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Sample records for abbott prism hcv

  1. Evaluation of the analytical performance of the new Abbott RealTime RT-PCRs for the quantitative detection of HCV and HIV-1 RNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Martin; Fries, E; Burghoorn-Maas, C; Niesters, H G M

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite FDA approval and CE marking of commercial tests, manufacturer independent testing of technical aspects is important. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the analytical performance of the new Abbott RealTime HCV and HIV-1 viral load tests. STUDY DESIGN: Sensitivity, specificity and inter-/int

  2. Determinazione quantitativa di HCV-RNA: valutazione comparativa dei saggi Abbott Real-Time e Versant bDNA v.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Manzin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV RNA measurement before, during and after antiviral therapy has become an essential tool in the management of interferon-based treatment of HCV-related infections. Conventional Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR has been largely used to obtain quantitative data, but laborious, time-consuming post-PCR handling steps are required to gain valuable results. Real time (RT PCR now provides advantages over end-point (EP PCR due to its improved rapidity, sensitivity, reproducibility and the reduced risk of carry-over contamination, and has now proven itself to be valuable for the more precise monitoring of viral load kinetics and assessing antiviral response.The Abbott Real-Time HCV-RNA is a recently introduced assay for the automated processing of clinical samples and HCV-RNA quantitation: its basic technology relies on use of fluorescent linear probes (dynamic range using 0.5 ml as input target= 12-108 IU/mL and a hybridization/detection step at low temperature (35°C, which allows target mismatches to be tolerated. To determine the clinical application of the Abbott Real-Time assay and defining its correlation with the Bayer Versant bDNA v.3 assay, 68 consecutive samples from unselected HCV-infected patients were retrospectively analysed with RT and the results obtained using the two tests compared.A good correlation was found between RT-PCR and bDNA: 97% of samples tested had a result within a 0.5 log HCV IU/mL difference (bias=0.15 log, whereas 6 samples negative with bDNA gave positive results with Abbott RT (range, 1.89-3.07 log IU/mL and “in-house” qualitative RT-PCR assays.

  3. HCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    An inspection of the sequence similarity between the hepatitis C virus (HCV) polyprotein and human proteins revealed a high level of peptide sharing, with a limited number of motifs unique to the virus (i.e., with no counterpart in the human proteome). Using pentapeptide matching, only 214 motifs out of a total of 3,007 (7.11%) identified HCV as nonself compared to the Homo sapiens proteome. However, this virus-versus-human phenetic difference disappeared at the genetic level. Indeed, a BLAST analysis of pentadecameric oligodeoxynucleotide sequences corresponding to the 214 pentapeptides unique to HCV revealed that almost all of them are present in the human genome, located in the non-coding strand, introns, and/or pseudogenes, thus being, as such, untranslatable. The present data warn against using DNA-based vaccines to fight HCV infection and emphasize peptide uniqueness as the molecular basis for designing effective anti-HCV immunotherapeutic approaches. PMID:22299062

  4. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly available...

  5. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly...

  6. FDA Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — On September 22, 2010, Abbott issued a voluntary recall of certain Similac powdered infant formula after identifying a common warehouse beetle (both larvae and...

  7. Nystatin LF (Aronex/Abbott).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, S; Rex, J H

    2001-04-01

    November 1998, Aronex signed a licensing collaboration with Abbott Laboratories for the worldwide rights to nystatin LF [305531].

  8. Performances of HCV Ag or HCV RNA kits for screening of HCV-infected samples%HCV Ag或HCV RNA试剂用于筛查丙型肝炎病毒感染样本的性能比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷金莲; 于洋; 梁争论

    2014-01-01

    目的 比较丙型肝炎病毒(hepatitis C virus,HCV)抗原(HCV Ag)与HCV RNA试剂检测HCV感染的性能.方法 应用ABBOTT ARCHITECT HCV Ag和Abbott RealTime HCV RNA试剂分别检测经Ortho和DiaSorin公司抗HCV EIA试剂以及CHIRON公司RIBA HCV 3.0 SIA和MP Biomedicals Asia Pacific Pte公司确证试剂检测的304份血浆样本(抗-HCV阳性139份,抗-HCV阴性165份).结果 139份抗-HCV阳性样本中,HCV RNA和HCV Ag试剂的阳性检出率分别为54.0%(75/139)和27.3%(38/139),HCV RNA试剂敏感性明显高于HCV Ag试剂(P<0.01);检测165份抗-H CV阴性样本中,HCV RNA和HCV Ag试剂检测均为阳性的样本有5份,分别检出7份和2份单独阳性样本,特异性分别为7.3%(12/165)和4.2%(7/165),差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);应用HCV Ab+HCVRNA或HCV Ab+ HCV Ag筛查HCV感染,阳性检出率分别为49.7%(151/304)和48.0%(146/304),差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).在94份HCV Ag和HCV RNA阳性样本检测中,HCV Ag试剂阳性率随样本HCV RNA载量的升高而增加,HCV RNA载量与检测HCV Ag阳性率呈正相关.结论 HCV Ag或HCV RNA作为HCV筛查的补充试验方法,可有效降低HCV Ab窗口期的漏检率.

  9. 77 FR 13232 - Abbott Laboratories; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Abbott Laboratories; Filing of Food Additive... Administration (FDA) is announcing that Abbott Laboratories has filed a petition proposing that the food additive...))), notice is given that a food additive petition (FAP 2A4788) has been filed by Abbott Laboratories,...

  10. Product development: the making of the Abbott ARCHITECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, H J

    1997-01-01

    Many laboratorians have a limited perspective on what is involved in developing an instrument and bringing it to market. This article traces the product development process used by Abbott Diagnostics Division that resulted in Abbott being named the 1996 Concurrent Engineering Company of the Year for the design of the ARCHITECT.

  11. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and HCV genotypes of hemodialysis patients in Salvador, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva L.K.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection has been identified as the major cause of chronic liver disease among patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD, despite the important reduction in risks obtained by testing candidate blood donors for anti-HCV antibodies and the use of recombinant erythropoietin to treat anemia. A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of HCV infection and genotypes among HD patients in Salvador, Northeastern Brazil. Anti-HCV seroprevalence was determined by ELISA in 1243 HD patients from all ten different dialysis centers of the city. HCV infection was confirmed by RT-PCR and genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Anti-HCV seroprevalence among HD patients was 10.5% (95% CI: 8.8-12.3 (Murex anti-HCV, Abbott Murex, Chicago, IL, USA. Blood samples for qualitative HCV detection and genotyping were collected from 125/130 seropositive HD patients (96.2%. HCV-RNA was detected in 92/125 (73.6% of the anti-HCV-positive patients. HCV genotype 1 (77.9% was the most prevalent, followed by genotype 3 (10.5% and genotype 2 (4.6%. Mixed infections of genotypes 1 and 3 were found in 7.0% of the total number of patients. The present results indicate a significant decrease in anti-HCV prevalence from 23.8% detected in a study carried out in 1994 to 10.5% in the present study. The HCV genotype distribution was closely similar to that observed in other hemodialysis populations in Brazil, in local candidate blood donors and in other groups at risk of transfusion-transmitted infection.

  12. [HCV and HBV prevalence in hemodialyzed pediatric patients. Multicenter study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañero-Velasco, M C; Mutti, J E; Gonzalez, J E; Alonso, A; Otegui, L; Adragna, M; Antonuccio, M; Laso, M; Montenegro, M; Repetto, L; Brandi, M; Canepa, J; Baimberg, E

    1998-01-01

    Hemodialized pediatric patients are a risk population for the hepatitis B and C virus infection. The aim of this paper was to study the serum prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in hemodialized children. We study 61 pediatric patients at hemodialisis, 12 on renal transplant, range between 2 and 20 years old (mean: 12.9 years), 23 male and 38 female. The specific anti-HCV IgC were measured by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA Abbott) and confirmed by LIA-TEK (Organon). The anti-HBV were measured by ELISA Abbott and transaminases by cinetic method (ASAT: 29 UI/L and ALT: 33 UI/L). The 19.7% of studied children were HCV (+) and 29.5% were HBV (+), 38.9% of them were HbsAg (+) and 50% anti-HBs (+). The HCV and HBV infection was more elevated in relation to the transfusion number and the hemodilisis time. The elevation of ALT/ASAT activity isn't a right infection index for HCV and HBV in this children.

  13. Berenice Abbott (1898-1991, photographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Mélia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available C’est la première fois que Berenice Abbott est exposée à Paris. Les cent vingt images et trente documents présentés au Jeu de Paume sont regroupés en quatre grandes séries, qui correspondent aux quatre grandes phases de sa carrière photographique. La première partie retrace son œuvre de portraitiste, qui commence à Paris au début des années 1920, où elle photographie des anonymes, mais aussi beaucoup d’artistes et d’écrivains tels que Marcel Duchamp, Jean Cocteau, James Joyce, ou encore Djuna...

  14. Sieroprevalenza di infezione da HBV e HCV tra pazienti in dialisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Anna Leone

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV among dialysis patients in the Lamezia Terme (CZ area during the period 1999-2002. Sera from 63 patients in haemodialysis (HD and 10 patients in peritoneal dialysis (PD were analyzed with a follow-up every three months for HBsAg, HBcAb, HBsAb, anti-HCV and anti-HIV (Elisa Test,AxSYM,Abbott;we analyzed reactive sera for anti-HCV by using supplemental test (RIBA Test, Ortho; we also looked for viremia (RT-PCR Amplicor, Roche Diagnostics and HCV genotypes (Inno-Lipa HCV II, Innogenetics.The results show that, among the HD patients, 3 were HBsAg positive (Chronic Infection and 7 HBcAb and HBsAb positive/HBsAg negative (Passed Infection; 14 individuals were anti-HCV positive. No patients in PD were positive for HBV and HCV markers.The prevalence of chronic HBV infection was 4.8% (instead of 3% in other Dialysis Units, that of anti-HCV positive was 22% (in others 24%- 33%; among anti-HCV positive patients, the HCV-RNA prevalence was 79% (instead of 80%; the most recurrent HCV genotype was 2a/2c (instead of 1b in general population.These findings lead us to hypothesize that the environmental transmission in the dialysis setting is tightly correlated to the risk of HBV and HCV infection.

  15. 77 FR 4368 - Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... Employment and Training Administration Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division, Including On-Site Leased..., Diagnostics Division, including on-site leased workers from Manpower, Comsys, Apex, Fountain Group, Kelly... location of Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division. The Department has determined that these...

  16. Extrahepatic manifestations of HCV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grignoli, R; Goossens, N; Negro, F

    2015-03-01

    The hepatic consequences of an infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are well recognised, but extrahepatic manifestations of HCV may be just as severe. Here we have reviewed various extrahepatic manifestations of HCV such as mixed cryoglobulinemia, lymphoma, metabolic features and neurologic consequences and we discuss pathogenesis and management of these clinical problems. We concluded with important aspects of therapy with novel anti-HCV agents and its effects on extrahepatic manifestations.

  17. Geometric formula for prism deflection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Apoorva G Wagh; Veer Chand Rakhecha

    2004-08-01

    While studying neutron deflections produced by a magnetic prism, we have stumbled upon a simple `geometric' formula. For a prism of refractive index close to unity, the deflection simply equals the product of the refractive power − 1 and the base-to-height ratio of the prism, regardless of the apex angle. The base and height of the prism are measured respectively along and perpendicular to the direction of beam propagation within the prism. The geometric formula greatly simplifies the optimisation of prism parameters to suit any specific experiment.

  18. Reflection by Porro Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2010-04-01

    Students all know that reflection from a plane mirror produces an image that is reversed right to left and so cannot be read by anyone but Leonardo da Vinci, who kept his notes in mirror writing. A useful counter-example is the Porro prism, which produces an image that is not reversed.

  19. Avoidance of generic competition by Abbott Laboratories' fenofibrate franchise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Nicholas S; Ross, Joseph S; Jackevicius, Cynthia A; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2012-05-14

    The ongoing debate concerning the efficacy of fenofibrate has overshadowed an important aspect of the drug's history: Abbott Laboratories, the maker of branded fenofibrate, has produced several bioequivalent reformulations that dominate the market, although generic fenofibrate has been available for almost a decade. This continued use of branded formulations, which cost twice as much as generic versions of fenofibrate, imposes an annual cost of approximately $700 million on the US health care system. Abbott Laboratories maintained its dominance of the fenofibrate market in part through a complex switching strategy involving the sequential launch of branded reformulations that had not been shown to be superior to the first-generation product and patent litigation that delayed the approval of generic formulations. The small differences in dose of the newer branded formulations prevented their substitution with generics of older-generation products. As soon as direct generic competition seemed likely at the new dose level, where substitution would be allowed, Abbott would launch another reformulation, and the cycle would repeat. Based on the fenofibrate example, our objective is to describe how current policy can allow pharmaceutical companies to maintain market share using reformulations of branded medications, without demonstrating the superiority of next-generation products.

  20. Correlation Analysis of HCV-RNA,HCV-Ab and HCV-cAg%HCV-RNA与 HCV-Ab,HCV-cAg相关性分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娅; 张赟; 皇海; 章迪; 苏明权; 郭旭昌

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation of HCV-RNA with detection indexes HCV-Ab and HCV-cAg in its clini-cal application effect among patients with hepatitis C.Methods HCV-cAg and HCV-Ab in 140 cases of HCV-RNA were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in cases of PCR,which were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR.Results 127 cases in 140 cases of HCV-RNA positive serum were HCV-cAg positive,in line with the rate of 90.71%,and the cases of 110 HCV-Ab positive,in line with the rate of 78.57%.The positive detection rate of HCV-cAg with different HCV-RNA concentration was increased with the increase of HCV virus content,and the serum of different HCV-RNA concentration had no significant changes in HCV-Ab detection results.Conclusion The detection results of HCV-cAg had a high coincidence rate with HCV-RNA.Therefore detection of HCV-cAg can be as a complementary detec-tion of HCV-Ab,as the window period of HCV infection and infection in immunocompromised persons screening provides a simple,inexpensive method.At the same time it provides rapid screening for HCV infection provide diagnostic basis for those basic medical units who do not have the conditions for detection of HCV-RNA.%目的:探讨丙型肝炎患者中 HCV-RNA与 HCV-Ab,HCV-cAg三种检测指标的相关性和临床应用效果。方法采用酶联免疫法分别检测实时荧光定量 PCR法检测阳性的140例 HCV患者血清中的 HCV-Ab和 HCV-cAg,以了解检测结果及符合率。结果在140例 HCV-RNA阳性血清中,HCV-cAg 阳性127例,符合率90.71%;HCV-Ab 阳性110例,符合率78.57%;对不同 HCV-RNA浓度的血清进行 HCV-cAg检测结果其阳性检出率随着 HCV病毒含量的升高而增高;不同 HCV-RNA浓度的血清进行 HCV-Ab检测结果无明显变化。结论通过对 HCV-RNA阳性患者中 HCV-Ag和 HCV-Ab的检测观察分析,HCV-cAg检测与 HCV-RNA的检测结果具有较高的符合率。因此 HCV-cAg检测可作为HCV

  1. High precision prism scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Torales, G.; Flores, J. L.; Muñoz, Roberto X.

    2007-03-01

    Risley prisms are commonly used in continuous scanning manner. Each prism is capable of rotating separately about a common axis at different speeds. Scanning patterns are determined by the ratios of the wedge angles, the speed and direction of rotation of both prisms. The use of this system is conceptually simple. However, mechanical action in most applications becomes a challenge often solved by the design of complex control algorithms. We propose an electronic servomotor system that controls incremental and continuous rotations of the prisms wedges by means of an auto-tuning PID control using a Adaline Neural Network Algorithm, NNA.

  2. Multibeam collimator uses prism stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minott, P. O.

    1981-01-01

    Optical instrument creates many divergent light beams for surveying and machine element alignment applications. Angles and refractive indices of stack of prisms are selected to divert incoming laser beam by small increments, different for each prism. Angles of emerging beams thus differ by small, precisely-controlled amounts. Instrument is nearly immune to vibration, changes in gravitational force, temperature variations, and mechanical distortion.

  3. Distribution of HCV genotype and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of IL-28B gene in HIV/HCV-coinfected Thai populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Avihingsanon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection remains a major silent killer, worldwide, particularly in resource poor settings where treatment of hepatitis C is mainly impossible. Pegylated interferon-α (PEG-IFN plus ribavirin (RBV are the recommended treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 2/3. Recent study revealed that treatment responses against HCV infection by PEG-IFN and RBV are significantly associated with the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of interleukin-28B (IL-28B gene. There is limited data about the HCV genotype and SNPs of IL-28B in HIV-infected Thai population. Therefore, we aimed to investigate HCV genotype and the SNP patterns of the IL-28B gene in our HIV/HCV coinfection. Methods: Quantification of HCV RNA was done by a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay (Abbott with lower limit of detection of <12 copies/ml. HCV RNA-positive samples based on reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of the 5'UTR were amplified with primer specific for the core and NS5B regions. Nucleotide sequences of both regions were analyzed for the genotype by phylogenetic analysis. DNA sample was extracted from PBMCs or sera. Then SNPs within IL-28B gene were detected by TaqMan real-time PCR (rs8099917 and rs12979860. The data were analyzed by allelic discrimination (AD software on the ABI-7900HT. Results: Totally 60 HIV/HCV-coinfected patients were studied. Median HCV RNA were 5.8 log10 copies/mL, 70% of them had HCV RNA >100,000 copies/mL. After sequencing, the phylogenetic analyses in this study showed that genotype 3 was the most prevalent in this population (56%; following by genotype 1 (30% and 6 (13%. Approximately 4% of them had infected for both genotypes 1 and 3. For IL-28B at rs8099917 and rs12979860 position, 95% of them were major allele (T/T or C/C and 5% were heterozygous (T/G or C/T. Conclusions: HCV genotype 3 is the most prevalent in our HIV/HCV coinfection. 95% of our patients have

  4. HCV-Ab、HCV-cAg和HCV-RNA联合检测的临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾娟; 孙明忠

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价丙型肝炎病毒抗体(HCV-Ab)、丙型肝炎病毒核心抗原(HCV-cAg)以及HCV-RNA联合检测在HCV诊断中的应用价值。方法采用ELISA法对2023例输血和手术前住院患者的血液标本进行 HCV-Ab和 HCV-cAg的测定,并对阳性标本采用RT-PCR法进行HCV-RNA的测定。结果2023例筛查标本中 HCV-Ab(+)55例,其中 HCV-cAg (+)30例, HCV-RNA(+)40例;1968例HCV-Ab(-)的样本中检出 HCV-cAg(+)9例,其中 HCV-RNA (+)7例,HCV-cAg 与 HCV-RNA 符合率为83.0%(39/47)。结论 HCV-Ab检测结合HCV-cAg或者 HCV-RNA检测可以有效缩短 HCV的窗口期,降低漏检率。对于条件受限的基层医院 HCV-cAg 可以作为HCV-Ab常规检测的补充指标,提高检出率。

  5. Prism Window for Optical Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    A prism window has been devised for use, with an autocollimator, in aligning optical components that are (1) required to be oriented parallel to each other and/or at a specified angle of incidence with respect to a common optical path and (2) mounted at different positions along the common optical path. The prism window can also be used to align a single optical component at a specified angle of incidence. Prism windows could be generally useful for orienting optical components in manufacture of optical instruments. "Prism window" denotes an application-specific unit comprising two beam-splitter windows that are bonded together at an angle chosen to obtain the specified angle of incidence.

  6. European multicentre evaluation of the ABBOTT Spectrum clinical chemistry analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blijenberg, B G; Braconnier, F; Vallez, J M; Burlina, A; Plebani, M; Celadin, M; Haeckel, R; Römer, M; Hänseler, E; De Schrijver, G

    1989-06-01

    The analytical performance of the selective multitest ABBOTT Spectrum analyser was studied according to the ECCLS guidelines and partly the CERMAB protocol in a multicentre evaluation involving laboratories from six European countries. Fifteen analytes, including the electrolytes sodium, potassium and chloride, were measured each in at least 3 laboratories, all at 37 degrees C, except the electrolytes, which are measured at room temperature. The trial lasted approximately three months and involved the collection of over 60,000 data points. It yielded the following results: 1. The precision was at least as good as the precision obtained with the comparison instruments. The majority of the coefficients of variation were between 1 and 4%. 2. The recovery for method assigned control sera values was, with few exceptions, within 10%. 3. Good agreement with respect to the method assigned values of control materials and method comparison with patient specimens to different instruments (e.g. SMAC, Hitachi 737, RA 1000) was found. 4. No drift was observed. 5. Reagent-related carry-over was not found. Specimen-related carry-over was detected in some cases, the deviation being of little or no clinical significance. 6. The manufacturer's claims regarding method linearity were as stated or exceeded. 7. The open system capability was tested and rated as very convenient. 8. The practicability of the instrument was very good.

  7. HCV Virus and Lymphoid Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tsutsumi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is one of the viruses known to cause hepatic cancer. HCV is also believed to be involved in malignant lymphoma. In this paper, we investigated characteristics of malignant lymphoma cases that were anti-HCV antibody (HCV-Ab positive. We were able to perform pathological examinations on 13 out of 14 HCV-positive cases. Of these, lymphoid tissues of 10 stained positive for HCV-Ab. There was no significant correlation between the degree of HCV staining and the rate of recurrence or resistance to treatment. However, there did appear to be a consistent decrease in the amount of HCV-RNA between pre- and posttreatment among HCV-Ab-positive cases; that is, treatment-resistant cases that exhibited resistance from the first treatment and recurrent cases more frequently had a higher HCV level at treatment termination compared to the pretreatment level. This suggests that the HCV virus either accelerates oncogenesis by direct interaction with B cells or indirectly affects lymphoma prognosis.

  8. HCV and Lymphoproliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Linda Zignego

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a serious public health problem because of its worldwide diffusion and sequelae. It is not only a hepatotropic but also a lymphotropic agent and is responsible not only for liver injury—potentially evolving to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma—but also for a series of sometimes severely disabling extrahepatic diseases and, in particular, B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. These latter range from benign, but prelymphomatous conditions, like mixed cryoglobulinemia, to frank lymphomas. Analogously with Helicobacter pylori related lymphomagenesis, the study of the effects of viral eradication confirmed the etiopathogenetic role of HCV and showed it is an ideal model for better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved. Concerning these latter, several hypotheses have been proposed over the past two decades which are not mutually exclusive. These hypotheses have variously emphasized the important role played by sustained stimulation of the immune system by HCV, infection of the lymphatic cells, viral proteins, chromosomal aberrations, cytokines, or microRNA molecules. In this paper we describe the main hypotheses that have been proposed with the corresponding principal supporting data.

  9. From HCV To HBV Cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinazi, Raymond F; Asselah, Tarik

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 170 million people are chronically infected with HCV and 350 million are chronically infected with HBV worldwide. It is estimated that more than one million patients die from complications related to chronic viral hepatitis, mainly HCC which is one of the most frequent cancers in many countries, especially Africa, the Middle East and Asia. HCV drug development has been impressive, and this revolution led to several direct-acting antiviral agents achieving an HCV cure after only 6-12 weeks. This progress could theorically lead to HCV global elimination making HCV and its consequences a rarity. HBV research and development programs can learn from the HCV experience, to achieve an HBV functional or sterilizing cure. This review will summarize key steps which have been realized for an HCV cure, and discuss the next steps to achieve for an HCV elimination. And also, how this HCV revolution has inspired scientists and clinicians to achieve the same for HBV.

  10. Cellular Activation and Intracellular HCV Load in Peripheral Blood Monocytes Isolated from HCV Monoinfected and HIV-HCV Coinfected Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Isabelle Dichamp; Wasim Abbas; Amit Kumar; Vincent Di Martino; Georges Herbein

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During HCV infection, the activation status of peripheral blood monocytes and its impact on HCV replication are poorly understood. We hypothesized that a modified activation of peripheral blood monocytes in HIV-HCV coinfected compared to HCV monoinfected patients may contribute to different monocytes reservoirs of HCV replication. METHODS: We performed a case-control analysis involving HCV-infected patients with and without HIV coinfection. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (P...

  11. HCV and Oxidative Stress: Implications for HCV Life Cycle and HCV-Associated Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Medvedev; Daniela Ploen; Eberhard Hildt

    2016-01-01

    HCV (hepatitis C virus) is a member of the Flaviviridae family that contains a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome of approximately 9600 bases. HCV is a major causative agent for chronic liver diseases such as steatosis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma which are caused by multifactorial processes. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered as a major factor contributing to HCV-associated pathogenesis. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved ...

  12. Effect of combined siRNA of HCV E2 gene and HCV receptors against HCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq Usman Alli A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aim Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a major threat as almost 3% of the world's population (350 million individual and 10% of the Pakistani population is chronically infected with this virus. RNA interference (RNAi, a sequence-specific degradation process of RNA, has potential to be used as a powerful alternative molecular therapeutic approach in spite of the current therapy of interferon-α and ribavirin against HCV which has limited efficiency. HCV structural gene E2 is mainly involved in viral cell entry via attachment with the host cell surface receptors i.e., CD81 tetraspanin, low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR, scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1, and Claudin1 (CLDN1. Considering the importance of HCV E2 gene and cellular receptors in virus infection and silencing effects of RNAi, the current study was designed to target the cellular and viral factors as new therapeutic options in limiting HCV infection. Results In this study the potential of siRNAs to inhibit HCV-3a replication in serum-infected Huh-7 cells was investigated by combined treatment of siRNAs against the HCV E2 gene and HCV cellular receptors (CD81 and LDLR, which resulted in a significant decrease in HCV viral copy number. Conclusion From the current study it is concluded that the combined RNAi-mediated silencing of HCV E2 and HCV receptors is important for the development of effective siRNA-based therapeutic option against HCV-3a.

  13. Multicentric performance analysis of HCV quantification assays and its potential relevance for HCV treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmann, F; Naeth, G; Berger, A; Hirsch, H H; Regenass, S; Ross, R S; Sarrazin, C; Wedemeyer, H; Knechten, H; Braun, P

    2016-06-01

    An accurate quantification of low viremic HCV RNA plasma samples has gained importance since the approval of direct acting antivirals and since only one single measurement predicts the necessity of a prolonged or shortened therapy. As reported previously, HCV quantification assays such as Abbott RealTime HCV and Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HCV version 2 (CTM v2) may vary in sensitivity and precision particularly in low-level viremia. Importantly, substantial variations were previously demonstrated between some of these assays compared to the Roche High Pure System/COBAS TaqMan assay (HPS) reference assay, which was used to establish the clinical decision points in clinical studies. In this study, the reproducibility of assay performances across several laboratories was assessed by analysing quantification results generated by six independent laboratories (3× RealTime, 3× CTM v2) in comparison with one HPS reference laboratory. The 4th WHO Standard was diluted to 100, 25 and 10 IU/ml, and aliquots were tested in triplicates in 5 independent runs by each assay in the different laboratories to assess assay precision and detection rates. In a second approach, 2 clinical samples (GT 1a & GT 1b) were diluted to 100 and 25 IU/ml and tested as described above. While the result range for WHO 100 IU/ml replicates across all laboratories was similar in this analysis, the CVs of each laboratory ranged from 19.3 to 25.6 % for RealTime laboratories and were lower than CVs of CTM v2 laboratories with a range of 26.1-47.3 %, respectively, and also in comparison with the CV of the HPS reference laboratory (34.9 %). At WHO standard dilution of 25 IU/ml, 24 replicates were quantified by RealTime compared to 8 replicates with CTM v2. Results of clinical samples again revealed a higher variation of CTM v2 results as compared to RealTime values. (CVs at 100 IU/ml: RealTime: 13.1-21.0 % and CTM v2: 15.0-32.3 %; CVs at 25 IU/ml: RealTime 17.6-34.9 % and CTM v2 28

  14. 75 FR 80061 - Abbott Laboratories, Inc.; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Drug Application for MERIDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Abbott Laboratories, Inc.; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Drug Application for MERIDIA AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is withdrawing approval of a new drug application (NDA) for...

  15. 75 FR 340 - Approval for Expansion of Subzone 22F, Abbott Molecular, Inc. (Pharmaceutical and Molecular...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval for Expansion of Subzone 22F, Abbott Molecular, Inc. (Pharmaceutical and Molecular Diagnostic Products), Chicago, IL, Area Pursuant to its authority under the...

  16. Preconcepts in Physics. Report to the John Abbott College Research and Development Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickie, L. O.

    This study was conducted to examine the basic conceptual knowledge and understanding of physics possessed by students enrolled in introductory physics, mechanics and waves and optics courses at John Abbott College (JAC). The study used a 36-item multiple-choice test of physics preconcepts developed by Halloun and Hestenes. The Halloun and Hestenes…

  17. The Labour Process of Teaching at John Abbott College (Part One).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Walter

    This survey was conducted at John Abbott College to gauge teachers' responses to issues concerning their job satisfaction, interaction with colleagues, perceptions of student abilities, and perceptions concerning union negotiating priorities and areas of conflict within the institutional environment. Of the 75 teachers contacted, 47 returned…

  18. Analytical and Biological Variables Influencing Quantitative Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Measurement in HIV-HCV Coinfection

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis Cooper; Paul MacPherson; William Cameron

    2006-01-01

    The present review considers issues pertaining to the precision and variability of quantitative hepatitis C virus (HCV) measurement in general, outlines the characteristics of HCV RNA in HIV-HCV coinfection and evaluates those factors which may affect this measure. The clinical relevance of accurate HCV measurement in HIV-HCV coinfection is discussed.

  19. Neutron forward diffraction by single crystal prisms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sohrab Abbas; Apoorva G Wagh; Markus Strobl; Wolfgang Treimer

    2008-11-01

    We have derived analytic expressions for the deflection as well as transmitted fraction of monochromatic neutrons forward diffracted by a single crystal prism. In the vicinity of a Bragg reflection, the neutron deflection deviates sharply from that for an amorphous prism, exhibiting three orders of magnitude greater sensitivity to the incidence angle. We have measured the variation of neutron deflection and transmission across a Bragg reflection, for several single crystal prisms. The results agree well with theory.

  20. 丙肝患者HCV-Ab、HCV-RNA、HCV-Ag试剂盒联合检测体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王沈莉

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨HCV-Ab、HCV-RNA、HCV-Ag联合检测的意义.方法 用丙型肝炎抗体(HCV-Ab)、丙型肝炎病毒核酸(HCV-RNA)扩增(RNA)荧光定量及丙型肝核心抗原(HCV-Ag) 三种试剂盒分别检测血清中的HCV-Ab、HCV-RNA、HCV-Ag三种标志物.结果 根据丙型肝炎病毒在体内存在的时间,通过90例疑似丙型肝炎患者血清检测,HCV-Ab 87人阳性,HCV-RNA 67人阳性,HCV-Ag 55人阳性.结论 HCV-Ab、HCV-RNA、HCV-Ag联合检测有助于临床诊断、用药及疗效观察.

  1. HCV and HCC molecular epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor H. Pujol

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    iHepatitis C virus (HCV is a member of the family Flaviviridae, responsible for the majority of the non-A non-B post-transfusion hepatitis before 1990. Around 170 millions persons in the world are thought to be infected with this virus. A high number of HCV-infected people develop cirrhosis and from these, a significant proportion progresses to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Six HCV genotypes and a large number of subtypes in each genotype have been described. Infections with HCV genotype 1 are associated with the lowest therapeutic success. HCV genotypes 1, 2, and 3 have a worldwide distribution. HCV subtypes 1a and 1b are the most common genotypes in the United States and are also are predominant in Europe, while in Japan, subtype 1b is predominant. Although HCV subtypes 2a and 2b are relatively common in America, Europe, and Japan, subtype 2c is found commonly in northern Italy. HCV genotype 3a is frequent in intravenous drug abusers in Europe and the United States. HCV genotype 4 appears to be prevalent in Africa and the Middle East, and genotypes 5 and 6 seem to be confined to South Africa and Asia, respectively. HCC accounts for approximately 6% of all human cancers. Around 500,000 to 1 million cases occur annually worldwide, with HCC being the fifth common malignancy in men and the ninth in women. HCC is frequently a consequence of infection by HBV and HCV. The first line of evidences comes from epidemiologic studies. While HBV is the most frequent cause of HCC in many countries of Asia and South America, both HBV and HCV are found at similar frequencies, and eventually HCV at a higher frequency than HBV, among HCC patients in Europe, North America, and Japan. The cumulative appearance rate of HCC might be higher for HCV

  2. Hepatitis-C virus (HCV)

    OpenAIRE

    Suwarso, Suwarso

    2015-01-01

    A new problem on hepatitis for Indonesian is hepatitis-C virus (HCV). This infection is endemic, majority sub-clinic and progressive in chronic. Viral transmission is primarily via a parenteral route, while other routes are still in debate.Diagnostic approach should be focused on how this virus developed.KeyWords: hepatitis-C virus molecular biology Westem-blot-HCV blood transfusion epidemiology

  3. Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific in vitro antibody secretion by peripheral blood lymphocytes: correlation with progression of disease and HCV RNA in HCV antibody-positive patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Ducos, J.; Bianchi-Mondain, A M; Francois, M.; Boisset, M; Vendrell, J P; Barin, F; Serre, A; Larrey, D

    1994-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus-specific in vitro antibody production (HCV IVAP) by peripheral blood lymphocytes in 53 HCV antibody-positive patients was investigated in comparison with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and HCV RNA in serum samples. All 29 HCV IVAP-positive patients were HCV RNA positive; 26 had elevated ALT levels. Among the 24 HCV IVAP-negative patients, 16 were HCV RNA negative, with 12 presenting normal ALT values. These data indicate that HCV IVAP results are highly correlated (P ...

  4. Waveguide Prism Based on Porous Silicon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Zhen-hong

    2004-01-01

    The fabrication of the oxidized porous silicon waveguide prism is reported by selectively electrochemical anodisation process. The direction changes of light beams in TE and TM polarization out of this waveguide prism were respectively measured,and the experimental results were analyzed.

  5. Rheumatoid Case with HCV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Behnava

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Case Presentation:A 46-year-old woman referred to our center due to abnormality in aminotransferase level during check up. She had a history of blood transfusion 12 years ago. Anti-HCV Ab by ELISA method and HCV RNA by RT-PCR were positive. HCV RNA by Amplicor HCV monitor test counted 800,000 IU/ml and the genotype was 3a by Specific Primer-Targeted Region Core method. Laboratory evaluation revealed: Hb 11.9 mg/dl, WBC 5000 /ml, platelet count 190,000/ ml, ALT 70 IU/ml, AST 65 IU/ml, Alk phosphatase 210, PT 13 second, total protein 7.2 g/dl, albumin 4 g/dl, gama globulin 1.6 g/dl, HBsAg negative and RF positive. She had a history of symmetrical polyarthritis of small joints of upper extremities and morning stiffness for 3 years ago and had been managed as rheumatoid arthritis (RA since then. She was managed with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Are there any relations between RA disease and HCV infection?HCV-related ArthritisRheumatologic complications of HCV infection are common and include mixedcryoglobulinemia, vasculitis, Sjogren’s syndrome, arthritis and fibromyalgia(1, 2. There is a welldefined picture of arthritis associated with the presence of mixed cryoglobulinemia that consists of an intermittent mono or oligoarticular,nondestructive arthritis affecting large and mediumsize joints(1. 2% to 20% of HCV-infected patients experience arthritis and as 50% experience arthralgia(3Clinical ManifestationsHCV-related arthritis (HCVra commonly presents as rheumatoid-like, symmetrical inflammatory polyarthritis involving mainly small joints or less commonly as mono- or oligoarthritis of large joints. The joints involved in HCV-related arthritis are similar to RA(4. In about two thirds of the affected individuals, morning stiffness may be severe, resolving after more than an hour(5. Clinical picture of arthritis associated with the presence of mixed cryoglobulinemia in patients with HCV infection consists of an intermittent, mono or

  6. [Chronic hepatitis and occult HCV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowala-Piaskowska, Arleta; Mozer-Lisewska, Iwona; Pham, Tram N Q; Michalak, Tomasz I

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) was discovered in 1989. HCV is a positive single-strand RNA. We all have thought, that HCV can replicate only in liver tissue, but now we know, that HCV can replicate in extrahepatic tissue as well. In about 48-86% of HCV infected patients, chronic hepatitis C (CHC) has been noticed and eventually, after tens of years, liver insufficiency, cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. The current recommended treatment for CHC is a combination of pegylated-interferon alpha and Ribavirin. Presently it is known, that HCV infection can persist as an occult infection. RNA HCV can be detected in patients after successful treatment for CHC or spontaneous elimination. Persistent HCV replication in hepatocytes or lymphoid cells would likely lead to continuous antigenic stimulation of the immune system. This prolonged replication may contribute to the immune tolerance of HCV, impairment of immune response and even further virus persistence. This occult infection grows more important in transplantation.

  7. Demagnetizing effects in stacked rectangular prisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dennis; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden;

    2011-01-01

    A numerical, magnetostatic model of the internal magnetic field of a rectangular prism is extended to the case of a stack of rectangular prisms. The model enables the calculation of the spatially resolved, three-dimensional internal field in such a stack given any magnetic state function, stack...... configuration, temperature distribution and applied magnetic field. In this paper the model is applied to the case of a stack of parallel, ferromagnetic rectangular prisms and the resulting internal field is found as a function of the orientation of the applied field, the number of prisms in the stack...... a direct impact on the design of, e.g., active magnetic regenerators made of stacked rectangular prisms in terms of optimizing the internal field....

  8. The Prism Plastic Calorimeter (PPC)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This proposal supports two goals: \\\\ \\\\ First goal:~~Demonstrate that current, widely used plastic technologies allow to design Prism Plastic Calorimeter~(PPC) towers with a new ``liquid crystal'' type plastic called Vectra. It will be shown that this technique meets the requirements for a LHC calorimeter with warm liquids: safety, hermeticity, hadronic compensation, resolution and time response. \\\\ \\\\ Second goal:~~Describe how one can design a warm liquid calorimeter integrated into a LHC detector and to list the advantages of the PPC: low price, minimum of mechanical structures, minimum of dead space, easiness of mechanical assembly, accessibility to the electronics, possibility to recirculate the liquid. The absorber and the electronic being outside of the liquid and easily accessible, one has maximum flexibility to define them. \\\\ \\\\ The R&D program, we define here aims at showing the feasibility of these new ideas by building nine towers of twenty gaps and exposing them to electron and hadron beams.

  9. Liver Rapid Reference Set Application: Hemken - Abbott (2015) — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim for this testing is to find a small panel of biomarkers (n=2-5) that can be tested on the Abbott ARCHITECT automated immunoassay platform for the early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This panel of biomarkers should perform significantly better than alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) alone based on multivariate statistical analysis. This testing of the EDRN reference set will help expedite the selection of a small panel of ARCHITECT biomarkers for the early detection of HCC. The panel of ARCHITECT biomarkers Abbott plans to test include: AFP, protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II), golgi protein 73 (GP73), hepatocellular growth factor (HGF), dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) and DPP4/seprase (surface expressed protease) heterodimer hybrid. PIVKA-II is abnormal des-carboxylated prothrombin (DCP) present in vitamin K deficiency.

  10. Abbott Wave-Triggered Runaway in Line-Driven Winds from Stars and Accretion Disks

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Line-driven winds from stars and accretion disks are accelerated by scattering in numerous line transitions. The wind is believed to adopt a unique critical solution, out of the infinite variety of shallow and steep solutions. We study the inherent dynamics of the transition towards the critical wind. A new runaway wind mechanism is analyzed in terms of radiative-acoustic (Abbott) waves which are responsible for shaping the wind velocity law and fixing the mass loss. Three different flow type...

  11. Abbott AxSYM Vancomycin II assay: multicenter evaluation and interference studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzazy, H M; Chou, P P; Tsushima, J H; Troxil, S; Gordon, M; Avers, R J; Chiappetta, E; Duh, S H; Christenson, R H

    1998-04-01

    The authors evaluated the performance characteristics of the Abbott AxSYM Vancomycin II immunoassay in sera of patients with (n = 93 samples) and without (n = 327 patients) renal dysfunction. Correlation of vancomycin measurements with the Abbott AxSYM Vancomycin, Abbott TDx/TDxFLx, Syva enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT), DuPont automated chemistry analyzer (ACA), and high-performance liquid chromatography methods showed acceptable correlation as indicated by: slope values >0.95, r-values >0.97, y-intercepts <1.7 microg/ml, and S(y/x) ranging from 9% to 15% of the average vancomycin value. The AxSYM Vancomycin II assay showed acceptable correlation with AxSYM vancomycin, TDx/TDxFLx, and high-performance liquid chromatography methods in 93 samples from patients with renal dysfunction. This monoclonal antibody-based assay showed no apparent interference from the presence of human antimouse antibody (HAMA) or the microbiologically inactive vancomycin crystalline degradation product (CDP). The authors conclude that the AxSYM Vancomycin II assay showed satisfactory agreement with other methods tested in this study.

  12. Calibration of ACS Prism Slitless Spectroscopy Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, S S; Walsh, J R

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Camera for Surveys is equipped with three prisms in the Solar Blind (SBC) and High Resolution (HRC) Channels, which together cover the 1150 - 3500 A range, albeit at highly non-uniform spectral resolution. We present new wavelength- and flux calibrations of the SBC (PR110L and PR130L) and HRC (PR200L) prisms, based on calibration observations obtained in Cycle 13. The calibration products are available to users via the ST-ECF/aXe web pages, and can be used directly with the aXe package. We discuss our calibration strategy and some caveats specific to slitless prism spectroscopy.

  13. Cytoskeletal Requirements for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) RNA Synthesis in the HCV Replicon Cell Culture System

    OpenAIRE

    Bost, Anne G.; Venable, Daryl; Liu, Lifei; Heinz, Beverly A.

    2003-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces microtubule aggregates in infected hepatocytes. To determine if cytoskeletal elements are important for HCV RNA synthesis, we examined the effect of cytoskeleton inhibitors on HCV replicon transcription in Huh7 cells. The data demonstrate that HCV replication complex-mediated RNA synthesis requires microtubule and actin polymerization.

  14. Cytoskeletal requirements for hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA synthesis in the HCV replicon cell culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, Anne G; Venable, Daryl; Liu, Lifei; Heinz, Beverly A

    2003-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces microtubule aggregates in infected hepatocytes. To determine if cytoskeletal elements are important for HCV RNA synthesis, we examined the effect of cytoskeleton inhibitors on HCV replicon transcription in Huh7 cells. The data demonstrate that HCV replication complex-mediated RNA synthesis requires microtubule and actin polymerization.

  15. Interferon Response in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection: Lessons from Cell Culture Systems of HCV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Pil Soo; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Yoon, Seung Kew

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus that infects approximately 130-170 million people worldwide. In 2005, the first HCV infection system in cell culture was established using clone JFH-1, which was isolated from a Japanese patient with fulminant HCV infection. JFH-1 replicates efficiently in hepatoma cells and infectious virion particles are released into the culture supernatant. The development of cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc) systems has allowed us to understand how hosts respond to HCV infection and how HCV evades host responses. Although the mechanisms underlying the different outcomes of HCV infection are not fully understood, innate immune responses seem to have a critical impact on the outcome of HCV infection, as demonstrated by the prognostic value of IFN-λ gene polymorphisms among patients with chronic HCV infection. Herein, we review recent research on interferon response in HCV infection, particularly studies using HCVcc infection systems.

  16. Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop an UV-NIR (350nm to 1050 nm) portable remote imaging spectrometer (PRISM) for flight on a variety of airborne platforms with high SNR and response...

  17. OPERA: Objective Prism Enhanced Reduction Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universidad Complutense de Madrid Astrophysics Research Group

    2015-09-01

    OPERA (Objective Prism Enhanced Reduction Algorithms) automatically analyzes astronomical images using the objective-prism (OP) technique to register thousands of low resolution spectra in large areas. It detects objects in an image, extracts one-dimensional spectra, and identifies the emission line feature. The main advantages of this method are: 1) to avoid subjectivity inherent to visual inspection used in past studies; and 2) the ability to obtain physical parameters without follow-up spectroscopy.

  18. The PRISM3D paleoenvironmental reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    H. Dowsett; M. Robinson; Haywood, A. M.; Salzmann, U.; Hill, Daniel; L. E. Sohl; Chandler, M.; Williams, Mark; Foley, K; D. K. Stoll

    2010-01-01

    The Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) paleoenvironmental reconstruction is an internally consistent and comprehensive global synthesis of a past interval of relatively warm and stable climate. It is regularly used in model studies that aim to better understand Pliocene climate, to improve model performance in future climate scenarios, and to distinguish model-dependent climate effects. The PRISM reconstruction is constantly evolving in order to incorporate additio...

  19. Direct anti-HCV agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingquan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a curable disease. Current direct antiviral agent (DAA targets are focused on HCV NS3/4A protein (protease, NS5B protein (polymerase and NS5A protein. The first generation of DAAs includes boceprevir and telaprevir, which are protease inhibitors and were approved for clinical use in 2011. The cure rate for genotype 1 patients increased from 45% to 70% when boceprevir or telaprevir was added to standard PEG-IFN/ribavirin. More effective and less toxic second generation DAAs supplanted these drugs by 2013. The second generation of DAAs includes sofosbuvir (Sovaldi, simeprevir (Olysio, and fixed combination medicines Harvoni and Viekira Pak. These drugs increase cure rates to over 90% without the need for interferon and effectively treat all HCV genotypes. With these drugs the “cure HCV” goal has become a reality. Concerns remain about drug resistance mutations and the high cost of these drugs. The investigation of new HCV drugs is progressing rapidly; fixed dose combination medicines in phase III clinical trials include Viekirax, asunaprevir+daclatasvir+beclabuvir, grazoprevir+elbasvir and others.

  20. Neutron energy analysis by silicon prisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, J., E-mail: jennifer.schulz@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Ott, F. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, Bât 563 CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Hülsen, Ch.; Krist, Th. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-11-21

    Neutron energy analysing by refraction with prisms allows to measure different wavelengths at the same time thus avoiding losses due to monochromatization. We built and tested a refractive energy analysing device made from small prisms, where losses only occur due to the attenuation in the material. We measured the refraction and the transmission of MgF{sub 2} and Si prisms at the V14 reflectometer in Berlin at 4.9 Å to check their applicability. The experimentally determined linear attenuation coefficients are 0.055 cm{sup −1} for the MgF{sub 2} and 0.03 cm{sup −1} for the Si prisms. An energy analyser consisting of silicon prism layers was measured at the EROS reflectometer at the LLB in a white neutron beam. The useful wavelength band was 2.4–7.6 Å. At 6.7 Å a wavelength resolution of 5% and a transmission of 53% were achieved. The surface roughness of the prisms could be determined to be (0.011±0.006)deg.

  1. Relationship between HCV antibody IgM, IgG and HCV RNA and its clinical significance%抗-HCV IgM、抗-HCV IgG与HCV RNA的相关性及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    檀玉芬; 闫惠平; 贾咏梅; 李伟华; 佟瑄

    2006-01-01

    [目的]研究丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)抗-HCV IgM、抗-HCV IgG与HCV RNA的相关性.[方法]收集236例HCV患者标本,用酶联免疫吸附法检测抗-HCV IgM、抗-HCV IgG、同时用逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)检测HCV RNA.[结果]168例HCV RNA(+)标本中,抗-HCV IgM阳性率为72.0%(121/168);抗-HCV IgG阳性率为85.1%(143/168),抗-HCVIgM、抗-HCV IgG与HCV RNA的关联系数均为r=1.抗-HCV IgM、抗-HCV IgG与HCV RNA的检出符合率分别为69.1%(163/236)、75.4%(178/236).随着抗-HCV IgG抗体光密度值(OD值)的增大,HCV RNA的检出率亦增加(x2=27.5 P<0.001).提示两者间存在相互关联性(r=0.93).[结论]HCV感染者血清抗-HCV抗体与HCV RNA的阳性检出率呈正相关,血清中抗-HCV的含量越高,HCV RNA的含量越多,其传染性越强.抗-HCV IgM与HCV病毒复制亦密切相关,可以做为HCV复制的补充指标.

  2. HCV management in resource-constrained countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seng Gee

    2017-02-21

    With the arrival of all-oral directly acting antiviral (DAA) therapy with high cure rates, the promise of hepatitis C virus (HCV) eradication is within closer reach. The availability of generic DAAs has improved access to countries with constrained resources. However, therapy is only one component of the HCV care continuum, which is the framework for HCV management from identifying patients to cure. The large number of undiagnosed HCV cases is the biggest concern, and strategies to address this are needed, as risk factor screening is suboptimal, detecting HCV confirmation through either reflex HCV RNA screening or ideally a sensitive point of care test are needed. HCV notification (e.g., Australia) may improve diagnosis (proportion of HCV diagnosed is 75%) and may lead to benefits by increasing linkage to care, therapy and cure. Evaluations for cirrhosis using non-invasive markers are best done with a biological panel, but they are only moderately accurate. In resource-constrained settings, only generic HCV medications are available, and a combination of sofosbuvir, ribavirin, ledipasvir or daclatasvir provides sufficient efficacy for all genotypes, but this is likely to be replaced with pangenetypic regimens such as sofosbuvir/velpatasvir and glecaprevir/pibrentaasvir. In conclusion, HCV management in resource-constrained settings is challenging on multiple fronts because of the lack of infrastructure, facilities, trained manpower and equipment. However, it is still possible to make a significant impact towards HCV eradication through a concerted effort by individuals and national organisations with domain expertise in this area.

  3. Cure of HCV related liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Mitchell L; Benhamou, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes chronic liver injury and can lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCV can also interact with the immune system to cause several HCV related disorders including essential mixed cryoglobulinemia, vasculitis, dermatitis, glomerulonephritis and lymphoma. A strong association between HCV and diabetes mellitus also exists. These extrahepatic features may lead to increased fatigue and a reduced quality of life. It is now possible to cure most patients with chronic HCV using oral antiviral therapy. Many of these HCV-related disorders and symptoms can be cured when HCV is eradicated. However, some patients may have irreversible injury to extrahepatic sites, cirrhosis that cannot resolve, an increased risk for HCC, persistent fatigue and a reduced quality of life, despite achieving sustained virological response.

  4. HCV Infection and B-Cell Lymphomagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Ito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV has been recognized as a major cause of chronic liver diseases worldwide. It has been suggested that HCV infects not only hepatocytes but also mononuclear lymphocytes including B cells that express the CD81 molecule, a putative HCV receptor. HCV infection of B cells is the likely cause of B-cell dysregulation disorders such as mixed cryoglobulinemia, rheumatoid factor production, and B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders that may evolve into non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL. Epidemiological data indicate an association between HCV chronic infection and the occurrence of B-cell NHL, suggesting that chronic HCV infection is associated at least in part with B-cell lymphomagenesis. In this paper, we aim to provide an overview of recent literature, including our own, to elucidate a possible role of HCV chronic infection in B-cell lymphomagenesis.

  5. HCV-RNA与HCV-cAg检测的相关性分析%Study on correlation analysis on serum HCV-RNA and HCV-cAg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏明权; 杨柳; 王娟; 常亮; 肖凤静; 马越云; 郝晓柯

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨丙型肝炎病毒核心抗原(HCV-cAg)与HCV-RNA检测的相关性及其在丙型肝炎病毒感染诊断中的价值.方法 采用双抗体夹心酶联免疫分析法(ELISA)检测HCV-cAg;采用实时荧光定量PCR法检测HCV-RNA,以了解两者检测方法的相关性.结果 在160例HCV-RNA阳性血清中,HCV-cAg阳性148例,阳性符合率92.5%;在60例HCV-cAg阳性血清中,HCV-RNA阳性59例,阳性符合率98.3%.结论 通过对HCV-RNA与HCV-cAg检测,说明HCV核心抗原与HCV-RNA检测可作为反映HCV复制的间接指标,预防窗口期感染.由于HCV-cAg在方法学上与HCV-RNA相比,具有方法简便、快速、价廉,所需设备简单,易于普及应用等优点,特别是在不具备HCV-RNA检测条件的基层医疗单位作为HCV感染检测的直接证据具有重要的意义.

  6. 抗-HCV(OD/CO)值与HCV-RNA阳性率及载量深析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗娜

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析不同的抗-HCV( OD/CO)值与HCV-RNA阳性率及载量之间的相关性.方法 采用ELISA法和RT-PCR法对137例丙型肝炎患者的血清进行抗-HCV与HCV-RNA检测.结果 137例丙肝患者中抗-HCV( OD/CO)值≥1,HCV-RNA(+)有95例,阳性率为69.3%,HCV-RNA阳性率及载量随抗-HCV( OD/CO)值的增大而增高.结论 抗-HCV(OD/CO)值与HCV-RNA阳性率及载量呈正相关性,二者联合检测,可提高检出率.

  7. Single-lens stereovision system using a prism: position estimation of a multi-ocular prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoyu; Lim, Kah Bin; Zhao, Yue; Kee, Wei Loon

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a position estimation method using a prism-based single-lens stereovision system is proposed. A multifaced prism was considered as a single optical system composed of few refractive planes. A transformation matrix which relates the coordinates of an object point to its coordinates on the image plane through the refraction of the prism was derived based on geometrical optics. A mathematical model which is able to denote the position of an arbitrary faces prism with only seven parameters is introduced. This model further extends the application of the single-lens stereovision system using a prism to other areas. Experimentation results are presented to prove the effectiveness and robustness of our proposed model.

  8. g-2 of the muon from compositeness in the model of Abbott and Farhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Davies, Andrew J.; Volkas, Raymond R.

    1989-05-01

    We use a simple model to estimate the contribution to g-2 for the muon in the composite model of Abbott and Farhi. Dimension-5 operators must be introduced to describe the effective coupling of the composite left-handed muon to its constituents. We find an interesting suppression, which operates in the region of low scalar preon mass, of the leading-order term for g-2. The contribution of compositeness to g-2 is thus smaller than might naively be expected and is within experimental limits.

  9. HBV And HCV Molecular Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor H. Pujol

    2007-02-01

    hepatitis C virus (HCV. Six genotypes and a large number of subtypes in each genotype have been described for this member of the Flaviviridae family. Infections with HCV genotype 1 are associated with the lowest therapeutic success. HCV genotype 1b has also been more frequently associated with a more severe liver disease. However, this association seems to be due to the fact that individuals infected with this genotype have a longer mean duration of infection. HCV genotypes 1, 2, and 3 have a worldwide distribution and display an apidemic pattern of distribution. HCV subtypes 1a and 1b are the most common genotypes in the United States and are also are predominant in Europe, while in Japan, subtype 1b is predominant. Although HCV subtypes 2a and 2b are relatively common in America, Europe, and Japan, subtype 2c is found commonly in northern Italy. HCV genotype 3a is frequent in intravenous drug abusers in Europe and the United States. HCV genotype 4 appears to be prevalent in Africa and theMiddle East, and genotypes 5 and 6 seem to be confined to South Africa and Asia, respectively. These last genotypes display an endemic pattern of distribution. In addition, a change in the frequency of the prevailing genotypes has been described in several countries: in general, HCV genotype 1b is being displaced by genotypes 3a and/or 2. Coalescent studies have allowed to describe the epidemic pattern of dissemination of some HCV subtypes in specific countries, generally around 100 years ago. The origin of this virus is still an open question, but several studies traces it diversification only around 1,000 years ago.

    The replication of HCV is dependent on a RNA-polymerase RNA dependent which lacks proofreading activity, which confers to this virus a high rate of variability. This virus circulates as a quasispecies. This population dynamic inside a single strain confers to this virus the ability to

  10. The PRISM3D paleoenvironmental reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, H.; Robinson, M.; Haywood, A.M.; Salzmann, U.; Hill, Daniel; Sohl, L.E.; Chandler, M.; Williams, Mark; Foley, K.; Stoll, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    The Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) paleoenvironmental reconstruction is an internally consistent and comprehensive global synthesis of a past interval of relatively warm and stable climate. It is regularly used in model studies that aim to better understand Pliocene climate, to improve model performance in future climate scenarios, and to distinguish model-dependent climate effects. The PRISM reconstruction is constantly evolving in order to incorporate additional geographic sites and environmental parameters, and is continuously refined by independent research findings. The new PRISM three dimensional (3D) reconstruction differs from previous PRISM reconstructions in that it includes a subsurface ocean temperature reconstruction, integrates geochemical sea surface temperature proxies to supplement the faunal-based temperature estimates, and uses numerical models for the first time to augment fossil data. Here we describe the components of PRISM3D and describe new findings specific to the new reconstruction. Highlights of the new PRISM3D reconstruction include removal of Hudson Bay and the Great Lakes and creation of open waterways in locations where the current bedrock elevation is less than 25m above modern sea level, due to the removal of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the reduction of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. The mid-Piacenzian oceans were characterized by a reduced east-west temperature gradient in the equatorial Pacific, but PRISM3D data do not imply permanent El Niño conditions. The reduced equator-to-pole temperature gradient that characterized previous PRISM reconstructions is supported by significant displacement of vegetation belts toward the poles, is extended into the Arctic Ocean, and is confirmed by multiple proxies in PRISM3D. Arctic warmth coupled with increased dryness suggests the formation of warm and salty paleo North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and a more vigorous thermohaline circulation system that may

  11. Immune complexed (IC) hepatitis C virus (HCV) in chronically and acutely HCV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, E; Maggi, F; Abbruzzese, F; Bellomi, F; Giannelli, G; Picardi, A; Scagnolari, C; Folgori, A; Spada, E; Piccolella, E; Dianzani, F; Antonelli, G

    2009-02-01

    In infected individuals, hepatitis C virus (HCV) exists in various forms of circulating particles which role in virus persistence and in HCV resistance to IFN therapy is still debated. Here, the proportion of HCV bound to immunoglobulin was determined in plasma of 107 chronically infected patients harbouring different HCV genotypes and, for comparison, of six patients with acute HCV infection. The results showed that, in spite of wide individual variability, chronically HCV-infected patients exhibited an extremely high proportion of immune complexed (IC) virus regardless of plasma HCV load and infecting genotype. Moreover, no significant association was found between baseline proportion of IC HCV and response to IFN treatment. Plasma samples collected within 2 weeks of treatment from 20 patients revealed a significant decline of mean IC HCV values relative to baseline that clearly paralleled the decay of total HCV load. In acutely infected patients, circulating HCV was not IC or IC at very low levels only in patients developing chronic HCV infection. Collectively, these findings strengthen the possibility that IC virus could play a critical role in the pathogenesis of HCV infection.

  12. Ultrasensitive HCV RNA Quantification in Antiviral Triple Therapy: New Insight on Viral Clearance Dynamics and Treatment Outcome Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuglia, Anna Rosa; Visco-Comandini, Ubaldo; Lionetti, Raffaella; Lapa, Daniele; Castiglione, Filippo; D’Offizi, Gianpiero; Taibi, Chiara; Montalbano, Marzia; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Paci, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Identifying the predictive factors of Sustained Virological Response (SVR) represents an important challenge in new interferon-based DAA therapies. Here, we analyzed the kinetics of antiviral response associated with a triple drug regimen, and the association between negative residual viral load at different time points during treatment. Methods Twenty-three HCV genotype 1 (GT 1a n = 11; GT1b n = 12) infected patients were included in the study. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) was used to establish possible association between HCV RNA values at days 1 and 4 from start of therapy and SVR. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to analyze the correlation between HCV RNA slope and SVR. A ultrasensitive (US) method was established to measure the residual HCV viral load in those samples which resulted “detected <12IU/ml” or undetectable with ABBOTT standard assay, and was retrospectively used on samples collected at different time points to establish its predictive power for SVR. Results According to LDA, there was no association between SVR and viral kinetics neither at time points earlier than 1 week (days 1 and 4) after therapy initiation nor later. The slopes were not relevant for classifying patients as SVR or no-SVR. No significant differences were observed in the median HCV RNA values at T0 among SVR and no-SVR patients. HCV RNA values with US protocol (LOD 1.2 IU/ml) after 1 month of therapy were considered; the area under the ROC curve was 0.70. Overall, PPV and NPV of undetectable HCV RNA with the US method for SVR was 100% and 46.7%, respectively; sensitivity and specificity were 38.4% and 100% respectively. Conclusion HCV RNA “not detected” by the US method after 1 month of treatment is predictive of SVR in first generation Protease inhibitor (PI)-based triple therapy. The US method could have clinical utility for advanced monitoring of virological response in new interferon based DAA combination regimens. PMID:27560794

  13. An improved prism energy analyzer for neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, J., E-mail: jennifer.schulz@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Ott, F. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, Bât 563 CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Krist, Th. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-04-21

    The effects of two improvements of an existing neutron energy analyzer consisting of stacked silicon prism rows are presented. First we tested the effect of coating the back of the prism rows with an absorbing layer to suppress neutron scattering by total reflection and by refraction at small angles. Experiments at HZB showed that this works perfectly. Second the prism rows were bent to shift the transmitted wavelength band to larger wavelengths. At HZB we showed that bending increased the transmission of neutrons with a wavelength of 4.9 Å. Experiments with a white beam at the EROS reflectometer at LLB showed that bending of the energy analyzing device to a radius of 7.9 m allows to shift the transmitted wavelength band from 0 to 9 Å to 2 to 16 Å.

  14. Abbott Wave-Triggered Runaway in Line-Driven Winds from Stars and Accretion Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Feldmeier, A; Feldmeier, Achim; Shlosman, Isaac

    2001-01-01

    Line-driven winds from stars and accretion disks are accelerated by scattering in numerous line transitions. The wind is believed to adopt a unique critical solution, out of the infinite variety of shallow and steep solutions. We study the inherent dynamics of the transition towards the critical wind. A new runaway wind mechanism is analyzed in terms of radiative-acoustic (Abbott) waves which are responsible for shaping the wind velocity law and fixing the mass loss. Three different flow types result, depending on the location of perturbations. First, if the shallow solution is perturbed sufficiently far downstream, a single critical point forms in the flow, which is a barrier for Abbott waves, and the solution tends to the critical one. Second, if the shallow solution is perturbed upstream from this critical point, mass overloading results, and the critical point is shifted inwards. This wind exhibits a broad, stationary region of decelerating flow and its velocity law has kinks. Third, for perturbations eve...

  15. HCV Specific IL-21 Producing T Cells but Not IL-17A Producing T Cells Are Associated with HCV Viral Control in HIV/HCV Coinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacParland, Sonya A.; Fadel, Saleh M.; Mihajlovic, Vesna; Fawaz, Ali; Kim, Connie; Rahman, A. K. M. Nur-ur; Liu, Jun; Kaul, Rupert; Kovacs, Colin; Grebely, Jason; Dore, Gregory J.; Wong, David K.; Ostrowski, Mario A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Decreased hepatitis C virus (HCV) clearance, faster cirrhosis progression and higher HCV RNA levels are associated with Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. The CD4+ T helper cytokines interleukin (IL)-21 and IL-17A are associated with virus control and inflammation, respectively, both important in HCV and HIV disease progression. Here, we examined how antigen-specific production of these cytokines during HCV mono and HIV/HCV coinfection was associated with HCV virus control. Methods We measured HCV-specific IL-21 and IL-17A production by transwell cytokine secretion assay in PBMCs from monoinfected and coinfected individuals. Viral control was determined by plasma HCV RNA levels. Results In acutely infected individuals, those able to establish transient/complete HCV viral control tended to have stronger HCV-specific IL-21-production than non-controllers. HCV-specific IL-21 production also correlated with HCV viral decline in acute infection. Significantly stronger HCV-specific IL-21 production was detected in HAART-treated coinfected individuals. HCV-specific IL-17A production was not associated with lower plasma HCV RNA levels in acute or chronic HCV infection and responses were stronger in HIV coinfection. HCV-specific IL-21/ IL-17A responses did not correlate with microbial translocation or fibrosis. Exogenous IL-21 treatment of HCV-specific CD8+ T cells from monoinfected individuals enhanced their function although CD8+ T cells from coinfected individuals were somewhat refractory to the effects of IL-21. Conclusions These data show that HCV-specific IL-21 and IL-17A-producing T cells are induced in HIV/HCV coinfection. In early HIV/HCV coinfection, IL-21 may contribute to viral control, and may represent a novel tool to enhance acute HCV clearance in HIV/HCV coinfected individuals. PMID:27124305

  16. Genotypic analysis of HCV 1a by sequencing of the NS3 proteasic region in simeprevir therapy candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberti, Alfonso; Raddi, Adriana; Cuomo, Nunzia

    2016-12-01

    Each phase of the HCV replication cycle can represent a therapy target. In fact, SIMEPREVIR (SMV) acts as NS3/4A protease inhibitor (PI); its efficacy is, however, reduced in HCV1a patients characterized by NS3Q80K polymorphism. The aim of this work was to design a genotypic analysis of NS3 protease in order to characterize viral quasispecies in HCV 1a patients before starting the SMV therapy. In all, 38 peripheral blood-EDTA samples were collected from patients infected with HCV 1a (RNA > 10,000 cp/ml). The samples were sequenced in a region of 543 nucleotides, codifying for 181 amino acids of the NS3 protease with ABI PRISM 3130xl Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems). Of the 38 samples, two showed the Q80K mutation associated with resistance to SMV. In 16 samples mutations associated with a possible resistance to protease inhibitor, TELAPREVIR, were observed. Only one sample showed the T54S mutation, which is responsible for resistance to BOCEPREVIR, a protease inhibitor too. The data reported in this paper show a 5% prevalence of the Q80K mutation in HCV 1a patients. So far, some differences in the percentage of the Q80K mutations were observed within the European population, when compared with its US counterpart. The prevalence study described herein, albeit observed on a low number of samples, could challenge the recommendations reported in the technical data sheet of SMV.

  17. Complementary role of HCV and HIV in T-cell activation and exhaustion in HIV/HCV coinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feuth, T.; Arends, J.E.; Fransen, J.H.; Nanlohy, N.M.; Erpecum, K.J. van; Siersema, P.D.; Hoepelman, A.I.; Baarle, D. van

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether T-cell activation and exhaustion is linked to HCV- and HIV disease parameters in HIV/HCV infected individuals, we studied T-cell characteristics in HIV/HCV coinfected patients and controls. METHODS: 14 HIV/HCV coinfected, 19 HCV monoinfected, 10 HIV monoinfected pa

  18. Evidence of occult HCV genotypes in haemophilic individuals with unapparent HCV mixed infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, C; Culasso, A; Aloisi, N; García, G; Bastón, M; Corti, M; Bianco, R P; Campos, R; Ares, B R; Baré, P

    2008-07-01

    Individuals with haemophilia who received non heat-treated factor concentrates were likely to undergo multiple exposures to the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Therefore, HCV mixed-genotype infections might be more frequent in these patients than in the general population. Their prevalence is extremely variable in similar groups of patients tested by different assays due to the fact that currently available genotyping techniques are not suitable to detect multiple HCV genotypes in a viral population. As an HCV viral reservoir, the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) might harbor viral variants distinct from the genotypes detected in plasma. We investigated the presence of HCV genotypes in a group of chronically infected haemophilic patients in the PBMC compartment using a non-stimulated cell culture system that allows the detection of the HCV genome in culture supernatants. We compared them to the HCV genotypes found in plasma samples. Cell culture experiments performed with PBMC demonstrated the presence of additional HCV genotypes that were undetected in the corresponding plasma samples with the same genotyping technique. Although mixed infections at HCV genotype level became evident in 5.6% of the patients (16/288), the culture methodology increased the number of HCV infections with multiple genotypes to 62.5% (10/16) (P HCV viral reservoirs is emphasized. Considering minor strains could influence the outcome of treatment, detection of covert HCV mixed-genotype infections might be essential for choosing the adequate therapeutic regimen.

  19. Inhibition of HCV 3a genotype entry through Host CD81 and HCV E2 antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq Usman A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HCV causes acute and chronic hepatitis which can eventually lead to permanent liver damage hepatocellular carcinoma and death. HCV glycoproteins play an important role in HCV entry by binding with CD81 receptors. Hence inhibition of virus at entry step is an important target to identify antiviral drugs against HCV. Methods and result The present study elaborated the role of CD81 and HCV glycoprotein E2 in HCV entry using retroviral pseudo-particles of 3a local genotype. Our results demonstrated that HCV specific antibody E2 and host antibody CD81 showed dose- dependent inhibition of HCV entry. HCV E2 antibody showed 50% reduction at a concentration of 1.5 ± 1 μg while CD81 exhibited 50% reduction at a concentration of 0.8 ± 1 μg. In addition, data obtained with HCVpp were also confirmed with the infection of whole virus of HCV genotype 3a in liver cells. Conclusion Our data suggest that HCV specific E2 and host CD81 antibodies reduce HCVpp entry and full length viral particle and combination of host and HCV specific antibodies showed synergistic effect in reducing the viral titer.

  20. Study on the diagnosis value of combination of HCV-cAg and anti-HCV in HCV infection%HCV-cAg和HCV-Ab联合检测对HCV感染诊断价值的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林俊填; 余晋林; 伍伟健; 陈展泽; 龚道元

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical value of combination of HCV-cAg and anti-HCV detection in HCV infection. Methods The serum samples from outpatients and inpatients were detected for HCV-cAg,anti-HCV and HCV-RNA. The quanti-tative real-time PCR was applied to detect HCV-RNA,and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits were utilized to test anti-HCV and HCV-cAg). Result The sensitivity and specificity of anti-HCV detection were 90.91% and 99.17% respectively, and that of HCV-cAg were 70.25%and 100%respectively. Notably,the sensitivity(99.17%) and specificity(99.17%) increased sig-nificantly in case of combinational detection method. In addition,no consistency between the results of anti-HCV and HCV-cAg was detected. Conclusion Combination detection of anti-HCV and HCV-cAg was recommended because of its remarkable advan-tage in screening and diagnosis of HIV infection.%目的:探讨HCV-cAg和HCV-Ab两个指标联合检测对HCV感染的临床价值。方法对门诊和住院患者血液标本进行HCV-cAg、HCV-Ab 及HCV-RNA联合检测,采用实时荧光定量 PCR 法检测 HCV-RNA,采用酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)检测试剂盒检测HCV-Ab和HCV-cAg。结果 HCV-Ab检测的灵敏度和特异度分别为90.91%和99.17%;HCV-cAg检测的灵敏度和特异度分别为70.25%和100%,两者的特异度相近,但是HCV-Ab检测的灵敏度比HCV-cAg的要高。两者联合检测时灵敏度和特异度分别为99.17%和99.17%,灵敏度明显增加。此外,HCV-Ab和HCV-cAg两者之间的检测结果无一致性。结论 HCV-Ab和HCV-cAg检测相互间无法替代,将抗-HCV和HCV-cAg两种指标结合起来检测,对临床上提高HCV感染的筛查和诊断具有重要的价值。

  1. Comparing Volumes of Prisms and Pyramids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Natalya

    2012-01-01

    Students' experience in using formulas for volumes is often limited to substituting numbers into given formulas. An activity presented in this article may help students make connections between the formulas for volumes of prisms and volumes of pyramids. In addition, some interesting facts from number theory arise, demonstrating strong connections…

  2. Prisms Throw Light on Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Rebecca L.; Nicolson, Roderick I.; Fawcett, Angela J.

    2007-01-01

    Prism adaptation, in which the participant adapts to prismatic glasses that deflect vision laterally, is a specific test of cerebellar function. Fourteen dyslexic children (mean age 13.5 years); 14 children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD): 6 of whom had comorbid dyslexia; and 12 control children matched for age and IQ underwent…

  3. Human monoclonal antibody HCV1 effectively prevents and treats HCV infection in chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor J Morin

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a leading cause of liver transplantation and there is an urgent need to develop therapies to reduce rates of HCV infection of transplanted livers. Approved therapeutics for HCV are poorly tolerated and are of limited efficacy in this patient population. Human monoclonal antibody HCV1 recognizes a highly-conserved linear epitope of the HCV E2 envelope glycoprotein (amino acids 412-423 and neutralizes a broad range of HCV genotypes. In a chimpanzee model, a single dose of 250 mg/kg HCV1 delivered 30 minutes prior to infusion with genotype 1a H77 HCV provided complete protection from HCV infection, whereas a dose of 50 mg/kg HCV1 did not protect. In addition, an acutely-infected chimpanzee given 250 mg/kg HCV1 42 days following exposure to virus had a rapid reduction in viral load to below the limit of detection before rebounding 14 days later. The emergent virus displayed an E2 mutation (N415K/D conferring resistance to HCV1 neutralization. Finally, three chronically HCV-infected chimpanzees were treated with a single dose of 40 mg/kg HCV1 and viral load was reduced to below the limit of detection for 21 days in one chimpanzee with rebounding virus displaying a resistance mutation (N417S. The other two chimpanzees had 0.5-1.0 log(10 reductions in viral load without evidence of viral resistance to HCV1. In vitro testing using HCV pseudovirus (HCVpp demonstrated that the sera from the poorly-responding chimpanzees inhibited the ability of HCV1 to neutralize HCVpp. Measurement of antibody responses in the chronically-infected chimpanzees implicated endogenous antibody to E2 and interference with HCV1 neutralization although other factors may also be responsible. These data suggest that human monoclonal antibody HCV1 may be an effective therapeutic for the prevention of graft infection in HCV-infected patients undergoing liver transplantation.

  4. Application of the EMIT 2000 Tacrolimus assay on the Abbott Architect c8000 high volume clinical chemistry analyzer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Boer; T. Deufel; D. Schmidt; S. Streck; M. Kiehntopf

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Evaluation of the performance of the EMIT 2000 Tacrolimus assay on the Abbott Architect c8000 analyzer. Design and Methods: Imprecision studies were performed and patient samples were assayed by EMIT assay and by LC-MS/MS. Results: Limit of quantification was established at 2.8 mu g/L. A

  5. Review Essay: They Had No Voice by Denny Abbott and Working for Peace and Justice by Lawrence S. Wittner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyl Lynn Felman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Book Review comparing and contrasting the memoirs They Had No Voice by Denny Abbott and Working For Peace and Justice by Lawrence S. Wittner. Topics discussed include how the personal becomes political; working for social justice locally and globally; the disarmament movement, 1960's activism, and the omission of the feminist movement from both memoirs.

  6. Massive venlafaxine overdose resulted in a false positive Abbott AxSYM (R) urine immunoassay for phencyclidine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bond, GR; Steele, PE; Uges, DRA

    2003-01-01

    Case report: A 13-yr-old girl overdosed on 48 x 150 mg venlafaxine (Effexor XR(R)). She was taking venlafaxine regularly for depression. Her only other medications included topical Benzamycin and pyridoxine 50 mg daily for acne. The Abbott AxSYM(R) assay was positive only for phencyclidine, but GC/M

  7. The history of hepatitis C virus (HCV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 1989 permitted basic research to unravel critical components of a complex life cycle for this important human pathogen. HCV is a highly divergent group of viruses classified in 7 major genotypes and a great number of subtypes, and circulating in infected...

  8. Abbott-Deser-Tekin Charge of Dilaton Black Holes with Squashed Horizons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Jin Peng; Wen-Chang Xiang; Shao-Hong Cai

    2016-01-01

    We consider the conserved charge of static black holes with squashed horizons in the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory via both the Abbott-Deser-Tekin (ADT) method and its off-shell generalization.We first make use of the original ADT method to compute the mass of the dilaton squashed black holes in terms of three different reference spacetimes,which are the asymptotic geometry,the fiat background and the spacetime of the KaluzaKlein monopole with boundary matched to the original metric,respectively.Each mass satisfies the first law of black hole thermodynamics,although the mass computed on the basis of the boundary matching the KaluzaKlein monopole is different from that of the other two reference spacetimes.Then the mass of the black holes is evaluated through the off-shell generalized ADT method.

  9. Evaluating lubricating capacity of vegetal oils using Abbott-Firestone curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, C.; Cristea, G. C.; Dima, C.; Deleanu, L.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the change of functional parameters defined on the Abbott-Firestone curve in order to evaluate the surface quality of the balls from the four ball tester, after tests done with several vegetable oils. The tests were done using two grades of rapeseed oil (degummed and refined) and two grades of soybean oil (coarse and degummed) and a common transmission oil (T90). Test parameters were 200 N and 0.576 m/s (1500 rpm) for 60 minutes. For the refined rapeseed oil, the changes in shape of the Abbott-Firestone curves are more dramatic, these being characterized by high values of Spk (the average value for the wear scars on the three balls), thus being 40% of the sum Svk + Sk + Spk, percentage also obtained for the soybean oil, but the value Spk being lower. For the degummed soybean oil, the profile height of the wear scars are taller than those obtained after testing the coarse soybean oil, meaning that the degumming process has a negative influence on the worn surface quality and the lubricating capacity of this oil. Comparing the surface quality of the wear scars on fixed tested balls is a reliable method to point out the lubricant properties of the vegetable oils, especially if they are compared to a “classical” lubricant as a non-additivated transmission mineral oil T90. The best surface after testing was obtained for the soybean oil, followed by T90 oil and the degummed grades of the soybean oil and rapeseed oil (these three giving very close values for the functional parameters), but the refined rapeseed oil generated the poorest quality of the wear scars on the balls, under the same testing conditions.

  10. Increasing risk of cataract in HCV patients receiving anti-HCV therapy: A nationwide cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yi; Lin, Cheng-Li; Ju, Shu-Woei; Wang, I-Kuan; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Lin, Chih-Hsueh; Hsu, Wu-Huei

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with increased systemic oxidative stress, which leads to cardiovascular events, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. Similarly, cataract is also associated with increased oxidative stress. The association between HCV infection and increased risk of cataract remains unclear. Methods A total of 11,652 HCV-infected patients and 46,608 age- and sex-matched non-HCV infected patients were identified during 2003–2011. All patient data were tracked until a diagnosis of cataract, death, or the end of 2011. Cumulative incidences and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated. Results The mean follow-up durations were 5.29 and 5.86 years for the HCV and non-HCV cohorts, respectively. The overall incidence density rate for cataract was 1.36 times higher in the HCV cohort than in the non-HCV cohort (1.86 and 1.37 per 100 person-y, respectively). After adjusting for age, sex, comorbidities of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, and anxiety, patients with HCV infection had an increased risk of cataract compared with those without HCV infection [adjusted HR = 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14–1.32]. HCV-infected patients receiving interferon–ribavirin therapy had a 1.83 times higher (95% CI = 1.40–2.38) risk of cataract than non-HCV infected patients did. Conclusion HCV infection, even without the complication of cirrhosis, is associated with an increased risk of cataract, and this risk is higher in HCV-infected patients undergoing interferon–ribavirin therapy. PMID:28264004

  11. Molecular Signature in HCV-Positive Lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valli De Re

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a positive, single-stranded RNA virus, which has been associated to different subtypes of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL. Cumulative evidence suggests an HCV-related antigen driven process in the B-NHL development. The underlying molecular signature associated to HCV-related B-NHL has to date remained obscure. In this review, we discuss the recent developments in this field with a special mention to different sets of genes whose expression is associated with BCR coupled to Blys signaling which in turn was found to be linked to B-cell maturation stages and NF-κb transcription factor. Even if recent progress on HCV-B-NHL signature has been made, the precise relationship between HCV and lymphoma development and phenotype signature remain to be clarified.

  12. Molecular signature in HCV-positive lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Re, Valli; Caggiari, Laura; Garziera, Marica; De Zorzi, Mariangela; Repetto, Ombretta

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive, single-stranded RNA virus, which has been associated to different subtypes of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). Cumulative evidence suggests an HCV-related antigen driven process in the B-NHL development. The underlying molecular signature associated to HCV-related B-NHL has to date remained obscure. In this review, we discuss the recent developments in this field with a special mention to different sets of genes whose expression is associated with BCR coupled to Blys signaling which in turn was found to be linked to B-cell maturation stages and NF-κb transcription factor. Even if recent progress on HCV-B-NHL signature has been made, the precise relationship between HCV and lymphoma development and phenotype signature remain to be clarified.

  13. Performance of the new automated Abbott RealTime MTB assay for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J H K; She, K K K; Kwong, T-C; Wong, O-Y; Siu, G K H; Leung, C-C; Chang, K-C; Tam, C-M; Ho, P-L; Cheng, V C C; Yuen, K-Y; Yam, W-C

    2015-09-01

    The automated high-throughput Abbott RealTime MTB real-time PCR assay has been recently launched for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) clinical diagnosis. This study would like to evaluate its performance. We first compared its diagnostic performance with the Roche Cobas TaqMan MTB assay on 214 clinical respiratory specimens. Prospective analysis of a total 520 specimens was then performed to further evaluate the Abbott assay. The Abbott assay showed a lower limit of detection at 22.5 AFB/ml, which was more sensitive than the Cobas assay (167.5 AFB/ml). The two assays demonstrated a significant difference in diagnostic performance (McNemar's test; P = 0.0034), in which the Abbott assay presented significantly higher area under curve (AUC) than the Cobas assay (1.000 vs 0.880; P = 0.0002). The Abbott assay demonstrated extremely low PCR inhibition on clinical respiratory specimens. The automated Abbott assay required only very short manual handling time (0.5 h), which could help to improve the laboratory management. In the prospective analysis, the overall estimates for sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott assay were both 100 % among smear-positive specimens, whereas the smear-negative specimens were 96.7 and 96.1 %, respectively. No cross-reactivity with non-tuberculosis mycobacterial species was observed. The superiority in sensitivity of the Abbott assay for detecting MTBC in smear-negative specimens could further minimize the risk in MTBC false-negative detection. The new Abbott RealTime MTB assay has good diagnostic performance which can be a useful diagnostic tool for rapid MTBC detection in clinical laboratories.

  14. Prism. Volume 1, Number 1, December 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Susan B. Epstein , U.S. Embassy in Iraq (Washington, DC: CRS, October 24, 2006), figure 1. 18 The “clear-hold-build” approach to counterinsurgency is...staff of other agencies, such as the Coast Guard, Central Intelligence Agency, and National Security Agency. See Edward F. Bruner, “Military Forces...Reconstruction Roles, ed. Joseph Cerami and Jay Boggs (Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, 2007). 102 | leSSoNS leaRNed PRISM 1, no. 1 10

  15. Evaluations of 1990 PRISM design revisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C.; Chan, B.C.; Aronson, A.L.; Kennett, R.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1992-03-01

    Analyses of the 1990 version of the PRISM Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) design are presented and discussed. Most of the calculations were performed using BNL computer codes, particularly SSC and MINET. In many cases, independent BNL calculations were compared against analyses presented by General Electric when they submitted the PRISM design revisions for evaluation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The current PRISM design utilizes the metallic fuel developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) which facilitates the passive/``inherent`` shutdown mechanism that acts to shut down reactor power production whenever the system overheats. There are a few vulnerabilities in the passive shutdown, with the most worrisome being the positive feedback from sodium density decreases or sodium voiding. Various postulated unscrammed events were examined by GE and/or BNL, and much of the analysis discussed in this report is focused on this category of events. For the most part, the BNL evaluations confirm the information submitted by General Electric. The principal areas of concern are related to the performance of the ternary metal fuel, and may be resolved as ANL continues with its fuel development and testing program.

  16. Prisms to Shift Pain Away: Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Exploration of CRPS with Prism Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS is an invalidating chronic condition subsequent to peripheral lesions. There is growing consensus for a central contribution to CRPS. However, the nature of this central body representation disorder is increasingly debated. Although it has been repeatedly argued that CRPS results in motor neglect of the affected side, visual egocentric reference frame was found to be deviated toward the pain, that is, neglect of the healthy side. Accordingly, prism adaptation has been successfully used to normalize this deviation. This study aimed at clarifying whether 7 CRPS patients exhibited neglect as well as exploring the pathophysiological mechanisms of this manifestation and of the therapeutic effects of prism adaptation. Pain and quality of life, egocentric reference frames (visual and proprioceptive straight-ahead, and neglect tests (line bisection, kinematic analyses of motor neglect and motor extinction were repeatedly assessed prior to, during, and following a one-week intense prism adaptation intervention. First, our results provide no support for visual and motor neglect in CRPS. Second, reference frames for body representations were not systematically deviated. Third, intensive prism adaptation intervention durably ameliorated pain and quality of life. As for spatial neglect, understanding the therapeutic effects of prism adaptation deserves further investigations.

  17. Prisms to Shift Pain Away: Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Exploration of CRPS with Prism Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volckmann, Pierre; Jacquin-Courtois, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is an invalidating chronic condition subsequent to peripheral lesions. There is growing consensus for a central contribution to CRPS. However, the nature of this central body representation disorder is increasingly debated. Although it has been repeatedly argued that CRPS results in motor neglect of the affected side, visual egocentric reference frame was found to be deviated toward the pain, that is, neglect of the healthy side. Accordingly, prism adaptation has been successfully used to normalize this deviation. This study aimed at clarifying whether 7 CRPS patients exhibited neglect as well as exploring the pathophysiological mechanisms of this manifestation and of the therapeutic effects of prism adaptation. Pain and quality of life, egocentric reference frames (visual and proprioceptive straight-ahead), and neglect tests (line bisection, kinematic analyses of motor neglect and motor extinction) were repeatedly assessed prior to, during, and following a one-week intense prism adaptation intervention. First, our results provide no support for visual and motor neglect in CRPS. Second, reference frames for body representations were not systematically deviated. Third, intensive prism adaptation intervention durably ameliorated pain and quality of life. As for spatial neglect, understanding the therapeutic effects of prism adaptation deserves further investigations. PMID:27668094

  18. No evidence of occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in serum of HCV antibody-positive HCV RNA-negative kidney-transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicot, Florence; Kamar, Nassim; Mariamé, Bernard; Rostaing, Lionel; Pasquier, Christophe; Izopet, Jacques

    2010-06-01

    Persistence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients who cleared HCV is still debated. Occult HCV infection is described as the presence of detectable HCV RNA in liver or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with undetectable plasma HCV-RNA by conventional PCR assays. We have assessed the persistence of HCV in 26 kidney-transplant patients, followed up for 10.5 years (range 2-16), after HCV elimination while on hemodialysis. If HCV really did persist, arising out of the loss of immune control caused by institution of the regimen of immunosuppressive drugs after kidney transplantation, HCV reactivation would have taken place. Their immunosuppression relied on calcineurin inhibitors (100%), and/or steroids (62%), and/or antimetabolites (94%). An induction therapy, given to 22 patients, relied on rabbit antithymocyte globulin (59%) or anti-IL2-receptor blockers (32%). All patients had undetectable HCV RNA as ascertained by several conventional tests. At the last follow-up, no residual HCV RNA was detected in the five liver biopsies, the 26 plasma, and in the 37 nonstimulated and 24 stimulated PBMCs tested with an ultrasensitive RT-PCR assay (detection limit, 2 IU/ml). No biochemical or virologic relapse was seen during follow-up. The absence of HCV relapse in formerly HCV-infected immunocompromised patients suggests the complete eradication of HCV after its elimination while on dialysis.

  19. No requirement of HCV 5'NCR for HCV-like particles assembly in insect cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhao; Guo-Yang Liao; Yah-Jun Jiang; Shu-De Jiang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To express all three HCV structural proteins in the presence or absence of HCV 5'NCR to investigate the requirement of 5'NCR for the assembly of HCV-like particles in insect cells.METHODS: HCV structural protein encoding sequences CE1E2 and 5'NCR-CE1E2 were amplified with PCR.Recombinant baculovirus were constructed with recombinant DNA techniques. HCV structural proteins expressed in insect cells were analyzed by immunofluorescence and SDS-PAGE.Immunoprecipitation experiment of insect cell lysates with anti-E2 monodonal antibody (Mab) was carried out and the immunoprecipitated proteins were subjected to SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting with anti-C, anti-E2 Mabs and HCV positive serum. The virus-like particles in insect cells were visualized by electron microscopy (EM). The HCV-like particles were purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation and identified by EM and immune aggregation EM.RESULTS: The recombinant baculovirus reBV/CE1E2containing HCV C, E1, E2 genes and reBV/CS containing the same structural protein genes plus 5'NCR were constructed. The insect cells infected with either reBV/CE1E2or reBV/CS expressed HCV C, E1 and E2 proteins with a molecular weight of 20 kD, 35 kD and 66 kD respectively.The results of immunoprecipitation and the immunoblotting revealed the coimmunoprecipitation of C, E1, and E2proteins, indicating the interaction of HCV structural proteins expressed in insect cells. Electron microscopy of insect cells infected with reBV/CE1E2 or reBV/CS demonstrated spherical particles (40 to 60 nm in diameter)similar to the HCV virions from sera or hepatic tissues of HCV infected humans. The HCV-like particles were partially purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation, and the purified VLPs showed immuno-reactivity with anti-HCV antibodies.CONCLUSION: HCV 5'NCR is not required for the assembly of HCV-like particles in insect cells, HCV core and envelope proteins are sufficient for viral particle formation.

  20. Impact of the New Abbott mPLUS Feature on Clinical Laboratory Efficiencies of Abbott RealTime Assays for Detection of HIV-1, Hepatitis C Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    OpenAIRE

    Lucic, Danijela; Jones, Sara; Wiesneth, Russ; Barry, Cathy; Webb, Erika; Belova, Larissa; Dolan, Peggy; Ho, Shiaolan; Abravaya, Klara; Cloherty, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostic laboratories are under increasing pressure to improve and expand their services. Greater flexibility in sample processing is a critical factor that can improve the time to results while reducing reagent waste, making laboratories more efficient and cost-effective. The introduction of the Abbott mPLUS feature, with the capacity for extended use of amplification reagents, significantly increases the flexibility of the m2000 platform and enables laboratories to customize their workflo...

  1. Minimal residual HIV viremia: verification of the Abbott Real-Time HIV-1 assay sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Amendola

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the HIV-1 infection, the increase in number of CD4 T lymphocytes and the viral load decline are the main indicators of the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy. On average, 85% of patients receiving effective treatment has a persistent suppression of plasma viral load below the detection limit (<50 copies/mL of clinically used viral load assays, regardless of treatment regimen in use. It is known, however, that, even when viremia is reduced below the sensitivity limit of current diagnostic assays, the virus persists in “reservoirs” and traces of free virions can be detected in plasma.There is a considerable interest to investigate the clinical significance of residual viremia. Advances in molecular diagnostics allows nowadays to couple a wide dynamic range to a high sensitivity.The Abbott Real-time HIV-1 test is linear from 40 to 107 copies/mL and provides, below 40 copies/mL, additional information such as “<40cp/mL, target detected” or “target not detected”. The HIV-1 detection is verified by the max-Ratio algorithm software.We assessed the test sensitivity when the qualitative response is considered as well. Methods: A ‘probit’ analysis was performed using dilutions of the HIV-1 RNA Working Reagent 1 for NAT assays (NIBSC code: 99/634, defined in IU/mL and different from that used by the manufacturer (VQA,Virology Quality Assurance Laboratory of the AIDS Clinical Trial Group for standardization and definition of performances.The sample input volume (0.6 mL was the same used in clinical routine. A total of 196 replicates at concentrations decreasing from 120 to 5 copies/mL, in three different sessions, have been tested.The ‘probit’ analysis (binomial dose-response model, 95% “hit-rate” has been carried out on the SAS 9.1.3 software package. Results: The sensitivity of the “<40cp/mL, target detected” response was equal to 28,76 copies/mL, with 95% confidence limits between 22,19 and 52,27 copies

  2. [Tailor-made strategy in HCV treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tsunamasa; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2012-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global health problem and a leading cause of end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Treatment of HCV infection with pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin can eradicate chronic HCV infection in approximately 50% of patients infected with high viremia of HCV genotype 1, and spontaneous viral clearance was observed in approximately 30% of individuals with acute infection. These findings were strongly expected to reflect variations of the host genome. Significant breakthrough by the genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach led to the discovery of genetic polymorphisms playing a major role in the evolution of infection, as well as on treatment response and adverse effects. Herein, we present current evidence with regard to the relationship between host variations and clinical outcome of hepatitis C, and focus on the potential clinical implications with respect to tailor-made therapy for chronic hepatitis C.

  3. Optimized design of parallel beam-splitting prism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peitao Zhao(赵培涛); Guohua Li(李国华)

    2004-01-01

    A large lateral shearing distance of parallel beam-splitting prism is often needed in laser modulation and polarization interference. In this letter, we present an optimized design of parallel beam-splitting prism and list some different cases in detail. The optimized design widens the use range of parallel beam-splitting prism. At the wavelength of 632.8 nm, the law that the enlargement ratio changes with the refractive index and the apex angle is verified.

  4. HCV-cAg、HCV-RNA及HCV-Ab联合检测降低丙型肝炎的误诊率%Joint detection of HCV-cAg,HCV-RNA and HCV-Ab in decreasing misdiagnosis rate of hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严海燕; 欧阳颖; 刘晓强; 任燕飞; 罗晓红

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨丙型肝炎病毒总核心抗原、丙型肝炎RNA及抗丙型肝炎病毒抗体联合检测在丙型肝炎诊断中的应用价值.方法:对62例丙型肝炎患者阳性和64例HCV-RNA阴性的健康对照组血液标本同时采用RT-PCR定量检测HCV-RNA,时间分辨免疫荧光分析法检测HCV-Ab,和ELISA法检测HCV-cAg.结果:HCV-cAg检测方法敏感性为32.25%,特异性为100%,HCV-Ab检测方法的敏感性是92.0%,特异性是68.8%,联合检测的敏感性是96.8%,特异性是68.8%.结论:联合运用HCV-Ab和HCV-cAg或HCV-Ab和HCV-RNA,能有效降低单独使用HCV-Ab检测的误诊率.%Objective :To explore the diagnostic value of HCV RNA, the core antigen of HCV, HCV antibody in serum of patients with hepatitis C. Methods: Serum from 62 HCV RNA positive and 64 HCV RNA negative outpatients and inpatients were collected to detect the HCV antibody, HCV - RNA and HCV - cAg by time - resolved im-muno - fluorometric assay, RT - PCR and ELISA respectively. Results-. The sensitivity and specificity of HCV -cAg detection were 32. 25% and 100% respectively, while those of HCV - Ab detection were 92. 0% and 68. 8% respectively, those of joint detection were 96. 8% and 68. 8% respectively. Conclusion: Combination of anti HCV with HCV -cAg, or anti HCV with HCV RNA could effectively reduce the miss diagnosis rate, as compared with detecting anti HCV alone. All these suggested that HCV - cAg detection can indicate HCV replication, and can be used as supplementary indicators in routine testing.

  5. NS3 Resistance-Associated Variants (RAVs) in Patients Infected with HCV Genotype 1a in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Sousa, María Ángeles; Gutiérrez-Rivas, Mónica; Álvaro-Meca, Alejandro; García-Álvarez, Mónica; Harrigan, P. Richard; Fedele, Cesare Giovanni; Briz, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Background Resistance-associated variants have been related to treatment failure of hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy with direct-acting antiviral drugs. The aim of our study was to analyze the prevalence of clinically relevant resistance-associated variants within NS3 in patients infected with HCV genotype 1a (GT1a) in Spain. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study on 2568 patients from 115 hospitals throughout Spain (2014–2015). The viral NS3 protease gene was amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction and sequenced by Sanger sequencing using an ABI PRISM 377 DNA sequencer. Additionally, clade information for genotype 1a was obtained by using the software geno2pheno (http://hcv.geno2pheno.org/). Results In total, 875 out of 2568 samples were from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-coinfected patients. Q80K was the main RAV found in our patients (11.1%) and the rest of the resistance-associated variants had a lower frequency, including S122G (6.23%), T54S (3.47%), V55A (2.61%), and V55I (2.15%), which were among the most frequent after Q80K. Overall, 286 samples had the Q80K polymorphism (11.1%) and 614 (23.9%) were GT1a clade I. HIV/HCV-coinfected patients had a higher frequency of Q80K and GT1a clade I than HCV-monoinfected patients (12.9% vs. 9.6% [p = 0.012] and 28.5% vs. 21.4% [p<0.001], respectively). Both the prevalence of Q80K and GT1a clade I were not uniform throughout the country (p<0.001), which ranged from 7.3%-22.2% and 15.7%-42.5%, respectively. The frequency of the Q80K polymorphism was far higher in patients infected with GT1a clade I than in patients infected with GT1a clade II (41.5% vs. 1.6%; p<0.001). Conclusions The prevalence of most resistance-associated variants in NS3 was low in patients infected with HCV GT1a in Spain, except for Q80K (11.1%), which was also notably higher in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. The vast majority of Q80K polymorphisms were detected in GT1a clade I. PMID:27685471

  6. Lysosomotropic agents as HCV entry inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaz Zafar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HCV has two envelop proteins named as E1 and E2 which play an important role in cell entry through two main pathways: direct fusion at the plasma membrane and receptor-mediated endocytosis. Fusion of the HCV envelope proteins is triggered by low pH within the endosome. Lysosomotropic agents (LA such as Chloroquine and Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl are the weak bases and penetrate in lysosome as protonated form and increase the intracellular pH. To investigate the antiviral effect of LA (Chloroquine and NH4Cl on pH dependent endocytosis, HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp of 1a and 3a genotype were produced and used to infect liver cells. The toxicological effects of Chloroquine and NH4Cl were tested in liver cells through MTT cell proliferation assay. For antiviral screening of Chloroquine and NH4Cl, liver cells were infected with HCVpp of 3a and 1a genotype in the presence or absence of different concentrations of Chloroquine and NH4Cl and there luciferase activity was determined by using a luminometer. The results demonstrated that Chloroquine and NH4Cl showed more than 50% reduction of virus infectivity at 50 μM and 10 mM concentrations respectively. These results suggest that inhibition of HCV at fusion step by increasing the lysosomal pH will be better option to treat chronic HCV.

  7. 抗-HCV与HCV-RNA检测结果不一致原因分析%Analysis of Reason That is Anti-HCV Accord with HCV-RNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文汉成; 安社刚; 张红芳

    2004-01-01

    目的:探讨抗-HCV和HCV-RNA结果不一致的原因.方法:应用ELISA法和FQ-PCR法同步检测380例患者血清中抗-HCV和HCV-RNA.结果:在280例抗-HCV阳性中有106例HCV-RNA为阴性,有3例抗-HCV阴性患者HCV-RNA却为阳性.结论:同步检测抗-HCV和HCV-RNA可提高肝病患者HCV感染的检出率,为其诊断和治疗提供指导.

  8. Academia Nacional de Médicina-Abbott 2008. Rotavirus, efectos adversos evitables y otras investigaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Jácome Roca

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    La Academia Nacional de Medicina con la colaboración de Laboratorios Abbott otorgó en noviembre de
    2008 la segunda versión del Premio a las Ciencias Médicas, uno en las áreas de Ciencias Médicas y
    experimentales y otro en el área de Ciencias Clínicas.
     
    Presentamos aqui algunas notas sobre los trabajos ganadores y los que obtuvieron menciones honoríficas. 

    El Premio en el área de las Ciencias Básicas lo obtuvieron profesores de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia en Bogotá, pertenecientes al Laboratorio de Biología Molecular de Virus de la Facultad de Medicina y al Departamento de Química de la Facultad de Ciencias. Se trata de los investigadores Carlos Arturo Guerrero Fonseca, Martha Calderón, Orlando Acosta y Fanny Guzmán.

    El trabajo se titula "Interferencia de la infección por rotavirus mediante la inhibición de la actividad de
    la proteína disulfuro isomerasa (PDI de la membrana celular de las líneas MA 104 y Caen-2".

  9. Electric Field Enhancement of Nano Gap of Silver Prisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KENZO Yamaguchi; TOMOHIRO Inoue; MASAMITSU Fujii; MASANOBU Haraguchi; TOSHIHIRO Okamoto; MASUO Fukui; SHU Seki; SEIICHI Tagawa

    2007-01-01

    Using numerical calculation, we examine the effects of gap distance of a pair of nano gap silver prisms with rounded corners on the local light intensity enhancement. Two peaks due to localized surface plasmon (LSP) excitation are observed in a wavelength range from 900nm to 300nm. The results demonstrate that peaks at a longer and a shorter wavelength corresponded to dipole-like and quadrupole-like LSP resonances, respectively. It is found that a gap distance up to 20nm provides larger light intensity enhancement than that of a single silver nano prism with rounded corners. Furthermore, nano gap silver prisms are fabricated by direct focused ion beam processing, and we measure the scattering light spectrum of a pair of nano prisms by a confocal optical system.However, the two LSP peaks are not observed in visible range because the sizes of the nano gap and prisms are too large.

  10. New Insights in Recurrent HCV Infection after Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hsien Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a small-enveloped RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. Since first identified in 1989, HCV has been estimated to infect 170 million people worldwide. Mostly chronic hepatitis C virus has a uniform natural history, from liver cirrhosis to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The current therapy for HCV infection consists of a combination of Pegylated interferon and ribavirin. On the other hand, HCV-related liver disease is also the leading indication for liver transplantation. However, posttransplant HCV re-infection of the graft has been reported to be universal. Furthermore, the graft after HCV re-infection often results in accelerated progression to liver failure. In addition, treatment of recurrent HCV infection after liver transplantation is often compromised by enhanced adverse effects and limited efficacy of interferon-based therapies. Taken together, poor outcome after HCV re-infection, regardless of grafts or recipients, poses a major issue for the hepatologists and transplant surgeons. The aim of this paper is to review several specific aspects regarding HCV re-infection after transplant: risk factors, current therapeutics for HCV in different stages of liver transplantation, cellular function of HCV proteins, and molecular mechanisms of HCV entry. Hopefully, this paper will inspire new strategies and novel inhibitors against recurrent HCV infection after liver transplantation and greatly improve its overall outcome.

  11. Extrahepatic manifestations and insulin resistance in an HCV hyperendemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Yumiko; Kawaguchi, Takumi; Tanaka, Kazuo; Kumashiro, Ryukichi; Sata, Michio

    2005-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes extrahepatic manifestations as well as liver diseases, and contributes to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship of extrahepatic manifestations and insulin resistance in an HCV hyperendemic area. We investigated the incidence of extrahepatic manifestations among 139 inhabitants living in an HCV hyperendemic area in 2002 and compared it to 1999 data for the same inhabitants. Insulin resistance was tested for some non-HCV or HCV-infected inhabitants we had identified during mass screenings in 1999 and 2002. For some of the inhabitants in 2002, we examined records on the prevalence of insulin resistance seven years earlier. The prevalence of extrahepatic manifestations among individuals with positivity for anti-HCV antibodies was higher than among those without HCV in both 1999 and 2002. The prevalence of each extrahepatic manifestation which we identified in 2002 was higher than in 1999. Moreover, in some non-HCV or HCV-infected inhabitants, insulin resistance in 2002 was significantly higher than in 1999. Among inhabitants who had HCV infection with extrahepatic manifestations, fasting insulin levels or HOMA-IR findings seven years prior was significantly higher than for inhabitants who had neither HCV infection nor extrahepatic manifestations (p = 0.03, p = 0.01, respectively). Insulin resistance induces HCV infection, which causes an increase in the incidence of extrahepatic manifestations in HCV-infected individuals.

  12. Evaluation of Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in cervical swabs from female sex workers in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To evaluate the performance of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG among female sex workers (FSWs in China. METHODS: Cervical swabs from 997 participants were blindly detected by the Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay on the automated m2000 molecular platform and Roche Cobas Amplicor CT/NG assay. Discrepant analysis were confirmed by the Qiagen care CT PCR assay. The sample was defined as candidate nvCT-positive if it was CT positive in the Abbott m2000 assay, but CT negative in the other two assays. RESULTS: 25 specimens that were discordant for CT and 26 specimens that were discordant for NG between the two assays were resolved by Qiagen care CT & NG PCR assays. The sensitivity and specificity, respectively, for Abbott m2000 assay were 92.59% and 100% for CT and 95.45% and 99.90% for NG. The positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of Abbott m2000 assay were100% and 98.52% for CT and 95.5% and 99.90% for NG, respectively. No candidate new-variant CT(nvCTspecimens were identified. CONCLUSION: Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay were more specify for CT and NG detection, however, its sensitivity for CT and NG were a little bit lower than Roche Cobas Amplicor CT/NG assay. Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay had higher PPV for NG detection than Roche Cobas Amplicor CT/NG assay; it would be more suitable for screening for population with low-prevalence NG. There is currently no evidence that nvCT is present in FSWs in China.

  13. Immunological HCV-Associated Thrombocytopenia: Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Dimitroulis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Hepatitis C virus (HCV is affecting about 3% of the world's population, leading to liver damage, end-stage liver disease, and development of hepatocellular carcinoma, being thus the first indication for liver transplantation in the USA. Apart from the cirrhotic-liver-derived clinical signs and symptoms several conditions with immunological origin can also arise, such as, glomerulonephritis, pulmonary fibrosis, and thrombocytopenia. HCV-related autoimmune thrombocytopenia shows specific pathogenetic characteristics as well as symptoms and signs that differ in severity and frequency from symptoms in patients that are not HCV infected. Aim of this short paper is to estimate the epidemiological characteristics of the disease, to investigate the pathogenesis and clinical manifestation, and to propose treatment strategies according to the pertinent literature.

  14. Sex hormones and HCV: an unresolved mystery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekky, Radwa Y; Abdelaziz, Ahmed I

    2013-01-01

    The biological differences between males and females advocate the ultimate need for gender-specific medicine. The variation in response to viral infection as well as therapy among different genders makes it very intriguing to reveal the responsible factors for causing this discrepancy. HCV is one of the most noxious infectious diseases, however the impact of gender on the response to HCV has received negligible attention in the literature. The controversial studies concerning the effect of gender on the outcome of interferon-based therapy urge a need to judge the gender discrepancy in host factors responsible for both interferon release and action. The main aim of this review is to disentangle the interplay between sex hormones and several viral and host factors responsible for viral clearance in an attempt to clarify the role of gender in modulating the response to HCV as well as interferon-based therapy.

  15. Prevalence of mixed hepatitis C virus (HCV genotypes among recently diagnosed dialysis patients with HCV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A Al Balwi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is considered a major health problem recognized globally. HCV is a major cause of chronic liver disease that may lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of multiple (mixed HCV genotypes in Saudi patients recently diagnosed with HCV infection and their association with various clinical risk factors. We examined a total of 1,292 newly diagnosed HCV-positive cases between January 2006 and July 2009 at the Molecular Pathology Laboratory, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh. The clinical and laboratory data of the study patients were collected. The HCV-RNA viral load and its genotyping were carried out with RT-PCR technology to assist in the follow-up and management of HCV-infected patients undergoing antiviral therapy. Twenty-two patients (1.7% were found to have mixed HCV genotypes; of them, mixed genotypes associated with genotype-4 were seen in 19 patients (86%, mixed genotypes associated with genotype-1 were found in 68.4%, with genotype-3 in 26.3% and with genotype-2 in 5.3%. Additionally, mixed genotypes associated with genotype-1 were seen in three cases (13.6%; they were associated with genotype-2 in two (66.7% and with genotype-5 in one patient (33.3%. In conclusion, the prevalence rate of mixed HCV genotypes in the cohort of the newly infected Saudi patients was 1.7%, with genotype-4 being the most frequent genotype encountered.

  16. HCV/HIV共感染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施光峰

    2004-01-01

    由于共同的传播途径 ,HCV感染在HIV感染者中比较常见。这些人在开始有效抗逆转录病毒治疗(HARRT)后可能经历与HCV相关的逐渐升高的发病率和病死率。HIV感染对丙型肝炎的发展有不利影响 ,引起感染后增强的病毒抵抗和高水平的病毒血症 ,加速HCV相关肝病的发展。同样 ,丙型肝炎也可以影响HIV感染的病程和处理。美国有 15万到 30万人同时感染了HIV和HCV ,占所有HIV感染者的 15 %~ 30 %和所有HCV感染者的 5 %~ 10 %。过去认为 ,HCV感染是HIV感染者中的一个相对次要的医学问题 ,HAART的应用使大多数机会性疾病的发生率大大降低 ,丙型肝炎随之日益成为这些患者致病和死亡的一个重要原因。一、流行病学全球HCV的感染率约为 3% ,即 1.7亿人左右 ,我国HCV的感染率约为 2 .2 % ,美国的HCV感染率估计在 1.8%左右 ,即相当于 390万人。在这些人中 ,大约 2 70万为慢性HCV感染 ,其中有 30万人同时感染HIV ,这一数字占所有HIV感染者的近 30 %和所有HCV感染者的 10 %。HIV和HCV有共同的传播途径 ,即静脉传播、性接触传播和垂直传播。这...

  17. Active stereo vision routines using PRISM-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonisse, Hendrick J.

    1992-11-01

    This paper describes work in progress on a set of visual routines and supporting capabilities implemented on the PRISM-3 real-time vision system. The routines are used in an outdoor robot retrieval task. The task requires the robot to locate a donor agent -- a Hero2000 -- which holds the object to be retrieved, to navigate to the donor, to accept the object from the donor, and return to its original location. The routines described here will form an integral part of the navigation and wide-area search tasks. Active perception is exploited to locate the donor using real-time stereo ranging directed by a pan/tilt/verge mechanism. A framework for orchestrating visual search has been implemented and is briefly described.

  18. Prisms and neglect: what have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newport, Roger; Schenk, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Since Rossetti et al. (1998) reported that prism adaptation (PA) can lead to a substantial reduction of neglect symptoms PA has become a hot topic in neglect-research. More than 280 articles have been published in this area. Not all of those studies investigated the therapeutic potential of this technique, many studies examined the responsiveness to PA as a way to subdivide neglect into separate subsyndromes, other studies focussed on the process of PA itself in an effort to illuminate its underlying neurobiological mechanisms. In this article we will review research in all of these three areas to determine whether and to what extent research on PA in neglect patients has fulfilled its promise as a new way to improve the treatment of neglect, enhance our understanding of this complex syndrome and provide new insights into the neurobiology of sensorimotor learning.

  19. HCV-Related Nervous System Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Monaco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV is associated with a wide spectrum of extrahepatic manifestations, affecting different organ systems. Neurological complications occur in a large number of patients and range from peripheral neuropathy to cognitive impairment. Pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for nervous system dysfunction are mainly related to the upregulation of the host immune response with production of autoantibodies, immune complexes, and cryoglobulins. Alternative mechanisms include possible extrahepatic replication of HCV in neural tissues and the effects of circulating inflammatory cytokines and chemokines.

  20. Role of apoptotic hepatocytes in HCV dissemination: regulation by acetaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Murali; Natarajan, Sathish Kumar; Zhang, Jinjin; Mott, Justin L; Poluektova, Larisa I; McVicker, Benita L; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Tuma, Dean J; Osna, Natalia A

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol consumption exacerbates hepatitis C virus (HCV) pathogenesis and promotes disease progression, although the mechanisms are not quite clear. We have previously observed that acetaldehyde (Ach) continuously produced by the acetaldehyde-generating system (AGS), temporarily enhanced HCV RNA levels, followed by a decrease to normal or lower levels, which corresponded to apoptosis induction. Here, we studied whether Ach-induced apoptosis caused depletion of HCV-infected cells and what role apoptotic bodies (AB) play in HCV-alcohol crosstalk. In liver cells exposed to AGS, we observed the induction of miR-122 and miR-34a. As miR-34a has been associated with apoptotic signaling and miR-122 with HCV replication, these findings may suggest that cells with intensive viral replication undergo apoptosis. Furthermore, when AGS-induced apoptosis was blocked by a pan-caspase inhibitor, the expression of HCV RNA was not changed. AB from HCV-infected cells contained HCV core protein and the assembled HCV particle that infect intact hepatocytes, thereby promoting the spread of infection. In addition, AB are captured by macrophages to switch their cytokine profile to the proinflammatory one. Macrophages exposed to HCV(+) AB expressed more IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, and IL-10 mRNAs compared with those exposed to HCV(-) AB. The generation of AB from AGS-treated HCV-infected cells even enhanced the induction of aforementioned cytokines. We conclude that HCV and alcohol metabolites trigger the formation of AB containing HCV particles. The consequent spread of HCV to neighboring hepatocytes via infected AB, as well as the induction of liver inflammation by AB-mediated macrophage activation potentially exacerbate the HCV infection course by alcohol and worsen disease progression.

  1. Packaging of HCV-RNA into lentiviral vector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caval, Vincent [INSERM U966, Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, Faculte de Medecine, 10 Bd. Tonnelle, 37000 Tours (France); Piver, Eric [INSERM U966, Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, Faculte de Medecine, 10 Bd. Tonnelle, 37000 Tours (France); Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, CHRU de Tours (France); Ivanyi-Nagy, Roland; Darlix, Jean-Luc [LaboRetro, ENS-Lyon INSERM, U758, 46 Allee d' Italie, 69364 Lyon (France); Pages, Jean-Christophe, E-mail: jean-christophe.pages@univ-tours.fr [INSERM U966, Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, Faculte de Medecine, 10 Bd. Tonnelle, 37000 Tours (France); Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, CHRU de Tours (France)

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Description of HCV-RNA Core-D1 interactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In vivo evaluation of the packaging of HCV genome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determination of the role of the three basic sub-domains of D1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heterologous system involving HIV-1 vector particles to mobilise HCV genome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Full length mobilisation of HCV genome and HCV-receptor-independent entry. -- Abstract: The advent of infectious molecular clones of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has unlocked the understanding of HCV life cycle. However, packaging of the genomic RNA, which is crucial to generate infectious viral particles, remains poorly understood. Molecular interactions of the domain 1 (D1) of HCV Core protein and HCV RNA have been described in vitro. Since compaction of genetic information within HCV genome has hampered conventional mutational approach to study packaging in vivo, we developed a novel heterologous system to evaluate the interactions between HCV RNA and Core D1. For this, we took advantage of the recruitment of Vpr fusion-proteins into HIV-1 particles. By fusing HCV Core D1 to Vpr we were able to package and transfer a HCV subgenomic replicon into a HIV-1 based lentiviral vector. We next examined how deletion mutants of basic sub-domains of Core D1 influenced HCV RNA recruitment. The results emphasized the crucial role of the first and third basic regions of D1 in packaging. Interestingly, the system described here allowed us to mobilise full-length JFH1 genome in CD81 defective cells, which are normally refractory to HCV infection. This finding paves the way to an evaluation of the replication capability of HCV in various cell types.

  2. High rate of hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence in HIV-infected individuals with spontaneous HCV RNA clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, L; Mocroft, A; Soriano, V;

    2014-01-01

    clearance in the EuroSIDA cohort. METHODS: All HIV-infected patients with documented prior spontaneous HCV clearance, and at least one subsequently collected plasma sample, were examined. The last sample was tested for HCV RNA and those with HCV RNA ≥ 615 IU/mL were defined as having HCV recurrence...... less likely to have HCV RNA recurrence, whereas IDUs were over 6 times more likely to have HCV RNA recurrence compared with non-IDUs (OR 6.58; 95% CI 1.48-29.28; P = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: Around 1 in 5 HIV-infected patients with prior spontaneous HCV RNA clearance had detectable HCV RNA during follow...

  3. 抗-HCV和HCV-RNA检测及其与ALT的相关性分析%Quantitative analysis of serum anti-HCV, HCV-RNA and ALT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾珉; 邵芳

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨化学免疫发光法(CLIA)定量检测抗-HCV和FQ-PCR法检测HCV-RNA含量与丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)水平的相关性.方法 用CLIA定量筛选抗-HCV阳性的100例病人标本,以荧光定量PCR法检测HCV-RNA含量和酶速率法检测ALT浓度水平,并对所得数据进行统计分析.结果 在100份抗-HCV阳性标本中,检出HCV-RNA阳性者76例,阳性率为76%.随着抗-HCV的S/CO值增高,HCV-RNA检出率增高较明显;ALT水平与HCV-RNA含量无显著相关性(P>0.05),但ALT异常率与HCV-RNA含量呈正相关.结论 在HCV诊断与疗效观察中,血清抗HCV、HCV-RNA和ALT指标各有利弊,3者有机结合能正确诊断和预测肝脏损伤及评价疗效.%Objective To analyze the correlation among the quantitative detection of serum anti-HCV by chemiluminescene immunoassay(CLIA), the content of HCV-RNA and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Methods The sera from 100 patients with CLIA positive results were used in this study. The level of serum HCV-RNA and ALT was detected by real-lime fluorescent quantitative assay (FQ-PCR) and enzyme-rate method, respectively. The data were analyzed by statistical method. Results 76 patients were found HCV-RNA positive, with a positive rate of 76%. The HCV-RNA positive rate was positively correlated with the anti-HCV S/CO result. There was no correlation between the level of ALT and the content of HCV-RNA (P>0.05), but the content of HCV-RNA was correlated with the ALT. Conclusion The level of anti-HCV antibody,HCV-RNA and ALT should all be used in the diagnosis of HCV. An appropriate combination of these indexes has important clinical significance in the diagnosis, prediction of liver injury and early treatment.

  4. Spatial compression impairs prism-adaptation in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel J Scriven

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neglect patients typically present with gross inattention to one side of space following damage to the contralateral hemisphere. While prism-adaptation is effective in ameliorating some neglect behaviours, the mechanisms involved and their relationship to neglect remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that conscious strategic control processes in prism-adaptation may be impaired in neglect patients, who are also reported to show extraordinarily long aftereffects compared to healthy participants. Determining the underlying cause of these effects may be the key to understanding therapeutic benefits. Alternative accounts suggest that reduced strategic control might result from a failure to detect prism-induced reaching errors properly either because a the size of the error is underestimated in compressed visual space or b pathologically increased error detection thresholds reduce the requirement for error correction. The purpose of this study was to model these two alternatives in healthy participants and to examine whether strategic control and subsequent aftereffects were abnormal compared to standard prism adaptation. Each participant completed three prism-adaptation procedures within a MIRAGE mediated reality environment with direction errors recorded before, during and after adaptation. During prism-adaptation, visual-feedback of the reach could be compressed, perturbed by noise or represented veridically. Compressed visual space significantly reduced strategic control and aftereffects compared to control and noise conditions. These results support recent observations in neglect patients, suggesting that a distortion of spatial representation may successfully model neglect and explain neglect performance while adapting to prisms.

  5. 联合检测血清HCV RNA载量、HCV cAg和HCV Ab在HCV感染诊断中的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛小红

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨HCV RNA载量、HCV cAg和HCV Ab的联合检测在HCV感染早期诊断中的临床意义。方法采用荧光定量聚合酶链反应(FQ-PCR)技术检测HCV-RNA含量,并用ELISA对标本进行HCV cAg和HCV Ab的检测。比较108例丙型肝炎患者 HCV RNA 载量、HCV cAg和 HCV Ab 的检出率。结果HCV-RNA的阳性检出率为91.75%,显著高于HCV cAg的71.42%(χ2=25.042,P<0.01)和 HCV Ab 的69.78%(χ2=28.299,P<0.01)。3例HCVcAg阳性而HCV RNA和HCV Ab均阴性;6例HCV Ab 阴性而HCV-RNA和HCV cAg检测结果均阳性;8例HCV-RNA阳性而HCV Ab和HCV cAg检测结果均阴性;不同HCV RNA载量间HCVcAg和HCV Ab检测阳性率差异均无统计学意义(χ2=0.016、0.046,均 P>0.05)。结论联合检测HCV RNA、HCV cAg和HCV Ab对HCV感染的早期准确诊断具有重要意义和价值。

  6. HCV/HTLV coinfection: Does HTLV-1 interfere in the natural history of HCV-related diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcelo Costa; Silva, Carolina Alves Costa; Machado, Gustavo Uzêda; Atta, Ajax; M Freire, Songeli; Carvalho, Edgar; Schinoni, Maria Isabel; Paraná, Raymundo

    2016-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) coinfection occurs in many regions. However, few studies have focused on the natural history of HCV-induced liver disease in coinfected patients. To describe the clinical, epidemiological, and histopathological aspects of HTLV-1/HCV coinfection in Brazil. A cross-sectional study with 23 patients coinfected with HCV/HTLV. The control groups consisted of 21 patients monoinfected with HCV and 20 patients monoinfected with HTLV-1. The cytokine profiles (Th1 and Th2 cell responses), clinical, laboratory features, and histopathological aspects were examined. The control group for cytokine analysis validation consisted of patients monoinfected with HTLV, and a fourth group consisted of healthy blood donors. No anthropometric differences present between the three infected groups. We observed higher serum concentrations of IFN-γ in patients coinfected with HCV/HTLV-1 than those in HCV monoinfected patients. The HCV/HTLV-1 coinfected group also exhibited a higher degree of liver steatosis than the HCV monoinfected patients. Results suggest that HCV/HTLV-1 coinfection may result in a different pattern of HCV infection due to the immunologic disorders likely associated with HTLV-1, but there is no clear evidence of the HTLV role in the natural history of HCV infection. J. Med. Virol. 88:1967-1972, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. DC-SIGN:Binding receptor for HCV?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hua Feng; Quan-Chu Wang; Qing-He Nie; Zhan-Sheng Jia; Yong-Xin Zhou

    2004-01-01

    DC-SIGN, a dendritic Cell-specific adhesion receptor and a type Ⅱ transmembrane mannose-binding C-type lectin, is very important in the function of DC, both in mediating naive T cell interactions through ICAM-3 and as a rolling receptor that mediates the DC-specific ICAM-2-dependent migration processes. It can be used by viral and bacterial pathogens including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), HCV, Ebola Virus, CMV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis to facilitate infection. Both DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR can act either in cis,by concentrating virus on target cells, or in trans, by transmission of bound virus to a target cell expressing appropropriate entry receptors. Recent work showed that DC-SIGN are highaffinity binding receptors for HCV. Besides playing a role in entry into DC, HCV E2 interaction with DC-SIGN might also be detrimental for the interaction of DC with T cells during antigen presentation. The clinical strategies that target DCSIGN may be successful in restricting HCV dissemination and pathogenesis as well as directing the migration of DCs to manipulate appropriate immune responses in autoimmunity and tumorigenic situations.

  8. Correlates of HCV seropositivity among familial contacts of HCV positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matera Antonio

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determinants of intrafamilial HCV transmission are still being debated. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlates of HCV seropositivity among familial contacts of HCV positive patients in Italy. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 175 HCV positive patients (index cases, recruited from Policlinico Gemelli in Rome as well as other hospitals in Central Italy between 1995 and 2000 (40% female, mean age 57 ± 15.2 years, and 259 familial contacts. Differences in proportions of qualitative variables were tested with non-parametric tests (χ2, Yates correction, Fisher exact test, and a p value Results Seropositivity for HCV was found in 8.9% of the contacts. From the univariate analysis, risk factors significantly associated to HCV positivity in the contacts were: intravenous drug addiction (p = 0.004 and intercourse with drug addicts (p = 0.005. The only variables associated significantly and independently to HCV seropositivity in patients' contacts were intercourse with drug addicts (OR = 19.28; 95% CI: 2.01 – 184.94, the retirement status from work (OR = 3.76; 95% CI: 1.17 – 11.98, the time of the relationship (OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.00 – 1.11 and tattoos (OR = 7.68; 95% CI: 1.00 – 60.20. Conclusion The present study confirms that having intercourse with a drug addict is the most significant risk factor for intrafamilial HCV transmission. The association with retirement status from work could be related to both a long-term relationship with an index case and past exposure to common risk factors.

  9. HCV RNA检测与HCV/HBV共感染相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢放; 黄艳翔; 靳海英; 郭向华

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)RNA检测在HCV单独感染和 HCV、乙型肝炎病毒( HBV) 合并感染中的临床意义.方法 对96例HCV感染者分别分为CH和LC组,HCV和HCV+HBV组,检测抗- HCV、 HCV RNA .结果 96例HCV感染患者中肝硬化组HCV RNA阳性率较慢性肝炎组差异无统计学意义.乙肝和丙肝二重感染者HCV RNA阳性率显著高于单纯HCV感染(χ2 = 5.65,P= 0.017 ).单纯HCV感染者和乙肝及丙肝二重感染者血清丙肝病毒含量差异有统计学意义 (χ2=5.134,P= 0.023) .结论 在 HCV RNA检测的同时结合HBV DNA的检测,对 HCV感染的临床诊治有重要的指导意义.

  10. Molecular Virology of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV: 2006 Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Fascinating progress in the understanding of the molecular biology of hepatitis C virus (HCV was achieved recently. The replicon system revolutionized the investigation of HCV RNA replication and facilitated drug discovery. Novel systems for functional analyses of the HCV glycoproteins allowed the validation of HCV receptor candidates and the investigation of cell entry mechanisms. Most recently, recombinant infectious HCV could be produced in cell culture, rendering all steps of the viral life cycle, including entry and release of viral particles, amenable to systematic analysis. In this review, we summarize recent advances and discuss future research directions.

  11. Seroprevalence of HCV among Cairo University students in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmat, Gamal; Raziky, Maissa El; Nabeel, Mohammed M; Maher, Rabab; Zakaria, Zeinab

    2016-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly prevalent in Egypt. This work aimed at determining the seroprevalence of HCV among Cairo University students. The present study included 3,000 students from Cairo University, Egypt. Blood sample was obtained from each participant to be tested for HCV seromarker. HCV RNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out for those with positive anti-HCV. Overall prevalence rate of HCV antibody (anti-HCV) was 4.6%. It showed that the prevalence was relatively higher among females (86/1660; 5.2%) while males (51/1340; 3.8%) with no significant difference. PCR for HCV RNA was detected in 31.4% of the HCV antibody positive subjects (43/137). Which showed statistical significant difference between males (29/51) and females (14/86) at P = 0.001. Despite the prevalence rate reported in the present study was similar to anti-HCV prevalence among persons in the same age group, confirmed that HCV infection is detected among Cairo University students. J. Med. Virol. 88:1384-1387, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Recognizing Variable Environments The Theory of Cognitive Prism

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Tiansi

    2012-01-01

    Normal adults do not have any difficulty in recognizing their homes. But can artificial systems do in the same way as humans? This book collects interdisciplinary evidences and presents an answer from the perspective of computing, namely, the theory of cognitive prism. To recognize an environment, an intelligent system only needs to classify objects, structures them based on the connection relation (not through measuring!), subjectively orders the objects, and compares with the target environment, whose knowledge is similarly structured. The intelligent system works, therefore, like a prism: when a beam of light (a scene) reaches (is perceived) to an optical prism (by an intelligent system), some light (objects) is reflected (are neglected), those passed through (the recognized objects) are distorted (are ordered differently). So comes the term 'cognitive prism'! Two fundamental propositions used in the theory can be informally stated as follow: an orientation relation is a kind of distance comparison relatio...

  13. 抗-HCV与HCV-RNA和ALT之间的关系探讨%Discussion on the Relationship of Anti-HCV, HCV-RNA and ALT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甸子芩; 沈云松

    2012-01-01

      目的探讨丙型肝炎病毒感染者丙型肝炎病毒抗体(抗-HCV)与丙型肝炎病毒核酸(HCV-RNA)和丙氨酸转氨酶(ALT)之间的关系.方法 对抗-HCV阳性样本441例,采用荧光定量聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)检测HCV-RNA含量和其ALT水平.结果 441例抗-HCV阳性的血清中HCV-RNA阳性的有295例,阳性率67%,HCV-RNA阳性率随抗-HCV的S/CO值升高而升高.ALT异常的有269例,阳性率61%,ALT的含量及阳性率随HCV-RNA的含量升高而升高.结论 HCV-RNA的阳性率与抗-HCV的S/CO值存在正相关,ALT的阳性率及含量与HCV-RNA呈正相关,因此,可根据抗-HCV检测的S/CO值及ALT的含量辅助临床了解丙型肝炎病毒在体内的复制情况,以指导治疗.%  Objective To investigate the relationship of hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV), hepatitis C virus RNA (HCV-RNA) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) in hepatitis C virus infection. Methods Using fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detecting HCV-RNA content and testing ALT levels in 441 cases of anti-HCV positive samples. Results In 441 cases of anti-HCV positive serum, HCV-RNA positive 295 cases, the positive rate of HCV-RNA was 67%, and the positive rate increased with the anti-HCV S/CO ratio increased. Abnormal ALT 269 cases, the positive rate of ALT was 61%, the content and the positive rate of ALT increased with HCV-RNA levels increased. Conclusion The positive rate of HCV-RNA has positive correlation with anti-HCV S/CO ratio, the positive rate and content of ALT has positive correlation with HCV-RNA, therefore, according to the anti-HCV S/CO ratio and the content of ALT assisted clinical understand the replication of hepatitis C virus in the body, to guide treatment.

  14. PML tumor suppressor protein is required for HCV production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroki, Misao [Department of Tumor Virology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Japan); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Ariumi, Yasuo, E-mail: ariumi@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Tumor Virology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Hijikata, Makoto [Department of Viral Oncology, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Ikeda, Masanori; Dansako, Hiromichi [Department of Tumor Virology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Wakita, Takaji [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo 162-8640 (Japan); Shimotohno, Kunitada [Research Center for Hepatitis and Immunology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Ichikawa, Chiba 272-8516 (Japan); Kato, Nobuyuki [Department of Tumor Virology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PML tumor suppressor protein is required for HCV production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PML is dispensable for HCV RNA replication. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HCV could not alter formation of PML-NBs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer INI1 and DDX5, PML-related proteins, are involved in HCV life cycle. -- Abstract: PML tumor suppressor protein, which forms discrete nuclear structures termed PML-nuclear bodies, has been associated with several cellular functions, including cell proliferation, apoptosis and antiviral defense. Recently, it was reported that the HCV core protein colocalizes with PML in PML-NBs and abrogates the PML function through interaction with PML. However, role(s) of PML in HCV life cycle is unknown. To test whether or not PML affects HCV life cycle, we examined the level of secreted HCV core and the infectivity of HCV in the culture supernatants as well as the level of HCV RNA in HuH-7-derived RSc cells, in which HCV-JFH1 can infect and efficiently replicate, stably expressing short hairpin RNA targeted to PML. In this context, the level of secreted HCV core and the infectivity in the supernatants from PML knockdown cells was remarkably reduced, whereas the level of HCV RNA in the PML knockdown cells was not significantly affected in spite of very effective knockdown of PML. In fact, we showed that PML is unrelated to HCV RNA replication using the subgenomic HCV-JFH1 replicon RNA, JRN/3-5B. Furthermore, the infectivity of HCV-like particle in the culture supernatants was significantly reduced in PML knockdown JRN/3-5B cells expressing core to NS2 coding region of HCV-JFH1 genome using the trans-packaging system. Finally, we also demonstrated that INI1 and DDX5, the PML-related proteins, are involved in HCV production. Taken together, these findings suggest that PML is required for HCV production.

  15. k-Odd mean labeling of prism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gayathri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ‎A $(p‎,‎q$ graph $G$ is said to have a $k$-odd mean‎ ‎labeling $(k ge 1$ if there exists an injection $f‎ : ‎V‎ ‎to {0‎, ‎1‎, ‎2‎, ‎ldots‎, ‎2k‎ + ‎2q‎ - ‎3}$ such that the‎ ‎induced map $f^*$ defined on $E$ by $f^*(uv =‎ ‎leftlceil frac{f(u+f(v}{2}rightrceil$ is a‎ ‎bijection from $E$ to ${2k - ‎‎‎1‎, ‎2k‎ + ‎1‎, ‎2k‎ + ‎3‎, ‎ldots‎, ‎2‎ ‎k‎ + ‎2q‎ - ‎3}$‎. ‎A graph that admits $k$-odd mean‎ ‎labeling is called $k$-odd mean graph‎. ‎In this paper‎, ‎we investigate $k$-odd mean labeling of prism $C_m times‎ ‎P_n$‎.

  16. HCV抗原检测与HCV-RNA和HCV抗体检测的比较研究%Comparative Study on the Detection of HCV-Antigen, HCV-RNA and HCV-Antibody Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李妙羡; 王香玲; 吴晓康; 卢洁; 王小利; 尹佳峰; 孟昊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the value of measurement of HCV antigen, HCV antibody and HCV-RNA in the clinical diagnosis of Hepatitis. Methods HCV antigen would adopt double antibody sandwiched method; HCV-RNA would employ the real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR technique, HCV antibody would use the technology of Enzyme-Linked Immunosor-bent Assay (ELISA) ,44 specimens of positive HCV antibody would be detected with HCV antigen and HCV-RNA measurement. Results Among the specimens of positive HCV antibody, the rate of positive HCV antigen was measured as 43. 2%;the rate of positive HCV-RNA was measured as 82. 5%. Among the specimens of positive HCV-RNA,the rate of positive HCV antigen was measured as 45. 5%. Conclusion In the three kinds of Hepatitis markers,it was the most reliable method to judge whether infected with Hepatitis by using the real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR technique to measure HCV-RNA. If HCV antigen was used to diagnose Hepatitis, there was still 54. 5% rate of missed detection. Hence,there exists a long distance from the application in the clinical practice. In the hospitals where it was impossible to employ the realtime fluorescence quantitative PCR technique to measure HCV-RNA,when confirming the specimens of positive HCV antibody with HCV antigen and judging past exposure or present exposure to HCV,index of liver function and clinical manifestation should be combined to make a clear and definite diagnosis.%目的 评价丙型肝炎病毒核心抗原(HCV抗原)、丙型肝炎病毒抗体(HCV抗体)及丙型肝炎病毒RNA(HCV-RNA)三种检测方法在丙型肝炎实验室诊断中的作用.方法 HCV抗原采用双抗体夹心法;HCV-RNA采用实时荧光定量PCR技术(RT-PCR),HCV抗体采用酶联免疫技术(间接法),对44例HCV抗体阳性标本进行HCV抗原和HCV-RNA检测.结果 在HCV抗体阳性标本中,HCV抗原阳性检出率为43.2%,HCV-RNA阳性检出率为82.5%;在HCV-RNA阳性标本中,HCV抗原阳性检出率为45

  17. CD8+ T cells of chronic HCV-infected patients express multiple negative immune checkpoints following stimulation with HCV peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barathan, Muttiah; Mohamed, Rosmawati; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Chang, Li Yen; Vignesh, Ramachandran; Krishnan, Jayalakshmi; Sigamani, Panneer; Saeidi, Alireza; Ram, M Ravishankar; Velu, Vijayakumar; Larsson, Marie; Shankar, Esaki M

    2017-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are key to successful viral clearance in HCV disease. Accumulation of exhausted HCV-specific T cells during chronic infection results in considerable loss of protective functional immune responses. The role of T-cell exhaustion in chronic HCV disease remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the frequency of HCV peptide-stimulated T cells expressing negative immune checkpoints (PD-1, CTLA-4, TRAIL, TIM-3 and BTLA) by flow cytometry, and measured the levels of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines secreted by T cells by a commercial Multi-Analyte ELISArray™ following in vitro stimulation of T cells using HCV peptides and phytohemagglutinin (PHA). HCV peptide-stimulated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells of chronic HCV (CHC) patients showed significant increase of CTLA-4. Furthermore, HCV peptide-stimulated CD4+ T cells of CHC patients also displayed relatively higher levels of PD-1 and TRAIL, whereas TIM-3 was up-regulated on HCV peptide-stimulated CD8+ T cells. Whereas the levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1 were significantly increased, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-2, TNF-α, IL-17A and IL-6 were markedly decreased in the T cell cultures of CHC patients. Chronic HCV infection results in functional exhaustion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells likely contributing to viral persistence.

  18. Stability of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels among interferon-naïve HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals treated with combination antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grint, D; Peters, Lars; Reekie, J;

    2013-01-01

    Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. High HCV RNA levels have been associated with poor treatment response. This study aimed to examine the natural history of HCV RNA in chronically HCV/HIV-coinfected individuals.......Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. High HCV RNA levels have been associated with poor treatment response. This study aimed to examine the natural history of HCV RNA in chronically HCV/HIV-coinfected individuals....

  19. 不同HCV相关疾病患者血清抗HCV和HCV RNA检测的比较研究%Comparative Study on Detection of Serum anti-HCV and HCV RNA in HCV Related Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟平; 殷明刚

    2013-01-01

    目的::探讨不同HCV感染疾病患者血清抗HCV和HCV RNA的阳性率,以指导临床诊治相应疾病。方法:收集我院HCV感染患者血清标本共165例,采用ELISA法检测血清抗HCV,利用实时荧光定量PCR技术检测HCV RNA。结果:165例HCV感染患者血清抗HCV总阳性率为97.6%,高于HCV RNA阳性率(72.7%)(P<0.05)。肝硬化组和肝癌组HCV RNA阳性率分别为80.9%和82.9%,高于慢性丙型肝炎组阳性率(63.9%)(P<0.05)。结论:联合检测抗HCV和HCV RNA,有助于HCV感染相关疾病的临床诊断、疗效观察及预后判断。%Objective:The significance of testing serum anti-HCV and HCV RNA in HCV infection patients was discussed for guiding diagnosis and treatment of diseases.Methods:165 cases were collected from HCV infection patients.ELISA was used for assaying anti-HCV and real-time quantitative PCR was employed for determination of HCV RNA.Results:The total positive rate of serum anti-HCV(n=165) was 97.6%,which was higher than that of HCV RNA(72.7%).The positive rate of HCV RNA in liver cirrhosis and liver cancer group were 80.9%and 82.9%,respectively,higher than the one in chronic hepatitis C group 63.9%(P<0.05).Conclusion:The combination testing of anti-HCV and HCV RNA is helpful to the clinical diagnosis,observation of curative effect and prognosis judgment of HCV related diseases.

  20. Immune biomarker differences and changes comparing HCV mono-infected, HIV/HCV co-infected, and HCV spontaneously cleared patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E Kushner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Immune biomarkers are implicated in HCV treatment response, fibrosis, and accelerated pathogenesis of comorbidities, though only D-dimer and C-reactive protein have been consistently studied. Few studies have evaluated HIV/HCV co-infection, and little longitudinal data exists describing a broader antiviral cytokine response. METHODS: Fifty immune biomarkers were analyzed at baseline (BL and HCV end of treatment follow-up(FU time point using the Luminex 50-plex assay in plasma samples from 15 HCV-cleared, 24 HCV mono- and 49 HIV/HCV co-infected patients receiving antiretroviral treatment, who either did or did not receive pegylated-interferon/ribavirin HCV treatment. Biomarker levels were compared among spontaneous clearance patients, mono- and co-infected, untreated and HCV-treated, and sustained virologic responders (SVR and non-responders (NR at BL and FU using nonparametric analyses. A Bonferroni correction, adjusting for tests of 50 biomarkers, was used to reduce Type I error. RESULTS: Compared to HCV patients at BL, HIV/HCV patients had 22 significantly higher and 4 significantly lower biomarker levels, following correction for multiple testing. There were no significantly different BL levels when comparing SVR and NR in mono- or co-infected patients; however, FU levels changed considerably in co-infected patients, with seven becoming significantly higher and eight becoming significantly lower in SVR patients. Longitudinally between BL and FU, 13 markers significantly changed in co-infected SVR patients, while none significantly changed in co-infected NR patients. There were also no significant changes in longitudinal analyses of mono-infected patients achieving SVR or mono-infected and co-infected groups deferring treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Clear differences exist in pattern and quantity of plasma immune biomarkers among HCV mono-infected, HIV/HCV co-infected, and HCV-cleared patients; and with SVR in co-infected patients treated

  1. 丙肝患者血清HCV-Ab、HCV-cAg、HCV-RNA检测的比较及肝功能的相关性研究%Comparison of hepatitis C patients in serum HCV-Ab, HCV-cAg,HCV-RNA detection and relationship to liver function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王中东; 黄麦华

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨HCV-Ab、HCV-cAg、HCV-RNA及ALT、AST、γ-GT的相关性及临床应用价值.方法 ELISA方法检测HCV-Ab、HCV-cAg,PCR-荧光探针法检测HCV-RNA,全自动生化分析仪检测ALT、AST、γ-GT.结果 检测HCV感染者186例,其中HCV-Ab、HCV-cAg的阳性率分别为95.7%、25.3%、82.7%.ALT、AST、γ-GT水平与HCV病毒载量呈正相关(P<0.01).结论 同时检测HCV-Ab、HCV-cAg、HCV-RNA可充分掌握丙肝患者病毒感染情况,以及检测ALT、AST、γ-GT对抗病毒治疗的疗效评价及治疗时间有重要意义.

  2. Alarming increase in tuberculosis and hepatitis C virus (HCV among HIV infected intravenous drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Oprea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the last years, we observed an alarming increase in the number of newly diagnosed HIV infected intravenous drug users (IDUs co-infected with hepatitis viruses or with severe bacterial infections. The aim of our study was to assess the incidence, the demographic and clinical characteristics of IDUs diagnosed with HIV, HCV and tuberculosis (TB. Materials and Methods: Prospective study on HIV infected IDUs with HCV and TB admitted in a single centre between January 2009 and April 2014. Data were compared to a group of HIV infected IDUs without TB. Statistical analysis was performed using Graphpad Prism 4.01. Results: Out of 450 HIV infected IDUs, 134 (29.7% were diagnosed with HIV, HCV and TB. TB incidence among IDUs increases from 0% in 2009 to 30.2% in 2013. The TB coinfected patients had a mean age at diagnosis of 30 [15–56] years; were in majority males, 106 (84.4%; from urban areas, 120 (89.5%; and had significantly lower education level (85% vs 68.3%, p<0.0001 and higher rates of unemployment (80% vs 55%, p<0.0001 than those without TB. The median CD4 cell count was lower in the TB versus non TB IDUs (143 vs 472/mm3, p<0.0001. TB infected IDUs tend to be more frequently late presenters (59.7 vs 24.6, p<0.0001 and to have advanced HIV disease (47.7 vs 7.59%, p<0.0001 than those without TB. TB cultures were positive in 64 (47.7% patients, 3 (2.2% had multidrug resistant TB and 2 (1.5% had extended drug resistance. Disseminated and/or extrapulmonary TB was diagnosed in 51 patients (38%. The overall mortality rate was higher in TB compared to non TB IDUs (19.4% vs 8.2%, p=0.0007, disseminated TB being associated with the most severe immunosuppression (median CD4 cell count 42/mm3 and the highest mortality rate (27.4%. Conclusions: The incidence of TB in HIV/HCV coinfected IDUs was high and rose over the time. TB infection was more frequent in patients with severe immunosuppression and the mortality rate was higher in IDUs with

  3. Cytokines and HCV-Related Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poupak Fallahi

    2012-01-01

    However, HCV interferes with cytokines at various levels and escapes immune response by inducing a T-helper (Th2/T cytotoxic 2 cytokine profile. Inability to control infection leads to the recruitment of inflammatory infiltrates into the liver parenchyma by interferon (IFN-gamma-inducible CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL-9, -10, and -11 chemokines, which results in sustained liver damage and eventually in liver cirrhosis. The most important systemic HCV-related extrahepatic diseases—mixed cryoglobulinemia, lymphoproliferative disorders, thyroid autoimmune disorders, and type 2 diabetes—are associated with a complex dysregulation of the cytokine/chemokine network, involving proinflammatory and Th1 chemokines. The therapeutical administration of cytokines such as IFN-alpha may result in viral clearance during persistent infection and reverts this process.

  4. [Comparison of eight screening tests for ant-HCV antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Matsuo; Kagita, Masanori; Yamashita, Naoko; Nakano, Takasi; Tahara, Kazuko; Asari, Seishi; Iwatani, Yoshinori

    2002-09-01

    We compared eight HCV screening tests for detection of anti-HCV antibody; Ortho Quick Chaser HCV Ab (QC), Ortho HCV Ab ELISA III (ELISA), Ortho HVC Ab PA test III (PA), Lumipulse II Ortho HCV (LUMI), IMx HCV.DAINAPACKII (IMx), ARCHITECT HCV (ARCH), Immucheck.F-HCV C50 Ab (Immu), RANREAM HCV Ab Ex II (RAN). Sera from six hundred patients were examined by these eight screening tests. The positive rates of the eight screening tests were from 9.0% to 13.2%. Forty-five sera showed discrepant results between the eight screening tests, and about half of them showed weak positive reaction and/or false positive. Twenty-five of the forty-five sera were negative for ant-HCV antibody in the CHIRON RIBA III confirmatory test, and forty-four of them were negative for HCV-RNA in the PCR method. The agreement rates between the two reagents were from 95.5% to 99.2%, but were not always high between the two reagents that used similar antigen. The specificities and sensitivities evaluated by using the RIBA III confirmatory test were excellent in ELISA, LUMI, IMx, ARCH and Immu. Three BBI seroconversion panels were used to compare the positive readings in the initial stage of HCV infection by eight screening tests. ELISA and ARCH showed the earliest positive readings, and then IMx, LUMI = RAN, PA, QC and Immu in this order. These findings indicate that ELISA and ARCH were the most excellent in the sensitivity, specificity and early diagnosis of HCV infection. However, we must pay attention to the weak positive reaction in the screening tests, because there is a possibility of "false positive".

  5. Aktuelles Management der HIV/HCV-Koinfektion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payer BA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Die HIV/HCV-Koinfektion findet sich sehr häufig bei HIV-Patienten mit intravenösem Drogenabusus. In dieser Patientengruppe stellt die HCV-assoziierte chronische Lebererkrankung heute auch die wichtigste Todesursache dar, da die HIV-Infektion meist sehr gut kontrolliert werden kann, die Hepatitis C aber oft nicht behandelt wird. Dabei sind die Therapieprinzipien sowohl für die HIV- als auch für die HCV-Infektion in der Zwischenzeit gut etabliert und auch allgemein akzeptiert: Eine retrovirale Therapie (cART sollte bei Koinfektion immer und unabhängig vom Immunstatus durchgeführt werden, da dies die Progression der Lebererkrankung positiv beeinflusst. Und die Hepatitis C sollte durch Standardtherapie mit Peginterferon plus Ribavirin therapiert werden, wobei in absehbarer Zeit auch bei Koinfektion die Dreifachtherapie mit den Proteaseinhibitoren Boceprevir und Telaprevir zum Einsatz kommen wird. Die Beachtung von Medikamenteninteraktionen wird dabei allerdings eine große Rolle spielen.

  6. Comparison of Perceptions of "Preparedness" of John Abbott C.E.G.E.P. Nursing Graduates: Prior to Graduation and After.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iton, Carmen; Sabiston, Judy

    A study of John Abbott College's nursing graduates was conducted to determine how well prepared for their professional responsibilities the graduates saw themselves just prior to graduation and later after working in the nursing field. A sample of 98 nursing students who graduated between 1986 and 1988 was surveyed, with 93% responding to the…

  7. [Analytical performances of real-time PCR by Abbott RealTime CMV with m2000 for the detection of cytomegalovirus in urine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Monte, Anne; Cannavo, Isabelle; Caramella, Anne; Ollier, Laurence; Giordanengo, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the leading cause of sensoneurinal disability due to infectious congenital disease. The diagnosis of congenital CMV infection is based on the search of CMV in the urine within the first two weeks of life. Viral culture of urine is the gold standard. However, the PCR is highly sensitive and faster. It is becoming an alternative choice. The objective of this study is the validation of real-time PCR by Abbott RealTime CMV with m2000 for the detection of cytomegalovirus in urine. Repeatability, reproducibility, detection limit and inter-sample contamination were evaluated. Urine samples from patients (n=141) were collected and analyzed simultaneously in culture and PCR in order to assess the correlation of these two methods. The sensitivity and specificity of PCR were also calculated. The Abbott RealTime CMV PCR in urine is an automated and sensitive method (detection limit 200 UI/mL). Fidelity is very good (standard deviation of repeatability: 0.08 to 0.15 LogUI/mL and reproducibility 0.18 LogUI/mL). We can note a good correlation between culture and Abbott RealTime CMV PCR (kappa 96%). When considering rapid culture as reference, real-time PCR was highly sensitive (100%) and specific (98.2%). The real-time PCR by Abbott RealTime CMV with m2000 is optimal for CMV detection in urine.

  8. Activation of extrinsic apoptosis pathway in HCV monoinfected and HIV-HCV coinfected patients, irrespective of liver disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuth, Thijs; Van Baarle, Debbie; Hoepelman, Andy I M; Van Erpecum, Karel J; Siersema, Peter D; Arends, Joop E

    2014-07-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with increased levels of peripheral T cell apoptosis. We aimed to study whether T cell apoptosis markers indicate pathways that may contribute to clinical progression in HCV monoinfected and HIV-HCV coinfected patients. Activation of the extrinsic apoptosis pathways was measured by levels of death receptor Fas, initiator caspase 8 and effector caspases 3 and 7 activity and Annexin V binding on peripheral CD4 and CD8 T cells of HCV monoinfected and HIV/HCV coinfected patients, as well as healthy controls and HIV-infected, hepatitis B virus-infected and primary biliary cirrhosis disease controls. Association with liver fibrosis was assessed by biopsy or by transient elastography. HCV monoinfected and HIV-HCV coinfected patients displayed enhanced peripheral CD4 and CD8 T cell apoptosis. Caspase 8 activity was highest in HIV-HCV coinfection, without enhanced downstream activity of caspases 3 and 7. Level of peripheral T cell apoptosis was independent of liver fibrosis or other disease parameters in all disease groups. The extrinsic apoptosis pathway is upregulated in HCV monoinfection and HIV-HCV coinfection, but this is independent of liver disease severity.

  9. Disparate detection outcomes for anti-HCV IgG and HCV RNA in dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Strop, Alexandra; Drobeniuc, Jan; Mixson-Hayden, Tonya; Forbi, Joseph C; Le, Ngoc-Thao; Li, Lixia; Mei, Joanne; Terrault, Norah; Kamili, Saleem

    2015-02-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) expedite the collection, storage and shipping of blood samples, thereby facilitating large-scale serologic studies. We evaluated the sensitivity of anti-HCV IgG testing and HCV-RNA quantitation using freshly prepared and stored DBS derived from HCV-infected patients. Protocols for elution were optimized using DBS prepared from plasma of 52 HCV-infected persons and 51 uninfected persons (control DBS), then applied to DBS from 33 chronic hepatitis C patients that had been stored at -20°C for 5 years (stored DBS). Control and stored DBS, and their corresponding plasma, were processed for anti-HCV IgG testing using the VITROS chemiluminescence assay (CIA) and the HCV 3.0 enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics), and for HCV RNA quantitation by quantitative (q) RT-PCR. HCV genotyping was conducted by nucleotide sequencing. The sensitivity of CIA and EIA in control DBS was 92% and 90%, respectively, compared to 100% and 97%, respectively, in stored DBS. The sensitivity of HCV RNA detection was 88% in control DBS, compared to 36% in stored DBS. Specificity was 100% for all the assays in both control and stored DBS. Genotypes 1, 2 and 3 were detected in 16 (62%), 6 (23.1%), and 4 (15.3%) samples, respectively. Sequences generated from DBS and their corresponding plasma samples were identical. Whereas the sensitivity of anti-HCV IgG detection in stored DBS was equivalent to that in recently prepared DBS, the sensitivity of HCV RNA detection was markedly lower in stored DBS compared to recently prepared DBS. Stored DBS may be reliably used for anti-HCV detection but for HCV-RNA-based testing freshly prepared DBS is preferable to stored DBS.

  10. Comparative evaluation of the performance of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay for measurement of HIV-1 plasma viral load on genetically diverse samples from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevis Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 is characterized by increased genetic heterogeneity which tends to hinder the reliability of detection and accuracy of HIV-1 RNA quantitation assays. Methods In this study, the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 (Abbott RealTime assay was compared to the Roche Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 (Cobas TaqMan and the Siemens Versant HIV-1 RNA 3.0 (bDNA 3.0 assays, using clinical samples of various viral load levels and subtypes from Greece, where the recent epidemiology of HIV-1 infection has been characterized by increasing genetic diversity and a marked increase in subtype A genetic strains among newly diagnosed infections. Results A high correlation was observed between the quantitative results obtained by the Abbott RealTime and the Cobas TaqMan assays. Viral load values quantified by the Abbott RealTime were on average lower than those obtained by the Cobas TaqMan, with a mean (SD difference of -0.206 (0.298 log10 copies/ml. The mean differences according to HIV-1 subtypes between the two techniques for samples of subtype A, B, and non-A/non-B were 0.089, -0.262, and -0.298 log10 copies/ml, respectively. Overall, differences were less than 0.5 log10 for 85% of the samples, and >1 log10 in only one subtype B sample. Similarly, Abbott RealTime and bDNA 3.0 assays yielded a very good correlation of quantitative results, whereas viral load values assessed by the Abbott RealTime were on average higher (mean (SD difference: 0.160 (0.287 log10 copies/ml. The mean differences according to HIV-1 subtypes between the two techniques for subtype A, B and non-A/non-B samples were 0.438, 0.105 and 0.191 log10 copies/ml, respectively. Overall, the majority of samples (86% differed by less than 0.5 log10, while none of the samples showed a deviation of more than 1.0 log10. Conclusions In an area of changing HIV-1 subtype pattern, the Abbott RealTime assay showed a high correlation and good agreement of results when compared both to the Cobas TaqMan and bDNA 3

  11. Ddetection of HCV RNA in ELISA anti-HCV negative donors%ELISA抗-HCV阴性献血者HCV RNA的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪勇平; 雷永良; 吴丽雅; 任振唤

    2002-01-01

    @@ 自酶联免疫法(ELISA)检测丙型肝炎病毒抗体(抗-HCV)试剂应用于血液HCV 的初筛以来,血液HCV的传播风险大为降低,但是仍有少数患者输血后感染HCV,原因是由于ELISA本身的局限性而使部分"窗口期"的HCV感染者未能被检出.为了解本市ELISA筛查合格献血者血液HCV RNA 的流行率,笔者对部分经ELISA双份试剂检测阴性的标本进行HCV RNA 检测,现报告如下.

  12. ALT与HCV核心抗原及HCV-RNA相关性研究%Study on correlation of ALT, HCV core antigen and HCV-RNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锐; 曹培义

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究ALT与HCV核心抗原、HCV-RNA间关系.方法 对81例HCV-RNA阳性标本检测HCV核心抗原和ALT水平.结果 81例HCV-RNA阳性标本检出HCV核心抗原阳性32例,灰区26例,ALT水平超过临床参考值56例,ALT检测水平与HCV核心抗原阳性程度呈正相关性.结论 HCV-cAg仅与HCV-RNA复制密切相关,与复制水平无关.HCV核心抗原可联合HCV抗体检测提高血液标本HCV感染检出率,结合ALT可以评测感染状态.

  13. Virological Mechanisms in the Coinfection between HIV and HCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carla Liberto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to shared transmission routes, coinfection with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV is common in patients infected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV. The immune-pathogenesis of liver disease in HIV/HCV coinfected patients is a multifactorial process. Several studies demonstrated that HIV worsens the course of HCV infection, increasing the risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Also, HCV might increase immunological defects due to HIV and risk of comorbidities. A specific cross-talk among HIV and HCV proteins in coinfected patients modulates the natural history, the immune responses, and the life cycle of both viruses. These effects are mediated by immune mechanisms and by a cross-talk between the two viruses which could interfere with host defense mechanisms. In this review, we focus on some virological/immunological mechanisms of the pathogenetic interactions between HIV and HCV in the human host.

  14. The Abbott Architect c8000: analytical performance and productivity characteristics of a new analyzer applied to general chemistry testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Daniela; Seyfarth, Michael; Dibbelt, Leif

    2005-01-01

    Applying basic potentiometric and photometric assays, we evaluated the fully automated random access chemistry analyzer Architect c8000, a new member of the Abbott Architect system family, with respect to both its analytical and operational performance and compared it to an established high-throughput chemistry platform, the Abbott Aeroset. Our results demonstrate that intra- and inter-assay imprecision, inaccuracy, lower limit of detection and linear range of the c8000 generally meet actual requirements of laboratory diagnosis; there were only rare exceptions, e.g. assays for plasma lipase or urine uric acid which apparently need to be improved by additional rinsing of reagent pipettors. Even with plasma exhibiting CK activities as high as 40.000 U/l, sample carryover by the c8000 could not be detected. Comparison of methods run on the c8000 and the Aeroset revealed correlation coefficients of 0.98-1.00; if identical chemistries were applied on both analyzers, slopes of regression lines approached unity. With typical laboratory workloads including 10-20% STAT samples and up to 10% samples with high analyte concentrations demanding dilutional reruns, steady-state throughput numbers of 700 to 800 tests per hour were obtained with the c8000. The system generally responded to STAT orders within 2 minutes yielding analytical STAT order completion times of 5 to 15 minutes depending on the type and number of assays requested per sample. Due to its extended test and sample processing capabilities and highly comfortable software, the c8000 may meet the varying needs of clinical laboratories rather well.

  15. Lymphocytes as liver damage mirror of HCV related adipogenesis deregulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Minutolo

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus infection leads to a wide spectrum of liver diseases ranging from mild chronic hepatitis to end-stage cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. An intriguing aspect of the HCV infection is its close connection with lipid metabolism playing an important role in the HCV life cycle and in its pathogenesis. HCV is known to be a hepatotropic virus; however, it can also infect peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. The goal of the current investigation is to compare the adipogenesis profile of liver tissues to lymphocytes of HCV infected patients, in order to understand if PBMCs may reflect the alterations of intracellular pathways occurring during HCV-related liver steatosis. Using the Human Adipogenesis PCR Array, gene expression was analyzed in liver samples and PBMCs of chronic HCV+, HBV+ and Healthy Donors (HDs patients. We observed a similar modulation of lipid metabolism in HCV+ and HBV+liver tissues and lymphoid, cells suggesting that PBMCs reflect the liver adipogenesis deregulation related to infection, even if the two viruses have a different impact in the regulation of the adipogenesis mechanisms. In particular, some genes involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation, as well as in cell transformation, were up-regulated, in a similar way, in both HCV models analyzed. Interestingly, these genes were positively correlated to virological and hepatic functional parameters of HCV+ patients. On the contrary, HBV+ patients displayed a completely different profile. PBMCs of HCV+ patients seem to be useful model to study how HCV-related lipid metabolism deregulation occurs in liver. The obtained data suggest some molecules as new possible biomarkers of HCV-related liver damage progression.

  16. Reverse time migration of prism waves for salt flank delineation

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Wei

    2013-09-22

    In this paper, we present a new reverse time migration method for imaging salt flanks with prism wave reflections. It consists of four steps: (1) migrating the seismic data with conventional RTM to give the RTM image; (2) using the RTM image as a reflectivity model to simulate source-side reflections with the Born approximation; (3) zero-lag correlation of the source-side reflection wavefields and receiver-side wavefields to produce the prism wave migration image; and (4) repeating steps 2 and 3 for the receiver-side reflections. An advantage of this method is that there is no need to pick the horizontal reflectors prior to migration of the prism waves. It also separately images the vertical structures at a different step to reduce crosstalk interference. The disadvantage of prism wave migration algorithm is that its computational cost is twice that of conventional RTM. The empirical results with a salt model suggest that prism wave migration can be an effective method for salt flank delineation in the absence of diving waves.

  17. Containment performance of S-prism under severe BDB conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, C.E.; Dubberley, A.E.; Hui, M. [GE Nuclear Energy Div., San Jose, CA (United States); Iwashige, K. [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    S-PRISM is an advanced Fast Reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test of a single Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) for design certification at minimum cost and risk. Based on the success of the previous DOE sponsored Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) program GE has continued to develop and assess the technical viability and economic potential of an up-rated modular Fast Reactor called Super PRISM (S-PRISM). S-PRISM retains all of the key ALMR design features including passive reactor shutdown, passive shutdown heat removal, and passive reactor cavity cooling that were developed under an earlier DOE program. An additional feature of S-PRISM involves the use an innovative containment system that reduces the required design basis containment pressure by a factor of two through the use of a controlled venting system. The performance of this innovative containment system is evaluated and described in this paper. (author)

  18. Research on beam splitting prism in laser heterodyne interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiu-hua; Xiong, Shi-fu; Kou, Yang; Pan, Yong-gang; Chen, Heng; Li, Zeng-yu; Zhang, Chuan-xin

    2014-08-01

    With the rapid development of optical testing technology, laser heterodyne interferometer has been used more and more widely. As the testing precision requirements continue to increase, the technical prism is an important component of heterodyne interference. The research utilizing thin film technology to improve optical performance of interferometer has been a new focus. In the article, based on the use requirements of interferometer beam splitting prism, select Ta2O5 and SiO2 as high and low refractive index materials respectively, deposit on substrate K9. With the help of TFCalc design software and Needle method, adopting electron gun evaporation and ion assisted deposition, the beam splitting prism is prepared successfully and the ratio of transmittance and reflectance for this beam splitting prism in 500~850 nm band, incident angle 45 degree is 8:2. After repeated tests, solved the difference problem of film deposition process parameters ,controlled thickness monitoring precision effectively and finally prepared the ideal beam splitting prism which is high adhesion and stable optics properties. The film the laser induced damage threshold and it meet the requirements of heterodyne interferometer for use.

  19. Prism adaptation changes the subjective proprioceptive localization of the hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpina, Federica; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Nijboer, Tanja Cornelia Wilhelmina; Dijkerman, Hendrik Christiaan

    2015-03-01

    Prism adaptation involves a proprioceptive, a visual and a motor component. As the existing paradigms are not able to distinguish between these three components, the contribution of the proprioceptive component remains unclear. In the current study, a proprioceptive judgement task, in the absence of motor responses, was used to investigate how prism adaptation would specifically influences the felt position of the hands in healthy participants. The task was administered before and after adaptation to left and right displacing prisms using either the left or the right hand during the adaptation procedure. The results appeared to suggest that the prisms induced a drift in the felt position of the hands, although the after-effect depended on the combination of the pointing hand and the visual deviation induced by prisms. The results are interpreted as in line with the hypothesis of an asymmetrical neural architecture of somatosensory processing. Moreover, the passive proprioception of the hand position revealed different effects of proprioceptive re-alignment compared to active pointing straight ahead: different mechanisms about how visuo-proprioceptive discrepancy is resolved were hypothesized.

  20. Stress effects in prism coupling measurements of thin polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agan, S.; Ay, F.; Kocabas, A.; Aydinli, A.

    2005-02-01

    Due to the increasingly important role of some polymers in optical waveguide technologies, precise measurement of their optical properties has become important. Typically, prism coupling to slab waveguides made of materials of interest is used to measure the relevant optical parameters. However, such measurements are often complicated by the softness of the polymer films when stress is applied to the prism to couple light into the waveguides. In this work, we have investigated the optical properties of three different polymers, polystyrene (PS), polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA), and benzocyclobutane (BCB). For the first time, the dependence of the refractive index, film thickness, and birefringence on applied stress in these thin polymer films was determined by means of the prism coupling technique. Both symmetric trapezoid shaped and right-angle prisms were used to couple the light into the waveguides. It was found that trapezoid shaped prism coupling gives better results in these thin polymer films. The refractive index of PMMA was found to be in the range of 1.4869 up to 1.4876 for both TE and TM polarizations under the applied force, which causes a small decrease in the film thickness of up to 0.06 μm. PMMA waveguide films were found not to be birefringent. In contrast, both BCB and PS films exhibit birefringence albeit of opposing signs.

  1. PRISM: A Practical Mealtime Imaging Stereo Matcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, H. K.

    1984-02-01

    A fast stereo-matching algorithm designed to operate in the presence of noise is described. The algorithm has its roots in the zero-crossing theory of Marr and Poggio but does not explicitly match zero-crossing contours. While these contours are for the most part stably tied to fixed surface locations, some fraction is always perturbed significantly by system noise. Zero-crossing contour based matching algorithms tend to I- very sensitive to these local distortions and ar, prevented from operating well on signals with moderate noise levels even though a substantial amount of information may still be present. The dual representation ¬â€?regions of constant sign in the V2G convolution persist much further into the noise than does the local geometry of the zero-crossing contours that delimit them. The PRISM system was designed to test this approach. The initial design task of the implementation has been to rapidly detect obstacles in a robotics work space and determine their rough extents and heights. In this case speed and reliability are important but precision is less critical. The system uses a pair of inexpensive vidicon cameras mounted above the workspace of a PUMA robot manipulator. The digitized video signals are fed to a high speed digital convolver that applies a 322 VG operator to the images at a 106 pixel per second rate. Matching is accomplished in software on a lisp machine with individual near/far tests taking less than i3luth of a second. A 36 by 26 matrix of absolute height measurements - in mm - over a 100 pixel disparity range is produced in 30 seconds from image acquisition to final output. Three scales of resolution are used in a coarse guides fine search. Acknowledgment: This report describes research done at the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of 'Technology Support for the laboratory's artificial intelligence research is provided in part by the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the Department of Defense

  2. Is autoimmune chronic active hepatitis a HCV-related disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrin, S; Craxì, A; Fiorentino, G; Fabiano, C; Provenzano, G; Pinzello, G B; Palazzo, U; Almasio, P; Pagliaro, L

    1991-07-01

    We evaluated the specificity and clinical relevance of anti-hepatitis C virus antibody positivity in 22 HBsAg-negative patients with autoimmune (anti-nuclear, anti-actin or anti-liver-kidney microsomal antibody positive) chronic active hepatitis. An ELISA anti-HCV test and a recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA-HCV) were used. Thirteen patients (59%) were anti-HCV positive and five (23%) anti-HCV negative by both ELISA and RIBA-HCV tests. Four patients (18%) were borderline positive by ELISA (OD less than 1.0), and three of them (all with severe disease) were negative by RIBA. Histologic necroinflammation, AST/ALT and gamma-globulins levels were higher and response to prednisolone treatment was better in RIBA anti-HCV-negative than in anti-HCV-positive cases. We confirmed with both RIBA and ELISA tests the high prevalence of anti-HCV already reported by ELISA in anti-nuclear and anti-liver-kidney microsomal antibody positive chronic active hepatitis. False positive for anti-HCV (i.e., a positive ELISA test not confirmed by RIBA) occurred only among patients with severe disease. Since RIBA-negative subjects showed the best response to corticosteroid, they might represent the only subset of cases of 'true' autoimmune chronic active hepatitis.

  3. HCV replication in PBMC and its influence on interferon therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Zhong Gong; Li-Ying Lai; Yong-Fang Jiang; Yan He; Xian-Shi Su

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study hepatic virus C (HCV) RNA and HCV proteinexpression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)of patients with HCV infection, and explore the relationshipbetween the HCV RNA in the PBMCs and response tointerferon (IFN) therapy.METHODS: Type-specific primers were designed and RT-nested PCR was used to detect the plus- and minus- strandsof HCV RNA in PBMCs of 54 patients with HCV infection;Indirect immunofluorescence assay was applied to identifyHCVNS5 protein expression in PBMCs; 6 month-, 3 MU-IFNregiment was administrated to observe the responses toIFN in 35 chronic hepatitis C patients with different HCVRNA status in PBMCs.RESULTS: HCV plus strand RNA was found in 10 of 19(52.6 %) acute hepatitis C patients and 22 of 35 (62.9 %)chronic hepatitis C patients. HCV minus strand RNA wasdetected in 14 of 35 (40.0 %) chronic hepatitis C patients,but only one patient (5.3 %) with acute HCV infection wasfound to be minus HCV RNA positive. Though no HCV NS5protein expression was found in the examined 10 cases ofacute HCV infection, it was positive in 17 of 20 (85.0 %)chronic hepatitis C patients by indirect immunofluoresenceassay. There are significant differences of positive rate of theminus-strand and HCVNS5 protein between acute and chronichepatitis C groups(u=2.07, P<0.05and u=4.43, P<0.01respectively). The patients with minus-strand HCV RNAshowed a significantly lower 6-month sustained response (SR-6) to IFN compared to those without minus-strand HCVRNAin PBMCs (biologically 14.3 % vs 42.8 %, X2=4.12, P<0.05and virologically 7.1% vs23.9 %, X2=4.24, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: HCV is capable of infecting and replicatingin PBMCs, and HCVNS5 protein was expressed in PBMCs.The patients with minus strand HCV RNA in PBMCs showeda significantly lower 6-month sustained response to IFN,suggesting that minus-strand HCV RNA in PBMCs may beone of the factors influencing response to IFN therapy.

  4. Detection and analysis of HCV-RNA in banked blood%库血HCV-RNA的检测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚萍; 伍继新; 胡兆平; 陶良军; 叶冬青; 黄芬

    2001-01-01

    目的为探索提高库血丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)的检出率.方法采用逆转录套式聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)技术,检测4 530份抗-HCV阴性的库血HCV-RNA.结果 4 530份库血中HCV-RNA阳性55份,阳性率1.21%,其中个体献血者血液2 110份,HCV-RNA阳性40份,阳性率1.90%;无偿献血者血液2 420份,HCV-RNA阳性15份,阳性率0.62%.结论 RT-PCR可用于检测库血HCV-RNA,以减少因输血造成HCV感染.

  5. Animal models for HCV and HBV studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Chemin

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The narrow host range of infection and lack of suitable tissue culture systems for the propagation of hepatitis B and C viruses are limitations that have prevented a more thorough understanding of persistent infection and the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease.

    Despite decades of intensive research and significant progresses in understanding of viral hepatitis, many basic questions and clinical problems still await to be resolved. For example, the HBV cellular receptor and related mechanisms of viral entry have not yet been identified. Little is also known about the function of certain non-structural viral products, such as the hepatitis B e antigen and the X protein, or about the role of excess hepadnavirus subviral particles circulating in the blood stream during infection. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and the role of the immune system in determining the fate of infection are not fully understood.

    The reason for these drawbacks is essentially due to the lack of reliable cell-based in vitro infection systems and, most importantly, convenient animal models.

    This lack of knowledge has been partially overcome for hepatitis B virus (HBV, by the discovery and characterization of HBV-like viruses in wild animals while for hepatitis C virus (HCV, related flaviviruses have been used as surrogate systems.

    Other laboratories have developed transgenic mice that express virus gene products and/or support virus replication. Some HBV transgenic mouse models

  6. Field evaluation of Abbott Real Time HIV-1 Qualitative test for early infant diagnosis using dried blood spots samples in comparison to Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Qual test in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Joy; Omuomo, Kenneth; Anyango, Emily; Kingwara, Leonard; Basiye, Frank; Morwabe, Alex; Shanmugam, Vedapuri; Nguyen, Shon; Sabatier, Jennifer; Zeh, Clement; Ellenberger, Dennis

    2014-08-01

    Timely diagnosis and treatment of infants infected with HIV are critical for reducing infant mortality. High-throughput automated diagnostic tests like Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Qual Test (Roche CAPCTM Qual) and the Abbott Real Time HIV-1 Qualitative (Abbott Qualitative) can be used to rapidly expand early infant diagnosis testing services. In this study, the performance characteristics of the Abbott Qualitative were evaluated using two hundred dried blood spots (DBS) samples (100 HIV-1 positive and 100 HIV-1 negative) collected from infants attending the antenatal facilities in Kisumu, Kenya. The Abbott Qualitative results were compared to the diagnostic testing completed using the Roche CAPCTM Qual in Kenya. The sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott Qualitative were 99.0% (95% CI: 95.0-100.0) and 100.0% (95% CI: 96.0-100.0), respectively, and the overall reproducibility was 98.0% (95% CI: 86.0-100.0). The limits of detection for the Abbott Qualitative and Roche CAPCTM Qual were 56.5 and 6.9copies/mL at 95% CIs (p=0.005), respectively. The study findings demonstrate that the Abbott Qualitative test is a practical option for timely diagnosis of HIV in infants.

  7. Hepatitis C virus (HCV genotype 1 subtype identification in new HCV drug development and future clinical practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Chevaliez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the development of new specific inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV enzymes and functions that may yield different antiviral responses and resistance profiles according to the HCV subtype, correct HCV genotype 1 subtype identification is mandatory in clinical trials for stratification and interpretation purposes and will likely become necessary in future clinical practice. The goal of this study was to identify the appropriate molecular tool(s for accurate HCV genotype 1 subtype determination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A large cohort of 500 treatment-naïve patients eligible for HCV drug trials and infected with either subtype 1a or 1b was studied. Methods based on the sole analysis of the 5' non-coding region (5'NCR by sequence analysis or reverse hybridization failed to correctly identify HCV subtype 1a in 22.8%-29.5% of cases, and HCV subtype 1b in 9.5%-8.7% of cases. Natural polymorphisms at positions 107, 204 and/or 243 were responsible for mis-subtyping with these methods. A real-time PCR method using genotype- and subtype-specific primers and probes located in both the 5'NCR and the NS5B-coding region failed to correctly identify HCV genotype 1 subtype in approximately 10% of cases. The second-generation line probe assay, a reverse hybridization assay that uses probes targeting both the 5'NCR and core-coding region, correctly identified HCV subtypes 1a and 1b in more than 99% of cases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In the context of new HCV drug development, HCV genotyping methods based on the exclusive analysis of the 5'NCR should be avoided. The second-generation line probe assay is currently the best commercial assay for determination of HCV genotype 1 subtypes 1a and 1b in clinical trials and practice.

  8. Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy with Right-Angle Prism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongning Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A right-angle prism was used to enhance the acoustic signal of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS system. The incident laser beam was parallelly inverted by the right-angle prism and passed through the gap between two tuning fork prongs again to produce another acoustic excitation. Correspondingly, two pairs of rigid metal tubes were used as acoustic resonators with resonance enhancement factors of 16 and 12, respectively. The QEPAS signal was enhanced by a factor of 22.4 compared with the original signal, which was acquired without resonators or a prism. In addition, the system noise was reduced a little with double resonators due to the Q factor decrease. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR was greatly improved. Additionally, a normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient (NNEA of 5.8 × 10−8 W·cm−1·Hz−1/2 was achieved for water vapor detection in the atmosphere.

  9. Interpretation of the Faust equation for a conventional refracting prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, R. D.; Ghodgaonkar, A. M.; Gokhale, V. D.

    1995-10-01

    The Faust formula for a conventional refracting prism is interpreted in terms of the angle of incidence ( i1) and the angle of deviation (δ). Three new possibilities emerge, namely: (a) keeping the angle of incidence ( i1) constant and varying the angle of deviation (δ); (b) keeping the angle of deviation constant and varying the angle of incidence ( i1); (c) modification of the closed forms of Murty's expression and its equivalence to (b). Using paraxial approximation and keeping the angle of incidence ( i1) and angle of deviation (δ) constant we obtain a relation between the refractive index and the base length ( b) of a prism and, in principle, this is equivalent to the Marcuse variation for optical fibres. The condition for a Littrow prism, as well as for polarized radiation is derived. An expression to estimate the spectral bandwidth (SBW) of the instrument is also derived. Experimental values of refractive index at different wavelengths are within confidence limits.

  10. The PRISM4 (mid-Piacenzian) Palaeoenvironmental Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, Harry; Dolan, Aisling; Rowley, David; Moucha, Robert; Forte, Alessandro M.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Pound, Matthew; Salzmann, Ulrich; Robinson, Marci; Chandler, Mark; Foley, Kevin; Haywood, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The mid-Piacenzian is known as a period of relative warmth when compared to the present day. A comprehensive understanding of conditions during the Piacenzian serves as both a conceptual model and a source for boundary conditions as well as means of verification of global climate model experiments. In this paper we present the PRISM4 reconstruction, a paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the mid-Piacenzian (approximately 3 Ma) containing data for paleogeography, land and sea ice, sea-surface temperature, vegetation, soils, and lakes. Our retrodicted paleogeography takes into account glacial isostatic adjustments and changes in dynamic topography. Soils and lakes, both significant as land surface features, are introduced to the PRISM reconstruction for the first time. Sea-surface temperature and vegetation reconstructions are unchanged but now have confidence assessments. The PRISM4 reconstruction is being used as boundary condition data for the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project Phase 2 (PlioMIP2) experiments.

  11. The PRISM4 (mid-Piacenzian) paleoenvironmental reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, Harry J.; Dolan, Aisling M.; Rowley, David; Moucha, Robert; Forte, Alessandro; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Pound, Matthew; Salzmann, Ulrich; Robinson, Marci M.; Chandler, Mark; Foley, Kevin M.; Haywood, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    The mid-Piacenzian is known as a period of relative warmth when compared to the present day. A comprehensive understanding of conditions during the Piacenzian serves as both a conceptual model and a source for boundary conditions as well as means of verification of global climate model experiments. In this paper we present the PRISM4 reconstruction, a paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the mid-Piacenzian ( ∼ 3 Ma) containing data for paleogeography, land and sea ice, sea-surface temperature, vegetation, soils, and lakes. Our retrodicted paleogeography takes into account glacial isostatic adjustments and changes in dynamic topography. Soils and lakes, both significant as land surface features, are introduced to the PRISM reconstruction for the first time. Sea-surface temperature and vegetation reconstructions are unchanged but now have confidence assessments. The PRISM4 reconstruction is being used as boundary condition data for the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project Phase 2 (PlioMIP2) experiments.

  12. Molecular epidemiology of HCV monoinfection and HIV/HCV coinfection in injection drug users in Liuzhou, Southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV mono-infection and HCV/HIV (human immunodeficiency virus co-infection are growing problems in injection drug users (IDU. Their prevalence and genotypic patterns vary with geographic locations. Access to harm reduction measures is opening up opportunities for improving the HIV/HCV profiling of IDU in China, where IDUs account for a significant proportion of the two infections especially in the southern part of the country. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross sectional study was conducted. Through the Liuzhou Methadone Clinic, a total of 117 injection drug users (IDUs were recruited from Guangxi, Southern China. A majority of the IDUs (96% were HCV antibody positive, of which 21% were HIV infected. Unlike HCV monoinfection, there was spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of HIV/HCV coinfection, the latter also characterized by a higher prevalence of needle-sharing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that genotype 6a was predominant in the study population. There were shorter genetic distances among the 6a sequences compared to the other HCV subtypes-1a, 3a, and 3b. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggested that HIV and HCV were introduced at around the same time to the IDU populations in Southern China, followed by their differential spread as determined by the biologic characteristics of the virus and the intensity of behavioural risk. This pattern is different from that in other South East Asian countries where HCV infections have probably predated HIV.

  13. Superior outcomes in HIV-positive kidney transplant patients compared with HCV-infected or HIV/HCV-coinfected recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawinski, Deirdre; Forde, Kimberly A; Eddinger, Kevin; Troxel, Andrea B; Blumberg, Emily; Tebas, Pablo; Abt, Peter L; Bloom, Roy D

    2015-08-01

    The prerequisite for an 'undetectable' HIV viral load has restricted access to transplantation for HIV-infected kidney recipients. However, HCV-infected recipients, owing to the historic limitations of HCV therapy in patients with renal disease, are commonly viremic at transplant and have universal access. To compare the effect of HIV, HCV, and HIV/HCV coinfection on kidney transplant patient and allograft outcomes, we performed a retrospective study of kidney recipients transplanted from January 1996 through December 2013. In multivariable analysis, patient (hazard ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.66-1.24) and allograft survival (0.60, 40-0.88) in 492 HIV patients did not differ significantly from the 117,791 patient-uninfected reference group. This was superior to outcomes in both the 5605 patient HCV group for death (1.44, 1.33-1.56) and graft loss (1.43, 1.31-1.56), as well as the 147 patient HIV/HCV coinfected group for death (2.26, 1.45-3.52) and graft loss (2.59, 1.60-4.19). HIV infection did not adversely affect recipient or allograft survival and was associated with superior outcomes compared with both HCV infection and HIV/HCV coinfection in this population. Thus, pretransplant viral eradication and/or immediate posttransplant eradication should be studied as potential strategies to improve posttransplant outcomes in HCV-infected kidney recipients.

  14. Soluble egg antigen of Schistosoma Haematobium induces HCV replication in PBMC from patients with chronic HCV infection

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background This study was conducted to examine, in vitro , the effect of soluble egg antigen (SEA) of S. haematobium on intracellular HCV RNA load in peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC) as well as on cell proliferation in patients with chronic HCV infection. Methods PBMC from 26 patients with chronic HCV infection were cultured for 72 hours in presence and absence of 50 μg SEA/ml medium. Intracellular HCV RNA quantification of plus and minus strands was assessed before and after stim...

  15. Polarization properties of retroreflecting right-angle prisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, R M A; Khanfar, H K

    2008-01-20

    The cumulative retardance Delta(t) introduced between the p and the s orthogonal linear polarizations after two successive total internal reflections (TIRs) inside a right-angle prism at complementary angles phi and 90 degrees - phi is calculated as a function of phi and prism refractive index n. Quarter-wave retardation (QWR) is obtained on retroreflection with minimum angular sensitivity when n=(sqr rt 2+1)(1/2)=1.55377 and phi =45 degrees. A QWR prism made of N-BAK4 Schott glass (n=1.55377 at lambda=1303.5 nm) has good spectral response (<5 degrees retardance error) over the 0.5-2 microm visible and near-IR spectral range. A ZnS-coated right-angle Si prism achieves QWR with an error of < +/- 2.5 degrees in the 9-11 microm (CO(2) laser) IR spectral range. This device functions as a linear-to-circular polarization transformer and can be tuned to exact QWR at any desired wavelength (within a given range) by tilting the prism by a small angle around phi =45 degrees. A PbTe right-angle prism introduces near-half-wave retardation (near-HWR) with a < or =2% error over a broad (4< or =lambda< or =12.5 microm) IR spectral range. This device also has a wide field of view and its interesting polarization properties are discussed. A compact (aspect ratio of 2), in-line, HWR is described that uses a chevron dual Fresnel rhomb with four TIRs at the same angle phi =45 degrees. Finally, a useful algorithm is presented that transforms a three-term Sellmeier dispersion relation of a transparent optical material to an equivalent cubic equation that can be solved for the wavelengths at which the refractive index assumes any desired value.

  16. Spontaneous viral clearance, viral load, and genotype distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in HIV-infected patients with anti-HCV antibodies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soriano, Vincent; Mocroft, Amanda; Rockstroh, Juergen

    2008-01-01

    for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) were more likely to have spontaneously cleared HCV than were those negative for HBsAg (43% vs. 21%; aOR, 2.91 [95% CI, 1.94-4.38]). Of patients with HCV viremia, 786 (53%) carried HCV genotype 1, and 53 (4%), 440 (29%), and 217 (15%) carried HCV genotype 2, 3, and 4...... in IDUs and, conversely, was less common in HBsAg-positive patients. Of the patients with HCV viremia analyzed, 53% were found to carry HCV genotype 1, and this genotype was associated with greater serum HCV RNA levels....

  17. Modeling HCV Disease in Animals: Virology, Immunology and Pathogenesis of HCV and GBV-B Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordelia eManickam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection has become a global public health burden costing billions of dollars in health care annually. Even with rapidly advancing scientific technologies, this disease still looms large due to a lack of vaccines and affordable treatment options. The immune correlates of protection and predisposing factors towards chronicity remain major obstacles to development of HCV vaccines and immunotherapeutics due, at least in part, to lack of a tangible infection animal model. This review discusses the currently available animal models for HCV disease, with a primary focus on GB virus B (GBV-B infection of New World primates that recapitulates the dual hepacivirus phenotypes of acute viral clearance and chronic pathologic disease. HCV and GBV-B are also closely phylogenetically related, and advances in characterization of the immune systems of New World primates have already led to the use of this model for drug testing and vaccine trials. Herein, we discuss the benefits and caveats of the GBV-B infection model and discuss potential avenues for future development of novel vaccines and immunotherapies.

  18. Transmission and Distribution of Optical Field in Prism Coupler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, C Q; Chen, M [College of Physics and Electronics Information, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006 (China); Liu, J; Wan, Z M; Luo, Z M [College of Information and Communication Engineering, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006 (China); Tian, P, E-mail: namecqh@yahoo.com.cn [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Transmission and distribution characteristics of optical field in prism coupler are studies, and the phase matching function of prism coupler is deduced based on coupled wave theory. It is shown that the stable light field distribution and mode pattern are determined by its own geometric and dielectric parameters, but have nothing to do with the categories of incident light sources. It is also found that the coupling effect would generate between waveguides through evanescent field. Our numerical simulation is based on the finite difference time domain method with perfectly matched layer absorbing boundary condition. The simulation program is compiled in MATLAB. The simulation results are analyzed carefully.

  19. Assessment of HCV genotypes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiongfen; Yao, Yufeng; Shen, Yunsong; Cao, Danfeng; Li, Yalin; Zhang, Shuqiong; Cun, Wei; Sun, Mingbo; Yu, Jiankun; Shi, Li; Dong, Shaozhong

    2016-12-23

    Recently, we reported that the frequency of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and subtypes has rapidly changed among intravenous drug users (IDUs) in Yunnan Province over the last 5 years; this is especially true for subtype 6a which has increased in frequency from 5 to 15%. Here, we assessed 120 HCV-positive plasma samples from the general population (GP). HCV NS5B fragments were amplified and sequenced by PCR. We identified four HCV genotypes (1, 2, 3 and 6) and seven HCV subtypes (1b, 2a, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6n, and 6k) in this population. Genotype 3 was predominant, with a distribution frequency of 0.484, followed by genotype 1 (0.283), genotype 6 (0.133) and genotype 2 (0.100). HCV subtypes 3b (frequency 0.292) and 1b (frequency 0.283) were the most common subtypes. A comparison of the current data with previous results reported for IDUs showed that the distribution frequencies of genotypes 1, 2 and 6 were significantly different between patients in the GP and IDUs (P HCV subtypes, the distribution frequencies of 1b, 2a, 6a, and 6n were significantly different between patients in the GP and IDU groups (P HCV subtype 6a strains isolated from IDUs and the GP were intermixed and not separately clustered. HCV subtype 6a was predominant not only among IDUs but also among those in the GP in the Guangdong Province and Vietnam. However, HCV subtype 6a was predominant only among IDUs and not among those in the GP in the Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces. Our results indicate that the HCV subtype 6a could rapidly spread across China.

  20. HCV抗原、HCV抗体及HCV-RNA联合检测与ALT的相关性分析%HCV antigen and antibody of HCV and HCV-RNA joint detection and correlation analysis of ALT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周珍娟

    2016-01-01

    目的 探究分析HCV抗原、HCV抗体及HCV-RNA联合检测与ALT的相关性.方法 随机选取我院在2013年2月-2015年2月期间接收的120例HCV-RNA阳性丙肝患者,采用不同的方法分别检查患者丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)的含量水平、HCV抗原(HCV-cAg)、HCV抗体(HCV-Ab)以及HCV-RNA,并对所有数据进行统计分析.结果 120例HCV-RNA阳性丙肝患者中HCV抗原的阳性率为80.0%,HCV抗体的阳性率为95.0%,ALT含量的变化和HCV-RNA载体含量之间没有明显的相关性(P>0.05),HCV-RNA载体含量越高,则HCV抗体的阳性率越高,HCV-RNA载体载体含量的升高会引起ALT异常率的升高,两者之间呈正相关(P<0.05).结论 对于HCV-RNA阳性丙肝患者中HCV抗原、HCV抗体及HCV-RNA联合检测可进一步明确丙肝病毒的感染力,对患者临床病情具有一定的评估作用,同时结合ALT可对患者治疗效果提供一定的参考,值得临床应用.

  1. Study correlation between HCV-RNA quantity and alanine transaminase%丙肝患者HCV-RNA病毒载量和ALT浓度的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宽; 王敏

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究丙肝患者血清HCV-RNA含量和ALT浓度的关系.方法 采用荧光定量PCR法检测296例疑似HCV感染患者的血清HCV-RNA,ELISA法检测抗-HCV,全自动生化分析仪测定ALT.结果 296例血清标本中, HCV-RNA和抗-HCV均阳性155例,HCV-RNA阳性而抗-HCV阴性的9例,HCV-RNA阴性而抗-HCV阳性的67例.HCV-RNA含量和ALT浓度水平相关性不显著.结论 HCV-RNA和抗-HCV的检测是诊断HCV-RNA感染的重要指标.但HCV-RNA含量和ALT浓度水平无明显相关.

  2. HCV Antibody Response and Genotype Distribution in Different Areas and Races of China

    OpenAIRE

    Leili Jia, Jiyun Yu, Hongbin Song, Xuelin Liu, Weina Ma, Yuanyong Xu, Chuanfu Zhang, Shicun Dong, Qiao Li

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) heterogeneity accounts for the failure of effective vaccine development and the lack of successful anti-viral therapy in some patients. Little is known about the immune response to HCV peptides and the region or race specific genotypes in China. The objective of this study was to characterize HCV antibody immune response to HCV peptides and HCV genotypes in different regions and races of China. A total of 363 serum samples were collected from HCV carriers in 6 regions ...

  3. HCV-RNA positivity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with chronic HCV-infection: does it really mean viral replication?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Volker Meier; Sabine Mihm; Perdita Wietzke-Braun; Guliano Ramadori

    2001-01-01

    AIM To analyze the association of HCV-RNA with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)and to answer the question whether HCV-RNA positivity in PBMC is due to viral replication,METHODS HCV-RNA was monitored in serumand PBMC preparations from 15 patients with chronic HCV infection before, during and after an IFN-α therapy using a nested RT/ PCRtechnique. In a second approach, PBMC from healthy donors were incubated in HCV positive plasma.RESULTS In the IFN-α responding patients,HCV-RNA disappeared first from total RNApreparations of PBMC and then from serum. In contrast, in relapsing patients, HCV-RNAreappeared first in serum and then in PBMC. A quantitative analysis of the HCV-RNAconcentration in serum was performed before and after transition from detectable to nondetectable HCV-RNA in PBMC-RNA and vice versa. When HCV-RNA was detectable in PBMCpreparations, the HCV concentration in serum was significantly higher than the serum HCV-RNA concentration when HCV-RNA in PBMC was not detectable. Furthermore, at no time during the observation period was HCV specific RNA observed in PBMC, if HCV-RNA in serum was under the detection limit. Incubation of PBMCfrom healthy donors with several dilutions of HCV positive plasma for two hours showed a concentration-dependent PCR-positivity for HCV-RNA in reisolated PBMC.CONCLUSION The detectability of HCV-RNA in total RNA from PBMC seems to depend on the HCV concentration in serum. Contamination or passive adsorption by circulating virus could be the reason for detection of HCV-RNA in PBMCpreparations of chronically infected patients.

  4. HCV genotyping from NGS short reads and its application in genotype detection from HCV mixed infected plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ping; Stevens, Richard; Wei, Bo; Lahser, Fred; Howe, Anita Y M; Klappenbach, Joel A; Marton, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Genotyping of hepatitis C virus (HCV) plays an important role in the treatment of HCV. As new genotype-specific treatment options become available, it has become increasingly important to have accurate HCV genotype and subtype information to ensure that the most appropriate treatment regimen is selected. Most current genotyping methods are unable to detect mixed genotypes from two or more HCV infections. Next generation sequencing (NGS) allows for rapid and low cost mass sequencing of viral genomes and provides an opportunity to probe the viral population from a single host. In this paper, the possibility of using short NGS reads for direct HCV genotyping without genome assembly was evaluated. We surveyed the publicly-available genetic content of three HCV drug target regions (NS3, NS5A, NS5B) in terms of whether these genes contained genotype-specific regions that could predict genotype. Six genotypes and 38 subtypes were included in this study. An automated phylogenetic analysis based HCV genotyping method was implemented and used to assess different HCV target gene regions. Candidate regions of 250-bp each were found for all three genes that have enough genetic information to predict HCV genotypes/subtypes. Validation using public datasets shows 100% genotyping accuracy. To test whether these 250-bp regions were sufficient to identify mixed genotypes, we developed a random primer-based method to sequence HCV plasma samples containing mixtures of two HCV genotypes in different ratios. We were able to determine the genotypes without ambiguity and to quantify the ratio of the abundances of the mixed genotypes in the samples. These data provide a proof-of-concept that this random primed, NGS-based short-read genotyping approach does not need prior information about the viral population and is capable of detecting mixed viral infection.

  5. Lymphocytes and liver fibrosis in HIV & HCV coinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feuth, M.

    2014-01-01

    Coinfection with HIV has an important impact on immunity against hepatitis C virus (HCV). In the present dissertation, phenotypes of lymphocytes derived from the peripheral blood of HCV-infected patients were studied into detail, with special attention to changes in phenotype of lymphocytes associat

  6. HCV-related liver cancer in people with haemophilia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, K.; Haagsma, E. B.

    2012-01-01

    . The topic of this monograph is liver cancer associated with chronic HCV infection. We start with some background information on chronic HCV infection and its long-term sequelae, one of which is liver cancer. The rest of the article is concerned with liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

  7. Socioeconomic status in HCV infected patients - risk and prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Lars Haukali Hvass; Osler, Merete; Jepsen, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection or a prognostic factor following infection.......It is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection or a prognostic factor following infection....

  8. Humanized-VHH Transbodies that Inhibit HCV Protease and Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surasak Jittavisutthikul

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a need for safe and broadly effective anti-HCV agents that can cope with genetic multiplicity and mutations of the virus. In this study, humanized-camel VHHs to genotype 3a HCV serine protease were produced and were linked molecularly to a cell penetrating peptide, penetratin (PEN. Human hepatic (Huh7 cells transfected with the JFH-1 RNA of HCV genotype 2a and treated with the cell penetrable nanobodies (transbodies had a marked reduction of the HCV RNA intracellularly and in their culture fluids, less HCV foci inside the cells and less amounts of HCV core antigen in culture supernatants compared with the infected cells cultured in the medium alone. The PEN-VHH-treated-transfected cells also had up-regulation of the genes coding for the host innate immune response (TRIF, TRAF3, IRF3, IL-28B and IFN-β, indicating that the cell penetrable nanobodies rescued the host innate immune response from the HCV mediated-suppression. Computerized intermolecular docking revealed that the VHHs bound to residues of the protease catalytic triad, oxyanion loop and/or the NS3 N-terminal portion important for non-covalent binding of the NS4A protease cofactor protein. The so-produced transbodies have high potential for testing further as a candidate for safe, broadly effective and virus mutation tolerable anti-HCV agents.

  9. 142例慢性丙型肝炎患者血清HCV-cag和HCV RNA检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张效本; 阮秀花; 田葱

    2013-01-01

      目的探讨丙型肝炎病毒核心抗原(HCV-cag)检测与慢性丙型肝炎患者血清HCV RNA的相关性。方法采用ELISA法检测血清HCV-cag,采用FQ-PCR法检测HCV RNA。结果在142例CHC患者血清中,HCV-cag和HCV RNA阳性率分别为45.1%和43.0%(P>0.05);两种标志物均为阳性者58例(95.1%),均为阴性者75例(92.6%);81例HCV RNA阴性血清HCV-cag阳性6例(7.4%),而HCV RNA阳性血清HCV-cag阳性率大于85%,不同HCV RNA载量间阳性率无显著性差异。结论 HCV-cag与HCV RNA检测结果有一定的相关性。在CHC诊疗中,HCV-cag检测可作为判断HCV感染和病毒复制的指标,但不能替代HCV RNA检测。

  10. HCV-Induced Oxidative Stress: Battlefield-Winning Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebbani, Khadija; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko

    2016-01-01

    About 150 million people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The persistence of the infection is controlled by several mechanisms including the induction of oxidative stress. HCV relies on this strategy to redirect lipid metabolism machinery and escape immune response. The 3β-hydroxysterol Δ24-reductase (DHCR24) is one of the newly discovered host markers of oxidative stress. This protein, as HCV-induced oxidative stress responsive protein, may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of HCV chronic infection and associated liver diseases, when aberrantly expressed. The sustained expression of DHCR24 in response to HCV-induced oxidative stress results in suppression of nuclear p53 activity by blocking its acetylation and increasing its interaction with MDM2 in the cytoplasm leading to its degradation, which may induce hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:27293514

  11. An overview of HCV molecular biology, replication and immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaz Zafar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV causes acute and chronic hepatitis which can eventually lead to permanent liver damage, hepatocellular carcinoma and death. Currently, there is no vaccine available for prevention of HCV infection due to high degree of strain variation. The current treatment of care, Pegylated interferon α in combination with ribavirin is costly, has significant side effects and fails to cure about half of all infections. In this review, we summarize molecular virology, replication and immune responses against HCV and discussed how HCV escape from adaptive and humoral immune responses. This advance knowledge will be helpful for development of vaccine against HCV and discovery of new medicines both from synthetic chemistry and natural sources.

  12. Budding Architects: Exploring the Designs of Pyramids and Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Aisling; Hourigan, Mairéad

    2015-01-01

    The context of students as architects is used to examine the similarities and differences between prisms and pyramids. Leavy and Hourigan use the Van Hiele Model as a tool to support teachers to develop expectations for differentiating geometry in the classroom using practical examples.

  13. THz Photonic Band-Gap Prisms Fabricated by Fiber Drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Stefan F.; Xu, Lipeng; Stecher, Matthias;

    2012-01-01

    We suggest a novel form of polymeric based 3D photonic crystal prisms for THz frequencies which could be fabricated using a standard fiber drawing technique. The structures are modeled and designed using a finite element analyzing technique. Using this simulation software we theoretically study...

  14. Prism adaptation changes the subjective proprioceptive localization of the hands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scarpina, Federica; Van Der Stigchel, Stefan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/29880977X; Nijboer, Tanja Cornelia Wilhelmina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304832421; Dijkerman, Hendrik Christiaan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829757

    2015-01-01

    Prism adaptation involves a proprioceptive, a visual and a motor component. As the existing paradigms are not able to distinguish between these three components, the contribution of the proprioceptive component remains unclear. In the current study, a proprioceptive judgement task, in the absence of

  15. Prism adaptation improves postural imbalance in neglect patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Olthoff, Liselot; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Visser-Meily, Johanna M a

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have found a negative relation between neglect and postural imbalance. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of a single session of prism adaptation on balance [i.e. mediolateral and anteroposterior center of pressure (CoP)] and postural sway (i.e. mean varian

  16. A Precision Variable, Double Prism Attenuator for CO(2) Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseki, T; Saito, S

    1971-01-01

    A precision, double prism attenuator for CO(2) lasers, calibrated by its gap capacitance, was constructed to evaluate its possible use as a standard for attenuation measurements. It was found that the accuracy was about 0.1 dB with a dynamic range of about 40 dB.

  17. Simple Method For Testing Of The 90° Angle Of A Reflecting Prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodgaonkar, A. M.; Tiwari, R. D.; Ramani, K.

    1982-12-01

    A simple method for testing the 90° angle of a reflecting prism by placing two prisms in contact with one another on a standard test plate and counting the number of fringes is outlined. An angle accuracy of less than a second for the angle of a 90° reflecting prism has been obtained.

  18. Phase boundary of the hexagonal-prism superconducting network in a magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金绍维; 李伟; 易佑民; 甄胜来; 缪胜清

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we systematically study the phase boundary Tc(H ) of a hexagonal-prism superconducting network inan external magnetic field H of arbitrary magnitude and direction. The result indicates that the phase boundary of thehexagonal-prism superconducting circuit varies more sharply than that of the cubic circuit. The potential applicationsof the hexagonal-prism superconducting circuit are also discussed.

  19. The HCV Synthesis Project: Scope, methodology, and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheinmann Roberta

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hepatitis C virus (HCV is hyper-endemic in injecting drug users. There is also excess HCV among non-injection drug users who smoke, snort, or sniff heroin, cocaine, crack, or methamphetamine. Methods To summarize the research literature on HCV in drug users and identify gaps in knowledge, we conducted a synthesis of the relevant research carried out between 1989 and 2006. Using rigorous search methods, we identified and extracted data from published and unpublished reports of HCV among drug users. We designed a quality assurance system to ensure accuracy and consistency in all phases of the project. We also created a set of items to assess study design quality in each of the reports we included. Results We identified 629 reports containing HCV prevalence rates, incidence rates and/or genotype distribution among injecting or non-injecting drug user populations published between January 1989 and December 2006. The majority of reports were from Western Europe (41%, North America (26%, Asia (11% and Australia/New Zealand (10%. We also identified reports from Eastern Europe, South America, the Middle East, and the Caribbean. The number of publications reporting HCV rates in drug users increased dramatically between 1989 and 2006 to 27–52 reports per year after 1998. Conclusion The data collection and quality assurance phases of the HCV Synthesis Project have been completed. Recommendations for future research on HCV in drug users have come out of our data collection phase. Future research reports can enhance their contributions to our understanding of HCV etiology by clearly defining their drug user participants with respect to type of drug and route of administration. Further, the use of standard reporting methods for risk factors would enable data to be combined across a larger set of studies; this is especially important for HCV seroconversion studies which suffer from small sample sizes and low power to examine risk

  20. Lower Ribavirin Plasma Concentrations in HCV/HIV-Coinfected Patients Than in HCV-Monoinfected Patients Despite Similar Dosage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deenen, M.J.; Kanter, C.T.M.M. de; Dofferhoff, A.S.; Grintjes-Huisman, K.J.T.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Fleuren, H.W.; Gisolf, E.H.; Koopmans, P.P.; Drenth, J.P.H.; Burger, D.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV)/HIV-coinfected patients respond worse to dual therapy with ribavirin (RBV)/peginterferon compared with HCV-monoinfected patients. Several trials found that lower RBV plasma concentrations are associated with impaired virological response rates. The aim of this stu

  1. May some HCV genotype 1 patients still benefit from dual therapy? The role of very early HCV kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tontodonati, Monica; Cento, Valeria; Polilli, Ennio; Colabattista, Cecilia; Cascella, Raffaella; Sciotti, Mariapina; Di Giammartino, Dante; Trave, Francesca; Di Maio, Velia Chiara; Monarca, Roberto; Di Candilo, Francesco; Prinapori, Roberta; Rastrelli, Elena; Vecchiet, Jacopo; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Manzoli, Lamberto; Giardina, Emiliano; Perno, Carlo Federico; Parruti, Giustino

    2015-10-01

    When treating HCV patients with conventional dual therapy in the current context of rapidly evolving HCV therapy, outcome prediction is crucial and HCV kinetics, as early as 48 hours after the start of treatment, may play a major role. We aimed at clarifying the role of HCV very early kinetics. We consecutively enrolled mono-infected HCV patients at 7 treatment sites in Central Italy and evaluated the predictive value of logarithmic decay of HCV RNA 48 hours after the start of dual therapy (Delta48). Among the 171 enrolled patients, 144 were evaluable for early and sustained virological response (EVR, SVR) prediction; 108 (75.0%) reached EVR and 84 (58.3%) reached SVR. Mean Delta 48 was 1.68 ± 1.22 log10 IU/ml, being higher in patients with SVR and EVR. Those genotype-1 patients experiencing a Delta 48 >2 logs showed a very high chance of success (100% positive predictive value), even in the absence of rapid virological response (RVR). Evaluation of very early HCV kinetics helped identify a small but significant proportion of genotype-1 patients (close to 10%) in addition to those identified with RVR, who could be treated with dual therapy in spite of not reaching RVR. In the current European context, whereby sustainability of HCV therapy is a crucial issue, conventional dual therapy may still play a reasonable role in patients with good tolerance and early prediction of success.

  2. Study of dose calculation on breast brachytherapy using prism TPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendriani, Yoza; Haryanto, Freddy [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, FMIPA Institut Teknologi Bandung, Physics Buildings, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    PRISM is one of non-commercial Treatment Planning System (TPS) and is developed at the University of Washington. In Indonesia, many cancer hospitals use expensive commercial TPS. This study aims to investigate Prism TPS which been applied to the dose distribution of brachytherapy by taking into account the effect of source position and inhomogeneities. The results will be applicable for clinical Treatment Planning System. Dose calculation has been implemented for water phantom and CT scan images of breast cancer using point source and line source. This study used point source and line source and divided into two cases. On the first case, Ir-192 seed source is located at the center of treatment volume. On the second case, the source position is gradually changed. The dose calculation of every case performed on a homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantom with dimension 20 × 20 × 20 cm{sup 3}. The inhomogeneous phantom has inhomogeneities volume 2 × 2 × 2 cm{sup 3}. The results of dose calculations using PRISM TPS were compared to literature data. From the calculation of PRISM TPS, dose rates show good agreement with Plato TPS and other study as published by Ramdhani. No deviations greater than ±4% for all case. Dose calculation in inhomogeneous and homogenous cases show similar result. This results indicate that Prism TPS is good in dose calculation of brachytherapy but not sensitive for inhomogeneities. Thus, the dose calculation parameters developed in this study were found to be applicable for clinical treatment planning of brachytherapy.

  3. HCV -RNA 与 HCV -Ab、ALT、TP 相关性研究%The Relativity Analysis of HCV-RNA, HCV-Ab, ALT and TP from Hepatitis C Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昕; 管世鹤

    2015-01-01

    探讨丙型肝炎患者体内 HCV -RNA、HCV -Ab、ALT 和 TP 间的相互关系。采用ELISA检测708例HCV-Ab阳性的丙型肝炎疑似患者,以RT-PCR检测血清HCV-RNA载量,全自动生化仪定量检测ALT和TP。 HCV-Ab表达水平与HCV-RNA载量有关,HCV-RNA载量与ALT异常率呈正相关性,但HCV-RNA载量与ALT含量无相关性,与TP含量亦无相关性。708例HCV-Ab阳性患者中男性多于女性,差异无统计学意义( P>0.05);40岁以上患者比例多于40岁以下患者比例,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。 HCV-RNA与HCV-Ab、ALT具有一定相关性,丙型肝炎以40岁以上男性患者多见,应引起临床重视。%In order to investigate the relativity among HCV -RNA, HCV-Ab, ALT and TP in hepatitis C pa-tients, 708 suspected hepatitis C patients with HCV -Ab positive were checked by using the ELISA method , with real-time detecting HCV-RNA in those bloods by Fluorescentrt -PCR, ALT and TP detected by automat-ic biochemical analyzer .The test results showed that HCV -Ab expression level is related with HCV -RNA con-tent.HCV-RNA content is positively correlated with abnormal rate of ALT .But HCV-RNA content is not cor-related with ALT content and TP content .Among the 708 patients, the HCV-Ab positive percentage of men is more than women , and there is no statistically significant difference ( P>0 .05 );the ratio of the ≥40 years old patients is greater than <40 years old patients, and the difference is statistically significant (P<0.05).HCV-RNA, HCV-Ab and ALT have certain relativity .Among hepatitis C patients men of over 40 years old are more , and should be paid more clinical attention .

  4. Significance of the hepatitis C virus (HCV core antigen as an alternative plasma marker of active HCV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel HDJ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the role of core antigen (Ortho trak-C assay as a marker of active HCV infection in comparison to HCV RNA as detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Methods: This evaluation was carried out during January 2000 to December 2003 in HCV infected individuals who were treatment naοve or were on anti-viral therapy. Additionally, sequential plasma samples from patients on clinical follow-up were included in this study. A total of 167 samples from 61 patients were tested by trak-C and RT-PCR. HCV RNA detection was achieved by a RT-PCR. Trak-C assay results were also compared in a limited proportion of these samples with known HCV viral load and genotype. Results: Of 167 samples tested, 56.9% were RNA positive and 43.1% were RNA negative while 50.3% were trak-C positive and 49.7% were trak-C negative, yielding a sensitivity of 85.3% and a specificity of 95.8% for the trak-C assay (Kappa co-efficient = 0.8. The concentration of HCVcAg and HCV RNA showed significant correlation (n=38, r=0.334, P =0.04. The trak-C assay detected the most prevalent HCV genotypes in India without significant difference ( P =0.335. The difference between mean absorbance values of HCV RNA positive samples compared to HCV RNA negative samples in the trak-C assay was highly significant ( P < 0.000. Qualitative results of trak-C assay and RT-PCR were comparable in 93% of follow-up samples. Conclusions: Trak-C assay can be recommended for confirmation of HCV infection and follow-up in laboratories with resource-poor facilities.

  5. HCV subtype characterization among injection drug users: implication for a crucial role of Zhenjiang in HCV transmission in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiyu Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HCV transmission is closely associated with drug-trafficking routes in China. However, the transmission route of HCV in Eastern China remains unclear. Here, we investigate the role of Zhenjiang city of Jiangsu province, an important transportation hub linking Shanghai with other regions of China, in HCV transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 141 whole blood samples were collected from injection drug users (IDUs in Zhenjiang and then tested for HCV infection. Of them, 115 HCV positive plasmas were subjected to RNA extraction, RT-PCR amplification, and sequencing. The subtype characterization and the evolutionary origin of HCV strains circulating in Zhenjiang were determined using polygenetic or phylogeographic analyses. Seven HCV subtypes 1b, 2a, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6e and 6n were detected among Zhenjiang IDUs, showing a complex HCV epidemic. The most predominant subtypes were 3a (38% and 1b (26.8%. Among these subtypes, subtypes 3b, 6n and 6e originated from Southwestern China (i.e., Yunnan and/or Guangxi, subtypes 2a and 6a from Southern China (i.e., Guangdong, subtype 1b from Central (i.e., Henan and Northwestern (i.e., Xinjiang China, and subtype 3a from Southwestern (i.e., Yunnan and Northwestern (i.e., Xinjiang China. From Zhenjiang, subtypes 1b and 2a were further spread to Eastern (i.e., Shanghai and Northern (i.e., Beijing China, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The mixing of seven HCV subtypes in Zhenjiang from all quarters of China indicates that as an important middle station, Zhenjiang plays a crucial role in HCV transmission, just as it is important in population migration between other regions of China and Eastern China.

  6. Expression of core antigen of HCV genotype 3a and its evaluation as screening agent for HCV infection in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman Irshad U

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pakistan is facing a threat from hepatitis C infection which is increasing at an alarming rate throughout the country. More specific and sensitive screening assays are needed to timely and correctly diagnose this infection. Methods After RNA extraction from specimen (HCV-3a, cDNA was synthesized that was used to amplify full length core gene of HCV 3a. After verification through PCR, DNA sequencing and BLAST, a properly oriented positive recombinant plasmid for core gene was digested with proper restriction enzymes to release the target gene which was then inserted downstream of GST encoding DNA in the same open reading frame at proper restriction sites in multiple cloning site of pGEX4t2 expression vector. Recombinant expression vector for each gene was transformed in E. coli BL21 (DE3 and induced with IPTG for recombinant fusion protein production that was then purified through affinity chromatography. Western blot and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA were used to detect immuno-reactivity of the recombinant protein. Results The HCV core antigen produced in prokaryotic expression system was reactive and used to develop a screening assay. After validating the positivity (100% and negativity (100% of in-house anti-HCV screening assay through a standardized panel of 200 HCV positive and 200 HCV negative sera, a group of 120 serum specimens of suspected HCV infection were subjected to comparative analysis of our method with commercially available assay. The comparison confirmed that our method is more specific than the commercially available assays for HCV strains circulating in this specific geographical region of the world and could thus be used for HCV screening in Pakistan. Conclusion In this study, we devised a screening assay after successful PCR amplification, isolation, sequencing, expression and purification of core antigen of HCV genotype 3a. Our developed screening assay is more sensitive, specific and

  7. HCV 抗原表位预测%Prediction of HCV antigenic epitopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾帅争; 孙红琰; 王全立

    2001-01-01

    应用网络生物信息资源查找丙型肝炎病毒基因组全序列,用软件Lasergene中的EditSeq将来自中国河北株mRNA序列翻译为氨基酸序列,尔后用程序Protean进行氨基酸序列分析,对HCV各区段的B细胞抗原指数进行预测。同时又在两个网站对中国汉族人中频率较高的HLA基因型进行CD8和CD4 T细胞表位预测。B细胞和T细胞抗原表位预测结果对于HCV诊断试剂和疫苗研制有重要的指导意义。%The complete genome of Hepatitis C China virus was gotten from world wide web site NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information). HCV mRNA was translated into amino acids(AA) sequence by program EditSeq of a computer software Lasergene and this amino acids sequence was analysed by program Protean. B cell epitopes index of these HCV AA fragments was caculated by this computational program and those epitopes with high index can be used as candidate epitopes for HCV antibody diagnositic reagent. CD8 T cell and CD4 T cell epitopes were predicted at Internet sites (SYFPEITHI and BIMAS). Because those HLA which appear with higher frequence in Chinese Nationalities were chosen to predict T cell epitopes, these predicted sequences can be used to design anti HCV vaccine suitable for Chinese.

  8. Expression and immunoreactivity of HCV/HBV epitopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Yu Xiong; Xiao Liu; Yuan-Ding Chen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To develop the epitope-based vaccines to prevent Hepatitis C virus (HCV)/Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections.METHODS: The HCV core epitopes C1 STNPKPQRKTKRNTNRRPQD (residuals aa2-21) and C2 VKFPGGGQIVGGVYLLPRR (residuals aa22-40), envelope epitope E GHRMAWDMMMNWSP (residuals aa315-328) and HBsAg epitope S CTTPAQGNSMFPSCCCTKPTDGNC (residuals aa124-147) were displayed in five different sites of the flock house virus capsid protein as a vector, and expressed in E. coli cells (pET-3 system).Immunoreactivity of the epitopes with anti-HCV and anti-HBV antibodies in the serum from hepatitis C and hepatitis B patients were determined.RESULTS: The expressed chimeric protein carrying the HCV epitopes C1, C2, E (two times), L3C1-I2E-L1C2-L2E could react with anti-HCV antibodies. The expressed chimeric protein carrying the HBV epitopes S, I3S could react with anti-HBs antibodies. The expressed chimeric proteins carrying the HCV epitopes C1, C2, E plus HBV epitope S, L3C1-I2E-L1C2-L2E-I3S could react with antiHCV and anti-HBs antibodies.CONCLUSION: These epitopes have highly specific and sensitive immunoreaction and are useful in the development of epitope-based vaccines.

  9. Maternal HCV infection is associated with intrauterine fetal growth disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qi-tao; Hang, Li-lin; Zhong, Mei; Gao, Yun-fei; Luo, Man-ling; Yu, Yan-hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Since the evidence regarding the association between maternal hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and impaired intrauterine fetal growth had not been conclusive, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the risk of maternal HCV infection in association with intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) and/or low birth weight infants (LBW). We performed an extensive literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE through December 1, 2015. The odds ratios (ORs) of HCV infection and IUGR/LBW were calculated and reported with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Statistical analysis was performed using RevMen 5.3 and Stata 10.0. Seven studies involving 4,185,414 participants and 5094 HCV infection cases were included. Significant associations between HCV infection and IUGR (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.40–1.68, fixed effect model) as well as LBW were observed (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.43–2.71, random effect model). The results still indicated consistencies after adjusting for multiple risk factors which could affect fetal growth, including maternal age, parity, maternal smoking, alcohol abuse, drugs abuse, coinfected with HBV/HIV and preeclampsia. Our findings suggested that maternal HCV infection was significantly associated with an increased risk of impaired intrauterine fetal growth. In clinical practice, a closer monitoring of intrauterine fetal growth by a series of ultrasound might be necessary for HCV-infected pregnant population. PMID:27583932

  10. The Natural History of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a leading cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as the most common indication for liver transplantation in many countries. Although the incidence of hepatitis C infection has dramatically decreased during the past decade, the worldwide reservoir of chronically infected persons is estimated at 170 million, or 3% of the global population. There is much controversy surrounding the natural history of hepatitis C infection. The rate of chronic HCV infection is affected by a person's age, gender, race, and viral immune response. Approximately 75%-85% of HCV-infected persons will progress to chronic HCV infection, and are at risk for the development of extrahepatic manifestations, compensated and decompensated cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The rate of progression to cirrhosis is highly variable, and is influenced by several factors, including the amount of alcohol consumption, age of initial HCV infection, degree of inflammation and fibrosis on liver biopsy, HIV and HBV coinfection, and comordid conditions. An estimated 10%-15% of HCV-infected persons will advance to cirrhosis within the first 20 years. Persons with cirrhosis are at increased risk of developing HCC. An understanding of the natural history of hepatitis C is essential to effectively manage, treat, and counsel individuals with HCV infection.

  11. Acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in HCV transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Takeki; Kosyk, Oksana; Jeannot, Emmanuelle; Bradford, Blair U. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Tech, Katherine; Macdonald, Jeffrey M. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Boorman, Gary A. [Covance, Chantilly, VA 20151 (United States); Chatterjee, Saurabh; Mason, Ronald P. [Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, RTP, NC 27713 (United States); Melnyk, Stepan B. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72201 (United States); Tryndyak, Volodymyr P.; Pogribny, Igor P. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Rusyn, Ivan, E-mail: iir@unc.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The exact etiology of clinical cases of acute liver failure is difficult to ascertain and it is likely that various co-morbidity factors play a role. For example, epidemiological evidence suggests that coexistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increased the risk of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury, and was associated with an increased risk of progression to acute liver failure. However, little is known about possible mechanisms of enhanced acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in HCV-infected subjects. In this study, we tested a hypothesis that HCV-Tg mice may be more susceptible to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, and also evaluated the mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced liver damage in wild type and HCV-Tg mice expressing core, E1 and E2 proteins. Male mice were treated with a single dose of acetaminophen (300 or 500 mg/kg in fed animals; or 200 mg/kg in fasted animals; i.g.) and liver and serum endpoints were evaluated at 4 and 24 h after dosing. Our results suggest that in fed mice, liver toxicity in HCV-Tg mice is not markedly exaggerated as compared to the wild-type mice. In fasted mice, greater liver injury was observed in HCV-Tg mice. In fed mice dosed with 300 mg/kg acetaminophen, we observed that liver mitochondria in HCV-Tg mice exhibited signs of dysfunction showing the potential mechanism for increased susceptibility. -- Highlights: ► Acetaminophen-induced liver injury is a significant clinical challenge. ► HCV-infected subjects may be at higher risk for acetaminophen-induced liver injury. ► We used HCV transgenics to test if liver injury due to acetaminophen is exacerbated.

  12. Exploring the possibility of arthropod transmission of HCV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houldsworth, Annwyne

    2017-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer occurring in up to 3% of the world's population. Parenteral exposure to HCV is the major mode of transmission of infection. Once established, infection will persist in up to 85% of individuals with only a minority of patients clearing viremia. Egypt has possibly the highest HCV prevalence in the world where 10-20% of the general population are infected with HCV. Endemic HCV appears to be concentrated in the tropics and sub-tropics where there are higher biting rates from insects. The question as to whether a bridge vector transmission is possible, via arthropods, both between humans and/or from an animal reservoir to humans is explored. Mechanical transmission, as opposed to biological transmission, is considered. Mechanical transmission can be an efficient way of transmitting an infection, as effective as biological transmission. Probability of transmission can increase as to the immediate circumstances and conditions at the time. Several factors may enhance mechanical transmission, including high levels of microbes in the vector, frequent biting, the close proximity, and contact between vectors and recipients as well as high density of insects. HCV has been isolated from bodies or heads of mosquitoes collected from the houses of HCV-infected individuals. The possibility of enzootic cycles of HCV tangential transmission via bridging vectors, such as, arthropods needs to be further investigated and possible animal reservoirs, including domestic rural epizootic cycles for HCV infection, requires further research with particular initial emphasis on equine infections. J. Med. Virol. 89:187-194, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) can coinfect the same hepatocyte in the liver of patients with chronic HCV and occult HBV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Iñigo, E; Bartolomé, J; Ortiz-Movilla, N; Platero, C; López-Alcorocho, J M; Pardo, M; Castillo, I; Carreño, V

    2005-12-01

    In this work, we have shown that hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) can coexist in the same hepatocyte using double fluorescent in situ hybridization in liver biopsy samples from patients with chronic HCV infection with occult HBV infection. Digital image analysis of hybridization signals showed that the HBV DNA levels in coinfected hepatocytes were lower than those in cells infected only with HBV. This finding supports the hypothesis of inhibition of HBV replication by HCV. Furthermore, HCV RNA levels were lower in coinfected cells than in cells infected only with HCV, suggesting that HBV may also inhibit HCV replication.

  14. Outcome of HCV/HIV-coinfected liver transplant recipients: a prospective and multicenter cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miro, J.M.; Montejo, M.; Castells, L.; Rafecas, A.; Moreno, S.; Aguero, F.; Abradelo, M.; Miralles, P.; Torre-Cisneros, J.; Pedreira, J.D.; Cordero, E.; Rosa, G. De; Moyano, B.; Moreno, A.; Perez, I.; Rimola, A.; Barrera, P.

    2012-01-01

    Eighty-four HCV/HIV-coinfected and 252-matched HCV-monoinfected liver transplant recipients were included in a prospective multicenter study. Thirty-six (43%) HCV/HIV-coinfected and 75 (30%) HCV-monoinfected patients died, with a survival rate at 5 years of 54% (95% CI, 42-64) and 71% (95% CI, 66 to

  15. Frequent HCV reinfection and superinfection in a cohort of injecting drug users in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J.W. van de Laar; R. Molenkamp; C. van den Berg; J. Schinkel; M.G.H.M. Beld; M. Prins; R.A. Coutinho; S.M. Bruisten

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims:This study investigates the occurrence of HCV reinfection and superinfection among HCV seroconverters participating in the Amsterdam Cohort Studies among drug users from 1985 through 2005. Methods: HCV seroconverters (n = 59) were tested for HCV RNA at five different time points: the

  16. HCV-RNA检测在提高 HCV感染患者检出率的试验研究%Experimental study of HCV-RNA in improvement of detection rate for patients with HCV infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖; 季忠庶

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the clinical significance of combined detection of HCV-cAg and anti-HCV with joint HCV-RNA detection in diagnosis of HCV infection. Methods:The levels of HCV antibody and HCV antigen in 13,117 patients were detec-ted. The HCV-cAg and anti-HCV positive samples were confirmed with HCV-RNA test. Results: In the 13,117 cases, there were 188 positive cases of anti-HCV, 52 positive cases of HCV-cAg, 48 positive cases of anti-HCV and HCV-cAg, 4 cases of positive HCV-cAg and negative anti-HCV, and the total positive number was 192. Among the 188 cases of positive HCV antibody, the rate of positive HCV-RNA was measured as 64. 4% (122/188), and the rate of positive HCV antigen was measured as 25. 5% (48/188). Among the 48 cases of positive HCV antigen and positive HCV antibody, the rate of positive HCV-RNA was measured as 93. 75%(45/48). Among the 4 cases of positive HCV antigen and negative HCV antibody, the rate of positive HCVRNA was measured as 75% (3/4). Conclusions:The joint detection of HCV-cAg and anti-HCV combined with HCV-RNA detection provides a higher de-tection rate and a lower false-positive rate. The findings indicate that it is effective laboratory procedures for early Diagnosis and treat-ment of hepatitis C virus infection in the clinic.%目的::探讨组合检测丙肝抗体和丙肝核心抗原并联合丙肝RNA在丙肝临床诊断中的意义。方法:对13117例患者进行HCV抗体和HCV抗原组合检测,对两种方法中的阳性标本进行HCV-RNA确证检测。结果:13117例患者中,丙肝抗体阳性188例,丙肝核心抗原阳性52例,其中丙肝抗体和核心抗原均阳性者48例,单独核心抗原阳性4例,总阳性数192例。丙肝抗体阳性188例中HCV抗体阳性标本中有121例HCV-RNA阳性,检出率为64.4%;有48例HCV-cAg阳性,检出率为25.5%(48/188)。丙肝抗体和核心抗原均阳性者HCV-RNA阳性45例,检出率为93.75%;单独核心抗原阳性4例中有3例HCV

  17. Natural history and treatment of HCV/HIV coinfection: Is it time to change paradigms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends, Joop E; Lieveld, Faydra I; Boeijen, Lauke L; de Kanter, Clara T M M; van Erpecum, Karel J; Salmon, Dominique; Hoepelman, Andy I M; Asselah, Tarik; Ustianowski, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    Evidence over the past decades have shown that HIV/HCV coinfected patients did not respond as well to HCV therapy as HCV mono-infected patients. However, these paradigms are being recently reassessed with the improvements of care for HIV and HCV patients. This article reviews these original paradigms and how the new data is impacting upon them. Treatment efficacy now appears comparable for HIV/HCV coinfected and HCV mono-infected patients, while liver fibrosis progression is increasingly similar in optimally managed patients. Additional importance of therapy is directed to drug-drug interactions and the impact of HCV reinfection, as well as the possibility of transmitted drug resistance.

  18. Clinical and biologic importance of F-actin autoantibodies in HCV monoinfected and HCV-HIV coinfected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudacko, Rachel M; Alvarez, Gustavo A; Talal, Andrew H; Jacobson, Ira; Wan, David W; Zhou, Xi K; Yantiss, Rhonda K

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum filamentous (F)-actin antibody titers and severity of hepatitis present in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. Liver biopsy samples from 18 HCV monoinfected and 20 HCV-HIV coinfected patients were graded with respect to the degree of hepatitis activity and intensity of plasma cell infiltration using MUM-1 and CD138 immunostains. Of the 38 HCV-infected patients, 6 (16%) had F-actin antibody titers in excess of 30 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units. We found a positive trend between serum F-actin antibody levels and the mean number of plasma cells present in the portal tracts of patients with HCV infection (r = 0.31; P = .06) and a significant association between these factors in HCV-HIV coinfected patients (r = 0.64; P = .002). Our data suggest that elevated serum F-actin antibody titers are commonly encountered in HCV-infected patients and may reflect more active inflammation in liver biopsy samples, similar to autoimmune hepatitis.

  19. Enraizamento de estacas caulinares de kiwi (Actinidia chinensis Planch cv Abbott tratadas com auxinas e boro Rooting of kiwi stem cuttings (Actinidia chinensis Planch. cv Abbott treated with auxins and boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Ono

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como finalidade, estudar o efeito de várias auxinas sintéticas em formulações comerciais e do boro, sobre o enraizamento de estacas caulinares de kiwi (Actinidia chinensis Planch, cv Abbott.. As estacas utilizadas continham dois nós e duas folhas cortadas ao meio, com aproximadamente 10 cm de comprimento, onde o corte basal em bisel foi realizado logo abaixo de um nó e o apical acima do outro nó. O efeito das auxinas, sobre o enraizamento de estacas caulinares de kiwi foi verificado mediante os seguintes tratamentos, aplicados sobre as bases das estacas: T1 H(20; T2 (NAA 300 ppm; T3 (IBA 300 ppm; T4 (NAA 300 ppm + B; T5 (IBA 300 ppm + B; T6 (NAA 0,5%-pó e T7 (IBA 0,5%-pó. Após o tratamento das estacas, estas foram plantadas em bandejas de enraizamento, contendo vermiculita pura e colocadas em câmara de nebulização, onde permaneceram por 120 dias, até a sua coleta. Para a avaliação do efeito de auxinas e do ácido bórico, sobre o enraizamento de estacas caulinares de kiwi, foram realizadas as seguintes observações: 1. porcentagem de estacas enraizadas; 2. análise de açúcares redutores e açúcares totais (em g/100 g de matéria seca; 3. análise de triptofano (em µg/100 mg de matéria seca. Os resultados obtidos no processo de enraizamento de estacas caulinares de kiwi (Actinidia chinensis Planch. variedade Abbott, levou a concluir que o inverno e outono foram as melhores épocas de coleta dos ramos de auxinas para a confecção das estacas. O processo de enraizamento foi ainda incrementado com a aplicação exógena na base das estacas, sendo que o alto teor de açúcares redutores e totais beneficiou a maior porcentagem de enraizamento.This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of some synthetical auxins and boron trade formulations in the rooting of stem cuttings of some kiwi (Actinidia chinensis Planch varieties. The experiment was carried out in a misty nebulization chamber in the Botany

  20. Impact of the New Abbott mPLUS feature on clinical laboratory efficiencies of abbott RealTime assays for detection of HIV-1, Hepatitis C Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucic, Danijela; Jones, Sara; Wiesneth, Russ; Barry, Cathy; Webb, Erika; Belova, Larissa; Dolan, Peggy; Ho, Shiaolan; Abravaya, Klara; Cloherty, Gavin

    2013-12-01

    Diagnostic laboratories are under increasing pressure to improve and expand their services. Greater flexibility in sample processing is a critical factor that can improve the time to results while reducing reagent waste, making laboratories more efficient and cost-effective. The introduction of the Abbott mPLUS feature, with the capacity for extended use of amplification reagents, significantly increases the flexibility of the m2000 platform and enables laboratories to customize their workflows based on sample arrival patterns. The flexibility in sample batch size offered by mPLUS enables significant reductions in processing times. For hepatitis B virus tests, a reduction in sample turnaround times of up to 30% (105 min) was observed for batches of 12 samples compared with those for batches of 24 samples; for Chlamydia trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae tests, the ability to run batches of 24 samples reduced the turnaround time by 83% (54 min) compared with that for batches of 48 samples. Excellent correlations between mPLUS and m2000 standard condition results were observed for all RealTime viral load assays evaluated in this study, with correlation r values of 0.998 for all assays tested. For the qualitative RealTime C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae assay, the overall agreements between the two conditions tested were >98% for C. trachomatis and 100% for N. gonorrhoeae. Comparable precision results were observed for the two conditions tested for all RealTime assays. The enhanced mPLUS capability provides clinical laboratories with increased efficiencies to meet increasingly stringent turnaround time requirements without increased costs associated with discarding partially used amplification reagents.

  1. Standard Practice for Inspection of Transparent Parts by Prism

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 Aerospace transparencies undergo high stresses induced by flight, environmental, or other factors. The transparency attachment points are especially subject to fatigue. These areas of fatigue are often obstructed or hidden from normal inspection. An inspector, following the techniques described in this practice, shall use a prism to view damage located near transparency bolt holes, voids, and delamination that are hidden by edge strips or frames. 1.2 The purpose of this practice is to provide acceptable methods for performing prism inspections of transparent materials with specific emphasis on aircraft windscreens and canopies. Caveats and lessons learned from experience are included to assist authors in writing tailored inspection instructions for specific applications. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicab...

  2. Hyperbolic prisms and foams in Hele-Shaw cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, A., E-mail: tufaile@usp.br [Soft Matter Laboratory, Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 03828-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tufaile, A.P.B. [Soft Matter Laboratory, Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 03828-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-10-03

    The propagation of light in foams creates patterns which are generated due to the reflection and refraction of light. One of these patterns is observed by the formation of multiple mirror images inside liquid bridges in a layer of bubbles in a Hele-Shaw cell. We are presenting the existence of these patterns in foams and their relation with hyperbolic geometry and Sierpinski gaskets using the Poincare disk model. The images obtained from the experiment in foams are compared to the case of hyperbolic optical elements. -- Highlights: → The chaotic scattering of light in foams generating deltoid patterns is based on hyperbolic geometry. → The deltoid patterns are obtained through the Plateau borders in a Hele-Shaw cell. → The Plateau borders act like hyperbolic prism. → Some effects of the refraction and reflection of the light rays were studied using a hyperbolic prism.

  3. Microarray analysis identifies a common set of cellular genes modulated by different HCV replicon clones

    OpenAIRE

    Gerosolimo Germano; Dallapiccola Bruno; Bruni Roberto; Ferraris Alessandro; Tataseo Paola; Tritarelli Elena; Marcantonio Cinzia; Ciccaglione Anna; Costantino Angela; Rapicetta Maria

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA synthesis and protein expression affect cell homeostasis by modulation of gene expression. The impact of HCV replication on global cell transcription has not been fully evaluated. Thus, we analysed the expression profiles of different clones of human hepatoma-derived Huh-7 cells carrying a self-replicating HCV RNA which express all viral proteins (HCV replicon system). Results First, we compared the expression profile of HCV replicon clone 21-5 ...

  4. Prism therapy and visual rehabilitation in homonymous visual field loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Evelyn C

    2011-02-01

    Homonymous visual field defects (HVFD) are common and frequently occur after cerebrovascular accidents. They significantly impair visual function and cause disability particularly with regard to visual exploration. The purpose of this study was to assess a novel interventional treatment of monocular prism therapy on visual functioning in patients with HVFD of varied etiology using vision targeted, health-related quality of life (QOL) questionnaires. Our secondary aim was to confirm monocular and binocular visual field expansion pre- and posttreatment.

  5. Prism therapy and visual rehabilitation in homonymous visual field loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Evelyn C

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: Homonymous visual field defects (HVFD) are common and frequently occur after cerebrovascular accidents. They significantly impair visual function and cause disability particularly with regard to visual exploration. The purpose of this study was to assess a novel interventional treatment of monocular prism therapy on visual functioning in patients with HVFD of varied etiology using vision targeted, health-related quality of life (QOL) questionnaires. Our secondary aim was to confirm monocular and binocular visual field expansion pre- and posttreatment. METHODS: Twelve patients with acquired, documented HVFD were eligible to be included. All patients underwent specific vision-targeted, health-related QOL questionnaire and monocular and binocular Goldmann perimetry before commencing prism therapy. Patients were fitted with monocular prisms on the side of the HVFD with the base-in the direction of the field defect creating a peripheral optical exotropia and field expansion. After the treatment period, QOL questionnaires and perimetry were repeated. RESULTS: Twelve patients were included in the treatment group, 10 of whom were included in data analysis. Overall, there was significant improvement within multiple vision-related, QOL functioning parameters, specifically within the domains of general health (p < 0.01), general vision (p < 0.05), distance vision (p < 0.01), peripheral vision (p < 0.05), role difficulties (p < 0.05), dependency (p < 0.05), and social functioning (p < 0.05). Visual field expansion was shown when measured monocularly and binocularly during the study period in comparison with pretreatment baselines. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HVFD demonstrate decreased QOL. Monocular sector prisms can improve the QOL and expand the visual field in these patients.

  6. HCV prevalence and predominant genotype in IV drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Andalibalshohada

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV causes 308000 deaths due to liver cancer and 758000 deaths due to cirrhosis every year. Almost 170 million people have HCV infection around the world. Information regarding this virus helps us to determine the prevalence of other hepatitis C genotypes in population, especially in intravenous drug users. It is assumed that some genotypes are more common in certain areas or groups of people. A recent study strongly confirms the central role of injecting network traits, not only as a transmission factor but also as a predictor of HCV genotype and phylogenetic determination in different communities. Hepatitis C genotypes and subtypes have different prevalence considering the country. Risk factors such as transfusion, hemodialysis, root of acquisition and etc, are detected in intravenous drug users. Several conducted studies have investigated the prevalence, risk factors, and predominance of HCV genotypes infection in different parts of Iran.

  7. Affinity-Based Screening Technology and HCV Drug Discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bin

    2003-01-01

    @@ NS5A is one of the non-structural gene products encoded by Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and related viruses that are essential for viral replication. The amino acid sequence of NS5A is conserved between different HCV genotypes and the primary amino acid sequence of NS5A is unique to HCV and closely related viruses. Importantly, NS5A is unrelated to any human protein. This indicates that drugs designed to block the actions of NS5A could inhibit the replication of HCV without showing toxic side effects in human host cells, thus making NS5A inhibitors ideal anti-viral drugs. However, there are presently no functional assays for this essential viral protein. Therefore, conventional high throughput screening (HTS) approaches can not be used to discover antiviral drugs against NS5A.

  8. PRISM: Recovery of the primordial spectrum from Planck data

    CERN Document Server

    Lanusse, F; Starck, J -L; Sureau, F; Bobin, J

    2014-01-01

    The primordial power spectrum describes the initial perturbations that seeded the large-scale structure we observe today. It provides an indirect probe of inflation or other structure-formation mechanisms. In this letter, using our recently published PRISM algorithm, we recover the primordial power spectrum from Planck PR1 dataset. PRISM is a sparsity-based inversion method, which aims at recovering features in the primordial power spectrum from the empirical power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The ill-posed inverse problem involved is regularised using a sparsity prior on features in the primordial power spectrum in a wavelet dictionary. Although this non-parametric method does not assume a strong prior on the shape of the primordial power spectrum, it is able to recover both its global shape and localised features. As a results, this approach presents a robust way of detecting deviations from the currently favoured scale-invariant spectrum. We apply PRISM to 100 Planck simulated data to...

  9. HCV-Related Central and Peripheral Nervous System Demyelinating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Mariotto, Sara; Ferrari, Sergio; Monaco, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with a large spectrum of extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs), mostly immunologic/rheumatologic in nature owing to B-cell proliferation and clonal expansion. Neurological complications are thought to be immune-mediated or secondary to invasion of neural tissues by HCV, as postulated in transverse myelitis and encephalopathic forms. Primarily axonal neuropathies, including sensorimotor polyneuropathy, large or small fiber sensory neuro...

  10. Mix-infections with different genotypes of HCV and with HCV plus other hepatitis viruses in patients with hepatitis C in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Ding Chen; Ming-Ying Liu; Wen-Lin Yu; Jia-Qi Li; Qin Dai; Zhen-Quan Zhou; Sergio G. Tisminetzky

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Clinical therapy and prognosis in HCV infections are not good, and mix-infections with different HCV genotypes or quasispecies and mix-infections with HCV plus other hepatitis viruses are important concerns worldwide. The present report describes the sequence diversity and genotying of the 5'NCR of HCV isolates from hepatitis patients mix-infected with different HCV genotypes or variants, and the conditions of mix-infections with HCV plus other hepatitis viruses, providing important diagnostic and prognostic information for more effective treatment of HCV infections.METHODS: The 5' non-coding region (5'NCR) of HCV was isolated from the patients sera and sequenced, and sequence variability and genotypes of HCV were defined by nucleotide sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis, and the patients mix-infected with HCV plus other hepatitis viruses were analyzed. The conditions and clinical significance of mix-infections with HCV plus other hepatitis viruses were further studied.RESULTS: Twenty-four out of 43 patients with chronic hepatitis C were defined as mix-infected with different genotypes of HCV. Among these 24 patients, 9 were mixinfected with genotype 1 and 3, 7 with different variants of genotype 1, 2 with different variants of genotype 2, 6with different variants of genotype 3. No patients were found mix-infected with genotype 1 and 2 or with genotype 2 and 3. The clinical virological analysis of 60 patients mixinfected with HCV plus other hepatitis viruses showed that 45.0 % of the patients were mix-infected with HCV plus HAV, 61.7 % with HCV plus HBV, 6.7 % with HCV plus HDV/HBV, 8.4 % with HCV plus HEV, 3.3 % with HCV plus HGV. Infections with HCV plus other hepatitis viruses may exacerbate the pathological lesion of the liver.CONCLUSION: The findings in the present study imply that mix-infections with different HCV genotypes and mixinfections with HCV plus other hepatitis viruses were relatively high in Yunnan, China, providing important

  11. Relationship between anti-HCV,HCV RNA and ALT in Volunteer Blood Donors%无偿献血者HCV RNA与抗-HCV及ALT检测结果的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭燕; 叶世辉; 蔡斌; 景媛媛; 巩晗实; 杨莹; 黄蕾; 段勇

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between anti-HCV,HCV RNA and ALT in volunteer blood donors. Methods Fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to detect viral loads and kinetic method was employed to assay ALT levels in 235 anti-HCV positive samples who were tested by ELISA. A six month follow up was performed to monitor the anti-HCV(+)/HCV RNA(–) samples. Results Among 235 anti-HCV positive samples,140(59.57%) were positive for HCV RNA. The HCV RNA positive rate in groups of S/CO ratio 1~5 and 5.01~9.99 were 34.29%and 26.47%, respectively. The HCV RNA positive rate in group of S/CO ratio≥10 was 81.68% and statistically significant differences were found between this and the other two groups(χ2 =45.15,P0.05)。抗-HCV(+)/HCV RNA(+)与抗-HCV(+)/HCV RNA(–)组献血者的年龄分别是38.05±11.35岁和33.81±11.50岁,两组的差异有统计学意义(t=2.79,P<0.05)。95份抗-HCV(+)/HCV RNA(–)标本成功回访23例,其中1份标本回访检测抗-HCV转阴。结论 HCV RNA阳性率与抗-HCV的S/CO值有一定相关性,抗-HCV阳性的无偿献血人群中,ALT异常率与HCV RNA无相关性,感染者年龄与HCV RNA有一定相关性。

  12. Cryoglobulinemia in elderly patients with HCV-related chronic hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesco; Giuseppe; Foschi; Anna; Chiara; Dall’Aglio; Arianna; Lanzi; Giorgio; Marano; Sara; Savini; Pietro; Andreone; Mauro; Bernardi; Giuseppe; Francesco; Stefanini

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus(HCV) infection affects about 3% of the world’s population and often leads to chronic liver disease.In some industrialized countries,HCV prevalence increases with age,but the optimal management of older patients has not been accurately defined.HCV infection can also lead to lymphoproliferative disorders,the most common being mixed cryoglobulinemia(MC),and also for this condition that frequently affects elderly patients,the optimal therapeutic strategy is still debated.We report the case of a 77-year-old Caucasian woman with HCV-related chronic hepatitis and cutaneous manifestations consisting of urticaria and pruritus related to MC resistant to antihistamines.The patient underwent a treatment with interferon and ribavirin.Such a treatment led to early biochemical and virological response associated with the resolution of cryoglobulinemia and cutaneous symptoms.After the end of treatment,HCV replication relapsed,but cryoglobulinemia and cutaneous symptoms did not recur.In the absence of definite treatment guidelines in this particular context,our experience suggests that the presence of symptoms related to HCV-infection that deeply affect patient quality of life warrants antiviral therapy even beyond the age limits that currently exclude patients from treatment.

  13. Small molecule inhibitors of HCV replication from Pomegranate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, B. Uma; Mullick, Ranajoy; Kumar, Anuj; Sudha, Govindarajan; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Das, Saumitra

    2014-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the causative agent of end-stage liver disease. Recent advances in the last decade in anti HCV treatment strategies have dramatically increased the viral clearance rate. However, several limitations are still associated, which warrant a great need of novel, safe and selective drugs against HCV infection. Towards this objective, we explored highly potent and selective small molecule inhibitors, the ellagitannins, from the crude extract of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit peel. The pure compounds, punicalagin, punicalin, and ellagic acid isolated from the extract specifically blocked the HCV NS3/4A protease activity in vitro. Structural analysis using computational approach also showed that ligand molecules interact with the catalytic and substrate binding residues of NS3/4A protease, leading to inhibition of the enzyme activity. Further, punicalagin and punicalin significantly reduced the HCV replication in cell culture system. More importantly, these compounds are well tolerated ex vivo and`no observed adverse effect level' (NOAEL) was established upto an acute dose of 5000 mg/kg in BALB/c mice. Additionally, pharmacokinetics study showed that the compounds are bioavailable. Taken together, our study provides a proof-of-concept approach for the potential use of antiviral and non-toxic principle ellagitannins from pomegranate in prevention and control of HCV induced complications.

  14. New insights into HCV-related rheumatologic disorders: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Cacoub

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infected patients are known to be exposed to major liver complications i.e. cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, many extrahepatic manifestations including rheumatologic disorders have been reported in up to two-third of HCV infected patients. These manifestations include frank auto-immune and rheumatic diseases (such as arthralgia, myalgia, arthritis, sicca syndrome and vasculitis which may dominate the course of infection. Until recently, the standard of care of HCV has been the use of interferon-alpha based regimens, which not only had limited effectiveness in HCV cure but were poorly tolerated. In patients with rheumatic diseases interferon-based regimens may be problematic given their association with a wide variety of autoimmune toxicities. Recent therapeutic advances with new direct anti-HCV therapies (interferon-free which are more effective and better tolerated, make screening for this comorbidity in patients with rheumatic disorders more important than ever. This review aimed to outline main HCV extrahepatic with a special focus on rheumatologic manifestations.

  15. New direct-acting antivirals for patients with chronic HCV infection: can we monitor treatment using an HCV core antigen assay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, R; Pérez-García, F; Ampuero, D; Reigadas, E; Bouza, E

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic usefulness of an HCV core antigen (HCV-Ag) assay in HCV-infected patients undergoing treatment with direct-acting antivirals. We analyzed 103 samples from 28 patients. Compared with RT-PCR, sensitivity was 96.2% and specificity was 100%. The correlation between techniques was excellent (Pearson coefficient: 0.871). HCV-Ag proved to be useful in patients with sustained viral response and in patients who experienced treatment failures.

  16. Combined hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigen-antibody detection assay does not improve diagnosis for seronegative individuals with occult HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Juan A; Castillo, Inmaculada; Pardo, Margarita; Rodríguez-Iñigo, Elena; Carreño, Vicente

    2006-12-01

    A combined hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigen-antibody assay was evaluated for 115 seronegative individuals with occult HCV infection. The assay was reactive in one patient and negative to weakly reactive in three others (all four gave indeterminate results by supplemental assay) but failed to detect HCV in the remaining patients. Despite increased sensitivity the combined assay does not improve serodiagnosis of occult HCV infection.

  17. Combined Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Antigen-Antibody Detection Assay Does Not Improve Diagnosis for Seronegative Individuals with Occult HCV Infection▿

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroga, Juan A.; Castillo, Inmaculada; Pardo, Margarita; Rodríguez-Iñigo, Elena; CARREÑO, VICENTE

    2006-01-01

    A combined hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigen-antibody assay was evaluated for 115 seronegative individuals with occult HCV infection. The assay was reactive in one patient and negative to weakly reactive in three others (all four gave indeterminate results by supplemental assay) but failed to detect HCV in the remaining patients. Despite increased sensitivity the combined assay does not improve serodiagnosis of occult HCV infection.

  18. Complementary Action of Combining Detection for HCV-cAg with HCV-Ab and the Relation Between HCV Positive Patients and ALT%HCV-cAg与HCV-Ab联合检测的互补作用及HCV阳性者与ALT的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小龙; 唐荣德; 华关民; 陈敏; 谭亮庆

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨丙肝病毒核心抗原(HCV-cAg)与丙肝病毒抗体(HCV-Ab)联合检测对诊断丙肝病毒(HCV)感染的互补作用及HCV感染阳性者与丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)的关系.方法 检测手术前检查组2061例患者和ALT>80 U/L组242例患者的HCV-cAg、HCV-Ab和ALT等指标,然后将检测结果作出统计分析.结果 手术前检查组联合检测有2.7%的阳性率,显著高于单独HCV-cAg和单独HCV-Ab的1.6%(P<0.05); ALT>80 U/L组联合检测有14.5%的阳性率,显著高于单独HCV-cAg的7.0%(P<0.01);手术前检查组ALT均值和ALT>80U/L例数是2项均阳性高于HCV-Ab阳性、HCV-Ab阳性高于HCV-cAg.结论 HCV-cAg和HCV-Ab 2项联合检测明显优于单项检测,这对HCV感染的诊断能起到很好的互补作用,加上ALT等肝功能指标的检测,有利于HCV感染的正确诊断.

  19. Comprehensive longitudinal analysis of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific T cell responses during acute HCV infection in the presence of existing HIV-1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H.S.B. van den Berg; T.A. Ruys; N.M. Nanlohy; S.E. Geerlings; J.T. van der Meer; J.W. Mulder; J.A. Lange; D. van Baarle

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the development of HCV-specific T cell immunity during acute HCV infection in the presence of an existing HIV-1 infection in four HIV-1 infected men having sex with men. A comprehensive analysis of HCV-specific T cell responses was performed at two time points duri

  20. Efficient infectious cell culture systems of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) prototype strains HCV-1 and H77

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yi-Ping; Ramirez, Santseharay; Mikkelsen, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    efficient infectious cell culture systems for these genotype 1a strains by using the HCV-1/SF9_A and H77C in vivo infectious clones. We initially adapted a genome with the HCV-1 5'UTR-NS5A (where UTR stands for untranslated region) and the JFH1 NS5B-3'UTR (5-5A recombinant), including the genotype 2a...

  1. Legalon-SIL downregulates HCV core and NS5A in human hepatocytes expressing full-length HCV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marjan Mehrab-Mohseni; Hossein Sendi; Nury Steuerwald; Sriparna Ghosh; Laura W Schrum; Herbert L Bonkovsky

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of Legalon-SIL (LS) on hepatitis C virus (HCV) core and NS5A expression and on heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX-1) and its transcriptionalregulators in human hepatoma cells expressing full length HCV genotype 1b.METHODS: CON1 cells were treated with 50 μmol/or 200 μmol/L LS. Cells were harvested after 2, 6 and 24 h. HCV RNA and protein levels were determined byquantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively.RESULTS: HCV RNA (core and NS5A regions) was decreased after 6 h with LS 200 μmol/L (P < 0.05).Both 50 and 200 μmol/L LS decreased HCV RNA levels[core region (by 55% and 88%, respectively) and NS5A region (by 62% and 87%, respectively) after 24 h compared with vehicle (dimethyl sulphoxide) control (P< 0.01). Similarly HCV core and NS5A protein were decreased(by 85%, P < 0.01 and by 65%, P < 0.05, respectively)by LS 200 μmol/L. Bach1 and HMOX-1 RNAwere also downregulated by LS treatment (P < 0.01),while Nrf2 protein was increased (P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that treatment with LS downregulates HCV core and NS5A expression in CON1 cells which express full length HCVgenotype 1b, and suggests that LS may prove to be a valuable alternative or adjunctive therapy for the treatment of HCV infection.

  2. Prism adaptation magnitude has differential influences on perceptual versus manual responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striemer, Christopher L; Russell, Karyn; Nath, Priya

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has indicated that rightward prism adaptation can reduce symptoms of spatial neglect following right brain damage. In addition, leftward prism adaptation can create "neglect-like" patterns of performance in healthy adults on tasks that measure attention and spatial biases. Although a great deal of research has focused on which behaviors are influenced by prism adaptation, very few studies have focused directly on how the magnitude of visual shift induced by prisms might be related to the observed aftereffects, or the effects of prisms on measures of attentional and spatial biases. In the current study, we examined these questions by having groups of healthy adult participants complete manual line bisection and landmark tasks prior to and following adaptation to either 8.5° (15 diopter; n = 22) or 17° (30 diopter; n = 25) leftward shifting prisms. Our results demonstrated a significantly larger rightward shift in straight-ahead pointing (a measure of prism aftereffect) following adaptation to 17°, compared to 8.5° leftward shifting prisms. In addition, only 17° leftward shifting prisms resulted in a significant rightward shift in line bisection following adaptation. However, there was a significant change in performance on the landmark task pre- versus post-adaptation in both the 8.5° and 17° leftward shifting prism groups. Interestingly, correlation analyses indicated that changes in straight-ahead pointing pre- versus post-adaptation were positively correlated with changes in performance on the manual line bisection task, but not the landmark task. These data suggest that larger magnitudes of prism adaptation seem to have a greater influence on tasks that require a response with the adapted hand (i.e., line bisection), compared to tasks that only require a perceptual judgment (i.e., the landmark task). In addition, these data provide further evidence that the effects of prisms on manual and perceptual responses are not related to one

  3. HCV核心抗原动态监测抗HCV疗效的临床研究%Monitoring the clinical efficacy of antiviral therapy by using the HCV core antigen and HCV PCR assays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文娟; 张云智; 靳宏; 刘袁媛; 胡芸文; 张友祥

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen and HCV RNA PCR in the determining of the efficacy of HCV antiviral therapy in patients infected with HCV. Methods HCV core antigen and HCV RNA were measured in sera of 35 chronic HCV infected Chinese patients. Concentrations of HCV core antigen and HCV RNA were analyzed at 5 time points before, during and at the end of antiviral therapy. Results This study showed that the HCV core antigen and HCV RNA concentrations in 35 HCV patients were significantly correlated. Decrease of HCV core antigen and HCV RNA concentrations at the 4th, 12th,24th and 48th week were observed during the antiviral therapy. However,HCV core antigen levels at week 12 and 24 of therapy were significantly lower than those at week 4 (P 0. 05). HCV core antigen testing may be advantageous in some cases,in particular,the low levels of HCV core antigen at week 4 may be predictive of satisfactory outcome of treatment. Conclusions HCV core antigen represents a stable and sensitive marker of viral replication and could be used to monitor the clinical efficacy of HCV antiviral therapy.

  4. Clinical significance of joint detection of HCV antigen, HCV antibody and HCV RNA, and its correlation analysis with ALT%HCV抗原、HCV抗体及HCV-RNA联合检测与ALT的相关性及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵芳

    2014-01-01

    [目的]探讨HCV-RNA阳性丙肝患者核心抗原(HCV-cAg)、抗体(HCV-Ab)以及HCV-RNA含量3种检测指标与丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)水平的相关性及其临床意义.[方法]对100例HCV-RNA阳性丙肝患者应用酶速率法检测ALT含量、ELISA法检测HCV-cAg、CLIA法检测HCV-Ab、FQ-PCR法检测HCV-RNA,并对所得数据进行统计分析.[结果[100例患者血清中HCV-Ab阳性率为97.0%,HCV-cAg阳性率为83.0%;HCV-RNA载体含量越高,HCV-Ab阳性率越高;ALT含量的变化与HCV-RNA载体含量并无明显相关性(P>0.05);ALT异常率随着HCV-RNA含量的增高而升高,呈正相关(P<0.05).[结论]HCV-Ab检测可反映机体对HCV感染的免疫状态,能间接证实HCV感染;HCV-RNA敏感性和特异性较高,HCV-RNA与HCV-cAg阳性检出率呈现一致性,且ALT异常率随着HCV-RNA含量的增高而升高,可以反映临床病情;3种方法同时检测能准确诊断丙肝病毒的感染,以及预测是否具有传染性,联合ALT可有效预测和评价肝脏损伤和药物疗效.

  5. Clinical significance of HCV RNA assay in patients with HCV infection or co-infection of HBV%HCV及其与HBV重叠感染患者血清HCV RNA检测的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏伟; 陈芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical significance of HCV RNA assay in patients of HCV infection or co-infection with HBV. Methods 179 cases of patients includes chronic hepatitis C group (n = 101), liver cirrhosis group (n = 45) and hepatomas group (n = 33). Anti-HCV and HCV RNA in 179 serum samples from patients with HCV infection or co-infection with HBV were detected. HBV DNA was assayed for 31 co-infection patients. Results The positive rate of Anti- HCV was higher than HCV RNA in the 179 patients (97.8% vs 69.8%, P < 0.01). The positive rate in liver cirrhosis group and hepatomas group were 82.2% and 84.8%, inspectively, which were higher than that in chronic hepatitis C group (64.4%, P < 0.05). HCV RNA positive rate of HCV and HBV co-infection group was lower than that in simple HCV infection group (48.4% vs 71.6%, P < 0.05). HBV DNA positive rate of HCV and HBV co-infection group was also lower than that in simple HBV infection group (35.5% vs 76.7%, P < 0.01). ALT abnormal rate in HCV RNA positive group was higher than that in HCV RNA negative group (60.8% vs 35.2%, P < 0.05). Conclusion Combined detection of anti-HCV, HCV RNA and ALT is helpful to diagnosis, curative effect observation and prognosis for patients with HCV infection related diseases. And HBV DNA should be detected simultaneously for HCV and HBV co-infection patients.%目的 探讨HCV及其与HBV重叠感染患者血清HCV RNA检测的临床意义.方法 收集我院HCV感染及其与HBV重叠患者血清标本共179例,分为慢性丙型肝炎组(n = 101)、肝硬化组(n = 45)和肝癌组(n = 33).采用ELISA法检测血清抗HCV,用荧光定量PCR检测HCV RNA;对重叠感染HCV和HBV的31例患者同时检测HBV DNA.结果 179例患者抗HCV的总阳性率为97.8%,高于HCV RNA的阳性率(69.8%)(P < 0.01).肝硬化组和肝癌组HCV RNA的阳性率分别为82.2%和84.8%,高于慢性丙型肝炎组阳性率64.4%(P < 0.05).HCV与HBV重叠感染组的HCV RNA的阳性率为48.4%,低于单纯HCV感染组的HCV

  6. Cell-Cell Contact-Mediated Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Transfer, Productive Infection, and Replication and Their Requirement for HCV Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ziqing; He, Johnny J.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is believed to begin with interactions between cell-free HCV and cell receptors that include CD81, scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1), claudin-1 (CLDN1), and occludin (OCLN). In this study, we have demonstrated that HCV spreading from infected hepatocytes to uninfected hepatocytes leads to the transfer of HCV and the formation of infection foci and is cell density dependent. This cell-cell contact-mediated (CCCM) HCV transfer occurs readily and requires all these ...

  7. Group-delay Dispersion in Double-prism Pair and Limitation in Broadband Laser Pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程昭; 赵卫

    2002-01-01

    A general expression of group-delay dispersion is obtained without any approximation for a pair of double prisms with an arbitrary apex angle. This expression also includes the change of dispersion resulting from change in insertion of the prism material into the beam by translating prism-pairs. The high-order dispersion can be calculated by means of this expression. The limitation for generation of negative group-delay dispersion by use of prism-pairs is presented for ultrashort laser pulses with broadband spectrum.

  8. Studying the neural bases of prism adaptation using fMRI: A technical and design challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultitude, Janet H; Farnè, Alessandro; Salemme, Romeo; Ibarrola, Danielle; Urquizar, Christian; O'Shea, Jacinta; Luauté, Jacques

    2016-12-30

    Prism adaptation induces rapid recalibration of visuomotor coordination. The neural mechanisms of prism adaptation have come under scrutiny since the observations that the technique can alleviate hemispatial neglect following stroke, and can alter spatial cognition in healthy controls. Relative to non-imaging behavioral studies, fMRI investigations of prism adaptation face several challenges arising from the confined physical environment of the scanner and the supine position of the participants. Any researcher who wishes to administer prism adaptation in an fMRI environment must adjust their procedures enough to enable the experiment to be performed, but not so much that the behavioral task departs too much from true prism adaptation. Furthermore, the specific temporal dynamics of behavioral components of prism adaptation present additional challenges for measuring their neural correlates. We developed a system for measuring the key features of prism adaptation behavior within an fMRI environment. To validate our configuration, we present behavioral (pointing) and head movement data from 11 right-hemisphere lesioned patients and 17 older controls who underwent sham and real prism adaptation in an MRI scanner. Most participants could adapt to prismatic displacement with minimal head movements, and the procedure was well tolerated. We propose recommendations for fMRI studies of prism adaptation based on the design-specific constraints and our results.

  9. Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection impairs HCV-specific cytotoxic T cell reactivity through Mcl-1/Bim imbalance due to CD127 down-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrubia, J R; Lokhande, M U; García-Garzón, S; Miquel, J; González-Praetorius, A; Parra-Cid, T; Sanz-de-Villalobos, E

    2013-02-01

    In persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, HCV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) reactivity is impaired and this affects HCV control. Interleukin-7 receptor (CD127) expression on these cells could regulate CTL reactivity through Mcl-1/Bim balance modulation. Bim is a pro-apoptotic molecule blocked by the action of Mcl-1. Mcl-1/Bim expression and T cell reactivity on HCV-specific CTLs were compared according to CD127 phenotype. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from HLA-A2(+) HCV(+) patients were obtained. HCV-specific CTLs were visualized by staining PBL with anti-CD8 and HLA-A2/peptide pentameric complexes (pentamer). Mcl-1/Bim/CD127 phenotype of HCV-specific CTLs was tested by staining detectable CD8(+)/pentamer(+) cells with anti-Mcl-1/Bim/CD127 antibodies. HCV-specific CTL proliferation ability after specific in vitro challenge was tested in the presence and absence of pancaspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. All stained cells were analysed by flow cytometry. CD127(low)-expressing HCV-specific CTLs associated with high HCV viraemia, while CD127(high) correlated with undetectable viral loads (P Bim was up-regulated after antigen encounter (P Bim expression on pentamer(+) cells correlated positively with CD127 expression level (P Bim up-regulation after antigen encounter are involved in CD127(low) HCV-specific CTL hyporeactivity during chronic infection, but it can be overcome by apoptosis blockade.

  10. CLIA(抗-HCV)联合EIA(HCV-cAg)在HCV感染初筛试验中的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建梅

    2016-01-01

    目的 分析CLIA(抗-HCV)联合EIA(HCV-cAg)在HCV感染初筛试验中的意义.方法 选取56例住院患者,检测丙肝抗体和丙肝核心抗原,对HCV感染初筛阳性患者均采取抗-HCV和HCV-cAg检测.结果 CLIA和EIA检测阳性患者ALI水平大于40 U/L,阳性率差异不明显,P>0.05,抗-HCV/CLIA(+)+HCV-cAg(-)阳性率(98.1%)显著高于抗HCV/EIA(+)+HCV-cAg(-)(94.7%),P<0.05,HCV/CLIA(+)+HCV-cAg(+)阳性患者CLIA阳性率(98.6%)显著高于EIA(85.7%),P<0.05.结论 在HCV感染初筛试验中,CLIA(抗-HCV)联合EIA(HCV-cAg)检出率高,阳性符合率更高.

  11. Cell-cell contact-mediated hepatitis C virus (HCV) transfer, productive infection, and replication and their requirement for HCV receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ziqing; He, Johnny J

    2013-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is believed to begin with interactions between cell-free HCV and cell receptors that include CD81, scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1), claudin-1 (CLDN1), and occludin (OCLN). In this study, we have demonstrated that HCV spreading from infected hepatocytes to uninfected hepatocytes leads to the transfer of HCV and the formation of infection foci and is cell density dependent. This cell-cell contact-mediated (CCCM) HCV transfer occurs readily and requires all these known HCV receptors and an intact actin cytoskeleton. With a fluorescently labeled replication-competent HCV system, the CCCM transfer process was further dissected by live-cell imaging into four steps: donor cell-target cell contact, formation of viral puncta-target cell conjugation, transfer of viral puncta, and posttransfer. Importantly, the CCCM HCV transfer leads to productive infection of target cells. Taken together, these results show that CCCM HCV transfer constitutes an important and effective route for HCV infection and dissemination. These findings will aid in the development of new and novel strategies for preventing and treating HCV infection.

  12. 6 HCV genotyping 9G test and its comparison with VERSANT HCV genotype 2.0 assay (LiPA) for the hepatitis C virus genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantratita, Wasun; Song, Keum-Soo; GunHo, Choi; Pongthanapisith, Viroj; Thongbaiphet, Nipa; Wongtabtim, Garanyuta; Pasomsub, Ekawat; Angkanavin, Kanokwan; Nimse, Satish Balasaheb; Sonawane, Mukesh Digambar; Warkad, Shrikant Dasharath; Kim, Taisun

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we describe the 6 HCV Genotyping 9G test and its evaluation by using clinical samples and plasmid DNA standards. In tests with 981 plasmid DNA standards, the 6 HCV Genotyping 9G test showed higher than 92.5% sensitivity and 99.4% specificity. The 6 HCV Genotyping 9G test was compared with the VERSANT HCV Genotype 2.0 assay (LiPA 2.0) for detection and discrimination of HCV genotypes in clinical samples. The results of both tests were verified by genomic sequencing. The 6 HCV Genotyping 9G test demonstrated a 100% agreement with the sequencing results, which was higher than LiPA 2.0. These results indicate that the 6 HCV Genotyping 9G test can be a reliable, sensitive, and accurate diagnostic tool for the correct identification of HCV genotypes in clinical specimens. 6 HCV Genotyping 9G test can genotype six HCV types in 1 PCR in 30min after PCR amplification. The 6 HCV Genotyping 9G test, thus provide critical information to physicians and assist them to apply accurate drug regimen for the effective hepatitis C treatment.

  13. Asymmetrical prism for beam shaping of laser diode stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaodong; Cao, Changqing; An, Yuying

    2005-09-10

    A beam-shaping scheme for a laser diode stack to obtain a flattop output intensity profile is proposed. The shaping element consists of an asymmetrical glass prism. The large divergence-angle compression in the direction perpendicular to the junction plane and the small divergence-angle expansion in the parallel direction are performed simultaneously by a single shaping element. The transformation characteristics are presented, and the optimization performance is investigated based on the ray-tracing method. Analysis shows that a flattop intensity profile can be obtained. This beam-shaping system can be fabricated easily and has a large alignment tolerance.

  14. Inference with Constrained Hidden Markov Models in PRISM

    CERN Document Server

    Christiansen, Henning; Lassen, Ole Torp; Petit, Matthieu

    2010-01-01

    A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is a common statistical model which is widely used for analysis of biological sequence data and other sequential phenomena. In the present paper we show how HMMs can be extended with side-constraints and present constraint solving techniques for efficient inference. Defining HMMs with side-constraints in Constraint Logic Programming have advantages in terms of more compact expression and pruning opportunities during inference. We present a PRISM-based framework for extending HMMs with side-constraints and show how well-known constraints such as cardinality and all different are integrated. We experimentally validate our approach on the biologically motivated problem of global pairwise alignment.

  15. The demagnetizing field of a non-uniform rectangular prism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Christensen, Dennis;

    2010-01-01

    is solved by an analytical calculation and the coupling between applied field, the demagnetization tensor field and spatially varying temperature is solved through iteration. We show that the demagnetizing field is of great importance in many cases and that it is necessary to take into account the non......The effect of demagnetization on the magnetic properties of a rectangular ferromagnetic prism under non-uniform conditions is investigated. A numerical model for solving the spatially varying internal magnetic field is developed, validated and applied to relevant cases. The demagnetizing field......-uniformity of the internal field, especially for non-constant temperature distributions and composite magnetic materials....

  16. Result analysis of serum anti-HCV positive combined with HCV-RNA quantitative detection of 258 cases%258例血清中抗-HCV阳性联合HCV-RNA定量检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞丽娜; 薛金方

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨丙型肝炎病毒抗体(抗-HCV)和丙型肝炎病毒核糖核酸(HCV-RNA)定量联合检测结果对丙型肝炎确诊的临床意义。方法对258例ELISA法检测的血清抗-HCV阳性丙型肝炎(HC)患者,同时采用PCR-荧光探针法检测其HCV-RNA含量。结果258例抗-HCV阳性丙型肝炎患者中HCV-RNA阴性92例,占35.66%;17例HCV-RNA弱阳性,占6.59%;HCV-RNA阳性149例,即57.75%的HC患者存在病毒血症。结论ELISA法联合检测抗-HCV和HCV-RNA有助于丙型肝炎确诊病毒血症以及监控HCV的感染,并及时进行抗病毒治疗。%Objective To investigate the clinical significance of hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV) combined with hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid (HCV-RNA) quantitative detection in the diagnosis of hepatitis C (HC).Methods A total of 258 cases of HC with anti-HCV positive were detected by ELISA method and PCR-fluorescence probe for the HCV-RNA content.Results Among the 258 cases with anti-HCV positive, there were 92 cases of HCV-RNA negative as 35.66%, 17 cases of HCV-RNA weakly positive as 6.59%, and 149 cases of HCV-RNA positive. Thus, there were 57.75% of the HC patients with viremia.Conclusion ELISA method in combined detection of anti-HCV and HCV-RNA helps to diagnose viremia of HC, monitor HCV infection and conduct timely antiviral treatment.

  17. Prevalence and coexistence of diabetes in HIV, HCV and HIV/HCV co- infection in Kermanshah -Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Janbakhsh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Beside various factors for producing diabetes, it seems that chronic hepatitis C, HIV/HCV co-infection, and anti-retroviral treatment especially including protease inhibitors may predispose to diabetes. This study conducted to determine prevalence of diabetes in HIV and HCV patients.Methods: The registries of 150 HCV patients, 50 HIV patients and 90 HIV/HCV co-infected patients in Hepatic Clinics and consulting center for behavioral disorders in Kermanshah Western Iran was studied. The patients selected using convenience sampling method. Variables including age, sex, duration of disease, injecting drug usage, liver enzymes level, CD4 count, treatment with anti retroviral, treatment with interferon and blood sugar level were collected. Subjects with FBS≥126 or BS≥200 mg/dl described as diabetic. Data analyzed using chi-square and Fisher tests and SPSS software.Results: The prevalence of diabetes was 2.7%, 4% and 2.2% among patients infected with HCV, HIV and HIV/HCV co infection respectively. None of the variables such as age, sex, liver enzymes, injecting drug usage, CD4 count, antiretroviral treatment and interferon determined as risk factors for diabetes.Conclusion: Our finding showed that hepatitis C is not a definitive risk factor for diabetes. Although prevalence of diabetes in these patients was determined lower than general Kermanshah population, but factors such as difference in mean age and body mass index (BMI may contribute in diabetes incidence. Infection with HIV and co-infection with HIV/HCV and treatment with anti retroviral drugs were not risk factors for diabetes.

  18. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Registry Veterans in VHA Care in 2015, for the Nation, by VISN and by Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report describes the number of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) registry Veterans in VHA care in 2015 based on serologic evidence of HCV infection status (HCV Positive)...

  19. Simultaneous detection of HBV and HCV by multiplex PCR normalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Wang; Xue-Qin Gao; Jin-Xiang Han

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To design and establish a method of multiplex PCR normalization for simultaneously detecting HBV and HCV.METHODS: Two pairs of primers with a 20 bp joint sequence were used to amplify the target genes of HBV and HCV by two rounds of amplification. After the two rounds of amplification all the products had the joint sequence. Then the joint sequence was used as primers to finish the last amplification. Finally multiplex PCR was normalized to a single PCR system to eliminate multiplex factor interference. Four kinds of nucleic acid extraction methods were compared and screened. A multiplex PCR normalization method was established and optimized by orthogonal design of 6 key factors. Then twenty serum samples were detected to evaluate the validity and authenticity of this method.RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic index and efficiency were 83.3%, 70%, 153.3% and 72.2%,respectively for both HBsAg and anti-HCV positive patients,and were 78.6%, 80%, 258.6% and 79.2%, respectively for HBsAg positive patients, and were 75%, 90%, 165%and 83.3%, respectively for anti-HCV positive patients.CONCLUSION: The multiplex PCR normalization method shows a broad prospect in simultaneous amplification of multiple genes of different sources. It is practical, correct and authentic, and can be used to prevent and control HBV and HCV.

  20. HCV-related central and peripheral nervous system demyelinating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotto, Sara; Ferrari, Sergio; Monaco, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with a large spectrum of extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs), mostly immunologic/rheumatologic in nature owing to B-cell proliferation and clonal expansion. Neurological complications are thought to be immune-mediated or secondary to invasion of neural tissues by HCV, as postulated in transverse myelitis and encephalopathic forms. Primarily axonal neuropathies, including sensorimotor polyneuropathy, large or small fiber sensory neuropathy, motor polyneuropathy, mononeuritis, mononeuritis multiplex, or overlapping syndrome, represent the most common neurological complications of chronic HCV infection. In addition, a number of peripheral demyelinating disorders are encountered, such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, the Lewis-Sumner syndrome, and cryoglobulin-associated polyneuropathy with demyelinating features. The spectrum of demyelinating forms also includes rare cases of iatrogenic central and peripheral nervous system disorders, occurring during treatment with pegylated interferon. Herein, we review HCV-related demyelinating conditions, and disclose the novel observation on the significantly increased frequency of chronic demyelinating neuropathy with anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein antibodies in a cohort of 59 consecutive patients recruited at our institution. We also report a second case of neuromyelitis optica with serum IgG autoantibody against the water channel aquaporin-4. The prompt recognition of these atypical and underestimated complications of HCV infection is of crucial importance in deciding which treatment option a patient should be offered.

  1. Detection and genotyping of HCV RNA in anti-HCV positive serum%抗-HCV阳性血清HCV RNA检测与基因分型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢晨; 解莹; 冯继红; 金萍

    2009-01-01

    Objective To detect and do genotyping of HCV RNA in anti-HCV positive serum.Methods HCV RNA was detected by fluorescent quantitation PCR in anti-HCV positive serum of 85 cases in Dalian area,and genotype was detected by type specificity primer reverse transcription nest PCR in HCV RNA positive specimens.Results In 85 cases of anti-HCV positive specimens,there were 65 cases of HCV RNA positive(76.5%).In the HCV RNA positive serum,there were 32 cases of 1b genotype(49.2%),29 cases of 2a genotype(44.6%),4 cases of the others(6.2%).Conclusions Anti-HCV positive is not direct mark for hepatitis C diagnosis,quantity of lb genotype is nearly equal to 2a genotype of hepatitis C virus in Dalian area.%目的 检测抗-HCV阳件血清巾的HCV RNA并进行HCV基因分型.方法 采用荧光定量PCR法检测85例大连地区抗-HCV阳性患者血清中HCV RNA,应用型特异性引物逆转录套式PCR法对HCV RNA阳性样本进行基因分型.结果 85例的抗-HCV阳性患者中,HCV RNA阳性65例(76.5%),其中基因分型1b型32例(49.2%),2a型29例(44.6%),未分型4例(6.2%).结论 抗-HCV阳性并非HCV直接标志,大连地区HCV基冈1b型和2a型基本相等.

  2. HCV and HBV coexist in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia; possibility of coinfection in these patients must be considered in HBV-high endemic area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Soon [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and is highly associated with HBV infection in Korea. It has been suggested that HCV core protein may impair the polymerase activity of HBV in vitro, potentially lowering HBV titre in coinfected patients. The aim of this study was to confirm the coexistence of HBV viremia in HCV infected patients HCC who have apparent HBsAg seronegativity. The serological profiles of HBV and HCV in 616 patients with HCC were analysed and coinfection rate of HBV and HCV investigated. Sera were obtained from 16 patients who were both anti-HCV and HCV RNA positive but HbsAg negative, and tested for HBV BY PCR. As a control group, sera were obtained from 15 patients with HCC and 30 non-A abd non-B chronic hepatitis patients without HCC; both were anti-HCV, HCV-RNA, and HBsAg negative and tested for HBV PCR. Of 616 patients with HCC, 450 (73.1 %) had current HBV infection, 48 (7.8 %) had anti-HCV antibodies, and nine (1.5 %) had viral markers of both HCV abd HBV by serological profiles. Of 27 the patients with HCV viremia and HBsAg seronegativity, 14 (51.9 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. In contrast, of the 75 patients in the control group who were both HCV PCR negative and HBsAg negative, five (11.1 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. The PCR for HBV revealed coexistent HBV viremia in HCV viremia patients, despite HBsAg negativity by EIA. In HBV-endemic areas, the possibility of coinfection of HBV in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia should be considered and molecular analysis for HBV-DNA performed. (author). 18 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. HCV RNA traffic and association with NS5A in living cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiches, Guillaume N.; Eyre, Nicholas S.; Aloia, Amanda L.; Van Der Hoek, Kylie [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Research Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Adelaide, Adelaide and Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Betz-Stablein, Brigit; Luciani, Fabio [Systems Immunology, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Chopra, Abha [Institute for Immunology and infectious diseases (IIID), Murdoch University, Perth, WA (Australia); Beard, Michael R., E-mail: michael.beard@adelaide.edu.au [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Research Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Adelaide, Adelaide and Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology, Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    2016-06-15

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) RNA localisation are poorly understood. To address this we engineered HCV genomes harbouring MS2 bacteriophage RNA stem-loops within the 3′-untranslated region to allow tracking of HCV RNA via specific interaction with a MS2-Coat-mCherry fusion protein. Despite the impact of these insertions on viral fitness, live imaging revealed that replication of tagged-HCV genomes induced specific redistribution of the mCherry-tagged-MS2-Coat protein to motile and static foci. Further analysis showed that HCV RNA was associated with NS5A in both static and motile structures while a subset of motile NS5A structures was devoid of HCV RNA. Further investigation of viral RNA traffic with respect to lipid droplets (LDs) revealed HCV RNA-positive structures in close association with LDs. These studies provide new insights into the dynamics of HCV RNA traffic with NS5A and LDs and provide a platform for future investigations of HCV replication and assembly. - Highlights: • HCV can tolerate can bacteriophage MS2 stem-loop insertions within the 3′ UTR. • MS2 stem-loop containing HCV genomes allow for real-time imaging of HCV RNA. • HCV RNA is both static and motile and associates with NS5A and lipid droplets.

  4. Detection of HBV and HCV Coinfection by TEM with Au Nanoparticle Gene Probes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Dong; LUO Xiaoping; NINGQin

    2007-01-01

    Goid(Au) nanoparticle HBV DNA or HCV cDNA gene probes were prepared and were used to detect HBV DNA and HCV RNA extracted from positive serum of patients with HBV and HCV coinfection directly by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). PCR identifying HBV and HCV in serum of patients with HBV and HCV coinfection was established. Alkanethiol-modified oligonueleotide was bound with self-made Au nanoparticles to form nanoparticle HBV DNA or HCV cDNA gene probes through covalent binding of Au-S. HBV DNA and HCV RNA extracted from positive serum of patients with HBV and HCV coinfection was added to the detection system com- posed of nanoparticle HBV DNA and(or) HCV cDNA gene probes. The results showed that HBV DNA and HCV RNA could be specifically amplified by PCR. The zones of DNA amplification ap- peared in 431 lap and 323 bp respectively. When HBV DNA and HCV RNA extracted from positive serum of patients with HBV and HCV coinfection were added to the detection system, TEM dis- played the nanoparticles self-assembled into large network aggregates. It was concluded that the de-tection of HBV and HCV coinfection by TEM was convenient and efficient with high specificity and sensitivity.

  5. Kinematic markers dissociate error correction from sensorimotor realignment during prism adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Jacinta; Gaveau, Valérie; Kandel, Matthieu; Koga, Kazuo; Susami, Kenji; Prablanc, Claude; Rossetti, Yves

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the motor control mechanisms that enable healthy individuals to adapt their pointing movements during prism exposure to a rightward optical shift. In the prism adaptation literature, two processes are typically distinguished. Strategic motor adjustments are thought to drive the pattern of rapid endpoint error correction typically observed during the early stage of prism exposure. This is distinguished from so-called 'true sensorimotor realignment', normally measured with a different pointing task, at the end of prism exposure, which reveals a compensatory leftward 'prism after-effect'. Here, we tested whether each mode of motor compensation - strategic adjustments versus 'true sensorimotor realignment' - could be distinguished, by analyzing patterns of kinematic change during prism exposure. We hypothesized that fast feedforward versus slower feedback error corrective processes would map onto two distinct phases of the reach trajectory. Specifically, we predicted that feedforward adjustments would drive rapid compensation of the initial (acceleration) phase of the reach, resulting in the rapid reduction of endpoint errors typically observed early during prism exposure. By contrast, we expected visual-proprioceptive realignment to unfold more slowly and to reflect feedback influences during the terminal (deceleration) phase of the reach. The results confirmed these hypotheses. Rapid error reduction during the early stage of prism exposure was achieved by trial-by-trial adjustments of the motor plan, which were proportional to the endpoint error feedback from the previous trial. By contrast, compensation of the terminal reach phase unfolded slowly across the duration of prism exposure. Even after 100 trials of pointing through prisms, adaptation was incomplete, with participants continuing to exhibit a small rightward shift in both the reach endpoints and in the terminal phase of reach trajectories. Individual differences in the degree of

  6. Safety analysis of raltegravir/truvada regimen in HIV/HCV co-infected patients without switchback after HCV treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ehret

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to drug-drug interactions of HIV- and HCV-specific antivirals when initiating an HCV-therapy, the antiretroviral therapy (ART often has to be changed. The spectrum of applicable antiretrovirals is small, therefore many patients were switched to raltegravir/truvada (RAL/TVD in our cohort. Due to the relatively low genetic barrier of RAL, this regimen may be endangered to fail, if the NRTI backbone is not fully active because of pre-existing NRTI resistance. We investigated the long-term follow-up and safety of RAL/TVD in co-infected patients after hepatitis C virus (HCV therapy was stopped and the protective antiretroviral effect of interferon ended. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients initiated a direct-acting antiviral (DAA containing HCV therapy (8x faldaprevir, 6x telaprevir, 2x daclatasvir and 4x simeprevir between 11/2011 and 01/2013. Seventeen were switched to RAL/TVD, three patients were not treated before, but started with the regimen. Diagnosis of HIV infection was dated between 1985 and 2010. The HI-viral suppression was monitored retrospectively to date. Results: Thirteen of the twenty patients (65% remained on RAL/TVD after finishing HCV treatment, for seven patients, no data about their ART continuation was available, after HCV therapy had stopped. All remaining thirteen patients showed an HI-viral load below detection limit up to date (for 15 to 22 months, median 20 months. Only for four patients, historic resistance data were available but none showed NRTI mutations. Conclusions: Switch to RAL/TVD as HIV ART due to initiating HCV therapy was safe for the observed small cohort even in long-term follow-up without switchback or a second ART switch. However, resistance data for the cohort was little, showing no NRTI mutations, indicating a relatively safe setting. Since no further data is available, physicians should keep in mind ART history, historical therapy failure and HIV-resistance while switching ART to

  7. Detection of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen using the Abbott ARCHITECT anti-HBc assay: analysis of borderline reactive sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollier, Laurence; Laffont, Catherine; Kechkekian, Aurore; Doglio, Alain; Giordanengo, Valérie

    2008-12-01

    Routine use of the automated chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay Abbott ARCHITECT anti-HBc for diagnosis of hepatitis B is limited in case of borderline reactive sera with low signal close to the cut-off index. In order to determine the significance of anti-HBc detection when borderline reactivity occurs using the ARCHITECT anti-HBc assay, a comparative study was designed. 3540 serum samples collected over a 2-month period in the hospital of Nice were examined for markers of HBV infection (HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc). One hundred seven samples with sufficient volume and with borderline reactivity by the ARCHITECT assay were tested by two other anti-HBc assays, a microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA, AxSYM Core, Abbott Laboratories, IL, USA) and an enzyme linked fluorescent assay (ELFA, VIDAS Anti-HBc Total II, bioMérieux, Lyon, France). Only 46 samples were confirmed by the AxSYM and the VIDAS assays. Additional serological information linked to patient history showed that the remaining samples (61) were false positives (11), had low titer of anti-HBc antibodies (13), or were inconclusive (37). This comparative study highlighted the existence of a grey zone around the cut-off index. Confirmative results through a different immunoassay are needed to confirm the diagnosis of HBV on borderline reactive sera using the ARCHITECT anti-HBc assay.

  8. The PRISM (Pliocene Palaeoclimate) reconstruction: Time for a paradigm shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, Harry J.; Robinson, Marci M.; Stoll, Danielle K.; Foley, Kevin M.; Johnson, Andrew L. A.; Williams, Mark; Riesselman, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Global palaeoclimate reconstructions have been invaluable to our understanding of the causes and effects of climate change, but single-temperature representations of the oceanic mixed layer for data–model comparisons are outdated, and the time for a paradigm shift in marine palaeoclimate reconstruction is overdue. The new paradigm in marine palaeoclimate reconstruction stems the loss of valuable climate information and instead presents a holistic and nuanced interpretation of multi-dimensional oceanographic processes and responses. A wealth of environmental information is hidden within the US Geological Survey's Pliocene Research,Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) marine palaeoclimate reconstruction, and we introduce here a plan to incorporate all valuable climate data into the next generation of PRISM products. Beyond the global approach and focus, we plan to incorporate regional climate dynamics with emphasis on processes, integrating multiple environmental proxies wherever available in order to better characterize the mixed layer, and developing a finer time slice within the Mid-Piacenzian Age of the Pliocene, complemented by underused proxies that offer snapshots into environmental conditions. The result will be a proxy-rich, temporally nested, process-oriented approach in a digital format - a relational database with geographic information system capabilities comprising a three-dimensional grid representing the surface layer, with a plethora of data in each cell.

  9. The PRISM (Pliocene palaeoclimate) reconstruction: time for a paradigm shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, Harry J; Robinson, Marci M; Stoll, Danielle K; Foley, Kevin M; Johnson, Andrew L A; Williams, Mark; Riesselman, Christina R

    2013-10-28

    Global palaeoclimate reconstructions have been invaluable to our understanding of the causes and effects of climate change, but single-temperature representations of the oceanic mixed layer for data-model comparisons are outdated, and the time for a paradigm shift in marine palaeoclimate reconstruction is overdue. The new paradigm in marine palaeoclimate reconstruction stems the loss of valuable climate information and instead presents a holistic and nuanced interpretation of multi-dimensional oceanographic processes and responses. A wealth of environmental information is hidden within the US Geological Survey's Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) marine palaeoclimate reconstruction, and we introduce here a plan to incorporate all valuable climate data into the next generation of PRISM products. Beyond the global approach and focus, we plan to incorporate regional climate dynamics with emphasis on processes, integrating multiple environmental proxies wherever available in order to better characterize the mixed layer, and developing a finer time slice within the Mid-Piacenzian Age of the Pliocene, complemented by underused proxies that offer snapshots into environmental conditions. The result will be a proxy-rich, temporally nested, process-oriented approach in a digital format-a relational database with geographic information system capabilities comprising a three-dimensional grid representing the surface layer, with a plethora of data in each cell.

  10. Analysis of HCV genotypes from blood donors shows three new HCV type 6 subgroups exist in Myanmar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji T

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV genotypes in Myanmar in comparison with the rest of Southeast Asia is not well known. Serum samples were obtained from 201 HCV antibody-positive volunteer blood donors in and around the Myanmar city of Yangon. Of these, the antibody titers of 101 samples were checked by serial dilution using HCV antibody PA test II and Terasaki microplate as a low-cost method. To compare antibody titers by this method and RNA identification, we also checked HCV-RNA using the Amplicor 2.0 test. Most high-titer groups were positive for HCV-RNA. Of the 201 samples, 110 were successfully polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplified. Among them, 35 (31.8% were of genotype 1, 52 (47.3% were of genotype 3, and 23 (20.9% were of type 6 variants, and phylogenetic analysis of these type 6 variants revealed that 3 new type 6 subgroups exist in Myanmar. We named the subgroups M6-1, M6-2, and M6-3. M6-1 and M6-2 were relatively close to types 8 and 9, respectively. M6-3, though only found in one sample, was a brand-new subgroup. These subtypes were not seen in Vietnam, where type 6 group variants are widely spread. These findings may be useful for analyzing how and when these subgroups were formed.

  11. Addressing HCV infection in Europe: reported, estimated and undiagnosed cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merkinaite, Simona; Lazarus, Jeff; Gore, Charles

    2008-01-01

    . At present, it is the most common cause of chronic liver disease and liver transplantation in a number of countries, with an estimated 250,000 people dying annually from HCV-related causes. Despite the magnitude of the problem, the virus does not receive adequate attention from either the general public...... or from health policy-makers. This study assesses HCV prevalence from both estimated totals and undiagnosed cases in selected European countries. Secondary sources were assessed and experts in 17 European countries were interviewed about HCV prevalence, reporting strategies and transmission. Available...... cases have been identified among past or current injecting drug users (IDUs). It is of the utmost importance to improve both public awareness and access to early testing and counselling, with the goal of prevention of further infections, maintenance of health and provision of treatment to avoid...

  12. Strategies to manage hepatitis C virus (HCV) disease burden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedemeyer, H; Duberg, A S; Buti, M;

    2014-01-01

    The number of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections is projected to decline while those with advanced liver disease will increase. A modeling approach was used to forecast two treatment scenarios: (i) the impact of increased treatment efficacy while keeping the number of treated patients constant...... and (ii) increasing efficacy and treatment rate. This analysis suggests that successful diagnosis and treatment of a small proportion of patients can contribute significantly to the reduction of disease burden in the countries studied. The largest reduction in HCV-related morbidity and mortality occurs...... when increased treatment is combined with higher efficacy therapies, generally in combination with increased diagnosis. With a treatment rate of approximately 10%, this analysis suggests it is possible to achieve elimination of HCV (defined as a >90% decline in total infections by 2030). However...

  13. HIV and HCV Medications in End-Stage Renal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Keiko I; Perazella, Mark A; Atta, Mohamed G

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affect populations worldwide. With the availability of over 35 Food and Drug Administration approved medications for treatment of HIV, the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV has greatly improved. On the other hand, treatment options for HCV have been limited until very recently. While the use of protease inhibitors (such as boceprevir and telaprevir) has become standard of care for treatment of hepatitis C in the general population, data for individuals with impaired kidney function, particularly those on dialysis, are extremely limited. Use of medications in dialysis patients can be challenging given the dose adjustments that must be made for renally cleared molecules, and potentially increased impact of adverse effects such as anemia. Recommendations for dosing of marketed therapies for HIV and HCV are reviewed.

  14. [Consequences of extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C viral infection (HCV)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawełczyk, Agnieszka

    2016-04-21

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a primarily hepatotropic virus. However, numerous extrahepatic symptoms are observed in patients chronically infected with HCV, e.g. cryoglobulinemia, lymphoproliferative disorders, kidney diseases, disturbances of the central and peripheral nervous system, thyroid gland, pancreas, lymph nodes and pituitary gland, that develop at various times after the infection. Complex mechanisms underlie these processes, both molecular, related to direct effects of the virus on cells or tissues and indirect mechanisms, resulting from the response of the immune system to infection (via cytokines or oxidative stress), and from the antiviral treatment used. Understanding these mechanisms may contribute to the definition of new prognostic factors, important for the early diagnosis of the infection, which in turn may improve treatment efficacy. This paper is a review of the incidence of selected extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection and their underlying pathogenetic mechanisms and risk factors.

  15. 75 FR 19417 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment for Housing Choice Voucher (HCV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... Voucher (HCV) Family Self-Sufficiency (FSS) Program AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Public... also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Family...

  16. Historical epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in selected countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruggmann, P; Øvrehus, Anne Lindebo; Moreno, C;

    2014-01-01

    prevalence estimates varied widely between countries, ranging from 0.3% in Austria, England and Germany to 8.5% in Egypt. The largest viremic populations were in Egypt, with 6,358,000 cases in 2008 and Brazil with 2,106,000 cases in 2007. The age distribution of cases differed between countries. In most...... countries, prevalence rates were higher among males, reflecting higher rates of injection drug use. Diagnosis, treatment and transplant levels also differed considerably between countries. Reliable estimates characterizing HCV-infected populations are critical for addressing HCV-related morbidity...

  17. Diffraction theory applied to X-ray imaging with clessidra prism array lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caro, Liberato; Jark, Werner

    2008-03-01

    Clessidra (hourglass) lenses, i.e. two large prisms each composed of smaller identical prisms or prism-like objects, can focus X-rays. As these lenses have a periodic structure perpendicular to the incident radiation, they will diffract the beam like a diffraction grating. Refraction in the prisms is responsible for blazing, i.e. for the concentration of the diffracted intensity into only a few diffraction peaks. It is found that the diffraction of coherent radiation in clessidra lenses needs to be treated in the Fresnel, or near-field, regime. Here, diffraction theory is applied appropriately to the clessidra structure in order to show that blazing in a perfect structure with partly curved prisms can indeed concentrate the diffracted intensity into only one peak. When the lens is entirely composed of identical perfect prisms, small secondary peaks are found. Nevertheless, the loss in intensity in the central peak will not lead to any significant widening of this peak. Clessidras with perfect prisms illuminated by full coherent X-ray radiation can then provide spatial resolutions, which are consistent with the increased aperture, and which are far below the height of the single small prisms.

  18. Standardization of motion sickness induced by left-right and up-down reversing prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Vanderploeg, J. M.; Brumley, E. A.; Kolafa, J. J.; Wood, S. J.

    1990-01-01

    Reversing prisms are known to produce symptoms of motion sickness, and have been used to provide a chronic stimulus for training subjects on symptom recognition and regulation. However, testing procedures with reversing prisms have not been standardized. A set of procedures were evaluated which could be standardized using prisms for provocation and to compare the results between Right/Left Reversing Prisms (R/L-RP) and Up/Down Reversing Prisms (U/D-RP). Fifteen subjects were tested with both types of prisms using a self paced walking course throughout the laboratory with work stations established at specified intervals. The work stations provided tasks requiring eye-hand-foot coordination and various head movements. Comparisons were also made between these prism tests and two other standardized susceptibility tests, the KC-135 parabolic static chair test and the Staircase Velocity Motion Test (SVMT). Two different types of subjective symptom reports were compared. The R/L-RP were significantly more provocative than the U/D-RP. The incidence of motion sickness symptoms for the R/L-RP was similar to the KC-135 parabolic static chair test. Poor correlations were found between the prism tests and the other standardized susceptibility tests, which might indicate that different mechanisms are involved in provoking motion sickness for these different tests.

  19. Prism Foil from an LCD Monitor as a Tool for Teaching Introductory Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Gojkosek, Mihael

    2011-01-01

    Transparent prism foil is part of a backlight system in LCD monitors that are widely used today. This paper describes the optical properties of the prism foil and several pedagogical applications suitable for undergraduate introductory physics level. Examples include experiments that employ refraction, total internal reflection, diffraction and…

  20. Simultaneous adaptation of the thumb and index finger of the same hand to opposite prism displacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schot, Willemijn D; Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2014-01-01

    It only takes a few goal-directed hand movements to adapt one's movements to a prism-induced displacement of the visual scene. Adaptation to the displacement leads to errors in the opposite direction from the initial displacement when the prisms are removed. Such aftereffects are thought to arise fr

  1. HCV Antibody Response and Genotype Distribution in Different Areas and Races of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leili Jia, Jiyun Yu, Jinliang Yang, Hongbin Song, Xuelin Liu, Yong Wang, Yuanyong Xu, Chuanfu Zhang, Yanwei Zhong, Qiao Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV heterogeneity accounts for the failure of effective vaccine development and the lack of successful anti-viral therapy in some patients. Little is known about the immune response to HCV peptides and the region or race specific genotypes in China. The objective of this study was to characterize HCV antibody immune response to HCV peptides and HCV genotypes in different regions and races of China. A total of 363 serum samples were collected from HCV carriers in 6 regions in China. The immune response to HCV peptides was evaluated by ELISA. HCV genotypes were examined using nested RT-PCR. We found that the anti-HCV antibody neutralization rates were significantly different among the serum samples from different areas or from different races in the same area. For samples from Tibet and Sinkiang, the rates of neutralization by HCV peptides were only 3.2% and 30.8%, respectively. The genotypes of samples from Tibet and Sinkiang were apparently heterogeneic and included type I, II, III and multiple types (I/II/III, I/II, I/III, II/III. One specific sample with multiple-genotype (I/II/III HCV infection was found to consist of type I, II, III, II/III and an unclassified genotype. These studies indicate that the anti-HCV antibody immune response to HCV peptides varied across regions and among races. The distribution of HCV genotypes among Tibetans in Tibet and Uighurs in Sinkiang was different from that in the inner areas of China. In addition, a “master” genotype, type II, was found to exist in HCV infection with multiple HCV genotypes.

  2. HCV antibody response and genotype distribution in different areas and races of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Leili; Yu, Jiyun; Yang, Jinliang; Song, Hongbin; Liu, Xuelin; Wang, Yong; Xu, Yuanyong; Zhang, Chuanfu; Zhong, Yanwei; Li, Qiao

    2009-06-13

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) heterogeneity accounts for the failure of effective vaccine development and the lack of successful anti-viral therapy in some patients. Little is known about the immune response to HCV peptides and the region or race specific genotypes in China. The objective of this study was to characterize HCV antibody immune response to HCV peptides and HCV genotypes in different regions and races of China. A total of 363 serum samples were collected from HCV carriers in 6 regions in China. The immune response to HCV peptides was evaluated by ELISA. HCV genotypes were examined using nested RT-PCR. We found that the anti-HCV antibody neutralization rates were significantly different among the serum samples from different areas or from different races in the same area. For samples from Tibet and Sinkiang, the rates of neutralization by HCV peptides were only 3.2% and 30.8%, respectively. The genotypes of samples from Tibet and Sinkiang were apparently heterogeneic and included type I, II, III and multiple types (I/II/III, I/II, I/III, II/III). One specific sample with multiple-genotype (I/II/III) HCV infection was found to consist of type I, II, III, II/III and an unclassified genotype. These studies indicate that the anti-HCV antibody immune response to HCV peptides varied across regions and among races. The distribution of HCV genotypes among Tibetans in Tibet and Uighurs in Sinkiang was different from that in the inner areas of China. In addition, a "master" genotype, type II, was found to exist in HCV infection with multiple HCV genotypes.

  3. Claudin-1 required for HCV virus entry has high potential for phosphorylation and O-glycosylation

    OpenAIRE

    Fouzia Kiran; Kausar Humera; Gull Sana; Sarwar Muhammad T; Asad Sultan; Ijaz Bushra; Shabbiri Khadija; Ahmad Waqar; Shahid Imran; Hassan Sajida

    2011-01-01

    Abstract HCV is a leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis all over the world. Claudins belong to family of tight junction's proteins that are responsible for establishing barriers for controlling the flow of molecules around cells. For therapeutic strategies, regulation of viral entry into the host cells holds a lot of promise. During HCV infection claudin-1 is highly expressed in liver and believed to be associated with HCV virus entry after HCV binding with or without co-rec...

  4. Ways and intensity of vertical transfer of the HCV from infected mothers to children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idelbay Shuratov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ways and intensity of vertical transfer HCV have been studied before sorts in 29 lying-in women, positive on HCV-RNA. Among newborns from these mothers in serum of blood of umbilical cord at the moment of birth, HCV-RNA is found in 6.8%. The infection of newborns from HCV-RNA positive mother occurs through a placenta and at the time of delivery.

  5. HBV/HCV co-infection is associated with a high level of HCV spontaneous clearance among drug users and blood donors in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, H; Rong, X; Wang, M; Xu, R; Huang, K; Liao, Q; Huang, J; Chen, J; Li, C; Tang, X; Shan, Z; Zhang, M; Nelson, K; Fu, Y

    2016-12-12

    Understanding the biology of spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection could lead to improved strategies to prevent the sequelae associated with chronic HCV infection. Chronic infections with hepatitis virus are very common in China, but the factors associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV have not been adequately studied. We evaluated the spontaneous clearance of HCV among 1918 drug users and 1526 HCV-seropositive blood donors in Guangzhou, China. Among participants who were co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), 41.38% of drug users and 39.47% of blood donors had cleared their HCV infection without antiviral therapy compared to 9.41% of drug users and 16.73% of blood donors who were mono-infected with a single virus (PHCV infection was significantly greater in the co-infected subjects whose serum HBV DNA was greater than 2000IU/mL than those with lower levels. A multiple logistic regression analysis found female gender, IL28B rs8099917 TT genotype, HBV co-infection and blood donors (vs drug users) associated with increased spontaneous clearance of HCV infection. Although acute HCV infections are common in China, the incidence of chronic HCV may be reduced among the high prevalence of chronic HBV and IL28B genotypes associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV in Chinese populations.

  6. Proteome analysis of liver cells expressing a full-length hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicon and biopsy specimens of posttransplantation liver from HCV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jon M; Diamond, Deborah L; Chan, Eric Y; Gritsenko, Marina A; Qian, Weijun; Stastna, Miroslava; Baas, Tracey; Camp, David G; Carithers, Robert L; Smith, Richard D; Katze, Michael G

    2005-06-01

    The development of a reproducible model system for the study of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has the potential to significantly enhance the study of virus-host interactions and provide future direction for modeling the pathogenesis of HCV. While there are studies describing global gene expression changes associated with HCV infection, changes in the proteome have not been characterized. We report the first large-scale proteome analysis of the highly permissive Huh-7.5 cell line containing a full-length HCV replicon. We detected >4,200 proteins in this cell line, including HCV replicon proteins, using multidimensional liquid chromatographic (LC) separations coupled to mass spectrometry. Consistent with the literature, a comparison of HCV replicon-positive and -negative Huh-7.5 cells identified expression changes of proteins involved in lipid metabolism. We extended these analyses to liver biopsy material from HCV-infected patients where a total of >1,500 proteins were detected from only 2 mug of liver biopsy protein digest using the Huh-7.5 protein database and the accurate mass and time tag strategy. These findings demonstrate the utility of multidimensional proteome analysis of the HCV replicon model system for assisting in the determination of proteins/pathways affected by HCV infection. Our ability to extend these analyses to the highly complex proteome of small liver biopsies with limiting protein yields offers the unique opportunity to begin evaluating the clinical significance of protein expression changes associated with HCV infection.

  7. Serum immunoglobulin G antibodies to the GOR autoepitope are present in patients with occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection despite lack of HCV-specific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Juan A; Castillo, Inmaculada; Bartolomé, Javier; Carreño, Vicente

    2007-10-01

    Antibody responses to the GOR autoepitope are frequently detected among anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV)-positive patients with chronic hepatitis. Sera from 110 anti-HCV-negative patients with occult HCV infection, as diagnosed by detection of HCV RNA in hepatic tissue, were investigated for GOR antibody reactivity. A positive test for anti-GOR immunoglobulin G (IgG) was found for 22 (20%) of them. The frequency and titers of anti-GOR IgG were significantly lower than those in chronic hepatitis C patients (70/110, 63.6%; P HCV-unrelated liver disease. The anti-GOR IgG assay showed specificity and sensitivity values of 100% and 20%, respectively, among the sera from patients with occult HCV infection; the positive and negative predictive values were 100% and 44.3%, respectively. None of the clinical, laboratory, or histological characteristics of the patients with occult HCV infection were different according to GOR antibody status, except that the percentage of HCV RNA-positive hepatocytes was significantly greater (P = 0.042) in patients with occult HCV infection who tested positive for anti-GOR IgG. In conclusion, serum anti-GOR IgG is present in patients with occult HCV infection, despite a lack of detectable HCV-specific antibodies as determined by commercial tests. Testing for anti-GOR IgG in patients in whom HCV RNA is not detected in their sera may help with the identification of a subset of patients with occult HCV infection without the need to perform a liver biopsy.

  8. Relationship between Timing Jitter and Prism Separation in Mode-locked Solid State Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Hong

    2001-01-01

    The function expression of the group delay dispersion (GDD) depending on the prism separation and the normal displacement is derived, and that the GDD is proportional to the prism separation and near to a linear function of the normal displacement in the case of small normal displacement are found. Then we discuss the timing jitter caused by the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) which depends on the prism separation and the normal displacement. We find that the timing jitter is near to a linear function of the prism separation and can be regrded as a linear function of the normal displacement in the case of small normal displacement. Based on the theoretic work, we suggest an experimental setup to measure the relationship between the timing jitter and the prism separation or the normal displacement.

  9. 21 CFR 610.47 - Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback” requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hepatitis C virus (HCV) âlookbackâ requirements... Disease Agents § 610.47 Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback” requirements. (a) If you are an establishment... after a donor tests reactive for evidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection when tested under §...

  10. The Association between Female Genital Cutting and Spousal HCV Infection in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris R. Kenyon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the risk factors for HCV infection within married couples in Egypt. Methods. In 2008 Egypt conducted its first nationally representative survey of HCV prevalence. 11126 of the 12780 individuals aged 15–59 year who were sampled agreed to participate and provided information via a questionnaire about demographic and behavioural characteristics and blood for HCV antibody and RNA analysis. We assessed the risk factors for HCV infection in a subsample of 5182 married individuals via multivariate logistic regression. Results. Overall HCV antibody prevalence in the married couples was 18.2% (95% CI, 16.8–19.6. HCV antibody prevalence was higher in the husbands (23.7% than the wives (12.1%; P<0.001. Having a spouse who was infected with HCV was an independent risk factor for HCV infection with odds ratios of 2.1 (95% CI, 1.6–2.9 and 2.2 (95% CI, 1.6–3.1 for women and men, respectively. Husbands whose wives had experienced female genital cutting (FGC had a higher prevalence of HCV and this relationship was driven by a strong association in urban areas. Amongst the women there was no association between FGC and HCV overall but in urban areas only women who had experienced FGC were HCV infected. Conclusions. This study provides additional evidence of the importance of intrafamilial transmission of HCV in Egypt.

  11. Foreword: contributions of Arctic PRISM to monitoring western hemispheric shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, Susan K.; Smith, Paul A.; Andres, Brad A.; Donaldson, Garry; Brown, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and the Canadian Species at Risk Act. To meet the need for information on population size and trends, shorebird biologists from Canada and the United States proposed a shared blueprint for shorebird monitoring across the Western Hemisphere in the late 1990s; this effort was undertaken in concert with the development of the Canadian and the U.S. Shorebird Conservation Plans. Soon thereafter, partners in the monitoring effort adopted the name "Program for Regional and International Shorebird Monitoring" (PRISM). Among the primary objectives of PRISM were to estimate the population sizes and trends of breeding North American shorebirds and describe their distributions. PRISM members evaluated ongoing and potential monitoring approached to address 74 taxa (including subspecies) and proposed a combination of arctic and boreal breeding surveys, temperate breeding and non-breeding surveys, and neotropical surveys.

  12. Contributions of Arctic PRISM to monitoring western hemispheric shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, Susan K.; Smith, Paul A.; Andres, Brad A.; Donaldson, Garry; Brown, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    for assessing its vulnerability and subsequent listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and the Canadian Species at Risk Act. To meet the need for information on population size and trends, shorebird biologists from Canada and the United States proposed a shared blueprint for shorebird monitoring across the Western Hemisphere in the late 1990s; this effort was undertaken in concert with the development of the Canadian and U.S. Shorebird Conservation Plans (Donaldson et al. 2000, Brown et aL 2001). Soon thereafter, partners in the monitoring effort adopted the name "Program for Regional and International Shorebird Monitoring" (PRISM). Among the primary objectives of PRISM were to estimate the population sizes and trends of breeding North American shorebirds and describe their distributions (Bart et al. 2002). PRISM members evaluated ongoing and potential monitoring approaches to address 74 taxa (including subspecies) and proposed a combination of arctic andboreal breeding surveys, temperate breeding and non-breeding surveys, and neotropical surveys.

  13. Structural and Seafloor Morphological Evidence for Collapse of the Nankai Trough Accretionary Prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curewitz, D.; Harris, R.; Kimura, G.; Screaton, E. J.; 314/315/316 Science Party, I.

    2008-12-01

    Recent models for the evolution and structural architecture of accretionary prisms have suggested that the overall behavior of these systems is governed by the dynamic relationship between the geometry of the basal thrusts and the shape of the seafloor, coupled with the state of the basal thrust (slipping, creeping, or locked), the mechanical characteristics of the prism rocks, and the structure of the internal parts of the prism. In the NanTroSEIZE study area, the seafloor along the outer edge of the accretionary prism adjacent to the trench (the prism toe) exhibits a number of features indicative of gravitational collapse, including several listric headwall scarps and associated debris-slide and landslide deposits. Cores collected from the toe of the prism during IODP Expedition 316 contain a wide array of structures, including several populations of faults exhibiting orientations consistent with the geometry of the inferred headwall scarps. Borehole temperature measurements collected near the toe of the prism (and near areas affected by these inferred submarine slides) give rise to anomalously low heat flow values. Taken together, these data suggest that the toe of the Nankai Accretionary Prism offshore the Kii Peninsula, Japan, is currently in a state of collapse. The expression of this mechanical state is found in the along-trench succession of landslide andother gravitational collapse features, the arcuate or listric fault systems that form the detachment surface for these slides, and the inferred infiltration of seawater into the prism via these fault systems, resulting in drastic (and ongoing) cooling of the prism toe by advecting seawater.

  14. HCV Proteins and Immunoglobulin Variable Gene (IgV Subfamilies in HCV-Induced Type II Mixed Cryoglobulinemia: A Concurrent Pathogenetic Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Sautto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and type II mixed cryoglobulinemia (MCII is well established, but the role played by distinct HCV proteins and by specific components of the anti-HCV humoral immune response remains to be clearly defined. It is widely accepted that HCV drives the expansion of few B-cell clones expressing a restricted pool of selected immunoglobulin variable (IgV gene subfamilies frequently endowed with rheumatoid factor (RF activity. Moreover, the same IgV subfamilies are frequently observed in HCV-transformed malignant B-cell clones occasionally complicating MCII. In this paper, we analyze both the humoral and viral counterparts at the basis of cryoglobulins production in HCV-induced MCII, with particular attention reserved to the single IgV subfamilies most frequently involved.

  15. Characterization of chronic HCV infection in Northwest Spain: Impact of the treatment strategic plan of the Spanish National Health Service on HCV cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandal, Marta; Pernas, Berta; Mariño, Ana; Álvarez, Hortensia; Tabernilla, Andrés; Castro-Iglesias, Ángeles; Mena, Álvaro; Delgado, Manuel; Pértega, Sonia; Poveda, Eva

    2017-01-12

    The aim of the study was to characterize HCV infection in Northwest Spain and assess the impact of the Spanish Strategic Plan to cure HCV infection. Overall, 387 patients were included (60.9% HIV/HCV coinfected and 28.2% cirrhotic). Of these, 72.9% of patients that were recognized as priority for HCV treatment according to the Spanish Strategic Plan (≥F2, transplant or extrahepatic manifestations), initiated treatment during 2015. Globally, SVR12 was achieved in 96.5% of patients. The implementation of the Spanish Strategic Plan has been critical to advance in HCV cure, but 27.1% of priority patients still remain awaiting HCV treatment initiation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Endothelial Dysfunction Correlates with Liver Fibrosis in Chronic HCV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Barone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection can exert proatherogenic activities due to its direct action on vessel walls and/or via the chronic inflammatory process involving the liver. Aims. To clarify the role of HCV in atherosclerosis development in monoinfected HCV patients at different degrees of liver fibrosis and with no risk factors for coronary artery disease. Methods. Forty-five patients were included. Clinical, serological, and anthropometric parameters, liver fibrosis (transient liver elastometry (fibroscan and aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI, carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT, and brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD were assessed. Patients were divided into 3 tertiles according to fibroscan values. Results. Patients in the third tertile (fibroscan value >11.5 KPa showed FMD values were significantly lower than second and first tertiles (4.7±1.7% versus 7.1±2.8%, p=0.03. FMD values were inversely related to liver elastomeric values. c-IMT values were normal. The risk for endothelial dysfunction development in the third tertile (p=0.02 was 6.9 higher than the first tertile. A fibroscan value >11.5 KPa had a positive predictive power equal to 79% for endothelial dysfunction. Conclusions. HCV advanced liver fibrosis promotes atherosclerosis by inducing endothelial dysfunction independently of common cardiovascular risk factors.

  17. The epidemiologic feature of HCV prevalence in Fujian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Fen Li; Yong Zhou; Sheng Xia; Li Lai Zhao; Zi Xin Wang; Cheng Qin Wang

    2000-01-01

    AIM To investigate the epidemiological features of HCV prevalence, a seroepidemiological survey on HCVinfection has been carried out in Fujian since 1992.METHODS Using stratified multistage random cluster sampling, 3809 serum samples collected from 1237families in the diseases surveillance points were tested by UBI HCV EIA kit.RESULTS The results showed that the prevalence rate was 3.99%. The rate in male and female was3.63% and 4.25%, and in urban and rural 3.12% and 4.6% respectively (P>0.05). There was lower ratein children aged under 10 years. The highest rate was in 20 - 24 years old. The rates in different areas wereranged from 1.39% to 6.08% (P<0.05). The intrafamilial transmission was not important, indicating nointrafamilial aggregation. The superinfection of HCV with HAV, HBV and HEV were existed. The HCVinfection was slightly correlated with the history of hepatitis and transfusion.CONCLUSION It suggests that the HCV transmission among the population in Fujian is mainly sporadicinfection.

  18. International epidemiological studies on HIV, HCV and STI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis comprises international epidemiological studies on HIV, Hepatitis C (HCV) and sexually transmitted infections (STI) and the evaluation of STI diagnostic tests with the ultimate goal to decrease spread and disease burden of these infections. The main conclusions are: 1. Without the use of

  19. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in Balochistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Sarwat; Naeem, Muhammad; Hussain, Abid; Kakar, Naseebullah; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Ahmad, Jamil

    2009-07-01

    A molecular study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Hepatitis C virus genotypes in HCV infected population of Balochistan. Forty HCV seropositive samples belonging to seven different locations of Balochistan were collected from different health care centres. Qualitative analysis of these samples using PCR resulted in 28 positive samples. The PCR positive samples were subjected to genotyping using the method described by Ohno et al (J Clin Microbiol 35:201-202, 1997) with minor modifications. Genotyping of 28 samples revealed three different genotypes including 3a, 3b and 1a. The most prevalent genotype was 3a with rate of 50% followed by genotype 3b and 1a, respectively. Nine samples remained untyped, suggesting the need of further investigation of genotypes in this region. It has been proposed that sequencing of these samples may be helpful to unreveal these genotypes and further epidemiology of HCV genotypes. Further more, extensive and large scale studies are needed to understand the epidemiology of HCV genotypes, as no such study has been carried in this province.

  20. [Control of HCV, HBV and HIV Infections in Hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizi, Fabrizio; Martin, Paul; Messa, Piergiorgio

    2013-01-01

    Infections with blood-borne pathogens are still common among patients on maintenance dialysis all over the world. The control of infection due to blood-borne viruses (particularly HBV) within dialysis units has been a major goal in the management of patients with chronic kidney disease in the industrialized world. Standard precautions and specific procedures have been recommended to prevent infections with HBV, HCV and HIV within dialysis units. Isolation of HBsAg positive patients by dialysis rooms, staff and machines continues to be an important step to control HBV infection within dialysis units, according to the CDC and other regulatory agencies. Some prospective observational studies have reported the complete prevention of HCV transmission to hemodialysis patients in the absence of any isolation policy, and the use of dedicated dialysis machines for HCV-infected patients is not recommended by clinical guidelines. Isolation of HCV-infected patients should be considered in special circumstances only. Vaccination is an important tool against transmission of HBV among patients on long-term dialysis even if the immune response towards the hepatitis B vaccine remains unsatisfactory. Hemodialysis is considered a low risk setting for the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, providing that standard and specific procedures are carefully observed. HIV-infected patients do not have to be isolated from other patients or dialyzed separately on dedicated machines.

  1. Glances in Immunology of HIV and HCV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giovanna Quaranta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the identification of HIV and HCV much progress has been made in the understanding of their life cycle and interaction with the host immune system. Despite these viruses markedly differ in their virological properties and in their pathogenesis, they share many common features in their immune escape and survival strategy. Both viruses have developed sophisticated ways to subvert and antagonize host innate and adaptive immune responses. In the last years, much effort has been done in the study of the AIDS pathogenesis and in the development of efficient treatment strategies, and a fatal infection has been transformed in a potentially chronic pathology. Much of this knowledge is now being transferred in the HCV research field, especially in the development of new drugs, although a big difference still remains between the outcome of the two infections, being HCV eradicable after treatment, whereas HIV eradication remains at present unachievable due to the establishment of reservoirs. In this review, we present current knowledge on innate and adaptive immune recognition and activation during HIV and HCV mono-infections and evasion strategies. We also discuss the genetic associations between components of the immune system, the course of infection, and the outcome of the therapies.

  2. Antiviral Therapy for Chronic HCV Infection - Tolerability and Outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Maan (Raoel)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes the safety and outcome of antiviral therapy for chronic HCV infection. In the first chapters, the authors investigated (hematological) adverse events during interferon-based therapy among patients with compensated cirrhosis. By using a patient-tailored approach, int

  3. The detection of Anti-HCV,HCV-RNA and its genotype in 5 080 patients with hepatitis C%丙型肝炎患者5080例Anti-HCV、HCV-RNA及基因分型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利红; 徐军

    2015-01-01

    目的::对5080例丙型肝炎患者Anti-HCV、HCV-RNA及基因分型三项检验结果进行分析。方法:采用增强发光免疫法检测Anti-HCV;实时荧光定量PCR法检验HCV-RNA;HCV-RNA含量≥103的标本同时进行基因分型检测。结果:5080例丙型肝炎患者中Anti-HCV检测阳性率为99.8%,HCV-RNA阳性率为49.1%。 HCV-RNA阳性患者年龄和抗体含量均明显高于HCV-RNA阴性患者(P<0.01)。在进行基因分型的1723例HCV-RNA阳性标本中,1b、2a分别占59.49%和36.20%,两型总占比达到95.69%;另外3b和4不常见型以及1b/2a、1b/4混合感染也检测到。结论:Anti-HCV含量与患者的病毒载量之间缺乏相关性,不能作为丙型肝炎治疗过程中的动态观察指标;HCV-RNA定量适于丙型肝炎疗效评价和预后判断指标;临床丙型肝炎患者中主要基因型是1b、2a型,对HCV-RNA阳性患者进行基因分型,可为丙型肝炎的个性化治疗提供决策依据。%Objective:To analyze the hepatitis C antibody( Anti-HCV) ,HCV-RNA and genotype in 5 080 patients with hepatitis C. Methods:The levels of Anti-HCV and HCV-RNA in all patients were determined by automatic enhanced luminescence immunity analyzer and quantitative fluorescent PCR,respectively. The genotypes in the patients with more than or equal to 103 of HCV-RNA were detected. Results:The positive rates of Anti-HCV and HCV-RNA were 99. 8% and 49. 1%,respectively. The ages and antibody content in positive HCV-RNA patients were significantly higher than those in the negative HCV-RNA patients(P<0. 01). Among the 1 723 positive HCV-RNA specimens,the 1b and 2a genotypes accounted for 59. 49% and 36. 20%,respectively,the total ratio of 1b and 2a genotypes was 95. 69%. The unusual types of 3b and 4,and mixed infection types of 1b/2a and 1b/4 also were detected. Conclusions:The Anti-HCV content and viral load are lack of correlation, which can not be used as the observation indexes in estimating the

  4. A VUV prism spectrometer for RICH radiator refractometry

    CERN Document Server

    Moyssides, P G; Fokitis, E

    2000-01-01

    A prism spectrometer has been developed to operate in the VUV wavelength range from 120 to 200 nm. It can be used as a pre- disperser in conjunction with a Fabry-Perot based gas refractometer. This instrument has also been used to measure the refractive index of the liquid radiator C/sub 6/F/sub 14/ in various spectral lines. This radiator is used in the RICH detectors of the DELPHI experiment and has been proposed for ALICE, and LHCb experiments. The spectral resolution of the system is improved as the wavelength decreases and the data are consistent with a wavelength accuracy about 0.4 nm at 140 nm. The results for the dispersion curve of the above liquid are presented. (17 refs).

  5. Acoustic Prism for Continuous Beam Steering Based on Piezoelectric Metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jiawen

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates an acoustic prism for continuous acoustic beam steering by a simple frequency sweep. This idea takes advantages of acoustic wave velocity shifting in metamaterials in the vicinity of local resonance. We apply this concept into the piezoelectric metamaterial consisting of host medium and piezoelectric LC shunt. Theoretical modeling and FEM simulations are carried out. It is shown that the phase velocity of acoustic wave changes dramatically in the vicinity of local resonance. The directions of acoustic wave can be adjusted continuously between 2 to 16 degrees by a simple sweep of the excitation frequency. Such an electro-mechanical coupling system has a feature of adjusting local resonance without altering the mechanical part of the system.

  6. Mass spectrometers based on a cone-shaped acromatic prism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivak-Lavrov, I.F. [Pedagogical Inst. of Aktyubinsk (Kazakhstan)

    1995-09-01

    We have elaborated a mass spectrometer without lenses consisting of one conic achromatic prism. It has a specific mass dispersion which is equal to 67.5 mm/m per 1% change of mass. (By specific dispersion we mean linear dispersion related to the main path.) The pass of charged particles with different emittance is investigated with the help of integrating precise equations for tracks of charged particles in natural curvilinear coordinates. We have calculated the resolving power and aberration of a mass spectrometer for different beams of particles. It is evident that the mass spectrometer is particularly effective in use when we deal with rather wide ion beams having an insignificant angular divergence in the mean plane. (orig.).

  7. Curved plasma channels: Kerr lens and Airy prism

    CERN Document Server

    Kasparian, Jérôme; 10.2971/jeos.2009.09039

    2010-01-01

    We analytically calculate the transverse energy fluxes that would be respectively induced in high-power Airy beams by the Kerr self-focusing and the Airy profile itself if they were the only active process. In experimental condition representative of laser filamentation experiments of high-power ultrashort laser pulses in air and condensed media, the Kerr lens induces transverse energy fluxes much larger than the Airy "prism" at the main peak. As a consequence, the curved plasma channels in Airy beams are not only a plasma spark on a curved focus, but indeed self-guided filaments, and their curved trajectory appears as a perturbation due to the linear Airy propagation regime.

  8. Russia through the prism of the world biopharmaceutical market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairamashvili, Dmitrij I; Rabinovich, Mikhail L

    2007-07-01

    Trends in the Russian pharmaceutical biotechnology and related fields representing the major sector of domestic biotech are reviewed through the prism of the world biopharmaceuticals market. A special emphasis is placed on biogenerics and follow-on biologics. The revival of national pharmbiotech is seen in close cooperation between private companies and the state, academia and industry. One of the first positive steps toward promoting development of domestic biopharmaceuticals is the Federal Program of subsidized supply of expensive pharmaceuticals (Dopolnitel'- noe Lekarstvennoe Obespechenie). The program allows the Russian government to purchases expensive drugs to be provided free of cost to certain preferential categories of individuals. As an example, production of recombinant human insulin by the largest Russian fundamental biotechnological institute, Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry under the trademark Insuran (Insulin produced by the Russian Academy of Science) is reviewed. Some prospects and problems of Russian biotech research related to medical area are briefly discussed.

  9. Characterization of deflagrating munitions by rotating prism high speed photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, Trevor J.; Bussell, Tim J.; Chick, Michael C.

    1992-08-01

    We report on the use of a rotating prism high speed camera for determining the characteristics of a munition undergoing rapid deflagration in field experiments. The technique has been applied to study the controlled deflagration of Composition B filled 105 mm shell and 81 mm mortar bombs as representative thick and thin cased munitions respectively; however the report is mostly illustrated with results from the study on 105 mm shell. The deflagration event has been characterized in terms of case expansion rate, initial fragment velocity, time to case burst, time to reaction from the nose end and the deflagration rate of the filling. Products escaping from the fracturing case eventually obscured the image which limited the extent of the measurement.

  10. Occult HCV infection: an unexpected finding in a population unselected for hepatic disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Marco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occult Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a new pathological entity characterized by presence of liver disease and absence or very low levels of detectable HCV-RNA in serum. Abnormal values of liver enzymes and presence of replicative HCV-RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells are also observed. Aim of the study was to evaluate occult HCV occurrence in a population unselected for hepatic disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We chose from previous epidemiological studies three series of subjects (n = 276, age range 40-65 years unselected for hepatic disease. These subjects were tested for the presence of HCV antibodies and HCV-RNA in plasma and in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs by using commercial systems. All subjects tested negative for HCV antibodies and plasma HCV-RNA and showed normal levels of liver enzymes; 9/276 patients (3.3% were positive for HCV-RNA in PBMCs, identifying a subset of subjects with potential occult HCV infection. We could determine the HCV type for 8 of the 9 patients finding type 1a (3 patients, type 1b (2 patients, and type 2a (3 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show evidence that occult HCV infection may occur in a population unselected for hepatic disease. A potential risk of HCV infection spread by subjects harbouring occult HCV infection should be considered. Design of prospective studies focusing on the frequency of infection in the general population and on the clinical evolution of occult HCV infection will be needed to verify this unexpected finding.

  11. Larmor labeling of neutron spin using superconducting Wollaston prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fankang

    Neutron spin Larmor labeling using magnetic Wollaston prisms (WP) provides a way to overcome some of the limitations arising from the nature of neutron beams: low flux and divergence. Using superconducting films and tapes, a series of strong, well-defined shaped magnetic fields can be produced due to both the zero-resistance and Meissner effect in superconductors. Using finite element simulations, the criterion to build a superconducting magnetic Wollaston prism with high encoding efficiency and low Larmor phase aberrations are presented. To achieve a high magnetic field and simplify the maintenance, we optimize the design using careful thermal analysis. The measured neutron spin flipping efficiency is measured to be independent of both the neutron wavelength and energizing current, which is a significant improvement over other devices with similar functions. A highly linear variation of the Larmor phase is measured across the device, which ensures a highly uniform encoding of scattering angles into the neutron spin Larmor phase. Using two WPs, the correlation function for a colloidal silica sample was measured by spin echo modulated small angle neutron scattering (SEMSANS) and agrees well with other techniques. Using Monte Carlo code (McStas), we further investigated the SEMSANS setup and showed the requirements to improve its performance. We have proposed a new technique to implement neutron spin echo on a triple axis neutron spectrometer to achieve high resolution measurements of the lifetime of dispersive phonon excitations. The spin echo is tuned by appropriate choice of magnetic fields instead of physically tilting the coils used in traditional methods. This new approach allows a higher energy resolution and a larger effective tilting angle and hence larger group velocity to be measured.

  12. Knowledge of HBV and HCV and individuals' attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues: a national cross-sectional study among a working population in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Eguchi

    Full Text Available Prejudice and discrimination in the workplace regarding the risk of transmission of Hepatitis B virus (HBV and Hepatitis C virus (HCV are increased by excess concerns due to a lack of relevant knowledge. Education to increase knowledge about HBV and HCV and their prevention could be the first step to reduce prejudice and discrimination. This study aimed to determine the association between the level of knowledge and negative attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues among the Japanese working population. An online anonymous nationwide survey involving about 3,000 individuals was conducted in Japan. The questionnaire consisted of knowledge of HBV and HCV, and attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues in the workplace. Knowledge was divided into three categories: "ensuring daily activities not to be infected"; "risk of infection"; and "characteristics of HBV/HCV hepatitis", based on the result of factor analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied. A total of 3,129 persons responded to the survey: 36.0% reported they worried about the possibility of transmission of HBV and HCV from infected colleagues; 32.1% avoided contact with infected colleagues; and 23.7% had prejudiced opinions about HBV and HCV infection. The participants were classified into tertiles. A higher level of knowledge of HBV and HCV was significantly associated with these three negative attitudes (P for trend < 0.005. This study suggests that increasing knowledge may decrease individuals' negative attitudes towards HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues. Thus, we should promote increased knowledge of HBV and HCV in stages to reduce negative attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues.

  13. The seroprevalences of HBs Ag and anti-HCV in pregnant women in Ankara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinbas, Sibel; Erdogan, Mine; Danişman, Nuri

    2010-02-01

    In the previous decade, the prevalence of HBs-Ag positivity and the anti-HCV positivity declined in Turkey. We aimed to investigate the prevalences of HBs Ag and anti-HCV positivity in pregnant women in Ankara, the capital city of Turkey, while the vertical transmission should be important way of HBV and HCV transmission. HBs-Ag positivity was determined 2.8% (102) out of 4,700 pregnant women, and 0.1% (6) out of them were positive for anti-HCV. The prevalences of HBs Ag and anti-HCV were both similar to the rate of that seen in western region of Turkey.

  14. 血清抗-Hcv与Hcv-RNA的关系比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿曼古丽

    1998-01-01

    对 160例门诊及住院肝炎患者采用ELISA法测抗-Hcv,并用逆转录套式聚合酶链反应检测血清Hcv-RNA.结果:160例肝炎患者中,120例Hcv-RNA阳性,即75%的患者存在病毒血症,115例抗-Hcv阳性患者中97例Hcv-RNA阳性,阳性率为84.3%.Hcv-RNA检出率与抗-Hcv的结果有一定关系.

  15. HCV triple therapy in co-infection HIV/HCV is not associated with a different risk of developing major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Fialho

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatitis C (HCV treatment options have changed with the development of direct activity antivirals (DAAs and the availability of triple therapies have improved HCV cure rates. A common neuropsychiatric side effect of pegylated-interferon and ribavirin treatment is major depressive disorder (MDD, however little is known about such adverse events with protease inhibitor-based triple therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the rate of MDD in co-infected HIV HCV patients undergoing different HCV treatments. Methods: All participants were co-infected HIV HCV attending the Royal Sussex County Hospital Brighton hepatology outpatient clinic between 2010 and 2014. Participants were assessed for DSM-IV MDD and depression severity (using the Hamilton depression scale (HAMD at baseline and monthly after treatment initiation. HIV and HCV stages, genotype, reinfection and standard demographic variables were recorded. Influence of HCV stage (acute vs. chronic and type of treatment (classic vs triple, emergence of MDD and clearance outcomes were analyzed using repeated measures and logistic regression models. Results: Fifty participants with a mean age of 42.65 years (SD=10.32 were included; most were male (98%. The majority had contracted HCV genotype 1 (64% or 4 (26%. The HCV stage and treatment groups were matched for age and depression at baseline. No significant differences were found on virological outcomes considering HCV stage and treatment. From baseline to SVR, there was a significant increase in HAMD scores, F(4,36=10.09, p<.001; this was not significantly influenced by HCV stage, F(4,35=0.54, p=.708 or HCV treatment group, F(4,35=0.60, p=.664. Those with chronic HCV were more likely to transition to MDD than acute infection (OR 7.77, 95% CI 2.04–29.54, p=.003. No differences were found for depression emergence by HCV treatment group (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.22–3.13, p=.787. Conclusions: HCV triple therapy was not associated with a

  16. Serum Immunoglobulin G Antibodies to the GOR Autoepitope Are Present in Patients with Occult Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection despite Lack of HCV-Specific Antibodies▿

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroga, Juan A.; Castillo, Inmaculada; Bartolomé, Javier; CARREÑO, VICENTE

    2007-01-01

    Antibody responses to the GOR autoepitope are frequently detected among anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV)-positive patients with chronic hepatitis. Sera from 110 anti-HCV-negative patients with occult HCV infection, as diagnosed by detection of HCV RNA in hepatic tissue, were investigated for GOR antibody reactivity. A positive test for anti-GOR immunoglobulin G (IgG) was found for 22 (20%) of them. The frequency and titers of anti-GOR IgG were significantly lower than those in chronic hepati...

  17. Cell-death-inducing DFFA-like Effector B Contributes to the Assembly of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Particles and Interacts with HCV NS5A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hua; Yao, Wenxia; Li, Leike; Li, Xinlei; Hu, Longbo; Mai, Runming; Peng, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) uses components of the very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) pathway for assembly/release. We previously reported that hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) participates in HCV assembly/release through downstream factors those participate in VLDL assembly/secretion. Cell-death-inducing DFFA-like effector B (CIDEB) is an important regulator of the VLDL pathway. CIDEB is required for entry of HCV particles from cell culture (HCVcc), but the effects of CIDEB on the post-entry steps of the HCV lifecycle are unclear. In the present study, we determined that CIDEB is required for HCV assembly in addition to HCVcc entry. Furthermore, CIDEB interacts with the HCV NS5A protein, and the N terminus of CIDEB and the domain I of NS5A are involved in this interaction. Moreover, CIDEB silencing impairs the association of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) with HCV particles. Interestingly, CIDEB is also required for the post-entry stages of the dengue virus (DENV) life cycle. Collectively, these results indicate that CIDEB is a new host factor that is involved in HCV assembly, presumably by interacting with viral protein, providing new insight into the exploitation of the VLDL regulator CIDEB by HCV. PMID:27282740

  18. Comparison of the artus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) PCR kit and the Abbott RealTime EBV assay for measuring plasma EBV DNA loads in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinuesa, Víctor; Solano, Carlos; Giménez, Estela; Navarro, David

    2017-02-24

    The ability of the artus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) PCR kit and the Abbott RealTime EBV PCR assay to detect and quantify plasma EBV DNAemia was compared. The agreement between these assays was 95.8%. The EBV DNA loads measured by the two assays significantly correlated (P=< 0.0001).

  19. Proteasome- and Ethanol-Dependent Regulation of HCV-Infection Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Osna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the role of the catabolism of HCV and signaling proteins in HCV protection and the involvement of ethanol in HCV-proteasome interactions. HCV specifically infects hepatocytes, and intracellularly expressed HCV proteins generate oxidative stress, which is further exacerbated by heavy drinking. The proteasome is the principal proteolytic system in cells, and its activity is sensitive to the level of cellular oxidative stress. Not only host proteins, but some HCV proteins are degraded by the proteasome, which, in turn, controls HCV propagation and is crucial for the elimination of the virus. Ubiquitylation of HCV proteins usually leads to the prevention of HCV propagation, while accumulation of undegraded viral proteins in the nuclear compartment exacerbates infection pathogenesis. Proteasome activity also regulates both innate and adaptive immunity in HCV-infected cells. In addition, the proteasome/immunoproteasome is activated by interferons, which also induce “early” and “late” interferon-sensitive genes (ISGs with anti-viral properties. Cleaving viral proteins to peptides in professional immune antigen presenting cells and infected (“target” hepatocytes that express the MHC class I-antigenic peptide complex, the proteasome regulates the clearance of infected hepatocytes by the immune system. Alcohol exposure prevents peptide cleavage by generating metabolites that impair proteasome activity, thereby providing escape mechanisms that interfere with efficient viral clearance to promote the persistence of HCV-infection.

  20. Clearance of low levels of HCV viremia in the absence of a strong adaptive immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manns Michael P

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV has frequently been associated with the presence of HCV-specific cellular immunity. However, there had been also reports in chimpanzees demonstrating clearance of HCV-viremia in the absence of significant levels of detectable HCV-specific cellular immune responses. We here report seven asymptomatic acute hepatitis C cases with peak HCV-RNA levels between 300 and 100.000 copies/ml who all cleared HCV-RNA spontaneously. Patients were identified by a systematic screening of 1176 consecutive new incoming offenders in a German young offender institution. Four of the seven patients never developed anti-HCV antibodies and had normal ALT levels throughout follow-up. Transient weak HCV-specific CD4+ T cell responses were detectable in five individuals which did not differ in strength and breadth from age- and sex-matched patients with chronic hepatitis C and long-term recovered patients. In contrast, HCV-specific MHC-class-I-tetramer-positive cells were found in 3 of 4 HLA-A2-positive patients. Thus, these cases highlight that clearance of low levels of HCV viremia is possible in the absence of a strong adaptive immune response which might explain the low seroconversion rate after occupational exposure to HCV.

  1. Schistosomiasis as a possible risk factor for acquiring hepatitis C virus (HCV infection among Saudis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Mohammed

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Background -Risk factors for acquiring hepatitis C virus (HCV infection have been elucidated in many developed countries but the picture is still not clear in many Middle Eastern Countries including Saudi Arabia. Aim -To investigate possible risk factors for acquiring HCV among Saudis. Methods -Various demographic and medical risk factors that might be associated with the spread of HCV among Saudis were investigated. The population studied included 20 anti-HCV-positive with chronic liver disease (CLD, 30 anti-HCV-positive patients without CLD and 272 anti-HCV-negative Saudi blood donors. All people investigated were of the same age group (>40 years of age. Results -None of the demographic parameters studied (type of job, type of housing, education was found to be significantly associated with acquiring HCV infection among our Saudi patients. On the other hand up to 40% of the anti-HCV-positive patients and irrespective of the condition of liver disease had a history of surgery, and 25% of them had a history of multiple injections. Furthermore, at least 20% of our anti-HCV-positive patients had a history of schistosomiasis which is significantly higher than schistosomiasis among the blood donors (P< 0.005. Conclusion -In addition to blood and blood products, schistosomiasis seems to be a possible risk factor for acquiring HCV among the Saudi population. The association between schistosomiasis and enhancement of HCV infection need to be further elucidated.

  2. Characteristics of HCV replication and expression in a cultured human liver carcinoma cell line in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zhi-qing; HAO Fei; MIN Feng; LIU Dao-jian

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To establish a cell culture system to support HCV long-term replication in vitro. Methods: A human hepatoma cell line 7721 was tested for its susceptibility to HCV by incubating with a serum from chronic hepatitis C patient. Cells and supernatant of the culture medium were harvested at various time-phases during the culturing periods. The presence of HCV RNA, the expression of HCV antigens in cells and/or supematant were examined with RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry respectively. Results: It was found that the intracellular HCV RNA was first detected on the 2nd day after culture, and then could be intermittently detected in both cells and supernatant over a period of at least 3 months after culture. HCV NS3, CP10 antigens were expressed in the cells. The fresh cells could be infected with the supernatant from cultured infected cells and the transmission of viral genome from HCV-infected 7721 cells to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was also observed. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the human liver carcinoma cell line7721 is not only susceptible to HCV but also can support its long replication in vitro. This cell line with HCV infection in vitro can serve as a useful tool for the study of the mechanism of HCV infection and replication, the evaluation of antiviral agents, and the primary selection of neutralization assays and HCV vaccine development.

  3. Left-Deviating Prism Adaptation in Left Neglect Patient: Reflexions on a Negative Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Luauté

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to right-deviating prisms is a promising intervention for the rehabilitation of patients with left spatial neglect. In order to test the lateral specificity of prism adaptation on left neglect, the present study evaluated the effect of left-deviating prism on straight-ahead pointing movements and on several classical neuropsychological tests in a group of five right brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. A group of healthy subjects was also included for comparison purposes. After a single session of exposing simple manual pointing to left-deviating prisms, contrary to healthy controls, none of the patients showed a reliable change of the straight-ahead pointing movement in the dark. No significant modification of attentional paper-and-pencil tasks was either observed immediately or 2 hours after prism adaptation. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of prism adaptation on left spatial neglect relies on a specific lateralized mechanism. Evidence for a directional effect for prism adaptation both in terms of the side of the visuomanual adaptation and therefore possibly in terms of the side of brain affected by the stimulation is discussed.

  4. Left-Deviating Prism Adaptation in Left Neglect Patient: Reflexions on a Negative Result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luauté, Jacques; Jacquin-Courtois, Sophie; O'Shea, Jacinta; Christophe, Laure; Rode, Gilles; Boisson, Dominique; Rossetti, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation to right-deviating prisms is a promising intervention for the rehabilitation of patients with left spatial neglect. In order to test the lateral specificity of prism adaptation on left neglect, the present study evaluated the effect of left-deviating prism on straight-ahead pointing movements and on several classical neuropsychological tests in a group of five right brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. A group of healthy subjects was also included for comparison purposes. After a single session of exposing simple manual pointing to left-deviating prisms, contrary to healthy controls, none of the patients showed a reliable change of the straight-ahead pointing movement in the dark. No significant modification of attentional paper-and-pencil tasks was either observed immediately or 2 hours after prism adaptation. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of prism adaptation on left spatial neglect relies on a specific lateralized mechanism. Evidence for a directional effect for prism adaptation both in terms of the side of the visuomanual adaptation and therefore possibly in terms of the side of brain affected by the stimulation is discussed. PMID:23050168

  5. Broad Anti-Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Antibody Responses Are Associated with Improved Clinical Disease Parameters in Chronic HCV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Rachael E.; Cowton, Vanessa M.; Robinson, Mark W.; Cole, Sarah J.; Barclay, Stephen T.; Mills, Peter R.; Thomson, Emma C.; McLauchlan, John

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT During hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) responses targeting E1E2 envelope glycoproteins are generated in many individuals. It is unclear if these antibodies play a protective or a pathogenic role during chronic infection. In this study, we investigated whether bNAb responses in individuals with chronic infection were associated with differences in clinical presentation. Patient-derived purified serum IgG was used to assess the breadth of HCV E1E2 binding and the neutralization activity of HCV pseudoparticles. The binding and neutralization activity results for two panels bearing viral envelope proteins representing either an intergenotype or an intragenotype 1 group were compared. We found that the HCV load was negatively associated with strong cross-genotypic E1E2 binding (P = 0.03). Overall, we observed only a modest correlation between total E1E2 binding and neutralization ability. The breadth of intergenotype neutralization did not correlate with any clinical parameters; however, analysis of individuals with genotype 1 (gt1) HCV infection (n = 20), using an intragenotype pseudoparticle panel, found a strong association between neutralization breadth and reduced liver fibrosis (P = 0.006). A broad bNAb response in our cohort with chronic infection was associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the HLA-DQB1 gene (P = 0.038), as previously reported in a cohort with acute disease. Furthermore, the bNAbs in these individuals targeted more than one region of E2-neutralizing epitopes, as assessed through cross-competition of patient bNAbs with well-characterized E2 antibodies. We conclude that the bNAb responses in patients with chronic gt1 infection are associated with lower rates of fibrosis and host genetics may play a role in the ability to raise such responses. IMPORTANCE Globally, there are 130 million to 150 million people with chronic HCV infection. Typically, the disease is progressive and is a

  6. Aging stability of complete blood count and white blood cell differential parameters analyzed by Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, P; Lehto, T

    2009-02-01

    This study presents the results of an aging stability study of complete blood count (CBC) and leukocyte differential parameters using the Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer. Stability studies showed no substantial change in CBC parameters up to 24-48 h at +23 +/- 2 degrees C (room temperature), except for optical platelet count (PLTo). For specimens aged over 24, the value of impedance platelet count yielded more reliable results than the routine PLTo. White blood cell (WBC) differential parameters, except eosinophils, were stable for up to 48 h at +23 +/- 2 degrees C. CBC parameters were stable for 72 h, except mean platelet volume, which slightly increased between 48 and 72 h, at +4 degrees C. WBC differentials were stable 48-72 h, with a slight decrease observed in absolute neutrophils and lymphocytes at +4 degrees C.

  7. Measurement of the optical characteristics of electrowetting prism array for three-dimensional display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunhee; Choi, Yoon-Sun; Choi, Kyuwhan; Kwon, Yongjoo; Bae, Jungmok; Morozov, Alexander; Lee, Hong-Seok

    2013-03-01

    Recently liquid-based optical devices are emerging as attractive components in three-dimensional (3D) display for its compact structure and fast response time. Among them an electrowetting prism array is one of the promising 3D devices. It steers a beam, which enables to provide corresponding perspectives to observer. For high quality autostereoscopic 3D displays the important factors are the beam steering angle and the beam profile, the optical characteristics. In this paper, we propose a method to measure the optical characteristics of the liquid prism and show experimental results on our prototype electrowetting prism array, which consists of prisms with 200um by 200um size. A modified 4-f system is adopted for the proposed method. It provides two kinds of information of the optical characteristics of the liquid prism at the image plane and at the Fourier plane. First, the proposed measurement setup magnifies the image of the liquid micro prism array so that we can observe the status of the each prism array directly with bare eye and align a mask easily for selecting a prism to be examined at the image plane. Secondly, the steering angle can be calculated by measuring the displacement of the beam at the Fourier plane, where the angular profiles that have important information on the oilwater interface is observed precisely. The principle of the proposed method will be explained, and the measured optical characteristics from experimental results on the liquid prism we fabricated will be provided, which proves the validity of the measurement method.

  8. 151例血清抗-HCV阳性患者的HCV RNA检测分析%Detection of Serum HCV RNA in Patients with Positive Anti--HCV Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易冬英; 周福民; 余叔侃

    2001-01-01

    目的:探讨丙型肝炎抗体(抗-HCV)和丙型肝炎病毒核糖核酸(HCV RNA)的关系.方法:研究对间接ELISA法检测抗-HCV阳性患者的血清进行HCV RNA检测(采用RT-PCR法).结果:151例血清抗-HCV阳性患者有85例HCV RNA阳性,阳性率为56.2%.另外,还观察了40例抗HCV阳性病人的双份血清,急性期第一份血清ALT升高、HCV RNA为阳性;经抗病毒治疗后的第二份血清,部分病人ALT复常,HCV RNA阴转,另外部分病人反复ALT异常,HCV RNA则始终为阳性.结论:HCV RNA能鉴别活动性HCV感染及非活动性感染,可为抗病毒药物疗效的评价和临床合理用药提供依据.

  9. Evidence for immune selection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) putative envelope glycoprotein variants: potential role in chronic HCV infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, A J; Geysen, H M; Christopherson, C; Hall, J E; Mason, T J; Saracco, G; Bonino, F; Crawford, K; Marion, C D; Crawford, K A

    1992-01-01

    E2/nonstructural protein 1, the putative envelope glycoprotein (gp72) of HCV, possesses an N-terminal hypervariable (E2 HV) domain from amino acids 384 to 414 of unknown significance. The high degree of amino acid sequence variation in the E2 HV domain appears to be comparable to that observed in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 V3 domain. This observation and the observation that the HCV E2 HV domain lacks conserved secondary structure imply that, like the V3 loop of human immunodeficiency virus 1 gp120, the N-terminal E2 region may encode protective epitopes that are subject to immune selection. Antibody-epitope binding studies revealed five isolate-specific linear epitopes located in the E2 HV region. These results suggest that the E2 HV domain is a target for the human immune response and that, in addition to the three major groups of HCV, defined by nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity among HCV isolates, E2 HV-specific subgroups also exist. Analysis of the partial or complete E2 sequences of two individuals indicated that E2 HV variants can either coexist simultaneously in a single individual or that a particular variant may predominate during different episodes of disease. In the latter situation, we found one individual who developed antibodies to a subregion of the E2 HV domain (amino acids 396-407) specific to a variant that was predominant during one major episode of hepatitis but who lacked detectable antibodies to the corresponding region of a second variant that was predominant during a later episode of disease. The data suggest that the variability in the E2 HV domain may result from immune selection. The findings of this report could impact vaccine strategies and drug therapy programs designed to control and eliminate HCV. PMID:1314389

  10. Soluble egg antigen of Schistosoma Haematobium induces HCV replication in PBMC from patients with chronic HCV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabll Ashraf A

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to examine, in vitro , the effect of soluble egg antigen (SEA of S. haematobium on intracellular HCV RNA load in peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC as well as on cell proliferation in patients with chronic HCV infection. Methods PBMC from 26 patients with chronic HCV infection were cultured for 72 hours in presence and absence of 50 μg SEA/ml medium. Intracellular HCV RNA quantification of plus and minus strands was assessed before and after stimulation. PBMC from five healthy subjects were cultured for 7 days, flow cytometric analysis of DNA content was used to assess the mitogenic effect of SEA on PBMC proliferation compared to phytoheamaglutinine (PHA. Results Quantification of the intracellular viral load showed increased copy number/cell of both or either viral strands after induction with SEA in 18 of 26 patients (69.2% thus indicating stimulation of viral replication. Flow cytometric analysis showed that mean ± S.D. of percent values of cell proliferation was induced from 3.2 ± 1.5% in un-stimulated cells to 16.7 ± 2.5 % and 16.84 ± 1.7 % in cells stimulated with PHA and SEA respectively. Conclusion the present study supports earlier reports on SEA proliferative activity on PBMC and provides a strong evidence that the higher morbidity observed in patients co-infected with schistosomiasis and HCV is related, at least in part, to direct stimulation of viral replication by SEA.

  11. Significance of CLIA combined with EIA method in detecting anti-HCV and HCV-cAg for HCV primary screening%CLIA法测抗-HCV联合EIA法检测HCV-cAg在HCV感染初筛试验中的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周珍娟; 刘程

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨自动化学发光免疫分析法(CLIA)测抗-丙型肝炎病毒(抗-HCV)联合酶联免疫法(EIA)测HCV核心抗原(HCV-cAg)在HCV感染初筛试验中的应用价值.方法 采用CLIA法、EIA法检测所有临床标本中抗-HCV和HCV-cAg,比较抗-HCV初筛阳性样本与丙型病毒性肝炎病毒核糖核酸(HCV-RNA)检测结果.结果 本组698例标本中,24例呈阳性,其中23例抗-HCV阳性,9例HCV-cAg阳性,抗-HCV和HCV-cAg检测结果同时阳性者8例.有1例抗-HCV检测阴性,而HCV-cAg检测为阳性,后经HCV-RNA检测证实为HCV感染.24例阳性标本经HCV-RNA检测后,共检出阳性标本17例,其中经HCV-cAg检测为阳性的9例患者均经HCV-RNA检测证实;抗-HCV检测的23例阳性标本中16例经HCV-RNA检测证实为阳性.结论 抗-HCV联合HCV-cAg检测进行HCV感染初筛试验,可降低假阳性率,提高阳性检出率,与HCV-RNA的检测结果符合率高,有利于早期诊断.

  12. Prevalence, genotypes and factors associated with HCV infection among prisoners in Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Santos, Bruno Fernandes; de Santana, Nathalie Oliveira; Franca, Alex Vianey Callado

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To determine hepatitis C virus (HCV) seroprevalence and its genotypes, and to identify the factors associated with HCV infection. METHODS: This cross-sectional study, conducted in two prisons (one male and one female) in the State of Sergipe, Brazil, comprised 422 subjects. All of the prisoners underwent a rapid test for the detection of HCV antibodies. Patients with a positive result were tested for anti-HCV by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and for HCV RNA by qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The virus genotype was defined in every serum sample that presented positive for PCR-HCV. In order to determine the factors independently associated with positive serology for HCV, multivariate logistic regression was used. RESULTS: HCV seroprevalence was 3.1%. Of the 13 subjects with positive anti-HCV, 11 had viremia confirmed by PCR. Of these, 90.9% had genotype 1. A total of 43 (10.2%) were injecting drug users, and HCV seroprevalence in this subgroup was 20.6%. The variable most strongly associated with positive serology for HCV was use of injecting drugs [odds ratio (OR), 23.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 6.0-90.8]. Age over 30 years (OR, 5.5; 95%CI, 1.1-29.2), history of syphilis (OR, 9.8; 95%CI, 1.7-55.2) and history of household contact with HCV positive individual (OR, 14.1; 95%CI, 2.3-85.4) were also independently associated with HCV infection. CONCLUSION: Most of the HCV transmissions result from parenteral exposure. However, there is evidence to suggest a role for sex and household contact with an infected subject in virus transmission. PMID:21799649

  13. Prevalence, genotypes and factors associated with HCV infection among prisoners in Northeastern Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bruno Fernandes de Oliveira Santos; Nathalie Oliveira de Santana; Alex Vianey Callado Franca

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To determine hepatitis C virus (HCV) seroprevalence and its genotypes, and to identify the factors associated with HCV infection. METHODS: This cross-sectional study, conducted in two prisons (one male and one female) in the State of Sergipe, Brazil, comprised 422 subjects. All of the prisoners underwent a rapid test for the detection of HCV antibodies. Patients with a positive result were tested for anti- HCV by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and for HCV RNA by qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The virus genotype was defined in every serum sample that presented positive for PCR-HCV. In order to determine the factors independently associated with positive serology for HCV, multivariate logistic regression was used. RESULTS: HCV seroprevalence was 3.1%. Of the 13 subjects with positive anti-HCV, 11 had viremia confirmed by PCR. Of these, 90.9% had genotype 1. A total of 43 (10.2%) were injecting drug users, and HCV seroprevalence in this subgroup was 20.6%. The variable most strongly associated with positive serology for HCV was use of injecting drugs [odds ratio (OR), 23.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 6.0-90.8]. Age over 30 years (OR, 5.5; 95%CI, 1.1-29.2), history of syphilis (OR, 9.8; 95%CI, 1.7-55.2) and history of household contact with HCV positive individual (OR, 14.1; 95%CI, 2.3-85.4) were also independently associated with HCV infection. CONCLUSION: Most of the HCV transmissions result from parenteral exposure. However, there is evidence to suggest a role for sex and household contact with an infected subject in virus transmission.

  14. HCV Diversity among Chinese and Burmese IDUs in Dehong, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Duo, Lin; Li, Peilu; Zheng, Yong-Tang; Zhang, Chiyu

    2016-01-01

    HCV transmission is closely associated with drug-trafficking routes in China. Dehong, a prefecture of Yunnan, is the important trade transfer station linking Southeast Asia and China, as well as the drug-trafficking channel linking “Golden triangle” and other regions of China and surrounding countries. In this study, we investigated the HCV genotype diversity among IDUs in Dehong based on 259 HCV positive samples from 118 Chinese and 141 Burmese IDUs. HCV genotypes were determined based on the phylogenies of C/E2 and NS5B genomic sequences. Six HCV subtypes, including 1a, 1b, 3a, 3b, 6n and 6u, were detected. Interestingly, 4 HCV sequences from Burmese IDUs did not cluster with any known HCV subtypes, but formed a well-supported independent clade in the phylogenetic trees of both C/E2 and NS5B, suggesting a potential new HCV subtype circulating in Dehong. Subtype 3b was the predominant subtype, followed by subtypes 6n and 6u. Comparison showed that Dehong had a unique pattern of HCV subtype distribution, obviously different from other regions of China. In particular, HCV subtypes 6u and the potential new HCV subtype had a relatively high prevalence in Dehong, but were rarely detected in other regions of China. There was no significant difference in HCV subtype distribution between Burmese and Chinese IDUs. Few HCV sequences from Burmese and Chinese IDUs clustered together to form transmission clusters. Furthermore, about half of HCV sequences from Burmese IDUs formed small transmission clusters, significantly higher than that from Chinese IDUs (p<0.01). These suggest that the Chinese and Burmese IDUs were relatively isolated from each other in injection drug use behavior and the Burmese IDUs might prefer to inject drugs themselves together. The unique genotype distribution and complex diversity of genotype 6 among IDUs may be associated with the special geographical position of Dehong. PMID:27657722

  15. 丙型肝炎病毒核酸定量和抗-HCV血清学分析的诊断价值%Retrospective analysis of Antibody of HCV and quantification of HCV RNA in diagnosis of hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贤华; 白晓东; 刘元明; 段萃娟; 荣冉; 刘维维

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨PCR-荧光探针法与抗-HCV检测在丙型肝炎(丙肝)诊断中的应用价值.方法 回顾性分析265例疑似丙肝病毒感染者行HCV-RNA、抗-HCV及ALT检测的资料,统计不同年龄、性别分布情况,进行HCV-RNA与抗-HCV、ALT的相关性分析.结果 (1)男性抗-HCV与HCV-RNA的阳性率均高于女性,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);年龄>40岁的患者抗-HCV与HCV-RNA的阳性率明显高于年龄≤40岁的患者,差异有统计学意义(P0.05).(3)HCV-RNA阳性多伴有抗-HCV阳性(r=0.320),二者有很好的相关性.结论 ELISA 法检测抗-HCV在丙型肝炎诊断中仍旧为首选检测方法.联合应用HCV-RNA和抗-HCV及ALT检测,是诊断丙型肝炎最为可靠的方法.%Objective To study the application value of hepatitis C virus RNA detection ( PCR -fluorescent probe) and hepatitis C virus antibody detection (ELISA, anti - HCV) in the diagnosis of hepatitis C. Methods The HCV - RNA and anti - HCV tests of 265 suspected HCV patients were reviewed, statistics of anti - HCV and HCV - RNA detection results and ALT level in different ages and gender was collected and analysized. Results ①Anti - HCV and HCV - RNA positive rates in men were higher than those in women, but there was no statistically significant difference (P >0. 05). ② Anti - HCV and HCV - RNA positive rates in >40 years old patients were obviously higher than those in ≤40 years old patients ,with statistically significant difference (P 40 and ≤40 years old patients (P 0. 05 ) . ④The abnormal rate of Anti - HCV was closely correlated with HCV - RNA ( r = 0. 320) ; Anti - HCV, HCV - RNA and ALT had no statistically significant difference ( P > 0. 05 ) . Conclusions ①Anti - HCV and HCV - RNA detection have no relation with gender, but they have certain relevance with age. ②ELISA for detecting anti - HCV is still first choice in HCV. Combined use of HCV - RNA,anti - HCV and ALT detection, will be the most reliable and valuable method

  16. Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA in non-A, non-B chronic hepatitis in France. Nucleotide sequence of a French HCV isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremsdorf, D; Porchon, C; Brechot, C

    1991-01-01

    The sera of 36 French patients with post-transfusional and sporadic non-A, non-B (NANB) chronic hepatitis were investigated, with a combination of serological and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, for HBV and HCV infections. Eighty-nine percent of the patients were found positive with serological and/or molecular tests. Among the positive patients, 68% (22/32) were found positive for both anti-HCV and HCV-RNA, 16% (5/32) and 16% (5/32) were found positive only for anti-HCV or HCV-RNA, respectively. HBV-DNA sequences were detected in two patients associated to the HCV viraemia. This study confirms the extremely high prevalence of HCV infection in NANB chronic hepatitis in France. It also shows the possible co-infection by HCV and HBV in NANB hepatitis. We have also determined the nucleotide sequence of the 5' non-coding, E1, E2/NS1 and NS3/NS4 regions of a French isolate using the polymerase chain reaction. Comparison of these nucleotide sequences with those available from American and Japanese isolates showed a significant genetic variability. The genetic variability is higher in the E2/NS1 (13 to 33% and 12 to 30% at the nucleic acid and amino acid level, respectively) than in the E1 (10 to 28% and 7 to 21%) and NS3/NS4 (5 to 21% and 2 to 7%) regions. The sequence of the French isolate is more closely related to that of the American HCV prototype than to the Japanese HCV isolates. This study confirms the extent of HCV genetic variability.

  17. Innate and adaptive immune responses in HCV infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Markus H; Thimme, Robert

    2014-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus has been identified a quarter of a decade ago as a leading cause of chronic viral hepatitis that can lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Only a minority of patients can clear the virus spontaneously during acute infection. Elimination of HCV during acute infection correlates with a rapid induction of innate, especially interferon (IFN) induced genes, and a delayed induction of adaptive immune responses. However, the majority of patients is unable to clear the virus and develops viral persistence in face of an ongoing innate and adaptive immune response. The virus has developed several strategies to escape these immune responses. For example, to escape innate immunity, the HCV NS3/4A protease can efficiently cleave and inactivate two important signalling molecules in the sensory pathways that react to HCV pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) to induce IFNs, i.e., the mitochondrial anti-viral signalling protein (MAVS) and the Toll-IL-1 receptor-domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-β (TRIF). Despite these escape mechanisms, IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) are induced in a large proportion of patients with chronic infection. Of note, chronically HCV infected patients with constitutive IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression have a poor response to treatment with pegylated IFN-α (PegIFN-α) and ribavirin. The mechanisms that protect HCV from IFN-mediated innate immune reactions are not entirely understood, but might involve blockade of ISG protein translation at the ribosome, localization of viral replication to cell compartments that are not accessible to anti-viral IFN-stimulated effector systems, or direct antagonism of effector systems by viral proteins. Escape from adaptive immune responses can be achieved by emergence of viral escape mutations that avoid recognition by antibodies and T cells. In addition, chronic infection is characterized by the presence of functionally and phenotypically altered NK and T cell responses that

  18. International diagnostic guidelines for patients with HCV-related extrahepatic manifestations. A multidisciplinary expert statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Clodoveo; Ramos-Casals, Manuel; Zignego, Anna Linda; Arcaini, Luca; Roccatello, Dario; Antonelli, Alessandro; Saadoun, David; Desbois, Anne Claire; Sebastiani, Marco; Casato, Milvia; Lamprecht, Peter; Mangia, Alessandra; Tzioufas, Athanasios G; Younossi, Zobair M; Cacoub, Patrice

    2016-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is responsible for both hepatic and extra-hepatic disorders (HCV-EHDs); these latter are correlated on one hand clearly with HCV lymphotropism causing immune-system dysregulation as well as with viral oncogenic potential, and on the other hand probably with chronic inflammatory status causing cardio-metabolic complications as well as neurocognitive disturbances. The spectrum of HCV-EHDs ranges from mild or moderate manifestations, such as arthralgia, sicca syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, to severe, life-threatening complications, mainly vasculitis and neoplastic conditions. Given the clinical heterogeneity of HCV-EHDs, HCV-infected individuals are inevitably referred to different specialists according to the presenting/prevalent symptom(s); therefore, the availability of comprehensive diagnostic guidelines is necessary for a patient's whole assessment that is decisive for early diagnosis and correct therapeutic approach of various hepatic and HCV-EHDs, regardless of the specific competencies of different physicians or referral centers. In this respect, a multidisciplinary network of experts, the International Study Group of Extrahepatic Manifestations Related to Hepatitis C Virus Infection (ISG-EHCV), was organized with the intention to formulate diagnostic guidelines for the work-up of possible HCV-EHDs. There was a broad consensus among ISG-EHCV members on the proposed guidelines, which essentially are based on two main levels of patient's assessment. At the referral stage, it is proposed that all patients with HCV infection should be invariably examined by means of first-line diagnostic procedures including virological and hepatic parameter evaluation, as well as the detection of clinical findings that may suggest one or more HCV-EHDs. This preliminary assessment should reveal specific HCV-EHDs, which will be deeper analyzed by means of second-line, targeted investigations. The proposed multidisciplinary expert statement

  19. 丙型肝炎病毒核心抗原与HCV-RNA相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世坤; 赵轲; 葛凤兰

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨丙型肝炎病毒核心抗原(HCV-cAg)、抗体(HCV-Ab)与丙肝病毒RNA(HCV-RNA)之间的关系。方法对150例丙型肝炎(简称丙肝)抗体阳性感染者和100例健康体检者,分别进行HCV-cAg、HCV-Ab和HCV-RNA检测,对其相关性进行分析。结果150例HCV-Ab阳性感染者中, HCV-cAg和HCV-RNA的阳性率分别为40%和42%。100例健康体检者中, HCV-Ab均为阴性,但有2例HCV-cAg阳性,阳性率为2%,此2例经HCV-RNA检测,均确诊为阳性。结论 HCV-cAg和HCV-RNA几乎同时出现,均能较准确的反映HCV复制状态。但由于HCV-cAg检测敏感性及特异性好、费用低、操作方便,对丙型感染病毒感染的辅助诊断具有重要意义。

  20. PD-1/PD-L1 signal pathway participates in HCV F protein-induced T cell dysfunction in chronic HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wen; Jiang, Long Feng; Deng, Xiao Zhao; Zhu, Dan Yan; Pei, Jia Ping; Xu, Mao Lei; Li, Bing Jun; Wang, Chang Jun; Zhang, Jing Hai; Zhang, Qi; Zhou, Zhen Xian; Ding, Wei Liang; Xu, Xiao Dong; Yue, Ming

    2016-04-01

    Programmed cell death-1/programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) inhibitory signal pathway has been verified to be involved in the establishment of persistent viral infections. Blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 engagement to reinvigorate T cell activity is supposed to be a potential therapeutic scheme. Studies have verified the participation of PD-1/PD-L1 in hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein-regulated immune response. To determine the roles of PD-1/PD-L1 signal pathway in HCV F protein-induced immunoreaction in chronic HCV infection, variations in T cells were examined. The results showed that PD-1 expression on CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells was increased with HCV F stimulation in both chronic HCV patients and healthy controls, and could be reduced partly by PD-1/PD-L1 blocking. Additionally, by PD-1/PD-L1 blocking, HCV F-induced inhibition of T cell proliferation and promotion of cellular apoptosis were partly or even totally recovered. Furthermore, levels of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines were elevated in the presence of anti-PD-L1 antibody. All these results indicated that PD-1/PD-L1 signal pathway also participates in HCV F protein-induced immunoregulation. PD-1/PD-L1 blocking plays important roles in the restoration of effective functionality of the impaired T cells in chronic HCV patients.

  1. Incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV in a multicenter cohort of HIV-positive patients in Spain 2004-2011: increasing rates of HCV diagnosis but not of HCV seroconversions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz Sobrino-Vegas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We aim to describe rates and risk factors of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV diagnoses, follow-up HCV testing and HCV seroconversion from 2004-2011 in a cohort of HIV-positive persons in Spain. METHODS: CoRIS is a multicentre, open and prospective cohort recruiting adult HIV-positive patients naïve to antiretroviral therapy. We analysed patients with at least one negative and one follow-up HCV serology. Incidence Rates (IR were calculated and multivariate Poisson regression was used to estimate adjusted Rates Ratios (aIRR. RESULTS: Of 2112 subjects, 53 HCV diagnoses were observed, IR = 0.93/100 py (95%CI: 0.7-1.2. IR increased from 0.88 in 2004-05 to 1.36 in 2010-11 (aIRR = 1.55; 95%CI: 0.37-6.55. In men who have sex with men (MSM from 0.76 to 1.10 (aIRR = 1.45; 95%CI: 0.31-6.82; in heterosexual (HTX subjects from 1.19 to 1.28 (aIRR = 1.08; 95%CI: 0.11-10.24. HCV seroconversion rates decreased from 1.77 to 0.65 (aIRR = 0.37; 95%CI: 0.12-1.11; in MSM from 1.06 to 0.49 (aIRR = 0.46; 95%CI: 0.09-2.31; in HTX from 2.55 to 0.59 (aIRR = 0.23; 95%CI: 0.06-0.98. HCV infection risk was higher for injecting drug users (IDU compared to HTX (aIRR = 9.63;95%CI: 2.9-32.2; among MSM, for subjects aged 40-50 compared to 30 or less (IRR = 3.21; 95%CI: 1.7-6.2; and among HTX, for female sex (aIRR = 2.35; 95%CI: 1.03-5.34 and <200 CD4-count (aIRR = 2.39; 95%CI: 0.83-6.89. CONCLUSION: We report increases in HCV diagnoses rates which seem secondary to intensification of HCV follow-up testing but not to rises in HCV infection rates. HCV IR is higher in IDU. In MSM, HCV IR increases with age. Among HTX, HCV IR is higher in women and in subjects with impaired immunological situation.

  2. HCV upregulates Bim through the ROS/JNK signalling pathway, leading to Bax-mediated apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lin; Chen, Ming; Tanaka, Motofumi; Ku, Yonson; Itoh, Tomoo; Shoji, Ikuo; Hotta, Hak

    2015-09-01

    We previously reported that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection induces Bax-triggered, mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis by using the HCV J6/JFH1 strain and Huh-7.5 cells. However, it was still unclear how HCV-induced Bax activation. In this study, we showed that the HCV-induced activation and mitochondrial accumulation of Bax were significantly attenuated by treatment with a general antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), or a specific c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, SP600125, with the result suggesting that the reactive oxygen species (ROS)/JNK signalling pathway is upstream of Bax activation in HCV-induced apoptosis. We also demonstrated that HCV infection transcriptionally activated the gene for the pro-apoptotic protein Bim and the protein expression of three major splice variants of Bim (BimEL, BimL and BimS). The HCV-induced increase in the Bim mRNA and protein levels was significantly counteracted by treatment with NAC or SP600125, suggesting that the ROS/JNK signalling pathway is involved in Bim upregulation. Moreover, HCV infection led to a marked accumulation of Bim on the mitochondria to facilitate its interaction with Bax. On the other hand, downregulation of Bim by siRNA (small interfering RNA) significantly prevented HCV-mediated activation of Bax and caspase 3. Taken together, these observations suggest that HCV-induced ROS/JNK signalling transcriptionally activates Bim expression, which leads to Bax activation and apoptosis induction.

  3. Genetic diversity of HCV among various high risk populations (IDAs, thalassemia, hemophilia, HD patients) in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafiei A; Darzyani Azizi M; Taheri S; Haghshenas MR; Hosseinian A; Makhlough A

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the patterns of distribution of HCV genotypes among high risk population in north of Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 135 HCV RNA-positive high risk individuals including thalassemia, hemophilia, patients under hemodialysis and intravenous drug addicts. HCV genotypes were determined based on amplification with type-specific primers methods. Results: Among the 187 anti-HCV positive samples, only 135 (72.2%) gave HCV-RNA positvity. Over all, the most identified HCV type was genotype 3a (51.1%) followed by 1a (27.4%), 1b (8.2%). Sixteen (11.9%) out of 135 HCV RNA-positive participants have infected with more than one genotype or subtypes as follow; 1a/1b in 11 (8.2%), 2/3a in 3 (2.2%), and 1a/1b/3a in 2 (1.5%). Stratification of participants revealed that HCV subtype 3a was more prominent in thalassemia, hemophilia and HD patients but 1a and 1b were frequent in intravenous drug addicts. Conclusions: This study is the first report on HCV genotypes among Iranian subjects with different exposure categories resided in Mazandaran, where genotype 3a was found to be the most frequent genotype in thalassemia, hemophilia, and hemodialysis patients but not in IDAs. Since the addiction age is decreasing in Iran and a lot of addicts are IDAs, it might change the subtype pattern of HCV in general population.

  4. 抗-HCV、HCV-RNA及ALT检测138例结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高会广; 王彩红; 王景胜; 徐莉娟; 徐志刚

    2008-01-01

    目的:探讨丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)RNA与丙型肝炎抗体(抗-HCV)及丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)之间的关系.方法:采用荧光定量聚合酶链反应(FQ-PCR)测定138例疑似HCV感染者血清HCV RNA,ELISA法检测抗-HCV,全自动生化分析仪测定ALT.结果:138例标本中HCV RNA和抗-HCV均阳性者108例,HCV RNA阳性而抗-HCV阴性者3例,HCV RNA阴性而抗-HCV阳性者27例.ALT水平与HCV RNA含量无显著相关性.结论:同时检测HCV RNA和抗-HCV可提高丙型肝炎患者的检出率;HCV RNA含量不能反映肝脏损伤的程度.

  5. Prevalence of occult HBV infection in haemodialysis patients with chronic HCV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vedat Goral; Hamza Ozkul; Selahattin Tekes; Dede Sit; Ali Kemal Kadiroglu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the prevalence and clinical effects of occult HBV infection in haemodialysis patients with chronic HCV.METHODS: Fifty chronic hemodialysis patients with negative HbsAg, and positive anti-HCV were included in the study. These patients were divided into two groups:HCV-RNA positive and HCV-RNA negative, based on the results of HCV-RNA PCR. HBV-DNA was studied using the PCR method in both groups.RESULTS: None of the 22 HCV-RNA positive patients and 28 HCV-RNA negative patients revealed HBV-DNA in serum by PCR method. The average age was 47.2 ± 17.0 in the HCV-RNA positive group and 39.6 ± 15.6 in the HCV-RNA negative group.CONCLUSION: The prevalence of occult HBV infection is not high in haemodialysis patients with chronic HCV in our region. This result of our study has to be evaluated in consideration of the interaction between HBsAg positivity (8%-10%) and frequency of HBV mutants in our region.

  6. Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Ag3PO4 Triangular Prism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyu Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ag3PO4 triangular prism was synthesized by a facile chemical precipitation approach by simply adjusting external ultrasonic condition. The as-synthesized Ag3PO4 triangular prism was characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM, fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra, and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance (UV-vis DRS absorption spectra. The photocatalytic activity of Ag3PO4 triangular prism was evaluated by photodegradation of organic methylene blue (MB, rhodamine B (RhB, and phenol under visible light irradiation. Results showed that Ag3PO4 triangular prism exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than N-doped TiO2 and commercial TiO2 (P25 under visible light irradiation.

  7. Improvement of Mental Imagery after Prism Exposure in Neglect: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Rode

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that various symptoms of unilateral neglect, including the pathological shift of the subjective midline to the right, may be improved by a short adaptation period to a prismatic shift of the visual field to the right. We report here the improvement of imagined neglect after prism exposure in a patient with a left unilateral neglect. Despite a strong neglect observed for mental images as well as for conventional tests, the mental evocation of left-sided information from an internal image of the map of France map was fully recovered following prism adaptation to the right. This improvement could not be explained by the alteration of visuomotor responses induced by the prism adaptation. Prism adaptation may therefore act not only on sensory-motor levels but also on a higher cognitive level of mental space representation and/or exploration.

  8. TEST METHOD FOR SINGLE INTERIOR RIGHT ANGLE IN A CORNER CUBE PRISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new test method for single interior right angle in a corner cube prism is presented. Some key points and parameters are analyzed and derived. The advantage of this method is concluded by comparing with some current conventional methods.

  9. Study on precision processing of L-form ZnSe deflect prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Sizhe; Hui, Changshun; Zhang, Hao; Lu, Yongbin

    2016-10-01

    As the core component of optical system of Roll-Pitch seekers, the L-form ZnSe deflect prism is directly affecting the imaging quality of optical. For L-form defect prism's complex polyhedron plane structure and the feature of CVD ZnSe polycrystalline material, this paper propose one processing of single point diamond fly-cutting, analyze the transformation calculation method of each plane's coordinate. A kind of special clamp which ensure that all working surface of prism could be cut by once clamping is designed. Base on parameters of turning for CVD ZnSe , the deflect prisms are been processed, the measure result of angle error is below 12", the surface error (rms) reach 0.022λ, which satisfies the demand of manufacturing accuracy. It provide effective processing methods for optical parts with complex space.

  10. A study on transmitted intensity's perturbance for air-spaced Glan-type polarizing prisms

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, J Y; Wu, F Q; Fan, Ji-Yang; Li, Hong-Xia; Wu, Fu-Quan

    2003-01-01

    The explanation for the perturbance of the transmitted intensity for air-spaced Glan-type polarizing prisms with varying rotation angle newly observed in the experiment is given. It is found that the transmitted intensity depends sensitively on the angle of incidence at the cut of the Glan-type prism. The minute fluctuation for values of the angle of incidence during the rotation of the stepmotor gives rise to the perturbance. The relation between the perturbance and the wavelength and the thickness of the air-gap is carefully investigated. Study shows that the disturbance for the Glan-Foucault prism is much stronger than that for the Glan-Taylor prism, as the experimental results have indicated. Theoretical results are perfectly in accordance with the experimental results. Effective measures for reducing the disturbance are presented.

  11. Finite layer and triangular prism element method to subsidence prediction and stress analysis in underground mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-min(刘立民); LIU Han-long(刘汉龙); LIAN Chuan-jie(连传杰)

    2003-01-01

    The application of the finite layer & triangular prism element method to the 3D ground subsidence and stress analysis caused by mining is presented. The layer elements and the triangular prism elements have been alternatively used in the numerical simulation system, the displacement pattern, strain matrix, elastic matrix, stiffness matrix, load matrix and the stress matrix of the layer element and triangular prism element have been presented. By means of the Fortran90 programming language, a numerical simulation system based on finite layer & triangular prism element have been built up, and this system is suitable for subsidence prediction and stress analysis of all mining condition and mining methods. Comparing with the infinite element method, this approach dramatically reduces the size of the set of equations that need to be solved, and greatly reduces the amount of data preparation required. It not only saves the internal storage, and the computation time, but also decreases the cost.

  12. Managing HCV infection in pediatric age group: Suggested recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danish Fazal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in children is different from the adult infection in many ways, like natural course of the disease; duration, therapeutic response and side effects profile of the drug therapy; and prognosis. Special considerations include consideration on what could be the appropriate time to investigate a suspected child, when to institute drug therapy and how to prevent vertical transmission. Although over the past one decade many landmark studies have greatly increased our insight on this subject, yet we are far from developing a consensus statement. In this article, a concise yet comprehensive review of HCV infection in children - diagnosis and treatment - is given, followed by suggested recommendations at the end. It is hoped that these recommendations will help develop local guidelines on this subject.

  13. New therapeutic strategies in HCV: second-generation protease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Virginia C; Peter, Joy A; Nelson, David R

    2013-02-01

    Telaprevir and boceprevir are the first direct-acting antiviral agents approved for use in HCV treatment and represent a significant advance in HCV therapy. However, these first-generation drugs also have significant limitations related to thrice-daily dosing, clinically challenging side-effect profiles, low barriers to resistance and a lack of pan-genotype activity. A second wave of protease inhibitors are in phase II and III trials and promise to provide a drug regimen with a better dosing schedule and improved tolerance. These second-wave protease inhibitors will probably be approved in combination with PEG-IFN and Ribavirin (RBV), as well as future all-oral regimens. The true second-generation protease inhibitors are in earlier stages of development and efficacy data are anxiously awaited as they may provide pan-genotypic antiviral activity and a high genetic barrier to resistance.

  14. Increased hepatic expression of miRNA-122 in patients infected with HCV genotype 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ketti G; Malta, Fernanda M; Nastri, Ana C S S; Widman, Azzo; Faria, Paola L; Santana, Rúbia A F; Alves, Venâncio A F; Carrilho, Flair J; Pinho, João R R

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects approximately 3 % of the world population. HCV targets hepatic tissue, and most infected patients develop a chronic infection. Currently, studies have demonstrated an association between HCV-RNA replication and miR-122, the most abundant microRNA in the liver. Our aim was to evaluate liver and serum expression of miR-122 in patients infected with HCV genotypes 1 and 3, and to identify possible associations between miR-122 expression and lipid profiles, HCV viral load, apolipoproteins and liver enzymes. MicroRNAs were isolated from blood and liver tissue, and miR-122 expression was quantified by real-time PCR. HCV viral load was quantified by real-time PCR and HCV genotype, and serum biomarkers were obtained from medical report. The levels of miR-122 were higher in liver than those in blood from individuals infected with HCV genotypes 1 and 3 (p HCV genotype 3 (6.22-fold, p HCV genotype 1 (r = 0.302, p = 0.026); in these patients, an inverse correlation was observed between serum apolipoprotein A-II (ApoA-II) levels and the blood (r = -0.330; p = 0.014) and hepatic (r = -0.311; p = 0.020) levels of miR-122. In patients infected with HCV genotype 3, there was a positive correlation between the hepatic miR-122 and the high-density lipoprotein-HDL (r = 0.412, p = 0.036) and insulin (r = 0.478, p = 0.044). Lipid metabolism proteins and miR-122 expression levels have different relations in HCV-3- and HCV-1-infected patients.

  15. HCV genotype distribution and possible transmission risks in Lahore, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Waqar; Ahmad; Bushra; Ijaz; Fouzia; Tahir; Javed; Shah; Jahan; Imran; Shahid; Fawad; Mumtaz; Khan; Sajida; Hassan

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and their association with possible transmission routes in the general population of Lahore, as the data exclusively related to this city is limited. METHODS: Complete data regarding patient's history, possible route of infection and biochemical tests was collected from the public hospital for 1364 patients. SPSS version 16 windows software was used for data analysis by univariate and multivariate techniques. RESULTS: Age range ≤ 40 yea...

  16. Discovery of an irreversible HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qingbei; Nair, Anilkumar G; Rosenblum, Stuart B; Huang, Hsueh-Cheng; Lesburg, Charles A; Jiang, Yueheng; Selyutin, Oleg; Chan, Tin-Yau; Bennett, Frank; Chen, Kevin X; Venkatraman, Srikanth; Sannigrahi, Mousumi; Velazquez, Francisco; Duca, Jose S; Gavalas, Stephen; Huang, Yuhua; Pu, Haiyan; Wang, Li; Pinto, Patrick; Vibulbhan, Bancha; Agrawal, Sony; Ferrari, Eric; Jiang, Chuan-kui; Li, Cheng; Hesk, David; Gesell, Jennifer; Sorota, Steve; Shih, Neng-Yang; Njoroge, F George; Kozlowski, Joseph A

    2013-12-15

    The discovery of lead compound 2e was described. Its covalent binding to HCV NS5B polymerase enzyme was investigated by X-ray analysis. The results of distribution, metabolism and pharmacokinetics were reported. Compound 2e was demonstrated to be potent (replicon GT-1b EC50 = 0.003 μM), highly selective, and safe in in vitro and in vivo assays.

  17. Activity of HDV ribozymes to trans-cleave HCV RNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-Cheng Yu; Qing Mao; Chang-Hai Gu; Qi-Fen Li; Yu-Ming Wang

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To explore whether HDV ribozymes have the abilityto trans-cleave HCVRNA.METHODS: Three HDV genomic ribozymes weredesigned and named RzC1, RzC2 and RzC3. Thesubstrate RNA contained HCVRNA 5'-noncoding regionand 5'-fragment of C region (5'-NCR-C). All theribozymes and HCV RNA 5'-NCR-C were obtained bytranscription in vibo from their DNA templates, and HCVRNA 5'-NCR-C was radiolabelled at its 5'-end Undercertain pH, temperature, appropriate concentration ofMg2+ and deionized formamide, these ribozymes wererespectively or simultaneously mixed with HCVRNA 5'-NCR-C and reacted for a certain time. The trans-cleavage reaction was stopped at different time points,and the products were separated with polyacrylamidegel electrophoresis (PAGE), displayed byautoradiography. Percentage of trans-deaved productswas measured to indicate the activity of HDV ribozymes.RESULTS: RzC1 and RzC2 could trans-cleave 26 % and21.8 % of HCV RNA 5'-NCR-C under our reactionconditions with 2.5 mol. L-1 deionized formamiderespectively. The percentage of HCV RNA 5'-NCR-Ctrans-cleaved by RzC1, RzC2 or combined usage of thethree ribozymes increased with time, up to 24.9 %, 20.3 %and 37.3 % respectively at 90 min point. Almost noproduct from RzC3 was observed.CONCLUSION: HDV ribozymes are able to trans-cleavespecifically HCV RNA at certain sites under appropriateconditions, and combination of several ribozymesaiming at different target sites can trans-cleave thesubstrate more efficiently than using only one of them.

  18. Drug Abuse, HIV, and HCV in Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Liang, Di; Lan, Yu-Ching; Vicknasingam, Balasingam Kasinather; Chakrabarti, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Drug abuse and co-occurring infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Asian countries are particularly vulnerable to the deleterious consequences of these risks/problems, as they have some of the highest rates of these diseases. This review describes drug abuse, HIV, and hepatitis C (HCV) in Asian countries. The most commonly used illicit drugs include opioids, amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS), cannabis, and ketamine. Among people who inject drugs, HIV rates range from 6.3 % in China to 19 % in Malaysia, and HCV ranges from 41 % in India and Taiwan to 74 % in Vietnam. In the face of the HIV epidemics, drug policies in these countries are slowly changing from the traditional punitive approach (e.g., incarcerating drug users or requiring registration as a drug user) to embrace public health approaches, including, for example, community-based treatment options as well as harm reduction approaches to reduce needle sharing and thus HIV transmission. HIV and HCV molecular epidemiology indicates limited geographic diffusion. While the HIV prevalence is declining in all five countries, use of new drugs (e.g., ATS, ketamine) continues to increase, as well as high-risk sexual behaviors associated with drug use-increasing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV, particularly among men who have sex with men. Screening, early intervention, and continued scaling up of therapeutic options (drug treatment and recovery support, ART, long-term HIV and HCV care for drug users) are critical for effective control or continued reduction of drug abuse and co-infections.

  19. PERANCANGAN DAN IMPLEMENTASI SISTEM PENGUKURAN KINERJA DENGAN METODE PERFORMANCE PRISM (Studi Kasus pada Hotel X)

    OpenAIRE

    Iwan Vanany; Dian Tanukhidah

    2004-01-01

    This article described a result of research design of performance measurement system in hotel business with Performance Prism Model. As long as, performance measurement system at hotel X not yet representatived organization performance according to comprehensif and integrated. Because of needed redesign performance measurement system with new model. From the objective condition of hotel X, Performance Prism model more representative than others. The result of design described that stakeholder...

  20. Microwave Experimental Observation of Transmitted Enhanced Goos-Hanchen Displacement in Symmetry-Double-Prism Configuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Tao; GE Guo-Ku; LI Chun-Fang; JIN Peng-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    is theoretically proven that the transmitted Goos-Hanchen (GH) displacement in the symmetry-double prism could be resonantly enhanced when the incident angle is less than but near the critical angle, and is modulated by the slab thickness between two prisms and the incident angle. This enhancement effect is directly observed in microwave experiments in which the incident angle is properly chosen. The measured data are in good agreement with the result of the numerical simulation.

  1. Sensitivity Dependence of Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Sensors on Prism Refractive Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that refractive index of the prism used toload metal film has significant influence on sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance based sensors. Theprism with lower refractive index gives the sensors a higher sensitivity in detecting refractive index varia-tions of a sample. We attribute this effect to the fact that a prism with low refractive index will increasecoupling distance between surface plasmons and the medium under investigation.

  2. A prism based magnifying hyperlens with broad-band imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Md. Samiul; Stefani, Alessio; Atakaramians, Shaghik; Fleming, Simon C.; Argyros, Alexander; Kuhlmey, Boris T.

    2017-03-01

    Magnification in metamaterial hyperlenses has been demonstrated using curved geometries or tapered devices, at frequencies ranging from the microwave to the ultraviolet spectrum. One of the main issues of such hyperlenses is the difficulty in manufacturing. In this letter, we numerically and experimentally study a wire medium prism as an imaging device at THz frequencies. We characterize the transmission of the image of two sub-wavelength apertures, observing that our device is capable of resolving the apertures and producing a two-fold magnified image at the output. The hyperlens shows strong frequency dependent artefacts, a priori limiting the use of the device for broad-band imaging. We identify the main source of image aberration as the reflections supported by the wire medium and also show that even the weaker reflections severely affect the imaging quality. In order to correct for the reflections, we devise a filtering technique equivalent to spatially variable time gating so that ultra-broad band imaging is achieved.

  3. PRISM: A DATA-DRIVEN PLATFORM FOR MONITORING MENTAL HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdar, Maulik R; Wu, Michelle J

    2016-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are the leading cause of disability worldwide and there is no gold standard currently available for the measurement of mental health. This issue is exacerbated by the fact that the information physicians use to diagnose these disorders is episodic and often subjective. Current methods to monitor mental health involve the use of subjective DSM-5 guidelines, and advances in EEG and video monitoring technologies have not been widely adopted due to invasiveness and inconvenience. Wearable technologies have surfaced as a ubiquitous and unobtrusive method for providing continuous, quantitative data about a patient. Here, we introduce PRISM-Passive, Real-time Information for Sensing Mental Health. This platform integrates motion, light and heart rate data from a smart watch application with user interactions and text entries from a web application. We have demonstrated a proof of concept by collecting preliminary data through a pilot study of 13 subjects. We have engineered appropriate features and applied both unsupervised and supervised learning to develop models that are predictive of user-reported ratings of their emotional state, demonstrating that the data has the potential to be useful for evaluating mental health. This platform could allow patients and clinicians to leverage continuous streams of passive data for early and accurate diagnosis as well as constant monitoring of patients suffering from mental disorders.

  4. PrismTech Data Distribution Service Java API Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Cortney

    2008-01-01

    My internship duties with Launch Control Systems required me to start performance testing of an Object Management Group's (OMG) Data Distribution Service (DDS) specification implementation by PrismTech Limited through the Java programming language application programming interface (API). DDS is a networking middleware for Real-Time Data Distribution. The performance testing involves latency, redundant publishers, extended duration, redundant failover, and read performance. Time constraints allowed only for a data throughput test. I have designed the testing applications to perform all performance tests when time is allowed. Performance evaluation data such as megabits per second and central processing unit (CPU) time consumption were not easily attainable through the Java programming language; they required new methods and classes created in the test applications. Evaluation of this product showed the rate that data can be sent across the network. Performance rates are better on Linux platforms than AIX and Sun platforms. Compared to previous C++ programming language API, the performance evaluation also shows the language differences for the implementation. The Java API of the DDS has a lower throughput performance than the C++ API.

  5. Rituximab-Based Treatment, HCV Replication, and Hepatic Flares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelista Sagnelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rituximab, a chimeric mouse-human monoclonal antibody directed to the CD20 antigen expressed on pre-B lymphocytes and mature lymphocytes, causes a profound B-cell depletion. Due to its peculiar characteristics, this drug has been used to treat oncohaematological diseases, B cell-related autoimmune diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, and, more recently, HCV-associated mixed cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis. Rituximab-based treatment, however, may induce an increased replication of several viruses such as hepatitis B virus, cytomegalovirus, varicella-zoster virus, echovirus, and parvovirus B19. Recent data suggest that rituximab-based chemotherapy induces an increase in HCV expression in hepatic cells, which may become a target for a cell-mediated immune reaction after the withdrawal of treatment and the restoration of the immune control. Only a few small studies have investigated the occurrence of HCV reactivation and an associated hepatic flare in patients with oncohaematological diseases receiving R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone. These studies suggest that the hepatic flares are frequently asymptomatic, but life-threatening liver failure occurs in nearly 10% of cases.

  6. Optimum predictors of therapeutic outcome in HCV patients in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Hafsa; Raza, Abida; Irfan, Javaid

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) constitutes a major public health issue in Pakistan. Interferon α and ribavirin is used widely in routine practice in HCV infected patients in Pakistan.Treatment prediction is an important tool in therapy management. The present study aims to evaluate trends of predictive variables of treatment outcome in patients with different genotypes. The analysis comprised of 921 patients infected with different HCV genotypes. All the patients received IFN α-2b combined with ribavirin for 24 weeks. Overall, 60.2% patients achieved Sustained virologic response (SVR). In females sustained virologic response (SVR) was higher in age group 84; P = 0.0001), low pretreatment RNA level800,000 IU/ml (4.0; 95%CI, 2.64-6.17; P = 0.0001), early virologic response at week 12 (12.3; 95%CI, 8.18-18.58; P < 0.0001) and non-fatty liver (2.5; 95%CI, 3.6-6.2; P = 0.005) showed significance for SVR. Nucleotide substitution in 5'UTR before treatment failed to show any characteristic pattern that has correlation with sustained response. Subtype 3a showed 95% presence among patients with age <40 years while older patients showed 79.9%.

  7. THE CYTOKINE IP-10 IN CHRONIC HBV AND HCV INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina S. Nikolova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: IP-10 it has been studied as a predictor of treatment response in chronic HCV infected patients. The data for the HBV infection are not enough.Aim: To compare IP-10 levels in patients with chronic HBV /CHB/ and HCV infection /CHC/ and their relation to liver disease and treatment response. Material and methods: 20 patients - with CHC genotype 1 infection /on standard bi-therapy/ and 32 patients with CHB /21 pts - NUC; 11 pts - IFN/. Results: The IP-10 did not correlate with sex, age, ALT and liver fibrosis. The basal IP-10 were lower in patients with CHB (p=0,017. There was a difference in IP-10 baseline levels among the HCV patients with or without RVR (p=0,007. A negative correlation was found between basal IP-10 and RVR (r= -0,508; p=0,008. Conclusion: IP-10 could predict virological response in patients with CHC on standard bi-therapy, but not in HBV infected patients on standard therapy.

  8. 丙型肝炎病毒核心抗原与HCV RNA、ALT相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 刘栋; 陈新科; 王文龙; 于立凌

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to study the relationship between the HCV core antigen ,the presence of HCV RNA and the ALT level. Methods: HCV-cAg and the ALT level were detected from 74 positive HCV RNA patients. Results: The HCV-cAg was detected in 25 out of the 74 positive HCV RNA patients.In addition ,23 patients were in the gray zone. The ALT level of 49 patients were outside the normal range . The ALT level and HCV-cAg were significantly related(P<0.05). Conclusion: HCV-cAg united against-HCV, HCV RNA can be applied to clinical and blood stations.%目的探讨HCV核心抗原与HCV RNA、ALT的相关性。方法对本院74例HCV RNA阳性患者检测其HCV-cAg和ALT浓度。结果本研究74例HCV RNA阳性患者检出HCV-cAg阳性25例,处于灰区23例,ALT超出正常范围的患者为49例,ALT 水平与HCV-cAg呈正相关性。结论 HCV-cAg与HCV RNA复制密切相关, HCV-cAg可联合抗-HCV应用可提高临床和血站的HCV感染检出率,结合ALT可以评测HCV感染肝脏炎症状态)

  9. Multicenter comparison study of both analytical and clinical performance across 4 Roche HCV RNA assays utilizing different platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermehren, Johannes; Stelzl, Evelyn; Maasoumy, Benjamin; Michel-Treil, Veronique; Berkowski, Caterina; Marins, Ed G; Paxinos, Ellen E; Marino, Enrique; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Sarrazin, Christoph; Kessler, Harald H

    2017-01-25

    Antiviral treatment efficacy for chronic HCV infection is determined based on measurement of HCV RNA at specific time points throughout therapy by highly sensitive and accurate HCV RNA assays. This study evaluated the performance of two recently-developed real-time PCR HCV RNA assays, the cobas HCV for use on the cobas 6800/8800 systems (cobas 6800/8800 HCV) and the cobas HCV for use on the cobas 4800 system (cobas 4800 HCV) in comparison to two established assays, the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HCV Quantitative Test, version 2.0 (CAP/CTM v2) and the COBAS TaqMan HCV Test, version 2.0 for use with the High Pure System (HPS/CTM v2). Limit of detection (LOD) and linearity at lower concentrations (5-1000 IU/mL) were assessed for cobas 6800/8800 HCV and cobas 4800 HCV using WHO standard traceable panels representing HCV genotypes (GT) 1-4. Pairwise assay comparisons were also performed using 245 clinical samples representing HCV GT 1-4.cobas 6800/8800 HCV and cobas 4800 HCV were linear at low HCV RNA concentrations (<0.3 log10 IU/mL difference between expected and observed results) with LOD of 8.2 IU/mL and 11.7 IU/mL, respectively, for GT1. The new assays showed excellent agreement with CAP/CTM v2 and HPS/CTM v2 results in samples with quantifiable viral load. Concordance across the 6 million IU/mL cutoff was high among all four assays (90-94%). In conclusion, both cobas 6800/8800 HCV and cobas 4800 HCV tests are sensitive and linear, and correlate well with established Roche assays used in clinical practice.

  10. Multiplicity of carbohydrate-binding sites in -prism fold lectins: occurrence and possible evolutionary implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alok Sharma; Divya Chandran; Desh D Singh; M Vijayan

    2007-09-01

    The -prism II fold lectins of known structure, all from monocots, invariably have three carbohydrate-binding sites in each subunit/domain. Until recently, -prism I fold lectins of known structure were all from dicots and they exhibited one carbohydrate-binding site per subunit/domain. However, the recently determined structure of the -prism fold I lectin from banana, a monocot, has two very similar carbohydrate-binding sites. This prompted a detailed analysis of all the sequences appropriate for two-lectin folds and which carry one or more relevant carbohydrate-binding motifs. The very recent observation of a -prism I fold lectin, griffithsin, with three binding sites in each domain further confirmed the need for such an analysis. The analysis demonstrates substantial diversity in the number of binding sites unrelated to the taxonomical position of the plant source. However, the number of binding sites and the symmetry within the sequence exhibit reasonable correlation. The distribution of the two families of -prism fold lectins among plants and the number of binding sites in them, appear to suggest that both of them arose through successive gene duplication, fusion and divergent evolution of the same primitive carbohydrate-binding motif involving a Greek key. Analysis with sequences in individual Greek keys as independent units lends further support to this conclusion. It would seem that the preponderance of three carbohydrate-binding sites per domain in monocot lectins, particularly those with the -prism II fold, is related to the role of plant lectins in defence.

  11. Proteome Analysis of Liver Cells Expressing a Full- Length Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Replicon and Biopsy Specimens of Posttransplantation Liver from HCV-Infected Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Jon M.; Diamond, Deborah L.; Chan, Eric Y.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Qian, Weijun; Stastna, Miroslava; Baas, Tracey; Camp, David G.; Carithers, Jr., Robert L.; Smith, Richard D.; Katze, Michael G.

    2005-06-01

    The development of a reproducible model system for the study of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has the potential to significantly enhance the study of virus-host interactions and provide future direction for modeling the pathogenesis of HCV. While there are studies describing global gene expression changes associated with HCV infection, changes in the proteome have not been characterized. We report the first large scale proteome analysis of the highly permissive Huh-7.5 cell line containing a full length HCV replicon. We detected > 4,400 proteins in this cell line, including HCV replicon proteins, using multidimensional liquid chromatographic (LC) separations coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). The set of Huh-7.5 proteins confidently identified is, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive yet reported for a human cell line. Consistent with the literature, a comparison of Huh-7.5 cells (+) and (-) the HCV replicon identified expression changes of proteins involved in lipid metabolism. We extended these analyses to liver biopsy material from HCV-infected patients where > 1,500 proteins were detected from 2 {micro}g protein lysate using the Huh-7.5 protein database and the accurate mass and time (AMT) tag strategy. These findings demonstrate the utility of multidimensional proteome analysis of the HCV replicon model system for assisting the determination of proteins/pathways affected by HCV infection. Our ability to extend these analyses to the highly complex proteome of small liver biopsies with limiting protein yields offers the unique opportunity to begin evaluating the clinical significance of protein expression changes associated with HCV infection.

  12. Transcriptomic assay of CD8+ T cells in treatment-naive HIV, HCV-mono-infected and HIV/HCV-co-infected Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-infection with HIV and HCV is very common. It is estimated that over 5 million people are co-infected with HIV and HCV worldwide. Accumulated evidence shows that each virus alters the course of infection of the other one. CD8+ T cells play a crucial role in the eradication of viruses and infected target cells. To the best of our knowledge, no one has investigated the gene expression profiles in HIV/HCV-co-infected individuals. METHODOLOGY: Genome-wide transcriptomes of CD8+ T cells from HIV/HCV-co-infected or mono-infected treatment-naïve individuals were analyzed by microarray assays. Pairwise comparisons were performed and differentially expressed genes were identified followed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR validation. Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAG from Web-based Gene SeT AnaLysis Toolkit (WebGestalt and DAVID bioinformatics resources 6.7 (the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery were used to discover the Gene Ontology (GO categories with significantly enriched gene numbers. The enriched Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways were also obtained by using WebGestalt software. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A total of 110, 24 and 72 transcript IDs were shown to be differentially expressed (> 2-fold and p<0.05 in comparisons between HCV- and HIV-mono-infected groups, HIV/HCV-co-infected and HIV-mono-infected groups, and HIV/HCV-co-infected and HCV-mono-infected groups, respectively. In qRT-PCR assay, most of the genes showed similar expressing profiles with the observation in microarray assays. Further analysis revealed that genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, transcriptional regulation and cytokine responses were significantly altered. These data offer new insights into HIV/HCV co-infections, and may help to identify new markers for the management and treatment of HIV/HCV co-infections.

  13. Occurrence of occult HCV infection among Hiv infected patients in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatserelia, L; Sharvadze, L; Karchava, M; Dolmazashvili, E; Tsertsvadze, T

    2014-01-01

    Occult hepatitis C (OCI) infection has been known as detectable HCV-RNA in the liver or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the absence of detectable serum or plasma HCV-RNA. OCI has been detected among different patients groups worldwide, it has been found not only in chronic hepatitis patients of unknown origin, but also among several groups at risk for HCV infection (hemodialysis patients or family members of patients with occult HCV). This occult infection has been reported also in healthy populations without evidence of liver disease. Prevalence of occult Hepatitis C virus has not been investigated in Georgian population, where a rate of HCV infection is highest (6.7%) among Eastern European Countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of occult HCV infection among HIV infected individuals in Georgia. As a pilot study, we have selected three groups of HIV infected patients for analyses: Group 1- HIV infected patients without evidence of liver disease (n=98), group 2- HIV infected patients with cryptogenic liver disease (n=34) and group 3- HIV/HBV co infected patients (n=29). HCV RNA was tested in PBMCs samples by real-time polymerase chain reaction. HCV genotyping was performed by Line-probe assay based on reverse-hybridization technology. Liver fibrosis was evaluated by transient elastography (FibroScan®). HCV-RNA was detected in PBMCs specimens among 2 (2%) subjects from group 1, 4 (12%) subjects from group 2, and 9 (31%) subjects from group 3. HCV genotypes were determined for 14 of 15 OCI subjects resulting following genotype distribution: 6 (46%) - 1b, 3 (23%) - 2a/2c and 5 (38%) - 3a. One samples failed to be genotyped due to extremely low HCV viral load. Our data revealed the occurrence of occult HCV infection in HIV infected patients. No single HCV genotype was predominant in the present study. Liver fibrosis was found more frequently and the fibrosis score was significantly higher in OCI patients versus negative ones

  14. Analysis of hepatitis non-treatment causes in a cohort of HCV and HCV/HIV infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Pereira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The decision to start hepatitis C virus (HCV treatment and its timing remains controversial. As new treatment regimens are approved, it is essential to identify patients eligible for each regimen in a timed and tailored approach. This study aims to identify the reasons to defer treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection in both HCV and HCV/HIV infected patients. Materials and Methods: Retrospective observational study of a cohort of HCV chronically infected patients with or without HIV infection, followed in an infectious disease clinic in Lisbon. Demographic, epidemiological, clinical, immunologic and virologic data were collected. Statistical analysis was performed with Microsoft Office®- Excel 2012. Kolmogorov-Smirnov, t-test, Chi-square and correlation analysis were performed for a significant p value<0.05. Results: The study included 669 patients, 225 patients infected with HCV (group A and 444 patients co-infected with HCV/HIV (group B. The comparative analysis of those groups (A vs. B showed: mean age was 49.4 years versus 46.9 (p<0.01, mean time since HCV diagnosis was 9.5 versus 14.6 years (p=0.558 both groups shared a male predominance and HCV acquisition due to intravenous drug use. Regarding genotype characterization, the predominant was 1a in both groups (p<0.01. Evaluation of IL28B polymorphism revealed CC 15.5% (A versus 9.45% (B (p<0.01. Group B mean TCD4 count was 585 cells/µL (mean percentage 27.1%. There was spontaneous viral clearance in 10.7% (A versus 4.1% (B (p<0.01. There were treated 52.0% (A versus 32.2% (B patients (p<0.01. For the untreated ones (107 – group A vs 270 – group B, no reason was identified for treatment deferral in 32.5% (A versus 48.0% (B patients. The most frequent reasons for deferring treatment were: withdrawal to follow-up (33.7%, active staging of disease (7.2%, alcohol abuse (6.0% and advanced age (6.0% in group A versus low TCD4 cell count (17.1%, loss to follow-up (7.5%, poor

  15. Undetectable hepatitis C virus RNA during syphilis infection in two HIV/HCV-co-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Knudsen, Andreas; Krarup, Henrik Bygum;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, elicits a vigorous immune response in the infected host. This study sought to describe the impact of syphilis infection on hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels in patients with HIV and chronic HCV infection. METHODS: Patients...... with chronic HIV/HCV and syphilis co-infection were identified by their treating physicians from 1 October 2010 to 31 December 2013. Stored plasma samples obtained before, during, and after syphilis infection were analysed for interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF......-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 kDa (IP-10). RESULTS: Undetectable HCV RNA at the time of early latent syphilis infection was observed in 2 patients with HIV and chronic HCV infection. After treatment of the syphilis infection, HCV RNA levels increased again in patient 1, whereas...

  16. Hepatic compartmentalization of exhausted and regulatory cells in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, L; Trehanpati, N; Poonia, S; Daigh, L; Sarin, S Kumar; Masur, H; Kottilil, S

    2015-03-01

    Accelerated intrahepatic hepatitis C virus (HCV) pathogenesis is likely the result of dysregulation within both the innate and adaptive immune compartments, but the exact contribution of peripheral blood and liver lymphocyte subsets remains unclear. Prolonged activation and expansion of immunoregulatory cells have been thought to play a role. We determined immune cell subset frequency in contemporaneous liver and peripheral blood samples from chronic HCV-infected and HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and biopsy-derived liver-infiltrating lymphocytes from 26 HIV/HCV-coinfected, 10 chronic HCV-infected and 10 HIV-infected individuals were assessed for various subsets of T and B lymphocytes, dendritic cell, natural killer (NK) cell and NK T-cell frequency by flow cytometry. CD8(+) T cells expressing the exhaustion marker PD-1 were increased in HCV-infected individuals compared with uninfected individuals (P = 0.02), and HIV coinfection enhanced this effect (P = 0.005). In the liver, regulatory CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) T cells, as well as CD4(+) CD25(+) PD1(+) T cells, were more frequent in HIV/HCV-coinfected than in HCV-monoinfected samples (P HIV infection (P ≤ 0.005 for all). Low CD8(+) expression was observed only in PD-1(+) CD8(+) T cells from HCV-infected individuals and healthy controls (P = 0.002) and was associated with enhanced expansion of exhausted CD8(+) T cells when exposed in vitro to PHA or CMV peptides. In conclusion, in HIV/HCV coinfection, ongoing HCV replication is associated with increased regulatory and exhausted T cells in the periphery and liver that may impact control of HCV. Simultaneous characterization of liver and peripheral blood highlights the disproportionate intrahepatic compartmentalization of immunoregulatory T cells, which may contribute to establishment of chronicity and hepatic fibrogenesis in HIV coinfection.

  17. Development of mouse hepatocyte lines permissive for hepatitis C virus (HCV.

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    Hussein Hassan Aly

    Full Text Available The lack of a suitable small animal model for the analysis of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection has hampered elucidation of the HCV life cycle and the development of both protective and therapeutic strategies against HCV infection. Human and mouse harbor a comparable system for antiviral type I interferon (IFN induction and amplification, which regulates viral infection and replication. Using hepatocytes from knockout (ko mice, we determined the critical step of the IFN-inducing/amplification pathways regulating HCV replication in mouse. The results infer that interferon-beta promoter stimulator (IPS-1 or interferon A receptor (IFNAR were a crucial barrier to HCV replication in mouse hepatocytes. Although both IFNARko and IPS-1ko hepatocytes showed a reduced induction of type I interferons in response to viral infection, only IPS-1-/- cells circumvented cell death from HCV cytopathic effect and significantly improved J6JFH1 replication, suggesting IPS-1 to be a key player regulating HCV replication in mouse hepatocytes. We then established mouse hepatocyte lines lacking IPS-1 or IFNAR through immortalization with SV40T antigen. Expression of human (hCD81 on these hepatocyte lines rendered both lines HCVcc-permissive. We also found that the chimeric J6JFH1 construct, having the structure region from J6 isolate enhanced HCV replication in mouse hepatocytes rather than the full length original JFH1 construct, a new finding that suggests the possible role of the HCV structural region in HCV replication. This is the first report on the entry and replication of HCV infectious particles in mouse hepatocytes. These mouse hepatocyte lines will facilitate establishing a mouse HCV infection model with multifarious applications.

  18. Adsorption and separation of HCV particles by novel affinity aptamer-functionalized adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Ye, Qing; Zhou, Kangping; Wang, Yefu

    2016-04-01

    A novel type of aptamer-functionalized immunoadsorbent was prepared and characterized to remove HCV particles, a promising option of extracorporeal immunoadsorption (ECI) therapy against HCV. Herein, we fabricated a HCV-specific immunoadsorbent where single-stranded DNA aptamers reported and studied previously, modified with amino group at the 5' terminus, was immobilized covalently onto surfaces of carboxylated-derivative sepharose 4FF beads through N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) linkage. Then the adsorbents was evaluated and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Subsequently, we also confirmed that proposed immunoadsorbents exhibited a favorable biocompatibility as well as specificity. In addition, time-dependent effects of the eradication capacity of aptamer functionalized sepharose beads against HCV was investigated. With the optimized time point, the decontamination performance of HCV particles was assessed by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) followed by nucleic acid-based hybridization (NAH), which shows sorbents with an aptamer density of 2nmolligand/ml resin could remove approximately 80% (i.e. 8.9×10(6) HCV particles/ml resin) of the HCV genotype 2a cultivated in vitro and 75% (vary with the intial concentration of HCV from about 7.5×10(4)-4.4×10(5) HCV particles/ml resin) of the HCV samples from human plasma samples. All these results indicated that the novel aptamer-based adsorbents could effectively remove HCV particles and likely serve as a novel therapy option or at least supplementary for the treatment regimen of HCV.

  19. Consensus siRNA for inhibition of HCV genotype-4 replication

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    El-Din Hanaa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HCV is circulating as a heterogeneous group of quasispecies. It has been addressed that siRNA can inhibit HCV replication in-vitro using HCV clone and/or replicon which have only one genotype. The current study was conducted to assess whether siRNA can inhibit different HCV genotypes with many quasispecies and to assess whether consensus siRNA have the same effect as regular siRNA. Methods We generated two chemically synthesized consensus siRNAs (Z3 and Z5 which cover most known HCV genotype sequences and quasispecies using Ambium system. Highly positive HCV patient's serum with nine quasispecies was transfected in-vitro to Huh-7 cell line which supports HCV genotype-4 replication. siRNA (Z3&Z5 were transfected according to Qiagen Porta-lipid technique and subsequently cultured for eight days. HCV replication was monitored by RT-PCR for detection of plus and minus strands. Real-time PCR was used for quantification of HCV, whereas detection of the viral core protein was performed by western blot. Results HCV RNA levels decreased 18-fold (P = 0.001 and 25-fold (P = 0.0005 in cells transfected with Z3 and Z5, respectively, on Day 2 post transfection and continued for Day 3 by Z3 and Day 7 by Z5. Reduction of core protein expression was reported at Day 2 post Z3 siRNA transfection and at Day 1 post Z5 siRNA, which was persistent for Day 4 for the former and for Day 6 for the latter. Conclusion Consensus siRNA could be used as a new molecular target therapy to effectively inhibit HCV replication in the presence of more than one HCV quasispecies.

  20. High prevalence of human parvovirus 4 infection in HBV and HCV infected individuals in shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuelian; Zhang, Jing; Hong, Liang; Wang, Jiayu; Yuan, Zhengan; Zhang, Xi; Ghildyal, Reena

    2012-01-01

    Human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) has been detected in blood and diverse tissues samples from HIV/AIDS patients who are injecting drug users. Although B19 virus, the best characterized human parvovirus, has been shown to co-infect patients with hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus (HBV, HCV) infection, the association of PARV4 with HBV or HCV infections is still unknown.The aim of this study was to characterise the association of viruses belonging to PARV4 genotype 1 and 2 with chronic HBV and HCV infection in Shanghai.Serum samples of healthy controls, HCV infected subjects and HBV infected subjects were retrieved from Shanghai Center for Disease Control and Prevention (SCDC) Sample Bank. Parvovirus-specific nested-PCR was performed and results confirmed by sequencing. Sequences were compared with reference sequences obtained from Genbank to derive phylogeny trees.The frequency of parvovirus molecular detection was 16-22%, 33% and 41% in healthy controls, HCV infected and HBV infected subjects respectively, with PARV4 being the only parvovirus detected. HCV infected and HBV infected subjects had a significantly higher PARV4 prevalence than the healthy population. No statistical difference was found in PARV4 prevalence between HBV or HCV infected subjects. PARV4 sequence divergence within study groups was similar in healthy subjects, HBV or HCV infected subjects.Our data clearly demonstrate that PARV4 infection is strongly associated with HCV and HBV infection in Shanghai but may not cause increased disease severity.

  1. Phenotypic characterization of lymphocytes in HCV/HIV co-infected patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roe, Barbara

    2009-02-01

    While hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific immune responses are attenuated in HCV\\/HIV co-infected patients compared to those infected with HCV alone, the reasons for this remain unclear. In this study, the proportions of regulatory, naïve, and memory T cells, along with chemokine receptor expression, were measured in co-infected and mono-infected patients to determine if there is an alteration in the phenotypic profile of lymphocytes in these patients. HCV\\/HIV co-infected patients had increased proportions of CD4(+) naïve cells and decreased proportions of CD4(+) effector cells when compared to HCV mono-infected patients. The proportions of CD4(+) Tregs and CD4(+) CXCR3(+) T cells were also significantly lower in co-infected patients. A decrease in CD4(+) Tregs and subsequent loss of immunosuppressive function may contribute to the accelerated progression to liver disease in co-infected individuals. Dysregulation of immune responses following reduction in the proportions of CD4(+) CXCR3(+) Th-1 cells may contribute to the reduced functional capacity of HCV-specific immune responses in co-infected patients. The findings of this study provide new information on the T-cell immunophenotype in HCV\\/HIV co-infected patients when compared to those infected with HCV alone, and may provide insight into why cell-mediated immune responses are diminished during HCV infection.

  2. Lymphotoxin signaling is initiated by the viral polymerase in HCV-linked tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Simonin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to hepatitis C virus (HCV typically results in chronic infection that leads to progressive liver disease ranging from mild inflammation to severe fibrosis and cirrhosis as well as primary liver cancer. HCV triggers innate immune signaling within the infected hepatocyte, a first step in mounting of the adaptive response against HCV infection. Persistent inflammation is strongly associated with liver tumorigenesis. The goal of our work was to investigate the initiation of the inflammatory processes triggered by HCV viral proteins in their host cell and their possible link with HCV-related liver cancer. We report a dramatic upregulation of the lymphotoxin signaling pathway and more specifically of lymphotoxin-β in tumors of the FL-N/35 HCV-transgenic mice. Lymphotoxin expression is accompanied by activation of NF-κB, neosynthesis of chemokines and intra-tumoral recruitment of mononuclear cells. Spectacularly, IKKβ inactivation in FL-N/35 mice drastically reduces tumor incidence. Activation of lymphotoxin-β pathway can be reproduced in several cellular models, including the full length replicon and HCV-infected primary human hepatocytes. We have identified NS5B, the HCV RNA dependent RNA polymerase, as the viral protein responsible for this phenotype and shown that pharmacological inhibition of its activity alleviates activation of the pro-inflammatory pathway. These results open new perspectives in understanding the inflammatory mechanisms linked to HCV infection and tumorigenesis.

  3. Activation of unfolded protein response and autophagy during HCV infection modulates innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrabaud, Emilie; De Muynck, Simon; Asselah, Tarik

    2011-11-01

    Autophagy, a process for catabolizing cytoplasmic components, has been implicated in the modulation of interactions between RNA viruses and their host. However, the mechanism underlying the functional role of autophagy in the viral life cycle still remains unclear. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense, membrane-enveloped RNA virus that can cause chronic liver disease. Here we report that HCV induces the unfolded protein response (UPR), which in turn activates the autophagic pathway to promote HCV RNA replication in human hepatoma cells. Further analysis revealed that the entire autophagic process through to complete autolysosome maturation was required to promote HCV RNA replication and that it did so by suppressing innate antiviral immunity. Gene silencing or activation of the UPR-autophagy pathway activated or repressed, respectively, IFN-β activation mediated by an HCV-derived pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP). Similar results were achieved with a PAMP derived from Dengue virus (DEV), indicating that HCV and DEV may both exploit the UPR-autophagy pathway to escape the innate immune response. Taken together, these results not only define the physiological significance of HCV-induced autophagy, but also shed light on the knowledge of host cellular responses upon HCV infection as well as on exploration of therapeutic targets for controlling HCV infection.

  4. Association of HCV with diabetes mellitus: an Egyptian case-control study

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    Esmat Gamal G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highest Hepatitis C Virus (HCV prevalence in the world occurs in Egypt. Several studies from different parts of the world have found that 13% to 33% of patients with chronic HCV have associated diabetes, mostly type II Diabetes Mellitus (DM. In Egypt the prevalence of DM is 25.4% among HCV patients. Therefore, it is important to identify the magnitude of the problem of diabetes in order to optimize the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Methods The objective of this case-control study was to evaluate the prevalence of DM and other extrahepatic (EH manifestations among patients with different HCV morbidity stages including asymptomatic, chronic hepatic and cirrhotic patients. In this study, 289 HCV patients older than 18 were selected as cases. Also, 289 healthy controls were included. Laboratory investigations including Liver Function tests (LFT and blood glucose level were done. Also serological assays including cryoglobulin profile, rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, HCV-PCR were performed. Results Out of 289 HCV cases, 40 (13.84% were diabetic. Out of 289 healthy controls, 12 (4.15% were diabetic. It was found that the diabetic HCV group mean age was [48.1 (± 9.2]. Males and urbanians represented 72.5% and 85% respectively. Lower level of education was manifested in 52.5% and 87.5% were married. In the nondiabetic HCV group mean age was [40.7 (± 10.4]. Males and urbanians represented 71.5% and 655% respectively. secondary and higher level of education was attained in 55.4% and 76.7% were married. Comparing between the diabetic HCV group and the non diabetic HCV group, age, residence and alcohol drinking were the only significant factors affecting the incidence of diabetes between the two groups. There was no significant difference regarding sonar findings although cirrhosis was more prevalent among diabetic HCV cases and the fibrosis score was higher in diabetic HCV patients than among the non diabetic HCV cases

  5. HIV-1 Vpr increases HCV replication through VprBP in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yanling; Huang, Fang; Yuan, Ting; Sun, Binlian; Yang, Rongge

    2016-09-02

    Coinfection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) occurs at a high frequency, in which HIV shows a promotion of HCV-derived liver diseases. However, the mechanism of how this occurs is not well understood. Our previous work has demonstrated that the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr enhances HCV RNA replication in cell culture. Because Vpr performs most of its functions through host protein VprBP (DCAF1), the role of VprBP in the regulation of HCV by Vpr was investigated in this study. We found that the Vpr mutant Q65R, which is deficient in VprBP binding, could not enhance HCV replication. Furthermore, Vpr-mediated enhancement of HCV replication was severely diminished in VprBP knockdown cells. In addition, an inhibitor of Cullin RING E3 ligases, MLN4924, impaired the function of Vpr during HCV replication. Together, these results suggest that Vpr promotes HCV replication in a VprBP-dependent manner, and that the activity of Cullin RING E3 ligases is essential to this process. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that HIV-1 Vpr makes the cellular environment more suitable for HCV replication, which might relate with the host ubiquitination system.

  6. Inhibition of HCV replication by humanized-single domain transbodies to NS4B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glab-Ampai, Kittirat; Malik, Aijaz Ahmad; Chulanetra, Monrat; Thanongsaksrikul, Jeeraphong; Thueng-In, Kanyarat; Srimanote, Potjanee; Tongtawe, Pongsri; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2016-08-05

    NS4B of hepatitis C virus (HCV) initiates membrane web formation, binds RNA and other HCV proteins for viral replication complex (RC) formation, hydrolyses NTP, and inhibits innate anti-viral immunity. Thus, NS4B is an attractive target of a novel anti-HCV agent. In this study, humanized-nanobodies (VHs/VHHs) that bound to recombinant NS4B were produced by means of phage display technology. The nanobodies were linked molecularly to a cell penetrating peptide, penetratin (PEN), for making them cell penetrable (become transbodies). Human hepatic (Huh7) cells transfected with HCV JFH1-RNA that were treated with transbodies from four Escherichia coli clones (PEN-VHH7, PEN-VHH9, PEN-VH33, and PEN-VH43) had significant reduction of HCV RNA amounts in their culture fluids and intracellularly when compared to the transfected cells treated with control transbody and medium alone. The results were supported by the HCV foci assay. The transbody treated-transfected cells also had upregulation of the studied innate cytokine genes, IRF3, IFNβ and IL-28b. The transbodies have high potential for testing further as a novel anti-HCV agent, either alone, adjunct of existing anti-HCV agents/remedies, or in combination with their cognates specific to other HCV enzymes/proteins.

  7. Biomolecular interactions in HCV nucleocapsid-like particles as revealed by vibrational spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Casado, Arantxa; Molina, Marina; Carmona, Pedro

    2007-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) occurs in the form of 55-65 nm spherical particles, but the structure of the virion remains to be clarified. Structural studies of HCV have been hampered by the lack of an appropriate cell culture system. However, structural analyses of HCV components can provide an essential framework for understanding of the molecular mechanism of virion assembly. This article reviews the potential of vibrational spectroscopy aimed at the knowledge of HCV structural biology, particularly regarding biomolecular interactions in nucleocapsid-like particles obtained in vitro.

  8. An accurate assay for HCV based on real-time fluorescence detection of isothermal RNA amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuping; Wang, Jianfang; Song, Jinyun; Li, Jiayan; Yang, Yongfeng

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the common reasons of liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Early, rapid and accurate HCV RNA detection is important to prevent and control liver disease. A simultaneous amplification and testing (SAT) assay, which is based on isothermal amplification of RNA and real-time fluorescence detection, was designed to optimize routine HCV RNA detection. In this study, HCV RNA and an internal control (IC) were amplified and analyzed simultaneously by SAT assay and detection of fluorescence using routine real-time PCR equipment. The assay detected as few as 10 copies of HCV RNA transcripts. We tested 705 serum samples with SAT, among which 96.4% (680/705) showed consistent results compared with routine real-time PCR. About 92% (23/25) discordant samples were confirmed to be same results as SAT-HCV by using a second real-time PCR. The sensitivity and specificity of SAT-HCV assay were 99.6% (461/463) and 100% (242/242), respectively. In conclusion, the SAT assay is an accurate test with a high specificity and sensitivity which may increase the detection rate of HCV. It is therefore a promising tool to diagnose HCV infection.

  9. Detection of occult hepatitis C virus among healthy spouses of patients with HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shazly, Yahia; Hemida, Khaled; Rafik, Mona; Al Swaff, Reham; Ali-Eldin, Zainab A; GadAllah, Shaimaa

    2015-03-01

    The criterion standard for the diagnosis of occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is detection of HCV-RNA in liver cells. However, because of the invasive nature of liver biopsy, other methods have been studied. The present study aimed to identify subjects with occult HCV-4 infection among healthy sexual partners of patients with chronic HCV-4 infection by detecting HCV-RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fifty healthy Egyptian spouses of patients with chronic HCV-4 infection were included in this study. Real-time PCR was used to detect HCV-RNA in PBMCs in all the study subjects. The prevalence of occult HCV-4 infection was 4%, and a statistically significant higher prevalence was found among patients with a history of sexually transmitted infection. The results of the present study indicate the importance of intra-spousal transmission of HCV-4 infection, especially in subjects with a history of sexually transmitted infection.

  10. Structural basis of hepatitis C virus neutralization by broadly neutralizing antibody HCV1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Leopold; Giang, Erick; Robbins, Justin B.; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Burton, Dennis R.; Wilson, Ian A.; Law, Mansun (Scripps)

    2012-10-29

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects more than 2% of the global population and is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and end-stage liver diseases. Circulating HCV is genetically diverse, and therefore a broadly effective vaccine must target conserved T- and B-cell epitopes of the virus. Human mAb HCV1 has broad neutralizing activity against HCV isolates from at least four major genotypes and protects in the chimpanzee model from primary HCV challenge. The antibody targets a conserved antigenic site (residues 412-423) on the virus E2 envelope glycoprotein. Two crystal structures of HCV1 Fab in complex with an epitope peptide at 1.8-{angstrom} resolution reveal that the epitope is a {beta}-hairpin displaying a hydrophilic face and a hydrophobic face on opposing sides of the hairpin. The antibody predominantly interacts with E2 residues Leu{sup 413} and Trp{sup 420} on the hydrophobic face of the epitope, thus providing an explanation for how HCV isolates bearing mutations at Asn{sup 415} on the same binding face escape neutralization by this antibody. The results provide structural information for a neutralizing epitope on the HCV E2 glycoprotein and should help guide rational design of HCV immunogens to elicit similar broadly neutralizing antibodies through vaccination.

  11. Active hepatitis C infection and HCV genotypes prevalent among the IDUs of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

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    Uz Zaman Khaleeq

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Injection drug users (IDUs are considered as a high risk group to develop hepatitis C due to needle sharing. In this study we have examined 200 injection drug users from various regions of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province for the prevalence of active HCV infection and HCV genotypes by Immunochromatographic assays, RT-PCR and Type-specific PCR. Our results indicated that 24% of the IDUs were actively infected with HCV while anti HCV was detected among 31.5% cases. Prevalent HCV genotypes were HCV 2a, 3a, 4 and 1a. Majority of the IDUs were married and had attained primary or middle school education. 95% of the IDUs had a previous history of needle sharing. Our study indicates that the rate of active HCV infection among the IDUs is higher with comparatively more prevalence of the rarely found HCV types in KPK. The predominant mode of HCV transmission turned out to be needle sharing among the IDUs.

  12. Hepatitis C Virus Treatment Access Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)-Coinfected People Who Inject Drugs in Guangzhou, China: Implications for HCV Treatment Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Carissa E; Wu, Feng; He, Xi; Zhou, Kali; Cheng, Yu; Cai, Weiping; Geng, Elvin; Volberding, Paul; Tucker, Joseph D

    2016-04-01

    Background.  Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment access among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-coinfected people who inject drugs is poor, despite a high burden of disease in this population. Understanding barriers and facilitators to HCV treatment uptake is critical to the implementation of new direct-acting antivirals. Methods.  We conducted in-depth interviews with patients, physicians, and social workers at an HIV treatment facility and methadone maintenance treatment centers in Guangzhou, China to identify barriers and facilitators to HCV treatment. We included patients who were in various stages of HCV treatment and those who were not treated. We used standard qualitative methods and organized data into themes. Results.  Interview data from 29 patients, 8 physicians, and 3 social workers were analyzed. Facilitators and barriers were organized according to a modified Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research schematic. Facilitators included patient trust in physicians, hope for a cure, peer networks, and social support. Barriers included ongoing drug use, low HCV disease knowledge, fragmented reimbursement systems, HIV exceptionalism, and stigma. Conclusions.  Expanding existing harm reduction programs, HIV treatment programs, and social services may facilitate scale-up of direct-acting antivirals globally. Improving integration of ancillary social and mental health services within existing HIV care systems may facilitate HCV treatment access.

  13. HCV derived from sera of HCV-infected patients induces pro-fibrotic effects in human primary fibroblasts by activating GLI2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, M.; Zompetta, C.; Vescarelli, E.; Rizzello, C.; Cardi, A.; Valia, S.; Antonelli, G.; Marchese, C.; Torrisi, M. R.; Faggioni, A.; Cirone, M.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of liver fibrosis, especially in developing countries. The process is characterized by the excess accumulation of ECM that may lead, over time, to hepatic cirrhosis, liver failure and also to hepatocarcinoma. The direct role of HCV in promoting fibroblasts trans-differentiation into myofibroblasts, the major fibrogenic cells, has not been fully clarified. In this study, we found that HCV derived from HCV-infected patients infected and directly induced the trans-differentiation of human primary fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, promoting fibrogenesis. This effect correlated with the activation of GLI2, one of the targets of Hedgehog signaling pathway previously reported to be involved in myofibroblast generation. Moreover, GLI2 activation by HCV correlated with a reduction of autophagy in fibroblasts, that may further promoted fibrosis. GLI2 inhibition by Gant 61 counteracted the pro-fibrotic effects and autophagy inhibition mediated by HCV, suggesting that targeting HH/GLI2 pathway might represent a promising strategy to reduce the HCV-induced fibrosis. PMID:27476557

  14. Hepatitis C Virus Treatment Access Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)-Coinfected People Who Inject Drugs in Guangzhou, China: Implications for HCV Treatment Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Carissa E.; Wu, Feng; He, Xi; Zhou, Kali; Cheng, Yu; Cai, Weiping; Geng, Elvin; Volberding, Paul; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment access among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-coinfected people who inject drugs is poor, despite a high burden of disease in this population. Understanding barriers and facilitators to HCV treatment uptake is critical to the implementation of new direct-acting antivirals. Methods. We conducted in-depth interviews with patients, physicians, and social workers at an HIV treatment facility and methadone maintenance treatment centers in Guangzhou, China to identify barriers and facilitators to HCV treatment. We included patients who were in various stages of HCV treatment and those who were not treated. We used standard qualitative methods and organized data into themes. Results. Interview data from 29 patients, 8 physicians, and 3 social workers were analyzed. Facilitators and barriers were organized according to a modified Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research schematic. Facilitators included patient trust in physicians, hope for a cure, peer networks, and social support. Barriers included ongoing drug use, low HCV disease knowledge, fragmented reimbursement systems, HIV exceptionalism, and stigma. Conclusions. Expanding existing harm reduction programs, HIV treatment programs, and social services may facilitate scale-up of direct-acting antivirals globally. Improving integration of ancillary social and mental health services within existing HIV care systems may facilitate HCV treatment access. PMID:27419150

  15. Safety of cyclosporin A in HCV-infected patients: experience with cyclosporin A in patients affected by rheumatological disorders and concomitant HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeazzi, Mauro; Bellisai, Francesca; Giannitti, Chiara; Manganelli, Stefania; Morozzi, Gabriella; Sebastiani, Gian Domenico

    2007-09-01

    Because of the relatively high prevalence of both hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and autoimmune disorders (ADs), it is not rare to encounter in daily clinical practice patients with ADs also carrying HCV. Corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressant drugs are needed to treat ADs, but they place HCV-infected patients at risk of worsening the infection. So, rheumatologists have often refrained from using corticosteroids or immunosuppressants in AD when HCV-RNA is also present. Cyclosporin A (CsA) is an immunosuppressive agent used to treat a wide range of ADs, but there is a large evidences in the literature, both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that CsA also exerts an inhibitory effect on HCV replication at standard therapeutic dose. Therefore, this evidence has opened new ways to improve the therapy and the prognosis in patients with HCV-related liver diseases, including those with transplants. Recent reports, although limited in number, also suggest the safety of CsA in the treatment of patients with AD and concomitant HCV infection. In this review we also report our personal experience on the combination treatment with CsA and anti-TNF-alpha agents in rheumatoid arthritis.

  16. Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA in saliva samples from patients with seric anti-HCV antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves,Patrícia L.; Cunha, Carla B.; Busek,Solange C. U.; Oliveira, Guilherme C.; Rodrigo Ribeiro-Rodrigues; Fausto EL Pereira

    2005-01-01

    We examined the frequency of HCV-RNA in saliva samples from anti-HCV positive patients. Both plasma and saliva samples from 39 HCV patients (13 with normal liver enzymes, 19 with abnormal liver enzymes and 13 with cirrhosis) were investigated. Stimulated saliva and fresh plasma were centrifuged (900 x g,10 min) and stored at ???70oC, after the addition of guanidine isothiocyanate RNA extraction buffer. HCV-RNA was detected by RT- nested-PCR (amplification of HCV-cDNA for two rounds, using HCV...

  17. MORTALITY RISK ASSESSMENT IN PICU USING PRISM-III-24 SCORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harilal Naik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Assessment of risk of mortality using PRISM III-24 score in children admitted to PICU of Basaweshwara Teaching and General Hospital, attached to Mahadevappa Rampure Medical College, Gulbarga. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. Setting: PICU of BTGH, Gulbarga. METHODS: 404 patients who had been admitted consecutively to the PICU during a period of 12 months (July 2011 to June 2012 were studied. PRISM III-24 score was calculated. Hospital outcome was recorded as survived/expired. Calibration and discrimination of the model was calculated by Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test and Area under the ROC Curve. The association between r (empirical function and PRISM III-24 score was assessed by Binary Logistic Regression method. RESULTS: Out of 404 patients, 363 (89.85% survived and 41 (10.15% expired. Males formed the majority (227/404. CNS cases (n=118, 29.2% constituted the majority. Mean age, length of hospitalization, and mean PRISM III-24 score were 59.22±51.12 months, 99.84±91.61 hours, and 4.92±7.74 (range 0-36. The test was well designed for the study (goodness-of-fit value P-value 0.186. ROC analysis indicated a strong predictive power for the PRISM III-24 (AUC 0.936. The observed (O mortality rate was 10.15% and the expected (E mortality rate was 10.12% with an O/E ratio of 1.003. CONCLUSION: PRISM III-24 score is a good predictor of mortality in PICU patients under Indian circumstances. The PRISM III-24 scoring system was highly calibrated in our institute.

  18. Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection & risk factors for HCV positivity in injecting & non-injecting drug users attending a de-addiction centre in northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasish Basu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Injecting drug use is a major route of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in India, but there may be other risk factors also. This study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of anti-HCV antibody in injecting drug users (IDUs vs. non-IDUs (NIDUs, and to study the risk estimates for HCV seropositivity in the total sample of substance users with regard to various demographic, clinical, behavioural and personality factors. Methods: The IDUs (n = 201 and NIDUs (n = 219 were assessed for demographic, clinical and behavioural information, and were rated on instruments for severity of dependence, risk behaviour and personality profiles. Anti-HCV antibody was tested by ELISA and confirmed by recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA test. Results: Almost one-third of the IDUs (64 of 201; 31.8% were positive for anti-HCV antibody, as opposed to only seven (3.2% of the NIDUs. The four risk factors strongly associated with HCV positivity in multivariate analysis were sharing syringe [Exp(B 75.04; 95%CI 18.28-307.96; P<0.001], reuse of injection accessories (16.39; 3.51-76.92; P<0.001, blood transfusion (5.88; 1.63-21.23; P=0.007 and IDU status (3.60; 1.26-10.31; P=0.017. Other variables less strongly but significantly associated with HCV positivity were multiple sex partners, opioid dependence, risk behaviour scores, impulsivity, and lower age of onset of drug use. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study showed a high seroprevalence of anti-HCV antibody in IDUs. In the substance users, HCV positivity was significantly and independently associated with several clinical, behavioural, and personality risk factors.

  19. Dynamic of Mixed HCV Infection in Plasma and PBMC of HIV/HCV Patients Under Treatment With Peg-IFN/Ribavirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaglio, Sabrina; Uberti-Foppa, Caterina; Di Serio, Clelia; Trentini, Filippo; Andolina, Andrea; Hasson, Hamid; Messina, Emanuela; Merli, Marco; Porrino, Lucy; Lazzarin, Adriano; Morsica, Giulia

    2015-10-01

    The extent of mixed hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype in different compartments (plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell, PBMC) and possible association with treatment efficacy in HIV/HCV coinfected patients remains to be unknown.The objective of this study was to elucidate the frequency of mixed genotype infection (MG), its profile in different compartments during anti-HCV treatment, and the possible influence of different genotypes on the response rate.The compartmentalization of HCV population was investigated by next-generation sequencing in 19 HIV/HCV coinfected patients under anti-HCV treatment with peginterferon/ribavirin (P-R). Ten individuals were nonresponder (NR) or relapser (RE) to P-R treatment and 9 had a sustained virological response (SVR).Eleven/nineteen (58%) patients had MG in plasma compartment. Ten or 12 patients infected by a difficult to treat genotype (DTG) 1 or 4 as dominant strain, had an MG, whereas only 1/7 individuals infected by easy to treat genotype (ETG) harbored a mixed genotype, P = 0.006. HCV-RNA was more frequently detected in PBMC of NR (10/10) than in those of SVR (5/9), P = 0.032. Mixed genotype infection was detected in 6/15 (40%) PBMC-positive cases and was not associated with P-R treatment response. By multivariate analysis, MG in plasma samples was the most important viral factor affecting the treatment response (P = 0.0237).Detection of MG in plasma of HIV/HCV coinfected patients seems to represent the major determinant of response to P-R treatment. This finding may have important clinical implication in light of the new therapeutic approach in HIV/HCV coinfected individuals suggesting that combination treatment with direct acting antivirals could be less effective in MG.

  20. 男性HIV和HCV并发感染者HCV抗体的表达%Study on the HCV Antibody Response in Men HIV and HCV Concurrent Infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺美荣; 焦东丽; 贾艳春; 严震

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察人免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)男性患者并发丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)感染后HCV抗体的表达情况,探讨影响HCV抗体表达的因素.方法 选取经筛选检测最终确诊的HIV/HCV并发感染男性患者23例,每隔3个月随访一次共随访6个月.检测HIV及HCV病毒载量、CD4+T细胞计数及HCV抗体.结果 首次HCV RNA检测阳性时78.3%的患者HCV抗体阴性;3个月后,34.8%的患者为HCV抗体阴性;6个月后,17.4%的患者HCV抗体为阴性.结论 HIV 并发HCV的男性感染者,HCV抗体阳性率表达较低,应早期联合核酸检测.%Objective To estimated the positive rates of antibodies and the influencing factors of antibodies expansion in Human immunoddficiency virus(HIV) men infected with hepatitis C virus(HCV). Methods 23 HIV-positive patients with early HCV infection were identified. Plasma samples obtained at 3 monthly intervals( total 6 month) for routine monitoring of HIV and HCV viral load,CD4 cell counts,HCV antibodies. Results On first amplification of HCV,78. 3% of patients were serologically negative. Antibody detection remain seronegative 34. 8% by 3 months to 17. 4% at 6 months. Conclusion The lower of HCV antibodies positive rates in HIV men with HCV should early combination of nucleic acid testing.

  1. Superior outcomes in HIV-positive kidney transplant patients compared to HCV-infected or HIV/HCV co-infected recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawinski, Deirdre; Forde, Kimberly A.; Eddinger, Kevin; Troxel, Andrea B.; Blumberg, Emily; Tebas, Pablo; Abt, Peter L.; Bloom, Roy D.

    2015-01-01

    The prerequisite for an “undetectable” HIV viral load has restricted access to transplantation for HIV-infected kidney recipients. However, HCV-infected recipients, due the historic limitations of HCV therapy in patients with renal disease, are commonly viremic at transplant and have universal access. In order to compare the effect of HIV, HCV and HIV/HCV co-infection on kidney transplant patient and allograft outcomes, we performed a retrospective study of kidney recipients transplanted from January 1996 through December 2013. In multivariable analysis, patient (hazard ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.66–1.24) and allograft survival (0.60, 40–0.88) in 492 HIV patients did not differ significantly from the 117,791 patient uninfected reference group. This was superior to outcomes in both the 5605 patient HCV group for death (1.44, 1.33–1.56) and graft loss (1.43, 1.31–1.56) as well as the 147 patient HIV/HCV co-infected group for death (2.26, 1.45–3.52) and graft loss (2.59, 1.60–4.19). HIV infection did not adversely affect recipient or allograft survival and was associated with superior outcomes compared to both HCV infection and HIV/HCV co-infection in this population. Thus, pre-transplant viral eradication and/ or immediate post-transplant eradication should be studied as potential strategies to improve post-transplant outcomes in HCV-infected kidney recipients. PMID:25807035

  2. 抗-HCV、HCV-RNA、ALT在HCV感染病程中的分布%THEDEVELOPMENT OF ANTI-HCV、HCV-RAN AND ALT LEVEL IN HCV CLINICAL PATIENTS AND ITS EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓俭; 任志胜; 吴敏

    2003-01-01

    目的:了解抗-HCV、HCV-RNA、ALT在输血后HCV感染者病程中的动态变化.方法:运用ELISA法及PCR法对205例输血后肝炎进行检测,对105例输血后HCV感染病例进行追踪调查.结果:抗-HCV及HCV-RNA阳性率分别为57.1%和55.1%,抗-HCV阴性中HCV-RNA阳性率达30.2%.抗-HCV、HCV-RNA及ALT在急性及慢性病人临床病程中呈现不同的特点.结论:PCR法在HCV感染的确诊、血源筛选等方面具有一定的流行病学意义.

  3. 丙型肝炎病毒IgG抗体阳性患者血清抗HCV IgM、ALT及HCV RNA的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏勇; 唐希才; 李德华

    2005-01-01

    目的:探讨丙型肝炎(HCV)IgG阳性患者的血清抗-HCV IgM、丙氨酸转移酶(ALT)水平与 HCV RNA之间的关系.方法:通过第三代 EIA试剂盒检测抗-HCV IgG、抗-HCV IgM,全自动生化分析仪检测丙型肝炎患者 ALT水平,荧光定量逆转录聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)方法检测 HCV RNA,并进行比较.结果:在丙型肝炎 IgG阳性患者中,抗-HCV IgM阳性率为 8.3%, HCV RNA阳性率为 41.7%. HCV RNA的检出在 ALT异常情况下较正常明显高(P0.05).结论:抗-HCV IgM不能反映病毒复制, ALT异常情况下 HCV RNA检出率高,但 ALT水平与 HCV RNA含量无线性相关性, HCV RNA仍是反映 HCV复制的可靠指标.

  4. Níveis de vale de ciclosporina elevados em transplantados renais anti-HCV positivos Elevated cyclosporine A trough levels in HCV positive kidney transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Wolffenbüttel

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os níveis de vale de CsA de transplantados renais anti-HCV+ com um grupo controle. MÉTODOS: Incluímos como casos todos os pacientes anti-HCV+ transplantados entre janeiro de 1992 e abril de 1996, e os anti-HCV- transplantados a seguir do caso como controles. Excluímos pacientes diabéticos, HbsAg+, os que recebiam fármacos com interação com a CsA e aqueles com transaminases elevadas. A sorologia para HCV foi testada pelo método ELISA de 3ª geração, e as dosagens de ciclosporina através de fluorimetria polarizada com anticorpo policlonal. RESULTADOS: As principais variáveis demográficas não diferiram entre os grupos. O nível de vale médio de CsA do primeiro mês pós-transplante foi maior nos 23 pacientes anti-HCV+ (551 ± 280 ng/ml do que nos 31 controles (418 ± 228 ng/ml, pOBJECTIVE: Compare the CsA trough levels of HCV+ kidney transplant recipients to a control group METHODS: All anti-HCV positive patients that received a renal allograft between January 1992 and April 1996 were initially included as cases. Patients with diabetes mellitus, HBsAg+, who were taking medication that could modify CsA pharmacokinetics and those with elevated aminotransferases were excluded. For each anti-HCV positive index case the following transplanted anti-HCV negative patient was included as a control. Third generation ELISA was used for determination of the anti-HCV status and CsA dosages were performed by polarized fluorometry with polyclonal antibodies. RESULTS: No differences in the demographic variables were found. The average CsA through levels in the first month were higher (551 ± 280 ng/ml in the 23 cases as compared to the 31 controls (418 ± 228 ng/ml; p< 0.05. The differences became apparent at the end of the first week (528 ± 275 versus 344 ± 283 ng/ml; p<0.01 and persisted at discharge (582 ± 284 versus 457 ± 229; p=0,08. CONCLUSION: We concluded that anti-HCV positive patients have higher blood levels of Cs

  5. Molecular detection and confirmation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urogenital and extragenital specimens using the Abbott CT/NG RealTime assay and an in-house assay targeting the porA pseudogene.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, A

    2011-04-01

    Culture for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) is being replaced by molecular assays, but difficulties are observed with false positive and negatives results, especially for extragenital samples. This study evaluates the Abbott CT\\/NG Real-Time assay and a real-time porA pseudogene assay. Samples (n = 600) from a mixed prevalence Irish population include 164 male urines with corresponding urethral swabs, 58 endocervical swabs, 173 male pharyngeal swabs, 205 male rectal swabs, 36 NG clinical isolates and 26 commensal Neisseria species isolates. There was a 100% concordance between the Abbott CT\\/NG Real-Time and the porA assay. The positivity rate was 1.2%, 1.7%, 8.1% and 5.8% for FVU\\/urethral swabs, endocervical, pharyngeal and rectal swabs, respectively. These results were compared to culture and discrepancies were found with nine pharyngeal and three rectal swabs. Seven of the 12 discrepant positive samples were sequenced and were confirmed "true positives". The sensitivity and specificity of the molecular assays was 100%. The sensitivity of the culture-based testing was 100% for urogenital samples but 36% and 75% for pharyngeal and rectal swabs, respectively. The combined Abbott CT\\/NG and porA assays provide a valuable alternative to culture and also generate a significant increase in the diagnosis of pharyngeal and rectal NG infection.

  6. Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Intervals for Fasting Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in School Children Measured With Abbott Architect c8000 Chemistry Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, Waleed; Albanyan, Esam; Altwaijri, Yasmin; Tamim, Hani; Alhussein, Fahad

    2012-04-01

    Reference intervals for pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish age-specific reference intervals of glucose and lipid levels among local school children. This was cross-sectional study, conducted among Saudi school children. Fasting blood samples were collected from 2149 children, 1138 (53%) boys and 1011 (47%) girls, aged 6 to 18 years old. Samples were analyzed on the Architect c8000 Chemistry System (Abbott Diagnostics, USA) for glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL. Reference intervals were established by nonparametric methods between the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls for cholesterol and triglycerides levels in all age groups (P < 0.02). Only at age 6-7 years and at adolescents, HDL and LDL levels were found to be significant (P < 0.001). No significant differences were seen in glucose levels except at age 12 to 13 years. Saudi children have comparable serum cholesterol levels than their Western counterparts. This may reflect changing dietary habits and increasing affluence in Saudi Arabia. Increased lipid screening is anticipated, and these reference intervals will aid in the early assessment of cardiovascular and diabetes risk in Saudi pediatric populations.

  7. Subcellular forms and biochemical events triggered in human cells by HCV polyprotein expression from a viral vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Jose

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To identify the subcellular forms and biochemical events induced in human cells after HCV polyprotein expression, we have used a robust cell culture system based on vaccinia virus (VACV that efficiently expresses in infected cells the structural and nonstructural proteins of HCV from genotype 1b (VT7-HCV7.9. As determined by confocal microscopy, HCV proteins expressed from VT7-HCV7.9 localize largely in a globular-like distribution pattern in the cytoplasm, with some proteins co-localizing with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and mitochondria. As examined by electron microscopy, HCV proteins induced formation of large electron-dense cytoplasmic structures derived from the ER and containing HCV proteins. In the course of HCV protein production, there is disruption of the Golgi apparatus, loss of spatial organization of the ER, appearance of some "virus-like" structures and swelling of mitochondria. Biochemical analysis demonstrate that HCV proteins bring about the activation of initiator and effector caspases followed by severe apoptosis and mitochondria dysfunction, hallmarks of HCV cell injury. Microarray analysis revealed that HCV polyprotein expression modulated transcription of genes associated with lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cellular proliferation. Our findings demonstrate the uniqueness of the VT7-HCV7.9 system to characterize morphological and biochemical events related to HCV pathogenesis.

  8. 抗-HCV-IgG阳性血清检测HCV的临床意义%The clinical values for the definifive detection of HCV in sever clinical cases such as positive HCV-IgG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建华; 钟怀印; 薛承岩

    2007-01-01

    了解抗-HCV-IgG阳性时、仅肝功能轻度异常、与HCV感染者有接触史时等临床情况下HCV在血液内存的几率,验证在这些临床情况时开展检测HCV确证试验的临床意义.采集血清为检测标本,用ELISA技术检测抗-HCV-IgG,RT-PCR技术检测HCV-RNA.血清HCV-RNA的检出率,抗-HCV-IgG阳性组为41.9%、仅肝功能轻度异常组为25.7%、无症状体检组为29.4%.临床对抗-HCV-IgG阳性者、仅肝功能轻度异常者、有接触史者等特殊人群应做检测HCV的确证试验,RT-PCR技术可以用做临床检测HCV的确证试验方法.

  9. Point-of-care testing for HCV infection: recent advances and implications for alternative screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Maria Rita; Soldini, Laura; Vidoni, Gianmarino; Mabellini, Chiara; Belloni, Teresa; Brignolo, Livia; Negri, Silvia; Schlusnus, Karin; Dorigatti, Fernanda; Lazzarin, Adriano

    2014-10-01

    Over the last few years, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has emerged as one of the most significant causes of chronic liver disease worldwide, with an estimated prevalence ranging from 2.2 to 3.0%. In Italy, approximately 2% of subjects are infected with HCV. Considering that acute HCV infection is usually asymptomatic, early diagnosis is rare. Those people who develop chronic infection, even though undiagnosed, may suffer serious liver damage, making chronic HCV infection a major health problem. New initiatives are needed to identify a submerged portion of patients with chronic viral hepatitis and to propose controls and antiviral treatments to avoid the progression to liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Since January 2011, the Infectious Diseases Department of San Raffaele Scientific Institute in Milan has been carrying out a prevention program called "EASY test project", using a new oral test, the OraQuick® HCV rapid antibody test (OraSure technologies, Inc.). The main objective of the project is to evaluate the acceptability of an alternative, free and anonymous HCV test offer, available in different settings (Points of Care, STDs Prevention clinics and General Practitioner clinics). From January 2011 to April 2014, 29,600 subjects were approached to inform them about HCV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases; 4,507 (15.2% of the contacted subjects) of them, total eligible volunteers, performed HCV tests on saliva and completed the interview in the alternative POCTs. Twenty-seven subjects (0.6% of the total) turned HCV oral test reactive (27/4.507) during the evaluation period; all of them were confirmed by conventional test. All 27 patients were asymptomatic and without a history of HCV-re- lated symptoms. The results from this analysis suggest that the promotion of alternative HCV test screening has not yet been fully developed as a strategy to increase levels of HCV testing among people at risk for HCV infection. Increasing

  10. Anti-HCV Activity from Semi-purified Methanolic Root Extracts of Valeriana wallichii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganta, Krishna Kumar; Mandal, Anirban; Debnath, Sukalyani; Hazra, Banasri; Chaubey, Binay

    2017-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a serious global health problem affecting approximately 130-150 million individuals. Presently available direct-acting anti-HCV drugs have higher barriers to resistance and also improved success rate; however, cost concerns limit their utilization, especially in developing countries like India. Therefore, development of additional agents to combat HCV infection is needed. In the present study, we have evaluated anti-HCV potential of water, chloroform, and methanol extracts from roots of Valeriana wallichii, a traditional Indian medicinal plant. Huh-7.5 cells infected with J6/JFH chimeric HCV strain were treated with water, chloroform, and methanol extracts at different concentrations. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction result demonstrated that methanolic extract showed reduction in HCV replication. The methanolic extract was fractionated by thin layer chromatography, and the purified fractions (F1, F2, F3, and F4) were checked for anti-HCV activity. Significant viral inhibition was noted only in F4 fraction. Further, intrinsic fluorescence assay of purified HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase NS5B in the presence of F4 resulted in sharp quenching of intrinsic fluorescence with increasing amount of plant extract. Our results indicated that methanolic extract of V. wallichii and its fraction (F4) inhibited HCV by binding with HCV NS5B protein. The findings would be further investigated to identify the active principle/lead molecule towards development of complementary and alternative therapeutics against HCV. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Safety of interferon treatment for chronic HCV hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D Festi; L Sandri; G Mazzella; E Roda; T Sacco; T Staniscia; S Capodicasa; A Vestito; A Colecchia

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide, In fact, chronic hepatitis C is considered as one of the primary causes of chronic liver disease, cirhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and is the most common reason for liver transplantation. The primary objectives for the treatment of HCV-related chronic hepatitis is to eradicate infection and prevent progression of the disease. The treatment has evolved from the use of α-interferon (TFNα)alone to the combination of IFNα plus ribavirin, with a significant improvement in the overall efficacy, and to the newer PEG-IFNs which have further increased the virological response, used either alone or in combination with ribavirin.Despite these positive results, in terms of efficacy, concerns are related to the safety and adverse events. Many patients must reduce the dose of PEG-IFN or ribavirin, others must stop the treatment and a variable percentage of subjects are not suitable owing to intolerance toward drugs. IFNβ represents a potential therapeutic alternative for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis and in some countries it plays an important role in therapeutic protocols. Aim of the present paper was to review available data on the safety of IFNβ treatment in HCV-related chronic hepatitis.The rates of treatment discontinuation and/or dose modification due to the appearance of severe side effects during IFNβ are generally low and in several clinical studies no requirements for treatment discontinuation and/or dose modifications have been reported. The most frequent side effects experienced during IFNβ treatment are flu-like syndromes, fever, fatigue and injection-site reactions. No differences in terms of side-effect frequency and severity between responders and non-responders have been reported.A more recent study, performed to compare IFNβ alone or in combination with ribavirin, confirmed the good safety profile of both treatments. Similar trends of adverse event

  12. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Africa: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Karoney, Mercy Jelagat; Siika, Abraham Mogisi

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a viral pandemic and a leading cause of chronic liver disease. This review highlights the epidemiology and management of Hepatitis C in Africa. We searched for articles on medline using the terms, “Hepatitis C”, “Prevalence”, “Epidemiology”, “Africa” and “Treatment”. The bibliographies of the articles found were used to find other references. We included articles published after 1995 only. The data was summarized and presented in tables and figures. Africa has the h...

  13. Beyond the sensorimotor plasticity: cognitive expansion of prism adaptation in healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine eMICHEL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensorimotor plasticity allows us to maintain an efficient motor behavior in reaction to environmental changes. One of the classical models for the study of sensorimotor plasticity is prism adaptation. It consists of pointing to visual targets while wearing prismatic lenses that shift the visual field laterally. The conditions of the development of the plasticity and the sensorimotor after-effects have been extensively studied for more than a century. However, the interest taken in this phenomenon was considerably increased since the demonstration of neglect rehabilitation following prism adaptation by Rossetti and his colleagues in 1998. Mirror effects, i.e. simulation of neglect in healthy individuals, were observed for the first time by Colent and collaborators in 2000. The present review focuses on the expansion of prism adaptation to cognitive functions in healthy individuals during the last 15 years. Cognitive after-effects have been shown in numerous tasks even in those that are not intrinsically spatial in nature. Altogether, these results suggest the existence of a strong link between low-level sensorimotor plasticity and high-level cognitive functions and raise important questions about the mechanisms involved in producing unexpected cognitive effects following prism adaptation. Implications for the functional mechanisms and neuroanatomical network of prism adaptation are discussed to explain how sensorimotor plasticity may affect cognitive processes.

  14. Analytical models for the groundwater tidal prism and associated benthic water flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jeffrey N.; Mehta, Ashish J.; Dean, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    The groundwater tidal prism is defined as the volume of water that inundates a porous medium, forced by one tidal oscillation in surface water. The pressure gradient that generates the prism acts on the subterranean estuary. Analytical models for the groundwater tidal prism and associated benthic flux are presented. The prism and flux are shown to be directly proportional to porosity, tidal amplitude, and the length of the groundwater wave; flux is inversely proportional to tidal period. The duration of discharge flux exceeds the duration of recharge flux over one tidal period; and discharge flux continues for some time following low tide. Models compare favorably with laboratory observations and are applied to a South Atlantic Bight study area, where tide generates an 11-m3 groundwater tidal prism per m of shoreline, and drives 81 m3 s −1 to the study area, which describes 23% of an observational estimate. In a marine water body, the discharge component of any oscillatory benthic water flux is submarine groundwater discharge. Benthic flux transports constituents between groundwater and surface water, and is a process by which pollutant loading and saltwater intrusion may occur in coastal areas.

  15. All-prism achromatic phase matching for tunable second-harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, B A; Bisson, S E; Trebino, R; Sidick, E; Jacobson, A

    1999-05-20

    Achromatic phase matching (APM) involves dispersing the light entering a nonlinear optical crystal so that a wide range of wavelengths is simultaneously phase matched. We constructed an APM apparatus consisting of six prisms, the final dispersion angle of which was optimized to match to second order in wavelength the type I phase-matching angle of beta barium borate (BBO). With this apparatus, we doubled tunable fundamental light from 620 to 700 nm in wavelength using a 4-mm-long BBO crystal. An analogous set of six prisms after the BBO crystal, optimized to second order in second-harmonic wavelength, realigned the output second-harmonic beams. Computer simulations predict that adjustment of a single prism can compensate angular misalignment of any or all the prisms before the crystal, and similarly for the prisms after the crystal. We demonstrated such compensation with the experimental device. The simulations also indicate that the phase-matching wavelength band can be shifted and optimized for different crystal lengths.

  16. Fusional Vergence Detected by Prism Bar and Synoptophore in Chinese Childhood Intermittent Exotropia

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    Tao Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To measure the changes in fusional vergence in Chinese children with intermittent exotropia (IXT and the association with the control of IXT. Methods. Ninety-two patients with IXT (8–15 years old were compared with 86 controls. Exodeviation control was evaluated using the Revised Newcastle Control Score. Angle of deviation was measured using prism and alternate cover testing at distance and near. Fusional vergence was measured using prism bar and synoptophore. This study was registered with ChiCTR-RCC-13003920. Results. Using prism bar, convergence break points were lower whereas divergence break points were higher in children with IXT at distance (P<0.001 and near (P<0.001 compared with controls. There was no significant difference in mean divergence amplitudes between the two groups when testing using a synoptophore (P=0.53. In children with IXT, the distance between recovery point and break point in both convergence (distance: P=0.02; near: P=0.02 and divergence (distance: P<0.001; near: P<0.001 was larger than controls when detected by prism bar and synoptophore (convergence: P=0.005; divergence: P=0.006. Conclusions. Children with IXT have reduced convergence amplitudes as detected by both prism bar and synoptophore.

  17. 丙肝患者血清HCV RNA定量与抗-HCV检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏; 张蕾; 谢建新

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨抗-HCV与HCV-RNA的相关性及临床应用价值。方法:ELISA方法检测抗-HCV,实时荧光定量PCR检测HCV-RNA。结果:检测可疑HCV感染者156例,其中119例抗-HCV阳性,同时HCV-RNA阳性为73例。HCV-RNA阳性患者中抗-HCV的阳性率显著高于抗-HCV阳性患者中HCV-RNA的阳性率(P〈0.05)。结论:同时检测抗-HCV和HCV-RNA可提高HCV感染诊断的阳性率,检测HCV-RNA对抗病毒治疗的疗效评价及治疗时间有重要意义。

  18. Discovery of SCH446211 (SCH6): A New Ketoamide Inhibitor of the HCV NS3 Serine Protease and HCV Subgenomic RNA Replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, Stephane L.; Arasappan, Ashok; Bennett, Frank; Chen, Kevin; Jao, Edwin; Liu, Yi-Tsung; Lovey, Raymond G.; Venkatraman, Srikanth; Pan, Weidong; Parekh, Tajel; Pike, Russel E.; Ruan, Sumei; Liu, Rong; Baroudy, Bahige; Agrawal, Sony; Chase, Robert; Ingravallo, Paul; Pichardo, John; Prongay, Andrew; Brisson, Jean-Marc; Hsieh, Tony Y.; Cheng, Kuo-Chi; Kemp, Scott J.; Levy, Odile E.; Lim-Wilby, Marguerita; Tamura, Susan Y.; Saksena, Anil K.; Girijavallabhan, Viyyoor; Njoroge, F. George (SPRI)

    2008-06-30

    Introduction of various modified prolines at P{sub 2} and optimization of the P{sub 1} side chain led to the discovery of SCH6 (24, Table 2), a potent ketoamide inhibitor of the HCV NS3 serine protease. In addition to excellent enzyme potency (K*{sub i} = 3.8 nM), 24 was also found to be a potent inhibitor of HCV subgenomic RNA replication with IC{sub 50} and IC{sub 90} of 40 and 100 nM, respectively. Recently, antiviral activity of 24 was demonstrated with inhibition of the full-length genotype 2a HCV genome. In addition, 24 was found to restore the responsiveness of the interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) in cells containing HCV RNA replicons.

  19. Brief Report: European Mitochondrial Haplogroups Impact on Liver Fibrosis Progression Among HCV and HIV/HCV-Coinfected Patients From Northwest Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabernilla, Andres; Rego-Pérez, Ignacio; Grandal, Marta; Pernas, Berta; Pértega, Sonia; Delgado, Manuel; Mariño, Ana; Álvarez, Hortensia; Mena, Alvaro; Rodríguez-Osorio, Iria; Pedreira, Jose Domingo; Blanco, Francisco Javier; Poveda, Eva

    2016-10-01

    The impact of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups on the outcome of liver fibrosis was evaluated in 362 hepatitis C virus infection (HCV)-monoinfected and HIV/HCV-coinfected patients (147 and 215, respectively) in clinical follow-up at 2 reference hospitals in the Northwest of Spain. The mitochondrial DNA haplogroup H was the most prevalent (50.3%) in this population. The cluster Others and V were recognized as risk factors for the development of liver fibrosis while haplogroup H and HCV genotype 4 confer a lower risk. This information might be useful for prioritization of HCV treatment, especially for F0-F1 patients for whom there is no urgency for treatment.

  20. Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection may elicit neutralizing antibodies targeting epitopes conserved in all viral genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicasio Mancini

    Full Text Available Anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV cross-neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies, directed against conserved epitopes on surface E2 glycoprotein, are central tools for understanding virus-host interplay, and for planning strategies for prevention and treatment of this infection. Recently, we developed a research aimed at identifying these antibody specificities. The characteristics of one of these antibodies (Fab e20 were addressed in this study. Firstly, using immunofluorescence and FACS analysis of cells expressing envelope HCV glycoproteins, Fab e20 was able to recognize all HCV genotypes. Secondly, competition assays with a panel of mouse and rat monoclonals, and alanine scanning mutagenesis analyses located the e20 epitope within the CD81 binding site, documenting that three highly conserved HCV/E2 residues (W529, G530 and D535 are critical for e20 binding. Finally, a strong neutralizing activity against HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp incorporating envelope glycoproteins of genotypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b and 4, and against the cell culture-grown (HCVcc JFH1 strain, was observed. The data highlight that neutralizing antibodies against HCV epitopes present in all HCV genotypes are elicited during natural infection. Their availability may open new avenues to the understanding of HCV persistence and to the development of strategies for the immune control of this infection.

  1. Anti-retroviral drugs do not facilitate hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmann, Lisa; Wilson, Matthew; Back, David; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Manns, Michael P; Steinmann, Eike; Pietschmann, Thomas; von Hahn, Thomas; Ciesek, Sandra

    2012-10-01

    An estimated 4 to 5 million people are co-infected with HIV/HCV worldwide. Recently observed outbreaks of acute HCV infection among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) have been linked to behavioral factors such as high risk sexual practices and recreational drug use. However, at the molecular level, many drugs such as glucocorticoids or cyclosporine A have been found to modulate viral replication. Thus, it is conceivable that drugs used in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may heighten susceptibility to HCV infection and contribute to the recent outbreaks. We therefore performed a comprehensive screen of antiretroviral drugs covering all available drug classes both individually and in typical combinations used during HAART to probe for direct effects on HCV cell entry, replication, new particle assembly and release. Importantly, no significant enhancement or inhibition of HCV cell entry, replication or new particle production was detected. While raltegravir and ritonavir boosted atazanavir reduce HCV replication, a tenfold reduction of HCVcc entry by the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc was observed. In conclusion, commonly used HAART agents do not specifically enhance HCV replication. Thus recent epidemic outbreaks of acute HCV in HIV-infected MSM are unlikely to be related to enhancing effects of HAART drugs.

  2. Impact of Immunogenetic IL28B Polymorphism on Natural Outcome of HCV Infection

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    Valli De Re

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of investigating whether interleukin 28B gene (IL28B rs1297860 polymorphism is associated with different hepatitis C (HCV infection statuses, we compared IL28B allelic distribution in an Italian case series of 1050 patients with chronic infection and different outcomes, 47 individuals who spontaneously cleared HCV, and 178 blood donors. Furthermore, we compared IL28B variants among 3882 Caucasian patients with chronic infection, 397 with spontaneous clearance, and 1366 blood donors reported in PubMed. Overall data confirmed a relation between IL28B C allele and HCV spontaneous clearance. Furthermore, we found that IL28B T allele had a weak relation with chronic HCV progression to hepatocellular carcinoma. Study findings are in accordance with the hepatocellular carcinogenic model where IL28B TT genotype, by promoting a persistent chronic hepatitis which leads to both hepatocyte injury and chronic inflammation, could facilitate HCC development. Conversely, patients with lymphoproliferative disorders had not any significantly different IL28B rs1297860 allelic distribution than those with chronic HCV, but, like all chronic HCV-related diseases, they showed a lower CC frequency than patients who spontaneously cleared HCV. Study results confirmed the model of persistent HCV infection as a risk factor for the pathogenesis of both liver and lymphoproliferative disorders.

  3. HVR1-mediated antibody evasion of highly infectious in vivo adapted HCV in humanised mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentoe, Jannick; Verhoye, Lieven; Moctezuma, Rodrigo Velazquez

    2016-01-01

    Objective HCV is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, but the role of neutralising antibodies (nAbs) in its natural history remains poorly defined. We analysed the in vivo role of hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) for HCV virion properties, including nAb susceptibility. Design Analysis...... as vaccine antigens to boost broadly reactive protective nAb responses....

  4. Prevalence of anti HCV infection in patients with beta-thalassemia in Isfahan-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Ataei

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings revealed that blood transfusion was the main risk factors for HCV infection among beta-thalassemic patients. Therefore, more blood donor screening programs and effective screening techniques are needed to prevent transmission of HCV infection among beta-thalassemic patients.

  5. 75 FR 39035 - Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Family Self-Sufficiency (FSS) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Family Self-Sufficiency (FSS) Program AGENCY: Office of... Title of Proposal: Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Family Self- Sufficiency (FSS) Program. OMB...

  6. Function of monocytes in chronic HCV infection: Role for IL-10 and interferon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Liu (Bi Sheng)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractHepatitis C virus (HCV) establishes persistent infection in about 80% of the infected individuals. The symptoms are initially mild in those persistently infected patients, and it may take decades before the serious consequences of chronic HCV infection become apparent. Up to 20% of infec

  7. Risky exposures and national estimate of HCV seroprevalence among school children in urban Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Wahab, Ekram W; Abdel Maksoud, Ahmed; Shatat, Hanan Z; Kotkat, Amira M

    2016-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world, particularly in Egypt. Limited data are available concerning the national seroprevalence and the possible modes of transmission of HCV in the pediatric age group. The aim of this study was to obtain a better estimate of the national hepatitis C seroprevalence and the possible risky exposures among healthy school children in Alexandria; the second biggest city in Egypt. HCV knowledge and counseling for school children were also investigated. A total of 500 school children, age between 6 and 15 years were evaluated for HCV seropositivity and interviewed for potential disease risk factors. The seropositivity for Anti-HCV Ab was 2.8 %. About 71.4 % of seropositive children were 10-15 years old. Urban residence, chronic disease, male circumcision and invasive procedures were detected as significant risk factors for acquiring HCV infection among the studied children. The level of awareness of hepatitis C among school children was very low (3.6 %) and was correlated with the age and educational level. HCV infection continues to occur in children and is frequently unrecognized. This mandates immediate intervention and robust control strategies in the settings of exposure combined with health education programs to limit further HCV spread.

  8. Antiviral Therapy for Chronic HCV Infection: Virological Response and Long-Term Outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.P. van der Meer (Adriaan)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Hepatitis C is a major global health problem which is responsible for over 350,000 deaths each year.1 In total, there are thought to be around 150 million hepatitis C virus (HCV) carriers, which comprise about 3% of the world population. The prevalence of HCV infection,

  9. 77 FR 30293 - Recommendations for the Identification of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Chronic Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Chronic Infection AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC...) announces draft recommendations for identification of persons with HCV chronic infection, available for public comment. The recommendations are intended to increase the proportion of persons with chronic...

  10. Absence of occult HCV infection in patients experiencing an immunodepression condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisaturo, Mariantonietta; Guastafierro, Salvatore; Filippini, Pietro; Tonziello, Gilda; Sica, Antonello; Di Martino, Filomena; Sagnelli, Caterina; Ferrara, Maria Giovanna; Martini, Salvatore; Cozzolino, Domenico; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Coppola, Nicola

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the presence of occult HCV infection in two settings of patients experiencing immunosuppression: patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and those with onco-haematological disease. Sixty consecutive HIV-positive/anti-HCV-negative/HCV RNA-negative patients (HIV group) and 32 consecutive anti-HCV/HCV RNA negative patients with an onco-haematological disease first undergoing chemotherapy (Onco-haematological group) were enrolled. HCV-RNA was sought by real time RT-PCR in plasma and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell (PBMC) samples obtained at enrolment and during follow-up, in the patients in the HIV group every three months and in those in the onco-haematological group at months 1 and 3 during chemotherapy and then every three months after treatment discontinuation. No plasma or PBMC sample collected at enrolment and during the follow-up in the HIV and onco-haematological groups was HCV RNA positive. The results of this study rule out the existence of occult HCV infection in patients with strong immunosuppression due to different conditions, HIV infection and onco-haematological diseases.

  11. [Clinical benefit of HCV core antigen assay in patients receiving interferon and ribavirin combination therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashimoto, Makiko; Takahashi, Masahiko; Jokyu, Ritsuko; Saito, Hidetsugu

    2006-02-01

    A highly sensitive second generation HCV core antigen assay has recently been developed. We compared viral disappearance and kinetics data between commercially available core antigen assays, Lumipulse Ortho HCV Ag, and a quantitative HCV RNA PCR assay, Cobas Amplicor HCV Monitor Test, Version 2 to estimate the predictive benefit of sustained viral response (SVR) and non-SVR in 59 patients treated with interferon and ribavirin combination therapy. We found a good correlation between HCV core Ag and HCV RNA level regardless of genotype. Although the sensitivity of the core antigen assay was lower than PCR, the dynamic range was broader than that of the PCR assay, so that we did not need to dilute the samples in 59 patients. We detected serial decline of core Ag levels in 24 hrs, 7 days and 14 days after interferon combination therapy. The decline of core antigen levels was significant in SVR patients compared to non-SVR as well as in genotype 2a, 2b patients compared to 1b. Core antigen-negative on day 1 could predict all 10 SVR patients (PPV = 100%), whereas RNA-negative could predict 22 SVR out of 25 on day 14 (PPV = 88.0%). None of the patients who had detectable serum core antigen on day 14 became SVR(NPV = 100%), although NPV was 91.2% on RNA negativity. An easy, simple, low cost new HCV core antigen detecting system seems to be useful for assessing and monitoring IFN treatment for HCV.

  12. Molecular signatures associated with HCV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria De Giorgi

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs are a heterogeneous group of tumors that differ in risk factors and genetic alterations. In Italy, particularly Southern Italy, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection represents the main cause of HCC. Using high-density oligoarrays, we identified consistent differences in gene-expression between HCC and normal liver tissue. Expression patterns in HCC were also readily distinguishable from those associated with liver metastases. To characterize molecular events relevant to hepatocarcinogenesis and identify biomarkers for early HCC detection, gene expression profiling of 71 liver biopsies from HCV-related primary HCC and corresponding HCV-positive non-HCC hepatic tissue, as well as gastrointestinal liver metastases paired with the apparently normal peri-tumoral liver tissue, were compared to 6 liver biopsies from healthy individuals. Characteristic gene signatures were identified when normal tissue was compared with HCV-related primary HCC, corresponding HCV-positive non-HCC as well as gastrointestinal liver metastases. Pathway analysis classified the cellular and biological functions of the genes differentially expressed as related to regulation of gene expression and post-translational modification in HCV-related primary HCC; cellular Growth and Proliferation, and Cell-To-Cell Signaling and Interaction in HCV-related non HCC samples; Cellular Growth and Proliferation and Cell Cycle in metastasis. Also characteristic gene signatures were identified of HCV-HCC progression for early HCC diagnosis.A diagnostic molecular signature complementing conventional pathologic assessment was identified.

  13. Heterologous Immunity between Adenoviruses and Hepatitis C Virus: A New Paradigm in HCV Immunity and Vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakti Singh

    Full Text Available Adenoviruses (Ad are commonly used as vectors for gene therapy and/or vaccine delivery. Recombinant Ad vectors are being tested as vaccines for many pathogens. We have made a surprising observation that peptides derived from various hepatitis C virus (HCV antigens contain extensive regions of homology with multiple adenovirus proteins, and conclusively demonstrate that adenovirus vector can induce robust, heterologous cellular and humoral immune responses against multiple HCV antigens. Intriguingly, the induction of this cross-reactive immunity leads to significant reduction of viral loads in a recombinant vaccinia-HCV virus infected mouse model, supporting their role in antiviral immunity against HCV. Healthy human subjects with Ad-specific pre-existing immunity demonstrated cross-reactive cellular and humoral immune responses against multiple HCV antigens. These findings reveal the potential of a previously uncharacterized property of natural human adenovirus infection to dictate, modulate and/or alter the course of HCV infection upon exposure. This intrinsic property of adenovirus vectors to cross-prime HCV immunity can also be exploited to develop a prophylactic and/or therapeutic vaccine against HCV.

  14. Heterologous Immunity between Adenoviruses and Hepatitis C Virus: A New Paradigm in HCV Immunity and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shakti; Vedi, Satish; Samrat, Subodh Kumar; Li, Wen; Kumar, Rakesh; Agrawal, Babita

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (Ad) are commonly used as vectors for gene therapy and/or vaccine delivery. Recombinant Ad vectors are being tested as vaccines for many pathogens. We have made a surprising observation that peptides derived from various hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigens contain extensive regions of homology with multiple adenovirus proteins, and conclusively demonstrate that adenovirus vector can induce robust, heterologous cellular and humoral immune responses against multiple HCV antigens. Intriguingly, the induction of this cross-reactive immunity leads to significant reduction of viral loads in a recombinant vaccinia-HCV virus infected mouse model, supporting their role in antiviral immunity against HCV. Healthy human subjects with Ad-specific pre-existing immunity demonstrated cross-reactive cellular and humoral immune responses against multiple HCV antigens. These findings reveal the potential of a previously uncharacterized property of natural human adenovirus infection to dictate, modulate and/or alter the course of HCV infection upon exposure. This intrinsic property of adenovirus vectors to cross-prime HCV immunity can also be exploited to develop a prophylactic and/or therapeutic vaccine against HCV. PMID:26751211

  15. HVR1-mediated antibody evasion of highly infectious in vivo adapted HCV in humanised mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentoe, Jannick; Verhoye, Lieven; Moctezuma, Rodrigo Velazquez;

    2016-01-01

    Objective HCV is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, but the role of neutralising antibodies (nAbs) in its natural history remains poorly defined. We analysed the in vivo role of hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) for HCV virion properties, including nAb susceptibility. Design Analysis o...

  16. Mitochondrial Dysfunctions and Altered Metals Homeostasis: New Weapons to Counteract HCV-Related Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Arciello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hepatitis C virus (HCV infection produces several pathological effects in host organism through a wide number of molecular/metabolic pathways. Today it is worldwide accepted that oxidative stress actively participates in HCV pathology, even if the antioxidant therapies adopted until now were scarcely effective. HCV causes oxidative stress by a variety of processes, such as activation of prooxidant enzymes, weakening of antioxidant defenses, organelle damage, and metals unbalance. A focal point, in HCV-related oxidative stress onset, is the mitochondrial failure. These organelles, known to be the “power plants” of cells, have a central role in energy production, metabolism, and metals homeostasis, mainly copper and iron. Furthermore, mitochondria are direct viral targets, because many HCV proteins associate with them. They are the main intracellular free radicals producers and targets. Mitochondrial dysfunctions play a key role in the metal imbalance. This event, today overlooked, is involved in oxidative stress exacerbation and may play a role in HCV life cycle. In this review, we summarize the role of mitochondria and metals in HCV-related oxidative stress, highlighting the need to consider their deregulation in the HCV-related liver damage and in the antiviral management of patients.

  17. HIV合并HCV感染者抗HCV疗效分析%HIV co-infectde with HCV efficacy of anti-HCV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙艳; 胡海燕; 霍松; 陈梅; 周玲; 李佳; 韩本发

    2014-01-01

    By HIV co-infected with HCV to regulate anti-HCV therapy, understand the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the basis of the efficacy of anti-HCV therapy. The national anti-HIV laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection confirmed HCV-RNA positive patients, while 30 were randomly divided into A, B groups, A group during the HAART treatment while giving recombinant human interferon α-2b and ribavirin injection ribavirin capsules for anti-HCV treatment, B group were given HAART treatment, analysis of relevant indicators before and after treatment. A , B group of stable HAART therapy, A group of anti-HCV in patients with early viral response (EVR) rate of 60% sustained virologic response (SVR) rate was 37.5%. In the HAART treatment on the basis of anti-HCV treatment does not affect the efficacy of HAART; HIV combined HCV infection for anti-HCV treatment efficacy can be; without the SVR patients, anti-HCV treatment can improve the patient's clinical symptoms.%目的:通过对HIV合并HCV感染者进行规范抗HCV治疗,了解在高效抗逆转录病毒治疗(HAART)基础上进行抗HCV治疗的疗效。方法经国家抗HIV确认实验室确诊为HIV感染同时HCV-RNA阳性患者30名,随机分为A、B两组,A组在进行HAART治疗的同时给予重组人干扰素α-2b注射液及利巴韦林胶囊进行抗HCV治疗,B组单纯给予HAART治疗,对治疗前后相关指标进行分析。结果 A、B组HAART治疗疗效稳定,A组患者抗HCV早期病毒应答(EVR)率为60%,持续病毒学应答(SVR)率为33%。结论在HAART治疗基础上进行抗HCV治疗并不影响HAART疗效;HIV合并HCV感染者进行抗HCV治疗的疗效可;在未获得SVR的患者中,抗HCV治疗能使患者的临床症状改善。

  18. Clinical performance of the new Roche COBAS (R) TaqMan HCV test and high pure system for extraction, detection and quantitation of HCV RNA in plasma and serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C. Gelderblom; S. Menting; M.G. Beld

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the Roche COBAS (R) TaqMan HCV Test For Use With The High Pure System (TaqMan HPS; Roche Diagnostics), for the extraction, detection and quantitation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in serum or plasma of HCV-infected individuals. The TaqMan HPS is a real-time PCR assay with a reported li

  19. Natural Polymorphisms Conferring Resistance to HCV Protease and Polymerase Inhibitors in Treatment-Naive HIV/HCV Co-Infected Patients in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kali Zhou

    Full Text Available The advent of direct-acting agents (DAAs has improved treatment of HCV in HIV co-infection, but may be limited by primary drug resistance. This study reports the prevalence of natural polymorphisms conferring resistance to NS3/4A protease inhibitors and NS5B polymerase inhibitors in treatment-naïve HIV/HCV co-infected individuals in China.Population based NS3/4A sequencing was completed for 778 treatment-naïve HIV/HCV co-infected patients from twelve provinces. NS3 sequences were amplified by nested PCR using in-house primers for genotypes 1-6. NS5B sequencing was completed for genotyping in 350 sequences. Resistance-associated variants (RAVs were identified in positions associated with HCV resistance.Overall, 72.8% (566/778 of all HCV sequences had at least one RAV associated with HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor resistance. Variants were found in 3.6% (7/193 of genotype 1, 100% (23/23 of genotype 2, 100% (237/237 of genotype 3 and 92% (299/325 of genotype 6 sequences. The Q80K variant was present in 98.4% of genotype 6a sequences. High-level RAVs were rare, occurring in only 0.8% of patients. 93% (64/69 patients with genotype 1b also carried the C316N variant associated with NS5B low-level resistance.The low frequency of high-level RAVs associated with primary HCV DAA resistance among all genotypes in HIV/HCV co-infected patients is encouraging. Further phenotypic studies and clinical research are needed.

  20. Patterns of Healthcare Utilization Among Veterans Infected With Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Coinfected With HIV/HCV: Unique Burdens of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrak, Shereen; Park, Lawrence P.; Woods, Christopher; Muir, Andrew; Hicks, Charles; Naggie, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of cirrhosis and the primary cause of liver transplantation in the United States, and coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases the risk of comorbidities. However, healthcare utilization (HCU) patterns among HIV/HCV-coinfected patients are poorly understood. This study compared the rates of HCU and reasons for hospital admission among HCV-infected, HIV-infected, and HIV/HCV-coinfected veterans. Methods. Hepatitis C virus- and HIV-infected and HIV/HCV-coinfected veterans in care with the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) from 1998 to 2009 (n = 335 371, n = 28 179, n = 13 471, respectively) were identified by HIV- and HCV-associated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes from the clinical case registry. We assessed rates of HCU using emergency department (ED) visits, outpatient visits, and hospitalization and primary diagnoses associated with hospitalization. Independent risk factors associated with hospitalization were also examined. Results. Rates of outpatient and ED visits increased over the 11-year study period for all groups, with inpatient admission rates remaining stable. The HCU rates were consistently higher for the coinfected than other cohorts. The primary reason for hospital admission for all groups was psychiatric disease/substance use, accounting for 44% of all admissions. Nadir CD4 500 cells/mm3. Conclusions. As the current population of HCV-infected, HIV-infected, and HIV/HCV-coinfected veterans age, they will continue to place a substantial and increasing demand on the US healthcare system, particularly in their utilization of ED and outpatient services. These data suggest the need for an ongoing investment in mental health and primary care within the VA healthcare system. PMID:27704025

  1. Natural Polymorphisms Conferring Resistance to HCV Protease and Polymerase Inhibitors in Treatment-Naïve HIV/HCV Co-Infected Patients in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Charles; Hu, Fengyu; Ning, Chuanyi; Lan, Yun; Tang, Xiaoping; Tucker, Joseph D.; Cai, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Background The advent of direct-acting agents (DAAs) has improved treatment of HCV in HIV co-infection, but may be limited by primary drug resistance. This study reports the prevalence of natural polymorphisms conferring resistance to NS3/4A protease inhibitors and NS5B polymerase inhibitors in treatment-naïve HIV/HCV co-infected individuals in China. Methods Population based NS3/4A sequencing was completed for 778 treatment-naïve HIV/HCV co-infected patients from twelve provinces. NS3 sequences were amplified by nested PCR using in-house primers for genotypes 1–6. NS5B sequencing was completed for genotyping in 350 sequences. Resistance-associated variants (RAVs) were identified in positions associated with HCV resistance. Results Overall, 72.8% (566/778) of all HCV sequences had at least one RAV associated with HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor resistance. Variants were found in 3.6% (7/193) of genotype 1, 100% (23/23) of genotype 2, 100% (237/237) of genotype 3 and 92% (299/325) of genotype 6 sequences. The Q80K variant was present in 98.4% of genotype 6a sequences. High-level RAVs were rare, occurring in only 0.8% of patients. 93% (64/69) patients with genotype 1b also carried the C316N variant associated with NS5B low-level resistance. Conclusions The low frequency of high-level RAVs associated with primary HCV DAA resistance among all genotypes in HIV/HCV co-infected patients is encouraging. Further phenotypic studies and clinical research are needed. PMID:27341031

  2. Seroprevalence of HCV and HIV Infections by Year of Birth in Spain: Impact of US CDC and USPSTF Recommendations for HCV and HIV Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijide, Héctor; Cañizares, Angelina; Castro-Iglesias, Ángeles; Delgado, Manuel; Pértega, Sonia; Pedreira, José; Bou, Germán; Poveda, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Background The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently add the advice of one-time testing of HCV infection in persons born during 1945–1965. Moreover, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) newly recommended one-time HIV testing for persons aged 15–65. Herein, we evaluate the potential impact of these recommendations in a reference medical area of Spain. Methods All assays results entries for HCV and HIV serological markers ordered at a reference lab from primary care and specialized physicians between 2008 and 2012 were recorded in a medical area which covers 501,526 citizens in Northern Spain. The year of birth were also documented. Results A total of 108,159 anti-HCV-Ab results were generated during the study period. The global rate of anti-HCV-Ab+ was 7.7% (95% CI: 7.6%–7.9%), being more prevalent in men than women (8.6% vs. 4.5%). By year of birth, the highest prevalence was found in persons born between 1955 and 1970. HCV genotype 1 was the most prevalent (59.7%) followed by genotype 3 (22.7%). Regard HIV infection, among 65,279 anti-HIV results generated the prevalence of anti-HIV+ was 1.1% (95% CI: 1.0%–1.2%), being more frequent in men (2% vs 0.5%). The years of birth with highest rates of HIV infection exactly match with those for HCV infection. Conclusions The highest rates of HCV and HIV infections are found between 1960 and 1965. Different historical and social circumstances such as the huge intravenous drug use epidemic in the eighties in Spain, might explain it. Therefore, each country needs to determine its own HCV and HIV seroprevalences by year of birth to establish the proper recommendations for the screening of both infections. PMID:25436642

  3. Bragg prism monochromator and analyser for super ultra-small angle neutron scattering studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Apoorva G Wagh; Sohrab Abbas; Markus Strobl; Wolfgang Treimer

    2008-11-01

    We have designed, fabricated and operated a novel Bragg prism monochromator–analyser combination. With a judicious choice of the Bragg reflection, its asymmetry and the apex angle of the silicon single crystal prism, the monochromator has produced a neutron beam with sub-arcsec collimation. A Bragg prism analyser with the opposite asymmetry has been tailored to accept a still sharper angular profile. With this optimized monochromator–analyser pair, we have attained the narrowest and sharpest neutron angular profile to date. At this facility, we have recorded the first SUSANS spectra spanning wave vector transfers ∼ 10−6 Å-1 to characterize samples containing agglomerates up to tens of micrometres in size.

  4. Os experimentos prismáticos de Goethe Goethe's prismatic experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Jordan

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio pretende estimular a realização de experimentos prismáticos com recursos muito simples e, com isso, facilitar o acesso aos fundamentais estudos de Goethe sobre cor, a "Farbenlehre". O encarte anexo contém fotos de um processo prismático complementar, produzido por Imagens-Modelo em Claro-Escuro neutro. Contém ainda fotos de imagens prismáticas produzidas por Imagens-Modelo em cores.The essay intends to stimulate the carrying out of prismatic experiments with very simple resources and, therewith, ease the access to Goethe's fundamental color studies, the "Farbenlehre". The included folder contains photographs of a complementary prismatic process produced by neutral bright-dark Model-Images. It also contains photographs of prismatic images produced by colored Model-Images.

  5. Molten-salt Synthesis and Properties of ZnS with Hexagonal Prism Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU, Jin-Song; JI, Guang-Bin; LI, Zi-Quan; CAO, Jie-Ming; ZHENG, Ming-Bo; KE, Xing-Fei

    2007-01-01

    ZnS with hexagonal prism morphology has been synthesized successfully by molten-salt method with ZnS nanoparticles as precursors, and the ZnS nanoparticles were prepared by one-step solid-state reaction of Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O with Na2S·9H2O at ambient temperature. Crystal structure and morphology of the product were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and HRTEM. Ultraviolet-visible optical absorption spectrum of the ZnS hexagonal prism shows a distinct red shift from that of bulk ZnS crystals and photoluminescence spectrum exhibits strong emissions at 380 and 500 nm, respectively. Further experiments were designed and the formation mechanism of the ZnS hexagonal prism has been also discussed in brief.

  6. Gene profiling, biomarkers and pathways characterizing HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buonaguro Luigi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC worldwide. The molecular mechanisms of HCV-induced hepatocarcinogenesis are not yet fully elucidated. Besides indirect effects as tissue inflammation and regeneration, a more direct oncogenic activity of HCV can be postulated leading to an altered expression of cellular genes by early HCV viral proteins. In the present study, a comparison of gene expression patterns has been performed by microarray analysis on liver biopsies from HCV-positive HCC patients and HCV-negative controls. Methods Gene expression profiling of liver tissues has been performed using a high-density microarray containing 36'000 oligos, representing 90% of the human genes. Samples were obtained from 14 patients affected by HCV-related HCC and 7 HCV-negative non-liver-cancer patients, enrolled at INT in Naples. Transcriptional profiles identified in liver biopsies from HCC nodules and paired non-adjacent non-HCC liver tissue of the same HCV-positive patients were compared to those from HCV-negative controls by the Cluster program. The pathway analysis was performed using the BRB-Array- Tools based on the "Ingenuity System Database". Significance threshold of t-test was set at 0.001. Results Significant differences were found between the expression patterns of several genes falling into different metabolic and inflammation/immunity pathways in HCV-related HCC tissues as well as the non-HCC counterpart compared to normal liver tissues. Only few genes were found differentially expressed between HCV-related HCC tissues and paired non-HCC counterpart. Conclusion In this study, informative data on the global gene expression pattern of HCV-related HCC and non-HCC counterpart, as well as on their difference with the one observed in normal liver tissues have been obtained. These results may lead to the identification of specific biomarkers relevant to develop tools for detection

  7. Increases in acute hepatitis C (HCV incidence across Europe: which regions and patient groups are affected?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rockstroh J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background In the last decade, several outbreaks of sexually acquired acute HCV have been described in men who have sex with men (MSM infected with HIV in Australia, Europe, and North America. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence of acute HCV within the large EuroSIDA cohort and to explore possible regional differences throughout Europe and in different HIV transmission risk groups. Methods Baseline was defined as 1st Jan of 2002 or entry into EuroSIDA, whichever comes later. All patients from EuroSIDA who were HCV antibody-negative at baseline and had at least 2 HCV antibody test results available were included into the study. HCV seroconversion was defined as change from negative to positive HCV-antibody test within the observation period from 2002 onwards. Follow-up was counted from baseline to HCV antibody positivity for seroconverters and to the last HCV antibody-negative test result for those that did not seroconvert for HCV. Poisson regression analyses were performed to identify predictive factors for HCV seroconversion. Results A total of 150 HCV seroconversions (95 [63.3%] in MSM occurred in 4295 patients during 18,928 person years of follow-up (PYFU, overall incidence of 0.79 acute infections per 100 PYFU (95% CI: 0.67–0.92 (see figure. The incidence of HCV seroconversions increased from 0.47 (CI: 0.19–0.74 in 2002 to 2.34 (CI: 1.24–3.44 in 2010. Similar patterns were observed across all European regions (p=0.89, test for interaction. In multivariate analysis, IDU was associated with a higher incidence rate ratio (IRR than MSM: 4.59 (2.40–8.80; p<0.0001, South and East Europe both had higher IRR compared to Western Europe, respectively (1.98 [1.12–3.49]; p=0.018 and 2.41 [1.41–4.12]; p=0.0014. Calendar year per 2 years was also associated with a higher IRR (1.29 [1.19–1.39]; p<0.0001. Conclusion The incidence of acute HCV within EuroSIDA increased over time. Although, the incidence of seroconversion was

  8. Occult hepatitis B in HIV-HCV coinfected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piroth, Lionel; Lafon, Marie-Edith; Binquet, Christine; Bertillon, Pascale; Gervais, Anne; Lootvoet, Enguerrand; Lang, Jean-Marie; De Jaureguiberry, Jean Pierre; Chene, Geneviève; Leport, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection in HIV infected patients is controversial, varying from less than 1% to 62% in different studies. Blood samples of 111 HIV-infected patients, HCV-positive, HBs antigen negative, followed in the APROCO-ANRS EP11 cohort, were used to detect HBV DNA by using 2 different validated assays (Cobas Amplicor HBV Monitor Test and INSERM U271 qualitative ultra-sensitive PCR), completed when positive by HBV real-time PCR. HBV DNA was found in 6 (5.4%, 95% CI 1.2%-9.6%) patients by at least 1 of these assays, but none tested positive in all 3 assays. All 6 patients had anti-HBc without anti-HBs antibodies; 5 were not on lamivudine. Their median CD4 and CD8 counts were significantly lower and their HIV viral load higher than in the other 105 patients. In conclusion, the prevalence of occult hepatitis B may vary significantly according to the molecular assay used, even though these assays are validated with high specificity and quite high sensitivity. Occult hepatitis B may be encountered in HIV-HCV coinfected patients without anti-HBV treatment, with anti-HBc but without anti-HBs antibodies, and relatively low immunity, suggesting a potential risk of further reactivation, as already sporadically reported.

  9. Gaining greater insight into HCV emergence in HIV-infected men who have sex with men: the HEPAIG Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Larsen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The HEPAIG study was conducted to better understand Hepatitis C virus (HCV transmission among human immuno-deficiency (HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM and assess incidence of HCV infection among this population in France. METHODS AND RESULTS: Acute HCV infection defined by anti-HCV or HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA positivity within one year of documented anti-HCV negativity was notified among HIV-infected MSM followed up in HIV/AIDS clinics from a nationwide sampling frame. HIV and HCV infection characteristics, HCV potential exposures and sexual behaviour were collected by the physicians and via self-administered questionnaires. Phylogenetic analysis of the HCV-NS5B region was conducted. HCV incidence was 48/10 000 [95% Confidence Interval (CI:43-54] and 36/10 000 [95% CI: 30-42] in 2006 and 2007, respectively. Among the 80 men enrolled (median age: 40 years, 55% were HIV-diagnosed before 2000, 56% had at least one sexually transmitted infection in the year before HCV diagnosis; 55% were HCV-infected with genotype 4 (15 men in one 4d-cluster, 32.5% with genotype 1 (three 1a-clusters; five men were HCV re-infected; in the six-month preceding HCV diagnosis, 92% reported having casual sexual partners sought online (75.5% and at sex venues (79%, unprotected anal sex (90% and fisting (65%; using recreational drugs (62% and bleeding during sex (55%. CONCLUSIONS: This study emphasizes the role of multiple unprotected sexual practices and recreational drugs use during sex in the HCV emergence in HIV-infected MSM. It becomes essential to adapt prevention strategies and inform HIV-infected MSM with recent acute HCV infection on risk of re-infection and on risk-reduction strategies.

  10. Two distinct functional patterns of hepatitis C Virus (HCV-specific T cell responses in seronegative, aviremic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Seok Choi

    Full Text Available In hepatitis C Virus (HCV high-risk groups, HCV-specific T cell responses have been detected in seronegative, aviremic persons who have no evidence of HCV infection. Herein, we investigated functional profiles of HCV-specific T-cell responses in seronegative, aviremic patients of a HCV high-risk group. Seventy seven hemodialysis patients with chronic renal disease were analyzed by IFN-γ ELISpot assays, and eight of 71 (11.3% seronegative, aviremic patients displayed HCV-specific T-cell responses. Their HCV-specific memory T cells were characterized by assessing cytokine polyfunctionality, known to provide antiviral protection. By intracellular staining of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2 and MIP-1β, we identified two distinct populations in the seronegative, aviremic patients: polyfunctional responders and TNF-α-predominant responders. In further analysis, occult HCV infection was excluded as a cause of the HCV-specific T cell response via secondary nested RT-PCR of HCV RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples. HCV-specific T cells targeted multiple epitopes including non-structural proteins in a single patient, implying that their T cells might have been primed by HCV proteins synthesized within the host. We conclude that HCV-specific memory T cells of seronegative, aviremic patients arise from authentic HCV replication in the host, but not from current occult HCV infection. By functional pattern of HCV-specific T cells, there are two distinct populations in these patients: polyfunctional responders and TNF-α-predominant responders.

  11. Clinical Evaluation of-HCV-IgG in the Diagnosis of Hepatitis C by Chemiluminescence Detection of HCV-RNA and Fluorescent Quantitative PCR%化学发光法检测抗-HCV-IgG与荧光定量PCR检测HCV-RNA在丙型肝炎诊断中的临床评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王江南; 张小莲; 杨光; 张起

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨化学发光法(CLIA)检测抗-HCV-IgG与荧光定量PCR检测HCV-RNA在丙型肝炎(HCV)诊断中的临床价值。方法对106例HCV待查者血清标本,同时采用CLIA法检测抗-HCV-IgG抗体和荧光定量PCR检测HCV-RNA载量。结果106份标本中HCV-RNA阳性率为27.4%(29/106),抗-HCV-IgG阳性率为25.5%(27/106),符合率为82.8%(24/29),经χ2检验,两种方法的阳性率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),抗-HCV-IgG阳性检出率随着HCV-RNA病毒载量的增高而升高。结论 CLIA法检测抗-HCV-IgG抗体与荧光定量PCR检测HCV-RNA在丙型肝炎诊断中无显著差异,但两者均存在一定的局限性,联合运用能有效降低单独使用的漏检风险,提高检出率,为临床诊断HCV感染提供可靠性依据。%Objective To investigate the value of hepatitis C diagnosis using Chemoluminescence immunoassay (CLIA)in the detection of anti-HCV-IgG and Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (FQ-PCR)in the detection of HCV-RNA.Methods In 106 suspicious clinical serum samples,the anti-HCV-IgG index was detected by CLIA and the HCV-RNA was detected by FQ-PCR.Results The positive rates of HCV-RNA and anti-HCV-IgG were 27.4%(29/106)and 25.5%(27/106)respectively.There were no significant statistical difference between the two methods (P>0.05)and the coincidental rate was 82.8%(24/29).The positive detection rates of anti-HCV-IgG increased with the elevation of HCV-RNA load.Conclusion CLIA was used to detect anti-HCV-IgG and FQ-PCR in the diagnosis of hepatitis C is not significantly different,but both has some limitations,combined with the can effectively reduce the risk of failure detection used alone,to improve the detection rate,to provide reliable basis for clinical diagnosis of HCV infection.

  12. Hepatitis C virus RNA kinetics: Drug efficacy and the rate of HCV-infected cells loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harel Dahari; Alan S Perelson

    2007-01-01

    @@ TO THE EDITOR We read the study by Medeiros-Filho et al[1] with much interest. The study shed light on early HCV RNA kinetics in conjunction with liver cirrhosis, different genotypes (gen-1 vs gen-3) of HCV and sustained viral response (SVR) rates. In particular, Medeiros-Filho et al[1]showed that the HCV RNA first phase decline, under interferon-α (IFN) and ribavirin therapy, which represents the effectiveness (ε) of IFN to block viral production[2,3],was significantly larger in gen-3 cirrhotic patients (mean ε = 0.99) than gen-1 cirrhotic patients (mean ε = 0.8). In addition, in these cirrhotic patients, they found that the HCV RNA second phase decay slope in gen-3 patients was significantly faster than in gen-1 patients, and suggested that the immune response against infected HCV cells in gen-1 patients may be less potent than in gen-3 patients.

  13. 抗-HCV与HCV-RNA检测结果不一致原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文汉成; 安社刚; 张红芳

    2004-01-01

    目的:探讨抗-HCV和HCV-RNA结果不一致的原因。方法:应用ELISA法和FQ-PCR法同步检测380例患者血清中抗-HCV和HCV-RNA。结果:在280例抗-HCV阳性中有106例HCV-RNA为阴性,有3例抗-HCV阴性患者HCV-RNA却为阳性。结论:同步检测抗-HCV和HCV-RNA可提高肝病患者HCV感染的检出率,为其诊断和治疗提供指导。

  14. Spherical lenses and prisms lead to postural instability in both dyslexic and non dyslexic adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoi Kapoula

    Full Text Available There is controversy as to whether dyslexic children present systematic postural deficiency. Clinicians use a combination of ophthalmic prisms and proprioceptive soles to improve postural performances. This study examines the effects of convergent prisms and spherical lenses on posture. Fourteen dyslexics (13-17 years-old and 11 non dyslexics (13-16 years-old participated in the study. Quiet stance posturography was performed with the TechnoConcept device while subjects fixated a target at eye-level from a distance of 1_m. Four conditions were run: normal viewing; viewing the target with spherical lenses of -1 diopter (ACCOM1 over each eye; viewing with -3 diopters over each eye (ACCOM3; viewing with a convergent prism of 8 diopters per eye. Relative to normal viewing, the -1 lenses increased the surface of body sway significantly whereas the -3 diopter lenses only resulted in a significant increase of antero-posterior body sway. Thus, adolescents would appear to cope more effectively with stronger conflicts rather than subtle ones. The prism condition resulted in a significant increase in both the surface and the antero-posterior body sway. Importantly, all of these effects were similar for the two groups. Wavelet analysis (time frequency domain revealed high spectral power of antero-posterior sway for the prism condition in both groups. In the ACCOM3 condition, the spectral power of antero-posterior sway decreased for non dyslexics but increased for dyslexics suggesting that dyslexics encounter more difficulty with accommodation. The cancelling time for medium range frequency (believed to be controlled by the cerebellum, was shorter in dyslexics, suggesting fewer instances of optimal control. We conclude that dyslexics achieve similar postural performances albeit less efficiently. Prisms and lenses destabilize posture for all teenagers. Thus, contrary to adults, adolescents do not seem to use efferent, proprioceptive ocular motor signals to

  15. HCV screening to enable early treatment of hepatitis C : A mathematical model to analyse costs and outcomes in two populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tramarin, A.; Gennaro, N.; Compostella, F.A.; Gallo, C.; Wendelaar Bonga, L.J.; Postma, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Early treatment of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections reflects a new clinical paradigm and a significant option to reduce the socioeconomic burden of HCV. Therefore, this approach seems suitable as a new strategy to face HCV and prevent end stage liver diseases and premature deaths due to prog

  16. Is adding HCV screening to the antenatal national screening program in Amsterdam, the Netherlands cost-effective?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbanus, A.; Van Keep, M.; Matser, A.; Rozenbaum, M.; Weegink, C.; Van Den Hoek, A.; Prins, M.; Postma, M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) can lead to severe liver disease. Recently new improved treatment options have been introduced. Pregnant women are already routinely screened for several infectious diseases, however not yet for HCV infection. Here we examine whether adding HCV screeni

  17. Is adding HCV screening to the antenatal national screening program in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, cost-effective?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbanus, Anouk T.; van Keep, Marjolijn; Matser, Amy A.; Rozenbaum, Mark H.; Weegink, Christine J.; van den Hoek, Anneke; Prins, Maria; Postma, Maarten J.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can lead to severe liver disease. Pregnant women are already routinely screened for several infectious diseases, but not yet for HCV infection. Here we examine whether adding HCV screening to routine screening is cost-effective. METHODS: To estimate th

  18. Reduced IFNλ4 activity is associated with improved HCV clearance and reduced expression of interferon-stimulated genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terczynska-Dyla, Ewa; Bibert, Stephanie; Duong, Francois H T;

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are the major cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Both spontaneous and treatment-induced clearance of HCV depend on genetic variation within the interferon-lambda locus, but until now no clear causal relationship has...... of poor HCV clearance....

  19. Mitochondrial DNAs decreased and correlated with clinical features in HCV patients from Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A-Mei; Ma, Ke; Song, Yuzhu; Feng, Yue; Duan, Haiping; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Binghui; Xu, Gang; Li, Zheng; Xia, Xueshan

    2016-07-01

    Hepatitis C was the most popular chronic infectious liver disease worldwide. It was identified that Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection could lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, though the mechanism was not fully understood. To investigate whether mtDNA copy number could be affected by HCV infection and be associated with clinical features of HCV patients, mtDNA copy numbers were analyzed in 242 patients with HCV infection and 226 matched control samples. The results suggested that mtDNA copy numbers significantly decreased in HCV patients (68.80 ± 3.33) than in control samples (81.54 ± 4.50) (p = 0.022). When males/females were separated from total patients to compare mtDNA copy numbers with gender matched controls, mtDNA copy numbers still significantly decreased in male HCV patients (p = 0.002). Further analysis indicated that level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was negatively correlated with mtDNA copy numbers in total HCV patients (r = -0.128, p = 0.047), and this correlation was more significant in male HCV patients (r = -0.266, p = 0.030). Intriguingly, aspartate amino-transferase (AST) showed positive correlation with mtDNA copy numbers (r = 0.260, p = 0.034) in male HCV patients. Our results indicated that mtDNA copy numbers depleted and correlated with clinical features in male HCV patients.

  20. NAFLD and NASH in HCV Infection: Prevalence and Significance in Hepatic and Extrahepatic Manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinolfi, Luigi Elio; Rinaldi, Luca; Guerrera, Barbara; Restivo, Luciano; Marrone, Aldo; Giordano, Mauro; Zampino, Rosa

    2016-05-25

    The aim of this paper is to review and up to date the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and their significance in both accelerating progression of HCV-related liver disease and development of HCV-associated extrahepatic diseases. The reported mean prevalence of HCV-related NAFLD was 55%, whereas NASH was reported in 4%-10% of cases. HCV genotype 3 directly induces fatty liver deposition, namely "viral steatosis" and it is associated with the highest prevalence and degree of severity, whereas, HCV non-3 genotype infection showed lower prevalence of steatosis, which is associated with metabolic factors and insulin resistance. The host's genetic background predisposes him or her to the development of steatosis. HCV's impairment of lipid and glucose metabolism causes fatty liver accumulation; this seems to be a viral strategy to optimize its life cycle. Irrespective of insulin resistance, HCV-associated NAFLD, in a degree-dependent manner, contributes towards accelerating the liver fibrosis progression and development of hepatocellular carcinoma by inducing liver inflammation and oxidative stress. Furthermore, NAFLD is associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. In addition, HCV-related "metabolic steatosis" impairs the response rate to interferon-based treatment, whereas it seems that "viral steatosis" may harm the response rate to new oral direct antiviral agents. In conclusion, a high prevalence of NAFLD occurs in HCV infections, which is, at least in part, induced by the virus, and that NAFLD significantly impacts progression of the liver disease, therapeutic response, and some extrahepatic diseases.

  1. A Novel Method for Heightening Sensitivity of Prism Coupler-Based SPR Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-Wei; WEN Ting-Dun; WU Zhi-Fang

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel method for heightening the sensitivity of a prism coupler-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. The method is based on the total reflection prism made of BK7 glass combined with the Kretschmann geometry of theattenuated total reflection (ATR) method. Compared to the conventional methods of prism coupler-based SPR the novel method provides higher semsitivity to the measurement system.Theoretical simulations show that the detetion sensitivity to the refractive index (RI) of the sensor based on the novel approach has a strong dependence on the thickness of the metal layer. The RI resolution of the sensor is predicted to be 8 × 107 refractive indox units (RIU) under the condition of optimum metal film thickness.This novel method can leave out a precision angle rotation device in the angle modulation and it is unnecessary to adjust the acceptance angle of the light detector. The principal advantage of this method over other methods of light intensity modulation based on prism coupler-based SPR is high sensitivity, expediency to measure and aplication of long distances.%@@ We present a novel method for heightening the sensitivity of a prism coupler-based surface plasmon resonance(SPR) sensor.The method is based on the total reflection prism made of BK7 glass combined with the Kretschmann geometry of theattenuated total reflection(ATR) method.Compared to the conventional methods of prism coupler-based SPR,the novel method provides higher sensitivity to the measurement system.Theoretical simulations show that the detection sensitivity to the refractive index(RI) of the sensor based on the novel approach has a strong dependence on the thickness of the metal layer.The RI resolution of the sensor is predicted to be 8 × 10-7 refractive index units(RIU) under the condition of optimum metal film thickness.This novel method can leave out a precision angle rotation device in the angle modulation and it is unnecessary to adjust the acceptance angle of

  2. Reconstruction of polygonal prisms from point-clouds of engineering facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akisato Chida

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The advent of high-performance terrestrial laser scanners has made it possible to capture dense point-clouds of engineering facilities. 3D shape acquisition from engineering facilities is useful for supporting maintenance and repair tasks. In this paper, we discuss methods to reconstruct box shapes and polygonal prisms from large-scale point-clouds. Since many faces may be partly occluded by other objects in engineering plants, we estimate possible box shapes and polygonal prisms and verify their compatibility with measured point-clouds. We evaluate our method using actual point-clouds of engineering plants.

  3. Design of an Airborne Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM) for the Coastal Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouroulis, P.; vanGorp, B.; Green, R. O.; Cohen, D.; Wilson, D.; Randall, D.; Rodriguez, J.; Polanco, O.; Dierssen, H.; Balasubramanian, K.; Vargas, R.; Hein, R.; Sobel, H.; Eastwood, M.

    2010-01-01

    PRISM is a pushbroom imaging spectrometer currently under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, intended to address the needs of airborne coastal ocean science research. We describe here the instrument design and the technologies that enable it to achieve its distinguishing characteristics. PRISM covers the 350-1050 nm range with a 3.1 nm sampling and a 33(deg) field of view. The design provides for high signal to noise ratio, high uniformity of response, and low polarization sensitivity. The complete instrument also incorporates two additional wavelength bands at 1240 and 1610 nm in a spot radiometer configuration to aid with atmospheric correction.

  4. Evaluation of the Performance of Routine Information System Management (PRISM framework: evidence from Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqil Anwer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sound policy, resource allocation and day-to-day management decisions in the health sector require timely information from routine health information systems (RHIS. In most low- and middle-income countries, the RHIS is viewed as being inadequate in providing quality data and continuous information that can be used to help improve health system performance. In addition, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of RHIS strengthening interventions in improving data quality and use. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of the newly developed Performance of Routine Information System Management (PRISM framework, which consists of a conceptual framework and associated data collection and analysis tools to assess, design, strengthen and evaluate RHIS. The specific objectives of the study are: a to assess the reliability and validity of the PRISM instruments and b to assess the validity of the PRISM conceptual framework. Methods Facility- and worker-level data were collected from 110 health care facilities in twelve districts in Uganda in 2004 and 2007 using records reviews, structured interviews and self-administered questionnaires. The analysis procedures include Cronbach's alpha to assess internal consistency of selected instruments, test-retest analysis to assess the reliability and sensitivity of the instruments, and bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques to assess validity of the PRISM instruments and conceptual framework. Results Cronbach's alpha analysis suggests high reliability (0.7 or greater for the indices measuring a promotion of a culture of information, RHIS tasks self-efficacy and motivation. The study results also suggest that a promotion of a culture of information influences RHIS tasks self-efficacy, RHIS tasks competence and motivation, and that self-efficacy and the presence of RHIS staff have a direct influence on the use of RHIS information, a key aspect of RHIS performance

  5. [Fresnel prisms--their value in the rehabilitation of homonymous hemianopsias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, T R; Stunkard, J; Twer, A

    1988-05-01

    The use of press-on Fresnel prisms is described as a simple inexpensive technique to rehabilitate patients with homonymous hemianopsia. The optical principle of prismatic displacement from the blind to the seeing fields is detailed herein. Forty-one patients were evaluated over a 10 year period. Twenty per cent benefited from the prism. Many of those who found limited or little value from their use expressed appreciation that something had been tried in order to improve visual function. Those patients with good acuity and an otherwise normal neurological status are the best candidates. Proper motivation and instruction are essential.

  6. Quasi-Wollaston-Prism for Terahertz Frequencies Fabricated by 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Serrano, A. I.; Castro-Camus, E.

    2017-01-01

    In this letter, we present the design, fabrication, and characterization of a quasi-Wollaston prism for terahertz frequencies based on form birefringence. The prism uses the birefringence induced in a sub-wavelength layered plastic-air structure that produces refraction in different directions for different polarizations. The component was simulated using the finite-difference-time-domain method, fabricated by 3D printing and subsequently tested by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy showing a polarization separation around of 23° for frequencies below 400 GHz, exhibiting cross polarization power extinction ratios better than 1.6 × 10-3 at 200 GHz.

  7. Anti-HCV prevalence in firstyear students, that will practise professions of high risk of infection with the HCV

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    Penelope Siourda

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We have studied the prevalence of Hepatitis C on the first‐year students of the Paramedical Schools (Medical Lab Department, Nursing Department, Baby Nursing Department and Obstetrics Department of the Health and Foresight Professions School of Technological Educational School of Thessaloniki. Materials and Methods: The sample consists of 502 students of the Paramedical Schools. The students at first filled a questionnaire form (25 questions about the knowledge and the information in point of the infectious diseases in the Immunological – Hormonological Health Center. Then they gave blood sample and at the end, they were given a "Basic Guidebook for Preventing and Handling Hospital Infections". The samples were checked with ELISA method for anti‐HCV antibodies. Results: All the tests were negative for anti-HCV antibodies. Conclusions: It was ascertained that the prevalence of Hepatitis C on our target group is similar to the literature's known data (low in Greece. However since there is not a vaccine yet, anyone must be careful with Hepatitis C, specially the students of paramedical schools. Radical solution will be given inr the development of an appropriate vaccine.

  8. Comparison of Abbott AxSYM, Behring Opus Plus, DPC Immulite and Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics Vitros ECi for measurement of cardiac troponin I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, J T; Wong, I L; Lee, J Y; Chen, R C

    2001-03-01

    Myocardial infarction is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chest pain. The presence of human cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in serum is considered to be a highly specific biochemical marker of acute myocardial infarction. In this study we compare the performances of the Abbott AxSYM, Behring Opus Plus, DPC Immulite and Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics Vitros ECi for the measurement of cTnI. The first two methods use a fluorogenic enzyme-linked immunoassay. whereas the last two use chemiluminescent immunometric assays. All procedures are completely automated. Total percentage coefficients of variation using pooled sera ranged from 5.9 to 6.5% for the AxSYM, 14.4 to 25.6% for the Opus, 6.9 to 9.8% for the Immulite and 4.5 to 5.2% for the Vitros ECi method. The closest correlation between methods, obtained from 120 fresh serum samples, was observed between the Vitros ECi and the Immulite methods, with r=0.99, and the regression line was Immulite cTnI 1.505 (95% confidence interval 1.474-1.536) x Vitros cTnI--0.154 (-0.702 to 0.394). Receiver operating characteristic curves were nearly identical for all assays, and the areas under the curves were 0.972, 0.927, 0.967 and 0.969 for the AxSYM, Opus, Immulite and Vitros ECi methods, respectively. There was a significant difference between the AxSYM and Opus methods (P= 0.036).

  9. Natural killer KIR3DS1 is closely associated with HCV viral clearance and sustained virological response in HIV/HCV patients.

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    Antonio Rivero-Juarez

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the influence of the presence of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR 3DS1 on HCV treatment response in HIV/HCV genotype 1 co-infected patients. METHODS: HIV/HCV co-infected patients were included. KIR3DS1, their specific HLA-B ligands and IL28B gene were genotyped. Reductions of plasma HCV RNA levels between baseline and week 1, week 2 and week 4 were analyzed for IL28B genotype and KIR3DS1 (HLA Bw4 or Bw6. Rapid and sustained virological response (RVR and SVR rates were also analyzed. RESULTS: Sixty HIV/HCV genotype 1 co-infected patients were included. Patients with KIR3DS1 and Bw4 had higher rates of HCV viral decline than those who were not carriers of KIR3DS1 (week 1: p = 0.01; week 2: p = 0.038; week 4: p = 0.03. Patients carrying KIR3DS1/Bw4 had higher rates of RVR and SVR than those who did not carry KIR3DS1 (RVR: 46.15% versus 17.02%, p = 0.012; SVR: 63.6% versus 13 26.5%, p = 0.031. With respect to patients carrying the IL28B-CC genotype, those with KIR3DS1/Bw4 had greater rates of HCV viral clearance (week 1: p<0.001; week 2: p = 0.01; week 4: p = 0.02, RVR (p = 0.015 and SVR (p = 0.029 than those not carrying KIR3DS1. CONCLUSION: Our results show that the KIR3DS1 genotype has a positive effect on HCV viral clearance during the first weeks of Peg-IFN/RBV treatment in HCV/HCV co-infected patients bearing genotype 1, and higher RVR and SVR rates.

  10. Molecular mechanism of hepatitis C virus replicon variants with reduced susceptibility to a benzofuran inhibitor, HCV-796.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Anita Y M; Cheng, Huiming; Johann, Stephen; Mullen, Stanley; Chunduru, Srinivas K; Young, Dorothy C; Bard, Joel; Chopra, Rajiv; Krishnamurthy, Girija; Mansour, Tarek; O'Connell, John

    2008-09-01

    HCV-796 selectively inhibits hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. In hepatoma cells containing a genotype 1b HCV replicon, HCV-796 reduced HCV RNA levels by 3 to 4 log(10) HCV copies/mug total RNA (the concentration of the compound that inhibited 50% of the HCV RNA level was 9 nM). Cells bearing replicon variants with reduced susceptibility to HCV-796 were generated in the presence of HCV-796, followed by G418 selection. Sequence analysis of the NS5B gene derived from the replicon variants revealed several amino acid changes within 5 A of the drug-binding pocket. Specifically, mutations were observed at Leu314, Cys316, Ile363, Ser365, and Met414 of NS5B, which directly interact with HCV-796. The impacts of the amino acid substitutions on viral fitness and drug susceptibility were examined in recombinant replicons and NS5B enzymes with the single-amino-acid mutations. The replicon variants were 10- to 1,000-fold less efficient in forming colonies in cells than the wild-type replicon; the S365L variant failed to establish a stable cell line. Other variants (L314F, I363V, and M414V) had four- to ninefold-lower steady-state HCV RNA levels. Reduced binding affinity with HCV-796 was demonstrated in an enzyme harboring the C316Y mutation. The effects of these resistance mutations were structurally rationalized using X-ray crystallography data. While different levels of resistance to HCV-796 were observed in the replicon and enzyme variants, these variants retained their susceptibilities to pegylated interferon, ribavirin, and other HCV-specific inhibitors. The combined virological, biochemical, biophysical, and structural approaches revealed the mechanism of resistance in the variants selected by the potent polymerase inhibitor HCV-796.

  11. PRISM, a Novel Visual Metaphor Measuring Personally Salient Appraisals, Attitudes and Decision-Making: Qualitative Evidence Synthesis.

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    Tom Sensky

    Full Text Available PRISM (the Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure is a novel, simple visual instrument. Its utility was initially discovered serendipitously, but has been validated as a quantitative measure of suffering. Recently, new applications for different purposes, even in non-health settings, have encouraged further exploration of how PRISM works, and how it might be applied. This review will summarise the results to date from applications of PRISM and propose a generic conceptualisation of how PRISM works which is consistent with all these applications.A systematic review, in the form of a qualitative evidence synthesis, was carried out of all available published data on PRISM.Fifty-two publications were identified, with a total of 8254 participants. Facilitated by simple instructions, PRISM has been used with patient groups in a variety of settings and cultures. As a measure of suffering, PRISM has, with few exceptions, behaved as expected according to Eric Cassell's seminal conceptualisation of suffering. PRISM has also been used to assess beliefs about or attitudes to stressful working conditions, interpersonal relations, alcohol consumption, and suicide, amongst others.This review supports PRISM behaving as a visual metaphor of the relationship of objects (eg 'my illness' to a subject (eg 'myself' in a defined context (eg 'my life at the moment'. As a visual metaphor, it is quick to complete and yields personally salient information. PRISM is likely to have wide applications in assessing beliefs, attitudes, and decision-making, because of its properties, and because it yields both quantitative and qualitative data. In medicine, it can serve as a generic patient-reported outcome measure. It can serve as a tool for representational guidance, can be applied to developing strategies visually, and is likely to have applications in coaching, psychological assessment and therapeutic interventions.

  12. Subcellular forms and biochemical events triggered in human cells by HCV polyprotein expression from a viral vector

    OpenAIRE

    González Jose; Guerra Susana; Domingo-Gil Elena; Patiño Cristina; Gómez Carmen; Vandermeeren Andrée M; Esteban Mariano

    2008-01-01

    Abstract To identify the subcellular forms and biochemical events induced in human cells after HCV polyprotein expression, we have used a robust cell culture system based on vaccinia virus (VACV) that efficiently expresses in infected cells the structural and nonstructural proteins of HCV from genotype 1b (VT7-HCV7.9). As determined by confocal microscopy, HCV proteins expressed from VT7-HCV7.9 localize largely in a globular-like distribution pattern in the cytoplasm, with some proteins co-lo...

  13. HIV and HCV coinfection: prevalence, associated factors and genotype characterization in the Midwest Region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Solange Zacalusni; Teles, Sheila Araújo; Lorenzo, Paulo Cesar; Puga, Marco Antonio Moreira; Tanaka, Tayana Serpa Ortiz; Thomaz, Danilo Yamamoto; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel; Druzian, Angelita Fernandes; Lindenberg, Andréa Siqueira Campos; Torres, Marina Sawada; Pereira, Sérgio A; Villar, Livia Melo; Lampe, Elisabete; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study on prevalence, associated factors and genotype distribution of HCV infection was conducted among 848 HIV-infected patients recruited at reference centers in the Midwest Region of Brazil. The prevalence rate of HIV-HCV coinfection was 6.9% (95% CI: 5.2 to 8.6). In multivariable analysis, increasing age, use of illicit drugs (injection and non-injection), a history of blood transfusion before 1994, and the absence of a steady partnership were significant independent associated factors for HIV-HCV coinfection. The phylogenetic analysis based on the NS5B region revealed the presence of two major circulating genotypes of HCV: genotypes 1 (58.3%) and 3 (41.7%). The prevalence of HIV-HCV coinfection was lower than those reported in studies conducted with HIV-infected patients in different regions of Brazil, due to the fact that illicit drug use is not a frequent mode of HIV transmission in this region of Brazil. Serologic screening of HIV-patients for HCV before initiating antiretroviral treatment, a comprehensive identification of associated factors, and the implementation of effective harm reduction programs are highly recommended to provide useful information for treatment and to prevent HCV coinfection in these patients.

  14. Self-Reported HIV and HCV Screening Rates and Serostatus Among Substance Abuse Treatment Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Diana; Feaster, Daniel J; Gooden, Lauren; Douaihy, Antoine; Mandler, Raul; Erickson, Sarah J; Kyle, Tiffany; Haynes, Louise; Schwartz, Robert; Das, Moupali; Metsch, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Substance users are at increased risk for HIV and HCV infection. Still, many substance use treatment programs (SUTP) fail to offer HIV/HCV testing. The present secondary analysis of screening data from a multi-site randomized trial of rapid HIV testing examines self-reported HIV/HCV testing patterns and serostatus of 2473 SUTP patients in 12 community-based sites that had not previously offered on-site testing. Results indicate that most respondents screened for the randomized trial tested more than a year prior to intake for HIV (52 %) and HCV (38 %). Prevalence rates were 3.6 and 30 % for HIV and HCV, respectively. The majority of participants that were HIV (52.2 %) and HCV-positive (40.5 %) reported having been diagnosed within the last 1-5 years. Multivariable logistic regression showed that members of high-risk groups were more likely to have tested. Bundled HIV/HCV testing and linkage to care issues are recommended for expanding testing in community-based SUTP settings.

  15. Constrained pattern of viral evolution in acute and early HCV infection limits viral plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Pfafferott

    Full Text Available Cellular immune responses during acute Hepatitis C virus (HCV and HIV infection are a known correlate of infection outcome. Viral adaptation to these responses via mutation(s within CD8+ T-cell epitopes allows these viruses to subvert host immune control. This study examined HCV evolution in 21 HCV genotype 1-infected subjects to characterise the level of viral adaptation during acute and early HCV infection. Of the total mutations observed 25% were within described CD8+ T-cell epitopes or at viral adaptation sites. Most mutations were maintained into the chronic phase of HCV infection (75%. The lack of reversion of adaptations and high proportion of silent substitutions suggests that HCV has structural and functional limitations that constrain evolution. These results were compared to the pattern of viral evolution observed in 98 subjects during a similar phase in HIV infection from a previous study. In contrast to HCV, evolution during acute HIV infection is marked by high levels of amino acid change relative to silent substitutions, including a higher proportion of adaptations, likely reflecting strong and continued CD8+ T-cell pressure combined with greater plasticity of the virus. Understanding viral escape dynamics for these two viruses is important for effective T cell vaccine design.

  16. Inhibition of HCV 3a core gene through Silymarin and its fractions

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    Nawaz Zafar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatitis C is a major health problem affecting 270 million individuals in world including Pakistan. Current treatment regimen, interferon alpha and ribavirin only cure half of patients due to side effects and high cost. Results In the present study Silybum marianum (Milk thistle seeds were collected, extracted and analyzed against HCV 3a core gene by transiently transfecting the liver cells with HCV core plasmid. Our results demonstrated that Silymarin (SM dose dependently inhibit the expression or function of HCV core gene at a non toxic concentration while the GAPDH remained constant. To identify the active ingredient, SM was fractioned by thin layer chromatography (TLC, column chromatography and HPLC. Purified fractions were tested for HCV core gene and western blotting results showed that two factions of SM (S1 and S2 inhibit HCV 3a core expression or function in liver cells Conclusion Our results suggest SM and its fractions (S1 and S2 inhibit HCV core gene of 3a genotype and combination of SM and its fractions with interferon will be a better option to treat HCV infection

  17. HIV AND HCV COINFECTION: PREVALENCE, ASSOCIATED FACTORS AND GENOTYPE CHARACTERIZATION IN THE MIDWEST REGION OF BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Zacalusni Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study on prevalence, associated factors and genotype distribution of HCV infection was conducted among 848 HIV-infected patients recruited at reference centers in the Midwest Region of Brazil. The prevalence rate of HIV-HCV coinfection was 6.9% (95% CI: 5.2 to 8.6. In multivariable analysis, increasing age, use of illicit drugs (injection and non-injection, a history of blood transfusion before 1994, and the absence of a steady partnership were significant independent associated factors for HIV-HCV coinfection. The phylogenetic analysis based on the NS5B region revealed the presence of two major circulating genotypes of HCV: genotypes 1 (58.3% and 3 (41.7%. The prevalence of HIV-HCV coinfection was lower than those reported in studies conducted with HIV-infected patients in different regions of Brazil, due to the fact that illicit drug use is not a frequent mode of HIV transmission in this region of Brazil. Serologic screening of HIV-patients for HCV before initiating antiretroviral treatment, a comprehensive identification of associated factors, and the implementation of effective harm reduction programs are highly recommended to provide useful information for treatment and to prevent HCV coinfection in these patients.

  18. Anti-HCV immunoassays based on a multiepitope antigen and fluorescent lanthanide chelate reporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Teppo; Juntunen, Etvi; Khanna, Navin; Pettersson, Kim; Talha, Sheikh M

    2016-02-01

    There is a need for simple to produce immunoassays for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody capable of detecting all genotypes worldwide. Current commonly used third generation immunoassays use three to six separate recombinant proteins or synthetic peptides. We have developed and expressed in Escherichia coli a single recombinant antigen incorporating epitopes from different HCV proteins. This multiepitope protein (MEP) was used to develop two types of HCV antibody immunoassays: a traditional antibody immunoassay using a labeled secondary antibody (indirect assay) and a double-antigen assay with the same MEP used as capture binder and labeled binder. The secondary antibody assay was evaluated with 171 serum/plasma samples and double-antigen assay with 148 samples. These samples included an in-house patient sample panel, two panels of samples with different HCV genotypes and a seroconversion panel. The secondary antibody immunoassay showed 95.6% sensitivity and 100% specificity while the double-antigen assay showed 91.4% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Both assays detected samples from all six HCV genotypes. The results showed that combining a low-cost recombinant MEP binder antigen with a high sensitivity fluorescent lanthanide reporter can provide a sensitive and specific immunoassay for HCV serology. The results also showed that the sensitivity of HCV double-antigen assays may suffer from the low avidity immune response of acute infections.

  19. Discovery of cellular proteins required for the early steps of HCV infection using integrative genomics.

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    Ji Hoon Park

    Full Text Available Successful viral infection requires intimate communication between virus and host cell, a process that absolutely requires various host proteins. However, current efforts to discover novel host proteins as therapeutic targets for viral infection are difficult. Here, we developed an integrative-genomics approach to predict human genes involved in the early steps of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. By integrating HCV and human protein associations, co-expression data, and tight junction-tetraspanin web specific networks, we identified host proteins required for the early steps in HCV infection. Moreover, we validated the roles of newly identified proteins in HCV infection by knocking down their expression using small interfering RNAs. Specifically, a novel host factor CD63 was shown to directly interact with HCV E2 protein. We further demonstrated that an antibody against CD63 blocked HCV infection, indicating that CD63 may serve as a new therapeutic target for HCV-related diseases. The candidate gene list provides a source for identification of new therapeutic targets.

  20. Most common genotypes and risk factors for HCV in Gaza strip: a cross sectional study

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    Abu-Jadallah Salah Y

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present work aims at determining HCV genotypes in patients with chronic HCV infection, in Gaza strip, Palestine. The most common risk factors for HCV transmission were also evaluated in conjunction with the genotyping data. Results The study shows that there are only two major genotypes of HCV in Gaza Strip: Genotype 1 (subtypes 1a and 1b collectively contribute to 28.3% of the cases, and genotype 4 (subtypes 4a and 4c/d collectively contribute to 64.1% of the cases. Mixed infection with the two genotypes was also present among 7.6% of the cases. In this study a statistically significant relationship was established between the distribution of these genotypes and the patients' living place, traveling history, history of blood transfusion and history of surgical operations. Conclusion The present study is the first to link HCV genotyping in Gaza strip with its possible roots of transmission. Traveling to endemic countries, especially Egypt; blood transfusion and surgical operations are major roots of HCV infection in Gaza strip. The results indicate that iatrogenic and nosocomial procedures may be responsible for the majority of HCV infections in Gaza strip.

  1. HIV and HCV: from Co-infection to Epidemiology, Transmission,Pathogenesis, and Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the infectious agent causing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a deadliest scourge of human society. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major causative agent of chronic liver disease and infects an estimated 170 million people worldwide,resulting in a serious public health burden. Due to shared routes of transmission, co-infection with HIV and HCV has become common among individuals who had high risks of blood exposures. Among hemophiliacs the co-infection rate accounts for 85%; while among injection drug users (IDU) the rate can be as high as 90%. HIV can accelerate the progression of HCV-related liver disease, particularly when immunodeficiency has developed. Although the effect of HCV on HIV infection is controversial,most studies showed an increase in mortality due to liver disease. HCV may act as a direct cofactor to fasten the progression of AIDS and decrease the tolerance of highly active antiretroviral therapy(HARRT). Conversely, HAART-related hepatotoxicity may enhance the progression of liver fibrosis.Due to above complications, co-infection with HCV and HIV-1 has imposed a critical challenge in the management of these patients. In this review, we focus on the epidemiology and transmission of HIV and HCV, the impact of the two viruses on each other, and their treatment.

  2. Iron increases HMOX1 and decreases hepatitis C viral expression in HCV-expressing cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Hong Hou; Lisa Rossi; Ying Shan; Jian-Yu Zheng; Richard W Lambrecht; Herbert L Bonkovsky

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate effects of iron on oxidative stress,heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) and hepatitis C viral (HCV) expression in human hepatoma cells stably expressing HCV proteins.METHODS: Effects of iron on oxidative stress, HMOX1,and HCV expression were assessed in CON1 cells.Measurements included mRNA by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and protein levels by Western blots.RESULTS: Iron, in the form of ferric nitrilotriacetate,increased oxidative stress and up-regulated HMOX1 gene expression. Iron did not affect mRNA or protein levels of Bach1, a repressor of HMOX1. Silencing the up-regulation of HMOX1 nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) by Nrf2-siRNA decreased FeNTA-mediated up-regulation of HMOX1 mRNA levels. These iron effects were completely blocked by deferoxamine (DFO). Iron also significantly decreased levels of HCV core mRNA and protein by 80%-90%,nonstructural 5A mRNA by 90% and protein by about 50% in the Con1 full length HCV replicon cells,whereas DFO increased them.CONCLUSION: Excess iron up-regulates HMOX1 and down-regulates HCV gene expression in hepatoma cells. This probably mitigates liver injury caused by combined iron overload and HCV infection.

  3. 5-Benzothiazole substituted pyrimidine derivatives as HCV replication (replicase) inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasappan, Ashok; Bennett, Frank; Girijavallabhan, Vinay; Huang, Yuhua; Huelgas, Regina; Alvarez, Carmen; Chen, Lei; Gavalas, Stephen; Kim, Seong-Heon; Kosinski, Aneta; Pinto, Patrick; Rizvi, Razia; Rossman, Randall; Shankar, Bandarpalle; Tong, Ling; Velazquez, Francisco; Venkatraman, Srikanth; Verma, Vishal A; Kozlowski, Joseph; Shih, Neng-Yang; Piwinski, John J; MacCoss, Malcolm; Kwong, Cecil D; Clark, Jeremy L; Fowler, Anita T; Geng, Feng; Kezar, Hollis S; Roychowdhury, Abhijit; Reynolds, Robert C; Maddry, Joseph A; Ananthan, Subramaniam; Secrist, John A; Li, Cheng; Chase, Robert; Curry, Stephanie; Huang, Hsueh-Cheng; Tong, Xiao; Njoroge, F George

    2012-05-01

    Based on a previously identified HCV replication (replicase) inhibitor 1, SAR efforts were conducted around the pyrimidine core to improve the potency and pharmacokinetic profile of the inhibitors. A benzothiazole moiety was found to be the optimal substituent at the pyrimidine 5-position. Due to potential reactivity concern, the 4-chloro residue was replaced by a methyl group with some loss in potency and enhanced rat in vivo profile. Extensive investigations at the C-2 position resulted in identification of compound 16 that demonstrated very good replicon potency, selectivity and rodent plasma/target organ concentration. Inhibitor 16 also demonstrated good plasma levels and oral bioavailability in dogs, while monkey exposure was rather low. Chemistry optimization towards a practical route to install the benzothiazole moiety resulted in an efficient direct C-H arylation protocol.

  4. Morphometric analysis of hepatocellular nodular lesions in HCV cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertemati, Maurizio; Moscheni, Claudia; Petrella, Duccio; Lamperti, Luca; Cossa, Mara; Gambacorta, Marcello; Goffredi, Maria; Vizzotto, Laura

    2012-04-15

    We generated a computerized morphometric model to evaluate and quantify the morphological features in large regenerative nodules (LRN), high-grade dysplastic nodules (HGDN) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sixteen LRN, 10 HGDN and 16 HCC in HCV-cirrhotic livers were stained with H&E, smooth muscle actin, CD34, CD31 and reticulin to evaluate volume and surface fractions. On H&E stains, the most discriminatory features between LRN, HGDN and HCC were volume fraction and the number of hepatocyte nuclei in unit volume and hepatocyte nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio. On immunohistochemistry, volume fractions of capillarised sinusoids, capillary units and isolated arteries were significantly different among all groups and highest in HCC; surface fraction of reticulin was markedly decreased in HCC. Our morphometric model is an objective method for quantification of the morphological changes of the nodular lesions, and it could be applied to studies involving histological evaluation of the spectrum of nodular lesions arising in the cirrhotic liver.

  5. Active control of flow around a square prism by slot jet injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacıalioğulları M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the experimental study is to determine both the most effective injection surface and rate in order to ensure minimum drag and fluctuating forces on a square prism subjected to crossflow. All predetermined jet injection surfaces i.e. front, side, and rear, tested separately for injection ratios of IR = 0, 1, 1.5, 2 at Reynolds number of Re = 16,000. Surface pressures were measured by differential pressure transducer whereas instantaneous velocity measurements were performed by using multichannel Constant Temperature Anemometer (CTA. It was concluded that jet injection, especially from the rear surface, brought noticeable improvements to the flow characteristics of a square prism. For rear jet configuration with IR = 1.5, the mean drag coefficient (CDT¯$overline {{C_{{m{DT}}}}} $ was reduced to 79.4% and CP RMS level on side surfaces was reduced to 20% of that of the single square prism. In addition, instantaneous flow visualization photographs and Strouhal number (St distribution across the injection ratio were also presented to identify the flow patterns and underlying mechanism of drag and fluctuating force reduction of square prism with rear jet configuration.

  6. Development and application of GIS-based PRISM integration through a plugin approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo-Seop; Chun, Jong Ahn; Kang, Kwangmin

    2014-05-01

    A PRISM (Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model) QGIS-plugin was developed on Quantum GIS platform in this study. This Quantum GIS plugin system provides user-friendly graphic user interfaces (GUIs) so that users can obtain gridded meteorological data of high resolutions (1 km × 1 km). Also, this software is designed to run on a personal computer so that it does not require an internet access or a sophisticated computer system. This module is a user-friendly system that a user can generate PRISM data with ease. The proposed PRISM QGIS-plugin is a hybrid statistical-geographic model system that uses coarse resolution datasets (APHRODITE datasets in this study) with digital elevation data to generate the fine-resolution gridded precipitation. To validate the performance of the software, Prek Thnot River Basin in Kandal, Cambodia is selected for application. Overall statistical analysis shows promising outputs generated by the proposed plugin. Error measures such as RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) and MAPE (Mean Absolute Percentage Error) were used to evaluate the performance of the developed PRISM QGIS-plugin. Evaluation results using RMSE and MAPE were 2.76 mm and 4.2%, respectively. This study suggested that the plugin can be used to generate high resolution precipitation datasets for hydrological and climatological studies at a watershed where observed weather datasets are limited.

  7. Systematic comparisons between PRISM version 1.0.0, BAP, and CSMIP ground-motion processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Stephens, Christopher

    2017-02-23

    A series of benchmark tests was run by comparing results of the Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion data (PRISM) software version 1.0.0 to Basic Strong-Motion Accelerogram Processing Software (BAP; Converse and Brady, 1992), and to California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP) processing (Shakal and others, 2003, 2004). These tests were performed by using the MatLAB implementation of PRISM, which is equivalent to its public release version in Java language. Systematic comparisons were made in time and frequency domains of records processed in PRISM and BAP, and in CSMIP, by using a set of representative input motions with varying resolutions, frequency content, and amplitudes. Although the details of strong-motion records vary among the processing procedures, there are only minor differences among the waveforms for each component and within the frequency passband common to these procedures. A comprehensive statistical evaluation considering more than 1,800 ground-motion components demonstrates that differences in peak amplitudes of acceleration, velocity, and displacement time series obtained from PRISM and CSMIP processing are equal to or less than 4 percent for 99 percent of the data, and equal to or less than 2 percent for 96 percent of the data. Other statistical measures, including the Euclidian distance (L2 norm) and the windowed root mean square level of processed time series, also indicate that both processing schemes produce statistically similar products.

  8. PRISM (Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission): an extended white paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    André, Philippe; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Banday, Anthony; Barbosa, Domingos; Barreiro, Belen; Bartlett, James; Bartolo, Nicola; Battistelli, Elia; Battye, Richard; Bendo, George; Benoît, Alain; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Bersanelli, Marco; Béthermin, Matthieu; Bielewicz, Pawel; Bonaldi, Anna; Bouchet, François; Boulanger, François; Brand, Jan; Bucher, Martin; Burigana, Carlo; Cai, Zhen-Yi; Camus, Philippe; Casas, Francisco; Casasola, Viviana; Castex, Guillaume; Challinor, Anthony; Chluba, Jens; Chon, Gayoung; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Comis, Barbara; Cuttaia, Francesco; D'Alessandro, Giuseppe; Da Silva, Antonio; Davis, Richard; de Avillez, Miguel; de Bernardis, Paolo; de Petris, Marco; de Rosa, Adriano; de Zotti, Gianfranco; Delabrouille, Jacques; Désert, François-Xavier; Dickinson, Clive; Diego, Jose Maria; Dunkley, Joanna; Enßlin, Torsten; Errard, Josquin; Falgarone, Edith; Ferreira, Pedro; Ferrière, Katia; Finelli, Fabio; Fletcher, Andrew; Fosalba, Pablo; Fuller, Gary; Galli, Silvia; Ganga, Ken; García-Bellido, Juan; Ghribi, Adnan; Giard, Martin; Giraud-Héraud, Yannick; Gonzalez-Nuevo, Joaquin; Grainge, Keith; Gruppuso, Alessandro; Hall, Alex; Hamilton, Jean-Christophe; Haverkorn, Marijke; Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos; Herranz, Diego; Jackson, Mark; Jaffe, Andrew; Khatri, Rishi; Kunz, Martin; Lamagna, Luca; Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Leahy, Paddy; Lesgourgues, Julien; Liguori, Michele; Liuzzo, Elisabetta; Lopez-Caniego, Marcos; Macias-Perez, Juan; Maffei, Bruno; Maino, Davide; Mangilli, Anna; Martinez-Gonzalez, Enrique; Martins, Carlos J. A. P.; Masi, Silvia; Massardi, Marcella; Matarrese, Sabino; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Melin, Jean-Baptiste; Mennella, Aniello; Mignano, Arturo; Miville-Deschênes, Marc-Antoine; Monfardini, Alessandro; Murphy, Anthony; Naselsky, Pavel; Nati, Federico; Natoli, Paolo; Negrello, Mattia; Noviello, Fabio; O'Sullivan, Créidhe; Paci, Francesco; Pagano, Luca; Paladino, Rosita; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Paoletti, Daniela; Peiris, Hiranya; Perrotta, Francesca; Piacentini, Francesco; Piat, Michel; Piccirillo, Lucio; Pisano, Giampaolo; Polenta, Gianluca; Pollo, Agnieszka; Ponthieu, Nicolas; Remazeilles, Mathieu; Ricciardi, Sara; Roman, Matthieu; Rosset, Cyrille; Rubino-Martin, Jose-Alberto; Salatino, Maria; Schillaci, Alessandro; Shellard, Paul; Silk, Joseph; Starobinsky, Alexei; Stompor, Radek; Sunyaev, Rashid; Tartari, Andrea; Terenzi, Luca; Toffolatti, Luigi; Tomasi, Maurizio; Trappe, Neil; Tristram, Matthieu; Trombetti, Tiziana; Tucci, Marco; Van de Weijgaert, Rien; Van Tent, Bartjan; Verde, Licia; Vielva, Patricio; Wandelt, Ben; Watson, Robert; Withington, Stafford

    2014-01-01

    PRISM (Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission) was proposed to ESA in May 2013 as a large-class mission for investigating within the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision program a set of important scientific questions that require high resolution, high sensitivity, full-sky observations

  9. Tilting double-prism scanner driven by cam-based mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Anhu; Yi, Wanli; Sun, Wansong; Liu, Liren

    2015-06-20

    A pair of orthogonal tilting prisms has been explored in our previous work to perform the orientation and position tracking function with tracking accuracy better than submicroradian order. Crucial to the function implementation, however, is the real-time nonlinear control of the tilting angles of double prisms for tracking a given target trajectory. In previous papers [Proc. SPIE5892, 1-5 (2005).PSISDG0277-786X; Appl. Opt.45, 8063 (2006).PSISDG0277-786X; Proc. SPIE6709, 41 (2007).PSISDG0277-786X; Appl. Opt.51, 356 (2011).10.1364/AO.51.000356APOPAI1559-128X; Appl. Opt.53, 3712 (2014).10.1364/AO.53.003712APOPAI1559-128X], a new driving method by a cam-based mechanism, which can transfer the control problem to the design of corresponding cam configuration, is investigated. The design process of a cam-based mechanism is explained from the mapping relation between the tilting angles of a prism and the configuration curve of a corresponding cam. Based on the designed cam-based mechanism, a tracking error less than 0.375% is depicted between the tracking trajectory and the original one. Moreover, the dynamic characteristic of the tracking mechanism is discussed in detail as well as the impacts of different tilting speeds on the tracking trajectory. The proposed tracking mechanism of a tilting double-prism scanner can create a new avenue for passively tracking a given target.

  10. High-speed phase-shifting interferometry using triangular prism for time-resolved temperature measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Eita; Komiya, Atsuki; Okajima, Junnosuke; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Shigenao

    2015-07-10

    This study proposes a high-speed phase-shifting interferometer with an original optical prism. This phase-shifting interferometer consists of a polarizing Mach-Zehnder interferometer, an original optical prism, a high-speed camera, and an image-processing unit for a three-step phase-shifting technique. The key aspect of the application of the phase-shifting technique to high-speed experiments is an original prism, which is designed and developed specifically for a high-speed phase-shifting technique. The arbaa prism splits an incident beam into four output beams with different information. The interferometer was applied for quantitative visualization of transient heat transfer. In order to test the optical system for measuring high-speed phenomena, the temperature during heat conduction was measured around a heated thin tungsten wire (diameter of 5 μm) in water. The visualization area is approximately 90  μm×210  μm, and the spatial resolution is 3.5 μm at 300,000 fps of the maximum temporal resolution with a high-speed camera. The temperature fields around the heated wire were determined by converting phase-shifted data using the inverse Abel transform. Finally, the measured temperature distribution was compared with numerical calculations to validate the proposed system; a good agreement was obtained.

  11. Empirical relationship between inlet cross-sectional area and tidal prism: A re-evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stive, M.J.F.; Ji, L.; Brouwer, R.L.; Van de Kreeke, J.; Ranasinghe, R.W.M.R.J.B.

    2010-01-01

    The well-known empirical relationship between the equilibrium cross-sectional area of tidal inlet entrances (A) and the tidal prism (P), first developed by O’Brien (1931), has been extensively reviewed. Our theoretical investigations indicate that a unique A-P relationship should only be expected fo

  12. Economic assessment of S-prism including development and generating costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, Ch.E. [GE Nuclear Energy San Jose (United States)

    2001-07-01

    S-PRISM is an advanced Fast Reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test of a single Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) for design certification at minimum cost and risk. S-PRISM retains all of the key ALMR (advanced liquid metal reactor) design features including passive reactor shutdown, passive shutdown heat removal, and passive reactor cavity cooling that were developed under an earlier DOE program. Key factors that make S-PRISM competitive include: 1) The use of passive safety systems that eliminate the need for diesel generators and hardened active heat sinks to assure that sufficient heat is removed from the core, reactor, and containment systems following design and beyond design basis events. 2) A seven point advantage in the plant capacity factor (93 versus 86%) over a single large plant. 3) A much shorter construction schedule (45%) made possible by a modular design that allows near parallel (sequenced) construction of three relatively small, simple factory fabricated NSSSs instead of one large complex NSSS. This paper describes the approach, methods, and results of an in-depth economic assessment of S-PRISM. The assessment found that the generation cost from an NOAK plant would be less than 3 cents/kW-hr and that a design certification could be obtained in less than 15 years at a cost of 2.1 billion dollars. (authors)

  13. On the Orchard crossing number of prisms, ladders and other related graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Feder, Elie

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the Orchard crossing number of some families of graphs which are based on cycles. These include disjoint cycles, cycles which share a vertex and cycles which share an edge. Specifically, we focus on the prism and ladder graphs.

  14. Concerted Breaking of Two Hydrogen Bonds in Water Hexamer Prism Revealed from Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jeremy O.; Perez, Cristobal; Lobsiger, Simon; Reid, Adam A.; Temelso, Berhane; Shields, George C.; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Wales, David J.; Pate, Brooks; Althorpe, Stuart C.

    2016-06-01

    Over the past few years, we have used H218O water substitution to determine the structures of water clusters by molecular rotational spectroscopy. In the case of the water hexamer, the energy difference between the cage and prism structures is calculated to be about 0.1 kcal/mol and this energy difference is of the order of the zero-point energy variation between the isomers. Using rotational spectroscopy we provided experimental evidence for three isomers, i.e, cage, prism and book and established their relative energy ordering. In the special case of the prism hexamer, cluster dynamics causes measurable splitting in rotational transitions resulting from tunneling between discernible equivalent minima. Multiple isotopic substitution measurements involving all 64 possible isotopologues of the water hexamer prism (H218O)n(H216O)6-n were performed in order to identify the water molecules involved in the tunneling motion. The analysis of these tunneling-rotation spectra suggests that there are two distinct tunneling paths that involve concerted motion of two water molecules, implying a prototype scenario involving the breaking of two hydrogen bonds. C. Pérez, et al, Science. 2012, 336 897-901 J. O. Richardson et al, Science. 2016, in press

  15. Understanding University Reform in Japan through the Prism of the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Roger

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at current university reforms in Japan through two slightly different social science prisms: how social science methodologies and theories can help us understand those reforms better and how social science teaching in universities will be affected by the current reform processes. (Contains 3 tables and 7 notes.)

  16. Follow-Up of Online Instruction: Effectiveness of Peer Coaching Seminar Course. PRISM Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Breann

    This paper presents an evaluation of the Peer Coaching Seminar Course offered through the Peer Coaching Rural Inservice Model (PRISM) project at the North Dakota Center for Persons with Disabilities. This online course was designed to help rural teachers learn both peer coaching and classroom management skills. Twenty first- or second-year…

  17. Islamic Exorcism and the Cinema Fist: Analyzing Exorcism Among Danish Muslims through the Prism of Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Christian

    2017-01-01

    In this paper I apply film theory as a prism through which to examine the ritual mechanisms of neo-orthodox Islamic practices of spirit exorcism. I show how Islamic exorcisms operate as a ritual montage that conjures the absent-presence of al-ghayb—a hidden world of power that only God can see...

  18. Alterations in microRNA expression profile in HCV-infected hepatoma cells: Involvement of miR-491 in regulation of HCV replication via the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Hisashi; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Hosui, Atsushi; Nawa, Takatoshi; Kodama, Takahiro; Shimizu, Satoshi; Hikita, Hayato; Hiramatsu, Naoki; Kanto, Tatsuya [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Hayashi, Norio [Kansai Rosai Hospital, 3-1-69, Inabaso, Amagasaki 660-8511 (Japan); Takehara, Tetsuo, E-mail: takehara@gh.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan)

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} HCV infection upregulated miR-192, -194, -215, downregulated miR-320, -491. {yields} Transfection of miR-192, -215, and -491 enhanced HCV replication. {yields} Transfection of miR-491 inhibited Akt phosphorylation. {yields} Akt inhibition could be responsible for augmentation of HCV replication by miR-491. -- Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of microRNA (miRNA) on hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in hepatoma cells. Using miRNA array analysis, miR-192/miR-215, miR-194, miR-320, and miR-491 were identified as miRNAs whose expression levels were altered by HCV infection. Among them, miR-192/miR-215 and miR-491 were capable of enhancing replication of the HCV replicon as well as HCV itself. HCV IRES activity or cell proliferation was not increased by forced expression of miR-192/miR-215 or miR-491. Investigation of signaling pathways revealed that miR-491 specifically suppressed the phosphoinositol-3 (PI3) kinase/Akt pathway. Under inhibition of PI3 kinase by LY294002, the suppressive effect of miR-491 on HCV replication was abolished, indicating that suppression of HCV replication by miR-491 was dependent on the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway. miRNAs altered by HCV infection would then affect HCV replication, which implies a complicated mechanism for regulating HCV replication. HCV-induced miRNA may be involved in changes in cellular properties including hepatocarcinogenesis.

  19. Comparative study on the clinical and virological characteristics among patients with single occult hepatitis B virus (HBV), single occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) and occult HBV and HCV dual infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Inmaculada; Rodríguez-Iñigo, Elena; López-Alcorocho, Juan Manuel; Bartolomé, Javier; Pardo, Margarita; Carreño, Vicente

    2007-03-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) and occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are two recently described different forms of HBV and HCV infections. This work compares the clinical, virologic, and histologic characteristics of patients with occult dual infection to those of patients with single occult HBV or HCV infection. Seventy-six patients with abnormal liver function tests of unknown etiology (serum HBsAg, anti-HCV, HBV-DNA, and HCV-RNA negative) were included in the study. Viral genomes were tested in liver by real-time PCR and confirmed by in situ hybridization. Of the 76 patients, 17 had occult HBV infection (intrahepatic HBV-DNA positive, HCV-RNA negative), 35 had occult HCV infection (intrahepatic HCV-RNA positive, HBV-DNA negative) and 24 occult dual infection (intrahepatic HCV-RNA and HBV-DNA). No differences among the three groups were found regarding clinical and epidemiologic data. The median load of intrahepatic genomic and antigenomic HCV-RNA strands was similar between single occult HCV infection and occult HBV and HCV dual infection. The percentage of HCV-infected hepatocytes did not differ between these groups. In occult single HBV infection, intrahepatic levels of HBV-DNA and percentage of HBV-infected hepatocytes were similar to the group of patients with occult dual infection. Finally, no differences were found in histological liver damage among the three groups. In conclusion, liver disease in patients with occult dual infection was not more severe than in patients with single occult HBV or occult HCV infection. Moreover, in occult dual infection there is no a reciprocal inhibition of the viral genomes.

  20. Logical Analysis of Regulation of Interleukin-12 Expression Pathway Regulation During HCV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, Zia-Ur-Rehman; Tareen, Samar H K; Ahmed, Jamil; Zaidi, Najam-Us-Sahar S

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) triggers coordinated innate and adaptive response in host cell. HCV genome and proteins of the replicating virus are recognized as non-self-antigens by host cell to activate Toll Like Receptors (TLRs). Activated TLRs ultimately express cytokines, which can clear virus either by activating interferon (IFN), protein kinase C (PKC) and RNA Lase system or through activation of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a potent antiviral cytokine, capable of clearing HCV by bridging both innate and adaptive antiviral immune response. Activation of TLR-4 on macrophages surface induces expression of IL-12 via NF-κB and AP-1 transcriptional pathway. After expression, IL- 12 releases IFN-γ, which activates anti-HCV cytotoxic lymphocytes. Conversely, in chronic HCV infection downregulation of IL-12 has been reported instead of by number of studies. Keeping in view of the above mentioned facts, this study was designed to evaluate HCV-core mediated down-regulation of IL-12 transcriptional pathway by employing a logical modeling approach based on the Ren´e Thomas formalism. The logical parameters of entities were estimated by using SMBioNet. The Logical model represents all possible dynamics of protein expression involved during course of HCV pathology. Results demonstrated that at chronic stage of infection, though TLR-4 was constantly active but yet it failed to express the NF-κB, AP-1, IL-12 and IFN-γ. This mechanism was indicative of incorporation of core mediated changes in IL-12 regulatory pathway. Moreover, results also indicate that HCV adopts different trajectories to accomplish the persistence of chronic phase of infection. It also implicated that human immune system tries to clear HCV but core is capable of inducing system oscillations to evade the immunity.