WorldWideScience

Sample records for abbott preschool program

  1. Student Outcomes in a Blended Preschool Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesbury, Sybil A.

    2015-01-01

    This case study examined the effect of quality preschool programming on child outcomes in a blended inclusive preschool program implemented in an urban school system in the piedmont of North Carolina. The blended inclusive preschool program was a newly initiated program in this district and had been in place for only 1 school year. The purpose of…

  2. Continuous Improvement in State Funded Preschool Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    State funded preschool programs were constantly faced with the need to change in order to address internal and external demands. As programs engaged in efforts towards change, minimal research was available on how to support continuous improvement efforts within the context unique to state funded preschool programs. Guidance available had…

  3. Promoting Effective Preschool Programs. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoly, Lynn; Zellman, Gail; Li, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This is one in a series of policy briefs on key education issues prepared by the RAND Corporation for the Obama administration. Preschool education plays an important role in increasing school readiness and closing achievement gaps for children at risk. However, access to high-quality preschool programs varies greatly. Therefore, policymakers…

  4. Collaboration between Mathematics Facilitators and Preschool Teachers Using the Innovative "Senso-Math" Preschool Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassidov, Dina; Ilany, Bat-Sheva

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a mixed-method study of the innovative "Senso-Math" preschool program and the reactions of both the facilitators, who underwent a special training program, and the preschool teachers in whose classes the program was implemented. The goal of the program is to enhance mathematical development in preschool children…

  5. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly available...

  6. A Survey of Preschool Programs in Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Beth G.; Rog, Debbra

    One of four volumes dealing with the CARE (Children's Agencies, Resources, Etc.) Linkages Project in Tennessee, this manual reports a survey of preschool programs in 16 counties. The goal of the CARE project was to foster collaboration leading to more effective linkages between publicly funded child care and development programs and other service…

  7. Indoor and Outdoor Play in Preschool Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeker, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain children's indoor and outdoor play in preschool programs in terms of teacher interaction, peer interaction and task orientation. Children's indoor and outdoor play behaviors were compared using the Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS). Findings included significant differences on…

  8. Universal Preschool Programs and Long-Term Child Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrichson, Jens; Kristiansen, Ida Lykke; Viinholt Nielsen, Bjørn Christian

    2018-01-01

    This systematic review included 25 studies using natural experiments to estimate the effects of universal preschool programs for children aged 0-6 years on child outcomes measured from third grade to adulthood. Studies comparing preschool with parental, family, or other informal modes of care...... alternative types of universal preschool programs in terms of long-term outcomes....

  9. Effectiveness of a Danish early year preschool program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente; Holm, Anders; Bremberg, Sven

    2013-01-01

    A significant number of studies indicate that early year preschool programs lead to positive long-term effects. Systematic quality improvement of early year preschool may enhance these outcomes. The ASP Program was built on this principle. In this program preschool staff are supported...... in their efforts to critically reflect on current practices and to change these. A randomized controlled study was carried out in Denmark from September 2006 to May 2008. The study encompassed 2323 children in 59 preschools in two municipalities. Children were assessed using the Strength and Difficulties...

  10. FDA Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — On September 22, 2010, Abbott issued a voluntary recall of certain Similac powdered infant formula after identifying a common warehouse beetle (both larvae and...

  11. 34 CFR 303.148 - Transition to preschool programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transition to preschool programs. 303.148 Section 303.148 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES State...

  12. Programming with the KIBO Robotics Kit in Preschool Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Mollie; Sullivan, Amanda; Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2016-01-01

    KIBO is a developmentally appropriate robotics kit for young children that is programmed using interlocking wooden blocks; no screens or keyboards are required. This study describes a pilot KIBO robotics curriculum at an urban public preschool in Rhode Island and presents data collected on children's knowledge of foundational programming concepts…

  13. Oral microflora in preschool children attending a fluoride varnish program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Maria; Grindefjord, Margaret; Dahllöf, Göran

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To compare the oral microflora in preschool children attending a fluoride varnish program with a reference group receiving a standard oral health program without fluoride varnish applications. A second aim was to relate the microbial composition to the caries prevalence. METHODS: Five...... hundred seven 3-year-old children were enrolled from a cohort of 3403 preschool children taking part in a community based oral health project. Two hundred sixty-three of them had attended caries-preventive program with semi-annual applications of a fluoride varnish since the age of 1 year (test group......-annual fluoride varnish applications did not seem to significantly influence the oral microflora in preschool children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.controlled-trials.com (ISRCTN35086887) 20131216 'retrospectively registered'....

  14. Benefits, Costs, and Explanation of the High/Scope Perry Preschool Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinhart, Lawrence J.

    The High/Scope Perry Preschool Study is a study of the effects of a high-quality preschool program for children born in poverty. Following 123 children randomly assigned to program or no-program control groups, the study has had little attrition on a variety of measures from age 3 to age 41. The study has found evidence of preschool program…

  15. Social Skill Training in an Integrated Preschool Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmo, Hindi M.; Tryon, Georgiana Shick

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a commercially available social skills training program plus classroom reinforcement for use with preschoolers with developmental delays. Two groups of 19 participants each received either the combined treatment package or classroom reinforcement of target behaviors only. An additional 20 participants…

  16. Preschool Teachers' Use of Music in the Classroom: A Survey of Park District Preschool Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Rekha S.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how preschool teachers use music and identify the types of music activities available to children in their classrooms. Preschool teachers (N = 178) at park district programs throughout a large state in the American Midwest responded to an online questionnaire. Although teachers acknowledged using music…

  17. EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM FOR SUPPORTING MOTOR AND SOCIAL COMPETENCE OF PRESCHOOLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu ÖZYÜREK

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Satisfying the need of physical activity of children and promoting their social skills beginning from early childhood have importance by reason of providing a basis for following years. In this study, establishing process of the training program within the scope of “ Examination the Effects of Physical Education and Sports Activities to the Basic Psychomotor skills and Social Skills for Preschool Children ” named project supported by Karabuk University Coordinatorship of Scientific Research Projects has been mentioned. The training program has been intended to promote the motor and social competence of the children aged 48 months and older. In the study it has been given wide publicity to the stages of literature review, educational attainments and indicators fit for purpose, and taking an expert’s opinion. Commentary on practicing the training program integrated with preschool education program and their importances have been discussed.

  18. The inclusion of disadvantaged children in preschool programs: The children’s rights and social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jager Jerneja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Participation of at least 95% of children between the ages of 4 and the mandatory school age in high-quality preschool programs represents an important contribution to the achievement of the Europe 2020 strategy. Slovenia is not far from achieving this objective; however, if we consider participation in preschool programs from the perspective of the entire population of preschool children and the realisation of children’s rights, we note that nearly a quarter of children - among them (at least in the wider European area the most disadvantaged - have not realised the right to education. We studied the awareness of the importance of ensuring access to preschool programs for all children on a representative sample of 106 Slovenian preschool principals by means of quantitative pedagogical research. The results show a high percentage of disadvantaged children in the preschool areas and in the preschools themselves; on the other hand, only a low percentage (only one-third of preschools collect data about disadvantaged children and implement preschool programs for them; only one-fifth of preschools implement preschool programs for disadvantaged children. In order to act responsibly and enable all children the right to education, we must start devoting greater attention to identifying and including disadvantaged children in preschool programs.

  19. The Effectiveness of an Additional Stretching Exercise Program in Improving Flexibility Level among Preschool Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wee Akina Sia Seng; Rengasamy, Shabeshan A/L; Raju, Subramaniam A/L

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a two minutes' additional stretching exercise program in a 30 minutes games teaching lesson in improving the flexibility level of 6 year old preschool boys (M = 5.92, SD = 0.27) in a preschool in Malaysia. Fifty (50) preschool boys were selected for the study based on the intact sampling…

  20. Updating the Economic Impacts of the High/Scope Perry Preschool Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nores, Milagros; Belfield, Clive R.; Barnett, W. Steven; Schweinhart, Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    This article derives an updated cost-benefit ratio for the High/Scope Perry Preschool Program, an intensive preschool intervention delivered during the 1960s to at-risk children in Ypsilanti, Michigan. Because children were randomly assigned to the program or a control group, differences in outcomes are probably attributable to program status.…

  1. 34 CFR 300.124 - Transition of children from the Part C program to preschool programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transition of children from the Part C program to preschool programs. 300.124 Section 300.124 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION...

  2. Pilot-Testing CATCH Early Childhood: A Preschool-Based Healthy Nutrition and Physical Activity Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shreela; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Hedberg, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    Background: The literature on theoretically-based programs targeting healthy nutrition and physical activity in preschools is scarce. Purpose: To pilot test CATCH Early Childhood (CEC), a preschool-based nutrition and physical activity program among children ages three to five in Head Start. Methods: The study was conducted in two Head Start…

  3. Nystatin LF (Aronex/Abbott).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, S; Rex, J H

    2001-04-01

    November 1998, Aronex signed a licensing collaboration with Abbott Laboratories for the worldwide rights to nystatin LF [305531].

  4. Preschool Early Literacy Programs in Ontario Public Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Stagg Peterson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on research examining how library staff in 10 Ontario libraries’ preschool literacy programs support three- and four-year-old children’s early literacy and school readiness as well as their parents’ and caregivers’ literacy interactions with their children. Multiple data sources included surveys of 82 parents/caregivers, observations of a sample of 65 of the 198 children at the sessions we visited, and interviews with10 library staff. Observations were analyzed for evidence of children’s development of print motivation, phonological awareness, vocabulary, narrative skills, and print awareness: early literacy skills and knowledge that have been shown to be reliably and significantly correlated with future reading success. Analysis of the observational and interview data showed that the programs have been very successful in fostering children’s readiness to participate in school activities and their motivation to read. Participating children learned new vocabulary, demonstrated an awareness of rhymes and sounds of language, and showed an understanding of books that were read by library staff: all early literacy behaviours that are foundational to later literacy development. The programs have also provided parents/caregivers with new ways to interact with children to engage them with books and with print at home. The development of children’s school readiness skills and parents’ awareness of how to support their children’s literacy are outcomes extending beyond library staff goals for their library programs and should be included in literature advertising the programs. Print awareness is an area of literacy development that library staff could encourage to a greater extent, however. Very few instances of such behaviour were observed, with most of the observations taking place in two of the preschool early literacy programs. Concomitantly, developing children’s print awareness is a recommended topic for

  5. Effects of Preschool Curriculum Programs on School Readiness. Report from the Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research Initiative. NCER 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Research, 2008

    2008-01-01

    A variety of preschool curricula is available and in widespread use, however, there is a lack of evidence from rigorous evaluations regarding the effects of these curricula on children's school readiness. The lack of such information is important as early childhood center-based programs have been a major, sometimes the sole, component of a number…

  6. Kindergarten Readiness and Preschools: Teachers' and Parents' Beliefs within and across Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Beth; Nuner, Joyce; Paulsel, Jean

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative interview-based study compares beliefs about kindergarten readiness and about the roles of preschools in readiness among parents and preschool teachers in three early childhood programs in the northeastern and southwestern United States. Interviews focused on beliefs concerning meanings of kindergarten readiness and the role of…

  7. Fit 5 Kids TV reduction program for Latino preschoolers: A cluster randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing Latino preschoolers' TV viewing is needed to reduce their risk of obesity and other chronic diseases. This study's objective was to evaluate the Fit 5 Kids (F5K) TV reduction program's impact on Latino preschooler's TV viewing. The study design was a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT...

  8. Evaluation of a preschool nutrition education program based on the theory of multiple intelligences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, K L

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the evaluation of a preschool nutrition education program based on the theory of multiple intelligences. Forty-six nutrition educators provided a series of 12 lessons to 6102 preschool-age children. The program was evaluated using a pretest/post-test design to assess differences in fruit and vegetable identification, healthy snack choices, willingness to taste foods, and eating behaviors. Subjects showed significant improvement in food identification and recognition, healthy snack identification, willingness to taste foods, and frequency of fruit, vegetable, meat, and dairy consumption. The evaluation indicates that the program was an effective approach for educating preschool children about nutrition.

  9. 77 FR 13232 - Abbott Laboratories; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Abbott Laboratories; Filing of Food Additive... Administration (FDA) is announcing that Abbott Laboratories has filed a petition proposing that the food additive...))), notice is given that a food additive petition (FAP 2A4788) has been filed by Abbott Laboratories, 3300...

  10. Preschool Gifted Education: Perceived Challenges Associated with Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettler, Todd; Oveross, Mattie E.; Salman, Rania C.

    2017-01-01

    This descriptive study investigated the challenges related to implementing gifted education services in preschool centers. Participants were 254 licensed preschool center directors in a southern state. Participants completed a researcher-created survey including both selected response items and constructed response items to examine the perceived…

  11. Developing a Treatment Program for Obesity in Preschool Age Children: Preliminary Data

    OpenAIRE

    Boles, Richard E.; Scharf, Cynthia; Stark, Lori J.

    2010-01-01

    We developed and tested the feasibility of a behavioral intervention that utilizes clinic and home visitations to reduce overweight in preschool children above the 95th BMI percentile. Five families of preschool children ages 2 to 5 years with a BMI above the 95th percentile and one overweight parent were enrolled in a 24-week behavioral weight management program. Phase I, Intensive Treatment included 12 weekly sessions, alternating group-based clinic sessions and home settings. Phase II, Mai...

  12. The Effects of a Creative Dance and Movement Program on the Social Competence of Head Start Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Yovanka B.; Winsler, Adam

    2006-01-01

    The effects of an eight-week instructional program in creative dance/movement on the social competence of low-income preschool children were assessed in this study utilizing a scientifically rigorous design. Forty preschool children from a large Head Start program were randomly assigned to participate in either an experimental dance program or an…

  13. The effect of music training program on phonological awareness in preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska eDegé

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment investigated the effect of a music training program on phonological awareness in preschoolers. In particular, the effects of a music training program and a phonological skills training program on phonological awareness were compared. If language and music share basic processing mechanisms, the effect of both programs on enhancing phonological awareness should be similar. Forty-one preschoolers (22 boys were randomly assigned to a phonological skills training program, a music training program, and a control group that received sports training (from which no effect was expected. Preschoolers were trained for 10 minutes on a daily basis over a period of 20 weeks. In a pretest, no differences were found between the three groups in regard to age, gender, intelligence, socioeconomic status, and phonological awareness. Children in the phonological skills group and the music group showed significant increases in phonological awareness from pre- to post-test. The children in the sports training group did not show a significant increase from pre- to post-test. The enhancement of phonological awareness was basically driven by positive effects of the music program and the phonological skills program on phonological awareness for large phonological units. The data suggests that phonological awareness can be trained with a phonological skills training program as well as a music training program. These results can be interpreted as evidence of a shared sound category learning mechanism for language and music at preschool age.

  14. The effect of a music program on phonological awareness in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degé, Franziska; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    The present experiment investigated the effect of a music program on phonological awareness in preschoolers. In particular, the effects of a music program and a phonological skills program on phonological awareness were compared. If language and music share basic processing mechanisms, the effect of both programs on enhancing phonological awareness should be similar. Forty-one preschoolers (22 boys) were randomly assigned to a phonological skills program, a music program, and a control group that received sports training (from which no effect was expected). Preschoolers were trained for 10 min on a daily basis over a period of 20 weeks. In a pretest, no differences were found between the three groups in regard to age, gender, intelligence, socioeconomic status, and phonological awareness. Children in the phonological skills group and the music group showed significant increases in phonological awareness from pre- to post-test. The children in the sports group did not show a significant increase from pre- to post-test. The enhancement of phonological awareness was basically driven by positive effects of the music program and the phonological skills program on phonological awareness for large phonological units. The data suggests that phonological awareness can be trained with a phonological skills program as well as a music program. These results can be interpreted as evidence of a shared sound category learning mechanism for language and music at preschool age.

  15. John Tracy Clinic Correspondence Learning Program for Parents of Preschool Deaf-Blind Children. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielman, Virginia B.; And Others

    The teacher's guide outlines lessons from a correspondence learning program for parents of preschool deaf blind children. Learning steps and objectives are listed for eight areas covered by the program: communication, gross motor development, fine motor development, eating, sleeping, toilet training, dressing/undressing, and personal hygiene.…

  16. An Evaluation of a Preschool Program for At-Risk Four-Year-Olds in Suffolk, Virginia, Public Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Whitney, Deran Richard

    2005-01-01

    In the new federal legislation, No Child Left Behind, two of the main themes direct attention to accountability and achievement gaps within subgroup populations. Early intervention may address both of these issues. Specifically, this means quality preschool education. While many agree that preschool education offers much to young children, school leaders have a responsibility to present data to support the effectiveness of preschool programs. This is a report of an evaluation of the effects...

  17. The Effectiveness of a Parent-Training Program for Promoting Cognitive Performance in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Vahidi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a parent training program for promoting cognitive performance of young children through enriching the parent-child interactions among mothers of preschool-aged children in Mashhad, Iran. A total of 29 couples of mothers and their children were assigned to an experimental group (n = 16 couples and a control group (n = 13 couples. Mothers in the experimental group participated in 12 weekly sessions and were trained how to enrich their daily parent-child interactions as such. Children’s cognitive performance was assessed by three subscales of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI. The results of the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA indicated a significant difference between the experimental and control group. The findings support the effectiveness of the parent training program for enhancing cognitive performance in preschoolers.

  18. AN EVALUATION OF A PRESCHOOL TRAINING PROGRAM FOR CULTURALLY DEPRIVED CHILDREN. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAMMINEN, ARMAS W.; AND OTHERS

    TO FIND OUT IF CULTURALLY DEPRIVED CHILDREN SHOW CHANGE IN ACADEMIC READINESS AS A RESULT OF SPECIAL PRESCHOOL PROGRAMS, 3 GROUPS OF CHILDREN (14 TO 17 IN EACH) IN 3 DULUTH SCHOOL AREAS WERE PRE- AND POSTTESTED WITH THE STANFORD-BINET AND SRA PRIMARY MENTAL ABILITIES TESTS. A CONTROL GROUP OF 30 CHILDREN FROM THE SAME 3 SCHOOL AREAS WERE GIVEN THE…

  19. Program-Wide Positive Behavior Support in Preschool: Lessons for Getting Started

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Deborah Russell; Van Norman, Renee K.; Tredwell, Claire

    2011-01-01

    There is growing concern over the number of young children who display challenging behavior and preschool teachers are reporting children's challenging behavior as their greatest concern. Program-wide Positive Behavior Support (PWPBS) is a promising model for supporting appropriate behavior and decreasing challenging behavior in early childhood…

  20. Preschool Children's Development in Classic Montessori, Supplemented Montessori, and Conventional Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S.

    2012-01-01

    Research on the outcomes of Montessori education is scarce and results are inconsistent. One possible reason for the inconsistency is variations in Montessori implementation fidelity. To test whether outcomes vary according to implementation fidelity, we examined preschool children enrolled in high fidelity classic Montessori programs, lower…

  1. [Effects of a maternal sexuality education program for mothers of preschoolers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Mi; Kweon, Young-Ran

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of a maternal sexuality education program for mothers of preschoolers. A quasi-experimental with non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design was conducted. The participants were 55 mothers of preschoolers in G city (Experimental group=27, Control group=28). The experimental group received the maternal sexuality education, and the control group received the program after the experiment. Data were collected during October and November 2012 through self-administered questionnaires at two times: prior to the intervention and after the intervention. Data were analyzed using χ²-test, Fisher's exact test and t-test. After the intervention, mothers in the experimental group reported significant differences in knowledge of sex (t=3.74, psex (t=4.31, peducation (t=11.96, peducation program for mothers of preschoolers is effective in improving knowledge of sex, attitude toward sex, and parent-efficacy on child sexuality education. Therefore further study should be done with larger and varied participants to confirm the effects of sexuality education programs for mothers of preschoolers.

  2. Achievement of Elementary School Students and Attendance in Preschool Programs in Johnson County, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Emogene

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a difference in achievement scores exist between students who attended the Johnson County School System preschool program and those who did not as measured by standardized TCAP achievement test Reading/Language Arts and Math scores of students in the third and fourth grades. The variables of grade…

  3. A Joint Interactive Storybook Intervention Program for Preschool and Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered; Nevo, Einat

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of a joint interactive storybook reading program delivered by class teachers to develop literacy skills is examined in Hebrew-speaking preschool and kindergarten children. Post-intervention, both groups achieved significantly higher gains in language and print concept skills than age-matched comparison groups that did not have…

  4. Exploring the Quality Indicators of a Successful Full-Inclusion Preschool Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Susan R.; Martinez, Richard S.; Sortino, Lori A.

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of research and legislative policies support the importance of high-quality early intervention systems for preschool children with disabilities. Inclusion programs are viable means for providing this support, yet limited progress has been made in the past decade to increase the placements of children in inclusive settings or define…

  5. A Collaborative Naturalistic Service Delivery Program for Enhancing Pragmatic Language and Participation in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchick, Barbara B.; Day, Karen H.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a speech-language pathology and occupational therapy service delivery program for preschoolers with developmental delays and communication and related impairments. Key features included interprofessional collaboration; parent professional partnerships; naturalistic environment; opportunities for choice and control; use of a…

  6. Integration оf Foreign Educational Technologies іn the Content of Program of Pre-School Education in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiia Frolenkova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Reveals the integration and implementation of foreign educational technologies in the content of educational programs of preschool education in Ukraine. The emphasis on the implementation of programs for the ideas of Waldorf education, Montessori programs, “SelfEsteem”, “Step by Step”, “Education for sustainable development for children of pre-school age”. It is proved that the integration of foreign educational technologies in the process of optimizing the scientific and methodological support preschool education content Ukraine simulated based priority, primarily oriented humanistic, pedagogical ideas and technologies.Key words: educational technologies, integration, educational program, content of preschool education, children of pre-school age.

  7. Open pre-schools at integrated health services - A program theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agneta Abrahamsson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Family centres in Sweden are integrated services that reach all prospective parents and parents with children up to their sixth year, because of the co-location of the health service with the social service and the open pre-school. The personnel on the multi-professional site work together to meet the needs of the target group. The article explores a program theory focused on the open pre-schools at family centres. Method: A multi-case design is used and the sample consists of open pre-schools at six family centres. The hypothesis is based on previous research and evaluation data. It guides the data collection which is collected and analysed stepwise. Both parents and personnel are interviewed individually and in groups at each centre. Findings: The hypothesis was expanded to a program theory. The compliance of the professionals was the most significant element that explained why the open access service facilitated positive parenting. The professionals act in a compliant manner to meet the needs of the children and parents as well as in creating good conditions for social networking and learning amongst the parents. Conclusion: The compliance of the professionals in this program theory of open pre-schools at family centres can be a standard in integrated and open access services, whereas the organisation form can vary. The best way of increasing the number of integrative services is to support and encourage professionals that prefer to work in a compliant manner.

  8. Munch and Move: evaluation of a preschool healthy eating and movement skill program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrell Louise

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early childhood services have been identified as a key setting for promoting healthy eating and physical activity as a means of preventing overweight and obesity. However, there is limited evidence on effective nutrition and physical activity programs in this setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate Munch and Move, a low-intensity, state-wide, professional development program designed to support early childhood professionals to promote healthy eating and physical activity among children in their care. Methods The evaluation involved 15 intervention and 14 control preschools (n = 430; mean age 4.4 years in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia and was based on a randomised-control design with pre and post evaluation of children's lunchbox contents, fundamental movement skills (FMS, preschool policies and practices and staff attitudes, knowledge and confidence related to physical activity, healthy eating and recreational screen time. Results At follow up, FMS scores for locomotor, object control and total FMS score significantly improved by 3.4, 2.1 and 5.5 points more (respectively in the intervention group compared with the control group (P Conclusion The findings suggest that a low intensity preschool healthy weight intervention program can improve certain weight related behaviours. The findings also suggest that change to food policies are difficult to initiate mid-year and potentially a longer implementation period may be required to determine the efficacy of food policies to influence the contents of preschoolers lunchboxes.

  9. Open pre-schools at integrated health services - A program theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agneta Abrahamsson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Family centres in Sweden are integrated services that reach all prospective parents and parents with children up to their sixth year, because of the co-location of the health service with the social service and the open pre-school. The personnel on the multi-professional site work together to meet the needs of the target group. The article explores a program theory focused on the open pre-schools at family centres.Method: A multi-case design is used and the sample consists of open pre-schools at six family centres. The hypothesis is based on previous research and evaluation data. It guides the data collection which is collected and analysed stepwise. Both parents and personnel are interviewed individually and in groups at each centre.Findings: The hypothesis was expanded to a program theory. The compliance of the professionals was the most significant element that explained why the open access service facilitated positive parenting. The professionals act in a compliant manner to meet the needs of the children and parents as well as in creating good conditions for social networking and learning amongst the parents. Conclusion: The compliance of the professionals in this program theory of open pre-schools at family centres can be a standard in integrated and open access services, whereas the organisation form can vary. The best way of increasing the number of integrative services is to support and encourage professionals that prefer to work in a compliant manner.

  10. Phonological Awareness Program: A longitudinal study from Preschool to 4th Grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferraz Inês

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effect of phonological awareness training program in preschool performance of 256 children in Funchal, Portugal. This is a longitudinal study from preschool (2005 to 4th grade (2011. It has an experimental design. The sample includes an Experimental Group (132 children and a Control group (124 children. We pretend to answer the following research question: To what degree does training children in phonological awareness as early as preschool have short-term and long-term effects on the evolution of students' competencies and disciplinary knowledge? A first evaluation done in 2006 on the effects of this program at the end of preschool education revealed that the Experimental Group presented significant improvements when compared to the Control Group on the considered dimensions. In 2011, the Experimental Group presented Math National Test higher significant results when compared to the Control Group. The Experimental Group's Portuguese National Test presented better results than the Control Group one, but not significantly. This seems to indicate that Phonological Awareness Program can bring benefits and prevent long-term math school failure.

  11. Parental Preferences for the Organization of Preschool Vaccination Programs Including Financial Incentives: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Flynn PhD

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish preferences of parents and guardians of preschool children for the organization of preschool vaccination services, including financial incentives. Design: An online discrete choice experiment. Participants: Parents and guardians of preschool children (up to age 5 years who were (n = 259 and were not (n = 262 classified as at high risk of incompletely vaccinating their children. High risk of incomplete vaccination was defined as any of the following: aged less than 20 years, single parents, living in one of the 20% most deprived areas in England, had a preschool child with a disability, or had more than three children. Main Outcome Measures: Participant preferences expressed as positive (utility or negative (disutility on eight attributes and levels describing the organization of preschool vaccination programs. Results: There was no difference in preference for parental financial incentives compared to no incentive in parents “not at high risk” of incomplete vaccination. Parents who were “at high risk” expressed utility for cash incentives. Parents “at high risk” of incomplete vaccination expressed utility for information on the risks and benefits of vaccinations to be provided as numbers rather than charts or pictures. Both groups preferred universally available, rather than targeted, incentives. Utility was identified for shorter waiting times, and there were variable preferences for who delivered vaccinations. Conclusions: Cash incentives for preschool vaccinations in England would be welcomed by parents who are “at high risk” of incompletely vaccinating their children. Further work is required on the optimal mode and form of presenting probabilistic information on vaccination to parents/guardians, including preferences on mandatory vaccination schemes.

  12. A breeding record of Abbott's Starling Cinnyricinclus femoralis from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). Given the paucity of ecological knowledge of this species, I share some observations of a pair of Abbott's Starlings found tending an active nest in the southern Kikuyu. Escarpment forests in November 2015. On 2 November 2015 at 1030, ...

  13. Refractive Errors and Amblyopia in the UCLA Preschool Vision Program; First Year Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendler, Karen; Mehravaran, Shiva; Lu, Xiang; Brown, Stuart I; Mondino, Bartly J; Coleman, Anne L

    2016-12-01

    To report the outcomes of full ophthalmic examination for preschool children in LA County who failed screening with the Retinomax Autorefractor. Retrospective, cross-sectional study. Between August 2012 and May 2013, the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) preschool vision program screened 11 260 preschool children aged 3-5 years in Los Angeles County using the Retinomax Autorefractor only. Of those, 1007 children who failed the screening were examined by an ophthalmologist on the UCLA Mobile Eye Clinic. Data from the eye examination were recorded for all children. Amblyopia was defined as unilateral if there was ≥2 line interocular difference in the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and as bilateral if BCVA was amblyopia was found in 9% of those examined, or 0.8% of the original population. Of the amblyopic subjects, 77% were unilateral. Screening of preschoolers with the Retinomax led to diagnosis and early treatment of uncorrected refractive errors and amblyopia. By treating children early, amblyopia may be prevented, quality of life improved, and academic achievements enhanced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Impact of Art Education Program on the Social Skills of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Elçin

    2017-01-01

    The current study was carried out to determine the effect of art education program on the social skills of preschool children at the age of 61-72 months attending to a kindergarten. The working group of the research was made up of 51 children in total, as experiment group (n: 26) and control group (n: 25). An experiment design with a pre/post-test…

  15. Interactive programs with preschool children bring smiles and conversation to older adults: time-sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Kumiko; Kobayashi, Minako

    2013-10-18

    Keeping older adults healthy and active is an emerging challenge of an aging society. Despite the importance of personal relationships to their health and well-being, changes in family structure have resulted in a lower frequency of intergenerational interactions. Limited studies have been conducted to compare different interaction style of intergenerational interaction. The present study aimed to compare the changes in visual attention, facial expression, engagement/behaviour, and intergenerational conversation in older adults brought about by a performance-based intergenerational (IG) program and a social-oriented IG program to determine a desirable interaction style for older adults. The subjects of this study were 25 older adults who participated in intergenerational programs with preschool children aged 5 to 6 years at an adult day care centre in Tokyo. We used time sampling to perform a structured observation study. The 25 older participants of intergenerational programs were divided into two groups based on their interaction style: performance-based IG program (children sing songs and dance) and social-oriented IG program (older adults and children play games together). Based on the 5-minute video observation, we compared changes in visual attention, facial expression, engagement/behaviour, and intergenerational conversation between the performance-based and social-oriented IG programs. Constructive behaviour and intergenerational conversation were significantly higher in the social-oriented IG programming group than the performance-based IG programming group (pprogramming group than the performance-based IG programming (pprogramming group than the social-oriented IG programming group (pprograms with preschool children brought smiles and conversation to older adults. The social-oriented IG program allowed older adults to play more roles than the performance-based IG program. The intergenerational programs provide opportunities to fulfil basic human needs and

  16. Evaluation of a sleep education program for low-income preschool children and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Katherine E; Miller, Alison L; Bonuck, Karen; Lumeng, Julie C; Chervin, Ronald D

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate a novel sleep education program for low-income preschool children and their families. Randomized trial of an educational intervention. Community-based. Head Start preschool families (n = 152) in greater Lansing and Detroit, Michigan. Classrooms or Head Start sites were randomized to an intervention group (prompt intervention) versus a control group (delayed intervention). Parents attended a one-time, 45-min sleep education program and preschoolers received 2 w (320 total min) of classroom sleep curriculum. Parent knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and beliefs were assessed as the primary outcomes just before the 45-min sleep intervention, immediately postintervention, and approximately 1 mo postintervention. Parents reported their child's bedtimes and wake times on 7-day sleep diaries at baseline and at 1-mo follow-up. Average weeknight sleep durations and bedtimes served as secondary outcomes. Linear mixed models showed a time × treatment effect for parents' knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy (each P Educational interventions in early childhood can have an effect on parents' sleep knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy, and on children's sleep behavior. However, repeated exposure to the new information may be important for parents as well as their children.

  17. An Earthquake Education Program with Parent Participation for Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulay, Hulya

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the earthquake education program which was prepared for 5 to 6 year old children and to draw attention to the importance of parent participation. The earthquake education program was applied to 93 children and 31 parents in the province of Denizli situated in the first degree seismic zone…

  18. Adapting the Behavior Education Program for Preschool Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steed, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Behavior Education Program (BEP) is the most researched targeted intervention that is used in schoolwide positive behavior intervention and supports (PBIS). It is a daily check-in and check-out system in which students receive extra attention for positive social behavior throughout their school day. This extra attention is intended to prevent…

  19. Efficacy of an Emotion Self-regulation Program for Promoting Development in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Raymond Trevor; Galvin, Patrick; Tomasino, Dana

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT This work reports the results of an evaluation study to assess the efficacy of the Early HeartSmarts (EHS) program in schools of the Salt Lake City, Utah, School District. The EHS program is designed to guide teachers with methods that support young children (3–6 y old) in learning emotion self-regulation and key age-appropriate socioemotional competencies with the goal of facilitating their emotional, social, and cognitive development. The study was conducted over one school year using a quasiexperimental longitudinal field research design with 3 measurement points (baseline, preintervention, and postintervention) using The Creative Curriculum Assessment (TCCA), a teacher-scored, 50-item instrument measuring students growth in 4 areas of development: social/emotional, physical, cognitive, and language development. Children in 19 preschool classrooms in the Salt Lake City School District were divided into intervention and control group samples (n = 66 and n = 309, respectively; mean age = 3.6 y). The intervention classes were specifically selected to target children of lower socioeconomic and ethnic minority backgrounds. Overall, there is compelling evidence of the efficacy of the EHS program in increasing total psychosocial development and each of the 4 development areas measured by the TCCA: the results of a series of analyses of covariance found a strong, consistent pattern of large, significant differences on the development measures favoring preschool children who received the EHS program over those in the control group. PMID:24278801

  20. 77 FR 4368 - Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... Employment and Training Administration Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division, Including On-Site Leased... for Worker Adjustment Assistance on February 24, 2011, applicable to workers of Abbott Laboratories... production of immunoassay diagnostic analyzers, associated accessories, and spare parts. The notice was...

  1. Combining child social skills training with a parent early intervention program for inhibited preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Elizabeth X; Rapee, Ronald M; Coplan, Robert J

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of early intervention for anxiety in preschoolers through parent-education. The current study evaluated a six-session early intervention program for preschoolers at high risk of anxiety disorders in which a standard educational program for parents was supplemented by direct training of social skills to the children. Seventy-two children aged 3-5 years were selected based on high behavioural inhibition levels and concurrently having a parent with high emotional distress. Families were randomly assigned to either the intervention group, which consisted of six parent-education group sessions and six child social skills training sessions, or waitlist. After six months, families on waitlist were offered treatment consisting of parent-education only. Relative to waitlist, children in the combined condition showed significantly fewer clinician-rated anxiety disorders and diagnostic severity and maternal (but not paternal) reported anxiety symptoms and life interference at six months. Mothers also reported less overprotection. These gains were maintained at 12-month follow-up. Parent only education following waitlist produced similar improvements among children. Quasi-experimental comparison between combined and parent-only interventions indicated greater reductions from combined intervention according to clinician reports, but no significant differences on maternal reports. Results suggest that this brief early intervention program for preschoolers with both parent and child components significantly reduces risk and disorder in vulnerable children. The inclusion of a child component might have the potential to increase effects over parent-only intervention. However, future support for this conclusion through long-term, randomised controlled trials is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing Preschools Using the Eco-Schools Program in Terms of Educating for Sustainable Development in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Aysel; Guler Yildiz, Tulin

    2017-01-01

    This study assesses the practices and environmental properties of preschools implementing the Eco-Schools program, targeting education for sustainable development (ESD) in terms of the program's environmental, sociocultural, and economic pillars. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used. The sample group, determined through criterion…

  3. The High/Scope Perry Preschool Program: Cost-Benefit Analysis Using Data from the Age-40 Followup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfield, Clive R.; Nores, Milagros; Barnett, Steve; Schweinhart, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an updated cost-benefit analysis of the High/Scope Perry preschool Program, using data on individuals aged 40. Children were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group. Program costs are compared against treatment impacts on educational resources, earnings, criminal activity, and welfare receipt. Net present values are…

  4. The association of a preschool voice education program with changes in yelling frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Lauren; Kiernan, Barbara; Barkmeier-Kraemer, Julie M

    2013-05-01

    Voice problems in children can occur as early as infancy. Early onset of voice problems can carry social and academic penalties, and negatively affect voice in adolescence or adulthood. Unfortunately, only 1% of school-aged children receive voice therapy despite a 6 to 24% prevalence of voice disorders in school-aged children. One alternative may be to use a classroom-based voice education curriculum to effectively reduce yelling frequency, the most common behavior associated with phonotrauma-related voice problems in children. A classroom-based voice education curriculum was administered to preschool children by the preschool speech-language pathologists in a university-affiliated program. Classroom teachers provided cueing and reinforcement of curriculum strategies for 8 weeks following the program. Baseline frequencies of participant yelling behaviors were compared with postprogram frequencies. Results demonstrated significant reduction in yelling frequencies from pre- to postprogram, particularly in those judged as high-frequency yellers prior to the program. Important factors for future consideration are discussed. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. When Does Preschool Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Weiland, Christina; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    We have many reasons to invest in preschool programs, including persistent gaps in school readiness between children from poorer and wealthier families, large increases in maternal employment over the past several decades, and the rapid brain development that preschool-age children experience. But what do we know about preschool education's…

  6. 76 FR 4283 - Foreign-Trade Zone 153-San Diego, CA; Application for Manufacturing Authority; Abbott...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... finished cardiovascular devices that Abbott may produce under FTZ procedures in the future. New major... cardiovascular devices (duty free) for the foreign inputs noted above. FTZ designation would further allow Abbott...; Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. (Cardiovascular Device Manufacturing); Riverside County, CA An...

  7. Creacion de un programa de ensenanza de espanol como segunda lengua para ninos de edad prescolar (Creating a Spanish as a Second Language Program for Preschool Children).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbusch, Marcia H.

    1987-01-01

    Presents suggestions for planning a Spanish as a second language program for preschool children. The rationale and means of implementing the program are considered, and guidelines for teaching vocabulary are discussed. A variety of classroom activities are also presented. (TR)

  8. The development of a taste education program for preschoolers and evaluation of a program by parents and childcare personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Choengmin; Park, Young; Ryou, Hyunjoo; Na, Woori; Choi, Kyungsuk

    2012-10-01

    The change in people's dietary life has led to an increase in an intake of processed foods and food chemicals, raising awareness about taste education for preschoolers whose dietary habits start to grow. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and satisfaction of parents and childcare personnel after developing a taste education program and demonstrating it in class. A part of the curriculum developed by Piusais and Pierre was referred for the program. After educating 524 preschoolers in child care facilities in Seoul, a satisfaction survey was conducted on the program. The data in this study were analyzed using SPSS 14.0. Statistical analysis was conducted based on the frequency after collecting the data. Mean ± SD used to determine satisfaction with taste education, with preferences marked on a five-point scale and the alpha was set at 0.05. The program includes five teachers' guides with subjects of sweetness, saltiness, sourness, bitterness and harmony of flavor, and ten kinds of teaching tools. For the change in parents' recognition of the need for taste education based on five-point scale, the average of 4.06 ± 0.62 before the program has significantly increased to 4.32 ± 0.52 (P sweetness, saltiness, sourness, and bitterness, the average has increased to 3.83 ± 0.61, 3.62 ± 0.66, 3.64 ± 0.66, and 3.56 ± 0.75 respectively. In an evaluation of instructors in child care facilities, the average scores for education method, education effect, education contents and nutritionists, and teaching tools were at 4.15 ± 0.63, 3.91 ± 0.50, 4.18 ± 0.50, and 3.80 ± 0.56 respectively. In addition, the need for a continuous taste education scored 4.42 ± 0.67. This program has created a positive change in preschoolers' dietary life, therefore the continuation and propagation of the taste education program should be considered.

  9. Gifted Education in Preschool: Perceived Barriers and Benefits of Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettler, Todd; Oveross, Mattie E.; Bishop, James C.

    2017-01-01

    Substantial evidence supports the benefits of quality preschool education for children of all levels and backgrounds. However, early childhood gifted education services rarely exist in preschool centers. This study included 263 preschool centers representing geographic diversity in a southern state in the United States. Narrative data were…

  10. Talk it out: a conflict resolution program for preschool children with speech and language impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Barbara; Gray, Shelley

    2013-05-01

    Talk It Out was developed by speech-language pathologists to teach young children, especially those with speech and language impairments, to recognize problems, use words to solve them, and verbally negotiate solutions. One of the very successful by-products is that these same strategies help children avoid harming their voice. Across a school year, Talk It Out provides teaching and practice in predictable contexts so that children become competent problem solvers. It is especially powerful when implemented as part of the tier 1 preschool curriculum. The purpose of this article is to help school-based speech-language pathologists (1) articulate the need and rationale for early implementation of conflict resolution programs, (2) develop practical skills to implement Talk It Out strategies in their programs, and (3) transfer this knowledge to classroom teachers who can use and reinforce these strategies on a daily basis with the children they serve. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Effect of a multidisciplinary treatment program on eating behavior in overweight and obese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocca, Gianni; Kuitert, Mirije W B; Sauer, Pieter J J; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2018-04-25

    The effects of multidisciplinary treatment programs on eating behavior in overweight preschool-aged children are largely unknown. We evaluated a multidisciplinary intervention program on eating behavior in 3- to 5-year-old overweight children, comparing them with children given standard treatment. We also assessed the parental eating behavior changes and investigated associations between parents and children. We randomized 75 children to a multidisciplinary intervention or to a standard care program. During a 16-week period, children and parents in the multidisciplinary group were given dietary advice, physical activity sessions and, for parents only, psychological counseling. Children and parents in the standard group visited a pediatrician 3 times and were given information on a healthy lifestyle. At baseline, after 16 weeks, and after 12 months, children were measured and parents completed the Dutch Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ-C) for their children and the DEBQ for themselves. At the three time points, 70 (93.3%), 57 (91.9%), and 42 (73.7%) DEBQ-Cs were analyzed. We found no differences in the changes in eating behavior between the two groups over time. In both groups, there was a significant increase in restrained eating behavior present at 16 weeks, however, this was no longer present at 12 months. We found no associations between changes in eating behavior between the children and their parents. A multidisciplinary obesity intervention program in preschool-aged children induced more restrained eating behavior between baseline and 16 weeks. However, there was no difference with the children in the standard care group.

  12. Listening and speaking ability of Thai deaf children in preschool aural rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertsukprasert, Krisna; Kasemkosin, Nittaya; Cheewareungroj, Wichit; Kasemsuwan, Lalida

    2010-04-01

    An auditory-oral approach can help deaf children achieve success in oral communication. Many studies confirm that deaf children with access to sound through high-powered and appropriate hearing aids at the youngest age possible have the capability to acquire communication skills similar to their hearingpeers. Evaluate the listening and speaking progress made by 27 Thai hearing-impaired children who attended a preschool aural rehabilitation program, which was established at Audiology and Speech clinic. After hearing aids fitting, deaf children were enrolled to the preschool aural rehabilitation program after receiving their parents consent. Hearing impaired children were divided into groups of 4-6 children with approximately the same level of performance. The listening and speaking performance at the initial period were recorded. Each group participated in the 3-hour-program once a week, included auditory training, conversation (maternal reflexive method), and speech stimulation. The improvements and problems of each child were recorded at the end of session. Listening and speaking performance evaluation were recorded at six months intervals. There were 12 boys and 15 girls. The average hearing loss in the better ear was 104 dBHL, range from 83-117 dBHL, SD = 8.33. The mean age of enrollment was 2 years and 10 months. The majority gradually developed listening skills and speaking ability. There was no relationship between age of enrollment and the listening and speaking ability (p > 0.05). However, listening skills had positive relationship with length of speech (r = 0.685), number of spoken vocabulary (r = 0.665), and speech character (r = 0.598); p listening skills and improve length of speech, speaking vocabulary, and speech character Other benefits from the aural rehabilitation program included monitoring the auditory progression after hearing aid fitting, parents meeting, and promotion a better quality of life by enabling hearing impaired children to

  13. Infant behavioral assessment and intervention program in very low birth weight infants improves independency in mobility at preschool age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, Gijs; Jeukens-Visser, Martine; Koldewijn, Karen; van Wassenaer, Aleid; Houtzager, Bregje; Kok, Joke; Nollet, Frans

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program(©) (IBAIP) in very low birth weight infants on sensory processing and daily activities at preschool age. Follow-up of children included in a randomized controlled trial. Eighty-six infants were enrolled in

  14. An Evaluation of the Model School Division (MSD) Preschool Program for the School Year 1973-74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC. Dept. of Research and Evaluation.

    This study was designed to assess the extent to which children served by the Model Schools Division Preschool Program developed socially, intellectually, physically and emotionally during the 1973-74 school year. This evaluation was also designed to measure the appropriateness of the learning environment and the amount of services provided by the…

  15. Pow! Boom! Kablam! Effects of Viewing Superhero Programs on Aggressive, Prosocial, and Defending Behaviors in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Stockdale, Laura; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Nelson, David A; Collier, Kevin M; Essig, Lee W

    2017-11-01

    Many schools and parents try to motivate children to become defenders of victimized peers. Defending behavior is common in the media (particularly in superhero programs); however, no study has examined the effect of media on defending behavior. The aim of the study was to examine longitudinal associations between superhero engagement and a variety of aggressive, prosocial, and defending behaviors in preschool children. Participants consisted of 240 preschoolers (49% male) and their parents who reported on child media use and outcomes at 2 different time points. Preschooler's engagement with superheroes was related to increased physical and relational aggression 1 year later. Engagement with superheroes was not related to prosocial or defending behaviors. Implications of the results are discussed.

  16. Avoidance of generic competition by Abbott Laboratories' fenofibrate franchise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Nicholas S; Ross, Joseph S; Jackevicius, Cynthia A; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2012-05-14

    The ongoing debate concerning the efficacy of fenofibrate has overshadowed an important aspect of the drug's history: Abbott Laboratories, the maker of branded fenofibrate, has produced several bioequivalent reformulations that dominate the market, although generic fenofibrate has been available for almost a decade. This continued use of branded formulations, which cost twice as much as generic versions of fenofibrate, imposes an annual cost of approximately $700 million on the US health care system. Abbott Laboratories maintained its dominance of the fenofibrate market in part through a complex switching strategy involving the sequential launch of branded reformulations that had not been shown to be superior to the first-generation product and patent litigation that delayed the approval of generic formulations. The small differences in dose of the newer branded formulations prevented their substitution with generics of older-generation products. As soon as direct generic competition seemed likely at the new dose level, where substitution would be allowed, Abbott would launch another reformulation, and the cycle would repeat. Based on the fenofibrate example, our objective is to describe how current policy can allow pharmaceutical companies to maintain market share using reformulations of branded medications, without demonstrating the superiority of next-generation products.

  17. Emotional intelligence, need for cognition and cognitive reflective ability related to attitudes towards a further training program among preschool staff

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgren, Joakim

    2017-01-01

    There are currently scarce research regarding further training programs and employees’ attitudes toward them. This present work examined 95 preschool employees from one municipal community in matters of emotional intelligence, need for cognition, and cognitive reflective ability and how these influenced their attitudes toward a further training program called International Child Development Programme, ICDP (study 1). Six participants were also interviewed in regards to more organizational asp...

  18. Paths of Effects from Preschool to Adult Well-Being: A Confirmatory Analysis of the Child-Parent Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Ou, Suh-Ruu

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the contribution of five hypotheses to the estimated effects of preschool in the Child-Parent Centers on occupational prestige, felony arrest, and depressive symptoms in adulthood in the Chicago Longitudinal Study. An alternative-intervention, quasi-experimental design included over 1,400 low-income participants (93% of whom were black) who attended preschool for 1–2 years or the usual early educational intervention and were traced to age 24. LISREL analysis of five hypotheses (cognitive advantage, family support, school support, motivational advantage, and social adjustment) indicated that while each individually accounted for part of the estimated direct effect of preschool on adult well-being, the best-fitting model across outcomes included indicators of all five hypotheses. The full model completely accounted for the direct effect of preschool on occupational prestige and official felony arrest, and 79% on depression symptoms. Key mediators included cognitive skills at school entry, school quality in the elementary grades, juvenile arrest, and school completion. The identified processes may help establish, strengthen, and sustain effects in other programs and settings. PMID:21410923

  19. Factor Analysis of the Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale for Children in Head Start Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cress, Cynthia; Lambert, Matthew C.; Epstein, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Strength-based assessment of behaviors in preschool children provides evidence of emotional and behavioral skills in children, rather than focusing primarily on weaknesses identified by deficit-based assessments. The Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scales (PreBERS) is a normative assessment of emotional and behavioral strengths in…

  20. Fathers' Involvement in Preschool Programs for Children with and without Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, Sara; Most, Tova

    2012-01-01

    The authors compared the involvement in children's development and education of 38 fathers of preschoolers with hearing loss to the involvement of a matched group of 36 fathers of preschoolers with normal hearing, examining correlations between child, father, and family characteristics. Fathers completed self-reports regarding their parental…

  1. A Developmental Program for Teaching English as a Second Language to Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    The Cuauhtemoc Bilingual Preschool Project, Redwood City, California, is designed to teach Spanish-speaking preschoolers English in classes conducted in their homes. The lesson plans (called "English Experiences") are based on a set of principles: (1) establishment of a language relationship is an important means of motivating the child…

  2. Using social impact borrowing to expand preschool through third grade programs in urban public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Judy A; Reynolds, Arthur J

    Budget constraints and difficulty raising taxes limit school districts from expanding education programming even when research shows that additional expenditures would generate economic benefits that are greater than costs. Recently, coalitions of private investors, philanthropists, education practitioners, and government finance analysts have emerged to create opportunities to expand education services that promise high rates of social net benefits without raising taxes or reducing other expenditures. These collaborators have a strong interest in obtaining careful estimates of educational program effectiveness. We describe the use of social-impact borrowing to increase access to the Child-Parent Center preschool-through-third-grade intervention for at-risk students in the Chicago Public School District. The partners include the city, school district, investors, nonprofit organizations, and a university. The key to the feasibility of social-impact borrowing is the ability to document that early intervention can reduce the need for later special-education services. With the help of private investors and nonprofit organizations, it is possible for public school districts to finance services with funds from private sources and use future cost savings to repay this debt. We discuss how social-impact borrowing is being used in Chicago and in Salt Lake County as the nation's first two instances of using pay-for-performance social-impact borrowing to support early education.

  3. Aboriginal Children and Their Caregivers Living with Low Income: Outcomes from a Two-Generation Preschool Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzies, Karen; Tough, Suzanne; Edwards, Nancy; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Donnelly, Carlene

    2011-06-01

    The development of preschool children of Aboriginal heritage is jeopardized by the inter-generational transmission of risk that has created, and continues to create, social disadvantage. Early intervention programs are intended to mitigate the impact of social disadvantage. Yet, evidence of the effectiveness of these programs for children of Aboriginal heritage is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a two-generation, multi-cultural preschool program on 45 children of Aboriginal heritage and their caregivers. We used a single-group, pretest (program intake)/posttest (program exit) design with follow-up when the children were 7 years old. We used an observational measure of child receptive language (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III) and caregiver-reported measures of child development (Nipissing District Developmental Screen), risk for child maltreatment (Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory; AAPI), parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index; PSI), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale; RSE), and life skills (Community Life Skills scale; CLS). Using paired t-tests we found statistically significant increases in child receptive language scores between intake and exit, and repeated-measures ANOVA showed that these improvements were maintained up to age 7 years. For caregivers, Pearson's correlations demonstrated that risk for child maltreatment, parenting stress, self-esteem, and life skills were stable over time. Results of this study suggest that children of Aboriginal heritage can benefit from participation in a two-generation, multi-cultural preschool program. Their caregivers may have received greater benefit if issues of intergenerational transmission of the negative influences of residential schools were addressed as part of programming.

  4. 76 FR 47143 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 153; Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Cardiovascular Systems, Inc., (Cardiovascular Devices), Riverside County, CA Pursuant to its Authority Under the... 153, has requested manufacturing authority on behalf of Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc., within... procedures at sites within FTZ 153, on behalf of Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc., as described in the...

  5. 75 FR 340 - Approval for Expansion of Subzone 22F, Abbott Molecular, Inc. (Pharmaceutical and Molecular...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1654] Approval for Expansion of Subzone 22F, Abbott Molecular, Inc. (Pharmaceutical and Molecular Diagnostic Products), Chicago, IL, Area... manufacturing authority on behalf of Abbott Molecular, Inc., within FTZ 22F in Des Plaines and Elk Grove Village...

  6. How Many Letters Should Preschoolers in Public Programs Know? The Diagnostic Efficiency of Various Preschool Letter-Naming Benchmarks for Predicting First-Grade Literacy Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Petscher, Yaacov; Justice, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    Review of current federal and state standards indicates little consensus or empirical justification regarding appropriate goals, often referred to as benchmarks, for preschool letter-name learning. The present study investigated the diagnostic efficiency of various letter-naming benchmarks using a longitudinal database of 371 children who attended publicly funded preschools. Children’s uppercase and lowercase letter-naming abilities were assessed at the end of preschool, and their literacy ac...

  7. Experimental impacts of a teacher professional development program in Chile on preschool classroom quality and child outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Leyva, Diana; Snow, Catherine E; Treviño, Ernesto; Barata, M Clara; Weiland, Christina; Gomez, Celia J; Moreno, Lorenzo; Rolla, Andrea; D'Sa, Nikhit; Arbour, Mary Catherine

    2015-03-01

    We assessed impacts on classroom quality and on 5 child language and behavioral outcomes of a 2-year teacher professional-development program for publicly funded prekindergarten and kindergarten in Chile. This cluster-randomized trial included 64 schools (child N = 1,876). The program incorporated workshops and in-classroom coaching. We found moderate to large positive impacts on observed emotional and instructional support as well as classroom organization in prekindergarten classrooms after 1 year of the program. After 2 years of the program, moderate positive impacts were observed on emotional support and classroom organization. No significant program impacts on child outcomes were detected at posttest (1 marginal effect, an increase in a composite of self-regulation and low problem behaviors, was observed). Professional development for preschool teachers in Chile can improve classroom quality. More intensive curricular approaches are needed for these improvements to translate into effects on children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Cost-analysis of an oral health outreach program for preschool children in a low socioeconomic multicultural area in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennhall, Inger; Norlund, Anders; Matsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    of materials, rental facilities and equipment based on accounting data. The cost for fillings was extracted from a specified per diem list. Overhead costs were assumed to correspond to 50% of salaries and all costs were calculated as net present value per participating child in the program and expressed......The aim was to calculate the total and the net costs per child included in a 3-year caries preventive program for preschool children and to make estimates of expected lowest and highest costs in a sensitivity analysis. The direct costs for prevention and dental care were applied retrospectively...... in Euro. The results revealed an estimated total cost of 310 Euro per included child (net present value) in the 3-year program. Half of the costs were attributed to the first year of the program and the costs of manpower constituted 45% of the total costs. When the total cost was reduced with the cost...

  9. Views of Teachers, Parents, and Counselors toward the Preschool Version of First Step to Success Early Intervention Program (FSS-PSV) in Preventing Antisocial Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolak, Aysun; Tomris, Gözde; Diken, Ibrahim H.; Arikan, Arzu; Aksoy, Funda; Çelik, Seçil

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to describe the views of teachers, parents, and FSS-PSV counselors on the Preschool Version of First Step to Success Early Intervention Program (FSS-PSV) in preventing antisocial behaviors; in addition, the implementation process and contributions from the program will also be outlined. The study was conducted in six different…

  10. The Impact of a Two-Year School Breakfast Program for Preschool-Aged Children on Their Nutrient Intake and Pre-Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worobey, John; Worobey, Harriet S.

    1999-01-01

    Two studies examined nutritional differences between home breakfasts and breakfasts served at preschool following School Breakfast Program guidelines and evaluated nutritional impact of program participation on 4-year olds' preacademic performance. Results indicated that breakfast intake was altered under school breakfast conditions. Performance…

  11. Developing and Implementing a Language Program for Preschoolers of Diverse Cultural Backgrounds with a Multicultural Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domain, Deborah A.

    A teacher at the Von Humboldt Child Parent Center, a unit of the Chicago, Illinois, public schools located in the largely Hispanic Humboldt Park area, implemented a practicum designed to improve disadvantaged Black and Hispanic preschool children's language and auditory skills in a nonbilingual learning environment. To carry out the project, 10…

  12. Effects of the Perry Preschool Program on Youths Through Age 19: A Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinhart, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Results, to age 19, of a study of 123 Black youths from families of low socioeconomic status, indicate lasting beneficial effects of preschool education in improving scholastic placement and achievement; decreasing delinquency and crime, welfare assistance use, and incidence of teenage pregnancy; and in increasing rates of high school graduation,…

  13. Evaluating an Integrated Nutrition and Parenting Education Program for Preschoolers and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YaeBin

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of the study described in this article was to test the effectiveness of Little Books and Little Cooks, a 7-week integrated nutrition and parenting education intervention designed to improve eating habits of families, strengthen relationships between parents and their children, and improve preschoolers' cooking skills. Participant…

  14. Fit5Kids TV reduction program and Latino preschoolers' TV viewing behaviors: A pilot cluster RCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excessive television (TV) viewing has been associated with a greater risk of childhood obesity. Latino children watch higher amounts of TV than their peers and are disproportionately affected by childhood obesity. Since TV viewing and obesity track from preschool into adolescence, early intervention...

  15. Investing in Our Future: The Evidence Base on Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Weiland, Christina; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Espinosa, Linda M.; Gormley, William T.; Ludwig, Jens; Magnuson, Katherine A.; Phillips, Deborah; Zaslow, Martha J.

    2013-01-01

    The expansion of publicly-funded preschool education is currently the focus of a prominent debate. At present, 42% of 4-year-olds attend publicly funded preschool (28% attend public prekindergarten programs, 11% Head Start, and 3% special education preschool programs). A vigorous debate about the merits of preschool education is underway, although…

  16. Teachers' education, classroom quality, and young children's academic skills: results from seven studies of preschool programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Diane M; Maxwell, Kelly L; Burchinal, Margaret; Alva, Soumya; Bender, Randall H; Bryant, Donna; Cai, Karen; Clifford, Richard M; Ebanks, Caroline; Griffin, James A; Henry, Gary T; Howes, Carollee; Iriondo-Perez, Jeniffer; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Mashburn, Andrew J; Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen; Pianta, Robert C; Vandergrift, Nathan; Zill, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to provide high-quality preschool education, policymakers are increasingly requiring public preschool teachers to have at least a Bachelor's degree, preferably in early childhood education. Seven major studies of early care and education were used to predict classroom quality and children's academic outcomes from the educational attainment and major of teachers of 4-year-olds. The findings indicate largely null or contradictory associations, indicating that policies focused solely on increasing teachers' education will not suffice for improving classroom quality or maximizing children's academic gains. Instead, raising the effectiveness of early childhood education likely will require a broad range of professional development activities and supports targeted toward teachers' interactions with children.

  17. Examining the Sustainability of an Evidence-Based Preschool Curriculum: The REDI Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford DeRousie, Rebecca M.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which an evidence-based preschool curriculum (Head Start REDI) was sustained by 20 teachers during the year following a randomized controlled efficacy trial, when teachers were no longer required by the research project to implement the curriculum. Two quantitative measures of sustainability (teacher ratings, REDI coach ratings) and a qualitative measure (teacher interview) were collected and compared. Sustainability varied by the specific curriculum component, with higher rates of sustainability for the social-emotional component (Preschool PATHS) than for the language and literacy components. Estimates of sustainability were affected by the method of measurement, with REDI coach ratings and qualitative teacher interviews more closely aligned than teacher ratings. Responses from qualitative interviews identified the main factors that teachers thought affected sustainability. Teacher responses suggest that efforts to promote sustainability are best targeted at reducing barriers, such as competing demands, rather than simply highlighting the benefits of the new curriculum. PMID:22408287

  18. Improving preschooler conduct adaptation by using a social learning program based on motion games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsa Szilárda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Being aware of the changes which occur under the influence of environmental conditions, education, culture and social roles upon the child is indispensable with a view to build up a conduct adapted to the social environment. For any preschooler child, entering kindergarten is an important social event and getting adapted to the new situation is not easy. Broadening the relational framework with objects, other individuals, with one’s own self, results in disciplining preschooler conducts and increasing the number of socially desirable conducts. Relying upon the above statements, this study is aimed at working out a social learning programme made up of motion games involving socialization/cooperation elements intended for inducing amelioration in terms of the child’s conduct during the process of adaptation to the kindergarten environment. The experiment was conducted using a sample of “little group” preschoolers (children 3-4 years of age. As research methods, the following have been used: studying the reference literature, the method of pedagogical observation, the method of experiment and the method of playing. Further to the practical application of the programme worked out with a view to enhance the adaptation conduct in the said subjects, the experimental group proved to have undergone a significant positive evolution and each subject showed improvements considering the conduct of adaptation to kindergarten conditions, as highlighted by the change i.e. higher values in terms of the individual scores achieved at the final test. Preschool education is meant to provide all possible ways and means to enable any child’s integration into groups of children of a peer age, to develop sociability in children and to create favorable conditions for building out inter-children networks.

  19. 'Our story': Support program for parents of children with disabilities: Example of good practice in preschool institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihić Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Raising a child with a developmental disability can be a serious challenge for parents, which leads to increased parenting stress and has multiple impacts on family well-being. Even though there is a well recognized need for support for parents of children with disabilities, our country lacks the systematized support programs and their evaluations. Program 'Our Story' aims to educate parents about the key processes that lead to accepting the child's condition and recognizing an appropriate care model for a child with disabilities. The program is based on attachment theory and the importance of resolution to diagnosis- emotional and cognitive acceptance of the child's health condition and its implications. It is a structured program, consisting of six thematic meetings with a group of parents. The group counseling is led by two professionals who have previously undergone a 32-hour program for the implementation of training. This paper presents the experiences from two preschool institutions, in which the program was implemented and evaluated. Also it discusses the importance and possibilities of implementing a support program for parents of children with disability in the context of early education system.

  20. Study Protocol for a Home-based Obesity Prevention Program in Latino Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverno Ross, Sharon E; Documet, Patricia I; Pate, Russell R; Smith-Tapia, Ivonne; Wisniewski, Lisa M; Gibbs, Bethany B

    2017-07-15

    This paper describes the study design for ANDALE Pittsburgh, a culturally-appropriate, family-based intervention to promote a healthy weight in Latino preschool children. The study was organized into two major phases: Phase I: Conduct focus groups with 30 Latino parents of preschool children to inform the development of a culturally-appropriate intervention; Phase II: Test the feasibility and effectiveness of the intervention with 50 families. Participants were recruited from an emerging Latino community through community gatherings, flyers, and word of mouth. Six promotoras (females >18 years, active in community) received 25 hours of training using the intervention curriculum finalized after Phase I. Promotoras delivered the home-based intervention to families over 10, 90-minute weekly sessions that included education, practice, and action (i.e., goal setting). Behavior modification constructs and strategies (e.g., goal setting, problem solving, social support), and building of self-efficacy through healthy recipe preparation and physical activity breaks, were also included. Outcomes (e.g., child BMI) were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Process evaluation assessed fidelity, dose, reach, recruitment, and contextual factors using multiple data sources and mixed methods. The ANDALE Pittsburgh study will expand the body of knowledge on interventions to promote a healthy weight in Latino preschool children living in an emerging Latino community. If successful, this approach will be evaluated in a future, larger-scale intervention and provide a potential model to help to address and prevent obesity in this population.

  1. Exploring the outcomes of a novel computer-assisted treatment program targeting expressive-grammar deficits in preschoolers with SLI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Karla N; Warr-Leeper, Genese; Thomas-Stonell, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    The impact of a newly designed computer-assisted treatment (C-AT) program, My Sentence Builder, for the remediation of expressive-grammar deficits in children with specific language impairment (SLI) was explored. This program was specifically designed with features to directly address expressive-grammar difficulties, thought to be associated with hypothesized deficits in verbal working memory (VWM). Thirty-four preschoolers with deficits in expressive-grammar morphology participated. Using the randomization procedure of consecutive sampling, participants were recruited. Twenty-two participants were consecutively assigned to one of two treatment groups, C-AT or non C-AT (nC-AT). The nC-AT utilized conventional language stimulation procedures containing features which have been traditionally used to address expressive-grammar deficits. A group of equivalent children awaiting treatment and chosen from the same sample of children as the treatment participants served as a control group. Blind assessments of outcomes were completed pre-, post-, and 3-months post-treatment in a formal and informal context. C-AT and nC-AT participants significantly outperformed controls pre-to-post to 3-months post-treatment in both assessment contexts. No significant differences in treatment gains were found between C-AT and nC-AT. Results suggested that treatments designed to directly address expressive-grammar deficits were better than no treatment for preschool SLI. Further, use of a C-AT program may be another feasible treatment method for this disorder population. As a result of this activity, the reader will recognize that: (1) expressive-grammar treatment is better than no treatment for immediate and continued language growth, (2) use of a C-AT program containing specific features designed to directly address expressive-grammar deficits is another viable, but not necessarily a better treatment option for the remediation of expressive-grammar deficits in preschool children with SLI

  2. Implementing a Family Centered Program for Physically Impaired/Developmentally Delayed Preschool Children To Bridge the Therapeutic Gap between School and Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Karen P.

    This practicum addresses the problem of limited interaction between physical therapists and families of developmentally delayed/physically impaired preschool-age children. A program was developed in which the physical therapist was videotaped handling and exercising a child, while explaining the purpose of the movements and instructing the parent…

  3. Validity Study of the "Preschool Language Scale-4" with English-Speaking Hispanic and European American Children in Head Start Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Cathy H.; Marley, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the "Preschool Language Scale-4" (PLS-4) with a sample of English-speaking Hispanic and European American children who attended Head Start programs. Participants were 440 children between the ages of 3 and 5 years (52% male; 86% Hispanic and 14% European American).…

  4. Social Emotional Learning in a Guatemalan Preschool Sample: Does Socioeconomic Status Moderate the Effects of a School-Based Prevention Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Amanda B.; Edstrom, Leihua; Mildon, Heather A.; Davila, Lesliann

    2015-01-01

    Researchers evaluated the effectiveness of a universal social skills program and compared social emotional knowledge on individual skills interviews with 100 Guatemalan preschool children from resource rich (N?=?47) and resource poor (N?=?53) backgrounds. Participant ages ranged from 3- to 6-years-old. SEL was evaluated prior and subsequent to…

  5. Actions and Achievements of Self-Regulated Learning in Personal Environments. Research on Students Participating in the Graduate Program in Preschool Education at the University of Granada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves-Barboza, Eduardo; Trujillo-Torres, Juan Manuel; López-Núñez, Juan Antonio; Sola-Martínez, Tomás

    2017-01-01

    This paper is intended to study the self-regulated learning (SRL) process in personal learning environments (PLEs) among students participating in the Graduate Program for Preschool Education at the University of Granada (Spain). The study is focused on self-regulatory actions carried out by students, and on their self-regulated learning…

  6. How Many Letters Should Preschoolers in Public Programs Know? The Diagnostic Efficiency of Various Preschool Letter-Naming Benchmarks for Predicting First-Grade Literacy Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Petscher, Yaacov; Justice, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    Review of current federal and state standards indicates little consensus or empirical justification regarding appropriate goals, often referred to as benchmarks, for preschool letter-name learning. The present study investigated the diagnostic efficiency of various letter-naming benchmarks using a longitudinal database of 371 children who attended…

  7. Examining the Benefits and Barriers of Instructional Gardening Programs to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kristen L; Brann, Lynn S

    2017-01-01

    Research exists on using instructional gardening programs with school age children as a means of improving dietary quality and for obesity prevention. This article examines the potential use of instructional gardens in childcare settings to improving fruit and vegetable intake in young children. A qualitative study was conducted with childcare providers. Participants ( n = 20) were recruited via e-mails, letters, and follow-up phone calls. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded to identify themes within two areas (1) childcare providers perceptions of children's fruit and vegetable consumption and (2) components necessary to initiate or improve instructional gardening programs. Themes associated with provider's perceptions of child fruit and vegetable consumption included benefits of consumption, willingness to try fruits and vegetables, meeting recommendations, and influence of the home and childcare environments on child eating. Benefits, barriers, and resources needed were identified as themes related to starting or improving instructional gardening programs. Benefits to gardening with preschoolers are consistent with those found in school-age populations. While several barriers exist, resources are available to childcare providers to address these barriers. Increased knowledge and awareness of resources are necessary to improve the success of gardening programs in the childcare setting with the goal of improving child diet quality.

  8. Examining the Benefits and Barriers of Instructional Gardening Programs to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Preschool-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L. Davis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research exists on using instructional gardening programs with school age children as a means of improving dietary quality and for obesity prevention. This article examines the potential use of instructional gardens in childcare settings to improving fruit and vegetable intake in young children. A qualitative study was conducted with childcare providers. Participants (n=20 were recruited via e-mails, letters, and follow-up phone calls. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded to identify themes within two areas (1 childcare providers perceptions of children’s fruit and vegetable consumption and (2 components necessary to initiate or improve instructional gardening programs. Themes associated with provider’s perceptions of child fruit and vegetable consumption included benefits of consumption, willingness to try fruits and vegetables, meeting recommendations, and influence of the home and childcare environments on child eating. Benefits, barriers, and resources needed were identified as themes related to starting or improving instructional gardening programs. Benefits to gardening with preschoolers are consistent with those found in school-age populations. While several barriers exist, resources are available to childcare providers to address these barriers. Increased knowledge and awareness of resources are necessary to improve the success of gardening programs in the childcare setting with the goal of improving child diet quality.

  9. Examining the Benefits and Barriers of Instructional Gardening Programs to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kristen L.

    2017-01-01

    Research exists on using instructional gardening programs with school age children as a means of improving dietary quality and for obesity prevention. This article examines the potential use of instructional gardens in childcare settings to improving fruit and vegetable intake in young children. A qualitative study was conducted with childcare providers. Participants (n = 20) were recruited via e-mails, letters, and follow-up phone calls. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded to identify themes within two areas (1) childcare providers perceptions of children's fruit and vegetable consumption and (2) components necessary to initiate or improve instructional gardening programs. Themes associated with provider's perceptions of child fruit and vegetable consumption included benefits of consumption, willingness to try fruits and vegetables, meeting recommendations, and influence of the home and childcare environments on child eating. Benefits, barriers, and resources needed were identified as themes related to starting or improving instructional gardening programs. Benefits to gardening with preschoolers are consistent with those found in school-age populations. While several barriers exist, resources are available to childcare providers to address these barriers. Increased knowledge and awareness of resources are necessary to improve the success of gardening programs in the childcare setting with the goal of improving child diet quality. PMID:28607563

  10. The infant behavioral assessment and intervention program in very low birth weight infants; outcome on executive functioning, behaviour and cognition at preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerk, Gijs; Jeukens-Visser, Martine; Houtzager, Bregje; Koldewijn, Karen; van Wassenaer, Aleid; Nollet, Frans; Kok, Joke

    2012-08-01

    The Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program (IBAIP©) improved motor function at 24 months, and mental and behavioural development in high risk subgroups of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. To determine IBAIP's effects on executive functioning, behaviour and cognition at preschool age. Follow-up of a randomised controlled trial (RCT). At 44 months corrected age, all 176 VLBW infants were invited for follow-up. Forty-one term born children were assessed for comparison. Visual Attention Task (VAT), Gift delay, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III-NL (PPVT), Visual motor integration tests and Miller assessment for preschoolers. Parents completed Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool (BRIEF-P) and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). At preschool age, 76 (88%) children of the intervention group and 75 (83%) children of the control group participated. There were no significant differences between the intervention and the control group. However, positive interaction effects between intervention and infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, infants born at gestational agechildren. The 151 VLBW children performed significantly worse than the term born children on the VAT, BRIEF-P and CBCL. IBAIP effects in VLBW children did not sustain until preschool age on executive functioning, behaviour and cognition. However, the most vulnerable children had a clinical relevant profit from IBAIP. VLBW children performed worse than the term born children. This study is a follow-up at preschool age of the multi-centre RCT of IBAIP versus usual care in VLBW infants. The RCT was performed in Amsterdam, The Netherlands (IBAIP). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Defining Nature-Based Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimore, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Nature-based early childhood education. Nature-based preschool. Nature preschool. Forest kindergarten. Nature kindergarten. Waldkindergarten. Forest school. These are a few of the program terms currently being discussed among early childhood environmental education professionals in the United States. Why is there so much discussion about the names…

  12. A multicenter evaluation of the Abbott RealTime HCV genotype II assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ciotti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Viral genotype is an important determinant of the therapeutical outcome of the chronic hepatitis C and is useful in clinical practice to determine the duration of treatment1.While the viral type shows a clear association with therapeutic success, there is currently no evidence to that effect for HCV subtype, whose value is thus confined to epidemiological studies.The Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay, through the use of Minor Groove Binder probes (MGB is able to distinguish genotypes 1 to 6 (target 5’-UTR region and subtypes 1a and 1b (NS5B region. In four different Italian centers a comparison between the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay and the Versant HCV Genotype 2.0 (LIPA has been performed.A total of 143 non selected samples with the request of HCV genotyping have been analysed. 141/143 samples (98.6% have provided reportable results with both tests (2 indeterminates with LIPA. Concordance at the type level was 96.5% (136/141. Considering the 136 concordant samples, the distribution was as follows: type 1 = 61 (44.9%, 2 = 36 (26.5%, 3 = 21 (15.4%, 4 = 17 (12.5% 5 = 1 (0.7%. Both assays assigned subtype in 56/61 (91.8% samples of genotype 1 (3 and 2 samples only provided the type for LIPA and Abbott, respectively and 50/56 (89.3% had concordant subtype. It is worth to note that 4 of the 5 samples with discordant subtype Abbott 1a/LiPA 1b came from the only center that used for LIPA the 5-UTR amplicon, loosing the benefit of the core region which has been introduced in the version 2 of the test to improve the accuracy in distinguishing between 1a and 1b.There was only one discordant sample at type level (Abbott 4, LIPA 1b which after sequencing and phylogenetic analysis was resolved as type 4. Four mixed infections were detected, 3 with the Abbott test (two 1a+4 and one 1b+3 and 1 with the LIPA test (1a+3. In all cases the comparison test showed a single genotype 1 infection. The new Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay showed a

  13. Features of Complex Program of Physical Rehabilitation of Scoliosis in Preschool Children in a Polyclinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R. Uska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the efficiency of complex methods of physical rehabilitation in children with scoliosis in a polyclinic. The study involved 174 preschool children with I degree scoliosis. The plan of treatment and remediation activities included: all-day compliance with orthopedic regimen, daily therapeutic exercises (special symmetrical, asymmetrical and detorsion exercises, therapeutic massage with elements of acupressure, therapeutic swimming, muscle electrostimulation, medical choreography, corrective exercises after day sleep (gaming exercises in the initial prone position in order to prepare the muscles for active and effective work in the upright stance. The complex of rehabilitation measures made it possible to normalize the functionality of the spine in 24.1 % of children, to improve posture in 42.6 % of patients and to stabilize the scoliotic process in 28.7 % of patients.

  14. Psychotropic drug use among preschool children in the Medicaid program from 36 states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Lauren D; Brown, Derek S; Allaire, Benjamin T; Ross, Raven E; Nicol, Ginger E; Raghavan, Ramesh

    2015-03-01

    We determined the prevalence of and indications for psychotropic medication among preschool children in Medicaid. We obtained 2000 to 2003 Medicaid Analytic Extract data from 36 states. We followed children in 2 cohorts, born in 1999 and 2000, up to age 4 years. We used logistic regression to model odds of receiving medications for (1) attention-deficit disorder/attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, (2) depression or anxiety, and (3) psychotic illness or bipolar. Overall, 1.19% of children received at least 1 psychotropic drug. Medications for attention-deficit disorder/attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder treatment were most common (0.61% of all children), followed by depression or anxiety (0.59%) and psychotic illness or bipolar (0.24%). Among children, boys, those of other or unknown race compared with White, and those with other insurance compared with fee for service-only had higher odds of receiving a prescription (odds ratio [OR]=1.80 [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.74, 1.86], 1.75 [corrected] [1.66, 1.85], and 1.14 [1.01, 1.28], respectively), whereas Black and Hispanic children had lower odds (OR=0.51 [95% CI=0.48, 0.53] and 0.37 [0.34, 0.39], respectively). Preschoolers are receiving psychotropic medications despite limited evidence supporting safety or efficacy. Future research should focus on implementing medication use practice parameters in infant and toddler clinics, and expanding psychosocial interventions for young children with behavioral problems.

  15. Language Development of the Preschool Children: The Effects of an Audio-Visual Intervention Program in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roul, Sushanta Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Preschool may not be a place where formal education is imparted but yes, it definitely is a place where children have their first taste of independence. Preschool education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory education usually between the ages of 2 and 5. Thus the purposes of the study were: to study the…

  16. Parent training for preschool ADHD: a randomized controlled trial of specialized and generic programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abikoff, Howard B; Thompson, Margaret; Laver-Bradbury, Cathy; Long, Nicholas; Forehand, Rex L; Miller Brotman, Laurie; Klein, Rachel G; Reiss, Philip; Huo, Lan; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2015-06-01

    The 'New Forest Parenting Package' (NFPP), an 8-week home-based intervention for parents of preschoolers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), fosters constructive parenting to target ADHD-related dysfunctions in attention and impulse control. Although NFPP has improved parent and laboratory measures of ADHD in community samples of children with ADHD-like problems, its efficacy in a clinical sample, and relative to an active treatment comparator, is unknown. The aims are to evaluate the short- and long-term efficacy and generalization effects of NFPP compared to an established clinic-based parenting intervention for treating noncompliant behavior ['Helping the Noncompliant Child' (HNC)] in young children with ADHD. A randomized controlled trial with three parallel arms was the design for this study. A total of 164 3-4-year-olds, 73.8% male, meeting DSM-IV ADHD diagnostic criteria were randomized to NFPP (N = 67), HNC (N = 63), or wait-list control (WL, N = 34). All participants were assessed at post-treatment. NFPP and HNC participants were assessed at follow-up in the next school year. Primary outcomes were ADHD ratings by teachers blind to and uninvolved in treatment, and by parents. Secondary ADHD outcomes included clinician assessments, and laboratory measures of on-task behavior and delay of gratification. Other outcomes included parent and teacher ratings of oppositional behavior, and parenting measures. (Trial name: Home-Based Parent Training in ADHD Preschoolers; Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01320098; URL: http://www/clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01320098). In both treatment groups, children's ADHD and ODD behaviors, as well as aspects of parenting, were rated improved by parents at the end of treatment compared to controls. Most of these gains in the children's behavior and in some parenting practices were sustained at follow-up. However, these parent-reported improvements were not corroborated by teacher ratings or

  17. 78 FR 54487 - Abbott Laboratories; Diagnostic-Hematology; Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ...; Diagnostic--Hematology; Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower Service Group and ATR International... February 22, 2013, applicable to workers of Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostic--Hematology division, including... firm. The workers were engaged in activities related to the production of hematology reagents and...

  18. The Labour Process of Teaching at John Abbott College (Part One).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Walter

    This survey was conducted at John Abbott College to gauge teachers' responses to issues concerning their job satisfaction, interaction with colleagues, perceptions of student abilities, and perceptions concerning union negotiating priorities and areas of conflict within the institutional environment. Of the 75 teachers contacted, 47 returned…

  19. Hip-Hop to Health Jr., an obesity prevention program for minority preschool children: baseline characteristics of participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolley, Melinda R; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Dyer, Alan; Van Horn, Linda; KauferChristoffel, Katherine; Schiffer, Linda

    2003-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity in the United States is a significant public health problem. Many obesity-related risk factors are more prevalent in minority populations. Given the recalcitrant nature of weight loss interventions for adults, prevention of overweight and obesity has become a high priority. The present study reports baseline data from an obesity prevention intervention developed for minority preschool children. Hip-Hop to Health Jr. is a 5-year randomized controlled intervention that targets 3- to 5-year-old minority children enrolled in 24 Head Start programs. Our primary aim is to test the effect of the intervention on change in body mass index. Data were collected on sociodemographic, anthropometric, behavioral, and cognitive variables for the children and parents at baseline. Participants included 416 black children, 337 black parents, 362 Latino children, and 309 Latino parents. Using body mass index for age and sex > or = the 95th percentile as the definition of overweight, 15% of the black children and 28% of the Latino children were overweight. More than 75% of the parents were either overweight or obese. The development of interventions to effectively prevent or control obesity early in life is crucial. These data highlight the escalating problem of weight control in minority populations.

  20. Development of the Intervention Materials for the HomeStyles Obesity Prevention Program for Parents of Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Martin-Biggers

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Home environment is key to the development of obesity-preventing behaviors during childhood, yet few resources help preschool parents address factors at home associated with obesity risk. This paper describes creation of materials for an in-home intervention (HomeStyles with this population. An advisory group of stakeholders and target audience members determined salient factors affecting childhood obesity to address in-home and developed program materials. The Social Cognitive Theory, Faith’s Core Behavior Change Strategies to Treat Childhood Obesity, Adult Learning Theory and motivational interviewing techniques guided development of 12 guides targeting strategies parents can use to shape the home environment. Interviews were conducted to determine effectiveness of the guides. Cognitive testing of guide design (n = 251 and content (n = 261 occurred in English and Spanish in New Jersey and Arizona with parents and home visitation staff who would present the guides. Interviews investigated perceptions of content usefulness and parent comprehension. Findings were also examined in light of theoretical underpinnings. Both home visitation staff and parents felt the guides were very readable and useful. Parents appreciated use of motivational interviewing techniques and Adult Learning Theory. Current research is testing these guides through an in-home, randomized control trial.

  1. The effects of Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies Preschool Program on teacher-children relationships and children's social competence in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilir Seyhan, Gamze; Ocak Karabay, Sakire; Arda Tuncdemir, Tugce B; Greenberg, Mark T; Domitrovich, Celene

    2017-05-02

    This quasi-experimental study examined the effects of the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) Preschool Program on the outcomes of children's social-emotional competence, perceived relationships between teacher and children and teachers' ability to create a positive classroom atmosphere. Two hundred and eighty five children (48-72 months) and teachers in Izmir participated in the intervention, and 280 children (48-72 months) and teachers participated as comparison group. Intervention teachers implemented PATHS in their classrooms. For data triangulation, multiple sources of data were collected in the study. Classrooms were observed using two different scales. Teacher rated students using another two different scales. Children were assessed with an interview to evaluate their perceptions of relationships. Intervention group teachers reported greater improvement of children's social-emotional skills, interpersonal relationship skills and emotion regulation. Furthermore, when observed intervention group children showed higher levels of pro-social behaviour, increased levels of compliance, better problem solving skills and more positive feelings. Intervention group children also described their relationships with their teachers as significantly more positively. Finally, intervention group teachers perceived more dependency in their relationships with children. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  2. Mastering of musical rhythm by pre-school age children with speech disorders with the help of dance-correction program trainings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Petrenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that regular listening to specially selected music develops children’s cognitive abilities. Musical influence optimizes many important functions of brain: increases mental workability; accelerates processing of information; improves short term memory. Besides, sensitivity of visual and hearing analyzers strengthens, as well as regulation of arbitrary movements; indicators of verbal and non verbal intellect improve. Purpose: to determine peculiarities of musical rhythm’s mastering by pre-school age children with speech disorders with the help of dance-correction program trainings. Material: the categories of the tested children: children of age - 4-5 and 5-6 years with speech disorders and healthy pre-school age children. Children of 4-5 years’ age composed: main group (n=12, control group (n=16; group of healthy children (n=24. For assessment of verbal thinking and rhythm-motor (or dance abilities we used complex of tests of constantly increasing difficulty. Results: we found that under influence of dance-correcting exercises activation of rhythm-motor abilities and development of cognitive functions happened in children. We also found main functional peculiarities of musical rhythm’s mastering by pre-school age children. It was determined that by the end of pedagogic experiment, main groups of children approached to groups of healthy peers by all tested characteristics. Conclusions: it is recommended to include correcting components (fit ball - dance gymnastic, tales-therapy, logo-rhythm trainings, and game fitness in trainings by choreographic program.

  3. The influence of the program of prophylaxis of flat foot on the biomechanics characteristics of foot of children of pre-school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bychuk I.O.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article is defined linear and angular biomechanics descriptions of children's foot of senior preschool age. It is analysed the dynamics and increase of the explored indexes during realization of the program of prophylaxis of flat foot in the teaching process. In experiment took part teachers and instructors of physical culture; control and experimental group consist of 20 children at the age of 5-6 years old. Efficiency of the offered program of prophylaxis of flat foot is proved.

  4. Justification Paper for Intensified Pre-school and Primary Grade Program Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kenneth G.

    Information presented in this paper was used as a rationale for implementing a developmentally appropriate primary education program in the Redwood City School District, Redwood City, California. The purpose of the paper was to emphasize the need for intensifying the entry level program for students in order to insure a successful school…

  5. 45.2 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PARENT TRAINING AS A TREATMENT FOR PRESCHOOL ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER: A MULTI-CENTER RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF THE NEW FOREST PARENTING PROGRAM IN EVERYDAY CLINICAL PRACTICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Anne-Mette

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Parent training is recommended as first-line treatment for ADHD in preschool children. The New Forest Parenting Programme (NFPP) is an evidence-based parenting program developed specifically to target preschool ADHD. This talk will present fresh results from a multicenter trial designed...... consisted of eight individually delivered parenting sessions where the child attended three of the sessions. Outcomes were examined at three time points as follows: T1, baseline; T2, week 12, postintervention; and T3, 6-month follow-up. Children (N = 165; ages 3–7 years) with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD...... ADHD-Rating Scale (Preschool ADHD-RS) by T2. Secondary outcome measures included the following: effects on this measure at T3; T2 and T3 measures of teacher-reported preschool ADHD-RS scores; parent- and teacher-rated scores on the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire; direct observation of ADHD...

  6. Performance evaluation of the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II for hepatitis C virus genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Yong-Hak; Ko, Sun-Young; Kim, Myeong Hee; Oh, Heung-Bum

    2010-04-01

    The Abbott RealTime hepatitis C virus (HCV) Genotype II (Abbott Molecular Inc.) for HCV genotyping, which uses real-time PCR technology, has recently been developed. Accuracy and sensitivity of detection were assessed using the HCV RNA PHW202 performance panel (SeraCare Life Sciences). Consistency with restriction fragment mass polymorphism (RFMP) data, cross-reactivity with other viruses, and the ability to detect minor strains in mixtures of genotypes 1 and 2 were evaluated using clinical samples. All performance panel viruses were correctly genotyped at levels of >500 IU/mL. Results were 100% concordant with RFMP genotypic data (66/66). However, 5% (3/66) of the samples examined displayed probable genotypic cross reactivity. No cross reactivity with other viruses was evident. Minor strains in the mixtures were not effectively distinguished, even at quantities higher than the detection limit. The Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay was very accurate and yielded results consistent with RFMP data. Although the assay has the advantages of automation and short turnaround time, we suggest that further improvements are necessary before it is used routinely in clinical practice. Efforts are needed to decrease cross reactivity among genotypes and to improve the ability to detect minor genotypes in mixed infections.

  7. Enriched Home Environment Program for Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Divya; Szymanski, Monika; Schranz, Caren

    2015-01-01

    This study discusses the impact of the Enriched Home Environment Program (EHEP) on participation in home activities among two children with ASD using case study methodology. EHEP involves occupational therapists to collaborate with families of children with ASD to educate them about the impact of factors that influence child's participation within…

  8. Competencies Required in Education Research and Teaching Systematization according to Students from the Preschool, Primary and Secondary Education Programs of the University of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alberto Segura-Castillo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the results of two online forums carried out with the participation of 42 students of the Licenciaturas  in Preschool Education, Primary Education and Secondary Education of the University of Costa Rica. The main purpose of the forums was to determine the insights of the participant students about the competencies they have achieved in the field of education research, and which have been the essential tools for them to systematize their own teaching practices. The discussion forums were part of the course FD5091 Métodos de Investigación Educativa [Education Research Methods] of the School of Teacher Education, delivered from March-April 2010.  Of the sample, 60 percent were students of the Preschool teaching program, 35 percent were from the Primary Education teaching program and 5 percent were from the Secondary Education teaching program in the fields of Science, Mathematics and Social Studies. According to the insights and beliefs showed by the participants –both, the future teachers and the profession practitioners–, there are no opportunities for research or systematization of their own teaching mediation, in the current work situation. (1 Translator’s Note: In Costa Rica, the “Licenciatura” is a one-year post-Bachelor study program, usually including thesis. “Primary Education” refers to students from the 1st to 6th grades, and “Secondary Education” refers to students from the 7th to 11th grades.

  9. Evaluation of the Preschool Situational Self-Regulation Toolkit (PRSIST) Program for Supporting children's early self-regulation development: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Steven J; Vasseleu, Elena; Neilsen-Hewett, Cathrine; Cliff, Ken

    2018-01-24

    For children with low self-regulation in the preschool years, the likelihood of poorer intellectual, health, wealth and anti-social outcomes in adulthood is overwhelming. Yet this knowledge has not yielded a framework for understanding self-regulatory change, nor generated particularly successful methods for enacting this change. Reconciling insights from cross-disciplinary theory, research and practice, this study seeks to implement a newly developed program of low-cost and routine practices and activities for supporting early self-regulatory development within preschool contexts and to evaluate its effect on children's self-regulation, executive function and school readiness; and educator perceived knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy related to self-regulation. The Early Start to Self-Regulation study is a cluster randomized, controlled trial for evaluating benefits of the Preschool Situational Self-Regulation Toolkit (PRSIST) program, when implemented by early childhood educators, compared with routine practice. The PRSIST program combines professional learning, adult practices, child activities and connections to the home to support children's self-regulation development. Fifty preschool centers in New South Wales, Australia, will be selected to ensure a range of characteristics, namely: National Quality Standards (NQS) ratings, geographic location and socioeconomic status. After collection of baseline child and educator data, participating centers will then be randomly allocated to one of two groups, stratified by NQS rating: (1) an intervention group (25 centers) that will implement the PRSIST program; or (2) a control group (25 centers) that will continue to engage in practice as usual. Primary outcomes at the child level will be two measures of self-regulation: Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task and the PRSIST observational assessment. Secondary outcomes at the child level will be adult-reported measures of child self-regulation, executive function and

  10. Using focus group results to inform preschool childhood obesity prevention programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Elizabeth L; Collie, Kate R; Fraser, Gertrude; Shufflebarger, Cindy; Lloyd, Bronwyn; Norman Oliver, M

    2006-08-01

    This study about maternal feeding practices and beliefs was conducted as background for the development of a childhood obesity prevention program for multi-ethnic parents in the USA receiving services from a federal government supplemental nutrition program for low-income mothers. Using a grounded theory approach, focus groups were conducted with low-income African American, white non-Hispanic (i.e. the majority Caucasian American population), Hispanic and Vietnamese parents to collect cross-cultural perspectives on: (a) infant and child feeding practices, (b) childhood overweight, (c) healthy dietary intake, (d) physical activity and inactivity, and (e) infant feeding information sources. A content analysis of the data yielded three main themes common to all four groups: (a) lack of awareness of the relationship between increased physical activity and health, (b) the use of food to influence behavior, and (c) the loss of parental control over feeding when a child starts child care or school, and revealed perspectives on age-appropriate food, infant satiety, overweight and information sources that were specific to each group. Interventions that enhance parent self-efficacy that build on themes that are specific to ethnic groups toward preventing childhood obesity are needed. There is also a need for culturally appropriate information for governmental nutrition programs that is in the client's own language and takes into account ethnic differences in beliefs and traditions.

  11. Eligiendo un Programa: Guia para los padres de infantes y pre-escolares con incapacidades visuales (Selecting a Program: A Guide for Parents of Infants & Preschoolers with Visual Impairments).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Deborah; McCann, Mary Ellen

    Translated into Spanish, this booklet is intended for parents of infants and preschoolers with visual impairments or blindness. The guide focuses on the parent's role in selecting an appropriate program and helping the child make a positive transition into the program. The first section looks at feelings about transitions and positive steps…

  12. Effect of the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program on Motor Skills and Self-Regulation in Head Start Preschoolers: An Efficacy Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Leah E.; Palmer, Kara K.; Bub, Kristen L.

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulatory skills are broadly defined as the ability to manage emotions, focus attention, and inhibit some behaviors while activating others in accordance with social expectations and are an established indicator of academic success. Growing evidence links motor skills and physical activity to self-regulation. This study examined the efficacy of a motor skills intervention (i.e., the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program, CHAMP) that is theoretically grounded in Achievement Goal Theory on motor skill performance and self-regulation in Head Start preschoolers. A sample of 113 Head Start preschoolers (Mage = 51.91 ± 6.5 months; 49.5% males) were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 68) or control (n = 45) program. CHAMP participants engaged in 15, 40-min sessions of a mastery climate intervention that focused on the development of motor skills over 5 weeks while control participants engaged in their normal outdoor recess period. The Delay of Gratification Snack Task was used to measure self-regulation and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition was used to assess motor skills. All measures were assessed prior to and following the intervention. Linear mixed models were fit for both self-regulation and motor skills. Results revealed a significant time × treatment interaction (p self-regulation scores across time, while children in the control group scored significantly lower than the CHAMP group at the posttest (p self-regulation). This efficacy trial provided evidence that CHAMP helped maintain delay of gratification in preschool age children and significantly improved motor skills while participating in outdoor recess was not effective. CHAMP could help contribute to children’s learning-related skills and physical development and subsequently to their academic success. PMID:27660751

  13. Enriching Preschool Classrooms and Home Visits with Evidence-Based Programming: Sustained Benefits for Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Karen L.; Heinrichs, Brenda S.; Welsh, Janet A.; Nix, Robert L.; Gest, Scott D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Growing up in poverty undermines healthy development, producing disparities in the cognitive and social-emotional skills that support early learning and mental health. Preschool and home-visiting interventions for low-income children have the potential to build early cognitive and social-emotional skills, reducing the disparities in…

  14. Mandarin Chinese Immersion Program for Preschool Children in an Urban Private School in California: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    This study enlisted language immersion practitioners in highlighting and exploring the issues and challenges that accompany language immersion education. Comprehensive focused personal interviews of preschool Mandarin Chinese language immersion educators in a private school provided the basis of the study. The research literature reviewed…

  15. Effect of the Children's Health Activity Motor Program on Motor Skills and Self-Regulation in Head Start Preschoolers: An Efficacy Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Leah E; Palmer, Kara K; Bub, Kristen L

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulatory skills are broadly defined as the ability to manage emotions, focus attention, and inhibit some behaviors while activating others in accordance with social expectations and are an established indicator of academic success. Growing evidence links motor skills and physical activity to self-regulation. This study examined the efficacy of a motor skills intervention (i.e., the Children's Health Activity Motor Program, CHAMP) that is theoretically grounded in Achievement Goal Theory on motor skill performance and self-regulation in Head Start preschoolers. A sample of 113 Head Start preschoolers (Mage = 51.91 ± 6.5 months; 49.5% males) were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 68) or control (n = 45) program. CHAMP participants engaged in 15, 40-min sessions of a mastery climate intervention that focused on the development of motor skills over 5 weeks while control participants engaged in their normal outdoor recess period. The Delay of Gratification Snack Task was used to measure self-regulation and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition was used to assess motor skills. All measures were assessed prior to and following the intervention. Linear mixed models were fit for both self-regulation and motor skills. Results revealed a significant time × treatment interaction (p recess was not effective. CHAMP could help contribute to children's learning-related skills and physical development and subsequently to their academic success.

  16. The High/Scope Perry Preschool Study: A Case Study in Random Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinhart, Lawrence J.

    2000-01-01

    Studied the long-term benefits of preschool programs for young children living in poverty in the High/Scope Perry Preschool Study, which examined the lives of 123 African Americans randomly divided into a preschool treatment group and a no-preschool comparison group. Cost-benefit analyses of data on these students to age 27 show beneficial effects…

  17. Facilitating Preschool Learning and Movement through Dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Lasa, Riolama; Ideishi, Roger I.; Ideishi, Siobhan K.

    2007-01-01

    A preschool movement through dance program is a way to open the door to numerous cultural benefits and opportunities, and preschool skill facilitation. Creating new contexts for learning enrich young children and offer them different opportunities to understand and negotiate the world. Inclusive curricular integration and parent and community…

  18. Clinical utility of Abbott Precision Xceed Pro® ketone meter in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hoi-Ying Elsie; Agus, Michael; Kellogg, Mark D

    2011-11-01

    Diagnosis and management of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) often rely on the measurement of urine ketones along with blood glucose, anion gap, and pH. These values, however, do not reliably reflect the severity of ketoacidosis. The Abbott Precision Xceed Pro® meter is an FDA-approved device that quantitatively measures β-hydroxybutyrate (BOH) in whole blood. This study was undertaken to determine whether the ketone meter meets the analytical criteria to aid DKA diagnosis and management in the hospital. 54 heparinized venous whole blood BOH concentrations from 27 diabetic patients were measured by the Abbott meter, and compared with the plasma BOH concentrations measured with Stanbio reagent (reference method). Measurements were done in the hospital central laboratory. Of the 54 pairs of specimens analyzed, 17 pairs displayed a difference of >15% between the two methods. Nearly all discrepant points occurred when BOH >5 mmol/L (reference method). Linearity evaluation revealed that the meter is not linear from 0.0 to 8.0 mmol/L, contrary to the claim by the manufacturer. Further, we identified acetoacetate, a metabolite commonly present in DKA patients, as a potential interfering substance for the meter BOH measurement. BOH measurements by the Abbott meter up to 3 mmol/L correlate well with the reference method, but become discrepant above that point. While this characteristic may be useful in the diagnosis of DKA, it may not allow clinicians to serially follow the response to therapy in hospitalized DKA patients with BOH values greater than 5 mmol/L (reference method). © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Reducing visual deficits caused by refractive errors in school and preschool children: results of a pilot school program in the Andean region of Apurimac, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Arteaga, Sergio; Gil-González, Diana; Enciso, Olga; Phelan, Aoife; García-Muñoz, Angel; Kohler, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Refractive error is defined as the inability of the eye to bring parallel rays of light into focus on the retina, resulting in nearsightedness (myopia), farsightedness (Hyperopia) or astigmatism. Uncorrected refractive error in children is associated with increased morbidity and reduced educational opportunities. Vision screening (VS) is a method for identifying children with visual impairment or eye conditions likely to lead to visual impairment. To analyze the utility of vision screening conducted by teachers and to contribute to a better estimation of the prevalence of childhood refractive errors in Apurimac, Peru. Design : A pilot vision screening program in preschool (Group I) and elementary school children (Group II) was conducted with the participation of 26 trained teachers. Children whose visual acuity wasrefractive error were calculated against clinical examination. Program assessment with participants was conducted to evaluate outcomes and procedures. A total sample of 364 children aged 3-11 were screened; 45 children were examined at Centro Oftalmológico Monseñor Enrique Pelach (COMEP) Eye Hospital. Prevalence of refractive error was 6.2% (Group I) and 6.9% (Group II); specificity of teacher vision screening was 95.8% and 93.0%, while positive predictive value was 59.1% and 47.8% for each group, respectively. Aspects highlighted to improve the program included extending training, increasing parental involvement, and helping referred children to attend the hospital. Prevalence of refractive error in children is significant in the region. Vision screening performed by trained teachers is a valid intervention for early detection of refractive error, including screening of preschool children. Program sustainability and improvements in education and quality of life resulting from childhood vision screening require further research.

  20. John Tracy Clinic: Programa de Ensenanza por Correspondencia para Los Padres de Ninos Sordo-Ciegos de Edad Preescolar (John Tracy Clinic Correspondence Learning Program for Parents of Preschool Deaf-Blind Children).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielman, Virginia B.; And Others

    Written in Spanish, the document contains a correspondence learning program for parents of deaf blind preschoolers. An introductory section gives preliminary instructions, an introduction to sign language, and a list of resources for deaf blind children. Twelve lessons follow with information on: the parent's role in teaching the child, visual…

  1. Children and Caregivers' Exposure to Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACES): Association with Children's and Caregivers' Psychological Outcomes in a Therapeutic Preschool Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Yair; Sofri, Inbar; Capps Umphlet, Kristen L; Olarte, Stephanie; Venza, Jimmy

    2018-03-31

    Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACE) has been found to have a profound negative impact on multiple child outcomes, including academic achievement, social cognition patterns, and behavioral adjustment. However, these links have yet to be examined in preschool children that are already experiencing behavior or social-emotional problems. Thus, the present study examined the links between the caregiver's and the child's exposure to ACE and multiple child and caregiver's outcomes in a sample of 30 preschool children enrolled in a Therapeutic Nursery Program (TNP). Children are typically referred to this TNP due to significant delays in their social emotional development that often result in difficulty functioning in typical childcare, home, and community settings. Analyses revealed some contradictory patterns that may be specific to this clinical sample. Children with higher exposure to ACE showed more biased social information processing patterns and their caregivers reported lower child social skills than caregivers of children with less exposure, however their inhibitory control levels were higher (better control) and staff reported that these children exhibited better social skills as well as better approaches to learning than children with less exposure. No such contradictions were found in relation to the caregiver's exposure to ACE, as it was positively associated with a number of negative child and caregiver outcomes.

  2. Children and Caregivers’ Exposure to Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACES: Association with Children’s and Caregivers’ Psychological Outcomes in a Therapeutic Preschool Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Ziv

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACE has been found to have a profound negative impact on multiple child outcomes, including academic achievement, social cognition patterns, and behavioral adjustment. However, these links have yet to be examined in preschool children that are already experiencing behavior or social-emotional problems. Thus, the present study examined the links between the caregiver’s and the child’s exposure to ACE and multiple child and caregiver’s outcomes in a sample of 30 preschool children enrolled in a Therapeutic Nursery Program (TNP. Children are typically referred to this TNP due to significant delays in their social emotional development that often result in difficulty functioning in typical childcare, home, and community settings. Analyses revealed some contradictory patterns that may be specific to this clinical sample. Children with higher exposure to ACE showed more biased social information processing patterns and their caregivers reported lower child social skills than caregivers of children with less exposure, however their inhibitory control levels were higher (better control and staff reported that these children exhibited better social skills as well as better approaches to learning than children with less exposure. No such contradictions were found in relation to the caregiver’s exposure to ACE, as it was positively associated with a number of negative child and caregiver outcomes.

  3. Para Candidatos en Programas de Centros de Cuidado y Educacion Infantil con Ninos de Edad Pre-escolar: Asociado en Desarrollo Infantil Sistema de Evaluacion y Normas de Competencia CDA (Preschool Caregivers in Center-Based Programs: The Child Development Associate Assessment System and Competency Standards).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, Washington, DC.

    This Spanish-language booklet outlines the requirements of the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential for preschool teachers or caregivers who work in center-based preschool day care programs. Part 1 provides an overview of the CDA credentialing system and the various options, settings, standards, and stages of the CDA assessment system.…

  4. Evaluation of procalcitonin assay on the Abbott Architect i2000 SR® analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mouatani, Ahmed; Rotaru, Irina; Beaudeux, Jean-Louis; Hennequin, Carole

    2018-04-05

    Procalcitonin (PCT) is a useful biomarker for the diagnosis of bacterial infection. Its measurement is used routinely as a valuable tool for antibiotic treatment decision. The aim of this study is to assess the analytical performance of the new Architect Brahms PCT® reagents on the Abbott Architect i2000-SR® immuno-analyzer. The Architect PCT® assay was evaluated according to the modified SFBC protocol, in accordance with the NF EN ISO 15189 standard. Sixty two samples from patients hospitalized in Necker Hospital (Paris) have been tested with the evaluated method, and results were compared to those of the PCT Kryptor Brahms® method. Analytical performances tested complied with those announced by the manufacturer. Linear regression showed a strong correlation between the two methods (r >0.99), despite a tendency for overestimation by the new method (y=1.10 x +0.05). Bland-Altman plots confirmed this strong correlation by showing only two points outside the acceptable limits without clinical incidence, given the high PCT concentrations (over 10 ng/mL) in those samples. In conclusion, the new PCT assay on the Abbott Architect i2000-SR® shows excellent analytical performances, even at low concentrations. A slight positive bias compared to the Brahms Kryptor® was observed, but did not lead to inappropriate clinical decisions.

  5. Effect of the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program on Motor Skills and Self-Regulation in Head Start Preschoolers: An Efficacy Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Elizabeth Robinson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulatory skills are broadly defined as the ability to manage emotions, focus attention, and inhibit some behaviors while activating others in accordance with social expectations and are an established indicator of academic success. Growing evidence links motor skills and physical activity to self-regulation. This study examined the efficacy of a motor skills intervention (i.e., the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program, CHAMP that is theoretically grounded in Achievement Goal Theory on motor skill performance and self-regulation in Head Start preschoolers. A sample of 113 Head Start preschoolers (Mage = 51.91 + 6.5 months; 49.5% males were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 68 or control (n = 45 program. CHAMP participants engaged in 15, 40-minute sessions of a mastery climate intervention that focused on the development of motor skills over 5 weeks while control participants engaged in their normal outdoor recess period. The Delay of Gratification Snack Task was used to measure self-regulation and the Test of Gross Motor Development - 2nd Edition was used to assess motor skills. All measures were assessed prior to and following the intervention. Linear mixed models were fit for both self-regulation and motor skills. Results revealed a significant time*treatment interaction (p < .001. In regards to motor skills, post hoc comparisons found that all children improved their motor skills (p < .05, but the CHAMP group improved significantly more than the control group (p < .001. Children in CHAMP maintained their self-regulation scores across time while children in the control group scored significantly lower than the CHAMP group at the posttest (p < .05. CHAMP is a mastery climate movement program that may be an approach to enhance skills associated with healthy development in children (i.e., motor skills and self-regulation. This efficacy trial provided evidence that CHAMP helped maintain delay of gratification in preschool age

  6. A Pilot Study of a 6-Week Parenting Program for Mothers of Pre-school Children Attending Family Health Centers in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Khowaja

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Recently, parenting programs to address behavioural and emotional problems associated with child maltreatment in developing countries have received much attention. There is a paucity of literature on effective parent education interventions in the local context of Pakistan. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of offering a 6-week parenting program for mothers of pre-school children attending family health centres (FHCs in Karachi, the largest metropolitan city of Pakistan. Methods A pilot quasi-experimental trial was conducted. Two FHCs were selected, one as the intervention and the second as the control. A total of 57 mothers of pre-school children (n = 30 intervention; n = 27 control participated in this study. Mothers in the intervention group received SOS Help for parents module, while mothers in the control group received information about routine childcare. A parenting scale (PS was administered before the program was implemented and repeated 2 weeks after the program was completed in both groups. Statistical analysis was performed to compare participants’ attributes. Descriptive analysis was conducted to compare pre- and post-test mean scores along with standard deviation for parenting subscales in the intervention and control groups. Results A total of 50 mothers (n = 25 intervention; n = 25 control completed the 6-week program. Attrition was observed as 5/30 (17% in the intervention arm and 2/27 (2% in the control arm. Mothers commonly reported the burden of daily domestic and social responsibilities as the main reason for dropping out. Furthermore, the majority of participants in the control group recommended increasing the duration of weekly sessions from 1 to 1.5 hours, thereby decreasing the program period from 6 to 4 weeks. Mothers in intervention group reported substantial improvement in parenting skills as indicated by mean difference in their pre- and post-test scores for laxness and over

  7. Multicenter evaluation of the new Abbott RealTime assays for quantitative detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and hepatitis C virus RNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, M.; Peters, D.; Back, N. K. T.; Beld, M.; Beuselinck, K.; Foulongne, V.; Geretti, A.-M.; Pandiani, L.; Tiemann, C.; Niesters, H. G. M.

    2007-01-01

    The analytical performances of the new Abbott RealTime hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load assays were compared at nine laboratories with different competitor assays. These included the Abbott LcX, Bayer Versant bDNA, Roche COBAS Amplicor, and Roche COBAS

  8. Multicenter evaluation of the new Abbott RealTime assays for quantitative detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and hepatitis C virus RNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Martin; Peters, D; Back, N K T; Beld, M; Beuselinck, K; Foulongne, V; Geretti, A-M; Pandiani, L; Tiemann, C; Niesters, H G M

    The analytical performances of the new Abbott RealTime hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load assays were compared at nine laboratories with different competitor assays. These included the Abbott LcX, Bayer Versant bDNA, Roche COBAS Amplicor, and Roche COBAS

  9. Who Goes to Preschool and Why Does It Matter? Preschool Policy Brief. Issue 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, W. Steven; Yarosz, Donald J.

    2007-01-01

    In a world shaped by global competition, preschool education programs play an increasingly vital role in child development and school readiness. There is growing awareness that early learning's impacts persist across children's life spans, affecting educational achievement, adult earning and even crime and delinquency. Preschool education is…

  10. Comparison of the Abbott Realtime HIV-1 and HCV viral load assays with commercial competitor assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutten, Martin

    2008-07-01

    The introduction of commercially available quantitative HIV-1 RNA detection methods at the end of the last century has had a significant impact on the management of patients requiring treatment. Similarly for hepatitis C virus (HCV), clinical decision-making with respect to initiation and prolonging therapy is largely based on data from viral load assays. The methods developed in the early 1990s and further improved since then still have significant drawbacks. For example, they are labor intensive, have a small dynamic range and are contamination sensitive. The development of real-time detection techniques for reverse transcription PCR has in part solved these problems. In the present review the advantages and disadvantages of the recently marketed Abbott Realtime HCV and HIV-1 viral load assays relative to their competitors will be discussed.

  11. Problems of computerization in the brunch of preschool education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podolyaka А.Е.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of computer technologies was probed in preschool education. 27 pedagogical workers of child's preschool establishments took part in research. The differentiated approach is rotined in the selection of facilities of physical education of children of preschool age. The basic requirements are selected to the computer programs. Found out disparity between enhanceable demand on the computer programs and their introduction in an educational educate process. Multilevel classification and sequence is set in the selection of mobile games.

  12. Learnings from Compensatory, Preschool Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J. McVicker

    This paper presents a discussion of the value of compensatory education for preschool children from poor and uneducated families, focusing on knowledge gained from 12 years of experience with compensatory programs in the United States. The development of Project Head Start is described, and the role of behavioral science research in the…

  13. Why Preschoolers Need Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Rae

    2011-01-01

    NAEYC, the National Association for Sport and Physical Education, and the US Department of Health and Human Services all recommend that preschool programs offer physical education. There are many reasons why. First, young children form healthy habits early in life. Before entering elementary school they learn to brush their teeth, bathe…

  14. Evaluating lubricating capacity of vegetal oils using Abbott-Firestone curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, C.; Cristea, G. C.; Dima, C.; Deleanu, L.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the change of functional parameters defined on the Abbott-Firestone curve in order to evaluate the surface quality of the balls from the four ball tester, after tests done with several vegetable oils. The tests were done using two grades of rapeseed oil (degummed and refined) and two grades of soybean oil (coarse and degummed) and a common transmission oil (T90). Test parameters were 200 N and 0.576 m/s (1500 rpm) for 60 minutes. For the refined rapeseed oil, the changes in shape of the Abbott-Firestone curves are more dramatic, these being characterized by high values of Spk (the average value for the wear scars on the three balls), thus being 40% of the sum Svk + Sk + Spk, percentage also obtained for the soybean oil, but the value Spk being lower. For the degummed soybean oil, the profile height of the wear scars are taller than those obtained after testing the coarse soybean oil, meaning that the degumming process has a negative influence on the worn surface quality and the lubricating capacity of this oil. Comparing the surface quality of the wear scars on fixed tested balls is a reliable method to point out the lubricant properties of the vegetable oils, especially if they are compared to a “classical” lubricant as a non-additivated transmission mineral oil T90. The best surface after testing was obtained for the soybean oil, followed by T90 oil and the degummed grades of the soybean oil and rapeseed oil (these three giving very close values for the functional parameters), but the refined rapeseed oil generated the poorest quality of the wear scars on the balls, under the same testing conditions.

  15. Reducing visual deficits caused by refractive errors in school and preschool children: results of a pilot school program in the Andean region of Apurimac, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Latorre-Arteaga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Refractive error is defined as the inability of the eye to bring parallel rays of light into focus on the retina, resulting in nearsightedness (myopia, farsightedness (Hyperopia or astigmatism. Uncorrected refractive error in children is associated with increased morbidity and reduced educational opportunities. Vision screening (VS is a method for identifying children with visual impairment or eye conditions likely to lead to visual impairment. Objective: To analyze the utility of vision screening conducted by teachers and to contribute to a better estimation of the prevalence of childhood refractive errors in Apurimac, Peru. Design: A pilot vision screening program in preschool (Group I and elementary school children (Group II was conducted with the participation of 26 trained teachers. Children whose visual acuity was<6/9 [20/30] (Group I and≤6/9 (Group II in one or both eyes, measured with the Snellen Tumbling E chart at 6 m, were referred for a comprehensive eye exam. Specificity and positive predictive value to detect refractive error were calculated against clinical examination. Program assessment with participants was conducted to evaluate outcomes and procedures. Results: A total sample of 364 children aged 3–11 were screened; 45 children were examined at Centro Oftalmológico Monseñor Enrique Pelach (COMEP Eye Hospital. Prevalence of refractive error was 6.2% (Group I and 6.9% (Group II; specificity of teacher vision screening was 95.8% and 93.0%, while positive predictive value was 59.1% and 47.8% for each group, respectively. Aspects highlighted to improve the program included extending training, increasing parental involvement, and helping referred children to attend the hospital. Conclusion: Prevalence of refractive error in children is significant in the region. Vision screening performed by trained teachers is a valid intervention for early detection of refractive error, including screening of preschool children

  16. Evaluation of the Abbott realtime HCV genotype II RUO (GT II) assay with reference to 5'UTR, core and NS5B sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Melanie A; Lucic, Danijela X; Sears, Mitchell T; Cloherty, Gavin A; Hillyard, David R

    2014-05-01

    HCV genotyping is a critical tool for guiding initiation of therapy and selecting the most appropriate treatment regimen. To evaluate the concordance between the Abbott GT II assay and genotyping by sequencing subregions of the HCV 5'UTR, core and NS5B. The Abbott assay was used to genotype 127 routine patient specimens and 35 patient specimens with unusual subtypes and mixed infection. Abbott results were compared to genotyping by 5'UTR, core and NS5B sequencing. Sequences were genotyped using the NCBI non-redundant database and the online genotyping tool COMET. Among routine specimens, core/NS5B sequencing identified 93 genotype 1s, 13 genotype 2s, 15 genotype 3s, three genotype 4s, two genotype 6s and one recombinant specimen. Genotype calls by 5'UTR, core, NS5B sequencing and the Abbott assay were 97.6% concordant. Core/NS5B sequencing identified two discrepant samples as genotype 6 (subtypes 6l and 6u) while Abbott and 5'UTR sequencing identified these samples as genotype 1 with no subtype. The Abbott assay subtyped 91.4% of genotype 1 specimens. Among the 35 rare specimens, the Abbott assay inaccurately genotyped 3k, 6e, 6o, 6q and one genotype 4 variant; gave indeterminate results for 3g, 3h, 4r, 6m, 6n, and 6q specimens; and agreed with core/NS5B sequencing for mixed specimens. The Abbott assay is an automated HCV genotyping method with improved accuracy over 5'UTR sequencing. Samples identified by the Abbott assay as genotype 1 with no subtype may be rare subtypes of other genotypes and thus require confirmation by another method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Smartphone App for Families With Preschool-Aged Children in a Public Nutrition Program: Prototype Development and Beta-Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Pamela; Emerson, Janice S; Quirk, Meghan E; Canedo, Juan R; Jones, Jessica L; Vylegzhanina, Violetta; Schmidt, Douglas C; Mulvaney, Shelagh A; Beech, Bettina M; Briley, Chiquita; Harris, Calvin; Husaini, Baqar A

    2017-08-02

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in the United States provides free supplemental food and nutrition education to low-income mothers and children under age 5 years. Childhood obesity prevalence is higher among preschool children in the WIC program compared to other children, and WIC improves dietary quality among low-income children. The Children Eating Well (CHEW) smartphone app was developed in English and Spanish for WIC-participating families with preschool-aged children as a home-based intervention to reinforce WIC nutrition education and help prevent childhood obesity. This paper describes the development and beta-testing of the CHEW smartphone app. The objective of beta-testing was to test the CHEW app prototype with target users, focusing on usage, usability, and perceived barriers and benefits of the app. The goals of the CHEW app were to make the WIC shopping experience easier, maximize WIC benefit redemption, and improve parent snack feeding practices. The CHEW app prototype consisted of WIC Shopping Tools, including a barcode scanner and calculator tools for the cash value voucher for purchasing fruits and vegetables, and nutrition education focused on healthy snacks and beverages, including a Yummy Snack Gallery and Healthy Snacking Tips. Mothers of 63 black and Hispanic WIC-participating children ages 2 to 4 years tested the CHEW app prototype for 3 months and completed follow-up interviews. Study participants testing the app for 3 months used the app on average once a week for approximately 4 and a half minutes per session, although substantial variation was observed. Usage of specific features averaged at 1 to 2 times per month for shopping-related activities and 2 to 4 times per month for the snack gallery. Mothers classified as users rated the app's WIC Shopping Tools relatively high on usability and benefits, although variation in scores and qualitative feedback highlighted several barriers that

  18. Research-Based Options for Education Policymaking: Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, William

    2012-01-01

    Publicly supported, high-quality preschool education is among the most successful and well-documented of education reforms. There is near-universal agreement that high-quality preschool programs more than pay for themselves in economic and social benefits. Program quality is absolutely critical. While no one factor can be considered determinative,…

  19. Preschool professionals' (self)perception of competency and attitudes in the field of team work with children with special needs

    OpenAIRE

    Rozman, Katjuša

    2017-01-01

    Preschool period is very important for children's growth. Preschool period is also important for children with special needs, because we need to discover their problems, disabilities or obstacles as soon as possible. In Slovenia preschool children with special needs are divided in one of the three different educational programs definite by law. In ordinary preschool program they carry out special program for children with special needs. This special program has extra professional assistance, ...

  20. Does Pre-School Education Matter? Understanding the Lived Experiences of Parents and Their Perceptions of Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manigo, Catrina; Allison, Rinyka

    2017-01-01

    According to the United States Department of Education, approximately 4,172,347 four-year-olds are eligible to attend publicly funded preschool programs. Of this number, only 1,709,607 of those eligible are enrolled in a publicly funded preschool program (U.S. Department of Education, 2014). Because of a lack of quantitative and qualitative data…

  1. Impact of requiring influenza vaccination for children in licensed child care or preschool programs--Connecticut, 2012-13 influenza season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadler, James L; Yousey-Hindes, Kimberly; Kudish, Kathy; Kennedy, Erin D; Sacco, Vincent; Cartter, Matthew L

    2014-03-07

    Preschool-aged children are at increased risk for severe influenza-related illness and complications. Congregate child care settings facilitate influenza transmission among susceptible children. To protect against influenza transmission in these settings, in September 2010, Connecticut became the second U.S. state (after New Jersey) to implement regulations requiring that all children aged 6-59 months receive at least 1 dose of influenza vaccine each year to attend a licensed child care program. To evaluate the impact of this regulation on vaccination levels and influenza-associated hospitalizations during the 2012-13 influenza season, vaccination data from U.S. and Connecticut surveys and the Emerging Infections Program (EIP) were analyzed. After the regulation took effect, vaccination rates among Connecticut children aged 6-59 months increased from 67.8% during the 2009-10 influenza season to 84.1% during the 2012-13 season. During the 2012-13 influenza season, among all 11 EIP surveillance sites, Connecticut had the greatest percentage decrease (12%) in the influenza-associated hospitalization rate from 2007-08 among children aged ≤4 years. Additionally, the ratio of the influenza-associated hospitalization rates among children aged ≤4 years to the overall population rate (0.53) was lower than for any other EIP site. Requiring vaccination for child care admission might have helped to increase vaccination rates in Connecticut and reduced serious morbidity from influenza.

  2. Dotyophycus pacificum I. A. Abbott (Liagoraceae, Rhodophyta a new record for the Atlantic Ocean Dotyophycus pacificum Abbott (Liagoraceae, Rhodophyta nova referência para o oceano Atlântico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos de Castro Nunes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Dotyophycus pacificum I. A. Abbott were found during a survey of Rhodophyta on the coast of Bahia state. The samples were taken from 23-36 meters depth and the specimens found were studied in detail and compared to other morphologically similar species. This is the first time that the genus Dotyophycus is cited for the Atlantic Ocean.Durante estudo sobre as rodofíceas do litoral do estado da Bahia foram encontrados exemplares de Dotyophycus pacificum Abbott em coletas realizadas a 23-36 metros de profundidade. Os espécimes foram estudados detalhadamente e comparados a espécies morfologicamente semelhantes. Esta é a primeira ocorrência de D. pacificum para o oceano Atlântico.

  3. The Traditional in Contemporary Curricula of Preschool Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopas-Vukašinović Emina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary curricula of preschool education are the result of the improvement of pedagogical and didactic theories. They imply a technical plan with which it is possible to achieve measurable objectives of preschool education. The curriculum is also defined as a tool for quality and equal education for all. It represents a reflection of the time, society and culture in which it exists, but also a model for future society and education. Thus an important research question arises as to what extent we recognize traditional ideas about learning and the development of a preschool child in contemporary preschool programs. Are traditional ideas about educating young children unjustly neglected or do we recognize them in contemporary pedagogical theory even today, at the same time forgetting about the past and declaring them innovations? This paper deals with the starting points for the development of a curriculum. The goal of the research was to determine to what extent can the starting points for the development of preschool children, which have existed in the first preschool programs in Serbia in the late 19th century, be recognized in contemporary preschool programs. A descriptive method was applied as well as a procedure for content analysis of program documents. Research results confirm that the elements of the first preschool programs, which remain relevant until today, can be recognized in contemporary preschool programs. They are related to target orientations, principles and functions of preschool education. However, these ideas are defined as contemporary tendencies, and the fact that they existed in preschool programs that were developed a long time ago is unjustly ignored.

  4. QUALITY MANAGEMENT OF PRESCHOOL EDUCATION IN THE CONDITIONS OF FSED PE (FEDERAL STATE EDDUCATIONAL STANDART OF PRESCHOOL EDUCATION REALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Vasilevna Timoshenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the research results of ensuring the education problems quality of preschool age children in the conditions of preschool education system modernization: Federal state educational standard of preschool education realization (FSED PE.The article discusses the concept of education quality in relation to the early childhood education: as the normative level, which corresponds to the quality of individual child deve-lopment preschool; and as the quality of the pedagogical process and the environment in which it is performed, quality of training, technology, financial and material conditions, the quality of management.It is established that the technology of preschool education quality management is ensured by the implementation of the following management stages:- quality management definitions the goals and objectives of education in the preschool educational agency;- quality management of the selection of programs, technologies;- quality management design and planning of the whole pedagogical process in the preschool educational agency;- quality control monitoring of preschool education.It was revealed that modern teachers experience difficulties in the development and quality implementation of the Basic educational program of preschool education. In this connection, the role of methodological work with preschool educational agency teachers based on certain levels of their professional competence.

  5. "Dora the Explorer": Preschool Geographic Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, James R.

    2008-01-01

    "Dora the Explorer" is a twenty-three-minute television program for preschoolers viewed by millions every day in many countries. These programs are also marketed as videotapes and DVDs. This seven-year-old Latina, bilingual cartoon character teaches many things by interacting with the young viewers. On every program Dora and friends have to go…

  6. Premios Academia Nacional de Medicina deColombia – LABORATORIOS ABBOTT 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Jácome Roca

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    La Academia Nacional de Medicina con la colaboración de Laboratorios Abbott otorgó en noviembre de 2011 la quinta versión del Premio a las Ciencias Médicas, uno en las áreas de ciencias médicas y experimentales y otro en el área de ciencias clínicas. Presentamos aquí algunas notas sobre los trabajos ganadores y los que obtuvieron menciones honoríficas

    El Premio en el área de las Ciencias Básicas lo obtuvieron Carlos Vélez Pardo y Marlene Jiménez del Río, profesores del Grupo de Neurociencias de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Antioquia en Medellín. El trabajo ganador se tituló: “MECANISMOS MOLECULARES DE PÉRDIDA NEURONAL Y DE CITOPROTECCIÓN EN MODE-LOS IN VITRO E IN VIVO DE LA ENFERMEDAD DE ALZHEIMER Y PARKINSON” [1,2].

  7. Analytical and Clinical Performance Evaluation of the Abbott Architect PIVKA Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Dae-Hyun; Hyun, Jungwon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Min-Jeong; Kim, Jae-Seok; Park, Ji-Young; Shin, Dong Hoon; Cho, Hyoun Chan

    2018-01-01

    Protein induced by vitamin K absence (PIVKA) is measured using various assays and is used to help diagnose hepatocellular carcinoma. The present study evaluated the analytical and clinical performances of the recently released Abbott Architect PIVKA assay. Precision, linearity, and correlation tests were performed in accordance with the Clinical Laboratory Standardization Institute guidelines. Sample type suitability was assessed using serum and plasma samples from the same patients, and the reference interval was established using sera from 204 healthy individuals. The assay had coefficients of variation of 3.2-3.5% and intra-laboratory variation of 3.6-5.5%. Linearity was confirmed across the entire measurable range. The Architect PIVKA assay was comparable to the Lumipulse PIVKA assay, and the plasma and serum samples provided similar results. The lower reference limit was 13.0 mAU/mL and the upper reference limit was 37.4 mAU/mL. The ability of the Architect PIVKA assay to detect hepatocellular carcinoma was comparable to that of the alpha-fetoprotein test and the Lumipulse PIVKA assay. The Architect PIVKA assay provides excellent analytical and clinical performance, is simple for clinical laboratories to adopt, and has improved sample type suitability that could broaden the assay's utility. © 2018 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  8. Improving Behavior with Preschool Consultation: A Pilot Study of the TOTS Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoey, Kara E.; Rispoli, Kristin; Schneider, Dana L.; Clark, Barbara; Portz Novak, Kandi J.

    2013-01-01

    Preschool children may exhibit a range of problematic behaviors that may impede development and disrupt classroom functioning. As a result, preschool children are often expelled from programs when behavioral issues cannot be adequately addressed. Preschool behavioral consultation serves as a promising alternative to expulsion, as consultants can…

  9. Preschool literacy and second language learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars

    Preschool literacy and second language learners Lars Holm In order to understand literacy and language in education it is no longer enough to direct research attention to schools and universities. In the Nordic countries, preschools have become important arenas for numerous political initiatives...... (programs and concepts) intended to improve pre-school children’s literacy and language skills. Seen in a knowledge-society perspective the development might be characterized as an expansion of a life-long-learning evidence-based strategy into early childhood. The importance of development of early...... in the literacy events they meet in their day-care centers and kindergartens? Examining these social practices in pre-schools might illuminate the interplay between language and literacy and the learning processes of second language learners and contribute to the discussion about the need for re...

  10. Experimental Impacts of a Teacher Professional Development Program in Chile on Preschool Classroom Quality and Child Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Leyva, Diana; Snow, Catherine E.; Treviño, Ernesto; Barata, M. Clara; Weiland, Christina; Gomez, Celia J.; Moreno, Lorenzo; Rolla, Andrea; D'Sa, Nikhit; Arbour, Mary Catherine

    2015-01-01

    We assessed impacts on classroom quality and on 5 child language and behavioral outcomes of a 2-year teacher professional-development program for publicly funded prekindergarten and kindergarten in Chile. This cluster-randomized trial included 64 schools (child N = 1,876). The program incorporated workshops and in-classroom coaching. We found…

  11. Two-Year Impact of a Mindfulness-Based Program on Preschoolers' Self-Regulation and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Karen L.; Bryant, Heather L.; Nobles, Sandra Speegle; Norris, Karen S.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Students experienced a mindfulness program designed to enhance their self-regulation in prekindergarten and kindergarten. At the end of the 1st year of the program, these students showed improvements in teacher-reported executive function skills, specifically related to working memory and planning and organizing, whereas…

  12. The Source of Child Care Center Preschool Learning and Program Standards: Implications for Potential Early Learning Challenge Fund Grantees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Debra J.; Sansanelli, Rachel A.

    2010-01-01

    The proposed federal Early Learning Challenge Fund (ELCF) aims to improve the quality of early care and education programs by promoting the integration of more stringent program and early learning standards than are typically found in child care centers. ELCF grantees also must outline their plans for professional development and technical…

  13. A Comparison of the Cognitive Development of 3-6 Year-Old Children Who Receive Family-Supported Preschool Education, Institutional Education and No Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembat, Rengin; Kuday, Fatma Servet

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effects of Family Supported Preschool Education programs on the development of preschool children. By measuring the effects of family-supported preschool education on cognitive development, this study helps support alternative methods of making preschool education more widespread. The study uses the experimental…

  14. Occupational Therapy in Preschools: A Synthesis of Current Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmin, Emmanuelle; Gauthier, Anne; Julien, Marjorie; Hui, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of current knowledge about occupational therapy in preschools (for 3-6 year olds) in order to provide a better understanding of this field of practice and to guide the implementation or programming of this service. In the literature, occupational therapy in preschools has been documented mainly in the USA. Results…

  15. Priming the Pump: Implementing Response to Intervention in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Donna; Schmertzing, Lorraine; Schmertzing, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This instrumental case study used qualitative methods and grounded theory to examine the implementation of Response to Intervention (RtI) in a rural preschool program. Ten of the preschool staff and eight parents were involved. Other data sources included continuous field notes, memos maintained by the researcher, classroom observations, and…

  16. 45 CFR 84.38 - Preschool and adult education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preschool and adult education. 84.38 Section 84.38 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 84.38...

  17. 43 CFR 17.220 - Preschool, elementary, and secondary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preschool, elementary, and secondary education. 17.220 Section 17.220 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap § 17.220 Preschool, elementary,...

  18. Nature Preschools and Forest Kindergartens: The Handbook for Outdoor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, David

    2016-01-01

    "Nature Preschools and Forest Kindergartens" is the latest from environmental education expert David Sobel. Joined by a variety of colleagues to share their experiences and steps for creating a successful forest kindergarten program, "Nature Preschools and Forest Kindergartens" walks you through the European roots of the…

  19. Reductions in Parental Use of Corporal Punishment on Pre-School Children Following Participation in the Moms' Empowerment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Galano, Maria M; Howell, Kathryn H; Miller-Graff, Laura; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A

    2016-06-09

    Corporal punishment is a widely used and widely endorsed form of parental discipline. Inter-partner violence places enormous stress upon women. The rate of corporal punishment is higher in homes where other types of domestic violence are also occurring. This study compares two groups: those who participated in an intervention for women exposed to intimate partner violence (The Moms' Empowerment Program [MEP]) and those in a comparison group. Using standardized measures, women in both groups were assessed at baseline and at the end of the program, 5 weeks later. The 113 mothers who participated in the MEP program had significantly improved their parenting, such that they had less use of physical punishment post-intervention. Findings suggest that a relatively brief community-based intervention program can reduce the use of parental physical punishment even in disadvantaged populations coping with stressful circumstances. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Academia Nacional de Médicina-Abbott 2008. Rotavirus, efectos adversos evitables y otras investigaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Jácome Roca

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    La Academia Nacional de Medicina con la colaboración de Laboratorios Abbott otorgó en noviembre de
    2008 la segunda versión del Premio a las Ciencias Médicas, uno en las áreas de Ciencias Médicas y
    experimentales y otro en el área de Ciencias Clínicas.
     
    Presentamos aqui algunas notas sobre los trabajos ganadores y los que obtuvieron menciones honoríficas. 

    El Premio en el área de las Ciencias Básicas lo obtuvieron profesores de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia en Bogotá, pertenecientes al Laboratorio de Biología Molecular de Virus de la Facultad de Medicina y al Departamento de Química de la Facultad de Ciencias. Se trata de los investigadores Carlos Arturo Guerrero Fonseca, Martha Calderón, Orlando Acosta y Fanny Guzmán.

    El trabajo se titula "Interferencia de la infección por rotavirus mediante la inhibición de la actividad de
    la proteína disulfuro isomerasa (PDI de la membrana celular de las líneas MA 104 y Caen-2".

  1. Key Performance Indicators to Measure Improvement After Implementation of Total Laboratory Automation Abbott Accelerator a3600.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miler, Marijana; Nikolac Gabaj, Nora; Dukic, Lora; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2017-12-27

    The aim of the study was to estimate improvement of work efficiency in the laboratory after implementation of total laboratory automation (TLA) by Abbott Accelerator a3600 in the laboratory with measuring different key performance indicators (KPIs) before and after TLA implementation. The objective was also to recommend steps for defining KPIs in other laboratories. For evaluation of improvement 10 organizational and/or technical KPIs were defined for all phases of laboratory work and measured before (November 2013) and after (from 2015 to 2017) TLA implementation. Out of 10 defined KPIs, 9 were successfully measured and significantly improved. Waiting time for registration of samples in the LIS was significantly reduced from 16 (9-28) to 9 (6-16) minutes after TLA (P performed at core biochemistry analyzers which significantly reduced walking distance for sample management (for more than 800 m per worker) and number of tube touches (for almost 50%). Analyzers downtime and engagement time for analyzers maintenance was reduced for 50 h and 28 h per month, respectively. TLA eliminated manual dilution of samples with extreme results with sigma values increment from 3.4 to >6 after TLA. Although median turnaround time TAT for potassium and troponin was higher (for approximately 20 min), number of outliers with TAT >60 min expressed as sigma values were satisfying (>3). Implementation of the TLA improved the most of the processes in our laboratory with 9 out of 10 properly defined and measured KPIs. With proper planning and defining of KPIs, every laboratory could measure changes in daily workflow.

  2. Large Pilot Scale Testing of Linde/BASF Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Technology at the Abbott Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Kevin C. [University of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2017-08-18

    The work summarized in this report is the first step towards a project that will re-train and create jobs for personnel in the coal industry and continue regional economic development to benefit regions impacted by previous downturns. The larger project is aimed at capturing ~300 tons/day (272 metric tonnes/day) CO2 at a 90% capture rate from existing coal- fired boilers at the Abbott Power Plant on the campus of University of Illinois (UI). It will employ the Linde-BASF novel amine-based advanced CO2 capture technology, which has already shown the potential to be cost-effective, energy efficient and compact at the 0.5-1.5 MWe pilot scales. The overall objective of the project is to design and install a scaled-up system of nominal 15 MWe size, integrate it with the Abbott Power Plant flue gas, steam and other utility systems, and demonstrate the viability of continuous operation under realistic conditions with high efficiency and capacity. The project will also begin to build a workforce that understands how to operate and maintain the capture plants by including students from regional community colleges and universities in the operation and evaluation of the capture system. This project will also lay the groundwork for follow-on projects that pilot utilization of the captured CO2 from coal-fired power plants. The net impact will be to demonstrate a replicable means to (1) use a standardized procedure to evaluate power plants for their ability to be retrofitted with a pilot capture unit; (2) design and construct reliable capture systems based on the Linde-BASF technology; (3) operate and maintain these systems; (4) implement training programs with local community colleges and universities to establish a workforce to operate and maintain the systems; and (5) prepare to evaluate at the large pilot scale level various methods to utilize the resulting captured CO2. Towards the larger project goal, the UI-led team, together

  3. The development and validation of models for assessing the quality of preschool education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I. Alieva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors developed the content and quality assessment mechanisms of preschool education, tested them in educational institutions implementing the program of preschool education, identified opportunities and problem areas of the proposed instrument, modified the parameters, indicators of assessment, taking into account the problems revealed during tests. As a result, we proposed a working model of an assessment tool for the quality of preschool education that will allow monitoring of the quality of preschool education at the regional level under the conditions of the federal state educational standards for preschool education. The approbation of the parameters and indicators for assessing the quality of preschool education was carried out in collaboration with the Association of teachers of preschool education, City Council for quality of preschool education, and was attended by educational institutions located in all districts of Moscow.

  4. Cost-analysis of an oral health outreach program for preschool children in a low socioeconomic multicultural area in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennhall, Inger; Norlund, Anders; Matsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    of materials, rental facilities and equipment based on accounting data. The cost for fillings was extracted from a specified per diem list. Overhead costs were assumed to correspond to 50% of salaries and all costs were calculated as net present value per participating child in the program and expressed...

  5. Effectiveness of the Preschool Version of the First Step to Success Early Intervention Program for Preventing Antisocial Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Seçil; Arikan, Azru; Diken, Ibrahim H.; Aksoy, Funda; Çolak, Aysun; Tomris, Gözde

    2016-01-01

    Preventing antisocial behaviors appearing at an early age--before they become chronic--through effective early intervention programs, has become an important issue in recent years. In Turkey, the increase in the number of children at risk of antisocial behavior makes it necessary to get these behaviors under control at an early age through some…

  6. Can We Improve Preschool Classroom Quality in Chile? A Cluster-Randomized Trial Evaluation of a Professional Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Diana; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Snow, Catherine E.; Treviño, Ernesto; Rolla, Andrea; Barata, M. Clara; Weiland, Christina

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, governments across the world have increased their investments in early childhood education programs (Britto, Yoshikawa, & Boller, 2011; Engle et al., 2011; Myers, 2006; UNESCO, 2006). This investment in preprimary education reflects the proven value of providing early learning opportunities in promoting later educational…

  7. Evaluation of the Color Me Healthy Program in Influencing Nutrition and Physical Activity in Mississippi Preschool Child Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huye, Holly F.; Bankston, Sarah; Speed, Donna; Molaison, Elaine F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the level of implementation and perceived value in creating knowledge and behavior change from the Color Me Healthy (CMH) training program in child care centers, family day carehomes, or Head Start facilities throughout Mississippi. Methods: A two-phase survey was used to initially…

  8. Pedagogy, policy and preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornerup, Ida; Schrøder, Vibeke

    The aim of this study is to conduct a discourse analysis on how global, national and local policy documents influence preschool teacher education and the practical pedagogical work in preschools. The study is part of a larger Nordic research study (Gjems, Vatne, Schrøder and Kornerup). Previous...... studies of preschool teacher education (Vatne, Gjems 2014) shows that professional knowledge vary according to the consolidation act of education and that there seems to be connections between both global and national policy and the educational field (Kornerup, 2011). The discourse analysis...... of the implementation of the learning curriculum in Danish preschools. This focus has affected both preschools and education. During this century, the preschool teacher education has been revised three times....

  9. The Mommy and Me Play Program: a pilot play intervention for low-income, African American preschool families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Linnie Green

    2015-01-01

    In this study the author examined the effects of a dyadic, mother-paired play intervention-The Mommy and Me Play Program-an innovative intervention program designed using a live-action modeling technique in which mothers serve as "natural helpers" to each other. By identifying natural strengths in mothers and employing opportunities for scaffolded learning, this intervention aimed to enhance mother-child play interactions and children's social and emotional competence. Fifty mother-child dyads from a single, low-income, African American, urban community were assessed in this study on measures of mother-child play interactions and children's social and emotional competency. Results from this pilot were not statistically significant, but provide important information regarding future research with this intervention program. These preliminary findings indicated that mothers with fewer play skills pre-intervention demonstrated improvement in their play skills post-intervention beyond other intervention participants; and children of those same mothers showed the greatest decrease in angry and aggressive behaviors in the classroom when compared to other participating children from pre- to post-intervention. Implications for research and practice in community-based, intervention work with low-income, ethnic-minority families are discussed.

  10. Impact of inter-genotypic recombination and probe cross-reactivity on the performance of the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay for hepatitis C genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Siddharth; Yip, Cyril C Y; Chan, Jasper F W; To, Kelvin K W; Cheng, Vincent C C; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2018-01-11

    The Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay (Abbott-RT-HCV assay) is a real-time PCR based genotyping method for hepatitis C virus (HCV). This study measured the impact of inter-genotypic recombination and probe cross-reactivity on the performance of the Abbott-RT-HCV assay. 517 samples were genotyped using the Abbott-RT-HCV assay over a one-year period, 34 (6.6%) were identified as HCV genotype 1 without further subtype designation raising the possibility of inaccurate genotyping. These samples were subjected to confirmatory sequencing. 27 of these 34 (79%) samples were genotype 1b while five (15%) were genotype 6. One HCV isolate was an inter-genotypic 1a/4o recombinant. This is a novel natural HCV recombinant that has never been reported. Inter-genotypic recombination and probe cross-reactivity can affect the accuracy of the Abbott-RT-HCV assay, both of which have significant implications on antiviral regimen choice. Confirmatory sequencing of ambiguous results is crucial for accurate genotyping. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. The Effectiveness of Parent Training as a Treatment for Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled, Multicenter Trial of the New Forest Parenting Program in Everyday Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, David; Frydenberg, Morten; Rask, Charlotte U; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Thomsen, Per H

    2016-01-01

    Background Parent training is recommended as the first-line treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in preschool children. The New Forest Parenting Programme (NFPP) is an evidence-based parenting program developed specifically to target preschool ADHD. Objective The objective of this trial is to investigate whether the NFPP can be effectively delivered for children referred through official community pathways in everyday clinical practice. Methods A multicenter randomized controlled parallel arm trial design is employed. There are two treatment arms, NFPP and treatment as usual. NFPP consists of eight individually delivered parenting sessions, where the child attends during three of the sessions. Outcomes are examined at three time points (T1, T2, T3): T1 (baseline), T2 (week 12, post intervention), and T3 (6 month follow/up). 140 children between the ages of 3-7, with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD, informed by the Development and Well Being Assessment, and recruited from three child and adolescent psychiatry departments in Denmark will take part. Randomization is on a 1:1 basis, stratified for age and gender. Results The primary endpoint is change in ADHD symptoms as measured by the Preschool ADHD-Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) by T2. Secondary outcome measures include: effects on this measure at T3 and T2 and T3 measures of teacher reported Preschool ADHD-RS scores, parent and teacher rated scores on the Strength & Difficulties Questionnaire, direct observation of ADHD behaviors during Child’s Solo Play, observation of parent-child interaction, parent sense of competence, and family stress. Results will be reported using the standards set out in the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials Statement for Randomized Controlled Trials of nonpharmacological treatments. Conclusions The trial will provide evidence as to whether NFPP is a more effective treatment for preschool ADHD than the treatment usually offered in everyday clinical practice. Trial

  12. Swedish Preschool Teachers' Ideas of the Ideal Preschool Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid; Williams, Pia; Sheridan, Sonja; Hellman, Annette

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden, preschool has been noted as being of a high quality compared to many other countries. However, dramatic changes in the preschool sector are taking place. A recent law states that it is a child's right to get a preschool place within a few months. As a consequence, the number of children in preschool has increased, which could influence…

  13. Hook effect in Abbott i-STAT β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) point of care assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgen, Urs; Pretorius, Carel J; Gous, Rehna S; Martin, Cameron; Hale, Vincent J; Ungerer, Jacobus P J

    2014-09-01

    Point-of-care testing for β-hCG has been widely advocated to allow rapid diagnosis/exclusion of pregnancy in the emergency department. A quantitative blood β-hCG assay has the additional benefit of being able to monitor the viability of pregnancy, using serial measurements, to determine the appropriate expected increase in β-hCG levels over time (e.g. ectopic pregnancy), and aiding in determining if an intrauterine gestational sac should be visible on sonographic imaging. Evaluation of the newly released Abbott i-STAT β-hCG point-of-care assay with the Beckman Coulter β-hCG laboratory assay in use. Whole blood, plasma and serum samples with a wide range of β-hCG concentrations were analysed by both methods. The Abbott I-STAT β-hCG compares favourably, can be performed on heparinised whole blood, plasma and serum, and shows acceptable accuracy and precision. However a hook effect at elevated β-hCG was shown in gestational trophoblastic disease as well as normal pregnancies. The i-STAT β-hCG performs acceptably in its intended use in the early detection of pregnancy, but results should always be interpreted within the clinical context, as a hook effect may occur. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. American Preschoolers on Ritalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the controversial use of Ritalin among preschool children, examining research from two studies: "Treatment Strategies for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder" and "Preschool ADHD Treatment Study." Examines issues related to the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD and concludes by examining the influence of the human…

  15. Assessing Preschoolers' Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    There are 11 behavioral dimensions which parents and preschool teachers can use in assessing the development of preschool children. These dimensions are: (1) sleeping; (2) eating; (3) toilet habits; (4) range of affect or emotion; (5) variations in play; (6) curiosity; (7) acceptance of authority; (8) initiative; (9) interest; (10) spontaneous…

  16. The role of preschool in reducing inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Waldfogel, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Children from disadvantaged families have lower levels of school readiness when they enter school than do children from more advantaged families. Many countries have tried to reduce this inequality through publicly provided preschool. Evidence on the potential of these programs to reduce inequality in child development is now quite strong. Long-term studies of large publicly funded programs in Europe and Latin America, and newer studies on state and local prekindergarten programs implemented ...

  17. Estimation of the Level of Cognitive Development of a Preschool Child Using the System of Situations with Mathematical Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorev, Pavel M.; Bichurina, Svetlana Y.; Yakupova, Rufiya M.; Khairova, Irina V.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive development of personality can be considered as one of the key directions of preschool education presented in the world practice, where preschool programs are educational ones, and preschool education is the first level of the general education. Thereby the purpose of the research is to create a model of reliable estimation of cognitive…

  18. What Preschool Children Like Best about School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebling, Susan; Jacobs, Jennifer; Kochanowski, Leslie; Vaughn, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    While conducting a needs assessment for a large Midwestern social service organization, the authors asked 252 preschool children from six Head Start programs what they like best about school. They wanted to reveal how children perceived their school and what they liked best about school--more specifically, what were their favorite areas and…

  19. Obesity in preschoolers: behavioral correlates and directions for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Elizabeth S; Clifford, Lisa M; Stark, Lori J

    2012-01-01

    Nearly 14% of American preschoolers (ages 2-5) are obese (BMI ≥ 95th percentile for age and gender), yet this group has received little attention in the obesity intervention literature. This review examines what is known about behavioral correlates of obesity in preschoolers and the developmental context for lifestyle modification in this age group. Information was used to critically evaluate existing weight management prevention and intervention programs for preschoolers and formulate suggestions for future intervention research development. A systematic search of the medical and psychological/behavioral literatures was conducted with no date restrictions, using PubMed, PsycInfo, and MEDLINE electronic databases and bibliographies of relevant manuscripts. Evidence suggests several modifiable behaviors, such as sugar sweetened beverage intake, television use, and inadequate sleep, may differentiate obese and healthy weight preschoolers. Developmental barriers, such as food neophobia, food preferences, and tantrums challenge caregiver efforts to modify preschoolers' diet and activity and parental feeding approaches, and family routines appear related to the negative eating and activity patterns observed in obese preschoolers. Prevention programs yield modest success in slowing weight gain, but their effect on already obese preschoolers is unclear. Multi-component, family-based, behavioral interventions show initial promise in positive weight management for already obese preschoolers. Given that obesity intervention research for preschoolers is in its infancy, and the multitude of modifiable behavioral correlates for obesity in this age group, we discuss the use of an innovative and efficient research paradigm (Multiphase Optimization Strategy; MOST) to develop an optimized intervention that includes only treatment components that are found to empirically reduce obesity in preschoolers.

  20. Lessons from implementing mass drug administration for soil transmitted helminths among pre-school aged children during school based deworming program at the Kenyan coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary M. Musuva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2012 London declaration which committed to “sustaining, expanding and extending drug access programmes to ensure the necessary supply of drugs and other interventions to help control soil-transmitted helminths (STH by 2020” has seen many countries in Africa roll out mass drug administration (MDA especially among school age children. In Kenya, however, during the National school-based deworming exercise, pre-school aged children (PSAC have to access treatment at primary schools as the pre-school teachers are not trained to carry out deworming. With studies being conducted on the effectiveness of MDAs, the experiences of key education stakeholders which could improve the programme by giving best practices, and challenges experienced have not been documented. Methods This was a cross-sectional qualitative study using Focus group discussions (FGDs and Key informant interviews (KIIs. It was conducted in 4 sub-counties with high STH prevalence at the Kenyan coast (Matuga, Malindi, Lunga Lunga and Msambweni to understand best practices for implementing MDA among PSAC.FGDs categorized by gender were conducted among local community members, whereas KIIs involved pre-school teachers, primary school teachers, community health extension workers (CHEWs and opinion leaders. Participants were purposefully selected with the saturation model determining the number of interviews and focus groups. Voice data collected was transcribed verbatim then coded and analyzed using ATLAS.Ti version 6. Results Majority of the primary school teachers and CHEWs reported that they were satisfied with the method of mobilization used and the training tools. This was however not echoed by the pre-school teachers, parents and chiefs who complained of being left out of the process. Best practices mentioned included timely drug delivery, support from pre-school teachers, and management of side effects. Overcrowding during the drug administration day

  1. Preschool Interpersonal Relationships Predict Kindergarten Achievement: Mediated by Gains in Emotion Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Marcela M.; Domitrovich, Celene E.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Using longitudinal data, this study tested a model in which preschool interpersonal relationships promoted kindergarten achievement in a pathway mediated by growth in emotion knowledge. The sample included 164 children attending Head Start (14% Hispanic-American, 30% African-American, 56% Caucasian; 56% girls). Preschool interpersonal relationships were indexed by student-teacher relationship closeness and positive peer interactions. Two measures of emotion knowledge (identifying emotions in photographs, recognizing emotions in stories) were assessed at the start and end of the preschool year. Structural equation models revealed that positive interpersonal relationships (with teachers and peers) predicted gains in emotion knowledge (identification, recognition) during the preschool year. Positive interpersonal relationships in preschool also predicted kindergarten achievement (controlling for initial preschool achievement); however, this association was mediated by gains in emotion knowledge during the preschool year. Implications are discussed for school readiness programs serving economically-disadvantaged children. PMID:27630379

  2. Programa Embu Enxergando Melhor: uma proposta de atenção integral à saúde ocular em pré-escolares Embu Seeing Better: a complete eye health program proposal for preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília S. Lapa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A visão desempenha um papel preponderante no desenvolvimento global da criança. A detecção e o tratamento precoce de problemas visuais são fundamentais para impedir a instalação de seqüelas sensório-motoras irreversíveis. Este estudo visou descrever um programa de atenção integral à saúde ocular de crianças, constituído por ações educativas, de prevenção, de assistência e de reabilitação. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo transversal, no qual se utilizaram dados do treinamento dos professores, da triagem visual realizada na escola e do exame oftalmológico e ortóptico de 23.374 crianças, de cinco a sete anos de idade, matriculadas na rede municipal de educação infantil do município do Embu, no período de 1994 a 2002. RESULTADOS: Foram capacitados 600 professores e testados 22.118 (95% pré-escolares. Destes, 4.553 (21% precisavam de exame oftalmológico e, deles, 3.016 (66% compareceram à consulta. Dos examinados, 1.389 (46% receberam prescrição óptica, 477 (16%, foram encaminhadas para tratamento ortóptico e 1.601 (53% receberam alta. CONCLUSÕES: A triagem visual é uma prática eficiente para promover a saúde ocular de pré-escolares, na qual o professor é o elemento chave. Para o êxito destas ações, é fundamental estruturar práticas educativas e de promoção da saúde ocular destinadas às crianças, às famílias e à sociedade.OBJECTIVE: Early detection and prompt treatment of ocular disorders in children are important to avoid lifelong visual impairment. This study aimed to describe a comprehensive eye health care program for preschool children. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out focusing eye health conditions of 23,374 children, between five and seven years old, of the public preschool system of Embu, a municipality of Sao Paulo, Brazil, from 1994 to 2002. Data were obtained from preschool vision screening programs performed by teachers and from ocular assessments of

  3. Fundamental movement skills among Australian preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Louise L; King, Lesley; Farrell, Louise; Macniven, Rona; Howlett, Sarah

    2010-09-01

    Early childhood is a critical period for the development of fundamental movement skills (FMS). Children who do not master FMS are more likely to experience failure in the motor domain and less likely to participate in sport and games during childhood and adolescence. Studies among primary school aged children report low levels of FMS mastery indicating the need to implement FMS programs during the preschool years. Cross-sectional study of 425 children attending preschools in the Sydney, Australia in 2008. FMS were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 including locomotor (run, gallop, hop, horizontal jump) and object control (strike, catch, kick overhand throw) skills. Data were analysed using linear regression and chi-squared analyses. Total locomotor score was higher among girls compared with boys (pmastery differed across each FMS. Girls generally had higher mastery of locomotor skills and boys had higher mastery of object control skills. These findings highlight the need to provide structured opportunities which facilitate children's acquisition of FMS, which may include providing gender separated games, equipment and spaces. That mastery of FMS is low in primary school children indicates the importance of early intervention programs in preschools. Preschools and child care centers hold promise as a key setting for implementing FMS programs.

  4. Nature in Preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Mia; Frøkjær, Thorleif

    ‘Nature and nature phenomena’ has formed a specific curriculum theme in Danish preschool since early childhood curriculum was prescribed by law in 2004. However, recent evaluations show that the implementation of an early childhood curriculum has not produced an increased pedagogical focus...... on ‘nature and nature phenomena’ in preschools (EVA 2012). This finding, along with an increased political interest in goals and measurable outcome of early childhood curriculum (Broström 2012), will be the starting point in our ambition to carry out a more thorough qualitative investigation into links...... between preschool teachers’ understanding and interest in teaching nature and the rather poor evaluation....

  5. Reading use in preschool

    OpenAIRE

    Laísa Cristina dos Santos Guilherme; Rodrigo Ferreira Daverni

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Reading in preschool is a time of awakening the taste and pleasure in reading, it is also a source of reflection, discovery and learn to listen. It is then necessary that the contact with the reading start from pre-school, with a variety of texts and the teacher also has the habit of reading in their daily lives. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the benefits of daily reading in the classroom pre-school life of a student, which the characteristics of a player and teacher re...

  6. Chronic Absenteeism and Preschool Children's Executive Functioning Skills Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhs, Mary Wagner; Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner; Jackson, Hannah

    2018-01-01

    Investments in preschool programs for children from disadvantaged backgrounds have historically been supported by research showing that these programs help children build school readiness skills and narrow the income-achievement gap. However, results from recent studies of the links between preschool participation and increases in school readiness…

  7. The Effect of Stuttering Measurement Training on Judging Stuttering Occurrence in Preschool Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Johanna; Ingham, Roger J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of a standardized training program to improve preschool teachers' ability to identify occurrences of stuttering accurately and reliably in preschool children who stutter (CWS). Method: An Icelandic version of the Stuttering Measurement Assessment and Training (SMAAT) program [Ingham, R. J., Cordes, A. K., Kilgo,…

  8. The Promise of Preschool: Why We Need Early Education for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, W. Steven; Frede, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    It's fairly well known that high-quality preschool programs can have life-altering impacts on disadvantaged children, including reductions in school dropout and crime, and increased earnings. Not as well known is that terrific preschool programs have important academic and social benefits for middle-class children too. Decades of research indicate…

  9. HCV-RNA quantification in liver bioptic samples and extrahepatic compartments, using the abbott RealTime HCV assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, FrancescoPaolo; Cento, Valeria; Sorbo, Maria Chiara; Manuelli, Matteo Ciancio; Lenci, Ilaria; Sforza, Daniele; Di Carlo, Domenico; Milana, Martina; Manzia, Tommaso Maria; Angelico, Mario; Tisone, Giuseppe; Perno, Carlo Federico; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca

    2017-08-01

    We evaluated the performance of a rapid method to quantify HCV-RNA in the hepatic and extrahepatic compartments, by using for the first time the Abbott RealTime HCV-assay. Non-tumoral (NT), tumoral (TT) liver samples, lymph nodes and ascitic fluid from patients undergoing orthotopic-liver-transplantation (N=18) or liver resection (N=4) were used for the HCV-RNA quantification; 5/22 patients were tested after or during direct acting antivirals (DAA) treatment. Total RNA and DNA quantification from tissue-biopsies allowed normalization of HCV-RNA concentrations in IU/μg of total RNA and IU/10 6 liver-cells, respectively. HCV-RNA was successfully quantified with high reliability in liver biopsies, lymph nodes and ascitic fluid samples. Among the 17 untreated patients, a positive and significant HCV-RNA correlation between serum and NT liver-samples was observed (Pearson: rho=0.544, p=0.024). Three DAA-treated patients were HCV-RNA "undetectable" in serum, but still "detectable" in all tested liver-tissues. Differently, only one DAA-treated patient, tested after sustained-virological-response, showed HCV-RNA "undetectability" in liver-tissue. HCV-RNA was successfully quantified with high reliability in liver bioptic samples and extrahepatic compartments, even when HCV-RNA was "undetectable" in serum. Abbott RealTime HCV-assay is a good diagnostic tool for HCV quantification in intra- and extra-hepatic compartments, whenever a bioptic sample is available. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Hepatitis C virus genotyping: comparison of the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay and NS5B sequencing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghefi, P; Marchadier, E; Dussaix, E; Roque-Afonso, A-M

    2010-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus genotyping is needed for treatment decision and monitoring. The results of a genotyping assay based on real-time PCR and TaqMan chemistry were compared with the results of NS5B region sequencing. One hundred and two sera (genotypes 1-6) were tested. Amplification and detection of viral RNA were performed with the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay targeting 5'non-coded region (5'NC) for the identification of genotypes 1 to 6 and NS5B, for 1a and 1b subtypes detection. Sequencing of 5'NC fragment was used to resolve discrepant results. No indeterminate results were obtained. Concordance with NS5B sequencing was 93% (95 on 102), 96% at the genotype level (98 on 102) and 93% for genotype 1 subtyping (40 on 43). Discordant genotyping results were a 2f subtype identified as 5, a 6a typed as 1, a 3a identified as a 1-3 co-infection and a 4r identified as a 1-4 co-infection. Discordant subtyping results were 2 1b subtypes only typed as 1 and a 1e identified as 1a. Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay is a rapid, automated and simple to interpret method for HCV genotyping. It allows the detection of possible mixed infections which might have a negative impact on therapeutic response. However, the discrepant results found in this small series underline the need for assay optimization. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Preschool Children with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2001-01-01

    Differences in behavioral, social, and school functioning of 58 preschool-age (3 -5 years) children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 36 normal controls were examined at Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA.

  12. Raising a Fit Preschooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as young as 4 years old, organized and team sports are not recommended until kids are a little ... decide to enroll your preschooler in an organized team sport, such as T-ball or soccer, make sure ...

  13. Promoting preschool reading

    OpenAIRE

    Istenič, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    The thesis titled Promoting preschool reading consists of a theoretiral and an empirical part. In the theoretical part I wrote about reading, the importance of reading, types of reading, about reading motivation, promoting reading motivation, internal and external motivation, influence of reading motivation on the child's reading activity, reading and familial literacy, the role of adults in promotion reading literacy, reading to a child and promoting reading in pre-school years, where I ...

  14. La Educacion Preescolar en Cuba [Preschool Education in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood Education, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the "Educate Your Child" program, a Cuban family-based program supported by UNICEF and designed to enhance the total development of children from birth until the start of formal schooling for the 80 percent of Cuban children who do not attend the Children's Circle preschool program. Highlights the importance of the regional…

  15. Language Deficits in ADHD Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapitou, Paraskevi; Andreou, Georgia

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of preschool ADHD on linguistic and metalinguistic awareness and mental ability. Eight subscales of the Athina Test were administered to ADHD preschoolers and a control group. Results showed that ADHD preschoolers performed significantly lower than the control group in all tasks. The greatest difficulty for…

  16. Preschool Teachers use of ICTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masoumi, Davoud

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the ways in which information and communication technologies (ICT) are integrated in three preschools in south-western Sweden. The case study involved observations of and interviews with preschool teachers. The findings support claims that ICT can enhance preschool...... practices by providing a variety of complementary opportunities to enrich and transform existing curricula. The study shows that in the studied preschools ICTs have been appropriated in distinctive ways: as an object to enrich existing practices; as a cultural mediator; as a way to entertain young children...... to the complexities that surround engagement with any innovation in preschool settings, and the adoption of new technologies in particular....

  17. Mathematics and Science Learning Opportunities in Preschool Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Miller, Heather Lynnine

    2014-01-01

    Research findings The present study observed and coded instruction in 65 preschool classrooms to examine (a) overall amounts and (b) types of mathematics and science learning opportunities experienced by preschool children as well as (c) the extent to which these opportunities were associated with classroom and program characteristics. Results indicated that children were afforded an average of 24 and 26 minutes of mathematics and science learning opportunities, respectively, corresponding to spending approximately 25% of total instructional time in each domain. Considerable variability existed, however, in the amounts and types of mathematics and science opportunities provided to children in their classrooms; to some extent, this variability was associated with teachers’ years of experience, teachers’ levels of education, and the socioeconomic status of children served in the program. Practice/policy Although results suggest greater integration of mathematics and science in preschool classrooms than previously established, there was considerable diversity in the amounts and types of learning opportunities provided in preschool classrooms. Affording mathematics and science experiences to all preschool children, as outlined in professional and state standards, may require additional professional development aimed at increasing preschool teachers’ understanding and implementation of learning opportunities in these two domains in their classrooms. PMID:25489205

  18. Montessori Preschool Elevates and Equalizes Child Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline S. Lillard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality preschool programs that develop the whole child through age-appropriate socioemotional and cognitive skill-building hold promise for significantly improving child outcomes. However, preschool programs tend to either be teacher-led and didactic, or else to lack academic content. One preschool model that involves both child-directed, freely chosen activity and academic content is Montessori. Here we report a longitudinal study that took advantage of randomized lottery-based admission to two public Montessori magnet schools in a high-poverty American city. The final sample included 141 children, 70 in Montessori and 71 in other schools, most of whom were tested 4 times over 3 years, from the first semester to the end of preschool (ages 3–6, on a variety of cognitive and socio-emotional measures. Montessori preschool elevated children’s outcomes in several ways. Although not different at the first test point, over time the Montessori children fared better on measures of academic achievement, social understanding, and mastery orientation, and they also reported relatively more liking of scholastic tasks. They also scored higher on executive function when they were 4. In addition to elevating overall performance on these measures, Montessori preschool also equalized outcomes among subgroups that typically have unequal outcomes. First, the difference in academic achievement between lower income Montessori and higher income conventionally schooled children was smaller at each time point, and was not (statistically speaking significantly different at the end of the study. Second, defying the typical finding that executive function predicts academic achievement, in Montessori classrooms children with lower executive function scored as well on academic achievement as those with higher executive function. This suggests that Montessori preschool has potential to elevate and equalize important outcomes, and a larger study of public Montessori

  19. Montessori Preschool Elevates and Equalizes Child Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S; Heise, Megan J; Richey, Eve M; Tong, Xin; Hart, Alyssa; Bray, Paige M

    2017-01-01

    Quality preschool programs that develop the whole child through age-appropriate socioemotional and cognitive skill-building hold promise for significantly improving child outcomes. However, preschool programs tend to either be teacher-led and didactic, or else to lack academic content. One preschool model that involves both child-directed, freely chosen activity and academic content is Montessori. Here we report a longitudinal study that took advantage of randomized lottery-based admission to two public Montessori magnet schools in a high-poverty American city. The final sample included 141 children, 70 in Montessori and 71 in other schools, most of whom were tested 4 times over 3 years, from the first semester to the end of preschool (ages 3-6), on a variety of cognitive and socio-emotional measures. Montessori preschool elevated children's outcomes in several ways. Although not different at the first test point, over time the Montessori children fared better on measures of academic achievement, social understanding, and mastery orientation, and they also reported relatively more liking of scholastic tasks. They also scored higher on executive function when they were 4. In addition to elevating overall performance on these measures, Montessori preschool also equalized outcomes among subgroups that typically have unequal outcomes. First, the difference in academic achievement between lower income Montessori and higher income conventionally schooled children was smaller at each time point, and was not (statistically speaking) significantly different at the end of the study. Second, defying the typical finding that executive function predicts academic achievement, in Montessori classrooms children with lower executive function scored as well on academic achievement as those with higher executive function. This suggests that Montessori preschool has potential to elevate and equalize important outcomes, and a larger study of public Montessori preschools is warranted.

  20. Effect of lubricants and a vaginal spermicide gel on the detection of prostate specific antigen, a biomarker of semen exposure, using a quantitative (Abbott ARCHITECT) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, Margaret C; Melendez, Johan H; Kourtis, Athena P; Chaney, Dorothy M; Brown, Teresa M; Black, Carolyn M; Mauck, Christine K; Schwartz, Jill L; Zenilman, Jonathan M; Jamieson, Denise J; Macaluso, Maurizio; Doncel, Gustavo F

    2014-02-01

    Little is known about the effects of commonly used lubricants on detection of biomarkers of semen exposure. We investigated the in vitro effect of Gynol®, K-Y Jelly®, Replens®, Astroglide®, Carbopol, and Silicorel on quantitative detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA). A predetermined concentration of each of the gels was added to serially diluted semen samples. Additionally, serial dilutions of each of the gels were added to three different semen dilutions (high, medium, or low). The resulting samples were tested for PSA on the Abbott ARCHITECT System. When using the Abbott ARCHITECT system, the only products that inhibited PSA detection were Gynol® and Replens®. The inhibition caused by Gynol® was dose-dependent, but that of Replens was dose-independent. K-Y Jelly®-spiked samples had higher PSA values than controls. Caution is warranted when using the Abbott quantitative assay for PSA detection as a biomarker of semen exposure in settings where Gynol®, Replens® or K-Y Jelly® might also have been used. Neither Astroglide® nor Silicorel inhibited PSA detection. Additional studies evaluating other vaginal products, including microbicides, and their effects on other assays, are needed. In vivo studies will be especially important to optimize PSA detection from clinical samples. Researchers should consider the potential for specific lubricants or any vaginal products to affect the particular assay used for semen biomarker detection. The Abbott ARCHITECT's total PSA assay should not be used with the product Replens. Caution is warranted when using the assay in settings where Gynol or K-Y jelly may have been used. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Estimativa do consumo de energia e de macronutrientes no domicílio e na escola em pré-escolares Estimation of energy and macronutrient intake at home and in the kindergarten programs in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rombaldi Bernardi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar o consumo de energia e de macronutrientes no domicílio e na escola em tempo integral em crianças de 2 a 6 anos e pesquisar diferenças no consumo entre as crianças de escolas públicas e particulares. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado com 362 pré-escolares em Caxias do Sul (RS. O estado nutricional foi avaliado pela razão peso para estatura. O consumo na escola foi avaliado por meio do método de pesagem direta individual dos alimentos consumidos pelas crianças e, no domicílio, por meio do método de registro alimentar realizado pelos pais ou responsáveis. Para as análises estatísticas utilizou-se o teste U de Mann-Whitney (p OBJECTIVE: To estimate the energy and macronutrient intake at home and at all-day in the kindergarten programs in children aged 2 to 6 and to investigate differences in consumption and intake between children at public and private kindergartens. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 362 preschool children from Caxias do Sul, Brazil. Nutritional status was assessed in terms of weight to height ratios. Foods consumed in the kindergarten were evaluated by weighing the actual foods eaten by the children and home intakes were calculated from a food diary kept by parents or guardians. Statistical analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test (p < 0.05. RESULTS: It was found that 28 children (7.7% were overweight, 92 (25.4% were at risk of becoming overweight and seven (1.9% were classified as having wasting. Analysis of 24-hour nutritional intake demonstrated that 51.3% of the energy, 60.3% of the lipids and 51.6% of the proteins consumed by children were eaten at home, despite the children spending the whole day in the kindergarten programs. Preschool children at kindergartens ate greater quantities of energy (p = 0.001, carbohydrates (p < 0.001, and lipids (p = 0.04 than did children at public kindergartens, but their total daily intakes were similar, irrespective of which type of

  2. Arts Enrichment and Preschool Emotions for Low-Income Children at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eleanor D.; Sax, Kacey L.

    2013-01-01

    No studies to date examine the impact of arts-integrated preschool programming on the emotional functioning of low-income children at risk for school problems. The present study examines observed emotion expression and teacher-rated emotion regulation for low-income children attending Settlement Music School's Kaleidoscope Preschool Arts…

  3. Using a Logic Model to Evaluate Undergraduate Instruction in a Laboratory Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Lisa; Horm, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Utilization-focused, process evaluations of university-based laboratory preschools in their role with teacher preparation programs are rare in the current literature. This paper describes a self-study evaluation designed and implemented at a university laboratory preschool. A theory approach logic model was developed and used to…

  4. Involving Parents in Paired Reading with Preschoolers: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shui-fong; Chow-Yeung, Kamfung; Wong, Bernard P. H.; Lau, Kwok Kiu; Tse, Shuk In

    2013-01-01

    A paired reading program was implemented for 195 Hong Kong preschoolers (mean age = 4.7 years) and their parents from families with a wide range of family income. The preschoolers were randomly assigned to experimental or waitlist control groups. The parents in the experimental group received 12 sessions of school-based training on paired reading…

  5. Preparedness of Educators to Implement Modern Information Technologies in Their Work with Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velickovic, Sonja; Stošic, Lazar

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the issue of the preparedness of educators to realize the contents of the PPP (Preschool Preparatory Program) from the point of view of digitalization and informatization of the society. The authors are in favour of the implementation of modern educational technology in the process of educating preschool children with the aim…

  6. Is a Response to Intervention (RTI) Approach to Preschool Language and Early Literacy Instruction Needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Charles R.; Carta, Judith J.; Atwater, Jane; Goldstein, Howard; Kaminski, Ruth; McConnell, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Preschool experience plays a role in children's development. However, for programs with language and early literacy goals, the question remains whether preschool instructional experiences are sufficiently effective to achieve these goals for all children. In a multisite study, the authors conducted a process-product description of preschool…

  7. Measuring Quality in Inclusive Preschool Classrooms: Development and Validation of the Inclusive Classroom Profile (ICP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukakou, Elena P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an observation measure designed to assess classroom quality in inclusive preschool programs, the Inclusive Classroom Profile (ICP). Developing the rating scale entailed systematic fieldwork in inclusive settings and review of the literature on preschool inclusion. Results from the validation…

  8. Impact of Supplemental Tutoring Configurations for Preschoolers at Risk for Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukelich, Carol; Justice, Laura M.; Han, Myae

    2013-01-01

    Background: Providing preschoolers at-risk for reading difficulties with additional support is of increasing interest in early childhood education. However, the research on programming in preschool for this additional support is limited and yields inconclusive findings. Objective: The current studies explore different grouping configurations in a…

  9. he problem of physical rehabilitation for breach properties of foot preschool age children.

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    Kozlov Y.V.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and methodical literature about preschoolers flat were analyzed in the article. Special means of physical rehabilitation are discussed in. Results of the study of literary sources suggest the need to develop and implement new physical rehabilitation programs in preschools. The greatest effect is expected when based on the foundation of certain numerical showings of biogeometrical sideview of bearing and videotechnology.

  10. The Yoji Gakuen: The Suzuki Philosophy in the Preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Stephen

    1985-01-01

    Describes the daily program of a highly successful Japanese preschool based on the Suzuki educational philosophy which emphasizes repetition and structure in teaching. Explores possibility of using program in other educational settings, particularly in the West, because of high cognitive gains by children. (DST)

  11. The effect of a movement-to-music video program on the objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity of preschool-aged children and their mothers: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Pipsa P A; Husu, Pauliina; Raitanen, Jani; Kujala, Urho M; Luoto, Riitta M

    2017-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) and the avoidance of prolonged sitting are essential for children's healthy growth, and for the physical and mental wellbeing of both children and adults. In the context of exercise, music may promote behavioral change through increased exercise adherence and participation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a movement-to-music video program could reduce sedentary behavior (SB) and increase PA in mother-child pairs in the home environment. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in the Pirkanmaa region, Finland, in 2014-2016. The participants consisted of 228 mother-child pairs (child age 5-7 years). The primary outcomes of interest were tri-axial accelerometer-derived SB and PA, which were measured in weeks one (baseline), two, and eight in both the intervention and control groups. Further, the mothers and children in the intervention group used a movement-to-music video program from the beginning of week two to the end of week eight. Secondary outcomes included self-reported screen time. The statistical methods employed comprised an intention-to-treat and linear mixed effects model design. No statistically significant differences between groups were found in primary or secondary outcomes. Among the children in the control group, light PA decreased significantly over time and screen time increased from 89 (standard deviation, SD 37) to 99 (SD 41) min/d. Among mothers and children in the intervention group, no statistical differences were found. In supplementary analysis, the children who stayed at home instead of attending daycare/preschool had on average 25 (95% confidence interval, CI 19-30) min/d more sedentary time and 11 (95% CI 8-14) min/d less moderate-to-vigorous PA than those who were at daycare/preschool. The higher body mass index of mothers was related with 5 (95% CI 2-7) min/d more sedentary time and 1 (95% CI 0-2) min/d less moderate-to-vigorous PA. The movement-to-music video program did not change

  12. The effect of a movement-to-music video program on the objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity of preschool-aged children and their mothers: A randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipsa P A Tuominen

    Full Text Available Regular physical activity (PA and the avoidance of prolonged sitting are essential for children's healthy growth, and for the physical and mental wellbeing of both children and adults. In the context of exercise, music may promote behavioral change through increased exercise adherence and participation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a movement-to-music video program could reduce sedentary behavior (SB and increase PA in mother-child pairs in the home environment. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in the Pirkanmaa region, Finland, in 2014-2016. The participants consisted of 228 mother-child pairs (child age 5-7 years. The primary outcomes of interest were tri-axial accelerometer-derived SB and PA, which were measured in weeks one (baseline, two, and eight in both the intervention and control groups. Further, the mothers and children in the intervention group used a movement-to-music video program from the beginning of week two to the end of week eight. Secondary outcomes included self-reported screen time. The statistical methods employed comprised an intention-to-treat and linear mixed effects model design. No statistically significant differences between groups were found in primary or secondary outcomes. Among the children in the control group, light PA decreased significantly over time and screen time increased from 89 (standard deviation, SD 37 to 99 (SD 41 min/d. Among mothers and children in the intervention group, no statistical differences were found. In supplementary analysis, the children who stayed at home instead of attending daycare/preschool had on average 25 (95% confidence interval, CI 19-30 min/d more sedentary time and 11 (95% CI 8-14 min/d less moderate-to-vigorous PA than those who were at daycare/preschool. The higher body mass index of mothers was related with 5 (95% CI 2-7 min/d more sedentary time and 1 (95% CI 0-2 min/d less moderate-to-vigorous PA. The movement-to-music video program did

  13. Assessment of Attention in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E.M.; Schneider, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of “disordered” attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child’s history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention—including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures. PMID:23090646

  14. Microcomputers and Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Dina

    Preschool children can benefit by working with microcomputers. Thinking skills are enhanced by software games that focus on logic, memory, problem solving, and pattern recognition. Counting, sequencing, and matching games develop mathematics skills, and word games focusing on basic letter symbol and word recognition develop language skills.…

  15. THE PRESCHOOL INVENTORY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CALDWELL, BETTYE M.; SOULE, DONALD

    THE PRESCHOOL INVENTORY BEGAN AS AN ANSWER TO THE NEED FOR SOME TYPE OF INSTRUMENT THAT WOULD PROVIDE AN INDICATION OF HOW MUCH A DISADVANTAGED CHILD, PRIOR TO HIS INTRODUCTION TO HEAD START, HAD ACHIEVED IN AREAS REGARDED AS NECESSARY FOUNDATIONS FOR SUBSEQUENT SUCCESS IN SCHOOL. MEASURING BASIC INTELLIGENCE WAS NOT THE GOAL. RATHER, THE…

  16. Preschool Children's School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdogan, Serpil; Akgül, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine preschool teachers' perspectives about children's school readiness. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used in the study as a mixed method research. Data, in the quantitative aspects of the research, were collected through the use of "School Readiness Form" developed by Boz (2004)…

  17. Enraizamento de estacas caulinares de kiwi (Actinidia chinensis Planch cv Abbott tratadas com auxinas e boro Rooting of kiwi stem cuttings (Actinidia chinensis Planch. cv Abbott treated with auxins and boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Ono

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como finalidade, estudar o efeito de várias auxinas sintéticas em formulações comerciais e do boro, sobre o enraizamento de estacas caulinares de kiwi (Actinidia chinensis Planch, cv Abbott.. As estacas utilizadas continham dois nós e duas folhas cortadas ao meio, com aproximadamente 10 cm de comprimento, onde o corte basal em bisel foi realizado logo abaixo de um nó e o apical acima do outro nó. O efeito das auxinas, sobre o enraizamento de estacas caulinares de kiwi foi verificado mediante os seguintes tratamentos, aplicados sobre as bases das estacas: T1 H(20; T2 (NAA 300 ppm; T3 (IBA 300 ppm; T4 (NAA 300 ppm + B; T5 (IBA 300 ppm + B; T6 (NAA 0,5%-pó e T7 (IBA 0,5%-pó. Após o tratamento das estacas, estas foram plantadas em bandejas de enraizamento, contendo vermiculita pura e colocadas em câmara de nebulização, onde permaneceram por 120 dias, até a sua coleta. Para a avaliação do efeito de auxinas e do ácido bórico, sobre o enraizamento de estacas caulinares de kiwi, foram realizadas as seguintes observações: 1. porcentagem de estacas enraizadas; 2. análise de açúcares redutores e açúcares totais (em g/100 g de matéria seca; 3. análise de triptofano (em µg/100 mg de matéria seca. Os resultados obtidos no processo de enraizamento de estacas caulinares de kiwi (Actinidia chinensis Planch. variedade Abbott, levou a concluir que o inverno e outono foram as melhores épocas de coleta dos ramos de auxinas para a confecção das estacas. O processo de enraizamento foi ainda incrementado com a aplicação exógena na base das estacas, sendo que o alto teor de açúcares redutores e totais beneficiou a maior porcentagem de enraizamento.This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of some synthetical auxins and boron trade formulations in the rooting of stem cuttings of some kiwi (Actinidia chinensis Planch varieties. The experiment was carried out in a misty nebulization chamber in the Botany

  18. Factors influencing physical therapists' involvement in preschool transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Christine Teeters; Effgen, Susan K; Blanchard, Erin; Southall, Adam; Wells, Stacy; Miller, Erin

    2011-05-01

    Families and children receiving early intervention services benefit from service provider involvement during the transition to preschool special education services. This study sought to determine the factors that physical therapists working in early intervention services and/or preschools identified as supportive of their involvement, and associated with their perceived involvement, in transition planning for young children with disabilities moving from early intervention to preschool services. A cross-sectional survey was used. A survey was mailed to a random sample of 600 members of the American Physical Therapy Association's Section on Pediatrics. Physical therapists working with children transitioning out of early intervention and into preschool participated. Data from physical therapists providing services in preschools were included in this study. The response rate was 56.3%. The highest- and lowest-ranked facilitators of transition planning were: "Staff at my preschool program value my participation in transition planning activities" (highest ranked) (X=5.02, SD=1.36, n=142) and "I am encouraged to participate in transition planning activities by the early intervention service coordinator" (lowest ranked) (X=1.91, SD=3.50, n=143). Multivariate regression models demonstrated that physical therapists' perceived value and expertise in providing transition planning services were significantly associated with collaboration with professionals from early intervention programs (F(1,129)=207) and support of families during the transition process (F(1,134)=48). Physical therapists who identified implementing practices that supported communication, collaboration, and strong, positive relationships between early intervention and preschool programs had greater involvement in the transition planning process.

  19. The Effectiveness of Healthy Start Home Visit Program: Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra; Heung, Kitty

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study reported the effectiveness of a home visit program for disadvantaged Chinese parents with preschool children, using cluster randomized controlled trial design. Method: Participants included 191 parents and their children from 24 preschools, with 84 dyads (12 preschools) in the intervention group and 107 dyads (12 preschools) in…

  20. Factors of the active listening of preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purić Daliborka S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active listening is a communication skill which is crucial for the development of cooperative relationships in the group, culture of friendship and fellowship, it is also important for the development of literacy skills and talent for speaking. Furthermore, it contributes to the improvement of the level of knowledge, skills and school achievement, as well as to the development of self-confidence of children. Developing of active listening is an important task in the activities with children of preschool age. In this paper, the author, wanting to determine the importance of the factors of active listening of preschool children, examines how preschool teachers (N = 198: (a evaluate the importance of certain elements of active listening that relate to the speaker and the listener, and (b estimate their role in the process of developing active listening skills of preschool children as an essential element of successful interpersonal communication. Results of the survey show that preschool teachers attach greater importance to the factors of active listening related to the listener (attention, listening skill, interest in the subject, than to the factors related to the speaker (motivation for listening, quality of the narrative. More than two-thirds of surveyed preschool teachers (172 or 86.9% define its impact on the stimulation of active listening of children as significant. Work experience and professional qualifications as independent variables significantly influence the attitudes of preschool teachers about the importance of their impact in stimulating active listening. Preschool teacher is a key element of the training of preschool children in the area of the basic communication skills of active listening. In this sense, the results of our survey show that in the context of academic study programs for education of preschool teachers special attention is given to the communication skills and to their role in the development of active listening

  1. Measuring Gambling Reinforcers, Over Consumption and Fallacies: The Psychometric Properties and Predictive Validity of the Jonsson-Abbott Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Jonsson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, gambling and problem gambling research relies on cross-sectional and retrospective designs. This has compromised identification of temporal relationships and causal inference. To overcome these problems a new questionnaire, the Jonsson-Abbott Scale (JAS, was developed and used in a large, prospective, general population study, The Swedish Longitudinal Gambling Study (Swelogs. The JAS has 11 items and seeks to identify early indicators, examine relationships between indicators and assess their capacity to predict future problem progression. The aims of the study were to examine psychometric properties of the JAS (internal consistency and dimensionality and predictive validity with respect to increased gambling risk and problem gambling onset. The results are based on repeated interviews with 3818 participants. The response rate from the initial baseline wave was 74%. The original sample consisted of a random, stratified selection from the Swedish population register aged between 16 and 84. The results indicate an acceptable fit of a three-factor solution in a confirmatory factor analysis with ‘Over consumption,’ ‘Gambling fallacies,’ and ‘Reinforcers’ as factors. Reinforcers, Over consumption and Gambling fallacies were significant predictors of gambling risk potential and Gambling fallacies and Over consumption were significant predictors of problem gambling onset (incident cases at 12 month follow up. When controlled for risk potential measured at baseline, the predictor Over consumption was not significant for gambling risk potential at follow up. For incident cases, Gambling fallacies and Over consumption remained significant when controlled for risk potential. Implications of the results for the development of problem gambling, early detection, prevention, and future research are discussed.

  2. Measuring Gambling Reinforcers, Over Consumption and Fallacies: The Psychometric Properties and Predictive Validity of the Jonsson-Abbott Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Jakob; Abbott, Max W; Sjöberg, Anders; Carlbring, Per

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, gambling and problem gambling research relies on cross-sectional and retrospective designs. This has compromised identification of temporal relationships and causal inference. To overcome these problems a new questionnaire, the Jonsson-Abbott Scale (JAS), was developed and used in a large, prospective, general population study, The Swedish Longitudinal Gambling Study (Swelogs). The JAS has 11 items and seeks to identify early indicators, examine relationships between indicators and assess their capacity to predict future problem progression. The aims of the study were to examine psychometric properties of the JAS (internal consistency and dimensionality) and predictive validity with respect to increased gambling risk and problem gambling onset. The results are based on repeated interviews with 3818 participants. The response rate from the initial baseline wave was 74%. The original sample consisted of a random, stratified selection from the Swedish population register aged between 16 and 84. The results indicate an acceptable fit of a three-factor solution in a confirmatory factor analysis with 'Over consumption,' 'Gambling fallacies,' and 'Reinforcers' as factors. Reinforcers, Over consumption and Gambling fallacies were significant predictors of gambling risk potential and Gambling fallacies and Over consumption were significant predictors of problem gambling onset (incident cases) at 12 month follow up. When controlled for risk potential measured at baseline, the predictor Over consumption was not significant for gambling risk potential at follow up. For incident cases, Gambling fallacies and Over consumption remained significant when controlled for risk potential. Implications of the results for the development of problem gambling, early detection, prevention, and future research are discussed.

  3. A next generation enzymatic magnesium assay on the Abbott ARCHITECT chemistry system meets performance goals based on biological variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, D; Martens, P; Mah, W; Yip, P M

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of the Abbott ARCHITECT enzymatic assay for magnesium (3P68) in serum/plasma and urine against analytical goals based on biological variation. Analytical performance was evaluated according to CLSI protocols. Precision was examined using commercial chemistry controls. Accuracy was assessed against NIST SRM 956c, electrolytes in human serum. Correlation with the arsenazo Mg assay (7D70) was completed using patient samples (plasma, N = 101; urine, N = 90). Common interferences were examined in pooled patient specimens with high and low magnesium concentrations. The enzymatic Mg assay displayed imprecision of 1.7% at 0.72 mmol/L and 1.4% at 1.80 mmol/L (20 days, one calibration, one reagent lot). The linear range was verified between 0.18-7.0 mmol/L (plasma) and 0.01-10.69 mmol/L (urine). Results of the enzymatic assay (x) correlated well with the predicate assay (y) with the relationships y = 0.891x + 0.035, R = 0.967 (plasma) and y = 1.181x + 0.086, R = 0.997 (urine). Mean bias of the NIST SRM 956 c samples was -1.4%. This method showed minimal interference by hemoglobin (3g/L as hemolysate), lipemia (20 g/L Intralipid), unconjugated bilirubin (531 μmol/L), and ascorbate (680 μmol/L). The ARCHITECT Magnesium assay 3P68 achieved the desirable analytical quality specification of 4.8% for total allowable error. In comparison to the 7D70 assay, notable improvements are seen in precision, 30-day calibration stability, and minimal interference by hemolyzed and lipemic samples. © 2013.

  4. Abbott RealTime PCR assay is useful for evaluating virological response to antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezaki, Hiroaki; Furusyo, Norihiro; Ihara, Takeshi; Hayashi, Takeo; Ogawa, Eiichi; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Taniai, Hiroaki; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Murata, Masayuki; Hayashi, Jun

    2011-12-01

    This study was done to evaluate the utility of the Abbott RealTime PCR assay (ART) for the monitoring of chronic hepatitis C patients. The serum samples of 183 patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b who had completed a 48-week period of pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) alpha-2b plus ribavirin treatment were prospectively analyzed. Serum HCV RNA levels were measured both by ART and by the Roche COBAS Amplicor Monitor test, version2.0 (CAM) at baseline and at weeks 4, 12, 24, 36, and 48 of treatment, and at 24 weeks after the end of treatment (EOT). A significant positive correlation of pretreatment HCV RNA levels was found between ART and CAM (r = 0.595, P HCV RNA level from the pretreatment level determined by ART in SVR patients was significantly higher than that in non-SVR patients at all time points tested. The logarithmic decline determined by CAM in SVR patients was significantly higher than that in non-SVR patients only at week 4, but there was no significant difference at other weeks. Of 124 patients who were HCV RNA-negative at EOT by ART, 58 (46.8%) had a relapse of viremia at 24 weeks after EOT, whereas 77 of 143 patients (53.8%) who were HCV RNA-negative at EOT by CAM had a relapse. The relapse rate was lower when determined by ART than by CAM, but not significantly so. ART is more useful than CAM for evaluating the virological response to antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C.

  5. Maternal stress and psychological status and sleep in minority preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Barbara A; Redeker, Nancy S

    2015-01-01

    Minority women living in inner city environments may be at more risk for psychological distress. Maternal stress, anxiety, depression, and psychological trauma can influence the preschool child's behavior and may have a negative impact on the preschool child's sleep patterns. The purpose of the study was to: (a) examine objective and subjective preschool children sleep patterns and (b) explore the relationship between objective and subjective sleep patterns in preschool children and maternal psychological status. A cross-sectional observational design was used. Descriptive analyses and correlations were conducted to examine the data. Twenty-one minority women were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children Program. Preschool children wore wrist actigraphs, and their sleep efficiency, time in bed, and sleep periods were analyzed. Mothers completed measures on depression, anxiety, stress, and psychological trauma. Mothers' self-report of their children's sleep habits indicated at risk scores for sleep problems. Life stress in the mothers was statistically significant and negatively related to preschool child's sleep duration. Mild to severe symptoms of depression and mild anxiety were reported and criteria for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder were found in 12 of the 21 mothers. The results of the study indicate that parent education on sleep and the minority preschool child should be part of community interventions and screening preschool parents for psychological distress should be considered with referrals for support services. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Preschool Movement Education in Turkey: Perceptions of Preschool Administrators and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevimli-Celik, Serap; Kirazci, Sadettin; Ince, Mustafa Levent

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of preschool administrators and parents about preschool movement education and movement practices in preschools. Participants were 8 preschool administrators and 21 parents from 8 randomly selected private preschools in one of the municipalities in Ankara, Turkey. Semi-structured interviews,…

  7. Child Sexual Abuse at Preschools--A Research Review of a Complex Issue for Preschool Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Helena; Eidevald, Christian; Westberg-Broström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research review is to synthesize research published between 2000 and 2015 regarding child sexual abuse, preschool and preschool teachers. The review identifies themes relevant for the preschool teacher profession: child sexual abuse at preschools, suspicions and consequences for the preschool sector, preventing techniques and…

  8. Immediate and delayed effects of invented writing intervention in preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofslundsengen, Hilde; Hagtvet, Bente Eriksen; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    This study examined the effects of a 10 week invented writing program with five-year-old preschoolers (mean age 5.7 years) on their immediate post intervention literacy skills and also the facilitative effects of the intervention on the subsequent learning to read during the first 6 months of schooling. The study included 105 children (54 girls) from 12 preschools in Norway. The preschools were randomly assigned to the experimental group with the invented writing program, or the control group with the ordinary program offered to preschoolers. The classroom-based programs (40 sessions) were conducted by the children's regular teachers. The children's emergent literacy skills were evaluated using a pre-test, a post-test and a follow-up test 6 months later, and the data were analyzed using latent autoregressive models. The results showed that the invented writing group performed significantly better than the control group on the post-test for the measures of phoneme awareness ( d  = .54), spelling ( d  = .65) and word reading ( d  = .36). Additionally, indirect effects were observed on the delayed follow-up tests on phoneme awareness ( d  = .45), spelling ( d  = .48) and word reading ( d  = .26). In conclusion, we argue that invented writing appeared to smooth the progress of emergent literacy skills in preschool, including the subsequent reading development in school. Contextualized in a semi-consistent orthography and a preschool tradition that does not encourage the learning of written language skills, the findings add to our knowledge of how children learn to write and read.

  9. Effect of a health education program in the oral health profile of preschool children: an experience in the public network of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Stürmer Badalott

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the effect of health promotion activities developed in a child education school, on the children’s oral health profile, relating oral manifestations to social, sanitary and feeding factors. Methods: Interventional, longitudinal and describing quantitative work, accomplished with 41 preschool children from four to six years old, living in the area assisted by a Family Health Team (Equipe de Saúde da Família-ESF in the city of Porto Alegre-RS. Diagnosis of dental caries and gingivitis was carried out through oral clinical examination at the beginning and at the end of the study. The dietary pattern was obtained by applying a questionnaire and the social-sanitary aspects of the families, from the records of File A in the Basic Health Care Information System (Sistema de Informação da Atenção Básica-SIAB. Results: Caries disease was diagnosed in 58.5% of the children, whose dmft index (total sum of decayed, extracted and filled teeth was 2.43. There was a decrease in the number of decayed teeth and an increase in extracted and filled teeth. The rates of visible plaque and gums bleeding got better. The social-sanitary aspects were standardized in the community, being not representative. The group presenting the highest dmft values followed a diet containing sugars, with viscous consistence and an intake frequency of four or more times a day. Conclusion: The activities of health promotion developed in the school partially changed the children’s oral conditions. There was a positive correlation between consistency, composition and frequency of diet and the presence of caries disease; on the other hand, there was no significant relation between social-sanitary conditions and the presence of oral diseases

  10. Effect of a health education program in the oral health profile of preschool children: an experience in the public network of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Stürmer Badalotti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the effect of health promotion activities developed in a child education school, on the children’s oral health profile, relating oral manifestations to social, sanitary and feeding factors. Methods: Interventional, longitudinal and describing quantitative work, accomplished with 41 preschool children from four to six years old, living in the area assisted by a Family Health Team (Equipe de Saúde da Família-ESF in the city of Porto Alegre-RS. Diagnosis of dental caries and gingivitis was carried out through oral clinical examination at the beginning and at the end of the study. The dietary pattern was obtained by applying a questionnaire and the social-sanitary aspects of the families, from the records of File A in the Basic Health Care Information System (Sistema de Informação da Atenção Básica-SIAB. Results: Caries disease was diagnosed in 58.5% of the children, whose dmft index (total sum of decayed, extracted and filled teeth was 2.43. There was a decrease in the number of decayed teeth and an increase in extracted and filled teeth. The rates of visible plaque and gums bleeding got better. The social-sanitary aspects were standardized in the community, being not representative. The group presenting the highest dmft values followed a diet containing sugars, with viscous consistence and an intake frequency of four or more times a day. Conclusion: The activities of health promotion developed in the school partially changed the children’s oral conditions. There was a positive correlation between consistency, composition and frequency of diet and the presence of caries disease; on the other hand, therewas no significant relation between social sanitary conditions and the presence of oral diseases.

  11. A Program Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jale Aldemir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to discover the transformation preschool teacher candidates go through in their perceptions about teacher and teaching during their teacher education program. The participants of the study were 35 senior students enrolled in the preschool teacher education program at a university located in the Eastern Anatolian Region of Turkey. A qualitative survey instrument was conducted to examine the preservice teachers’ perceptions. The data collected from the survey were analyzed by adopting a constant comparative coding method. The study revealed a change in the participants’ perceptions about preschool education before and after they enrolled in the program. The hardest parts of teaching in preschool were the need of high level of energy, patience, and skills to manage the classroom while the most pleasurable sides were having fun, play opportunities, and the positive impact teachers make on children. The qualities of an ideal preschool program listed by the participants involved curriculum, physical environment, and social-emotional atmosphere while the themes regarding the ideal preschool teacher were revolved around the personal qualities, professional attitude, and professional knowledge and skills. Hence, the findings of this qualitative study can only be generalized in the context the study was conducted; however, the study could have important implications for preschool teacher education in Turkey and in other countries, and help the international readers perceive preschool teacher education from a different perspective.

  12. The Effects of an Oil and Wheat Flour Fortification Program on Pre-School Children and Women of Reproductive Age Living in Côte d’Ivoire, a Malaria-Endemic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Rohner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Anemia and micronutrient deficiencies are widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, but the impact of food fortification is still debated. The objective of this study was to estimate the iron and vitamin A status of preschool children (PSC and women of reproductive age (WRA in households consuming fortified oil and wheat flour. The survey was cross-sectional in a rural and an urban area. Data on demographics, socioeconomic status, and fortified foods were collected at households. Hemoglobin (Hb, retinol binding protein (RBP, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR, subclinical inflammation, and Plasmodium spp. infection data were collected. In PSC, vitamin A deficiency (VAD was prevalent, but for each 1 mg retinol equivalents (RE/kg of oil consumed, RBP increased by 0.37 μmol/L (p = 0.03. In WRA, there was no significant VAD in the population (0.7%. Anemia was found in 92.2% of rural and 56.3% of urban PSC (p < 0.001. PSC with access to adequately fortified flour had Hb concentrations 15.7 g/L higher than those who did not (p < 0.001. Hb levels increased by +0.238 g/L per mg/kg increase in iron fortification levels (p < 0.001. The national program fortifying vegetable oil with vitamin A and wheat flour with iron and folic acid may have contributed to improved micronutrient status of PSC from two areas in Côte d’Ivoire.

  13. Determinazione quantitativa di HCV-RNA: valutazione comparativa dei saggi Abbott Real-Time e Versant bDNA v.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Manzin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV RNA measurement before, during and after antiviral therapy has become an essential tool in the management of interferon-based treatment of HCV-related infections. Conventional Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR has been largely used to obtain quantitative data, but laborious, time-consuming post-PCR handling steps are required to gain valuable results. Real time (RT PCR now provides advantages over end-point (EP PCR due to its improved rapidity, sensitivity, reproducibility and the reduced risk of carry-over contamination, and has now proven itself to be valuable for the more precise monitoring of viral load kinetics and assessing antiviral response.The Abbott Real-Time HCV-RNA is a recently introduced assay for the automated processing of clinical samples and HCV-RNA quantitation: its basic technology relies on use of fluorescent linear probes (dynamic range using 0.5 ml as input target= 12-108 IU/mL and a hybridization/detection step at low temperature (35°C, which allows target mismatches to be tolerated. To determine the clinical application of the Abbott Real-Time assay and defining its correlation with the Bayer Versant bDNA v.3 assay, 68 consecutive samples from unselected HCV-infected patients were retrospectively analysed with RT and the results obtained using the two tests compared.A good correlation was found between RT-PCR and bDNA: 97% of samples tested had a result within a 0.5 log HCV IU/mL difference (bias=0.15 log, whereas 6 samples negative with bDNA gave positive results with Abbott RT (range, 1.89-3.07 log IU/mL and “in-house” qualitative RT-PCR assays.

  14. Motivations and Barriers in Promoting Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükturan, A. Güler; Akbaba Altun, Sadegül

    2017-01-01

    This study is designed to explore the reasons for sending and not sending preschool age children to preschools at an early age by exploring the motivations for and barriers towards promoting preschool education in Turkey. It aimed to determine various stakeholders' perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge related to preschool education in order to…

  15. Quality in preschool in a cultural context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh-Müller, Grethe; Ringsmose, Charlotte

    What is educational quality i preschools? How can it be evaluated/measured. How can educational quality be developped in everyday life in preschools?......What is educational quality i preschools? How can it be evaluated/measured. How can educational quality be developped in everyday life in preschools?...

  16. Systematic Quality Work in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Sonja; Williams, Pia; Sandberg, Anette

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the meaning that Swedish preschool teachers ascribe to systematic quality work. In Sweden, all preschools are required to work systematically with quality issues. This involves several interdependent steps that follow each other in a specific order. Although the concept of systematic quality work might…

  17. Effects of a Physical Activity Intervention in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Kristina; Kriemler, Susi; Lehmacher, Walter; Ruf, Katharina C; Graf, Christine; Hebestreit, Helge

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate a multicomponent, child-appropriate preschool intervention program led by preschool teachers to enhance physical activity (PA) and motor skill performance (MS) in 4- and 5-yr-old children. Evaluation involved 709 children (mean age, 4.7 ± 0.6 yr; 49.5% girls) from 41 preschools (intervention group, n = 21; control group, n = 20) in the rural and urban surroundings of two German cities. Children in the intervention group received a daily PA intervention lasting 30 min and PA homework over one academic year, which was designed by professionals but led by preschool teachers. The intervention included educational components for parents and teachers. Primary outcomes were MS (composite MS score) and objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) by accelerometry. Measurements were performed at baseline, midintervention, and postintervention as well as 2-4 months after the end of intervention. Intervention effects were analyzed by repeated measurement analysis adjusted for group, sex, age, baseline outcomes, urban/rural location of the preschool, and cluster (preschool). Compared with controls, children in the intervention group showed positive effects in MS at postintervention (estimate effect, 0.625 z-score points; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.276-0.975; P = 0.001) and at follow-up (estimate effect, 0.590 z-score points; 95% CI, 0.109-1.011; P = 0.007) and an increase in MVPA from baseline to postintervention by 0.5% of total wearing time (95% CI, 0.002%-1.01%; P = 0.049) at borderline significance. There was no benefit on MVPA for the intervention group between baseline and follow-up. A child-appropriate, multidimensional PA intervention could sustainably improve MS but not PA. Findings suggest that a change in health-related behaviors is difficult. Future research should implement participatory intervention components in preschool setting and better integrate the families of the children.

  18. Preschool Life Skills: Recent Advancements and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmie, Tara A.; Luczynski, Kevin C.

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decade, researchers have replicated and extended research on the preschool life skills (PLS) program developed by Hanley, Heal, Tiger, and Ingvarsson (2007). This review summarizes recent research with respect to maximizing skill acquisition, improving generality, evaluating feasibility and acceptability, and testing predictions of…

  19. Educational Television as Mediated Literacy Environments for Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Nancy A.; Hooker, Steven D.; Linebarger, Deborah L.

    2009-01-01

    Research on children's television suggests that preschool programs can facilitate literacy and language development. In 1998 Whitehurst and Lonigan described two interdependent sets of skills involved in literacy acquisition: "outside-in" or oral language skills and "inside-out" or code-related skills. Outside-in skills support children's…

  20. Evaluation of a Social Marketing Campaign Targeting Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan L.; Bellows, Laura; Beckstrom, Leslie; Anderson, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of a pilot social marketing program to increase preschoolers' willingness to try new foods. Methods: Four Head Start centers participated (2 experimental, 2 control) in a study using a quasi-experimental design. Experimental sites received a 12-week intervention developed using social marketing…

  1. 34 CFR 104.38 - Preschool and adult education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preschool and adult education. 104.38 Section 104.38 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL...

  2. Is a Response to Intervention (RTI) Approach to Preschool Language and Early Literacy Instruction Needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Charles R; Carta, Judith J; Atwater, Jane; Goldstein, Howard; Kaminski, Ruth; McConnell, Scott

    2013-05-01

    Preschool experience plays a role in children's development. However, for programs with language and early literacy goals, the question remains whether or not preschool instructional experiences are sufficiently effective to achieve these goals for all children. In a multisite study, we conducted a process-product description of preschool instruction and children's growth and outcomes in typical programs (i.e., Pre-Kindergarten, Title 1, Head Start, Tuition-Based) using a Response to Intervention (RTI) perspective. Results indicated that (a) students in their preschool year prior to kindergarten made small gains, but students starting the year in lower Tier 2 and 3 performance levels did not close initial skills gaps, (b) variations were noted by program types with varying socio-demographics and instructional processes, and (c) the quality of instruction (Tier 1) received by all was low with room for improvement. Implications for future research on the application of the RTI approach and potential benefits are discussed.

  3. Attention and Perseverance Behaviors of PreSchool Children Enrolled in Suzuki Violin Lessons and Other Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Laurie

    1992-01-01

    Reports on a study of attention span and persevering behaviors of preschool children. Finds the Suzuki Method of violin instruction is associated with longer attention spans and more persevering behaviors than creative movement instruction or other preschool programs. Concludes that teachers prefer the Suzuki Method's approach to other forms of…

  4. The Poverty of Preschool Promises: Saving Children and Money with the Early Education Tax Credit. Policy Analysis. No. 641

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Adam B.

    2009-01-01

    The political momentum behind state-level preschool programs is tremendous, but existing proposals are often flawed and expensive. Preschool can provide small but statistically significant short-term gains for low-income children; however, these gains usually fade quickly in later grades. There is little evidence to support the belief that…

  5. Two-Year Study of Northwest Regional Center's Summer Sessions for Preschool, Rubella, Deaf-Blind Children. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkovich, Paul

    The report describes the Summer Sessions for Preschool, Rubella, Deaf-Blind Children conducted in 1970 and 1971 by the Northwest Regional Center for Deaf-Blind Children in Vancouver, Washington. The summer programs were primarily designed to evaluate preschool deaf-blind children in a learning and living situation. The report is intended not only…

  6. A NATIONAL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT UTILIZING TELEVISED MATERIALS FOR THE FORMAL EDUCATION OF CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED PRESCHOOL CHILDREN. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MUKERJI, ROSE; AND OTHERS

    TO SUPPLY DISADVANTAGED PRESCHOOL CHILDREN WITH CULTURALLY STIMULATING EXPERIENCES, A TV SERIES, "ROUNDABOUT," WAS DESIGNED TO BE USED IN WASHINGTON, D.C. INNER-CITY PRESCHOOL AND DAY CARE CENTERS. THE 15-MINUTE PROGRAMS WERE TO INTRODUCE NEW EXPERIENCES AND SUPPLEMENT REGULAR ACTIVITIES. IT WAS HOPED THAT THE CHILDREN WOULD IDENTIFY…

  7. La atencion preescolar en Chile: desafios para la redemocratizacion (Preschool Care in Chile: Challenges for Redemocratization. Discussion Paper No. 13).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filp, Johanna; Undurrage, Consuelo

    This paper examines the current status of programs for preschool children in Chile. Section 1 of the paper provides an overview of the situation of preschool children in Chile. The country's population includes more than 1.6 million children between the ages of 0 and 5 years 11 months, and in urban areas, 18.4 percent of children between the ages…

  8. Preschool-aged children's television viewing in child care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Dimitri A; Garrison, Michelle M

    2009-12-01

    The goal was to quantify television viewing in day care settings and to investigate the characteristics of programs that predict viewing. A telephone survey of licensed child care programs in Michigan, Washington, Florida, and Massachusetts was performed. The frequency and quantity of television viewing for infants, toddlers, and preschool-aged children were assessed. With the exception of infants, children in home-based child care programs were exposed to significantly more television on an average day than were children in center-based programs (infants: 0.2 vs 0 hours; toddlers: 1.6 vs 0.1 hours; preschool-aged children: 2.4 vs 0.4 hours). In a regression analysis of daily television time for preschool-aged children in child care, center-based programs were found to have an average of 1.84 fewer hours of television each day, controlling for the other covariates. Significant effect modification was found, in that the impact of home-based versus center-based child care programs differed somewhat depending on educational levels for staff members; having a 2- or 4-year college degree was associated with 1.41 fewer hours of television per day in home-based programs, but no impact of staff education on television use was observed in center-based programs. For many children, previous estimates of screen time significantly underestimated actual amounts. Pediatricians should council parents to minimize screen time in child care settings.

  9. The Roche Immunoturbidimetric Albumin Method on Cobas c 501 Gives Higher Values Than the Abbott and Roche BCP Methods When Analyzing Patient Plasma Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmersson-Karlqvist, Johanna; Flodin, Mats; Havelka, Aleksandra Mandic; Xu, Xiao Yan; Larsson, Anders

    2016-09-01

    Serum/plasma albumin is an important and widely used laboratory marker and it is important that we measure albumin correctly without bias. We had indications that the immunoturbidimetric method on Cobas c 501 and the bromocresol purple (BCP) method on Architect 16000 differed, so we decided to study these methods more closely. A total of 1,951 patient requests with albumin measured with both the Architect BCP and Cobas immunoturbidimetric methods were extracted from the laboratory system. A comparison with fresh plasma samples was also performed that included immunoturbidimetric and BCP methods on Cobas c 501 and analysis of the international protein calibrator ERM-DA470k/IFCC. The median difference between the Abbott BCP and Roche immunoturbidimetric methods was 3.3 g/l and the Roche method overestimated ERM-DA470k/IFCC by 2.2 g/l. The Roche immunoturbidimetric method gave higher values than the Roche BCP method: y = 1.111x - 0.739, R² = 0.971. The Roche immunoturbidimetric albumin method gives clearly higher values than the Abbott and Roche BCP methods when analyzing fresh patient samples. The differences between the two methods were similar at normal and low albumin levels. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Riddle in preschool education

    OpenAIRE

    Ferjančič, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    In this work, in theoretical part, I would like to explore and present: (1) the theory of riddle and forms in which it appears; (2) the historical origin of riddles; (3) the emergence of the first riddles in Slovenia; (4) the characteristics of literary riddles and definition how riddles are formed; (5) the importance of the riddles in the preschool period, since most of them are for younger generation; (6) different ways of setting and solving riddles with the youngest according to their abi...

  11. Promoting Social and Emotional Competencies among Young Children in Croatia with Preschool PATHS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josipa Mihic

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Preschool PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies is an evidence-based universal prevention program focused on promoting children’s social and emotional competencies and reducing the likelihood of behaviour problems and negative relationships with peers and teachers. This paper examines changes in the social and emotional competencies of the first children to participate in Preschool PATHS in Croatia. This study included 164 children, ages 3-6, in 12 preschool classrooms in three cities across Croatia, who participated in the classroom-based Preschool PATHS curriculum. At the beginning and end of the preschool year, teachers completed wellvalidated and reliable assessments of social and emotional competencies on each child. Hierarchical linear models revealed statistically significant and substantial improvements in prosocial behaviour, emotion regulation, emotion symptoms, peer problems, relational aggression, conduct problems, and hyperactive-impulsive behaviour. Study findings reveal significant changes in children’s social and emotional competencies during preschool. This time may present a unique opportunity to buttress children’s skills and improve long-term school success through the implementation of a rigorous empiricallyvalidated prevention program such as Preschool PATHS.

  12. An Experimental Program to Provide In-Home Vocational Training in Preschool and Day Care Work for Unskilled Disadvantaged Mothers and Child-Caring Adults. A Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West Chester State Coll., PA.

    On the basis of interviews with mothers and baby-sitters of children enrolled in the Early Learning Programs of the Pennsylvania Research in Infant Development and Education Project in the West Chester, Pennsylvania, area, 12 low-income labor force nonparticipants identified as potential entrants into the job market were chosen to participate in…

  13. PREMIO NACIONAL A LA INVESTIGACIÓN EN CIENCIAS MÉDICAS. Academia Nacional de Medicina, Laboratorios Abbott

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Malagón Londoño

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Presidente

    Una vez más cumplimos uno de los objetivos primordiales de la Academia, cual es: estimular la investigación entre los profesionales de la salud residentes en Colombia y premiar la excelencia de quienes se hayan destacado con trabajos originales e inéditos en los campos de las ciencias clínicas y de las áreas básicas. A la convocatoria abierta para el concurso fue sorprendente y grato para esta Academia recibir una respuesta positiva de más de 100 profesionales estudiosos y consagrados a la investigación quienes por la importancia de los temas y el manejo metodológico, serio y responsable científicamente, llevaron al jurado calificador a una difícil selección de los mejores, para lo cual la preselección inicial de los 50, propició la más cuidadosa y ardua labor, habida cuenta de la sobresaliente calidad de los trabajos presentados.

    Esto condujo a una primera conclusión: la del progreso en las características de excelencia de los investigadores colombianos y luego a la de la seriedad con que respondieron a la convocatoria. Por lo mismo la labor del Coordinador del concurso y de todo el equipo de reconocidos profesionales que integraron el grupo calificador resultó ardua y en extremo difícil; solo el altruismo, la consagración y la experiencia del Académico Hernando Groot Liévano y la seriedad, el conocimiento y dedicación del grupo de expertos que lo secundó para la evaluación cualitativa, permitió que los trabajos presentados fueran analizados exhaustivamente, para culminar el proceso de selección y cumplir el cronograma dispendioso para llegar a esta fecha solemne de entrega de los premios.

    Debo reconocer con gratitud a nombre de la Academia no solo la ejemplar dedicación del coordinador y los examinadores, sino la colaboración de los Laboratorios Abbott; estos demostraron laudable compromiso con las disciplinas del conocimiento, lo cual explica el apoyo solidario

  14. Modern Scientific Research on the Development of Proactiveness of Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Agiliar Tukler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the results of analysis of modern scientific research in preschool education, which represents the problem of development of basic qualities of the identity. The research displays that the results of the study on the problem of development of basic qualities of preschool-age children influence the improvement of the content of program provision in the educational process in preschool educational institutions in Ukraine and are meant to be a reference point in choosing the strategy of its reorganization.

  15. Effect of a child care center-based obesity prevention program on body mass index and nutrition practices among preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby A; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Asfour, Lila; Messiah, Sarah E

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effect of an early childhood obesity prevention program on changes in Body Mass Index (BMI) z-score and nutrition practices. Eight child care centers were randomly assigned to an intervention or attention control arm. Participants were a multiethnic sample of children aged 2 to 5 years old (N = 307). Intervention centers received healthy menu changes and family-based education focused on increased physical activity and fresh produce intake, decreased intake of simple carbohydrate snacks, and decreased screen time. Control centers received an attention control program. Height, weight, and nutrition data were collected at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Analysis examined height, weight, and BMI z-score change by intervention condition (at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months). Pearson correlation analysis examined relationships among BMI z-scores and home activities and nutrition patterns in the intervention group. Child BMI z-score was significantly negatively correlated with the number of home activities completed at 6-month post intervention among intervention participants. Similarly, intervention children consumed less junk food, ate more fresh fruits and vegetables, drank less juice, and drank more 1% milk compared to children at control sites at 6 months post baseline. Ninety-seven percent of those children who were normal weight at baseline were still normal weight 12 months later. Findings support child care centers as a promising setting to implement childhood obesity prevention programs in this age group. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  16. Addressing the Needs of Preschool Children in the Context of Disasters and Terrorism: Assessment, Prevention, and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmer, Leo; Hamiel, Daniel; Pardo-Aviv, Lee; Laor, Nathaniel

    2017-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to review the research literature regarding the needs of preschoolers in the context of disasters and terrorism with the aim of understanding the existing methods for assessment, prevention, and intervention to provide recommendations and point out required research and development. We differentiate between screening tools that provide initial evaluation and assessment tools for diagnosing preschooler children's pathology and review possible interventions that address the preschool child's needs before, during, and after the incident itself. We also emphasize the lack of dissemination and research of prevention programs and mass interventions for preschoolers. Programs for community mass prevention and intervention for preschoolers should be developed and evaluated and interventions should be adapted for individual and group delivery. Moreover, the increase in the number of children refugees requires cultural adaptations of assessment measures and interventions.

  17. Preschoolers' dietary behaviours: parents' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Patricia; Irwin, Jennifer D; He, Meizi; Bouck, L Michelle Sangster; Pollett, Graham

    2006-01-01

    Preschoolers' dietary intake behaviours are described from the perspective of their parents. A maximum variation sample of 71 parents of preschoolers participated in this qualitative study. Ten semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted. Two experienced moderators facilitated all focus groups, which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Strategies to ensure trustworthiness of the data were employed throughout the study. Two team members independently performed inductive content analysis. NVivo software was used to code the emerging themes. Parents identified food and food issues as key health-related behaviours among preschoolers. Parents discussed challenges to healthy eating, including time limitations and societal pressures, as well as methods for facilitating healthy food choices, including bribery, education, and being creative with food. Dietary intake is on the minds of preschoolers' parents. Unfortunately, some methods that parents currently use to promote healthy food choices may be more detrimental than beneficial for children in the long term. Parents' keen interest in their preschoolers' eating habits may make them particularly receptive to learning about and facilitating healthy choices in more behaviourally appropriate ways. Widespread educational messages about the benefits and detriments of various strategies to facilitate healthy eating among preschoolers therefore seem warranted.

  18. Organising and Leading Systematic Quality Work in the Preschool -- Preschool Managers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Preschool managers' responsibility for and leadership of systematic quality work has come to the fore in connection with changes made to the Swedish preschool curriculum. The aim of this study is to contribute to the understanding of preschool managers' leadership and management of the systematic quality work in Swedish preschools with reference…

  19. Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Wonwoo; Blair, Steven N; Pate, Russell R

    2013-01-03

    This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as Montessori preschools, after adjusting for selected potential correlates of preschoolers' sedentary behavior. Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03), after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04), and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009) periods. School type (Montessori or traditional), preschool setting (private or public), socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status) were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers' sedentary behavior. Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.

  20. From Preschool to Prosperity: The Economic Payoff to Early Childhood Education. WE Focus Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    This book is the author's second book on preschool. His first book, "Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development" (2011), explored the connection between early childhood programs and the economic development of American states and metro areas, and compared early childhood programs with business tax…

  1. CLSI-based transference of the CALIPER database of pediatric reference intervals from Abbott to Beckman, Ortho, Roche and Siemens Clinical Chemistry Assays: direct validation using reference samples from the CALIPER cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estey, Mathew P; Cohen, Ashley H; Colantonio, David A; Chan, Man Khun; Marvasti, Tina Binesh; Randell, Edward; Delvin, Edgard; Cousineau, Jocelyne; Grey, Vijaylaxmi; Greenway, Donald; Meng, Qing H; Jung, Benjamin; Bhuiyan, Jalaluddin; Seccombe, David; Adeli, Khosrow

    2013-09-01

    The CALIPER program recently established a comprehensive database of age- and sex-stratified pediatric reference intervals for 40 biochemical markers. However, this database was only directly applicable for Abbott ARCHITECT assays. We therefore sought to expand the scope of this database to biochemical assays from other major manufacturers, allowing for a much wider application of the CALIPER database. Based on CLSI C28-A3 and EP9-A2 guidelines, CALIPER reference intervals were transferred (using specific statistical criteria) to assays performed on four other commonly used clinical chemistry platforms including Beckman Coulter DxC800, Ortho Vitros 5600, Roche Cobas 6000, and Siemens Vista 1500. The resulting reference intervals were subjected to a thorough validation using 100 reference specimens (healthy community children and adolescents) from the CALIPER bio-bank, and all testing centers participated in an external quality assessment (EQA) evaluation. In general, the transferred pediatric reference intervals were similar to those established in our previous study. However, assay-specific differences in reference limits were observed for many analytes, and in some instances were considerable. The results of the EQA evaluation generally mimicked the similarities and differences in reference limits among the five manufacturers' assays. In addition, the majority of transferred reference intervals were validated through the analysis of CALIPER reference samples. This study greatly extends the utility of the CALIPER reference interval database which is now directly applicable for assays performed on five major analytical platforms in clinical use, and should permit the worldwide application of CALIPER pediatric reference intervals. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of the Roche COBAS Amplicor Monitor, Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS Taqman and Abbott RealTime Test assays for quantification of hepatitis C virus and HIV RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Dietmar; Gerritzen, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    We have evaluated the performance of two newly developed automated real-time PCR assays, the COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan (CAP/CTM) and the Abbott RealTime tests, in the quantification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA. The widely used semi-automated COBAS Amplicor Monitor (CAM) assay served as the reference test. Several specimens were analyzed, including 102 plasma samples from HCV patients and 109 from HIV patients and 10 samples from negative donors, as well as Quality Control in Molecular Diagnostics (QCMD) and National Institute for Biological Standards and Controls (NIBSC) proficiency program panels. Good correlation was observed among the three assays, with correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.8 (CAM-CAP/CTM), 0.89 (CAM-RealTime) and 0.91 (CAP/CTM-RealTime) for HCV and 0.83 (CAM-RealTime), 0.85 (CAM-CAP/CTM) and 0.89 (CAP/CTM-RealTime) for HIV. The overall concordance for negative/positive results was 100% for HCV and 98% for HIV. All assays were equally able to quantify HCV genotypes 1, 3, 5 and HIV group M (subtypes A-H) and N from QCMD and NIBSC panels. In terms of workflow, the RealTime assay requires more hands-on-time than the CAP/CTM assay. The results indicate that real-time PCR assays can improve the efficiency of end-point PCR tests by better covering viral dynamic ranges and providing higher throughput and automation.

  3. 'Redemption between politics and ontology: Agamben on the coming politics' [Review] Abbott, M (2014) The figure of this world: Agamben and the question of political ontology; Whyte, J (2014) Catastrophe and redemption: the political thought of Giorgio Agamben

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Review of: \\ud \\ud Abbott, M. (2014) The figure of this world: Agamben and the question of political ontology. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 9780748684090\\ud \\ud Whyte, J. (2014) Catastrophe and redemption: the political thought of Giorgio Agamben. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 9781438448527

  4. Literature review on the preschool pedestrian

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to describe (1) the factors leading to typical preschool pedestrian accidents, (2) the developmental characteristics of the preschool child that affect his/her behavior in traffic, (3) social factors that may...

  5. Computerized sociometric assessment for preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2015-01-01

    In preschool classes, sociometric peer ratings are used to measure children's peer relationships. The current study examined a computerized version of preschool sociometric ratings. The psychometric properties were compared of computerized sociometric ratings and traditional peer ratings for

  6. Literature review on the preschool pedestrian

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to describe (1) the factors leading to typical preschool pedestrian accidents, (2) the developmental characteristics of the preschool child that affect his/her behavior in traffic, (3) social factors that may...

  7. Science in the Eyes of Preschool Children: Findings from an Innovative Research Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubosarsky, Mia D.

    How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.

  8. Accuracy and precision of four value-added blood glucose meters: the Abbott Optium, the DDI Prodigy, the HDI True Track, and the HypoGuard Assure Pro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Catherine A; Kane, Michael P; Bakst, Gary; Busch, Robert S; Abelseth, Jill M; Hamilton, Robert A

    2009-09-01

    This study compared the accuracy and precision of four value-added glucose meters. Finger stick glucose measurements in diabetes patients were performed using the Abbott Diabetes Care (Alameda, CA) Optium, Diagnostic Devices, Inc. (Miami, FL) DDI Prodigy, Home Diagnostics, Inc. (Fort Lauderdale, FL) HDI True Track Smart System, and Arkray, USA (Minneapolis, MN) HypoGuard Assure Pro. Finger glucose measurements were compared with laboratory reference results. Accuracy was assessed by a Clarke error grid analysis (EGA), a Parkes EGA, and within 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of the laboratory value criteria (chi2 analysis). Meter precision was determined by calculating absolute mean differences in glucose values between duplicate samples (Kruskal-Wallis test). Finger sticks were obtained from 125 diabetes patients, of which 90.4% were Caucasian, 51.2% were female, 83.2% had type 2 diabetes, and average age of 59 years (SD 14 years). Mean venipuncture blood glucose was 151 mg/dL (SD +/-65 mg/dL; range, 58-474 mg/dL). Clinical accuracy by Clarke EGA was demonstrated in 94% of Optium, 82% of Prodigy, 61% of True Track, and 77% of the Assure Pro samples (P meters. Within 5% accuracy was achieved in 34%, 24%, 29%, and 13%, respectively (P meter systems. The HDI True Track was significantly less precise than the other meter systems. The Abbott Optium was significantly more accurate than the other meter systems, whereas the HDI True Track was significantly less accurate and less precise compared to the other meter systems.

  9. Comparative study of the serum measurement of PTH on Roche Cobas e411® versus the Abbott Architect ci8200®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensalah, Mohammed; Bouayadi, Ouardia; Rahmani, Nawal; Lyagoubi, Amina; Lamrabat, Somiya; Choukri, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Parathormone (PTH) is the main hormone of phosphocalcic homeostasis. It is synthesized and secreted by the parathyroid glands. PTH has become a routine test in the medical biology laboratory. However, its measurement presents analytical difficulties with the various marketed kits. The aim of this work is to present the results of a comparative study between the PTH measurment on Abbott architect ci8200 and on Roche's Cobas e411 automaton. It is a prospective study carried out for 252 hospitalized patients in the various departments of the University Hospital Center Mohammed VI of Oujda. The "intact" PTH tests were performed on two automata: Abbott Architect ci8200 and Roche Cobas e411. The first uses chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. The second uses electrochemiluminiscence sandwich enzyme immunoassay. The agreement of the results between the different techniques was evaluated using the Bland-Altman difference diagram and the Passing-Bablok and Deming regression line (MedCalc software version 14.8.1.0 ® ). By analyzing the diagram of Bland-Altman, we note that the average bias between both methods is of the order of 193.9 pg/mL. As for the equation of the right of Passing-Bablok, it is: Y(Architect) = 3.11 X (Cobas) - 12.26. In conclusion, our study shows a great discrepancy between the results of the PTH assay on the Architect ci8200 versus the Cobas e411, hence the biologist's indisputable role in the control and evaluation of the kits marketed through the various validation tests.

  10. Comparison of cardiac TnI outliers using a contemporary and a high-sensitivity assay on the Abbott Architect platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J B; Southby, S J; Stuart, L A; Mackay, R; Florkowski, C M; George, P M

    2014-07-01

    Assays for cardiac troponin (cTn) have undergone improvements in sensitivity and precision in recent years. Increased rates of outliers, however, have been reported on various cTn platforms, typically giving irreproducible, falsely higher results. We aimed to evaluate the outlier rate occurring in patients with elevated cTnI using a contemporary and high-sensitivity assay. All patients with elevated cTnI (up to 300 ng/L) performed over a 21-month period were assayed in duplicate. A contemporary assay (Abbott STAT Troponin-I) was used for the first part of the study and subsequently a high-sensitivity assay (Abbott STAT High-Sensitive Troponin-I) was used. Outliers exceeded a calculated critical difference (CD) (CD = z × √2 × SDAnalytical) where z = 3.5 (for probability of 0.0005) and critical outliers also were on a different side of the decision level. The respective outlier and critical outlier rates were 0.22% and 0.10% for the contemporary assay (n = 4009) and 0.18% and 0.13% for the high-sensitivity assay (n = 3878). There was no significant reduction in outlier rate between the two assays (χ(2) = 0.034, P = 0.854). Fifty-six percent of outliers occurred in samples where cTn was an 'add-on' test (and was stored and refrigerated prior to assay). Despite recent improvements in cTn methods, outliers (including critical outliers) still occur at a low rate in both a contemporary and high-sensitivity cTnI assay. Laboratory and clinical staff should be aware of this potential analytical error, particularly in samples with suboptimal sample handling such as add-on tests. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. The need for a sequencing-based assay to supplement the Abbott m2000 RealTime HCV Genotype II assay: a 1 year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedet, Marlin; Adachi, Dena; Wong, Anita; Wong, Sallene; Pabbaraju, Kanti; Tellier, Raymond; Tang, Julian W

    2014-07-01

    Hepatitis C (HCV) genotyping is important for treatment planning. The Abbott m2000 RealTime HCV Genotype II assay is a PCR-based assay targeting specific regions of the 5'NCR gene for genotypes 1-6, and the NS5b gene for subgenotypes 1a/1b. However, not all genotypes can be resolved, with results being reported as: 'indeterminate', 'mixed', 'genotype X reactivity with Y', or just the major genotype 1 alone. To assess the supplementary testing required for these unresolved HCV genotypes, these samples were tested further using an in-house core/E1 sequencing assay. The resulting genotypes/subgenotypes were assigned using phylogenetic analysis with reference HCV genotype sequences. Additional testing was conducted using the INNO-LiPA HCV II assay for truly mixed genotypes. Out of 1052 samples tested, 89 (8.5%) underwent further sequencing to determine the HCV genotype: 16 that were 'indeterminate' on the m2000, were mostly genotype 2s and 3s by sequencing; 12 that were 'mixed', were mostly one of the genotypes reported in the mixture; 7 that were 'X reactivity with Y', were usually genotype X; 54 that gave just a major genotype 1 result were mostly 1a, with some 6 and 1b, and a few 1c. For three truly mixed genotypes, additional testing using the VERSANT(®) HCV Genotype Assay (LiPA) 2.0, showed two mixed 1 and 3, and one indistinguishable 6c-6l genotypes. The Abbott m2000 RealTime HCV Genotype II assay can resolve most (∼90%) HCV genotypes. However in 9-10% of cases, to fully resolve the genotype, additional testing is required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Bilingual Preschools. Volume 2: Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Kristin, Ed.; Rohde, Andreas, Ed.; Schelletter, Christina, Ed.; Steinlen, Anja K., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on data from eleven preschools in four European countries (Germany, Belgium, Sweden, and the UK), this edited volume explores the progress of preschool children learning English over a period of two years. This edited volume (Volume II) gives details on best practices in bilingual preschools as well as background and training on topics…

  13. The Arts in Turkish Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acer, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important factors determining a nation's level of development in the modern world is preschool education. When preschool education is perceived as an entity that affects every aspect of childhood development, this fact is undeniable. Several aspects of preschool education, including art education, play a significant role in a…

  14. Computerized Sociometric Assessment for Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2015-01-01

    In preschool classes, sociometric peer ratings are used to measure children's peer relationships. The current study examined a computerized version of preschool sociometric ratings. The psychometric properties were compared of computerized sociometric ratings and traditional peer ratings for preschoolers. The distributions, inter-item…

  15. Enhancing Preschool Education in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nirmala; Koong, Maggie

    2000-01-01

    Presents overview of Hong Kong preschool education. Considers the history of preschool education, early childhood curriculum, training of early childhood professionals, and monitoring of standard services. Discusses trends in Hong Kong preschool education and problems in early childhood education, including exclusion from the main education…

  16. Locomotion and Grasping impairment in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Fulceri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate expressiveness of motor impairment in autism spectrum disorder (ASD and its correlation with developmental and clinical features of ASD. Method: Thirty-five male preschoolers with ASD completed the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2; Folio and Fewell, 2000 and underwent a multidisciplinary assessment including medical examination, standardized assessment of cognitive abilities, administration of Autism_Diagnostic_Observation_Schedule (ADOS and a parent interview about adaptive skills. Results: Results revealed a substantial impairment in locomotion and grasping skills. Both fine and gross motor skills were significantly correlated with non verbal IQ and adaptive behaviours (p<0.01 but not with chronological age or ADOS scores. Children with weaker motor skills have greater cognitive and adaptive behaviours deficits. Conclusions: Motor development in ASD can be detected at preschool age and locomotion and grasping skills are substantially the most impaired area. These findings support the need to assess motor skills in preschoolers with ASD in addition to other developmental skill areas. Along with the increasingly acknowledged importance of motor skills for subsequent social, cognitive, and communicative development our findings support the need to consider motor intervention as a key area in therapeutic program to improve outcome in preschoolers with ASD.

  17. Executive functions in preschool children with cerebral palsy--Assessment and early intervention--A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Kristian; Liverød, Janne Risholm; Lerdal, Bjørn; Vestrheim, Ida E; Skranes, Jon

    2016-01-01

    To assess the level of executive functioning among preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP) and evaluate effects of the Program Intensified habilitation (PIH). In this non-randomized, prospective study, 15 preschool children with CP, and their parents attended the PIH for a 1-year period. Executive functions were evaluated using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive functions-Preschool version (BRIEF-P), filled out by parents and preschool teachers. Before PIH, scores of executive function difficulties were close to the general population mean. After PIH, fathers and preschool teachers reported reduced levels of executive difficulties on, respectively, the Emergent Metacognition Index and the Flexibility Index on the BRIEF-P. Mothers reported no changes. The children in our sample showed age-appropriate levels of executive functions before attending PIH. Some aspects of executive skills difficulties were reduced after PIH. Using BRIEF-P contributed to the differentiation of cognitive strengths and weaknesses among the children.

  18. Early preschool environments and gender: Effects of gender pedagogy in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutts, Kristin; Kenward, Ben; Falk, Helena; Ivegran, Anna; Fawcett, Christine

    2017-10-01

    To test how early social environments affect children's consideration of gender, 3- to 6-year-old children (N=80) enrolled in gender-neutral or typical preschool programs in the central district of a large Swedish city completed measures designed to assess their gender-based social preferences, stereotypes, and automatic encoding. Compared with children in typical preschools, a greater proportion of children in the gender-neutral school were interested in playing with unfamiliar other-gender children. In addition, children attending the gender-neutral preschool scored lower on a gender stereotyping measure than children attending typical preschools. Children at the gender-neutral school, however, were not less likely to automatically encode others' gender. The findings suggest that gender-neutral pedagogy has moderate effects on how children think and feel about people of different genders but might not affect children's tendency to spontaneously notice gender. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A systematic review of body dissatisfaction and sociocultural messages related to the body among preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatangelo, Gemma; McCabe, Marita; Mellor, David; Mealey, Alex

    2016-09-01

    This systematic review examines body dissatisfaction and the influence of sociocultural messages related to body image among preschool children. The review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines and 16 studies were included in the final analysis. Findings suggest that children under the age of 6 years old experience body dissatisfaction, however, the proportion of children who are dissatisfied varied from around 20% to 70%, depending on the method of assessment. The literature was divided on whether preschool aged girls experience more body dissatisfaction than boys. Parental influence appears to be an important factor in the development of preschool children's body dissatisfaction and attitudes. However, more research is needed to understand the influences of children's peers and the media. The need for more sensitive measures of body dissatisfaction and prevention programs for preschool children is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Developing Healthy Food Preferences in Preschool Children Through Taste Exposure, Sensory Learning, and Nutrition Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekitsing, Chandani; Hetherington, Marion M; Blundell-Birtill, Pam

    2018-02-14

    The present review was undertaken in order to summarize and evaluate recent research investigating taste exposure, sensory learning, and nutrition education interventions for promoting vegetable intake in preschool children. Overall, taste exposure interventions yielded the best outcomes for increasing vegetable intake in early childhood. Evidence from sensory learning strategies such as visual exposure and experiential learning also show some success. While nutrition education remains the most common approach used in preschool settings, additional elements are needed to strengthen the educational program for increasing vegetable intake. There is a substantial gap in the evidence base to promote vegetable intake in food fussy children. The present review reveals the relative importance of different intervention strategies for promoting vegetable intake. To strengthen intervention effects for improving vegetable intake in preschool children, future research could consider integrating taste exposure and sensory learning strategies with nutrition education within the preschool curriculum.

  1. Perception of childhood obesity in mothers of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae Ok; Kim, Gyo Nam; Park, Euna

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the perception of childhood obesity in mothers of preschool children using Q methodology. A total of 38 Q statements about childhood obesity were obtained from 41 participants. The QUANL PC program was used to analyze the results. There were three types of perception toward obesity in mothers of preschool children: the "authoritative discipline type," the "generous home meal focused type," and the "home meal based on household financial situation type." The perception of mothers toward childhood obesity can affect the extent of maternal interaction with children or meal preparation for the family. Based on these results, it is necessary to plan specific programs according to the types of maternal perception toward childhood obesity.

  2. Aerobics enhances cardiovascular fitness and agility in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, B; Field, T; Goldstein, S; Perry, S

    1990-01-01

    Investigated effects of aerobic exercise on a sample of 24 preschoolers. Thirty minutes of aerobic exercises were provided daily for a period of 8 weeks for a group of 12 children while the remaining 12 children engaged in freeplay on the school playground. The children were given pretests and posttests on the following measures: a submaximal exercise test on a pediatric bicycle (baseline and three workloads), an agility test, a health knowledge test, a self-esteem scale, and an observational measure of their gross-motor activity. Despite comparability on pretests, significant group X repeated measures effects suggested that the aerobic exercise group showed decreases in heart rate at all three workloads as well as increases in agility and self-esteem following the exercise program. These findings suggest that cardiovascular fitness, agility, and self-esteem can be facilitated in preschoolers by an aerobic exercise program.

  3. THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE EDUCATIONAL STAFF TOWARDS CHILDREN WITH DEVE LOPMENTAL DISORDERS-AN IMPORTANT FACTOR FOR THEIR QUALITY TREATMENT IN THE PRE-SCHOOL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezana MATOVSKA

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction· The purpose for the integration in the preschool institution· The need for the integration in the preschool institution· The results of the integration in the preschool institutionPersonal experience from the integration in the preschool institution· The relationship of the educational and upbringing staff towards the child· The relationship of the child towards the preschool institution· (the relationship towards the other children and the relationship towards the staff Proposal and suggestions for solving the present situation· The completion of legislative and its carrying out in practice· The creation of space and staff possibilities for active integration of the children with developmental disorders in the preschool institutions· The preparation of didactic material and the devices for carrying out the working program.

  4. Formative research and strategic development of a physical activity component to a social marketing campaign for obesity prevention in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Laura; Anderson, Jennifer; Gould, Susan Martin; Auld, Garry

    2008-06-01

    The prevalence of overweight in childhood, including preschoolers, continues to rise. While efforts focusing on school-aged children are encouraging, obesity prevention programs to address nutrition and physical activity in the child care center are lacking. Food Friends is a successfully evaluated nutrition program aimed at enhancing preschoolers' food choices, the addition of a physical activity program would improve the programs overall efforts to establish healthful habits early in life. This study describes the formative research conducted with secondary influencers of preschoolers-teachers and parents-for the development of a physical activity program. Key informant interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with preschool teachers and parents, respectively, to examine current physical activity practices, as well as attitudes, opinions, and desired wants and needs for physical activity materials. Findings illustrate that teachers provided physical activity; however, most did not use a structured program. Teachers identified time, space and equipment as barriers to providing activity in their classroom. Focus group findings identified activities of preschoolers', parents' perceptions of the adequacy of activity levels, and items to help parents engage their children in more physical activity. Barriers were also identified by parents and included time, safety, inclement weather, and lack of knowledge and self-efficacy. Findings from this formative research were used to develop a marketing strategy to guide the development of a physical activity component, Food Friends Get Movin' with Mighty Moves , as part of a larger social marketing campaign aimed to decrease the risk for obesity in low-income preschoolers.

  5. Wishful thinking in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Stéphane; Clément, Fabrice; Mercier, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The current experiment sought to demonstrate the presence of wishful thinking--when wishes influence beliefs--in young children. A sample of 77 preschoolers needed to predict, eight times in a row, which of two plastic eggs, one containing one toy and the other containing three toys, would be drawn by a blinded experimenter. On the four trials in which the children could not keep the content of the egg drawn, they were equally likely to predict that either egg would be drawn. By contrast, on the four trials in which the children got to keep the content of the egg, they were more likely to predict that the egg with three toys would be drawn. Any effort the children exerted would be the same across conditions, so that this demonstration of wishful thinking cannot be accounted for by an effort heuristic. One group of children--a subgroup of the 5-year-olds--did not engage in wishful thinking. Children from this subgroup instead used the representativeness heuristic to guide their answers. This result suggests that having an explicit representation of the outcome inhibits children from engaging in wishful thinking in the same way as explicit representations constrain the operation of motivated reasoning in adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Guia para Padres Educacion Especial para Ninos en Pre-Escolar en Pennsylvania. (A Parent Guide to Special Education for Preschool Children in Pennsylvania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent Education Network, York, PA.

    This guide, in Spanish, is intended to help Pennsylvania parents of preschool children with special needs to understand their rights and assist in the design of an appropriate early intervention preschool educational program. An overview of special education laws focuses on the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Part B. The main sections…

  7. "Banana Starts with Yellow": Curricular Implications of Preschoolers Missing a Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Ruth; Kragler, Sherry

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant investments over the past decade in the expansion and improvement of preschool programs, too many children, particularly poor children, enter kindergarten behind their peers. Because it is critical that voluntary pre-kindergarten (VPK) classrooms offer educational programs that both address the needs and developmental levels of…

  8. Sustained Effects of Incredible Years as a Preventive Intervention in Preschool Children with Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posthumus, Jocelyne A.; Raaijmakers, Maartje A. J.; Maassen, Gerard H.; van Engeland, Herman; Matthys, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated preventive effects of the Incredible Years program for parents of preschool children who were at risk for a chronic pattern of conduct problems, in the Netherlands. In a matched control design, 72 parents of children with conduct problems received the Incredible Years program. These families (intervention group) were…

  9. Review of the studies on nutrition in Polish preschool children. Part 2. Meals prepared at preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkiel-Pawłowska, Sylwia; Chalcarz, Wojciech

    This article is the second part of the review of the studies on nutrition in Polish preschool children. In the first part, studies on preschool menus assessment were presented and summarised, whereas this article reviews the studies on the assessment of foods and meals prepared at preschool. The aim of this review was to present and summarise the results of the studies on the assessment of meals prepared for children at preschool based on the reports from the preschool food storeroom, the studies on chemical analysis of sample meals served at preschools and the studies on comparison of the results of chemical analysis to the results obtained by calculations obtained from computer programmes. The results of the studies on the assessment of meals prepared for children at preschool using various methods confirm most of the findings from the studies on the assessment of preschool menus. It is necessary to carry out more studies on energy and nutrient content assessment of preschool meals determined by chemical analysis of sample meals in order to provide more accurate information about the real nutritional value of meals served to children at preschool. It is essential to update the Polish food composition tables to enable more precise calculations of nutritional value of the meals planned for children at preschools which will improve the possibility of adjusting preschool meals to the real needs of both 3-year-old and 4-6-year-old children during their stay at preschool.

  10. Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byun Wonwoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. Methods The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as Results Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03, after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04, and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009 periods. School type (Montessori or traditional, preschool setting (private or public, socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Conclusions Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.

  11. Preschool teachers’ reasoning about interactive whiteboard embedded in Swedish preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bourbour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the ways in which teachers enact the interactive whiteboard (IWB in Swedish preschools in relation to preschool children’s mathematical learning. Data collected from interviews with four preschool teachers have provided the opportunity to consider the potential of IWB to facilitate a creative approach to young children’s mathematic education. The findings suggest that IWB use in preschool is mostly viewed as “Space for children to involve in problem-solving situations”, “Supporting collaborative learning and mutual negotiation”, “Goal-oriented mathematics learning facilitated by IWB” and “Retaining children’s interest in learning activities”. This study also highlights the importance of teachers’ technological knowledge and skills in mediating the interaction and facilitating the use of IWB in preschool pedagogical practices. Normal 0 21 false false false SV JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Cambria","serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  12. Preschool Needle Pain Responding: Establishing 'Normal'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Jordana A; DiLorenzo, Miranda G; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca R; Flora, David B; Greenberg, Saul; Garfield, Hartley

    2017-06-01

    The current study sets forth to provide descriptive data for preschool vaccination pain responding as well as examine longitudinal relationships over early childhood. Growth mixture modeling was first used to describe stable subgroups of preschoolers on the basis of their pain response patterns over 2-minutes post-needle. Secondly, a parallel-process growth curve model was used to assess the stability of acute pain responding from 12 months of age to preschool age. Specifically, we examined whether preschool pain-related distress or regulation could be predicted from 12-month acute pain responding. Preschool participants were part of a Canadian longitudinal cohort (The Opportunities to Understand Childhood Hurt [OUCH] cohort; N = 302). Growth mixture modeling analyses discerned 3 distinct groups of preschoolers, with an important minority not regulating to low-no pain by 2 minutes post-needle. There were no significant associations between 12-month and preschool pain responding. These results highlight the steep trajectory of development between these different stages of early childhood and the variability of pain responding at the preschool vaccination. This study provides descriptive data for preschool vaccination pain responding as well as examines longitudinal relationships over early childhood. Demonstrating significantly different pain patterns from infancy, 25% of preschoolers are displaying suboptimal regulation trajectories. This considerable minority poses a significant concern because of the established trajectory of phobia onset in middle childhood. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Inclusion in Malaysian Integrated Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Sailajah; Loveridge, Judith; Green, Vanessa A.

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education has been introduced through a number of policy developments in Malaysia over the last 10 years but there is little research investigating the extent and nature of inclusive education for preschoolers with special educational needs (SEN). This study surveyed both regular and special education teachers in Malaysian integrated…

  14. Barriers to Vaccinating Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orenstein, Walter A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Despite the effectiveness of vaccinations in preventing disease, preschool children, particularly in the inner cities, are not being adequately immunized. Inadequate clinic staff and hours, inconvenient locations, prohibitive policies, and missed opportunities within the health care system may contribute to this problem. Suggests policy changes…

  15. Mozart Effect in Preschool Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Ken

    2006-01-01

    In 1993, Rauscher et al. reported a temporary increase in spatial-temporal ability after listening to Mozart's music. This led to numerous replication and extension studies with mixed findings in the past decade. This study investigated the "Mozart effect" in preschool children. Forty-one boys and girls, aged three to five, attempted a series of…

  16. AUDITING INTERNAL CONTROLS IN FINANCING PRESCHOOL PUBLIC INSTITUTION: EVIDENCE FROM SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana HORVAT

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Public preschool educational institutions in Slovenia are mostly financed by public money, it means bay state and municipalities. They are also financed by parents. So, it is important that preschool institutions are using public money transparent and responsible, for this reason public preschool institution should have internal controls in financing. The internal auditor as independent professional should verify if internal controls works. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how internal controls in financing public educational institution works it means which internal controls are important in financing the preschool institution - on the selected institution to show and check how internal controls work. For this reason we divide internal controls in the financing in two phases: (1 internal controls in the preparation of the annual financial plan and financial planning of financial resources for institution’s programs and activities, (2 internal controls in obtaining financial resources. We used methods of internal auditing and research approaches as sampling, unstructured interviews and analysis of documents. The results showed that selected preschool institution should work on rules of recovery and monitoring of claims. The findings provide useful academic insight to setting internal controls as well as practical guidance for preschool institutions.

  17. What I learned from the Ypsilanti Perry Preschool Project: A teacher’s reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derman-Sparks Louise

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article, written by one of the teachers in the Ypsilanti Perry Preschool Project (1962-1967, critically examines the prevailing narrative about the preschool project’s relationship to the High/Scope Educational Foundation. It describes what the author and other teachers actually did, the principles that informed their practice, and challenges the prevailing myth that the Perry Preschool used the High/ Scope Educational Foundation curriculum. It also discusses what the High/Scope Longitudinal Study did not research about the program, families, and children in the Ypsilanti Perry Preschool and examines possible factors, beyond the curriculum, which effected its positive outcomes. The Perry Preschool Project occurred during the years of the 1960s Civil Rights Movement in the USA, and reflected prevailing ideologies and educational philosophies, some of which were in contention with each other. By bringing the Teachers’ voices to the prevailing discussion, which, to date, is dominated by the Project administrators’ perspective, the article seeks to open up new thinking about the lessons of the Ypsilanti Perry Preschool Project for both early childhood education pedagogy and research.

  18. Preschool teacher's view on learning in preschool in Sweden and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström professor m.so., Stig; Frøkjær, Thorleif; Johansson, Inge

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how preschool teachers in Sweden and Denmark perceive children’s learning in preschool. The study aimed to answer the following questions: What is ‘learning’? How do children learn? What are the best conditions for children’s learning? What is the role...... similarities between how Danish and Swedish preschool teachers think of learning and participation. This supports earlier assumption about the coherence of Nordic preschool beliefs which unites education and care....

  19. Preschool teachers' perception and use of hearing assistive technology in educational settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lauri H; Poole, Bridget; Muñoz, Karen

    2013-07-01

    This study explored how often sound-field amplification and personal frequency-modulated (FM) systems are used in preschool classrooms, teacher perceptions of advantages and disadvantages of using hearing assistive technology, and teacher recommendations for hearing assistive technology use. The study used a cross-sectional survey design. Participants were professionals who provided services to preschool-age children who are deaf or hard of hearing in public or private schools. A total of 306 surveys were sent to 162 deaf education programs throughout the United States; 99 surveys were returned (32%). Simple statistics were used to describe the quantitative survey results; content analysis was completed on open-ended survey comments. Surveys were received from teachers working at listening and spoken language preschool programs (65%) and at bilingual-bicultural and total communication preschool programs (35%). Most respondents perceived that hearing assistive technology improved students' academic performance, speech and language development, behavior, and attention in the classroom. The majority of respondents also reported that they definitely would or probably would recommend a sound-field system (77%) or personal FM system (71%) to other educators. Hearing assistive technology is frequently used in preschool classrooms of children who are deaf or hard of hearing, with generally positive teacher perceptions of the benefits of using such technology.

  20. Effect of lubricants and a vaginal spermicide gel on the detection of prostate specific antigen, a biomarker of semen exposure, using a quantitative (Abbott ARCHITECT) assay☆, ☆☆, ★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, Margaret C.; Melendez, Johan H.; Kourtis, Athena P.; Chaney, Dorothy M.; Brown, Teresa M.; Black, Carolyn M.; Mauck, Christine K.; Schwartz, Jill L.; Zenilman, Jonathan M.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Macaluso, Maurizio; Doncel, Gustavo F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about the effects of commonly used lubricants on detection of biomarkers of semen exposure. We investigated the in vitro effect of Gynol®, K-Y Jelly®, Replens®, Astroglide®, Carbopol, and Silicorel on quantitative detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA). Study Design A predetermined concentration of each of the gels was added to serially diluted semen samples. Additionally, serial dilutions of each of the gels were added to three different semen dilutions (high, medium, or low). The resulting samples were tested for PSA on the Abbott ARCHITECT System. Results When using the Abbott ARCHITECT system, the only products that inhibited PSA detection were Gynol® and Replens®. The inhibition caused by Gynol® was dose-dependent, but that of Replens was dose-independent. K-Y Jelly®-spiked samples had higher PSA values than controls. Conclusions Caution is warranted when using the Abbott quantitative assay for PSA detection as a biomarker of semen exposure in settings where Gynol®, Replens® or K-Y Jelly® might also have been used. Neither Astroglide® nor Silicorel inhibited PSA detection. Additional studies evaluating other vaginal products, including microbicides, and their effects on other assays, are needed. In vivo studies will be especially important to optimize PSA detection from clinical samples. Implications Researchers should consider the potential for specific lubricants or any vaginal products to affect the particular assay used for semen biomarker detection. The Abbott ARCHITECT’s total PSA assay should not be used with the product Replens. Caution is warranted when using the assay in settings where Gynol or K-Y jelly may have been used. PMID:24314911

  1. Process Mediates Structure: The Relation between Preschool Teacher Education and Preschool Teachers' Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blömeke, Sigrid; Jenßen, Lars; Grassmann, Marianne; Dunekacke, Simone; Wedekind, Hartmut

    2017-01-01

    Data about processes and outcomes of preschool teacher education is scarce. This paper examines the opportunities to learn (OTL) of prospective preschool teachers (N = 1,851) at different types and stages of preschool teacher education and their relation to general pedagogical knowledge (GPK), mathematics pedagogical content knowledge (MPCK), and…

  2. Assessing Preschool Children's Pretend Play: Preliminary Validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaugars, Astrida Seja; Russ, Sandra W.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: A description of the development and preliminary validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool version (APS-P) is presented by demonstrating associations among preschool children's play, creativity, and daily behavior using multiple methodologies. Thirty-three preschool-age children completed a standardized 5-minute play task…

  3. Preschool Teachers' Views on Competence in the Context of Home and Preschool Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, Tuula; Sandberg, Anette; Sheridan, Sonja; Williams, Pia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyse and discuss preschool teachers' views regarding competence within their profession in the context of home and preschool collaboration. The question addressed is as follows: In what situations do preschool teachers perceive that their competence becomes visible for parents? The results, based on interviews…

  4. An Examination of Parents' and Preschool Workers' Perspectives on Bullying in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, David Lansing; Kovac, Velibor Bobo

    2016-01-01

    Parents (n = 141) and preschool workers (n = 81) completed a survey regarding their perspectives towards: (a) the existence of bullying in preschool, (b) interpretations of bullying, (c) the roles of bullies and victims, and (d) gender differences. Findings suggest that both groups largely believe that bullying occurs in preschool. Excluding…

  5. Transition between Swedish Preschool and Preschool Class: A Question about Interweaving Care and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatalo, Tarja; Meier, Joanna; Frank, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    This study highlights teachers' experiences with transition from Swedish preschool to preschool class, i.e. from the daycare centre to the formal school. One assumption was that transition activities, to favour continuity in the long-term, need to focus on children's learning within the target areas that the policy documents specify for preschool.…

  6. Cooperation between Parents and Preschool Institutions through Different Concepts of Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercnik, Sanja; Devjak, Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses the importance, role, and methods of cooperation between parents and preschool institutions through the different concepts of preschool education and different educational approaches and formal frameworks. Through educational approaches, the authors analyse how cooperation affects the implementation of preschool education in…

  7. Science Education in Preschool: How to Assimilate the Reggio Emilia Pedagogy in a Turkish Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Hatice Zeynep

    2009-01-01

    This commentary manuscript, which was part of a larger research project, aimed to show how teachers can help preschoolers construct their knowledge of science and meet preschool science standards successfully in a Reggio Emilia approach. The demonstrations for preschool teachers are summarized as follows: be inspired by the Reggio Emilia approach;…

  8. A theoretical framework for analysing preschool teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a theoretical framework for analysing preschool teaching as a historically-grounded societal practice. The aim is to present a unified framework that can be used to analyse and compare both historical and contemporary examples of preschool teaching practice within and across...... national traditions. The framework has two main components, an analysis of preschool teaching as a practice, formed in relation to societal needs, and an analysis of the categorical relations which necessarily must be addressed in preschool teaching activity. The framework is introduced and illustrated...... through the analysis of one of the earliest recorded examples of preschool education (initiated by J. F. Oberlin in northeastern France in 1767). The general idea of societal need is elaborated as a way of analysing practices, and a general analytic schema is presented for characterising preschool...

  9. Comparison of Abbott Architect®, Siemens Immulite®, and Diasorin Liaison®for determination of Epstein-Barr virus serological diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Catherine; Segard, Christine; Bouvier, Maryline; Stefanski, Martine; Pannier, Christine; Zawadzki, Patricia; Roussel, Catherine; Hecquet, Denise; Duverlie, Gilles; Brochot, Etienne; Castelain, Sandrine

    2018-02-01

    This study compared the performance of 3 automated immunoassays, Architect ® (Abbott), Immulite ® (Siemens) and Liaison ® (Diasorin), for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serology. Ninety-one serum samples collected in Amiens University Hospital were analyzed for the presence of Viral Capsid Antigen (VCA) IgG and IgM and Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen (EBNA) IgG. The agreement between the 3 assays was calculated for each marker individually and for determination of the EBV profile, based on interpretation of the combination of these 3 EBV markers. Although similar results were obtained with Architect ® and Liaison ® , several discordant results were observed with Immulite ® , particularly for EBNA IgG. A large number of EBNA IgG-positive results were observed, which interfered with interpretation of the EBV profile. In contrast, Immulite ® performed similarly to the 2 other assays for detection of VCA IgM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Intervals for Fasting Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in School Children Measured With Abbott Architect c8000 Chemistry Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, Waleed; Albanyan, Esam; Altwaijri, Yasmin; Tamim, Hani; Alhussein, Fahad

    2012-04-01

    Reference intervals for pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish age-specific reference intervals of glucose and lipid levels among local school children. This was cross-sectional study, conducted among Saudi school children. Fasting blood samples were collected from 2149 children, 1138 (53%) boys and 1011 (47%) girls, aged 6 to 18 years old. Samples were analyzed on the Architect c8000 Chemistry System (Abbott Diagnostics, USA) for glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL. Reference intervals were established by nonparametric methods between the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls for cholesterol and triglycerides levels in all age groups (P levels were found to be significant (P levels except at age 12 to 13 years. Saudi children have comparable serum cholesterol levels than their Western counterparts. This may reflect changing dietary habits and increasing affluence in Saudi Arabia. Increased lipid screening is anticipated, and these reference intervals will aid in the early assessment of cardiovascular and diabetes risk in Saudi pediatric populations.

  11. Improving preschoolers' mathematics achievement with tablets: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, John; Jo, Booil

    2017-09-01

    With a randomized field experiment of 433 preschoolers, we tested a tablet mathematics program designed to increase young children's mathematics learning. Intervention students played Math Shelf, a comprehensive iPad preschool and year 1 mathematics app, while comparison children received research-based hands-on mathematics instruction delivered by their classroom teachers. After 22 weeks, there was a large and statistically significant effect on mathematics achievement for Math Shelf students (Cohen's d = .94). Moderator analyses demonstrated an even larger effect for low achieving children (Cohen's d = 1.27). These results suggest that early education teachers can improve their students' mathematics outcomes by integrating experimentally proven tablet software into their daily routines.

  12. Molecular detection and confirmation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urogenital and extragenital specimens using the Abbott CT/NG RealTime assay and an in-house assay targeting the porA pseudogene.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, A

    2011-04-01

    Culture for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) is being replaced by molecular assays, but difficulties are observed with false positive and negatives results, especially for extragenital samples. This study evaluates the Abbott CT\\/NG Real-Time assay and a real-time porA pseudogene assay. Samples (n = 600) from a mixed prevalence Irish population include 164 male urines with corresponding urethral swabs, 58 endocervical swabs, 173 male pharyngeal swabs, 205 male rectal swabs, 36 NG clinical isolates and 26 commensal Neisseria species isolates. There was a 100% concordance between the Abbott CT\\/NG Real-Time and the porA assay. The positivity rate was 1.2%, 1.7%, 8.1% and 5.8% for FVU\\/urethral swabs, endocervical, pharyngeal and rectal swabs, respectively. These results were compared to culture and discrepancies were found with nine pharyngeal and three rectal swabs. Seven of the 12 discrepant positive samples were sequenced and were confirmed "true positives". The sensitivity and specificity of the molecular assays was 100%. The sensitivity of the culture-based testing was 100% for urogenital samples but 36% and 75% for pharyngeal and rectal swabs, respectively. The combined Abbott CT\\/NG and porA assays provide a valuable alternative to culture and also generate a significant increase in the diagnosis of pharyngeal and rectal NG infection.

  13. Improving clinical laboratory efficiency: a time-motion evaluation of the Abbott m2000 RealTime and Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan PCR systems for the simultaneous quantitation of HIV-1 RNA and HCV RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, Alessandra; Coen, Sabrina; Belladonna, Stefano; Pulvirenti, F Renato; Clemens, John M; Capobianchi, M Rosaria

    2011-08-01

    Diagnostic laboratories need automation that facilitates efficient processing and workflow management to meet today's challenges for expanding services and reducing cost, yet maintaining the highest levels of quality. Processing efficiency of two commercially available automated systems for quantifying HIV-1 and HCV RNA, Abbott m2000 system and Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan 96 (docked) systems (CAP/CTM), was evaluated in a mid/high throughput workflow laboratory using a representative daily workload of 24 HCV and 72 HIV samples. Three test scenarios were evaluated: A) one run with four batches on the CAP/CTM system, B) two runs on the Abbott m2000 and C) one run using the Abbott m2000 maxCycle feature (maxCycle) for co-processing these assays. Cycle times for processing, throughput and hands-on time were evaluated. Overall processing cycle time was 10.3, 9.1 and 7.6 h for Scenarios A), B) and C), respectively. Total hands-on time for each scenario was, in order, 100.0 (A), 90.3 (B) and 61.4 min (C). The interface of an automated analyzer to the laboratory workflow, notably system set up for samples and reagents and clean up functions, are as important as the automation capability of the analyzer for the overall impact to processing efficiency and operator hands-on time.

  14. Affordances of Ditches for Children in Preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerstrup, Inger Elisabeth; Møller, Maja Steen

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to expand understanding of the affordances provided by ditches in a Danish preschool context. Affordances are defined as the meaningful action possibilities of the environment. At a forest preschool, a group of 21 children aged approximately 3to 6.5 years accompanied by two to three...... offered varied and changing action possibilities for the preschool children. The paper discusses the possible incorporation of this largely unrecognized design element by planners and managers of green spaces and playgrounds for children in preschool....

  15. Cooperation between Parents and Preschool Institutions through Different Concepts of Preschool Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Berčnik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the importance, role, and methods of cooperation between parents and preschool institutions through the different concepts of preschool education and different educational approaches and formal frameworks. Through educational approaches, the authors analyse how cooperation affects the implementation of preschool education in alternative educational approaches, such as the Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia approaches, and Slovenian public preschool institutions. They envisage that different educational approaches in preschool education perceive the importance and role of cooperation with parents differently and conclude that there are various models of cooperation, which can be demonstrated through a theoretical analysis of the aforementioned alternative preschool approaches. In their view, partnership promotes a shared commitment to the quality realisation of educational goals; it also develops understanding and an ethos of openness in the relationship between all actors in the process of care and education of preschool children.

  16. Forcing preschool children with food

    OpenAIRE

    Šterbenc, Urška

    2015-01-01

    In our thesis we primarily focused on how to get our preschool children to eat healthy without having to force them into it. Most adults have at least one negative childhood eating experience, nonetheless they still use inappropriate principles or techniques when it comes to encouraging their children towards a healthy and balanced diet. Parents often forget they have to set a proper example for their children, since they are known to take up eating habits from their parents. Nowadays, a chil...

  17. Food additives and preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  18. Review of the studies on nutrition in Polish preschool children. Part 1. Preschool menus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkiel, Sylwia; Chalcarz, Wojciech

    The last review of the literature on nutrition in Polish children covered the years 1980-1995. From that time living conditions in Poland have changed due to political and economic changes. Attitudes toward eating and healthy life-style have also changed. Therefore, it is necessary to summarise current knowledge about what Polish preschool children eat. The aim of this article was to present the areas of research on nutrition in Polish preschool children based on the review of the literature, and to present and summarise the results of the studies on the assessment of preschool menus. The review of the literature showed two main areas of research on nutrition in Polish preschool children: the assessment of meals planned and served to children at preschools, and the assessment of food behaviour and daily food and nutrient intake in preschool children. Studies on energy and nutrient content of preschool menus should be carried out regularly in order to improve nutrition of children during their stay at preschool and vegetarian menus should be studied to fill the gap in the literature. The methodology of assessing preschool meals should be the same in order to provide the possibility to compare both the results and the conclusions. Preschool menus should be adjusted to the needs of 3-year-old children and 4-6-year-old children separately. The nation-wide education programme for preschool staff should be worked out and implemented in order to teach the preschool staff about the current nutrition recommendations for children, as well as the nutritional needs of 3-year-old children and 4-6-year-old children. preschool children, nutrition, preschool menus, energy content, nutrient content.

  19. 45 CFR 605.38 - Preschool and adult education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preschool and adult education. 605.38 Section 605... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.38 Preschool and adult education. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides preschool education or day care or adult education may not, on the...

  20. Identification of early HIV infections using the fourth generation Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CIA) in San Diego County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manlutac, Anna Liza M; Giesick, Jill S; McVay, Patricia A

    2013-12-01

    HIV screening assays have gone through several generations of development in an effort to narrow the "window period" of detection. Utilizing a fourth generation HIV screening assay has the potential to detect earlier HIV infection, thus reducing HIV-1 transmission. To identify acute infections to decrease HIV transmission in San Diego County. Serum specimens were collected from clients seen by multiple submitters in San Diego County. All acceptable specimens were screened using the 4th Gen Combo Assay. Initially reactive specimens were repeated in duplicate and if repeatedly reactive, were confirmed by HIV-1 Immunofluorescent Antibody Assay (IFA). IFA negative/inconclusive specimens were sent for HIV-1 NAT and HIV-2 antibody testing to referral laboratories. BioRad Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 Rapid Test was also performed on a subset of specimens. Of 14,559 specimens received in 20 months, 14,517 specimens were tested. Of the 14,517 specimens that were tested, a total of 279 (1.9%) specimens were CIA repeatedly reactive and 240 of the 279 confirmed by HIV-1 IFA. Thirty-nine gave IFA negative/inconclusive result and 30 were further tested for HIV-1 NAT and 36 for HIV-2 antibody. Thirteen specimens were considered false positives by CIA and 17 specimens were classified as acute infections. Eleven of 39 IFA negative/inconclusive specimens were further tested by Multispot. Five of the 11 were positive by Multispot. The fourth generation Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo Assay identified 17 patients who may have been missed by the prior HIV-1 screening assay used at San Diego County Public Health Laboratory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Outliers affecting cardiac troponin I measurement: comparison of a new high sensitivity assay with a contemporary assay on the Abbott ARCHITECT analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Nicola; Blennerhassett, John; Lambert, Ramon; Sheehan, Paul; Vasikaran, Samuel D

    2014-07-01

    False-positive cardiac troponin (Tn) results caused by outliers have been reported on various analytical platforms. We have compared the precision profile and outlier rate of the Abbott Diagnostics contemporary troponin I (TnI) assay with their high sensitivity (hs) TnI assay. Three studies were conducted over a 10-month period using routine patients' samples. TnI was measured in duplicate using the contemporary TnI assay in Study 1 and Study 2 (n = 7011 and 7089) and the hs-TnI assay in Study 3 (n = 1522). Critical outliers were defined as duplicate results whose absolute difference exceeded a critical difference (CD = z x √2 x SDAnalytical) at a probability level of 0.0005, with one of the results on the opposite side of the decision limit to its partner. The TnI concentration at 10% imprecision (coefficient of variation) for the contemporary TnI assay was 0.034 µg/L (Study 1) and 0.042 µg/L (Study 2), and 0.006 µg/L (6 ng/L) for the hs-TnI assay. The critical outlier rates for the contemporary TnI assay were 0.51% (Study 1) and 0.37% (Study 2) using a cut-off of 0.04 µg/L, and 0% for the hs-TnI assay using gender-specific cut-offs. The significant number of critical outliers detected using the contemporary TnI assay may pose a risk for misclassification of patients. By contrast, no critical outliers were detected using the hs-TnI assay. However, the total outlier rates for both assays were significantly higher than the expected variability of either assay. The cause of these outliers remains unclear. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Evaluation of the Abbott RealTime HCV genotype II plus RUO (PLUS) assay with reference to core and NS5B sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Melanie A; Lucic, Danijela; Ebbert, Mark T W; Cloherty, Gavin A; Toolsie, Dan; Hillyard, David R

    2017-05-01

    HCV genotyping remains a critical tool for guiding initiation of therapy and selecting the most appropriate treatment regimen. Current commercial genotyping assays may have difficulty identifying 1a, 1b and genotype 6. To evaluate the concordance for identifying 1a, 1b, and genotype 6 between two methods: the PLUS assay and core/NS5B sequencing. This study included 236 plasma and serum samples previously genotyped by core/NS5B sequencing. Of these, 25 samples were also previously tested by the Abbott RealTime HCV GT II Research Use Only (RUO) assay and yielded ambiguous results. The remaining 211 samples were routine genotype 1 (n=169) and genotype 6 (n=42). Genotypes obtained from sequence data were determined using a laboratory-developed HCV sequence analysis tool and the NCBI non-redundant database. Agreement between the PLUS assay and core/NS5B sequencing for genotype 1 samples was 95.8% (162/169), with 96% (127/132) and 95% (35/37) agreement for 1a and 1b samples respectively. PLUS results agreed with core/NS5B sequencing for 83% (35/42) of unselected genotype 6 samples, with the remaining seven "not detected" by the PLUS assay. Among the 25 samples with ambiguous GT II results, 15 were concordant by PLUS and core/NS5B sequencing, nine were not detected by PLUS, and one sample had an internal control failure. The PLUS assay is an automated method that identifies 1a, 1b and genotype 6 with good agreement with gold-standard core/NS5B sequencing and can aid in the resolution of certain genotype samples with ambiguous GT II results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Importance of Music in Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlin, Anna; Gustavsson, Hans-Olof

    2015-01-01

    At a few universities in Sweden students can chose a preschool teacher education programme with a music profile. At one of these universities, a study was undertaken that aimed to explore student teachers' understanding of self as musician, their future professional role as a preschool teacher and how the education equips for that. Sixteen…

  4. Creative Inspiration for Preschoolers from Museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönkkö, Marja-Leena; Aerila, Juli-Anna; Grönman, Satu

    2016-01-01

    This research explores the learning outcomes of preschool children produced through visits to an historic house museum environment. The new Finnish preschool curriculum identifies the importance of arts-based approaches for children and that these approaches should be closely aligned to experiential and holistic education. The aim of the research…

  5. Bilingual Preschools. Volume I: Learning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Kristin, Ed.; Rohde, Andreas, Ed.; Schelletter, Christina, Ed.; Steinlen, Anja K., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on data from eleven preschools in four European countries (Germany, Belgium, Sweden, and the UK), this edited volume explores the progress of preschool children learning English over a period of two years. In the first volume, children's lexical and grammatical comprehension, the quality of L2 input, the effect of immersion on L1…

  6. A Preschooler's Dread--That New Baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Irene

    Preschool children display behavior changes in the classroom after a new sibling is born. In an effort to address this issue, suggestions were devised to aid teachers in helping the preschool child adapt to a new sibling with positive results. This paper describes a parent's workshop structure to help prepare parents for the interaction between…

  7. Correlates of adiposity among Latino preschool children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood obesity is at record high levels in the US and disproportionately affects Latino children; however, studies examining Latino preschool children's obesity-related risk factors are sparse. This study determined correlates of Latino preschoolers' (ages 3-5 years) adiposity to inform future ob...

  8. Looking for Theory in Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This paper sets out to examine the place of theory in preschool education, considering the theories to which practitioners and providers have access and which provide a rationale for everyday practices and shape the experiences of young children. The paper reflects the circumstances of preschool provision, practices and thinking in the UK in…

  9. Demographics of Preschoolers Who Require AAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binger, Cathy; Light, Janice

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the investigation was to gather demographic information pertaining to preschoolers who require augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). METHOD: To obtain this information, a survey was developed and then distributed to preschool speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in Pennsylvania. RESULTS: Results indicated that…

  10. The Ecological Education of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, S. N.

    2008-01-01

    The system of ecological education of preschool children includes multiple interconnected blocks that cover all aspects of the ecological pedagogical process in a preschool institution: the content of the ecological education, the ways it is conducted (methods and technologies), and the organization and management of the process.

  11. Preschool Teachers' Language Use in Sociodramatic Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Sohyun

    2013-01-01

    Preschool teachers' language use has been described in recent research, as preschoolers' language development is found to be an important preparation for later reading development. Based on existing research on teachers' language use in sociodramatic play, however, it is still unclear how teachers use their language specifically in sociodramatic…

  12. Grapheme-Phoneme Acquisition of Deaf Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S.; Lederberg, Amy R.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.

    2012-01-01

    We examined acquisition of grapheme-phoneme correspondences by 4 deaf and hard-of-hearing preschoolers using instruction from a curriculum designed specifically for this population supplemented by Visual Phonics. Learning was documented through a multiple baseline across content design as well as descriptive analyses. Preschoolers who used sign…

  13. ADHD in Preschool: Approaches and Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay; Squires, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Due to the prevalence of ADHD, there is a need for early intervention at the preschool level to improve children's chance of academic success in later years. Yet few preschool teachers are trained to meet the challenges children with ADHD present. This paper gives a rationale and curriculum for teacher training in ADHD, with an emphasis on Social…

  14. Instrumento de avaliação do desenvolvimento de pré-escolares dos Centros de Educação e Alimentação do Pré-Escolar An instrument for the assessment of the development of preschool children (IADPE in the CEAPE Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernandes

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Para testar os efeitos do programa dos Centros de Educação e Alimentação do Pré-Escolar (CEAPE no desenvolvimento sócio-psico-pedagógico dos pré-escolares, foram estudados e selecionados itens de fácil obtenção e de sensibilidade suficiente para a estimativa da eficácia do programa nessa área. Estes itens constituiram o "Instrumento de Avaliação do Desenvolvimento do Pré-Escolar (IADPE". Com o objetivo de se efetuar uma análise das principais características do "Instrumento", foi avaliado seu grau de discriminação e comparado seus resultados com os da "Escala de Comportamento" quando aplicados a crianças de 4, 5 e 6 anos que frequentavam e as que não frequentavam o programa CEAPE. A análise dos resultados revelou que o "Instrumento" possui bom grau de discrinação; que seus itens variaram, sistematicamente, num mesmo sentido; e que quando considerados individualmente tenderam a correlacionar-se positivamente com o total do teste. O total do "Instrumento" apresentou correlações altamente significativas com o total da "Escala". O IADPE resultou num instrumento útil de avaliação psico-pedagógica de crianças de baixo nível sócio-econômico.Selected items, with adequate sensibility to evaluate the eficacy of the CEAPE program with regard to the psycho-pedagogical development of preschool children were tested. These selected items together composed the "Instrumento de Avaliação do Desenvolvimento do Pré-Escolar - IADPE". The objective of this paper was to study statiscally the principal characteristics of that "Instrument" evaluating its capacity of discrimination and comparing its results to those obtained on a "Behavior Scale" for preschoolers. The results show that the "Instrument" correlated well with those of the "scale" and that it is a very useful and practical system for the evaluation of the psycho-pedagogical development of preschoolers.

  15. Physical Education at Preschools: The Meaning of "Physical Education" to Practitioners at Three Preschool Settings in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvilly, Nollaig; Verheul, Martine; Atencio, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preschool physical education has been largely unexplored by researchers. This article examines the meaning of the term "physical education", in relation to preschool contexts, to 14 practitioners working at three preschool settings in Scotland. Our focus on preschool physical education reflects a change in the language…

  16. A Systems Approach to Understanding Occupational Therapy Service Negotiations in a Preschool Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Fern; Kramer, Paula; Ravitch, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a systems approach to examine informal communications, meaning those occurring outside of scheduled meetings, among stakeholders in a preschool early intervention program. This investigation expands the discussion of how occupational therapy treatment decisions are made in educational settings by using a…

  17. Teaching Physics at Preschool Level for Mexican Students in Order to Achieve the National Scientific Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Díaz, Mario H.; Nieto Betance, Gabriela; García Trujillo, Luís Antonio; Chávez-Campos, David A.

    2015-01-01

    In its program of studies for preschool level, the Secretary of Public Education of Mexico promoted development of four standards of science: Scientific knowledge, applications of scientific knowledge and technology, skills associated to science, and attitudes associated to science. However, to develop this skills and reach out the standards there…

  18. Inequality in Preschool Quality? Community-Level Disparities in Access to High-Quality Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassok, Daphna; Galdo, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, unequal access to high-quality preschool has emerged as a growing public policy concern. Because of data limitations, it is notoriously difficult to measure disparities in access to early learning opportunities across communities and particularly challenging to quantify gaps in access to "high-quality" programs. Research…

  19. Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Preschoolers: Evaluation of "Color Me Healthy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Kendra E.; Dunn, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Determine whether "Color Me Healthy" (CMH), an interactive nutrition and physical activity program for preschool children, increases fruit and vegetable consumption. Design: Intervention study. Data were collected at baseline, 1 week post-intervention, and 3 months post-intervention. Setting: Child care centers. Participants: Preschool…

  20. Food-Related Advertising on Preschool Television: Building Brand Recognition in Young Viewers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: This study used content analysis to explore how much and what type of advertising is present in television programming aimed at toddlers and preschool-aged children and what methods of persuasion are being used to sell products and to promote brands to the youngest viewers. Methods: Four randomly selected, 4-hour blocks (9 AM to 1 PM)…

  1. Patterns of Cognitive Functioning in a Clinic-Referred Sample of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koushik, Nikhil S.; Saunders, Cory D.; Rourke, Byron P.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined patterns of performance on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) and the relationship of these patterns to diagnoses of behavioural problems. The sample consisted of 108 children between age 3 and 7 years inclusive who had been referred to a day-treatment program for a wide variety of…

  2. Professional Development Needs of Directors Leading in a Mixed Service Delivery Preschool System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Sharon; Whitebook, Marcy; Kipnis, Fran; Sakai, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an interview study with directors of Head Start and child care programs who are collaborating with local education authorities to provide publicly funded preschool in New Jersey, USA. A standardized interview protocol was utilized with 98 directors chosen to represent a range of center types from across the three main regions…

  3. SNAP Participation in Preschool-Aged Children and Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Shannon; Alexander, Jeffrey L.; Ewing, Helen; Whetzel, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Background: An increased prevalence of overweight and obesity for adults on government-funded nutrition assistance, such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), has been observed; however, this association among preschool-aged children is not well understood. Longitudinal research designs tracking changes in body mass…

  4. Exposure to Media Violence and Other Correlates of Aggressive Behavior in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Laura A.; Perez, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the play behavior of 70 preschool children and its relationship to television violence and regulatory status. Linear regression analysis showed that violent program content and poor self-regulation were independently and significantly associated with overall and physical aggression. Advanced maternal age and child age and…

  5. Renewing Head Start's Promise: Invest in What Works for Disadvantaged Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Since Head Start's last reauthorization in 2007, the Department of Health and Human Services, which oversees Head Start, has implemented significant reforms that are improving the program. In "Renewing Head Start's Promise: Invest in What Works for Disadvantaged Preschoolers," Sara Mead offers several recommendations to enable…

  6. First-Year Preschool and Kindergarten Teachers: Challenges of Working with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Sehba

    2013-01-01

    The significance of relationships between the parents and teachers of preschool and kindergarten children is well established. Teachers and schools are presumed to be responsible for lack of parent-teacher collaboration. Internationally, early childhood teacher education programs recognize this and offer courses related to parents and families.…

  7. Hand in Hand: A Journey toward Readiness for Profoundly At-Risk Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, Beverly N.; Agness, Phyllis

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the seven principles of the Hand in Hand early childhood program for at-risk preschoolers designed to furnish the children with the tools they need to lessen their risk for failure on entry to kindergarten. Notes risk factors under which the students live, including violence, abandonment, homelessness, starvation, and abuse. (Author/SD)

  8. Exploring In-Service Preschool Teachers' Conceptions of and Approaches to Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Fang; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of adult online learning for 91 Taiwanese in-service preschool teachers enrolled in online degree programs. By using an open-ended written essay to investigate what learners thought they were learning through online education (their conceptions) and how they engaged in online education (their approaches),…

  9. A Demonstration Project of Speech Training for the Preschool Cleft Palate Child. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robert J.

    To ascertain the efficacy of a program of language and speech stimulation for the preschool cleft palate child, a research and demonstration project was conducted using 137 subjects (ages 18 to 72 months) with defects involving the soft palate. Their language and speech skills were matched with those of a noncleft peer group revealing that the…

  10. Nutritional practices in full-day-care pre-schools.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jennings, A

    2011-06-01

    Full-day-care pre-schools contribute significantly to the nutritional intake and acquisition of dietary habits of the pre-school child. The present study investigated nutritional practices in full-day-care pre-schools in Dublin, Ireland, aiming to determine the nutritional support that pre-school managers deem necessary, thereby facilitating the amelioration of existing pre-school nutritional training and practices.

  11. Características cognitivas, emocionales y conductuales de niños preescolares del programa buen comienzo en el noroccidente de medellín (cognitive, emotional, and behavioral characteristics of preschoolers of the good start program in the northwestern area in medellin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Andrés Montoya Arenas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En el presente artículo derivado de investigación, se describen las características cognitivas, emocionales y conductuales de una muestra de 20 niños preescolares, que oscilan entren los 3 y 5 años de edad, de estrato socioeconómico bajo y que han sido beneficiados del programa estratégico de la Alcaldía de Medellín (Colombia, perteneciente a la Secretaría de Educación, denominado Buen Comienzo. El programa Buen Comienzo tiene como propósito la promoción del desarrollo integral, diverso e incluyente de niñas y niñas, desde en una perspectiva interdisciplinaria del ciclo vital, protección de los derechos y articulación interinstitucional. ABSTRACT: In this current article, derived from a piece of research, the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral characteristics, of a sample of 20 preschoolers, are described and whose ages range between 3 and 5 years. They belong to a low socio-economic level and they have benefited from the strategic program at the Mayor’s Office in Medellin (Colombia, belonging to the Secretariat of Education program called the Good Start. Such a program aims the promotion of comprehensive, diverse, and inclusive development of children, from an interdisciplinary perspective of the life cycle, the protection of rights and the inter-institutional coordination.

  12. Karate kids: should we be worried about martial arts in pre-schools?

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, TJ

    2013-01-01

    When you think of martial arts, you probably think of bare fists and bloodied faces, not a four year-old in a child care centre. But martial arts and self-defence programs do appear to be growing in popularity in childcare centres and pre-schools. In one case, three and four year-olds at a childcare centre in Melbourne are being taught self-defence techniques based on Krav Maga – a martial art developed by the Israeli military. While there is some concern about safety and exposing pre-schoole...

  13. Is Something Better than Nothing? An Evaluation of Early Childhood Programs in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nirmala; Sun, Jin; Pearson, Veronica; Pearson, Emma; Liu, Hongyun; Constas, Mark A.; Engle, Patrice L.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the relative effectiveness of home-based, community-based, and state-run early childhood programs across Cambodia. A total of 880 five-year-olds (55% girls) from 6 rural provinces in Cambodia attending State Preschools, Community Preschools, Home-Based Programs, or no programs were assessed twice using the Cambodian…

  14. The Selection of Children from Low-Income Families into Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Purtell, Kelly M.; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Ansari, Arya; Benner, Aprile D.

    2016-01-01

    Because children from low-income families benefit from preschool but are less likely than other children to enroll, identifying factors that promote their enrollment can support research and policy aiming to reduce socioeconomic disparities in education. In this study, we tested an accommodations model with data on 6,250 children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. In general, parental necessity (e.g., maternal employment) and human capital considerations (e.g., maternal education) most consistently predicted preschool enrollment among children from low-income families. Supply side factors (e.g., local child care options) and more necessity and human capital factors (e.g., having fewer children, desiring preparation for school) selected such children into preschool over parental care or other care arrangements, and several necessity factors (e.g., being less concerned about costs) selected them into non-Head Start preschools over Head Start programs. Systemic connections and child elicitation did not consistently predict preschool enrollment in this population. PMID:26890917

  15. Can Kinesiological Activities Change "Pure" Motor Development in Preschool Children during One School Year?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krneta, Željko; Casals, Cristina; Bala, Gustav; Madić, Dejan; Pavlović, Slobodan; Drid, Patrik

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an additional, organized, and more intensive kinesiological treatment on "pure" motor abilities in preschool children. In the present study an experimental treatment was carried out on a sample of 37 preschool boys by applying kinesiological activities. The 60 minute treatment was applied over a period of one school year (9 months), twice a week. A control group of 31 boys were trained according to the regular program for preschool institutions. Treatment effects were assessed by 8 motor ability tests and 5 anthropometric measures. The significant differences between the groups, which were observed after the final measurement and compared to the initial one, proved that the kinesiological treatment had a positive impact on the general development of "pure" motor abilities. The most significant effect of experimental kinesiological treatment was the improvement in whole body force, flexibility and coordination of preschool boys. These findings, obtained only in one school year, point to the importance of physical exercise and the application of additional kinesiological activities with various modalities, to improve motor development, even morphological growth and development in preschool children. The effects of the perennial application of kinesiological activities, under the supervision of kinesiological professionals, could be beneficial and could form the basis for a better biological and motor development in older age.

  16. EFFECT OF HEALTH EDUCATION OF SLEEP HYGIENE ON SLEEP PROBLEMS IN PRESCHOOLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Wahyuningrum

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children need adequate sleep for good health status. Without a balanced sleep, it will encourage the emergence of serious health or developmental problems. Previous studies showed more than 40% of preschoolers experienced sleep problems. Objective: To examine the effect of HESH (Health Education of Sleep Hygiene on sleep problems in preschoolers. Methods: Pretest posttest design non-equivalent control group was used in this study. Sixty participant recruited by consecutive sampling. Parents in the experimental group received health education using power point and booklet HESH for 100 minutes, parents in the control group received health education using power point for 100 minutes without booklet HESH. Telephone follow up was done for evaluation program. Sleep problem was measured with Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ completed by children’s parents. Data analysis used unpaired t-test with 95% confidence interval. Results: The result showed that there was effect of HESH toward sleep problems in preschooler (experimental group: -3.367±5.269; control group: 0.033±5.061, p= 0.015. Conclusion: HESH in parents could decrease sleep problems in preschoolers in Indonesia. It is expected that HESH can be used as an alternative nursing intervention involved parents to decreases sleep problem in preschooler.

  17. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included Within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Stacie M; Kirk, Erik P

    2016-03-01

    The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA intervention and a second site participating as the control site. The PA program was designed to promote 300 minutes/week of moderate to vigorous PA academic lessons. Academic achievement related to early literacy and phonological awareness in the areas of rhyming and alliteration were assessed at baseline, 4 and 8 months. Over 8 months, rhyming significantly (p literacy. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  18. Modifying media content for preschool children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Dimitri A; Garrison, Michelle M; Herrenkohl, Todd; Haggerty, Kevin; Rivara, Frederick P; Zhou, Chuan; Liekweg, Kimberly

    2013-03-01

    Although previous studies have revealed that preschool-aged children imitate both aggression and prosocial behaviors on screen, there have been few population-based studies designed to reduce aggression in preschool-aged children by modifying what they watch. We devised a media diet intervention wherein parents were assisted in substituting high quality prosocial and educational programming for aggression-laden programming without trying to reduce total screen time. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 565 parents of preschool-aged children ages 3 to 5 years recruited from community pediatric practices. Outcomes were derived from the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation at 6 and 12 months. At 6 months, the overall mean Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation score was 2.11 points better (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78-3.44) in the intervention group as compared with the controls, and similar effects were observed for the externalizing subscale (0.68 [95% CI: 0.06-1.30]) and the social competence subscale (1.04 [95% CI: 0.34-1.74]). The effect for the internalizing subscale was in a positive direction but was not statistically significant (0.42 [95% CI: -0.14 to 0.99]). Although the effect sizes did not noticeably decay at 12 months, the effect on the externalizing subscale was no longer statistically significant (P = .05). In a stratified analysis of the effect on the overall scores, low-income boys appeared to derive the greatest benefit (6.48 [95% CI: 1.60-11.37]). An intervention to reduce exposure to screen violence and increase exposure to prosocial programming can positively impact child behavior.

  19. Teachers' language practices and academic outcomes of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David K

    2011-08-19

    Early childhood programs have long been known to be beneficial to children from low-income backgrounds, but recent studies have cast doubt on their ability to substantially increase the rate of children's academic achievement. This Review examines research on the role of language in later reading, describes home and classroom factors that foster early language growth, and reviews research on preschool interventions. It argues that one reason interventions are not having as great an impact as desired is because they fail to substantially change the capacity of teachers to support children's language and associated conceptual knowledge.

  20. VALUE JUDGMENTS ON MEANING AND AIMS OF USING GAMES GIVEN BY PRESCHOOL TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inessa V. Usoltseva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the presented article is to understand value, aims and practical aspects (frequency, diversity, etc. of using games by preschool teachers with different levels of education.Methods. In the conducted survey, 308 preschool teachers answered a questionnaire developed by leading researcher in ethnopedagogy of play V. M. Grigoriev. Examinees were divided into three groups different in educational level (undergraduated, graduated from college, specialized secondary education. The data were analyzed by comparing value judgments about meaning and aims of using games given by preschool teachers with different levels of education. Also value judgments were compared with practical aspects (frequency, diversity, etc. of the use of games in teachers’ professional work, and with their degree of satisfaction with it. Special attention was paid to the usage of ethno games. The analysis was done out in the program stаstistica 5.0 v and using the methods of nonparametric statistics.Results. The results have showed statistically significant differences between value judgments given by preschool teachers with different levels of education on values of games for developing various children personal qualities, frequency and diversity of use of different types of games. Problems in practical application of national games (Russian national games, games of the people of Russia and people of other countries, international games are designated.Scientific novelty. The author is the first to state the data about divergence influence in valuable representations and purposes of teachers of preschool centres on potential use of game technologies in daily work, and that is reflected in education productivity of younger children; wherein the game is the main activity. Specificity of national games in teaching is shown.Practical significance. The paper materials can be useful at the organisation of methodical work in preschool educational institutions, and by

  1. Preschool education studentsʼ attitude towards inclusion in preschool educational context

    OpenAIRE

    Skubic, Darija; Vidrih, Alenka

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the attitudes of preschool education students regarding inclusive teaching/inclusive practices. As a research instrument a questionnaire with 17 statements, referred to education, practices and policies of inclusion was developed. 118 students of the preschool education study programme at the Faculty of Education in Ljubljana participated in the study. There were 3 different groups of students: 25 students of the 2nd year of preschool educat...

  2. State Pre-K Funding for 2015-16 Fiscal Year: National Trends in State Preschool Funding. 50-State Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Emily; Atchison, Bruce; Workman, Emily

    2016-01-01

    This report highlights significant investments made by both Republican and Democratic policymakers in state-funded pre-k programs for the fourth year in a row. In the 2015-16 budget year, 32 states and the District of Columbia raised funding levels of pre-k programs. This increased support for preschool funding came from both sides of the…

  3. An Intervention to Increase Early Childhood Staff Capacity for Promoting Children's Social-Emotional Development in Preschool Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Beth L.; Malsch, Anna M.; Kothari, Brianne Hood; Busse, Jessica; Brennan, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development, implementation, and outcomes of a pilot intervention designed to enhance preschool programs' ability to support children's social-emotional development. Working with two Head Start programs, the intervention included (1) restructuring existing early childhood mental health consultation services; (2) engaging…

  4. Green Settings for Children in Preschools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerstrup, Inger Elisabeth

    This Danish study investigates the relationship between children in preschool (age range 3-6.5 years) and the outdoor environments they use. The main aim is to describe and analyse the outdoor features of significance for children’s activities and of importance for design and management of green...... settings for preschools. The intent is to facilitate transfer of knowledge from preschools to planners and managers of green settings such as woodland, parks, green lots and playgrounds. The central concept applied is that of affordances, here defined as the meaningful action possibilities...

  5. Social games with pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Tomažin, Maja

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the thesis Social games with pre-school children is to present social games as one of the work methods for relational learning. The theoretical part defines the social development of pre-school children and focuses on social skills that begin to emerge in the preschool period and of course social games. The purpose of social games is active learning, meaning they provide concrete situations, through which children actively learn as well as use social skills and express their views ...

  6. One Year of Preschool or Two – Is It Important for Adult Outcomes? Results from the Chicago Longitudinal Study of the Child-Parent Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Irma; Humpage, Sarah; Reynolds, Arthur J.; Temple, Judy A.

    2015-01-01

    Until the last year, public funding for preschool education had been growing rapidly over a decade with most state programs providing one year of preschool for four year olds. Fewer three year olds are enrolled in preschool. To investigate the importance of enrollment duration, this study is the first to estimate long-term dosage effects of years of preschool. We use data from a cohort of 1,500 students in the Chicago Longitudinal Study who enrolled in the Chicago Public Schools in the mid-1980s. Many of these students participated in a high-quality preschool program called Child-Parent Centers (CPC) for one or two years. To address selection with multiple treatments, we employ inverse propensity score weighting. Relative to children who attended one year of CPC preschool, the two-year group is significantly less likely to receive special education or be abused or neglected or to commit crimes. The findings provide support for the long-term benefits of greater exposure to preschool. PMID:26823640

  7. Reforming Preschools and Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J; Magnuson, Katherine; Murnane, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    Compared with their higher-income counterparts, children growing up in low-income families in the United States typically complete less schooling, report worse health, and work and earn less in adulthood. Moreover, changes in the American economy over the last 40 years have raised the level of skills and qualifications that children need to obtain a good middle-class job, as well as making it much more difficult for children from low-income families to attend schools that support their learning of these skills. We first review strategies used in the past to improve K-12 schooling-including investing more money, introducing more accountability, and putting in place new governance structures (eg, charter schools)-and show why these strategies have been relatively ineffective. Drawing on the research literature and case studies, we then describe education reform strategies for prekindergarten programs and for elementary, middle, and high schools that may help meet these challenges. All of the initiatives described in our case studies provide ample opportunities for teachers and school leaders to improve their skills through coaching and other professional development activities; incorporate sensible systems of accountability, including requiring teachers to open their classrooms to the scrutiny of colleagues and school leaders and to work with their colleagues to improve their teaching practices; and incorporate high academic standards, such as those described in the Common Core State Standards. By focusing directly on improving teaching and promoting learning, these successful initiatives have boosted the achievement of low-income children. They show that it is indeed possible to make a real difference in the life chances of low-income children. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Family Socioeconomic Status on Parents’ Views Concerning the Integration of Computers into Preschool Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantafillia Natsiopoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rapid growth of ICT has led to an important increase in the use of computers in preschool age. However the benefits of this use are a debatable issue. Some focus on the positive effects of computers on learning and kids’ cognitive development while others believe that computers may negatively affect their social and motivational impact.Aim: The aim of this research was to study Greek parents’ views on preschools’ computer programs and how these views are influenced by the family’s socioeconomic level.Methodology: The survey involved 280 parents of children aged 3-5 years, of whom 140 were in the upper socioeconomic level and the other 140 in a lower one.Results: The upper socioeconomic level parents thought that the use of computers was appropriate for preschool children more than parents of lower socioeconomic status (P=0.01. and that its inclusion in the preschool center’s program would work in favor for children who have no computer at home (P=0.00. Parents with higher socioeconomic status felt more than the others that such a program can support the provision of knowledge (P=0.00, the development of mathematical (P=0.00 and linguistic skills (P=0.00 and entertain children (P=0.04. Furthermore, the upper socioeconomic level parents as opposed to the other group do not consider that the computer will remove preschool educator from their leading and teaching role (P=0.04 or reduce their communication with the preschoolers (P=0.00.Conclusions: The results of this study revealed that Greek parents, especially those of higher socioeconomic level, have a positive view on the integration of a computer program into the preschoolclassroom.

  9. An intervention to reduce television viewing by preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Barbara A; Russo, Theresa J; Burdick, Patrick A; Jenkins, Paul L

    2004-02-01

    Television viewing has been associated with increased violence in play and higher rates of obesity. Although there are interventions to reduce television viewing by school-aged children, there are none for younger children. To develop and evaluate an intervention to reduce television viewing by preschool children. Randomized controlled trial conducted in 16 preschool and/or day care centers in rural upstate New York. Children aged 2.6 through 5.5 years. Children attending intervention centers received a 7-session program designed to reduce television viewing as part of a health promotion curriculum, whereas children attending the control centers received a safety and injury prevention program. Change in parent-reported child television/video viewing and measured growth variables. Before the intervention, the intervention and control groups viewed 11.9 and 14.0 h/wk of television/videos, respectively. Afterward, children in the intervention group decreased their television/video viewing 3.1 h/wk, whereas children in the control group increased their viewing by 1.6 h/wk, for an adjusted difference between the groups of -4.7 h/wk (95% confidence interval, -8.4 to -1.0 h/wk; P =.02). The percentage of children watching television/videos more than 2 h/d also decreased significantly from 33% to 18% among the intervention group, compared with an increase of 41% to 47% among the control group, for a difference of -21.5% (95% confidence interval, -42.5% to -0.5%; P =.046). There were no statistically significant differences in children's growth between groups. This study is the first to show that a preschool-based intervention can lead to reductions in young children's television/video viewing. Further research is needed to determine the long-term effects associated with reductions in young children's television viewing.

  10. Continuing education and training of preschool teachers for successful educational work

    OpenAIRE

    Makovšek, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The professional development of professional educators in education is a lifelong process which begins with the initial training of professionals and ends up with their retirement. Educators of preschool children have a very important role in this group. Quality professional development of professional educators depends on the quality of educational programs designed for them and skill providers. These training programs also include further education and training of educators for successful e...

  11. THE PECULIARITIES OF SOCIAL AND LIVING SKILLS FORMATION OF PRESCHOOLERS WITH TYPICAL DEVELOPMENT AND CHILDREN’S CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Romenska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the analysis of the current state of theory and practice of formation of social and living skills of children with typical development and with cerebral palsy. Contents of educational and developmental programs, designed on the ground of State basic component of preschool education has been analyzed in the aspect of formation of social and living skills of preschool children with typical development. Contents of programs for children with special needs (with musculoskeletal system dysfunction, mental deficiency and mental retardation has been revealed in the part concerning matters of formation of social and living skills by preschool children with cerebral palsy. Necessity to develop modern program and educational and methodological support for formation of social and living skills by preschool children with cerebral palsy has been substantiated. Author’s sight of contents of formation of social and living skills by preschool children with cerebral palsy has been revealed according to principles of complexity, integration and based on interdisciplinary approach.

  12. The Effects of an Oil and Wheat Flour Fortification Program on Pre-School Children and Women of Reproductive Age Living in Côte d’Ivoire, a Malaria-Endemic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Fabian; Raso, Giovanna; Aké-Tano, Sassor Odile P.; Tschannen, Andreas B.; Mascie-Taylor, Christopher Guy Nicholas; Northrop-Clewes, Christine A.

    2016-01-01

    Anemia and micronutrient deficiencies are widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, but the impact of food fortification is still debated. The objective of this study was to estimate the iron and vitamin A status of preschool children (PSC) and women of reproductive age (WRA) in households consuming fortified oil and wheat flour. The survey was cross-sectional in a rural and an urban area. Data on demographics, socioeconomic status, and fortified foods were collected at households. Hemoglobin (Hb), retinol binding protein (RBP), ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), subclinical inflammation, and Plasmodium spp. infection data were collected. In PSC, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) was prevalent, but for each 1 mg retinol equivalents (RE)/kg of oil consumed, RBP increased by 0.37 μmol/L (p = 0.03). In WRA, there was no significant VAD in the population (0.7%). Anemia was found in 92.2% of rural and 56.3% of urban PSC (p fortified flour had Hb concentrations 15.7 g/L higher than those who did not (p flour with iron and folic acid may have contributed to improved micronutrient status of PSC from two areas in Côte d’Ivoire. PMID:26959060

  13. The Effects of an Oil and Wheat Flour Fortification Program on Pre-School Children and Women of Reproductive Age Living in Côte d'Ivoire, a Malaria-Endemic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Fabian; Raso, Giovanna; Aké-Tano, Sassor Odile P; Tschannen, Andreas B; Mascie-Taylor, Christopher Guy Nicholas; Northrop-Clewes, Christine A

    2016-03-07

    Anemia and micronutrient deficiencies are widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, but the impact of food fortification is still debated. The objective of this study was to estimate the iron and vitamin A status of preschool children (PSC) and women of reproductive age (WRA) in households consuming fortified oil and wheat flour. The survey was cross-sectional in a rural and an urban area. Data on demographics, socioeconomic status, and fortified foods were collected at households. Hemoglobin (Hb), retinol binding protein (RBP), ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), subclinical inflammation, and Plasmodium spp. infection data were collected. In PSC, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) was prevalent, but for each 1 mg retinol equivalents (RE)/kg of oil consumed, RBP increased by 0.37 μmol/L (p = 0.03). In WRA, there was no significant VAD in the population (0.7%). Anemia was found in 92.2% of rural and 56.3% of urban PSC (p fortified flour had Hb concentrations 15.7 g/L higher than those who did not (p flour with iron and folic acid may have contributed to improved micronutrient status of PSC from two areas in Côte d'Ivoire.

  14. Values education in practice in Danish preschools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2018-01-01

    preschool, and also shared reflection seminars with practitioners from all three preschools, the practitioners constructed and re-constructed a reflected and goal oriented values education. With particular focus on caring, disciplinary, and democratic values and with use of an educational tool called...... and goals, content and educational principles. This illustrates the educational use of the didactic model, and with use of several examples based the data, the chapter communicates a possible outline of a values education in preschool with weight on practice. Keywords: Caring, disciplinary, and democratic......In an action research project carried out in three preschools in Denmark, researchers and practitioners analysed and discussed video recorded observations of everyday practice. The intention was to illuminate the values embedded in everyday communication and practice. Based on meetings in each...

  15. Gender education of pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    ILYIN G.L.; SALIMULLINA A.E.

    2013-01-01

    The article in question sets out the concept of gender education of pre-school children in relation to such concepts as gender and sexual development. The differences in features of development of children of different sex are singled out.

  16. Harmonious Parents and Their Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1971-01-01

    This brief report describes harmonious parents and their children. The six preschool daughters whose parents were harmonious were outstandingly competent but the opposite was true of the two sons. (Author/WY)

  17. Academic Language in Preschool: Research and Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Luna, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Developing and scaffolding academic language is an important job of preschool teachers. This Teaching Tip provides five strategies that extend the topic of academic language by integrating previous research and field-based data into classroom practice.

  18. Social and Ideological Entanglements of Preschool Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Dzikiewicz-Gazda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article I address a phenomenon that I call “neo-liberal entanglements” of preschool education, clearly observable in the project “Enterprising Preschooler” currently underway in Wroclaw's preschools. I provide a critical analysis of the project, exposing the ideological mechanisms that contribute to the commercialization of children’s life worlds and their early socialization into the mechanisms of market consumerism.

  19. Physical Activity and Health in Preschool Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Brinch

    Physical activity is beneficial in relation to several life style diseases and the association between physical activity and early predictors of life style diseases seem to be present already in preschool age. Since physical activity and other health behaviours are established during childhood an...... is less suitable for this age group. A recommendation for preschool children should aim at increasing physical activity in general and decreasing sedentary behaviour. Furthermore the importance of increased activity of moderate and vigorous intensity should be stresse...

  20. Household Income and Preschool Attendance in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xin; Xu, Di; Han, Wen-Jui

    2015-01-01

    This article draws upon the literature showing the benefits of high-quality preschools on child well-being to explore the role of household income on preschool attendance for a cohort of 3-to 6-year-olds in China using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, 1991-2006. Analyses are conducted separately for rural (N = 1,791) and urban…

  1. Universal Access to Preschool Education: Approaches to Integrating Preschool with School in Rural and Remote Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, the government of South Australia responded to Federal agreements aimed at universal access to preschool education for children in the year before starting formal schooling by introducing a trial designed to "integrate" preschool children into first year of school programmes in rural and remote areas of the state. This paper…

  2. Hidden Spaces and Places in the Preschool: Withdrawal Strategies in Preschool Children's Peer Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skanfors, Lovisa; Lofdahl, Annica; Hagglund, Solveig

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses how children make use of their preschool context in order to withdraw. Ethnographic observations were made of two-to five-year-old children's interactions during free play and teacher-led activities in the preschool, and documentation was carried out through field notes and video recordings. The empirical material was…

  3. Physical Activity in Preschool Children: Comparison between Montessori and Traditional Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children's physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. Methods: We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by accelerometry…

  4. A Tool for Identifying Preschoolers' Deficits in Social Competence: The Preschool Taxonomy of Problem Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankemeyer, Maureen; Culp, Rex E.; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Culp, Anne McDonald

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Preschool Taxonomy of Problem Situations (PTOPS). An examination of the PTOPS using a clinical sample of 42 maltreated children (ages 2-5) indicated the PTOPS subscales were high in internal reliability and were highly convergent with subscales of the Preschool Behavior Questionnaire. (Contains…

  5. Using the Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition to Characterize Language in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volden, Joanne; Smith, Isabel M.; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Georgiades, Stelios; Duku, Eric; Thompson, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition (PLS-4; Zimmerman, Steiner, & Pond, 2002) was used to examine syntactic and semantic language skills in preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to determine its suitability for use with this population. We expected that PLS-4 performance would be better in more…

  6. Fathers and preschool behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKlyen, M; Biernbaum, M A; Speltz, M L; Greenberg, M T

    1998-03-01

    Fathers have seldom been the focus of research investigating the causes and correlates of early behavior problems. Two studies examined fathers of preschool boys with and without clinic-referred behavior problems. Six domains of risk were examined: life stress, social support, psychological symptoms, parenting attitudes, positive involvement, and harsh discipline. Clinic fathers differed from fathers of matched comparison boys with respect to all of these except social support, but only harsh discipline contributed uniquely to clinic status. These domains correctly classified 81% of the boys. Within the clinic group, teacher-rated problem severity 1 year later was predicted by fathers' life stress, psychological symptoms, and positive involvement, indicating that different factors may account for initial clinic status versus stability of problems. Mothers' self-report data better predicted clinic group membership, whereas fathers' data better predicted Year 2 outcomes for clinic boys.

  7. Finding an Appropriate Preschool for Your Child with Special Needs = Como Encontrar un Programa Pre-escolar para su nino con desabilidades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Sandra; Wonderlick, Mary; Madden, Drina

    This booklet, with English and Spanish versions, provides a step-by-step procedure to help families find an appropriate preschool program in the community for their child with disabilities. The booklet lists six steps for locating a program: (1) decide what kind of program is wanted for the child; (2) complete included form outlining child's needs…

  8. Outcome Evaluation of the Hands-On Parent Empowerment (HOPE) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra; Dean, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the HOPE program. Participants included 120 Chinese new immigrant parents with preschool children in Hong Kong from 13 preschools which were randomized into intervention group (HOPE) and comparison group (6-session parent education program). Parent participants completed measures on child behavior,…

  9. Program Monitor Manual: A Guidebook for Program Adopters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Marilyn; Koen, Susan

    The manual provides a set of guidelines for documenting and assessing the degree to which the classroom component of the validated Regional Program for Preschool Handicapped Children is being replicated at other adoption sites. Section 1 identifies the three key elements of the Regional Program: the interactive teaching process; the…

  10. Avaliação de um roteiro simplificado de observação de pré-escolares em programas Centro de Educação e Alimentação do Pré-Escolar Assessment of a simplified procedure for the observation of preschool children in the CEAPE program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernandes

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram entrevistados professores sobre as atitudes comportamentais com as quais eles espontaneamente analisaram o comportamento das crianças do Centro de Educação e Alimentação do Pré-Escolar (CEAPEs. Para isto foi organizado um instrumento de avaliação - ''Ficha de Observação" - composta de 15 ítens, a maioria claramente discriminável e alguns inferenciais. O objetivo do instrumento era substituir a observação aleatória, pessoal e não padronizada dos professores por um roteiro de observação, simplificado, de uso descentralizado cuja fidedignidade fosse conhecida. Os resultados da aplicação pelos professores, do roteiro simplificado em pré-escolares do CEAPE, foram comparados com aqueles de instrumentos de medição psico-pedagógica mais sofisticados aplicados por técnicos. Os dados obtidos reportam a hipótese de ordenação de resultados em função da idade mas alijam a hipótese de que em todos os grupos houve incrementos de resultados ao longo da freqüência no programa. Os resultados, ainda que preliminares, são promissores e a "Ficha de Observação", embora sendo um roteiro muito simplificado, pode oferecer informações significativas aos professores, além de dirigir mais sua atenção ao comportamento dos pré-escolares.A survey to be came acquainted with the criteria used by teachers in classifying the preschool children was carried out. In continuation a simplified instrument with 15 selected items concerned with some aspects of the children's behavior and designed to be used by the teachers was organized. The results of analysis were compared with those obtained by more sophisticated mechanisms (IADPE, Instrument II and Behavior Scale applied to the same children. The results show correlation to age but also show a constant improvement in behavior according to the length of time the children had attended the program. These results, even though preliminary indicated that the "Observation card" (Ficha de

  11. Creencias Epistemológicas de Estudiantes de Pedagogía en Educación Parvularia, Básica y Media: ¿Diferencias en la Formación Inicial Docente? Epistemological Beliefs of Preschool, Middle, and High School Pre-Service Teacher Education Students: Differences in Teacher Education Programs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa García

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio que se reporta se caracterizan y comparan las creencias epistemológicas de los estudiantes de pedagogía en educación parvularia, básica y media de una universidad tradicional chilena. Los datos fueron recolectados mediante un cuestionario completado por 330 estudiantes de pedagogía, tanto de educación media, como de primer y último año de educación parvularia y básica; hombres y mujeres de edades entre 17 y 38 años. Se realizaron comparaciones de acuerdo al programa de estudio y al momento de la formación en que se encuentran los estudiantes, mediante análisis unifactorial de la varianza. Se comparó según edad mediante regresión lineal. Los resultados muestran entre los estudiantes de pedagogía las mismas diferencias encontradas en un estudio previo entre docentes en ejercicio (Guerra, 2008: los estudiantes de pedagogía en educación media presentan creencias epistemológicas significativamente más sofisticadas que los de pedagogía en educación parvularia y básica. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los estudiantes de primero y último año ni tampoco asociadas a la edad de los mismos. Se discute la necesidad de estudios longitudinales en esta área.This study describes and compares the epistemological beliefs of preschool, middle, and high school pre-service teacher education students in a Chilean university. Data were collected through a questionnaire completed by 330 student teachers training in secondary education, first and final year of preschool education and primary education. They were men and women aged 17 to 38 years. Using univariate analysis of variance, comparisons were made according to the program of study and to the point at which the students were in their studies (first or final year. Association with age was evaluated by linear regression. Student teachers show the same differences found in a previous study among in-service teachers (Guerra, 2008: student teachers in

  12. Preschool teachers’ views on children's learning: an international perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Sandberg, Anette; Johansson, Inge

    2015-01-01

    This comparative study investigated the perspectives of preschool teachers in Australia, Denmark, Estonia, German, Greece and Sweden about learning and participation in preschool. A structured survey questionnaire investigated four main questions: What situations can be characterised as learning......? What activities are important for learning? What are the best conditions for children’s learning? How do preschool teachers understand participation in relation to children’s learning in preschool? Results suggest that play, interactions with other children and adults, the provision of different...

  13. Preschool Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs Toward Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Sharon Henry

    In the United States, a current initiative, Advancing Active STEM Education for Our Youngest Learners, aims to advance science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education in early childhood. The purpose of this study was to understand preschool teachers' proficiency with science and address the problem of whether or not science learning opportunities are provided to young children based on teachers' attitudes and beliefs. A theoretical framework for establishing teachers' attitudes toward science developed by van Aalderen-Smeets, van der Molen, and Asma, along with Bandura's theory of self-efficacy were the foundations for this research. Research questions explored preschool teachers' attitudes and beliefs toward science in general and how they differed based on education level and years of preschool teaching experience. Descriptive comparative data were collected from 48 preschool teacher participants using an online format with a self-reported measure and were analyzed using nonparametric tests to describe differences between groups based on identified factors of teacher comfort, child benefit, and challenges. Results indicated that the participants believed that early childhood science is developmentally appropriate and that young children benefit from science instruction through improved school-readiness skills. Preschool teachers with a state credential or an associate's degree and more teaching experience had more teacher comfort toward science based on attitudes and beliefs surveyed. The data indicated participating preschool teachers experienced few challenges in teaching science. The study may support positive social change through increased awareness of strengths and weaknesses of preschool teachers for the development of effective science professional development. Science is a crucial component of school-readiness skills, laying a foundation for success in later grades.

  14. Peer Effects on Head Start Children's Preschool Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn; Hanish, Laura D.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this study were to investigate whether young children attending Head Start (N = 292; M[subscript age] = 4.3 years) selected peers based on their preschool competency and whether children's levels of preschool competency were influenced by their peers' levels of preschool competency. Children's peer interaction partners were…

  15. Response of preschool children with asthma symptoms to fluticasone propionate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roorda, R J; Mezei, G; Bisgaard, H

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many uncertainties remain in the diagnosis and treatment of preschool children with asthma symptoms. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the subgroups of preschool children (aged 12-47 months) with recurrent asthma symptoms most likely to respond to inhaled fluticasone propionate (200...... the management of preschool children with recurrent asthma symptoms....

  16. Anaemia, Nutritional Status and Parasitic Infection among Preschool ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was carried out to determine the packed cell volume nutritional status and parasitic infection among preschool children living in rural villages. Subjects and Methods: A total of 116 preschool children in nine villages formed the population for this study. The preschool children were studied using ...

  17. An Evaluation of Preschool Education in the Awutu Efutu Senya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the state of preschool education in the Winneba district with the intent of identifying strengths and weaknesses of the sub system. A comparison of rural and urban preschools in the district was also explored. A sample of 30 preschools made up of 16 public and 14 private ones were selected through ...

  18. Integration of Interactive Whiteboard in Swedish Preschool Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbour, Maryam; Vigmo, Sylvi; Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring the roles preschool teachers give technologies in mathematics education and the ways they structure their mathematics learning activities using interactive whiteboard (IWB) as a technological artefact. Data collected from observations of three preschool teachers embedding IWB in a preschool practice in Sweden provided…

  19. Relational Aggression in Children with Preschool-Onset Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Luby, Joan L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of preschool-onset (PO) psychiatric disorders as correlates and/or risk factors for relational aggression during kindergarten or first grade was tested in a sample of 146 preschool-age children (age 3 to 5.11 years). Method: Axis-I diagnoses and symptom scores were derived using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment.…

  20. Print Knowledge of Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Krystal L.; Lund, Emily; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Measures of print knowledge were compared across preschoolers with hearing loss and normal hearing. Alphabet knowledge did not differ between groups, but preschoolers with hearing loss performed lower on measures of print concepts and concepts of written words than preschoolers with normal hearing. Further study is needed in this area.

  1. Assessing Preschool Teachers' Practices to Promote Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adagideli, Fahretdin Hasan; Saraç, Seda; Ader, Engin

    2015-01-01

    Recent research reveals that in preschool years, through pedagogical interventions, preschool teachers can and should promote self-regulated learning. The main aim of this study is to develop a self-report instrument to assess preschool teachers' practices to promote self-regulated learning. A pool of 50 items was recruited through literature…

  2. Programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, this model is elaborated to produce the required program outputs; third, the resulting program is transformed to run efficiently in the execution environment. The first two stages deal in network structures of sequential processes; only the third is concerned with procedure hierarchies. (orig.)

  3. Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, M A

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, this model is elaborated to produce the required program outputs; third, the resulting program is transformed to run efficiently in the execution environment. The first two stages deal in network structures of sequential processes; only the third is concerned with procedure hierarchies.

  4. The Discourse of a Preschool Education Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Miškeljin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a critical analysis of the discourse of a preschool education curriculum. Its starting point is Foucault’s concept of discourse as language in use, which not only reflects the social order, but also shapes it through a network of conventions, knowledge and practices determining man’s – or, in this case, the reader’s – perception of reality. The analysis is based on identifying the discourse strategies and/or systems of rules laid out in the text The basic principles of the preschool education curriculum for three- to seven-year-old children – model A which make possible certain statements and insights regarding children and thus position the child and the preschool teacher by means of discourse repertoires. This approach helps contextualize the text and leads to an understanding of the basic discourse mechanism involved in the creation of specific versions of preschool education. As discourse analysis itself is related to interpretation and narratology, with the story as a constant, so is this paper a story about a preschool curriculum, for, like any other text, it tells an unfinished story that can yet evolve in different directions.

  5. PRE-SCHOOL UPBRINGING OF CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DIFFICULTIES-CONDITION FOR SUCCESSFUL INTEGRATIONAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora JACOVA

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Preschool upbringing of children with developmental difficulties is the first link in the system of education and upbringing and at the same time the utmost segment in the system of integrational rehabilitation.Initiating the process of preschool upbringing and adequate organized treatment at early age, permits support of the development and maximum usage of the remained capabilities of children with developmental difficulties.The newest world experiences show that the upbringing and educational integration of children with developmental difficulties as asegment of the social integration, should set the main conditions in the frames of upbringing education and rehabilitational continuity and support the minimal restrictive environment for their development.In the pre-school institutions that function on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia, an indifferent attitude towards the children with developmental difficulties is present, due to the uninformed educators for the characteristics and capabilities of these children and their believes for the negative influence of the children with developmental difficulties on the children without impairments, that implicates involvement of subsidery defectological education of present employed staff in the mainstream preschool institutions, also including defectologists in kindergartens for work with children with special difficulties in their development. Also, the data about the educator’s attitude in the mainstream preschool institutions is disturbing, so that they put the accent on the obligation for reducing of the program for work with handicapped children, not taking into consideration that subsidery, special forms and methods are needed beside the programs that are for the main stream group.The goal of our paper is to point out the need of involving of children with light developmental difficulties; the existence of special team in the preschool institutions when involving children with

  6. The Development of Experimentation and Evidence Evaluation Skills at Preschool Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekny, Jeanette; Grube, Dietmar; Maehler, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Researchers taking a domain-general approach to the development of scientific reasoning long thought that the ability to engage in scientific reasoning did not develop until adolescence. However, more recent studies have shown that preschool children already have a basic ability to evaluate evidence and a basic understanding of experimentation. Data providing insights into when exactly in the preschool years significant gains in these abilities occur are scarce. Drawing on a sample of 138 preschool children, this longitudinal study therefore examined how children's ability to evaluate evidence and their understanding of experimentation develop between the ages of four and six. Findings showed that the ability to evaluate evidence was already well developed at age four and increased steadily and significantly over time as long as the pattern of covariation was perfect. In the case of imperfect covariation, the proportion of correct answers was low over the period of observation, but showed a significant increase between the ages of four and five. If the data did not allow relationship between variables to be inferred, the proportion of correct answers was low, with a significant increase between the ages of five and six. The children's understanding of experimentation increased significantly between the ages of five and six. The implications of these findings for age-appropriate science programs in preschool are discussed.

  7. Iron status of Filipino infants and preschoolers using plasma ferritin and transferrin receptor levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuizon, M D; Madriaga, J R; Desnacido, J A; Cheong, R L; Perlas, L A

    1996-06-01

    Iron status of 1,861 Filipino infants and preschoolers was evaluated by measurements of plasma ferritin (PF), transferrin receptor (TR) and hemoglobin (Hb). One group of subjects (Group I) consisted of all anemic subjects together with a systematic subsample from the Fourth National Nutrition Survey-Biochemical Phase. Results showed that depleted iron stores based on PF ( 8.5 mg/l) was present in higher proportion (80.0% and 73.7% for infants and preschoolers) which was comparable to the proportion of anemia (80.3%). In a subgroup of subjects from the Country Program for Children IV (Group 2) elevated TR was present in 61.4% of infants and 46.5% of preschoolers. A lower proportion of depleted iron stores of 22.7% in infants and 15.2% in preschoolers was observed. Correlation test showed that there was a closer relationship between Hb and TR (r = -0.42) than Hb and PF (r = 0.20) even if PF was expected to give a higher proportion of values below normal. The occurrence of anemia in the presence of elevated TR without any decrease in PF values suggest that the diagnostic ability of PF could be limited in the presence of infection. Therefore, future studies should include biochemical tests such as C-reactive proteins (CRP) to determine the extent of association between anemia and infection.

  8. Early childhood caries in preschool children of Kosovo - a serious public health problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meqa Kastriot

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though it has been widely studied, early childhood caries (ECC remains a serious public health problem, especially in countries where there is no national program of oral health assessment and no genuine primary oral health care, such as in Kosovo. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of ECC and analyze caries risk factors. Methods The subjects were 1,008 preschool children, selected by stratified random cluster sampling, in the municipality of Prishtina, capital of Kosovo. Data were collected through clinical examination and interviews. Dmft data were recorded according to WHO criteria. Bacterial examination (CRT bacteria test and plaque test of Greene-Vermillion were used. Results The mean dmft of preschool children was found to be 5.8. The prevalence of ECC was 17.36%, with a mean dmft of 11 ± 3.6. Streptococcus mutans prevalence in ECC children was 98%. A significant correlation between dmft and S mutans counts (≥105 CFU/mL saliva was demonstrated. A correlation was also found between daily sweets consumption and dmft in children with ECC (P P Conclusion The prevalence of ECC was high among preschool children in the municipality of Kosovo. We recommend increasing parents' knowledge of proper feeding habits and oral health practices, and increasing preschool children's accessibility to dental services.

  9. Hip-Hop to Health Jr. for Latino preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Stolley, Melinda R; Schiffer, Linda; Van Horn, Linda; KauferChristoffel, Katherine; Dyer, Alan

    2006-09-01

    Hip-Hop to Health Jr. was a diet/physical activity intervention designed to reduce gains in BMI (kilograms per meter squared) in preschool minority children. Twelve predominantly Latino Head Start centers participated in a group-randomized trial conducted between Fall 2001 and Winter 2003. Six centers were randomized to a culturally proficient 14-week (three times weekly) diet/physical activity intervention. Parents participated by completing weekly homework assignments. The children in the other six centers received a general health intervention that did not address either diet or physical activity. The primary outcome was change in BMI, and secondary outcomes were changes in dietary intake and physical activity. Measures were collected at baseline, post-intervention, and at Years 1 and 2 follow-up. There were no significant differences between intervention and control schools in either primary or secondary outcomes at post-intervention, Year 1, or Year 2 follow-ups. When Hip-Hop to Health Jr. was conducted in predominantly black Head Start centers, it was effective in reducing subsequent increases in BMI in preschool children. In contrast, when the program was conducted in Latino centers, it was not effective. Although the intervention did not prevent excessive weight gain in Latino children, it was very well received. Future interventions with this population may require further cultural tailoring and a more robust parent intervention.

  10. The Influence of Parenting Practices on Feeding Problems in Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria de la Osa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of feeding problems during the preschool period and to explore the associations of feeding related behaviors with parenting practices. Participants were a large community sample of N = 622 children longitudinally assessed yearly at ages 3, 4 and 5 years-old through diagnostic interview and questionnaires reported by parents. The prevalence of children who met DSM-IV criteria for feeding disorder during the follow-up was 1.6%, the amount of children who presented feeding disorder symptoms was 33.3%, those with clinical impairment due to these symptoms were 25.7% and 11.6% reported seek for professional help related to feeding problems. Logistic regressions adjusted to children's sex and other DSM-IV diagnoses different to feeding disorder showed that the dimensions of parenting more strongly related to feeding related behaviors and impairment due to feeding problems were poor monitoring, inconsistence practices, corporal punishment, low norms and low autonomy. Although the prevalence of preschool children who met DSM-IV criteria for feeding disorder was relatively low, the presence of feeding related behaviors (symptoms, impairment and consultation was common during this developmental period. Parenting practices are associated to the presence of these behaviors, and so they must be considered into the prevention and intervention programs.

  11. Emotion regulation strategies and childhood obesity in high risk preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas G; Olivera, Yadira A; Hill, Rachael A; Beck, Ashley D; Hopwood, Veronica; Garcia, Karina Silva; Ramos, Guadalupe G; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; O'Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2016-12-01

    The current study examined the relationships between the specific strategies that preschool children use to regulate their emotions and childhood weight status to see if emotion regulation strategies would predict childhood weight status over and above measures of eating self-regulation. 185 4- to 5-year-old Latino children were recruited through Head Start centers in a large city in the southeastern U.S. Children completed both a delay of gratification task (emotion regulation) and an eating in the absence of hunger task (eating regulation). Eating regulation also was assessed by maternal reports. Four emotion regulation strategies were examined in the delay of gratification task: shut out stimuli, prevent movement, distraction, and attention to reward. Hierarchical linear regressions predicting children's weight status showed that both measures of eating regulation negatively predicted child obesity, and the use of prevent movement negatively predicted child obesity. Total wait time during the delay of gratification tasks was not a significant predictor. The current findings are consistent with studies showing that for preschool children, summary measures of emotion regulation (e.g., wait time) are not concurrently associated with child obesity. In contrast, the use of emotion regulation strategies was a significant predictor of lower child weight status. These findings help identify emotion regulation strategies that prevention programs can target for helping children regulate their emotions and decrease their obesity risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effectiveness of Teaching Number Relationships in Preschool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoungwhon Jung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Number relationships, which go far beyond counting skills, refer to the ability to represent a quantity in multiple, flexible ways. It is arguably among the most important mathematics concepts in number and quantity. The current study examined the effectiveness of number relationships instruction in preschool classrooms. Participants included 73 children and 4 teachers from a half-day preschool program in a local school district. For the intervention group, two teachers provided number relationships instruction to 37 of the children in their classrooms (four sections total. No treatment occurred for the control group consisting of the remaining 36 children taught by two teachers. Before and after the 12-week treatment period, the TEMA-3(Test of Early Mathematics Ability-3rd Edition was administered both as a pretest and a posttest to assess children’s understanding of number and quantity. Results indicated that children in the intervention group who received mathematics instruction with the emphasis on teaching number relationships scored significantly higher on the posttest than their counterparts in the control group. However, results of the current study did not reveal any advantages by age group for number relationships instruction. Small sample size may have limited this analysis.

  13. The impact of group occupational therapy using a cueing system on executive function of preschool-aged children with brain lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sang-Min

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] This study investigates the effects of group occupational therapy using a cueing system on the executive function of preschool-aged children with brain lesions. [Subjects and Methods] Six preschool-aged children with brain lesions participated in this study. A 24-session occupational therapy program (1 session/week, 50 minutes/session) designed based on a cueing system was administered to examine the changes in the participants' executive function. The behavior rating inventory of executive function-preschool (BRIEF-P) was used to check the magnitude of improvement of executive functions after therapy. [Results] A Wilcoxon signed rank test revealed that occupational therapy significantly improved all domains, indices, and the global executive composite in the BRIEF-P. [Conclusion] The occupational therapy intervention incorporating a type of cognitive behavioral approach known as the cueing system may assist improving executive functions in preschool-aged children with brain lesions.

  14. Feasibility of repeated 24-h dietary recalls combined with a food-recording booklet, using EPIC-Soft, among preschoolers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Amiano, P.; Ege, Majken

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives:This study evaluates the feasibility among preschoolers of the 2 Ã 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) method combined with a food-recording booklet (FRB), using EPIC-Soft pc-program for the 24-HDR (the software developed to conduct 24-HDRs in the European Prospective Investigati...

  15. A Bioecological Framework to Evaluate Communicative Participation Outcomes for Preschoolers Receiving Speech-Language Therapy Interventions in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Barbara J.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Preschool Speech and Language Program (PSLP) in Ontario, Canada, is a publicly funded intervention service for children from birth to 5 years with communication disorders. It has begun a population-level programme evaluation of children's communicative participation outcomes following therapy. Data are currently being collected for…

  16. Preschool Teachers' Responses to Challenging Behavior: The Role of Organizational Climate in Referrals and Expulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shauna; Smith-Bonahue, Tina; Kemple, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    Challenging behavior in preschool can lead to harmful outcomes for some children. While interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing or eliminating challenging behavior, evidence suggests that young children with challenging behavior are under-identified for services, increasing their risk for expulsion from early childhood programs.…

  17. A Case Study: The High/Scope Preschool Curriculum and Kindergarten Readiness in the Pittsgrove Township School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Loren D.

    2010-01-01

    The New Jersey Department of Education has been stressing the value of early childhood education for the past 12 years. Research has clearly demonstrated the value of high-quality preschool programs for preparing children for school and even later life. Particularly in light of the Core Curriculum Content Standards and elementary curriculum, which…

  18. Using Physical Activity to Teach Academic Content: A Study of the Effects on Literacy in Head Start Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Stacie M.; Vizcarra, Coleman R.; Looney, Erin C.; Kirk, Erik P.

    2014-01-01

    The potential impact of increased physical activity on early literacy skills in preschool children has not been sufficiently explored. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 6 month, low cost, teacher-directed, academic program that delivered existing literacy lessons using physical activity in Head Start…

  19. Seamless Transitions: Collaborations That Benefit Children and Their Families Making the Move from Preschool to Early Elementary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Sheila Roman, Ed.

    This report summarizes the proceedings of two clinics on early childhood clinics and provides descriptions of successful preschool-to-elementary transition programs. The two clinics brought together Head Start representatives, public and private day care personnel, elementary school teachers and administrators, state department of education staff,…

  20. Three Approaches to Preschoolers' Social and Emotional Competence: A Summary of Impact and Implementation Findings from Head Start CARES

    Science.gov (United States)

    MDRC, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This summary describes the Head Start CARES research project, which evaluated three classroom-based approaches to enhancing children's social-emotional development: (1) The Incredible Years Teacher Training Program; (2) Preschool PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies); and (3) Tools of the Mind--Play. The three social-emotional…

  1. The Incredible Years Basic Parent Training for Portuguese Preschoolers with AD/HD Behaviors: Does It Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Andreia Fernandes; Seabra-Santos, Maria João; Gaspar, Maria Filomena; Homem, Tatiana Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based psychosocial interventions such as parent training programs are strongly recommended as first-line treatment for preschool-age children with or at-risk of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD). Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness of the Incredible Years Basic Parent Training (IY) in hyperactive and…

  2. Preschool Deployment of Evidence-Based Social Communication Intervention: JASPER in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Chih; Shire, Stephanie Y; Shih, Wendy; Gelfand, Carolyn; Kasari, Connie

    2016-06-01

    Few research-developed early intervention models have been deployed to and tested in real world preschool programs. In this study, teaching staff implemented a social communication modularized intervention, JASPER, in their daily program. Sixty-six preschool children with autism in twelve classrooms (12 teachers) were randomized to receive immediate JASPER training (IT) or were waitlisted (WL) for 3 months with a 1-month follow up. Measures of core deficits (initiations of joint engagement, joint attention gestures and language, play skills) and standardized cognitive measures were improved for IT over WL children. IT teachers achieved and maintained high fidelity. Teachers can implement evidence-based interventions with significant improvements in core deficits of their children with ASD.

  3. Enhancing self-regulation as a strategy for obesity prevention in Head Start preschoolers: the growing healthy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Alison L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly one in five 4-year-old children in the United States are obese, with low-income children almost twice as likely to be obese as their middle/upper-income peers. Few obesity prevention programs for low-income preschoolers and their parents have been rigorously tested, and effects are modest. We are testing a novel obesity prevention program for low-income preschoolers built on the premise that children who are better able to self-regulate in the face of psychosocial stressors may be less likely to eat impulsively in response to stress. Enhancing behavioral self-regulation skills in low-income children may be a unique and important intervention approach to prevent childhood obesity. Methods/design The Growing Healthy study is a randomized controlled trial evaluating two obesity prevention interventions in 600 low-income preschoolers attending Head Start, a federally-funded preschool program for low-income children. Interventions are delivered by community-based, nutrition-education staff partnering with Head Start. The first intervention (n = 200, Preschool Obesity Prevention Series (POPS, addresses evidence-based obesity prevention behaviors for preschool-aged children and their parents. The second intervention (n = 200 comprises POPS in combination with the Incredible Years Series (IYS, an evidence-based approach to improving self-regulation among preschool-aged children. The comparison condition (n = 200 is Usual Head Start Exposure. We hypothesize that POPS will yield positive effects compared to Usual Head Start, and that the combined intervention (POPS + IYS addressing behaviors well-known to be associated with obesity risk, as well as self-regulatory capacity, will be most effective in preventing excessive increases in child adiposity indices (body mass index, skinfold thickness. We will evaluate additional child outcomes using parent and teacher reports and direct assessments of food-related self

  4. Communication patterns in preschool education institutions - practical examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radic-Hozo, Endica

    2014-10-01

    Proper communication in pre-school institutions for education is undeniable importance to the development of the child, as evidenced by numerous studies. After the child's birth follows the most complex phase in its early phases - preschool education. Only high-quality, synergistic relationship triad: parent-child-educator and the modern postulates of preschool child education, warrants successful preschool child education. Description, with examples from daily practice in a large institution for preschool education, marked were the critical points on the complex way in child education, many pitfalls encountered by both parents and educators. Considered are the errors in communication with the proposed solution to avoid the same in practice. Proper, daily communication in the preschool institution for education, within a relationship between parent-child-educator, mutual consultation, respect, acceptance, facilitation, resulting in successful common goal - the proper education and socialization of children in institutions for preschool education.

  5. Factors associated with Oral Health-Related Quality of Life of preschool children in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    ORTIZ, Fernanda Ruffo; RAMADAN, Yassmín Hêllwaht; GONZÁLEZ, Rubén Alberto BAYARDO; ARDENGHI, Thiago Machado

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of socioeconomic factors and clinical conditions on the child oral health-related quality of life (COHRQoL) of preschool children. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of 547 children of 0-5-years-old from Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, in 2013. Data were collect in the National Children's Vaccination Day Program by calibrated dentists. Clinical examinations assessed the prevalence of dental ...

  6. An Overview of Head Start Program Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Jeanne Morris

    2017-01-01

    Johnson's "War on Poverty" administrative team campaigned for committee members to join the War on Poverty efforts to create and develop programs for children born into poverty (Zigler, 2003). Poverty based programs, such as the Head Start program, continue to put into place proactive measures to increase preschooler's cognitive…

  7. Parents report intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental barriers to supporting healthy eating and physical activity among their preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, John; Needham, Lisa; Simpson, Janis Randall; Heeney, Elizabeth Shaver

    2008-04-01

    There is an increasing trend in childhood obesity in Canada and many preschool children are overweight or obese. The objective of this study was to explore parents' experiences and challenges in supporting healthy eating and physical activity among their preschool children. A qualitative descriptive study involving 5 focus groups was conducted. A convenience sample of 39 parents from 3 childcare centres in Hamilton, Ontario, participated. Parents were English speaking and had a child aged 2-5 years attending the childcare centre for at least 3 months. The research team read transcripts of the audio-taped sessions and used a constant comparison approach to develop themes, which involved coding comments by continually referring to previously coded comments for comparison. The social ecological model was used to organize the themes into 3 higher-level categories: (i) intrapersonal (individual): preschoolers' preferences and health; (ii) interpersonal (interactions): parents' and others' different views and practices, influence of the childcare centre, parents' lack of time, and family structure; and (iii) physical environment: accessibility of healthy foods, preschoolers with special needs, media influence, weather, lack of safety, and inaccessible resources. Parents perceived that there are various intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental barriers to supporting healthy eating and physical activity among their children. Program planners and health professionals can consider these barriers when developing interventions to promote healthy bodyweights among preschoolers.

  8. Children´s and Preschool Teacher´s Photographs of New Preschool Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kim

    In an ongoing project (2013-2014) about children´s and preschool teacher´s interactions with and experiences of new architecture/physical environment, young children between 2-5 years and their preschool teachers has photographed the physical and social environment. A numbers of photo......-elicitated interviews with the preschool teachers had been held over the summer too. These actions have created increased awareness of the relationship between the physical and social environment and generated a lot of communication and interpretations among all involved. The project continues during the wintertime....... The aim of the project, (inspired from action research, new childhood sociology, phenomenology) is to create knowledge (on basis of experiences, narratives, observations/field notes, photos/visual knowledge) about the preschool environment, which might qualify the discourse of kindergartens and the new...

  9. THE FORMATION OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE OF THE TEACHER OF PRESCHOOL EDUCATION IN THE SYSTEM OF ADDITIONAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galiya H. Vakhitova

    2015-03-01

    preschool pedagogics, which despite the gathered wide experience of children development by means of additional educational services, has not been considered yet as the complex phenomenon and a resource of optimisation of preschool preparation of children. Attention is drawn to the fact that yet now, the deep comparative analysis of the performance efficiency with preschool children of the general and additional educational institutions hasn’t been carried. It is also required to design the system of expert assessment and working out of diagnostic procedures for defining the productivity of experts training programs of an additional education; and conformance inspection of these programs due to specifications of Federal State Educational Standard of Pre-school Education (FSES PE. Such research works will help to provide the maximum achievement of a purpose of preschool pedagogics – complex development of intellectual, spiritually-moral, creative and physical potential of children. 

  10. THE FORMATION OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE OF THE TEACHER OF PRESCHOOL EDUCATION IN THE SYSTEM OF ADDITIONAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galiya H. Vakhitova

    2015-01-01

    development of preschool pedagogics, which despite the gathered wide experience of children development by means of additional educational services, has not been considered yet as the complex phenomenon and a resource of optimisation of preschool preparation of children. Attention is drawn to the fact that yet now, the deep comparative analysis of the performance efficiency with preschool children of the general and additional educational institutions hasn’t been carried. It is also required to design the system of expert assessment and working out of diagnostic procedures for defining the productivity of experts training programs of an additional education; and conformance inspection of these programs due to specifications of Federal State Educational Standard of Pre-school Education (FSES PE. Such research works will help to provide the maximum achievement of a purpose of preschool pedagogics – complex development of intellectual, spiritually-moral, creative and physical potential of children. 

  11. Use of Augmentative and Alternative Communication Systems in Preschool: teacher perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munique Massaro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Augmentative and Alternative Communication Resources have proven to be helpful in the insertion of students with disabilities and complex communication needs into a variety of pedagogical activities and expand the skills and competencies of the teacher in the teaching-learning. The objective of this research was to identify the perception of teachers regarding the use of augmentative and alternative communication during an intervention program in Preschool. Participants were a special class of Preschool students with disabilities and severe communication complexity, along with their teacher and the researcher. For the development of this research, a Alternative Communication Program was applied. The teacher was provided with systematic guidance concerning language and communication. In a collaborative process, three children’s songs were selected according to the teacher’s pedagogical planning and adapted resources through Augmentative and Alternative Communication Systems. During the intervention program, assisted evaluations also took place immediately after the activities with the music. The data were collected in audio recordings. For data analysis, content analysis was carried out resulting in the outlining of themes and sub-themes. Results indicated that the teacher identified that Augmentative and Alternative Communication Systems can to facilitate expression abilities of students with disabilities; that Augmentative and Alternative Communication Systems can be used by children in Preschool; and that resources adapted through augmentative and alternative communication systems should be in accordance with the specificities of students.

  12. ECOLOGICAL THERAPY AS CORRECTIONAL AND PEDAGOGICAL ELEMENT OF INTEGRATED APPROACH IN THE TREATMENT OF LOGONEUROSIS AMONG PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Kalashnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available . The aims of the publication are: to analyse domestic experience of education and training of preschool children with logoneurosis; to designate the causes and displays of this disease; to define the problems arising through organization of correctional work in preschool institution taking into account modern requirements of the Russian legislation and climatic features of regions; to present a possible version of the solution of these problems.Methods. The methods of theoretical analysis and generalization of scientific, methodical publications, and legislative base on a problem of correctional work on stuttering among preschool children are used.Results and scientific novelty. The authors’ program of additional education with the correctional elements «Ecotherapy for Children at the age of 5–7 years with Logoneurosis» developed by the staff of the Ecotherapy Laboratory of the Polar Alpine Botanical Garden – Institute named after N. A. Avrorin is described in the publication. The program complies with the modern requirements of Federal State Educational Standard of preschool education and is focused on tutors and speech language therapists of correctional groups and logocentres. In the course of mastering the program, a child by means of a game at once joins in search-investigative activity in the field of biology and ecology with visualization of an ultimate goal and obligatory practical material realization of results of work. From the point of view of medical expediency, the program has included the special breathing and relaxation exercises which are picked up for the lesson topic. The efficiency of a combination in correctional pedagogics of standard logopedic methods and the practise with nonconventional methods of art-, garden-, and animal-assisted therapy is confirmed. Special relevance of the proposed techniques and methods in the conditions of the Polar region (the region, wherein during the period of an exit from polar night

  13. Preschool-based social communication treatment for children with autism: 12-month follow-up of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaale, Anett; Fagerland, Morten W; Martinsen, Egil W; Smith, Lars

    2014-02-01

    This study reports 12-month follow-up data from a randomized controlled trial of preschool-based social communication treatment for young children with autism. A total of 61 children (48 males) with autism, 29 to 60 months of age, had earlier been randomized either to 8 weeks of preschool-based social communication treatment in addition to standard preschool program (n = 34) or to standard preschool program only (n = 27). Significant short-term effects on targeted social communication skills have previously been published. Long-term gains in social communication, language and global social functioning and communication were assessed from video-taped preschool teacher-child and mother-child interactions, Early Social Communication Scales, Reynell Developmental Language Scale, and Social Communication Questionnaire. Compared with those in the control group, the treated children achieved significantly larger improvements in joint attention and joint engagement from baseline to 12-month follow-up. However, no effects were detected on language and global ratings of social functioning and communication. The treatment effect on child initiation of joint attention increased with increasing level of sociability at baseline, whereas nonverbal IQ and expressive language had no moderating effect. This study is the first to show that, similar to specialist-delivered treatment, preschool-based treatment may produce small but possibly clinically important long-term changes in social communication in young children with autism. The treatment did not affect language and global ratings of social functioning and communication. More studies are needed to better understand whether treatment effects may be improved by increasing the intensity and duration of the treatment. Clinical trial registration information--Joint Attention Intervention and Young Children With Autism; http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT00378157. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

  14. Preschoolers' knowledge about the appearance of proper names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kathryn Maycumber; Pasnak, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Preschoolers' knowledge of the appearance of proper names was tested in three experiments with 25 boys and 22 girls from low-income families. Children from a Head Start program, whose parents signed a permission letter, participated. Their ages ranged from 3 yr. 6 mo. to 5 yr. 6 mo. (M = 52.2 mo., SD = 4.9). When shown consonant-vowel-consonant trigrams such as Rit or baF or dEg with various capitalization patterns, the children showed a tendency to recognize that CVC trigrams with the first letter capitalized or all letters capitalized were the ones most likely to represent a person's name. When their own names were substituted, which typically contained more than three letters, their performance was markedly better. Children also had a strong tendency to consider trigrams of Latin letters as more likely to be a person's name than trigrams of non-Latin characters (e.g., Sanskrit).

  15. Effects of Motor Skill Intervention on Gross Motor Development, Creative Thinking and Academic Performance in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Jiménez Díaz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate how students (mean= 6.08±0.5 years benefit from a physical education program in motor performance, creative thinking and academic achievement. Students (n = 39 were randomly assigned to comparison group (6 boys and 7 girls who received the regular preschool program (which includes 1 session of 30 minutes per week; intervention group 1 (6 boys and 7 girls who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 30 minutes per week of the intervention program; or intervention group 2 (6 boys and 7 girls, who received the regular preschool program plus 1 session of 60 minutes per week of the intervention program; during 8 weeks. All participants performed the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 and the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT before and after the study. The academic achievement score was given by the school. The ANOVA (Group x Gender x Time pre and post analysis revealed a significant triple interaction in the object control. Significant double interactions in the locomotor subscale and in the gross motor quotient were also found. After the post-hoc analysis, the results suggest that the physical education program benefits the gross motor performance and did not have an effect on the creative thinking or on the academic achievement.

  16. Preschool Orientation and Mobility: An Expanded Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Everett W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The article describes a broadened definition of orientation and mobility as it relates to serving a diverse population of visually handicapped preschoolers, examines the relationship of orientation and mobility to other curriculum areas, and considers the importance of coordinated involvement between parents and professionals. (CL)

  17. Developing Gifted Children in Hungarian Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Iren; Papp, Irene

    2013-01-01

    At a conference, a secondary school teacher was very surprised when she heard about the idea of talent development in preschool education. "What does it mean?" she asked. In this paper we answer the above question with a model created by joint research. We describe our method of developing gifted children with the involvement of…

  18. Behavioral/Emotional Problems of Preschoolers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rescorla, L.A.; Achenbach, T.M.; Ivanova, M.Y.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested societal effects on caregiver/teacher ratings of behavioral/emotional problems for 10,521 preschoolers from 15 societies. Many societies had problem scale scores within a relatively narrow range, despite differences in language, culture, and other characteristics. The small age...

  19. Research Report. Should Barbie Go to Preschool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kitty G.; Liberman, Evelyn

    1985-01-01

    Reports a study which compared the play of nine four-year-old girls with baby dolls and with Barbie dolls. Nonfacilitative play behavior was observed much more frequently in the baby doll sessions than in the Barbie sessions. Suggests that Barbie dolls could be used as an alternative doll activity in preschool classrooms. (CB)

  20. Transitions from preschool to primary school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Einarsdottir, Johanna; Vrinioti, Kalliope

    2010-01-01

      The article deals with transition from preschool to primary school. Starting with a historical overview presenting Fröbel's transition understanding from 1852 over European politics in the 1960s and 1970s, recommendations by the Councils of Europe from the 1990s and ending with OECD's actual...

  1. Inequality in Preschool Education and School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Katherine A.; Meyers, Marcia K.; Ruhm, Christopher J.; Waldfogel, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Attendance in U.S. preschools has risen substantially in recent decades, but gaps in enrollment between children from advantaged and disadvantaged families remain. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999, we analyze the effect of participation in child care and early education on children's school…

  2. Market Failure? Estimating Inequality in Preschool Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Bruce; Liang, Xiaoyan

    1996-01-01

    Two studies employed differing levels of analysis to explain the distribution of preschool availability, examining distribution in 100 counties nationwide and using zip-code-level data for Massachusetts. Together the studies show that the degree of distributional equity varies among states and locales, conditioned by household and policy…

  3. Understanding and Enhancing Multicultural Teaching in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chi-Hung; Hue, Ming-Tak

    2017-01-01

    Preschool teachers are an important element of high-quality, developmentally and multiculturally appropriate early childhood programmes. 7.5% of the total 160,000 children enrolled in Hong Kong kindergartens are ethnic-minority students and they are neglected in the Hong Kong education system until 2008. This study investigated the perceptions of…

  4. Tell Me Lies: Confronting the Preschool Closet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Travis

    2011-01-01

    This case explores the impact of being closeted on a gay, male preschool educator and the ways in which homophobic culture is fostered in one early learning center. Although sometimes protective, being challenged to hide one's sexual orientation most always has negative consequences for the individual and society. Internalized homophobia silences…

  5. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichstrom, Lars; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne; Angold, Adrian; Egger, Helen Link; Solheim, Elisabet; Sveen, Trude Hamre

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many disorders in childhood and adolescence were already present in the preschool years. However, there is little empirical research on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in young children. A true community study using structured diagnostic tools has yet to be published. Methods: All children born in 2003 or 2004 in the city of…

  6. Childcare Quality and Preschoolers' Math Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the associations between four types of childcare quality (i.e. teacher-child closeness, frequency of math-related activities, and teacher education and experience) and preschoolers' residualised gain in math over the course of six months. Additionally, potential interactions between teacher-child closeness and other indicators…

  7. Preschool Children's Perceptions of Overweight Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei; Aurelia, Di Santo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if preschool children perceive overweight children to have more negative characteristics than non-overweight children. Children from 32 to 70 months old (N = 42) listened to four stories about an interaction between two children, in which one child demonstrated socially unacceptable behaviour and one child…

  8. Measuring Perceptual Motor Ability in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William J.; And Others

    A general working model of cognitive development assumes that there are sets of orthogonal cognitive abilities, which remain fairly stable after age 7. This paper examines the long term predictive and diagnostic value of assessing specific cognitive abilities among preschool children. This model by empirical studies was defendable on the grounds…

  9. Mathematics and Didactic Contract in Swedish Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacour, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study and analyse how a teacher implements an outdoor realistic problem situation for children aged 4-5 in a Swedish preschool. By an "outdoor realistic problem situation", I mean a situation initiated by a teacher in which children come into contact with mathematical concepts and in which the outside…

  10. Information Environment of Preschool Educational Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmakova, Anna Pavlovna

    2016-01-01

    The paper considers the elements of the information environment of preschool educational institutions by the example of the Ulyanovsk region. The article describes the interconnected system of factors that includes qualified personnel, logistics support, methodological basis, and management structures that affect the development of the information…

  11. On Major Developments in Preschoolers' Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diachenko, Olga M.

    2011-01-01

    The role of the imagination in adult thinking is to go beyond reality and to express generalised laws. The researcher's job is to specify the cultural tools that preschool children use in the development of their imagination. Previous research has identified two main stages in the development of imagination up until the age of six, a third stage…

  12. Reference values for spirometry in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burity, Edjane F; Pereira, Carlos A C; Rizzo, José A; Brito, Murilo C A; Sarinho, Emanuel S C

    2013-01-01

    Reference values for lung function tests differ in samples from different countries, including values for preschoolers. The main objective of this study was to derive reference values in this population. A prospective study was conducted through a questionnaire applied to 425 preschool children aged 3 to 6 years, from schools and day-care centers in a metropolitan city in Brazil. Children were selected by simple random sampling from the aforementioned schools. Peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volumes (FEV1, FEV0.50), forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75) and FEV1/FVC, FEV0.5/FVC and FEF25-75/FVC ratios were evaluated. Of the 425 children enrolled, 321 (75.6%) underwent the tests. Of these, 135 (42.0%) showed acceptable results with full expiratory curves and thus were included in the regression analysis to define the reference values. Height and gender significantly influenced FVC values through linear and logarithmic regression analysis. In males, R(2) increased with the logarithmic model for FVC and FEV1, but the linear model was retained for its simplicity. The lower limits were calculated by measuring the fifth percentile residues. Full expiratory curves are more difficult to obtain in preschoolers. In addition to height, gender also influences the measures of FVC and FEV1. Reference values were defined for spirometry in preschool children in this population, which are applicable to similar populations. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Values Education in Nordic Preschools: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The six papers in this special issue focus on how values and values education are embedded in the everyday life at Nordic preschools. The studies in this special issue provide stimulating theoretical and methodological knowledge to inform further study of values education internationally. A key contribution of the papers is that there is…

  14. Motor fitness and preschooler children obesity status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Santos, Sandra; Santos, Amanda; Vale, Susana; Mota, Jorge

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between motor fitness (MF) and obesity status in preschool children. The sample comprised 467 children aged 3-6 years. Preschool children body mass index was classified according to International Obesity Task Force and categorised into three levels, normal, overweight and obesity. Total physical activity was assessed by accelerometer and MF test was assessed through two MF tests 10 × 5m shuttle run test (SRT) and a 7 m jumping distance on 2 feet test (J2F). Low MF was considered for MF if SD above 1. A single variable with three categories was created: low MF medium MF and high MF. The prevalence of normal weight, overweight and obesity was 67.6%, 22.7% and 9.7%, respectively. The prevalence of SD > 1 for SRT was 13.7% and 14.4% for J2F, for single variable was 19.2%. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that obese preschoolers were more likely six times classified as having low MF level than their non-overweight counterparts (OR: 6.4; IC: 1.3-36.6). This study showed a considerable prevalence of overweight and obesity among preschoolers. Obesity has already been associated with lower MF. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm this data.

  15. Preschoolers Benefit from Visually Salient Speech Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Kaylah; Holt, Rachael Frush

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored visual speech influence in preschoolers using 3 developmentally appropriate tasks that vary in perceptual difficulty and task demands. They also examined developmental differences in the ability to use visually salient speech cues and visual phonological knowledge. Method: Twelve adults and 27 typically developing 3-…

  16. Promoting Social and Emotional Learning in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMeulenaere, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Michelle DeMeulenaere discusses social/emotional learning (SEL), with a focus on helping preschool children gain knowledge about feelings and getting along with others. SEL is the process in which children are able to acknowledge and recognize the emotions of others, develop empathy, make good decisions, establish friendships, and…

  17. Preschool + School + Communication = What for Educator Relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopps, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Communication between educators in preschool and school settings has been promoted consistently in research literature and policy as a practice to enhance children's transition to school. Underlying the practice are the assumptions that communication between educators is (a) a way of building on children's learning and responding to their diverse…

  18. Stepfamilies: Awareness and Attitudes of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Sherri; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Attempted to determine whether a specific stepfamily curriculum would affect the stepfamily's awareness of preschool children. Although no changes were found in attitudes in either control or experimental groups, a significant increase was found in the experimental group's awareness. (Author/KS)

  19. Augmented Reality: Daily Prayers for Preschooler Student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Pradibta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Education is one of the aspects that many synthesized with technology. Yet, this is contrary to the fact that where most of the learning materials are still based on text. This research aims to develop an alternative learning media by implementing Augmented Reality Technology for Preschooler students. Augmented Reality (AR is an application that can combine the virtual object as text, pictures and animation into the real world. Development of Augmented Reality application uses Web Aurasma Based Studio, with learning materials of daily prayer for preschool student. The development of the characters and the animations were using Adobe Illustrator and Adobe After Effects. The results of the study showed that technology Augmented Reality can be used as an alternative learning media especially in the learning process in Preschool Al Furqon. This is because the content Augmented Reality in the form of animation can gives more understanding and attention for preschool student to follow the learning process

  20. The Heteroglossic World of Preschoolers' Pretend Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lynn E.

    2009-01-01

    This inquiry applied Bakhtin's dialogic process to the pretend play of preschool children using an interpretive approach. It used vignettes from videotaped data and Bakhtin's theories of dialogism and heteroglossia to provide an understanding of how children appropriate social roles and rules in pretend play and use a variety of "voices"…

  1. Brain development during the preschool years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Timothy T.; Jernigan, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    The preschool years represent a time of expansive psychological growth, with the initial expression of many psychological abilities that will continue to be refined into young adulthood. Likewise, brain development during this age is characterized by its “blossoming” nature, showing some of its most dynamic and elaborative anatomical and physiological changes. In this article, we review human brain development during the preschool years, sampling scientific evidence from a variety of sources. First, we cover neurobiological foundations of early postnatal development, explaining some of the primary mechanisms seen at a larger scale within neuroimaging studies. Next, we review evidence from both structural and functional imaging studies, which now accounts for a large portion of our current understanding of typical brain development. Within anatomical imaging, we focus on studies of developing brain morphology and tissue properties, including diffusivity of white matter fiber tracts. We also present new data on changes during the preschool years in cortical area, thickness, and volume. Physiological brain development is then reviewed, touching on influential results from several different functional imaging and recording modalities in the preschool and early school-age years, including positron emission tomography (PET), electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERP), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Here, more space is devoted to explaining some of the key methodological factors that are required for interpretation. We end with a section on multimodal and multidimensional imaging approaches, which we believe will be critical for increasing our understanding of brain development and its relationship to cognitive and behavioral growth in the preschool years and beyond. PMID:23007644

  2. Developmental outcome in preschoolers: Interrelations among maternal depression, perceived social support, and child's age of entry into Head Start

    OpenAIRE

    Papero, Anna L.

    2004-01-01

    This study tested a mediated-moderator model that was developed to explore whether age of entry into a Head Start Program moderated the relationship between maternal depressive symptomology and child cognitive and social outcome. In addition, the mediating role of maternal social support was examined. The study sample included 43 low-income mothers and their pre-school aged children who were enrolled in a large Head Start program in Southwest Virginia. Maternal depressive symptomology wa...

  3. Spoken language development in oral preschool children with permanent childhood deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarant, Julia Z; Holt, Colleen M; Dowell, Richard C; Rickards, Field W; Blamey, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    This article documented spoken language outcomes for preschool children with hearing loss and examined the relationships between language abilities and characteristics of children such as degree of hearing loss, cognitive abilities, age at entry to early intervention, and parent involvement in children's intervention programs. Participants were evaluated using a combination of the Child Development Inventory, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and the Preschool Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals depending on their age at the time of assessment. Maternal education, cognitive ability, and family involvement were also measured. Over half of the children who participated in this study had poor language outcomes overall. No significant differences were found in language outcomes on any of the measures for children who were diagnosed early and those diagnosed later. Multiple regression analyses showed that family participation, degree of hearing loss, and cognitive ability significantly predicted language outcomes and together accounted for almost 60% of the variance in scores. This article highlights the importance of family participation in intervention programs to enable children to achieve optimal language outcomes. Further work may clarify the effects of early diagnosis on language outcomes for preschool children.

  4. Peer Effects on Head Start Children’s Preschool Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn; Hanish, Laura D.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    The goals of the present study were to investigate whether young children attending Head Start (N=292; Mage=4.3 years) selected peers based on their preschool competency and whether children’s levels of preschool competency were influenced by their peers’ levels of preschool competency. Children’s peer interaction partners were intensively observed several times a week over one academic year. Social network analyses revealed that children selected peer interaction partners with similar levels of preschool competency and were influenced over time by their partners’ levels of preschool competency. These effects held even after controlling for several child (e.g., sex and language) and family factors (e.g., financial strain and parent education). Implications for promoting preschool competency among Head Start children are discussed. PMID:26479545

  5. Effect of Play Therapy Applications on Shyness Behaviors of Pre-school Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Kockaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of play therapy on a child who have shyness behavior through parent and teacher evaluations in preschool. The research was carried out with the participation of one shy student from six age groups who has been registered at 2014-2015 academic year in Saraykoy Central Mukerrem Tokat Kindergarten in Saraykoy, Denizli. AB experimental design was used from single subject design in the study. When results of the research examined, according to child's mother and teacher, play therapy intervention reduced emotional problems and peer relation problems and caused increase in prosocial behaviors. It could be said that play therapy program might have effective and significant impact on preschool children who have shyness behavior. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(1.000: 31-44

  6. Enterobius vermicularis infection is well controlled among preschool children in nurseries of Taipei City, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tu-Bin; Liao, Chien-Wei; Nara, Takeshi; Huang, Ying-Chie; Chou, Chia-Mei; Liu, Yu-Hsin; Fan, Chia-Kwung

    2012-10-01

    Whether Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) infections among preschool children in Taipei City had truly declined was investigated. A total of 6,661 preschool children from 28 nurseries were randomly selected from 4 major geographic districts in Taipei City to examine the status of pinworm infection by using adhesive thin cellophane tape swab method. The overall prevalence of pinworm infection was 0.5% (30/6,661). Boys (0.6%; 21/3,524) had higher prevalence than girls (0.3%; 9/3,137) (p=0.06). Southern district (0.6%; 10/1,789) showed insignificantly higher prevalence than Western district (0.2%; 1/606) (p=0.22). Pinworm screening program remains necessary for some parts of Taipei City.

  7. Enterobius vermicularis infection is well controlled among preschool children in nurseries of Taipei City, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu-Bin Chu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Whether Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm infections among preschool children in Taipei City had truly declined was investigated. METHODS: A total of 6,661 preschool children from 28 nurseries were randomly selected from 4 major geographic districts in Taipei City to examine the status of pinworm infection by using adhesive thin cellophane tape swab method. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of pinworm infection was 0.5% (30/6,661. Boys (0.6%; 21/3,524 had higher prevalence than girls (0.3%; 9/3,137 (p=0.06. Southern district (0.6%; 10/1,789 showed insignificantly higher prevalence than Western district (0.2%; 1/606 (p=0.22. CONCLUSIONS: Pinworm screening program remains necessary for some parts of Taipei City.

  8. Pick your poison: what's new in poison control for the preschooler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Accidental childhood poisonings are a major public health concern despite many efforts to alleviate this problem. While the rate of pediatric fatalities due to poisonings have decreased over the last two decades, poison control centers around the US have collectively fielded over one million calls with regard to toxic exposures in the preschool age group. According to the American Association of Poison Control Centers nearly half of all human exposures reported last year involved children under six. By focusing poison prevention efforts on the preschooler, we can attempt to decrease morbidity and mortality in the most vulnerable age group affected. Although the subject is still prevalent, current discussion on this topic is limited. Newer literature discusses past initiatives such as child resistant packaging and sticker deterrent programs and addresses their efficacy. This article revisits older mechanisms of prevention as well as the science behind the human motivation to change one's own practice and behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. How low-income mothers with overweight preschool children make sense of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Cayce C; Sherman, Susan N; Whitaker, Robert C

    2010-04-01

    Epidemiologic and qualitative studies have found that most mothers with overweight preschool children do not think their children are overweight. This might present a challenge for clinicians who wish to address obesity in young children. To understand mothers' perceptions of their overweight children's weight, we conducted semistructured interviews with 21 mothers of overweight preschool children enrolled in Kentucky's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Although these mothers did not label their children as overweight, they were worried about children's weight, particularly as it related to their emotional well-being. These worries about obesity were reflected in three central tensions that shaped the way mothers perceived their children's weight and informed maternal feeding strategies: (a) nature vs. nurture, (b) medical authority vs. lived experience, and (c) relieving immediate stress vs. preventing long-term consequences. Acknowledging mothers' concerns and tensions might help clinicians communicate more effectively with them about obesity.

  10. Early childhood caries in preschool children of gram panchayat Anoo, Hamirpur, Himachal Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Dogra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objectives: A study on prevalence and associated etiological factors of ECC. This study aimed to find the prevalence of ECC and the associated factors among preschool children in Anoo village, Hamirpur district (H.P. Materials and Methods: A sample of 65 children of age between 1 to 5 years was selected from anganwadi units of Anoo village. Dental caries was recorded and information regarding risk factors for caries was obtained through a questionnaire given to mothers or caretakers. Result: The prevalence of ECC was 55.38% and there was a strong association of ECC with some of the risk factors studied. Conclusion: The study emphasizes the need of dental health programs in preschool children. Increasing the awareness regarding maintaining good oral hygiene and encouraging the intake of healthy snacks in children can reduce ECC in concerned population.

  11. Preschool Teachers' Level of Attitudes toward Early Mathematics Education

    OpenAIRE

    Çelik, Meryem

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of this study isexamining the preschool teachers' level of attitudes toward early mathseducation and correlation between these levels and various variables.“Preschool Teachers' Attitudes towards Early Childhood Math AssessmentInstrument" is applied to 60 teachers who were pre-school teachers in 2013and formed the sample of this study. As a result of these analysis, it has beenprecipitated that teachers' level of attitudes toward early maths education isgood. Meanin...

  12. Memory development in preschool children with disabilities in the game

    OpenAIRE

    Viktoriya Shypikova

    2013-01-01

    The scientific article "Development of memory in preschool children with disabilities in the game" reveals the relevance of the application of the game as the leading activity during the preschool years to optimize the development of the mental process of memory in children with disabilities. Work on the development of children's memory in the form of a game as the most effective form, aimed at attracting the attention of professionals working with preschool children with disabilities, a...

  13. The acquisition of the Latvian language as the Second language at preschool age in theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingēra Tomme-Jukēvica

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In Latvia there are no substantial studies on bilingual preschool children’s Latvian language as the second language. The article provides an overview of the 20th–21st century linguistic theories in the context of child second language acquisition as well as raises awareness about their influence on and use in the learning of preschoolers whose second language is Latvian, carrying out content analysis of the Minority Preschool Education Program (with instruction in Russian, the Latvian Language Program of X preschool education establishment, teaching resources (teaching aid kits, didactic handouts as well as the Latvian language as the second language study content. The conclusion is drawn that the theory of communicative competence and the systemic functional grammar theory prevail as well as the basic principles of the behavioral theory can be discerned. In the teaching resources and learning process it is advisable to more often incorporate the same language material repetition in different situations and new combinations. Consideration must be given to more positive and negative transfer (interference emphasis. To prevent children’s errors it is advisable to provide and incorporate special exercises in the teaching resources as well as methodological recommendations for the Latvian language teachers.

  14. When Seeing Is Better than Doing: Preschoolers' Transfer of STEM Skills Using Touchscreen Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Elizabeth L; Kirkorian, Heather L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which character familiarity and game interactivity moderate preschoolers' learning and transfer from digital games. The games were based on a popular television show and designed to test skills related to STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics): numerical cognition (quantity of different sets) and knowledge of a biological concept (growth). Preschoolers (3.0-5.5 years, N = 44) were assigned to play one game and watch a recording of an experimenter playing the other game. Learning was assessed during pre-test and post-test using screenshots from the game. Transfer was assessed using modified screenshots (near) and real-life objects (far). Familiarity was assessed by asking children to identify the television characters and program. Findings indicate that the effectiveness of the games varied by age and condition: younger children learned from the quantity game, but only when they watched (rather than played) the game. They did not transfer this information in either condition. Conversely, older children learned from the growth game regardless of whether they played or watched. However, older children only demonstrated far transfer if they watched (rather than played) the growth game. Thus, preschoolers may benefit more by watching a video than by playing a game if the game is cognitively demanding, perhaps because making decisions while playing the game increases cognitive load. Character familiarity did not predict learning, perhaps because there was little overlap between the lessons presented in the television program and game. Findings from the current study highlight the need for more research into educational games and applications designed for preschoolers in order to establish whether, how, and for whom screen media can be educationally valuable.

  15. Pediatric Primary Care-Based Obesity Prevention for Parents of Preschool Children: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Nancy E; JaKa, Meghan M; Crain, A Lauren; Martinson, Brian C; Hayes, Marcia G; Anderson, Julie D

    2015-12-01

    The Healthy Homes/Healthy Kids Preschool (HHHK-Preschool) pilot program is an obesity prevention intervention integrating pediatric care provider counseling and a phone-based program to prevent unhealthy weight gain among 2- to 4-year-old children at risk for obesity (BMI percentile between the 50th and 85th percentile and at least one overweight parent) or currently overweight (85th percentile ≤ BMI pediatric primary care clinics were randomized to: (1) the Busy Bodies/Better Bites Obesity Prevention Arm or the (2) Healthy Tots/Safe Spots safety/injury prevention Contact Control Arm. Baseline and 6-month data were collected, including measured height and weight, accelerometry, previous day dietary recalls, and parent surveys. Intervention process data (e.g., call completion) were also collected. High intervention completion and satisfaction rates were observed. Although a statistically significant time by treatment interaction was not observed for BMI percentile or BMI z-score, post-hoc examination of baseline weight status as a moderator of treatment outcome showed that the Busy Bodies/Better Bites obesity prevention intervention appeared to be effective among children who were in the overweight category at baseline relative to those who were categorized as at risk for obesity (p = 0.04). HHHK-Preschool pilot study results support the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy in already overweight children of a pediatric primary care-based obesity prevention intervention integrating brief provider counseling and parent-targeted phone coaching. What's New: Implementing pediatric primary care-based obesity interventions is challenging. Previous interventions have primarily involved in-person sessions, a barrier to sustained parent involvement. HHHK-preschool pilot study results suggest that integrating brief provider counseling and parent-targeted phone coaching is a promising approach.

  16. Medindo o impacto de programas de recuperação nutricional de pré-escolares: teste de uma metodologia The assessment of the impact of nutritional feeding programs for pre-school children: a methodological evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Lucia Martini Lei

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir da casuística de um programa de recuperação nutricional de pré-escolares operado no Município de Diadema, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, analisam-se dois procedimentos para avaliação de impacto. O primeiro procedimento - tradicional - baseia-se na proporção de crianças que ao final de um ano de exposição ao programa passam para a condição de eutrofia, ou seja, crianças que passam a apresentar adequação do peso à idade superior a 90% dos valores esperados em crianças eutróficas. O segundo procedimento - proposto no artigo - leva em conta a velocidade do crescimento, assumindo como resultados favoráveis incrementos de peso superiores àqueles esperados para crianças eutróficas. As vantagens do segundo procedimento sobre o primeiro - ressaltadas a partir de aspectos conceituais ligados à fisiopatologia da desnutrição e às características dos programas de recuperação nutricional - são comprovadas empiricamente.Two different approaches to the evaluation of the impact of food supplementation given to malnourished children are assessed on the basis of the experience of a program undertaken in the county of Diadema, in the metropolitan area of S. Paulo, Brazil. The first approach - a traditional one - is based on the proportion of children that at the end of one year's participation in the program present no weight deficit (weight for age more than 90% of the expected value. The second approach - proposed in the article - takes into account only the rate of growth and accepts weight increments superior to those expected among well-nourished children as favorable. The advantages of this second approach are fully demonstrated.

  17. Validating the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales-2: Preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Sofia; Seabra-Santos, Maria João; Albuquerque, Cristina P

    2017-06-01

    Social skills deficits and some behavior problems are a well-established issue in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, most of the studies available analyze social skills or behavior problems of children with ASD, but not both. The present study intends to compare the social skills and behavior problems of 32 preschoolers with ASD paired with 32 typically developing preschoolers, as evidence of validity of the Portuguese version of the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales - Second Edition (PKBS-2). Each child was rated independently by parents and teachers. Results showed a statistically significant difference in all PKBS-2 scores between the two groups, with the children with ASD rated with fewer social skills and more behavior problems by both informants. The discriminant analysis highlighted the three Social Skills, the Over-Activity/Lack of Attention and Social Withdrawal subscales as more accurate in differentiating between the two groups. The implications of using a single behavior rating scale that can be filled in by different informants (parents and teachers) to assess positive and negative behaviors are emphasized. Furthermore, the usefulness of the PKBS-2 as a screening assessment tool that could be used in clinical practice and intervention with preschoolers with ASD is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pre-Schoolers, Pre-School Teachers, and Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills: A Comparative Study in Turkey and Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Derya

    2011-01-01

    Interpersonal cognitive problem solving, one of the most crucial social skills, is a life-long competency that must be supported from the early years of life. In this study, the opinions of 55 Turkish pre-school teachers and 53 Flemish pre-school teachers who work with 3-6-year-old children in private and public pre-schools in metropolitan cities…

  19. Preschool Children Differentiation According to the Lingua- Grammatical Categories Development

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    Z. V. Polivara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The parallel existence of languages and cultures brings forward the necessity of studying this linguistic phenomenon and designing special methods of speech development for the bilingual children. The particular attention should be given to the preschool age, for according to A. A. Leontyev’s study, the parallel acquiring of two languages often results in insufficient development of socio-linguistic speech standards. The research is devoted to the phenomenon of the two language systems coexistence in a bilingual person’s consciousness, both of them functioning and encoding the same subjects and phenomena. The peculiarities of language interference are described with the reference to the Russian-Tatar bilingual environment. The author believes that the bilingual interference problems are not caused by the phonetic and grammar system differences of the two languages. To find out the potential source of inter-language transition and interrelations between the native and non-native languages, it is necessary to identify the cognitive, neurolinguistic and psycho-linguistic aspects. Therefore, the regional phenomenon of mass bilingualism among the Tatar population is examined by the author in the framework of the psycho-linguistic and cognitive approaches. The paper presents the model of the lexical and grammar categories formation based on differentiated preschool teaching of the bilingual children. The proposed model makes it possible to overcome the limited viewpoint on the general speech dysfunctions, as well as the specifics of lexical and grammar categories development. It can be used for the further development of educational programs in psycho-linguistics, ethno-linguistics, onto-linguistics, cognitive linguistics, social-linguistics, contrastive linguistics and the language theory by means of extending the teaching course content. 

  20. Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

    Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…