantly affects the immune system of the host, which is why anaphylactic reactions are not rare, especially in cases of cyst rupture. This paper presents the case of a 53-year old woman who had urgent laparotomy on the presumed basis of rupture of ovarian tumour, with intra-abdominal haemorrhage and shock. It turned out to be echinococcosis of the iliopsoas muscle and anaphylactic reaction. The differential diagnosis of adnexal tumours should take into consideration echinococcosis as well. Symptoms of anaphylactic shock in the case of parasitic cyst rupture can easily be confused with the signs of haemorrhagic shock.

  5. Laparotomy enables retrograde dilatation and stent placement for malignant esophago-respiratory fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskender Özcan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant esophageal stenosis with complete obstruction and esophagorespiratory fistula (ERF is difficult to treat with standard endoscopic techniques. Case presentation We report a patient in whom with local recurrence of esophageal carcinoma an esophagotracheal fistula occurred. Initially the patient had undergone esophageal resection with interposition of a gastric tube. Due to complete obstruction of the lumen by recurrent tumor conventional transoral stent placement failed. For retrograde dilatation a laparotomy was performed. Via a duodenal incision endoscopic access to the gastric tube was achieved. Using a guidewire the esophageal obstruction was traversed and dilated. Then it was possible to place an esophageal stent via an antegrade approach. Conclusion Open surgery enables a safe access for retrograde endoscopic therapy in patients who had undergone esophageal resection with gastric interposition.

  6. Computed tomography, primary laparotomy and 'second-look' operation for ovarian carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value of computed tomography for staging and for observing the course of ovarian carcinomas was analysed in 56 patients in whom the diagnosis has been verified by laparotomy. CT achieved correct staging in 85% of cases. The ability of CT to demonstrate a variety of abnormalities varies; ascites and pleural effusions were shown in 100%, lymph node metastases in 90%, infiltration of the recto-sigmoid and terminal ileum in 70-80%, subcapsular liver metastases in 70%, involvement of the omentum in 70%, of the peritoneum in 65% and of the mesentery in 35%. A ''second-look'' operation remains necessary in order to confirm complete remission after chemotherapy, since CT is only rarely able to show residual tumours smaller than 1.5-2 cm. (orig.)

  7. New bilingual version of the VGB abbreviation catalogue for power plant technology released

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantschel, Jochen; Seiffert, Joerg [E.ON New Build and Technology GmbH, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Froehner, Joerg [ct.e Controltechnology Engineering GmbH, Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the VGB Standard for power plant technology VGB-S-891-00 (abbreviation catalogue) is to regulate the systematic creation of abbreviations. The determination of abbreviations for terms related to power plants provides a common basis for planners, erectors, and operators of power plants and their systems. In combination with VGB-B 108 ''Rules for the creation of denominations and their application for power plant engineering'' the abbreviation catalogue is the basis for the creation of denominations.

  8. Exploratory laparotomy for acute intestinal conditions in children: A review of 10 years of experience with 334 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghritlaharey Rajendra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to review 10 years of experience in the management of children with acute intestinal conditions requiring exploratory laparotomy. Patients and Methods : This retrospective study included 334 children (244 boys and 90 girls who underwent laparotomy for acute intestinal conditions between Jan 1, 2000 to Dec 31, 2009. Patients were grouped into two categories: group A (n = 44 included patients who needed laparotomy with terminal ileostomy and group B (n = 290 included patients who needed laparotomy without terminal ileostomy. We excluded neonates and patients with jejunoileal and colonic atresias, anorectal malformations, congenital pouch colon, neonatal necrotising enterocolitis, Hirschsprung′s disease, appendicitis, abdominal trauma and gastrointestinal tumours. Results : During the last 10 years, 334 laparotomies were performed in children under 12 years: 59.88% for intestinal obstruction and 40.11% for perforation peritonitis. Causes in order of frequency were: ileal perforations 34.13%; intussusceptions 26.34%; Meckel′s obstruction 10.17%; congenital bands and malrotation 6.88%; postoperative adhesions 5.98%; miscellaneous peritonitis 5.68%; miscellaneous intestinal obstructions 4.79%; abdominal tuberculosis 4.19% and roundworm intestinal obstruction 1.79%. Ileostomy closures (n = 39 was tolerated well by all except one. The mortalities were 28 (8.38% in group B and 6 (1.79% in group A. Conclusions: The need for re-exploration not only increases the morbidity but also increases mortality as well. Diverting temporary ileostomy adds little cumulative morbidity to the primary operation and is a safe option for diversion in selected cases. The best way to further reduce the mortality is to create ileostomy at first operation.

  9. 21 CFR 314.92 - Drug products for which abbreviated applications may be submitted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... offered for sale by its manufacturer, a person who wishes to submit an abbreviated new drug application... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug products for which abbreviated applications may be submitted. 314.92 Section 314.92 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  10. 77 FR 58999 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Abbreviated New Drug Applications: Stability Testing of Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Abbreviated New Drug... Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the... abbreviated new ] drug application (ANDA) review process more efficient. DATES: Although you can comment...

  11. 49 CFR 1500.3 - Terms and abbreviations used in this chapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Terms and abbreviations used in this chapter. 1500.3 Section 1500.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES APPLICABILITY, TERMS, AND ABBREVIATIONS §...

  12. Automatic Word Sense Disambiguation of Acronyms and Abbreviations in Clinical Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sungrim

    2012-01-01

    The use of acronyms and abbreviations is increasing profoundly in the clinical domain in large part due to the greater adoption of electronic health record (EHR) systems and increased electronic documentation within healthcare. A single acronym or abbreviation may have multiple different meanings or senses. Comprehending the proper meaning of an…

  13. 21 CFR 314.100 - Timeframes for reviewing applications and abbreviated applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Timeframes for reviewing applications and abbreviated applications. 314.100 Section 314.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.100 Timeframes for...

  14. Compression and the origins of Zipf's law of abbreviation

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrer-i-Cancho, R; Seguin, C

    2015-01-01

    Languages across the world exhibit Zipf's law of abbreviation, namely more frequent words tend to be shorter. The generalized version of the law, namely an inverse relationship between the frequency of a unit and its magnitude, holds also for the behaviors of other species and the genetic code. The apparent universality of this pattern in human language and its ubiquity in other domains calls for a theoretical understanding of its origins. We generalize the information theoretic concept of mean code length as a mean energetic cost function over the probability and the magnitude of the symbols of the alphabet. We show that the minimization of that cost function and a negative correlation between probability and the magnitude of symbols are intimately related.

  15. Dictionary of International Abbreviations - Environment and Natural Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dictionary comprises about 3000 acronyms and abbreviations, with explanations in German and English. Subjects: Chemistry, medicine, geology, air, water, soil, waste, air pollution and noise abatement, chemicals and pollutants, agriculture and food, conservation and landscaping, energy, immission protection, radiation protection and nuclear safety, industry and biotechnology, environmental pollution, waste management and recycling. It is intended as a working and communication tool for a wide range of users in industry, administration, universities, scientists and students, journalists, translators and interested laymen. There is an appendix with supplementary information, i.e. mass, volume, SI units, chemical compounds and formulas, occupational pollutant exposure, food additives, environmental disasters, environmental laws, regulations and specifications, international programmes and organisations for environmental protection, and guidelines of environmental and international law. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation of sub-fascial lidocaine infusion in post-operative pain management following laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Eshghi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available  AbstractBackground and Purpose: One of the important problems of major abdominal surgery is post-operative pain control. There are different modalities to control the pain after surgery, such as oral, local or intravenous analgesic drugs, regional nerve block, epidural catheters and pain killer pumps with their own benefits and complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of continuous peritoneal infusion of lidocaine by a pain killer pump for post-operative pain management following laparotomy.Materials and Methods: This double blind randomized clinical trial was performed on 76 patients (38 cases and 38 controls who underwent laparotomy with midline incision, in Imam Hospital, Sari, Iran, in 2008. Two groups were matched in age and sex. After surgery a catheter infusion pump was prepared for all patients. In case group, 2% lidocaine (20mg/kg/day and for control, normal saline infused for 24 hours. Pain score (Visual Analog Scale, blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, temperature and analgesic requirement was evaluated in 4, 10, 16 and 24 hours after surgery. Results analyzed by means of SPSS (15 software and chi-square, t test and repeated measurement. The p value less than 0.05 was considered to be significant statistically.Results: 76 patients, 39 (51.3% females and 37 (48.7% males, with mean age of 47.03±15.2 years were studied. There was no significant difference in age, sex and weight between two groups. The mean of admission days was 5.03±0.6 in case and 5.29±1.3 in control, with no significant difference between them. Mean of opiod consumption was 16.05±13.05 mg and 25.39±11.4 mg in case and control respectively (P= 0.002. Mean of VAS score, blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and temperature in case group was less than control group and the difference was significant statistically. Pain severity changes during 4, 10, 16 and 24 hours following surgery were significantly different in two

  17. Results of Second-Look Laparotomy in Advanced Ovarian Cancer: One Single Center Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damak, Tarak; Chargui, Riadh; Ben Hassouna, Jamel; Hechiche, Monia; Rahal, Khaled

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The goal of the study was to analyse the results of 85 cases of second-look laparotomy (SLL) and explore the influence of this procedure on survival. Patients and Methods. We reviewed retrospectively 85 cases of SLL collected and treated in our institute between 1994 and 2003. Results. Complete pathologic response (CPR) was 25.8%, microscopic disease (Rmicro) was 38.8%, and macroscopic disease (Rmacro) was 35.4%. In patients with negative SLL results, disease recurrence was diagnosed in 41%. The 3- and 5-year overall survival rates for the entire population were 91% and 87%, respectively. The 3- and 5-year disease-free survivals were, respectively, 76.3% and 58.5% in negative SLL versus 55.7% and 16% in positive SLL. The difference between the group of patients with complete response (76%) and the patients with residual microscopic disease (72%) was not significant. The tumoral residuum after initial surgery was the only prognostic factor influencing significantly the disease-free survival. On Cox regression model analysis, only initial tumoral residuum (P = 0.04) and tumoral residuum after SLL (P = 0.02) were independent prognostic factors for survival. Conclusions. The most important advantage of SLL is the early detection of recurrence and thus the early administration of consolidation treatment resulting in a better prognosis. PMID:23119177

  18. Can Clinical Findings Prevent Negative Laparotomy in Parasitosis Mimicking Acute Appendicitis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Zorlu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Rates of negative laparotomy (NL for acute appendicitis have been reported as 15% and parasitosis contributed to 2%. This study was planned to reduce the rates of NL by preoperative determination of parasitosis. Methods. In retrospective examination of 2730 appendectomy specimens in Hitit University Department of General Surgery between 2008 and 2012, 55 patients were determined with parasitosis and compared with 102 age-matched randomly selected patients with lymphoid hyperplasia. Results. The parasite group comprised 63.6% females with a mean age of 15.1 years. The number of patients in the parasitosis group increased from city centre to rural areas of towns and villages (p2.2% was determined as a diagnostic value. Conclusion. It is important to determine parasitosis to prevent NL. When acute appendicitis is considered for young patients living in rural areas, the observation of high eosinophil together with negative sonographic findings should bring Enterobius vermicularis parasitosis to mind and thereby should prevent NL.

  19. Pharmacist and Physician Interpretation of Abbreviations for Acetaminophen Intended for Use in a Consumer Icon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Shiffman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Concomitant use of multiple acetaminophen medications is associated with overdose. To help patients identify acetaminophen medications and thus avoid concomitant use, an icon with an abbreviation for “acetaminophen” has been proposed for all acetaminophen medications. This study assessed pharmacists’ and physicians’ use and interpretation of abbreviations for “acetaminophen”, to identify abbreviations with other meanings that might cause confusion. Physicians (n = 150 reported use and interpretation of candidate abbreviations Ac and Acm. Pharmacists (n = 150 interpretations of prescription orders using the candidate abbreviations APAP, Ac, Ace and Acm in typed, handwritten or spoken form, were judged for critical confusions likely to cause patient harm. Critical confusion was rare, except for omission by pharmacists of the acetaminophen dose for Hydrocodone/APAP prescriptions (10%. Ac was in common use to indicate “before meals”, and was interpreted as such, but some physicians (8% said they use Ac to indicate anticoagulant drugs. Most pharmacists (54% interpreted Ace as acetaminophen, and none interpreted it as referring to ACE-inhibitors. Acm was rarely used in prescriptions, had no common interfering meanings, and was often (63% interpreted as acetaminophen, especially when prescribed in combination with an opiate (85%. The data validated concerns about abbreviations in prescribing: all abbreviations resulted in some misinterpretations. However, Acm was rarely misinterpreted, was readily associated with “acetaminophen”, and seemed appropriate for use in a graphic icon to help consumers/patients identify acetaminophen medications.

  20. Adaptation of abbreviated mathematics anxiety rating scale for engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli; Sultan, Al Amin Mohamed; Halim, Bushra Abdul; Ismail, Siti Fatimah; Mafazi, Nurul Wirdah

    2015-05-01

    Mathematics is an essential and fundamental tool used by engineers to analyse and solve problems in their field. Due to this, most engineering education programs involve a concentration of study in mathematics courses whereby engineering students have to take mathematics courses such as numerical methods, differential equations and calculus in the first two years and continue to do so until the completion of the sequence. However, the students struggled and had difficulties in learning courses that require mathematical abilities. Hence, this study presents the factors that caused mathematics anxiety among engineering students using Abbreviated Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (AMARS) through 95 students of Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM). From 25 items in AMARS, principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that there are four mathematics anxiety factors, namely experiences of learning mathematics, cognitive skills, mathematics evaluation anxiety and students' perception on mathematics. Minitab 16 software was used to analyse the nonparametric statistics. Kruskal-Wallis Test indicated that there is a significant difference in the experience of learning mathematics and mathematics evaluation anxiety among races. The Chi-Square Test of Independence revealed that the experience of learning mathematics, cognitive skills and mathematics evaluation anxiety depend on the results of their SPM additional mathematics. Based on this study, it is recommended to address the anxiety problems among engineering students at the early stage of studying in the university. Thus, lecturers should play their part by ensuring a positive classroom environment which encourages students to study mathematics without fear.

  1. An abbreviated task-oriented assessment (Bay Area Functional Performance Evaluation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, W C; Huselid, R

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore development of an abbreviated version of the Task-Oriented Assessment component of the Bay Area Functional Performance Evaluation (BaFPE). The BaFPE is widely used by occupational therapists practicing in mental health, but therapists have requested an instrument that could be administered and scored more quickly. Both a subjective and objective analysis support the development of an abbreviated version of the Task-Oriented Assessment. PMID:8470740

  2. Emergency presurgical visit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Castro Díaz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective has been to create a Protocol of Structured Presurgical Visit applicable to the patients who are undergoing an emergency surgery, to provide the user and his family all the necessary cares on the basis of those nursing diagnosis that prevail in all the cases of surgical emergency interventions. The used method has been an analysis of the emergency surgical interventions more prevalent from February 2007 until October 2008 in our area (a regional hospital, and statistic of those nursing diagnosis that more frequently appeared in these interventions, the previous moment to the intervention and in addition common to all of them. The results were the following ones: the more frequent emergency operations were: Caesarean, ginecological curettage, laparotomy, help in risk childbirth, orthopaedic surgery and appendectomy. The more frequent nursing diagnosis in all the emergency operations at the previous moment of the intervention were: risk of falls, pain, anxiety, deficit of knowledge, risk of infection, movement stress syndrome, risk of hemorrhage, cutaneous integrity deterioration. The conclusion is that users present at the previous moment to an emergency operation several problems, which force to the emergency surgical ward nurse to the introduction of the nursing methodology, in order to identify the problems, to mark results and to indicate the interventions to achieve those results, besides in a humanitarian way and with quality. This can be obtained by performing a Structured Emergency Presurgical Visit.

  3. Modeling the structure of the attitudes and belief scale 2 using CFA and bifactor approaches: Toward the development of an abbreviated version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Boduszek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The Attitudes and Belief Scale-2 (ABS-2: DiGiuseppe, Leaf, Exner, & Robin, 1988. The development of a measure of rational/irrational thinking. Paper presented at the World Congress of Behavior Therapy, Edinburg, Scotland.) is a 72-item self-report measure of evaluative rational and irrational beliefs widely used in Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy research contexts. However, little psychometric evidence exists regarding the measure's underlying factor structure. Furthermore, given the length of the ABS-2 there is a need for an abbreviated version that can be administered when there are time demands on the researcher, such as in clinical settings. This study sought to examine a series of theoretical models hypothesized to represent the latent structure of the ABS-2 within an alternative models framework using traditional confirmatory factor analysis as well as utilizing a bifactor modeling approach. Furthermore, this study also sought to develop a psychometrically sound abbreviated version of the ABS-2. Three hundred and thirteen (N = 313) active emergency service personnel completed the ABS-2. Results indicated that for each model, the application of bifactor modeling procedures improved model fit statistics, and a novel eight-factor intercorrelated solution was identified as the best fitting model of the ABS-2. However, the observed fit indices failed to satisfy commonly accepted standards. A 24-item abbreviated version was thus constructed and an intercorrelated eight-factor solution yielded satisfactory model fit statistics. Current results support the use of a bifactor modeling approach to determining the factor structure of the ABS-2. Furthermore, results provide empirical support for the psychometric properties of the newly developed abbreviated version.

  4. Penatalaksanaan Anestesi pada Pasien dengan Sick Sinus Syndrome yang Menjalani Laparotomi Ec Perforasi Gaster

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    Radian Ahmad Halimi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available SA node dysfunction, or known as Sick Sinus Syndrome is the common cause of disrythmia and can be caused by intrinsic and extrinsic factors of the SA node. The diagnose performed by the occurrence of bradi- takhikardia episode and the clinical symptoms, could be syncope, palpitation, or maybe asymptomatic. Some of the literature defined that the perioperative management of sick sinus syndrome is preoperative insertion of pacemaker (transcutaneal or transvenous pacing. A 75 years old man underwent laparotomy with diffuse peritonitis caused by gastric perforation. In preoperative clinical evaluation the patients revealed full awake ( compos mentis, with history of uncontrolled hypertension. In physical exammination a severe bradicardia was found with pulse of 31x/minute, and the blood pressure was 190/100 mmHg. In this rural hospital there was no fascility to insert the pace-maker. The organ perfusion was considered to be optimal from clinical evaluation ( proved by the wakefullness, SpO2 99%, and diuresis 1cc/kgBW after optimalization . The chest X’ray showed a cardiomegali without the sign of pulmonary congestion. The laboratory test were within normal limit including the renal function test ( creatinin; 0,97 mg/dl, and ureum 82,6 mg/dl. We decided to perform general anesthesia in this procedure. Before the induction while patient still awake, fentanyl 2µg/kgBW was given intravenously. Fifteen menue after fentanyl administration induction of anesthesia performed and initiated with propofol intravenous injection slowly until patients felt asleep, than intubated after muscle relaxant intravenous reached the onset After intubation the pulse / heart rate of patients rose to 44 – 90x/minute. While the pulse was 90/ minute the heart rythm of the patients became irregular, a multifocal ventricular extra systole occured, and it was reversible when the heart rate back to 44x/ minute. We decided to maintain the heart rate between 35 – 40dmitted to

  5. Value of computed Tomography in re-staging patients undergoing second-look laparotomy for ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-five patients with ovarian carcinoma who had been operated and treated with chemotherapy underwent clinical examination and CT before reintervention (second-look laparotomy) to detect the presence of eventual recurrences. The prediction of recurrence based on CT and clinical findings was compared with the surgical findings at reintervention. CT proved to be more accurate than clinical examination in detecting recurrences; this was especially true for masses in the abdominal cavity, with the exception of small peritoneal nodules. The authors suggest the use of CT for staging the patients candidate to reintervention. This might help to avoid reintervantion in patients with persistent disease and to plan treatment

  6. Perbandingan Pemulihan Bising Usus pada Pasien Pascaoperasi Histerektomi per Laparotomi Menggunakan Analgetik Kombinasi Ketamin-Morfin dengan Morfin Intravena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irvan Setiawan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal dysfunction is the most common post anaesthesia complication. The aim of this study is to compare the recovery of bowel sounds between combination of ketamine-morphine analgesia to morphine alone. This is a randomized controlled study on 36 patients with American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA physical status I and II who underwent hysterectomy per laparotomy at Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung during April–August 2012. Both groups received an initial dose of morphine 0.03 mg/kgBW, while K group received intravenous ketamine 4 μg/kgBW/min, and the M group received morphine 10 μg/kgBW/hr. The results were analyzed using t-test and Mann Whitney test with a confidence level of 95% and were considered significant if p<0.05. The results of this study showed that the recovery time of bowel sounds in K group was significantly faster than in the M group (p<0.05. In conclusion, recovery of bowel sounds is faster in analgesia using combination of ketamine-morphine than morphine in postoperative hysterectomy per laparotomy patients.

  7. Supra-transumbilical laparotomy (STL approach for small bowel atresia repair: Our experience and review of the literature

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    Ernesto Leva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Supra-Transumbilical Laparotomy (STL has been used in paediatric surgery for a broad spectrum of abdominal procedures. We report our experience with STL approach for small bowel atresia repair in newborns and review previous published series on the topic. Patients and Methods: Fourteen patients with small bowel atresia were treated via STL approach at our Institution over a 5-year period and their charts were retrospectively reviewed. Results: STL procedure was performed at mean age of 3.1 day. No malrotation disorders were detected with pre-operative contrast enema. Eight patients (54.1% presented jejunal atresia, five (35.7% ileal atresia, and one (7.1% multiple ileal and jejunal atresias. Standard repair with primary end-to-back anastomosis was performed in all but one patient. In the newborn with multiple atresia, STL incision was converted in supra-umbilical transverse incision due to difficulty of exposition. After surgery, one patient developed anastomotic stricture, and another developed occlusion due to adhesions: Both infants required second laparotomy. No infections of the umbilical site were recorded, and cosmetic results were excellent in all patients. Conclusions: Increasing evidence suggests that STL approach for small bowel atresia is feasible, safe and provides adequate exposure for small bowel atresia surgery. When malrotation and colonic/multiple atresia are pre-operatively ruled out, STL procedure can be choosen as first approach.

  8. Using Genetic Algorithms in a Large Nationally Representative American Sample to Abbreviate the Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahdra, Baljinder K.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Parker, Philip; Scrucca, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Genetic algorithms (GAs) are robust machine learning approaches for abbreviating a large set of variables into a shorter subset that maximally captures the variance in the original data. We employed a GA-based method to shorten the 62-item Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire (MEAQ) by half without much loss of information. Experiential avoidance or the tendency to avoid negative internal experiences is a key target of many psychological interventions and its measurement is an important issue in psychology. The 62-item MEAQ has been shown to have good psychometric properties, but its length may limit its use in most practical settings. The recently validated 15-item brief version (BEAQ) is one short alternative, but it reduces the multidimensional scale to a single dimension. We sought to shorten the 62-item MEAQ by half while maintaining fidelity to its six dimensions. In a large nationally representative sample of Americans (N = 7884; 52% female; Age: M = 47.9, SD = 16), we employed a GA method of scale abbreviation implemented in the R package, GAabbreviate. The GA-derived short form, MEAQ-30 with five items per subscale, performed virtually identically to the original 62-item MEAQ in terms of inter-subscales correlations, factor structure, factor correlations, and zero-order correlations and unique latent associations of the six subscales with other measures of mental distress, wellbeing and personal strivings. The two measures also showed similar distributions of means across American census regions. The MEAQ-30 provides a multidimensional assessment of experiential avoidance whilst minimizing participant burden. The study adds to the emerging literature on the utility of machine learning methods in psychometrics. PMID:26941672

  9. Thickness of Rectus Abdominis Muscle and Abdominal Subcutaneous Fat Tissue in Adult Women: Correlation with Age, Pregnancy, Laparotomy, and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungmin Kim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Rectus abdominis muscle and abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue are usefulfor reconstruction of the chest wall, and abdominal, vaginal, and perianal defects. Thus,preoperative evaluation of rectus abdominis muscle and abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue isimportant. This is a retrospective study that measured the thickness of rectus abdominis muscleand abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue using computed tomography (CT and analyzed thecorrelation with the patients’ age, gestational history, history of laparotomy, and body massindex (BMI.Methods A total of 545 adult women were studied. Rectus abdominis muscle and abdominalsubcutaneous fat thicknesses were measured with abdominopelvic CT. The results were analyzedto determine if the thickness of the rectus abdominis muscle or subcutaneous fat tissue wassignificantly correlated with age, number of pregnancies, history of laparotomy, and BMI.Results Rectus abdominis muscle thicknesses were 9.58 mm (right and 9.73 mm (left at thexiphoid level and 10.26 mm (right and 10.26 mm (left at the umbilicus level. Subcutaneousfat thicknesses were 24.31 mm (right and 23.39 mm (left. Rectus abdominismuscle thicknessdecreased with age and pregnancy. History of laparotomy had a significant negative correlationwith rectus abdominis muscle thickness at the xiphoid level. Abdominal subcutaneous fatthickness had no correlation with age, number of pregnancies, or history of laparotomy.Conclusions Age, gestational history, and history of laparotomy influenced rectus abdominismuscle thickness but did not influence abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness. These results areclinically valuable for planning a rectus abdominis muscle flap and safe elevation of muscle flap.

  10. 7 CFR 761.2 - Abbreviations and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Conditional commitment is the Agency's commitment to a lender that the material the lender has submitted is... available under 7 CFR parts 765 and 766. In the case of an entity applicant, the cosigner cannot be a member... allow for continuation of the operation during an economic emergency which was caused by a lack...

  11. Abbreviated protocol for breast MRI: Are multiple sequences needed for cancer detection?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mango, Victoria L., E-mail: vlm2125@columbia.edu [Columbia University Medical Center, Herbert Irving Pavilion, 161 Fort Washington Avenue, 10th Floor, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Morris, Elizabeth A., E-mail: morrise@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); David Dershaw, D., E-mail: dershawd@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Abramson, Andrea, E-mail: abramsoa@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Fry, Charles, E-mail: charles_fry@nymc.edu [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); New York Medical College, 40 Sunshine Cottage Rd, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States); Moskowitz, Chaya S. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Hughes, Mary, E-mail: hughesm@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Kaplan, Jennifer, E-mail: kaplanj@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Jochelson, Maxine S., E-mail: jochelsm@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Abbreviated breast MR demonstrates high sensitivity for breast carcinoma detection. • Time to perform/interpret the abbreviated exam is shorter than a standard MRI exam. • An abbreviated breast MRI could reduce costs and make MRI screening more available. - Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the ability of an abbreviated breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol, consisting of a precontrast T1 weighted (T1W) image and single early post-contrast T1W image, to detect breast carcinoma. Materials and methods: A HIPAA compliant Institutional Review Board approved review of 100 consecutive breast MRI examinations in patients with biopsy proven unicentric breast carcinoma. 79% were invasive carcinomas and 21% were ductal carcinoma in situ. Four experienced breast radiologists, blinded to carcinoma location, history and prior examinations, assessed the abbreviated protocol evaluating only the first post-contrast T1W image, post-processed subtracted first post-contrast and subtraction maximum intensity projection images. Detection and localization of tumor were compared to the standard full diagnostic examination consisting of 13 pre-contrast, post-contrast and post-processed sequences. Results: All 100 cancers were visualized on initial reading of the abbreviated protocol by at least one reader. The mean sensitivity for each sequence was 96% for the first post-contrast sequence, 96% for the first post-contrast subtraction sequence and 93% for the subtraction MIP sequence. Within each sequence, there was no significant difference between the sensitivities among the 4 readers (p = 0.471, p = 0.656, p = 0.139). Mean interpretation time was 44 s (range 11–167 s). The abbreviated imaging protocol could be performed in approximately 10–15 min, compared to 30–40 min for the standard protocol. Conclusion: An abbreviated breast MRI protocol allows detection of breast carcinoma. One pre and post-contrast T1W sequence may be adequate for detecting

  12. Relationship between Acceptable Noise Level and the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyaldenhoven, Melinda C.; Nabelek, Anna K.; Tampas, Joanna W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between acceptable noise levels (ANLs) and the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB; R. M. Cox & G. C. Alexander, 1995). This study further examined the APHAB's ability to predict hearing aid use. Method: ANL and APHAB data were collected for 191 listeners with impaired hearing,…

  13. 78 FR 37231 - Guidance for Industry; Guidance on Abbreviated New Drug Applications: Stability Testing of Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry; Guidance on Abbreviated New Drug... Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency) is announcing the...) review process more efficient. DATES: Submit either electronic or written comments on Agency guidances...

  14. Symbolic Capital in a Virtual Heterosexual Market: Abbreviation and Insertion in Italian iTV SMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Susan C.; Zelenkauskaite, Asta

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes gender variation in nonstandard typography--specifically, abbreviations and insertions--in mobile phone text messages (SMS) posted to a public Italian interactive television (iTV) program. All broadcast SMS were collected for a period of 2 days from the Web archive for the iTV program, and the frequency and distribution of…

  15. Text-Message Abbreviations and Language Skills in High School and University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonge, Sarah; Kemp, Nenagh

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the use of text-message abbreviations (textisms) in Australian adolescents and young adults, and relations between textism use and literacy abilities. Fifty-two high school students aged 13-15 years, and 53 undergraduates aged 18-24 years, all users of predictive texting, translated conventional English sentences into…

  16. Psychometric Properties of the Abbreviated Perceived Motivational Climate in Exercise Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, E. Whitney G.; Brown, Theresa C.; Fry, Mary D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an abbreviated version of the Perceived Motivational Climate in Exercise Questionnaire (PMCEQ-A) to provide a more practical instrument for use in applied exercise settings. In the calibration step, two shortened versions' measurement and latent model values were compared to each other and the original…

  17. Improving Discrete Trial Instruction by Paraprofessional Staff Through an Abbreviated Performance Feedback Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Marie-Pierre; Ricciardi, Joseph N.; Luiselli, James K.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated an abbreviated performance feedback intervention as a training strategy to improve discrete trial instruction of children with autism by three paraprofessional staff (assistant teachers) at a specialized day school. Feedback focused on 10 discrete trial instructional skills demonstrated by the staff during teaching sessions. Following…

  18. Abbreviated Title of the Artwork in the System of Signs by Ch. Peirce

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    Grigoriy Valeryevich Tokarev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the semiotic aspect of the functioning of the abbreviated title of the postmodern artwork. The authors analyze the relationship of title-sign to the object which it replaces. The title is considered from the perspective of three main features peculiar of the sign in accordance with the Charles S. Peirce's theory. This fact allows us to conclude that, being a sign, the abbreviated title replaces a literary text, which is also expressed in symbolic form of the author's knowledge of reality. In this aspect the title becomes the metasign of its text. It is shown that in this connection, decoding and interpretation process take place in two stages – before reading the text and in the process of its reading and interpretation. It is alleged that the result of the interpretation of the title depends on the reader's competence which is determined by their individual literary scope, as well as by the skills of productive work with the text. On the basis of the classification of signs created by Charles Pierce, it was found that the abbreviated title has a complex semiotic nature combining the features of indexicality, conventionality, and iconicity, the latter of which may be present only in the abbreviated title.

  19. Late radiation injuries of the gastrointestinal tract in the H2 and H5 EORTC Hodgkin's disease trials: emphasis on the role of exploratory laparotomy and fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosset, J M; Henry-Amar, M; Burgers, J M; Noordijk, E M; Van der Werf-Messing, B; Meerwaldt, J H; van der Schueren, E

    1988-09-01

    Out of 516 patients who entered in the two successive EORTC trials H2 and H5 for supra-diaphragmatic stages I and II Hodgkin's disease (HD), and who received an infra-diaphragmatic irradiation, 36 (7%) developed late radiation injuries of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Twenty-five patients presented with ulcers (stomach or duodenum), 2 with severe gastritis, 6 with small bowel obstruction or perforation and 3 patients had both an ulcer and bowel obstruction. A previous laparotomy played an important role. While the complication rate was 2.7% without any previous abdominal surgery, it was 11.5% after laparotomy (p less than 0.001). Fractionation was also found to be of importance in the occurrence of complications: three different weekly schedules were used -5 x 2 Gy, 4 x 2.5 Gy and 3 x 3.3 Gy; the GIT complication rates were 4, 9 and 22%, respectively (p less than 0.001). When combining laparotomy and fractionation, we found that the patients who were treated using 5 weekly fractions of 2 Gy without any prior laparotomy had a very low rate of late digestive complications (1%), whereas the patients who received 3 weekly fractions of 3.3 Gy after laparotomy presented a 39% complication rate. The other subgroups of patients were at an intermediate risk (from 5 to 13%) of late digestive injuries. Since most patients received 40 Gy with only very small variations, the influence of the radiation dose could not be investigated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Modular emergency general surgery training: A pilot study of a novel programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, R J; Abdelrahman, T; Tate, S; Ansell, J; Harries, R; Davies, L; Clark, Gwb; Lewis, W G

    2016-09-01

    Introduction Pan-speciality consensus guidance advocates mandatory emergency general surgery (EGS) training modules for specialist registrars (StRs). This pilot study evaluated the impact of EGS modules aimed at StRs over 1 year. Methods Eleven StRs were allocated a focused 4-week EGS module, in addition to the standard 1:12 on-call duty rota, in a tertiary surgical centre. Primary outcome measures included the number of indicative emergency operations and validated Procedure Based Assessments (PBAs) performed, both during the EGS module and over the training year. Results StRs performed a median of 11 (range 5-15) laparotomies during the EGS module versus 31 (range 9-49) over the whole training year. StRs attended 43.7% of available laparotomies during the module (range 24.1-63.7%). EGS modules provided more than one-third of the total emergency laparotomy experience, and a quarter of the emergency colectomy, appendicectomy and Hartmann's procedure experience. There were no differences in EGS module-related outcomes between junior and senior StRs. Significantly more PBAs related to laparotomy and segmental colectomy were completed during EGS modules than the on-call duty rota, at 32% versus 14% (p<0.001) and 48% versus 22% (p=0.019), respectively. Performance levels were maintained following module completion. Conclusions These findings provide an important baseline when considering future modular EGS training. PMID:27269241

  1. The Abbreviated Character Strengths Test (ACST): A Preliminary Assessment of Test Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhove, Adam J; Harms, P D; DeSimone, Justin A

    2016-01-01

    The 24-item Abbreviated Character Strengths Test (ACST) was developed to efficiently measure character strengths (Peterson, Park, & Castro, 2011 ). However, its validity for this purpose has not yet been sufficiently established. Using confirmatory factor analysis to test a series of structural models, only a modified bifactor model showed reasonably acceptable fit. Further analyses of this model failed to demonstrate measurement invariance between male and female respondents. Relationships between ACST dimension and Big Five personality trait scores were generally weak-to-moderate, and support for hypotheses regarding each ACST virtue's expected correspondence with specific Big Five dimensions was mixed. Finally, scores on ACST dimensions accounted for a combined 12% of the variance in satisfaction with life scores, after controlling for socially desirability. Although an abbreviated measure of character strengths represents a practical need, considerable improvements to the ACST are needed for it to adequately meet this purpose. PMID:26983465

  2. McArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI: Proposal of an abbreviate version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamarrita Farkas Klein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The McArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI assesses language development en children, through a significant caregiver report. The first inventory assesses verbal and non verbal language in infants who are from 8 to 18 months old and it is composed of 949 items distributed in 6 scales. This study proposes an abbreviate form of this instrument, and was tested on families and educators of 130 Chilean children of 11-15 months old. Analyses related to the items, reliability and validity of the instrument and factorial analyses of subscales were realized. The abbreviate version consider 241 items distributed in 4 scales. The evaluation of the psychometric properties of the instrument was acceptable, demonstrating adequate reliability and validity.

  3. The impact of listening to music on analgesic use and length of hospital stay while recovering from laparotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaajoki, Anne; Kankkunen, Päivi; Pietilä, Anna-Maija; Kokki, Hannu; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2012-01-01

    Postoperative pain management is based on the use of analgesics; however, music may alleviate pain either by direct analgesic effects or by relaxing and distracting the mind from pain and unpleasant feelings. Conflicting results have been presented about how listening to music affects analgesic use and length of hospital stay after surgery. We assessed the effect of music listening on analgesic use, length of hospital stay, and adverse effects in adult patients having laparotomy, using a prospective design with two parallel groups. Patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery (n = 168) were assigned to either a music group (n = 83) operated on odd weeks or a control group (n = 85) operated on even weeks. The music group listened to music 7 times for 30 minutes at a time during the first 3 postoperative days. The control group did not listen to the music. The hypotheses that patients in the music group will need less analgesic, have a shorter length of hospital stay, and experience less adverse effects than those in the control group were not supported by the data, although patients recovering from surgery enjoyed listening to music. Music listening may enhance quality of hospital stay and recovery in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery and could be a useful tool to relieve the patient's pain experience. PMID:22847288

  4. Effect of early endoscopic therapy and therapeutic laparotomy on serum markers of severe acute biliary pancreatitis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Meng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of early endoscopic therapy and therapeutic laparotomy on serum markers of severe acute biliary pancreatitis patients. Methods: 80 cases of patients with severe acute biliary pancreatitis in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed and divided into endoscopic group and open group. 3 d after treatment, serum was collected and contents of inflammation related molecules, liver and kidney function indicators and signaling pathway molecules were detected. Results: (1) inflammation related molecules: compared with open group, contents of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, PCT, HMGB-1 and MCP-1 in serum of endoscopic group were lower; contents of anti-inflammatory cytokines sTNF-1R and sTNF-2R were higher; (2) liver and kidney function indicators: compared with open group, contents of ALT, AST, OCT, GLDH, Cys C and Hcy in serum of endoscopic group were lower;(3) pancreatitis related signaling pathways: compared with open group, mRNA contents of JNKK2, SAPK, c-Jun, Elk-1, Smad2, Smad3, ERK and p38 in serum of endoscopic group were lower. Conclusion: Early endoscopic therapy is helpful to relieve inflammatory response, prevent liver and kidney function injury and inhibit activation of pancreatitis related signaling pathways; it’s an ideal method in treating severe acute biliary pancreatitis.

  5. Abregrams or deleweds: A forty-year view of acronyms. [Abbreviations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, D.D.

    1987-05-29

    New concepts often call for new words and abbreviated forms in the language. Not linguists, but persons who first envision, describe, and use new ideas are the ones who rearrange existing word combinations or create new terminology. Professional communicators do not prescribe usage, but can influence the selection of new words and especially acronyms. A practical knowledge of etymology, usage, and trends will help communicators make more discriminating choices.

  6. Abbreviated epitaxial growth mode (AGM) method for reducing cost and improving quality of LEDs and lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tansu, Nelson; Chan, Helen M; Vinci, Richard P; Ee, Yik-Khoon; Biser, Jeffrey

    2013-09-24

    The use of an abbreviated GaN growth mode on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrates, which utilizes a process of using 15 nm low temperature GaN buffer and bypassing etch-back and recovery processes during epitaxy, enables the growth of high-quality GaN template on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire. The GaN template grown on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire by employing abbreviated growth mode has two orders of magnitude lower threading dislocation density than that of conventional GaN template grown on planar sapphire. The use of abbreviated growth mode also leads to significant reduction in cost of the epitaxy. The growths and characteristics of InGaN quantum wells (QWs) light emitting diodes (LEDs) on both templates were compared. The InGaN QWs LEDs grown on the nano-patterned AGOG sapphire demonstrated at least a 24% enhancement of output power enhancement over that of LEDs grown on conventional GaN templates.

  7. BUSINESS ENGLISH OUTSIDE THE BOX. BUSINESS JARGON AND ABBREVIATIONS IN BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Anamaria-Mirabela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Business English is commonly understood language, yet Harvard Business Review called business jargon “The Silent Killer of Big Companies”. As we all have been taught in school, we are aware of the fact that in communication we must comply with linguistic rules so that our message gets across succinctly. Yet, there is one place where all these rules can be omitted (at least in the recent decades: the corporate office. Here, one can use euphemisms and clichés, can capitalize any word that is considered important, the passive voice is used wherever possible and abbreviations occur in every sentence. The worst part is that all of these linguistic enormities are carried out deliberately. The purpose of this paper is to analyse to what extent business jargon and abbreviations have affected business communication (which most of the time, it is filled with opaque language to mask different activities and operations and the reasons for which these linguistic phenomena have become so successful in the present. One of the reasons for the research is that in business English, jargon can be annoying because it overcomplicates. It is frequently unnecessary and it can transform a simple idea or instruction into something very confusing. It is true that every field has its jargon. Education, journalism, law, politics, medicine, urban planning – no filed is immune. Yet, it seems that business jargon has been described as “the most annoying”. Another reason is that jargon tends to be elitist. Those who do not understand the terms feel confused and uncertain. The paper starts with defining these two concepts, business jargon and abbreviations, and then it attempts to explain the “unusual” pervasion of these, both in business communication and in everyday communication. For this, the paper includes a list with the most common business jargon and abbreviations. In this view, the authors have accessed different economic blogs and specialty journals

  8. Randomized comparison of polyglycolic acid and polyglyconate sutures for abdominal fascial closure after laparotomy in patients with suspected impaired wound healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Gjøde, P; Mortensen, Sophie Berit Bondegaard;

    1995-01-01

    A randomized study of abdominal fascial closure using interrupted polyglyconate and polyglycolic acid sutures after laparotomy was carried out in 204 consecutive patients with suspected impaired wound healing. There were no statistically significant differences between the two sutures with regard...... of fascial disruption and incisional hernia after laparotomy in patients with suspected impaired wound healing but the incidence of wound infection may be reduced compared with that of multifilament polyglycolic acid suture....... to the development of fascial disruption and incisional hernia. Wound infection demanding surgical intervention was found in 7 per cent of patients with polyglyconate sutures and in 16 per cent of those with polyglycolic acid sutures (P = 0.04). Monofilament polyglyconate suture does not reduce the incidence...

  9. Effects of SK-896, a new human motilin analogue ([Leu13]motilin-Hse), on postoperative ileus in dogs after laparotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Yoshiyuki; Takeda, Motohiro; Nakayama, Yukiharu; Ito, Mikio; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2002-08-01

    The effects of SK-896, a new human motilin analogue ([Leu13]motilin-Hse), on digestive tract motility in postoperative ileus were evaluated in a dog model of ileus after laparotomy. SK-896 was intravenously administered at 0.17, 0.33 and 0.67 microg/kg starting soon after operation and then at 6-h intervals, for a total of 9 times. SK-896 progressively, dose-dependently and significantly increased the duodenal motility from 1 h after operation. The recovery time of the gastrointestinal-interdigestive migrating complex (GI-IMC) activity, which is an indicator of normal gastrointestinal tract activity after laparotomy, was 56.5 +/- 5.0 h in the control group. SK-896 significantly shortened this recovery time. On the other hand, the plasma SK-896 concentrations declined diexponentially after administration, and can be described by a linear pharmacokinetic model within the dose range used. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of SK-896 did not change significantly at any postoperative time. There was no correlation between the plasma SK-896 concentrations and the intensity of duodenal motility, because the activity in the duodenum decreased transiently 13 h after laparotomy and increased with time thereafter. The changes in the activity are considered to reflect the progressive changes in the state of ileus. In conclusion, SK-896 increased the duodenal motility significantly, shortening the recovery time of GI-IMC-like activity in dogs with post-laparotomy ileus. Therefore, it is expected from these results that SK-896 would be useful and effective for the treatment of gastroparalysis after abdominal surgery.

  10. Laparoscopy versus mini-laparotomy peritoneal catheter insertion of ventriculoperitoneal shunts: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingliang; Ouyang, Leping; Wang, Shengwen; Zheng, Meiguang; Liu, Anmin

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt treatment is the main treatment method for hydrocephalus. The traditional operative approach for peritoneal catheter insertion is mini-laparotomy. In recent years, laparoscopy-assisted insertion has become increasingly popular. It seems likely that use of an endoscope could lower the incidence of shunt malfunction. However, there is no consensus about the benefits of laparoscopy-assisted peritoneal catheter insertion. METHODS A systematic search was performed using the PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Cochrane Library databases. A manual search for reference lists was conducted. The protocol was prepared according to the interventional systematic reviews of the Cochrane Handbook, and the article was written on the basis of the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guidelines. RESULTS Eleven observational trials and 2 randomized controlled trials were included. Seven operation-related outcome measures were analyzed, and 3 of these showed no difference between operative techniques. The results of the meta-analysis are as follows: in the laparoscopy group, the rate of distal shunt failure was lower (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.25-0.67; p = 0.0003), the absolute effect is 7.11% for distal shunt failure, the number needed to treat is 14 (95% CI 8-23), operative time was shorter (mean difference [MD], -12.84; 95% CI -20.68 to -5.00; p = 0.001), and blood loss was less (MD -9.93, 95% CI -17.56 to -2.31; p = 0.01). In addition, a borderline statistically significant difference tending to laparoscopic technique was observed in terms of hospital stay (MD -1.77, 95% CI -3.67 to 0.13; p = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS To some extent, a laparoscopic insertion technique could yield a better prognosis, mainly because it is associated with a lower distal failure rate and shorter operative time, which would be clinically relevant. PMID:27581319

  11. Laparoscopy versus mini-laparotomy peritoneal catheter insertion of ventriculoperitoneal shunts: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingliang; Ouyang, Leping; Wang, Shengwen; Zheng, Meiguang; Liu, Anmin

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt treatment is the main treatment method for hydrocephalus. The traditional operative approach for peritoneal catheter insertion is mini-laparotomy. In recent years, laparoscopy-assisted insertion has become increasingly popular. It seems likely that use of an endoscope could lower the incidence of shunt malfunction. However, there is no consensus about the benefits of laparoscopy-assisted peritoneal catheter insertion. METHODS A systematic search was performed using the PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Cochrane Library databases. A manual search for reference lists was conducted. The protocol was prepared according to the interventional systematic reviews of the Cochrane Handbook, and the article was written on the basis of the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guidelines. RESULTS Eleven observational trials and 2 randomized controlled trials were included. Seven operation-related outcome measures were analyzed, and 3 of these showed no difference between operative techniques. The results of the meta-analysis are as follows: in the laparoscopy group, the rate of distal shunt failure was lower (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.25-0.67; p = 0.0003), the absolute effect is 7.11% for distal shunt failure, the number needed to treat is 14 (95% CI 8-23), operative time was shorter (mean difference [MD], -12.84; 95% CI -20.68 to -5.00; p = 0.001), and blood loss was less (MD -9.93, 95% CI -17.56 to -2.31; p = 0.01). In addition, a borderline statistically significant difference tending to laparoscopic technique was observed in terms of hospital stay (MD -1.77, 95% CI -3.67 to 0.13; p = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS To some extent, a laparoscopic insertion technique could yield a better prognosis, mainly because it is associated with a lower distal failure rate and shorter operative time, which would be clinically relevant.

  12. Abbreviations list

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Adege National Agency for Mosquito Destruction and Management of Mosquito-controlled Areas(Agence nationale pour la démoustication et la gestion des espaces naturels démoustiqués) AFD French Development Agency(Agence française de développement) Afssa French Agency for Health Security of Food(Agence française de sécurité sanitaire des aliments) Afsset French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Safety(Agence française de sécurité sanitaire de l’environnement et du travail) Anaes French Na...

  13. Quality of life and sexuality in disease-free survivors of cervical cancer after radical hysterectomy alone: A comparison between total laparoscopy and laparotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Meizhu; Gao, Huiqiao; Bai, Huimin; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible differences between total laparoscopy and laparotomy regarding their impact on postoperative quality of life and sexuality in disease-free cervical cancer survivors who received radical hysterectomy (RH) and/or lymphadenectomy alone and were followed for >1 year.We reviewed all patients with cervical cancer who had received surgical treatment in our hospital between January 2001 and March 2014. Consecutive sexually active survivors who received RH and/or lymphadenectomy for early stage cervical cancer were enrolled and divided into 2 groups based on surgical approach. Survivors were interviewed and completed validated questionnaires, including the European Organization for Research Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life Core Questionnaire including 30 items, the Cervical Cancer-Specific Module of European Organization for Research Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life Questionnaire including 24 items (EORTC QLQ-CX24), and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI).In total, 273 patients with histologically confirmed cervical cancer were retrospectively reviewed. However, only 64 patients had received RH and/or lymphadenectomy alone; 58 survivors meeting the inclusion criteria were enrolled, including 42 total laparoscopy cases and 16 laparotomy cases, with an average follow-up of 46.1 and 51.2 months, respectively. The survivors in the 2 groups obtained good and similar scores on all items of the European Organization for Research Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life Core Questionnaire including 30 items and Cervical Cancer-Specific Module of European Organization for Research Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life Questionnaire including 24 items, without significant differences after controlling for covariate background characteristics. To the date of submission, 21.4% (9/42) of cases in the total laparoscopy group and 31.2% (5/16) of cases in the laparotomy group had not resumed sexual behavior after RH. Additionally

  14. Lung Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at ... should be considered an emergency. Symptoms of sudden lung collapse (pneumothorax) Symptoms of a sudden lung collapse ...

  15. USAGE OF ABBREVIATIONS IN THE NAMES OF WORKPLACES İŞ YERİ ADLARINDA KISALTMALARIN KULLANIMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülnaz ÇETINOĞLU BERBEROĞLU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abbreviations take an important place in the names of workplaces which have the feature of showing the service type that is giving by the workplace as separating its similars and have the characteristic of a kind of identity. In being formed of abbreviations some apprehensions like being conspicuous, being different from similar, keeping in mind easily and euphony become prominence as well as the thougt of save time and effort. Therefore, attempt to comply with the rules of language while the abbreviations are being formed is ignored. The abbreviations are formed casually and as being ignored the rules of language is concluded by the evaluation of data. So, it is determined that an order can’t be found and it can’t be connected to the rules. Verilen hizmet türünü benzerlerinden ayırarak gösterme özelliğine sahip, bir çeşit kimlik niteliği taşıyan iş yeri adlarında kısaltmalar, büyük yer tutar. Kısaltmaların oluşturulmasında zamandan ve emekten tasarruf etme düşüncesinin yanı sıra dikkat çekme, benzerlerinden farklı olma, akılda kolay kalma ve kulağa hoş gelme gibi kaygılar öne çıkmaktadır. Bu nedenle, yapılan kısaltmalarda dilin kurallarına uyma çabası göz ardı edilmektedir. Verilerin değerlendirilmesiyle, kısaltmaların dil kuralları göz ardı edilerek gelişigüzel oluşturulduğu sonucuna varılmış; dolayısıyla bir düzen sağlanamayacağı ve kurala bağlanamayacağı saptanmıştır.

  16. An abbreviated version of the brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia (BACS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD Yasuhiro Kaneda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: A short version of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS was derived. Methods: We calculated the corrected item-total correlation (CITC for each test score relative to the composite score, and then computed the proportion of variance that each test shares with the global score excluding that test (Rt² = CITCt² and the variance explained per minute of administration time for each test (Rt²/mint. Results and Conclusions: The 3 tests with the highest Rt²/mint, Symbol Coding, Digit Sequencing, and Token Motor, were selected for the Abbreviated BACS.

  17. Abbreviations, acronyms, and initialisms frequently used by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.T.

    1994-09-01

    Guidelines are given for using abbreviations, acronyms, and initialisms (AAIs) in documents prepared by US Department of Energy facilities managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The more than 10,000 AAIs listed represent only a small portion of those found in recent documents prepared by contributing editors of the Information Management Services organization of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. This document expands on AAIs listed in the Document Preparation Guide and is intended as a companion document

  18. Abbreviations [Annex to The Fukushima Daiichi Accident, Technical Volume 2/5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annex is a list of abbreviations used in the publication The Fukushima Daiichi Accident, Technical Volume 2/5. The list includes the abbreviations for: • Agency for Natural Resources and Energy; • essential service water; • International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale;• Integrated Regulatory Review Service; • Japan Atomic Energy Agency; • Japan Atomic Energy Commission; • Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corp; • Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization; • low head safety injection; • low level radioactive waste; • Madras Atomic Power Station; • main control room; • Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry; • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology; • Ministry of International Trade and Industry; • Ministry of Foreign Affairs; • Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency; • Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited; • nuclear power plant; • Nuclear Safety Commission; • Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation; • Nuclear Safety Technology Centre; • Onahama Port; • pressurized water reactor; • Science and Technology Agency; • Tokyo Electric Power Company

  19. Exploring the relationship between children's knowledge of text message abbreviations and school literacy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plester, Beverly; Wood, Clare; Joshi, Puja

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents a study of 88 British 10-12-year-old children's knowledge of text message (SMS) abbreviations ('textisms') and how it relates to their school literacy attainment. As a measure of textism knowledge, the children were asked to compose text messages they might write if they were in each of a set of scenarios. Their text messages were coded for types of text abbreviations (textisms) used, and the ratio of textisms to total words was calculated to indicate density of textism use. The children also completed a short questionnaire about their mobile phone use. The ratio of textisms to total words used was positively associated with word reading, vocabulary, and phonological awareness measures. Moreover, the children's textism use predicted word reading ability after controlling for individual differences in age, short-term memory, vocabulary, phonological awareness and how long they had owned a mobile phone. The nature of the contribution that textism knowledge makes to children's word reading attainment is discussed in terms of the notion of increased exposure to print, and Crystal's (2006a) notion of ludic language use.

  20. Abbreviated bibliography on energy development—A focus on the Rocky Mountain Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Jessica M.; Willis, Carolyn J.; Glavin, Levi W.

    2011-01-01

    Energy development of all types continues to grow in the Rocky Mountain Region of the western United States. Federal resource managers increasingly need to balance energy demands, effects on the natural landscape and public perceptions towards these issues. To assist in efficient access to valuable information, this abbreviated bibliography provides citations to relevant information for myriad of issues for which resource managers must contend. The bibliography is organized by seven large topics with various sup-topics: broad energy topics (energy crisis, conservation, supply and demand, etc.); energy sources (fossil fuel, nuclear, renewable, etc.); natural landscape effects (climate change, ecosystem, mitigation, restoration, and reclamation, wildlife, water, etc.); human landscape effects (attitudes and perceptions, economics, community effects, health, Native Americans, etc.); research and technology; international research; and, methods and modeling. A large emphasis is placed on the natural and human landscape effects.

  1. Fabrication of Nanodot Decorated Sapphire Substrates for Abbreviated Growth Mode Deposition of Gallium Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biser, Jeffrey M.

    The overarching theme of this body of work is the development and demonstration of sapphire substrates with sub-micron scale surface features laid out in arrays with controlled shape, size, and distribution. The key contributions of the work are: (1) the collaborative demonstration that such substrates enable novel GaN fabrication options like the Abbreviated Growth Mode (AGM) approach that can lead to lower cost, higher quality LED devices, (2) the proof-of-concept demonstration that large scale surface patterning with the use of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates is a feasible approach for creating low-cost patterns that should be compatible with AGM, and (3) that the Aluminum-to-sapphire conversion process used to fabricate the surface structures has distinct zones of behavior with regard to feature size and temperature that can be used to suggest an optimized set of process conditions.

  2. Matching Element Symbols with State Abbreviations: A Fun Activity for Browsing the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelk, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    A classroom activity is presented in which students are challenged to find matches between the United States two-letter postal abbreviations for states and chemical element symbols. The activity aims to lessen negative apprehensions students might have when the periodic table of the elements with its more than 100 combinations of letters is first…

  3. Txt Msg N School Literacy: Does Texting and Knowledge of Text Abbreviations Adversely Affect Children's Literacy Attainment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plester, Beverly; Wood, Clare; Bell, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on two studies which investigated the relationship between children's texting behaviour, their knowledge of text abbreviations and their school attainment in written language skills. In Study One, 11-12-year-old children provided information on their texting behaviour. They were also asked to translate a standard English…

  4. 78 FR 46977 - Generic Drug User Fee-Abbreviated New Drug Application, Prior Approval Supplement, Drug Master...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Generic Drug User Fee--Abbreviated New Drug Application... application (ANDA), prior approval supplement to an approved ANDA (PAS), drug master file (DMF), generic drug... the Generic Drug User Fee Program for fiscal year (FY) 2014. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...

  5. 77 FR 65198 - Generic Drug User Fee-Abbreviated New Drug Application, Prior Approval Supplement, and Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Generic Drug User Fee--Abbreviated New Drug Application... (DMF) fees related to the Generic Drug User Fee Program for fiscal year (FY) 2013. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of...

  6. Development of an Abbreviated Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI) Using Item Response Theory: The SPAI-23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Strong, David R.; Nay, William T.; Beidel, Deborah C.; Turner, Samuel M.

    2007-01-01

    An abbreviated version of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI) was developed using methods based in nonparametric item response theory. Participants included a nonclinical sample of 1,482 undergraduates (52% female, mean age = 19.4 years) as well as a clinical sample of 105 individuals (56% female, mean age = 36.4 years) diagnosed with…

  7. 78 FR 25749 - Submission of New Drug Application/Abbreviated New Drug Application Field Alert Reports: Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Submission of New Drug Application/Abbreviated New Drug... Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a pilot program to test an XML (extensible markup language)-enabled Adobe PDF form, Form FDA 3331--Automated...

  8. Oncologic emergencies. Analysis of surgical outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selecting the optimal treatment strategy for oncologic emergencies requires appropriate condition assessment. In the present study, we report on an algorithm which we developed for such cases. Preoperative pathological conditions, clinical course and prognosis were analyzed using abdominal X-ray and computed tomography images from 11 patients (male: n=8; age range, 42 to 73 years median age, 57 years; female: n=3; age range, 53 to 90 years; median age, 54 years) with oncologic emergencies who underwent laparotomy at our department between January 2003 and December 2007. The carcinoma type comprised seven cases of colon and rectum cancer, and one each of esophageal, intrahepatic cholangiocellular, hepatocellular and cervical cancers. The eight patients with residual tumors died, while the three without residual tumors (all with colon cancer) remained alive over the 26-month follow-up period. We conclude that patients with colon cancer without residual tumors have a greater rate of recurrence-free survival. (author)

  9. Diabetic Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Diabetic Emergencies It is estimated that more than 20 ... they have it. The best way to prevent diabetic emergencies is to effectively manage the disease through ...

  10. Perioperative nutritional management of patients undergoing laparotomy Cuidados nutricionales perioperatorios en pacientes sometidos a laparotomía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Toulson Davisson Correia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Lack of routine patient's nutritional assessment and prescription of long fasting periods throughout the perioperative period are still widely prevalent despite the advances in surgical care. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess nutritional routines in two surgical wards. Methods: Adult patients undergoing laparotomy at two distinct units (gastrointestinal and gynecologic in two public hospitals (one of them a university were enrolled. Patients were divided in minor and major (groups A and B procedures and were nutritionally assessed at admission. Daily diet intake and a 24 hour recall were performed. Patients rated the quality of the meals, as well asregistered the reasons for not ingesting it fully. Results: Patients in group B presented with poorer nutritional status. Group A patients resumed oral diets on the first post operative day and most of them received regular diets (85.5%. In group B, only 4.7% were allowed a regular diet on the first PO day, 7.0% received soft diets, 30.2% full liquid diets, 27.9% clear liquids and the remaining 30.2% were on NPO. Patients in this group had a slower progression of diets from liquid to regular solid meals, with 7% of them still on NPO on the fifth PO day. Contrary to group B, patients in group A did not present with cumulative caloric and protein deficits throughout the postoperative period. Overall tolerance of the early diet was good. Conclusion: Malnutrition is still high among major surgical patients. Early oral nutrition can be feasible and well tolerated with few side effects, when prescribed.Objetivos: La falta de la valoración nutricional rutinaria del paciente y la prescripción de largos periodos de ayuno durante el periodo perioperatorio siguen siendo muy prevalentes a pesar de los avances en los cuidados quirúrgicos. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las rutinas de valoración nutricional en dos guardias quirúrgicas. Métodos: Se reclutaron

  11. Development of abdominal compartment syndrome secondary to tumor lysis in an infant with disseminated stage 4 neuroblastoma despite decompressive laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoriy V. Klimovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-week-old girl presented with disseminated stage 4 neuroblastoma complicated with massive hepatomegaly and signs of liver failure. She underwent wedge liver biopsy and decompressive laparotomy with GORE-TEX® patch placement prior to the administration of chemotherapy. Her fluid losses during chemotherapy were so severe that her GORE-TEX® patch became tense and filled with ascites resulting in abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS. A negative pressure dressing system was applied after opening the patch to assist in the quantification of the fluid losses and to allow decompression. Unfortunately, in spite of favorable histology, the patient failed to adequately respond to chemotherapy resulting in persistent hepatomegaly. Soon after, she developed respiratory, renal insufficiency and disseminated intravascular coagulation, leading to her death 12 days after the initiation of treatment.

  12. Emergency contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morning-after pill; Postcoital contraception; Birth control - emergency; Plan B; Family planning - emergency contraception ... Emergency contraception most likely prevents pregnancy in the same way as regular birth control pills: By preventing ...

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging. Sequence acronyms and other abbreviations in MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of magnetic resonance imaging in clinical routine is still increasing. The large number of possible MR acquisition schemes reflects the variety of tis ue-dependent parameters that may influence the contrast within the image. Those schemes can be categorized into gradient echo and spin echo techniques. Within hese groups, further sorting can be done to differentiate between single-echo, ulti-echo, and single-shot techniques. Each of these techniques can be combined with preparation schemes for modifying the longitudinal magnetization. Hybrids re found between the groups, which are those techniques that utilize spin echoe as well as gradient echoes. Academic groups as well as vendors often have diff rent sequence acronyms for the same acquisition scheme. This contribution will ort these sequence acronyms into the previously mentioned scheme. The basic pri nciple of the data acquisition is elaborated on and hints are given for potentia clinical applications. Besides the sequence-specific acronyms, new abbreviations have surfaced recently in conjunction with ''parallel acquisition techniques.'' The latter means the utilization of multiple surface coils where the position a d the sensitivity profile of the coils provide additional spatial information, allowing the application of reduced matrixes leading to a shorter measurement ti e. (orig.)

  14. Validity and Reliability of the Abbreviated Barratt Impulsiveness Scale in Spanish (BIS-15S)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Cabal, Luis; Rodríguez, Maritza; Herin, David V.; Gempeler, Juanita; Uribe, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study determined the validity and reliability of a new, abbreviated version of the Spanish Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-15S) in Colombian subjects. Method The BIS-15S was tested in non-clinical (n=283) and clinical (n=164) native Spanish-speakers. Intra-scale reliability was calculated using Cronbach’s α, and test-retest reliability was measured with Pearson correlations. Psychometric properties were determined using standard statistics. A factor analysis was performed to determine BIS-15S factor structure. Results 447 subjects participated in the study. Clinical subjects were older and more educated compared to non-clinical subjects. Impulsivity scores were normally distributed in each group. BIS-15S total, motor, non-planning and attention scores were significantly lower in non-clinical vs. clinical subjects. Subjects with substance-related disorders had the highest BIS-15S total scores, followed by subjects with bipolar disorders and bulimia nervosa/binge eating. Internal consistency was 0.793 and test-retest reliability was 0.80. Factor analysis confirmed a three-factor structure (attention, motor, non-planning) accounting for 47.87% of the total variance in BIS-15S total scores. Conclusions The BIS-15S is a valid and reliable self-report measure of impulsivity in this population. Further research is needed to determine additional components of impulsivity not investigated by this measure. PMID:21152412

  15. The Convergent, Discriminant, and Concurrent Validity of Scores on the Abbreviated Self-Leadership Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Şahin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the psychometric properties of a short measure of self-leadership in the Turkish context: the Abbreviated Self-Leadership Questionnaire (ASLQ. The ASLQ was examined using two samples and showed sound psychometric properties. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that nine-item ASLQ measured a single construct of self-leadership. The results supported the convergent and discriminant validity of the one-factor model of the ASLQ in relation to the 35-item Revised Self-Leadership Questionnaire and General Self-Efficacy scale, respectively. With regard to internal consistency and test-retest reliability, the ASLQ showed acceptable results. Furthermore, the results provided evidence that scores on the ASLQ positively predicted individual's self-reported task performance and self-efficacy mediated this relationship. Taken together, these findings suggest that the Turkish version of the ASLQ is a reliable and valid measure that can be used to measure self-leadership as one variable of interest in the future studies.

  16. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Structure of Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahman Farrokhi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: The aim of this study is to explore the confirmatory factor analysis results of the Persian adaptation of Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS, proposed by Hopko, Mahadevan, Bare & Hunt. "nMethod: The validity and reliability assessments of the scale were performed on 298 college students chosen randomly from Tabriz University in Iran. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was carried out to determine the factor structures of the Persian version of AMAS. "nResults: As expected, the two-factor solution provided a better fit to the data than a single factor. Moreover, multi-group analyses showed that this two-factor structure was invariant across sex. Hence, AMAS provides an equally valid measure for use among college students. "nConclusions:  Brief AMAS demonstrates adequate reliability and validity. The AMAS scores can be used to compare symptoms of math anxiety between male and female students. The study both expands and adds support to the existing body of math anxiety literature.

  17. Entrepreneurship, Emerging Technologies, Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thukral, Inderpreet S.; Von Ehr, James; Groen, Aard J.; Sijde, van der Peter; Adham, Khairul Akmaliah

    2008-01-01

    Academics and practitioners alike have long understood the benefits, if not the risks, of both emerging markets and emerging technologies.Yet it is only recently that foresighted firms have embraced emerging technologies and emerging markets through entrepreneurial activity. Emerging technologies an

  18. ‘LOL’, ‘OMG’ and Other Acronyms and Abbreviations : A study in the creation of initialisms

    OpenAIRE

    Lundell, Ida

    2012-01-01

    Marchand (1969) claims that abbreviations and acronyms, which are also known as ‘initialisms’, are used to create “names of new scientific discoveries, trade-names, names of organizations, new foundations or offices, but occasionally, and chiefly in American English, personal and geographical names are also coined in this way” (Marchand, 1969: 452). However, initialisms that originate from netspeak, such as ‘LOL’, are different from the initialisms Marchand (1969) describes. These initialisms...

  19. A comparative validation of the abbreviated Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-10) with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory apathy subscale against diagnostic criteria of apathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leontjevas, R.; Evers-Stephan, A.; Smalbrugge, M.; Pot, A.M.; Thewissen, V.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the Neuropsychiatric Inventory apathy subscale (NPIa) with the abbreviated Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-10) on discriminant validity and on their performance to distinguish residents as apathetic or nonapathetic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. SETTING: Nursing home. PARTICIPAN

  20. Portal and systemic serum growth factor and acute-phase response after laparotomy or partial hepatectomy in patients with colorectal liver metastases : A prognostic role for C-reactive protein and hepatocyte growth factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, KP; Hoedemakers, RMJ; Fidler, [No Value; Bijzet, J; Limburg, PC; Peeters, PMJG; de Vries, EGE; Slooff, MJH

    2004-01-01

    Background: Growth factors play a role in wound healing and tumour growth. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of partial hepatectomy (PH) and laparotomy on serum levels of growth factors and acute-phase proteins in patients with colorectal liver metastases and to correlate these levels

  1. Towards a Theory and View of Teaching Compressed and Abbreviated Research Methodology and Statistics Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Carifio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the highly questionable effects of educational reform and other curriculum reshaping factors at both the high school, post-secondary and graduate levels has been the shift to teaching compressed, pared-down or abbreviated courses in still needed or required subject-matter that became de-emphasized in the current educational reformation. Research methodology, particularly the highly quantitative and experimental kind and statistics, are two still needed to some degree subject matters that has been especially affected by this demotion and compression movement at the pre-service, in-service, professional development, undergraduate, continuing education and graduate levels, even though the professional areas of education, science, business, politics and most other areas (including history have become far more quantitative and objective research oriented than in the past. Until there are more enlightened policy shifts, effective means of teaching such compressed courses need to be devised and tested, if only to lessen the negative outcomes of such critical courses. This article, therefore, analyzes compressed courses from the point of view of cognitive learning and then describes 5 methods and approaches that were tested to improve the effectiveness of research methodology and statistics courses taught in these formats. Each of the formats helped to reduce student stress and anxiety about the content and its compressed presentation and improved understanding and achievement. The theory and view developed in this article is also applicable to similar compressed courses for scientific and/or technical content which are currently prevalent in allied health and biotechnology areas.

  2. The influence of laparoscopy and laparotomy on immune function and short-term as well as long-term postoperative ovarian function in ovarian cyst removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-Wen Qin; Hui-Xian Zheng; Yu Ren

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the influence of laparoscopy and laparotomy on immune function and short-term as well as long-term postoperative ovarian function in ovarian cyst removal. Methods:According to surgical procedures, a total of 92 patients diagnosed with benign ovarian tumor were randomly divided into observation group and control group. The control group received laparotomy to remove ovarian cyst, while the observation group received laparoscopy to remove ovarian cyst. Postoperative immune function and short-term as well as long-term postoperative ovarian function were compared with pre-operation within group and between the two groups.Results:The hospital stays of observation group were significantly shorter than that of the control group (P<0.05). Compared with pre-operation, the levels of IgG and C3 at postoperative 1 d were significantly decreased (P<0.05), and these levels in the control group experienced a stronger decrease (P<0.05); At postoperative 3 d, the level of C3 was restored to the normal level in the control group, but the level of IgG was still significantly less than that of the observation group (P<0.05); In the control group, the levels of CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD4/CD8 at postoperative 1 d declined significantly (P<0.05); At postoperative 3 d, these levels except the level of CD3 which was approximately restored to the normal level were still significantly less than that of the observation group and pre-operation (P<0.05). Compared with pre-operation, the level of E2 was significantly decreased, while the levels of FSH and LH were significantly increased in the two groups (P<0.05), and the degree of change was more obvious in the control group (P<0.05); At postoperative 3 months and 1 year, the recovery of these indexes in the observation group was better than that in the control group (P<0.05), and these indexes in the control group were still significantly different between these time points and pre-operation (P<0.05); At postoperative 1

  3. [The role of laparoscopy in emergency abdominal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balén, E; Herrera, J; Miranda, C; Tarifa, A; Zazpe, C; Lera, J M

    2005-01-01

    Abdominal emergencies can also be operated on through the laparoscopic approach: the approach can be diagnostic laparoscopy, surgery assisted by laparoscopy or laparotomy directed according to the findings of the laparoscopy. The general contraindications refer above all to the state of haemodynamic instability of the patient and to seriously ill patients (ASA IV). In the absence of any specific counter-indications for the specific laparoscopic procedure to be carried out, many abdominal diseases requiring emergency surgery can be performed with the laparoscopic approach. The most frequent indications are appendicitis, acute colecistitis, gastroduodenal perforation, occlusion of the small intestine, and some abdominal traumas. With a correct selection of patients and the appropriate experience of the surgeon, the results are excellent and better than open surgery (less infection of the wound, complications, hospital stay and postoperative pain). A detailed explanation is given of the basic aspects of the surgical technique in the most frequent procedures of emergency laparoscopy.

  4. The use of a subfascial vicryl mesh buttress to aid in the closure of massive ventral hernias following damage-control laparotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Adam M; Low, David W

    2003-09-01

    Damage control laparotomy for life-threatening abdominal conditions has gained wide acceptance in the management of exsanguinating trauma patients as well as septic patients with acute abdomen. Survivors considered too ill to undergo definitive abdominal wall closure are temporized, often with skin grafting on granulated viscera. These maneuvers compromise the integrity of the anterior abdominal wall and result in a subset of patients with loss of abdominal domain and massive, debilitating ventral hernias. A retrospective review was conducted of 21 such patients (16 men, five women) who underwent elective abdominal wall reconstruction at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between November of 1998 and October of 2000. The purpose of this study was to report the authors' experience with these complex abdominal wall reconstructions. A double-layer, subfascial Vicryl mesh buttress was used in all repairs to aid in reestablishing abdominal wall integrity. The mean hernia size was 813 cm2 (range, 75 to 1836 cm2), and the average interval to definitive repair was 24.4 months (range, 3 weeks to 11 years). Mean follow-up was 13.5 months (range, 1 month to 40 months). Twenty patients (95 percent) had successful ventral hernia repair. Four patients with massive hernias (924 to 1836 cm2) required submuscular Marlex mesh implantation. Two patients (10 percent) developed abdominal compartment syndrome that required surgical decompression. One patient (5 percent) developed an incisional hernia at a prior colostomy site. Four patients (19 percent) had superficial skin dehiscence that healed secondarily with daily wound care. There were no mesh infections. In most cases, successful single-stage repair of large ventral hernias following damage control laparotomy can be achieved using a subfascial Vicryl mesh buttress in combination with other established reconstructive techniques. Massive defects exceeding 900 cm2 typically require permanent mesh implantation to achieve

  5. Emerging Hopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China looks to strategically important emerging industries for innovation-driven economic growthc hina will soon announce a decision to rev up seven strategically impor- tant emerging industries,said the National

  6. Evaluation of the impacts of spaying by either the dropped ovary technique or ovariectomy via flank laparotomy on the welfare of Bos indicus beef heifers and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petherick, J C; McCosker, K; Mayer, D G; Letchford, P; McGowan, M

    2013-01-01

    The welfare outcomes for Bos indicus cattle (100 heifers and 50 cows) spayed by either the dropped ovary technique (DOT) or ovariectomy via flank laparotomy (FL) were compared with cattle subjected to physical restraint (PR), restraint by electroimmobilization in conjunction with PR (EIM), and PR and mock AI (MAI). Welfare assessment used measures of morbidity, mortality, BW change, and behavior and physiology indicative of pain and stress. One FL heifer died at d 5 from peritonitis. In the 8-h period postprocedures, plasma bound cortisol concentrations of FL, DOT, and EIM cows were not different and were greater (P0.05) between treatments in BW changes. For both heifers and cows, FL and DOT spaying caused similar levels of acute pain, but FL had longer-lasting adverse impacts on welfare. Electroimmobilization during FL contributed to the pain and stress of the procedure. We conclude that: i) FL and DOT spaying should not be conducted without measures to manage the associated pain and stress; ii) DOT spaying is preferable to FL spaying; iii) spaying heifers is preferable to spaying cows; and iv) electroimmobilization causes pain and stress and should not be routinely used as a method of restraint. PMID:23048132

  7. Does a booster intervention augment the preventive effects of an abbreviated version of the coping power program for aggressive children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochman, John E; Baden, Rachel E; Boxmeyer, Caroline L; Powell, Nicole P; Qu, Lixin; Salekin, Karen L; Windle, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Booster interventions have been presumed to be important methods for maintaining the effects of evidence-based programs for children with behavioral problems, but there has been remarkably little empirical attention to this assumption. The present study examines the effect of a child-oriented booster preventive intervention with children who had previously received an abbreviated version (24 child sessions, 10 parent sessions) of the Coping Power targeted prevention program. Two hundred and forty-one children (152 boys, 89 girls) were screened as having moderate to high levels of aggressive behavior in 4th grade, then half were randomly assigned to receive the abbreviated Coping Power program in 5th grade, and half of the preventive intervention children were then randomly assigned to a Booster condition in 6th grade. The Booster sessions consisted of brief monthly individual contacts, and were primarily with the children. Five assessments across 4 years were collected from teachers, providing a three-year follow-up for all children who participated in the project. Results indicated that the abbreviated Coping Power program (one-third shorter than the full intervention) had long-term effects in reducing children's externalizing problem behaviors, proactive and reactive aggression, impulsivity traits and callous-unemotional traits. The Booster intervention did not augment these prevention effects. These findings indicate that a briefer and more readily disseminated form of an evidence-based targeted preventive intervention was effective. The findings have potential implications for policy and guidelines about possible intervention length and booster interventions.

  8. 妇科开腹手术切口感染控制的PDCA管理%Gynecological Laparotomy Incision Infection Control PDCA Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩淑波

    2016-01-01

    Objective Of gynecological laparotomy incision infection control PDCA management. Methods in our hospital gynecology clinic operating room in July 2013 - July 2015 2 724 cases admitted (1 223 cases before PDCA management control, the implementation of 1 501 cases after PDCA management control) patients, medical staff and select 152 (PDCA management control before 53, after the implementation of PDCA management control 99) as in this study, comparative analysis of the implementation of wound infection and health care personnel hand hygiene before and after the PDCA man-agement. Results After the implementation laparotomy wound infection rate (0.4%) was significantly lower than before (2.3%) of the difference comparison P<0.05; the medical staff hand hygiene compliance (93.9%), the passing rate of hand hygiene after the implementation (92.9%) significantly higher than the previous management control 77.4%, 69.8%, compar-ing the difference P<0.05. Conclusion Abdominal Gynecological implement PDCA management mode control wound infec-tion surgery to good effect, can effectively reduce the wound infection rate, enhance staff compliance with hand hygiene and hand hygiene qualification rate, worthy of promotion.%目的:探析妇科开腹手术切口感染控制的PDCA管理é方法选取该院妇科门诊手术室2013年7月-2015年7月收治的2724例(PDCA管理控制前1223例,实施PDCA管理控制后1501例)患者,并选择152名医护人员(PDCA管理控制前53名,实施PDCA管理控制后99名)作为此次研究对象,对比分析实施PDCA管理前后切口感染率及医护人员手卫生等情况é结果实施后开腹手术切口感染率(0.4%)明显低于实施前(2.3%),差异有统计学意义P<0.05;实施后医护人员手卫生依从性(93.9%)、手卫生合格率(92.9%)明显高于管理控制前77.4%、69.8%,差异有统计学意义P<0.05é结论妇科开腹手术患者实施PDCA管理模式控制切口感染的效果良好,可有效降

  9. Self efficacy for fruit, vegetable and water intakes: Expanded and abbreviated scales from item response modeling analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cullen Karen W

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To improve an existing measure of fruit and vegetable intake self efficacy by including items that varied on levels of difficulty, and testing a corresponding measure of water intake self efficacy. Design Cross sectional assessment. Items were modified to have easy, moderate and difficult levels of self efficacy. Classical test theory and item response modeling were applied. Setting One middle school at each of seven participating sites (Houston TX, Irvine CA, Philadelphia PA, Pittsburg PA, Portland OR, rural NC, and San Antonio TX. Subjects 714 6th grade students. Results Adding items to reflect level (low, medium, high of self efficacy for fruit and vegetable intake achieved scale reliability and validity comparable to existing scales, but the distribution of items across the latent variable did not improve. Selecting items from among clusters of items at similar levels of difficulty along the latent variable resulted in an abbreviated scale with psychometric characteristics comparable to the full scale, except for reliability. Conclusions The abbreviated scale can reduce participant burden. Additional research is necessary to generate items that better distribute across the latent variable. Additional items may need to tap confidence in overcoming more diverse barriers to dietary intake.

  10. Coelomogenesis during the abbreviated development of the echinoid Heliocidaris erythrogramma and the developmental origin of the echinoderm pentameral body plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Valerie B

    2011-01-01

    The development of the coeloms is described in an echinoid with an abbreviated larval development and shows the early morphogenesis of the coeloms of the adult stage. The development is described from images obtained by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The development in Heliocidaris erythrogramma is asymmetric with a larger left coelom forming on the larval-left side and a smaller right coelom forming on the larval-right side. The right coelom forms after the development of the left coelom is well advanced. The hydrocoele forms from the anterior part of the left coelom. The five lobes of the hydrocoele from which the pentamery of the adult derives take shape on the outer, distal wall of the anterior part of the left coelom. The hydrocoele separates from the more posterior part of the left coelom, which becomes the left posterior coelom. The lobes of the hydrocoele are named, based on the site of the connexion of the stone canal to the hydrocoele. The mouth is assumed to form by penetration through only the outer, distal wall of the hydrocoele and the ectoderm. Both larval and adult polarities are evident in this larva. A comparison with coelomogenesis in the asteroid Parvulastra exigua, which also has an abbreviated development, leads to predictions of homology between the echinoderm and chordate phyla that do not require the hypothesis of a dorsoventral inversion event in chordates.

  11. MEMbrain. A software emergency management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MEMbrain is the name of the EUREKA project EU904. MEM is an abbreviation for Major Emergency Management and brain refers to computer technology. MEMbrain is a strategic European project - the consortium includes partners from six countries, covering the European continent from North to South (Finland, Norway, Denmark, France, Portugal and Greece). The strategy for the project has been to develop a dynamic decision support tool based on: information, prediction, communication, on-line training. The project's results has resulted in a set of knowledge-based software tools supporting MEM activities e.g.; public protection management, man to man communication management, environment information management, resource management, as well as an implementation of an architecture to integrate such tools. (R.P.)

  12. Emergency Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the early weeks of pregnancy to end the pregnancy. Pills used for emergency contraception cannot end a pregnancy once a fertilized ... body for up to 10 years to prevent pregnancy. After you take emergency contraceptive pills, your period may come earlier or ...

  13. Vascular emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semashko, D C

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews the initial assessment and emergent management of several common as well as uncommon vascular emergencies. Aortic dissection, aneurysms, and arterial occlusive disease are familiar but challenging clinical entities. Less frequently encountered conditions are also discussed including an aortic enteric fistula, mesenteric venous thrombosis, phlegmasia alba dolens, and subclavian vein thrombosis.

  14. Emergency Shelters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic Larsen, Olga; Lee, Daniel Sang-Hoon; Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen;

    2013-01-01

    The report gives all the research, teaching, seminars carried in the duration of the shelter cluster. It concludes with proposing relevant research agendas in the field of emergency architecture......The report gives all the research, teaching, seminars carried in the duration of the shelter cluster. It concludes with proposing relevant research agendas in the field of emergency architecture...

  15. 腹腔镜与开腹对子宫巨大肌瘤剔除的疗效分析%Effect of laproscopy and laparotomy on gigantic hysteromyoma myomectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄群欢; 黄燕; 蒋宋薇; 黄玲玲

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the effect of laproscopy and laparotomy on gigantic hysteromyma mymectomy. Methods Clincal data of 122 cases of myomectomy by laproscopy( laproscopy group)and 103 cases by open laparotomy( laparotomy group),during the period of Jan. 2009 to Dec. 2013,were collected and analyzed. The size of hysteromyoma in all cases were all ≥ 8 cm. Results The processes of all operations were successful without any complication. The mean blood loss of the laproscopy group was (48. 24 ± 9. 72)ml,the laparotomy group was(76. 02 ± 10. 21)ml,there was significant difference between two groups( P < 0. 05). The mean time in bed and the mean recovery time of bowel function postoperative of the laproscopy group were also significantly shorter than that of the laparotomy group(P <0. 05). Conclusion Laproscopy is micro-invasive and available for cases of gigantic hysteromyoma myomectomy.%目的:探讨腹腔镜或开腹在子宫巨大肌瘤剔除术中的应用效果。方法回顾性分析2009年1月至2013年12月我院收治的肌瘤直径≥8 cm 的经开腹子宫肌瘤剔除术患者103例(开腹组)和经腹腔镜子宫肌瘤剔除术患者122例(腔镜组)。分析比较两组患者平均手术时间、术中失血、术后恢复时间等情况。结果与开腹组比较,腹腔镜组无中转开腹和切口愈合不良的患者,且腹腔镜组术中平均失血(48.24±9.72)ml、术后平均卧床时间(12.89±2.10)h 和术后平均肛管恢复排气时间(22.46±2.21)h 等指标均小于开腹组(P <0.05)。结论由于腹腔镜切口美观、患者术后恢复快,在条件许可的医疗单位可用于子宫巨大肌瘤剔除术。

  16. Hypertensive emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa-Filho, Gilson Soares; Lopes, Renato Delascio; Poppi, Nilson Tavares; Guimarães, Hélio Penna

    2008-09-01

    Emergencies and hypertensive crises are clinical situations which may represent more than 25% of all medical emergency care. Considering such high prevalence, physicians should be prepared to correctly identify these crises and differentiate between urgent and emergent hypertension. Approximately 3% of all visits to emergency rooms are due to significant elevation of blood pressure. Across the spectrum of blood systemic arterial pressure, hypertensive emergency is the most critical clinical situation, thus requiring special attention and care. Such patients present with high blood pressure and signs of acute specific target organ damage (such as acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, acute pulmonary edema, eclampsia, and stroke). Key elements of diagnosis and specific treatment for the different presentations of hypertensive emergency will be reviewed in this article. The MedLine and PubMed databases were searched for pertinent abstracts, using the key words "hypertensive crises" and "hypertensive emergencies". Additional references were obtained from review articles. Available English language clinical trials, retrospective studies and review articles were identified, reviewed and summarized in a simple and practical way. The hypertensive crisis is a clinical situation characterized by acute elevation of blood pressure followed by clinical signs and symptoms. These signs and symptoms may be mild (headache, dizziness, tinnitus) or severe (dyspnea, chest pain, coma or death). If the patient presents with mild symptoms, but without acute specific target organ damage, diagnosis is hypertensive urgency. However, if severe signs and symptoms and acute specific target organ damage are present, then the patient is experiencing a hypertensive emergency. Some patients arrive at the emergency rooms with high blood pressure, but without any other sign or symptom. In these cases, they usually are not taking their medications correctly. Therefore, this is not a

  17. Urologic Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvigson, Adam E; Beaule, Lisa T

    2016-06-01

    The diagnosis and management of urologic emergencies are incorporated into the basic training of all urology residents. In institutions without access to urologic services, it is usually left to the General Surgeon or Emergency Medicine physician to provide timely care. This article discusses diagnoses that are important to recognize and treatment that is practically meaningful for the non-Urologist to identify and treat. The non-Urology provider, after reading this article, will have a better understanding and a higher comfort level with treating patients with urologic emergencies. PMID:27261785

  18. APRENDIZAJE EN CIRUGÍA MEDIANTE LAPARATOMÍA EXPLORATORIA POR TRAUMA PENETRANTE. EXPERIENCIA EN EL HOSPITAL GENERAL DE CIUDAD JUÁREZ Learning in laparotomy-based abdominal surgery for managinf penetrating trauma: experience in the Ciudad Juárez General Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenin Enríquez-Domínguez

    2011-01-01

    abdominal trauma over the course of a year. The variables analysed were cause of the lesion, type of laparotomy, the role played by the resident assistant / surgeon, damaged organs, established treatment, complications and mortality. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Analysis was done with percentages as means of summary and Pearson’s chi-square test for obtaining significant differences. Results. 203 patients underwent laparotomy, 109 were wounded by firearms and 105 had knife wounds. 139 therapeutic laparotomies were performed, 49 nontherapeutic ones and 15 damage-control surgeries. 24 were attended by first-year residents, 85 by second-year ones and 94 by residents in their third year. 184 of the 272 wounds were in hollow viscera, 78 in solid organs and 10 were vascular wounds; 28 post-surgical complications occurred, the most common ones being sepsis (8 patients and surgical site infection (5 cases. Conclusions. An important part of a surgeon’s training concerns acquiring technical abilities in the operating room and the integral management of patients suffering abdominal trauma from the time of their being admitted to the emergency room. Clear parameters have not been established regarding the number of patients who should be evaluated or the number of surgical procedures which must be performed during a resident’s formation

  19. TORSADES DE POINTES ASSOCIATED WITH TAKOTSUBO CARDIOMYOPATHY IN AN ANOREXIA NERVOSA PATIENT DURING EMERGENCE FROM GENERAL ANESTHESIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Michiko; Kondo, Akio; Yamada, Yasuhito; Inoue, Masaya

    2016-06-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as stress-induced cardiomyopathy, is a disease in which the patient exhibits transient, reversible left ventricular dysfunction that is triggered by physical or emotional stress. Prolongation of QT interval, a risk factor for arrhythmia and sudden death, has been reported to be prevalent among patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and is also observed in those with severe anorexia nervosa. In this report, we describe the rare case of a 30-year-old female patient with anorexia nervosa who developed Torsades de Pointes associated with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy during emergence from general anesthesia for emergency exploratory laparotomy. PMID:27487642

  20. Thoracic emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrell, Stephanie G; Demeester, Steven R

    2014-02-01

    This article discusses thoracic emergencies, including the anatomy, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, examination, diagnosis, technique, management, and treatment of acute upper airway obstruction, massive hemoptysis, spontaneous pneumothorax, and pulmonary empyema. PMID:24267505

  1. Screening for personality disorder with the Standardised Assessment of Personality: Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS: further evidence of concurrent validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moran Paul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of personality disorders (PD is costly and time-consuming. There is a need for a brief screen for personality disorders that can be used in routine clinical settings and epidemiological surveys. Aims: To test the validity of the Standardised Assessment of Personality: Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS as a screen for PD in a clinical sample of substance abusers. Methods Convergent validity of the SAPAS with both categorical and dimensional representations of personality disorders was estimated. Results In this sample, the SAPAS correlated well with dimensional representations of cluster A and C personality disorders, even after controlling for ADHD symptoms, anxiety/depression symptoms and recent substance use. The SAPAS was also significantly associated with total number of PD criteria, although correlation with categorical measures of PD was weak. Conclusions The SAPAS is an valid brief screen for PD as assessed dimensionally.

  2. An Abbreviated Protocol for In Vitro Generation of Functional Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Beta-Like Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massumi, Mohammad; Pourasgari, Farzaneh; Nalla, Amarnadh;

    2016-01-01

    developed an abbreviated five-stage protocol (25-30 days) to generate human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Beta-like Cells (ES-DBCs). We showed that Geltrex, as an extracellular matrix, could support the generation of ES-DBCs more efficiently than that of the previously described culture systems......The ability to yield glucose-responsive pancreatic beta-cells from human pluripotent stem cells in vitro will facilitate the development of the cell replacement therapies for the treatment of Type 1 Diabetes. Here, through the sequential in vitro targeting of selected signaling pathways, we have...... positive cells, 1% insulin and glucagon positive cells and 30% insulin and NKX6.1 co-expressing cells. Functionally, ES-DBCs were responsive to high glucose in static incubation and perifusion studies, and could secrete insulin in response to successive glucose stimulations. Mitochondrial metabolic flux...

  3. Emergent Modernism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen Margrethe

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the problems of historizing modernism in the light of developments within world literature and theories about world literature. It draws upon Wlad Godzich's concept of emergence and Lyotard's concept of "evènement".......This article discusses the problems of historizing modernism in the light of developments within world literature and theories about world literature. It draws upon Wlad Godzich's concept of emergence and Lyotard's concept of "evènement"....

  4. EMERGENCY CALLS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2001-01-01

    IN URGENT NEED OF A DOCTOR GENEVA EMERGENCY SERVICES GENEVA AND VAUD 144 FIRE BRIGADE 118 POLICE 117 CERN FIREMEN 767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 01-251-51-51 Patient not fit to be moved, call family doctor, or: GP AT HOME, open 24h/24h 748-49-50 Association Of Geneva Doctors Emergency Doctors at home 07h-23h 322 20 20 Patient fit to be moved: HOPITAL CANTONAL CENTRAL 24 Micheli-du-Crest 372-33-11 ou 382-33-11 EMERGENCIES 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 6 rue Willy-Donzé 372-33-11 MATERNITY 32 bvd.de la Cluse 382-68-16 ou 382-33-11 OPHTHALMOLOGY 22 Alcide Jentzer 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 MEDICAL CENTRE CORNAVIN 1-3 rue du Jura 345 45 50 HOPITAL DE LA TOUR Meyrin EMERGENCIES 719-61-11 URGENCES PEDIATRIQUES 719-61-00 LA TOUR MEDICAL CENTRE 719-74-00 European Emergency Call 112 FRANCE EMERGENCY SERVICES 15 FIRE BRIGADE 18 POLICE 17 CERN FIREMEN AT HOME 00-41-22-767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 04-72-11-69-11 All doctors ...

  5. Oncologic emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elpida Th. Georgiadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with malignancies are subject to develop a unique set of urgent and life-threatening complications. These emergency problems can be the result of the disease itself, the result from the therapy directed against the cancer or the result of previously existing pathological conditions not related to cancer. In some cases, these problems are the first symptom of the tumor. Aim: The aim of this study was to review the literature regarding the oncologic emergencies. Method: The method of this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature, mainly in the on-line data base 'Pubmed'. Results: Tumor lysis syndrome, malignant spinal cord compression, superior vena cava syndrome, cardiovascular emergencies, acute renal failure, venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, metabolic emergencies, neutropenic infection, acute pulmonary problems, acute hemorrhage and hematuria are the most important oncologic emergencies. Conclusions: Early diagnosis of the oncologic emergencies and prompt interventions can be lifesaving. However, staging of the tumor, response to current treatment, overall prognosis and patient and family wishes should be assessed in order to establish an appropriate treatment plan.

  6. Emerging images

    KAUST Repository

    Mitra, Niloy J.

    2009-01-01

    Emergence refers to the unique human ability to aggregate information from seemingly meaningless pieces, and to perceive a whole that is meaningful. This special skill of humans can constitute an effective scheme to tell humans and machines apart. This paper presents a synthesis technique to generate images of 3D objects that are detectable by humans, but difficult for an automatic algorithm to recognize. The technique allows generating an infinite number of images with emerging figures. Our algorithm is designed so that locally the synthesized images divulge little useful information or cues to assist any segmentation or recognition procedure. Therefore, as we demonstrate, computer vision algorithms are incapable of effectively processing such images. However, when a human observer is presented with an emergence image, synthesized using an object she is familiar with, the figure emerges when observed as a whole. We can control the difficulty level of perceiving the emergence effect through a limited set of parameters. A procedure that synthesizes emergence images can be an effective tool for exploring and understanding the factors affecting computer vision techniques. © 2009 ACM.

  7. The Self-report Standardized Assessment of Personality-abbreviated Scale: Preliminary results of a brief screening test for personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germans, S.; Heck, G.L. van; Moran, P.; Hodiamont, P.P.G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The internal consistency, test-retest reliability and validity of the Self-report Standardized Assessment of Personality-abbreviated Scale (SAPAS-SR) as a screening instrument for personality disorders were studied in a random sample of 195 Dutch psychiatric outpatients, using the Structu

  8. Myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) symptom assessment form total symptom score: Prospective international assessment of an abbreviated symptom burden scoring system among patients with MPNs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M. Emanuel (Robyn); A.C. Dueck (Amylou); H.L. Geyer (Holly); J.J. Kiladjian; S. Slot (Stefanie); S. Zweegman (Sonja); P.A.W. Boekhorst; S. Commandeur (Suzan); H. Schouten (Harry); F. Sackmann (Federico); A.K. Fuentes (Ana Kerguelen); D. Hernández-Maraver (Dolores); C. Pahl (Clemens); M. Griesshammer (Martin); F. Stegelmann (Frank); K. Doehner (Konstanze); T. Lehmann (Thomas); K. Bonatz (Karin); A. Reiter (Alfred); F. Boyer (Francoise); J. Etienne (Jerome); J.-C. Ianotto (Jean-Christophe); D. Ranta (Dana); L. Roy (Lydia); J.-Y. Cahn (Jean-Yves); C.N. Harrison (Claire); D. Radia (Deepti); P. Muxi (Pablo); N. Maldonado (Norman); C. Besses (Carlos); F. Cervantes (Francisco); P.L. Johansson (Peter); T. Barbui (Tiziano); G. Barosi (Giovanni); A.M. Vannucchi (Alessandro); F. Passamonti (Francesco); B. Andreasson (Bjorn); M.L. Ferarri (Maria); A. Rambaldi (Alessandro); J. Samuelsson (Jan); G. Birgegard (Gunnar); A. Tefferi (Ayalew); A.A. Mesa

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) symptoms are troublesome to patients, and alleviation of this burden represents a paramount treatment objective in the development of MPN-directed therapies. We aimed to assess the utility of an abbreviated symptom score for the most pertinent a

  9. Hematologic emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Vallisa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the surprising progress made in other areas of hematology (advances in the understanding of leukemogenesis, improved transplant techniques has been conspicuously absent in the management of hematologic emergencies. And yet, every step toward greater knowledge, every new treatment option will be of little value unless we are able to manage the acute complications of hematologic diseases. These complications are better defined as hematologic emergencies, and they are characterized by a high rate of mortality. This review is based on a search of the literature that was initially confined to articles published in the journal Hematology from 2000 to 2009. The search was then extended to the Cochrane Library and to Pub Med in February 2010 with the following Keywords emergencies; urgencies; hematology. The same key words were employed in a search of the archives of Blood and the New England Journal of Medicine from 2000 to 2010. The results confirm that hematologic emergencies can be caused by hematologic malignancies as well as by non-neoplastic hematologic diseases. Within the former category; this review examines the causes; manifestations; treatment and prevention of disseminated intravascular coagulation; superior vena caval syndrome; spinal cord compression; tumor lysis syndrome; hyperleukocytosis; and hypercalcemia. We also review emergency situations associated with non-neoplatic haematological diseases; such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; drug-induced hemolytic anemia; and acute sickle-cell crisis.

  10. Emergency preparedness

    CERN Document Server

    Cennini, E; Oortman Gerlings, P

    2009-01-01

    On September 19th 2008, a technical fault was at the centre of a sequence of events which hampered the performance of certain equipments of the LHC 3-4 sector. Once the first effects of this sequence of events were detected, the behaviour of the CERN staff confronted to this complex and critical situation became the centre of the risk control process. During such a downward spiral the preparation of all stakeholders is essential and should respect the (apparently) basic principles of emergency preparedness. Preparedness towards normal operation of CERN facilities towards minor up to major emergency situations will be presented. The main technical, organisational and legal frameworks of the CERN emergency preparedness will be recalled, highlighting the CERN risk management and risk control strategy. Then, the sequence of events experienced by different stakeholders on September 19th will be reported, thus starting the learned lessons process.

  11. Emerging boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschal, Mette

    2014-01-01

    and formalization. These principles are then used to argue the case for socioconceptual emergence and causality between the lines. This causality appears only in a long-term perspective and implies that, although the development of these boundaries was chronologically displaced across northwestern......This article proposes a processual ontology for the emergence of man-made, linear boundaries across northwestern Europe, particularly in the first millennium BC. Over a significant period of time, these boundaries became new ways of organizing the landscape and settlements—a phenomenon that has...... Europe, elements of this phenomenon emerged along equivalent trajectories. At the same time, variation in the regional incorporation of these linear phenomena points toward situation-specific applications and independent development....

  12. Emergency Arbitration

    OpenAIRE

    Hakanen, Jussi

    2013-01-01

    Viime vuosien aikana monet vÀlitysinstituutit ovat lisÀnneet vÀlityssÀÀntöihinsÀ ehtoja pikaturvaamismenettelystÀ (engl. Emergency Arbitration). Pikaturvaamismenettely tarkoittaa menettelyÀ, jossa osapuoli voi hakea vastapuolta vastaan turvaamistoimia vÀlityslautakunnan mÀÀrÀÀmÀltÀ pikavÀlimieheltÀ (engl. Emergency Arbitrator) silloin kun vÀlimiesoikeutta ei ole vielÀ muodostettu. TÀssÀ tutkielmassa tarkastellaan erityisesti Keskuskauppakamarin vÀlimieslautakunnan (FCC)...

  13. Avaliação muscular respiratória nas toracotomias e laparotomias superiores eletivas Respiratory muscle evaluation in elective thoracotomies and laparotomies of the upper abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laryssa Milenkovich Bellinetti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar se existe associação entre a função muscular respiratória pré-operatória abaixo dos valores previstos e a incidência de complicações pós-operatórias e o óbito, nas laparotomias superiores e toracotomias eletivas. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte prospectivo, no qual 70 pacientes acima de dezoito anos foram acompanhados, em dois hospitais similares. A avaliação durante a internação pré-operatória classificou-os em não expostos (50 ou expostos (20, estes quando os valores das pressões respiratórias máximas foram abaixo de 75% dos valores previstos. O acompanhamento foi feito até a alta hospitalar, verificando-se a incidência de pneumonia, insuficiência respiratória aguda, broncoespasmo, ventilação mecânica prolongada, atelectasia, derrame pleural, pneumotórax e óbito nos dois grupos. Realizou-se análise comparativa entre os grupos e cálculo do risco relativo. RESULTADOS: A incidência total de complicações pós-operatórias da amostra foi de 22,86% (16/70; no grupo exposto foi de 55% (11/20 e no grupo não exposto de 10% (5/50. Os pacientes expostos apresentaram risco relativo de 5,5 (intervalo de confiança de 95% entre 2,19 e 13,82. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados indicaram que a função muscular respiratória pré-operatória abaixo do valor previsto esteve associada a um risco relativo maior de complicações pós-operatórias nas cirurgias pesquisadas.OBJECTIVE: To identify any possible relation between lower than predicted preoperative respiratory muscle function and the incidence of postoperative respiratory complications and death in elective thoracotomies and laparotomies of the upper abdomen. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted, in which 70 patients over the age of 18 were monitored in two similar hospitals. In the preoperative evaluation performed at admission, patients were classified as presenting respiratory muscle function (as determined by measurement of maximal respiratory

  14. Emerging Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Breinbjerg, Morten; Pold, Søren

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine how materiality emerges from complex chains of mediation in creative software use. The primarily theoretical argument is inspired and illustrated by interviews with two composers of electronic music. The authors argue that computer mediated activity should not primarily...

  15. Emergency surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoneham, M; Murray, D; Foss, N

    2014-01-01

    undertaken on elderly patients with limited physiological reserve. National audits have reported variations in care quality, data that are increasingly being used to drive quality improvement through professional guidance. Given that the number of elderly patients presenting for emergency surgery is likely...

  16. Postmodern Emergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    This paper is a work-in-progress in which the author will begin to articulate the elements of a new methodology that she is calling, for the moment, a methodology of postmodern emergence. She explores this approach through examples from her own research journals that follow her research-in-process and from observing student work-in-progress. She…

  17. Emergency Preparedness

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    The trends of RPC work in the area of preparedness for nuclear and radiological accidents are listed. RPC in cooperation with Swedish Government developed the project on preparation for iodine prophylaxis in case of accident at Ignalina NPP and arranged seminar on emergency preparedness issues in 2001.

  18. Thyroid emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubo-Gwiezdzinska, Joanna; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2012-03-01

    This review presents current knowledge about the thyroid emergencies known as myxedema coma and thyrotoxic storm. Understanding the pathogenesis of these conditions, appropriate recognition of the clinical signs and symptoms, and their prompt and accurate diagnosis and treatment are crucial in optimizing survival.

  19. Emergence delirium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Louise; Andersen, Lars Peter Holst; Gögenur, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Emergence delirium (ED) is a well-known phenomenon in the postoperative period. However, the literature concerning this clinical problem is limited. This review evaluates the literature with respect to epidemiology and risk factors. Treatment strategies are discussed. The review concludes...

  20. Studying Emerge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; Selin, Cynthia; Rodegher, Sandra;

    2015-01-01

    The Emerge event, held in Tempe, AZ in March 2012, brought together a range of scientists, artists, futurists, engineers and students in order to experiment with innovative methods for thinking about the future. These methodological techniques were tested through nine workshops, each of which made...

  1. Postoperative Complications Leading to Death after Coagulum Pyelolithotomy in a Tetraplegic Patient: Can We Prevent Prolonged Ileus, Recurrent Intestinal Obstruction due to Adhesions Requiring Laparotomies, Chest Infection Warranting Tracheostomy, and Mechanical Ventilation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Soni, Bakul; Singh, Gurpreet; Hughes, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A 22-year-old male sustained C-6 tetraplegia in 1992. In 1993, intravenous pyelography revealed normal kidneys. Suprapubic cystostomy was performed. He underwent open cystolithotomy in 2004 and 2008. In 2009, computed tomography revealed bilateral renal calculi. Coagulum pyelolithotomy of left kidney was performed. Pleura and peritoneum were opened. Peritoneum could not be closed. Following surgery, he developed pulmonary atelectasis; he required tracheostomy and mechanical ventilation. He did not tolerate nasogastric feeding. CT of abdomen revealed bilateral renal calculi and features of proximal small bowel obstruction. Laparotomy revealed small bowel obstruction due to dense inflammatory adhesions involving multiple small bowel loops which protruded through the defect in sigmoid mesocolon and fixed posteriorly over the area of previous intervention. All adhesions were divided. The wide defect in mesocolon was not closed. In 2010, this patient again developed vomiting and distension of abdomen. Laparotomy revealed multiple adhesions. He developed chest infection and required ventilatory support again. He developed pressure sores and depression. Later abdominal symptoms recurred. This patient's general condition deteriorated and he expired in 2011. Conclusion. Risk of postoperative complications could have been reduced if minimally invasive surgery had been performed instead of open surgery to remove stones from left kidney. Suprapubic cystostomy predisposed to repeated occurrence of stones in urinary bladder and kidneys. Spinal cord physicians should try to establish intermittent catheterisation regime in tetraplegic patients. PMID:23533931

  2. Postoperative Complications Leading to Death after Coagulum Pyelolithotomy in a Tetraplegic Patient: Can We Prevent Prolonged Ileus, Recurrent Intestinal Obstruction due to Adhesions Requiring Laparotomies, Chest Infection Warranting Tracheostomy, and Mechanical Ventilation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Vaidyanathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 22-year-old male sustained C-6 tetraplegia in 1992. In 1993, intravenous pyelography revealed normal kidneys. Suprapubic cystostomy was performed. He underwent open cystolithotomy in 2004 and 2008. In 2009, computed tomography revealed bilateral renal calculi. Coagulum pyelolithotomy of left kidney was performed. Pleura and peritoneum were opened. Peritoneum could not be closed. Following surgery, he developed pulmonary atelectasis; he required tracheostomy and mechanical ventilation. He did not tolerate nasogastric feeding. CT of abdomen revealed bilateral renal calculi and features of proximal small bowel obstruction. Laparotomy revealed small bowel obstruction due to dense inflammatory adhesions involving multiple small bowel loops which protruded through the defect in sigmoid mesocolon and fixed posteriorly over the area of previous intervention. All adhesions were divided. The wide defect in mesocolon was not closed. In 2010, this patient again developed vomiting and distension of abdomen. Laparotomy revealed multiple adhesions. He developed chest infection and required ventilatory support again. He developed pressure sores and depression. Later abdominal symptoms recurred. This patient’s general condition deteriorated and he expired in 2011. Conclusion. Risk of postoperative complications could have been reduced if minimally invasive surgery had been performed instead of open surgery to remove stones from left kidney. Suprapubic cystostomy predisposed to repeated occurrence of stones in urinary bladder and kidneys. Spinal cord physicians should try to establish intermittent catheterisation regime in tetraplegic patients.

  3. Clinical analysis on conversion to laparotomy during laparoscopic cholecystectomy:report of 30 cases%腹腔镜胆囊切除术中转开腹30例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鑫; 洪建文; 詹泽锋; 谢志伟; 王森辉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the causes and prevention of conversion to laparotomy during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods Clinical data of 30 out of 770 patients converting to laparotomy during laparoscopic cholecystectomy in Guangdong Chaozhou Central Hospital from February 2007 to January 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. There were 13 males and 17 females with age ranging from 25 to 81 years old and a median age of 48 years old. The informed consents of all patients were obtained and the ethical committee approval was received. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed in the patients under endotracheal general anesthesia using the conventional 4-port approach. The causes of conversion to laparotomy during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and the incidence of postoperative complications of the patients were observed. Results The incidence of conversion to laparotomy during laparoscopic cholecystectomy was 3.9%(30/770). The causes of conversion to laparotomy were adhesion at Calot's triangle (n=12), gallbladder bed bleeding (n=6), gallbladder artery bleeding (n=4), dense adhesion around the gallbladder with difficult dissecting (n=4), dissatisfactory treatment of the gallbladder stump (n=1), liver surface laceration (n=1), gallbladder carcinoma (n=1). All the converted laparotomies were completed at one time. No complication was observed in all patients after operation. Conclusions The common causes for conversion to laparotomy during laparoscopic cholecystectomy were unclear dissection at Calot's triangle and around the gallbladder, gallbladder bed or gallbladder artery bleeding, dissatisfactory treatment of gallbladder stump, liver surface laceration, gallbladder cancer, etc. Improving the preoperative evaluation, intraoperative appropriate treatment of the Calot's triangle and gallbladder bed are the keys to prevent conversion to laparotomy during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.%目的探讨腹腔镜胆囊切除术中转开腹的原因及预防

  4. Emergency Contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemzell-Danielsson K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been numerous attempts to control fertility after unprotected sexual intercourse. From very bizarre methods like the vaginal application of Coca Cola to the more serious attempts using calcium antagonists influencing fertility parameters in sperm to hormonal methods or intrauterine devices. So far, hormonal methods preventing or delaying ovulation have proved to be the most popular starting with the combination of ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel, known as the Yuzpe regimen. The first dose had to be taken within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse, a second one 12 hours later. Later on, levonorgestrel alone, at first in a regimen similar to the Yuzpe method (2 × 0.75 mg 12 hours apart showed to be more successful, eventually resulting in the development of a 1.5 mg levonorgestrel pill that combined good efficacy with a high ease of use. It has become the standard method used up to this day in most countries. Since the mid 1970s copper IUDs have been used for emergency contraception, which show a high efficacy. Their disadvantages lie in the fact that emergency contraception is considered an off label use and that they might not be acceptable for every patient. Mifepristone in doses of 10 or 25 mg is being used successfully as an emergency contraceptive in China, but has never received any significant consideration in Western countries. The most recent development is the approval of the selective progesterone receptor modulator ulipristal acetate in the dosage of 30 mg for emergency contraception up to 5 days after unprotected intercourse, combining the safe and easy application of the single dose levonorgestrel pill with an even higher efficacy. Several efficacious and easy to use methods for emergency contraception are available on the market today with the most widely spread being levonorgestrel in a single dose of 1.5 mg (given as one tablet of 1.5 mg or 2 tablets of 0.75 mg each for administration up to 3 days after

  5. Emerging Multinationals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter

    of the international business press. This reflects that companies such as Mittal and Tata (India), China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC), Haier and Lenovo (PRC), Embraer (Brazil), SAPMiller (South Africa), and Cemex (Mexico) are foraying ever deeper into the international economy and increasingly investing...... at three levels: global (what is the extent, directions, etc. of outward FDI); sectoral (in which sectors is outward FDI significant); and firm level, identifying a small number of particularly interesting TNCs from emerging and developing economies...

  6. Radiation emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elaborate precautions are taken in the design, construction and operation of nuclear installations. Even then, there always remains the possibility, however small, of accidents. A radiation emergency can be defined as any abnormal situation following an incident/accident which may result in either unusually large radiation fields in any plant/area or large release of air or liquid borne radioactivity leading to widespread contamination of areas

  7. Emerging jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwaller, Pedro; Stolarski, Daniel [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). TH-PH Div.; Weiler, Andreas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). TH-PH Div.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  8. CLINICAL AND ERITROLEUCOMETRIC EVALUATION OF COLIC HORSES SUBMITTED TO LAPAROTOMY AND SURVIVED OR NOT AVALIAÇÃO CLÍNICA E ERITROLEUCOGRAMA DE EQÜINOS COM CÓLICA SUBMETIDOS À LAPAROTOMIA, SOBREVIVENTES E NÃO SOBREVIVENTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo Evangelista Santana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Seventy horses were utilized, twenty healthy horses (GI and fifty colic horses which survived (GII, n=25 or not (GIII, n=25 after laparotomy. Clinical examination was carried out and blood samples were collected before laparotomy (T0 and after laparotomy (T24h-T240h. Animals from GII, at T0 and animals from GIII, at T0, T24h, T48h, T72h, T96h, T120h, T168h and T240h after laparotomy presented increase of respiratory and heart rates, tissue perfusion time, red blood cell, leukocyte, and packed cell volume. In the same moments the animals from GII and GIII presented decrease of concentration of total plasmatic proteins. The intensity and persistence of theses alterations relates negatively to the animals recuperation and were attributed the time, localization and, severity of obstruction. Laboratorial and clinical analysis in series can be useful for the prognosis of post-operative recovery after laparotomy.

    KEY WORDS: Acute abdomen, equine, haemogram. 
    Utilizaram-se setenta equinos, vinte sadios (GI e cinquenta com cólica, submetidos à laparotomia, sobreviventes (GII, n=25 e não sobreviventes (GIII, n=25. O exame clínico e a colheita das amostras de sangue foram realizados antes da laparotomia (T0 e diariamente, a partir da cirurgia, até o décimo dia após a intervenção (T24h - T10o dia. No T0, observou-se aumento dos valores da frequência cardíaca e respiratória, do tempo de perfusão tecidual, do número de hemácias, do volume globular e do número de leucócitos nos equinos dos grupos GII e GIII, que ainda se mantiveram até o décimo dia pós-operatório nos animais do grupo GIII. Nesses mesmos momentos e animais verificou-se diminuição na concentração das proteínas plasmáticas totais. A intensidade e a persistência das alterações relacionaram-se negativamente com a recuperação dos animais e foram atribuídas ao tempo, à localização e à gravidade do processo obstrutivo. A

  9. Hypertensive emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, C

    1995-11-01

    Hypertensive emergencies are uncommon and physiologically diverse. Consequently, it is difficult for most physicians to develop a familiarity with all the different hypertensive crises and with all drugs available for treating them (Table 4). Clinicians should not agonize over which is the perfect therapeutic agent for a particular emergency, but instead, they should focus on scrupulous monitoring and familiarize themselves with a few agents that will serve in most situations. Generally, these agents will be sodium nitroprusside and nitroglycerin. Vigilant neurologic monitoring is mandatory in all hypertensive emergencies. The early symptoms and signs of cerebral hypoperfusion can be vague and subtle, but if recognized, serious complications of therapy can be avoided. Remember, the patient may still be hypertensive. Avoid acute (during the first hour) reductions in MAP of more than 20% whenever possible; subsequent reductions should be gradual. In patients known to have markedly elevated ICP and who need acute reductions in their BP, serious consideration should be given to direct monitoring of the ICP so that CPP can be maintained within safe limits. In general, oral agents should not be used for the treatment of hypertensive emergencies. Intravenous Labetalol and intravenous nicardipine are not suitable for general use in hypertensive emergencies. In special situations (e.g., perioperative hypertension and subarachnoid hemorrhage), however, they may be employed. Their role may expand with further study. Trimethaphan may be superior to nitroprusside for hypertension complicated by elevated ICP or cerebral dysfunction. Realistically, most physicians will continue to use nitroprusside. Intense neurologic monitoring is more important than the specific agent used. Nitroglycerin is the agent of choice for acute ischemic heart disease complicated by severe hypertension; if it fails, use nitroprusside. For aortic dissection, the combination of nitroprusside and IV

  10. Nano Revolution--Big Impact: How Emerging Nanotechnologies Will Change the Future of Education and Industry in America (and More Specifically in Oklahoma). An Abbreviated Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Steven E.

    2009-01-01

    Scientists are creating new and amazing materials by manipulating molecules at the ultra-small scale of 0.1 to 100 nanometers. Nanosize super particles demonstrate powerful and unprecedented electrical, chemical, and mechanical properties. This study examines how nanotechnology, as the multidisciplinary engineering of novel nanomaterials into…

  11. Math Anxiety Assessment with the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Applicability and usefulness: insights from the Polish adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof eCipora

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS, known to have very good psychometric characteristics in its original, American-English version as well as in its Italian and Iranian adaptations.We also observed high reliability, both for internal consistency and test-retest stability of the AMAS in the Polish sample. The results also show very good construct, convergent and discriminant validity: The factorial structure in Polish adult participants (n = 857 was very similar to the one previously found in other samples; AMAS scores correlated moderately in expected directions with state and trait anxiety, self-assessed math achievement and skill as well temperamental traits of emotional reactivity, briskness, endurance and perseverance. Average scores obtained by participants as well as gender differences and correlations with external measures were also similar across cultures. Beyond the cultural comparison, we used path model analyses to show that math anxiety relates to math grades and self-competence when controlling for trait anxiety.The current study shows transcultural validity of math anxiety assessment with the AMAS.

  12. Math Anxiety Assessment with the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Applicability and Usefulness: Insights from the Polish Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipora, Krzysztof; Szczygieł, Monika; Willmes, Klaus; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS), known to have very good psychometric characteristics in its original, American-English version as well as in its Italian and Iranian adaptations. We also observed high reliability, both for internal consistency and test-retest stability of the AMAS in the Polish sample. The results also show very good construct, convergent and discriminant validity: The factorial structure in Polish adult participants (n = 857) was very similar to the one previously found in other samples; AMAS scores correlated moderately in expected directions with state and trait anxiety, self-assessed math achievement and skill as well temperamental traits of emotional reactivity, briskness, endurance, and perseverance. Average scores obtained by participants as well as gender differences and correlations with external measures were also similar across cultures. Beyond the cultural comparison, we used path model analyses to show that math anxiety relates to math grades and self-competence when controlling for trait anxiety. The current study shows transcultural validity of math anxiety assessment with the AMAS.

  13. Validation of the Abbreviated Brucella AMOS PCR as a Rapid Screening Method for Differentiation of Brucella abortus Field Strain Isolates and the Vaccine Strains, 19 and RB51

    OpenAIRE

    Ewalt, Darla R; Bricker, Betsy J.

    2000-01-01

    The Brucella AMOS PCR assay was previously developed to identify and differentiate specific Brucella species. In this study, an abbreviated Brucella AMOS PCR test was evaluated to determine its accuracy in differentiating Brucella abortus into three categories: field strains, vaccine strain 19 (S19), and vaccine strain RB51/parent strain 2308 (S2308). Two hundred thirty-one isolates were identified and tested by the conventional biochemical tests and Brucella AMOS PCR. This included 120 isola...

  14. Is it an Emergency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency 101 Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Is it an Emergency? Medical emergencies can be frightening and ... situation. Here you can find information about emergencies. It is essential to know how to recognize the ...

  15. A rare case of mature cystic teratoma in the emergency department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeynep Konyar; Gokhan Eyupoglu; Mehmet Tatli; Ozlem Guneysel

    2016-01-01

    Teratomas are the most common germ cell tumors among pediatric and female patients, which originates from germ cells layers and can be located everywhere in bodies. They are diagnosed by ultrasonography (US), which was characterized by calcification and cystic anechoic view. Our aim is to attract attention to a 21-year-old female patient with complaint of acute abdominal pain diagnosed with teratoma by early radiological im-aging. The female patient admitted to the emergency department with a new onset of abdominal pain at the lower and left sides of the abdomen for a week. The suprapubic and left costovertebral angle tenderness were found in her physical examination. We firstly chose US for imaging. The US of the abdomen showed multiple cystic masses around uterus. Heterogeneous cystic and calcified lesions were detected on the patients computerized tomography scan, and considered as teratoma. A laparotomy was per-formed by gynecologists. At laparotomy, lobulated cystic masses were removed and the left ovary had been detorsioned. She has been discharged after two days of postoperative observation. For patients of young females with abdominal pain such as rare gyneco-logical diseases, teratoma and ovarian torsion, in the emergency department should be considered and early imaging should be performed.

  16. Little Rock and El Dorado 10 x 20 NTMS quadrangles and adjacent areas, Arkansas: data report (abbreviated)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This abbreviated data report presents results of ground water and stream sediment reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series Little Rock 10 x 20 quadrangle (Cleveland, Dallas, and Howard Counties do not have stream sediment analyses); the El Dorado 10 x 20 quadrangle (only Clark County has stream sediment analyses); the western part (Lonoke and Jefferson Counties) of Helena 10 x 20 quadrangle; the southern part (Franklin, Logan, Yell, Perry, Faulkner, and Lonoke Counties) of Russellville 10 x 20 quadrangle; and the southwestern corner (Ashley County) of the Greenwood 10 x 20 quadrangle. Stream samples were collected at 943 sites in the Little Rock quadrangle, 806 sites in the El Dorado quadrangle, 121 sites in the Helena area, 292 sites in the Russellville area, and 77 in the Greenwood area. Ground water samples were collected at 1211 sites in the Little Rock quadrangle, 1369 sites in the El Dorado quadrangle, 186 sites in the Helena area, 470 sites in the Russellville area, and 138 sites in the Greenwood area. Stream sediment and stream water samples were collected from small streams at nominal density of one site per 21 square kilometers in rural areas. Ground water samples were collected at a nominal density of one site per 13 square kilometers. Neutron activation analysis results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 8 other elements in ground water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Uranium concentrations in the sediments ranged from less than 0.1 ppM to 23.5 ppM with a mean of 1.7 ppM. The ground water uranium mean concentration is 0.113 ppB, and the uranium concentrations range from less than 0.002 ppB to 15.875 ppB. High ground water uranium values in the Ouachita Mountain region of the Little Rock quadrangle appear to be associated with Ordovician black shale units

  17. Choice of Operative Technique for Emergency Cases of Sigmoid Volvulus in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Upendra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sigmoid volulus is by far the most common type of volvulus, accounting for 75 to 90 % of all volvulus. Most common presenting symptom is abdominal pain and constipation. . It may be initially managed by sigmoidoscopy or rectal tube insertion but where fear of compromised vascular supply of the sigmoid colon is associated, immediate laparotomy after resuscitation must be undertaken to avoid gangrene and septic shock. The primary objective of the study is to demonstrate the most suitable procedure for management of patients with sigmoid volvulus needing emergency surgery. Methodology: All patients presenting with volvulus and needing emergency operative intervention during 1 years duration from January 2010 to December 2011 were included in this study. Total 41 patients were included in the study of which 25 presented with gangrenous sigmoid colon on laparotomy and viable sigmoid colon was present in the remaining 16 cases. Comparison is done with respect to mortality and early morbidity associated with different operative procedures. Results: Highest mortality i.e. 33.3% observed among patients who underwent primary resection and anastomosis without proximal colostomy. Wound infection was more common following all forms of stoma procedure. Conclusion: Hartmann’s procedure goes a long way in decreasing mortality due to sigmoid volvulus in the emergency setting. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(2.000: 226-228

  18. Emerging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shin-yee

    1993-03-01

    The mission of the Emerging Technologies thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is to help individuals establish technology areas that have national and commercial impact, and are outside the scope of the existing thrust areas. We continue to encourage innovative ideas that bring quality results to existing programs. We also take as our mission the encouragement of investment in new technology areas that are important to the economic competitiveness of this nation. In fiscal year 1992, we have focused on nine projects, summarized in this report: (1) Tire, Accident, Handling, and Roadway Safety; (2) EXTRANSYT: An Expert System for Advanced Traffic Management; (3) Odin: A High-Power, Underwater, Acoustic Transmitter for Surveillance Applications; (4) Passive Seismic Reservoir Monitoring: Signal Processing Innovations; (5) Paste Extrudable Explosive Aft Charge for Multi-Stage Munitions; (6) A Continuum Model for Reinforced Concrete at High Pressures and Strain Rates: Interim Report; (7) Benchmarking of the Criticality Evaluation Code COG; (8) Fast Algorithm for Large-Scale Consensus DNA Sequence Assembly; and (9) Using Electrical Heating to Enhance the Extraction of Volatile Organic Compounds from Soil.

  19. Emerging memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Livio; Bez, Roberto; Sandhu, Gurtej

    2014-12-01

    Memory is a key component of any data processing system. Following the classical Turing machine approach, memories hold both the data to be processed and the rules for processing them. In the history of microelectronics, the distinction has been rather between working memory, which is exemplified by DRAM, and storage memory, exemplified by NAND. These two types of memory devices now represent 90% of all memory market and 25% of the total semiconductor market, and have been the technology drivers in the last decades. Even if radically different in characteristics, they are however based on the same storage mechanism: charge storage, and this mechanism seems to be near to reaching its physical limits. The search for new alternative memory approaches, based on more scalable mechanisms, has therefore gained new momentum. The status of incumbent memory technologies and their scaling limitations will be discussed. Emerging memory technologies will be analyzed, starting from the ones that are already present for niche applications, and which are getting new attention, thanks to recent technology breakthroughs. Maturity level, physical limitations and potential for scaling will be compared to existing memories. At the end the possible future composition of memory systems will be discussed.

  20. Effect of intermediate care on mortality following emergency abdominal surgery. The InCare trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Andersen, Morten; Waldau, Tina; Wetterslev, Jørn;

    2013-01-01

    is all-cause 30-day mortality. We aim to enrol 400 patients in seven Danish hospitals. The sample size allows us to detect or refute a 34% relative risk reduction of mortality with 80% power. DISCUSSION: This trial evaluates the benefits and possible harm of intermediate care. The results may potentially....... The aim of the present trial is to evaluate the effect of postoperative intermediate care following emergency major abdominal surgery in high-risk patients.Methods and design: The InCare trial is a randomised, parallel-group, non-blinded clinical trial with 1:1 allocation. Patients undergoing emergency...... laparotomy or laparoscopic surgery with a perioperative Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 10 or above, who are ready to be transferred to the surgical ward within 24 h of surgery are allocated to either intermediate care for 48 h, or surgical ward care. The primary outcome measure...

  1. [Emergency contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastianelli, C; Farris, M; Di Miscia, A

    2006-06-01

    A specific formulation has been approved for use in Italy for emergency contraception (EC) in 2000. As expected, marketing of this levonorgestrel (LNG) only formulation has been accompanied by an increased interest and, often, controversies leading to even strong opposition on the part of those ethically opposed to the use of any method that may act after fertilization. At present, several trials on the exact mechanism of action and safety have been conducted, giving good reason for simplifying access, providing it free or over the counter, in several European countries. EC, also known as ''the morning after pill'' or postcoital contraception, is a modality of preventing the establishment of an unwanted pregnancy after unprotected intercourse and thus, probably, of reducing the number of voluntary pregnancy terminations. Two different forms are available: the hormonal and the intrauterine. Hormonal estrogen only EC was first proposed in the 60s and in 1974 Yuzpe following his studies proposed for the first time his combined regimen, that showed better efficacy and lower side effects. More recently, a new regimen, consisting of LNG, administered alone at the dose of 1.5 mg, was introduced and found in clinical trials to be more effective than the Yuzpe regimen, if taken as early as possible, within 72 h, thereby replacing the latter in common use. Mechanism of action of both hormonal preparations used for EC is inhibiting or delaying ovulation, therefore a prefertilization action. No effect has been reported on the process of implantation nor on an ongoing pregnancy. The WHO have developed a third regimen based on the use of the selective progesterone receptor modulator (antiprogestin) Mifepristone and conducted trials with different dosages, reporting similar efficacy and safety compared to LNG. Intrauterine EC was first proposed by Lippes in 1976. It has the advantage of being effective if inserted within 5 days after unprotected intercourse and the disadvantage

  2. 基于条件随机场与Web数据的缩略语预测%Abbreviation Prediction Using Conditional Random Field and Web Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦妍; 王厚峰; 张龙凯

    2012-01-01

    Abbreviations are commonly used in natural languages and constitutes a substantial proportion of Unknown Words, which challenges Natural Language Processing. This article proposes a strategy of predicting abbreviation from full form in Chinese. For a full form, it firstly generates a number of candidates using Conditional Random Field. Then each of the candidates is re-scored according to the results from Web Search Engine based on different search conditions and statistic methods. The candidate with highest score is selected as the abbreviation. Experiments show the precision improves about 5% compared with single Conditional Random Field method.%缩略语在自然语言中被广泛使用.因其是新词的重要来源之一,成为了自然语言处理领域的一大问题.该文以汉语为对象,研究了从完整形式预测缩略语形式的方法.首先,使用条件随机场模型对完整形式进行序列标注,生成缩略语候选集合.再利用搜索引擎获取网络数据,并通过不同策略利用网络数据对各候选依次评估,结 合各项评估分数进行重排序,选择最终的缩略语结果.实验结果表明,增加Web信息之后,缩略语预测的准确率可以提高约五个百分点.

  3. Emergent Endotracheal Intubation and Mortality in Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fine, Philip R

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the relationship between emergent intubation (emergency department and field intubation cases combined and mortality in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI while controlling for injury severity.Methods: Retrospective observational study of 981 (35.2% intubated, 64.8% not intubated patients with TBI evaluating the association between intubation status and mortality. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data. Injury severity measures included Head/Neck Abbreviated Injury Scale (H-AIS, systolic blood pressure, type of head injury (blunt vs. penetrating, and a propensity score combining the effects of several other potential confounding variables. Age was also included in the model.Results: The simple association of emergent endotracheal intubation with death had an odds ratio (OR of 14.3 (95% CI = 9.4 – 21.9. The logistic regression model including relevant covariates and a propensity score that adjusted for injury severity and age yielded an OR of 5.9 (95% CI = 3.2 – 10.9.Conclusions: This study indicates that emergent intubation is associated with increased risk of death after controlling for a number of injury severity indicators. We discuss the need for optimal paramedic training, and an understanding of the factors that guide patient selection and the decision to intubate in the field. [WestJEM.2008;9:184-189

  4. Comparison on the effect of laparoscopic and laparotomy in treatment of peptic ulcer perforation%腹腔镜与开腹手术治疗消化性溃疡穿孔的效果对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于青松

    2014-01-01

    目的:对比分析腹腔镜与开腹手术治疗消化性溃疡穿孔的手术效果。方法选取2011年1月~2013年1月在本院行腹腔镜穿孔修补术的患者40例作为腹腔镜组,另选择同期在本院行开腹子穿孔修补术的40例患者作为对照组,比较两组患者的手术时间、术中出血量、术后排气时间、住院时间及并发症发生情况。结果腹腔镜组患者的术中出血量明显少于对照组(P<0.01);术后排气时间明显短于对照组(P<0.01)、住院时间短于对照组(P<0.05),腹腔镜组的并发症发生率仅为5.0%,明显低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论腹腔镜胃十二指肠溃疡穿孔修补术较开腹手术能减少术中出血量、降低术后发症发生率、缩短住院时间、促进患者术后的恢复,值得临床推广应用。%Objective To compare the effect of laparoscopic and laparotomy in treatment of peptic ulcer perforation. Methods 40 patients with underwent laparoscopic perforation repair from January 2011 to January 2013 in our hospital were selected as the laparoscopic group,and another 40 patients underwent laparotomy perforation repair were selected as the control group at the same period,the amount of bleeding,operation time,postoperative exhaust time, hospitalization time and incidence rate of complication were compared between the two groups. Results The amount of bleeding in the laparoscopic group was significantly less than that in the control group (P<0.01),the exhaust time of laparoscopic group was significantly shorter than the control group (P<0.01),the hospitalization time of the laparoscopic group was shorter than the control group (P<0.05).The incidence rate of complication of the laparoscopic group (5.0%) was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion Laparoscopic in treatment of peptic ulcer perforation compared with la-parotomy can reduce the amount of bleeding,reduce the complications incidence,shorten the

  5. Clinical studies of laparoscopic repair and laparotomy surgery in the treatment of gastric or duodenal ulcer%腹腔镜与开腹胃十二指肠溃疡穿孔修补手术临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代学峰; 崔海燕

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the curative effect of laparoscopic repair and laparotomy surgery in the treatment of gastric or duodenal ulcer.Methods:The clinical data of 75 cases with gastric or duodenal ulcer from February 2012 to May 2014 were analyzed retrospectively.38 cases were treated with laparoscopic repair in perforated gastric or duodenal ulcer(the laparoscope group).37 cases were treated with laparotomy gastric or duodenal ulcer perforation repair(the open group).We observed the intraoperative and postoperative general index,the recovery time of the postoperative intestinal function and the incidence of postoperative complications and etc in the two groups.Results:The operation time,the hospitalization time,the recovery time of the postoperative intestinal function and the leaving bed time in the laparoscopic group were all shorter than those of the open group, and there were statistical significant differences(P<0.05).The incidence of postoperative complications in the laparoscopic group was 5.26% (2/38);that of the open group was 24.32% (9/37);there was statistical significant difference( χ 2=4.03,P<0.05).The postoperative VAS scores of the laparoscopic patients were significantly lower than that of the open group(t=9.50,P<0.05). Conclusion:Laparoscopic repair in perforated gastric or duodenal ulcer has the advantages of shorter surgery time,quick recovery and lower complication rates comparing with the traditional laparotomy,which is a kind of safe and effective treatment.%目的:观察腹腔镜与开腹行胃十二指肠溃疡穿孔修补术的临床疗效。方法:回顾性分析2012年2月-2014年5月收治胃十二指肠溃疡穿孔患者75例的临床资料,其中38例行腹腔镜胃十二指肠溃疡穿孔修补术(腹腔镜组),37例行胃十二指肠溃疡穿孔修补术(开腹组),观察两组术中、术后一般指标、术后肠道功能恢复时间及术后并发症发生率等。结果:腹腔镜组手术时间

  6. Emergency teams in Danish emergency departments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafrenz, Thomas; Lindberg, Søren Østergaard; La Cour, Jeppe Lerche;

    2012-01-01

    The use of designated emergency teams for cardiac arrest and trauma patients is widely implemented. However, the use of designated teams in Danish emergency departments (EDs) has not been investigated. Our aim was to investigate the use and staffing of emergency teams in Danish EDs....

  7. Emergency Medical Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and need help right away, you should use emergency medical services. These services use specially trained people ... facilities. You may need care in the hospital emergency room (ER). Doctors and nurses there treat emergencies, ...

  8. Discussion of the Abbreviations by Simplifying Sentence of “Life is Already Hard, so Don't Expose the Truth”%从“人艰不拆”等看句子缩词

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白鑫

    2015-01-01

    The abbreviation by simplifying sentences is a new language phenomenon originated in the network, which is abbre-viated by four characters and every abbreviations is single word and at least one morpheme is a verb.But most of the abbreviations is ambiguous.The paper thinks that the there is a mapping relationship between the abbreviation and the sentence The theory of spreading activation and the grammar generation can explain the mapping relationship and the cognitive process of sentence reduc-tion.In addition, the cognitive limitation of the abbreviation by simplifying is mainly from the spreading activation level of strength and cognitive scope.%句子缩词是网络中萌芽产生的一种新的语言现象,是缩略词的一种。句子缩词以四字格居多,词中每个字均为单字词,并且至少有一个语素为动词,但缩略词大多语义不明确。我们认为,缩略词与原句具有一定的映射关系,通过激活扩散模型和语法生成理论可以解释这种映射关系,并说明句子缩词的认知过程。此外,我们认为句子缩词的认知限制主要来自激活扩散程度强弱和认知范围大小。

  9. Dissemination of bacteria labeled with technetium-99m after laparotomy and abdominal insufflation with different CO2 pressures on rats; Disseminacao de bacterias marcadas com tecnecio-99m apos laparotomia e insuflacao com diferentes pressoes de CO2 em ratos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitombo, Marcos Bettini; Faria, Clarice Abreu dos Santos Albuquerque de; Steinbruck, Klaus [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Medicina]. E-mail: mpitombo@urbi.com.br; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Bernardo Filho, Mario[Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes (IBRAG). Lab. de Radiofarmacia Experimental

    2008-01-15

    Purpose: To asses the dissemination of bacteria labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) from peritoneal cavity after different surgical procedures. Methods: Bacteria of the Escherichia coli species labeled with 99mTc were used in a concentration of 108 units of colony-makers for ml (UFC/ml) and 1 ml was inoculated through intra-peritoneal via. Forty-eight rats were divided into four groups: control, laparotomy, pneumoperitoneum with 10 mmHg and pneumoperitoneum with 20 mmHg of CO2. Procedures were performed 20 min after injection of the inoculum and lasted 30 min. Animals were sacrificed after six hours (Group 1) and 24 hours (Group 2). Samples of blood, liver and spleen were collected for radioactivity counting. Results: After six hours, indirect detection of the bacteria in different organs was uniform in all groups. After 24 hours, a larger detection of technetium was observed in the livers of animals of the group insufflated with 20 mmHg of CO2, when compared with those of control group (p<0.01). The other groups did not present statistically significant variations. Conclusions: The use of a higher intra-abdominal pressure was associated with a higher bacterial dissemination to the liver. The application of lower intra-abdominal pressures may be associated with a lower dissemination of the infectious status during laparoscopic approach of peritonitis status. (author)

  10. A historically controlled, single-arm, multi-centre, prospective trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of MonoMax® suture material for abdominal wall closure after primary midline laparotomy. ISSAAC-Trial [NCT005725079

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Annette

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several randomized controlled trials have compared different suture materials and techniques for abdominal wall closure with respect to the incidence of incisional hernias after midline laparotomy and shown that it remains, irrespective of the methods used, considerably high, ranging from 9% to 20%. The development of improved suture materials which would reduce postoperative complications may help to lower its frequency. Design This is a historically controlled, single-arm, multi-centre, prospective trial to evaluate the safety of MonoMax® suture material for abdominal wall closure in 150 patients with primary elective midline incisions. INSECT patients who underwent abdominal closure using Monoplus® and PDS® will serve as historical control group. The incidences of wound infections and of burst abdomen are defined as composite primary endpoints. Secondary endpoints are the frequency of incisional hernias within one year after operation and safety. To ensure adequate comparability in surgical performance and recruitment, the 4 largest centres of the INSECT-Trial will participate. After hospital discharge, the investigators will examine the enrolled patients again at 30 days and at 12 ± 1 months after surgery. Conclusion This historically controlled, single-arm, multi-centre, prospective ISSAAC trial aims to assess whether the use of an ultra-long-lasting absorbable monofilament suture material is safe and efficient. Trial registration NCT005725079

  11. Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI) database contains emerging pathogens information from the local Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The EPI software...

  12. Emerging and re-emerging infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor K E Lim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An emerging infection is defined as aninfection that has newly appeared in a population whilea re-emerging infection would be one that has existedin the past but its incidence has increased in recenttimes. The reasons for the emergence or reemergenceof an infection are not completely understood butthey are multifactorial and complex in the nature oftheir interactions. These factors may be related to theetiological organism, the host or the environment.Human activity appears to be a major driver. Malaysiahad to deal with outbreaks of several emerging infectionsover the last two decades. They include Nipah virusinfection, SARS and avian influenza. Infections likedengue, tuberculosis and leptospirosis are re-emergingin Malaysia. Both human activity and climatic changesappear to be key factors in the emergence and reemergenceof infections in Malaysia. Our countryneeds to put in place a comprehensive plan to meetthe challenge of emerging diseases. A multidisciplinaryapproach is required and the strategies involved shouldnot merely confined to medical and health strategies.

  13. Emergency surgery for epidural abcess secondary to sacral fistula after laparoscopic proctectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, Jeremie; Menahem, Benjamin; Fohlen, Audrey; Lebreton, Gil; Lubrano, Jean; Alves, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    A 61-year-old man presented via the emergency department with a few days history of abdominal and colic occlusion symptoms. He presented signs of sepsis, midline lumbar spine tenderness and reduced hip flexion. Computer tomography of the abdomen and pelvis showed a presacral collection contiguous with the posterior part of the colo-rectal anastomosis, and MRI lumbar spine revealed abscess invation into the epidural space. He underwent a laparotomy with washout of the presacral abscess and a colostomy with a prolonged course of intravenous antibiotic therapy. At 3 weeks after initial presentation he had made a full clinical recovery with progressive radiological resolution of the epidural abscess. The objective of the case report is to highlight a unique and clinically significant complication of a rare post-operative complication after rectal surgery and to briefly discuss other intra-abdominal sources of epidural abscess. PMID:27421299

  14. Consideration of Change of Abbreviated Network Chinese Words%缩略型网络语言的变化及思考--“然并卵”等例析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新梅

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the latest abbreviated network Chinese word “Ranbingluan” from three aspects of origin , struc-ture and semanteme , and it also discussed the generating motivation of the abbreviated network Chinese word from the perspective of social environment and human mentality , the combination of abbreviation and regional dialects .Considering the rationality , possi-bility, innovativeness , openness and uncontrollability , the paper analyzed the changes of abbreviated network Chinese words .%先从来源、结构和语义这三方面分析最新缩略型的网络语言“然并卵”;进而从社会环境和人文心理这两大方面探讨网络缩略语的生成动因及最新变化:缩略与地方方言相结合;最后结合网络语言的共同特性:合理性、可能性、创新性、渗透性、开放性与不可控性,谈谈对缩略型的网络语言变化的几点思考。

  15. Comparative study of laparoscope and laparotomy D2 radical gastrectomy in the treatment of distal gastric cancer%腹腔镜与开腹远端胃癌D2根治术的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何洪生; 曾文龙; 朱柏炼; 杜永御; 赖扬城

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过对比腹腔镜与开腹远端胃癌D2根治术的疗效及安全性,探讨腹腔镜辅助远端胃癌D2根治术的临床价值。方法221例行远端胃癌D2根治术患者,分为两组。其中腹腔镜组115例,开腹组106例,对两组手术时间、术中出血量、术后排气时间、首次进流质时间、淋巴结清扫数目、术后住院天数、并发症进行比较。结果腹腔镜组手术时间、淋巴结清扫数与开腹组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),而腹腔镜组术中出血量少,术后肛门排气时间早,首次进流质时间早,术后住院时间短,并发症发生率低(P0.05). However, the laparoscope group had fewer intraoperative bleeding volumes, earlier postoperative anal exhaust time, earlier first time of liquid diet, shorter postoperative hospital stays and lower incidence of complications (P<0.05). Conclusion Laparoscope assisted D2 radical gastrectomy in the treatment of distal gastric cancer has small trauma, few bleeding, quick recovery and less complications. The recent curative effect is similar as that of laparotomy, and the treatment is safe and feasible, and worthy of clinical promotion.

  16. Flurbiprofen ester compound opioid in gynecological laparotomy postoperative analgesia%氟比洛芬酯复合阿片类药物在妇科开腹术后镇痛中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓峰; 呼霞

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察氟比洛芬酯复合阿片类药物用于妇科开腹术后静脉自控镇痛的临床效果及对比研究。方法:选择妇科行开腹手术患者90例,随机分为三组,每组30例。布托啡诺组(B组)持续量:布托啡诺6mg+氟比洛芬酯90mg+托烷司琼6mg+生理盐水至100ml;吗啡组(M 组)持续量:吗啡30mg+氟比洛芬酯90mg+托烷司琼6mg+生理盐水至100ml;氟比洛芬酯组(F组)持续量:氟比洛芬酯120mg+托烷司琼6mg+生理盐水至100ml ,三组患者术毕时均静脉注射氟比洛芬酯60mg作为负荷剂量,然后连接PCIA泵。术后6、12、24、48h监测HR、MAP、RR和sPO2,分别于术后6、12、24、48h记录镇痛评分(VAS评分)、PCA按压次数、恶心呕吐评分、瘙痒评分及呼吸抑制等不良反应。结果:三组患者V A S评分:布托啡诺组(B组)和吗啡组(M 组)与氟比洛芬酯组(F组)相比有统计学差异,布托啡诺组(B组)和吗啡组(M 组)镇痛效果优于氟比洛芬酯组(F组);布托啡诺组(B组)与吗啡组(M 组)镇痛效果比较无统计学差异。不良反应发生情况:恶心呕吐与皮肤瘙痒评分均显示,布托啡诺组(B组)和氟比洛芬酯组(F组)明显低于吗啡组(M 组),布托啡诺组(B组)与氟比洛芬酯组(F组)相比无统计学差异。结论:氟比洛芬酯复合布托啡诺用于妇科开腹术后镇痛效果确切,恶心呕吐、皮肤瘙痒、呼吸抑制等副作用发生率低,更适用于妇科开腹术后静脉自控镇痛。%Objects :The observed the flurbiprofen axetil composite opioids for controlled analgesia after gynecological laparotomy clinical efficiency and comparative study .Method:Select Chang’an Hospital gynecological surgery Randomly divided into three groups ,Butorphanol group (B ) ,sustained amount :butorphanol 6mg + flur-biprofen axetil The 90mg + tropisetron 6mg to 100ml

  17. Developing emergency nursing competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proehl, Jean A

    2002-03-01

    Developing and maintaining the competence emergency nurses need is an important function of emergency clinical nurse specialists (CNS), educators, and other members of the emergency department (ED) leadership team. A thorough orientation is the first and most important step in developing the competence of emergency nurses. After orientation, the challenge is to maintain currency of practice in the face of incessant change such as new medications, new equipment, and new therapies in emergency care. This article focuses on the orientation of emergency nurses. A related article in this issue addresses assessment of competency. PMID:11818264

  18. Emergencies and emergency planning in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organization for dealing with radiation emergencies in France is complex and centralized. It consists of the Radiation Security Council with participants from the Premier Ministre and the Ministers of Interior, Industry, Health, and Defense. A permanent general secretary for radiation security coordinates the work of the various departments. Planning for nuclear power emergencies is divided between on-site, in which organization and intervention are the responsibilities of the manager of the plant, and off-site, in which organization and intervention are the responsibility of the regional governor. Both on-site and off-site planning have models integrated into a special code of practice called the radiation emergency organization

  19. Dog Bite Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Dog bite emergencies What do I do if I’ ... vaccination records. What do I do if my dog bites someone? Dog bites are scary for everyone ...

  20. Emergency Nurses Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... into an authority, advocate, lobbyist, and voice for emergency nursing. ENA has 40,000+ members and continues ... your advocate for patient safety and excellence in emergency nursing practice. Find out about our many membership ...

  1. OEM Emergency Preparedness Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Emergency Management compiles a wide variety of information in support of Emergency Preparedness, including certain elements of the System for Risk...

  2. [Emerging noninfectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, Ezequiel

    2008-11-01

    In recent years, emerging diseases were defined as being infectious, acquiring high incidence, often suddenly, or being a threat or an unexpected phenomenon. This study discusses the hallmarks of emerging diseases, describing the existence of noninfectious emerging diseases, and elaborating on the advantages of defining noninfectious diseases as emerging ones. From the discussion of various mental health disorders, nutritional deficiencies, external injuries and violence outcomes, work injuries and occupational health, and diseases due to environmental factors, the conclusion is drawn that a wide variety of noninfectious diseases can be defined as emergent. Noninfectious emerging diseases need to be identified in order to improve their control and management. A new definition of "emergent disease" is proposed, one that emphasizes the pathways of emergence and conceptual traits, rather than descriptive features.

  3. Harwell emergency handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Harwell Laboratory Emergency Handbook 1987 contains emergency procedures to deal with any incident which might occur at AERE Harwell involving radioactive or toxic material releases. The Handbook gives details of the duties of members of the Site Emergency Organization and other key members of staff, the methods by which incidents are controlled, the communication links and liaison arrangements with other organizations and the possible consequences and actions that may be needed following an emergency. (UK)

  4. Emergency preparedness in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the countermeasures implemented in Japan in case of a nuclear accident. Various aspects of the subject are tackled such as the regulatory system for the nuclear reactor or the preparedness arrangements (responsibilities of the various government and public organizations, nuclear emergency action plans including the emergency planning zones, the emergency environmental monitoring and the emergency medical treatment). It should be noted that training exercises for the population is already implemented. (TEC). 3 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Emergency Management Offices - Emergency Management Region (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Data available online through GeoStor at http://www.geostor.arkansas.gov. This file contains location information for Emergency Management Regions in the State of...

  6. From emerging economies toward the emerging triad

    OpenAIRE

    Dehnen, Sebastian; van Dinther, Jan H.; Koubek, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    In this article an entirely new structural approach called the ‘Emerging Triad’ is identified, which is dealing with the increasing regional, intra- and interregional integration of the emerging regions Latin America, Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. In this context the increasing south-south cooperation’s, specific transregional free trade agreements as well as foreign direct investments are identified as the main driver for this ongoing networking process. For a deeper analysis of thi...

  7. [Emergent viral infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, J.M.D.

    2001-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of viral infections is an ongoing process. Large-scale vaccination programmes led to the eradication or control of some viral infections in the last century, but new viruses are always emerging. Increased travel is leading to a rise in the importation of exotic infecti

  8. Emergency preparedness in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the menace of nuclear war still persists, the focus in national emergency preparedness in Finland is presently on emergencies involving nuclear installations. The nuclear power plants, nuclear submarines and other installations in the former USSR are a major reason for this. In this article the main features and organization of emergency preparedness in Finland are described. (orig.)

  9. Emerging technology and ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Wakunuma, Kutoma

    2011-01-01

    This e-book on Emerging Technologies and Ethics includes a collection of essays which explore the future and ethics of emerging information and communication technologies. Articles in the collection include an overview of the legal implications which may be relevant to the ethical aspects of emerging technologies and also ethical issues arising from the mass-take up of mobile technologies.

  10. Medical emergencies in Goa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddichha Sahoo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most emergencies in Goa arise due to road traffic accidents and drowning, which have been compounded by the rise in number of recorded accidents in 2007 to be above 4000. It is believed that 11 people meet with an accident on Goa′s roads every day and this is expected to rise by 10% by next year. Similar is the case with drownings and other medical emergencies. We therefore aimed to conduct a cross-sectional survey of medical emergencies and identify various types of emergencies presenting to emergency departments. Materials and Methods: Using a stratified random sampling design, all emergencies presenting to the three government hospitals in Goa, which handle 90% of all emergencies currently, were studied on specially designed data sheets in order to collect data. Emergency medical technicians (ETs were placed in the Casualty Ward of the medical colleges and they recorded all emergencies on the data sheet. The collected data were then analyzed for stratification and mapping of emergencies. Results: GMC Hospital attended to majority of emergencies (62%, which were mainly of the nature of accidents or assaults (17% and fever related (17%. Most emergencies were noncritical and about 1% expired. Maximum emergencies also presented from Salcette and Bardez, and occurred among young males in the age group of 19-45 years. Males were also more prone to accidents while females had pregnancies as emergencies. Conclusion: Potential emergency services need to target young males with higher concentrations required in Salcette in South Goa and Bardez in North Goa.

  11. Color on emergency mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lili; Qi, Qingwen; Zhang, An

    2007-06-01

    There are so many emergency issues in our daily life. Such as typhoons, tsunamis, earthquake, fires, floods, epidemics, etc. These emergencies made people lose their lives and their belongings. Every day, every hour, even every minute people probably face the emergency, so how to handle it and how to decrease its hurt are the matters people care most. If we can map it exactly before or after the emergencies; it will be helpful to the emergency researchers and people who live in the emergency place. So , through the emergency map, before emergency is occurring we can predict the situation, such as when and where the emergency will be happen; where people can refuge, etc. After disaster, we can also easily assess the lost, discuss the cause and make the lost less. The primary effect of mapping is offering information to the people who care about the emergency and the researcher who want to study it. Mapping allows the viewers to get a spatial sense of hazard. It can also provide the clues to study the relationship of the phenomenon in emergency. Color, as the basic element of the map, it can simplify and clarify the phenomenon. Color can also affects the general perceptibility of the map, and elicits subjective reactions to the map. It is to say, structure, readability, and the reader's psychological reactions can be affected by the use of color.

  12. Efficacy and safety of laparoscopy and laparotomy in the treatment of acute cholecystitis%腹腔镜术和开腹术治疗急性胆囊炎的疗效及安全性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘明杰; 刘小虎

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical application value of laparoscopy and laparotomy in the treatment of acute cholecystitis.Methods:129 cases with acute cholecystitis who had been treated by operation from June 2010 to December 2013.We retrospectively analyzed their clinical datas.They were divided into the laparoscopy group(69 cases were treated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy) and the open group(60 cases were treated with conventional open operation) according to the different surgical treatment.We analyzed the operation related index and postoperative condition of the two groups.Results:The operation time, amount of bleeding during operation and postoperative anal exhaust time for the first time of the laparoscopic group were significantly shorter than those of the open group(P<0.01).The postoperative incision infection,bile leakage rate of the laparoscopic group were significantly lower than those in the open group(P<0.05).Conclusion:The laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the treatment of acute cholecystitis with less bleeding,less postoperative complications and other advantages,so it is worthy of clinical application.%目的:探讨腹腔镜胆囊切除术治疗急性胆囊炎的临床应用价值。方法:2010年6月-2013年12月收治行手术治疗的急性胆囊炎患者129例,回顾性分析其临床资料,按照所行治疗术式不同分为腔镜组69例,行腹腔镜下胆囊切除术治疗和开腹组60例,行常规开腹手术治疗,对两组患者手术相关指标及术后情况进行对比分析。结果:腔镜组手术耗时、术中出血量及术后首次肛门排气时间均明显短于开腹组(P<0.01);腔镜组患者术后切口感染、胆汁漏发生率明显低于开腹组(P<0.05)。结论:腹腔镜微创胆囊切除术治疗急性胆囊炎具有出血少、术后并发症少等优势,值得临床推广应用。

  13. Defining an emerging disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P

    2015-04-01

    Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future. PMID:26470448

  14. SUPERVASMOL POISONING: AN EMERGING ENT EMERGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning is one of the commonest modes of suicide in India. Supervasmol poisoning is one of the commonest modes of suicidal attempt in our region. The common cause for consumption of hair dye is by suicidal intent or accidental oral ingestion. There is no specific antidote for Supervasmol poisoning. Management is only symptomatic and supportive with emergency tracheostomy in majority of cases. Hence, we conducted this study to emphasize the role of ENT surgeon in Supervasmol poisoning. STUDY DESIGN Prospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS We present a total of 79 cases of Supervasmol poisoning who attended the Emergency Department of Narayana Medical College and General Hospital, Nellore. RESULTS All patients were between age group 15-35 yrs. Females are more than males. More patients were in second decade; 55 cases presented in acute phase, 51 patients underwent tracheostomy and four patients were brought dead. CONCLUSION Emergency tracheostomy is a life saving measure in severe stridor

  15. Emergency in Burn; Burn in Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Bayram

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Physicians who first meet with burned patients are often emergency service employees. When the patient was admitted to emergency service, especially in patients with major burn injury, is a matter should be dealt with strongly. Before sending the patients to a burn center, some interventions could became life saving which should be done as a first line treatment. Herein, review of the literature related to emergency burn treatment was performed and presented to all physicians as a summary guide. In addition, some questions such as how should be physician, who first meet with the burned patient, evaluated the patient, what should be physician paid attention, which principles should be employed for fluid replacement, how should be approached to burn wound are tried to be addressed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 365-368

  16. Patterns of Flux Emergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Title, A.; Cheung, M.

    2008-05-01

    The high spatial resolution and high cadence of the Solar Optical Telescope on the JAXA Hinode spacecraft have allowed capturing many examples of magnetic flux emergence from the scale of granulation to active regions. The observed patterns of emergence are quite similar. Flux emerges as a array of small bipoles on scales from 1 to 5 arc seconds throughout the region that the flux eventually condenses. Because the fields emerging from the underlying flux rope my appear many in small segments and the total flux (absolute sum) is not a conserved quantity the amount of total flux on the surface may vary significantly during the emergence process. Numerical simulations of flux emergence exhibit patterns similar to observations. Movies of both observations and numerical simulations will be presented.

  17. Handbook of pulmonary emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaquolo, S.V.; Medinger, A

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: clinical assessment of the patient with pulmonary disease; interpretation of arterial blood gases in the emergency patient; life-threatening pneumonia; extrapulmonic ventilatory failure; acute inhalation lung disease; pulmonary edema; near drowning; chest trauma; upper airway emergencies; chronic lung disease with acute respiratory decompensation; acute respiratory failure in the patient with chronic airflow obstruction; asthma; hemoptysis; embolic pulmonary disease; superior vena cava syndrome; catastrophic pleural disease; ventilatory assistance and its complications; and ventilator emergencies.

  18. Energy emergency handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This Handbook identifies selected state and federal measures available to mitigate the impact of an energy emergency, and provides a comprehensive energy emergency communications directory. In the case of state remedial actions, particular emphasis has been placed on typical implementation procedures and likely impacts. The discussions of federal actions focus on initation and implementation procedures. The directory is designed to facilitate communications of all types (telephone, Telex, TWX, or facsimile) among key energy emergency officials in the federal and state governments.

  19. Thermodynamics and emergent universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Saumya

    2016-01-01

    We show that in the isentropic scenario the first order thermodynamical particle creation model gives an emergent universe solution even when the chemical potential is non-zero. However there exists no emergent universe scenario in the second order non-equilibrium theory for the particle creation model. We then point out a correspondence between the particle creation model with barotropic equation of state and the equation of state giving rise to an emergent universe without particle creation in spatially flat FRW cosmology.

  20. Flux Emergence (Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark C. M. Cheung

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic flux emergence from the solar convection zone into the overlying atmosphere is the driver of a diverse range of phenomena associated with solar activity. In this article, we introduce theoretical concepts central to the study of flux emergence and discuss how the inclusion of different physical effects (e.g., magnetic buoyancy, magnetoconvection, reconnection, magnetic twist, interaction with ambient field in models impact the evolution of the emerging field and plasma.

  1. Historicism and Industry Emergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsch, David; Moeen, Mahka; Wadhwani, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Management and organization scholars have increasingly turned to historical sources to examine the emergence and evolution of industries over time. This scholarship has typically used historical evidence as observations for testing theoretically relevant processes of industry emergence....... In this chapter, an alternative approach is explored that focuses on reconstructing causes and processes that time and theory have erased. The emergence of three industries—plant biotechnology, savings banking, and the automobile—shows how time, along with prevailing functional models of industry evolution, leads...... excluded phenomena and explanations, reconstructing uncertainty and alternative paths of industry emergence, and studying the processes of information elision and exclusion in the formation of industry knowledge....

  2. Tuberculosis in complex emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coninx, Rudi

    2007-08-01

    This paper describes the key factors and remaining challenges for tuberculosis (TB) control programmes in complex emergencies. A complex emergency is "a humanitarian crisis in a country, region or society where there is total or considerable breakdown of authority resulting from internal or external conflict and which requires an international response that goes beyond the mandate or capacity of any single agency and/or the ongoing United Nations country programme." Some 200 million people are believed to live in countries affected by complex emergencies; almost all of these are developing countries that also bear the main burden of TB. The effects of complex emergencies impact on TB control programmes, interfering with the goals of identifying and curing TB patients and possibly leading to the emergence of MDR-TB. There are many detailed descriptions of aid interventions during complex emergencies; yet TB control programmes are absent from most of these reports. If TB is neglected, it may quickly result in increased morbidity and mortality, as was demonstrated in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in Somalia. TB is a major disease in complex emergencies and requires an appropriate public health response. While there is no manual to cover complex emergencies, the interagency manual for TB control in refugee and displaced populations provides valuable guidance. These programmes contribute to the body of evidence needed to compile such a manual, and should ensure that the experiences of TB control in complex emergencies lead to the establishment of evidence-based programmes. PMID:17768523

  3. Munchausen syndrome in the emergency department mostly difficult, sometimes easy to diagnose: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderbruggen Nathalie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Munchausen syndrome is a rare psychiatric disorder in which patients inflict on themselves an illness or injury for the primary purpose of assuming the sick role. Because these patients can present with many different complaints and clinical symptoms, diagnosis is often made at a later stage of hospitalisation. In contrast we report a case of a 40-year old woman very easy to diagnose with Munchausen syndrome. This trained nurse presented at our emergency department (ED complaining of abdominal pain. Interviewed by the medical trainee, she immediately confessed having put a knitting needle into her urethra four days earlier. She was not able to remove it anymore because it was beyond her reach. Abdominal X-ray confirmed the presence of the needle and a median laparotomy was performed to remove it. The diagnosis of Munchausen syndrome seemed immediately obvious in this case.

  4. Inspection of Emergency Arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP) was tasked by the NEA CNRA to examine and evaluate the extent to which emergency arrangements are inspected and to identify areas of importance for the development of good inspection practices. WGIP members shared their approaches to the inspection of emergency arrangements by the use of questionnaires, which were developed from the requirements set out in IAEA Safety Standards. Detailed responses to the questionnaires from WGIP member countries have been compiled and are presented in the appendix to this report. The following commendable practices have been drawn from the completed questionnaires and views provided by WGIP members: - RBs and their Inspectors have sufficient knowledge and information regarding operator's arrangements for the preparedness and response to nuclear emergencies, to enable authoritative advice to be given to the national coordinating authority, where necessary. - Inspectors check that the operator's response to a nuclear emergency is adequately integrated with relevant response organisations. - Inspectors pay attention to consider the integration of the operator's response to safety and security threats. - The efficiency of international relations is checked in depth during some exercises (e.g. early warning, assistance and technical information), especially for near-border facilities that could lead to an emergency response abroad. - RB inspection programmes consider the adequacy of arrangements for emergency preparedness and response to multi-unit accidents. - RBs assess the adequacy of arrangements to respond to accidents in other countries. - The RB's role is adequately documented and communicated to all agencies taking part in the response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. - Inspectors check that threat assessments for NPPs have been undertaken in accordance with national requirements and that up-to-date assessments have been used as the basis for developing emergency plans for

  5. Emergências hipertensivas Hypertensive emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Soares Feitosa-Filho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available As urgências e as emergências hipertensivas são ocorrências clínicas que podem representar mais de 25% dos atendimentos a urgências médicas. O médico deverá estar habilitado a diferenciá-las, pois o prognóstico e o tratamento são distintos. Estima-se que 3% de todas as visitas às salas de emergência decorrem de elevações significativas da pressão arterial. Nos quadros relacionados a estes atendimentos, a emergência hipertensiva é a entidade clínica mais grave que merece cuidados intensivos. É caracterizada por pressão arterial marcadamente elevada e sinais de lesões de órgãos-alvo (encefalopatia, infarto agudo do miocárdio, angina instável, edema agudo de pulmão, eclâmpsia, acidente vascular encefálico. O objetivo deste estudo foi apresentar os principais pontos sobre o seu apropriado diagnóstico e tratamento. Foi realizada busca por artigos originais com os unitermos "crise hipertensiva" e "emergência hipertensiva" nas bases de dados Pubmed e MedLine nos últimos dez anos. As referências disponíveis destes artigos foram verificadas. Os artigos foram identificados e revisados e o presente estudo condensa os principais resultados descritos. Para esta revisão foram considerados ensaios clínicos em língua inglesa, estudos retrospectivos e artigos de revisão. A crise hipertensiva é a entidade clínica com aumento súbito da PA (> 180 x 120 mmHg, acompanhada por sintomas, que podem ser leves (cefaléia, tontura, zumbido ou graves (dispnéia, dor precordial, coma e até morte, com ou sem lesão aguda de órgãos-alvo. Se os sintomas forem leves e sem lesão aguda de órgãos alvos, define-se a urgência hipertensiva. Se o quadro clínico apresentar risco de vida e refletir lesão aguda de órgãos-alvo têm-se, então, a emergência hipertensiva. Muitos pacientes também apresentam uma PA elevada demais, por não usarem suas medicações, tratando-se apenas de hipertensão arterial sistêmica crônica n

  6. Emerging wind energy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Flemming; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Faber, Michael Havbro;

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will discuss emerging technologies that are expected to continue the development of the wind sector to embrace new markets and to become even more competitive.......This chapter will discuss emerging technologies that are expected to continue the development of the wind sector to embrace new markets and to become even more competitive....

  7. The national emergency organisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In any emergency situation, the organisation of the response in France is based on predetermined emergency response plans. These plans define worst-case accident scenarios in terms of safety and the measures necessary to control the accident and to protect the personnel on the sites as well as the general public. (authors)

  8. Emergency Notification Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsouros, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In higher education, the IT department is often the service provider for the institution's emergency notification system (ENS). For many institutions, the complexity of providing emergency notification to students, faculty, and staff makes using a local, on-premise solution unrealistic. But finding the right commercially hosted technical solution…

  9. The Emergence of Ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim; Dalsgård, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The development of new ideas is an essential concern for many design projects. There are, however, few in-depth studies of how such ideas emerge within these contexts. In this article we offer an analysis of the emergence of ideas from specific sources of inspiration, as they arise through...

  10. 开腹及腹腔镜手术切除胆囊治疗结石性胆囊炎对比观察%Comparison observation laparotomy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy treating calculous cholecystitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲杨

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRAC:Objective To compare the effect of open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the treatment of gallstone cholecystitis. Methods in our hospital in January 2013 and 2015 January 100 cases of calculus cholecystitis patients were studied with different surgery were randomly divided into open surgery grouPand the laparoscopic group, there were 50 cases of patients in the laparotomy grouPunderwent conventional open cholecystectomy surgery, the laparoscopic grouPunderwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, of two groups of patients with operation time, incision length, intraoperative bleeding and hospitalization time and other factors compared. Results compared with the open group, the operation time, incision length, blood loss and postoperative pain time of the laparoscopic grouPwere more ideal,P< 0.05, the difference was statistically significant. And, the proportion of complications of open surgery grouPwas 24%, compared with the open group, the probability of complications of laparoscopic grouPwas 12%, significantly lower,P< 0.05, the difference between the two groups was statistically significant.Conclusion laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallstone cholecystitis can achieve good clinical results, it is worthy of clinical application in the future.%目的:将开腹及腹腔镜手术切除胆囊治疗结石性胆囊炎的效果进行对比。方法选取本院2013年1月至2015年1月收治的100例结石性胆囊炎患者进行研究,以手术方式的不同随机分为开腹组与腹腔镜组,两组均有50例患者,开腹组行传统开腹胆囊切除手术,腹腔镜组行腹腔镜胆囊切除术,对两组患者的手术时间、切口长度、术中出血量以及住院时间等因素进行比较。结果与开腹组相比,腹腔镜组的手术时间、切口长度、术中出血量以及术后疼痛时间等更为理想,P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义。并且,开腹组并发症所占比例为24.0%,与开腹组相比,腹

  11. 腹腔镜胆囊切除术与开腹胆囊切除术疗效比较%Clinical effect of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and laparotomy surgical treatment with cholecystolithiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张全轴

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较腹腔镜胆囊切除术与开腹胆囊切除术的临床治疗效果。方法收治胆囊结石患者102例,其中采取四孔法腹腔镜胆囊切除术(腔镜组)50例,采取传统开腹胆囊切除术(对照组)52例,比较两组患者的手术时间、术中出血量、术后首次下床时间、术后通气时间、引流管拔除时间、术后住院时间以及术后并发症发生率。结果腔镜组手术时间平均(61.36±10.23) min,术中出血量(21.04±5.44)ml,术后通气时间(1.70±0.64) d,引流管拔除时间(2.26±0.44) d,术后平均住院时间(3.26± 0.44)d。对照组手术时间平均为(80.08±8.44) min,术中出血量为(76.12±7.43) ml,术后通气时间为(3.08±0.75)d,腔镜组上述指标均优于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论在具备良好的腹腔镜手术技术的基础上行腹腔镜胆囊切除术是安全有效的,值得在基层医院推广。%Objective To compare the clinical effect of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and laparotomy surgical treatment with cholecystolithiasis.Methods A total of 102 patients diagnosed as gallbladder stone in our hospital were selected and randomly divided into experimental group and control group.50 cases in experimental group were treated with four-hole laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 52 cases in control group were received conventional open cholecystectomy.The clinical effect were observed and compared by the two groups.Results In the experimental group, the mean operative time (61.36 ±10.23) min, the bleeding amount (21.04 ±5.44) ml, postoperative ventilation time (1.70 ±0.64) d, drainage tube removal time (2.26 ±0.44) d, the mean postoperative hospital stay time (3.26 ±0.44) d, the results were better than the control group, the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).Postoperative complications had no statistically significant

  12. Transumbilical laparotomy: a cosmetic and minimally invasive operative route in pediatric patients%经脐入路--一种美观与微创的儿童腹部手术径路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爱武; 张文同; 李福海; 崔新海; 刘月忠; 庄岩

    2006-01-01

    目的:探讨婴幼儿腹部手术经脐入路这一微创方法的可行性与实用性.方法:沿肚脐右侧环形皱襞作半环形切开,最大不超过270,经腹直肌或中线剪开腹膜,拖出病变或在切口处直视下进行手术操作,可吸收线皮内缝合脐部切口.结果:2001年1月~2005年1月,57例患儿经脐行58项手术,手术时间20~170min,无1例需扩大皮肤切口或转为传统开腹术.除术后1例小肠闭锁新生儿出现吻合口瘘,无其他并发症.术后5~7d愈痊出院,随访3月~4年,切口美观,无脐疝发生.结论:婴幼儿腹部手术经脐入路安全、简便、微创、美观、实用,适用于多种腹部疾病,在其它手术范围年龄及其他系统疾病都有很好的应用前景.%Objective:The feasibility of a minimally invasive cosmetic transbilical laparotomy was studied in fifty-seven pediatric patients.The advantages of this technique will be discussed.Methods:The circumferential incision was made following the ring fold of the right umblilicus,which was less than 2700.The peritoneum was opened in the midline via rectus abdominis.Intra-peritoneal lesions were detected and explored.The surgical procedures were able to be carried out either inside or outside of the peritoneum.After closure of peritoneum,the umbilical incision was closed subcutaneously with an absorbable suture.Results:From January 2001 to January 2005,58 procedures via transumbilical route have been done in 57 pediatric patients.None of those cases required conversion to a traditional abdominal incision.The duration of surgery was from 20 to 170 minutes.All patients were discharged five days postoperatively and follow-up was conducted from 3 months to 4 years.No complications were observed in all but one patient.This patient had a leaking anastamosis.No visible scars were present and the cosmetic results were excellent.All patients had shorter hospital stay and lower operating cost.Conclusion:Transumbilical approach is a

  13. Evidence-based nursing radical psychological impact on patients undergoing colon cancer with laparotomy%循证护理对开腹结肠癌根治术患者术前心理的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米卫华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the psychological impact of evidence-based care in patients undergoing colon cancer with laparotomy. Methods 80 cases were divided into two groups, each 40 cases, the observation group were implemented evidence-based nursing interventions in this study, the control group were implemented routine care, such as general care, general psychological care, health education, fears, depression, self-assessment, then patients with nursing intervention tables and Self-Rating Anxiety scale score and intraoperative vital signs during the night before 20:00were compared in the two groups. Results The observation group without fear of proportion was higher than control group (P<0.05), the proportion of moderate fear was more than control group (P<0.05), Self-Rating Depression Scale and the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale scores were lower than control group (P<0.05), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure were lower than control group (P<0.05), heart rate was slower than control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion The evidence-based psychological interventions for reducing pre-nursing patients undergoing abdominal cancer treatment anxiety and fear has a positive meaning, it can stable the preoperative vital signs.%目的:探讨循证护理对开腹结肠癌根治术患者术前的心理影响。方法选择患者80例,分为两组,各40例,观察组实施本研究循证护理干预方法,对照组则实施常规护理,如一般护理、普通心理护理,健康教育等,比较两组患者护理干预后恐惧情绪、抑郁自评量表和焦虑自评量表得分以及,术前晚20点时的生命体征。结果观察组术前无恐惧比例高于对照组(P<0.05),中度以上恐惧比例低于对照组(P<0.05),抑郁自评量表和焦虑自评量表得分低于对照组(P<0.05),收缩压、舒张压低于对照组(P<0.05),心率慢于对照组(P<0.05)。结论循证护理心理

  14. Electric power emergency handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labadie, J.R.

    1980-09-01

    The Emergency Electric Power Administration's Emergency Operations Handbook is designed to provide guidance to the EEPA organization. It defines responsibilities and describes actions performed by the government and electric utilities in planning for, and in operations during, national emergencies. The EEPA Handbook is reissued periodically to describe organizational changes, to assign new duties and responsibilities, and to clarify the responsibilities of the government to direct and coordinate the operations of the electric utility industry under emergencies declared by the President. This Handbook is consistent with the assumptions, policies, and procedures contained in the National Plan for Emergency Preparedness. Claimancy and restoration, communications and warning, and effects of nuclear weapons are subjects covered in the appendices.

  15. Associations between performance on an abbreviated CogState battery, other measures of cognitive function, and biomarkers in people at risk for Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Annie M.; Clark, Lindsay R.; Berman, Sara E.; Koscik, Rebecca L.; Mueller, Kimberly D.; Norton, Derek; Nicholas, Christopher R.; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Jedynak, Bruno; Bilgel, Murat; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Christian, Bradley T.; Asthana, Sanjay; Johnson, Sterling C.

    2016-01-01

    It is not known whether computerized cognitive assessments, like the CogState battery, are sensitive to preclinical cognitive changes or pathology in people at risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In 469 late middle-aged participants from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention (mean age 63.8±7 years at testing; 67% female; 39% APOE4+), we examined relationships between a CogState abbreviated battery (CAB) of seven tests and demographic characteristics, traditional paper-based neuropsychological tests as well as a composite cognitive impairment index, cognitive impairment status (determined by consensus review); and biomarkers for amyloid and tau (CSF phosphorylated-tau/Aβ42 and global PET-PiB burden) and neural injury (CSF neurofilament light protein). CSF and PET-PiB were collected in n=71 and n=91 participants, respectively, approximately four years prior to CAB testing. For comparison, we examined three traditional tests of delayed memory in parallel. Similar to studies in older samples, the CAB was less influenced by demographic factors than traditional tests. CAB tests were generally correlated with most paper-based cognitive tests examined and mapped onto the same cognitive domains. Greater composite cognitive impairment index was associated with worse performance on all CAB tests. Cognitively impaired participants performed significantly worse compared to normal controls on all but one CAB test. Poorer One Card Learning test performance was associated with higher levels of CSF phosphorylated-tau/Aβ42. These results support the use of the CogState battery as measures of early cognitive impairment in studies of people at risk for AD. PMID:27589532

  16. Mini laparotomy versus conventional laparotomy for abdominal hysterectomy: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Jai

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Less traumatizing measures for hysterectomies are searched for to improve the recovery from surgery. AIM: Comparison of minilaparotomy abdominal hysterectomy with conventional abdominal hysterectomy in respect to per-operative and post-operative outcome and complications. SETTING AND DESIGN: In a medical college hospital patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy were enrolled. It was a concomitant comparative study. METHODS AND MATERIAL: We are presenting our comparative data of 100 cases of minilaparotomy abdominal hysterectomy (group I, incision =< 6 cm performed over last 4 years from January 1998 to December 2002 and comparing the outcome with 99 cases of abdominal hysterectomy (group II, incision > 6 cm done by traditional method over the same duration. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Chi-square and Fischer test with significance of p value being taken at 0.05 were used for categorical data, while student′s t test was used for continuous data. RESULTS: Mean age and parity of patients were similar in the two groups. Incision was transverse in 100% cases in-group I and 22.2% cases in-group II. Estimated blood loss was significantly higher (354 ml in group II in contrast to group I (240 ml. Blood transfusion was also required more commonly (22.2% in-group II than in-group I (9%. Mean operative time was significantly more in-group II (90 minutes than in group I (41 minutes. Mean hospital stay, day of mobility, starting oral diet and days of injectable analgesics required were higher in group II than in group I. Major complications were rare in both the groups, but minor complications were significantly higher in group II (40.4% than in group I (26%. CONCLUSION: Minilaparotomy abdominal hysterectomy appears to be an attractive alternative to traditional abdominal hysterectomy with fewer complications.

  17. Acute oncological emergencies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gabriel, J

    2012-01-01

    The number of people receiving systemic anti-cancer treatment and presenting at emergency departments with treatment-related problems is rising. Nurses will be the first point of contact for most patients and need to be able to recognise oncological emergencies to initiate urgent assessment of patients and referral to the acute oncology team so that the most appropriate care can be delivered promptly. This article discusses the role of acute oncology services, and provides an overview of the most common acute oncological emergencies.

  18. Cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, D P; Sanidas, E A; Viniou, N A; Gennimata, V; Chantziara, V; Barbetseas, I; Makris, T K

    2015-02-01

    Inevitably, a small proportion of patients with systematic hypertension will develop hypertensive crisis at some point. Hypertensive crises can be divided into hypertensive emergency or hypertensive urgency according to the presence or lack of acute target organ damage. In this review, we discuss cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies, including acute coronary syndrome, aortic dissection, congestive heart failure, and sympathomimetic hypertensive crises, including those caused by cocaine use. Each presents in a unique fashion, although some hypertensive emergency patients report nonspecific symptoms. Treatment includes several effective and rapid-acting medications to safely reduce the blood pressure, protect remaining end-organ function, relieve symptoms, minimize the risk of complications, and thereby improve patient outcomes.

  19. Monitoring equine visceral pain with a composite pain scale score and correlation with survival after emergency gastrointestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Johannes P A M; Jonckheer-Sheehy, Valerie S M; Back, Willem; van Weeren, P René; Hellebrekers, Ludo J

    2014-04-01

    Recognition and management of equine pain have been studied extensively in recent decades and this has led to significant advances. However, there is still room for improvement in the ability to identify and treat pain in horses that have undergone emergency gastrointestinal surgery. This study assessed the validity and clinical application of the composite pain scale (CPS) in horses after emergency gastrointestinal surgery. Composite pain scores were determined every 4h over 3 days following emergency gastrointestinal surgery in 48 horses. Inter-observer reliability was determined and another composite visceral pain score (numerical rating scale, NRS) was determined simultaneously with CPS scores. CPS scores had higher inter-observer reliability (r=0.87, K=0.84, Pscores (r=0.68, K=0.72, Pscores compared to horses that were euthanased or had to undergo re-laparotomy (Pscores. In conclusion, the use of the CPS improved objectivity of pain scoring in horses following emergency gastrointestinal surgery. High inter-observer reliability allows for comparisons between different observers. This will be of great benefit in larger veterinary hospitals where several attending clinicians are often involved in the care of each case.

  20. Emergency Notification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID ENS provides quick and effective notification messages during any emergency affecting the Ronald Reagan Building, SA-44, Potomac Yards and USAID...

  1. Recognizing medical emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... there in an emergency. Wear a medical identification tag if you have a chronic condition or look ... to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein ...

  2. OEM Emergency Response Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Emergency Management retains records of all incident responses in which it participates. This data asset includes three major sources of information:...

  3. Emerging topics in FXTAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Deborah A; Birch, Rachael C; Anheim, Mathieu;

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes key emerging issues in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) as presented at the First International Conference on the FMR1 Premutation: Basic Mechanisms & Clinical Involvement in 2013....

  4. Reduction, Emergence and Renormalization

    CERN Document Server

    Butterfield, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    In previous work, I described several examples combining reduction and emergence: where reduction is understood a la Ernest Nagel, and emergence is understood as behaviour or properties that are novel (by some salient standard). Here, my aim is again to reconcile reduction and emergence, for a case which is apparently more problematic than those I treated before: renormalization. Renormalization is a vast subject. So I confine myself to emphasizing how the modern approach to renormalization (initiated by Wilson and others between 1965 and 1975), when applied to quantum field theories, illustrates both Nagelian reduction and emergence. My main point is that the modern understanding of how renormalizability is a generic feature of quantum field theories at accessible energies gives us a conceptually unified family of Nagelian reductions. That is worth saying since philosophers tend to think of scientific explanation as only explaining an individual event, or perhaps a single law, or at most deducing one theory ...

  5. Emergency medicine in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Lowan H; Trunkey, Donald; Rebagliati, G Steve

    2007-01-01

    Recent events, including the development of space tourism and commercial spaceflight, have increased the need for specialists in space medicine. With increased duration of missions and distance from Earth, medical and surgical events will become inevitable. Ground-based medical support will no longer be adequate when return to Earth is not an option. Pending the inclusion of sub-specialists, clinical skills and medical expertise will be required that go beyond those of current physician-astronauts, yet are well within the scope of Emergency Medicine. Emergency physicians have the necessary broad knowledge base as well as proficiency in basic surgical skills and management of the critically ill and injured. Space medicine shares many attributes with extreme conditions and environments that many emergency physicians already specialize in. This article is an introduction to space medicine, and a review of current issues in the emergent management of medical and surgical disease during spaceflight. PMID:17239732

  6. Hypoglycemia in Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jang Su

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: When hypoglycemic patients present in the emergency department, physicians should pay attention to the presence of infection, malignancy, liver diseases (liver cirrhosis and biliary tract infection, and acute renal failure.

  7. Emergency abdominoplasty following trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliman M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of modified abdominoplasty done on emergency basis to a 37 years old male with acute abdominal wall injury due to road traffic accident. We discuss the case and review the literature.

  8. Emergency Preparedness at NCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information to help prepare for an emergency. Includes resources for patients and health care providers to continue cancer care, NCI contacts for grantees, and resources to prepare and update NCI employees and contractors.

  9. Nuclear emergencies: medical preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This note outlines C.E.G.B. facilities and emergency plans to deal with casualties of on site radiation accidents, tested each year under the auspices of the U.K. HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate. (U.K.)

  10. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  11. Emerging Targets in Photopharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lerch, Michael M; Hansen, Mickel J; van Dam, Gooitzen M; Szymanski, Wiktor; Feringa, Ben L

    2016-01-01

    The field of photopharmacology uses molecular photoswitches to establish control over the action of bioactive molecules. It aims to reduce systemic drug toxicity and the emergence of resistance, while achieving unprecedented precision in treatment. By using small molecules, photopharmacology provide

  12. An emergency exercise experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emergency exercises are held to satisfy regulatory requirements and to hopefully improve emergency response. Unfortunately, simply satisfying the requirement is often the principle concern of those who plan drills. Argonne National Laboratory has detailed emergency plans, and each Division is required to have an emergency exercise at least once each year. However, the pressure to minimize time taken from research efforts reduces the value of many exercises. During the past year, the Health Physics Section at ANL made an effort to optimize the information and training obtained in the time allotted for a drill. The purpose of this presentation is to share our approach and the results of one experience with the anticipation that it will stimulate others to critically look at emergency exercises in their organizations. To be of value, an emergency response exercise must have clear objectives, allow organized reporting, contain a documented follow-up critique, and provide for correction of deficiencies in training and in the emergency plan. A mock criticality incident at ANL was used to test specific emergency response capabilities. The objectives of the 45 minute exercise included testing: (1) how well Health Physics, Fire Department, and Medical personnel would deal with the unexpected find of an unconscientious, contaminated person in a high radiation field; (2) the capability to quickly predict environmental radioactivity concentration for a surprise mock stack release of fission products; (3) the time required and accuracy for dose assessment from personnel dosimeters, criticality dosimeters and samples of blood and hair which were irradiated to known doses in the Argonne Janus reactor; (4) how well Health Physics personnel would identify and sort 'exposed persons' who had no dosimeters (small radioactive sources were hidden on select persons); and (5) how persons from the evacuated building would be accounted for. As a result of findings, special Health Physics

  13. Emerging technologies in surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satava, R.M. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Surgery; Gaspari, A.; Di Lorenzo, N. (eds.) [Roem-2 Univ. (Italy). Dept. of General Surgery

    2007-07-01

    Tremendous acceleration and changes in scientific discovery and progress are presently occurring. These important emerging technologies that will affect the practicing surgeon within the next 10 to 20 years are illustrated in detail in this volume. Its purpose is not to review clinical experience of the common surgical practice of the past decade, but to outline and illustrate the future trends. International experts in this field demonstrate emerging procedures and significant advances. (orig.)

  14. Emerging contaminants in groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, M.E.; Manamsa, K.; J. C. Talbot; Crane, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    The term ‘emerging contaminants’ is generally used to refer to compounds previously not considered or known to be significant to groundwater (in terms of distribution and/or concentration) which are now being more widely detected. As analytical techniques improve, previously undetected organic micropollutants are being observed in the aqueous environment. Many emerging contaminants remain unregulated, but the number of regulated contaminants will continue to grow slowly over th...

  15. Accident and emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing potential for severe accidents as the industrial development tends towards large, centralised production units. In several industries this has led to the formation of large organisations which are prepared for accidents fighting and for emergency management. The functioning of these organisations critically depends upon efficient decision making and exchange of information. This project is aimed at securing and possibly improving the functionality and efficiency of the accident and emergency management by verifying, demonstrating, and validating the possible use of advanced information technology in the organisations mentioned above. With the nuclear industry in focus the project consists of five main activities: 1) The study and detailed analysis of accident and emergency scenarios based on records from incidents and rills in nuclear installations. 2) Development of a conceptual understanding of accident and emergency management with emphasis on distributed decision making, information flow, and control structure sthat are involved. 3) Development of a general experimental methodology for evaluating the effects of different kinds of decision aids and forms of organisation for emergency management systems with distributed decision making. 4) Development and test of a prototype system for a limited part of an accident and emergency organisation to demonstrate the potential use of computer and communication systems, data-base and knowledge base technology, and applications of expert systems and methods used in artificial intelligence. 5) Production of guidelines for the introduction of advanced information technology in the organisations based on evaluation and validation of the prototype system. (author)

  16. Characterizing emergency departments to improve understanding of emergency care systems

    OpenAIRE

    Steptoe, Anne P; Corel, Blanka; Sullivan, Ashley F; Camargo, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    International emergency medicine aims to understand different systems of emergency care across the globe. To date, however, international emergency medicine lacks common descriptors that can encompass the wide variety of emergency care systems in different countries. The frequent use of general, system-wide indicators (e.g. the status of emergency medicine as a medical specialty or the presence of emergency medicine training programs) does not account for the diverse methods that contribute t...

  17. Fatal pancreatic pseudocyst co-infected by Raoultella planticola: an emerging pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Fernando Peixoto Ferraz; Guimarães, Tiago Borges; Lovisolo, Silvana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Raoultella planticola is an aerobic Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. Initially identified in the 1980s, its pathogenic potential was further recognized when the first case of bacteremia was reported. Since then, only a few infections caused by this pathogen have been described. Although considered an opportunistic agent, fatal outcomes are associated with the infection by this pathogen, since it is more prevalent among the patients with immunodeficiency. The authors report the case of a middle-aged man diagnosed with end-stage renal disease and alcoholic pancreatitis, who was admitted to the emergency department with septic shock. Physical examination disclosed peritoneal irritation and a laparotomy was undertaken. Purulent peritonitis was found as well as a retroperitoneal abscess, which was drained. The postoperative period was troublesome, and the patient died. The autopsy showed a ruptured, infected pancreatic cyst and purulent peritonitis, among other findings. The culture of the peritoneal fluid and two blood sample sets were positive for R. planticola. The authors call attention to the importance of this emerging pathogen associated with severe gastrointestinal infections. PMID:27547740

  18. Fatal pancreatic pseudocyst co-infected by Raoultella planticola: an emerging pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Fernando Peixoto Ferraz; Guimarães, Tiago Borges; Lovisolo, Silvana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Raoultella planticola is an aerobic Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. Initially identified in the 1980s, its pathogenic potential was further recognized when the first case of bacteremia was reported. Since then, only a few infections caused by this pathogen have been described. Although considered an opportunistic agent, fatal outcomes are associated with the infection by this pathogen, since it is more prevalent among the patients with immunodeficiency. The authors report the case of a middle-aged man diagnosed with end-stage renal disease and alcoholic pancreatitis, who was admitted to the emergency department with septic shock. Physical examination disclosed peritoneal irritation and a laparotomy was undertaken. Purulent peritonitis was found as well as a retroperitoneal abscess, which was drained. The postoperative period was troublesome, and the patient died. The autopsy showed a ruptured, infected pancreatic cyst and purulent peritonitis, among other findings. The culture of the peritoneal fluid and two blood sample sets were positive for R. planticola. The authors call attention to the importance of this emerging pathogen associated with severe gastrointestinal infections.

  19. Fatal pancreatic pseudocyst co-infected by Raoultella planticola: an emerging pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Tiago Borges; Lovisolo, Silvana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Raoultella planticola is an aerobic Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. Initially identified in the 1980s, its pathogenic potential was further recognized when the first case of bacteremia was reported. Since then, only a few infections caused by this pathogen have been described. Although considered an opportunistic agent, fatal outcomes are associated with the infection by this pathogen, since it is more prevalent among the patients with immunodeficiency. The authors report the case of a middle-aged man diagnosed with end-stage renal disease and alcoholic pancreatitis, who was admitted to the emergency department with septic shock. Physical examination disclosed peritoneal irritation and a laparotomy was undertaken. Purulent peritonitis was found as well as a retroperitoneal abscess, which was drained. The postoperative period was troublesome, and the patient died. The autopsy showed a ruptured, infected pancreatic cyst and purulent peritonitis, among other findings. The culture of the peritoneal fluid and two blood sample sets were positive for R. planticola. The authors call attention to the importance of this emerging pathogen associated with severe gastrointestinal infections. PMID:27547740

  20. Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... store an emergency water supply. Visit the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Website for additional guidance on preparing and storing an emergency water supply. Look for other sources of water ...

  1. Cross-validation of the factorial structure of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS and its abbreviated form (NEWS-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerin Ester

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS and its abbreviated form (NEWS-A assess perceived environmental attributes believed to influence physical activity. A multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA conducted on a sample from Seattle, WA showed that, at the respondent level, the factor-analyzable items of the NEWS and NEWS-A measured 11 and 10 constructs of perceived neighborhood environment, respectively. At the census blockgroup (used by the US Census Bureau as a subunit of census tracts level, the MCFA yielded five factors for both NEWS and NEWS-A. The aim of this study was to cross-validate the individual- and blockgroup-level measurement models of the NEWS and NEWS-A in a geographical location and population different from those used in the original validation study. Methods A sample of 912 adults was recruited from 16 selected neighborhoods (116 census blockgroups in the Baltimore, MD region. Neighborhoods were stratified according to their socio-economic status and transport-related walkability level measured using Geographic Information Systems. Participants self-completed the NEWS. MCFA was used to cross-validate the individual- and blockgroup-level measurement models of the NEWS and NEWS-A. Results The data provided sufficient support for the factorial validity of the original individual-level measurement models, which consisted of 11 (NEWS and 10 (NEWS-A correlated factors. The original blockgroup-level measurement model of the NEWS and NEWS-A showed poor fit to the data and required substantial modifications. These included the combining of aspects of building aesthetics with safety from crime into one factor; the separation of natural aesthetics and building aesthetics into two factors; and for the NEWS-A, the separation of presence of sidewalks/walking routes from other infrastructure for walking. Conclusion This study provided support for the generalizability of the individual

  2. Correlation between serum ferritin levels and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom scores in children based on the Abbreviated Conners Teachers Rating Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Alita Putri Tumbelaka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Dopamine deficiency is thought to be one of the factors causing attention-deficit /hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children. Iron contributes to the regulation of dopamine neurotransmitter activity, thus, iron deficiency has been associated with ADHD. Several studies have been conducted in other countries to assess for a correlation between serum ferritin levels and ADHD symptom scores, but with varied results. Objective To examine the relationship between iron deficiency and ADHD symptoms, in particular the correlation between serum ferritin levels and Abbreviated Conners Teachers Rrating Scale (ACTRS scores in children with ADHD. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed in children aged 5-12 years who were newly diagnosed with ADHD. Subjects were recruited from the Klinik Anakku Kelapa Gading, the Neurology Outpatient Clinic, the Growth and Development-Social Pediatrics Clinic, and the Integrated Child Clinic of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. ADHD diagnoses were established using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSMm-IV. Subjects’ parents and teachers were asked to complete the ACTRS instrument sheet. Venous blood specimens were obtained for peripheral blood and serum ferritin level tests. Results Of the 33 subjects recruited, 23 were male. Subjects’ ages ranged from 5-12 years, with a median age of onset of 4 (range 2-10 years. The combined type of ADHD (with inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity was more commonly found (20/33 in our subjects. The mean serum ferritin was 51.31 (SD 27.7 ng/mL. Using 20 ng/mL as the serum ferritin cutoff value, 5/33 subjects were considered to be iron deficient. Median ACTRS score by parents and teachers were 15 and 15, respectively. Higher scores were found in the combined type subject group than in the inattention type subject group. Mmedian serum ferritin levels of the two ADHD type groups were similar. ACTRS scores of parents and teachers tended to

  3. Management of blunt hepatic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letoublon, C; Amariutei, A; Taton, N; Lacaze, L; Abba, J; Risse, O; Arvieux, C

    2016-08-01

    For the last 20 years, nonoperative management (NOM) of blunt hepatic trauma (BHT) has been the initial policy whenever this is possible (80% of cases), i.e., in all cases where the hemodynamic status does not demand emergency laparotomy. NOM relies upon the coexistence of three highly effective treatment modalities: radiology with contrast-enhanced computerized tomography (CT) and hepatic arterial embolization, intensive care surveillance, and finally delayed surgery (DS). DS is not a failure of NOM management but rather an integral part of the surgical strategy. When imposed by hemodynamic instability, the immediate surgical option has seen its effectiveness transformed by development of the concept of abbreviated (damage control) laparotomy and wide application of the method of perihepatic packing (PHP). The effectiveness of these two conservative and cautious strategies for initial management is evidenced by current experience, but the management of secondary events that may arise with the most severe grades of injury must be both rapid and effective. PMID:27519150

  4. Emergence and Phase Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkema, Arnold

    2006-05-01

    Phase transitions are well defined in physics through concepts such as spontaneous symmetry breaking, order parameter, entropy, and critical exponents. But emergence --- also exhibiting whole-part relations (such as top-down influence), unpredictability, and insensitivity to microscopic detail --- is a loosely-defined concept being used in many disciplines, particularly in psychology, biology, philosophy, as well as in physics[1,2]. I will review the concepts of emergence as used in the various fields and consider the extent to which the methods of phase transitions can clarify the usefulness of the concept of emergence both within the discipline of physics and beyond.1. Robert B. Laughlin, A Different Universe: Reinventing Physics from the Bottom Down (New York: Basic Books, 2005). 2. George F.R. Ellis, ``Physics and the Real World'', Physics Today, vol. 58, no. 7 (July 2005) pp. 49-54.

  5. Hanford Emergency Response Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Emergency Response Plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), incorporates into one document an overview of the emergency management program for the Hanford Site. The program has been developed in accordance with DOE orders, and state and federal regulations to protect worker and public health and safety and the environment in the event of an emergency at or affecting the Hanford Site. This plan provides a description of how the Hanford Site will implement the provisions of DOE 5500 series and other applicable Orders in terms of overall policies and concept of operations. It should be used as the basis, along with DOE Orders, for the development of specific contractor and RL implementing procedures

  6. Emerging foodborne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altekruse, S F; Cohen, M L; Swerdlow, D L

    1997-01-01

    The epidemiology of foodborne diseases is rapidly changing. Recently described pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and the epidemic strain of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium Definitive Type 104 (which is resistant to at least five antimicrobial drugs), have become important public health problems. Well-recognized pathogens, such as Salmonella serotype Enteritidis, have increased in prevalence or become associated with new vehicles. Emergence in foodborne diseases is driven by the same forces as emergence in other infectious diseases: changes in demographic characteristics, human behavior, industry, and technology; the shift toward a global economy; microbial adaptation; and the breakdown in the public health infrastructure. Addressing emerging foodborne diseases will require more sensitive and rapid surveillance, enhanced methods of laboratory identification and subtyping, and effective prevention and control. PMID:9284372

  7. Hanford Emergency Response Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Emergency Response Plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), incorporates into one document an overview of the emergency management program for the Hanford Site. The program has been developed in accordance with DOE orders, and state and federal regulations to protect worker and public health and safety and the environment in the event of an emergency at or affecting the Hanford Site. This plan provides a description of how the Hanford Site will implement the provisions of DOE 5500 series and other applicable Orders in terms of overall policies and concept of operations. It should be used as the basis, along with DOE Orders, for the development of specific contractor and RL implementing procedures.

  8. Emergent technologies: 25 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, Hawley K.

    2013-03-01

    This paper will talk about the technologies that have been emerging over the 25 years since the Human Vision and Electronic Imaging conference began that the conference has been a part of, and that have been a part of the conference, and will look at those technologies that are emerging today, such as social networks, haptic technologies, and still emerging imaging technologies, and what we might look at for the future.Twenty-five years is a long time, and it is not without difficulty that we remember what was emerging in the late 1980s. Yet to be developed: The first commercial digital still camera was not yet on the market, although there were hand held electronic cameras. Personal computers were not displaying standardized images, and image quality was not something that could be talked about in a standardized fashion, if only because image compression algorithms were not standardized yet for several years hence. Even further away were any standards for movie compression standards, there was no personal computer even on the horizon which could display them. What became an emergent technology and filled many sessions later, image comparison and search, was not possible, nor the current emerging technology of social networks- the world wide web was still several years away. Printer technology was still devising dithers and image size manipulations which would consume many years, as would scanning technology, and image quality for both was a major issue for dithers and Fourier noise.From these humble beginnings to the current moves that are changing computing and the meaning of both electronic devices and human interaction with them, we will see a course through the changing technology that holds some features constant for many years, while others come and go.

  9. Preparing for Emergency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchiors, Jacob; Todsen, Tobias; Nilsson, Philip;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Emergency cricothyrodotomy (EC) is a lifesaving procedure. Evidence-based assessment of training effects and competency levels is relevant to all departments involved in emergency airway management. As most training uses low-fidelity models, the predictive value of good performance...... on such a model becomes relevant with regard to performance on a high-fidelity model (cadaver). This requires a valid assessment tool for EC performance. STUDY DESIGN: Psychometric study on low-fidelity models and human cadavers. SETTING: University hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: An assessment tool was created...

  10. LARYNGEAL MYXOMA : EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhram Singh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A sixty five years male presented with stridor and dysphonia in emergency clinic of Govt. CIMS medical college, Bilaspur. Indirect laryngoscopic examination revealed a polypoidal lesion in glottic chink. CT scan evaluation confirmed the findings of clinical examination. Patient was relived of symptoms after emergency tracheostomy followed by surgical removal of polypoidal lesion from right vocal cord by microlaryngeal surgery. Histopathological examination revealed myxoma. Clinical examination after eight months showed significant improvement in hoarseness of voice with no evidence of recurrence of lesion. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(2.000: 175-177

  11. Plant emergency procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, P.

    1959-10-01

    Emergency procedures are given for the water plant, effluents, contamination, criticality and storage basin ruptures. For the water supply: a loss of flow to a single tube, loss of flow to several tubes, interruption of river flow, breach of Grand Coulee dam, and evacuation are all considered. For the failure of the effluent system: blockage or rupture of effluent lines, retention basin, or outfall line; and downcomer overflow or failure are discussed. An emergency resulting in the spread of contamination is examined. Hypothetical criticality accidents in dry or wet storage are discussed.

  12. [Endocrine emergencies during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbeck, B; Schütt, M; Sayk, F

    2012-03-01

    Endocrine emergencies during pregnancy can become life-threatening for both mother and fetus. In addition to some pregnancy-linked endocrine disorders, several pre-existing forms of endocrinopathy, such as Grave's disease, type 1 diabetes and adrenal insufficiency might deteriorate acutely during pregnancy. Early diagnosis and management are challenging because the classical symptoms are often modified by pregnancy. Laboratory tests are subject to altered physiological ranges and pharmacological options are limited while therapeutic goals are stricter than in the non-pregnant patient. This article focuses on endocrine emergencies complicating pregnancy. PMID:22349529

  13. Hemograma e proteinograma plasmático de eqüinos hígidos e de eqüinos acometidos por abdômem agudo, antes e após laparotomia Hemogram and plasma proteins of healthy horses and horses with acute abdomen before and after laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Fagliari

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados 20 eqüinos adultos, 10 sadios e 10 acometidos por abdômen agudo, submetidos à laparotomia. O exame clínico e a colheita de amostras de sangue foram realizados antes da laparotomia e diariamente, a partir da cirurgia, até o 10º dia após a intervenção. Constatou-se elevação da temperatura retal, das freqüências cardíaca e respiratória, do número de hemácias e de leucócitos, do volume globular e dos valores das proteínas plasmáticas após a cirurgia, em ambos os grupos, porém com valores mais elevados nos animais enfermos, especialmente do número de neutrófilos. O proteinograma plasmático dos eqüinos com abdômen agudo mostrou que houve elevação significativa nas concentrações de proteínas na fase aguda com maiores valores ao redor de 48 horas após a cirurgia. Os resultados indicaram que o padrão de elevação e decréscimo dessas proteínas pode ser útil na definição do prognóstico do quadro clínico de abdômen agudo e da recuperação cirúrgica dos eqüinos.Hemogram and plasma protein concentrations of healthy horses and horses affected with acute abdomen before and after laparotomy were determined to investigate if these determinations can be of help on the diagnosis and prognosis of the post-operative intercurrence. The body temperature, respiratory and heart rates, red blood cell, leukocyte and neutrophil counts, packed cell volume, and plasma protein concentrations increased after laparotomy, mainly in sick horses. Acute phase protein concentrations were higher in the horses affected with acute abdomen than in the healthy horses with the highest values detected at about 48 hours after surgery. The results suggest that determining the level of these proteins can be useful for the diagnosis and prognosis of post-operative recovery after laparotomy in healthy horses and in horses affected with acute abdomen.

  14. Emergency Contraception: a survey of Hospital Emergency Departments Staffs

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Bo; Ivo Casagranda; Mario Galzerano; Lorena Charrier; Maria Michela Gianino

    2011-01-01

    The World Health Organization defines emergency contraception (EC) as a means to prevent unwanted pregnancy. In countries where EC is dispensed behind the counter, emergency departments are a preferred point of care for its prescription and dispensing. In light of this situation and as no studies on emergency contraception in emergency departments in Italy have been conducted to date, this study was designed with a view to analyze the responses of emergency room physicians in relation to thei...

  15. Fire Department Emergency Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services

  16. The Emergence of Quantifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Pauw; J. Hilferty

    2012-01-01

    Human natural languages use quantifiers as ways to designate the number of objects of a set. They include numerals, such as "three", or circumscriptions, such as "a few". The latter are not only underdetermined but also context dependent. We provide a cultural-evolution explanation for the emergence

  17. Fire Department Emergency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.

    1997-09-01

    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services.

  18. Emergent Gauge Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Freund, Peter G O

    2010-01-01

    Erik Verlinde's proposal of the emergence of the gravitational force as an entropic force is extended to abelian and non-abelian gauge fields and to matter fields. This suggests a picture with no fundamental forces or forms of matter whatsoever.

  19. Emergency medicine in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, J R

    1997-04-01

    The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is one of the poorest countries in the world. Recent economic developments, as the country attempts to start a market economy, have had a profound impact on its health care system. This report describes the state of prehospital and emergency medical care in Vietnam and possibilities for the future.

  20. [Medical emergency teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunkenborg, G.; Lund, C.; Petersen, John Asger

    2008-01-01

    The aim of medical emergency teams (MET) is to identify and treat deteriorating patients on general wards, and to avoid cardiac arrest, unplanned intensive care unit admission and death. The effectiveness of METs has yet to be proven, as the only two randomised, controlled trials on the subject...

  1. Emerging Presidential Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Thomas C.; Pitsvada, Bernard T.

    1993-01-01

    A study of the state of the college presidency revealed that five broad management issues have emerged: conflict resolution, coping with change, achieving continuity, need for increased collaboration, and justice and ethics in the education enterprise. Implications for managerial practice in the future are analyzed. (MSE)

  2. LNG - emergency control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berardinelli, Ricardo Porto; Correa, Kleber Macedo; Moura Filho, Nelson Barboza de; Fernandez, Carlos Antonio [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Matos, Jose Eduardo Nogueira de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The operation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is pioneering within the PETROBRAS System. PETROBRAS Transporte - TRANSPETRO is going to operate two flexible LNG terminals, located in Ceara and Rio de Janeiro. In accordance with the Corporate Health, Safety and Environmental (HSE) Directive - Training, Education and Awareness, PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO has prepared an action plan with the objective of ensuring the operational safety of the undertaking. Among other actions a training program for the emergency control of LNG will be inserted into the timetable. The above mentioned training program was held over a period of 20 hours, and was divided between theory and practice. In the theoretical part, the characteristics of the product, the history of accidents and the emergency response procedures were covered. In the practical part, 3000 gallons of LNG were utilized where the behavior of the product could be confirmed following a confined leak, thereby verifying the efficacy of the emergency control resources. The teaching process of the course was developed in the company through the preparation of specific procedures, emergency plans and the formation of internal instructors. (author)

  3. CT of Gastric Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guniganti, Preethi; Bradenham, Courtney H; Raptis, Constantine; Menias, Christine O; Mellnick, Vincent M

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting are common presenting symptoms among adult patients seeking care in the emergency department, and, with the increased use of computed tomography (CT) to image patients with these complaints, radiologists will more frequently encounter a variety of emergent gastric pathologic conditions on CT studies. Familiarity with the CT appearance of emergent gastric conditions is important, as the clinical presentation is often nonspecific and the radiologist may be the first to recognize gastric disease as the cause of a patient's symptoms. Although endoscopy and barium fluoroscopy remain important tools for evaluating patients with suspected gastric disease in the outpatient setting, compared with CT these modalities enable less comprehensive evaluation of patients with nonspecific complaints and are less readily available in the acute setting. Endoscopy is also more invasive than CT and has greater potential risks. Although the mucosal detail of CT is relatively poor compared with barium fluoroscopy or endoscopy, CT can be used with the appropriate imaging protocols to identify inflammatory conditions of the stomach ranging from gastritis to peptic ulcer disease. In addition, CT can readily demonstrate the various complications of gastric disease, including perforation, obstruction, and hemorrhage, which may direct further clinical, endoscopic, or surgical management. We will review the normal anatomy of the stomach and discuss emergent gastric disease with a focus on the usual clinical presentation, typical imaging appearance, and differentiating features, as well as potential imaging pitfalls.

  4. Emergency medicine: beyond the basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S F

    1997-07-01

    Medical emergencies can arise in the dental office. Preparedness for these emergencies is predicated on an ability to rapidly recognize a problem and to effectively institute prompt and proper management. In all emergency situations, management is based on implementation of basic life support, as needed. The author describes the appropriate management of two common emergency situations: allergy and chest pain.

  5. On the Reality of Emergents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charbel Niño El-Hani

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The controversy over the notion of emergence has recently re-emerged But a rigorous debate concerning how it might be explained or defined often lacking Emergence is discussed heir under two strict conditions (I emergents can be predictable from the knowledge about a system's parts, (11 emergents can be regarded as dependent on, and determined by, the system's micro-structure O’Connor’s definition of an emergent property is taken as a starting-point for a new definition, incorporating Emmeche and colleagues’ analysis of downward causation and Baas' treatment of emergence It is not necessary to assume that das definition might provide die solution to the problem of emergence Rather, theoretical pluralism regarding different pragmatically-workable notions of emergence is welcome The reality of emergents is discussed here from the standpoint of Dennet’s mild realism.

  6. A Study of Abbreviation Identification in Official Documents Based on Bivariate Correlations%基于二元相关性的公文缩略语识别研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙启高

    2014-01-01

    运用相关性理论,建立1200多万字的当代汉语政教类公文抽样语料库,在对语料库进行分词、标注等加工的基础上,对其中词语的二元相关性组合进行了抽样统计分析,以此为基础对双音节缩略语进行识别和抽取,获得了比较理想的结果,为缩略语的自动识别和公文自动理解提供了新的思路和方法。%According to the correlation theory , this paper establishes a contemporary Chinese political and educational documents corpus which has more than 12 million words . The data are analyzed based on the corpus segmentation , tagging and processing . The results of identifying and extracting double syllable abbreviations based on the statistics and analysis are satisfactory , w hich provides more ideas and methods for the automatic identification of abbreviations and understanding of the official documents .

  7. 腹腔镜及开腹手术对胆囊切除后患者肠粘连的临床疗效比较%Clinical efficacy comparison of cystic resection postoperative bowel adhe-sion between the laparoscopic surgey and traditional laparotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成陕林; 胡娟娟; 王新民

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较腹腔镜和传统开腹胆囊切除手术对术后肠粘连的发生率的影响,同时比较两种手术方法对患者术后生存质量的影响。方法随机抽取2012年3月~2014年3月咸阳市中心医院治疗的158例胆囊切除患者,其中开腹胆囊手术患者(开腹组)76例,腹腔镜手术患者(腹腔镜组)82例。通过术后观察与随访,调查两组手术患者术后肠粘连发生率,并且应用消化病生存质量指数(CLQI)对术后患者的生存质量值进行测定。结果腹腔镜组手术时间、术后疼痛时间、排气排便时间、术后下床活动时间、住院时间分别为(57.3±7.2)min、(36.8±4.5)h、(22.6±2.9)h、(20.8±2.9)h、(6.6±0.8)d,明显低于开腹组[(83.9±9.1)min、(72.1±9.7)h、(35.9±4.5)h、(25.4±3.5)h、(10.7±1.3)d],两组比较差异均有统计学意义(P0.05),术后6个月及1年,开腹组患者CLQI[(116.6±11.7)、(119.6±12.3)分]接近正常水平(120~125分),腹腔镜组[(120.5±12.1)、(123.8±12.6)分]已达到正常范围。结论腹腔镜胆囊切除手术较开腹胆囊切除手术肠粘连并发症发生率低,而且术后患者生存质量比后者高,值得进一步应用和推广。%Objective To compare the incidence of postoperative bowel adhesion between the laparoscopic and tradi-tional laparotomy for cystic resection, and compare the postoperative survival quality of patients. Methods 158 patients with gallbladder disease were included from March 2012 to March 2014 in the Center Hospital of Xianyang City. 76 cases were treated with traditional laparotomy for cystic resection (laparotomy group), 82 cases were treated with laparo-scopic for cystic resection (laparoscopic group). The incidence of postoperative bowel adhesion and digestive disease postoperative quality of life index (CLQI) of patients in two groups were observed. Results Operative time, postoperative pain time, exhaust or defecate time, postoperative ambulation time, length of hospital stay of

  8. Emerging and Disruptive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Several emerging or disruptive technologies can be identified that might, at some point in the future, displace established laboratory medicine technologies and practices. These include increased automation in the form of robots, 3-D printing, technology convergence (e.g., plug-in glucose meters for smart phones), new point-of-care technologies (e.g., contact lenses with sensors, digital and wireless enabled pregnancy tests) and testing locations (e.g., Retail Health Clinics, new at-home testing formats), new types of specimens (e.g., cell free DNA), big biology/data (e.g., million genome projects), and new regulations (e.g., for laboratory developed tests). In addition, there are many emerging technologies (e.g., planar arrays, mass spectrometry) that might find even broader application in the future and therefore also disrupt current practice. One interesting source of disruptive technology may prove to be the Qualcomm Tricorder XPrize, currently in its final stages. PMID:27683538

  9. How Emergent is Gravity?

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Swastik

    2015-01-01

    General theory of relativity (or Lovelock extensions) is a dynamical theory; given an initial configuration on a space-like hypersurface, it makes a definite prediction of the final configuration. Recent developments suggest that gravity may be described in terms of macroscopic parameters. It finds a concrete manifestation in the fluid-gravity correspondence. Most of the efforts till date has been to relate equilibrium configurations in gravity with fluid variables. In order for the emergent paradigm to be truly successful, it has to provide a statistical mechanical derivation of how a given initial static configuration evolves into another. In this essay, we show that the energy transport equation governed by the fluctuations of the horizon-fluid is similar to Raychaudhuri equation and, hence gravity is truly emergent.

  10. Emergent Use-Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Jens Kaaber; Simonsen, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    When a networked organisation chooses to invest a considerable amount of esources in deploying a groupware application the reasons and goals can vary. No matter why the groupware was initially deployed it is in general very difficult to monitor and evaluate how it is actually used and integrated...... with the work practice. This research-in-progress investigates the possibilities of evaluating the integration by characterising emergent use-patterns. We have studied the deployment and use of a generic web based groupware application – Lotus QuickPlace (QP) – in a large networked organisation distributed...... deployment. The ongoing research has been carried out since the initial installation of the application in summer 2000, and has identified different types of general use-patterns, which have emerged in the subsequent use of the groupware in the organisation. We examine four cases of QP use and describe...

  11. Hantaviruses as emergent zoonoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LS Ullmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses belong to the Bunyaviridae family, which consists of vector-borne viruses. These viruses can provoke two infection types: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS - which occurs in the Old World - and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS - an emergent zoonosis that can be found in many countries of the western hemisphere. Rodents are hantavirus reservoirs and each species seems to host a different virus type. Humans acquire the infection by inhaling contaminated aerosol particles eliminated by infected animals. The factors involved in the emergence of hantavirus infections in the human population include ecological modifications and changes in human activities. The most important risk factor is contact between man and rodents, as a result of agricultural, forestry or military activities. Rodent control remains the primary strategy for preventing hantavirus diseases, including via health education and hygienic habits.

  12. The Emerging City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    ” – urban furniture that was originally part of an election campaign for the cultural minister of Denmark, will illustrate how both political and artistic signatures become deterritorialized through urban space, time and every day social use. The second example is taken from corporate city development at...... the urban milieu and how other meanings emerge. In the last example, Relocation of beer drinkers on Enghave Square, Copenhagen, I will highlight how a heterogeneous assemblages of architecture, urban design, artistic intervention and every day social life has constructed continuums of intensities over...... a period of time thus establishing an emergent urban space divergent from both the intentions of the planner, architect, artist and user. Through the examples, I suggest that each urban body or design deterritorialize connecting with the city. Broadening up the perspective, I ask whether...

  13. Emergency preparedness involves cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measures of the Finnish authorities in radiation emergency situations are summarised in the article. The emphasis of emergency measures has sifted to peace-time accident preparedness. The potential radiation risk sources include nuclear power plant accidents, passing nuclear-driven ships, radioactive wastes etc. In Finland the Ministry of the Interior is the highest authority in matters of radiation control and preparedness. For analysing radiation situations and ensuring compliance with recommended actions, the Ministry relies on the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety and the Finnish Meteorological Institute as its main expert bodies. Other authorities, such as Defence Forces and fire departments, also play an important role in situations involving a radiation hazard

  14. Emergent Complex Network Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Zhihao; Rahmede, Christoph; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2014-01-01

    Networks are mathematical structures that are universally used to describe a large variety of complex systems such as the brain or the Internet. Characterizing the geometrical properties of these networks has become increasingly relevant for routing problems, inference and data mining. In real growing networks, topological, structural and geometrical properties emerge spontaneously from their dynamical rules. Nevertheless we still miss a model in which networks develop an emergent complex geometry. Here we show that a single two parameter network model, the growing geometrical network, can generate complex network geometries with non-trivial distribution of curvatures, combining exponential growth and small-world properties with finite spectral dimensionality. In one limit, the non-equilibrium dynamical rules of these networks can generate scale-free networks with clustering and communities, in another limit planar random geometries with non-trivial modularity. Finally we find that these properties of the geo...

  15. How emergent is gravity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Swastik; Shankaranarayanan, S.

    2015-10-01

    General theory of relativity (or Lovelock extensions) is a dynamical theory; given an initial configuration on a spacelike hypersurface, it makes a definite prediction of the final configuration. Recent developments suggest that gravity may be described in terms of macroscopic parameters. It finds a concrete manifestation in the fluid-gravity correspondence. Most of the efforts till date has been to relate equilibrium configurations in gravity with fluid variables. In order for the emergent paradigm to be truly successful, it has to provide a statistical mechanical derivation of how a given initial static configuration evolves into another. In this paper, we show that the energy transport equation governed by the fluctuations of the horizon-fluid is similar to Raychaudhuri equation and hence gravity is truly emergent.

  16. Emerging therapies in rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Alison; Thiboutot, Diane

    2013-12-01

    Rosacea is a common skin disorder with multiple symptoms. The emergence of research that furthers understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms has created new targets for disease treatment. Specifically, there is a need for new treatments that address the various erythematic symptoms associated with rosacea. Systemic and topical therapies have both yielded positive results in treating rosacea with various medications. Subantimicrobial-dose doxycycline is one such promising treatment. Development of novel products in the near future should help achieve more satisfactory outcomes for patients.

  17. Avenues for emergent ecologies

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Stuart; Bullock, Seth

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present some fascinating behaviour emerging from a simple synthetic chemistry model. The results of Ono and Ikegami (2001) demonstrated the spontaneous formation of primitive, self-reproducing cells from a random homogeneous mixture of chemical components. Their model made use of a simple, artificial reaction network. Discrete particles were placed on a triangular lattice and the dynamics consisted of the following particle transitions: translation over one lattice spacing an...

  18. Influenza: an emerging disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, R. G.

    1998-01-01

    Because all known influenza A subtypes exist in the aquatic bird reservoir, influenza is not an eradicable disease; prevention and control are the only realistic goals. If people, pigs, and aquatic birds are the principal variables associated with interspecies transfer of influenza virus and the emergence of new human pandemic strains, influenza surveillance in these species is indicated. Live-bird markets housing a wide variety of avian species together (chickens, ducks, geese, pigeon, turke...

  19. Run an emergency helpline.

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, C; Christie, P; Marr, A. C.

    1994-01-01

    Telephone helplines are an effective way of dealing with health related incidents in which large numbers of people need personal counselling or information for reassurance or case finding. Helplines often have to be set up at short notice, which is labour intensive and makes recruitment of appropriate staff difficult. They should ideally be part of local emergency planning resources. Doctors need to be included in the team organising the helpline to ensure that staff are properly briefed, to ...

  20. Neurologic emergencies in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, J O

    1991-06-01

    Any one neurologic emergency is rare during pregnancy. As a group, neurologic disorders are a major cause of maternal mortality. Optimal management requires a multidisciplinary approach and ready access to the collective experience of other clinicians. This article discusses the management of status epilepticus, eclamptic hypertensive encephalopathy, stroke, including subarachnoid hemorrhage, myasthenic crisis, porphyric crisis, acute Guillain-Barré syndrome, autonomic hyperreflexia, malignant hyperthermia, chorea gravidarum, and Wernicke's encephalopathy. PMID:1945251

  1. Attacks on Emerging Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Steven Craig

    2012-01-01

    New architectures require careful examination of security properties in order to assess and contain new threats. In light of this, emerging technologies, such as web APIs, medical devices, and applications on mobile phones, are a new security landscape that has recurring security problems. We develop new techniques to analyze these applications for security vulnerabilities, utilizing techniques including: dynamic symbolic execution, binary analysis and reverse engineering, and wide scale appl...

  2. Architecture humanitarian emergencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez-Guillamon, Maria; Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen; Contreras, Jorge Lobos;

    2013-01-01

    Introduced by scientific articles conserning architecture and human rights in light of cultures, emergencies, social equality and sustainability, democracy, economy, artistic development and science into architecture. Concluding in definition of needs for new roles, processes and education of arc......, Architettura di Alghero in Italy, Architecture and Design of Kocaeli University in Turkey, University of Aguascalientes in Mexico, Architectura y Urbanismo of University of Chile and Escuela de Architectura of Universidad Austral in Chile....

  3. Emergency Response Guideline Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Storrick

    2007-09-30

    Task 5 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled “Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor” focuses on operator control and protection system interaction, with particular emphasis on developing emergency response guidelines (ERGs). As in the earlier tasks, we will use the IRIS plant as a specific example of an integrated primary system reactor (IPSR) design. The present state of the IRIS plant design – specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design – precludes establishing detailed emergency procedures at this time. However, we can create a structure for their eventual development. This report summarizes our progress to date. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 compares IPSR ERG development to the recent AP1000 effort, and identifies three key plant differences that affect the ERGs and control room designs. The next three sections investigate these differences in more detail. Section 3 reviews the IRIS Safety-by-Design™ philosophy and its impact on the ERGs. Section 4 looks at differences between the IRIS and traditional loop PWR I&C Systems, and considers their implications for both control room design and ERG development. Section 5 examines the implications of having one operating staff control multiple reactor units. Section 6 provides sample IRIS emergency operating procedures (EOPs). Section 7 summarizes our conclusions.

  4. Management of hypertension emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, William J

    2003-12-01

    Although they have become less common, hypertensive emergencies occur with an incidence of approximately 1 to 2/100,000 people per year. Our knowledge about this problem, its pathophysiology, risk factors, and appropriate treatment options has expanded during the past decade. A hypertensive emergency can be declared when an elevated blood pressure is associated with acute target-organ damage. Rapid evaluation and treatment (typically with an intravenously administered agent) should be instituted, usually in an intensive care unit setting, and the patient should be observed carefully during acute blood-pressure lowering. When properly treated, the prognosis for these patients is not nearly as dismal as it was more than 60 years ago, and the initial level of function of target organs (brain, heart, kidneys) is more indicative of an emergency than the actual level of blood pressure. Therapeutic options include the time-tested sodium nitroprusside (which has toxic metabolic products and is contraindicated in pregnancy, tobacco amblyopia, and Leber's optic atrophy); fenoldopam mesylate; and nicardipine. When properly treated, "malignant hypertension" need be considered malignant no longer. PMID:14594569

  5. Emergent infectious uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairallah Moncef

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious causes should always be considered in all patients with uveitis and it should be ruled out first. The differential diagnosis includes multiple well-known diseases including herpes, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, bartonellosis, Lyme disease, and others. However, clinicians should be aware of emerging infectious agents as potential causes of systemic illness and also intraocular inflammation. Air travel, immigration, and globalization of business have overturned traditional pattern of geographic distribution of infectious diseases, and therefore one should work locally but think globally, though it is not possible always. This review recapitulates the systemic and ocular mainfestations of several emergent infectious diseases relevant to the ophthalmologist including Rickettsioses, West Nile virus infection, Rift valley fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya. Retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, and optic nerve involvement have been associated with these emergent infectious diseases. The diagnosis of any of these infections is usually based on pattern of uveitis, systemic symptoms and signs, and specific epidemiological data and confirmed by detection of specific antibody in serum. A systematic ocular examination, showing fairly typical fundus findings, may help in establishing an early clinical diagnosis, which allows prompt, appropriate management.

  6. Spontaneous Expulsion of Intramural Fibroid Six Weeks after Emergency Caesarean Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagoo, Balvinder; Ng, Ka Ying Bonnie; Ghaleb, G; Brown, Heather

    2015-01-01

    We present a thirty-six-year-old woman with a high risk pregnancy, complicated by multiple congenital anomalies, severe hyperemesis, a pulmonary embolus, and a large intramural fibroid. This fibroid grew in size during the pregnancy. At 34 + 5 weeks, there were reduced fetal movements and a pathological CTG. A live infant was delivered by an emergency cesarean section. Five weeks postpartum, she presented with abdominal pain, offensive vaginal discharge, and fevers. She was given antibiotics and ferrous sulphate. An abdominal ultrasound showed an 11 × 12 × 9 cm fibroid with a coarse degenerative appearance. Clinically, she showed signs of sepsis; a CT scan and laparotomy performed under general anesthetic did not find any collections as a source of sepsis. When stable, she was discharged. She re-presented two days later with a large mass (necrotic fibroid) in her vagina. This is the first case of spontaneous expulsion of fibroid six weeks after caesarean section. Presentation of pain and fever after the delivery may be due to red degeneration of the fibroid, caused by diminished blood supply, ischaemia, and necrosis. This case highlights the importance of considering fibroids as a cause for abdominal pain during and after pregnancy, even up to 6 weeks after delivery. PMID:26380133

  7. Spontaneous Expulsion of Intramural Fibroid Six Weeks after Emergency Caesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balvinder Sagoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a thirty-six-year-old woman with a high risk pregnancy, complicated by multiple congenital anomalies, severe hyperemesis, a pulmonary embolus, and a large intramural fibroid. This fibroid grew in size during the pregnancy. At 34 + 5 weeks, there were reduced fetal movements and a pathological CTG. A live infant was delivered by an emergency cesarean section. Five weeks postpartum, she presented with abdominal pain, offensive vaginal discharge, and fevers. She was given antibiotics and ferrous sulphate. An abdominal ultrasound showed an 11 × 12 × 9 cm fibroid with a coarse degenerative appearance. Clinically, she showed signs of sepsis; a CT scan and laparotomy performed under general anesthetic did not find any collections as a source of sepsis. When stable, she was discharged. She re-presented two days later with a large mass (necrotic fibroid in her vagina. This is the first case of spontaneous expulsion of fibroid six weeks after caesarean section. Presentation of pain and fever after the delivery may be due to red degeneration of the fibroid, caused by diminished blood supply, ischaemia, and necrosis. This case highlights the importance of considering fibroids as a cause for abdominal pain during and after pregnancy, even up to 6 weeks after delivery.

  8. Torted and Ruptured Wandering Spleen Presenting as a Surgical Emergency in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Parvaiz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Wandering spleen (WS is characterised by incomplete fixation of the spleen to its supporting linorenal and gastrosplenic ligaments. It can predispose to life-threatening complications due to torsion of its vascular pedicle, splenic infarction, portal hypertension, and haemorrhage. A 27-year-old, 36-week prima gravida underwent emergency caesarean section for tachycardia and hypotension. A healthy baby girl was delivered. However, she remained shocked despite aggressive fluid therapy and intraoperatively it was noted that there was significant intraperitoneal bleeding and the on-call surgical team was summoned. Midline laparotomy revealed a lacerated, infarcted, hypermobile spleen found with free intraperitoneal bleeding. The unsalvageable spleen was resected and the patient went on to make an excellent recovery. The aetiology of WS is contentious. With an increased frequency among multiparous females of reproductive age, some suggest the hormonal effects of pregnancy as contributing factors. Clinical presentations range from an asymptomatic abdominal mass to acute abdominal pain with hypovolaemic shock. WS poses a serious threat to life due to thrombosis, bleeding, or infarction. Ultrasound scan and CT scan are equally effective in the diagnosis. Patients with asymptomatic WS should be treated with elective splenopexy, however, in the acute presentation, splenectomy is the procedure of choice.

  9. Emergence of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Paule Bassez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Indeed, even if we know that many individual components are necessary for life to exist, we do not yet know what makes life emerge. One goal of this journal Life is to juxtapose articles with multidisciplinary approaches and perhaps to answer in the near future this question of the emergence of life. Different subjects and themes will be developed, starting of course with the multiple definitions of life and continuing with others such as: life diversity and universality; characteristics of living systems; thermodynamics with energy and entropy; kinetics and catalysis; water in its different physical states; circulation of sap and blood and its origin; the first blood pump and first heart; the first exchange of nutrients between cells, sap and blood; essential molecules of living systems; chirality; molecular asymmetry and its origin; formation of enantiomer excess and amplification; microscopic observations on a micrometer and sub-micrometer scales, at molecular and atomic levels; the first molecules at the origin of genetic information, viroids, circular RNA; regions of space or the area inside membranes and cells capable of initiating and maintaining life; phenomena at the origin of the emergence of life; molecules studied in the traditional field of chemistry and in the recent field of nanoscience governed by new laws; interaction between the individual molecules and components of living systems; interaction between living systems and the environment; transfer of information through generations; continuation of life from one generation to the next; prebiotic chemistry and prebiotic signatures on Earth, on Mars, on other planets; biosignatures of the first forms of life; fossils and pseudofossils dating 3.5 Ga ago and more recent ones; experimental fossilization; pluricellular eukaryotes dating 2.1 Ga ago; sudden increase in oxygen in the atmosphere around 2.0 to 2.5 Ga ago and its relation to geology; shell symmetry; aging with

  10. Emergency preparation and maneuver of HFETR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the emergency document formation, emergency organization establishment, emergency facilities preparation and emergency accident maneuver onsite of High Flux Engineering Test Reactor (HFETR). The result of emergency preparations and maneuver is summarized. (authors)

  11. Human Freedom ``Emergence''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, William T.

    Whether free will is a reality is an increasingly urgent problem, both from a scientific and a social point of view. An ability to make judgments and take actions that are "free" in some meaningful sense would seem a prerequisite for the process of scientific reasoning and for our ability to behave morally. How are we to reconcile the "autonomy" of a reasoning intellect with our scientific conviction that all behavior is mediated by mechanistic interactions between cells of the central nervous system? It seems that answers will ultimately lie in a deeper understanding of emergent phenomena in complex systems. This will help enrich our impoverished standard notions of causation in physical systems.

  12. Emergence and Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bullwinkle, Tammy J; Ibba, Michael

    2013-01-01

    ancestor and as such they provide insights into the evolution and development of the extant genetic code. Although the aaRSs have long been viewed as a highly conserved group of enzymes, findings within the last couple of decades have started to demonstrate how diverse and versatile these enzymes really...... are. Beyond their central role in translation, aaRSs and their numerous homologs have evolved a wide array of alternative functions both inside and outside translation. Current understanding of the emergence of the aaRSs, and their subsequent evolution into a functionally diverse enzyme family...

  13. EDF national emergency organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of French nuclear power led Electricite de France (EDF) to design standard products, manufactured in series but adaptable to different sites. Standardization is based on the decision on a single technology: pressurized water reactors (PWR). Thirty-four 900 MW and seventeen 1300 MW units are in operation on seventeen sites. The specific nature of French organization for normal operation and accident management results from equipment standardization and single licensee. This specificity is based on emergency plan standardization and highly structured national organization. Figs

  14. On-site emergency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture covers the Emergency Planning of the Operating organization and is based on the Code of Practice and Safety Guides of the IAEA as well as on arrangements in use at the Swiss Nuclear Power Station Beznau and - outlines the basis and content of an emergency plan - describes the emergencies postulated for emergency planning purposes - describes the responsibilities, the organization and the procedures of the operating organization to cope with emergency situations and the liaison between the operating organization, the regulatory body and public authorities - describes the facilities and equipment which should be available to cope with emergency sitauations - describes the measures and actions to be taken when an emergency arises in order to correct abnormal plant conditions and to protect the persons on-and off-site - describes the aid to be given to affected personnel - describes the aspects relevant to maintaining the emergency plan and organization in operational readiness. (orig./RW)

  15. Emergent behaviors of classifier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, S.; Miller, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses some examples of emergent behavior in classifier systems, describes some recently developed methods for studying them based on dynamical systems theory, and presents some initial results produced by the methodology. The goal of this work is to find techniques for noticing when interesting emergent behaviors of classifier systems emerge, to study how such behaviors might emerge over time, and make suggestions for designing classifier systems that exhibit preferred behaviors. 20 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Consumption-Driven Market Emergence

    OpenAIRE

    Diane M. Martin; Schouten, John W

    2014-01-01

    New market development is well theorized from a firm-centered perspective, but research has paid scant attention to the emergence of markets from consumption activity. The exceptions conceptualize market emergence as a product of consumer struggle against prevailing market logics. This study develops a model of consumption-driven market emergence in harmony with existing market offerings. Using ethnographic methods and actor-network theory the authors chronicle the emergence of a new market w...

  17. [Pediatric emergencies: Knowledge of basic measures for the emergency physician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, S; Grundmann, U; Reinert, J; Gortner, L

    2015-11-01

    Life-threatening pediatric emergencies are relatively rare in the prehospital setting. Thus, the treating emergency physician may not always be familiar with and well trained in these situations. However, pediatric emergencies require early recognition and initiation of specific diagnostic and therapeutic interventions to prevent further damage. The treatment of pediatric emergencies follows current recommendations as detailed in published international guidelines. The aim of this review is to familiarize the emergency physician with general aspects pertinent to this topic-most importantly anatomical and physiological characteristics in this cohort. Also, specific information with regard to analgesia and sedation, which may be warranted in the prehospital setting, will be provided.

  18. Emergency Exercise Participation and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julie; Black, Lynette; Williams, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Extension is uniquely positioned to participate in emergency exercises, formally or informally, with the goal of engaging community members in emergency and disaster preparedness. With their knowledge of community needs, Extension personnel are valuable resources and can assist emergency managers in the process of identifying local risks and…

  19. Training teams for emergency management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafstal, A.M.; Johnston, J.H.; Oser, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Emergency management (EM), the decision making involved in directing the relief operation after a disaster or otherwise catastrophic accident is an issue of great public and private concern because of the high stakes involved. Due to the nature of emergencies, and especially mass emergencies, EM tea

  20. Emergency Medical Services Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide contains the standard emergency medical services curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum encompasses the minimum competencies required for entry-level workers in the emergency medical services field, and includes job skills in six emergency medical services divisions outlined in the national curriculum:…

  1. 基于最大熵模型的学术缩写自动识别%Study on Automatic Identiifcation of Academic Abbreviations and their Deifnitions based on Maximum Entropy Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋子; 陆伟; 程齐凯; 黄永

    2015-01-01

    In order to effectively identify the abbreviations and their corresponding deifnitions from enormous English academic texts, this paper proposes an automatic identification algorithm called MELearn-AI.In the perspective of the sequence labelling,MELearn-AI utilizes a manually labelled dataset and adopts maximum entropy algorithm to train a model, and then identify abbreviations in computer science academic texts based on the model. This method achieves a 95.8% precision rate with a 86.3% recall rate in the "Paren-sen" evaluation dataset created in this paper,it shows an obvious improvement compared to the other two algorithms.This paper proposes a method to identify the abbreviations and their corresponding deifnitions.Tested in English academic texts of computer science, the algorithm achieves satisfactory results, which is helpful to better understanding and adopting the terminology of this ifeld.%为实现海量英文学术文本中缩写词及对应缩写定义的识别,本文提出了一种自动缩写识别算法MELearn-AI。该算法在人工标注数据集的基础上,从序列标注的角度,通过最大熵模型实现了计算机领域英文学术文本中的自动缩写识别。MELearn-AI在本文构建的评测数据集“Paren-sen”上得到了95.8%的查准率和86.3%的查全率,相对于其他两组对照实验的效果有较为明显的提升。本文提出的自动缩写识别方法能够在计算机领域的学术文本上取得令人满意的效果,有助于更好地理解并利用该领域术语。

  2. Tactical emergency medical support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnert, Kathy J; Hall, William L

    2002-11-01

    As increases in criminal activity collide with more aggressive law enforcement postures, there is more contact between police officers and violent felons. Civilian law enforcement special operations teams routinely engage suspects in these violent, dynamic, and complex interdiction activities. Along with these activities comes the substantial and foreseeable risk of death or grievous harm to law officers, bystanders, hostages, or perpetrators. Further, law enforcement agencies who attempt to apprehend dangerous, heavily armed criminals with a special operations team that lacks the expertise to treat the medical consequences that may arise from such a confrontation may be negligent of deliberate indifference. Meanwhile, evidence exists within the military, civilian law enforcement, and medical literature that on-scene TEMS serves to improve mission success and team safety and health, while decreasing morbidity and mortality in the event of an injury or illness suffered during operations. National professional organizations within law enforcement and emergency medicine have identified and support the fundamental need for mission safety and the development of a standard model to train and incorporate TEMS into law enforcement special operations. The overall objective of TEMS is to minimize the potential for injury and illness and to promote optimal medical care from the scene of operations to a definitive care facility. The design, staffing, and implementation of a TEMS program that maximally uses the community resources integrates previously disparate law enforcement, EMS, and emergency medical/trauma center functions to form a new continuum of care [55].

  3. Abdominal emergencies in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca Robinot, D; Liébana de Rojas, C; Aguirre Pascual, E

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal symptoms are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department visits, and abdominal pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Thorough history taking and physical examination can often reach the correct diagnosis. Knowing the abdominal conditions that are most common in each age group can help radiologists narrow the differential diagnosis. When imaging tests are indicated, ultrasonography is usually the first-line technique, enabling the diagnosis or adding relevant information with the well-known advantages of this technique. Nowadays, plain-film X-ray studies are reserved for cases in which perforation, bowel obstruction, or foreign body ingestion is suspected. It is also important to remember that abdominal pain can also occur secondary to basal pneumonia. CT is reserved for specific indications and in individual cases, for example, in patients with high clinical suspicion of abdominal disease and inconclusive findings at ultrasonography. We review some of the most common conditions in pediatric emergencies, the different imaging tests indicated in each case, and the imaging signs in each condition.

  4. [Sepsis in Emergency Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Michael; Geier, Felicitas; Bertsch, Thomas; Singler, Katrin

    2016-07-01

    Sepsis is defined as "life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host-response to infection". Presence of organ dysfunction is associated with a mortality of 10% and higher in hospitalized sepsis patients.Introduction of standards in diagnosis and treatment of sepsis in intensive care units has not considerably reduced sepsis mortality. About 80% of patients with sepsis are transferred to intensive care units from usual care wards and emergency departments. Thus, it is tempting to speculate whether opportunities for further improvement of sepsis management exist outside of intensive care units. Performing a "quick sequential organ assessment" (qSOFA; two of following criteria have to be present: respiratory rate >22/min; sytolic blood pressure <100mmHg; altered mental status) supports to identify patients with suspicion of an infection and an increased risk of death within the hospital. Subsequent treatment according to current guidelines on sepsis management will reduce in-hospital mortality of sepsis patients. Indeed, we were able to show a substantial decrease of in-hospital mortality of about 20% in patients presenting with community acquired pneumonia to the emergency department.In summary, decision of further management of sepsis patients has to be done outside intensive care units at the time of initial presentation to professional care givers. Sepsis management in acute care settings should include a structured and standardized protocol to further improve survival in affected patients with even mild organ dysfunction. PMID:27464279

  5. Communication system for emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    People are apprehensive that a strong earthquake with a magnitude of nearly 8 may occur in Tokai area. The whole area of Shizuoka Prefecture has been specified as the specially strengthened region for earthquake disaster measures. This report outlines the communication system for emergency with respect to atomic disaster caused by an earthquake. Previously, wireless receiving system is stationed in the whole area to simultaneously inform the related news to the residents and so, communications with them are possible at any time by using the system. Since mobile wireless receiving sets are stationed in all town halls, self defense organizations and all the places of refuge, mutual communications are possible. These communication system can be utilized for either earthquake or nuclear disaster. Further, Shizuoka general information network system has been established as a communication system for anti-disaster organization and a wireless network via a communication satellite, ''super bird'' has been constructed in addition to the ground network. Therefore, the two communication routes became usable at emergency and the systems are available in either of nuclear disaster or earthquake. (M.N.)

  6. Orion Emergency Mask Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, George C.; Graf, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Emergency mask approach on Orion poses a challenge to the traditional Shuttle or Station approaches. Currently, in the case of a fire or toxic spill event, the crew utilizes open loop oxygen masks that provide the crew with oxygen to breath, but also dumps the exhaled oxygen into the cabin. For Orion, with a small cabin volume, the extra oxygen will exceed the flammability limit within a short period of time, unless a nitrogen purge is also provided. Another approach to a fire or toxic spill event is the use of a filtering emergency masks. These masks utilize some form of chemical beds to scrub the air clean of toxic providing the crew safe breathing air for a period without elevating the oxygen level in the cabin. Using the masks and a form of smoke-eater filter, it may be possible to clean the cabin completely or to a level for safe transition to a space suit to perform a cabin purge. Issues with filters in the past have been the reaction time, breakthroughs, and high breathing resistance. Development in a new form of chemical filters has shown promise to make the filtering approach feasible.

  7. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sıddık Evsen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the incidence, indications and maternal characteristics of emergency peripartum hysterectomy (EPH.Medical records belong to 49 patients, that undergone EPH at Diyarbakır Gynecology and Obstetrics Hospital, between September 2005 and August 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. During three years, from 63463 deliveries, hysterectomy was performed to 49 patients (0.77/1000 due to obstetrical hemorrhage. Indications for EPH were uterine atony (49.6%, uterine rupture (42.9% and placenta accreata (8.2%. The mean age of patients was 34.6±5.7 years, and mean gravida was 5.5±2.4. Subtotal hysterectomy was performed to 31 (63.3% patients and total hysterectomy to 18 (36.7% of them. Bilateral hypogastric artery ligation was performed to 8 (16.3% and unilateral ooferectomy to 7 (14.3%. Two of our patients died secondary to uncontrolled uterine bleeding.In conclusion, uterine atony and uterine rupture were the most frequent causes of EPH. Emergent and appropriate management of these patients is the most important life saving procedure.

  8. Communication system for emergency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajioka, Yoshiteru [Shizuoka Prefecture (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    People are apprehensive that a strong earthquake with a magnitude of nearly 8 may occur in Tokai area. The whole area of Shizuoka Prefecture has been specified as the specially strengthened region for earthquake disaster measures. This report outlines the communication system for emergency with respect to atomic disaster caused by an earthquake. Previously, wireless receiving system is stationed in the whole area to simultaneously inform the related news to the residents and so, communications with them are possible at any time by using the system. Since mobile wireless receiving sets are stationed in all town halls, self defense organizations and all the places of refuge, mutual communications are possible. These communication system can be utilized for either earthquake or nuclear disaster. Further, Shizuoka general information network system has been established as a communication system for anti-disaster organization and a wireless network via a communication satellite, ``super bird`` has been constructed in addition to the ground network. Therefore, the two communication routes became usable at emergency and the systems are available in either of nuclear disaster or earthquake. (M.N.)

  9. [Hypertensive emergency and urgence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegenhuber, Alfons; Lenz, Kurt

    2003-12-01

    DEFINITION, PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, THERAPY: The hypertensive crisis is characterized by a massive, acute rise in blood pressure. Patients with underlying hypertensive disease usually have an increase in systolic blood pressure values > 220 mmHg and diastolic values > 120 mmHg. The severity of the condition, however, is not determined by the absolute blood pressure level but by the magnitude of the acute increase in blood pressure. Thus, in the presence of primarily normotensive baseline values (such as those in eclampsia), even a systolic blood pressure > 170 mmHg may lead to a life-threatening condition. The most important causes are non-compliance (reduction or interruption of therapy), inadequate therapy, endocrine disease, renal (vessel) disease, pregnancy and intoxication (drugs). The management of this condition greatly depends on whether the patient has a hypertensive crisis with organ manifestation (hypertensive emergency) or a crisis without organ manifestation (hypertensive urgency). By documenting the medical history, the medical status and by simple diagnostic procedures, the differential diagnosis can be established at the emergency site within a very short period of time. In the absence of organ manifestations (hypertensive urgency) the patient may have non-specific symptoms such as palpitations, headache, malaise and a general feeling of illness in addition to the increase in blood pressure. In a hypertensive urgency the patient's blood pressure should not be reduced within a few minutes but within a period of 24 to 48 hours. Such adjustment can be achieved on an out-patient basis, however, only if the patient can be followed up adequately for early detection of a renewed attack. In the absence of follow-up facilities, the patient's blood pressure should be reduced over a period of 4 to 6 hours, if necessary in an out-patient emergency service. While intravenous medication is given preference when a rapid effect is desired, oral medication may be used for

  10. Emergency responders' critical infrared (ERCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsin, Larry S.

    2004-08-01

    Emergency Responders (Fire, Police, Medical, and Emergency Management) face a high risk of injury or death. Even before September 11, 2001, public and private organizations have been driven to better protect Emergency Responders through education, training and improved technology. Recent research on Emergency Responder safety, health risks, and personal protective requirements, shows infrared (IR) imaging as a critical need. Today"s Emergency Responders are increasingly challenged to do more, facing demands requiring technological assistance and/or solutions. Since the introduction of Fire Service IR imaging in the mid 1990s, applications have increased. Emergency response IR is no longer just seeing through smoke to find victims or the seat of a fire. Many more mission critical needs now exist across the broad spectrum of emergency response. At the same time, Emergency Responder injuries and deaths are increasing. The Office of Domestic Preparedness (ODP) has also recognized IR imaging as critical in protecting our communities -- and in preventing many of the injuries and deaths of Emergency Responders. Currently, only 25% of all fire departments (or less than 7% of individual firefighters) have IR imaging. Availability to Police, EMS and Emergency Management is even lower. Without ERCI, Emergency Responders and our communities are at risk.

  11. Emergent traffic jams

    CERN Document Server

    Nagel, K; Nagel, Kai; Paczuski, Maya

    1995-01-01

    We study a single-lane traffic model that is based on human driving behavior. The outflow from a traffic jam self-organizes to a critical state of maximum throughput. Small perturbations of the outflow far downstream create emergent traffic jams with a power law distribution P(t) \\sim t^{-3/2} of lifetimes, t. On varying the vehicle density in a closed system, this critical state separates lamellar and jammed regimes, and exhibits 1/f noise in the power spectrum. Using random walk arguments, in conjunction with a cascade equation, we develop a phenomenological theory that predicts the critical exponents for this transition and explains the self-organizing behavior. These predictions are consistent with all of our numerical results.

  12. Why did life emerge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annila, Arto; Annila, Erkki

    2008-10-01

    Many mechanisms, functions and structures of life have been unraveled. However, the fundamental driving force that propelled chemical evolution and led to life has remained obscure. The second law of thermodynamics, written as an equation of motion, reveals that elemental abiotic matter evolves from the equilibrium via chemical reactions that couple to external energy towards complex biotic non-equilibrium systems. Each time a new mechanism of energy transduction emerges, e.g., by random variation in syntheses, evolution prompts by punctuation and settles to a stasis when the accessed free energy has been consumed. The evolutionary course towards an increasingly larger energy transduction system accumulates a diversity of energy transduction mechanisms, i.e. species. The rate of entropy increase is identified as the fitness criterion among the diverse mechanisms, which places the theory of evolution by natural selection on the fundamental thermodynamic principle with no demarcation line between inanimate and animate.

  13. Emergent Computation Emphasizing Bioinformatics

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    Emergent Computation is concerned with recent applications of Mathematical Linguistics or Automata Theory. This subject has a primary focus upon "Bioinformatics" (the Genome and arising interest in the Proteome), but the closing chapter also examines applications in Biology, Medicine, Anthropology, etc. The book is composed of an organized examination of DNA, RNA, and the assembly of amino acids into proteins. Rather than examine these areas from a purely mathematical viewpoint (that excludes much of the biochemical reality), the author uses scientific papers written mostly by biochemists based upon their laboratory observations. Thus while DNA may exist in its double stranded form, triple stranded forms are not excluded. Similarly, while bases exist in Watson-Crick complements, mismatched bases and abasic pairs are not excluded, nor are Hoogsteen bonds. Just as there are four bases naturally found in DNA, the existence of additional bases is not ignored, nor amino acids in addition to the usual complement of...

  14. The Emerging City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    ” – urban furniture that was originally part of an election campaign for the cultural minister of Denmark, will illustrate how both political and artistic signatures become deterritorialized through urban space, time and every day social use. The second example is taken from corporate city development......The paper explores how urban bodies such as architecture, urban design, art works and social action can be drawn together in as urban assemblages producing “a movement of generalised deterritorialization”(Deleuze & Guattari 2004:78) in relation to the city. The first example, “The Elbæk bench...... milieu and how other meanings emerge. In the last example, Relocation of beer drinkers on Enghave Square, Copenhagen, I will highlight how a heterogeneous assemblages of architecture, urban design, artistic intervention and every day social life has constructed continuums of intensities over a period...

  15. Mechanical Containment in Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea Carcoba Rubio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The restraint is a therapeutic measure aimed at blocking partial or widespread in most of the body of a patient to try to ensure the safety of himself or others. In most cases it forces to act against their will, and in a common context of urgency; in such a way that its use applies a therapeutic plan without the consent of the patient and is temporally deprived of freedom of movement. A literature review of the issue has been performed consulting surveillance systems and protocols developed at hospitals in several spanish cities. Also the current legal regulations on health matters relating to the subject are checked.After the analysis of data and evidence, is created a protocol of restraint in emergency and the various functions of the components of the team, to address the situation with greater efficiency and safe as possible.

  16. Communication in nuclear emergency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozawa, Masao [Research Organization for Information Science and Technology, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    In order to take protection measures smoothly at the time of emergency in nuclear power stations and others, it is necessary to prepare information communication facilities mutually among disaster prevention organizations including the state and information transmission network for residents in surrounding areas. The matters decided in ``the measures to be taken for the time being for the countermeasures to prevent disaster in nuclear power stations and others`` are shown. In order to avoid the congestion of communication, the exclusively used communication systems are adopted for disaster prevention organizations, in which facsimile is used to transmit graphic information. The data communication circuits for distributing SPEEDI are installed between Science and Technology Agency, Nuclear Power Safety Technology Center and respective prefectures. The routes, means and order of notices must be confirmed beforehand mutually among the related organizations. As to the general communication for disaster countermeasures, the communication systems in ministries and agencies are described. (K.I.)

  17. Emergence of Time

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, M

    1998-01-01

    In the groupoid approach to noncommutative quantization of gravity, gravitational field is quantized in terms of a C*-algebra A of complex valued funcions on a groupoid G (with convolution as multiplication). In the noncommutative quantum gravitational regime the concepts of space and time are meaningless. We study the "emergence of time" in the transition process from the noncommutative regime to the standard space-time geometry. Precise conditions are specified under which modular groups of the von Neumann algebra generated by A can be defined. These groups are interpreted as a state depending time flow. If the above conditions are further refined one obtains a state independent time flow. We show that quantum gravitational dynamics can be expressed in terms of modular groups.

  18. [Hypertensive urgency and emergency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny-Fullin, Katja; Buess, Daniel; Handschin, Anja; Leuppi, Jörg; Dieterle, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    European and North-American guidelines for the diagnosis and therapy of arterial hypertension refer to hypertensive crisis as an acute and critical increase of blood pressure>180/120 mmHg. Presence of acute hypertensive target organ damage, such as stroke, myocardial infarction or heart failure, in this situation defines a “hypertensive emergency”. In these patients, immediate lowering of blood pressure (about 25% within one to two hours) in an intensive care setting is mandatory to prevent further progression of target organ damage. In contrast to hypertensive emergencies, hypertensive urgencies are characterized by an acute and critical increase in blood pressure without signs or symptoms of acute hypertensive target organ damage. In these patients, blood pressure should be lowered within 24 to 48 hours in order to avoid hypertensive target organ damage. In general, hospitalization is not required, and oral antihypertensive therapy usually is sufficient. However, further and continuing outpatient care has to be ensured.

  19. 切口持续镇痛方法对腹部术后镇痛效果和短期预后影响的评价%Study on the effectiveness of continuous local infiltration analgesia and related short-term prognosis after laparotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑行; 蔡秀军

    2013-01-01

    目的 评估上腹部术后通过弹性输注泵对切口持续浸润局部麻醉给药方法的镇痛效果,及是否能够减少阿片类药物的用量.方法 回顾分析2012年1-9月接受上腹部手术患者285例,其中144例术后使用弹性输注泵行切口持续浸润的镇痛管理(LA),141例为自控静脉镇痛管理(PCA),评估两组静息状态和活动后视觉模拟评分法(VAS)评分、阿片类药物用量、肠道功能恢复情况、切口愈合以及并发症情况.结果 两组患者术后48 h内VAS评分差异无统计学意义,术后72 h静息状态VAS评分LA组高于PCA组(P<0.001).LA组术后72 h内阿片类药物用量低于PCA组(P<0.01),且术后恶心、呕吐发生率更低(P<0.001),肛门排气、排便早于PCA组(P<0.01),切口渗液发生率较PCA组高(P<0.001),但切口感染发生率差异无统计学意义.结论 开腹术后48 h内使用持续镇痛装置可达到与白控静脉镇痛相似的镇痛效果,但明显减少阿片类药物用量,并有利于早期肠道功能恢复.%Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of incisional infusion through local anesthetics under a continuous-infusion elastomeric pump for the management of postoperative pain after laparotomy,on reducing the amount of opioids being used after surgery.Methods We performed a retrospective comparative analysis on 285 patients who had undergone laparotomies between January 2012 and September 2012.Among those patients,144 took a continuous-infusion elastomeric pump to receive local anesthetic (LA) at the incisional area for postoperative pain management while another 141 patients took ‘patient-controlled' intravenous analgesia (PCA).Data were reviewed on items as:visual analog pain scores (VAS) during both resting and active situation,mean opioid use,bowel function,condition of incision and complications etc.Results Both groups showed similar VAS scores for the first 48 hours post-operation.However,in the LA group,VAS scores appeared

  20. Leucograma e teores plasmáticos de proteínas de fase aguda de eqüinos portadores de abdômen agudo e submetidos à laparotomia Leukogram and plasma acute phase protein concentrations in horses with acute abdomen submitted to treatment by laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Fagliari

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados 20 eqüinos adultos portadores de abdômen agudo e submetidos à laparotomia. Dez recuperaram-se sem intercorrência pós-operatória (G1 e 10 foram a óbito sete a 10 dias após a cirurgia, com sinais de choque séptico (G2. Avaliaram-se temperatura retal, freqüências cardíaca e respiratória, tempo de preenchimento capilar e teores plasmáticos das proteínas de fase aguda - fibrinogênio, ceruloplasmina, proteína C-reativa, antitripsina, haptoglobina e glicoproteína ácida -, antes e até sete dias após a laparotomia. As leucometrias às 72h e no sétimo dia pós-operatório dos eqüinos que foram a óbito foram, respectivamente, 34,6% e 57,1%, mais altas que a dos animais curados. Os maiores valores de proteína de fase aguda ocorreram no sétimo dia após a cirurgia; os percentuais de elevação de fibrinogênio, antitripsina, glicoproteina ácida, proteína C-reativa, ceruloplasmina e haptoglobina de eqüinos do G2 em relação ao G1 foram 46,8%, 67,9%, 91,9%, 112,2%, 126,9% e 186,2%, respectivamente.Twenty adult horses with acute abdomen were examined and submitted to treatment by laparotomy; ten had no postoperative complication (group 1, and ten showed septic shock symptom and died from seven to ten days after surgery (group 2. Body temperature, heart and respiratory rates, filling capillary time, and plasma acute phase protein concentrations - fibrinogen, ceruloplasmin, C-reactive protein, antitrypsin, haptoglobin, and acid glycoprotein - were evaluated before laparotomy and until seven days after surgery. White blood cell counts at 72h and seven days after surgery in group 2 animals were, respectively, 34.6% and 57.1%, and were higher than those measured in group 1 horses. The highest values of acute phase proteins occurred on the seventh day after surgery. The increase percentages of fibrinogen, antitrypsin, acid glycoprotein, C-reactive protein, ceruloplasmin, and haptoglobin plasma concentrations in group 2

  1. Objective standards for the emergency services: emergency admission to hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    West, R.

    2001-01-01

    The primary objectives of the emergency services are to minimize early mortality and complications, although longer-term morbidity, quality of life and late mortality may also be influenced by early actions. Evaluation of the emergency services and demonstration of quality need to reflect these objectives by appropriate choice of outcome measures. This brief review of leading measures of quality in emergency admissions discusses population-based 30-day mortality, after examining some limitati...

  2. Emerging Vaccine Informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqun He

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine informatics is an emerging research area that focuses on development and applications of bioinformatics methods that can be used to facilitate every aspect of the preclinical, clinical, and postlicensure vaccine enterprises. Many immunoinformatics algorithms and resources have been developed to predict T- and B-cell immune epitopes for epitope vaccine development and protective immunity analysis. Vaccine protein candidates are predictable in silico from genome sequences using reverse vaccinology. Systematic transcriptomics and proteomics gene expression analyses facilitate rational vaccine design and identification of gene responses that are correlates of protection in vivo. Mathematical simulations have been used to model host-pathogen interactions and improve vaccine production and vaccination protocols. Computational methods have also been used for development of immunization registries or immunization information systems, assessment of vaccine safety and efficacy, and immunization modeling. Computational literature mining and databases effectively process, mine, and store large amounts of vaccine literature and data. Vaccine Ontology (VO has been initiated to integrate various vaccine data and support automated reasoning.

  3. Complex emergencies in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, D A; Drummond, C M; Richman, M

    2001-01-01

    Recently, Indonesia has experienced six major provincial, civil, armed conflicts. Underlying causes include the transmigration policy, sectarian disputes, the Asian economic crisis, fall of authoritarian rule, and a backlash against civil and military abuses. The public health impact involves the displacement nationwide of > 1.2 million persons. Violence in the Malukus, Timor, and Kalimantan has sparked the greatest population movements such that five provinces in Indonesia each now harbor > 100,000 internally displaced persons. With a background of government instability, hyperinflation, macroeconomic collapse, and elusive political solutions, these civil armed conflicts are ripe for persistence as complex emergencies. Indonesia has made substantial progress in domestic disaster management with the establishment of central administrative authority, strategic planning, and training programs. Nevertheless, the Indonesian experience reveals recurrent issues in international humanitarian health assistance. Clinical care remains complicated by absences of treatment protocols, inappropriate drug use, high procedural complication rates, and variable referral practices. Epidemiological surveillance remains complicated by unsettled clinical case definitions, non-standardized case management of diseases with epidemic potential, variable outbreak management protocols, and inadequate epidemiological analytic capacity. International donor support has been semi-selective, insufficient, and late. The militia murders of three UN staff in West Timor prompted the withdrawal of UN international staff from West Timor for nearly a year to date. Re-establishing rules of engagement for humanitarian health workers must address security, public health, and clinical threats.

  4. The emerging nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If there is one common feature among developing countries it is that their electricity consumption is growing not only more rapidly than primary energy consumption but also more rapidly than electricity consumption in industrialized countries. Ten countries account for 63 percent of the total electricity production in the third world. Eight of these countries have nuclear power programs. Two more emerging countries have active nuclear power programs, two are negotiating their first plants, and three are in the planning stage. An additional 20 to 30 countries could be potential users of nuclear power during the next 15 years; however, several of these are among the major oil exporting nations. National economics and financing, and the weakness or strength of the infrastructure, have played a more significant role in the success or failure of nuclear power programs in developing countries than non-proliferation restrictions. Conditions that have to be met for the introduction of nuclear power in developing countries include: the availability of standardized plants that can compete with low-cost coal fire plants, preferable in the 300 MW(e) size range; uniformity in non-proliferation requirements imposed by suppliers; and creativity in financing arrangements. The present IAEA projection for nuclear power in the developing world is for 45-85 GW(e) by the year 2000, an increase of 35-75 GW(e) or 50-100 units

  5. Automated emergency operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development of a training tool for the symptom oriented emergency operating procedures used at the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant. EOPs and operator training are intended to assist the operator for managing accident situations. A prototype expert system based on the EOPs has been developed for operator training. The demonstration expert system was developed using a commercial shell. The knowledge base consists of two parts. The specific operator actions to be executed for 5 selected accident sequences and the EOPs steps for the reactor pressure vessel control of the water level, pressure, and power. The knowledge is expressed in the form of IF-THEN production rules. A typical training session will display a set of conditions and will prompt the trainee to indicate the appropriate step to perform. This mode will guide the trainee through selected accident sequences. A second mode of the expert system will prompt the trainee for the current plant conditions and the expert system will respond with the EOPs which are required to be performed under these conditions. This allows the trainee to study What if situations

  6. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery PC

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Paul C Montgomery, Audrey Leong-Hoi Laboratoire des Sciences de l'Ingénieur, de l'Informatique et de l'Imagerie (ICube, Unistra-CNRS, Strasbourg, France Abstract: To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. Keywords: microscopy, imaging, superresolution, nanodetection, biophysics, medical imaging

  7. Emerging Biomarkers in Glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, Mairéad G.; Sahebjam, Solmaz; Mason, Warren P., E-mail: warren.mason@uhn.ca [Pencer Brain Tumor Centre, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2013-08-22

    Glioblastoma, the most common primary brain tumor, has few available therapies providing significant improvement in survival. Molecular signatures associated with tumor aggressiveness as well as with disease progression and their relation to differences in signaling pathways implicated in gliomagenesis have recently been described. A number of biomarkers which have potential in diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of response to therapy have been identified and along with imaging modalities could contribute to the clinical management of GBM. Molecular biomarkers including O(6)-methlyguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosomes 1p and 19q, loss of heterozygosity 10q, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), epidermal growth factor, latrophilin, and 7 transmembrane domain-containing protein 1 on chromosome 1 (ELTD1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor suppressor protein p53, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), p16INK4a gene, cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), phospholipid metabolites, telomerase messenger expression (hTERT messenger ribonucleic acid [mRNA]), microRNAs (miRNAs), cancer stem cell markers and imaging modalities as potential biomarkers are discussed. Inclusion of emerging biomarkers in prospective clinical trials is warranted in an effort for more effective personalized therapy in the future.

  8. Emergence of the NMSGUT

    CERN Document Server

    Aulakh, Charanjit S

    2007-01-01

    We trace the emergence of the ``New Minimal'' supersymmetric SO(10) GUT (NMSGUT) out of the debris created by our demonstration that the MSGUT is falsified by the data. The NMSGUT is based on ${\\bf{210\\oplus 10\\oplus 120\\oplus 126\\oplus {\\bar {126}}}}$ Higgs system. It has only spontaneous CP violation and Type I seesaw. With only 24 real superpotential parameters it is the simplest model capable of accommodating the known 18 parameter fermion mass data set and yet has enough freedom to accommodate the still unknown Leptonic CP violation and neutrino mass scale parameters. Our focus is on the two most salient features uncovered by our analysis: the domination of the ${\\bf{\\bar{126}}}$ Yukawa couplings by those of the ${\\bf{10,120}}$ (required for evasion of the no-go that trapped the MSGUT) and the inescapable raising of the Baryon violation scales(and thus suppression of proton decay) decreed by a proper inclusion of the threshold effects associated with the calculated superheavy spectra. These two structura...

  9. Debt Overhang in Emerging Europe?

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Philip Richard

    2011-01-01

    PUBLISHED This paper assesses the extent to which debt overhang poses a constraint to economic activity in Emerging Europe, as the region emerges from the recent financial and economic crisis. At the macroeconomic level, it finds that the external imbalance problem for Emerging Europe has been in most cases more one of flows (high current account deficits in the pre-crisis years) rather than large stocks of external debt. A high reliance on equity funding me...

  10. Hypernatremia in the Emergency Department

    OpenAIRE

    Neslihan YÜCE; ŞAHİN, İdris; Feride Sinem AKGÜN; Süleyman KÖZ; Berber, İlhami; Muzaffer Galip ÖZDEMİR

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To determine the symptoms, clinical characteristics, prevalence and outcome of patients with hypernatremia who presented at the emergency department. MATERIAL and METHODS: We retrospectively studied patients who presented at the emergency department with hypernatremia (Na>148 meq/l) from January 2008 to December 2008. RESULTS: A total of 25.545 cases presented at the Emergency Department and hypernatremia was seen in 86 patients. The prevalence of hypernatremia was 0.34%....

  11. Emerging Pollutants - Part II: Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Liu; Shengen, Zhang; Chang, Chein-Chi

    2016-10-01

    Emerging contaminants are considered as some substances of actual or potential threat to human health or environment, which include endocrine disruptors, pharmaceutical, personal care products, nanoparticles, antibiotic resistance genes and chemicals used in packaging products, etc. The disposal and treatment of emerging contaminants has become a key problem in the field of water pollution control. The purpose of this review is to summarize published researches on emerging pollutants treatment in 2015. PMID:27620112

  12. Transient virulence of emerging pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Bolker, Benjamin M.; Nanda, Arjun; Shah, Dharmini

    2009-01-01

    Should emerging pathogens be unusually virulent? If so, why? Existing theories of virulence evolution based on a tradeoff between high transmission rates and long infectious periods imply that epidemic growth conditions will select for higher virulence, possibly leading to a transient peak in virulence near the beginning of an epidemic. This transient selection could lead to high virulence in emerging pathogens. Using a simple model of the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of emerging...

  13. Emergency medicine in Dubai, UAE

    OpenAIRE

    Partridge, Robert; Abbo, Michael; Virk, Alamjit

    2009-01-01

    Dubai has rapidly risen to prominence in the Persian Gulf region as a center of global commerce and tourism and as a cultural crossroad between East and West. The health-care infrastructure has undergone rapid development. Collaborations with academic medical centers now exist to advance clinical care, teaching and research. Emergency medicine has also advanced and is undergoing dynamic change. Dubai may soon emerge as a regional leader in emergency medicine training and practice.

  14. Emergency medicine in Dubai, UAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Robert; Abbo, Michael; Virk, Alamjit

    2009-01-01

    Dubai has rapidly risen to prominence in the Persian Gulf region as a center of global commerce and tourism and as a cultural crossroad between East and West. The health-care infrastructure has undergone rapid development. Collaborations with academic medical centers now exist to advance clinical care, teaching and research. Emergency medicine has also advanced and is undergoing dynamic change. Dubai may soon emerge as a regional leader in emergency medicine training and practice.

  15. Emergence of communication and language

    CERN Document Server

    Lyon, Caroline; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    This book brings together work on the emergence of communication language drawing on diverse disciplines, including linguistics, psychology, neuroscience, anthropology and computer science. Computational simulations of the emergence of phenomena associated with communication and language play a key role in illuminating some of the most significant issues, and the renewed scientific interest in language emergence has benefited greatly from research in Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science. Starting with a road map chapter pointing to the ways in which disparate disciplines can inform

  16. Effect of intermediate care on mortality following emergency abdominal surgery. The InCare trial: study protocol, rationale and feasibility of a randomised multicentre trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vester-Andersen Morten

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergency abdominal surgery carries a 15% to 20% short-term mortality rate. Postoperative medical complications are strongly associated with increased mortality. Recent research suggests that timely recognition and effective management of complications may reduce mortality. The aim of the present trial is to evaluate the effect of postoperative intermediate care following emergency major abdominal surgery in high-risk patients. Methods and design The InCare trial is a randomised, parallel-group, non-blinded clinical trial with 1:1 allocation. Patients undergoing emergency laparotomy or laparoscopic surgery with a perioperative Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 10 or above, who are ready to be transferred to the surgical ward within 24 h of surgery are allocated to either intermediate care for 48 h, or surgical ward care. The primary outcome measure is all-cause 30-day mortality. We aim to enrol 400 patients in seven Danish hospitals. The sample size allows us to detect or refute a 34% relative risk reduction of mortality with 80% power. Discussion This trial evaluates the benefits and possible harm of intermediate care. The results may potentially influence the survival of many high-risk surgical patients. As a pioneer trial in the area, it will provide important data on the feasibility of future large-scale randomised clinical trials evaluating different levels of postoperative care. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01209663

  17. Medical emergencies in dental practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wilson, M H

    2009-06-01

    Serious medical emergencies are fortunately a rare occurrence in the dental practice environment; however, if an emergency situation is encountered a delay in treatment may result in potentially avoidable consequences. The risk of mortality or serious morbidity can be reduced by ensuring that basic emergency equipment and medications are in place, and that the dental team is appropriately trained in basic life support measures. This article aims to provide an overview of the basic emergency medications and equipment that should be present in dental practices, and to discuss specific responses to some of the more common adverse medical events that can present while providing dental treatment.

  18. How can emerging powers speak?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Emerging powers like China, India and Brazil are receiving growing attention as objects in International Relations (IR) discourse. Scholars from these emerging powers are rarely present as subjects in mainstream IR discourse, however. This paper interrogates the conditions for scholars in emerging...... powers to speak back to the mainstream discipline. It argues, first, that ‘theory speak’ is rare from scholars based in periphery countries perceived to be ‘emerging powers’. Despite increasing efforts to create a ‘home-grown’ theoretical discourse in China, India and Brazil, few articles in mainstream...

  19. Emergent physics: Fermi point scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Volovik, G E

    2008-01-01

    The Fermi-point scenario of emergent gravity has the following consequences: gravity emerges together with fermionic and bosonic matter; emergent fermionic matter consists of massless Weyl fermions; emergent bosonic matter consists of gauge fields; Lorentz symmetry persists well above the Planck energy; space-time is naturally 4-dimensional; Universe is naturally flat; cosmological constant is naturally small or zero; underlying physics is based on discrete symmetries; `quantum gravity' cannot be obtained by quantization of Einstein equations; there is no contradiction between quantum mechanics and gravity; etc.

  20. An update on emergency care and emergency medicine in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodigin, Anthony

    2015-12-01

    Russia's national healthcare system is undergoing significant changes. Those changes which affect healthcare financing are particularly vital. As has often been the case in other nations, the emergency care field is at the forefront of such reforms. The ongoing challenges constitute the environment in which the hospital-based specialty of emergency medicine needs to develop as part of a larger system. Emergency care has to evolve in order to match true needs of the population existing today. New federal regulations recently adopted have recognized emergency departments as the new in-hospital component of emergency care, providing the long-needed legal foundation upon which the new specialty can advance. General knowledge of Western-style emergency departments in terms of their basic setup and function has been widespread among Russia's medical professionals for some time. Several emergency departments are functioning in select regions as pilots. Preliminary data stemming from their operation have supported a positive effect on efficiency of hospital bed utilization and on appropriate use of specialists and specialized hospital departments. In the pre-hospital domain, there has been a reduction of specialized ambulance types and of the number of physicians staffing all ambulances in favor of midlevel providers. Still, a debate continues at all levels of the medical hierarchy regarding the correct future path for emergency care in Russia with regard to adaptation and sustainability of any foreign models in the context of the country's unique national features. PMID:26608599

  1. [Impact of a pre-operative mobilisation program using the Viv-Arte training model based on kinesthetic mobilisation on mobility, pain, and post-operation length of stay of patients receiving an elective medial laparotomy: a prospective, randomised, controlled pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasenritter, Jörg; Eisenschink, Anna Maria; Kirchner, Elisabeth; Bauder-Missbach, Heidi; Brach, Michael; Veith, Jessica; Sander, Silvia; Panfil, Eva-Maria

    2009-02-01

    A medial incision is a common surgical technique to obtain access to the abdomen. Thereby, the muscles involved in movement are manipulated, leading to post-operative restrictions in mobility and pain determined by movement. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the impact of a pre-operative training session using the Viv-Arte model, which is based on kinesthetic mobilisation principles. The parameters to be measured were mobility, pain, and length of hospital stay for patients, who were undergoing elective medial laparotomy. In addition, the study tested the research design and to identify possible effect sizes. The method chosen was a prospective, randomised, controlled, and unblinded design. Twenty-seven patients were involved (median=63 years, 19 of the patients were male) who were to have a medial incision for cystectomy. The intervention involved pre-operative training of post-operative mobility techniques. Mobility was tested using the "Mobilitätstest für Patienten im Akutkrankenhaus (MOTPA) (Mobility test for patients in hospital)"; pain intensity was assessed using the visual analogue scale. The intervention and control groups were comparable for all variables. There were no significant differences in the two groups related to the objectives. It is possible that the study groups or the operationalisation were not appropriate for testing the effects of the intervention. It seems important to continue to develop instruments that are appropriate for measuring the effect of mobility-related interventions. PMID:19173175

  2. Urgencias respiratorias Respiratory emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Martínez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Las urgencias respiratorias en un paciente con cáncer pueden tener su origen en patologías de la vía aérea, del parénquima pulmonar o de los grandes vasos. La causa puede ser el propio tumor o complicaciones concomitantes. La obstrucción de la vía aérea debería ser inicialmente evaluada con procedimientos endoscópicos. En situaciones severas, la cirugía raramente es posible. El emplazamiento endobronquial de stents e isótopos radiactivos (braquiterapia, la ablación tumoral por láser o la terapia fotodinámica, pueden aliviar de forma rápida los síntomas y reestablecer el flujo aéreo. El manejo de la hemoptisis depende de la causa que la provoque y de la cuantía de la misma. La broncoscopia sigue siendo el procedimiento de primera línea en la mayor parte de los casos; aporta información diagnóstica y puede interrumpir el sangrado mediante lavados con suero helado, taponamiento endobronquial o inyecciones tópicas de adrenalina o trombina. La radioterapia externa sigue siendo un procedimiento extraordinariamente útil para tratar la hemoptisis de causa tumoral y en situaciones bien seleccionadas la terapia endobronquial con láser o braquiterapia y la embolización arterial bronquial pueden proporcionar un gran rendimiento paliativo. Las urgencias respiratorias por enfermedad del parénquima pulmonar en un paciente oncológico, pueden tener causa tumoral, iatrogénica o infecciosa. El reconocimiento precoz de cada una de ellas determina la administración del tratamiento específico y las posibilidades de éxito.Respiratory emergencies in a patient with cancer can have their origin in pathologies of the airway, of the pulmonary parenchyma or the large vessels. The cause can be the tumour itself or concomitant complications. Obstruction of the airway should be initially evaluated with endoscopic procedures. Surgery is rarely possible in serious situations. The endobronchial placement of stents or radioactive isotopes

  3. Hypoglycemia in Emergency Department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Jang Su; Chia-Jung Liao

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the epidemiology, etiologies and prognostic factors of hypoglycemia. Methods:A retrospective chart review of hypoglycemic cases from December, 2009 to February, 2012 was conducted to gather the following patient data: age, gender, vital signs at triage, white blood cell count, serum glucose, C-reactive protein, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, creatinine, sodium, potassium, past history of liver cirrhosis, uremia, concomitant infection, concomitant cancer/malignancy, length of stay, lack of recent meal, status of acute renal failure and concomitant stroke. A total of 186 cases were enrolled in our study. We analyzed the data using commercial statistics software (SPSS for Windows, version 11.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). We used the Student's t-test andχ2 test for the statistical analyses, and significance was set at a P value less than 0.05. Results: Hypoglycemia is related to several co-morbidities. In total, 10.2%of the patients had liver cirrhosis and 7.0% had uremia. More than half (55.4%) were bacterial infection during hospitalization. Acute renal failure accounted for 26.3%of the hypoglycemic episodes. In addition to the etiology of infection, the lack of a recent meal accounted for 44.6%hypoglycemic episodes. A total of 2.2%of the cases resulted from an acute cerebrovascular accident. Approximately 8.6%were concomitant with malignancy. Conclusions: When hypoglycemic patients present in the emergency department, physicians should pay attention to the presence of infection, malignancy, liver diseases (liver cirrhosis and biliary tract infection), and acute renal failure.

  4. Preparing for radiation emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past 40 years during man's expanded use of radioactive material there have been approximately 100 accidents which have resulted in injury to individuals. Most of these injuries have involved nuclear weapons development and testing rather than the peaceful applications of nuclear energy. A study of the sources causes and injuries resulting from this limited number of past events can provide guidance on the general type and magnitude of events which are most likely to occur in the future. The most common radiological and medical problems faced by the nuclear industry in the event of an accident are: internal and external overexposure to workers; radiation injury either from partial or whole-body exposure; and environmental contamination with the threat of contamination of individuals. Of the 100 or so radiation accidents which have been reported worldwide, the sources of uncontrolled radiation have been identified as shown in the table. These accidents have resulted in 16 fatalities and slightly more than 300 people each exposed to the equivalent of more than 25 rem total-body dose. In most discussions and national and international meetings the tendency has been to focus attention on large-scale nuclear accidents which are really exceedingly rare events. The purpose of the seminar on radiation emergency preparedness, held in India late last year, was to focus attention on the more common small-scale radiation events which are occurring in developing countries and which require modest efforts of advance planning and preparedness. As specific examples of the potential for radiation accidents, in India there are over 750 institutions using radiation sources: including more than 10 000 diagnostic X-ray units, 100 teletherapy units, and 90 brachytherapy units in medical applications; 332 radiography sources, and 138 nucleonic gauges in industrial applications. Of 77 accidents involving the loss of control over a radiation source, 47 involved industrial

  5. Preparing for Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asproth, Viveca; Amcoff Nyström, Christina

    2010-11-01

    Disaster relief can be seen as a dynamic multi actor process with actors both joining and leaving the relief work during the help and rescue phase after the disaster has occurred. Actors may be governmental agencies, non profit voluntary organisations or spontaneous helpers comprised of individual citizens or temporal groups of citizens. Hence, they will vary widely in agility, competence, resources, and endurance. To prepare for for disasters a net based Agora with simulation of emergency situations for mutual preparation, training, and organisational learning is suggested. Such an Agora will ensure future security by: -Rising awareness and preparedness of potential disaster responders by help of the components and resources in the netAgora environment; -Improving cooperation and coordination between responders; -Improving competence and performance of organisations involved in security issues; -Bridging cultural differences between responders from different organizations and different backgrounds. The developed models are intended to reflect intelligent anticipatory systems for human operator anticipation of future consequences. As a way to catch what should be included in this netbased Agora and to join the split pictures that is present, Team Syntegrity could be a helpful tool. The purpose of Team Syntegrity is to stimulate collaboration and incite cross fertilization and creativity. The difference between syntegration and other group work is that the participants are evenly and uniquely distributed and will collectively have the means, the knowledge, the experience, the perspectives, and the expertise, to deal with the topic. In this paper the possibilities with using Team Syntegrity in preparation for the development of a netbased Agora is discussed. We have identified that Team Syntegrity could be useful in the steps User Integration, Designing the netAgora environment, developing Test Scenarios, and assessment of netAgora environment.

  6. Emergency Linkage Mode of Power Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Jie; Yu Zhen; Liu Chao

    2016-01-01

    Power emergency disposal needs take full advantage of the power enterprise within the external emergency power and resources. Based on analyzing and summarizing the relevant experience of domestic and foreign emergency linkage, this paper draws the Emergency Linkage subjects, Emergency Linkage contents, Emergency Linkage level, which are three key elements if power enterprise Emergency Linkage. Emergency Linkage subjects are divided into the two types of inner subjects and the external body; ...

  7. Monitoring new and emerging risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.; Douwes, M.; Zondervan, E.; Jongen, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article, based on recent literature, will identify, define and discuss new and emerging OSH-risks together with the driving forces behind these risks. Emerging risks will be described as being related to physical load and musculoskeletal disorders [MSDs], psychosocial risks, and dangerous subst

  8. Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-09

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the commentary by CDC author Ronald Rosenberg, Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses.  Created: 6/9/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/9/2016.

  9. Anticipatory Ethics for Emerging Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, P.A.E.

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, a new approach for the ethical study of emerging technology ethics will be presented, called anticipatory technology ethics (ATE). The ethics of emerging technology is the study of ethical issues at the R&D and introduction stage of technology development through anticipation of possi

  10. Digital Media and Emergent Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisrich, Katy; Blanchard, Jay

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses digital media and its potential effects on emergent literacy skills development for young children. While the impact of digital media exposure on children's emergent literacy development is largely unknown, it is becoming a significant issue, as more and more young children throughout the world observe and use various forms…

  11. Ulipristal Acetate in Emergency Contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Šprem Goldštajn, Marina; Pavičić Baldani, Dinka; Škrgatić, Lana; Radaković, Branko; Vrčić, Hrvoje; Čanić, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    Despite the widespread availability of highly effective methods of contraception, unintended pregnancy is common. Unplanned pregnancies have been linked to a range of health, social and economic consequences. Emergency contraception reduces risk of pregnancy after unprotected intercourse, and represents an opportunity to decrease number of unplanned pregnancies and abortions. Emergency contraception pills (ECP) prevent pregnancy by delaying or inhibiting ovulation, without interfering with po...

  12. Emergency Department Management of Trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Colin; Lippert, Freddy

    1999-01-01

    Initial assessment and management of severely injured patients may occur in a specialized area of an emergency department or in a specialized area of a trauma center. The time from injury until definitive management is of essence for survival of life-threatening trauma. The initial care delivered...... injured patients after these patients reach a hospital emergency department or a trauma center....

  13. Keeping Food Safe During Emergencies

    OpenAIRE

    Chezem, Jo Carol; Burgess, Wilella D; Mason, April C.

    1994-01-01

    Disasters can come in many forms, including tornadoes, fires, floods, and snowstorms. In any of these emergency situations, two problems commonly arise. The first is a lack of incoming supplies. The second is damage to gas and electrical power systems. This publication discusses how to handle foods before, during, and after an emergency to keep them safe and to avoid food poisoning.

  14. Emergencies in the hospital environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every hospital center must have an emergency plan, which in case of an accident would immediately set off. The present article describes the particularities of radioactive installations already in existence in hospitals in case of an emergency and the radiologic risks which must be taken into account. (Author)

  15. Nuclear emergency preparedness in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparedness of utilities and government agencies at various levels for dealing with nuclear emergencies occurring at nuclear reactors in Canada is reviewed and assessed. The review is centered on power reactors, but selected research reactors are included also. Emergency planning in the U.S.A., Germany and France, and international recommendations on emergency planning are reviewed to provide background and a basis for comparison. The findings are that Canadians are generally well protected by existing nuclear emergency plans at the electric utility and provincial levels but there are improvements that can be made, mainly at the federal level and in federal-provincial coordination. Ten issues of importance are identified: commitment to nuclear emergency planning by the federal government; division of federal and provincial roles and responsibilities; auditing of nuclear emergency preparedness of all levels of government and of electric utilities; the availability of technical guidance appropriate to Canada; protective action levels for public health and safety; communication with the public; planning and response for the later phases of a nuclear emergency; off-site exercises and training; coordination of international assistance; and emergency planning for research reactors. (L.L.) 79 refs., 2 tabs

  16. Emergence of Symmetries from Entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Maximal Entanglement appears to be a key ingredient for the emergence of symmetries. We first illustrate this phenomenon using two examples: the emergence of conformal symmetry in condensed matter systems and  the relation of tensor networks to holography. We further present a Principle of Maximal Entanglement that seems to dictate to a large extend the structure of gauge symmetry.

  17. Cognitive Radio for Emergency Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Qiwei; Kokkeler, A.B.J.; Smit, G.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    In the scope of the Adaptive Ad-hoc Freeband (AAF) project, an emergency network built on top of Cognitive Radio is proposed to alleviate the spectrum shortage problem which is the major limitation for emergency networks. Cognitive Radio has been proposed as a promising technology to solve todayâ?~B

  18. Visioning future emergency healthcare collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderholm, Hanna M.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2010-01-01

    New video technologies are emerging to facilitate collaboration in emergency healthcare. One such technology is 3D telepresence technology for medical consultation (3DMC) that may provide richer visual information to support collaboration between medical professionals to, ideally, enhance patient...... care in real time. Today only an early prototype of 3DMC exists. To better understand 3DMC's potential for adoption and use in emergency healthcare before large amounts of development resources are invested we conducted a visioning study. That is, we shared our vision of 3DMC with emergency room...... physicians, nurses, administrators, and information technology (IT) professionals working at large and small medical centers, and asked them to share their perspectives regarding 3DMC's potential benefits and disadvantages in emergency healthcare and its compatibility and/or lack thereof...

  19. Institutional planning for radiation emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persons providing health care pride themselves on their ability to handle emergencies. This pride is born of the daily experience of caring for the sick and injured. Emergencies include traumatic injuries, sudden changes in health status, and various minor disturbances in the physical environment inside the hospital. The effectiveness of this ability is unquestioned in limited-scale problems. However, survey experience of the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Hospitals (JCAH) reveals weaknesses when health care organizations are faced with larger scale problems such as earthquakes and plane crashes. One may speculate that a massive emergency such as occurred at Chernobyl would overwhelm this ability. Based on the same survey experience, JCAH believes that health care organizations can plan and train to prepare for large-scale emergencies in a careful and systematic manner. Through such study and practice, their existing confidence and ability to deal with limited emergencies can be explained

  20. Emergency preparedness at the UJD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the emergency planning is to suggest optimum organisational and technical measures to restrict the threat or to eliminate the menace to the population in case of incident or accident at nuclear facility. The emergency plan is activated and executed through the set of emergency procedures, which define basic activities of the UJD during the emergency situations in compliance with legislation regulations. The assessment of the course and consequences of serious incidents and accidents of nuclear installations is carried out by the Emergency Response Centre (KKC). The Emergency Plan of UJD is the set of technical and organisation measures with the aim to propose optimal measures for protection of population and environment. The UJD- Department of Emergency Management and Informatics has an irreplaceable role in the structure of emergency response. The Emergency Response Centre is its organisational part. The UJD is a contact point of the Slovak Republic with the IAEA in frame of convention on early notification of nuclear accidents. The same is valid for bilateral agreements between the Slovak Republic and Czech Republic, Germany, Austria, Hungary, Poland and Ukraine. Uninterrupted 24 hours duty service of the contact point is assured for the UJD by the Office of Civil Protection of Ministry of Interior. In order to fulfil the tasks of the emergency planning UJD established its Emergency Response Group, which consists of four professional teams: 1. Reactor safety group, 2. Radiation protection group, 3. Logistic group, 4. Information group. Information Group consists of the head of Group, the report analysis experts and news service experts. The information group is responsible for public information as well as for informing the authorities. The Information Centre is situated closely to the Emergency Response Centre. The information group gathers, coordinates and prepares all pieces of information in compliance with commitments of the Slovak Republic

  1. Emergency thoracotomies: Two center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh Ibrahim Sersar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim: Emergency thoracotomy is performed either immediately at the scene of injury, in the emergency department or in the operating room. It aims to evacuate the pericardial tamponade, control the haemorrhage, to ease the open cardiac massage and to cross-clamp the descending thoracic aorta to redistribute blood flow and maybe to limit sub-diaphragmatic haemorrhage, bleeding and iatrogenic injury are the common risk factors. We aimed to review our experience in the field of emergency thoracotomies, identify the predictors of death, analyze the early results, detect the risk factors and asses the mortalities and their risk factors. Patients and Methods: Our hospital records of 197 patients who underwent emergency thoracotomy were reviewed. We retrospectively analyzed a piece of the extensive experience of the Mansoura University Hospitals and Mansoura Emergency Hospital; Egypt and Saudi German Hospitals; Jeddah in the last 12 years in the management of trauma cases for whom emergency thoracotomy. The aim was to analyse the early results of such cases and to detect the risk factors of dismal prognosis. Results: Our series included 197 cases of emergency thoractomies in Mansoura; Egypt and SGH; Jeddah; KSA in the last 12 years. The mean age of the victims was 28 years and ranged between 5 and 62 years. Of the 197 patients with emergency thoracotomy, the indications were both penetrating and blunt chest trauma, iatrogenic and postoperative hemodynamito a surgical cause. The commonest indication was stab heart followed by traumatic diaphragmatic ruptures. Conclusion: The results of emergency thoracotomy in our series were cooping with the results of other reports, mainly due to our aggressive measures to achieve rapid stabilization of the hemodynamic condition. We emphasize the importance of emergency medicine education programs on rapid diagnosis of traumatic injuries with early intervention, and adequate hemodynamic and respiratory

  2. Emergency Linkage Mode of Power Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Jie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Power emergency disposal needs take full advantage of the power enterprise within the external emergency power and resources. Based on analyzing and summarizing the relevant experience of domestic and foreign emergency linkage, this paper draws the Emergency Linkage subjects, Emergency Linkage contents, Emergency Linkage level, which are three key elements if power enterprise Emergency Linkage. Emergency Linkage subjects are divided into the two types of inner subjects and the external body; Emergency Linkage contents are in accordance with four phases of prevention, preparedness, response and recovery; Emergency Linkage level is divided into three levels of enterprise headquarter, provincial enterprise and incident unite. Binding power enterprise emergency management practice, this paper studies the internal Emergency Linkage modes (including horizontal mode and vertical mode, external Emergency Linkage mode and comprehensive Emergency Linkage Mode of power enterprise based on Fishbone Diagram and Process Management Technology.

  3. Is Q Fever an emerging or re-emerging zoonosis?

    OpenAIRE

    Arricau-Bouvery, Nathalie; Rodolakis, Annie

    2005-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease considered as emerging or re-emerging in many countries. It is caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterium developing spore-like forms that are highly resistant to the environment. The most common animal reservoirs are livestock and the main source of infection is by inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Although the culture process for Coxiella is laborious, advances on the knowledge of the life cycle of the bacterium have been made. New tools have been developed to...

  4. Nuclear emergency planning in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear emergency planning in Norway is forming a part of the Search and Rescue Service of the country. Due to the fact that Norway do not have any nucleat power reactor, the nuclear emergency planning has not been given high priority. The problems however are a part of the activity of the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene, and the emergency preparedness is at the present time to a large extent based on the availability of professional health physicists and their knowledge, rather than established practices

  5. Decision support for emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short introduction will be given to the Nordic project ''NKA/INF: Information Technology for Accident and Emergency Management'', which is now in its final phase. To perform evaluation of the project, special scenarious have been developed, and experiments based on these will be fulfilled and compared with experiments without use of the decision support system. Furthermore, the succeeding European project, ''IT Support for Emergency Management - ISEM'', with the purpose of developing a decision support system for complex and distributed decision making in emergency management in full scale, will be described and the preliminary conceptual model for the system will be presented. (author)

  6. Experiences of Emerging Economy Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissak, Tiia; Zhang, Xiaotian

    2015-01-01

    Experiences of Emerging Economy Firms investigates the different elements of the experiences of emerging economy firms and sheds essential light on a large variety of aspects associated with their functioning in both home and host contexts. For example, firms must be able to overcome the liability...... of foreign and emerging issues when they expand their activities in various contexts, enter, exit, and re-enter overseas markets; they have to overcome institutional barriers, adapt the cultural challenges in foreign markets, undergo the impact of large multinational firms from developed economies...

  7. Emergency oxygen: What? Who? When?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, L M

    1994-01-01

    1. While the need for oxygen to support ill or injured clients is well established, confusion exists about oxygen devices and legal and training requirements. 2. The FDA recognizes both emergency and prescription oxygen. Emergency devices may be used legally by a non-health care workplace first aider who has completed a course in oxygen administration. Training sources for oxygen administration training are identified. 3. Workplace first aiders may assist a client and occupational health nurse by administering emergency oxygen. The appropriate use of these devices for cases of cardiac distress/arrest, shock, COPD, and hyperventilation is reviewed. PMID:8147981

  8. Environmental monitoring in emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual gives technical guidance on emergency monitoring procedures to those who would have to assess the situation after an accident leading to the uncontrolled release of radioactive substances to the environment. Its aim is to draw attention to the important factors that should be considered in formulating emergency plans. The seven annexes contain inventories of fission products and possible releases; dispersion, deposition and dose-exposure relationships for airborne releases; α-, β- and γ-radiation surveys; information on sample collection and field evaluation; and brief descriptions of the environmental monitoring procedures adopted in previous emergencies (Windscale 1957, AERE Harwell 1961 and NRTS Idaho 1961).

  9. Emerging & re-emerging infections in India: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikid, T; Jain, S K; Sharma, A; Kumar, A; Narain, J P

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of emerging infectious diseases in humans has increased within the recent past or threatens to increase in the near future. Over 30 new infectious agents have been detected worldwide in the last three decades; 60 per cent of these are of zoonotic origin. Developing countries such as India suffer disproportionately from the burden of infectious diseases given the confluence of existing environmental, socio-economic, and demographic factors. In the recent past, India has seen outbreaks of eight organisms of emerging and re-emerging diseases in various parts of the country, six of these are of zoonotic origin. Prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases will increasingly require the application of sophisticated epidemiologic and molecular biologic technologies, changes in human behaviour, a national policy on early detection of and rapid response to emerging infections and a plan of action. WHO has made several recommendations for national response mechanisms. Many of these are in various stages of implementation in India. However, for a country of size and population of India, the emerging infections remain a real and present danger. A meaningful response must approach the problem at the systems level. A comprehensive national strategy on infectious diseases cutting across all relevant sectors with emphasis on strengthened surveillance, rapid response, partnership building and research to guide public policy is needed.

  10. Emerging & re-emerging infections in India: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Dikid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of emerging infectious diseases in humans has increased within the recent past or threatens to increase in the near future. Over 30 new infectious agents have been detected worldwide in the last three decades; 60 per cent of these are of zoonotic origin. Developing countries such as India suffer disproportionately from the burden of infectious diseases given the confluence of existing environmental, socio-economic, and demographic factors. In the recent past, India has seen outbreaks of eight organisms of emerging and re-emerging diseases in various parts of the country, six of these are of zoonotic origin. Prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases will increasingly require the application of sophisticated epidemiologic and molecular biologic technologies, changes in human behaviour, a national policy on early detection of and rapid response to emerging infections and a plan of action. WHO has made several recommendations for national response mechanisms. Many of these are in various stages of implementation in India. However, for a country of size and population of India, the emerging infections remain a real and present danger. A meaningful response must approach the problem at the systems level. A comprehensive national strategy on infectious diseases cutting across all relevant sectors with emphasis on strengthened surveillance, rapid response, partnership building and research to guide public policy is needed.

  11. Emerging and re-emerging bacterial diseases in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T D Chugh

    2008-11-01

    There has been a remarkable progress in the prevention, control and even eradication of infectious diseases with improved hygiene and development of antimicrobials and vaccines. However, infectious diseases still remain a leading cause of global disease burden with high morbidity and mortality especially in the developing world. Furthermore, there have been threats of new diseases during the past three decades due to the evolution and adaptation of microbes and the re-emergence of old diseases due to the development of antimicrobial resistance and the capacity to spread to new geographic areas. The impact of the emerging and re-emerging diseases in India has been tremendous at socioeconomic and public health levels. Their control requires continuing surveillance, research and training, better diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. Emerging and reemerging zoonotic diseases, foodborne and waterborne diseases and diseases caused by multiresistant organisms constitute the major threats in India. This review of bacterial emerging and re-emerging diseases should be of critical importance to microbiologists, clinicians, public health personnel and policy makers in India.

  12. Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonoses of Dogs and Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno B. Chomel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the middle of the 20th century, pets are more frequently considered as “family members” within households. However, cats and dogs still can be a source of human infection by various zoonotic pathogens. Among emerging or re-emerging zoonoses, viral diseases, such as rabies (mainly from dog pet trade or travel abroad, but also feline cowpox and newly recognized noroviruses or rotaviruses or influenza viruses can sicken our pets and be transmitted to humans. Bacterial zoonoses include bacteria transmitted by bites or scratches, such as pasteurellosis or cat scratch disease, leading to severe clinical manifestations in people because of their age or immune status and also because of our closeness, not to say intimacy, with our pets. Cutaneous contamination with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Leptospira spp., and/or aerosolization of bacteria causing tuberculosis or kennel cough are also emerging/re-emerging pathogens that can be transmitted by our pets, as well as gastro-intestinal pathogens such as Salmonella or Campylobacter. Parasitic and fungal pathogens, such as echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, onchocercosis, or sporotrichosis, are also re-emerging or emerging pet related zoonoses. Common sense and good personal and pet hygiene are the key elements to prevent such a risk of zoonotic infection.

  13. Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonoses of Dogs and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, Bruno B

    2014-01-01

    Since the middle of the 20th century, pets are more frequently considered as "family members" within households. However, cats and dogs still can be a source of human infection by various zoonotic pathogens. Among emerging or re-emerging zoonoses, viral diseases, such as rabies (mainly from dog pet trade or travel abroad), but also feline cowpox and newly recognized noroviruses or rotaviruses or influenza viruses can sicken our pets and be transmitted to humans. Bacterial zoonoses include bacteria transmitted by bites or scratches, such as pasteurellosis or cat scratch disease, leading to severe clinical manifestations in people because of their age or immune status and also because of our closeness, not to say intimacy, with our pets. Cutaneous contamination with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Leptospira spp., and/or aerosolization of bacteria causing tuberculosis or kennel cough are also emerging/re-emerging pathogens that can be transmitted by our pets, as well as gastro-intestinal pathogens such as Salmonella or Campylobacter. Parasitic and fungal pathogens, such as echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, onchocercosis, or sporotrichosis, are also re-emerging or emerging pet related zoonoses. Common sense and good personal and pet hygiene are the key elements to prevent such a risk of zoonotic infection. PMID:26480316

  14. Effect of emergency operation combined with somatostatin therapy on inflammatory state and liver function levels in patients with acute cholecystitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Zhong Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of emergency operation combined with somatostatin therapy on inflammatory state and liver function levels in patients with acute cholecystitis.Methods:A total of 146 acute cholecystitis patients who accepted laparoscopic cholecystectomy in our hospital from May 2012 to October 2015 were selected as the research subjects and divided into somatostatin group and normal control group. Then the operation, perioperative energy metabolism as well as postoperative inflammatory state and liver function levels of the two groups were analyzed.Results:Operative field exposure of somatostatin group was clearer, local tissue edema and exudation were lighter and conversion rate to laparotomy was lower; perioperative REE of somatostatin group were significantly lower than those of normal control group; the very day after operation, numeration of leukocyte, neutrophil ratio as well as serum resistin, hypersensitive C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels of somatostatin group were significantly lower than those of normal control group while prealbumin level was significantly higher than that of normal control group.Conclusions:Perioperative application of somatostatin can reduce the body's inflammatory response, local tissue edema and liver function injury. It is an ideal treatment for perioperative acute cholecystitis.

  15. Effects of laparotomy and laparoscopic hysterectomy on urinary and sexual functions in patients with endo-metrial cancer%开腹式与腹腔镜下子宫切除术对子宫内膜癌患者排尿及性功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红波; 张黎; 郑艳莉

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨开腹式与腹腔镜下子宫切除术对子宫内膜癌患者排尿及性功能的影响。方法:子宫内膜癌患者110例根据随机抽签法分为治疗组与对照组各55例,治疗组给予腹腔镜下子宫切除治疗,对照组给予常规开腹子宫切除治疗。结果:两组手术时间对比差异无统计学意义,不过治疗组的术中出血量、肛门排气时间与术后住院时间明显少于对照组(P<0.05)。治疗后治疗组尿潴留、切口出血与感染、泌尿系统损伤、肠道并发症等总体发生率明显少于对照组(P<0.05)。治疗后治疗组的膀胱充盈感时间、获得满意排尿量时间与残余尿量≤100ml时间都明显短于对照组(P<0.05)。随访3个月,治疗组的性欲与性高潮评分明显高于对照组,而性交痛评分明显低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:腹腔镜手术用于治疗子宫内膜癌是微创的,能有效缓解膀胱功能,提高性功能水平,安全性更好,值得临床推广应用。%Objectives:To evaluate the effects of laparotomy and laparoscopic hysterectomy on urinary and sexual functions in patients with endometrial cancer.Method:1 10 patients with endometrial cancer were randomly divided into the treatment group and the control group.The treatment group received laparoscopic hysterectomy, while the control group received conventional laparotomy hysterectomy.Results:The operation time of the 2 groups was of no significant difference.The blood loss,anal exhaust time and postoperative hospital stay of the treatment group were significantly less than those of the control group (P<0.05 ).After treatment,the incidence of urinary retention,wound bleeding and infection,urinary system damage and intestinal complications of the treatment group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P<0.05 ).After treatment,the sense of bladder filling time,satisfactory urine output time and the time of

  16. Tensile strength study of the abdominal wall following laparotomy synthesis using three types of surgical wires in Wistar rats Estudo da resistência tênsil da parede abdominal após síntese de laparotomia usando três tipos de fios cirúrgicos em ratos Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Félix Rossi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the tensile strength of the abdominal wall following laparotomy synthesis utilizing three types of surgical wires. METHODS: Thirty Wistar rats were randomized into three groups of ten rats each. Each group underwent a 3cm-laparotomy which was closed with 3-0 polyglactin 910, polyglecrapone and catgut wires. After 63 days, euthanasia was performed and part of the abdominal wall was removed with which a strip was produced measuring 2.0 cm in length by 6.0 cm in width comprising the abdominal muscles with the implanted mesh. The sample was fixed in a mechanical test machine in which constant force was applied contrary to the tissue strips. Maximum force was considered, expressed in Newton, until full rupture of the tissue occurred. The non-parametrical Kruskal - Wallis test was used for the statistical analysis, admitting pOBJETIVO: Estudar a resistência tênsil da parede abdominal após síntese de laparotomia utilizando três tipos de fios cirúrgicos. MÉTODOS: Trinta ratos da linhagem Wistar randomizados em três grupos de dez exemplares cada um. Em cada grupo fez-se uma laparotomia de dois centímetros que foi fechada com fios 3-0 de poliglactina 910, poliglecaprone e categute. Após 63 dias, foi feita a eutanásia e retirou-se uma área da parede abdominal com a qual fez-se uma tira medindo 2,0 cm de comprimento por 6,0 cm de largura englobando os músculos abdominais com a tela implantada. A amostra foi fixada em máquina de ensaios mecânicos na qual se aplicou força constante contrária às tiras de tecido. Foi considerada a força máxima expressa em Newton até ocorrer a ruptura total da amostra. Para a análise estatística, utilizou-se teste não paramétrico de Kruskal - Wallis admitindo-se p<0,05. RESULTADOS: A média de resistência do grupo categute foi ligeiramente menor (33.50 N ao da poliglactina (34.23 N, sendo essa diferença não estatisticamente significativa (p=0,733. O grupo poliglecaprone foi o que

  17. Collaborative Approaches in Emerging Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng; Han, Yang

    2011-01-01

    , in order to increase innovation performance. The theoretical framework is based on theories on trust, as well as institutional theory. The findings suggest that cognition-based trust as well as affect-based trust is needed for successful innovative collaboration, however, in emerging markets affect......The paper investigates innovative collaboration undertaken by newly established foreign invested R&D units in emerging markets. In particular, the paper investigates how foreign invested newly established R&D centers in emerging markets can leverage local knowledge networks, such as universities......-based trust is more important than Westerners are used to. This is due to the different institutional backgrounds, in emerging markets and developed markets respectively....

  18. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  19. Emergency Shelter Grantee (ESG) Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Emergency Shelter Grants (ESG) program is designed to identify sheltered and unsheltered homeless persons, as well as those at risk of homelessness, and provide...

  20. Value-Based Emergency Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Zachary; Winslow, Walter; Miramonti, Charlie; Stephens, Tim

    2016-02-01

    This article touches on the complex and decentralized network that is the US health care system and how important it is to include emergency management in this network. By aligning the overarching incentives of opposing health care organizations, emergency management can become resilient to up-and-coming changes in reimbursement, staffing, and network ownership. Coalitions must grasp the opportunity created by changes in value-based purchasing and impending Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services emergency management rules to engage payers, physicians, and executives. Hope and faith in doing good is no longer enough for preparedness and health care coalitions; understanding how physicians are employed and health care is delivered and paid for is now necessary. Incentivizing preparedness through value-based compensation systems will become the new standard for emergency management. PMID:26878308

  1. Emergency preparedness of OSBRA Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Milton P.; Torres, Carlos A.R.; Almeida, Francisco J.C. [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the experience of PETROBRAS Transporte S. A. - TRANSPETRO in the preparation for emergencies in the OSBRA pipeline, showing specific aspects and solutions developed. The company has a standardized approach for the emergency management, based on risk analysis studies, risk management plan and contingency plans. To cover almost 1,000 km of pipeline, the Company avails of Emergency Response Centers and Environmental Defense Center, located at strategic points. In order to achieve preparation, fire fighting training and oil leakage elimination training are provided. Additionally, simulation exercises are performed, following a schedule worked out according to specific criteria and guidelines. As a conclusion, a picture is presented of the evolution of the preparation for emergencies in the OSBRA System which bears the enormous responsibility of transporting flammable products for almost 1,000 km of pipeline, crossing 40 municipalities, 3 states and the Federal District. (author)

  2. Energy Emergency and Contingency Planning

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Region 3 document outlines the purpose of Energy Emergency and Contingency Plans. These plans are intended to help refuges continue to function during energy...

  3. Forum outlines top emerging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extance, Andy

    2015-04-01

    Additive manufacturing, next-generation robotics, "sense and avoid" drones that fly themselves, artificial intelligence and "neuromorphic" computing have all made it into the World Economic Forum's top 10 emerging technologies for 2015.

  4. Evaluation of emergency department performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Christian Michel; Jacobsen, Peter; Forberg, Jakob Lundager

    2013-01-01

    Background Evaluation of emergency department (ED) performance remains a difficult task due to the lack of consensus on performance measures that reflects high quality, efficiency, and sustainability. Aim To describe, map, and critically evaluate which performance measures that the published...

  5. Flux Emergence at the Photosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, M. C. M.; Schüssler, M.; Moreno-Insertis, F.

    2006-12-01

    To model the emergence of magnetic fields at the photosphere, we carried out 3D magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) simulations using the MURaM code. Our simulations take into account the effects of compressibility, energy exchange via radiative transfer and partial ionization in the equation of state. All these physical ingredients are essential for a proper treatment of the problem. In the simulations, an initially buoyant magnetic flux tube is embedded in the upper layers of the convection zone. We find that the interaction between the flux tube and the external flow field has an important influence on the emergent morphology of the magnetic field. Depending on the initial properties of the flux tube (e.g. field strength, twist, entropy etc.), the emergence process can also modify the local granulation pattern. The inclusion of radiative transfer allows us to directly compare the simulation results with real observations of emerging flux.

  6. American College of Emergency Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... where you can find your dream job Search Jobs Now Updated Zika Resources Available The ACEP Epidemic Expert Panel has curated the most relevant and up-to-date information you need to know about this emerging infectious disease. See ...

  7. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  8. Operator Training by Emergency Exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The defence in depth concept requires not only provisions for coping with anticipated operational occurrences as well as design basis accidents but also provisions which allow appropriate reactions to beyond design basis accidents. In accordance with this concept the Nuclear Safety Convention, which was signed by many IAEA Member States, deals among others with emergency preparedness and the correlated provisions. The Safety Convention requires that on-site and off-site emergency plans are routinely tested for nuclear installations. The aim of these provisions is primarily the prevention of radiological consequences in the environment of nuclear installations but also the mitigation of such consequences, should they nevertheless occur. Up to the eighties emergency preparedness concentrated on a few provisions by the operators and in particular on plant-external emergency planning. As a result of the accidents at Three Mile Island as well as Chernobyl and with the findings from many risk studies, accident management measures and emergency procedures were developed. This led to an increased plant internal emergency preparedness focussing on the prevention of severe core damage in case of beyond design basis accidents and on the reduction of external consequences in case of such hypothetical events. For emergency exercises based on event-sheets Volume 1 of the 'Manual for the Planning, Coordination and Evaluation of Emergency Exercises' has been elaborated in 1997. This manual emphasizes the modular structure of emergency exercises. The performed simulator-assisted exercises show that this type of exercises offers an extension of the spectrum of training measures. Explanations and findings related to this type of exercises are summarized in a second Volume of the above mentioned manual. In this volume the pros and cons of the two exercise types are discussed among others. Using the gathered experience laid down in particular in the two volumes of the manual a basis

  9. Emerging Technologies and Waiting Games

    OpenAIRE

    te Kulve, Haico

    2010-01-01

    While nanotechnologies are expected to generate wonderful benefits for food packaging, there is reluctance in the uptake of these promises. Still, things are changing and there are dedicated attempts – by institutional entrepreneurs – to shape future embedding of these new technologies. Thus one can examine the evolution of sectoral changes before the actual introduction of new and emerging technologies, which is relevant for studies on emerging technologies and industrial change processes. T...

  10. Data modelling for emergency response

    OpenAIRE

    Dilo, Arta; Zlatanova, Sidi

    2010-01-01

    Emergency response is one of the most demanding phases in disaster management. The fire brigade, paramedics, police and municipality are the organisations involved in the first response to the incident. They coordinate their work based on welldefined policies and procedures, but they also need the most complete and up-todate information about the incident, which would allow a reliable decision-making. There is a variety of systems answering the needs of different emergency responders, but the...

  11. Nanotechnology of emerging targeting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S S

    2008-09-01

    Recent developments in the design and testing of complex nanoscale payload-carrying systems (i.e. systems with payloads that do not exceed 100 nm in size) are the focus of this brief review. Emerging systems include targeted single-walled nanotubes, viral capsids, dendrimers, gold nanoparticles, milled boron carbide nanoparticles, and protein nucleic acid assemblies. Significant advances are emerging with each of these bionanotechnological approaches to cellular targeting.

  12. Monitoring new and emerging risks

    OpenAIRE

    Houtman, I.L.D.; Douwes, M.; Zondervan, E.; Jongen, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article, based on recent literature, will identify, define and discuss new and emerging OSH-risks together with the driving forces behind these risks. Emerging risks will be described as being related to physical load and musculoskeletal disorders [MSDs], psychosocial risks, and dangerous substances [e.g. chemical and biological substances]. In the following paragraphs some of the consequences of these risks for specific worker groups will be identified. In the final paragraph the gaps i...

  13. Emergent Gravity from Noncommutative Spacetime

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hyun Seok

    2006-01-01

    We showed before that self-dual electromagnetism in noncommutative (NC) spacetime is equivalent to self-dual Einstein gravity. This result implies a striking picture about gravity: Gravity can emerge from electromagnetism in NC spacetime. Gravity is then a collective phenomenon emerging from gauge fields living in fuzzy spacetime. We elucidate in some detail why electromagnetism in NC spacetime should be a theory of gravity. In particular, we show that NC electromagnetism is realized through ...

  14. How do communication systems emerge?

    OpenAIRE

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C.; Blythe, Richard A.; GARDNER, Andy; West, Stuart A.

    2012-01-01

    Communication involves a pair of behaviours—a signal and a response—that are functionally interdependent. Consequently, the emergence of communication involves a chicken-and-egg problem: if signals and responses are dependent on one another, then how does such a relationship emerge in the first place? The empirical literature suggests two solutions to this problem: ritualization and sensory manipulation; and instances of ritualization appear to be more common. However, it is not clear from a ...

  15. Emergency department coding and billing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelberg, Caral

    2004-02-01

    ED coding and billing are challenging additions to the responsibilities of emergency physicians. Assurances that each is performed in the most efficient and accurate manner possible is an essential component of today's emergency medicine practice. Minimizing the risk for submitting fraudulent claims is critical, because it assures the efficient and timely billing of all ED services. For the practice to thrive, each is necessary. PMID:15062501

  16. Emerging Institutions: Pyramids or Anthills?

    OpenAIRE

    Czarniawska, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    In the present text, an institution is understood to be an (observable) pattern of collective action, justified by a corresponding social norm. By this definition, an institution emerges slowly, although it may be helped or hindered by various specific acts. From this perspective, an institutional entrepreneur is an oxymoron, at least in principle. In practice, however, there are and always have been people trying to create institutions. This paper describes the emergence of London School of ...

  17. Active Region Emergence & Remote Flares

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Yixing; Welsch, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of newly emerged solar active regions (ARs) on the large-scale magnetic environment of pre-existing ARs (PEARs). We first present a theoretical approach to quantify the "interaction energy" between new ARs and PEARs as the difference between (i) the summed magnetic energies of their individual potential fields and (ii) the energy of their superposed potential fields. We expect that this interaction energy can, depending upon the relative arrangements of newly emerged and P...

  18. Nanotechnology of emerging targeting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    SMITH, S. S.

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in the design and testing of complex nanoscale payload-carrying systems (i.e. systems with payloads that do not exceed 100 nm in size) are the focus of this brief review. Emerging systems include targeted single-walled nanotubes, viral capsids, dendrimers, gold nanoparticles, milled boron carbide nanoparticles, and protein nucleic acid assemblies. Significant advances are emerging with each of these bionanotechnological approaches to cellular targeting. PMID:21687833

  19. Developing an emergency ultrasound app

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kim Thestrup; Subhi, Yousif; Aagaard, Rasmus;

    2015-01-01

    Focused emergency ultrasound is rapidly evolving as a clinical skill for bedside examination by physicians at all levels of education. Ultrasound is highly operator-dependent and relevant training is essential to ensure appropriate use. When supplementing hands-on focused ultrasound courses, e......-learning can increase the learning effect. We developed an emergency ultrasound app to enable onsite e-learning for trainees. In this paper, we share our experiences in the development of this app and present the final product....

  20. A Milestone For Emerging Economies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Sanya summit taps the potential of BRICS collaboration On April14,leaders of Brazil,Russia,India,China and South Africa,known as BRICS,held a one-day summit in Sanya,a resort city in south China’s Hainan Province.The group’s third summit presented thriving cooperation momentum among these emerging economies.Achievements The Sanya Declaration was the major policy statement to emerge from the conference.While including economic spheres,

  1. Information technology for emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved performance in emergency management by the use of modern information technology has been investigated. Limited parts of a preparedness system have been chosen based on analysis of drills with respect to emergency situations and real accidents. Specific functions relevant for the situation have been selected and implemented in prototype test systems. Finally, the usefulness of the prototype systems has been evaluated by experiments following specific scenarios. (author) 24 refs

  2. Flux emergence and coronal eruption

    CERN Document Server

    Archontis, V; 10.1051/0004-6361/200913502

    2010-01-01

    Our aim is to study the photospheric flux distribution of a twisted flux tube that emerges from the solar interior. We also report on the eruption of a new flux rope when the emerging tube rises into a pre-existing magnetic field in the corona. To study the evolution, we use 3D numerical simulations by solving the time-dependent and resistive MHD equations. We qualitatively compare our numerical results with MDI magnetograms of emerging flux at the solar surface. We find that the photospheric magnetic flux distribution consists of two regions of opposite polarities and elongated magnetic tails on the two sides of the polarity inversion line (PIL), depending on the azimuthal nature of the emerging field lines and the initial field strength of the rising tube. Their shape is progressively deformed due to plasma motions towards the PIL. Our results are in qualitative agreement with observational studies of magnetic flux emergence in active regions (ARs). Moreover, if the initial twist of the emerging tube is sma...

  3. Influence of intense neuromuscular blockade on surgical conditions during laparotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Matias Vested; Donatsky, Anders Meller; Jensen, Bente Rona;

    2015-01-01

    neuromuscular block on surgical conditions with a subjective rating scale, force needed to close the fascia, incidences of abdominal contractions while suctioning the lungs, width of the wound diastase and operating time as outcome parameters. RESULTS: In all six pigs no abdominal contractions occurred while...... neuromuscular block suctioning the lungs elicited brief periods of abdominal EMG activity. No difference was found in the force needed to close the fascia when comparing no neuromuscular block with intense neuromuscular block. Furthermore, no significant differences were found in the width of the diastase...... not influence the force needed to close the fascia....

  4. 国内腹腔镜和开腹手术治疗早期卵巢癌的临床效果的 Meta分析%Clinical Effects of Laparoscopy versus Laparotomy in Treatment of Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer in China:a Meta-Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马敏; 陈秀英; 李斌

    2015-01-01

    目的:评估腹腔镜手术治疗早期卵巢癌的可行性及安全性。方法:通过Pubmed、Embase、Medline、Cochrane Library、中国知网(CNKI)、中国生物医学文献数据库(CBM )、万方数据、维普资讯等检索2000年1月—2014年3月发表的有关比较腹腔镜手术与开腹手术治疗早期卵巢癌的文献。根据筛选标准选择文献,评估文献质量并提取相关数据,采用RevM an4.2.9软件进行统计分析。结果:共有7篇文献入选,均为临床病例对照研究,共422例患者,其中腹腔镜(laparoscopy ,LPS)组192例,开腹(laparotomy ,LPT)组230例。Meta分析结果显示,两组手术时间差异无统计学意义[加权均数差(weighted mean difference ,WMD)=32.95,95%可信区间(confidence interval ,CI):-3.89~69.79,P=0.08],术中出血量差异有统计学意义(WMD=-228.99,95% CI:-368.95~-89.03, P=0.001),淋巴结清扫个数差异无统计学意义(WMD=-1.11,95%CI:-2.30~0.09, P=0.07),术后排气时间差异有统计学意义(WMD =-22.25,95% CI:-28.40~-16.11, P<0.00001),住院天数差异有统计学意义(WMD=-5.52,95% CI:-8.72~-2.32,P=0.0007),术后并发症差异有统计学意义[优势比(odds ratio ,OR)=0.31,95% CI:0.16~0.59,P=0.0004]。结论:腹腔镜手术治疗早期卵巢癌创伤小、出血少、恢复快,疗效确切,安全可行,值得在临床推广。国内已有的相关研究均为小样本回顾分析,缺乏对远期疗效的分析,结论还有待多中心、大样本、前瞻性的随机对照试验研究证实。%Objective:To evaluate the feasibility and safety of laparoscopy in treatment of early‐stage ovarian cancer .Methods:Original articles about comparison between laparoscopy and laparotomy in treatment of early

  5. 成人开腹手术术后静脉自控镇痛芬太尼消耗量的影响因素分析%Influencing factors for fentanyl consumption of patient-controlled intravenous analgesia after adult laparotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓; 刘敬臣

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence factors for fentanyl consumption of patient-controlled analgesia after adult laparotomy to provide clinical references for the individual medication of postoperative patient -controlled analgesia .Methods Eighty patients who underwent selective laparotomy with general anesthesia and agreed to the use of patient-controlled intravenous analgesia after operation were enrolled in the study .The patient′s pain threshold and pain tolerance were measured before operation to evaluate their anxiety level .Total intravenous anesthesia with tracheal intubation was performed .The patient′s gender,age,body height,body weight,type of operation and operation duration were recorded at the end of operation ,and the length of operative incision was measured .Postoperative analgesia pump for patient-controlled intravenous analgesia was performed after operation ,with a drug formulation of dilute solution (150 ml) of fentanyl(1 mg), droperidol(5 mg) and normal saline.The follow up was performed on the 4th,8th,16th and 24th hour after analgesia pump worked .The visual analogue scale(VAS) score,Ramsay score and fentanyl consumption were observed and recorded ,and the body surface area was calculated.The patient′s gender,age,body surface area,pain threshold,pain tolerance,state anxiety score,trait anxiety score,type of operation, operation duration,length of incision and 24-hour fentanyl consumption were analyzed in Stepwise multiple linear regression .Results The effects of gender,body surface area,pain threshold,state anxiety score,trait anxiety score,type of operation and length of incision on fentanyl consumption showed no statistical significance(P>0.05),while the effects of age,pain tolerance and operation duration on fentanyl consumption showed a statistical significance(P<0.05).The regression equation:fentanyl consumption =617.82-36.13 ×pain tolerance-1.25 ×age+0.59 ×operation duration.Conclusion Pain tolerance,age and operation

  6. Observation of Curative Effect of Chewing Gum on the Recovery of Gastrointestinal Function af-ter Laparotomy for Benign Gynecologic Surgery%咀嚼口香糖对妇科良性疾病经腹手术术后胃肠功能恢复的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李威; 刘念; 张士泰; 李博; 白莹; 欧阳玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective]To investigate the effect of chewing gum on the recovery of gastrointestinal function after laparotomy for benign gynecologic surgery .[Methods]A study was conducted from March 1 ,2014 ,to October 31 ,2014 .144 patients scheduled to undergo laparotomy were randomly assigned to receive either rou‐tine care after surgery or routine care after surgery along with chewing gum .Patients of the chewing gum group ,the observation group ,chewed gum once every 6 hours after the operation ;each chewing session lasted 20 minutes .Meanwhile ,other treatment and care are the same as the treatment of patients in the control group .Time to first bowel motion and flatus ,the length of hospital stay and bowel‐related complications were analyzed between two groups .[Results] The mean time until bowel movement (18 .4 ± 5 .9 vs .29 .5 ± 6 .8) , mean time until flatus (38 5. ± 9 2. vs .47 1. ± 9 7.) ,mean time until defecation (60 1. ± 10 4. vs 8.0 5. ± 19 7. ) ,and mean length of hospital stay (4 6. ± 0 8. vs 5. 7. ± 1 4.)were all significantly reduced in patients that chewed gum compared with control patients (P0 0.5) .[Conclusion]Chewing gum decreased the time it took for patients to recover gastrointestinal function ,shortened the duration of hospitalization .The method is also simple and safe .It can be used as a synthetic therapy for a gastrointestinal function recovery program after laparotomy for benign gynecologic surgery .%【目的】探讨咀嚼口香糖对妇科良性疾病经腹手术术后胃肠功能恢复的疗效。【方法】选取妇科良性疾病经腹手术的患者144例,随机将其分为咀嚼口香糖组(观察组)和对照组(术后仅常规护理,不咀嚼口香糖)。观察组患者咀嚼口香糖间隔6 h一次,每次20 m in ,至肛门排气为止,其他术后治疗及护理与对照组相同。比较两组患者术后肠鸣音恢复时间、首次排气、排便时间、恶心、呕吐,肠梗阻等胃肠功能

  7. Emergency planning and preparedness in GNPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emergency organization and responsibility division, classification of emergency situations and corresponding response actions, completion of the emergency facilities, equipment and documents, preparation and performance of the emergency training and exercise in Guangdong Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station are introduced. These experiences can be provided in completing the emergency preparations in nuclear power plants. (3 tabs.)

  8. Emergency management logistics must become emergency supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard R; Peterson, Matthew R

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written about how emergency management (EM) needs to look to the future regarding issues of resource management (monetary, human, and material). Constraints on budgets are ongoing and the staffing of emergency response activities is often difficult because volunteers have little to no training. The management of material resources has also been a challenge because 1) the categories of material vary by the type of emergency, 2) the necessary quantities of material are often not located near the ultimate point of need, and 3) the transportation assets are rarely available in the form and quantity required to allow timely and effective response. The logistics and resource management functions of EM (what we refer to as EM logistics) have been largely reactive, with little to no pre-event planning for potential demand. We applied the Supply Chain Operational Reference (SCOR) model to EM logistics in an effort to transform it to an integrated and scalable system of physical, information, and financial flows into which are woven the functions of sourcing, making, delivering, and returning, with an overarching planning function that transcends the organizational boundaries of participants. The result is emergency supply chain management, which embraces many more participants who share in a larger quantity of more useful information about the resources that need to be deployed when responding to and recovering from emergency events.

  9. Emergency management logistics must become emergency supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard R; Peterson, Matthew R

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written about how emergency management (EM) needs to look to the future regarding issues of resource management (monetary, human, and material). Constraints on budgets are ongoing and the staffing of emergency response activities is often difficult because volunteers have little to no training. The management of material resources has also been a challenge because 1) the categories of material vary by the type of emergency, 2) the necessary quantities of material are often not located near the ultimate point of need, and 3) the transportation assets are rarely available in the form and quantity required to allow timely and effective response. The logistics and resource management functions of EM (what we refer to as EM logistics) have been largely reactive, with little to no pre-event planning for potential demand. We applied the Supply Chain Operational Reference (SCOR) model to EM logistics in an effort to transform it to an integrated and scalable system of physical, information, and financial flows into which are woven the functions of sourcing, making, delivering, and returning, with an overarching planning function that transcends the organizational boundaries of participants. The result is emergency supply chain management, which embraces many more participants who share in a larger quantity of more useful information about the resources that need to be deployed when responding to and recovering from emergency events. PMID:24828913

  10. Safety of oral glutamine in the abbreviation of preoperative fasting: a double-blind, controlled, randomized clinical trial Seguridad de la glutamina oral en la abreviación del ayuno preoperatorio: un ensayo clínico doble ciego, controlado, aleatorizado

    OpenAIRE

    D. Borges Dock-Nascimento; J. E. D Aguilar-Nascimento; C. Caporossi; M. Sepulveda Magalhães Faria; R. Bragagnolo; F. S. Caporossi; D. Linetzky Waitzberg

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: No study so far has tested a beverage containing glutamine 2 h before anesthesia in patients undergoing surgery. Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate: 1) the safety of the abbreviation of preoperative fasting to 2 h with a carbohydrate-L-glutamine-rich drink; and 2) the residual gastric volume (RGV) measured after the induction of anesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Methods: Randomized controlled trial with 56 women (42 (17-65) years-old) submitted to e...

  11. Alternative management of diabetic ketoacidosis in a Brazilian pediatric emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savoldelli Roberta D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract DKA is a severe metabolic derangement characterized by dehydration, loss of electrolytes, hyperglycemia, hyperketonemia, acidosis and progressive loss of consciousness that results from severe insulin deficiency combined with the effects of increased levels of counterregulatory hormones (catecholamines, glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone. The biochemical criteria for diagnosis are: blood glucose > 200 mg/dl, venous pH 3 mmol/L and presence of ketonuria. A patient with DKA must be managed in an emergency ward by an experienced staff or in an intensive care unit (ICU, in order to provide an intensive monitoring of the vital and neurological signs, and of the patient's clinical and biochemical response to treatment. DKA treatment guidelines include: restoration of circulating volume and electrolyte replacement; correction of insulin deficiency aiming at the resolution of metabolic acidosis and ketosis; reduction of risk of cerebral edema; avoidance of other complications of therapy (hypoglycemia, hypokalemia, hyperkalemia, hyperchloremic acidosis; identification and treatment of precipitating events. In Brazil, there are few pediatric ICU beds in public hospitals, so an alternative protocol was designed to abbreviate the time on intravenous infusion lines in order to facilitate DKA management in general emergency wards. The main differences between this protocol and the international guidelines are: intravenous fluid will be stopped when oral fluids are well tolerated and total deficit will be replaced orally; if potassium analysis still indicate need for replacement, it will be given orally; subcutaneous rapid-acting insulin analog is administered at 0.15 U/kg dose every 2-3 hours until resolution of metabolic acidosis; approximately 12 hours after treatment initiation, intermediate-acting (NPH insulin is initiated at the dose of 0.6-1 U/kg/day, and it will be lowered to 0.4-0.7 U/kg/day at discharge from hospital.

  12. Semiose e emergência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charbel Niño El-Hani

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Nosso propósito, neste artigo, é discutir se, e em que sentido, a semiose pode ser caracterizada como processo "emergente" em sistemas semióticos. Não nos interessa quando ou como a semiose emergiu no universo. Como um pré-requisito para a própria formulação desses problemas, estamos interessados em discutir as condições que devem ser satisfeitas para que a semiose possa ser caracterizada como um processo emergente. O primeiro passo foi sumarizar a análise sistemática da variedade de teorias da emergência elaborada por A. Stephan. Ao longo da apresentação, formulamos questões fundamentais, que precisam ser respondidas para qualificar com precisão os objetivos teóricos propostos. Palavras-chave semiose, emergência, estruturalismo hierárquico, C. S. Peirce Abstract In this paper, we intend to discuss whether and in what sense semiosis can be characterised as an "emergent" process in semiotic systems. We are not interested in knowing when or how semiosis emerged in the universe. Rather, as a requisite for the very formulation of these problems, we are interested in discussing the conditions that shall be fulfilled for semiosis to be characterised as an emergent process. The first step was to summarize A. Stephan's systematic analysis of the variety of emergence theories. During the course of the analysis, we pose fundamental questions that need to be answered in order to qualify our theoretical objectives. Key words semiosis, emergence, hierarchical structuralism, C. S. Peirce

  13. Pre-hospital emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark H; Habig, Karel; Wright, Christopher; Hughes, Amy; Davies, Gareth; Imray, Chirstopher H E

    2015-12-19

    Pre-hospital care is emergency medical care given to patients before arrival in hospital after activation of emergency medical services. It traditionally incorporated a breadth of care from bystander resuscitation to statutory emergency medical services treatment and transfer. New concepts of care including community paramedicine, novel roles such as emergency care practitioners, and physician delivered pre-hospital emergency medicine are re-defining the scope of pre-hospital care. For severely ill or injured patients, acting quickly in the pre-hospital period is crucial with decisions and interventions greatly affecting outcomes. The transfer of skills and procedures from hospital care to pre-hospital medicine enables early advanced care across a range of disciplines. The variety of possible pathologies, challenges of environmental factors, and hazardous situations requires management that is tailored to the patient's clinical need and setting. Pre-hospital clinicians should be generalists with a broad understanding of medical, surgical, and trauma pathologies, who will often work from locally developed standard operating procedures, but who are able to revert to core principles. Pre-hospital emergency medicine consists of not only clinical care, but also logistics, rescue competencies, and scene management skills (especially in major incidents, which have their own set of management principles). Traditionally, research into the hyper-acute phase (the first hour) of disease has been difficult, largely because physicians are rarely present and issues of consent, transport expediency, and resourcing of research. However, the pre-hospital phase is acknowledged as a crucial period, when irreversible pathology and secondary injury to neuronal and cardiac tissue can be prevented. The development of pre-hospital emergency medicine into a sub-specialty in its own right should bring focus to this period of care. PMID:26738719

  14. OEM Emergency Prevention and Mitigation Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Emergency Management maintains information relevant to preventing emergencies before they occur, and/or mitigating the effects of emergency when they...

  15. In-flight Medical Emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Chandra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Research and data regarding in-flight medical emergencies during commercial air travel are lacking. Although volunteer medical professionals are often called upon to assist, there are no guidelines or best practices to guide their actions. This paper reviews the literature quantifying and categorizing in-flight medical incidents, discusses the unique challenges posed by the in-flight environment, evaluates the legal aspects of volunteering to provide care, and suggests an approach to managing specific conditions at 30,000 feet.Methods: We conducted a MEDLINE search using search terms relevant to aviation medical emergencies and flight physiology. The reference lists of selected articles were reviewed to identify additional studies.Results: While incidence studies were limited by data availability, syncope, gastrointestinal upset, and respiratory complaints were among the most common medical events reported. Chest pain and cardiovascular events were commonly associated with flight diversion.Conclusion: When in-flight medical emergencies occur, volunteer physicians should have knowledge about the most common in-flight medical incidents, know what is available in on-board emergency medical kits, coordinate their therapy with the flight crew and remote resources, and provide care within their scope of practice. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(5:499–504.

  16. Emergency Managers Confront Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Labadie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Emergency managers will have to deal with the impending, uncertain, and possibly extreme effects of climate change. Yet, many emergency managers are not aware of the full range of possible effects, and they are unsure of their place in the effort to plan for, adapt to, and cope with those effects. This may partly reflect emergency mangers’ reluctance to get caught up in the rancorous—and politically-charged—debate about climate change, but it mostly is due to the worldview shared by most emergency managers. We focus on: extreme events; acute vs. chronic hazards (floods vs. droughts; a shorter event horizon (5 years vs. 75–100 years; and a shorter planning and operational cycle. This paper explores the important intersection of emergency management, environmental management, and climate change mitigation and adaptation. It examines the different definitions of terms common to all three fields, the overlapping strategies used in all three fields, and the best means of collaboration and mutual re-enforcement among the three to confront and solve the many possible futures that we may face in the climate change world.

  17. OPPORTUNITIES IN SMR EMERGENCY PLANNING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, Wayne

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses the results of a cost/benefit-oriented assessment related to sizing of the emergency planning zones (EPZs) for advanced, small modular reactors (SMRs). An appropriately sized EPZ could result in significant cost savings for SMR licensees. Papers published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and other organizations discuss the applicability of current emergency preparedness regulatory requirements to SMRs, including determining an appropriate EPZ size. Both the NRC and the industry recognize that a methodology should be developed for determining appropriate EPZ sizing for SMRs. Relative costs for smaller EPZs envisioned for SMRs have been assessed qualitatively as discussed in this paper. Building off the foundation provided in the earlier papers, this paper provides a quantitative cost/benefit-oriented assessment of offsite emergency planning costs for EPZ sizes that may be justified for SMRs as compared to costs typically incurred for the current fleet of U.S. nuclear power plants. This assessment determined that a licensee utilizing a smaller EPZ could realize significant savings in offsite emergency planning costs over the nominal 40-year lifetime for an SMR. This cost/benefit-oriented assessment suggests that a reduction of the plume exposure pathway EPZ from 10 miles to the site boundary could reduce offsite emergency planning related costs by more than 90% over the 40 year life of a typical single unit nuclear power plant.

  18. Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Volpentest Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Federal Training Center is a safety and emergency response training center that offers...

  19. The emergency department medical director.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, T A

    1987-02-01

    This article has presented an overview of the duties, responsibilities, and management roles of the emergency department Medical Director, a position that can be among the most challenging, stimulating, and exciting in medicine. However, prior to accepting a position as an Emergency Department medical director, one should have a clear understanding of what the job entails. Careful discussions with the hospital administration, medical staff, nursing personnel, and staff emergency physicians should be undertaken to learn the perceptions of these people and expectations of the position. Once the job has been accepted, using the roles, responsibilities, and duties detailed herein may be of benefit--but should always be applied with good judgment, tactful cooperation, and common sense. Finally, it should not be surprising to a medical director to find, as Spinoza did many years ago, that the excellent thing he aspires to are as difficult as they are rare.

  20. Organizational emergence in networked collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Hameri, Ari Pekka; Syrjalahti, Mikko

    2002-01-01

    Research on complex adaptive systems has generated several conceptual parables to explain systems with emergent behaviour. One prominent use for terms such as self-organization, evolutionary trajectories, co-evolution and punctuated equilibrium has been in understanding human organizations. In such systems, emergent behaviour is demonstrated in novel structures, processes and spin-offs that cannot be explained just by studying single components of the organization and the intelligence embedded in them. Instead of solely exploiting the qualitative explanatory power of the evolutionary concepts, this paper focuses also on quantitative methods to track emergent behaviour in a globally distributed, constantly fluctuating and highly networked project organization. The underlying case is that of CERN and its decade long accelerator project, which strongly relies on electronic communication and networking to achieve its major objectives due to be accomplished by the year 2007. By using time series and self-organizin...

  1. Emergency Surgery for Spontaneous Hemopneumothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emergency management of spontaneous hemopneumothorax patients was retrospectively analysed in this study. From November 2009 to August 2012, 221 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax were treated in the thoracic surgery clinic. Among them, 9 (4.07%) were diagnosed with spontaneous hemopneumothorax. Chest X-ray and computed tomography were the diagnostic tools. Emergency thoracotomy was performed for 7 of 9 patients because of massive hemothorax and continuous bleeding from the chest tube. Massive hematoma was documented in 2 of 7 patients at tomography. Bridging veins and torn pleural adhesion between parietal and visceral pleura were the source of bleeding determined at thoracotomy. Hematoma evacuation, resection of bullae, ligation of pleural adhesions and apical pleurectomy were performed. Spontaneous hemopneumothorax is an emergency due to massive hemorrhage and hematoma formation. Early surgical treatment is recommended for patients with spontaneous hemopneumothorax. (author)

  2. The Emergence of City Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta; Aastrup, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Many city logistics projects in Europe have failed. The purpose of this article is to increase understanding of how city logistics emerge. A better understanding of the complex organizational processes with many actors and stakeholders in city logistics projects may prevent further...... failures. Design/methodology/approach: Theory on organizational change is applied to capture the processes leading to emergence of city logistics. The methodology is process analysis on a single longitudinal case. Findings: The emergence of the Copenhagen city logistics project can be understood....... The study aims at understanding the social processes towards reduced congestion and greenhouse gas emissions from goods transport in inner cities. Originality/value: By better understanding the organization processes leading to implementation of city logistics, other projects in other cities may learn from...

  3. Quantifying Information Flow During Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Song, Chaoming; Gao, Ziyou; Barabási, Albert-László; Bagrow, James P.; Wang, Dashun

    2014-02-01

    Recent advances on human dynamics have focused on the normal patterns of human activities, with the quantitative understanding of human behavior under extreme events remaining a crucial missing chapter. This has a wide array of potential applications, ranging from emergency response and detection to traffic control and management. Previous studies have shown that human communications are both temporally and spatially localized following the onset of emergencies, indicating that social propagation is a primary means to propagate situational awareness. We study real anomalous events using country-wide mobile phone data, finding that information flow during emergencies is dominated by repeated communications. We further demonstrate that the observed communication patterns cannot be explained by inherent reciprocity in social networks, and are universal across different demographics.

  4. Emergent Universe with Particle Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Sunandan; Saha, Anirban; Mukherjee, S.

    2016-10-01

    The possibility of an emergent universe solution to Einstein's field equations allowing for an irreversible creation of matter at the expense of the gravitational field is shown. With the universe being chosen as spatially flat FRW spacetime together with equation of state proposed in Mukherjee et al. (Class. Quant. Grav. 23, 6927, 2006), the solution exists when the ratio of the phenomenological matter creation rate to the number density times the Hubble parameter is a number β of the order of unity and independent of time. The thermodynamic behaviour is also determined for this solution. Interestingly, we also find that an emergent universe scenario is present with usual equation of state in cosmology when the matter creation rate is chosen to be a constant. More general class of emergent universe solutions are also discussed.

  5. Emergency contraception: different bioethical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Emergency contraceptives, in this case post-morning pills, are contraceptive methods used to avoid an unwanted pregnancy after an unprotected sexual intercourse. Their use is feeding a strong ethical debate between subjects for and against their prescription and leading some health professionals to conscientious objection. Among people contrary to prescription some oppose to it because of a general refuse of all contraceptive methods, others considering post-morning pills as abortive. Among people supporting prescription, some consider emergency contraception necessary to assure fundamental women’s rights, in particular the right to sexual auto-determination, while others prescribe emergency contraception only to avoid a greater demand for abortion. It is up to the Italian National Health Service warranting a correct balance between the two opposite positions, that can protect women’s right of access to health services.

  6. Awareness during emergence from anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, J. L.; Nielsen, C V; Eskildsen, K Z;

    2015-01-01

    were eligible to be interviewed. Of the 70 patients interviewed, 35 (50%) were aware while paralysed during emergence. Of these, 28 (80%) were not monitored with a nerve stimulator when awakened, compared with 17 (49%) of the 35 unaware patients (P=0.012, Fisher's exact test). Thirty (86%) aware...... patients reported distress compared with seven (20%) unaware patients (Paware patients scored higher in screening for post-traumatic stress disorder (P=0.006, Mann-Whitney U-test). CONCLUSIONS: Butyrylcholinesterase deficiency is a major risk factor for distressing awareness during emergence......BACKGROUND: Butyrylcholinesterase deficiency can result in prolonged paralysis after administration of succinylcholine or mivacurium. We conducted an interview study to assess whether patients with butyrylcholinesterase deficiency were more likely to have experienced awareness during emergence from...

  7. Emergent universe from noncommutative spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Big Bang, which was the birth of our Universe, happened at the Planck epoch. It was not an event that developed in a pre-existing space-time. Rather, it was a cosmological event simultaneously generating space-time as well as all other matter fields. Therefore, in order to describe the origin of our Universe, it is necessary to have a background-independent theory for quantum gravity in which no space-time structure is a priori assumed, but is defined from the theory. The emergent gravity based on noncommutative gauge theory provides such a background-independent formulation of quantum gravity, and the emergent space-time leads to a novel picture of the dynamical origin of space-time. We address some issues about the origin of our Universe and discuss the implications to cosmology of the emergent gravity.

  8. Quantifying Information Flow During Emergencies

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Liang; Gao, Ziyou; Barabási, Albert-László; Bagrow, James P; Wang, Dashun

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances on human dynamics have focused on the normal patterns of human activities, with the quantitative understanding of human behavior under extreme events remaining a crucial missing chapter. This has a wide array of potential applications, ranging from emergency response and detection to traffic control and management. Previous studies have shown that human communications are both temporally and spatially localized following the onset of emergencies, indicating that social propagation is a primary means to propagate situational awareness. We study real anomalous events using country-wide mobile phone data, finding that information flow during emergencies is dominated by repeated communications. We further demonstrate that the observed communication patterns cannot be explained by inherent reciprocity in social networks, and are universal across different demographics.

  9. Contemporary imaging in abdominal emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivit, Carlos J. [Rainbow Babies and Children' s Hospital, Case Western Reserve School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Imaging is often a fundamental part in the evaluation of an injured or ill child. A variety of imaging modalities (radiography, angiography/fluoroscopy, sonography, CT, magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphy) are among the options. CT is worth focused attention because of its usefulness in a variety of emergency department settings, its increasing use, and its potential radiation risks. CT plays an important role in the evaluation of traumatic and nontraumatic abdominal emergencies in children. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to review current imaging approaches and controversies in the evaluation of common acute abdominal emergencies. Through discussion of various modalities, especially CT in evaluation of abdominal pain and trauma, the relative advantages and disadvantages including radiation risk will be reviewed. (orig.)

  10. Professional Emergence on Transnational Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    they are conceptually linked by actors and organizations. A linked ecologies approach asks us to displace locating known actors within structures and instead pays attention to professional interactions on how ‘issue distinctions’ are made, the relationship between issue distinctions and professional tasks, and who......Addressing complex transnational problems requires coordination from different professionals. The emergence of new actors and issues has been addressed by those interested in studies of organizations through concepts and methods that highlight the importance of communities, fields, and networks....... These approaches are important in identifying the sources of what becomes established, but less geared to identifying interactions that are emergent. This article extends a linked ecologies approach to emergence, arguing that interaction on transnational issues should first be understood by how...

  11. Emergent Universe with particle production

    CERN Document Server

    Gangopadhyay, Sunandan; Mukherjee, S

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of an emergent universe solution to Einstein's field equations allowing for an irreversible creation of matter at the expense of the gravitational field is shown. With the universe being chosen as spatially flat FRW spacetime together with equation of state proposed in [17], the solution exists when the ratio of the phenomenological matter creation rate to the number density times the Hubble parameter is a number $\\beta$ of the order of unity and independent of time. The thermodynamic behaviour is also determined for this solution. Interestingly, we also find that an emergent universe scenario is present with usual equation of state in cosmology when the matter creation rate is chosen to be a constant. More general class of emergent universe solutions are also discussed.

  12. Emergent Universe with Particle Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Sunandan; Saha, Anirban; Mukherjee, S.

    2016-06-01

    The possibility of an emergent universe solution to Einstein's field equations allowing for an irreversible creation of matter at the expense of the gravitational field is shown. With the universe being chosen as spatially flat FRW spacetime together with equation of state proposed in Mukherjee et al. (Class. Quant. Grav. 23, 6927, 2006), the solution exists when the ratio of the phenomenological matter creation rate to the number density times the Hubble parameter is a number β of the order of unity and independent of time. The thermodynamic behaviour is also determined for this solution. Interestingly, we also find that an emergent universe scenario is present with usual equation of state in cosmology when the matter creation rate is chosen to be a constant. More general class of emergent universe solutions are also discussed.

  13. The emerging story of emerging technologies in neuropsychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, M. Justin; Coffey, C. Edward

    2016-01-01

    The growth of new technologies in health care is exponential, and the impact of such rapid technological innovation on health care delivery is substantial. This review describes two emerging technologies—mobile applications and wearable technologies—and uses a virtual case report to illustrate the impact of currently available technologies on the health care experience of a patient with neuropsychiatric illness. PMID:27489452

  14. Emergency department overcrowding: the Emergency Department Cardiac Analogy Model (EDCAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Sandra K; Ardagh, Michael; Gee, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Increasing patient numbers, changing demographics and altered patient expectations have all contributed to the current problem with 'overcrowding' in emergency departments (EDs). The problem has reached crisis level in a number of countries, with significant implications for patient safety, quality of care, staff 'burnout' and patient and staff satisfaction. There is no single, clear definition of the cause of overcrowding, nor a simple means of addressing the problem. For some hospitals, the option of ambulance diversion has become a necessity, as overcrowded waiting rooms and 'bed-block' force emergency staff to turn patients away. But what are the options when ambulance diversion is not possible? Christchurch Hospital, New Zealand is a tertiary level facility with an emergency department that sees on average 65,000 patients per year. There are no other EDs to whom patients can be diverted, and so despite admission rates from the ED of up to 48%, other options need to be examined. In order to develop a series of unified responses, which acknowledge the multifactorial nature of the problem, the Emergency Department Cardiac Analogy model of ED flow, was developed. This model highlights the need to intervene at each of three key points, in order to address the issue of overcrowding and its associated problems.

  15. Open Standards for Emergency Mangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E.

    2012-04-01

    The mission of the OASIS (Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards) Emergency Management Technical Committee (EM-TC) is to create incident and emergency-related standards for data interoperability. The TC welcomes participation from members of the emergency management community, developers and implementers, and members of the public concerned with disaster management and response. Since the foundation of the EM-TC in 2003, there have been several Standards developed to support this mission. The first and most widely accepted has been the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP). CAP has been adopted worldwide and is also ITU Recommendation 1303. The EM-TC has continued in the development of content data standards to support the emergency management mission. This suite of standards is referred to as the Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) family of standards. The EDXL suite of standards are developed starting with a defined requirement from the response community. The requirements are vetted through a working group process, reviewed by the development community to determine whether the concepts once "standardized" will result in software that will be developed then provided with comments to the OASIS EM-TC for defining the standard. The OASIS process includes an open public review period where all comments are accepted and publically adjudicated. The EDXL-Distribution Element (DE), EDXL-Resource Management (RM), EDXL-Hospital Availability eXchange (HAVE) are all now ratified Standards. The EDXL-Situation Reporting (SitRep) Standard is in final review and the EXDL-Tracking of Emergency Patients (TEP) is in development. This presentation will briefly present each of the OASIS EM-TC Standards as well as the process for their development and review. Information will be provided about how to participate in the process as well as where open source code can be found to get started developing systems of systems using the EDXL Standards.

  16. Post-Chernobyl emergency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the result of a study ordered by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the National Swedish Institute of Radiation Protection to evaluate the measurements taken in Sweden in response to the Chernobyl accident. The enquiry was also given the task of suggesting improvements of the nuclear accidents emergency planning and other activities relevant to nuclear accidents. Detailed accounts are given of the course of events in Sweden at the Chernobyl accident and the steps taken by central or local authorities are discussed. Several alterations of the emergency planning are proposed and a better coordination of the affected organizations is suggested. (L.E.)

  17. Radiological emergencies the first response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This national training course about radiological emergencies first answer include: Targets and preparation for emergency response in case of a nuclear or radiological accident. Operations center, action guide for fire fighting, medical coverage, forensic test, first aid, basic instrumentation for radiation, safety equipment, monitoring radiation, gamma rays, personnel exposed protection , radiation exposure rate, injury and illness for radiation, cancer risk, contamination, decontamination and treatment, markers, personnel dosimetry, training, medical and equipment transportation, shielded and tools. Psychological, physical (health and illness), economical (agriculture and industry) and environment impacts. Terrorist attacks, security belts. Support and international agreements (IAEA)

  18. Regular nanofabrics in emerging technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Jamaa, M Haykel Ben

    2011-01-01

    ""Regular Nanofabrics in Emerging Technologies"" gives a deep insight into both fabrication and design aspects of emerging semiconductor technologies, that represent potential candidates for the post-CMOS era. Its approach is unique, across different fields, and it offers a synergetic view for a public of different communities ranging from technologists, to circuit designers, and computer scientists. The book presents two technologies as potential candidates for future semiconductor devices and systems and it shows how fabrication issues can be addressed at the design level and vice versa. The

  19. Psychiatric Emergencies in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, Veronica; Kalra, S; Galwankar, Sagar; Sagar, Galwankar

    2015-11-01

    With the increasing life expectancy, the geriatric population has been increasing over the past few decades. By the year 2050, it is projected to compose more than a fifth of the entire population, representing a 147% increase in this age group. There has been a steady increase in the number of medical and psychiatric disorders, and a large percentage of geriatric patients are now presenting to the emergency department with such disorders. The management of our progressively complex geriatric patient population will require an integrative team approach involving emergency medicine, psychiatry, and hospitalist medicine.

  20. Emergent Spacetime for Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Hyun Seok

    2016-01-01

    We emphasize that noncommutative (NC) spacetime necessarily implies emergent spacetime if spacetime at microscopic scales should be viewed as NC. In order to understand NC spacetime correctly, we need to deactivate the thought patterns that we have installed in our brains and taken for granted for so many years. Emergent spacetime allows a background-independent formulation of quantum gravity that will open a new perspective to resolve the notorious problems in theoretical physics such as the cosmological constant problem, hierarchy problem, dark energy, dark matter, and cosmic inflation.