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Sample records for abbn-90 constant system

  1. Critical experiments analysis by ABBN-90 constant system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsiboulia, A.; Nikolaev, M.N.; Golubev, V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    The ABBN-90 is a new version of the well-known Russian group-constant system ABBN. Included constants were calculated based on files of evaluated nuclear data from the BROND-2, ENDF/B-VI, and JENDL-3 libraries. The ABBN-90 is intended for the calculation of different types of nuclear reactors and radiation shielding. Calculations of criticality safety and reactivity accidents are also provided by using this constant set. Validation of the ABBN-90 set was made by using a computerized bank of evaluated critical experiments. This bank includes the results of experiments conducted in Russia and abroad of compact spherical assemblies with different reflectors, fast critical assemblies, and fuel/water-solution criticalities. This report presents the results of the calculational analysis of the whole collection of critical experiments. All calculations were produced with the ABBN-90 group-constant system. Revealed discrepancies between experimental and calculational results and their possible reasons are discussed. The codes and archives INDECS system is also described. This system includes three computerized banks: LEMEX, which consists of evaluated experiments and their calculational results; LSENS, which consists of sensitivity coefficients; and LUND, which consists of group-constant covariance matrices. The INDECS system permits us to estimate the accuracy of neutronics calculations. A discussion of the reliability of such estimations is finally presented. 16 figs.

  2. Flexible alternatives to constant frequency systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Wilson, John

    The use of hybrid systems in which variable frequency is used as generated, with a proportion being converted to constant frequency by electronic conversion, is examined as a flexible alternative to constant frequency systems. Here, some practical solutions to the technical issues raised by adopting the more flexible approach to electrical system generation are presented. In particular, attention is given to the frequency ranges used, impact on aircraft equipment, motor-driven equipment, transformer rectifier units, lighting, and avionics. The discussion also covers fan-assisted galley ovens, system architecture, special airworthiness requirements, and power quality.

  3. Application of Neural network PID Controller in Constant Temperature and Constant Liquid-level System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen,Guochu; Zhang,Lin; Hao,Ninmei; Liu,Xianguang; Wang,Junhong

    2003-01-01

    Guided by the principle of neural network, an intelligent PID controller based on neural network is devised and applied to control of constant temperature and constant liquidlevel system. The experiment results show that this controller has high accuracy and strong robustness and good characters.

  4. The 400-Hertz constant-speed electrical generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclung, R.

    1982-01-01

    Materials illustrating a presentation on 400 Hz constant speed generation systems are presented. The system features are outlined, components and functioning described, and display graphics illustrated.

  5. New multitarget constant modulus array for CDMA systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jidong; Zheng Baoyu

    2006-01-01

    A new multitarget constant modulus array is proposed for CDMA systems based on least squares constant modulus algorithm. The new algorithm is called pre-despreading decision directed least squares constant modulus algorithm (DDDLSCMA). In the new algorithm, the pre-despreading is first applied for multitarget arrays to remove some multiple access signals, then the despreaded signal is processed by the algorithm which united the constant modulus algorithm and decision directed method. Simulation results illustrate the good performance for the proposed algorithm.

  6. ON SOLUTIONS TO SINGULAR FRACTIONAL DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEMS WITH CONSTANT COEFFICIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider solutions to singular fractional differential systems with constant coefficients involving Riemann-Liouville differential operator. At first, we study the solvability of the systems. Then we discuss the general solution to the system.

  7. On the stabilization of bilinear systems via constant feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luesink, Rob; Nijmeijer, Henk

    1989-01-01

    We study the problem of stabilization of a bilinear system via a constant feedback. The question reduces to an eigenvalue problem on the pencil A+α0B of two matrices. Using the idea of simultaneous triangularization of the matrices involved, some easily checkable conditions for the solvability of th

  8. Stability of constant gain systems with vector feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonpragenau, G. L.

    1978-01-01

    The state space, the controllability, and the observability concepts are discussed in connection with the proposed stability analysis which permits drastic dimensional reductions for a vector feedback problem. Any constant gain system's stability can thus be analyzed in the frequency domain with a single Nyquist plot. The analysis considers the total system with all loops closed, a disturbance vector as input, and the feedback vector as output. All constant gain systems are shown to be decomposable into stable subsystems where the degree of the decomposition determines the dimensions. The maximum decomposition results in the state-space approach which is the limit case. The method is demonstrated with the stability analysis of the pogo phenomenon, an oscillatory interaction between the propulsion and the structure of a space vehicle. This problem, with eigenvalues over a hundred, was drastically but rigorously reduced to a stability analysis of a 4x4 matrix.

  9. Spectral Gap and Logarithmic Sobolev Constant for Continuous Spin Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Fa CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the spectral gap and the logarithmic Sobolev constant for continuous spin systems. A simple but general result for estimating the spectral gap of finite dimensional systems is given by Theorem 1.1, in terms of the spectral gap for one-dimensional marginals. The study of this topic provides us a chance, and it is indeed another aim of the paper, to justify the power of the results obtained previously. The exact order in dimension one (Proposition 1.4), and then the precise leading order and the explicit positive regions of the spectral gap and the logarithmic Sobolev constant for two typical infinite-dimensional models are presented (Theorems 6.2 and 6.3). Since we are interested in explicit estimates, the computations become quite involved. A long section (Section 4) is devoted to the study of the spectral gap in dimension one.

  10. Controllability and Observability Criteria for Linear Piecewise Constant Impulsive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Shi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Impulsive differential systems are an important class of mathematical models for many practical systems in physics, chemistry, biology, engineering, and information science that exhibit impulsive dynamical behaviors due to abrupt changes at certain instants during the dynamical processes. This paper studies the controllability and observability of linear piecewise constant impulsive systems. Necessary and sufficient criteria for reachability and controllability are established, respectively. It is proved that the reachability is equivalent to the controllability under some mild conditions. Then, necessary and sufficient criteria for observability and determinability of such systems are established, respectively. It is also proved that the observability is equivalent to the determinability under some mild conditions. Our criteria are of the geometric type, and they can be transformed into algebraic type conveniently. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the utility of our criteria.

  11. Constant mean curvature surfaces via integrable dynamical system

    CERN Document Server

    Konopelchenko, B G

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that the equation which describes constant mean curvature surface via the generalized Weierstrass-Enneper inducing has Hamiltonian form. Its simplest finite-dimensional reduction has two degrees of freedom, integrable and its trajectories correspond to well-known Delaunay and do Carmo-Dajzcer surfaces (i.e., helicoidal constant mean curvature surfaces).

  12. Solar System motions and the cosmological constant: a new approach

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we use the corrections to the Newton-Einstein secular precessions of the perihelia of some planets (Mercury, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn) of the Solar System, phenomenologically estimated as solve-for parameters by the Russian astronomer E.V. Pitjeva in a global fit of almost one century of data with the EPM2004 ephemerides, in order to put on the test the expression for the perihelion precession induced by an uniform cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ in the Schwarzschild-de Sitter (or Kottler) space-time. We compare such an extra-rate to the estimated corrections to the planetary perihelion precessions by taking their ratio for different pairs of planets instead of using one perihelion at a time for each planet separately, as done so far in literature. The answer is neatly negative, even by further re-scaling by a factor 10 (and even 100 for Saturn) the errors in the estimated extra-precessions of the perihelia released by Pitjeva. However, caution is advised because it would be relevant to repe...

  13. One-dimensional relativistic dissipative system with constant force and its quantization

    CERN Document Server

    López, G; Hernández, H; L\\'opez, Gustavo; L\\'opez, Xaman-Ek; Hern\\'andez, Hector

    2005-01-01

    For a relativistic particle under a constant force and a linear velocity dissipation force, a constant of motion is found. Problems are shown for getting the Hamiltoninan of this system. Thus, the quantization of this system is carried out through the constant of motion and using the quantization of the velocity variable. The dissipative relativistic quantum bouncer is outlined within this quantization approach.

  14. One-Dimensional Relativistic Dissipative System with Constant Force and its Quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, G.; López, X. E.; Hernández, H.

    2006-04-01

    For a relativistic particle under a constant force and a linear velocity dissipation force, a constant of motion is found. Problems are shown for getting the Hamiltonian of this system. Thus, the quantization of this system is carried out through the constant of motion and using the quantization on the velocity variable. The dissipative relativistic quantum bouncer is outlined within this quantization approach.

  15. Constraining fundamental constants of physics with quasar absorption line systems

    CERN Document Server

    Petitjean, Patrick; Chand, Hum; Ivanchik, Alexander; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Gupta, Neeraj

    2009-01-01

    We summarize the attempts by our group and others to derive constraints on variations of fundamental constants over cosmic time using quasar absorption lines. Most upper limits reside in the range 0.5-1.5x10-5 at the 3sigma level over a redshift range of approximately 0.5-2.5 for the fine-structure constant, alpha, the proton-to-electron mass ratio, mu, and a combination of the proton gyromagnetic factor and the two previous constants, gp(alpha^2/mu)^nu, for only one claimed variation of alpha. It is therefore very important to perform new measurements to improve the sensitivity of the numerous methods to at least <0.1x10-5 which should be possible in the next few years. Future instrumentations on ELTs in the optical and/or ALMA, EVLA and SKA pathfinders in the radio will undoutedly boost this field by allowing to reach much better signal-to-noise ratios at higher spectral resolution and to perform measurements on molecules in the ISM of high redshift galaxies.

  16. Expert System Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Processor has been developed on a Sun Sparc Station 4/470 using a commercial-off-the-shelf software development package called G2 by Gensym Corporation...size of the training data set. A prototype expert system CFAR Processor has been presented which applies artificial intelligence to CFAR detection

  17. CAUCHY PROBLEM FOR QUASILINEAR HYPERBOLIC SYSTEMS WITH CHARACTERISTICS WITH CONSTANT MULTIPLICITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Libin

    2004-01-01

    For quasilinear hyperbolic systems with characteristics of constant multiplicity, suppose that characteristics of constant multiplicity(>1) are linearly degenerate, by means of generalized normalized coordinates we get the global existence and the blow-up phenomenon of the C1 solution to the Cauchy problem under an additional hypothesis.

  18. FORMATION OF SINGULARITIES FOR QUASILINEAR HYPERBOLIC SYSTEMS WITH CHARACTERISTICS WITH CONSTANT MULTIPLICITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利彬

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we consider the Cauchy problem for quasilinear hyperbolic systems with characteristics with constant multiplicity. Without restriction on characteristics with constant multiplicity(> 1), under the assumptions that there is a genuinely nonlinear simple characteristic and the initial data possess certain decaying properties, the blow-up result is obtained for the C,1 solution to the Cauchy problem.

  19. FORMATION OF SINGULARITIES FOR QUASILINEAR HYPERBOLIC SYSTEMS WITH CHARACTERISTICS WITH CONSTANT MULTIPLICITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yumei

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we consider the Cauchy problem for quasilinear hyperbolic systems with characteristics with constant multiplicity. Without restriction on characteristics with constant multiplicity (> 1), a blow-up result is obtained for the C1 solution to the Cauchy problem under the assumptions where there is a simple genuinely nonlinear characteristic and the initial data possess certain weaker decaying properties.

  20. Effect of coefficient changes on stability of linear retarded systems with constant time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, L. K.

    1977-01-01

    A method is developed to determine the effect of coefficient changes on the stability of a retarded system with constant time delays. The method, which uses the tau-decomposition method of stability analysis, is demonstrated by an example.

  1. Repeated action of a constant magnetic field on the blood coagulation system in artificially produced anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabrodina, L. V.

    1974-01-01

    Changes are discussed in the coagulatory system of the blood in rabbits under the influence of a constant magnetic field of an intensity of 2500 oersteds against the background of artificially induced anemia. Reversibility of the changes produced and the presence of the adaptational effect are noted. Taking all this into consideration, the changes involving the coagulatory system of the blood which arise under the influence of a constant magnetic field may be considered to have a nerve-reflex nature.

  2. ℋ∞ constant gain state feedback stabilization of stochastic hybrid systems with Wiener process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Boukas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the stabilization problem of the class of continuous-time linear stochastic hybrid systems with Wiener process. The ℋ∞ state feedback stabilization problem is treated. A state feedback controller with constant gain that does not require access to the system mode is designed. LMI-based conditions are developed to design the state feedback controller with constant gain that stochastically stabilizes the studied class of systems and, at the same time, achieve the disturbance rejection of a desired level. The minimum disturbance rejection is also determined. Numerical examples are given to show the usefulness of the proposed results.

  3. Nonlinear perturbations of systems of partial differential equations with constant coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen J. Vanegas

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we show the existence of solutions to boundary-value problems, consisting of nonlinear systems of partial differential equations with constant coefficients. For this purpose, we use the right inverse of an associated operator and a fix point argument. As illustrations, we apply this method to Helmholtz equations and to second order systems of elliptic equations.

  4. A crossflow filtration system for constant permeate flux membrane fouling characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel J.; Paul, Donald R.; Freeman, Benny D.

    2013-03-01

    Membrane fouling is often characterized using a crossflow filtration apparatus. Typically, the transmembrane pressure (TMP) difference is fixed, and the flux is allowed to decline as the membrane fouls and the resistance to mass transfer increases. However, as flux varies, so too does the rate at which foulants are brought to the membrane surface, so the observed fouling behavior is not solely the result of membrane/foulant interactions. Constant flux experiments, where the permeate flux is fixed and the TMP difference varies, minimize such variations in the hydrodynamic conditions at the membrane surface, but constant TMP difference experiments dominate the fouling literature because they are more straightforward to execute than constant flux experiments. Additionally, most industrial water purification membrane installations operate at constant flux rather than at constant TMP. Here, we describe the construction and operation of a constant flux crossflow fouling apparatus. System measurement accuracy was validated by comparison of pure water permeance measurements to values specified by the membrane manufacturer, reported elsewhere, and measured by another technique. Fouling experiments were performed with two membrane/foulant systems: polysulfone ultrafiltration membranes with a soybean oil emulsion foulant and PVDF microfiltration membranes with a polystyrene latex bead suspension foulant. Automatic permeate flux control facilitated flux stepping experiments, which are commonly used to determine the threshold flux or critical flux of a membrane/foulant pair. Comparison of a flux stepping experiment with a literature report yielded good agreement.

  5. CONSTANT WORK-POINT CONTROL FOR PARALLEL HYBRID SYSTEM WITH CAPACITOR ACCUMULATOR IN HYDRAULIC EXCAVATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yanting; WANG Qingfeng; XIAO Qing; FU Qiang

    2006-01-01

    Limitations of various accumulators in hybrid hydraulic excavator are analyzed. A program using capacitor as the accumulator based on constant work-point control is put forward. A simulating experimental system of hybrid construction machinery is established, and experimental study on constant work-point control for parallel hybrid system with capacitor accumulator is carried out using the pressure and flow rate derived from boom cylinder of hydraulic excavator in actual work as the simulating loads. A program of double work-point control is proposed and proved by further experiments.

  6. High dielectric constant, low loss and high photocatalytic activity in Gd doped ZnO systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya, N. K.; Pradyumnan, P. P.

    2017-01-01

    Enhanced photocatalytic activity and high dielectric constant values are achieved by gadolinium (Gd) doping in ZnO. The changes that happened to the wurtzite structure of ZnO on doping are depicted in detail by using x-ray diffraction spectroscopy. The chemical composition is confirmed using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDAX). The influence of Gd incorporation in the emission spectra of ZnO is analysed from photoluminescence studies. The photocatalytic activity enhancement occurred in ZnO system on Gd doping was explored by kinetic rate analysis. The optimum incorporation of Gd has enhanced the dielectric constant value and decreased the loss of pristine. The high dielectric constant value and low loss make the system suitable for large scale of applications in microelectronics. The work also proposes large scale synthesis of highly efficient fluorescent Gd doped ZnO photocatalysts.

  7. The Control System Simulation of Variable-Speed Constant-Frequency Wind Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦金延; 曹娜

    2010-01-01

    <正>In general,Variable-Speed Constant Frequency (VSCF)Wind generation system is controlled by stator voltage orientation method which based on the mathematic model of VSCF Wind generation system and discussed the control strategy.Present the whole dynamic control model of variable-speed wind generator system in MATLAB/ Simulink,and the simulation results confirm the validity and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  8. CONVERGENCE OF NEWTON'S METHOD FOR SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS WITH CONSTANT RANK DERIVATIVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiubin Xu; Chong Li

    2007-01-01

    The convergence properties of Newton's method for systems of equations with constant rank derivatives are studied under the hypothesis that the derivatives satisfy some weak Lipschitz conditions. The unified convergence results, which include Kantorovich type theorems and Smale's point estimate theorems as special cases, are obtained.

  9. Solving Ratio-Dependent Predatorprey System with Constant Effort Harvesting Using Variational Iteration Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghotbi, Abdoul R; Barari, Amin

    2009-01-01

    Due to wide range of interest in use of bio-economic models to gain insight in to the scientific management of renewable resources like fisheries and forestry, variational iteration method (VIM) is employed to approximate the solution of the ratio-dependent predator-prey system with constant effort...

  10. High dielectric constant materials and their application to IC gate stack systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU; Hailing

    2005-01-01

    High dielectric constant (high-k) materials are vital tothe nanoelectronic devices.The paper reviews research development of high-k materials, describes a variety of manufacture technologies and discusses the application of the gate stack systems to non-classical device structures.

  11. Influence of a constant magnetic field on the fibrinogen-fibrin system. [in blood coagulation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matskevichene, V. B.; Platonova, A. T.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of a constant magnetic field with a strength of 2500 oersteds on the fibrinogen-fibrin system was studied in the organism of healthy rabbits with exposure times of 1 and 5 hours. The results obtained indicate disruptions in the stage of conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin and an increase in the amount of fibrinogen.

  12. Dielectric-constant measurements in a system of NbC grains near the percolation threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, D. S.; Oblakova, I. I.; Pakhomov, A. B.

    1994-06-01

    Measurements of the complex dielectric constant (ε‧ + iε″) on a series on NbC-KCl composites in a wide range of concentrations are performed as a function of φ (the volume fraction of the 1-3 μm NbC grains) at frequencies of 10 2, 10 3, 10 4 and 10 5 Hz. Frequency scaling of ε = ε‧ + iε″ at the metal-insulator transition is different from one which follows from the scaling theory of an ideal percolation system. We observe two different values of the critical volume fraction of metal. The first critical concentration, φ c1, is a cross-over point where the dielectric-constant frequency dependence changes and the loss factor is on the order of unity. The temperature behavior of the complex dielectric constant below the superconducting transition temperature Tc reveals a transformation of a system of isolated NbC grains into a system of weakly coupled tunneling junctions at φ c1. The expected divergence of ε‧ is observed as the second critical volume concentration φ c2 > φ c1 is approached. At this concentration a cross-over from the capacitive tunneling junction medium to a truly metallic state occurs. At φ > φ c2, ε‧ decreases rapidly as a function of φ and becomes negative at φ - φ c2∼0.01, due to the negative effective real dielectric constant of the percolation metallic cluster which spans the system.

  13. Criteria for the Degree of Stability of the Linear Constant Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广彬; 潘宝珍; 侯文渊

    2004-01-01

    There are various applications of the stability theory of the first-order dynamical systems. And the stability of the non-linear control systems can be determined by its linear part. In practice, it is not enough to know the stability of the dynamical systems. Sometimes we must know the degree of stability of these systems. In this paper, we present some criteria for the degree of stability of the linear constant systems, by using the entries of the coefficient matrix A only.

  14. Thermal energy storage system using phase change materials: Constant heat source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Meenakshi R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage of phase change materials (PCM to store the heat in the form of latent heat is increased, because large quantity of thermal energy is stored in smaller volumes. In the present experimental investigation paraffin and stearic acid are employed as PCMs in thermal energy storage (TES system to store the heat as sensible and latent heat also. A constant heat source is used to supply heat transfer fluid (HTF at constant temperature to the TES system. In the TES system PCMs are stored in the form of spherical capsules of 38 mm diameter made of high density poly ethylene (HDPE. The results of the investigation are related to the charging time and recovery of stored energy from the TES system.

  15. Investigation of Constant Temperature Hot-wire System Response using Laser Pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffa, Nicholas; Morris, Scott; Cameron, Joshua

    2016-11-01

    Constant temperature hot-wire systems use a Wheatstone bridge and feedback amplifier circuit to maintain a constant average temperature across the wire yielding frequency responses of order 100 kHz. This high frequency response allows hot-wires to be used extensively for aerodynamic measurements in high speed flows and uncertainty at these high frequencies can be difficult to diagnose. The standard frequency response check for constant temperature hot-wires uses an electronic pulse across the circuit to check the electronic feedback circuit response time, but does not account for the impact of the heat transfer along the wire. In order to investigate the frequency response of the entire constant temperature hot-wire system, including the heat transfer along the wire, a novel method was developed using a pulsed PIV laser focused to illuminate only the hot-wire. The laser pulse duration was effectively an instantaneous change in wire surface temperature through radiation. A hot-wire was placed in a uniform open calibration jet for a range of flow conditions. The response of the entire hot-wire system was observed across a range of conditions including changes in flow, wire temperature, and thermal boundary conditions and compared with the electronic pulse test.

  16. Limiting vibration in systems with constant amplitude actuators through command preshaping. M.S Thesis - MIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Keith Eric

    1994-01-01

    The basic concepts of command preshaping were taken and adapted to the framework of systems with constant amplitude (on-off) actuators. In this context, pulse sequences were developed which help to attenuate vibration in flexible systems with high robustness to errors in frequency identification. Sequences containing impulses of different magnitudes were approximated by sequences containing pulses of different durations. The effects of variation in pulse width on this approximation were examined. Sequences capable of minimizing loads induced in flexible systems during execution of commands were also investigated. The usefulness of these techniques in real-world situations was verified by application to a high fidelity simulation of the space shuttle. Results showed that constant amplitude preshaping techniques offer a substantial improvement in vibration reduction over both the standard and upgraded shuttle control methods and may be mission enabling for use of the shuttle with extremely massive payloads.

  17. Second order sliding power control for a variable speed-constant frequency energy conversion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenciaga, Fernando, E-mail: fval@ing.unlp.edu.a [CONICET, Laboratorio de Electronica Industrial Control e Instrumentacion (LEICI), Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC.91, C.P. 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2010-12-15

    This paper presents a decoupled active and reactive power control for a variable speed-constant frequency generation system based on a brushless doubly fed reluctance machine. The control design is approached using multi-input second order sliding techniques which are specially appropriate to deal with nonlinear system models in presence of external disturbances and model inaccuracies. The controller synthesized through this theoretical framework presents very good robustness features, a finite reaching time and a chattering-free behavior. The performance of the closed loop system is assessed through representative computer simulations.

  18. Kinetics of constant gravitropic stimulus responses in Arabidopsis roots using a feedback system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, J. L.; Wolverton, C.; Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    2000-01-01

    The study of gravitropism is hindered by the fact that as a root responds, the gravitational stimulus changes. Using a feedback system to connect a rotating stage platform to a video digitizer system, we were able to maintain a constant angle of gravistimulation to Arabidopsis roots for long time periods. The rate of curvature approximated the sine rule for angles of stimulation between 20 degrees and 120 degrees. For a given angle of stimulation, the rate of curvature also remained constant, with no observed diminishment of the response. Although previous reports of Arabidopsis root gravitropism suggest latent periods of approximately 30 min, using a smooth mechanical stage to reorient the root, we observed a mean time lag of approximately 10 min. This more rapid onset of curvature can, in part, be explained by reduced mechanical perturbation during the process of gravistimulation. This suggests that mechanical stimulation associated with rapid root re-orientation may confound investigations of early gravitropic events.

  19. A Novel Active Bouncer System for Klystron Modulators with Constant AC Power Consumption

    CERN Document Server

    Cabaleiro Magallanes, F; Viarouge, P; Cros, J; De Almeida Martins, C

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the principles and design methodologies of a novel active bouncer system, to be implemented in a transformer-based klystron modulator, which is able to meet two different objectives: 1. Regulate the output pulse voltage flattop, and 2. Attenuate the power fluctuation withdrawn from the AC network. This solution allows the utilization of a standard constant voltage / constant current power supply as a capacitor charger. The solution consists of a 4-quadrant switching converter placed in series with the main capacitor bank (forming a unique element in parallel with the capacitor charger), controlled with specific feed-back loops to achieve the two objectives. The complete design method, including a numerical optimization, of the whole system, is presented in the paper. Analyses of the compromises between the active bouncer specifications and the other modulator sub-components design is presented as well.

  20. Solving Ratio-Dependent Predator-Prey System with Constant Effort Harvesting Using Homotopy Perturbation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul R. Ghotbi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to wide range of interest in use of bioeconomic models to gain insight into the scientific management of renewable resources like fisheries and forestry, homotopy perturbation method is employed to approximate the solution of the ratio-dependent predator-prey system with constant effort prey harvesting. The results are compared with the results obtained by Adomian decomposition method. The results show that, in new model, there are less computations needed in comparison to Adomian decomposition method.

  1. Queueing systems with constant service time and evaluation of M/D/1,k

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Villy Bæk

    1997-01-01

    Systems with constant service times have the particular property that the customers leave the servers in the same order in which they areaccepted for service. Probabilitites of integral waiting times can be expressed by the state probabilities, and non-integral waiting timescan be expressed by in...... by integral waiting times. This in combination by a result by Keilson results in an effective algorithm for evaluating M/D/1,k....

  2. Note on integrability of certain homogeneous Hamiltonian systems in 2D constant curvature spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Andrzej J.; Szumiński, Wojciech; Przybylska, Maria

    2017-02-01

    We formulate the necessary conditions for the integrability of a certain family of Hamiltonian systems defined in the constant curvature two-dimensional spaces. Proposed form of potential can be considered as a counterpart of a homogeneous potential in flat spaces. Thanks to this property Hamilton equations admit, in a general case, a particular solution. Using this solution we derive necessary integrability conditions investigating differential Galois group of variational equations.

  3. A Novel Constant-Pressure Pumped Hydro Combined with Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erren Yao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As intermittent renewable energy is receiving increasing attention, the combination of intermittent renewable energy with large-scale energy storage technology is considered as an important technological approach for the wider application of wind power and solar energy. Pumped hydro combined with compressed air energy storage system (PHCA is one of the energy storage systems that not only integrates the advantages but also overcomes the disadvantages of compressed air energy storage (CAES systems and pumped hydro energy storage systems to solve the problem of energy storage in China’s arid regions. Aiming at the variable working conditions of PHCA system technology, this study proposes a new constant-pressure PHCA. The most significant characteristics of this system were that the water pump and hydroturbine work under stable conditions and this improves the working efficiency of the equipment without incurring an energy loss. In addition, the constant-pressure PHCA system was subjected to energy and exergy analysis, in expectation of exploring an attractive solution for the large-scale storage of existing intermittent renewable energy.

  4. The measurement system of birefringence and Verdet constant of optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Chen, Li; Guo, Qiang; Pang, Fufei; Wen, Jianxiang; Shang, Yana; Wang, Tingyun

    2013-12-01

    The Faraday magneto-optical effect of optical fiber has many applications in monitoring magnetic field and electric current. When a linearly polarized light propagates in the direction of a magnetic field, the plane of polarization will rotate linearly proportional to the strength of the applied magnetic field, which following the relationship of θF =VBl. θF is the Faraday rotation angle, which is proportional to the magnetic flux density B and the Verdet constant V . However, when the optical fiber contains the effect of linear birefringence, the detection of Faraday rotation angle will depend on the line birefringence. In order to determine the Verdet constant of an optical fiber under a linear birefringence, the fiber birefringence needs to be accurately measured. In this work, a model is applied to analyze the polarization properties of an optical fiber by using the Jones matrix method. A measurement system based on the lock-in amplifier technology is designed to test the Verdet constant and the birefringence of optical fiber. The magnetic field is produced by a solenoid with a DC current. A tunable laser is intensity modulated with a motorized rotating chopper. The actuator supplies a signal as the phase-locked synchronization reference to the signal of the lock-in amplifier. The measurement accuracy is analyzed and the sensitivity of the system is optimized. In this measurement system, the Verdet constant of the SMF-28 fiber was measured to be 0.56±0.02 rad/T·m at 1550nm. This setup is well suitable for measuring the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) sensitivity for lock-in amplifier at a low magnetic field strength.

  5. High-Performance Constant Power Generation in Grid-Connected PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    An advanced power control strategy by limiting the maximum feed-in power of PV systems has been proposed, which can ensure a fast and smooth transition between maximum power point tracking and Constant Power Generation (CPG). Regardless of the solar irradiance levels, high-performance and stable...... operation are always achieved by the proposed control strategy. It can regulate the PV output power according to any set-point, and force the PV systems to operate at the left side of the maximum power point without stability problems. Experimental results have verified the effectiveness of the proposed CPG...

  6. Singular linear quadratic control problem for systems with linear and constant delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesekin, A. N.; Andreeva, I. Yu.; Shlyakhov, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    This article is devoted to the singular linear-quadratic optimization problem on the trajectories of the linear non-autonomous system of differential equations with linear and constant delay. It should be noted that such task does not solve the class of integrable controls, so to ensure the existence of a solution is needed to expand the class of controls to include the control impulse components. For the problem under consideration, we have built program control containing impulse components in the initial and final moments time. This is done under certain assumptions on the functional and the right side of the control system.

  7. BLIND EQUALIZATION OF MIMO SYSTEMS BASED ON ORTHOGONAL CONSTANT MODULUS ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates adaptive blind source separation and equalization for Multiple Input Mul-tiple Output (MIMO) systems. To effectively recover input signals, remove Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI)and suppress Inter-User Interference (IUI), the array input is first transformed into the signal subspace, thenwith the derived orthogonality between weight vectors of different input signals, a new orthogonal ConstantModulus Algorithm (CMA) is proposed. Computer simulation results illustrate the promising performance ofthe proposed method. Without channel identification, the proposed method can recover all the system inputssimultaneously and can be adaptive to channel changes without prior knowledge about signals.

  8. Determination of the kinetic rate constant of cyclodextrin supramolecular systems by high performance affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyan; Ge, Jingwen; Guo, Tao; Yang, Shuo; He, Zhonggui; York, Peter; Sun, Lixin; Xu, Xu; Zhang, Jiwen

    2013-08-30

    It is challenging and extremely difficult to measure the kinetics of supramolecular systems with extensive, weak binding (Kahigh performance affinity chromatography (HPAC) was established to determine the dissociation rate constant of cyclodextrin supramolecular systems. The interactions of β-cyclodextrin with acetaminophen and sertraline were used to exemplify the method. The retention times, variances and the plate heights of the peaks for acetaminophen or sertraline, conventional non-retained substance (H2O) on the β-cyclodextrin bonded column and a control column were determined at four flow rates under linear elution conditions. Then, plate heights for the theoretical non-retained substance were estimated by the modified HPAC method, in consideration of the diffusion and stagnant mobile phase mass transfer. As a result, apparent dissociation rate constants of 1.82 (±0.01)s(-1) and 3.55 (±0.37)s(-1) were estimated for acetaminophen and sertraline respectively at pH 6.8 and 25°C with multiple flow rates. Following subtraction of the non-specific binding with the support, dissociation rate constants were estimated as 1.78 (±0.00) and 1.91 (±0.02)s(-1) for acetaminophen and sertraline, respectively. These results for acetaminophen and sertraline were in good agreement with the magnitude of the rate constants for other drugs determined by capillary electrophoresis reported in the literature and the peak fitting method we performed. The method described in this work is thought to be suitable for other supramolecules, with relatively weak, fast and extensive interactions.

  9. A Method for Achieving Constant Rotation Rates in a Micro-Orthogonal Linkage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickey, F.M.; Holswade, S.C.; Romero, L.A.

    1999-05-12

    Silicon micromachine designs include engines that consist of orthog- onally oriented linear comb drive actuators mechanically connected to a rotating gear. These gears are as small as 50 {micro}m in diameter and can be driven at rotation rates exceeding 300,000 rpm. Generally, these en- gines will run with non-uniform rotation rates if the drive signals are not properly designed and maintained over a range of system parameters. We present a method for producing constant rotation rates in a micro-engine driven by an orthogonal linkage system. We show that provided the val- ues of certain masses, springs, damping factors, and lever arms are in the right proportions, the system behaves as though it were symmetrical. We will refer to systems built in this way as being quasi-symmetrical. We show that if a system is built quasi-symmetrically , then it is possible to achieve constant rotation rates even if one does not know the form of the friction function, or the value of the friction. We analyze this case in some detail.

  10. The Measurement of the Hubble Constant H_0 in the Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Allen Joel

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the methodology necessary to measure the Hubble constant Ho to a high degree of accuracy based upon Doppler tracking of spacecraft in the solar system. Using this methodology with available published data we determine a model independent value of the Hubble constant for the current epoch in the solar system to be Ho = 2.59 \\pm 0.05 x 10^-18 (s^-1) or as 79.8 \\pm 1.7 (km/s/Mpc). We calculate the direct effect of the Cosmic Redshift on Doppler tracking of spacecraft in the solar system. It is shown that with current tracking systems, such as NASA's Deep Space Tracking Network, when the return trip light time of the Doppler signal exceeds a certain threshold, imposed by the stability of the frequency standard, the effect of the Cosmic Redshift is coherently conserved in the returning Doppler signal. We demonstrate that in an underdetermined orbit, one determined by line of sight Doppler alone, that if this Cosmic Redshift term is not accounted for, the orbit determination program (ODP) misca...

  11. Permanent Magnet System for MRI with Constant Gradient mechanically adjustable in Direction and Strength

    CERN Document Server

    Blümler, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A design for a permanent magnet system is proposed that generates spatially homogeneous, constant magnetic field gradients, thus creating conditions suitable for MRI without gradient coils and amplifiers. This is achieved by superimposing a weak Halbach quadrupole on a strong Halbach dipole. Rotation of either the quadrupole or the entire magnet assembly can be used to generate 2D images via filtered back-projection. Additionally, the mutual rotation of two quadrupoles can be used to scale the resulting gradient. If both gradients have identical strength the gradient can even be made to vanish. The concept is demonstrated by analytical considerations and FEM-simulations.

  12. High Throughput Constant Envelope Pre-coder for Massive MIMO Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhu, Hemanth; Rusek, Fredrik; Rodrigues, Joachim; Edfors, Ove

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a high throughput constant envelope (CE) pre-coder for Massive MIMO systems. A large number of antennas (M), in the order of 100s, serve a relatively small number of users (K) simultaneously. The stringent amplitude constraint (only phase changes) in the CE scheme is motivated by the use of highly power-efficient non-linear RF power amplifiers. We propose a scheme that computes the CE signals to be transmitted based on box-constrained regression (coordinatedescent),with a...

  13. The Modified Fouling Index Ultrafiltration constant flux for assessing particulate/colloidal fouling of RO systems

    KAUST Repository

    Salinas-Rodriguez, Sergio G.

    2015-02-18

    Reliable methods for measuring and predicting the fouling potential of reverse osmosis (RO) feed water are important in preventing and diagnosing fouling at the design stage, and for monitoring pre-treatment performance during plant operation. The Modified Fouling Index Ultrafiltration (MFI-UF) constant flux is a significant development with respect to assessing the fouling potential of RO feed water. This research investigates (1) the variables influencing the MFI-UF test at constant flux filtration (membrane pore size, membrane material, flux rate); and (2) the application of MFI-UF into pre-treatment assessment and RO fouling estimation. The dependency of MFI on flux, means that to assess accurately particulate fouling in RO systems, the MFI should be measured at a flux similar to a RO system (close to 20 L/m2/h) or extrapolated from higher fluxes. The two studied membrane materials showed reproducible results; 10% for PES membranes and 6.3% for RC membranes. Deposition factors (amount of particles that remain on the surface of membrane) were measured in a full-scale plant ranging between 0.2 and 0.5. The concept of “safe MFI” is presented as a guideline for assessing pre-treatment for RO systems.

  14. Some laws of a system with a constant amount of energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, different relationships and functional dependences of a system with a constant energy U=const., have been analyzed. The combinatorial nature of this analysis enables the conclusion that a family of entropy curves i.e. σ (N, U, for U = const, have an envelope. The envelope theory is very important for consideration of long & short range order of statistic thermodynamic systems. Since, we analyzed a system for U=const, we could explain some non-continual properties of a material. Like an example of this statement, we observed the situation, which is caused by anomaly filling of electronic orbits during the transfer from d to f elements.

  15. Bipolar square-wave current source for transient electromagnetic systems based on constant shutdown time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shilong; Yin, Changchun; Lin, Jun; Yang, Yu; Hu, Xueyan

    2016-03-01

    Cooperative work of multiple magnetic transmitting sources is a new trend in the development of transient electromagnetic system. The key is the bipolar current waves shutdown, concurrently in the inductive load. In the past, it was difficult to use the constant clamping voltage technique to realize the synchronized shutdown of currents with different peak values. Based on clamping voltage technique, we introduce a new controlling method with constant shutdown time. We use the rising time to control shutdown time and use low voltage power source to control peak current. From the viewpoint of the circuit energy loss, by taking the high-voltage capacitor bypass resistance and the capacitor of the passive snubber circuit into account, we establish the relationship between the rising time and the shutdown time. Since the switch is not ideal, we propose a new method to test the shutdown time by the low voltage, the high voltage and the peak current. Experimental results show that adjustment of the current rising time can precisely control the value of the clamp voltage. When the rising time is fixed, the shutdown time is unchanged. The error for shutdown time deduced from the energy consumption is less than 6%. The new controlling method on current shutdown proposed in this paper can be used in the cooperative work of borehole and ground transmitting system.

  16. Bipolar square-wave current source for transient electromagnetic systems based on constant shutdown time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shilong; Yin, Changchun; Lin, Jun; Yang, Yu; Hu, Xueyan

    2016-03-01

    Cooperative work of multiple magnetic transmitting sources is a new trend in the development of transient electromagnetic system. The key is the bipolar current waves shutdown, concurrently in the inductive load. In the past, it was difficult to use the constant clamping voltage technique to realize the synchronized shutdown of currents with different peak values. Based on clamping voltage technique, we introduce a new controlling method with constant shutdown time. We use the rising time to control shutdown time and use low voltage power source to control peak current. From the viewpoint of the circuit energy loss, by taking the high-voltage capacitor bypass resistance and the capacitor of the passive snubber circuit into account, we establish the relationship between the rising time and the shutdown time. Since the switch is not ideal, we propose a new method to test the shutdown time by the low voltage, the high voltage and the peak current. Experimental results show that adjustment of the current rising time can precisely control the value of the clamp voltage. When the rising time is fixed, the shutdown time is unchanged. The error for shutdown time deduced from the energy consumption is less than 6%. The new controlling method on current shutdown proposed in this paper can be used in the cooperative work of borehole and ground transmitting system.

  17. Cosmological variation of the MOND constant: secular effects on galactic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Milgrom, Mordehai

    2014-01-01

    The proximity of the MOND acceleration constant with cosmological accelerations -- for example, a0~ cH0/2pi -- points to its possibly decreasing with cosmic time. I begin to consider the secular changes induced in galactic systems by such presumed variations, assumed adiabatic. It is important to understand these effects, in isolation from other evolutionary influences, in order to identify or constrain a0 variations by detection of induced effects, or lack thereof. I find that as long as the system is fully in the deep-MOND regime -- as applies to many galactic systems -- the adiabatic response of the system obeys simple scaling laws. For example, in a system that would be stationary for fixed a0, the system expands homologously as a0^{-1/4}, while internal velocities decrease uniformly as a0^{1/4}. If a0 is proportional to cH at all relevant times, this change amounts to a factor of ~ 2.5 since redshift 10. For a system stationary in a rotating frame, the angular frequency decreases as a0^{1/2}. The acceler...

  18. Dynamics of a Ivlev-type predator-prey system with constant rate harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling Li [Institute of Nonlinear Analysis, College of Mathematics and Information Science, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Wang Weiming [Institute of Nonlinear Analysis, College of Mathematics and Information Science, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China)], E-mail: weimingwang2003@163.com

    2009-08-30

    In this paper, by using the analysis of qualitative method and bifurcation theory, we investigate the dynamical properties of the Ivlev-type predator-prey model with nonzero constant prey harvesting and with or without time delay, respectively. It is shown that the system we considered can exhibit the subcritical and supercritical Hopf bifurcation. We also study the effect of the time delay on the dynamics of the system. By choosing the delay {tau} as a bifurcation parameter, we show that Hopf bifurcation can occur as the delay {tau} crosses some critical values. The direction and stability of the Hopf bifurcation are investigated by following the procedure of deriving normal form given by Faria and Magalhaes. Finally, numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the obtained results.

  19. Benchmarking of Constant Power Generation Strategies for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    With a still increase of grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) systems, challenges have been imposed on the grid due to the continuous injection of a large amount of fluctuating PV power, like overloading the grid infrastructure (e.g., transformers) during peak power production periods. Hence, advanced...... active power control methods are required. As a cost-effective solution to avoid overloading, a Constant Power Generation (CPG) control scheme by limiting the feed-in power has been introduced into the currently active grid regulations. In order to achieve a CPG operation, this paper presents three CPG...... strategies based on: 1) a power control method (P-CPG), 2) a current limit method (I-CPG) and 3) the Perturb and Observe algorithm (P&O-CPG). However, the operational mode changes (e.g., from the maximum power point tracking to a CPG operation) will affect the entire system performance. Thus, a benchmarking...

  20. Quantum logic gates from time-dependent global magnetic field in a system with constant exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenashev, A. V., E-mail: nenashev@isp.nsc.ru; Dvurechenskii, A. V. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Zinovieva, A. F. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Gornov, A. Yu.; Zarodnyuk, T. S. [Institute for System Dynamics and Control Theory SB RAS, 664033 Irkutsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-21

    We propose a method that implements a universal set of one- and two-quantum-bit gates for quantum computation in a system of coupled electron pairs with constant non-diagonal exchange interaction. In our proposal, suppression of the exchange interaction is performed by the continual repetition of single-spin rotations. A small g-factor difference between the electrons allows for addressing qubits and avoiding strong magnetic field pulses. Numerical experiments were performed to show that, to implement the one- and two-qubit operations, it is sufficient to change the strength of the magnetic field by a few Gauss. This introduces one and then the other electron in a resonance. To determine the evolution of the two-qubit system, we use the algorithms of optimal control theory.

  1. Quantification of root gravitropic response using a constant stimulus feedback system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Numerous software packages now exist for quantifying root growth responses, most of which analyze a time resolved sequence of images ex post facto. However, few allow for the real-time analysis of growth responses. The system in routine use in our lab allows for real-time growth analysis and couples this to positional feedback to control the stimulus experienced by the responding root. This combination allows us to overcome one of the confounding variables in studies of root gravity response. Seedlings are grown on standard petri plates attached to a vertical rotating stage and imaged using infrared illumination. The angle of a particular region of the root is determined by image analysis, compared to the prescribed angle, and any corrections in positioning are made by controlling a stepper motor. The system allows for the long-term stimulation of a root at a constant angle and yields insights into the gravity perception and transduction machinery not possible with other approaches.

  2. Model predictive control of servo motor driven constant pump hydraulic system in injection molding process based on neurodynamic optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-gang PENG; Jun WANG; Wei WEI

    2014-01-01

    In view of the high energy consumption and low response speed of the traditional hydraulic system for an injection molding machine, a servo motor driven constant pump hydraulic system is designed for a precision injection molding process, which uses a servo motor, a constant pump, and a pressure sensor, instead of a common motor, a constant pump, a pressure pro-portion valve, and a flow proportion valve. A model predictive control strategy based on neurodynamic optimization is proposed to control this new hydraulic system in the injection molding process. Simulation results showed that this control method has good control precision and quick response.

  3. AB INITIO CALCULATIONS OF ELASTIC CONSTANTS OF BCC V-NB SYSTEM AT HIGH PRESSURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landa, A; Klepeis, J; Soderlind, P; Naumov, I; Velikokhatnyi, O; Vitos, L; Ruban, A

    2005-05-02

    First-principles total energy calculation based on the exact muffin-tin orbital and full potential linear muffin-tin orbital methods were used to calculate the equation of state and shear elastic constants of bcc V, Nb, and the V{sub 95}Nb{sub 05} disordered alloy as a function of pressure up to 6 Mbar. We found a mechanical instability in C{sub 44} and a corresponding softening in C at pressures {approx} 2 Mbar for V. Both shear elastic constants show softening at pressures {approx} 0.5 Mbar for Nb. Substitution of 5 at. % of V with Nb removes the instability of V with respect to trigonal distortions in the vicinity of 2 Mbar pressure, but still leaves the softening of C{sub 44} in this pressure region. We argue that the pressure induced shear instability (softening) of V (Nb) originates from the electronic system and can be explained by a combination of the Fermi surface nesting, electronic topological transition, and band Jahn-Teller effect.

  4. Stability and Relative Stability of Linear Systems with Many Constant Time Delays. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Larry Keith

    1976-01-01

    A method of determining the stability of linear systems with many constant time delays is developed. This technique, an extension of the tau-decomposition method, is used to examine not only the stability but also the relative stability of retarded systems with many delays and a class of neutral equations with one delay. Analytical equations are derived for partitioning the delay space of a retarded system with two time delays. The stability of the system in each of the regions defined by the partitioning curves in the parameter plane is determined using the extended tau-decomposition method. In addition, relative stability boundaries are defined using the extended tau-decompositon method in association with parameter plane techniques. Several applications of the extended tau-decomposition method are presented and compared with stability results obtained from other analyses. In all cases the results obtained using the method outlined herein coincide with and extend those of previous investigations. The extended tau-decomposition method applied to systems with time delays requires less computational effort and yields more complete stability analyses than previous techniques.

  5. ADAPTIVE STEP-SIZE CONSTANT MODULUS ALGORITHM FOR BLIND MULTIUSER DETECTION IN DS-CDMA SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Liping; Hu Guangrui

    2004-01-01

    Blind Adaptive Step-size Constant Modulus Algorithm (AS-CMA) for multiuser detection in DS-CDMA systems is presented. It combines the CMA and the concept of variable step-size, uses a second LMS algorithm for the step size. It adjusts the step-size according to the minimum output-energy principle within a specified range, thus overcomes the problems of bad effect of fixed step-size LMS algorithm. Compared with Adaptive Step-size LMS (AS-LMS) algorithm, through simulations, this algorithm can adapt the changes of the environment, suppress multiple access interference in the dynamic environment and the stability of Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR) is superior to that of AS-LMS.

  6. Energy Method of Finding Distribution Constants of an Antiferromagnetic Vector for an Antidot System in a Two-sublattice Antiferromagnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Kulish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the antiferromagnetic vector distribution in an antiferromagnetic film with a system of antidots. A static distribution of the antiferromagnetic vector is written and a method – based on the minimization of the antiferromagnet energy – that allows reducing the number of boundary conditions required for finding the constants of this distribution is proposed. Equations for the distribution constants are obtained for the both cases of minimizing the antiferromagnet energy by one and by two distribution constants that enter the expression for the antiferromagnet energy. The method is illustrated on a system of one isolated antidot. For such system, one additional condition – for the case when two boundary conditions on the surface of the antidot are given – and two additional conditions – for the case when one boundary condition on the surface of the antidot is given – on the distribution constants are written.

  7. Optical constants and nonlinear calculations of fluorescein/FTO thin film optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, H. Y.; Iqbal, Javed; Yahia, I. S.

    2016-11-01

    The organic thin films of fluorescein dye were deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate by using low-cost spin coating technique. The surface of the deposited film was characterized by using AFM and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, which shows that the film is uniform and amorphous. The spectrophotometric study was carried out at the wavelength range of 300-2500 nm. The spectral dependences of the linear refractive index and absorption index were found to decrease as the wavelength was increased. Tauc's plot study revealed that the film shows the direct transition and energy band gap values were found 1.75 eV and 3.55 eV for the thin film and the substrate, respectively. Optical constants were found nearly the same in the higher energy domain (1.0-4.5 eV). Spectroscopic method was employed to study the nonlinear optical susceptibility χ (3). The deposited thin film is a promising optical system for new generation of optoelectronics.

  8. Standard practice for verification of constant amplitude dynamic forces in an axial fatigue testing system

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for the dynamic verification of cyclic force amplitude control or measurement accuracy during constant amplitude testing in an axial fatigue testing system. It is based on the premise that force verification can be done with the use of a strain gaged elastic element. Use of this practice gives assurance that the accuracies of forces applied by the machine or dynamic force readings from the test machine, at the time of the test, after any user applied correction factors, fall within the limits recommended in Section 9. It does not address static accuracy which must first be addressed using Practices E 4 or equivalent. 1.2 Verification is specific to a particular test machine configuration and specimen. This standard is recommended to be used for each configuration of testing machine and specimen. Where dynamic correction factors are to be applied to test machine force readings in order to meet the accuracy recommended in Section 9, the verification is also specific to the c...

  9. Surface induced constant composition crystal growth kinetics studies. The brushite gypsum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hina, A.; Nancollas, G. H.; Grynpas, M.

    2001-02-01

    The possible oriented growth of one crystalline phase on the surface of another is especially important in systems containing both phosphate and sulfate salts of calcium. Whether the overgrowth results from a true epitaxial relationship is dependent on factors such as the thermodynamic driving forces and the free energies of the surfaces. Despite the fact that calcium sulfate dihydrate (CSD, gypsum) and calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (DCPD, brushite) show many crystallographic and structural analogies, their surface reactions are quite different. The nucleation and growth of gypsum on brushite surfaces has been investigated in supersaturated solutions of calcium sulfate dihydrate at 25.0°C using the constant composition (CC) method. During the kinetics experiments, the harvested solid phases were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS). Induction periods, τ, preceding the initial formation of gypsum crystals at the brushite surfaces, varied markedly with relative supersaturation, σ. A thin layer wicking method was used to investigate the interfacial free energies of the growing phases, and these data were also calculated from the kinetics results. The interfacial free energy, γ, estimated from initial growth rates was 8.4 mJ m -2, while that calculated from the induction times was 8.9 mJ m -2. These values were in agreement with those determined directly using thin layer wicking.

  10. Units Based on Constants: The Redefinition of the International System of Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, J.; Ullrich, J. H.

    2016-03-01

    Recent decisions of the General Conference on Weights and Measures of the Metre Convention have opened the door to a fundamental change of the International System of Units, the SI, in 2018. The revised SI will be based on fixing the numerical values of seven defining constants corresponding to the seven traditional base units. This will bring about basic modifications in the definition of the kilogram, the ampere, the kelvin, and the mole and will have consequences for units derived from them. In contrast, the second, the meter, and the candela will not be affected. This paper describes the motivation and rationale behind this endeavor, introduces the new definitions, and reviews the requirements for the redefinitions as well as the status of the experiments that are currently being carried out to fulfill them. Benefits and a wide-reaching impact for the realization and dissemination of the units are anticipated because innovative technologies with ever-increasing accuracy will emerge, enabling the direct realization over widespread measurement ranges without the definitions themselves having to be changed.

  11. Shock tube measurements of growth constants in the branched chain formaldehyde-carbon monoxide-oxygen system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabbs, T. A.; Brokaw, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Exponential free radical growth constants were measured for formaldehyde carbon monoxide-oxygen systems by monitoring the growth of oxygen atom concentration as manifested by CO flame band emission. Data were obtained over the temperature range of 1200 to 2000 K. The data were analyzed using a formaldehyde oxidation mechanism involving 12 elementary reaction steps. The computed growth constants are roughly in accord with experimental values, but are much more temperature dependent. The data was also analyzed assuming formaldehyde is rapidly decomposed to carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Growth constants computed for the resulting carbon monoxide hydrogen oxygen mixtures have a temperature dependence similar to experiments; however, for most mixtures, the computed growth constants were larger than experimental values.

  12. Planck constant as spectral parameter in integrable systems and KZB equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, A.; Olshanetsky, M.; Zotov, A.

    2014-10-01

    We construct special rational gl N Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov-Bernard (KZB) equations with Ñ punctures by deformation of the corresponding quantum gl N rational R-matrix. They have two parameters. The limit of the first one brings the model to the ordinary rational KZ equation. Another one is τ. At the level of classical mechanics the deformation parameter τ allows to extend the previously obtained modified Gaudin models to the modified Schlesinger systems. Next, we notice that the identities underlying generic (elliptic) KZB equations follow from some additional relations for the properly normalized R-matrices. The relations are noncommutative analogues of identities for (scalar) elliptic functions. The simplest one is the unitarity condition. The quadratic (in R matrices) relations are generated by noncommutative Fay identities. In particular, one can derive the quantum Yang-Baxter equations from the Fay identities. The cubic relations provide identities for the KZB equations as well as quadratic relations for the classical r-matrices which can be treated as halves of the classical Yang-Baxter equation. At last we discuss the R-matrix valued linear problems which provide gl Ñ CM models and Painlevé equations via the above mentioned identities. The role of the spectral parameter plays the Planck constant of the quantum R-matrix. When the quantum gl N R-matrix is scalar ( N = 1) the linear problem reproduces the Krichever's ansatz for the Lax matrices with spectral parameter for the gl Ñ CM models. The linear problems for the quantum CM models generalize the KZ equations in the same way as the Lax pairs with spectral parameter generalize those without it.

  13. Individual extraction constants of some univalent anions in the two-phase water-phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrlík, Emanuel; Selucký, Pavel; Vaňura, Petr

    2011-12-01

    From extraction experiments and g-activity measurements, the extraction constants corresponding to the general equilibrium Cs+(aq) + A- (aq) Cs+(org) + A- (org) taking place in the two-phase water-phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone (FS 13) system (A-= I-, ClO4-, MnO4-, Br-3, I-3, picrate, tetraphenylborate (BPh-4); aq = aqueous phase, org = FS 13 phase) were evaluated. Furthermore, the individual extraction constants of these 7 anions in the mentioned two-phase system were calculated; they were found to increase in the series of I-< ClO4- < Br-3 < MnO4-, picrate < I-3 < BPh-4.

  14. Reaction mechanisms and rate constants of waste degradation in landfill bioreactor systems with enzymatic-enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, P A; Hettiaratchi, J P A; Mehrotra, A K; Kumar, S

    2014-06-01

    Augmenting leachate before recirculation with peroxidase enzymes is a novel method to increase the available carbon, and therefore the food supply to microorganisms at the declining phase of the anaerobic landfill bioreactor operation. In order to optimize the enzyme-catalyzed leachate recirculation process, it is necessary to identify the reaction mechanisms and determine rate constants. This paper presents a kinetic model developed to ascertain the reaction mechanisms and determine the rate constants for enzyme catalyzed anaerobic waste degradation. The maximum rate of reaction (Vmax) for MnP enzyme-catalyzed reactors was 0.076 g(TOC)/g(DS).day. The catalytic turnover number (k(cat)) of the MnP enzyme-catalyzed was 506.7 per day while the rate constant (k) of the un-catalyzed reaction was 0.012 per day.

  15. Design of high-linear CMOS circuit using a constant transconductance method for gamma-ray spectroscopy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, I.I. [School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J.H. [Institute of Innovative Functional Imaging, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, C.S. [Department of Physics, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Y.-W., E-mail: ychoi@cau.ac.k [School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-11

    We propose a novel circuit to be applied to the front-end integrated circuits of gamma-ray spectroscopy systems. Our circuit is designed as a type of current conveyor (ICON) employing a constant-g{sub m} (transconductance) method which can significantly improve the linearity in the amplified signals by using a large time constant and the time-invariant characteristics of an amplifier. The constant-g{sub m} method is obtained by a feedback control which keeps the transconductance of the input transistor constant. To verify the performance of the propose circuit, the time constant variations for the channel resistances are simulated with the TSMC 0.18{mu}m transistor parameters using HSPICE, and then compared with those of a conventional ICON. As a result, the proposed ICON shows only 0.02% output linearity variation and 0.19% time constant variation for the input amplitude up to 100 mV. These are significantly small values compared to a conventional ICON's 1.39% and 19.43%, respectively, for the same conditions.

  16. Reliability, risk and availability analysis and evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in constant operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolowrocki, Krzysztof [Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    In the paper the multi-state approach to the analysis and evaluation of systems' reliability, risk and availability is practically applied. Theoretical definitions and results are illustrated by the example of their application in the reliability, risk and availability evaluation of an oil pipeline transportation system. The pipeline transportation system is considered in the constant in time operation conditions. The system reliability structure and its components reliability functions are not changing in constant operation conditions. The system reliability structure is fixed with a high accuracy. Whereas, the input reliability characteristics of the pipeline components are not sufficiently exact because of the lack of statistical data necessary for their estimation. The results may be considered as an illustration of the proposed methods possibilities of applications in pipeline systems reliability analysis. (author)

  17. Varying Constants

    CERN Document Server

    Damour, Thibault Marie Alban Guillaume

    2003-01-01

    We review some string-inspired theoretical models which incorporate a correlated spacetime variation of coupling constants while remaining naturally compatible both with phenomenological constraints coming from geochemical data (Oklo; Rhenium decay) and with present equivalence principle tests. Barring unnatural fine-tunings of parameters, a variation of the fine-structure constant as large as that recently ``observed'' by Webb et al. in quasar absorption spectra appears to be incompatible with these phenomenological constraints. Independently of any model, it is emphasized that the best experimental probe of varying constants are high-precision tests of the universality of free fall, such as MICROSCOPE and STEP. Recent claims by Bekenstein that fine-structure-constant variability does not imply detectable violations of the equivalence principle are shown to be untenable.

  18. Operation of the Run IIB D0 Luminosity System and Determination of the Run IIB Luminosity Constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prewitt, Michelle Victoria; /Rice U.

    2010-04-01

    The luminosity system is an integral part of the D0 detector that must be properly maintained to provide accurate luminosity measurements for physics analysis. After the addition of a readout layer to the silicon vertex detector in 2006, it was necessary to re-calculate the effective inelastic cross section to which the luminosity monitor is sensitive. The preliminary analysis showed that the luminosity constant did not change with the addition of the extra layer of silicon. A full study of the revised luminosity constant including a complete analysis of systematic uncertainties has been completed. The luminosity constant was determined to be {sigma}{sub eff} = 48.3 {+-} 1.9 {+-} 0.6 mb, which reduces the D0 contribution to the luminosity measurement uncertainty by almost 3%.

  19. Critical evaluation of equilibrium constants involving 8-hydroxyquinoline and its metal chelates critical evaluation of equilibrium constants in solution : part b : equilibrium constants of liquid-liquid distribution systems

    CERN Document Server

    Stary, J

    1979-01-01

    Critical Evaluation of Equilibrium Constants Involving 8-Hydroxyquinoline and Its Metal Chelates presents and evaluates the published data on the solubility, dissociation, and liquid-liquid distribution of oxine and its metal chelates to recommend the most reliable numerical data. This book explores the dissociation constants of oxine in aqueous solutions.Organized into four chapters, this book begins with an overview of the characteristics of 8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine). This text then examines the total solubility of oxine in aqueous solution at different pH values. Other chapters consider th

  20. Variable Frequency Constant Pressure Water Supply System Design%变频恒压供水系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤志强

    2016-01-01

    小区供水是变频恒压供水系统经常应用的例子。随着人民的生活条件越来越好,所以供水方式要越来越高效节能。小区供水系统是用PLC和变频器制作的供水控制系统。%District water supply is an example of constant frequency and constant pressure water supply system.In recent years, the development of people's living conditions are getting better and better, so the way to water supply more and more efficient and energy saving.District water supply system is a water supply control system with PLC and frequency changer.

  1. Novel Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic Material System Composed of Dielectrics with Different Dielectric Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Sadaaki; Adachi, Hiroshige; Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Sugimoto, Yasutaka; Takada, Takahiro

    2013-09-01

    We found that the co-firing low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) materials of different dielectric constants (ɛr) with Cu wiring is achievable using a novel, original design. It was confirmed that the dielectric characteristics of the dielectrics designed in this study are very suitable for the use of the dielectrics in electronic components such as filters mounted in high-speed radio communication equipment. The dielectric constants of the lower- and higher-dielectric-coefficient materials were 8.1 and 44.5, respectively, which are sufficiently effective for downsizing LTCC components. Observing the co-fired interface, it was confirmed that excellent co-firing conditions resulted in no mechanical defects such as delamination or cracks. On the basis of the results of wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometry (WDX) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD), it was confirmed that co-firing with minimal interdiffusion was realized using the same glass for both dielectrics. It is concluded that the materials developed are good for co-firing in terms of the mechanical defects and interdiffusion that appear in them.

  2. Calculation of generalized spin stiffness constant of strongly correlated doped quantum antiferromagnet on two-dimensional lattice and it's application to effective exchange constant for semi-itinerant systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Suraka; Chaudhury, Ranjan

    2016-11-01

    The generalized spin stiffness constant for a doped quantum antiferromagnet has been investigated both analytically and numerically as a function of doping concentration at zero temperature, based on the strongly correlated t-J model on two-dimensional square lattice. The nature of the theoretical dependence of the stiffness constant on doping shows a striking similarity with that of the effective exchange constant, obtained from the combination of other theoretical and experimental techniques in the low doping region. This correspondence once again establishes that spin stiffness can very well play the role of an effective exchange constant even in the strongly correlated semi-itinerant systems. Our theoretical plot of the stiffness constant against doping concentration in the whole doping region exhibits the various characteristic features like a possible crossover in the higher doping regions and persistence of short range ordering even for very high doping with the complete vanishing of spin stiffness occurring only close to 100% doping. Our results receive very good support from various other theoretical approaches and also brings out a few limitations of some of them. Our detailed analysis highlights the crucial importance of the study of spin stiffness for the proper understanding of magnetic correlations in a semi-itinerant magnetic system described by the strongly correlated t-J model. Moreover, our basic formalism can also be utilized for determination of the effective exchange constant and magnetic correlations for itinerant magnetic systems, in general in a novel way.

  3. An alternative flight control system for an unmanned aircraft whose flight control system fails during a longitudinal flight with constant forward velocity

    OpenAIRE

    Balint, Agneta M.; Ştefan BALINT

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we build up a flight control system for an unmanned aircraft whose flightcontrol system fails during a longitudinal flight with constant forward velocity. This task isaccomplished using only the system of differential equations, which governs the movement of theaircraft around its center of mass. Numerical simulation is given.

  4. Lithium-ion Battery Charging System using Constant-Current Method with Fuzzy Logic Based ATmega16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Passarella

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this charging system, constant-current charging technique keeps the current flow into the battery on its maximum range of 2A. The use of fuzzy logic control of this charging system is to control the value of PWM. PWM is controlling the value of current flowing to the battery during the charging process. The current value into the battery depends on the value of battery voltage and also its temperature. The cutoff system will occur if the temperature of the battery reaches its maximum range

  5. Temperature dependence of the rate constant of hydrogen isotope interactions with a lithium capillary-porous system under reactor irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazhibayeva, Irina, E-mail: tazhibayeva@ntsc.kz [Institute of Atomic Energy NNC RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Kulsartov, Timur; Gordienko, Yuri [Institute of Atomic Energy NNC RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Mukanova, Aliya [Al’ Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Ponkratov, Yuri; Barsukov, Nikolay; Tulubaev, Evgeniy [Institute of Atomic Energy NNC RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Platacis, Erik [University of Latvia (IPUL), Riga (Latvia); Kenzhin, Ergazy [Shakarim Semey State University, Semey (Kazakhstan)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The experiments with Li CPS sample were carried out at reactor IVG-1.M. • The gas absorption technique was used to study hydrogen isotope interaction with lithium CPS. • The temperature dependence of constants of interaction rate was obtained for various power rates of the reactor. • Determination of the activation energies, and pre-exponents of Arrhenius dependence. • The effect of increase of the rate constant under reaction irradiation. -- Abstract: Experiments with a sample of a lithium capillary-porous system (CPS) were performed at the reactor IVG-1.M of the Institute of Atomic Energy NNC RK to study the effects of neutron irradiation on the parameters of hydrogen isotope interactions with a lithium CPS. The absorption technique was used during the experiments, and this technique allowed the temperature dependences of the hydrogen isotope interaction rate constants with the lithium CPS to be obtained under various reactor powers. The obtained dependencies were used to determine the main interaction parameters: the activation energies and the pre-exponents of the Arrhenius dependence of the hydrogen interaction rate constants with lithium and the lithium CPS. An increase of the hydrogen isotope interaction rate with the lithium CPS was observed under reactor irradiation.

  6. Emerging the dark sector from thermodynamics of cosmological systems with constant pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Aviles, Alejandro; Klapp, Jaime; Luongo, Orlando

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamics of general fluids that have the constriction that their pressure is constant. For example, this happens in the case of pure dust matter, for which the pressure vanishes and also in the case of standard dark matter phenomenology. Assuming a finite non-zero pressure, the corresponding dynamics is richer than one naively would expect. In particular, it can be considered as a unified description of dark energy and dark matter. We first consider the more general thermodynamic properties of this class of fluids finding the important result that for them adiabatic and isothermal processes should coincide. We therefore study their behaviors in curved space-times where local thermal equilibrium can be appealed. Thus, we show that this dark fluid degenerates with the dark sector of the LCDM model only in the case of adiabatic evolution. We demonstrate that, adding dissipative processes, a phantom behavior can occur and finally we further highlight that an arbitrary decomposition of the...

  7. Inference of Planck action constant by a classical fluctuative postulate holding for stable microscopic and macroscopic dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    De Martino, S; Illuminati, F; Martino, Salvatore De; Siena, Silvio De; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    1999-01-01

    The possibility is discussed of inferring or simulating some aspects of quantum dynamics by adding classical statistical fluctuations to classical mechanics. We introduce a general principle of mechanical stability and derive a necessary condition for classical chaotic fluctuations to affect confined dynamical systems, on any scale, ranging from microscopic to macroscopic domains. As a consequence we obtain, both for microscopic and macroscopic aggregates, dimensional relations defining the minimum unit of action of individual constituents, yielding in all cases Planck action constant.

  8. The Einstein-Vlasov system with cosmological constant in a surface-symmetric cosmological model local existence and continuation criteria

    CERN Document Server

    Tchapnda, S B; Tchapnda, Sophonie Blaise; Noutchegueme, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    The Einstein-Vlasov system describes a self-gravitating, collisionless gas within the framework of general relativity. We investigate the initial value problem in a cosmological setting with surface symmetry and a non-zero cosmological constant and prove local existence and continuation criteria in both time directions. The continuation criterion says that as long as the maximum velocity remains bounded and the lapse function remains bounded then the solution can be continued. This applies to either time direction.

  9. 普朗克常数h测定系统中磁场线圈稳流源研究%Special Constant Current Source for Magnetic Field of Measuring System of Planck' s Constant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王农; 韩冰; 贺青; 张钟华; 李小亭

    2011-01-01

    A constant current source with high stability is required in establishing measuring system of Planck' s constant. The technique based on series compensation type for special constant current source for magnetic field was described. Therewith the constant current source with 4. 5 X 10 ~ /30min stability was constructed through designing the extraordinary sampling resistor, selecting stable voltage reference and operational amplifier with outstanding properties, offsetting the phase shift of inductive load. As a special constant current source for magnetic field, it presently could serve for the measuring system of Planck' s constant.%在建立我国普朗克常数h测定系统中,对高稳定度直流电源提出了新的要求.本文提出一种基于串联补偿型的专用磁场稳流源.通过设计特殊的采样电阻,选用稳定的基准电压,优选性能突出的运放,并针对感性负载进行关键的补偿,搭建了一套稳定度达到4.5×10 -6/30min的稳流源,可用作现阶段普朗克常数h测定系统的磁场稳流源.

  10. Hemaka's constant

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    As proposed in a previous paper, the decorations of ancient objects can provide some information on the approximate evaluations of constant {\\pi}, the ratio of circumference to diameter. Here we discuss some disks found in the tomb of Hemaka, the chancellor of a king of the First Dynasty of Egypt, about 3000 BC. The discussion is based on measurements of the dimensionless ratio of lengths.

  11. MATHEMATICAL CONSTANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, H.P.; Potter, Elinor

    1971-03-01

    This collection of mathematical data consists of two tables of decimal constants arranged according to size rather than function, a third table of integers from 1 to 1000, giving some of their properties, and a fourth table listing some infinite series arranged according to increasing size of the coefficients of the terms. The decimal values of Tables I and II are given to 20 D.

  12. Future global non-linear stability of surface symmetric solutions of the Einstein-Vlasov system with a cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Nungesser, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    We show future global non-linear stability of surface symmetric solutions of the Einstein-Vlasov system with a positive cosmological constant. Estimates of higher derivatives of the metric and the matter terms are obtained using an inductive argument. In a recent research monograph Ringstr\\"{o}m shows future non-linear stability of (not necessarily symmetric) solutions of the Einstein-Vlasov system with a non-linear scalar field if certain local estimates on the geometry and the matter terms are fulfilled. We show that these assumptions are satisfied at late times for the case under consideration here which together with Cauchy stability leads to our main conclusion.

  13. System Lifetimes, The Memoryless Property, Euler's Constant, and Pi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Anurag; Marengo, James E.; Romero, Likin Simon

    2013-01-01

    A "k"-out-of-"n" system functions as long as at least "k" of its "n" components remain operational. Assuming that component failure times are independent and identically distributed exponential random variables, we find the distribution of system failure time. After some examples, we find the limiting…

  14. Uncertainty Quantification of a Nonlinear Aeroelastic System Using Polynomial Chaos Expansion With Constant Phase Interpolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desai, A.; Witteveen, J.A.S.; Sarkar, S.

    2013-01-01

    The present study focuses on the uncertainty quantification of an aeroelastic instability system. This is a classical dynamical system often used to model the flow induced oscillation of flexible structures such as turbine blades. It is relevant as a preliminary fluid-structure interaction model, su

  15. Constant Power Generation of Photovoltaic Systems Considering the Distributed Grid Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Huai

    2014-01-01

    With an imperative demand of clean and reliable electricity generation in some countries, the increasing adoption of new photovoltaic (PV) systems pushes the Distribution System Operators (DSOs) to expand the transmission/distributed lines. However, the potential cost brought by such extensions...... systems in CPG operation mode are also discussed in this paper. Additionally, the loss of energy is calculated to reveal the viability of the proposed CPG control method. Operation examples of a PV system are presented to show the effectiveness of the CPG control method to unload the distributed grid....... and increased maintenances introduce new obstacles. In view of this concern, the DSOs starts to reduce PV installations in order to avoid an extension of the power infrastructure. Besides, another alternative solution is to limit the maximum feed-in power of the existing PV systems to a certain level. It can...

  16. Analytical and experimental investigation of a wound-rotor variable-speed, constant-frequency generator for small wind energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, K. K.; Minges, G. P.; Price, G. D.

    1982-10-01

    The use of a wound rotor variable speed, constant frequency generator with small wind systems was investigated. The main initial objective was to demonstrate proof of concept under controlled conditions. The feasibility of this application was confirmed and it was shown that improved performance could be expected over a constant speed, constant frequency generator systems. The ability to maintain a constant tip speed ratio near the maximum rotor performance coefficient over a wide range of wind speeds is noted. A substantial increase in annual energy output can be expected from VSCF operation. Controlled start up and shutdown can also reduce the high transient torques and concomitant inrush currents common to induction generator systems.

  17. Benchmarking of Constant Power Generation Strategies for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2016-01-01

    With a still increase of grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) systems, challenges have been imposed on the grid due to the continuous injection of a large amount of fluctuating PV power, like overloading the grid infrastructure (e.g., transformers) during peak power production periods. Hence, advanced...

  18. Design of Constant Gain Dissipative Controllers for Eigensystem Assignment in Passive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghami, Peiman G.; Gupta, Sandeep

    1998-01-01

    Partial eigensystem assignment with output feedback can lead to an unstable closed-loop system. However, output feedback with passive linear time-invariant systems, such as flexible space structures, is guaranteed to be stable if the controller is dissipative. This paper presents a novel approach for synthesis of dissipative output feedback gain matrices for assigning a selected number of closed-loop poles. Dissipativity of a gain matrix is known to be equivalent to positive semidefiniteness of the symmetric part of the matrix. A sequential procedure is presented to assign one self-conjugate pair of closed-loop eigenvalues at each step using dissipative output feedback gain matrices, while ensuring that the eigenvalues assigned in the previous steps are not disturbed. The problem of assigning one closed-loop pair is reduced to a constrained solution of a system of quadratic equations, and necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a solution are presented. A minimax approach is presented for determining parameters which satisfy these conditions. This method can assign as many closed-loop system poles as the number of control inputs. A numerical example of damping enhancement for a flexible structure is presented to demonstrate the approach.

  19. Apparent horizons of an N-black-hole system in a space-time with a cosmological constant

    OpenAIRE

    Nakao, Ken-ichi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Kei-ichi

    1993-01-01

    We present the analytic solution of N Einstein-Rosen bridges ("N black holes") in the space-time with a cosmological constant Λ and analyze it for one- and two-bridge systems. We discuss the three kinds of apparent horizons: i.e., the black-hole, white-hole, and cosmological apparent horizons. In the case of two Einstein-Rosen bridges, when the "total mass" is larger than a critical value, the black-hole apparent horizon surrounding two Einstein-Rosen bridges is not formed even if the distanc...

  20. Asymptotic stability of constant steady states for a 2×2 reaction–diffusion system arising in cancer modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Di Francesco, Marco

    2011-04-01

    The dependence of tumor on essential nutrients is known to be crucial for its evolution and has become one of the targets for medical therapies. Based on this fact a reaction-diffusion system with chemotaxis term and nutrient-based growth of tumors is presented. The formulation of the model considers also an influence of tumor and pharmacological factors on nutrient concentration. In the paper, convergence of solutions to constant, stationary states in the one-dimensional case for small perturbation of the equilibria is investigated. The nonlinear stability results are obtained by means of the classical symmetrization method and energy Sobolev estimates. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Displacement of estimates of chemical equilibrium constants at breaking of determinancy of independent variables of equilibrium system regression models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaeva, L.S.; Prikhod' ko, N.V.; Evseev, A.M.; Rozen, A.M.; Kolychev, A.E.; Gontar, B.G. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Khimicheskij Fakul' tet)

    1982-07-01

    Using as an example regression models of extraction systems HNO/sub 3/-TBP-H/sub 2/O, UO/sub 2/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/-TBP-H/sub 2/O it has been shown that disregard of errors of the controlled (independent) variables 3% measurement error of UO/sub 2/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ equilibrium concentration and 3% error of the determination of HNO/sub 3/ activity coefficient results in the displacement of evaluations of certain equilibria constants and leads to incorrect conclusion on the mechanism of chemical equilibria.

  2. On the Formulation of Flexible Multibody Systems with Constant Mass Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    1997-01-01

    A flexible body in a multibody system isdescribed only by the position of the nodes in theinertial frame. With this description we can formulatethe mass matrix of the flexible multibody as aconstant matrix. This matrix can be inverted in apreprocessing stage which yields a more efficientaccelerat...... of this formulation is that neither thecentrifugal nor the Coriolis forces appear in theequations due to the description of the flexible body....

  3. Analysis of a dc bus system with a nonlinear constant power load and its delayed feedback control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Keiji; Sugitani, Yoshiki; Hara, Naoyuki

    2014-02-01

    This paper tackles a destabilizing problem of a direct-current (dc) bus system with constant power loads, which can be considered a fundamental problem of dc power grid networks. The present paper clarifies scenarios of the destabilization and applies the well-known delayed-feedback control to the stabilization of the destabilized bus system on the basis of nonlinear science. Further, we propose a systematic procedure for designing the delayed feedback controller. This controller can converge the bus voltage exactly on an unstable operating point without accurate information and can track it using tiny control energy even when a system parameter, such as the power consumption of the load, is slowly varied. These features demonstrate that delayed feedback control can be considered a strong candidate for solving the destabilizing problem.

  4. Cosmochemistry, cosmology and fundamental constants: High-resolution spectroscopy of damped Lyman-alpha systems

    CERN Document Server

    Quast, R; Smette, A; Garcet, O; Ledoux, C; López, S; Wisotzki, L

    2004-01-01

    Spectroscopy of QSO absorption lines provides essential observational input for the study of nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution of galaxies at high redshift. But new observations may indicate that present chemical abundance data are biased due to deficient spectral resolution and unknown selection effects: Recent high-resolution spectra reveal the hitherto unperceived chemical nonuniformity of molecular hydrogen-bearing damped Lyman-alpha (DLA) systems, and the novel H/ESO DLA survey produces compelling evidence for faint QSOs being attenuated by dust. We present a revised analysis of the molecular hydrogen-bearing DLA complex toward HE 0515-4414 showing nonuniform differential depletion of chemical elements onto dust grains, and introduce to the H/ESO DLA survey and its implications. Conclusively, we aim at starting an unbiased chemical abundance database established on high-resolution spectroscopic observations. New data to probe the temperature-redshift relation predicted by standard cosmology and to t...

  5. Planck Constant as Spectral Parameter in Integrable Systems and KZB Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, A; Zotov, A

    2014-01-01

    We construct special rational ${\\rm gl}_N$ Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov-Bernard (KZB) equations with $\\tilde N$ punctures by deformation of the corresponding quantum ${\\rm gl}_N$ rational $R$-matrix. They have two parameters. The limit of the first one brings the model to the ordinary rational KZ equation. Another one - is $\\tau$. At the level of classical mechanics the deformation parameter $\\tau$ allows to extend the previously obtained modified Gaudin models to the modified Schlesinger systems. Next, we notice that the identities underlying generic (elliptic) KZB equations follow from some additional relations for the properly normalized $R$-matrices. The relations are noncommutative analogues of identities for (scalar) elliptic functions. The simplest one is the unitarity condition. The quadratic (in $R$ matrices) relations are generated by noncommutative Fay identities. In particular, one can derive the quantum Yang-Baxter equations from the Fay identities. The cubic relations provide identities for the KZB eq...

  6. Pseudo almost periodic solutions for the systems of differential equations with piecewise constant argument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PIAO; Daxiong

    2001-01-01

    ., Wampler, E. J., Gaskell, C. M., Emission-line properties of optically and radio-selected complete quasars samples, Astrophys. J., 1989, 338: 630.[13]Yong, P., Sargent, W. L. W. A., High-resolution study of the absorption spectra of three QSOs: evidence for cosmological evolution in the lyman-alpha lines, Astrophys. J., 1982, 252: 10.[14]Lawrence, J., Zucker, J. R., Readhead, A. C. S. et al., Optical spectra of a complete sample of radio sources I. The spectra, Astrophys. J. Suppl., 1996, 107: 541.[15]Junkkarinen, V. T. , Burbidge E. M. , Smith, H. E. , Spectrophyotometry of six broad absoption line QSOs, Astrophys. J. ,1987, 317, 460.[16]Laor, A., Babcall, J. N., Jannuzi, B. T. et al., The ultraviolet emission properties of 13 quasars, Astrophys. J. Suppl.,1995, 99: 1.[17]Baldwin, J. A., Rees, M. J., Longair, M. S. et al., QSOs with narrow emission lines, Astrophys. J., 1988, 327: 103.[18]Shaver, P. A. , Boksenberg A. , Robertson, J. G. , Spectroscopy of the QSO pair Q0028 + 003/Q0029 + 003, Astrophys.J., 1982, 261: L7.[19]Baldwin, J. A., Netzer, H., The emission-line regions of high-redshift QSOs, Astrophys. J., 1978, 226: 1.[20]Wills, B. J., Thompson, K. L., Han, M. et al. , The Hubble space telescope sample of radio-loud quasars: Ultraviolet spectra of the first 31 quasars, Astrophys. J., 1995, 447: 139.[21]Osmer, P. S., Smith, M. G. , Discovery and spectroscopic observations of 27 optical selected quasars with 1.4 < z < 2.5,Astrophys. J., 1977, 213: 607.[22]Storrie-Lombardi, L. J., McMabon, R. G., Irwin, M. J. et al., APM Z > = 4 QSO Survey: Spectra and Intervening Ab-sorption Systems, Astrophys. J., 1996, 468: 121.[23]Young, P. , Sargent, W. L. W. , Boksenberg, A. , Clv absorption in an unbiased sample of 33 QSOs: evidence for the inter-vening galaxy hypothesis, Astrophys. J. Suppl., 1982, 48: 455.[24]Zitelli, V., Mignoli, M., Zarano, B. et al., A spectroscopically complete sample of quasars with Bj ≤ 22

  7. Cosmological Constant, Fine Structure Constant and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Hao; Li, Hong-Yu; Xue, Dong-Ze

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we consider the cosmological constant model $\\Lambda\\propto\\alpha^{-6}$, which is well motivated from three independent approaches. As is well known, the evidence of varying fine structure constant $\\alpha$ was found in 1998. If $\\Lambda\\propto\\alpha^{-6}$ is right, it means that the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ should be also varying. In this work, we try to develop a suitable framework to model this varying cosmological constant $\\Lambda\\propto\\alpha^{-6}$, in which we view it from an interacting vacuum energy perspective. We propose two types of models to describe the evolutions of $\\Lambda$ and $\\alpha$. Then, we consider the observational constraints on these models, by using the 293 $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$ data from the absorption systems in the spectra of distant quasars, and the data of type Ia supernovae (SNIa), cosmic microwave background (CMB), baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO). We find that the model parameters can be tightly constrained to the narrow ranges of ${\\cal O}(10^{-5})$ t...

  8. A theoretical investigation of Ferromagnetic Resonance Linewidth and damping constants in coupled trilayer and spin valve systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layadi, A. [LESIMS, Departement de Physique, Université Ferhat Abbas, Sétif 19000 (Algeria)

    2015-05-15

    The ferromagnetic resonance intrinsic field linewidth ΔH is investigated for a multilayer system such as a coupled trilayer and a spin valve structure. The magnetic coupling between two ferromagnetic layers separated by a nonmagnetic interlayer will be described by the bilinear J{sub 1} and biquadratic J{sub 2} coupling parameters. The interaction at the interface of the first ferromagnetic layer with the antiferromagnetic one is account for by the exchange anisotropy field, H{sub E}. A general formula is derived for the intrinsic linewidth ΔH. The explicit dependence of ΔH with H{sub E}, J{sub 1} and J{sub 2} will be highlighted. Analytical expressions for each mode field linewidth are found in special cases. Equivalent damping constants will be discussed.

  9. 收放系统恒张力研究%Research on Constant Tension Control of Retractable System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢华林; 周超; 姜飞龙; 赵瑞; 李亚南; 袁威

    2012-01-01

    以收放系统作为研究对象,讨论缆绳收放系统的储缆绞车和绞盘之间的同步问题.采用SEW变频器实现对交流电机速度与力矩的控制,分析采用变频器实现恒张力的工作原理.针对平台上升过程中电动机发电的问题,提出负功率的平衡方法.%The retractable system was taken as the research object. Synchronization between the cable storage winch and winch was discussed. SEW inverter was used to control the speed and torch of AC motor. The principle of constant tension control with inverter was analyzed. As to the power problem during the platform rising, balanced approach based on negative power was proposed.

  10. 远程无线恒压供水系统%Wireless Remote Water Supply System with Constant Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔德彭; 孔德辉; 赖柏乐

    2013-01-01

    一个水泵房为多个山头的水塔供水,因为传输距离较远,水位信号无法及时得到反馈,给供水工作带来很大的麻烦;文中引入数传电台完成与水塔水位信号反馈,利用PLC对接收到的各个水位信号进行变频调速,从而实现恒压供水.%One pump supplies water for multiple towers on different hills in the distance and there is more trouble as the water level feedback signal can not get to controller. The system used digital broadcasting station to complete signal feedback of the tower's water level, and used PLC to deal with receiving various water level signal and to implement frequency control, and realized constant pressure water supply.

  11. Neutron activation-based gamma scintigraphy in pharmacoscintigraphic evaluation of an Egalet constant-release drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvola, Janne; Kanerva, Hanna; Slot, Lillian; Lipponen, Maija; Kekki, Tommi; Hietanen, Heikki; Mykkänen, Sirpa; Ariniemi, Kari; Lindevall, Kai; Marvola, Martti

    2004-08-20

    This paper is a report from a pharmacoscintigraphic study with an Egalet constant-release system containing caffeine and natural abundance samarium oxide. First the formulation was tested in vitro to clarify integrity during irradiation in the nuclear reactor. Then six healthy male volunteers were enrolled into the in vivo study. The in vitro release of caffeine obeyed all the time linear zero-order kinetics. The in vivo release of radioactive Sm2O3 consisted of three consequent linear phases with different slopes. The release rate was fastest while the product was in the small intestine and slowest when the product was in the descending colon. In terms of the bioavailability of caffeine, the most important factor seemed to be the residence time in the ascending and transverse colon. A long residence time in these sections led to high AUC values for caffeine.

  12. Hybrid Kalman and unscented Kalman filters for INS/GPS integrated system considering constant lever arm effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常国宾; 柳明

    2015-01-01

    In inertial navigation system (INS) and global positioning system (GPS) integrated system, GPS antennas are usually not located at the same location as the inertial measurement unit (IMU) of the INS, so the lever arm effect exists, which makes the observation equation highly nonlinear. The INS/GPS integration with constant lever arm effect is studied. The position relation of IMU and GPS’s antenna is represented in the earth centered earth fixed frame, while the velocity relation of these two systems is represented in local horizontal frame. Due to the small integration time interval of INS, i.e. 0.1 s in this work, the nonlinearity in the INS error equation is trivial, so the linear INS error model is constructed and addressed by Kalman filter’s prediction step. On the other hand, the high nonlinearity in the observation equation due to lever arm effect is addressed by unscented Kalman filter’s update step to attain higher accuracy and better applicability. Simulation is designed and the performance of the hybrid filter is validated.

  13. ESTIMATION OF HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS OF CARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER AND PHOSPHATE ESTER COMPOUNDS IN AQUEOUS SYSTEMS FROM MOLECULAR STRUCTURE BY SPARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate hydrolysis rate constants for carboxylic acid ester and phosphate ester compounds in aqueous non- aqueous and systems strictly from molecular structure. The energy diffe...

  14. Global Existence of Solutions for the Einstein-Boltzmann System with Cosmological Constant in the Robertson-Walker Space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Takou, E; Takou, Etienne; Noutchegueme, Norbert

    2005-01-01

    We prove a global in time existence theorem for the initial values problem for the Einstein-Boltzmann system with cosmological constant and arbitrarily large initial data, in the spatially homogeneous case, in a Robertson-Walker space-time.

  15. Progress on the research work of astronomical constants:IAU 2009 astronomical constant system%天文常数研究的进展——IAU 2009天文常数系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金文敬

    2011-01-01

    The situation of astronomical constant system adopted by the IAU since 1900 has been briefly reviewed. The mathematical relation between some astronomical constants and the main reason for the change of astronomical constant system each time in the past are described. Especially, the work on the IAU astronomical constant system, including the establishment of working groups and adoption of the current best estimates since 1991, is introduced. The background of the IAU 2009 astronomical constant system instead of the IAU 1976 astronomical constant system is given. As for this change the reasons are the appearance of new measurements of astronomical constants with exploration of the Solar system, application of the Barycentric Celestial Reference System and Geocentric Celestial Reference System under the relativistic reference frame after 1991 and the adoption of new models for precession and nutation after 2006. The comparison between the IAU 2009 and 1976 astronomical constant system is given. Finally, the work on astronomical constants in China, such as determination of precession constant from proper motion, the definition of astronomical unit under the relativistic reference frame, determination of nutation constant from globe optical classical observations during 1962.0-1982.0, Corrections to the IAU 1976 precession constant and the coefficients of the IAU nutation series from VLBI data by using various networks during April 1980-December 1995, establishment of a new nutation model of a non-rigid earth with ocean and atmosphere etc. is briefly mentioned. Some suggestions for the further work on astronomical constants are proposed as follows:(1) Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (SHAO) incorporates the international organizations of ILRS, IVS and IGS. The globe solution are given from processing the observational data of SLR、 GPS and VLBI routinely. By using these globe data not only the Earth Orientation Parameters, plate motion and regional crustal

  16. Comparison of dual-time-constant and fast-acting automatic gain control (AGC) systems in cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Patrick J; Büchner, Andreas; Stone, Michael A; Lenarz, Thomas; Moore, Brian C J

    2009-04-01

    Cochlear implants usually employ an automatic gain control (AGC) system as a first stage of processing. AGC1 was a fast-acting (syllabic) compressor. AGC2 was a dual-time-constant system; it usually performed as a slow-acting compressor, but incorporated an additional fast-acting system to provide protection from sudden increases in sound level. Six experienced cochlear-implant users were tested in a counterbalanced order, receiving one-month of experience with a given AGC type before switching to the other type. Performance was evaluated shortly after provision of a given AGC type and after one-month of experience with that AGC type. Questionnaires, mainly relating to listening in quiet situations, did not reveal significant differences between the two AGC types. However, fixed-level and roving-level tests of sentence identification in noise both revealed significantly better performance for AGC2. It is suggested that the poorer performance for AGC1 occurred because AGC1 introduced cross-modulation between the target speech and background noise, which made perceptual separation of the target and background more difficult.

  17. Study of optical non-linear properties of a constant total effective length multiple quantum wells system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solaimani, M.; Morteza, Izadifard [Faculty of Physics, Shahrood University of technology, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Arabshahi, H., E-mail: arabshahi@um.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Payame Noor University, P.O. Box 19395-3697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Reza, Sarkardehi Mohammad [Physics Department, Al-Zahra University, Vanak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    In this work, we have studied the effect of the number of the wells, in a multiple quantum wells structure with constant total effective length, on the optical properties of multiple quantum wells like the absorption coefficient and the refractive index by means of compact density matrix approach. GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub (1-x)}As multiple quantum wells systems was selected as an example. Besides, the effect of varying number of wells on the subband energies, wave functions, number of bound states, and the Fermi energy have been also investigated. Our calculation revealed that the number of wells in a multiple quantum well is a criterion with which we can control the amount of nonlinearity. This study showed that for the third order refractive index change there is two regimes of variations and the critical well number was six. In our calculations, we have used the same wells and barrier thicknesses to construct the multiple quantum wells system. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OptiOptical Non-Linear. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Total Effective Length. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple Quantum Wells System - genetic algorithm Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Schroedinger equation solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanostructure.

  18. Radiographic constant exposure technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1985-01-01

    The constant exposure technique has been applied to assess various industrial radiographic systems. Different X-ray films and radiographic papers of two producers were compared. Special attention was given to fast film and paper used with fluorometallic screens. Radiographic image quality...... was tested by the use of ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters used on Al and Fe test plates. Relative speed and reduction of kilovoltage obtained with the constant exposure technique were calculated. The advantages of fast radiographic systems are pointed out...

  19. Shock tube measurements of growth constants in the branched-chain ethane-carbon monoxide-oxygen system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, R. S.; Brabbs, T. A.; Snyder, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    Exponential free radical growth constants have been measured for ethane carbon monoxide oxygen mixtures by monitoring the growth of oxygen atom concentration as manifested by CO flame band emission. Data were obtained over the temperature range of 1200 to 1700 K. The data were analyzed using an ethane oxidation mechanism involving seven elementary reaction steps. Calculated growth constants were close to experimental values at lower temperatures, up to about 1400 K, but at higher temperatures computed growth constants were considerably smaller than experiment. In attempts to explain these results additional branching reactions were added to the mechanism. However, these additional reactions did not appreciably change calculated growth constants.

  20. High-precision limit on variation in the fine-structure constant from a single quasar absorption system

    CERN Document Server

    Kotuš, Srđan M; Carswell, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    The brightest southern quasar above redshift $z=1$, HE 0515$-$4414, with its strong intervening metal absorption-line system at $z_{abs}=1.1508$, provides a unique opportunity to precisely measure or limit relative variations in the fine-structure constant ($\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$). A variation of just $\\sim$3 parts per million (ppm) would produce detectable velocity shifts between its many strong metal transitions. Using new and archival observations from the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) we obtain an extremely high signal-to-noise ratio spectrum (peaking at S/N $\\approx250$ pix$^{-1}$). This provides the most precise measurement of $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$ from a single absorption system to date, $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha=-1.42\\pm0.55_{\\rm stat}\\pm0.65_{\\rm sys}$ ppm, comparable with the precision from previous, large samples of $\\sim$150 absorbers. The largest systematic error in all (but one) previous similar measurements, including the large samples, was long-range distortions in the wavelengt...

  1. High-precision limit on variation in the fine-structure constant from a single quasar absorption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotuš, S. M.; Murphy, M. T.; Carswell, R. F.

    2017-01-01

    The brightest southern quasar above redshift z = 1, HE 0515-4414, with its strong intervening metal absorption line system at zabs = 1.1508, provides a unique opportunity to precisely measure or limit relative variations in the fine-structure constant (Δα/α). A variation of just ˜3 parts per million (ppm) would produce detectable velocity shifts between its many strong metal transitions. Using new and archival observations from the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), we obtain an extremely high signal-to-noise ratio spectrum (peaking at S/N ≈ 250 pix-1). This provides the most precise measurement of Δα/α from a single absorption system to date, Δα/α = -1.42 ± 0.55stat ± 0.65sys ppm, comparable with the precision from previous, large samples of ˜150 absorbers. The largest systematic error in all (but one) previous similar measurements, including the large samples, was long-range distortions in the wavelength calibration. These would add an ˜2 ppm systematic error to our measurement and up to ˜10 ppm to other measurements using Mg and Fe transitions. However, we corrected the UVES spectra using well-calibrated spectra of the same quasar from the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher, leaving a residual 0.59 ppm systematic uncertainty, the largest contribution to our total systematic error. A similar approach, using short observations on future well-calibrated spectrographs to correct existing high S/N spectra, would efficiently enable a large sample of reliable Δα/α measurements. The high-S/N UVES spectrum also provides insights into analysis difficulties, detector artefacts and systematic errors likely to arise from 25-40-m telescopes.

  2. AMPHOTERIC BEHAVIOR OF COMPLEX SYSTEMS : IV. NOTE ON THE ISOELECTRIC POINT AND IONIZATION CONSTANTS OF SULFANILIC ACID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearn, A E

    1927-01-20

    From the solubility minimum the value of the basic ionization constant of sulfanilic acid is shown to lie probably between the values 1.7 x 10(-15) and 3.2 x 10(-15). From solubility measurements the value of this same constant is shown to lie probably between 2.0 and 2.2 x 10(-15), and the isoelectric point of sulfanilic acid is thus at a cH of 0.056 or a pH of 1.25. From conductivity ratios the acid ionization constant of sulfanilic acid is shown to be 7.05 x 10(-4) at room temperature (21 degrees C.). Calculations are made, from data published in preceding papers, of the ionization constants of glycine, K(a) being 2.3 x 10(-10), and K(b) being 2.2 x 10(-12).

  3. On the ambiguity of the reaction rate constants in multivariate curve resolution for reversible first-order reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Henning; Sawall, Mathias; Kubis, Christoph; Selent, Detlef; Hess, Dieter; Franke, Robert; Börner, Armin; Neymeyr, Klaus

    2016-07-13

    If for a chemical reaction with a known reaction mechanism the concentration profiles are accessible only for certain species, e.g. only for the main product, then often the reaction rate constants cannot uniquely be determined from the concentration data. This is a well-known fact which includes the so-called slow-fast ambiguity. This work combines the question of unique or non-unique reaction rate constants with factor analytic methods of chemometrics. The idea is to reduce the rotational ambiguity of pure component factorizations by considering only those concentration factors which are possible solutions of the kinetic equations for a properly adapted set of reaction rate constants. The resulting set of reaction rate constants corresponds to those solutions of the rate equations which appear as feasible factors in a pure component factorization. The new analysis of the ambiguity of reaction rate constants extends recent research activities on the Area of Feasible Solutions (AFS). The consistency with a given chemical reaction scheme is shown to be a valuable tool in order to reduce the AFS. The new methods are applied to model and experimental data.

  4. DDF炉自动恒温控制系统设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Automatic Constant Temperature Control System for DDF Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡红梅

    2015-01-01

    通过设计回转窑熟料烧成系统分解炉(DDF炉)自动恒温控制系统,提高系统的稳定性和可靠性.传统的DDF炉自动恒温控制系统的数据采集及温度控制单元采用有源晶振A/D时钟采样控制方法,导致基线漂移,恒温控制性能不好.提出一种基线漂移交流耦合控制的DDF炉自动恒温控制系统设计方法.在炉内温度离散采集的基础上,进行温度控制曲线拟合,设计基线漂移交流耦合控制的DDF炉自动恒温控制算法,实现对DFF炉温度控制的优化预测,进行硬件电路设计,实现对自动恒温控制系统设计和改进.仿真结果表明,该系统能有效避免恒温控制中的基线漂移,温度跟踪性能较好,具有较好的稳定输出,能有效应用在DDF炉恒温控制中.%The automatic constant temperature control system of the clinker burning system of rotary kiln (DDF) is designed, and the stability and reliability of the system are improved.. Traditional DDF furnace automatic constant temperature con-trol system of the data acquisition system and the temperature control unit using active crystal A/D sampling clock control method, resulting in the baseline drift and constant temperature control performance is not good. A design method of auto-matic constant temperature control system for DDF furnace is presented, which is controlled by the exchange and coupling of the baseline drift. In furnace based on discrete temperature acquisition, temperature control curve fitting and control de-sign baseline drift AC coupled DDF furnace automatic constant temperature control algorithm to achieve on DFF furnace temperature control optimization prediction, hardware circuit design and Realization of automatic constant temperature con-trol system design and improvement. The simulation results show that the system can effectively avoid the baseline drift in the constant temperature control, the temperature tracking performance is good, and has good stable output

  5. The Vehicle Hydraulic Constant Speed Power Generation System%一种车载液压恒速发电系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢学渊; 杨红; 白清鹏

    2015-01-01

    The parking or driving in the car engine with constant or variable speed drive L10V constant pressure/flow variable pump, using the fixed throttle hole in the outlet of the variable pump and the throttle pressure feedback back to the control variable pump export, so that the output and load constant flow independent drive hydraulic motor constant speed, constant speed hydraulic motor to drive the permanent magnet generator to generate electricity. The vehicle constant speed hydraulic power generation system has the features of parking or driv-ing power generation, control, large unit weight, compact size and so on..%驻车或行驶中的汽车发动机以恒定或变化转速驱动L10V恒压/流量变量泵,在变量泵出口采用所需的固定节流孔,并把节流孔后压力反馈回变量泵控制口,使之输出与负载无关的恒定流量驱动液压马达恒速运转,恒速液压马达再驱动永磁发电机进行发电.该车载恒速液压发电系统具有驻车或行车发电功能、控制简单、单位重量功率大、体积小巧等特点.

  6. Effects on Homework Completion and Accuracy of Varied and Constant Reinforcement within an Interdependent Group Contingency System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Steven G.; Akin-Little, Angeleque; Newman-Eig, Lynne M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the efficacy of an interdependent group contingency program on increasing homework completion and accuracy rates in fourth grade students in an elementary school. In addition, the present study attempted to determine whether randomized reinforcement was more effective than constant reinforcement. Overall, the…

  7. The IAU 2009 System of Astronomical Constants: The Report of the IAU Working Group on Numerical Standards for Fundamental Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    of an observer located on the rotating geoid . It is specified in IAU 2000 Resolution B1.9 as a defining constant. The value for LG is taken from...compatible, TT-compatible, and TDB-compatible values are provided. Potential of the geoid , W0 The potential of the geoid , W0, is taken from the

  8. Using Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assays to Measure Equilibrium Dissociation Constants: GAL4-p53 Binding DNA as a Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffler, Michael A.; Walters, Ryan D.; Kugel, Jennifer F.

    2012-01-01

    An undergraduate biochemistry laboratory experiment is described that will teach students the practical and theoretical considerations for measuring the equilibrium dissociation constant (K[subscript D]) for a protein/DNA interaction using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs). An EMSA monitors the migration of DNA through a native gel;…

  9. The application of PID parameter self-tuning fuzzy controller in the constant-power speed control system of heading machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jun; Hou, Jian; Shen, Dong

    2013-03-01

    This article describes the control system of PID parameter self-tuning fuzzy controller. For cutting the coal of different hardness, adopt fuzzy techniques, automatically adjust the feed speed of operating mechanism, and maintain the control of operating mechanism of heading machine with constant power.

  10. Extension of the system constants database for open-tubular columns: system maps at low and intermediate temperatures for four new columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atapattu, Sanka N; Eggers, Kimberly; Poole, Colin F; Kiridena, Waruna; Koziol, Wladyslaw W

    2009-03-06

    The solvation parameter model is used to characterize the separation properties of four open-tubular columns for gas chromatography at low and intermediate column temperatures covering the range 60-240 degrees C. Solute descriptors for compounds suitable for characterizing columns over the intermediate temperature range are optimized using an iterative procedure. These compounds, and those previously recommended for the lower temperature range, are used to provide system constant maps for Rxi-5Sil MS, Rxi-17, Rtx-TNT and Rtx-TNT2 columns suitable for merging with a system constants database with entries for more than 50 columns. The Rxi-5Sil MS column is shown to have separation properties similar to the silphenylene-dimethylsiloxane copolymer stationary phase (DB-5ms) but these two columns are not selectivity equivalent. The Rxi-17 column has similar separation properties to the Rxi-50 column but is not selectivity equivalent to it. Rxi-17 is a poly(dimethyldiphenylsiloxane) stationary phase containing 50% diphenylsiloxane monomer and Rxi-50 a poly(methylphenylsiloxane) stationary phase with the same nominal composition but a different monomer structure. The difference in monomer structure results in only small changes in selectivity, and for all but the most demanding separations, the columns are interchangeable. The application-specific column (energetic materials) Rtx-TNT is shown to be selectivity equivalent to columns coated with the poly(dimethyldiphenylsiloxane) stationary phases containing 5% diphenylsiloxane monomer. The Rtx-TNT2 column is selectivity equivalent to the proprietary Rtx-OPPesticides column. Rtx-OPPesticides is a low bleed stationary phase, possibly based on silarylene-siloxane chemistry, with a composition designed to mimic the separation properties of the poly(dimethylmethyltrifluoropropylsiloxane) stationary phases containing 35% methyltrifluoropropylsiloxane monomer. Selectivity equivalence of columns is determined by the statistical

  11. Instantaneous characteristics simulation and analysis on three-level brushless AC synchronous generators of aeronautic constant speed and frequency AC power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaohe; Shen, Songhua

    2006-11-01

    This paper mainly introduces theoretical analysis and experimental results of instantaneous characteristics on a certain three level brushless three-phase AC synchronous generators. The analysis, modeling and simulations with Simplorer software of Ansoft Company are carried out. It establishes three level generator models, gives theoretical relation matrix equation, and simulates some instantaneous characteristics. Design of the system requires reliable simulation tools with comprehensive component libraries capable of dealing with complex system behavior. The simulation results verify that the proposed system model can efficiently simulate the instantaneous characteristics of the real AC generator system. It gives better design experiences and digital methods for aeronautic constant speed and frequency AC power system.

  12. Criteria for the Degree of Stability of the Linear Constant Systems%线性定常系统稳定度的判据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广彬; 潘宝珍; 侯文渊

    2004-01-01

    There are various applications of the stability theory of the first-order dynamical systems.And the stability of the non-linear control systems can be determined by its linear part.In practice, it is not enough to know the stability of the dynamical systems.Sometimes we must know the degree of stability of these systems.In this paper, we present some criteria for the degree of stability of the linear constant systems, by using the entries of the coefficient matrix A only.

  13. Determination of the distribution constants of aromatic compounds and steroids in biphasic micellar phosphonium ionic liquid/aqueous buffer systems by capillary electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokajová, Jana; Railila, Annika; King, Alistair W T; Wiedmer, Susanne K

    2013-09-20

    The distribution constants of some analytes, closely connected to the petrochemical industry, between an aqueous phase and a phosphonium ionic liquid phase, were determined by ionic liquid micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). The phosphonium ionic liquids studied were the water-soluble tributyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium with chloride or acetate as the counter ion. The retention factors were calculated and used for determination of the distribution constants. For calculating the retention factors the electrophoretic mobilities of the ionic liquids were required, thus, we adopted the iterative process, based on a homologous series of alkyl benzoates. Calculation of the distribution constants required information on the phase-ratio of the systems. For this the critical micelle concentrations (CMC) of the ionic liquids were needed. The CMCs were calculated using a method based on PeakMaster simulations, using the electrophoretic mobilities of system peaks. The resulting distribution constants for the neutral analytes between the ionic liquid and the aqueous (buffer) phase were compared with octanol-water partitioning coefficients. The results indicate that there are other factors affecting the distribution of analytes between phases, than just simple hydrophobic interactions.

  14. Study on constant-pressure specific heat of non-equi- librium phase change process in gas-liquid two-phase flow system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the air-water vapor-water system is taken as an example, and the formula of constantpressure specific heat during non-equilibrium phase change process in the two-phase flow system is deduced using the theory of two-phase flow and thermophysics. The constant-pressure specific heat of non-equilibrium phase change process is calculated with the corresponding numerical model, and the numerical results are compared to those of the equilibrium phase change process. It is shown that in evaporation process, the variational rate of the non-equilibrium specific heat increases with increasing initial fluid temperature and particle mass fraction. The smaller particle radius is, the faster the variational rate is. Meanwhile, the constant-pressure specific heat of equilibrium process is higher than that of the non-equilibrium process all the time.

  15. Model system-bath Hamiltonian and nonadiabatic rate constants for proton-coupled electron transfer at electrode-solution interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrotskaya, Irina; Soudackov, Alexander V; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2008-06-28

    An extension of the Anderson-Newns-Schmickler model for electrochemical proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) is presented. This model describes reactions in which electron transfer between a solute complex in solution and an electrode is coupled to proton transfer within the solute complex. The model Hamiltonian is derived in a basis of electron-proton vibronic states defined within a double adiabatic approximation for the electrons, transferring proton, and bath modes. The interaction term responsible for electronic transitions between the solute complex and the electrode depends on the proton donor-acceptor vibrational mode within the solute complex. This model Hamiltonian is used to derive the anodic and cathodic rate constants for nonadiabatic electrochemical PCET. The derivation is based on the master equations for the reduced density matrix of the electron-proton subsystem, which includes the electrons of the solute complex and the electrode, as well as the transferring proton. The rate constant expressions differ from analogous expressions for electrochemical electron transfer because of the summation over electron-proton vibronic states and the dependence of the couplings on the proton donor-acceptor vibrational motion. These differences lead to additional contributions to the total reorganization energy, an additional exponential temperature-dependent prefactor, and a temperature-dependent term in the effective activation energy that has different signs for the anodic and cathodic processes. This model can be generalized to describe both nonadiabatic and adiabatic electrochemical PCET reactions and provides the framework for the inclusion of additional effects, such as the breaking and forming of other chemical bonds.

  16. Constant Envelope Precoding for Power-Efficient Downlink Wireless Communication in Multi-User MIMO Systems Using Large Antenna Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammed, Saif Khan

    2011-01-01

    We consider downlink cellular multi-user communication between a base station (BS) having N antennas and M single-antenna users, i.e., an N X M Gaussian Broadcast Channel (GBC). Under an average only total transmit power constraint (APC), large antenna arrays at the BS (having tens to a few hundred antennas) have been recently shown to achieve remarkable multi-user interference (MUI) suppression with simple precoding techniques. However, building large arrays in practice, would require cheap/power-efficient Radio-Frequency(RF) electronic components. The type of transmitted signal that facilitates the use of most power-efficient RF components is a constant envelope (CE) signal. Under certain mild channel conditions (including i.i.d. fading), we analytically show that, even under the stringent per-antenna CE transmission constraint (compared to APC), MUI suppression can still be achieved with large antenna arrays. Our analysis also reveals that, with a fixed M and increasing N, the total transmitted power can b...

  17. On the Use of a Wider Class of Linear Systems for the Design of Constant-Coefficients Semi-Implicit Time-Schemes in NWP

    CERN Document Server

    Benard, P

    2003-01-01

    The linearization of the meteorological equations around a specified reference state, usually applied in NWP to define the linear system of constant-coefficients semi-implicit schemes, is outlined as an unnecessarily restrictive approach which may be detrimental in terms of stability. It is shown theoretically that an increased robustness can sometimes be obtained by choosing the reference linear system in a wider set of possibilities. The potential benefits of this new approach are illustrated in two simple examples. The advantage in robustness is not obtained at the price of an increased error or complexity.

  18. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  19. Varying constants, Gravitation and Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. It is thus of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We thus detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, Solar system observations, meteorites dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describ...

  20. Comparison of three velocity measurement systems - A laser transit anemometer (LTA), an on axis laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) and a constant temperature hot-wire anemometer (CTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, M. J.; Mawlood, S. N.; Al-Daini, A. J.; Girgis, N. S.

    Three flow-velocity measurement systems, an on-axis LDA, an LTA, and a constant temperature hot-wire anemometer (CTA), are described and compared by applying them to the measurement of velocity in a high-pressure closed-circuit wind tunnel and to the velocity profiles of a free jet. A system operating on the LTA principle, the Polytec L2F, was used to produce the probability density functions for the two flow situations and to calibrate the hot-wire CTA system, and the hot-wire calibration curve at normal pressure and temperature was used to develop a semiempirical model for the evaluation of velocity at elevated pressures and temperatures. An experimental arrangement in which LTA and LDA measuring systems may be used simultaneously with no separation of the respective measuring volumes in any axis is described, and the methods which may be used to counteract the inaccuracies of such an arrangement are discussed.

  1. Evaluation of a balloon constant rate infusion system for treatment of septic arthritis, septic tenosynovitis, and contaminated synovial wounds: 23 cases (2002-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Daniel T; Latimer, Federico G; Sutter, W Wes; Saville, William J A

    2006-06-15

    OBJECTIVE-To determine clinical findings and outcome in horses treated by means of a balloon constant rate infusion system. DESIGN-Retrospective case series. ANIMALS-23 horses. PROCEDURES-Medical records of horses examined at The Ohio State University veterinary teaching hospital from 2002 to 2005 that had septic arthritis, septic tenosynovitis, or penetration of a synovial structure and in which treatment involved a balloon constant rate infusion system were searched. Information pertaining to signalment, history, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic data, treatment, and duration of hospitalization was recorded. RESULTS-Mean+/- SD duration of hospitalization was 11.5+/-5.26 days. No correlation between duration of clinical signs and duration of hospitalization or duration of infusion pump use was detected, but correlations between WBC count and duration of hospitalization and WBC and duration of infusion-pump use were observed. All horses survived to discharge. Follow-up information was obtained on 17 horses, 16 of which were alive at the time of follow-up. Twelve of 13 horses for which followup information was available for at least 5 months were alive 5 months or longer after discharge. Thirteen of the 16 horses alive at follow-up were reported by owners as not lame, whereas the remaining 3 were mildly lame or intermittently moderately lame or had developed angular limb deformity in the contralateral limb. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Balloon constant rate infusion systems may be used effectively in treatment of septic arthritis, septic tenosynovitis, and contaminated synovial wounds. Clinical response and long-term outcome appeared to be comparable to results obtained with other techniques.

  2. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Uzan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  3. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-12-01

    Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  4. Measurement of homonuclear magnetic dipole-dipole interactions in multiple 1/2-spin systems using constant-time DQ-DRENAR NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jinjun; Eckert, Hellmut

    2015-11-01

    A new pulse sequence entitled DQ-DRENAR (Double-Quantum based Dipolar Recoupling Effects Nuclear Alignment Reduction) was recently described for the quantitative measurement of magnetic dipole-dipole interactions in homonuclear spin-1/2 systems involving multiple nuclei. As described in the present manuscript, the efficiency and performance of this sequence can be significantly improved, if the measurement is done in the constant-time mode. We describe both the theoretical analysis of this method and its experimental validation of a number of crystalline model compounds, considering both symmetry-based and back-to-back (BABA) DQ-coherence excitation schemes. Based on the combination of theoretical analysis and experimental results we discuss the effect of experimental parameters such as the chemical shift anisotropy (CSA), the spinning rate, and the radio frequency field inhomogeneity upon its performance. Our results indicate that constant-time (CT-) DRENAR is a method of high efficiency and accuracy for compounds with multiple homonuclear spin systems with particular promise for the analysis of stronger-coupled and short T2 spin systems.

  5. Cinética de sinterização para sistemas à base de SnO2 por taxa de aquecimento constante Sintering kinetics for SnO2-based systems by constant heating rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Tebcheran

    2003-04-01

    in small concentrations as densifying aids for this oxide. In the present study the sintering kinetics of tin oxide was studied considering the effect of sintering atmosphere and of the MnO2 concentration. SnO2-MnO2 systems were prepared from the polymeric precursors method and the obtained powders were characterized by surface area by the BET method. SnO2 powders with varied MnO2 concentrations were pressed in cylindrical shape, and sintered in a dilatometer furnace with constant heating rate and controlled atmospheres. Sintered samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The influence of atmosphere (argon, air or CO2 as well as of the MnO2 concentrations on the sintering kinetics was determined. The kinetics data of linear shrinkage were analyzed in terms of kinetic models for the initial stage of sintering (Woolfrey and Bannister as well as for the global sintering (Su e Johnson allowing the determination of the apparent activation energy. Following the determination of the master sintering curve the apparent activation energy of all sintering process were determined as well as its dependence with the atmosphere and manganese concentrations. Based on these values and on the n exponent, determined by the classical grain growth equation, it was concluded that the most probable sintering mechanism is grain boundary diffusion with surface redistribution controlling the kinetics.

  6. Design of Constant Pressure Water Supply System Based on ARM and CC-Link%基于ARM和CC-Link的恒压供水加压站设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄江平; 吴昊

    2012-01-01

    To meet the current requirements of constant pressure watei supply station system in China,a design method based on ARM9 and CC-Link was proposed. The hardware was designed,drivers and application software ware were developed. ARM9 microprocessor and CC-Link remote long-distance station's core chip MFP3 was used for embedded hardware ware platform,the operating system was Linux,application software ware was developed with Qt/Embedded. The results show that all parts of the system can slablely operate,it can flexibility to build different needs constant pressure water supply systems,storage and display operation of remote device station work. The instrument can meet the functional requirements of system design.%文中提出了一种基于ARM和CC-Link的恒压供水加压站设计方法,进行了硬件的设计、驱动程序以及应用程序的开发.使用ARM9微处理器和CC-Link远程设备站芯片MFP3作为系统的硬件平台,Linux作为操作系统,应用程序使用Qt/Embedded编写.通过实际运行表明,系统远行稳定,可以灵活地组建不同需求的恒压供水系统,存储和显示远程设备站工作运行情况,实现了系统设计的功能要求.

  7. Generalized Pickands constants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debicki, K.G.

    2001-01-01

    Pickands constants play an important role in the exact asymptotic of extreme values for Gaussian stochastic processes. By the {it generalized Pickands constant ${cal H_{eta$ we mean the limit begin{eqnarray* {cal H_{eta= lim_{T to inftyfrac{ {cal H_{eta(T){T, end{eqnarray* where ${cal H_{eta(T)= Exp

  8. 液压阻拦机定长冲跑控制规律优化%Optimization and Kinetic Simulation of Constant Runout Control System of Arresting Gear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑茂; 王超; 黄胜

    2013-01-01

    To gain the optimum control regularity of the constant runout control system,the kinetic simulation for MK7-3 arresting gear was completed and the control valve flow area of the constant runout was optimized using Hicks-Henne shape function and the steepest descent method.Finally,kinetic simulation of different weights,engaged speeds and thrusts indicates that different aircrafts can be arrested at a constant distance and that the loads on wires and the acceleration of aircrafts are proper,showing the validity and the safety of the optimized control regularity.%为确定舰载机最优阻拦定长冲跑控制规律,对美国MK7-3型液压阻拦机进行了动力学仿真,并采用Hicks-Henne形状函数和最速下降法对定长冲跑控制阀通流面积曲线进行了优化.对不同质量、进场速度和发动机推力的舰载机进行了阻拦仿真实验,结果表明:优化后的定长冲跑控制规律能使不同质量、进场速度和发动机推力的舰载机均在相同的阻拦距离上停下来,且钢索张力和舰载机加速度变化规律合理,证明了本文所述优化方法的合理性和安全性.

  9. 风电互补恒压供水系统控制器的设计%Controller Design of Wind Power Constant Pressure Water Supply System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐保良; 杨宝昆

    2011-01-01

    For reducing the energy consumption of constant pressure water supply system? Wind power is used as assistant energy and wind power constant pressure water supply system is designed on the basis of fuzzy control and PLC controller. When the wind power is enough to driving pump, the PLC controls electric regulating valve to cope with discharge of water supply branch for making the water pressure of pipe networks within the given range. Otherwise, the PLC keeps the head of the water supply branch within the designed scope. At the same time, the rotational speed of pump is adjusted to supplement the system requirement by PLC variable-frequency control. Thus, it realizes the reduction of power consumption by the automatic operation wind power.%为降低恒压供水系统的耗电量,将风能作为辅助动力源,通过PLC控制器,采用模糊控制技术设计了一种风电互补恒压供水系统.当风力机驱动泵供水量充足时,PLC调节电动调节阀以控制风力供水支路的流量,使管网压力保持于设定范围内;当风力供水不足时,PLC调节电动调节阀使风力供水支路的扬程达到设定值.同时,PLC通过变频调速方式,调节电动泵的转速以补充系统所需,实现了风力自动投入以减少电力消耗的目的.

  10. Reduction of the hydraulic retention time at constant high organic loading rate to reach the microbial limits of anaerobic digestion in various reactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziganshin, Ayrat M; Schmidt, Thomas; Lv, Zuopeng; Liebetrau, Jan; Richnow, Hans Hermann; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2016-10-01

    The effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) reduction at constant high organic loading rate on the activity of hydrogen-producing bacteria and methanogens were investigated in reactors digesting thin stillage. Stable isotope fingerprinting was additionally applied to assess methanogenic pathways. Based on hydA gene transcripts, Clostridiales was the most active hydrogen-producing order in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), fixed-bed reactor (FBR) and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), but shorter HRT stimulated the activity of Spirochaetales. Further decreasing HRT diminished Spirochaetales activity in systems with biomass retention. Based on mcrA gene transcripts, Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina were the predominantly active in CSTR and ASBR, whereas Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum activity was more significant in stably performing FBR. Isotope values indicated the predominance of aceticlastic pathway in FBR. Interestingly, an increased activity of Methanosaeta was observed during shortening HRT in CSTR and ASBR despite high organic acids concentrations, what was supported by stable isotope data.

  11. On an algorithm for solving boundary-value problems for systems of first-order partial differential equations with constant coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleshchinskaya, I.E.; Pleshchinskii, N.B.

    1995-05-20

    In this paper the authors study linear systems of first-order partial differential equations u{sub x} + Au{sub y} + Bu = O, where A and B are given constant square matrices and u is an unknown vector-valued function with values in an m-dimensional real or complex vector space. We exhibit cases in which the general solution of the system (1) can be expressed in terms of solutions of coupled second-order partial differential equations and the derivations of these solutions. Then the solution of boundary-value problems for the system (1) with a boundary condition of the form u = f reduces to the successive solution of boundary-value problems of the same type for such equations. 1{degree}. Consider the simplest special case of the system u{sub x} + Au{sub y} = O. We shall assume that A is a complex-valued matrix and u a complex-vector-valued function.

  12. Design and Analysis of Constant Pressure Water Supply System Controlled By PLC%PLC控制的恒压供水系统设计分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司道远

    2015-01-01

    供水系统是维持生产生活正常进行的重要保障,怎样才能提高其运行安全性、稳定性与经济性,必须要就系统研究现状进行分析,并积极应用各项新型技术,对供水管末端压力以及供水始端压力进行有效控制,将整个供水管网的压力维持在一个相对稳定的状态.文章对PLC控制恒压供水系统的设计措施进行了简要分析.%Water supply system is to maintain an important guarantee for the normal production and life, how to improve the safety, stability and economy of operation must to analyze the research status of the system, and actively apply the new technology, for water supply pipe end pressure and water pressure of the starting end of effective control, to maintain the pressure of the water supply pipe network in a relatively stable state. This paper brielfy analyses the design measures of PLC control constant pressure water supply system.

  13. Analysis of time resolution in a dual head LSO+PSPMT PET system using low pass filter interpolation and digital constant fraction discriminator techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzo, Jose M. [Digital Systems Design (DSD) Group, ITACA Institute, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: jmonfer@aaa.upv.es; Lerche, Christoph W.; Martinez, Jorge D.; Esteve, Raul; Toledo, Jose; Gadea, Rafael; Colom, Ricardo J.; Herrero, Vicente; Ferrando, Nestor; Aliaga, Ramon J.; Mateo, Fernando [Digital Systems Design (DSD) Group, ITACA Institute, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Sanchez, Filomeno [Nuclear Medical Physics Group, IFIC Institute, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), 46980 Paterna (Spain); Mora, Francisco J. [Digital Systems Design (DSD) Group, ITACA Institute, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Benlloch, Jose M. [Nuclear Medical Physics Group, IFIC Institute, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), 46980 Paterna (Spain); Sebastia, Angel [Digital Systems Design (DSD) Group, ITACA Institute, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2009-06-01

    PET systems need good time resolution to improve the true event rate, random event rejection, and pile-up rejection. In this study we propose a digital procedure for this task using a low pass filter interpolation plus a Digital Constant Fraction Discriminator (DCFD). We analyzed the best way to implement this algorithm on our dual head PET system and how varying the quality of the acquired signal and electronic noise analytically affects timing resolution. Our detector uses two continuous LSO crystals with a position sensitive PMT. Six signals per detector are acquired using an analog electronics front-end and these signals are processed using an in-house digital acquisition board. The test bench developed simulates the electronics and digital algorithms using Matlab. Results show that electronic noise and other undesired effects have a significant effect on the timing resolution of the system. Interpolated DCFD gives better results than non-interpolated DCFD. In high noise environments, differences are reduced. An optimum delay selection, based on the environment noise, improves time resolution.

  14. Variation of Fundamental Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flambaum, V. V.

    2006-11-01

    Theories unifying gravity with other interactions suggest temporal and spatial variation of the fundamental ``constants'' in expanding Universe. The spatial variation can explain a fine tuning of the fundamental constants which allows humans (and any life) to appear. We appeared in the area of the Universe where the values of the fundamental constants are consistent with our existence. We present a review of recent works devoted to the variation of the fine structure constant α, strong interaction and fundamental masses. There are some hints for the variation in quasar absorption spectra. Big Bang nucleosynthesis, and Oklo natural nuclear reactor data. A very promising method to search for the variation of the fundamental constants consists in comparison of different atomic clocks. Huge enhancement of the variation effects happens in transition between accidentally degenerate atomic and molecular energy levels. A new idea is to build a ``nuclear'' clock based on the ultraviolet transition between very low excited state and ground state in Thorium nucleus. This may allow to improve sensitivity to the variation up to 10 orders of magnitude! Huge enhancement of the variation effects is also possible in cold atomic and molecular collisions near Feshbach resonance.

  15. Elastic constants of calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peselnick, L.; Robie, R.A.

    1962-01-01

    The recent measurements of the elastic constants of calcite by Reddy and Subrahmanyam (1960) disagree with the values obtained independently by Voigt (1910) and Bhimasenachar (1945). The present authors, using an ultrasonic pulse technique at 3 Mc and 25??C, determined the elastic constants of calcite using the exact equations governing the wave velocities in the single crystal. The results are C11=13.7, C33=8.11, C44=3.50, C12=4.82, C13=5.68, and C14=-2.00, in units of 1011 dyncm2. Independent checks of several of the elastic constants were made employing other directions and polarizations of the wave velocities. With the exception of C13, these values substantially agree with the data of Voigt and Bhimasenachar. ?? 1962 The American Institute of Physics.

  16. Algorithm for structure constants

    CERN Document Server

    Paiva, F M

    2011-01-01

    In a $n$-dimensional Lie algebra, random numerical values are assigned by computer to $n(n-1)$ especially selected structure constants. An algorithm is then created, which calculates without ambiguity the remaining constants, obeying the Jacobi conditions. Differently from others, this algorithm is suitable even for poor personal computer. ------------- En $n$-dimensia algebro de Lie, hazardaj numeraj valoroj estas asignitaj per komputilo al $n(n-1)$ speciale elektitaj konstantoj de strukturo. Tiam algoritmo estas kreita, kalkulante senambigue la ceterajn konstantojn, obeante kondicxojn de Jacobi. Malsimile al aliaj algoritmoj, tiu cxi tauxgas ecx por malpotenca komputilo.

  17. The aliquot constant

    CERN Document Server

    Bosma, Wieb

    2009-01-01

    The average value of log s(n)/n taken over the first N even integers is shown to converge to a constant lambda when N tends to infinity; moreover, the value of this constant is approximated and proven to be less than 0. Here s(n) sums the divisors of n less than n. Thus the geometric mean of s(n)/n, the growth factor of the function s, in the long run tends to be less than 1. This could be interpreted as probabilistic evidence that aliquot sequences tend to remain bounded.

  18. Wind energy conversion systems with electric transmission to the water pumping with field control to constant flow; Sistema de conversao de energia eolica com transmissao eletrica para bombeamento de agua com controle de campo a fluxo constante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, Juraci Carlos de Castro

    1989-07-01

    The stead-state analysis of a Wind Energy Conversion Systems, consisting on a Windmill, Synchronous Generator, transmission Line and Induction Motor driving a Centrifugal Pump is developed. The performance of the system operating at variable Speed with a flux control is examined using mathematical and digital simulation. The control scheme is proposed and tested in laboratory and a tested in laboratory and a test centre to be compared with simulation results. (author)

  19. Compassion is a constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Tricia

    2015-11-01

    Compassion is a powerful word that describes an intense feeling of commiseration and a desire to help those struck by misfortune. Most people know intuitively how and when to offer compassion to relieve another person's suffering. In health care, compassion is a constant; it cannot be rationed because emergency nurses have limited time or resources to manage increasing demands.

  20. 恒流源法电感测量系统设计%Design of constant current source inductance measurement system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹宇汉

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a kind of inductance measurement system realized with MCU as the control core.By using DDS chip AD9850 as the sine wave signal generator,under the control of MCU,the system can adjust the test frequency and switching signal gain,compele the functions of 1uH ~ 10mH inductance value and Q value measure and display.The whole system can work in the range of 0 ~ 100KHz with simulating actual condition of the inductance works in,playing the advantage of wide measuring range,high precision, automatic measurement by using the method of constant current source.%本文介绍一种可实现的以单片机为核心的电感测量系统,采用DDS芯片AD9850作为正弦波信号发生器,在单片机的控制下,调整测试频率和切换信号增益,实现对1uH~10mH电感电感值测量、Q值的估算并显示的功能。整个系统可以在0~100KHz范围内模拟电感实际工作频率进行测量,并发挥了恒流源法测量范围宽、精度高、便于实现自动测量的优点。

  1. Photo- and Thermo-Induced Changes in Optical Constants and Structure of Thin Films from GeSe2-GeTe-ZnTe System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, Kiril; Todorov, Rossen; Vassilev, Venceslav; Aljihmani, Lilia

    We examined the condition of preparation of thin films from GeSe2-GeTe-ZnTe system by thermal evaporation and changes in their optical properties after exposure to light and thermal annealing. The results for composition analysis of thin films showed absence of Zn independently of the composition of the bulk glass. By X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis it was found that a reduction of ZnTe in ZnSe in bulk materials takes of place during the film deposition. A residual from ZnSe was observed in the boat after thin film deposition. Optical constants (refractive index, n and absorption coefficient, α) and thickness, d as well as the optical band gap, Eg, depending of the content of Te in ternary Ge-Se-Te system are determined from specrophotometric measurements in the spectral range 400-2500 nm applying the Swanepoel's envelope method and Tauc's procedure. With the increase of Te content in the layers the absorption edge is shifted to the longer wavelengths, refractive index increases while the optical band gap decreases from 2.02 eV for GeSe2 to 1.26 eV for Ge34Se42Te24. The values of the refractive index decrease after annealing of all composition and Eg increase, respectively. Thin films with composition of Ge27Se47Te9Zn17 and Ge28Se49Te10Zn13 were prepared by co-evaporation of (GeSe2)78(GeTe)22 and Zn from a boat and a crucible and their optical properties, surface morphology and structure were investigated. The existence of a correlation between the optical band gap and the copostion of thin films from the system studied was demonstrated.

  2. Studies in the system MgO-SiO2-CO2-H2O(I): The activity-product constant of chrysotile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, P.B.; Christ, C.L.

    1968-01-01

    Chrysotile dissolves congruently in water according to the reaction: Mg3Si2O6(OH)4c + 5H2Ol = 3Mgaq2+ + 6OHaq- + 2H4SiO4aq. Experimental determination of the activity-product constant of chrysotile, Kchr = [Mg2+]3[OH-]6[H4SiO4aq]2, at 90??C, yields the value of Kchr = 10-49.2 ?? 100.5. A synthetic sample and a natural sample from New Idria, California, were used in the determination. Values of Kchr were calculated for temperatures ranging from 0??C to 200??C, using the thermochemical data of King et al. (1967) for chrysotile and antigorite, various solubility data for silica, and ionic partial molal heat capacities estimated by the method of criss and Cobble (1964a). Kchr is 10-54.1 at 0??C, rises to a maximum value of 10-48.5 at approximately 135??C, and is 10-49.1 at 200??C (all values for the three-phase system, chrysotile plus solution plus vapor). The calculated 90??C value is 10-49.1, in excellent agreement with the experimental value; for 25??C, the calculated value is 10-50.8. ?? 1968.

  3. 极坐标系连续常值推力机动分析%Continuous Constant Thrust Maneuver in Polar Coordinate System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱仁璋; 王晓光

    2008-01-01

    Continuous constant thrust is very important in orbital maneuver and escape flight.Small thrust maneuvers are fit for spacecraft rendezvous,and the tangential(or circumferential)thrust and radial highthrust can be applied in escaping from the earth's gravitational field.By using the equations of motion in polar coordinate system for constant thrust,there iS no limit on the thrust level and no restraints on the relative distance.Orbital radius and velocity can be directly obtained as functions of time or polar angle,which is helpful for design of flight mission and motion trajectory.Especially,when the initial orbit is circular,for small thrust and short flight time,approximate analytic solutions can be derived from non-dimension form of the motion equations.Some interesting results and application cases are given,which are useful for engineering applications.%连续常值推力是空间飞行常用的轨道机动方式,在空间交会与星际航行使命中具有重要的应用价值.其中,小推力适合于地球轨道航天器交会机动,而切向或周向推力以及较大的正径向推力可用于脱离地球引力场的逃逸飞行,执行星际交会使命.应用常推力作用下的极坐标系质心运动方程,对机动推力的量值没有限制;在航天器交会应用中,对相对距离也无要求.这种方法可直接获得向径与速度等轨道参数随时间或极角(绕地心的转动角)的变化,便于分析轨道转移与逃逸运动,有助于飞行使命与运动轨迹的设计.特别是,若机动转移的初轨为圆轨道,在推力较小、飞行时间不长的情况下,应用无量纲形式运动方程,可获得具有工程应用价值的近似解.文章给出一些有关的结果与应用案例.

  4. Variation of fundamental constants

    CERN Document Server

    Flambaum, V V

    2006-01-01

    We present a review of recent works devoted to the variation of the fine structure constant alpha, strong interaction and fundamental masses. There are some hints for the variation in quasar absorption spectra, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, and Oklo natural nuclear reactor data. A very promising method to search for the variation of the fundamental constants consists in comparison of different atomic clocks. Huge enhancement of the variation effects happens in transition between accidentally degenerate atomic and molecular energy levels. A new idea is to build a ``nuclear'' clock based on the ultraviolet transition between very low excited state and ground state in Thorium nucleus. This may allow to improve sensitivity to the variation up to 10 orders of magnitude! Huge enhancement of the variation effects is also possible in cold atomic and molecular collisions near Feschbach resonance.

  5. Constant-pressure Blowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, E

    1940-01-01

    The conventional axial blowers operate on the high-pressure principle. One drawback of this type of blower is the relatively low pressure head, which one attempts to overcome with axial blowers producing very high pressure at a given circumferential speed. The Schicht constant-pressure blower affords pressure ratios considerably higher than those of axial blowers of conventional design with approximately the same efficiency.

  6. String Scale Cosmological Constant

    OpenAIRE

    Chalmers, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    The cosmological constant is an unexplained until now phenomena of nature that requires an explanation through string effects. The apparent discrepancy between theory and experiment is enourmous and has already been explained several times by the author including mechanisms. In this work the string theory theory of abolished string modes is documented and given perturbatively to all loop orders. The holographic underpinning is also exposed. The matching with the data of the LIGO and D0 experi...

  7. The Hubble Constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Neal

    2015-01-01

    I review the current state of determinations of the Hubble constant, which gives the length scale of the Universe by relating the expansion velocity of objects to their distance. There are two broad categories of measurements. The first uses individual astrophysical objects which have some property that allows their intrinsic luminosity or size to be determined, or allows the determination of their distance by geometric means. The second category comprises the use of all-sky cosmic microwave background, or correlations between large samples of galaxies, to determine information about the geometry of the Universe and hence the Hubble constant, typically in a combination with other cosmological parameters. Many, but not all, object-based measurements give H0 values of around 72-74 km s(-1) Mpc(-1), with typical errors of 2-3 km s(-1) Mpc(-1). This is in mild discrepancy with CMB-based measurements, in particular those from the Planck satellite, which give values of 67-68 km s(-1) Mpc(-1) and typical errors of 1-2 km s(-1) Mpc(-1). The size of the remaining systematics indicate that accuracy rather than precision is the remaining problem in a good determination of the Hubble constant. Whether a discrepancy exists, and whether new physics is needed to resolve it, depends on details of the systematics of the object-based methods, and also on the assumptions about other cosmological parameters and which datasets are combined in the case of the all-sky methods.

  8. Universe of constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongquan, Han

    2016-10-01

    The ideal gas state equation is not applicable to ordinary gas, it should be applied to the Electromagnetic ``gas'' that is applied to the radiation, the radiation should be the ultimate state of matter changes or initial state, the universe is filled with radiation. That is, the ideal gas equation of state is suitable for the Singular point and the universe. Maybe someone consider that, there is no vessel can accommodate radiation, it is because the Ordinary container is too small to accommodate, if the radius of your container is the distance that Light through an hour, would you still think it can't accommodates radiation? Modern scientific determinate that the radius of the universe now is about 1027 m, assuming that the universe is a sphere whose volume is approximately: V = 4.19 × 1081 cubic meters, the temperature radiation of the universe (cosmic microwave background radiation temperature of the universe, should be the closest the average temperature of the universe) T = 3.15k, radiation pressure P = 5 × 10-6 N / m 2, according to the law of ideal gas state equation, PV / T = constant = 6 × 1075, the value of this constant is the universe, The singular point should also equal to the constant Author: hanyongquan

  9. Estimation of autotrophic maximum specific growth rate constant--experience from the long-term operation of a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-min; Makinia, Jacek; Pagilla, Krishna R

    2008-04-01

    The autotrophic maximum specific growth rate constant, muA,max, is the critical parameter for design and performance of nitrifying activated sludge systems. In literature reviews (i.e., Henze et al., 1987; Metcalf and Eddy, 1991), a wide range of muA,max values have been reported (0.25 to 3.0 days(-1)); however, recent data from several wastewater treatment plants across North America revealed that the estimated muA,max values remained in the narrow range 0.85 to 1.05 days(-1). In this study, long-term operation of a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor system was investigated for estimating this coefficient according to the low food-to-microorganism ratio bioassay and simulation methods, as recommended in the Water Environment Research Foundation (Alexandria, Virginia) report (Melcer et al., 2003). The estimated muA,max values using steady-state model calculations for four operating periods ranged from 0.83 to 0.99 day(-1). The International Water Association (London, United Kingdom) Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) dynamic model simulations revealed that a single value of muA,max (1.2 days(-1)) could be used, despite variations in the measured specific nitrification rates. However, the average muA,max was gradually decreasing during the activated sludge chlorination tests, until it reached the value of 0.48 day(-1) at the dose of 5 mg chlorine/(g mixed liquor suspended solids x d). Significant discrepancies between the predicted XA/YA ratios were observed. In some cases, the ASM1 predictions were approximately two times higher than the steady-state model predictions. This implies that estimating this ratio from a complex activated sludge model and using it in simple steady-state model calculations should be accepted with great caution and requires further investigation.

  10. Time-Varying Fundamental Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Keith

    2003-04-01

    Recent data from quasar absorption systems can be interpreted as arising from a time variation in the fine-structure constant. However, there are numerous cosmological, astro-physical, and terrestrial bounds on any such variation. These includes bounds from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (from the ^4He abundance), the Oklo reactor (from the resonant neutron capture cross-section of Sm), and from meteoretic lifetimes of heavy radioactive isotopes. The bounds on the variation of the fine-structure constant are significantly strengthened in models where all gauge and Yukawa couplings vary in a dependent manner, as would be expected in unified theories. Models which are consistent with all data are severly challenged when Equivalence Principle constraints are imposed.

  11. Energy-saving Design of Multi-pump Control Constant Pressure Water Supply System by Single Converter%单变频器多泵恒压供水系统节能设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李焦明

    2009-01-01

    介绍了基于多泵控制器的多泵恒压供水控制系统的结构,给出了一用一备定时换泵加附属小泵恒压供水系统、多泵恒压供水固定泵变频控制系统、多泵恒压供水循环软启动方式控制系统的电气工作原理、设计要点与性能特点.应用实践表明,基于多泵控制器的多泵恒压供水控制系统应用简单、功能强大、节能效果显著.%The multi-pump control constant pressure water supply system structure was introduced. One pump to run a backup from time to time to exchange the water pump plus affiliated small pump constant pres-sure water supply systems, multi-pump constant pressure water supply fixed pump frequency control systems, multi-pump constant pressure water supply cycle soft-start control system for electrical working principle, de-sign features and performance characteristics were given. Application of practice shows, that based on multi-pump controller, the multi-pump constant pressure water supply control system is simple, powerful, and has obvious energy-saving results.

  12. Simulated constant-head boundary for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the constant head-boundary used to simulate ground-water inflow or outflow at the lateral boundary of the Death Valley regional...

  13. Constant-bandwidth constant-temperature hot-wire anemometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligeza, P

    2007-07-01

    A constant-temperature anemometer (CTA) enables the measurement of fast-changing velocity fluctuations. In the classical solution of CTA, the transmission band is a function of flow velocity. This is a minor drawback when the mean flow velocity does not significantly change, though it might lead to dynamic errors when flow velocity varies over a considerable range. A modification is outlined, whereby an adaptive controller is incorporated in the CTA system such that the anemometer's transmission band remains constant in the function of flow velocity. For that purpose, a second feedback loop is provided, and the output signal from the anemometer will regulate the controller's parameters such that the transmission bandwidth remains constant. The mathematical model of a CTA that has been developed and model testing data allow a through evaluation of the proposed solution. A modified anemometer can be used in measurements of high-frequency variable flows in a wide range of velocities. The proposed modification allows the minimization of dynamic measurement errors.

  14. Measurement of Setschenow constants for six hydrophobic compounds in simulated brines and use in predictive modeling for oil and gas systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burant, Aniela; Lowry, Gregory V; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2016-02-01

    Treatment and reuse of brines, produced from energy extraction activities, requires aqueous solubility data for organic compounds in saline solutions. The presence of salts decreases the aqueous solubility of organic compounds (i.e. salting-out effect) and can be modeled using the Setschenow Equation, the validity of which has not been assessed in high salt concentrations. In this study, we used solid-phase microextraction to determine Setschenow constants for selected organic compounds in aqueous solutions up to 2-5 M NaCl, 1.5-2 M CaCl2, and in Na-Ca binary electrolyte solutions to assess additivity of the constants. These compounds exhibited log-linear behavior up to these high NaCl concentrations. Log-linear decreases in solubility with increasing salt concentration were observed up to 1.5-2 M CaCl2 for all compounds, and added to a sparse database of CaCl2 Setschenow constants. Setschenow constants were additive in binary electrolyte mixtures. New models to predict CaCl2 and KCl Setschenow constants from NaCl Setschenow constants were developed, which successfully predicted the solubility of the compounds measured in this study. Overall, data show that the Setschenow Equation is valid for a wide range of salinity conditions typically found in energy-related technologies.

  15. The Hubble Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Jackson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available I review the current state of determinations of the Hubble constant, which gives the length scale of the Universe by relating the expansion velocity of objects to their distance. There are two broad categories of measurements. The first uses individual astrophysical objects which have some property that allows their intrinsic luminosity or size to be determined, or allows the determination of their distance by geometric means. The second category comprises the use of all-sky cosmic microwave background, or correlations between large samples of galaxies, to determine information about the geometry of the Universe and hence the Hubble constant, typically in a combination with other cosmological parameters. Many, but not all, object-based measurements give H_0 values of around 72–74 km s^–1 Mpc^–1, with typical errors of 2–3 km s^–1 Mpc^–1. This is in mild discrepancy with CMB-based measurements, in particular those from the Planck satellite, which give values of 67–68 km s^–1 Mpc^–1 and typical errors of 1–2 km s^–1 Mpc^–1. The size of the remaining systematics indicate that accuracy rather than precision is the remaining problem in a good determination of the Hubble constant. Whether a discrepancy exists, and whether new physics is needed to resolve it, depends on details of the systematics of the object-based methods, and also on the assumptions about other cosmological parameters and which datasets are combined in the case of the all-sky methods.

  16. 待定系数法解常系数齐次分数阶微分方程组%Solving Systems of Linear Fractional Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients by the Method of Undetermined Coefficients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代群; 李辉来

    2012-01-01

    用Jordan标准型方法研究常系数齐次分数阶微分方程组的基本解矩阵,得到了方程组的基本解系.结果表明,可以用待定系数法解常系数齐次分数阶微分方程组,并且该结果蕴含常系数线性一阶微分方程组.%The authors investigated the solution matrix of the systems of the linear fractional differential equations with constant coefficients, and obtained some exact solutions of the systems of linear equations using Jordan canonical matrix. We can solve the systems of linear fractional differential equations with constant coefficients using the method of undetermined coefficients, and the results contain the solution of linear first-order differential equations with constant coefficients.

  17. Construindo a participação social no SUS: um constante repensar em busca de equidade e transformação Building social participation on the Brazilian Health System: a constant rethinking that seeks fairness and transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Sousa Coelho

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um ensaio que expõe reflexões sobre a busca e o exercício da participação social no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS, compreendendo seu conceito como as diferentes ações dos grupos sociais que influenciam a formulação, execução, fiscalização e avaliação das políticas públicas. Por isso o fato de a comunidade participar no sistema de saúde é visto como condição fundamental para o exercício pleno da saúde, capaz de promover equidade e de transformar a atenção à saúde. As ações de construir a cidadania e formar sujeitos coletivos são tomadas como fundamentos para a conquista de espaços democráticos e de direitos sociais. Mapeou-se a normatização atual referente à participação popular, considerando seus avanços, mas explicitando também suas fragilidades, principalmente no que tange aos conselhos e conferências de saúde. No ambiente dos espaços institucionais de participação, foram destacados elementos necessários para consolidar e efetivar a participação popular, como a relação entre os atores e a comunicação para a socializar as informações e conhecimentos em saúde. Busca-se também problematizar o assunto, trazendo à tona alguns dos obstáculos e críticas relativos à participação social. Pretende-se, com este ensaio, colaborar para a democratização dos diferentes espaços de escuta da sociedade civil, tornando-os locais cada vez mais apropriados para as tomadas de decisão sobre a construção de políticas e serviços de saúde, dos quais a população se apropria coletivamente, superando a simples obrigatoriedade burocrática da participação e contribuindo para a saúde e qualidade de vida.It concerns an essay that presents reflections on the search and the practice of the social participation in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS, including the understanding of its concept as to how the different actions of the social groups influence the formularization, execution

  18. Determination of the Planck constant using a watt balance with a superconducting magnet system at the National Institute of Standards and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Schlamminger, Stephan; Seifert, Frank; Chao, Leon S; Newell, David B; Liu, Ruimin; Steiner, Richard L; Pratt, Jon R

    2014-01-01

    For the past two years, measurements have been performed with a watt balance at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to determine the Planck constant. A detailed analysis of these measurements and their uncertainties has led to the value $h=6.626\\,069\\,79(30)\\times 10^{-34}\\,$J$\\,$s. The relative standard uncertainty is $ 45\\times 10^{-9}$. This result is $141\\times 10^{-9}$ fractionally higher than $h_{90}$. Here $h_{90}$ is the conventional value of the Planck constant given by $h_{90}\\equiv 4 /( K_{\\mathrm{J-90}}^2R_{\\mathrm{K-90}})$, where $K_{\\mathrm{J-90}}$ and $R_{\\mathrm{K-90}}$ denote the conventional values of the Josephson and von Klitzing constants, respectively.

  19. Black holes with constant topological Euler density

    CERN Document Server

    Bargueño, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    A class of four dimensional spherically symmetric and static geometries with constant topological Euler density is studied. These geometries are shown to solve the coupled Einstein-Maxwell system when non-linear Born-Infeld-like electrodynamics is employed.

  20. New Quasar Studies Keep Fundamental Physical Constant Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    certain spectral lines with present-day values. Quasars are here only used as a beacon - the flame - in the very distant Universe. Interstellar clouds of gas in galaxies, located between the quasars and us on the same line of sight and at distances varying from six to eleven thousand of million light years, absorb parts of the light emitted by the quasars. The resulting spectrum consequently presents dark "valleys" that can be attributed to well-known elements. If the fine-structure constant happens to change over the duration of the light's journey, the energy levels in the atoms would be affected and the wavelengths of the absorption lines would be shifted by different amounts. By comparing the relative gaps between the valleys with the laboratory values, it is possible to calculate alpha as a function of distance from us, that is, as a function of the age of the Universe. These measures are however extremely delicate and require a very good modelling of the absorption lines. They also put exceedingly strong requirements on the quality of the astronomical spectra. They must have enough resolution to allow very precise measurement of minuscule shifts in the spectra. And a sufficient number of photons must be captured in order to provide a statistically unambiguous result. For this, astronomers have to turn to the most advanced spectral instruments on the largest telescopes. This is where the Ultra-violet and Visible Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) and ESO's Kueyen 8.2-m telescope at the Paranal Observatory is unbeatable, thanks to the unequalled spectral quality and large collecting mirror area of this combination. Constant or not? ESO PR Photo 07/04 ESO PR Photo 07/04 Relative Changes with Redshift of the Fine Structure Constant [Preview - JPEG: 496 x 400 pix - 36k] [Normal - JPEG: 991 x 800 pix - 320k] Captions: ESO PR Photo 07/04 shows measured values of the relative change of alpha from the sample of absorption systems studied by Hum Chand and his colleagues, plotted as

  1. The Hubble Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Neal

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available I review the current state of determinations of the Hubble constant, which gives the length scale of the Universe by relating the expansion velocity of objects to their distance. In the last 20 years, much progress has been made and estimates now range between 60 and 75 km s^-1 Mpc^-1, with most now between 70 and 75 km s^-1 Mpc^-1, a huge improvement over the factor-of-2 uncertainty which used to prevail. Further improvements which gave a generally agreed margin of error of a few percent rather than the current 10% would be vital input to much other interesting cosmology. There are several programmes which are likely to lead us to this point in the next 10 years.

  2. Decay constants in geochronology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    IgorM.Villa; PaulR.Renne

    2005-01-01

    Geologic time is fundamental to the Earth Sciences, and progress in many disciplines depends critically on our ability to measure time with increasing accuracy and precision. Isotopic geochronology makes use of the decay of radioactive nuclides as a help to quantify the histories of rock, minerals, and other materials. Both accuracy and precision of radioisotopic ages are, at present, limited by those of radioactive decay constants. Modem mass spectrometers can measure isotope ratios with a precision of 10-4 or better. On the other hand, the uncertainties associated with direct half-life determinations are, in most cases, still at the percent level. The present short note briefly summarizes progress and problems that have been encountered during the Working Group's activity.

  3. When constants are important

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiu, V.

    1997-04-01

    In this paper the authors discuss several complexity aspects pertaining to neural networks, commonly known as the curse of dimensionality. The focus will be on: (1) size complexity and depth-size tradeoffs; (2) complexity of learning; and (3) precision and limited interconnectivity. Results have been obtained for each of these problems when dealt with separately, but few things are known as to the links among them. They start by presenting known results and try to establish connections between them. These show that they are facing very difficult problems--exponential growth in either space (i.e. precision and size) and/or time (i.e., learning and depth)--when resorting to neural networks for solving general problems. The paper will present a solution for lowering some constants, by playing on the depth-size tradeoff.

  4. Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Cathrine

    2014-01-01

    Portfolio insurance, as practiced in 1987, consisted of trading between an underlying stock portfolio and cash, using option theory to place a floor on the value of the position, as if it included a protective put. Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance (CPPI) is an option-free variation...... on the theme, originally proposed by Fischer Black. In CPPI, a financial institution guarantees a floor value for the “insured” portfolio and adjusts the stock/bond mix to produce a leveraged exposure to the risky assets, which depends on how far the portfolio value is above the floor. Plain-vanilla portfolio....... Frequent rebalancing limits how badly the position can go off track, but costs more than infrequent rebalancing. Gap risk resulting from a down jump that penetrates the floor adds another hard-to-manage risk. In this article, Jessen comparescommon hedging strategies for CPPI and explores how well each does...

  5. ABBi-bus智能建筑控制系统恒照度方案浅析%Analysis on the Constant Lighting Control Solution of ABB i-bus Intelligent Building Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文信

    2011-01-01

    This paper mainly introduces the solution and application of the constant lighting control of ABB i-bus intelligent building control system.%本文主要阐述了ABBi-bus。智能建筑控制系统恒照度方案的原理及应用。

  6. Development of Pasteuria penetrans in Meloidogyne javanica females as affected by constantly high vs fluctuating temperature in an in-vivo system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DARBAN D.A.; GOWEN S.R.; PEMBROKE B.; MAHAR A.N.

    2005-01-01

    Growth room and glasshouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of constant and fluctuating temperatures on the development of Pasteuria penetrans a hyperparasite of root-knot nematodes. Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) were inoculated with Meloidogynejavanica second-stage juveniles attached with endospores ofP. penetrans and were grown in growth room at 26-29 ℃ and in glasshouse at 20-32 ℃. The tomato plants were sampled from the growth room after 600 degree-days based on 17 ℃/d, accumulating each day above a base temperature of 10 ℃ and from the glasshouse after 36 calendar days. Temperature affected the development ofP. penetrans directly. The rate of development at constant temperature in growth room was faster than that in the glasshouse at fluctuating temperatures.

  7. The Interacting and Non-constant Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Murli Manohar

    2009-01-01

    We propose a time-varying cosmological constant with a fixed equation of state, which evolves mainly through its interaction with the background during most of the long history of the universe. However, such interaction does not exist in the very early and the late-time universe and produces the acceleration during these eras when it becomes very nearly a constant. It is found that after the initial inflationary phase, the cosmological constant, that we call as lambda parameter, rolls down from a large constant value to another but very small constant value and further dominates the present epoch showing up in form of the dark energy driving the acceleration.

  8. A user-friendly Matlab program and GUI for the pseudorotation analysis of saturated five-membered ring systems based on scalar coupling constants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins José C

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of combinatorial chemistry has revived the interest in five-membered heterocyclic rings as scaffolds in pharmaceutical research. They are also the target of modifications in nucleic acid chemistry. Hence, the characterization of their conformational features is of considerable interest. This can be accomplished from the analysis of the 3JHH scalar coupling constants. Results A freely available program including an easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI has been developed for the calculation of five-membered ring conformations from scalar coupling constant data. A variety of operational modes and parameterizations can be selected by the user, and the coupling constants and electronegativity parameters can be defined interactively. Furthermore, the possibility of generating high-quality graphical output of the conformational space accessible to the molecule under study facilitates the interpretation of the results. These features are illustrated via the conformational analysis of two 4'-thio-2'-deoxynucleoside analogs. Results are discussed and compared with those obtained using the original PSEUROT program. Conclusion A user-friendly Matlab interface has been developed and tested. This should considerably improve the accessibility of this kind of calculations to the chemical community.

  9. Quantum Theory without Planck's Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Ralston, John P

    2012-01-01

    Planck's constant was introduced as a fundamental scale in the early history of quantum mechanics. We find a modern approach where Planck's constant is absent: it is unobservable except as a constant of human convention. Despite long reference to experiment, review shows that Planck's constant cannot be obtained from the data of Ryberg, Davisson and Germer, Compton, or that used by Planck himself. In the new approach Planck's constant is tied to macroscopic conventions of Newtonian origin, which are dispensable. The precision of other fundamental constants is substantially improved by eliminating Planck's constant. The electron mass is determined about 67 times more precisely, and the unit of electric charge determined 139 times more precisely. Improvement in the experimental value of the fine structure constant allows new types of experiment to be compared towards finding "new physics." The long-standing goal of eliminating reliance on the artifact known as the International Prototype Kilogram can be accompl...

  10. EFFECTS OF CONSTANT EXCITATION ON LOCAL BIFURCATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhi-qiang; CHEN Yu-shu

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the constant excitation on the local bifurcation of the periodic solutions in the 1:2 internal resonant systems were analyzed based on the singularity theory. It is shown that the constant excitation make influence only when there exist some nonlinear terms, in the oscillator with lower frequency. Besides acting as main bifurcation parameter, the constant excitation, together with coefficients of some nonlinear terms,may change the values of unfolding parameters and the type of the bifurcation. Under the non-degenerate cases, the effect of the third order terms can be neglected.

  11. Comparative analysis of the heat transfer rates in constant (CAV) and variable (VAV) volumes type multi zone acclimation system operating in hot and humid climate; Analise comparativa das taxas transferencia de calor em sistemas de climatizacao do tipo volume de ar constante (CAV) e volume de ar variavel (VAV) multizona operando em clima quente e umido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Cesar A.G.; Correa, Jorge E. [Para Univ., Belem (Brazil). Centro Tecnologico. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: gsantos@ufpa.br; jecorrea@amazon.com.br

    2000-07-01

    This work performs a comparative analysis among the constant and variable air volume multi zones acclimation systems, used for provide the thermal comfort in buildings. The work used the simulation HVAC2KIT computer program. The results of sensible and latent heats transfer rates on the cooling and dehumidification, inflating fan capacity, and heat transfer on the final heating condenser were obtained and analysed for the climate conditions of the Brazilian city of Belem from Para State, presenting hot and humid climate during all the year.

  12. Construction and experimental testing of the constant-bandwidth constant-temperature anemometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligeza, P

    2008-09-01

    A classical constant-temperature hot-wire anemometer enables the measurement of fast-changing flow velocity fluctuations, although its transmission bandwidth is a function of measured velocity. This may be a source of significant dynamic errors. Incorporation of an adaptive controller into the constant-temperature system results in hot-wire anemometer operating with a constant transmission bandwidth. The construction together with the results of experimental testing of a constant-bandwidth hot-wire anemometer prototype are presented in this article. During the testing, an approximately constant transmission bandwidth of the anemometer was achieved. The constant-bandwidth hot-wire anemometer can be used in measurements of high-frequency variable flows characterized by a wide range of velocity changes.

  13. The Power Control System of Constant Power Super-high Pressure Mercury Lamp%超高压汞灯功率控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫平; 葛劢冲

    2012-01-01

    A super-high pressure mercury lamp power of mask aligner is introduced in this paper,using analogue power feedback control,effectively improving power stability.The principle and major circuit structure of constant power control are emphatically expounded in this paper.%介绍了一种光刻机超高压汞灯电源,采用模拟功率反馈控制,有效提高了光源稳定性;重点阐述了恒功率控制的原理和主要电路结构。

  14. CONSTANT ASPECTS OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA ANGHEL

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "Are we watching, in the succession of history, the appearance and disappearance of legal systems or assisting, in a greater or lesser extent, to what might be considered, in a sense, an evolution of those systems?"1 Law, indissolubly linked to the general evolution of society, has recorded a number of differences in time and space, both in terms of content of various types and positive law systems, and also in terms of forms that take the rules of law, authorities who have the ability to edict it or the procedure to be followed.Indeed, there is no law for all times and all places, as law is not an abstract product of our reason, it comes from the human experience, it is a product of history and that is why institutions of each society can only be different from one society to another.2 But, as in reality there are not quantities of history - many, little or very little - but just history3, we can say that in typology there is not socialist law absolutely different from bourgeois, feudal or slave law, so there is just law. By this approach, I wanted to bring back into question the existence of some factors of constancy in law, those "legal permanencies” investigated by Edmond Picard, believing that "there is something in the legal relationship that necessarily subsist anywhere”.4

  15. The Application of Frequency Converter in Constant Pressure Water Supply System of High-rize Buildings%变频器在高层建筑恒压供水系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪升

    2015-01-01

    Using frequency control method to enable water pump motor keep the pressure constant in water supply system of high-rise building’s construction, can reach the target that high-rise building's water supply capacity changes with the water flow. By the use of Siemens frequency converter to control the water pump motor, the article introduces the composi⁃tion of variable frequency constant pressure water supply system, the PID regulatory function of Siemens inverter, the set⁃ting method of PID parameters and briefly introduces the control scheme of frequency converter in constant pressure water supply system of high-rise building’s construction . Results show that the constant pressure water supply system con⁃trolled by Siemens inverter in high-rise building’s construction can ensure the of constant pressure water supply, at the same time has achieved remarkable energy saving effect. At present, constant pressure water supply system controlled by the Siemens inverter has been widely used.%采用对水泵电机变频调速的方法,使高层建筑施工供水系统压力恒定,可达到高层建筑供水能力随用水流量而变化的目标。本文通过使用西门子变频器控制水泵电机,介绍了变频恒压供水系统的构成、西门子变频器的PID调节功能、PID参数的设置方法并简要介绍了变频器在高层建筑施工恒压供水系统中的控制方案。结果表明西门子变频器控制的恒压供水系统在实现高层建筑施工恒压供水的同时,达到了显著的节能效果。目前西门子变频器控制的恒压供水系统已经得到了广泛的应用。

  16. 带恒功率负载的机载直流电源系统稳定性分析%Analyze the stability of aircraft DC power supply system with constant power loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓倩; 黄建; 全应栓

    2015-01-01

    The characteristic of constant power loads is one of the typical characteristics of more electric aircraft power supply system .Combining of aircraft power supply system with constant power load .In order to get the stability condi‐tion of the power system with constant power load ,as the research object ,DC regulated power supply system in airborne is simplified equivalent circuit .The equivalent mathematical model is developed for the constant power loads ,and analy‐zes its theories .According the Routh criterion of automatic control principle ,the conclusion w hich increasing motor com‐pensation capacitance can improve the stability of the power system with constant power load is obtained .Through the simulation and experiments can prove the accuracy of these conditions .The results can be used in the design and optimi‐zation of the circuit .%恒功率负载特性是多电飞机电源系统的典型特性之一,将飞机的电源系统和恒功率负载结合,为了得到带恒功率负载的机载电源系统的稳定性条件,以机载直流稳压电源系统为研究对象,将其简化为相应的等效电路,建立恒功率特性载荷模型,通过全系统的理论分析、数学建模,依据劳斯判据,得到对于给定的恒功率负载的机载直流电源系统,通过增大电机补偿电容可以提高其稳定性的结论。并且通过仿真以及实验对得到的稳定性条件进行验证。结果可用于电路的设计以及优化。

  17. Spectrophotometric determination of association constant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Least-squares 'Systematic Trial-and-Error Procedure' (STEP) for spectrophotometric evaluation of association constant (equilibrium constant) K and molar absorption coefficient E for a 1:1 molecular complex, A + B = C, with error analysis according to Conrow et al. (1964). An analysis of the Charge...

  18. Constant-Pressure Hydraulic Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, C. W.

    1982-01-01

    Constant output pressure in gas-driven hydraulic pump would be assured in new design for gas-to-hydraulic power converter. With a force-multiplying ring attached to gas piston, expanding gas would apply constant force on hydraulic piston even though gas pressure drops. As a result, pressure of hydraulic fluid remains steady, and power output of the pump does not vary.

  19. Coupled perturbed HF/KS calculation of the dielectric constant of crystalline systems. The case of six members of the garnet family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A.; Ferrero, M.; Valenzano, L.; Zicovich-Wilson, C. M.; Orlando, R.; Dovesi, R.

    2012-12-01

    The dielectric constant ɛ of pyrope (Mg3Al2(SiO4)3), grossular (Ca3Al2(SiO4)3), andradite (Ca3Fe2(SiO4)3), almandine (Fe3Al2(SiO4)3), spessartine (Mn3Al2(SiO4)3), and uvarovite (Ca3Cr2(SiO4)3) garnets has been calculated by using for the first time the CPHF/KS computational scheme recently implemented in the CRYSTAL code. Garnets are large unit cell (80 atoms in the primitive cell) highly symmetric (Ia3¯d space group) compounds of relevant importance in geology and mineralogy. An all electron Gaussian type Basis Set has been adopted for all atoms. For the four compound containing transition metal atoms the unrestricted formulation of the HF or KS equations has been used. The Basis Set effect has been explored, as well as the influence of the adopted functional, that ranges from LDA to HF through GGA (PBE) and hybrids PBE0 and B3LYP.

  20. 半潜式海洋钻井平台恒钻压控制系统实验研究%Experimental Study on Constant Drilling Pressure Control System of Semi Submersible Drilling Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      对半潜式海洋钻井平台在海浪作用下作升沉运动时的受力情况进行了实验分析,将 PLC作为控制核心,利用由死绳拉力传感器、步进电机、节流阀、补偿液缸构成的恒钻压控制系统,实现了对半潜式海洋钻井平台的恒钻压控制。%In the laboratory conditions ,the heave motion of semi-submersible platform due to sea wave is analyzed .Taken PLC as the control core ,through the constant drilling pressure control system which consists of dead line tension sensor ,step motor ,throttle valve ,the compensating liquid cylinder ,the constant drilling pressure control on the semi-submersible drilling platform is realized .

  1. Application of Frequency Conversion Constant Pressure Water Supply System in Heating Network%变频恒压补水系统在供暖热网中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘善顺

    2012-01-01

    随着人们对供暖质量和要求的不断提高,利用先进的自动化技术、控制技术以及通讯技术,设计出高性能、高节能、适应供暖复杂环境的恒压补水系统已成为必然趋势。朔里矿业对原工人村区域供热补水系统进行了改造,实现变频恒压自动补水系统,其节能效果显著,稳定性大大提高。本文阐述了供暖热网补水系统改造的背景、工作原理、控制方案、变频恒压补水系统的运行性能,并进行了经济效益分析。%With the increasing demanding on the heating quality, using advanced automation technology, control technology and communication technology, constant pressure water supply system with high performance, high energy-saving and adapting to the complex heating environment was designed, and it become an inevitable trend. Heating water supply system of the former district of workers was transformed by Shuoli Mining, realized variable frequency and constant pressure automatic water supply system, and saved energy observably, stability was greatly improved. The modification background, work theories and control programs of water supply system in heating network, and the operational performance of variable frequency and constant pressure water supply system were advanced in this paper, and economic benefits were analyzed.

  2. Timelike Constant Mean Curvature Surfaces with Singularities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Svensson, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We use integrable systems techniques to study the singularities of timelike non-minimal constant mean curvature (CMC) surfaces in the Lorentz–Minkowski 3-space. The singularities arise at the boundary of the Birkhoff big cell of the loop group involved. We examine the behavior of the surfaces at ...

  3. A Family of Exactly Solvable Radial Quantum Systems on Space of Non-Constant Curvature with Accidental Degeneracy in the Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Ragnisco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel family of exactly solvable quantum systems on curved space is presented. The family is the quantum version of the classical Perlick family, which comprises all maximally superintegrable 3-dimensional Hamiltonian systems with spherical symmetry. The high number of symmetries (both geometrical and dynamical exhibited by the classical systems has a counterpart in the accidental degeneracy in the spectrum of the quantum systems. This family of quantum problem is completely solved with the techniques of the SUSYQM (supersymmetric quantum mechanics. We also analyze in detail the ordering problem arising in the quantization of the kinetic term of the classical Hamiltonian, stressing the link existing between two physically meaningful quantizations: the geometrical quantization and the position dependent mass quantization.

  4. Systematic harmonic power laws inter-relating multiple fundamental constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakeres, Donald; Buckhanan, Wayne; Andrianarijaona, Vola

    2017-01-01

    Power laws and harmonic systems are ubiquitous in physics. We hypothesize that 2, π, the electron, Bohr radius, Rydberg constant, neutron, fine structure constant, Higgs boson, top quark, kaons, pions, muon, Tau, W, and Z when scaled in a common single unit are all inter-related by systematic harmonic powers laws. This implies that if the power law is known it is possible to derive a fundamental constant's scale in the absence of any direct experimental data of that constant. This is true for the case of the hydrogen constants. We created a power law search engine computer program that randomly generated possible positive or negative powers searching when the product of logical groups of constants equals 1, confirming they are physically valid. For 2, π, and the hydrogen constants the search engine found Planck's constant, Coulomb's energy law, and the kinetic energy law. The product of ratios defined by two constants each was the standard general format. The search engine found systematic resonant power laws based on partial harmonic fraction powers of the neutron for all of the constants with products near 1, within their known experimental precision, when utilized with appropriate hydrogen constants. We conclude that multiple fundamental constants are inter-related within a harmonic power law system.

  5. Constant pressure water supply system design and simulation based on PLC control%基于PLC控制的恒压变频调速供水系统设计与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜素霞; 闫艳霞; 杨小亮

    2011-01-01

    For the need to build an intelligent building life and fire water supply system, a design was proposed, which was composed of PLC, frequency converter and PID regulator and could achieve AC dual-constant-pressure,dual-frequency-convert close-loop speed governing control. According to water-out pressure and flow rate,the system can provide constant pressure alternating quantity water supply by controlling the speed of motor unit and switchover from variable frequency to power-frequency. Simulation of the above system in MCGS showed that the system has pressure stability, simple structure and good reliability.%针对城市智能楼宇建筑生活及消防供水系统需求,利用PLC,变频器和PID调节器构建交流双恒压双变频闭环调速控制系统.该系统根据供水系统出口处的水压和流量,利用PLC控制变频/工频及电动机泵组的速度和切换,实现了闭环自动调节恒压变量供水.利用MCGS组态软件对该系统进行模拟调试,运行结果表明:该系统可靠性高、扩展性好,动态响应速度快,启动时压力波动小.

  6. Predicting pressure-dependent unimolecular rate constants using variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling combined with system-specific quantum RRK theory: a definitive test for fluoroform dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zhang, Xin; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-06-22

    Understanding the falloff in rate constants of gas-phase unimolecular reaction rate constants as the pressure is lowered is a fundamental problem in chemical kinetics, with practical importance for combustion, atmospheric chemistry, and essentially all gas-phase reaction mechanisms. In the present work, we use our recently developed system-specific quantum RRK theory, calibrated by canonical variational transition state theory with small-curvature tunneling, combined with the Lindemann-Hinshelwood mechanism, to model the dissociation reaction of fluoroform (CHF3), which provides a definitive test for falloff modeling. Our predicted pressure-dependent thermal rate constants are in excellent agreement with experimental values over a wide range of pressures and temperatures. The present validation of our methodology, which is able to include variational transition state effects, multidimensional tunneling based on the directly calculated potential energy surface along the tunneling path, and torsional and other vibrational anharmonicity, together with state-of-the-art reaction-path-based direct dynamics calculations, is important because the method is less empirical than models routinely used for generating full mechanisms, while also being simpler in key respects than full master equation treatments and the full reduced falloff curve and modified strong collision methods of Troe.

  7. Constantly operating geoinformation system for geoenvironment as a tool for pre-project investigations in city infrastructure development (on the example of moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyaev Valeriy L’vovich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a geoinformation system for urban geoenvironment is concerned. Geological data is necessary for the sustainable development of city infrastructure. The municipal departments should use geological and environmental information for perspective planning, selecting the location for important infrastructure objects, solving ecologycal problems, and in decision making. The concept includes a preliminary list of system’s users, their informational needs, main functionalities, methodical approaches to the system design and development. Geological data must contain source documents from geological archives “as is” and geodata based on its interpretation for various tasks. These data must be checked carefully and updated with new engineering-geological investigations. Geoinformation system must integrate various geological, engineering-geological, hydrogeological, and environmental data. Sophisticated procedures must be provided to check complicated logical dependences in the system database and to analyze contradictions between source documents. 3D modeling is an adequate language for presenting geological data, therefore, the considered system must include 3D models of various scales. In the suggested concept 3D modeling is considered as a tool for investigations, not only for presentations. The end users should have possibilities to get results of their queries in various formats: tables, geological and thematic maps, geological cross-sections, 2D and 3D grids as source data for mathematical modeling, etc. In conclusion, the paper briefly describes IEG RAS activities in GIS technologies for geological cartography and 3D modeling.

  8. Reconstruction of Dielectric Constants of Core and Cladding of Optical Fibers Using Propagation Constants Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Karchevskii

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present new numerical methods for the solution of inverse spectral problem to determine the dielectric constants of core and cladding in optical fibers. These methods use measurements of propagation constants. Our algorithms are based on approximate solution of a nonlinear nonselfadjoint eigenvalue problem for a system of weakly singular integral equations. We study three inverse problems and prove that they are well posed. Our numerical results indicate good accuracy of new algorithms.

  9. Ruzsa's Constant on Additive Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Hui FANG; Yong Gao CHEN

    2013-01-01

    A function f:N → R is called additive if f(mn) =f(m)+f(n) for all m,n with (m,n) =1.Let μ(x) =maxn≤x(f(n)-f(n + 1)) and v(x) =maxn≤x(f(n + 1)-f(n)).In 1979,Ruzsa proved that there exists a constant c such that for any additive function f,μ(x) ≤ cv(x2) + cf,where cf is a constant depending only on f.Denote by Raf the least such constant c.We call Raf Ruzsa's constant on additive functions.In this paper,we prove that Raf ≤ 20.

  10. Naturally Time Dependent Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Gregori, A

    2004-01-01

    In the light of the proposal of hep-th/0207195, we discuss in detail the issue of the cosmological constant, explaining how can string theory naturally predict the value which is experimentally observed, without low-energy supersymmetry.

  11. 静动液辅助制动系统恒转矩制动策略研究%Research on Constant Torque Braking Strategy of Hydrostatic and Hydraulic Auxiliary Braking System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕建刚; 郭劭琰; 李彦路; 滕飞; 宋彬

    2012-01-01

    A constant torque braking strategy for tracked vehicle hydrostatic and hydraulic auxiliary braking system is studied. Combining the test and theoretical analysis results, the influence law of coupler filling liquid quantity and hydraulic pump discharge variation to vehicle braking force under the hydrodynamic braking and hydrostatic braking work condition is obtained. Absorbing the advantages of hydrodynamic braking and hydrostatic braking,aiming at the work condition of hydrodynamic - hydrostatic braking, the constant torque braking strategy is built. The vehicle constant torque braking is achieved through the automatic regulation of coupler filling liquid quantity and hydraulic pump discharge. The efficiency is verified through the comparison of energy recovery and braking length before and after using constant torque braking strategy.%对履带车辆液力辅助制动系统的恒转矩制动策略进行了研究.结合实验与理论分析的结果,得到了液压制动与液力制动工况下偶合器充液量、液压泵排量的变化对车辆制动力的影响规律,吸取了液压制动与液力制动的优点,针对液力-液压制动工况建立了恒转矩制动策略.通过对偶合器充液量、液压泵排量的自动调节,实现了车辆的恒转矩制动.最后对采用恒转矩制动策略前后的能量回收率与制动距离进行了对比,验证了该策略的效能.

  12. Inflation and the cosmological constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FENG Chaojun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available By assuming the cosmological “constant” is no longer a constant during the inflation epoch,it is found that the cosmological constant fine-tuning problem is solved.In the meanwhile,inflation models could predict a large tensor-to-scalar ratio,correct power spectral index and a larger running of it.Furthermore,the e-folding number is large enough to overcome the horizon,flatness problems in the Big Bang cosmology.

  13. Athermal nonlinear elastic constants of amorphous solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Smarajit; Lerner, Edan; Procaccia, Itamar

    2010-08-01

    We derive expressions for the lowest nonlinear elastic constants of amorphous solids in athermal conditions (up to third order), in terms of the interaction potential between the constituent particles. The effect of these constants cannot be disregarded when amorphous solids undergo instabilities such as plastic flow or fracture in the athermal limit; in such situations the elastic response increases enormously, bringing the system much beyond the linear regime. We demonstrate that the existing theory of thermal nonlinear elastic constants converges to our expressions in the limit of zero temperature. We motivate the calculation by discussing two examples in which these nonlinear elastic constants play a crucial role in the context of elastoplasticity of amorphous solids. The first example is the plasticity-induced memory that is typical to amorphous solids (giving rise to the Bauschinger effect). The second example is how to predict the next plastic event from knowledge of the nonlinear elastic constants. Using the results of our calculations we derive a simple differential equation for the lowest eigenvalue of the Hessian matrix in the external strain near mechanical instabilities; this equation predicts how the eigenvalue vanishes at the mechanical instability and the value of the strain where the mechanical instability takes place.

  14. 基于PLC的恒压供水系统设计%The constant pressure water supply system based on PLC design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珊珊

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of social economy, people on the requirement of increasing the quality of water supply and water supply system reliability, however, today's water supply system original deficiencies exist - lack of water and electricity supply pressure. Complete water supply system is through the automatic control technology, computer technology and communication technology to build, the water supply system can achieve high performance and low power consumption.%随着社会经济的迅速发展,人们对供水质量和供水系统可靠性的要求不断提高,然而现如今的供水系统存在着原始不足之处-水电供应压力不足。完善的供水系统是通过自动控制技术、计算机技术以及通信技术来构建的,这样的供水系统可以达到高性能、低能耗的目标。

  15. Effects of the rotor pedalling system on the performance of trained cyclists during incremental and constant-load cycle-ergometer tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucía, A; Balmer, J; Davison, R C R; Pérez, M; Santalla, A; Smith, P M

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Rotor, a new cycle crank configuration that effectively allows the pedals to move independently throughout the duty cycle, on indices of endurance cycling performance in trained cyclists. Ten cyclists (5 Rotor users and 5 non-users; age (mean +/- SD): 22 +/- 5 y; VO(2)max: 69.5 +/- 5.1 mL. kg(-1).min(-1)) volunteered to participate in the study. On four separate days, the subjects performed four cycle-ergometer tests, i.e. two incremental tests and two 20-min tests. An imposed crank rate of 75 rev.min(-1) was used during all tests. The incremental protocol started at 112.5 W, and the power output was increased by 37.5 W every 3 min until volitional exhaustion. The 20-min tests were performed at a fixed power output equivalent to 80 % of the highest power output that the cyclists maintained for a complete 3-min period during incremental tests. Both types of tests were performed with the conventional crank system and the Rotor following a counter-balanced, cross-over design. Gas exchange parameters were measured in all the tests and blood lactate was determined at the end of each 3-min period (incremental tests) and at the end of the 20-min tests. A three factor (pedalling system used during the tests x habitual pedalling system x power output [incremental tests] or time [20-min tests]) ANOVA with repeated measures on power output (incremental tests) or time (20-min tests) was used to analyse several indices of performance, e.g. peak power output, VO(2)max, lactate threshold, onset of blood lactate accumulation, economy, delta, and gross efficiency. No differences (p > 0.05) were found between the Rotor and conventional systems for any of the aforementioned variables. It seems that the theoretical advantage brought about by the Rotor system, i.e. improved contra-lateral cooperation of both legs, would be minimized in trained cyclists. Although field studies are needed to assess the possible implications, in terms

  16. An automated approach for finding variable-constant pairing bugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia; Lo, David

    2010-01-01

    Named constants are used heavily in operating systems code, both as internal flags and in interactions with devices.  Decision making within an operating system thus critically depends on the correct usage of these values.  Nevertheless, compilers for the languages typically used in implementing...... operating systems provide little support for checking the usage of named constants.  This affects correctness, when a constant is used in a context where its value is meaningless, and software maintenance, when a constant has the right value for its usage context but the wrong name. We propose a hybrid...

  17. Experimental Evaluation of Performance of Constant Power Prime-Mover Driven Isolated 3-φ SEIG for Pico-Hydro Power Generation System in Remote Mountainous Region of Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathore Umesh C.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental evaluation of the performance of 3-φ self-excited induction generator (SEIG suitable for pico-hydro power generation system feeding domestic load in remote mountainous region. The use of induction generators is most suitable for renewable energy conversion systems due to their enormous advantages over conventional synchronous generators. Important features of induction generators include the simplicity in construction, ruggedness, simplified control, ease in maintenance and small size per generated kW. The performance characteristics of 3-φ SEIG feeding isolated load are evaluated using MATLAB-Simulink model based on the prevalent renewable energy sources inputs and loading conditions in mountainous terrain of Himalayas. The results are validated using an experimental set-up comprising of 3-φ, 3 HP induction motor run as 3- φ induction generator driven by 5HP, 4-pole DC shunt motor acting as prime-mover.

  18. An approach to the development of numerical algorithms for first order linear hyperbolic systems in multiple space dimensions: The constant coefficient case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, John W.

    1995-01-01

    Two methods for developing high order single step explicit algorithms on symmetric stencils with data on only one time level are presented. Examples are given for the convection and linearized Euler equations with up to the eighth order accuracy in both space and time in one space dimension, and up to the sixth in two space dimensions. The method of characteristics is generalized to nondiagonalizable hyperbolic systems by using exact local polynominal solutions of the system, and the resulting exact propagator methods automatically incorporate the correct multidimensional wave propagation dynamics. Multivariate Taylor or Cauchy-Kowaleskaya expansions are also used to develop algorithms. Both of these methods can be applied to obtain algorithms of arbitrarily high order for hyperbolic systems in multiple space dimensions. Cross derivatives are included in the local approximations used to develop the algorithms in this paper in order to obtain high order accuracy, and improved isotropy and stability. Efficiency in meeting global error bounds is an important criterion for evaluating algorithms, and the higher order algorithms are shown to be up to several orders of magnitude more efficient even though they are more complex. Stable high order boundary conditions for the linearized Euler equations are developed in one space dimension, and demonstrated in two space dimensions.

  19. 非相称多时奇异系统的有记忆状态反馈控制%Memory State Feedback Control for Singular Systems with Multiple Internal Incommensurate Constant Point Delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋朝辉; 桂卫华; 谢永芳; 阳春华

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of delay-dependent stabilization for singular linear continuous-time systems with multiple internal incommensurate constant point delays (SLCS-MIID) is investigated. The condition when a singular system subject to point delays is regular independent of time delays is given and it can be easily tested with numerical or algebraic methods. Based on the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional approach and the descriptor integral-inequality lemma, a sufficient condition for delay-dependent stability is obtained. The main idea is to design multiple memory state feedback control laws such that the resulting closed-loop system is regular independently of time delays, impulse free, and asymptotically stable via solving some strict linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) problem. An explicit expression for the desired memory state feedback control law is also given. Finally, a numerical example illustrates effectiveness and availability for the proposed method.

  20. Effective cosmological constant induced by stochastic fluctuations of Newton's constant

    CERN Document Server

    de Cesare, Marco; Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2016-01-01

    We consider implications of the microscopic dynamics of spacetime for the evolution of cosmological models. We argue that quantum geometry effects may lead to stochastic fluctuations of the gravitational constant, which is thus considered as a macroscopic effective dynamical quantity. Consistency with Riemannian geometry entails the presence of a time-dependent dark energy term in the modified field equations, which can be expressed in terms of the dynamical gravitational constant. We suggest that the late-time accelerated expansion of the Universe may be ascribed to quantum fluctuations in the geometry of spacetime rather than the vacuum energy from the matter sector.

  1. Effective cosmological constant induced by stochastic fluctuations of Newton's constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cesare, Marco; Lizzi, Fedele; Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2016-09-01

    We consider implications of the microscopic dynamics of spacetime for the evolution of cosmological models. We argue that quantum geometry effects may lead to stochastic fluctuations of the gravitational constant, which is thus considered as a macroscopic effective dynamical quantity. Consistency with Riemannian geometry entails the presence of a time-dependent dark energy term in the modified field equations, which can be expressed in terms of the dynamical gravitational constant. We suggest that the late-time accelerated expansion of the Universe may be ascribed to quantum fluctuations in the geometry of spacetime rather than the vacuum energy from the matter sector.

  2. Learning Read-constant Polynomials of Constant Degree modulo Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chattopadhyay, Arkadev; Gavaldá, Richard; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt;

    2011-01-01

    Boolean functions that have constant degree polynomial representation over a fixed finite ring form a natural and strict subclass of the complexity class \\textACC0ACC0. They are also precisely the functions computable efficiently by programs over fixed and finite nilpotent groups. This class...... is not known to be learnable in any reasonable learning model. In this paper, we provide a deterministic polynomial time algorithm for learning Boolean functions represented by polynomials of constant degree over arbitrary finite rings from membership queries, with the additional constraint that each variable...

  3. 基于DSP的卷烟机等张力供纸系统研究%Research on Paper-supply System of Cigarette Machine with Constant Tension Based on DSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁战军; 王炯; 王瑾; 石彩玲

    2011-01-01

    针对卷烟机供纸系统的等张力控制问题,提出了一种以TMS320LF2407A DSP为核心的,基于空间矢量脉宽调制(SVPWM)技术的新型卷烟机等张力供纸系统设计方案.详细介绍了系统的软、硬件设计及SVPWM算法的实现.系统硬件设计主要包括变频主电路、控制电路等几部分;软件设计通过调用定时器下溢中断服务子程序完成数据采样和异步电机矢量控制,然后调用SV PW M子程序,采用7段式SVPWM波形,改变逆变器输出频率,调节供纸电机转速,实现系统的等张力控制.实验结果表明,该系统结构简单,控制精度高,并具有良好的动、静态性能.%Aiming at constant tension control problems of cigarette machine paper-supply system, this paper presents a new type of cigarette machine paper-supply system design with constant tension based on TMS320LF2407A and space vector pulse width modulation(SVPWM) technology. This system software and hardware design and SVPWM algorithm realization are introduced.The hardware design of this system mainly includes frequency conversion main circuit, control circuit and so on.The system software design calls timer underflow interrupt service subroutine to complete data sampling and asynchronous motor vector control,then calls SVPWM subroutine. The SVPWM subroutine uses seven segment SVPWM waveforms, changes output frequency of frequency converter, and regulates paper-supply motor speed to realize constant tension control of paper-supply system.The experimental results show that this system has simple structure, high control precision and good dynamic and static property.

  4. Pole placement with constant gain output feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, B.; Lindorff, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    Given a linear time invariant multivariable system with m inputs and p outputs, it was shown that p closed loop poles of the system can be preassigned arbitrarily using constant gain output feedback provided (A circumflex, B circumflex) is controllable. These data show that if (A circumflex, B circumflex, C circumflex) is controllable and observable, and Rank B circumflex = m, Rank C circumflex = p, then max (m,p) poles of the system can be assigned arbitarily using constant gain output feedback. Further, it is shown that in some cases more than max (m,p) poles can be arbitrarily assigned. A least square design technique is outlined to approximate the desired pole locations when it is not possible to place all the poles.

  5. Stability of leap-frog constant-coefficients semi-implicit schemes for the fully elastic system of Euler equations. Flat-terrain case

    CERN Document Server

    Benard, P; Vivoda, J; Smolikova, P; Benard, Pierre; Laprise, Rene; Vivoda, Jozef; Smolikova, Petra

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the response of this system/scheme in terms of stability in presence of explicitly treated residual terms, as it inevitably occurs in the reality of NWP. This sudy is restricted to the impact of thermal and baric residual terms (metric residual terms linked to the orography are not considered here). It is shown that conversely to what occurs with Hydrostatic Primitive Equations, the choice of the prognostic variables used to solve the system in time is of primary importance for the robustness with Euler Equations. For an optimal choice of prognostic variables, unconditionnally stable schemes can be obtained (with respect to the length of the time-step), but only for a smaller range of reference states than in the case of Hydrostatic Primitive Equations. This study also indicates that: (i) vertical coordinates based on geometrical height and on mass behave similarly in terms of stability for the problems examined here, and (ii) hybrid coordinates induce an intrinsic inst...

  6. 基于阶跃温度响应的热电偶时间常数测试系统%Test system of time constant based on step temperature response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕士雷; 孔喜梅

    2011-01-01

    为了更方便地测试热电偶时间常数,设计了一套热电偶时间常数测试系统,包括工控机、信号调理电路、A/D采集、数据采集处理软件和打印机等.根据热电偶对阶跃温度的响应,提出了一种全新的热电偶时间常数测试方法,设计功能完善的信号调理电路,通过PCL818L数据采集卡将采集的数据送交上位机应用软件进行分析处理,得到所需要的热电偶参数,应用软件提供各类报表输出及数据打印功能.%In order to facilitate the test of thermocouple time constant, a thermocouple time constant test system was designed.The system is composed of IPC, signal conditioning circuit, A/ D collecting card, data processing software and printer.In addition, a new method for testing the time constant of thermocouple was proposed according to its response to phase step temperature.By the PCL818L card, the data was collected and transferred to application software for analysis, by which the desired parameters of thermocouple can be obtained.The application software provides all types of reporting forms output and data printing.

  7. Effect constant and natural illumination on physiological state in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyukha Viktor Alexandrovitch

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The influences of constant and natural illumination on antioxidant system, leukocytes differential count, speed of pubescence and life span of male laboratory rats was investigated. The changes of melatonin level secretion by constant and natural illumination leads to connected reorganization in physiological systems functioning and speed of ageing.

  8. From the Rydberg constant to the fundamental constants metrology; De la constante de Rydberg a la metrologie des constantes fondamentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez, F

    2005-06-15

    This document reviews the theoretical and experimental achievements of the author since the beginning of his scientific career. This document is dedicated to the spectroscopy of hydrogen, deuterium and helium atoms. The first part is divided into 6 sub-sections: 1) the principles of hydrogen spectroscopy, 2) the measurement of the 2S-nS/nD transitions, 3) other optical frequency measurements, 4) our contribution to the determination of the Rydberg constant, 5) our current experiment on the 1S-3S transition, 6) the spectroscopy of the muonic hydrogen. Our experiments have improved the accuracy of the Rydberg Constant by a factor 25 in 15 years and we have achieved the first absolute optical frequency measurement of a transition in hydrogen. The second part is dedicated to the measurement of the fine structure constant and the last part deals with helium spectroscopy and the search for optical references in the near infrared range. (A.C.)

  9. Effects of Melatonin on Morphological and Functional Parameters of the Pineal Gland and Organs of Immune System in Rats During Natural Light Cycle and Constant Illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinenko, G I; Shurlygina, A V; Gritsyk, O B; Mel'nikova, E V; Tenditnik, M V; Avrorov, P A; Trufakin, V A

    2015-10-01

    We studied the response of the pineal gland and organs of the immune system to melatonin treatment in Wistar rats kept under conditions of abnormal illumination regimen. The animals were kept under natural light regimen or continuous illumination for 14 days and then received daily injections of melatonin (once a day in the evening) for 7 days. Administration of melatonin to rats kept at natural light cycle was followed by a decrease in percent ratio of CD4+8+ splenocytes and CD4-8+ thymocytes. In 24-h light with the following melatonin injections were accompanied by an increase in percent rate and absolute amount of CD4+8+ cells in the spleen, and a decrease in percent rate of CD11b/c and CD4-8+ splenocytes. In the thymus amount of CD4-8+ cells increased, and absolute number of CD4+25+ cells reduced. Melatonin significantly decreased lipofuscin concentration in the pineal gland during continuous light. Direction and intensity of effects of melatonin on parameters of cell immunity and state of the pineal gland were different under normal and continuous light conditions. It should be taken into account during using of this hormone for correction of immune and endocrine impairments developing during change in light/dark rhythm.

  10. Bouncing universes with varying constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrow, John D [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge University, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Kimberly, Dagny [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Magueijo, Joao [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-21

    We investigate the behaviour of exact closed bouncing Friedmann universes in theories with varying constants. We show that the simplest BSBM varying alpha theory leads to a bouncing universe. The value of alpha increases monotonically, remaining approximately constant during most of each cycle, but increasing significantly around each bounce. When dissipation is introduced we show that in each new cycle the universe expands for longer and to a larger size. We find a similar effect for closed bouncing universes in Brans-Dicke theory, where G also varies monotonically in time from cycle to cycle. Similar behaviour occurs also in varying speed of light theories.

  11. Bouncing Universes with Varying Constants

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, J D; Magueijo, J; Barrow, John D.; Kimberly, Dagny; Magueijo, Joao

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the behaviour of exact closed bouncing Friedmann universes in theories with varying constants. We show that the simplest BSBM varying-alpha theory leads to a bouncing universe. The value of alpha increases monotonically, remaining approximately constant during most of each cycle, but increasing significantly around each bounce. When dissipation is introduced we show that in each new cycle the universe expands for longer and to a larger size. We find a similar effect for closed bouncing universes in Brans-Dicke theory, where $G$ also varies monotonically in time from cycle to cycle. Similar behaviour occurs also in varying speed of light theories.

  12. Spatial Variations of Fundamental Constants

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D; Barrow, John D.; Toole, Chris O'

    1999-01-01

    We show that observational limits on the possible time variation of constants of Nature are significantly affected by allowing for both space and time variation. Bekenstein's generalisation of Maxwell's equations to allow for cosmological variation of $alpha$ is investigated in a universe containing spherically symmetric inhomogeneities. The time variation of $alpha$ is determined by the local matter density and hence limits obtained in high-density geophysical enviroments are far more constraining than those obtained at high redshift. This new feature is expected to be a property of a wide class of theories for the variation of constants.

  13. Mirror QCD and Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Pasechnik, Roman; Teryaev, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    An analog of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) sector known as mirror QCD (mQCD) can affect the cosmological evolution and help in resolving the Cosmological Constant problem. In this work, we explore an intriguing possibility for a compensation of the negative QCD vacuum contribution to the ground state energy density of the universe by means of a positive contribution from the chromomagnetic gluon condensate in mQCD. The trace anomaly compensation condition and the form of the mQCD coupling constant in the infrared limit have been proposed by analysing a partial non-perturbative solution of the Einstein--Yang-Mills equations of motion.

  14. Design and implementation of constant temperature machining fluid supply system in ultra-smooth optical polishing%超光滑加工中抛光液恒温供给系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔洋; 彭吉; 闫丰

    2013-01-01

    This paper mainly focuses on design and implementation of constant temperature fluid supply system used in ultra-smooth optical elements machining. Firstly, the system requirements from functionality and performance are analyzed. Secondly, the overall system design is given, which uses deionized water as the heat transfer medium, the temperature of fluid is changed indirectly, slowly and uniformly, and a constant cooling capacity is introduced by compressor cooling. The temperature is controlled at a constant value by PID algorithm. The simulation result validates that the design accuracy meets the requirements of ultra-smooth optical machining. Finally, the built system is tested, the result show that the temperature stability is better than ± 0.02℃ with/without the loop disturbance. The system can operate in stability,insures the stability of polishing models and removal function, thereby the machining accuracy of optical element is more improved.%围绕用于超光滑光学元件加工的抛光液恒温供给系统的设计和实现而展开,首先,从功能及性能上对系统进行需求分析.然后,给出了系统整体设计方案:采用去离子水作为热媒,使抛光液间接、被动、缓慢、均匀升温,并采用压缩机制冷方式,引入恒定的制冷量,使用PID控制算法使得抛光液的温度控制在恒定值,仿真结果表明该设计方案满足加工工艺提出的精度要求.最后,对搭建后的系统进行测试,在有/无外循环扰动的情况下温度稳定性均优于±0.02℃.系统运行稳定,确保抛光模型和加工去除函数的稳定性,从而进一步提升光学元件的加工精度.

  15. Variation of the fine structure constant

    CERN Document Server

    Lipovka, Anton A

    2016-01-01

    In present paper we evaluate the fine structure constant variation which should take place as the Universe is expanded and its curvature is changed adiabatically. This changing of the fine structure constant is attributed to the energy lost by physical system (consist of baryonic component and electromagnetic field) due to expansion of our Universe. Obtained ratio (d alpha)/alpha = 1. 10{-18} (per second) is only five times smaller than actually reported experimental limit on this value. For this reason this variation can probably be measured within a couple of years. To argue the correctness of our approach we calculate the Planck constant as adiabatic invariant of electromagnetic field, from geometry of our Universe in the framework of the pseudo- Riemannian geometry. Finally we discuss the double clock experiment based on Al+ and Hg+ clocks carried out by T. Rosenband et al. (Science 2008). We show that in this particular case there is an error in method and this way the fine structure constant variation c...

  16. Limitations of constant-force-feedback experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elms, Phillip J; Chodera, John D; Bustamante, Carlos J; Marqusee, Susan

    2012-10-03

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy has provided important insights into the properties and mechanisms of biological molecules and systems. A common experiment is to measure the force dependence of conformational changes at equilibrium. Here, we demonstrate that the commonly used technique of force feedback has severe limitations when used to evaluate rapid macromolecular conformational transitions. By comparing the force-dependent dynamics of three major classes of macromolecules (DNA, RNA, and protein) using both a constant-force-feedback and a constant-trap-position technique, we demonstrate a problem in force-feedback experiments. The finite response time of the instrument's force feedback can modify the behavior of the molecule, leading to errors in the reported parameters, such as the rate constants and the distance to the transition state, for the conformational transitions. We elucidate the causes of this problem and provide a simple test to identify and evaluate the magnitude of the effect. We recommend avoiding the use of constant force feedback as a method to study rapid conformational changes in macromolecules.

  17. Decay Constants of Vector Mesons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Heng-Mei; WAN Shao-Long

    2008-01-01

    @@ The light vector mesons are studied within the framework of the Bethe-Salpeter equation with the vector-vectortype flat-bottom potential The Bethe-Salpeter wavefunctions and the decay constants of the vector mesons are obtained. All the obtained results, fρ, fφ, and fΚ* , are in agreement with the experimental values, respectively.

  18. Variation of fundamental constants: theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flambaum, Victor

    2008-05-01

    Theories unifying gravity with other interactions suggest temporal and spatial variation of the fundamental ``constants'' in expanding Universe. There are some hints for the variation of different fundamental constants in quasar absorption spectra and Big Bang nucleosynthesis data. A large number of publications (including atomic clocks) report limits on the variations. We want to study the variation of the main dimensionless parameters of the Standard Model: 1. Fine structure constant alpha (combination of speed of light, electron charge and Plank constant). 2. Ratio of the strong interaction scale (LambdaQCD) to a fundamental mass like electron mass or quark mass which are proportional to Higgs vacuum expectation value. The proton mass is propotional to LambdaQCD, therefore, the proton-to-electron mass ratio comes into this second category. We performed necessary atomic, nuclear and QCD calculations needed to study variation of the fundamental constants using the Big Bang Nucleosynthsis, quasar spectra, Oklo natural nuclear reactor and atomic clock data. The relative effects of the variation may be enhanced in transitions between narrow close levels in atoms, molecules and nuclei. If one will study an enhanced effect, the relative value of systematic effects (which are not enhanced) may be much smaller. Note also that the absolute magnitude of the variation effects in nuclei (e.g. in very narrow 7 eV transition in 229Th) may be 5 orders of magnitude larger than in atoms. A different possibility of enhancement comes from the inversion transitions in molecules where splitting between the levels is due to the quantum tunneling amplitude which has strong, exponential dependence on the electron to proton mass ratio. Our study of NH3 quasar spectra has already given the best limit on the variation of electron to proton mass ratio.

  19. Varying Fine-Structure Constant and the Cosmological Constant Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Y

    2003-01-01

    We start with a brief account of the latest analysis of the Oklo phenomenon providing the still most stringent constraint on time-variability of the fine- structure constant $\\alpha$. Comparing this with the recent result from the measurement of distant QSO's appears to indicate a non-uniform time-dependence, which we argue to be related to another recent finding of the accelerating universe. This view is implemented in terms of the scalar-tensor theory, applied specifically to the small but nonzero cosmological constant. Our detailed calculation shows that these two phenomena can be understood in terms of a common origin, a particular behavior of the scalar field, dilaton. We also sketch how this theoretical approach makes it appropriate to revisit non- Newtonian gravity featuring small violation of Weak Equivalence Principle at medium distances.

  20. Varying Fine-Structure Constant and the Cosmological Constant Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yasunori

    We start with a brief account of the latest analysis of the Oklo phenomenon providing the still most stringent constraint on time variability of the fine-structure constant α. Comparing this with the recent result from the measurement of distant QSO's appears to indicate a non-uniform time-dependence, which we argue to be related to another recent finding of the accelerating universe. This view is implemented in terms of the scalar-tensor theory, applied specifically to the small but nonzero cosmological constant. Our detailed calculation shows that these two phenomena can be understood in terms of a common origin, a particular behavior of the scalar field, dilaton. We also sketch how this theoretical approach makes it appropriate to revisit non-Newtonian gravity featuring small violation of Weak Equivalence Principle at medium distances.

  1. Study on a constant-tip-speed-ratio operation of wind power generation system. Effect of load control system on dynamic behavior; Furyoku hatsuden system no hensoku seigyo unten ni kansuru kenkyu. Fuka seigyokei ga system no rikigakuteki kyodo ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakui, T.; Yamaguchi, K. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Tanzawa, Y. [Nippon Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan); Hashizume, T.; Ota, E. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering

    1998-06-01

    The effect that the set data of the load control system in a wind power generation system exerts on the dynamic behavior of a system was investigated. The wind power generation system consists of a hybrid wind turbine with combined Darrieus and Savonius rotors, load with a generator and battery in the center, and a controller. A constant-tip-speed ratio operation that holds the circumferential speed ratio in which the power coefficient is maximized irrespective of the change in wind velocity was used to extract and convert the wind energy more effectively. In a high-wind velocity area, the system is operated at a fixed speed, and the increase in rotation is suppressed to protect the wing strength. In a large system, the response characteristics are only slightly improved by the limited load operation range and influenced rotor inertial. Power cannot be fully extracted even if the control system is changed in setting, and the applicability to the wind situation remains low. During the actual operation, the adjustment value of the control system should be set so that the output operation is satisfactorily possible in the specified load operation range, that is, the change in the instantaneous value of an effective power coefficient indicates almost flat gain characteristics in frequency characteristics. 14 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Three pion nucleon coupling constants

    CERN Document Server

    Arriola, E Ruiz; Perez, R Navarro

    2016-01-01

    There exist four pion nucleon coupling constants, $f_{\\pi^0, pp}$, $-f_{\\pi^0, nn}$, $f_{\\pi^+, pn} /\\sqrt{2}$ and $ f_{\\pi^-, np} /\\sqrt{2}$ which coincide when up and down quark masses are identical and the electron charge is zero. While there is no reason why the pion-nucleon-nucleon coupling constants should be identical in the real world, one expects that the small differences might be pinned down from a sufficiently large number of independent and mutually consistent data. Our discussion provides a rationale for our recent determination $$f_p^2 = 0.0759(4) \\, , \\quad f_{0}^2 = 0.079(1) \\,, \\quad f_{c}^2 = 0.0763(6) \\, , $$ based on a partial wave analysis of the $3\\sigma$ self-consistent nucleon-nucleon Granada-2013 database comprising 6713 published data in the period 1950-2013.

  3. 一类具有常数存放率的三次kolmogorov系统的定性分析%Qualitative Analysis of a Cubic Kolmogorov System with Constant-Rate Prey Stocking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄燕玲

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, we study a cubic kolmogorov system with constant-rata prey stocking(dx)/(dt)=x(a0+a1x-a2x2-a3y-a4y2-a5xy)+k,(dy)/(dt)=y(bx2-d)The sufficient conditions of the existence and nonexistence of limit cycles areobtained.%对一类食饵种群具有常数存放率的三次kolmogorov系统:(dx)/(dt)=x(a0+a1x-a2x2-a3y-a4y2-a5xy)+k,(dy)/(dt)=y(bx2-d),进行定性分析,得到该系统不存在极限环和存在极限环的充分条件.

  4. Some Dynamical Effects of the Cosmological Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axenides, M.; Floratos, E. G.; Perivolaropoulos, L.

    Newton's law gets modified in the presence of a cosmological constant by a small repulsive term (antigravity) that is proportional to the distance. Assuming a value of the cosmological constant consistent with the recent SnIa data (Λ~=10-52 m-2), we investigate the significance of this term on various astrophysical scales. We find that on galactic scales or smaller (less than a few tens of kpc), the dynamical effects of the vacuum energy are negligible by several orders of magnitude. On scales of 1 Mpc or larger however we find that the vacuum energy can significantly affect the dynamics. For example we show that the velocity data in the local group of galaxies correspond to galactic masses increased by 35% in the presence of vacuum energy. The effect is even more important on larger low density systems like clusters of galaxies or superclusters.

  5. Mechanism for a Decaying Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Bisabr, Y

    2002-01-01

    A mechanism is introduced to reduce a large cosmological constant to a sufficiently small value consistent with observational upper limit. The basic ingradient in this mechanism is a distinction which has been made between the two unit systems used on cosmology and particle physics. We have used a conformal invariant gravitational model to define a particular conformal frame in terms of the large scale properties of the universe. It is then argued that the contributions of mass scales in particle physics to the vacuum energy density should be considered in a different conformal frame. In this manner a cancellation mechanism is presented in which the conformal factor plays a key role to relax the large effective cosmological constant.

  6. Control system of constant power consumption melting speed for vacuum arc furnace%真空自耗电弧炉恒熔速控制系统改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勃; 陈鼎; 孙足来

    2015-01-01

    为真空自耗电弧炉设备由恒电压控制升级改造至恒熔速控制系统。通过对2000kg真空自耗电弧炉熔炼钛合金的生产工艺、过程参数、产品要求进行了详细分析,选取恰当的数据采样算法,为更好的掌握真空弧电压、真空弧电流、钛合金熔炼速度等工艺参数间的耦合关系提供了良好的依据。同时对真空自耗电弧炉的控制系统现状及熔炼技术发展做了综述。在 PLC中建立弧电压、弧电流,熔炼速率等的计算公式来实现设定各级控制回路的设定值。%In this paper, the control system of electricity arc furnace equipment is upgraded from constant voltage to constant melting speed. The power consumption of vacuum arc furnace selfmelting production technology of titanium alloy, process parame-ters and product requirements are analyzed in detail. The data sampling algorithm was selected appropriately in order to better grasp the vacuum arc current, arc voltage, the coupling relationship between process parameters such as titanium alloy melting speed so as to provide good basis. At the same time, the development of the current control system and self-melting technology for power consumption vacuum arc furnace were reviewed. The calculation formula of arc voltage, arc current and melting rate were built up in PLC to implement the control circuit at various levels.

  7. Optimal Work Area Selection of Stand-alone Photovoltaic Generation System Under Constant-Voltage Operation Mode%独立光伏系统恒压工作模式下最优工作区的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯世英; 殷忠宁; 薛原; 曾鹏

    2012-01-01

    独立光伏系统中,当光伏电池输出的电能超出蓄电池和负载所需时,系统会过渡到一种非常重要的工作模式,即恒压工作模式。恒压模式下,对应同一负载,光伏电池存在2个工作点,分别位于最大功率点的左侧和右侧,即光伏电池i-u特性曲线的电流源区和电压源区。对这2个不同工作区域内光伏系统的稳定性进行了分析,提出了相应的控制方式。首先对光伏电池进行线性化处理,推导出光伏电池的线性化等效模型,并建立了整个系统的数学建模,在频率域内对不同工作点处系统的稳定性进行了分析。结果表明,恒压工作模式下,独立光伏系统工作于光伏电池的电压源区时,具有更好的稳定性。搭建的仿真模型在时域内验证了上述分析结果的正确性。%In stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) generation system, when the electric energy output from PV cells exceeds the power demand of batteries and loads, the usual operation mode of PV generation system will be turned into a very important operation mode, i.e., the constant voltage mode. Under constant voltage operation mode of PV array, there are two working points for the same load, which locate at the left side and right side of the maximum power point of the PV array, i.e., the current source region and voltage source region of current-voltage characteristics of PV array. The stability of PV system in the two different working regions is analyzed and corresponding control strategies are proposed. Firstly, the linearization of PV array is performed to derive the linearized equivalent model and to build the mathematical model of the whole system, then the stability of PV system at different working points is analyzed in the frequency domain. Analysis results show that under constant voltage operation mode, when stand-alone PV generation system works in the voltage source region of PV array the system is more stable

  8. Local constants of motion imply information propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesdorf, M.; Werner, A. H.; Goihl, M.; Eisert, J.; Brown, W.

    2015-11-01

    Interacting quantum many-body systems are expected to thermalize, in the sense that the evolution of local expectation values approaches a stationary value resembling a thermal ensemble. This intuition is notably contradicted in systems exhibiting many-body localisation (MBL). In stark contrast to the non-interacting case of Anderson localisation, the entanglement of states grows without limit over time, albeit slowly. In this work, we establish a novel link between quantum information theory and notions of condensed matter physics, capturing this phenomenon in the Heisenberg picture. We show that the mere existence of local constants of motion, often taken as the defining property of MBL, together with a generic spectrum of the Hamiltonian, is already sufficient to rigorously prove information propagation: these systems can be used to send a classical bit over arbitrary distances, in that the impact of a local perturbation can be detected arbitrarily far away. This counterintuitive result is compatible with and further corroborates the intuition of a slow entanglement growth following global quenches in MBL systems. We perform a detailed perturbation analysis of quasi-local constants of motion and also show that they indeed can be used to construct efficient spectral tensor networks, as recently suggested. Our results provide a detailed and at the same time model-independent picture of information propagation in MBL systems.

  9. Why isn't the solar constant a constant?

    CERN Document Server

    Li, K J; Xu, J C; Gao, P X; Yang, L H; Liang, H F; Zhan, L S

    2012-01-01

    In order to probe the mechanism of variations of the Solar Constant on the inter-solar-cycle scale, total solar irradiance (TSI, the so-called Solar Constant) in the time interval of 7 November 1978 to 20 September 2010 is decomposed into three components through the empirical mode decomposition and time-frequency analyses. The first component is the rotation signal, counting up to 42.31% of the total variation of TSI, which is understood to be mainly caused by large magnetic structures, including sunspot groups. The second is an annual-variation signal, counting up to 15.17% of the total variation, the origin of which is not known at this point in time. Finally, the third is the inter-solar-cycle signal, counting up to 42.52%, which are inferred to be caused by the network magnetic elements in quiet regions, whose magnetic flux ranges from $(4.27-38.01)\\times10^{19}$ Mx.

  10. Fine-structure constant: Is it really a constant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekenstein, Jacob D.

    1982-03-01

    It is often claimed that the fine-structure "constant" α is shown to be strictly constant in time by a variety of astronomical and geophysical results. These constrain its fractional rate of change α˙α to at least some orders of magnitude below the Hubble rate H0. We argue that the conclusion is not as straightforward as claimed since there are good physical reasons to expect α˙α<

  11. 稳压供水单片机控制系统设计%The Design of Water Supply System by a Single-Chip with Constant Pressure Controlled Microprocessor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成果; 屈国普; 李四方; 姚敦平

    2011-01-01

    According to the requirements of water quality, water supply pressure and water supply system reliability,a new auto- matic control system of water supply with constant pressure and frequency conversion which combined with advanced automa- tion and communication technology was designed. This system based on inverter frequency modulation technology and a typical Micro Control Unit(MCU) AT89C51 as a controller and a PID algorithm were implemented. The overall scheme of the system and operating principle were described, and the block diagram of the hardware and software were designed. A interface of real- time monitoring system was proposed in this article. The system is running well and can meet users' needs better.%依据人们对供水质量、供水压力和供水系统可靠性的要求,结合先进的自动化技术和通讯技术,设计了一种新型变频稳压供水自动控制系统。该系统以典型的AT89C51单片机控制系统和变频器调频技术为核心,采用PID算法调节供水压力。该文介绍了系统的总体方案、工作原理和工作过程,给出了硬件框图及软件流程图,并设计了系统实时监测界面,实际应用表明该系统运行情况良好,能较好地满足用户需求。

  12. 自动恒温控制在可见光CCD成像系统中的应用研究%Applications of Auto Constant Temperature Control System for Visible CCD Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹业宏; 高黎明

    2012-01-01

    随着高性能CCD传感器的发展,其在空间成像探测系统得到广泛应用。为解决传感器的成像质量和恒温控制问题,采用基于帕尔贴效应的热电制冷(Thermo—ElectricCooling,TEC)技术,以FPGA为控制芯片,运用PID控制算法,实现了小型温度控制系统。实验结果表明,该系统能快速准确地实现恒温控制,可扩展性强,具有一定的应用价值。%With the development of high performance cooling CCD imaging system in aerospace imaging detection, in order to improve sensor's imaging performance and keep sensor's temperature constant, a precision temperature control system is designed by using FPGA as digital control processor and a method of PID control and Thermo-Electric Cooling(TEC) technolo- gy, based on Peltier effect. The experiment results show that the system can work fast and accurately and can be well expanded. It has the good practicability.

  13. Analysis and test on circuit characteristic of multi-stage constant power governing system using double-stator pump%采用双定子泵的多级恒功率调速系统回路特性分析与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻德生; 柴伟超; 王京; 陈帆; 甄新帅; 马光磊

    2016-01-01

    Traditional pump-motor constant power governing system can achieve power matching between the load and the prime mover to reduce energy waste under the conditions with the constant power load. In practical application, some conditions demand hydraulic system outputting constant torque but different speeds. For example, agricultural machinery walking in the same road conditions requires different speeds to choose. However, limited by the governing principle (the product of rotational speed and torque will be a fixed value), traditional pump-motor constant power governing system can’t meet the above conditions. So it can only use throttle governor, which will inevitably lead to energy waste and efficiency decrease. Therefore, it’s necessary to research a new hydraulic system which can meet multi-stage constant power conditions in principle. New double-stator pump (motor) offers the possibility of studying multi-stage constant power governing system. Because internal and external multiple pumps exist in one housing implements and share one rotor, double-stator pump can output a variety of different flows by controlling the working modes of the respective pumps. It is used to replace the old pump in the traditional pump-motor constant power governing system which then becomes a new multi-stage constant power governing system. A comparative analysis of the circuit characteristics was carried out between the multi-stage constant power governing system and the traditional system. Then a test platform was set up to carry out the experiment.The results indicated that the three-stage constant power governing system composed of single-acting double-stator pump could meet constant power condition, which was just as the traditional system. Under the same condition of constant power load, the common quantitative pump hydraulic system’s transmission efficiency was only 82%-86%, but both the traditional pump-motor constant power governing system and the three-stage constant

  14. 变频调速分级恒压灌溉自动控制系统及应用%Variable frequency and adjustable constant pressure automatic control irrigation system and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何武全; 张华; 何欣烨; 张宇峰

    2016-01-01

    为解决机电泵利用工频电源(50 Hz)作恒速运转条件下,灌溉面积或地形高差变化较大的管道式喷微灌系统灌水均匀度不能满足灌溉要求的问题,提出了一种变频调速分级恒压灌溉自动控制系统,该系统将变频技术和自动化技术相结合,具有变频调速和全自动闭环控制功能的机电一体化智能设备,可同时对1台或多台三相380 V,50 Hz 水泵电动机进行自动控制.该系统设计了多段压力设置转换电路,可根据预先设定的压力控制值自动进行压力等级切换,并对管网的电磁阀开启、关闭进行控制,实现分级恒压自动供水灌溉.通过工程实例分析表明,采用水泵工频控制时喷灌系统水头最大差值为12.89 m,采用变频分级恒压控制时喷灌系统水头最大差值为3.38 m,满足设计压力变幅不大于4.00 m 的要求.同时该系统具有节水、节能、自动化程度高、运行管理方便以及保证管网和水泵安全运行等功能,能够根据灌溉分区进行分级恒压自动供水灌溉,满足灌水均匀度要求.%In a sprinkler irrigation system with long pipe,there is a constant frequency (50 Hz)motor to derive the pump for delivering water.If the irrigating area or elevation change greatly in an irrigation field,the sprinkler irrigation uniformity will become unsatisfactory.In order to solve this problem,a variable frequency and adjustable constant pressure automatic control irrigation system is proposed.In the system,frequency conversion and automation technique are combined,and it is a kind of mecha-tronic-intelligent device with variable frequency motor and closed-loop fully automatic control function, and it can control for one or more AC 380 V,50 Hz pump motors automatically at the same time.An electrical circuit is designed for setting different constant pressure levels.As a result,the system can vary the pressure in a pipe network automatically

  15. Chandra Independently Determines Hubble Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    A critically important number that specifies the expansion rate of the Universe, the so-called Hubble constant, has been independently determined using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This new value matches recent measurements using other methods and extends their validity to greater distances, thus allowing astronomers to probe earlier epochs in the evolution of the Universe. "The reason this result is so significant is that we need the Hubble constant to tell us the size of the Universe, its age, and how much matter it contains," said Max Bonamente from the University of Alabama in Huntsville and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Ala., lead author on the paper describing the results. "Astronomers absolutely need to trust this number because we use it for countless calculations." Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect The Hubble constant is calculated by measuring the speed at which objects are moving away from us and dividing by their distance. Most of the previous attempts to determine the Hubble constant have involved using a multi-step, or distance ladder, approach in which the distance to nearby galaxies is used as the basis for determining greater distances. The most common approach has been to use a well-studied type of pulsating star known as a Cepheid variable, in conjunction with more distant supernovae to trace distances across the Universe. Scientists using this method and observations from the Hubble Space Telescope were able to measure the Hubble constant to within 10%. However, only independent checks would give them the confidence they desired, considering that much of our understanding of the Universe hangs in the balance. Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 By combining X-ray data from Chandra with radio observations of galaxy clusters, the team determined the distances to 38 galaxy clusters ranging from 1.4 billion to 9.3 billion

  16. Cryptography in constant parallel time

    CERN Document Server

    Applebaum, Benny

    2013-01-01

    Locally computable (NC0) functions are 'simple' functions for which every bit of the output can be computed by reading a small number of bits of their input. The study of locally computable cryptography attempts to construct cryptographic functions that achieve this strong notion of simplicity and simultaneously provide a high level of security. Such constructions are highly parallelizable and they can be realized by Boolean circuits of constant depth.This book establishes, for the first time, the possibility of local implementations for many basic cryptographic primitives such as one-way func

  17. Henry's law constants of polyols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Compernolle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Henry's law constants (HLC are derived for several polyols bearing between 2 and 6 hydroxyl groups, based on literature data for water activity, vapour pressure and/or solubility. Depending on the case, infinite dilution activity coefficients (IDACs, solid state pressures or activity coefficient ratios are obtained as intermediary results. For most compounds, these are the first values reported, while others compare favourably with literature data in most cases. Using these values and those from a previous work (Compernolle and Müller, 2014, an assessment is made on the partitioning of polyols, diacids and hydroxy acids to droplet and aqueous aerosol.

  18. Exact constants in approximation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Korneichuk, N

    1991-01-01

    This book is intended as a self-contained introduction for non-specialists, or as a reference work for experts, to the particular area of approximation theory that is concerned with exact constants. The results apply mainly to extremal problems in approximation theory, which in turn are closely related to numerical analysis and optimization. The book encompasses a wide range of questions and problems: best approximation by polynomials and splines; linear approximation methods, such as spline-approximation; optimal reconstruction of functions and linear functionals. Many of the results are base

  19. Kepler's Constant and WDS Orbit

    CERN Document Server

    Siregar, S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work are to find a Kepler's constant by using polynomial regression of the angular separation \\rho = \\rho(t) and the position angle \\theta = \\theta(t). The Kepler's constant obtained is used to derive the element of orbit. As a case study the angular separation and the position angle of the WDS 00063 +5826 and the WDS 04403-5857 were investigated. For calculating the element of orbit the Thiele-Innes van den Bos method is used. The rough data of the angular separation \\rho(t) and the position angle \\theta(t) are taken from the US Naval Observatory, Washington. This work also presents the masses and absolute bolometric magnitudes of each star.These stars include into the main-sequence stars with the spectral class G5V for WDS04403-5857and the type of spectrum G3V for WDS 00063+5826. The life time of the primary star and the secondary star of WDS 04403-5857 nearly equal to 20 Gyr. The life time of the primary star and the secondary star of WDS 00063+5826 are 20 Gyr and 19 Gyr, respectively.

  20. Influence of System Inertia Time Constants on Transient Stability Level of Interconnected AC Power Grid%系统惯性时间常数对互联电网暂态稳定水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵振元; 陈维荣; 戴朝华; 张雪霞

    2012-01-01

    由于区域电网的互联,整个系统的惯性时间常数将会发生明显变化,继而会影响整网的暂态稳定水平。基于暂态能量函数法,通过对等值2机系统进行数学推导并作暂态稳定分析,研究了系统在各种运行方式下,2端机组惯量变化对电力系统暂态稳定水平产生的影响,比较了两端机组惯量变化分别对系统暂态稳定性的影响,并发现了系统机组惯性时间常数对系统暂态稳定水平造成的影响与系统的负荷水平及初始工况有关。在理论分析的基础上,结合相关算例在各种运行方式下进行了仿真研究,仿真结果验证了分析结果的正确性。%Due to the interconnection of regional power grids, the inertia time constant of the whole interconnected grid evidently changes, then transient stability level of the interconnected power grid will be influenced. Based on transient energy function, by means of mathematical deduce for equivalent two-machine system and analysis on its transient stability, the influences of unit inertial changes at both terminals on transient stability level of the whole system under various operation modes are researched, and respective influences of terminal unit inertial changes on transient stability of the whole grid are compared, besides, it is found that the influences of unit inertial time constants on system transient stability level are relevant to load level and initial operating condition of the power grid. Based on theoretical analysis, simulation of concerned examples under various operation modes is performed and the correctness of theoretical analysis results is verified by simulation results.

  1. Cosmological constant and curved 5D geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, M

    2002-01-01

    We study the value of cosmological constant in de Sitter brane embedded in five dimensions with positive, vanishing and negative bulk cosmological constant. In the case of negative bulk cosmological constant, we show that not zero but tiny four-dimensional cosmological constant can be realized by tiny deviation from bulk curvature of the Randall-Sundrum model.

  2. Transmission eigenvalues for operators with constant coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Hitrik, Michael; Ola, Petri; Päivärinta, Lassi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study the interior transmission problem and transmission eigenvalues for multiplicative perturbations of linear partial differential operator of order $\\ge 2$ with constant real coefficients. Under suitable growth conditions on the symbol of the operator and the perturbation, we show the discreteness of the set of transmission eigenvalues and derive sufficient conditions on the existence of transmission eigenvalues. We apply these techniques to the case of the biharmonic operator and the Dirac system. In the hypoelliptic case we present a connection to scattering theory.

  3. Timelike Constant Mean Curvature Surfaces with Singularities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Svensson, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We use integrable systems techniques to study the singularities of timelike non-minimal constant mean curvature (CMC) surfaces in the Lorentz–Minkowski 3-space. The singularities arise at the boundary of the Birkhoff big cell of the loop group involved. We examine the behavior of the surfaces...... at the big cell boundary, generalize the definition of CMC surfaces to include those with finite, generic singularities, and show how to construct surfaces with prescribed singularities by solving a singular geometric Cauchy problem. The solution shows that the generic singularities of the generalized...

  4. The fundamental constants a mystery of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsch, Harald

    2009-01-01

    The speed of light, the fine structure constant, and Newton's constant of gravity — these are just three among the many physical constants that define our picture of the world. Where do they come from? Are they constant in time and across space? In this book, physicist and author Harald Fritzsch invites the reader to explore the mystery of the fundamental constants of physics in the company of Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, and a modern-day physicist

  5. Coupling constant in dispersive model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Saleh-Moghaddam; M E Zomorrodian

    2013-11-01

    The average of the moments for event shapes in + - → hadrons within the context of next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative QCD prediction in dispersive model is studied. Moments used in this article are $\\langle 1 - T \\rangle, \\langle ρ \\rangle, \\langle B_{T} \\rangle$ and $\\langle B_{W} \\rangle$. We extract , the coupling constant in perturbative theory and α0 in the non-perturbative theory using the dispersive model. By fitting the experimental data, the values of $(M_{Z^{°}})$ = 0.1171 ± 0.00229 and 0 ($_{I} = 2{\\text{GeV}}$) = 0.5068 ± 0.0440 are found. Our results are consistent with the above model. Our results are also consistent with those obtained from other experiments at different energies. All these features are explained in this paper.

  6. Constant Proportion Debt Obligations (CPDOs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cont, Rama; Jessen, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    be made arbitrarily small—and thus the credit rating arbitrarily high—by increasing leverage, but the ratings obtained strongly depend on assumptions on the credit environment (high spread or low spread). More importantly, CPDO loss distributions are found to exhibit a wide range of tail risk measures......Constant Proportion Debt Obligations (CPDOs) are structured credit derivatives that generate high coupon payments by dynamically leveraging a position in an underlying portfolio of investment-grade index default swaps. CPDO coupons and principal notes received high initial credit ratings from...... the major rating agencies, based on complex models for the joint transition of ratings and spreads for all names in the underlying portfolio. We propose a parsimonious model for analysing the performance of CPDO strategies using a top-down approach that captures the essential risk factors of the CPDO. Our...

  7. Henry's law constants of polyols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Compernolle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Henry's law constants (HLC are derived for several polyols bearing between 2 and 6 hydroxyl groups, based on literature data for water activity, vapour pressure and/or solubility. While deriving HLC and depending on the case, also infinite dilution activity coefficients (IDACs, solid state vapour pressures or activity coefficient ratios are obtained as intermediate results. An error analysis on the intermediate quantities and the obtained HLC is included. For most compounds, these are the first values reported, while others compare favourably with literature data in most cases. Using these values and those from a previous work (Compernolle and Müller, 2014, an assessment is made on the partitioning of polyols, diacids and hydroxy acids to droplet and aqueous aerosol.

  8. Omnidirectional antenna having constant phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sena, Matthew

    2017-04-04

    Various technologies presented herein relate to constructing and/or operating an antenna having an omnidirectional electrical field of constant phase. The antenna comprises an upper plate made up of multiple conductive rings, a lower ground-plane plate, a plurality of grounding posts, a conical feed, and a radio frequency (RF) feed connector. The upper plate has a multi-ring configuration comprising a large outer ring and several smaller rings of equal size located within the outer ring. The large outer ring and the four smaller rings have the same cross-section. The grounding posts ground the upper plate to the lower plate while maintaining a required spacing/parallelism therebetween.

  9. Flow Rate Calculation in the Auto Air Leakage Volume Test System Based on Constant Pressure Method%基于恒压法的汽车整车漏风量测试系统流量计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚; 赵鑫; 李振亮; 许玮

    2013-01-01

    An auto air leakage volume test system based on constant pressure method was designed. Using standard orifice plate as throttle device,after testing some original data such as the differential pressure between both sides of the throttle device,temperature of the dry-bulb and the wet-bulb,and so on,the auto air leakage volume can be calculated. The formulas and methods involved were demonstrated in detail and the experiment was designed based on an analysis of the measurement theory. According to the result of the experiment,this method proved stable and reliable and can satisfy the requirement of the measurement.%  设计了基于恒压法的汽车整车漏风量测试系统。采用标准孔板作为节流件,通过测量节流件上下游的压力差、干球温度和湿球温度等基础数据,经过计算可得到整车漏风量。在分析测量原理的基础上,详细给出了计算漏风量的公式和方法,并进行了实验。实验结果表明,该计算方法稳定可靠,可满足测量要求。

  10. Thermal resistance temperature circuit system design and research based on the constant current source driver%基于恒流源驱动的热电阻测温电路系统的设计与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新龙

    2015-01-01

    RTD temperature measurement system for measuring lead resistance errors brought insurmountable problem by using a constant current source drives the thermal resistance and by adding and subtracting circuit to overcome the measurement error caused by wire, which has won high precision analog signal. After AD conversion of the analog signal by returning timed sampling filter out interference and using STM32 so as to obtain a high accuracy temperature values.%针对热电阻测温系统中,导线电阻所带来的测量误差难以克服的问题,通过采用恒流源驱动热电阻以及通过加减运算电路来克服导线带来的测量误差,从而获得了具有较高精度的模拟信号。通过STM32对返回的模拟信号进行定时采样滤除干扰后进行AD转换从而获得了较高精度的温度值。

  11. Amended Calculation and Application of Hydrostatic System of Constant Current Closed Hydrostatic Guideway%恒流闭式静压导轨静压系统修正计算法及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓毅

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical calculation combined with finite element analysis is used in amended calculation for the constant current closed hydrostatic guideway. Through this calculation, the deformation in the oil reservoir of hydrostatic guideway was gotten. Based on the equilibrium equation of correction system, technics parameters were modified so as to minimize the impact of rigid deformation that caused by the guideway's basic element in reduced load condition on the hydrostatic parameters. Practice proves that the accuracy of design can be improved by amended calculation.%恒流闭式静压导轨修正计算法是采用力学计算和有限元分析相结合的方式,得到静压导轨油腔处的变形,在修正系统平衡方程的基础上,修改工艺参数,减小导轨基础件在负载条件下的刚性变形对静压导轨参数的影响.实践证明,修正计算法能提高设计的精度.

  12. Love wave device testing system for liquid dielectric constant measurement%用于液体介电常数检测的乐甫波器件测试系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏前亮; 陈智军; 张小宁; 阮鹏; 付大丰; 王萌阳

    2012-01-01

    与声表面波器件和兰姆波器件相比,乐甫波器件用于液体检测时有其独特的优势.从液体的波动特性入手,建立了“压电基片-非压电薄膜-液体”3层结构的乐甫波理论模型;基于上述模型,以钽酸锂作为压电基片材料,SU-8光刻胶作为薄膜材料,实际制作了乐甫波器件;基于相位差测量方法和幅频特性测量方法搭建了测试电路,并针对不同比例的纯水和酒精混合溶液进行了测试,实验结果表明了乐甫波器件测试系统应用于液体介电常数检测的有效性.%Compared with surface acoustic wave device and Lamb wave device, the Love wave device has its unique advantages. Starting with liquid wave characteristic, the Love wave theoretical model with three layer structure including 'piezoelectric substrate,non-piezoelectric film and liquid' is established. Based on the model,the liquid dielectric constant sensing characteristic of Love wave is studied in simulation, and corresponding optimization design of Love wave device is analyzed according to sensitivity and electro-mechanical coupling coefficient. A Love wave device consisting of 36°YX LiTaO3 and SU-8 photoresist film was fabricated. The measurement circuits were built based on the phase difference measurement method and amplitude-frequency characteristic measurement method. Experiment tests on the mixed liquid samples of pure water and alcohol with different ratios were conducted; the experimental results are in accordance with the numerical simulation, which proves the effectiveness of the proposed love wave device test system in liquid dielectric constant measurement.

  13. A Variant of Davenport's Constant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Thangadurai

    2007-05-01

    Let be a prime number. Let be a finite abelian -group of exponent (written additively) and be a non-empty subset of $]n[:=\\{1,2,\\ldots,n\\}$ such that elements of are incongruent modulo and non-zero modulo . Let $k ≥ D(G)/|A|$ be any integer where () denotes the well-known Davenport’s constant. In this article, we prove that for any sequence $g_1,g_2,\\ldots,g_k$ (not necessarily distinct) in , one can always extract a subsequence $g_{i_1},g_{i_2},\\ldots,g_{i_l}$ with $1 ≤ l ≤ k$ such that $$\\sum\\limits_{j=1}^l a_j g_{i_j}=0 \\text{in} G,$$ where $a_j\\in A$ for all . We provide examples where this bound cannot be improved. Furthermore, for the cyclic groups, we prove some sharp results in this direction. In the last section, we explore the relation between this problem and a similar problem with prescribed length. The proof of Theorem 1 uses group-algebra techniques, while for the other theorems, we use elementary number theory techniques.

  14. Model-free Adaptive Variable Pitch Control for Wind Turbine System Constant Power%风力发电机组恒功率无模型自适应变桨距控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜萍; 赵振家

    2015-01-01

    风力发电系统是一个非线性、强耦合的系统,其风速的扰动性极强。无模型控制基于系统特性值动态估计,优化内部参数可使系统克服时变和非线性,具有比PID更好的抗干扰能力,且更适用于非线性、强耦合系统。最后,对比了在阶跃和随机风速下无模型与PID控制器的控制效果,并进行仿真研究,结果表明无模型控制能更好地保持发电机功率恒定。%Wind turbine system boasts strong nonlinearity and coupling,and the disturbance from the wind is very strong.The model free adaptive control based on dynamically estimating the system’ s characteristic value was proposed to overcome the system’ s time-varying and nonlinearity by optimizing internal parameters.Its ca-pacity of resisting disturbance outperforms that of PID and is more suitable for the nonlinear and strong cou-pling system.Comparing the control effect of the model-free adaptive pitch control with that of the PID control and then simulating it indicate that the model-free control can keep a constant power for the turbine generator better.

  15. Alternative set of defining constants for redefinition of four SI units

    CERN Document Server

    Khruschov, V V

    2016-01-01

    We discuss different sets of defining constants, fixed values of which are considered in connection with the transition to new definitions of four SI units (the kilogram, the mole, the ampere, and the kelvin). The notion of constant's order in a given system of units is suggested. We propose an alternative set of fixed constants applicable for new definitions of the four SI units. We analyse and discuss in detail the set, which consists of the Planck constant, the Avogadro constant, the Boltzmann constant and the magnetic constant.

  16. Capacitive Cells for Dielectric Constant Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguía; Maldonado, Rigoberto Franco

    2015-01-01

    A simple capacitive cell for dielectric constant measurement in liquids is presented. As an illustrative application, the cell is used for measuring the degradation of overheated edible oil through the evaluation of their dielectric constant.

  17. Temporal variation of coupling constants and nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Oberhummer, Heinz; Fairbairn, M; Schlattl, H; Sharma, M M

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the triple-alpha process and the Oklo phenomenon to obtain constraints on possible cosmological time variations of fundamental constants. Specifically we study cosmological temporal constraints for the fine structure constant and nucleon and meson masses.

  18. Temporal variation of coupling constants and nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhummer, H.; Csótó, A.; Fairbairn, M.; Schlattl, H.; Sharma, M. M.

    2003-05-01

    We investigate the triple-alpha process and the Oklo phenomenon to obtain constraints on possible cosmological time variations of fundamental constants. Specifically we study cosmological temporal constraints for the fine structure constant and nucleon and meson masses.

  19. 一种恒流源驱动的高精度温度测量系统设计%Design of a high-precision temperature measurement system driven by constant current source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛风国

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the precision of temperature measurement, a high precision temperature measuring system is designed in this paper. REF200 which can provide 0.4mA constant current is applied to drive four wires temperature sensor of PT1000 and precise resistance. The voltage at both sides of PT1000 and precise resistance is extracted respectively and then conditioning the circuit. The voltage is amplified and A/D converted by high precision AD7712. The digital signal is processed by least square method on upper computer to reduce the error which is caused by nonlinear property of PT1000. The test result shows that the system is stable and reliable. And the random error and system error of system is both less than 0. 1℃. It means that this design realizes the high precise temperature measurement.%为提高温度测量精度,利用REF200提供的0.4mA恒定电流驱动串联的四线制温度传感器PT1000和精密电阻,在传感器和精密电阻两端分别提取电压信号并对其进行调理,通过高精度AD7712对所得到的电压信号进行放大和A/D转换,设计了一种高精度温度测量系统.为了减小高精度温度测量中铂电阻非线性所引起的误差,在上位机中对数字信号进行了最小二乘法算法处理.测试结果表明,该系统稳定可靠,其随机误差和系统误差均小于0.1℃,实现了高精度温度测量.

  20. A study on zeta potential and dielectric constant of liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labhasetwar, V; Mohan, M S; Dorle, A K

    1994-01-01

    Zeta potential and dielectric constant of the liposomes were measured to study the effect of some of the formulation factors and in vitro ageing. Sonication affects zeta potential and dielectric constant of the liposomes. The ageing study showed an increase in the dielectric constant and zeta potential of liposomes at different storage temperatures. These two electrical parameters could be useful in studying structural alterations in liposomal vesicles and system as a function of different conditions. Particle size distribution and optical density were also measured, for comparison.

  1. Dependence of Reaction Rate Constants on Density in Supercritical Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGTao; SHENZhongyao

    2002-01-01

    A new method,which correlates rate constants of chemical reactions and density or pressure in supercritical fluids,was developed.Based on the transition state theory and thermodynamic principles, the rate constant can be reasonably correlated with the density of the supercritical fluid,and a correlation equation was obtained. Coupled with the equation of state (EOS) of a supercritical solvent,the effect of pressure on reaction rate constant could be represented.Two typical systems were used to test this method.The result indicates that this method is suitable for dilute supercritical fluid solutions.

  2. Critical survey of stability constants of EDTA complexes critical evaluation of equilibrium constants in solution stability constants of metal complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Anderegg, G

    2013-01-01

    Critical Survey of Stability Constants of EDTA Complexes focuses on the computations, values, and characteristics of stability constants. The book emphasizes that for a critical discussion of experimentally determined stability constants, it is important to consider the precision of the values that manifests the self-consistency of the constant, taking into consideration the random errors. The publication reviews the stability constants of metal complexes. The numerical calculations affirm the reactions and transformations of metal ions when exposed to varying conditions. The text also present

  3. Untangling Fixed Effects and Constant Regressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, F.; Teulings, R.

    2015-01-01

    Fixed effects (FE) in panel data models overlap each other and prohibit the identification of the impact of "constant" regressors. Think of regressors that are constant across countries in a country-time panel with time FE. The traditional approach is to drop some FE and constant regressors by norma

  4. Searching for Kaprekar's constants: algorithms and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron L. Walden

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine some new results on Kaprekar's constants, specifically establishing the unique 7-digit (in base 4 and 9-digit (in base 5 Kaprekar's constants and showing that there are no 15-, 21-, 27-, or 33-digit Kaprekar's constants.

  5. Determination of Constitutive Model Constants from Cylinder Impact Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    HONEYWELL, INC./ARMAMENT SYSTEMS DIVISION) FOR NAVAL SURFACE WARFARE CENTER RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT DECEMBER 1988 Approved for public release...primary application is for higher strain rates, and the strain rate constant was therefore selected to give better correlation with the higher strain...to that of the test data. The new constants (C and C2) were obtained in conjunction with the previous values of C. and C4, as talen from Reference 2

  6. One-group constant libraries for nuclear equilibrium state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizutani, Akihiko; Sekimoto, Hiroshi [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Research Lab. for Nuclear Reactors

    1997-03-01

    One-group constant libraries for the nuclear equilibrium state were generated for both liquid sodium cooled MOX fuel type fast reactor and PWR type thermal reactor with Equilibrium Cell Iterative Calculation System (ECICS) using JENDL-3.2, -3, -2 and ENDF/B-VI nuclear data libraries. ECICS produced one-group constant sets for 129 heavy metal nuclides and 1238 fission products. (author)

  7. Estimativa das contribuições dos sistemas anaeróbio lático e alático durante exercícios de cargas constantes em intensidades abaixo do VO2max Estimation of contributions of the anaerobic lactic and alactic systems during constant-load exercises at intensities below the VO2max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos David Silva-Cavalcante

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi estimar as contribuições do metabolismo anaeróbio lático (MAL e alático (MAA em intensidades abaixo do consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2max. Dez homens (23 ± 4 anos, 176,4 ± 6,8 cm, 72,4 ± 8,2 kg, 12,0 ± 4,5 % de gordura corporal realizaram um teste progressivo até a exaustão voluntária para identificação do VO2max, da potência correspondente ao VO2max (WVO2max e do segundo limiar ventilatório (LV2. Na segunda e na terceira visita foram realizados seis testes de cargas constantes (três testes por sessão com intensidades abaixo do VO2max. Houve uma predominância do MAL sobre o MAA durante os exercícios submáximos a partir da intensidade correspondente ao LV2, sendo significativamente maior em 90% VO2max (p The purpose this study was that estimated contributions of the anaerobic lactic (MAL and alactic (MAA metabolism during constant load exercises at intensities below the maximal oxygen capacity uptake (VO2max. Ten males (23 ± 4 years, 176.4 ± 6.8 cm, 72.4 ± 8.2 kg, 12.0 ± 4.5 % of fat body performed in the first visit a progressive test until exhaustion to identification of VO2max, power output corresponding to the VO2max (WVO2max and second ventilatory threshold (LV2. On the second and third visit, the participants performed six constant workload tests (3 per session with intensities below VO2max. There was a predominance of MAL about MAA during the exercises sub-maximal from intensity corresponding to the LV2, being significantly higher at 90% VO2max (p < 0.05. Thus, these results may help coaches to implement training loads appropriate to their athletes, according to the metabolic demand of the competition.

  8. 基于太阳能的微灌系统恒压供水自动控制装置研制%Constant pressure water supply automatic device designed for micro-irrigation system based on solar energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李加念; 洪添胜; 倪慧娜

    2013-01-01

      The stability of micro-irrigation system inlet water pressure affects the uniformity of the micro-irrigation and the mixed fertilizer accuracy of automatic fertilizer mixing device. In order to provide a constant inlet water pressure for small and medium-sized irrigation pipe network which adopts gravity drip irrigation, a constant pressure water supply automatic control device was developed, through employing a diaphragm pump DP-60 powered by solar energy to carry water to the reservoir built in high place, and maintaining the reservoir’ water level at a fixed height in the drip irrigation process. The water level was detected online by using a level sensor YZ-YO-LAG1, and the controller control DP-60 carrying water to the reservoir according to the water level detected. Due to the certain distance between reservoir water level detection terminal and DP-60 control terminal, two wireless communication modules CC1100 were installed in each terminal respectively to realize wireless data transmission and control between two terminals. To reduce power consumption of wireless communication, a regular communication strategy combining with sleeping mechanism was adopted, and a kind of time synchronization technology was employed to keep time synchronization between the communication parties, and the WOR (wake on radio) mode of CC1100 module was enabled while communicating, the communication success rate was 100%verified by practical test. Photovoltaic capacity of the system had been designed for obtaining an optimal capacity combination of solar cell array and lead-acid battery, and the solar panel power was determined to be 60 W and the battery capacity to be 60 A·h, the capacity combination could meet the electricity demand of 500L irrigation norm for each drip irrigation cycle, and ensure that the system operates normally in seven consecutive days without sunshine. In order to maximize the use of solar energy, the relationship between solar panel power and the

  9. Dimensionless constants, cosmology and other dark matters

    CERN Document Server

    Tegmark, M; Rees, M; Wilczek, F; Tegmark, Max; Aguirre, Anthony; Rees, Martin; Wilczek, Frank

    2006-01-01

    We identify 31 dimensionless physical constants required by particle physics and cosmology, and emphasize that both microphysical constraints and selection effects might help elucidate their origin. Axion cosmology provides an instructive example, in which these two kinds of arguments must both be taken into account, and work well together. If a Peccei-Quinn phase transition occurred before or during inflation, then the axion dark matter density will vary from place to place with a probability distribution. By calculating the net dark matter halo formation rate as a function of all four relevant cosmological parameters and assessing other constraints, we find that this probability distribution, computed at stable solar systems, is arguably peaked near the observed dark matter density. If cosmologically relevant WIMP dark matter is discovered, then one naturally expects comparable densities of WIMPs and axions, making it important to follow up with precision measurements to determine whether WIMPs account for ...

  10. Measuring the RC time constant with Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, N. S. A.

    2016-11-01

    In this work we use the Arduino UNO R3 open source hardware platform to assemble an experimental apparatus for the measurement of the time constant of an RC circuit. With adequate programming, the Arduino is used as a signal generator, a data acquisition system and a basic signal visualisation tool. Theoretical calculations are compared with direct observations from an analogue oscilloscope. Data processing and curve fitting is performed on a spreadsheet. The results obtained for the six RC test circuits are within the expected interval of values defined by the tolerance of the components. The hardware and software prove to be adequate to the proposed measurements and therefore adaptable to a laboratorial teaching and learning context.

  11. Effects of Cosmological Constant on Clustering of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hameeda, Mir; Faizal, Mir; Ali, Ahmed Farag

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the effect of the expansion of the universe on the clustering of galaxies. We evaluate the configurational integral for interacting system of galaxies in an expanding universe by including effects produced by the cosmological constant. The gravitational partition function is obtained using this configuration integral. Thermodynamic quantities, specifically, Helmholtz free energy, entropy, internal energy, pressure and chemical potential are also derived for this system. It is observed that they depend on the modified clustering parameter for this system of galaxies. It is also demonstrated that these thermodynamical quantities get corrected because of the cosmological constant.

  12. An Experimental System of Constant Volume Combustion Bomb for Dual-fuel of Diesel/Methanol%一种研究柴油甲醇双燃料的定容燃烧弹试验装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚春德; 代乾; 许汉君; 杨广峰

    2012-01-01

    An experimental system of constant volume combustion bomb was designed and developed,which was carried out for the fundamental research of combustion characteristics of diesel in premixed air/methanol mixtures atmosphere.The distribution,function and characteristics of the sub-system of the experimental equipment were introduced.The experimental results show that the existence of methanol in the mixture can suppress ignition of diesel fuel.As the increase of the methanol concentration in the mixture,the flame of the combustion becomes dim and consequently the formation of soot are inhibited.Comparing with the combustion of diesel in the pure air atmosphere the ignition delay of diesel fuel is postponed and the lift-off length of diesel fuel flame is extended and the variation of lift-off length is strengthened in the premixed methanol ambient.%设计并研制了一种定容燃烧弹试验装置,用于对柴油在甲醇/空气预混均质混合气中燃烧特性的基础研究。介绍了该试验装置的各子系统的原理、结构及特点。定容燃烧弹试验结果表明:甲醇抑制了柴油的着火燃烧,随着甲醇/空气混合气浓度的增大,燃烧火焰变暗,碳烟生成受到抑制。与空气热氛围相比,甲醇/空气混合气氛围延长了柴油的滞燃期,加长了火焰的浮起长度。火焰稳定后,甲醇氛围中火焰的浮起长度随时间的变化比在纯空气氛围中大。

  13. Built-in PID module based inverter constant pressure water supply system%基于变频器内置PID模块的恒压供水系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柏松; 熊建斌; 李长庚

    2015-01-01

    The traditional water supply system for the pump consumes a lot of energy, resulting in inefficient water supply, energy consumption, water pressure and some of the equipment instability, poor reliability and higher cost of equipment problems. this paper describes a set of intelligent control system consists of PLC, inverter and its own PID function,the pump motor and pressure sensors and other components of the system using the drive comes with PID function not only meet the domestic water supply of quality,reliable, energy efficiency and device stability requirements,but also improves the previous use of PLC expansion modules plus PID, PID algorithm programming caused by difficult,difficult to debug problems,and reduced equipment costs.And the actual hydraulic pressure sensor mounted into an analog signal is transmitted directly to the drive, the drive comes with PID function by regulating the system parameters to achieve variable speed,quickly and accurately adjust the pump speed, thus changing the water pressure size,reach constant pressure water supply purposes.Combined PLC and inverter control start and stop the pump motor and frequency inverter operation.Using the drive can quickly and smoothly adjust the pump motor speed, and the way to start the pump motor soft start, but also effectively easing the supply process of"water hammer."%针对传统的供水系统供水的水泵消耗了大量的电能,造成供水效率低下、耗能大、水压和部分设备不稳定、可靠性差以及设备造价高等问题,文中提出一种基于PLC、变频器及其自带PID功能、泵电机和压力传感器等组成的一套智能控制系统,该系统利用变频器自带PID功能不仅可以满足对生活供水的质量、可靠性、节能性和设备稳定性的要求,而且改善了以往利用PLC加PID扩展功能模块,造成的PID算法编程难度大、调试困难等问题,并降低了设备成本.利用压力传感器将实际水压装换成模拟信

  14. NVU dynamics. III. Simulating molecules at constant potential energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Trond; Dyre, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    This is the final paper in a series that introduces geodesic molecular dynamics at constant potential energy. This dynamics is entitled NVU dynamics in analogy to standard energy-conserving Newtonian NVE dynamics. In the first two papers [T. S. Ingebrigtsen, S. Toxvaerd, O. J. Heilmann, T. B......-terphenyl (OTP) and rigid SPC/E water. The rigid bonds introduce additional constraints beyond that of constant potential energy for atomic systems. The rigid-bond NVU algorithm conserves potential energy, bond lengths, and step length for indefinitely long runs. The quantities probed in simulations give results....... In this paper, the NVU algorithm for atomic systems is extended to be able to simulate the geodesic motion of molecules at constant potential energy. We derive an algorithm for simulating rigid bonds and test this algorithm on three different systems: an asymmetric dumbbell model, Lewis-Wahnström o...

  15. On a time varying fine structure constant

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, M S; Berman, Marcelo S.; Trevisan, Luis A.

    2001-01-01

    By employing Dirac LNH, and a further generalization by Berman (GLNH), we estimate how should vary the total number of nucleons, the energy density, Newton Gravitational constant, the cosmological constant, the magnetic permeability and electric permitivity, of the Universe,in order to account for the experimentally observed time variation of the fine structure constant. As a bonus,we find an acceptable value for the deceleration parameter of the present Universe, compatible with the Supernovae observations.

  16. Singularities in universes with negative cosmological constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipler, F.J.

    1976-10-01

    It is well known that many universes with negative cosmological constant contain singularities. We shall generalize this result by proving that all closed universes with negative cosmological constant are both future and past timelike geodesically incomplete if the strong energy condition holds. No global causality conditions or restrictions on the initial data are used in the proof. Furthermore, we shall show that all open universes with a Cauchy surface and a negative cosmological constant are singular if the strong energy condition holds. (AIP)

  17. Coasting cosmologies with time dependent cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Pimentel, L O; Pimentel, Luis O.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of a time dependent cosmological constant is considered in a family of scalar tensor theories. Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological models for vacumm and perfect fluid matter are found. They have a linear expansion factor, the so called coasting cosmology, the gravitational "constant" decreace inversely with time; this model satisfy the Dirac hipotesis. The cosmological "constant" decreace inversely with the square of time, therefore we can have a very small value for it at present time.

  18. Surprises in numerical expressions of physical constants

    CERN Document Server

    Amir, Ariel; Tokieda, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    In science, as in life, `surprises' can be adequately appreciated only in the presence of a null model, what we expect a priori. In physics, theories sometimes express the values of dimensionless physical constants as combinations of mathematical constants like pi or e. The inverse problem also arises, whereby the measured value of a physical constant admits a `surprisingly' simple approximation in terms of well-known mathematical constants. Can we estimate the probability for this to be a mere coincidence, rather than an inkling of some theory? We answer the question in the most naive form.

  19. A natural cosmological constant from chameleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nastase, Horatiu, E-mail: nastase@ift.unesp.br [Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP-Universidade Estadual Paulista, R. Dr. Bento T. Ferraz 271, Bl. II, Sao Paulo 01140-070, SP (Brazil); Weltman, Amanda, E-mail: amanda.weltman@uct.ac.za [Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa)

    2015-07-30

    We present a simple model where the effective cosmological constant appears from chameleon scalar fields. For a Kachru–Kallosh–Linde–Trivedi (KKLT)-inspired form of the potential and a particular chameleon coupling to the local density, patches of approximately constant scalar field potential cluster around regions of matter with density above a certain value, generating the effect of a cosmological constant on large scales. This construction addresses both the cosmological constant problem (why Λ is so small, yet nonzero) and the coincidence problem (why Λ is comparable to the matter density now)

  20. A natural cosmological constant from chameleons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horatiu Nastase

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple model where the effective cosmological constant appears from chameleon scalar fields. For a Kachru–Kallosh–Linde–Trivedi (KKLT-inspired form of the potential and a particular chameleon coupling to the local density, patches of approximately constant scalar field potential cluster around regions of matter with density above a certain value, generating the effect of a cosmological constant on large scales. This construction addresses both the cosmological constant problem (why Λ is so small, yet nonzero and the coincidence problem (why Λ is comparable to the matter density now.

  1. Motion on constant curvature spaces and quantization using Noether symmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Paul

    2014-12-01

    A general approach is presented for quantizing a metric nonlinear system on a manifold of constant curvature. It makes use of a curvature dependent procedure which relies on determining Noether symmetries from the metric. The curvature of the space functions as a constant parameter. For a specific metric which defines the manifold, Lie differentiation of the metric gives these symmetries. A metric is used such that the resulting Schrödinger equation can be solved in terms of hypergeometric functions. This permits the investigation of both the energy spectrum and wave functions exactly for this system.

  2. Scheduling of semiconductor product line based on constant work in process release system%基于固定在制品数投料系统的半导体生产线调度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵奇; 吴智铭

    2007-01-01

    为优化半导体生产系统,针对半导体生产线的特点,建立基于在制品数(Work in Process,WIP)水平控制投料的数学模型.通过仿真试验,得出不同WIP水平对生产线性能的影响;比较固定在制品数(CONstant WIP,CONWIP)投料系统与固定时间间隔投料(CONstant Release Interval,CONRIN)系统之间的性能差异.在不停线的情况下,对增加生产品种的生产线进行分析,得出一些关于影响WIP水平因素的定性规律.

  3. Constant Angle Surfaces in the Heisenberg Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johan FASTENAKELS; Marian Ioan MUNTEANU; Joeri VAN DER VEKEN

    2011-01-01

    In this article we extend the notion of constant angle surfaces in S2 × R and H2 × R to general Bianchi-Cartan-Vranceanu spaces. We show that these surfaces have constant Gaussian curvature and we give a complete local classification in the Heisenberg group.

  4. Physical Properties of Triglycerides IV. Dielectric Constant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, T.H.; Vlugter, J.C.

    1967-01-01

    Dielectric constants at 20° and at 40° C of a number of triglycerides in the liquid state have been measured. A molar additive function of the dielectric constant, based on a relation derived by J. van Elk, was used in combination with a previously derived equation for triglycerides to give an equat

  5. The time constant of the somatogravic illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia Grácio, B J; de Winkel, K N; Groen, E L; Wentink, M; Bos, J E

    2013-02-01

    Without visual feedback, humans perceive tilt when experiencing a sustained linear acceleration. This tilt illusion is commonly referred to as the somatogravic illusion. Although the physiological basis of the illusion seems to be well understood, the dynamic behavior is still subject to discussion. In this study, the dynamic behavior of the illusion was measured experimentally for three motion profiles with different frequency content. Subjects were exposed to pure centripetal accelerations in the lateral direction and were asked to indicate their tilt percept by means of a joystick. Variable-radius centrifugation during constant angular rotation was used to generate these motion profiles. Two self-motion perception models were fitted to the experimental data and were used to obtain the time constant of the somatogravic illusion. Results showed that the time constant of the somatogravic illusion was on the order of two seconds, in contrast to the higher time constant found in fixed-radius centrifugation studies. Furthermore, the time constant was significantly affected by the frequency content of the motion profiles. Motion profiles with higher frequency content revealed shorter time constants which cannot be explained by self-motion perception models that assume a fixed time constant. Therefore, these models need to be improved with a mechanism that deals with this variable time constant. Apart from the fundamental importance, these results also have practical consequences for the simulation of sustained accelerations in motion simulators.

  6. Chiral Corrections to Vector Meson Decay Constants

    CERN Document Server

    Bijnens, J; Talavera, P; Bijnens, Johan; Gosdzinsky, Peter; Talavera, Pere

    1998-01-01

    We calculate the leading quark mass corrections of order $m_q\\log(m_q)$, $m_q$ and $m_q^{3/2}$ to the vector meson decay constants within Heavy Vector Meson Chiral Perturbation Theory. We discuss the issue of electromagnetic gauge invariance and the heavy mass expansion. Reasonably good fits to the observed decay constants are obtained.

  7. Fields of rational constants of cyclic factorizable derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Zielinski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe all rational constants of a large family of four-variable cyclic factorizable derivations. Thus, we determine all rational first integrals of their corresponding systems of differential equations. Moreover, we give a characteristic of all four-variable Lotka-Volterra derivations with a nontrivial rational constant. All considerations are over an arbitrary field of characteristic zero. Our main tool is the investigation of the cofactors of strict Darboux polynomials. Factorizable derivations are important in derivation theory. Namely, we may associate the factorizable derivation with any given derivation of a polynomial ring and that construction helps to determine rational constants of arbitrary derivations. Besides, Lotka-Volterra systems play a significant role in population biology, laser physics and plasma physics.

  8. Exergy analysis of integrated photovoltaic thermal solar water heater under constant flow rate and constant collection temperature modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Arvind [Department of Design, Production and Management, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Dubey, Swapnil; Sandhu, G.S. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Sodha, M.S. [Department of Education and Physics, Lucknow University, Lucknow 226007 (India); Anwar, S.I. [Indian Institute of Sugar-cane Research, Lucknow, U.P. (India)

    2009-12-15

    In this communication, an analytical expression for the water temperature of an integrated photovoltaic thermal solar (IPVTS) water heater under constant flow rate hot water withdrawal has been obtained. Analysis is based on basic energy balance for hybrid flat plate collector and storage tank, respectively, in the terms of design and climatic parameters. Further, an analysis has also been extended for hot water withdrawal at constant collection temperature. Numerical computations have been carried out for the design and climatic parameters of the system used by Huang et al. [Huang BJ, Lin TH, Hung WC, Sun FS. Performance evaluation of solar photovoltaic/thermal systems. Sol Energy 2001; 70(5): 443-8]. It is observed that the daily overall thermal efficiency of IPVTS system increases with increase constant flow rate and decrease with increase of constant collection temperature. The exergy analysis of IPVTS system has also been carried out. It is further to be noted that the overall exergy and thermal efficiency of an integrated photovoltaic thermal solar system (IPVTS) is maximum at the hot water withdrawal flow rate of 0.006 kg/s. The hourly net electrical power available from the system has also been evaluated. (author)

  9. String theory, cosmology and varying constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damour, Thibault

    In string theory the coupling `constants' appearing in the low-energy effective Lagrangian are determined by the vacuum expectation values of some (a priori) massless scalar fields (dilaton, moduli). This naturally leads one to expect a correlated variation of all the coupling constants, and an associated violation of the equivalence principle. We review some string-inspired theoretical models which incorporate such a spacetime variation of coupling constants while remaining naturally compatible both with phenomenological constraints coming from geochemical data (Oklo; Rhenium decay) and with present equivalence principle tests. Barring a very unnatural fine-tuning of parameters, a variation of the fine-structure constant as large as that recently `observed' by Webb et al. in quasar absorption spectra appears to be incompatible with these phenomenological constraints. Independently of any model, it is emphasized that the best experimental probe of varying constants are high-precision tests of the universality of free fall, such as MICROSCOPE and STEP.

  10. String theory, cosmology and varying constants

    CERN Document Server

    Damour, Thibault Marie Alban Guillaume

    2002-01-01

    In string theory the coupling ``constants'' appearing in the low-energy effective Lagrangian are determined by the vacuum expectation values of some (a priori) massless scalar fields (dilaton, moduli). This naturally leads one to expect a correlated variation of all the coupling constants, and an associated violation of the equivalence principle. We review some string-inspired theoretical models which incorporate such a spacetime variation of coupling constants while remaining naturally compatible both with phenomenological constraints coming from geochemical data (Oklo; Rhenium decay) and with present equivalence principle tests. Barring a very unnatural fine-tuning of parameters, a variation of the fine-structure constant as large as that recently ``observed'' by Webb et al. in quasar absorption spectra appears to be incompatible with these phenomenological constraints. Independently of any model, it is emphasized that the best experimental probe of varying constants are high-precision tests of the universa...

  11. Cosmic Time Variation of the Gravitational Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    2000-01-01

    A pre-relativistic cosmological approach to electromagnetism and gravitation is explored that leads to a cosmic time variation of the fundamental constants. Space itself is supposed to have physical substance, which manifests by its permeability. The scale factors of the permeability tensor induce a time variation of the fundamental constants. Atomic radii, periods, and energy levels scale in cosmic time, which results in dispersionless redshifts without invoking a space expansion. Hubble constant and deceleration parameter are reviewed in this context. The time variation of the gravitational constant at the present epoch can be expressed in terms of these quantities. This provides a completely new way to restrain the deceleration parameter from laboratory bounds on the time variation of the gravitational constant. This variation also affects the redshift dependence of angular diameters and the surface brightness, and we study in some detail the redshift scaling of the linear sizes of radio sources. The effec...

  12. General Relativity, Cosmological Constant and Modular Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Kraniotis, G V

    2001-01-01

    Strong field (exact) solutions of the gravitational field equations of General Relativity in the presence of a Cosmological Constant are investigated. In particular, a full exact solution is derived within the inhomogeneous Szekeres-Szafron family of space-time line element with a nonzero Cosmological Constant. The resulting solution connects, in an intrinsic way, General Relativity with the theory of modular forms and elliptic curves and thus to the theory of Taniyama-Shimura.The homogeneous FLRW limit of the above space-time elements is recovered and we solve exactly the resulting Friedmann Robertson field equation with the appropriate matter density for generic values of the Cosmological Constant $ \\Lambda $ and curvature constant $K$. A formal expression for the Hubble constant is derived. The cosmological implications of the resulting non-linear solutions are systematically investigated. Two particularly interesting solutions i) the case of a flat universe $K=0,\\Lambda \

  13. The Determination of the Strong Coupling Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissertori, Günther

    2016-10-01

    The strong coupling constant is one of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Theory of particle physics. In this review I will briefly summarise the theoretical framework, within which the strong coupling constant is defined and how it is connected to measurable observables. Then I will give an historical overview of its experimental determinations and discuss the current status and world average value. Among the many different techniques used to determine this coupling constant in the context of quantum chromodynamics, I will focus in particular on a number of measurements carried out at the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN.

  14. Some Zero-Sum Constants with Weights

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S D Adhikari; R Balasubramanian; F Pappalardi; P Rath

    2008-05-01

    For an abelian group , the Davenport constant () is defined to be the smallest natural number such that any sequence of elements in has a non-empty subsequence whose sum is zero (the identity element). Motivated by some recent developments around the notion of Davenport constant with weights, we study them in some basic cases. We also define a new combinatorial invariant related to $(\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z})^d$, more in the spirit of some constants considered by Harborth and others and obtain its exact value in the case of $(\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z})^2$ where is an odd integer.

  15. Fractional crystallization of iron meteorites: Constant versus changing partition coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    Analyses of magmatic iron meteorites, plotted on LogC(sub i) vs LogC(sub Ni) diagrams, often form linear arrays. Traditionally, this linearity has been ascribed to fractional crystallization under the assumption of constant partition coefficients (i.e., Rayleigh fractionation). Paradoxically, however, partition coefficients in the Fe-Ni-S-P system are decidedly not constant. This contribution provides a rationale for understanding how trends on LogC(sub i) vs LogC(sub Ni) diagrams can be linear, even when partition coefficients are changing rapidly.

  16. Marshak waves: Constant flux vs constant T-a (slight) paradigm shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, M.D.

    1994-12-22

    We review the basic scaling laws for Marshak waves and point out the differences in results for wall loss, albedo, and Marshak depth when a constant absorbed flux is considered as opposed to a constant absorbed temperature. Comparisons with LASNEX simulations and with data are presented that imply that a constant absorbed flux is a more appropriate boundary condition.

  17. Biodegradation testing of chemicals with high Henry's constants - Separating mass and effective concentration reveals higher rate constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Heidi; Andersen, Henrik R; Comber, Mike; Mayer, Philipp

    2017-05-01

    During simulation-type biodegradation tests, volatile chemicals will continuously partition between water phase and headspace. This study addressed how (1) this partitioning affects test results and (2) can be accounted for by combining equilibrium partition and dynamic biodegradation models. An aqueous mixture of 9 (semi)volatile chemicals was first generated using passive dosing and then diluted with environmental surface water producing concentrations in the ng/L to μg/L range. After incubation for 2 h to 4 weeks, automated Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME) was applied directly on the test systems to measure substrate depletion by biodegradation relatively to abiotic controls. HS-SPME was also applied to determine air to water partitioning ratios. Biodegradation rate constants relating to the chemical in the water phase, kwater, were generally a factor 1 to 11 times higher than biodegradation rate constants relating to the total mass of chemical in the test system, ksystem, with one exceptional factor of 72 times for a long chain alkane. True water phase degradation rate constants were found (i) more appropriate for risk assessment than test system rate constants, (ii) to facilitate extrapolation to other air-water systems and (iii) to be better defined input parameters for aquatic exposure and fate models.

  18. Determination of the gravitational constant G

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhong-kun; LIU Qi; LUO Jun

    2006-01-01

    A precise knowledge of the Newtonian gravitational constant G has an important role in physics and is of considerable meteorological interest.Although G was the first physical constant to be introduced and measured in the history of science,it is still the least precisely determined of all the fundamental constants of nature.The 2002 CODATA recommended value for G,G=(6.6742±0.0010)×10-11m3·kg-1·s-2,has an uncertainty of 150 parts per million (ppm),much larger than that of all other fundamental constants.Reviewed here is the status of our knowledge of the absolute value of G,methods for determining G,and recent high precision experiments for determining G.

  19. Interacting universes and the cosmological constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Serrano, A. [Centro de Física “Miguel Catalán”, Instituto de Física Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estación Ecológica de Biocosmología, Pedro de Alvarado 14, 06411 Medellín (Spain); Bastos, C. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Bertolami, O. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Robles-Pérez, S., E-mail: salvarp@imaff.cfmac.csic.es [Centro de Física “Miguel Catalán”, Instituto de Física Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estación Ecológica de Biocosmología, Pedro de Alvarado 14, 06411 Medellín (Spain); Física Teórica, Universidad del País Vasco, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2013-02-12

    In this Letter it is studied the effects that an interaction scheme among universes can have in the values of their cosmological constants. In the case of two interacting universes, the value of the cosmological constant of one of the universes becomes very close to zero at the expense of an increasing value of the cosmological constant of the partner universe. In the more general case of a chain of N interacting universes with periodic boundary conditions, the spectrum of the Hamiltonian splits into a large number of levels, each of them associated with a particular value of the cosmological constant, that can be occupied by single universes revealing a collective behavior that plainly shows that the multiverse is much more than the mere sum of its parts.

  20. The time constant of the somatogravic illusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correia Grácio, B.J.; Winkel, K.N. de; Groen, E.L.; Wentink, M.; Bos, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Met desdemona hebben we gevonden dat de tijd constante van de somatografische illusie rond twee seconden is. Dit resultaat verschilt van wat was gevonden in ander onderzoek dat gebruikt maakt van een gewone centrifuge

  1. Automated real time constant-specificity surveillance for disease outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brownstein John S

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For real time surveillance, detection of abnormal disease patterns is based on a difference between patterns observed, and those predicted by models of historical data. The usefulness of outbreak detection strategies depends on their specificity; the false alarm rate affects the interpretation of alarms. Results We evaluate the specificity of five traditional models: autoregressive, Serfling, trimmed seasonal, wavelet-based, and generalized linear. We apply each to 12 years of emergency department visits for respiratory infection syndromes at a pediatric hospital, finding that the specificity of the five models was almost always a non-constant function of the day of the week, month, and year of the study (p Conclusion Modeling the variance of visit patterns enables real-time detection with known, constant specificity at all times. With constant specificity, public health practitioners can better interpret the alarms and better evaluate the cost-effectiveness of surveillance systems.

  2. The Cosmological Constant Problem from a Brane-World Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Förste, S; Lavignac, Stephane; Nilles, Hans Peter; Forste, Stefan; Lalak, Zygmunt; Lavignac, St\\'ephane; Nilles, Hans Peter

    2000-01-01

    We point out several subtleties arising in brane-world scenarios of cosmological constant cancellation. We show that solutions with curvature singularities are inconsistent, unless the contribution to the effective four-dimentional cosmological constant of the physics that resolves the singularities is fine-tuned. This holds for both flat and curved branes. Irrespective of this problem, we then study an isolated class of flat solutions in models where a bulk scalar field with a vanishing potential couples to a 3-brane. We give an example where the introduction of a bulk scalar potential results in a nonzero cosmological constant. Finally we comment on the stability of classical solutions of the brane system with respect to quantum corrections.

  3. Prime rings with PI rings of constants

    CERN Document Server

    Kharchenko, V K; Rodríguez-Romo, S

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that if the ring of constants of a restricted differential Lie algebra with a quasi-Frobenius inner part satisfies a polynomial identity (PI) then the original prime ring has a generalized polynomial identitiy (GPI). If additionally the ring of constants is semiprime then the original ring is PI. The case of a non-quasi-Frobenius inner part is also considered.

  4. Trialogue on the number of fundamental constants

    CERN Document Server

    Duff, Michael J; Veneziano, Gabriele

    2002-01-01

    This paper consists of three separate articles on the number of fundamental dimensionful constants in physics. We started our debate in summer 1992 on the terrace of the famous CERN cafeteria. In the summer of 2001 we returned to the subject to find that our views still diverged and decided to explain our current positions. LBO develops the traditional approach with three constants, GV argues in favor of just two, while MJD advocates zero.

  5. Inflationary Phase with Time Varying Fundamental Constants

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, M S; Berman, Marcelo S.; Trevisan, Luis A.

    2002-01-01

    Following Barrow, and Barrow and collaborators, we find a cosmological JBD model, with varying speed of light and varying fine structure constant, where the deceleration parameter is -1,causing acceleration of the Universe.Indeed, we have an exponential inflationary phase. Plancks time, energy, length,etc.,might have had different numerical values in the past, than those available in the litterature, due to the varying values for speed of light, and gravitational constant.

  6. The Origin of the Constant Carbohydrate Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Herbert Read

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Constant Carbohydrate diet, based entirely on carbohydrate exchanges, is now widely used in the dietary treatment of diabetes mellitus. Being based on sound scientific principles and simple in design, the Constant Carabohydrate diet is appropriate for all those having diabetes mellitus, young or old, no matter their ethncity. This report describes why and how it was developed in 1951. Its simplicity makes it adaptable to all ethnic diets.

  7. The Origin of the Constant Carbohydrate Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Read CharlesHerbert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Constant Carbohydrate diet, based entirely on carbohydrate exchanges, is now widely used in the dietary treatment of diabetes mellitus. Being based on sound scientific principles and simple in design, the Constant Carabohydrate diet is appropriate for all those having diabetes mellitus, young or old, no matter their ethncity. This report describes why and how it was developed in 1951. Its simplicity makes it adaptable to all ethnic diets.

  8. Beyond lensing by the cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Faraoni, Valerio

    2016-01-01

    The long-standing problem of whether the cosmological constant affects directly the deflection of light caused by a gravitational lens is reconsidered. We use a new approach based on the Hawking quasilocal mass of a sphere grazed by light rays and on its splitting into local and cosmological parts. Previous literature restricted to the cosmological constant is extended to any form of dark energy accelerating the universe in which the gravitational lens is embedded.

  9. Beyond lensing by the cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraoni, Valerio; Lapierre-Léonard, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    The long-standing problem of whether the cosmological constant affects directly the deflection of light caused by a gravitational lens is reconsidered. We use a new approach based on the Hawking quasilocal mass of a sphere grazed by light rays and on its splitting into local and cosmological parts. Previous literature restricted to the cosmological constant is extended to any form of dark energy accelerating the universe in which the gravitational lens is embedded.

  10. A constant elasticity of profit production function

    OpenAIRE

    Beard, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    Impact analysis of changes in production inputs may be simplified if one can apply a constant adjustment factor to profit. In particular, if a production function can be found for which the elasticity of profit is constant and this function has desirable properties, then one can use the input elasticity of profit to study the impact of input changes on profit. In this paper such a production function is derived from first principles.

  11. RNA structure and scalar coupling constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinoco, I. Jr.; Cai, Z.; Hines, J.V.; Landry, S.M.; SantaLucia, J. Jr.; Shen, L.X.; Varani, G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Signs and magnitudes of scalar coupling constants-spin-spin splittings-comprise a very large amount of data that can be used to establish the conformations of RNA molecules. Proton-proton and proton-phosphorus splittings have been used the most, but the availability of {sup 13}C-and {sup 15}N-labeled molecules allow many more coupling constants to be used for determining conformation. We will systematically consider the torsion angles that characterize a nucleotide unit and the coupling constants that depend on the values of these torsion angles. Karplus-type equations have been established relating many three-bond coupling constants to torsion angles. However, one- and two-bond coupling constants can also depend on conformation. Serianni and coworkers measured carbon-proton coupling constants in ribonucleosides and have calculated their values as a function of conformation. The signs of two-bond coupling can be very useful because it is easier to measure a sign than an accurate magnitude.

  12. Second constant of motion for two-dimensional positronium in a magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz, G

    2003-01-01

    Recent numerical work indicates that the classical motion of positronium in a constant magnetic field does not exhibit chaotic behavior if the system is confined to two dimensions. One would therefore expect this system to possess a second constant of the motion in addition to the total energy. In this paper we construct a generalization of the Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector and show that a component of this vector is a constant of the motion.

  13. Due-Date Assignment for Wafer Fabrication Based on Constant Work-in-Process Release System%采用CONWIP投料系统的晶圆制造交货期设置方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恒; 张志胜; 刘飏

    2009-01-01

    交货期设置是晶圆制造车间控制的重要任务之一.根据统计分析和排队理论提出3层结构交货期设置模型预测交货期.采用固定在制品(Constant WIP,CONWIP)投料保持系统在制品恒定和物料流程稳定,提出最大积聚未投放量法确定物料投放时间,采用基于模拟的等待时间分布估计等待时间.实例表明,该模型简单有效,提高了交货期预测的准确性.

  14. Environment-Dependent Fundamental Physical Constants

    CERN Document Server

    Terazawa, Hidezumi

    2012-01-01

    A theory of special inconstancy, in which some fundamental physical constants such as the fine-structure and gravitational constants may vary, is proposed in pregeometry. In the special theory of inconstancy, the \\alpha-G relation of \\alpha=3\\pi/[16ln(4\\pi/5GM_W^2)] between the varying fine-structure and gravitaional constants (where M_W is the charged weak boson mass) is derived from the hypothesis that both of these constants are related to the same fundamental length scale in nature. Furthermore, it leads to the prediction of dot{{\\alpha}}/\\alpha=(-0.8\\pm2.5)\\times10^{-14}yr^{-1} from the most precise limit of dot{G}/G=(-0.6\\pm2.0)\\times10^{-12}yr^{-1} by Thorsett, which is not only consistent with the recent observation of dot{{\\alpha}}/\\alpha=(0.5\\pm0.5)\\times10^{-14}yr^{-1} by Webb et al. but also feasible for future experimental tests. Also a theory of general inconstancy, in which any fundamental physical constants may vary, is proposed in "more general relativity", by assuming that the space-time is ...

  15. The case for the cosmological constant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Varun Sahni

    2000-07-01

    I present a short overview of current observational results and theoretical models for a cosmological constant. The main motivation for invoking a small cosmological constant (or -term) at the present epoch has to do with observations of high redshift Type Ia supernovae which suggest an accelerating universe. A flat accelerating universe is strongly favoured by combining supernovae observations with observations of CMB anisotropies on degree scales which give the `best-fit’ values ≃ 0.7 and m ≃ 0.3. A time dependent cosmological -term can be generated by scalar field models with exponential and power law potentials. Some of these models can alleviate the `fine tuning’ problem which faces the cosmological constant.

  16. Bounds on Gromov Hyperbolicity Constant in Graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    José M Rodríguez; José M Sigarreta

    2012-02-01

    If is a geodesic metric space and 1,2,3 $\\in$ , a geodesic triangle ={1,2,3} is the union of the three geodesics [1,2], [2,3] and [31] in . The space is -hyperbolic (in the Gromov sense) if any side of is contained in a -neighborhood of the union of two other sides, for every geodesic triangle in . If is hyperbolic, we denote by () the sharp hyperbolicity constant of , i.e. ()=$inf{$≥ 0$ : is -hyperbolic}. In this paper we relate the hyperbolicity constant of a graph with some known parameters of the graph, as its independence number, its maximum and minimum degree and its domination number. Furthermore, we compute explicitly the hyperbolicity constant of some class of product graphs.

  17. Degravitation of the Cosmological Constant in Bigravity

    CERN Document Server

    Platscher, Moritz

    2016-01-01

    In this article the phenomenon of degravitation of the cosmological constant is studied in the framework of bigravity. It is demonstrated that despite a sizable value of the cosmological constant its gravitational effect can be only mild. The bigravity framework is chosen for this demonstration as it leads to a consistent, ghost-free theory of massive gravity. We show that degravitation takes place in the limit where the physical graviton is dominantly a gauge invariant metric combination. We present and discuss several phenomenological consequences expected in this regime.

  18. Cosmological constant, supersymmetry, nonassociativity, and big numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir [KazNU, Department of Theoretical and Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); IETP, Al-Farabi KazNU, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2015-02-01

    The nonassociative generalization of supersymmetry is considered. It is shown that the associator of four supersymmetry generators has the coefficient ∝ ℎ/l{sub 0}{sup 2} where l0 is some characteristic length. Two cases are considered: (a) l{sub 0}{sup -2} coincides with the cosmological constant; (b) l{sub 0} is the classical radius of the electron. It is also shown that the scaled constant is of the order of 10{sup -120} for the first case and 10{sup -30} for the second case. The possible manifestation and smallness of nonassociativity is discussed. (orig.)

  19. Black Ring with a Positive Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, C S; Chu, Chong-Sun; Dai, Shou-Huang

    2007-01-01

    We construct a black ring with a cosmological constant in the five dimensional N=4 de Sitter supergravity theory. The black ring preserves half of the de Sitter supersymmetries. Unlike the flat case, this black ring is not rotating and the stability against gravitational self-attraction is balanced by the cosmological repulsion due to the cosmological constant. The black ring carries a dipole charge and this charge contributes to the first law of thermodynamics. The black ring has an entropy and mass which conform to the entropic N-bound proposal and the maximal mass conjecture.

  20. Atomic weights: no longer constants of nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Holden, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    Many of us were taught that the standard atomic weights we found in the back of our chemistry textbooks or on the Periodic Table of the Chemical Elements hanging on the wall of our chemistry classroom are constants of nature. This was common knowledge for more than a century and a half, but not anymore. The following text explains how advances in chemical instrumentation and isotopic analysis have changed the way we view atomic weights and why they are no longer constants of nature

  1. The Cosmological Constant Problem (2/2)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I will review the cosmological constant problem as a serious challenge to our notion of naturalness in Physics. Weinberg’s no go theorem is worked through in detail. I review a number of proposals possibly including Linde's universe multiplication, Coleman's wormholes, the fat graviton, and SLED, to name a few. Large distance modifications of gravity are also discussed, with causality considerations pointing towards a global modification as being the most sensible option. The global nature of the cosmological constant problem is also emphasized, and as a result, the sequestering scenario is reviewed in some detail, demonstrating the cancellation of the Standard Model vacuum energy through a global modification of General Relativity.

  2. The Cosmological Constant Problem (1/2)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I will review the cosmological constant problem as a serious challenge to our notion of naturalness in Physics. Weinberg’s no go theorem is worked through in detail. I review a number of proposals possibly including Linde's universe multiplication, Coleman's wormholes, the fat graviton, and SLED, to name a few. Large distance modifications of gravity are also discussed, with causality considerations pointing towards a global modification as being the most sensible option. The global nature of the cosmological constant problem is also emphasized, and as a result, the sequestering scenario is reviewed in some detail, demonstrating the cancellation of the Standard Model vacuum energy through a global modification of General Relativity.

  3. Do the fundamental constants change with time ?

    CERN Document Server

    Kanekar, Nissim

    2008-01-01

    Comparisons between the redshifts of spectral lines from cosmologically-distant galaxies can be used to probe temporal changes in low-energy fundamental constants like the fine structure constant and the proton-electron mass ratio. In this article, I review the results from, and the advantages and disadvantages of, the best techniques using this approach, before focussing on a new method, based on conjugate satellite OH lines, that appears to be less affected by systematic effects and hence holds much promise for the future.

  4. Variations of fundamental constants and multidimensional gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronnikova, K. A.; Skvortsova, M. V.

    We try to explain the recently reported large-scale spatial variations of the fine structure constant α, in agreement with other cosmological observations, in the framework of curvature-nonlinear multidimensional gravity. The original theory is reduced to a scalar-tensor theory in four dimensions, and the corresponding isotropic cosmologies are considered in both Einstein and Jordan conformal frames. In the Jordan frame one obtains simultaneous variations of α and the gravitational constant G, equal in magnitude. Long-wave small inhomogeneous perturbations of isotropic models allow for explaining spatial variations of α.

  5. Porous low dielectric constant materials for microelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, Mikhail R; Maex, Karen

    2006-01-15

    Materials with a low dielectric constant are required as interlayer dielectrics for the on-chip interconnection of ultra-large-scale integration devices to provide high speed, low dynamic power dissipation and low cross-talk noise. The selection of chemical compounds with low polarizability and the introduction of porosity result in a reduced dielectric constant. Integration of such materials into microelectronic circuits, however, poses a number of challenges, as the materials must meet strict requirements in terms of properties and reliability. These issues are the subject of the present paper.

  6. Coulomb field in a constant electromagnetic background

    CERN Document Server

    Adorno, T C; Shabad, A E

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear Maxwell equations are written up to the third-power deviations from a constant-field background, valid within any local nonlinear electrodynamics including QED with Euler-Heisenberg effective Lagrangian. Linear electric response to imposed static finite-sized charge is found in the vacuum filled by an arbitrary combination of constant and homogeneous electric and magnetic fields. The modified Coulomb field, corrections to the total charge and to the charge density are given in terms of derivatives of the effective Lagrangian with respect to the field invariants.

  7. Constant delivery temperature solar water heater - an integrated approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. [C.A.S. Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India); Kumar, N. [D.C.E. Muzaffarpur Institute of Technology, Bihar (India)

    1997-05-01

    An integrated model of a constant delivery temperature solar water heat-cum-active regenerative distillation system has been developed. The water used for the regenerative effect in the distiller of the proposed system is subsequently fed to the basin-cum-storage tank of the still through the heat exchanger (connected to the collector). The model varies the water mass flow rate in order to maintain a constant outlet temperature. With minor modifications in the solar water heater, the extra energy stored in the water mass due to non-utilization of capacity and/or non-linear utilization of capacity can be efficiently utilized for distillation purposes. In this process, the latent heat of vaporization is used for preheating the inlet water supply to the heat exchanger. The effect of insulation on maintaining the hot water temperature and distillate output is also presented. (Author)

  8. A Constant Factor Approximation Algorithm for Reordering Buffer Management

    CERN Document Server

    Avigdor-Elgrabli, Noa

    2012-01-01

    In the reordering buffer management problem (RBM) a sequence of $n$ colored items enters a buffer with limited capacity $k$. When the buffer is full, one item is removed to the output sequence, making room for the next input item. This step is repeated until the input sequence is exhausted and the buffer is empty. The objective is to find a sequence of removals that minimizes the total number of color changes in the output sequence. The problem formalizes numerous applications in computer and production systems, and is known to be NP-hard. We give the first constant factor approximation guarantee for RBM. Our algorithm is based on an intricate "rounding" of the solution to an LP relaxation for RBM, so it also establishes a constant upper bound on the integrality gap of this relaxation. Our results improve upon the best previous bound of $O(\\sqrt{\\log k})$ of Adamaszek et al. (STOC 2011) that used different methods and gave an online algorithm. Our constant factor approximation beats the super-constant lower b...

  9. Online feedback-controlled renal constant infusion clearances in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock-Kusch, Daniel; Shulhevich, Yury; Xie, Qing; Hesser, Juergen; Stsepankou, Dzmitry; Neudecker, Sabine; Friedemann, Jochen; Koenig, Stefan; Heinrich, Ralf; Hoecklin, Friederike; Pill, Johannes; Gretz, Norbert

    2012-08-01

    Constant infusion clearance techniques using exogenous renal markers are considered the gold standard for assessing the glomerular filtration rate. Here we describe a constant infusion clearance method in rats allowing the real-time monitoring of steady-state conditions using an automated closed-loop approach based on the transcutaneous measurement of the renal marker FITC-sinistrin. In order to optimize parameters to reach steady-state conditions as fast as possible, a Matlab-based simulation tool was established. Based on this, a real-time feedback-regulated approach for constant infusion clearance monitoring was developed. This was validated by determining hourly FITC-sinistrin plasma concentrations and the glomerular filtration rate in healthy and unilaterally nephrectomized rats. The transcutaneously assessed FITC-sinistrin fluorescence signal was found to reflect the plasma concentration. Our method allows the precise determination of the onset of steady-state marker concentration. Moreover, the steady state can be monitored and controlled in real time for several hours. This procedure is simple to perform since no urine samples and only one blood sample are required. Thus, we developed a real-time feedback-based system for optimal regulation and monitoring of a constant infusion clearance technique.

  10. Quenched heavy-light decay constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, R.M.; Booth, S.P.; Bowler, K.C.; Collins, S.; Henty, D.S.; Kenway, R.D.; Richards, D.G.; Shanahan, H.P.; Simone, J.N.; Simpson, A.D.; Wilkes, B.E. (Department of Physics, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)); Ewing, A.K.; Lellouch, L.; Sachrajda, C.T.; Wittig, H. (Physics Department, The University, Southampton SO9 5NH (United Kingdom)); (UKQCD Collaboration)

    1994-02-01

    We present results for heavy-light decay constants, using both propagating quarks and the static approximation, in [ital O]([ital a])-improved, quenched lattice QCD. At [beta]=6.2 on a 24[sup 3][times]48 lattice we find [ital f][sub [ital D

  11. Teaching Nanochemistry: Madelung Constants of Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Mark D.; Baker, A. David

    2010-01-01

    The Madelung constants for binary ionic nanoparticles are determined. The computational method described here sums the Coulombic interactions of each ion in the particle without the use of partial charges commonly used for bulk materials. The results show size-dependent lattice energies. This is a useful concept in teaching how properties such as…

  12. Can compactifications solve the cosmological constant problem?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzberg, Mark P. [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University,574 Boston Ave, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics,Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Masoumi, Ali [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University,574 Boston Ave, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Recently, there have been claims in the literature that the cosmological constant problem can be dynamically solved by specific compactifications of gravity from higher-dimensional toy models. These models have the novel feature that in the four-dimensional theory, the cosmological constant Λ is much smaller than the Planck density and in fact accumulates at Λ=0. Here we show that while these are very interesting models, they do not properly address the real cosmological constant problem. As we explain, the real problem is not simply to obtain Λ that is small in Planck units in a toy model, but to explain why Λ is much smaller than other mass scales (and combinations of scales) in the theory. Instead, in these toy models, all other particle mass scales have been either removed or sent to zero, thus ignoring the real problem. To this end, we provide a general argument that the included moduli masses are generically of order Hubble, so sending them to zero trivially sends the cosmological constant to zero. We also show that the fundamental Planck mass is being sent to zero, and so the central problem is trivially avoided by removing high energy physics altogether. On the other hand, by including various large mass scales from particle physics with a high fundamental Planck mass, one is faced with a real problem, whose only known solution involves accidental cancellations in a landscape.

  13. Quantum electrodynamics and the fundamental constants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Mohr

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available the results of critical experiments and the theoretical expressions for these results written in terms of the constants. Many of the theoretical expressions are based on quantum electrodynamics (QED, so the consistency of the comparison provides a critical test of the validity of the theory.

  14. Cosmological models with constant deceleration parameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, M.S.; de Mello Gomide, F.

    1988-02-01

    Berman presented elsewhere a law of variation for Hubble's parameter that yields constant deceleration parameter models of the universe. By analyzing Einstein, Pryce-Hoyle and Brans-Dicke cosmologies, we derive here the necessary relations in each model, considering a perfect fluid.

  15. Discrete Higgs and the Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Amore, Paolo; Diaz-Cruz, J Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    It is proposed that the Higgs vacuum possesses a small-scale structure that can explain the large discrepancy between the predicted electroweak vacuum energy density and the observed cosmological constant. An effective Lagrangian description is employed to obtain modifications to the Standard Model predictions that can be tested at collider experiments.

  16. LIOUVILLE'S THEOREM FOR LPDO WITH CONSTANT COEFFICIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Yazhou; Luo Xuebo

    2005-01-01

    In this note, the authors consider a class of linear partial differential operators P(θ) with constant coefficients and prove that the operator P(θ) has Liouville property if and only if the polynomial P(iξ) doesn't have roots in Rn\\{O}.

  17. Hamiltonian constants for several new entire solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Using the Hamiltonian identities and the corresponding Hamilto- nian constants for entire solutions of elliptic partial differential equations, we investigate several new entire solutions whose existence were shown recently, and show interesting properties of the solutions such as formulas for contact angles at infinity of concentration curves.

  18. Early publications about nonzero cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Horvath, I

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded for the 1998 discovery of the nonzero cosmological constant. This discovery is very important and surely worth to receive the Nobel Prize. However, years earlier several papers had been published (Paal, Horvath, & Lukacs 1992; Holba et al. 1992, Holba et al. 1994) about a very similar discovery from observational data.

  19. Calculation of Thermochemical Constants of Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Rao

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for calculation of thermo chemical constants and products of explosion of propellants from the knowledge of molecular formulae and heats of formation of the ingredients is given. A computer programme in AUTOMATH-400 has been established for the method. The results of application of the method for a number of propellants are given.

  20. Stability constants for silicate adsorbed to ferrihydrite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun; Wetche, T.P.; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten;

    1994-01-01

    Intrinsic surface acidity constants (K(a1)intr, K(a2)intr) and surface complexation constant for adsorption of orthosilicate onto synthetic ferrihydrite (K(Si) for the complex = FeOSi(OH)3) have been determined from acid/base titrations in 0.001-0.1 m NaClO4 electrolytes and silicate adsorption...... experiments in 0.01 m NaNO3 electrolyte (pH 3-6). The surface equilibrium constants were calculated according to the two-layer model by Dzombak & Morel (1990). Near equilibrium between protons/hydroxyls in solution and the ferrihydrite surface was obtained within minutes while equilibration with silicate...... required days-weeks, both reactions probably being diffusion controlled. Applying the values for specific surface area and site densities for ferrihydrite used by Dzombak & Morel (1990) (600 m2 g-1, 3.4 mumole m-2) the constants pK(al)intr 6.93 +/- 0.12, pK(a2)intr = 8.72 +/- 0.17 and log K(Si) = 3.62 were...

  1. Pion decay constants in dense skyrmion matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee H.-J.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available According to the QCD, the hadronic matter can have various phases with matter density and temperature. In general, when there is phase transition in a matter, it is known that a symmetry in the matter changes. In case of the hadronic matter, the chiral symmetry in the matter is expected to be restored when the matter density (or temperature increases. The actual order parameter with respect to the chiral symmetry in the hadronic matter is known as the quark condensate from the QCD, but the pion decay constant, corresponding to the radius of the chiral circle, plays the role of the order parameter in an effective field theoretical approach to the QCD. In this paper, by using the skyrmion model which is an effective theory to the QCD, we construct the skyrmion matter as a model of the hadronic matter (nuclear matter and calculate the pion decay constant in the matter. Because of presence of the matter, the pion decay constant is split into the two components, the temporal component and the spatial component. We discuss the phase transition in the skyrmion matter and behavior of the two components of the decay constant for massless pion with density of the skyrmion matter.

  2. The ideal Kolmogorov inertial range and constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, YE

    1993-01-01

    The energy transfer statistics measured in numerically simulated flows are found to be nearly self-similar for wavenumbers in the inertial range. Using the measured self-similar form, an 'ideal' energy transfer function and the corresponding energy flux rate were deduced. From this flux rate, the Kolmogorov constant was calculated to be 1.5, in excellent agreement with experiments.

  3. Monopoly price discrimination with constant elasticity demand

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre Pérez, Iñaki; Cowan, Simon George

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents new results on the welfare e¤ects of third-degree price discrimination under constant elasticity demand. We show that when both the share of the strong market under uniform pricing and the elasticity di¤erence between markets are high enough,then price discrimination not only can increase social welfare but also consumer surplus.

  4. The Elastic Constants for Wrought Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, R L; Hartmann, E C

    1945-01-01

    There are several constants which have been devised as numerical representations of the behavior of metals under the action of loadings which stress the metal within the range of elastic action. Some of these constants, such as Young's modulus of elasticity in tension and compression, shearing modulus of elasticity, and Poisson's ratio, are regularly used in engineering calculations. Precise tests and experience indicate that these elastic constants are practically unaffected by many of the factors which influence the other mechanical properties of materials and that a few careful determinations under properly controlled conditions are more useful and reliable than many determinations made under less favorable conditions. It is the purpose of this paper to outline the methods employed by the Aluminum Research Laboratories for the determination of some of these elastic constants, to list the values that have been determined for some of the wrought aluminum alloys, and to indicate the variations in the values that may be expected for some of the commercial products of these alloys.

  5. Supersymmetry Breaking and the Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Banks, T

    2014-01-01

    I review three attempts to explain the small value of the cosmological constant, and their connection to SUSY breaking. They are The String Landscape, Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions (SLED), and the Holographic Space-time Formalism invented by Fischler and myself.

  6. Hubble Constant, Lensing, and Time Delay in Relativistic MOND

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Time delay in galaxy gravitational lensing systems has been used to determine the value of Hubble constant. As in other dynamical phenomena at the scale of galaxy, dark matter is often invoked in gravitational lensing to account for the "missing mass" (the apparent discrepancy between the dynamical mass and the luminous mass). Alternatively, modified gravity can be used to explain the discrepancy. In this paper we adopt the Tensor-Vector-Scalar gravity (TeVeS), a relativistic version of MOdif...

  7. When is the growth index constant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polarski, David; Starobinsky, Alexei A.; Giacomini, Hector

    2016-12-01

    The growth index γ is an interesting tool to assess the phenomenology of dark energy (DE) models, in particular of those beyond general relativity (GR). We investigate the possibility for DE models to allow for a constant γ during the entire matter and DE dominated stages. It is shown that if DE is described by quintessence (a scalar field minimally coupled to gravity), this behaviour of γ is excluded either because it would require a transition to a phantom behaviour at some finite moment of time, or, in the case of tracking DE at the matter dominated stage, because the relative matter density Ωm appears to be too small. An infinite number of solutions, with Ωm and γ both constant, are found with wDE = 0 corresponding to Einstein-de Sitter universes. For all modified gravity DE models satisfying Geff >= G, among them the f(R) DE models suggested in the literature, the condition to have a constant wDE is strongly violated at the present epoch. In contrast, DE tracking dust-like matter deep in the matter era, but with Ωm G and an example is given using scalar-tensor gravity for a range of admissible values of γ. For constant wDE inside GR, departure from a quasi-constant value is limited until today. Even a large variation of wDE may not result in a clear signature in the change of γ. The change however is substantial in the future and the asymptotic value of γ is found while its slope with respect to Ωm (and with respect to z) diverges and tends to ‑∞.

  8. The Physiology Constant Database of Teen-Agers in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei-Qi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Physiology constants of adolescents are important to understand growing living systems and are a useful reference in clinical and epidemiological research. Until recently, physiology constants were not available in China and therefore most physiologists, physicians, and nutritionists had to use data from abroad for reference. However, the very difference between the Eastern and Western races casts doubt on the usefulness of overseas data. We have therefore created a database system to provide a repository for the storage of physiology constants of teen-agers in Beijing. The several thousands of pieces of data are now divided into hematological biochemistry, lung function, and cardiac function with all data manually checked before being transferred into the database. The database was accomplished through the development of a web interface, scripts, and a relational database. The physiology data were integrated into the relational database system to provide flexible facilities by using combinations of various terms and parameters. A web browser interface was designed for the users to facilitate their searching. The database is available on the web. The statistical table, scatter diagram, and histogram of the data are available for both anonym and user according to queries, while only the user can achieve detail, including download data and advanced search.

  9. The Hubble constant from galaxy lenses: impacts of triaxiality and model degeneracies

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The Hubble constant can be constrained using the time delays between multiple images of gravitationally lensed sources. In some notable cases, typical lensing analyses assuming isothermal galaxy density profiles produce low values for the Hubble constant, inconsistent with the result of the HST Key Project (72 +- 8 km/s/Mpc). Possible systematics in the values of the Hubble constant derived from galaxy lensing systems can result from a number of factors, e.g. neglect of environmental effects,...

  10. Block regularization of the Kepler problem on surfaces of revolution with positive constant curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Santoprete, Manuele

    2009-01-01

    We consider the Kepler problem on surfaces of revolution that are homeomorphic to $S^2$ and have constant Gaussian curvature. We show that the system is maximally superintegrable, finding constants of motion that generalize the Runge-Lentz vector. Then, using such first integrals, we determine the class of surfaces that lead to block-regularizable collision singularities. In particular we show that the singularities are always regularizable if the surfaces are spherical orbifolds of revolution with constant curvature.

  11. Time place learning and activity profile under constant light and constant dark in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Clarissa de Almeida; Lima, Jéssica Polyana da Silva; Silveira, Vanessa Augusta Magalhães; Miguel, Mário André Leocadio; Luchiari, Ana Carolina

    2017-02-20

    The ability to learn about the signs of variability in space and time is known as time place learning (TPL). To adjust their circadian rhythms, animals use stimuli that change regularly, such as the light-dark cycle, temperature, food availability or even social stimuli. Because light-dark cycle is the most important environmental temporal cue, we asked how a diurnal animal would perform TPL if this cue was removed. Zebrafish has been extensively studied in the chronobiology area due to it diurnal chronotype, thus, we studied the effects of constant light and constant dark on the time-place learning and activity profile in zebrafish. Our data show that while under constant light and dark condition zebrafish was not able of TPL, after 30days under the constant conditions, constant light led to higher activity level and less significant (robust) 24h rhythm.

  12. Frequency Dependence of Attenuation Constant of Dielectric Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Zadgaonkar

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Different dielectric materials have been studied for frequency dependence of attenuation constant. The sensitive cathode ray oscillograph method has been used to evaluate to the dielectric constant and loss factor, and from these attenuation constants have been calculated. The temperature remaining constant, a regular increase has been observed in attenuation constant, at higher frequencies of electro-magnetic propagating wave.

  13. Quantum Exclusion of Positive Cosmological Constant?

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2014-01-01

    We show that a positive cosmological constant is incompatible with the quantum-corpuscular resolution of de Sitter metric in form of a coherent state. The reason is very general and is due to the quantum self-destruction of the coherent state because of the scattering of constituent graviton quanta. This process creates an irreversible quantum clock, which precludes eternal de Sitter. It also eliminates the possibility of Boltzmann brains and Poincare recurrences. This effect is expected to be part of any microscopic theory that takes into account the quantum corpuscular structure of the cosmological background. This observation puts the cosmological constant problem in a very different light, promoting it, from a naturalness problem, into a question of quantum consistency. We are learning that quantum gravity cannot tolerate exceedingly-classical sources.

  14. The Cosmological Constant in the Quantum Multiverse

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Grant; Roberts, H L L

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a new framework for describing the multiverse has been proposed which is based on the principles of quantum mechanics. The framework allows for well-defined predictions, both regarding global properties of the universe and outcomes of particular experiments, according to a single probability formula. This provides complete unification of the eternally inflating multiverse and many worlds in quantum mechanics. In this paper we elucidate how cosmological parameters can be calculated in this framework, and study the probability distribution for the value of the cosmological constant. We consider both positive and negative values, and find that the observed value is consistent with the calculated distribution at an order of magnitude level. In particular, in contrast to the case of earlier measure proposals, our framework prefers a positive cosmological constant over a negative one. These results depend only moderately on how we model galaxy formation and life evolution therein.

  15. Lectures on the Cosmological Constant Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Padilla, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    These lectures on the cosmological constant problem were prepared for the X Mexican School on Gravitation and Mathematical Physics. The problem itself is explained in detail, emphasising the importance of radiative instability and the need to repeatedly fine tune as we change our effective description. Weinberg's no go theorem is worked through in detail. I review a number of proposals including Linde's universe multiplication, Coleman's wormholes, the fat graviton, and SLED, to name a few. Large distance modifications of gravity are also discussed, with causality considerations pointing towards a global modification as being the most sensible option. The global nature of the cosmological constant problem is also emphasized, and as a result, the sequestering scenario is reviewed in some detail, demonstrating the cancellation of the Standard Model vacuum energy through a global modification of General Relativity.

  16. Incompressible flows with piecewise constant density

    CERN Document Server

    Danchin, Raphaël

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with variable density. The aim is to prove existence and uniqueness results in the case of discontinuous ini- tial density. In dimension n = 2, 3, assuming only that the initial density is bounded and bounded away from zero, and that the initial velocity is smooth enough, we get the local-in-time existence of unique solutions. Uniqueness holds in any dimension and for a wider class of velocity fields. Let us emphasize that all those results are true for piecewise constant densities with arbitrarily large jumps. Global results are established in dimension two if the density is close enough to a positive constant, and in n-dimension if, in addition, the initial velocity is small. The Lagrangian formula- tion for describing the flow plays a key role in the analysis that is proposed in the present paper.

  17. Fat Euclidean Gravity with Small Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Sundrum, Raman

    2003-01-01

    The cosmological constant problem is usually considered an inevitable feature of any effective theory capturing well-tested gravitational and matter physics, without regard to the details of short-distance gravitational couplings. In this paper, a subtle effective description avoiding the problem is presented in a first quantized language, consistent with experiments and the Equivalence Principle. First quantization allows a minimal domain of validity to be carved out by cutting on the proper length of particle worldlines. This is facilitated by working in (locally) Euclidean spacetime, although considerations of unitarity are still addressed by analytic continuation from Lorentzian spacetime. The new effective description demonstrates that the cosmological constant problem {\\it is} sensitive to short-distance details of gravity, which can be probed experimentally. ``Fat Gravity'' toy models are presented, illustrating how gravity might shut off at short but testable distances, in a generally covariant manner...

  18. Negative Energy Cosmology and the Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Prokopec, Tomislav

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that string theories naturally compactify on anti-de Sitter spaces, and yet cosmological observations show no evidence of a negative cosmological constant in the early Universe's evolution. In this letter we present two simple nonlocal modifications of the standard Friedmann cosmology that can lead to observationally viable cosmologies with an initial (negative) cosmological constant. The nonlocal operators we include are toy models for the quantum cosmological backreaction. In Model I an initial quasiperiodic oscillatory epoch is followed by inflation and a late time matter era, representing a dark matter candidate. The backreaction in Model II quickly compensates the negative cosmological term such that the Ricci curvature scalar rapidly approaches zero, and the Universe ends up in a late time radiation era.

  19. Regular Black Holes with Cosmological Constant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MO Wen-Juan; CAI Rong-Gen; SU Ru-Keng

    2006-01-01

    We present a class of regular black holes with cosmological constant Λ in nonlinear electrodynamics. Instead of usual singularity behind black hole horizon, all fields and curvature invariants are regular everywhere for the regular black holes. Through gauge invariant approach, the linearly dynamical stability of the regular black hole is studied. In odd-parity sector, we find that the Λ term does not appear in the master equations of perturbations, which shows that the regular black hole is stable under odd-parity perturbations. On the other hand, for the even-parity sector, the master equations are more complicated than the case without the cosmological constant. We obtain the sufficient conditions for stability of the regular black hole. We also investigate the thermodynamic properties of the regular black hole, and find that those thermodynamic quantities do not satisfy the differential form of first law of black hole thermodynamics. The reason for violating the first law is revealed.

  20. Cosmological Constant or Variable Dark Energy?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li-Xin; ZHANG Cheng-Wu; LIU Hong-Ya

    2007-01-01

    @@ Selection statics of the Akaike information criterion (AIC) model and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC)model are applied to the Λ-cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological model, the constant equation of state of dark energy, w =constant, and the parametrized equation of state of dark energy, w(z) = w0 + w1z/(1 + z),to determine which one is the better cosmological model to describe the evolution of the universe by combining the recent cosmic observational data including Sne Ia, the size of baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) peak from SDSS, the three-year WMAP CMB shift parameter. The results show that AIC, BIC and current datasets are not powerful enough to discriminate one model from the others, though odds suggest differences between them.

  1. Hyperscaling violation and the shear diffusion constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolekar, Kedar S.; Mukherjee, Debangshu; Narayan, K.

    2016-09-01

    We consider holographic theories in bulk (d + 1)-dimensions with Lifshitz and hyperscaling violating exponents z , θ at finite temperature. By studying shear gravitational modes in the near-horizon region given certain self-consistent approximations, we obtain the corresponding shear diffusion constant on an appropriately defined stretched horizon, adapting the analysis of Kovtun, Son and Starinets. For generic exponents with d - z - θ > - 1, we find that the diffusion constant has power law scaling with the temperature, motivating us to guess a universal relation for the viscosity bound. When the exponents satisfy d - z - θ = - 1, we find logarithmic behaviour. This relation is equivalent to z = 2 +deff where deff =di - θ is the effective boundary spatial dimension (and di = d - 1 the actual spatial dimension). It is satisfied by the exponents in hyperscaling violating theories arising from null reductions of highly boosted black branes, and we comment on the corresponding analysis in that context.

  2. Constant envelope chirped OFDM power efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dida, Mussa A.; Hao, Huan; Anjum, M. R.; Ran, Tao

    2016-10-01

    Fractional Fourier OFDM or simply chirped OFDM performs better in time-frequency selective channel than its convectional OFDM. Although chirped OFDM outperforms OFDM it still inherits Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) drawback as a convectional OFDM. To eliminate PAPR drawback Constant Envelope OFDM was developed and for better performance in time frequency selective channel Constant Envelope Fractional Fourier OFDM (CE-COFDM) is used. Its BER performance is analyzed and compared to chirped OFDM and OFDM in AWGN and Rayleigh channel. The simulations show the BER performance of CE-COFDM is the same as chirped OFDM and OFDM. The power efficiency of CE-COFDM is also studied and different simulations performed shows CE-COFDM is more power efficient than chirped OFDM and convectional OFDM for class A and class B Linear Power Amplifier (LPA).

  3. Daylight calculations using constant luminance curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betman, E. [CRICYT, Mendoza (Argentina). Laboratorio de Ambiente Humano y Vivienda

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents a simple method to manually estimate daylight availability and to make daylight calculations using constant luminance curves calculated with local illuminance and irradiance data and the all-weather model for sky luminance distribution developed in the Atmospheric Science Research Center of the University of New York (ARSC) by Richard Perez et al. Work with constant luminance curves has the advantage that daylight calculations include the problem's directionality and preserve the information of the luminous climate of the place. This permits accurate knowledge of the resource and a strong basis to establish conclusions concerning topics related to the energy efficiency and comfort in buildings. The characteristics of the proposed method are compared with the method that uses the daylight factor. (author)

  4. Axionic Band Structure of the Cosmological Constant

    OpenAIRE

    Bachlechner, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    We argue that theories with multiple axions generically contain a large number of vacua that can account for the smallness of the cosmological constant. In a theory with N axions, the dominant instantons with charges Q determine the discrete symmetry of vacua. Subleading instantons break the leading periodicity and lift the vacuum degeneracy. For generic integer charges the number of distinct vacua is given by |det(Q)|~exp(N). Our construction motivates the existence of a landscape with a vas...

  5. Noteworthy dimensionless constant in gravitation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayos, F.; Lobo, J.A.; Llanta, E.

    1986-01-01

    A simple problem of gravitation is studied classically and in the Schwarzchild framework. A relationship is found between the parameters that define the trajectories of two particles (the first in radial motion and the second in a circular orbit) which are initially together and meet again after one revolution of particle 2. Dimensional analysis is the clue to explain the appearance of a dimensionless constant in the Newtonian case.

  6. Chiral Heterotic Strings with Positive Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Florakis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    We present explicit examples of semi-realistic heterotic models with spontaneously broken supersymmetry, which dynamically lead to breaking scales much smaller than $M_{\\rm Planck}$ and exponentially small positive values for the cosmological constant. Contrary to field theoretic intuition, we find that the global structure of the effective potential is significantly affected by contributions of massive and non-level matched string states and we investigate the conditions that dynamically ensure a number of desired properties.

  7. String coupling constant seems to be 1

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Youngsub

    2016-01-01

    We present a reasoning that the string coupling constant should be 1 from the assumption that the area spectrum derived from loop quantum gravity must be equal to the area spectrum calculated from "stringy differential geometry." To this end, we will use the loop quantum gravity area spectrum constructions proposed by Brian Kong and us, and stringy differential geometry based on double field theory recently proposed by Imtak Jeon, Kanghoon Lee and Jeong-Hyuck Park.

  8. Physical Basis for a Constant Lag Time

    CERN Document Server

    Socrates, Aristotle

    2012-01-01

    We show that the constant time lag prescription for tidal dissipation follows directly from the equations of motion of a tidally-forced fluid body, given some basic assumptions. They are (i) the equilibrium structure of the forced body is spherically-symmetric (ii) the tidal forcing is weak and non-resonant (iii) dissipation is weak. The lag time is an intrinsic property of the tidally-forced body and is independent of the orbital configuration.

  9. Chiral heterotic strings with positive cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florakis, Ioannis; Rizos, John

    2016-12-01

    We present explicit examples of semi-realistic heterotic models with spontaneously broken supersymmetry, which dynamically lead to breaking scales much smaller than MPlanck and exponentially small positive values for the cosmological constant. Contrary to field theoretic intuition, we find that the global structure of the effective potential is significantly affected by contributions of massive and non-level matched string states and we investigate the conditions that dynamically ensure a number of desired properties.

  10. Determination of Optical Constants of Polyarylenevinylene

    OpenAIRE

    高田, 徳幸; 村田, 英幸; 江良, 正直; 筒井, 哲夫; 斎藤, 省吾

    1991-01-01

    The optical constants of an extremely thin film which are indispensable for precise evaluation of its nonlinear susceptibilities have been determined by using the Kramers-Kronig (KK) analysis of the transmittance spectrum. High quality thin films of poly (arylenevinylene) family were prepared from the soluble precursor polymers. The transmittance measurements were performed in the wavelength region from 340 to 1000 nm. KK analysis of the transmittance spectrum gave much accurate results than ...

  11. Why all these prejudices against a constant?

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Eugenio

    2010-01-01

    The expansion of the observed universe appears to be accelerating. A simple explanation of this phenomenon is provided by the non-vanishing of the cosmological constant in the Einstein equations. Arguments are commonly presented to the effect that this simple explanation is not viable or not sufficient, and therefore we are facing the "great mystery" of the "nature of a dark energy". We argue that these arguments are unconvincing, or ill-founded.

  12. Fractional constant elasticity of variance model

    OpenAIRE

    Ngai Hang Chan; Chi Tim Ng

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops a European option pricing formula for fractional market models. Although there exist option pricing results for a fractional Black-Scholes model, they are established without accounting for stochastic volatility. In this paper, a fractional version of the Constant Elasticity of Variance (CEV) model is developed. European option pricing formula similar to that of the classical CEV model is obtained and a volatility skew pattern is revealed.

  13. Emergent gravity in spaces of constant curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Orlando; Haddad, Matthew

    2017-03-01

    In physical theories where the energy (action) is localized near a submanifold of a constant curvature space, there is a universal expression for the energy (or the action). We derive a multipole expansion for the energy that has a finite number of terms, and depends on intrinsic geometric invariants of the submanifold and extrinsic invariants of the embedding of the submanifold. This is the second of a pair of articles in which we try to develop a theory of emergent gravity arising from the embedding of a submanifold into an ambient space equipped with a quantum field theory. Our theoretical method requires a generalization of a formula due to by Hermann Weyl. While the first paper discussed the framework in Euclidean (Minkowski) space, here we discuss how this framework generalizes to spaces of constant sectional curvature. We focus primarily on anti de Sitter space. We then discuss how such a theory can give rise to a cosmological constant and Planck mass that are within reasonable bounds of the experimental values.

  14. Nonminimal coupling and the cosmological constant problem

    CERN Document Server

    Glavan, Dražen

    2015-01-01

    We consider a universe with a positive effective cosmological constant and a nonminimally coupled scalar field. When the coupling constant is negative, the scalar field exhibits linear growth at asymptotically late times, resulting in a decaying effective cosmological constant. The Hubble rate in the Jordan frame reaches a self-similar solution, $H=1/(\\epsilon t)$, where the principal slow roll parameter $\\epsilon$ depends on $\\xi$, reaching maximally $\\epsilon=2$ (radiation era scaling) in the limit when $\\xi\\rightarrow -\\infty$. Similar results are found in the Einstein frame (E), with $H_E=1/(\\epsilon_E t)$, but now $\\epsilon_E \\rightarrow 4/3$ as $\\xi\\rightarrow -\\infty$. Therefore in the presence of a nonminimally coupled scalar de Sitter is not any more an attractor, but instead (when $\\xi4/3$ at a rate $\\Gamma\\gg H$, the scaling changes to that of matter, $\\epsilon\\rightarrow \\epsilon_m$, and the energy density in the effective cosmological becomes a fixed fraction of the matter energy density, $M_{\\rm...

  15. When is the growth index constant?

    CERN Document Server

    Polarski, David; Giacomini, Hector

    2016-01-01

    The growth index $\\gamma$ is an interesting tool to assess the phenomenology of dark energy (DE) models, in particular of those beyond general relativity (GR). We investigate the possibility for DE models to allow for a constant $\\gamma$ during the entire matter and DE dominated stages. It is shown that if DE is described by quintessence (a scalar field minimally coupled to gravity), this behaviour of $\\gamma$ is excluded either because it would require a transition to a phantom behaviour at some finite moment of time, or, in the case of tracking DE at the matter dominated stage, because the relative matter density $\\Omega_m$ appears to be too small. An infinite number of solutions, with $\\Omega_m$ and $\\gamma$ both constant, are found with $w_{DE}=0$ corresponding to Einstein-de Sitter universes. For all modified gravity DE models satisfying $G_{\\rm eff}\\ge G$, among them the $f(R)$ DE models suggested in the literature, the condition to have a constant $w_{DE}$ is strongly violated at the present epoch. In ...

  16. Twelve Elastic Constants of Betula platyphylla Suk.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Liyu; Lu Zhenyou

    2004-01-01

    Wood elastic constants are needed to describe the elastic behaviors of wood and be taken as an important design parameter for wood-based composite materials and structural materials. This paper clarified the relationships between compliance coefficients and engineering elastic constants combined with orthotropic properties of wood, and twelve elastic constants of Betula platyphylla Suk. were measured by electrical strain gauges. Spreading the adhesive quantity cannot be excessive or too little when the strain flakes were glued. If excessive, the glue layer was too thick which would influence the strain flakes' performance, and if too little, glues plastered were not firm, which could not accurately transmit the strain. Wood as an orthotropic material, its modulus of elasticity and poisson's ratios are related by two formulas:μij /Ei =μji /Ej and μij 0.95) between the reciprocal of elastic modulus MOE-1 and the square of the ratio of depth to length (h/l)2, which indicate that shear modulus values measured were reliable by three point bending experiment.

  17. On recent SFR calibrations and the constant SFR approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Cervino, M; Hidalgo, S

    2016-01-01

    Star Formation Rate (SFR) inferences are based in the so-called constant SFR approximation, where synthesis models are require to provide a calibration; we aims to study the key points of such approximation to produce accurate SFR inferences. We use the intrinsic algebra used in synthesis models, and we explore how SFR can be inferred from the integrated light without any assumption about the underling Star Formation history (SFH). We show that the constant SFR approximation is actually a simplified expression of more deeper characteristics of synthesis models: It is a characterization of the evolution of single stellar populations (SSPs), acting the SSPs as sensitivity curve over different measures of the SFH can be obtained. As results, we find that (1) the best age to calibrate SFR indices is the age of the observed system (i.e. about 13Gyr for z=0 systems); (2) constant SFR and steady-state luminosities are not requirements to calibrate the SFR; (3) it is not possible to define a SFR single time scale ove...

  18. Pole-placement with constant gain output feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, B.; Lindorff, D. P.

    1973-01-01

    Davison (1970) has demonstrated that it is possible to assign max (m, p) poles of a linear time-invariant controllable and observable multivariable system arbitrarily close to desired locations by using constant gain output feedback. A new proof of Davison's theorem on pole placement is developed, and a system design procedure is described which offers some advantages over Davison's method. It is shown that in some cases more than max (m, p) poles can be assigned arbitrarily, and a least square design procedure is proposed to approximate the desired pole locations when it is not possible to place all the poles.

  19. An analysis of the tensile type anchor system interface characteristic rheological experiments under constant load%恒定荷载下拉力型锚杆系统界面流变实验特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓阳; 马露; 高文华

    2016-01-01

    More and more attention has been paid to the anchorage system rheology in geotechnical anchoring.Researches have been made for anchoring the mechanical properties of interface,and theory and tests of the anchoring interface shear stress distribution are obtained.But the rheology of anchorage interface of anchorage system is seldom examined to be a balanced stress influence.Based on the modified experimental device and system,in view of the anchoring interface rheology in anchorage,the interface rheological test is carried out and the anchorage system interface of rheological properties and rheological state standard are obtained.The results are of great realistic significance to adding the anchor rock mass stability control.%针对已经达到应力平衡的锚固系统开展锚固界面流变试验,验证了锚杆系统的4种破坏形式.锚固系统界面的流变过程主要经历初始、稳定和加速流变3个阶段,通过流变速率曲线可直接判定锚杆系统的界面流变状态.

  20. Of Matter Less Repulsive than a Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Cornish, N J; Cornish, Neil J.; Starkman, Glenn D.

    1998-01-01

    The case grows ever stronger that the average density of matter, ordinary and dark, is less than the critical density required for a flat universe. However, most of determinations of the mass density have been dynamical, hence sensitive only to matter which is clustered at or below the scale of the observed dynamical systems. The density may still be critical if there is a dark matter component which is relatively smooth on the scales of galaxies or clusters. Thoughts on this matter have focused on the possibility of an effective cosmological constant or vacuum energy. In this letter we examine an alternative possibility - that there is a second component to the dark matter which has a repulsive self-interaction. We show that given even very weak self-repulsion, this dark matter would remain unclustered. While this repulsive alternative is perhaps aptly named, it is arguably at least as palatable as a cosmological constant.

  1. Nonlinear Conductivity of a Holographic Superconductor Under Constant Electric Field

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Hua-Bi; Fan, Zheyong; Chen, Chiang-Mei

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of a two-dimensional superconductor under a constant electric field $E$ is studied by using the gauge/gravity correspondence. The pair breaking current induced by $E$ first increases to a peak value and then decreases to a constant value at late time, where the superconducting gap goes to zero, corresponding to a normal conducting phase. The peak value of the current is found to increase linearly with respect to the electric field. Moreover, the nonlinear conductivity, defined as an average of the conductivity in the superconducting phase, scales as $\\sim E^{-2/3}$ for large $E$ when the system is close to the critical temperature, which agrees with predictions from solving the time dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation.

  2. Optical constants of infrared (IR) materials in the IR region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendra, C. L.; Thutupalli, G. K. M.

    1992-01-01

    Optical constants, i.e., refractive index 'n' and absorption index 'k' of the IR materials, Ge, ThF4, CdTe and CdSe have been determined, through spectrophotometric method, in the IR region from 2.5 to 15 microns. It is seen that all these films are transparent in the IR region, and the optical constants of the films deposited at elevated temperatures (T = 200 C) are unaffected, even after subjecting to severe environs such as humidity and thermal shock/cycling. Making use of Ge/ThF4 and CdTe/CdSe coating combinations, IR antireflection coatings (ARCs) which can find applications in space-borne electrooptical systems have been successfully designed and developed. The resulting ARCs have not only efficient optical properties, low reflection loss and high transmission, but are also durable against adverse environments.

  3. Synthetic Strategies for High Dielectric Constant Silicone Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt

    Dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAPs) are a new and promising transducer technology and are often referred to as ‘artificial muscles’, due to their ability to undergo large deformations when stimulated by electric fields. DEAPs consist of a soft and thin elastomeric film (an elastomer...... synthetic strategies were developed in this Ph.D. thesis, in order to create silicone elastomers with high dielectric constants and thereby higher energy densities. The work focused on maintaining important properties such as dielectric loss, electrical breakdown strength and elastic modulus....... The methodology therefore involved chemically grafting high dielectric constant chemical groups onto the elastomer network, as this would potentially provide a stable elastomer system upon continued activation of the material. The first synthetic strategy involved the synthesis of a new type of cross...

  4. Time-dependent polymer rheology under constant stress and under constant shear conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. H.; Brodkey, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    A kinetic rate theory previously presented for describing non-Newtonian phenomena has been further modified to predict the flow behavior of viscoelastic materials under constant stress conditions. The thixotropic shear stress or shear rate is predicted by the kinetic theory, and the experimental stress or shear rate is obtained by modifying the thixotropic value by a stress or shear rate retardation term. The retardation term stems from a Maxwellian approach for stress retardation. In order to test the validity of this approach, transient and steady-state data were obtained for two solutions of polymethylmethacrylate in diethylphthalate. Both constant stress measurements and constant shear rate data were taken over a broad range.

  5. Competitive kinetics as a tool to determine rate constants for reduction of ferrylmyoglobin by food components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongberg, Sisse; Lund, Marianne Nissen; Pattison, David I.

    2016-01-01

    . This approach allows determination of apparent rate constants for the oxidation of proteins by haem proteins of relevance to food oxidation and should be applicable to other systems. A similar approach has provided approximate apparent rate constants for the reduction of MbFe(IV)=O by catechin and green tea...

  6. Computing the dielectric constant of liquid water at constant dielectric displacement

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    The static dielectric constant of liquid water is computed using classical force field based molecular dynamics simulation at fixed electric displacement D. The method to constrain the electric displacement is the finite temperature classical variant of the constant-D method developed by Stengel, Spaldin and Vanderbilt (Nat. Phys. 2009, 5: 304). There is also a modification of this scheme imposing fixed values of the macroscopic field E. The method is applied to the popular SPC/E model of liquid water. We compare four different estimates of the dielectric constant, two obtained from fluctuations of the polarization at D = 0 and E = 0 and two from the variation of polarization with finite D and E. It is found that all four estimates agree when properly converged. The computational effort to achieve convergence varies however, with constant D calculations being substantially more efficient. We attribute this difference to the much shorter relaxation time of longitudinal polarization compared to transverse polar...

  7. New improved massive gravity and three-dimensional spacetimes of constant curvature and constant torsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereli, Tekin; Yetişmişoǧlu, Cem

    2016-09-01

    We derive the field equations for topologically massive gravity coupled with the most general quadratic curvature terms using the language of exterior differential forms and a first order constrained variational principle. We find variational field equations both in the presence and absence of torsion. We then show that spaces of constant negative curvature (i.e. the anti-de Sitter space AdS3) and constant torsion provide exact solutions.

  8. New Improved Massive Gravity and Three Dimensional Spacetimes of Constant Curvature and Constant Torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Dereli, T

    2016-01-01

    We derive the field equations for topologically massive gravity coupled with the most general quadratic curvature terms using the language of exterior differential forms and a first order constrained variational principle. We find variational field equations both in the presence and absence of torsion. We then show that spaces of constant negative curvature (i.e. the anti de-Sitter space $AdS_3$) and constant torsion provide exact solutions.

  9. Simulation Analysis for Constant Power Control of Photovoltaic System with Battery Energy Storage%储能型光伏系统功率控制仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗隆福; 黎涛; 邓建国; 陆格文

    2011-01-01

    光伏发电系统输出功率易受外部环境的影响,存在诸多不确定因素.该文采用蓄电池储能单元作为光伏并网的能量缓冲装置,以控制并网的功率输出.文中建立了基于等效电路的电池储能光伏并网系统整体动态数学模型,设计相应的控制策略,对系统的输出功率进行控制,并以随机光照强度的扰动为例,对系统输出的电能质量和稳定性进行仿真研究.结果表明,该并网系统灵活性强,能很好实现系统功率可控稳定输出.%The output power of photovoltaic(PV) system is vulnerable to the impact of changes in the external environment and exists many uncertainties. The research on the possibility of employing a battery energy storage method in PV grid-connected power generation system to enhance the performance of its power quality and stability was done. A mathematic model of battery energy storage system (BESS) based on equivalent circuit and a photovoltaic based on global dynamic mathematical model for PV-BESS grid-connected were built, and corresponding conrtol srtategy was developed to control the output power. Based on these models,illumination change random for example, a simulaiton platform of PV-BESS was developed by Simulink of the Matlab to analyze the power quality and stability. Simulation results show that it is flexible and can improve the stability of output power.

  10. CONSTANT LEVERAGE AND CONSTANT COST OF CAPITAL: A COMMON KNOWLEDGE HALF-TRUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGNACIO VÉLEZ-PAREJA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Un enfoque típico para valorar flujos de caja finitos es suponer que el endeudamiento es constante (generalmente como un endeudamiento objetivo o deseado y que por tanto, el costo del patrimonio, Ke y el costo promedio ponderado de capital CPPC, también son constantes. Para los flujos de caja perpetuos, y con el costo de la deuda, Kd como la tasa de descuento para el ahorro en impuestos o escudo fiscal, Ke y el CPPC aplicado al flujo de caja libre FCL son constantes si el endeudamiento es constante. Sin embargo esto no es verdad para los flujos de caja finitos. En este documento mostramos que para flujos de caja finitos, Ke y por lo tanto el CPPC dependen de la tasa de descuento que se utiliza para valorar el ahorro en impuestos, AI y según lo esperado, Ke y el CPPC no son constantes con Kd como la tasa de descuento para el ahorro en impuestos, aunque el endeudamiento sea constante. Ilustramos esta situación con un ejemplo simple. Analizamos cinco métodos: el flujo de caja descontado, FCD, usando APV, el FCD y la formulación tradicional y general del CPPC, el valor presente del flujo de caja del accionista, FCA más deuda y el flujo de caja de capital, FCC.

  11. Localized (super)gravity and cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakushadze, Zurab

    2000-11-01

    We consider localization of gravity in domain wall solutions of Einstein's gravity coupled to a scalar field with a generic potential. We discuss conditions on the scalar potential such that domain wall solutions are non-singular. Such solutions even exist for appropriate potentials which have no minima at all and are unbounded below. Domain walls of this type have infinite tension, while usual kink type of solutions interpolating between two AdS minima have finite tension. In the latter case the cosmological constant on the domain wall is necessarily vanishing, while in the former case it can be zero or negative. Positive cosmological constant is allowed for singular domain walls. We discuss non-trivial conditions for physically allowed singularities arising from the requirement that truncating the space at the singularities be consistent. Non-singular domain walls with infinite tension might a priori avoid recent "no-go" theorems indicating impossibility of supersymmetric embedding of kink type of domain walls in gauged supergravity. We argue that (non-singular) domain walls are stable even if they have infinite tension. This is essentially due to the fact that localization of gravity in smooth domain walls is a Higgs mechanism corresponding to a spontaneous breakdown of translational invariance. As to discontinuous domain walls arising in the presence of δ-function "brane" sources, they explicitly break translational invariance. Such solutions cannot therefore be thought of as limits of smooth domain walls. We point out that if the scalar potential has no minima and approaches finite negative values at infinity, then higher derivative terms are under control, and do not affect the cosmological constant which is vanishing for such backgrounds. Nonetheless, we also point out that higher curvature terms generically delocalize gravity, so that the desired lower-dimensional Newton's law is no longer reproduced.

  12. Standard-model coupling constants from compositeness

    CERN Document Server

    Besprosvany, J

    2003-01-01

    A coupling-constant definition is given based on the compositeness property of some particle states with respect to the elementary states of other particles. It is applied in the context of the vector-spin-1/2-particle interaction vertices of a field theory, and the standard model. The definition reproduces Weinberg's angle in a grand-unified theory. One obtains coupling values close to the experimental ones for appropriate configurations of the standard-model vector particles, at the unification scale within grand-unified models, and at the electroweak breaking scale.

  13. Solution strategies for constant acceleration problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, S. M.; Binder, P.-M.

    2017-03-01

    We discuss strategies for the general solution of single-step 1D constant acceleration problems. In a slightly restricted form, these problems have five variables (Δx, v 0, v, a and t) and two independent equations, so three variables must be given to solve for the other two, giving 10 cases. Instead of the haphazard solution of individual problems, we advocate teaching a strategy for tackling the entire class of problems. We enumerate the possible strategies, and present in detail one which reveals a number of interesting special cases and also allows the possibility of developing an automatic problem generator and solver.

  14. Axionic Band Structure of the Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Bachlechner, Thomas C

    2015-01-01

    We argue that theories with multiple axions generically contain a large number of vacua that can account for the smallness of the cosmological constant. In a theory with N axions, the dominant instantons with charges Q determine the discrete symmetry of vacua. Subleading instantons break the leading periodicity and lift the vacuum degeneracy. For generic integer charges the number of distinct vacua is given by |det(Q)|~exp(N). Our construction motivates the existence of a landscape with a vast number of vacua in a large class of four-dimensional effective theories.

  15. Axionic band structure of the cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachlechner, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    We argue that theories with multiple axions generically contain a large number of vacua that can account for the smallness of the cosmological constant. In a theory with N axions, the dominant instantons with charges 풬 determine the discrete symmetry of vacua. Subleading instantons break the leading periodicity and lift the vacuum degeneracy. For generic integer charges the number of distinct vacua is given by √{det (풬⊤풬 ) }∝eN. Our construction motivates the existence of a landscape with a vast number of vacua in a large class of four-dimensional effective theories.

  16. Rugged constant-temperature thermal anemometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, J; Labbé, R

    2016-12-01

    Here we report a robust thermal anemometer which can be easily built. It was conceived to measure outdoor wind speeds and for airspeed monitoring in wind tunnels and other indoor uses. It works at a constant, low temperature of approximately 90 °C, so that an independent measurement of the air temperature is required to give a correct speed reading. Despite the size and high thermal inertia of the probe, the test results show that this anemometer is capable of measuring turbulent fluctuations up to ∼100 Hz in winds of ∼14 m/s, which corresponds to a scale similar to the length of the probe.

  17. Rugged constant-temperature thermal anemometer

    CERN Document Server

    Palma, J

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a robust thermal anemometer which can be easily built. It was conceived to measure outdoor wind speeds, and for airspeed monitoring in wind tunnels and other indoor uses. It works at a constant, low temperature of approximately 90$^\\circ$C, so that an independent measurement of the air temperature is required to give a correct speed reading. Despite the size and high thermal inertia of the probe, the test results show that this anemometer is capable of measuring turbulent fluctuations up to ~100 Hz in winds of ~14 m/s, which corresponds to a scale similar to the length of the probe.

  18. The fine structure constant and habitable planets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandora, McCullen

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl .We use the existence of habitable planets to impose anthropic requirements on the fine structure constant, α. To this effect, we present two considerations that restrict its value to be very near the one observed. The first, that the end product...... of stellar fusion is iron and not one of its neighboring elements, restricts α-1 to be 145± 50. The second, that radiogenic heat in the Earth's interior remains adequately productive for billions of years, restricts it to be 145±9. A connection with the grand unified theory window is discussed, effectively...

  19. The Fine Structure Constant and Habitable Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Sandora, McCullen

    2016-01-01

    We use the existence of habitable planets to impose anthropic requirements on the fine structure constant, $\\alpha$. To this effect, we present two considerations that restrict its value to be very near the one observed. The first, that the end product of stellar fusion is iron and not one of its neighboring elements, restricts $\\alpha^{-1}$ to be $145\\pm 50$. The second, that radiogenic heat in the Earth's interior remains adequately productive for billions of years, restricts it to be $145\\pm9$. A connection with the grand unified theory window is discussed, effectively providing a route to probe ultra-high energy physics with upcoming advances in planetary science.

  20. The fine structure constant and habitable planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandora, McCullen

    2016-08-01

    We use the existence of habitable planets to impose anthropic requirements on the fine structure constant, α. To this effect, we present two considerations that restrict its value to be very near the one observed. The first, that the end product of stellar fusion is iron and not one of its neighboring elements, restricts α-1 to be 145± 50. The second, that radiogenic heat in the Earth's interior remains adequately productive for billions of years, restricts it to be 145±9. A connection with the grand unified theory window is discussed, effectively providing a route to probe ultra-high energy physics with upcoming advances in planetary science.

  1. Scalar field collapse with negative cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Baier, R; Stricker, S A

    2014-01-01

    The formation of black holes or naked singularities is studied in a model in which a homogeneous time-dependent scalar field with an exponential potential couples to four dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant. An analytic solution is derived and its consequences are discussed. The model depends only on one free parameter which determines the equation of state and decides the fate of the spacetime. Depending on the value of this parameter the collapse ends in a black hole or a naked singularity. The latter case violates the cosmic censorship conjecture.

  2. Information carrying capacity of a cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simidzija, Petar; Martín-Martínez, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the exchange of information in different cosmological backgrounds when sender and receiver are timelike separated and communicate through massless fields (without the exchange of light signals). Remarkably, we show that the dominance of a cosmological constant makes the amount of recoverable information imprinted in the field by the sender extremely resilient: it does not decay in time or with the spatial separation of the sender and receiver, and it actually increases with the rate of expansion of the Universe. This is in stark contrast with the information carried by conventional light signals and with previous results on timelike communication through massless fields in matter-dominated cosmologies.

  3. On inflation, cosmological constant, and SUSY breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Linde, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    We consider a broad class of inflationary models of two unconstrained chiral superfields, the stabilizer $S$ and the inflaton $\\Phi$, which can describe inflationary models with nearly arbitrary potentials. These models include, in particular, the recently introduced theories of cosmological attractors, which provide an excellent fit to the latest Planck data. We show that by adding to the superpotential of the fields $S$ and $\\Phi$ a small term depending on a nilpotent chiral superfield $P$ one can break SUSY and introduce a small cosmological constant without affecting main predictions of the original inflationary scenario.

  4. Parametrised Constants and Replication for Spatial Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Haagensen, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    of reachable sites is static an encoding exists, but we also show that parametrised constants can not be encoded in the full calculus. The locality requirement supplements widely accepted encoding criteria. It appears to be a natural property in spatial calculi where links and locations can fail. The versions...... and the calculus of mobile ambients. Here, processes are located at sites and can migrate between them. In this paper we say that an encoding is local if it does not introduce extra migration. We first study this property for the distributed π-calculus where locations can be dynamically created. If the set...

  5. Infrared propagator corrections for constant deceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, T M; Miao, S P; Prokopec, T [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Woodard, R P [Department of Physics, University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)], E-mail: T.M.Janssen@uu.nl, E-mail: S.Miao@uu.nl, E-mail: T.Prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: woodard@phys.ufl.edu

    2008-12-21

    We derive the propagator for a massless, minimally coupled scalar on a D-dimensional, spatially flat, homogeneous and isotropic background with arbitrary constant deceleration parameter. Our construction uses the operator formalism by integrating the Fourier mode sum. We give special attention to infrared corrections from the nonzero lower limit associated with working on finite spatial sections. These corrections eliminate infrared divergences that would otherwise be incorrectly treated by dimensional regularization, resulting in off-coincidence divergences for those special values of the deceleration parameter at which the infrared divergence is logarithmic. As an application we compute the expectation value of the scalar stress-energy tensor.

  6. TASI Lectures on the cosmological constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael

    2007-08-30

    The energy density of the vacuum, Lambda, is at least 60 orders of magnitude smaller than several known contributions to it. Approaches to this problem are tightly constrained by data ranging from elementary observations to precision experiments. Absent overwhelming evidence to the contrary, dark energy can only be interpreted as vacuum energy, so the venerable assumption that Lambda=0 conflicts with observation. The possibility remains that Lambda is fundamentally variable, though constant over large spacetime regions. This can explain the observed value, but only in a theory satisfying a number of restrictive kinematic and dynamical conditions. String theory offers a concrete realization through its landscape of metastable vacua.

  7. Finite state verifiers with constant randomness

    CERN Document Server

    Say, A C Cem

    2011-01-01

    We give a new certificate-based characterization of $\\mathsf{NL}$, as the class of languages whose members have certificates that can be verified with small error in polynomial time by probabilistic finite automata (2pfa's) which have access to only a constant number of random bits. We obtain this result by demonstrating that verifiers which are restricted to have this property are equivalent in language recognition power to multihead finite automata. The cases where the verifier is restricted in different manners in its input and certificate head movements are also examined.

  8. Index to Constant Weight Codeword Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    1 log2i− 2 ∑n/2 i=1 log2ic+ 1. The Verilog compiler used to implement the circuits lacks the word size to compute n! for moderate n. Also, it is not...in the Verilog code. Similarly, to realize the circuits represented in Table 2, it 8 High-Speed Constant Weight Codeword Generator Table 2. Frequency...these values and printed them to a header file that was included in the Verilog code. 3 Trellis Generator 3.1 Introduction An alternative approach for

  9. Constant force extensional rheometry of polymer solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter; McKinley, Gareth H.; Clasen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the rapid stretching of a liquid filament under the action of a constant imposed tensile force, a problem which was first considered by Matta and Tytus [J. Non-Newton. Fluid Mech. 35 (1990) 215–229]. A liquid bridge formed from a viscous Newtonian fluid or from a dilute polymer solution...... is first established between two cylindrical disks. The upper disk is held fixed and may be connected to a force transducer while the lower cylinder falls due to gravity. By varying the mass of the falling cylinder and measuring its resulting acceleration, the viscoelastic nature of the elongating fluid...

  10. Characterization of a constant current charge detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masanobu; Chen, Yongjing; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2012-12-15

    Ion exchangers are ionic equivalents of doped semiconductors, where cations and anions are equivalents of holes and electrons as charge carriers in solid state semiconductors. We have previously demonstrated an ion exchange membrane (IEM) based electrolyte generator which behaves similar to a light-emitting diode and a charge detector (ChD) which behaves analogous to a p-i-n photodiode. The previous work on the charge detector, operated at a constant voltage, established its unique ability to respond to the charge represented by the analyte ions regardless of their redox properties, rather than to their conductivities. It also suggested that electric field induced dissociation (EFID) of water occurs at one or both ion exchange membranes. A logical extension is to study the behavior of the same device, operated in a constant current mode (ChD(i)). The evidence indicates that in the present operational mode the device also responds to the charge represented by the analytes and not their conductivity. Injection of a base into a charge detector operated in the constant voltage mode was not previously examined; in the constant current mode, base injection appears to inhibit EFID. The effects of applied current, analyte residence time and outer channel fluid composition were individually examined; analyte ions of different mobilities as well as affinities for the respective IEMs were used. While the exact behavior is somewhat dependent on the applied current, strong electrolytes, both acids and salts, respond the highest and in a near-uniform fashion, weak acids and their salts respond in an intermediate fashion and bases produce the lowest responses. A fundamentally asymmetric behavior is observed. Injected bases but not injected acids produce a poor response; the effects of incorporating a strong base as the electrolyte in the anion exchange membrane (AEM) compartment is far greater than incorporating an acid in the cation exchange membrane (CEM) compartment. These

  11. Can the cosmological constant undergo abrupt changes?

    CERN Document Server

    Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro; Rosabal, A; Cabo, Alejandro; Garcia-Chung, Alejandro; Rosabal, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    The existence of a simple spherically symmetric and static solution of the Einstein equations in the presence of a cosmological constant vanishing outside a definite value of the radial distance is investigated. A particular succession of field configurations, which are solutions of the Einstein equations in the presence of the considered cosmological term and auxiliary external sources, is constructed. Then, it is shown that the associated succession of external sources tend to zero in the sense of the generalized functions. The type of weak solution that is found becomes the deSitter homogeneous space-time for the interior region, and the Schwartzschild space in the outside zone.

  12. Constant-Elasticity-of-Substitution Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, G.

    1986-01-01

    Program simulates constant elasticity-of-substitution (CES) production function. CES function used by economic analysts to examine production costs as well as uncertainties in production. User provides such input parameters as price of labor, price of capital, and dispersion levels. CES minimizes expected cost to produce capital-uncertainty pair. By varying capital-value input, one obtains series of capital-uncertainty pairs. Capital-uncertainty pairs then used to generate several cost curves. CES program menu driven and features specific print menu for examining selected output curves. Program written in BASIC for interactive execution and implemented on IBM PC-series computer.

  13. Radiation balances and the solar constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crommelynck, D.

    1981-01-01

    The radiometric concepts are defined in order to consider various types of radiation balances and relate them to the diabetic form of the energy balance. Variability in space and time of the components of the radiation field are presented. A specific concept for sweeping which is tailored to the requirements is proposed. Finally, after establishing the truncated character of the present knowledge of the radiation balance. The results of the last observations of the solar constant are given. Ground and satellite measurement techniques are discussed.

  14. The calculation of indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling constants in large molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Mark A; Sałek, Paweł; Macak, Peter; Jaszuński, Michał; Helgaker, Trygve

    2004-09-20

    We present calculations of indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling constants in large molecular systems, performed using density functional theory. Such calculations, which have become possible because of the use of linear-scaling techniques in the evaluation of the Coulomb and exchange-correlation contributions to the electronic energy, allow us to study indirect spin-spin couplings in molecules of biological interest, without having to construct artificial model systems. In addition to presenting a statistical analysis of the large number of short-range coupling constants in large molecular systems, we analyse the asymptotic dependence of the indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling constants on the internuclear separation. In particular, we demonstrate that, in a sufficiently large one-electron basis set, the indirect spin-spin coupling constants become proportional to the inverse cube of the internuclear separation, even though the diamagnetic and paramagnetic spin-orbit contributions to the spin-spin coupling constants separately decay as the inverse square of this separation. By contrast, the triplet Fermi contact and spin-dipole contributions to the indirect spin-spin coupling constants decay exponentially and as the inverse cube of the internuclear separation, respectively. Thus, whereas short-range indirect spin-spin coupling constants are usually dominated by the Fermi contact contribution, long-range coupling constants are always dominated by the negative diamagnetic spin-orbit contribution and by the positive paramagnetic spin-orbit contribution, with small spin-dipole and negligible Fermi contact contributions.

  15. The effects of a non-zero cosmological constant on the Veltmann models

    CERN Document Server

    Lingam, Manasvi

    2014-01-01

    The Veltmann models, which include the Plummer and Hernquist models as special cases, are studied in the presence of a cosmological constant. Physically relevant quantities such as the velocity dispersion profiles and the anisotropy parameter are computed through the use of the self-consistent approach. The cutoff radii for these models and the mass contained within this volume are also calculated. It is shown that the inclusion of a cosmological constant leads to many observable quantities such as the surface density, dispersion profiles and the anisotropy parameter becoming increasingly modified. In some scenarios, they are easily distinguished from the case where the cosmological constant is absent, as a result of their non-monotonic behaviour. The effects of neighbouring gravitational systems on the central system are also studied, and compared against the effects arising from the cosmological constant. Consequently, it is suggested that the effects of a cosmological constant can prove to be quite importa...

  16. Positive Cosmological Constant and Quantum Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix M. Lev

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We argue that quantum theory should proceed not from a spacetime background but from a Lie algebra, which is treated as a symmetry algebra. Then the fact that the cosmological constant is positive means not that the spacetime background is curved but that the de Sitter (dS algebra as the symmetry algebra is more relevant than the Poincare or anti de Sitter ones. The physical interpretation of irreducible representations (IRs of the dS algebra is considerably different from that for the other two algebras. One IR of the dS algebra splits into independent IRs for a particle and its antiparticle only when Poincare approximation works with a high accuracy. Only in this case additive quantum numbers such as electric, baryon and lepton charges are conserved, while at early stages of the Universe they could not be conserved. Another property of IRs of the dS algebra is that only fermions can be elementary and there can be no neutral elementary particles. The cosmological repulsion is a simple kinematical consequence of dS symmetry on quantum level when quasiclassical approximation is valid. Therefore the cosmological constant problem does not exist and there is no need to involve dark energy or other fields for explaining this phenomenon (in agreement with a similar conclusion by Bianchi and Rovelli.

  17. Constant domain-regulated antibody catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapparapu, Gopal; Planque, Stephanie; Mitsuda, Yukie; McLean, Gary; Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Paul, Sudhir

    2012-10-19

    Some antibodies contain variable (V) domain catalytic sites. We report the superior amide and peptide bond-hydrolyzing activity of the same heavy and light chain V domains expressed in the IgM constant domain scaffold compared with the IgG scaffold. The superior catalytic activity of recombinant IgM was evident using two substrates, a small model peptide that is hydrolyzed without involvement of high affinity epitope binding, and HIV gp120, which is recognized specifically by noncovalent means prior to the hydrolytic reaction. The catalytic activity was inhibited by an electrophilic phosphonate diester, consistent with a nucleophilic catalytic mechanism. All 13 monoclonal IgMs tested displayed robust hydrolytic activities varying over a 91-fold range, consistent with expression of the catalytic functions at distinct levels by different V domains. The catalytic activity of polyclonal IgM was superior to polyclonal IgG from the same sera, indicating that on average IgMs express the catalytic function at levels greater than IgGs. The findings indicate a favorable effect of the remote IgM constant domain scaffold on the integrity of the V-domain catalytic site and provide a structural basis for conceiving antibody catalysis as a first line immune function expressed at high levels prior to development of mature IgG class antibodies.

  18. Ventricular fibrillation time constant for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiun-Yan; Nimunkar, Amit J; Sun, Hongyu; O'Rourke, Ann; Huebner, Shane; Will, James A; Webster, John G

    2008-10-01

    The strength-duration curve for cardiac excitation can be modeled by a parallel resistor-capacitor circuit that has a time constant. Experiments on six pigs were performed by delivering current from the X26 Taser dart at a distance from the heart to cause ventricular fibrillation (VF). The X26 Taser is an electromuscular incapacitation device (EMD), which generates about 50 kV and delivers a pulse train of about 15-19 pulses s(-1) with a pulse duration of about 150 micros and peak current about 2 A. Similarly a continuous 60 Hz alternating current of the amplitude required to cause VF was delivered from the same distance. The average current and duration of the current pulse were estimated in both sets of experiments. The strength-duration equation was solved to yield an average time constant of 2.87 ms +/- 1.90 (SD). Results obtained may help in the development of safety standards for future electromuscular incapacitation devices (EMDs) without requiring additional animal tests.

  19. Hyperscaling violation and the shear diffusion constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedar S. Kolekar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider holographic theories in bulk (d+1-dimensions with Lifshitz and hyperscaling violating exponents z,θ at finite temperature. By studying shear gravitational modes in the near-horizon region given certain self-consistent approximations, we obtain the corresponding shear diffusion constant on an appropriately defined stretched horizon, adapting the analysis of Kovtun, Son and Starinets. For generic exponents with d−z−θ>−1, we find that the diffusion constant has power law scaling with the temperature, motivating us to guess a universal relation for the viscosity bound. When the exponents satisfy d−z−θ=−1, we find logarithmic behaviour. This relation is equivalent to z=2+deff where deff=di−θ is the effective boundary spatial dimension (and di=d−1 the actual spatial dimension. It is satisfied by the exponents in hyperscaling violating theories arising from null reductions of highly boosted black branes, and we comment on the corresponding analysis in that context.

  20. Variation of fundamental constants: theory and observations

    CERN Document Server

    Flambaum, V V

    2007-01-01

    Review of recent works devoted to the variation of the fundamental constants is presented including atomic clocks, quasar absorption spectra, and Oklo natural nuclear reactor data. Assuming linear variation with time we can compare different results. From the quasar absorption spectra: $\\dot{\\mu}/\\mu=(1 \\pm 3) \\times 10^{-16}$ yr$^{-1}$. A combination of this result and the atomic clock results gives the best limt on variation of $\\alpha$: $\\dot{\\alpha}/\\alpha=(-0.8 \\pm 0.8) \\times 10^{-16}$ yr$^{-1}$. The Oklo natural reactor gives the best limit on the variation of $m_s/\\Lambda_{QCD}$ where $m_s$ is the strange quark mass. Huge enhancement of the relative variation effects happens in transitions between close atomic, molecular and nuclear energy levels. We suggest several new cases where the levels are very narrow. Large enhancement of the variation effects is also possible in cold atomic and molecular collisions near Feshbach resonance. Massive bodies (stars or galaxies) can also affect physical constants....

  1. Local Pain Dynamics during Constant Exhaustive Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agne Slapsinskaite

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to delineate the topological dynamics of pain and discomfort during constant exercise performed until volitional exhaustion. Eleven physical education students were tested while cycling and running at a "hard" intensity level (e.g., corresponding to Borg's RPE (6-20 = 15. During the tests, participants reported their discomfort and pain on a body map every 15s. "Time on task" for each participant was divided into five equal non-overlapping temporal windows within which their ratings were considered for analysis. The analyses revealed that the number of body locations with perceived pain and discomfort increased throughout the five temporal windows until reaching the mean (± SE values of 4.2 ± 0.7 and 4.1 ± 0.6 in cycling and running, respectively. The dominant locations included the quadriceps and hamstrings during cycling and quadriceps and chest during running. In conclusion, pain seemed to spread throughout the body during constant cycling and running performed up to volitional exhaustion with differences between cycling and running in the upper body but not in the lower body dynamics.

  2. Local Pain Dynamics during Constant Exhaustive Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slapsinskaite, Agne; Razon, Selen; Balagué Serre, Natàlia; Hristovski, Robert; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to delineate the topological dynamics of pain and discomfort during constant exercise performed until volitional exhaustion. Eleven physical education students were tested while cycling and running at a "hard" intensity level (e.g., corresponding to Borg's RPE (6-20) = 15). During the tests, participants reported their discomfort and pain on a body map every 15s. "Time on task" for each participant was divided into five equal non-overlapping temporal windows within which their ratings were considered for analysis. The analyses revealed that the number of body locations with perceived pain and discomfort increased throughout the five temporal windows until reaching the mean (± SE) values of 4.2 ± 0.7 and 4.1 ± 0.6 in cycling and running, respectively. The dominant locations included the quadriceps and hamstrings during cycling and quadriceps and chest during running. In conclusion, pain seemed to spread throughout the body during constant cycling and running performed up to volitional exhaustion with differences between cycling and running in the upper body but not in the lower body dynamics.

  3. Hyperscaling violation and the shear diffusion constant

    CERN Document Server

    Kolekar, Kedar S; Narayan, K

    2016-01-01

    We consider holographic theories in bulk $(d+1)$-dimensions with Lifshitz and hyperscaling violating exponents $z,\\theta$ at finite temperature. By studying shear gravitational modes in the near-horizon region given certain self-consistent approximations, we obtain the corresponding shear diffusion constant on an appropriately defined stretched horizon, adapting the analysis of Kovtun, Son and Starinets. For generic exponents with $d-z-\\theta>-1$, we find that the diffusion constant has power law scaling with the temperature, motivating us to guess a universal relation for the viscosity bound. When the exponents satisfy $d-z-\\theta=-1$, we find logarithmic behaviour. This relation is equivalent to $z=2+d_{eff}$ where $d_{eff}=d_i-\\theta$ is the effective boundary spatial dimension (and $d_i=d-1$ the actual spatial dimension). It is satisfied by the exponents in hyperscaling violating theories arising from null reductions of highly boosted black branes, and we comment on the corresponding analysis in that cont...

  4. Holographic dark energy with cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yazhou; Li, Miao; Li, Nan; Zhang, Zhenhui

    2015-08-01

    Inspired by the multiverse scenario, we study a heterotic dark energy model in which there are two parts, the first being the cosmological constant and the second being the holographic dark energy, thus this model is named the ΛHDE model. By studying the ΛHDE model theoretically, we find that the parameters d and Ωhde are divided into a few domains in which the fate of the universe is quite different. We investigate dynamical behaviors of this model, and especially the future evolution of the universe. We perform fitting analysis on the cosmological parameters in the ΛHDE model by using the recent observational data. We find the model yields χ2min=426.27 when constrained by Planck+SNLS3+BAO+HST, comparable to the results of the HDE model (428.20) and the concordant ΛCDM model (431.35). At 68.3% CL, we obtain -0.07<ΩΛ0<0.68 and correspondingly 0.04<Ωhde0<0.79, implying at present there is considerable degeneracy between the holographic dark energy and cosmological constant components in the ΛHDE model.

  5. Is cosmological constant needed in Higgs inflation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Jun Feng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The detection of B-mode shows a very powerful constraint to theoretical inflation models through the measurement of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r. Higgs boson is the most likely candidate of the inflaton field. But usually, Higgs inflation models predict a small value of r, which is not quite consistent with the recent results from BICEP2. In this paper, we explored whether a cosmological constant energy component is needed to improve the situation. And we found the answer is yes. For the so-called Higgs chaotic inflation model with a quadratic potential, it predicts r≈0.2, ns≈0.96 with e-folds number N≈56, which is large enough to overcome the problems such as the horizon problem in the Big Bang cosmology. The required energy scale of the cosmological constant is roughly Λ∼(1014 GeV2, which means a mechanism is still needed to solve the fine-tuning problem in the later time evolution of the universe, e.g. by introducing some dark energy component.

  6. Distance constant of the Risoe cup anemometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, L.; Frost Hansen, O.

    2002-04-01

    The theory for cup-anemometer dynamics is presented in some detail and two methods of obtaining the distance constant . are discussed. The first method is based on wind tunnel measurements: with a constant wind speed the cup anemometer is released from a locked position of the rotor and the increasing rotation rate recorded. It is concluded that the rapid increase in rotation rate makes the method very inaccurate. The second method consists of an analysis of turbulent, atmospheric of wind speed as measured by the cup anemometer and a fast-responding sonic anemometer with a spatial eddy resolution which is significantly better than that which can be obtained by a cup anemometer. The ratio between the measured power spectra of the horizontal wind speed by the two instruments contains the necessary information for determining the response characteristics of the cup anemometer and thereby .. The conditions for this last method to be accurate are discussed. Field measurements are used to demonstrate how . is determined the Riso cup anemometer, model P2546.

  7. Exact Values of Some Geometric Constants of Orlicz Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya Qiang YAN

    2007-01-01

    We present the exact values of nonsquare constants, yon Neumann-Jordan constants, Jung constants, packing constants, weakly convergent sequence coefficients and normal structure coefficients in a class of reflexive Orlicz function spaces and sequence spaces equipped with Luxemburg norm and Orlicz norm.

  8. Curved dilatonic brane-worlds and the cosmological constant problem

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso-Alberca, N; Silva, P J; Alonso-Alberca, Natxo; Janssen, Bert; Silva, Pedro J.

    2000-01-01

    We construct a model for dilatonic brane worlds with constant curvature on the brane, i.e. a non-zero four-dimensional cosmological constant, given in function of the dilaton coupling and the cosmological constant of the bulk. It is shown that the brane cosmological constant does not change under quantum fluctuations in the brane tension.

  9. Growing oral biofilms in a constant depth film fermentor (CDFF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratten, Jonathan

    2007-08-01

    In order to grow organisms in such a manner as to mimic their physiological growth state in vivo, it is often desirable to grow them as biofilms in the laboratory. There are numerous systems available to accomplish this; however, some are more suited to the growth of oral biofilms (dental plaque) than others. The operating parameters of one such model, the constant depth film fermentor (CDFF), are given in this unit. This model is particularly suited to studying the varied biofilms which exist in the oral cavity because environmental factors such as the substratum, nutrient source, and gas flow can be altered.

  10. Computing magnetic anisotropy constants of single molecule magnets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ramasesha; Shaon Sahoo; Rajamani Raghunathan; Diptiman Sen

    2009-09-01

    We present here a theoretical approach to compute the molecular magnetic anisotropy parameters, and for single molecule magnets in any given spin eigenstate of exchange spin Hamiltonian. We first describe a hybrid constant -valence bond (VB) technique of solving spin Hamiltonians employing full spatial and spin symmetry adaptation and we illustrate this technique by solving the exchange Hamiltonian of the Cu6Fe8 system. Treating the anisotropy Hamiltonian as perturbation, we compute the and values for various eigenstates of the exchange Hamiltonian. Since, the dipolar contribution to the magnetic anisotropy is negligibly small, we calculate the molecular anisotropy from the single-ion anisotropies of the metal centers. We have studied the variation of and by rotating the single-ion anisotropies in the case of Mn12Ac and Fe8 SMMs in ground and few low-lying excited states of the exchange Hamiltonian. In both the systems, we find that the molecular anisotropy changes drastically when the single-ion anisotropies are rotated. While in Mn12Ac SMM values depend strongly on the spin of the eigenstate, it is almost independent of the spin of the eigenstate in Fe8 SMM. We also find that the value is almost insensitive to the orientation of the anisotropy of the core Mn(IV) ions. The dependence of on the energy gap between the ground and the excited states in both the systems has also been studied by using different sets of exchange constants.

  11. Search for a Variation of Fundamental Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubachs, W.

    2013-06-01

    Since the days of Dirac scientists have speculated about the possibility that the laws of nature, and the fundamental constants appearing in those laws, are not rock-solid and eternal but may be subject to change in time or space. Such a scenario of evolving constants might provide an answer to the deepest puzzle of contemporary science, namely why the conditions in our local Universe allow for extreme complexity: the fine-tuning problem. In the past decade it has been established that spectral lines of atoms and molecules, which can currently be measured at ever-higher accuracies, form an ideal test ground for probing drifting constants. This has brought this subject from the realm of metaphysics to that of experimental science. In particular the spectra of molecules are sensitive for probing a variation of the proton-electron mass ratio μ, either on a cosmological time scale, or on a laboratory time scale. A comparison can be made between spectra of molecular hydrogen observed in the laboratory and at a high redshift (z=2-3), using the Very Large Telescope (Paranal, Chile) and the Keck telescope (Hawaii). This puts a constraint on a varying mass ratio Δμ/μ at the 10^{-5} level. The optical work can also be extended to include CO molecules. Further a novel direction will be discussed: it was discovered that molecules exhibiting hindered internal rotation have spectral lines in the radio-spectrum that are extremely sensitive to a varying proton-electron mass ratio. Such lines in the spectrum of methanol were recently observed with the radio-telescope in Effelsberg (Germany). F. van Weerdenburg, M.T. Murphy, A.L. Malec, L. Kaper, W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 180802 (2011). A. Malec, R. Buning, M.T. Murphy, N. Milutinovic, S.L. Ellison, J.X. Prochaska, L. Kaper, J. Tumlinson, R.F. Carswell, W. Ubachs, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 403, 1541 (2010). E.J. Salumbides, M.L. Niu, J. Bagdonaite, N. de Oliveira, D. Joyeux, L. Nahon, W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. A 86, 022510

  12. Design verification of large time constant thermal shields for optical reference cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Wu, W; Shi, X H; Zeng, X Y; Deng, K; Lu, Z H

    2016-02-01

    In order to achieve high frequency stability in ultra-stable lasers, the Fabry-Pérot reference cavities shall be put inside vacuum chambers with large thermal time constants to reduce the sensitivity to external temperature fluctuations. Currently, the determination of thermal time constants of vacuum chambers is based either on theoretical calculation or time-consuming experiments. The first method can only apply to simple system, while the second method will take a lot of time to try out different designs. To overcome these limitations, we present thermal time constant simulation using finite element analysis (FEA) based on complete vacuum chamber models and verify the results with measured time constants. We measure the thermal time constants using ultrastable laser systems and a frequency comb. The thermal expansion coefficients of optical reference cavities are precisely measured to reduce the measurement error of time constants. The simulation results and the experimental results agree very well. With this knowledge, we simulate several simplified design models using FEA to obtain larger vacuum thermal time constants at room temperature, taking into account vacuum pressure, shielding layers, and support structure. We adopt the Taguchi method for shielding layer optimization and demonstrate that layer material and layer number dominate the contributions to the thermal time constant, compared with layer thickness and layer spacing.

  13. Running cosmological constant with observational tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Chao-Qiang; Lee, Chung-Chi; Zhang, Kaituo

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the running cosmological constant model with dark energy linearly proportional to the Hubble parameter, Λ = σH +Λ0, in which the ΛCDM limit is recovered by taking σ = 0. We derive the linear perturbation equations of gravity under the Friedmann-Lemaïtre-Robertson-Walker cosmology, and show the power spectra of the CMB temperature and matter density distribution. By using the Markov chain Monte Carlo method, we fit the model to the current observational data and find that σH0 /Λ0 ≲ 2.63 ×10-2 and 6.74 ×10-2 for Λ (t) coupled to matter and radiation-matter, respectively, along with constraints on other cosmological parameters.

  14. Statistical Modelling of the Soil Dielectric Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usowicz, Boguslaw; Marczewski, Wojciech; Bogdan Usowicz, Jerzy; Lipiec, Jerzy

    2010-05-01

    The dielectric constant of soil is the physical property being very sensitive on water content. It funds several electrical measurement techniques for determining the water content by means of direct (TDR, FDR, and others related to effects of electrical conductance and/or capacitance) and indirect RS (Remote Sensing) methods. The work is devoted to a particular statistical manner of modelling the dielectric constant as the property accounting a wide range of specific soil composition, porosity, and mass density, within the unsaturated water content. Usually, similar models are determined for few particular soil types, and changing the soil type one needs switching the model on another type or to adjust it by parametrization of soil compounds. Therefore, it is difficult comparing and referring results between models. The presented model was developed for a generic representation of soil being a hypothetical mixture of spheres, each representing a soil fraction, in its proper phase state. The model generates a serial-parallel mesh of conductive and capacitive paths, which is analysed for a total conductive or capacitive property. The model was firstly developed to determine the thermal conductivity property, and now it is extended on the dielectric constant by analysing the capacitive mesh. The analysis is provided by statistical means obeying physical laws related to the serial-parallel branching of the representative electrical mesh. Physical relevance of the analysis is established electrically, but the definition of the electrical mesh is controlled statistically by parametrization of compound fractions, by determining the number of representative spheres per unitary volume per fraction, and by determining the number of fractions. That way the model is capable covering properties of nearly all possible soil types, all phase states within recognition of the Lorenz and Knudsen conditions. In effect the model allows on generating a hypothetical representative of

  15. The cosmological constant and the relaxed universe

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Florian

    2010-01-01

    We study the role of the cosmological constant (CC) as a component of dark energy (DE). It is argued that the cosmological term is in general unavoidable and it should not be ignored even when dynamical DE sources are considered. From the theoretical point of view quantum zero-point energy and phase transitions suggest a CC of large magnitude in contrast to its tiny observed value. Simply relieving this disaccord with a counterterm requires extreme fine-tuning which is referred to as the old CC problem. To avoid it, we discuss some recent approaches for neutralising a large CC dynamically without adding a fine-tuned counterterm. This can be realised by an effective DE component which relaxes the cosmic expansion by counteracting the effect of the large CC. Alternatively, a CC filter is constructed by modifying gravity to make it insensitive to vacuum energy.

  16. Simple Pendulum Determination of the Gravitational Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Harold V.; Faller, James E.

    2010-09-01

    We determined the Newtonian constant of gravitation G by interferometrically measuring the change in spacing between two free-hanging pendulum masses caused by the gravitational field from large tungsten source masses. We find a value for G of (6.67234±0.00014)×10-11m3kg-1s-2. This value is in good agreement with the 1986 Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) value of (6.67259±0.00085)×10-11m3kg-1s-2 [Rev. Mod. Phys. 59, 1121 (1987)RMPHAT0034-686110.1103/RevModPhys.59.1121] but differs from some more recent determinations as well as the latest CODATA recommendation of (6.67428±0.00067)×10-11m3kg-1s-2 [Rev. Mod. Phys. 80, 633 (2008)RMPHAT0034-686110.1103/RevModPhys.80.633].

  17. Running cosmological constant with observational tests

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, Chao-Qiang; Zhang, Kaituo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the running cosmological constant model with dark energy linearly proportional to the Hubble parameter, $\\Lambda = \\sigma H + \\Lambda_0$, in which the $\\Lambda$CDM limit is recovered by taking $\\sigma=0$. We derive the linear perturbation equations of gravity under the Friedmann-Lema\\"itre-Robertson-Walker cosmology, and show the power spectra of the CMB temperature and matter density distribution. By using the Markov chain Monte Carlo method, we fit the model to the current observational data and find that $\\sigma H_0/ \\Lambda_0 \\lesssim 2.63 \\times 10^{-2}$ and $6.74 \\times 10^{-2}$ for $\\Lambda(t)$ coupled to matter and radiation-matter, respectively, along with constraints on other cosmological parameters.

  18. Automatic gesture analysis using constant affine velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, Jenny; Boulanger, Pierre; Pham, Minh Tu; Moreau, Richard; Prieto, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    Hand human gesture recognition has been an important research topic widely studied around the world, as this field offers the ability to identify, recognize, and analyze human gestures in order to control devices or to interact with computer interfaces. In particular, in medical training, this approach is an important tool that can be used to obtain an objective evaluation of a procedure performance. In this paper, some obstetrical gestures, acquired by a forceps, were studied with the hypothesis that, as the scribbling and drawing movements, they obey the one-sixth power law, an empirical relationship which connects path curvature, torsion, and euclidean velocity. Our results show that obstetrical gestures have a constant affine velocity, which is different for each type of gesture and based on this idea this quantity is proposed as an appropriate classification feature in the hand human gesture recognition field.

  19. Running cosmological constant with observational tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Qiang Geng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the running cosmological constant model with dark energy linearly proportional to the Hubble parameter, Λ=σH+Λ0, in which the ΛCDM limit is recovered by taking σ=0. We derive the linear perturbation equations of gravity under the Friedmann–Lemaïtre–Robertson–Walker cosmology, and show the power spectra of the CMB temperature and matter density distribution. By using the Markov chain Monte Carlo method, we fit the model to the current observational data and find that σH0/Λ0≲2.63×10−2 and 6.74×10−2 for Λ(t coupled to matter and radiation-matter, respectively, along with constraints on other cosmological parameters.

  20. Tunelling with a negative cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Gibbons, G W

    1996-01-01

    The point of this paper is see what light new results in hyperbolic geometry may throw on gravitational entropy and whether gravitational entropy is relevant for the quantum origin of the univeres. We introduce some new gravitational instantons which mediate the birth from nothing of closed universes containing wormholes and suggest that they may contribute to the density matrix of the universe. We also discuss the connection between their gravitational action and the topological and volumetric entropies introduced in hyperbolic geometry. These coincide for hyperbolic 4-manifolds, and increase with increasing topological complexity of the four manifold. We raise the questions of whether the action also increases with the topological complexity of the initial 3-geometry, measured either by its three volume or its Matveev complexity. We point out, in distinction to the non-supergravity case, that universes with domains of negative cosmological constant separated by supergravity domain walls cannot be born from ...

  1. String Phenomenology and the Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    de Alwis, S P

    2007-01-01

    It is argued that classical string solutions should not be fine tuned to have a positive cosmological constant (CC) at the observed size, since even the quantum corrections from standard model effects will completely negate any classical string theory solution with such a CC. In fact it is even possible that there is no need at all for any ad hoc uplifting term in the potential since these quantum effects may well take care of this. Correspondingly any calculation of the parameters of the MSSM has to be rethought to take into account the evolution of the CC. This considerably complicates the issue since the initial conditions for RG evolution of these parameters are determined by the final condition on the CC! The Anthropic Principle is of no help in addressing these issues.

  2. Higgs inflation and the cosmological constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegerlehner, Fred [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    The Higgs not only induces the masses of all SM particles, the Higgs, given its special mass value, is the natural candidate for the inflaton and in fact is ruling the evolution of the early universe, by providing the necessary dark energy which remains the dominant energy density. SM running couplings not only allow us to extrapolate SM physics up to the Planck scale, but equally important they are triggering the Higgs mechanism. This is possible by the fact that the bare mass term in the Higgs potential changes sign at about μ{sub 0}≅1.40 x 10{sup 16} GeV and in the symmetric phase is enhanced by quadratic terms in the Planck mass. Such a huge Higgs mass term is able to play a key role in triggering inflation in the early universe. In this article we extend our previous investigation by working out the details of a Higgs inflation scenario. We show how different terms contributing to the Higgs Lagrangian are affecting inflation. Given the SM and its extrapolation to scales μ>μ{sub 0} we find a calculable cosmological constant V(0) which is weakly scale dependent and actually remains large during inflation. This is different to the Higgs fluctuation field dependent ΔV(φ), which decays exponentially during inflation, and actually would not provide a sufficient amount of inflation. The fluctuation field has a different effective mass which shifts the bare Higgs transition point to a lower value μ'{sub 0} ≅7.7 x 10{sup 14} GeV. The vacuum energy V(0) being proportional to M{sub Pl}{sup 4} has a coefficient which vanishes near the Higgs transition point, such that the bare and the renormalized cosmological constant match at this point. The role of the Higgs in reheating and baryogenesis is emphasized.

  3. Bianchi Type-Ⅲ Cosmological Models with Gravitational Constant G and the Cosmological Constant Λ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.P.Singh; R.K.Tiwari; Pratibha Shukla

    2007-01-01

    Einstein field equations with variable gravitational and cosmological constants are considered in the presence of perfect fluid for the Bianchi type-Ⅲ universe by assuming conservation law for the energy-momentum tensor.Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by using the scalar of expansion proportional to the shear scalar θχσ,which leads to a relation between metric potential B=Cn,where n is a constant.The corresponding physical interpretation of the cosmological solutions are also discussed.

  4. 电动可调式动态流量平衡阀和末端电动调节定压差阀结合的水力平衡与控制策略%Hydraulic balance and control strategy of combination control system of electric adjustable dynamic balancing valve and terminal electric constant pressure valve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晋飞; 郭健翔; 沈聪; 李林

    2012-01-01

    分析了集中空调系统水力失调的原因和解决措施,通过比较末端恒压差控制系统和应用电动可调式动态流量平衡阀的控制系统的控制原理以及变流量条件下的能耗高低,研究了这两个控制系统对管网中调节阀流量特性曲线的影响,具体分析了设备效率对系统性能的影响.%Examines the cause and solutions of hydraulic disorder of central air conditioning systems. According to the comparison of control principle and energy consumption under variable flow rate condition between the end constant pressure difference control system and the control system with electric adjustable dynamic balancing valve, studies the influence of the two control systems on the flow characteristic curve of the electric control valve, and analyses the influence of equipment efficiency on the performance of the system in detail.

  5. A fluctuation method to calculate the third order elastic constants in crystalline solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zimu; Qu, Jianmin

    2015-05-01

    This paper derives exact expressions of the isothermal third order elastic constants (TOE) in crystalline solids in terms of the kinetic and potential energies of the system. These expressions reveal that the TOE constants consist of a Born component and a relaxation component. The Born component is simply the third derivative of the system's potential energy with respect to the deformation, while the relaxation component is related to the non-uniform rearrangements of the atoms when the system is subject to a macroscopic deformation. Further, based on the general expressions derived here, a direct (fluctuation) method of computing the isothermal TOE constants is developed. Numerical examples of using this fluctuation method are given to compute the TOE constants of single crystal iron.

  6. Absolute level-resolved reactive and inelastic rate constants in Li+Li2*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppage, Steven; Matei, Paula; Stewart, Brian

    2008-06-01

    We have used nuclear parity-changing collisions to obtain absolute level-to-level rate constants for reactive scattering in a triatomic system with identical nuclei. We have determined rate constants for the system 7Li2*(A 1Σu+)(vi=2,ji=19)+7Li-->7Li+7Li2*(A 1Σu+)(vf,jf), from laser-induced fluorescence spectra of lithium vapor in a heat pipe oven. Parity-preserving collisions yielded measurements of absolute rotationally and vibrationally inelastic rate constants as well. We compare the reactive rate constants with statistical prior distributions and the inelastic results with previously measured results on the Ne+7Li2* system.

  7. Direct battery-driven solar LED lighting using constant-power control

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2012-11-01

    A direct battery-driven LED lighting technique using constant-power control is proposed in the present study. A system dynamics model of LED luminaire was derived and used in the design of the feedback constant-power control system. The test result has shown that the power of 18. W and 100. W LED luminaires can be controlled accurately with error at 2-5%. A solar LED street lighting system using constant-power and dimming control was designed and built for field test in a remote area. The long-term performance was satisfactory and no any failure since the installation. Since no high-power capacitor is used in the present constant-power control circuit, a longer lifetime is expected. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Giant Static Dielectric Constant of Strained PbTiO3*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuan-Xu

    2009-01-01

    First-principles density functional perturbation calculations are employed to study the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of strained tetragonal PbTi03. Lattice distortion, static dielectric constant, Born effective charge, zone-centre phonons, and piezoelectric constant are obtained. For the strained tetragonal Pb TiO3, we obtain a giant static dielectric constant (3600) under a strain 0.77%. Moreover, the calculated piezoelectric constant e15 of strained PbTiO3 reaches about 203 C/m2 which is about 20 times of that of unstrained system. The giant static dielectric constant is mainly due to the softening of the lowest-frequency phonon mode and the reduce of Ti-O bond length. This work demonstrates a route to a giant static dielectrics for electrically microwave and other devices.

  9. Black Holes and Quantum Theory: The Fine Structure Constant Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The new dynamical theory of space is further confirmed by showing that the effective “black hole” masses M BH in 19 spherical star systems, from globular clusters to galaxies, with masses M , satisfy the prediction that M BH = α 2 M , where α is the fine structure constant. As well the necessary and unique generalisations of the Schr ̈ odinger and Dirac equations permit the first derivation of gravity from a deeper theory, showing that gravity is a quantum effect of quantum matter interacting with the dynamical space. As well the necessary generalisation of Maxwell’s equations displays the observed light bending effects. Finally it is shown from the generalised Dirac equation where the spacetime mathematical formalism, and the accompanying geodesic prescription for matter trajectories, comes from. The new theory of space is non-local and we see many parallels between this and quantum theory, in addition to the fine structure constant manifesting in both, so supporting the argument that space is a quantum foam system, as implied by the deeper information-theoretic theory known as Process Physics. The spatial dynamics also provides an explanation for the “dark matter” effect and as well the non-locality of the dynamics provides a mechanism for generating the uniformity of the universe, so explaining the cosmological horizon problem.

  10. Experimental determination of monoethanolamine protonation constant and its temperature dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma’mun Sholeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide as one of the major contributors to the global warming problem is produced in large quantities by many important industries and its emission seems to rise from year to year. Aminebased absorption is one of the methods to capture CO2 from its sources. As a reactive system, mass transfer and chemical reaction take place simultaneously. In a vapor-liquid equilibrium model for the CO2-amine-water system, some parameters such as mass transfer coefficients and chemical equilibrium constants need to be known. However, some parameters could be determined experimentally and the rests could be regressed from the model. The protonation constant (pKa, as one of the model parameters, could then be measured experimentally. The purpose of this study is to measure the pKa of monoethanolamine (MEA at a range of temperatures from 303 to 330K by a potentiometric titration method. The experimental data obtained were in a good agreement with the literature data. The pKa data from this work together with those from the literature were then correlated in an empirical correlation to be used for future research.

  11. Catalytic constants enable the emergence of bistability in dual phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradi, Carsten; Mincheva, Maya

    2014-06-06

    Dual phosphorylation of proteins is a principal component of intracellular signalling. Bistability is considered an important property of such systems and its origin is not yet completely understood. Theoretical studies have established parameter values for multistationarity and bistability for many types of proteins. However, up to now no formal criterion linking multistationarity and bistability to the parameter values characterizing dual phosphorylation has been established. Deciding whether an unclassified protein has the capacity for bistability, therefore requires careful numerical studies. Here, we present two general algebraic conditions in the form of inequalities. The first employs the catalytic constants, and if satisfied guarantees multistationarity (and hence the potential for bistability). The second involves the catalytic and Michaelis constants, and if satisfied guarantees uniqueness of steady states (and hence absence of bistability). Our method also allows for the direct computation of the total concentration values such that multistationarity occurs. Applying our results yields insights into the emergence of bistability in the ERK-MEK-MKP system that previously required a delicate numerical effort. Our algebraic conditions present a practical way to determine the capacity for bistability and hence will be a useful tool for examining the origin of bistability in many models containing dual phosphorylation.

  12. Effects of constant voltage and constant current stress in PCBM:P3HT solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cester, Andrea; Rizzo, Aldo; Bazzega, A.

    2015-01-01

    The aimof this work is the investigation of forward and reverse bias stress effects, cell self-heating and annealing in roll coated organic solar cells with PCBM:P3HT active layer. In reverse bias stress cells show a constant degradation over time. In forward current stress cells alternate degrad...

  13. Symmetry breakdown and coupling constants of leptons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil C. Marques

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a new approach to symmetries of the fundamental interactions we deal, in this paper, with the electroweak interactions of leptons. We show that the coupling constants, arising in the way leptons are coupled to intermediate bosons, can be understood as parameters associated to the breakdown of SU(2 and parity symmetries. The breakdown of both symmetries is characterized by a new parameter (the asymetry parameter of the electroweak interactions. This parameter gives a measure of the strength of breakdown of symmetries. We analyse the behaviour of the theory for three values of this parameter. The most relevant value is the one for which only the electromagnetic interactions do not break parity (the maximally allowed left-right asymetric theory. Maximamally allowed parity asymmetry is a requirement that is met for a value of Weinberg's theta-angle that is quite close to the experimental value of this parameter.Com base em uma formulação nova para simetrias das interações fundamentais nós lidamos, neste trabalho, com interações eletrofracas de leptons. Mostramos que as constantes do acoplamento, associadas aos acoplamentos de bósons intermediários, podem ser entendidas como parâmetros associados à quebra de simetrias SU(2 e paridade. A quebra de ambas as simetrias é caracterizada por um parâmetro novo (o parâmetro de assimetria das interações eletrofracas. Este parâmetro dá uma medida da intensidade com que a simetria é quebrada. Analisamos o comportamento da teoria para três valores deste parâmetro. O valor mais relevante é aquele para o qual apenas as interações eletromagnéticas não quebram a paridade (a teoria assimétrica esquerda-direita permitida da maneira máxima. A assimetria máxima permitida é uma exigência que leva a um ângulo de Weinberg cujo valor é próximo daquele observado experimentalmente.

  14. Quenched Heavy-Light Decay Constants

    CERN Document Server

    Baxter, R M; Bowler, K C; Collins, S; Henty, D S; Kenway, R D; Richards, D G; Shanahan, H P; Simone, J N; Simpson, A D; Wilkes, B E; Ewing, A K; Lellouch, L P; Sachrajda, Christopher T C; Wittig, H

    1994-01-01

    We present results for heavy-light decay constants, using both propagating quarks and the static approximation, in O(a)-improved, quenched lattice QCD. At beta=6.2 on a 24^3x48 lattice we find f_D=185 +4-3(stat)+42-7(syst) MeV, f_B=160 +6-6 +53-19 MeV, f_{D_s}/f_D=1.18 +2-2 and f_{B_s}/f_B=1.22 +4-3, in good agreement with earlier studies. From the static theory we obtain f_B^stat=253 +16-15 +105-14 MeV. We also present results from a simulation at beta=6.0 on a 16^3x48 lattice, which are consistent with those at beta=6.2. In order to study the effects of improvement, we present a direct comparison of the results using both the Wilson and the improved action at beta=6.0.

  15. Can Dust Segregation Mimic a Cosmological Constant?

    CERN Document Server

    Simonsen, J T; Simonsen, Jakob T.; Hannestad, Steen

    1999-01-01

    Recent measurements of type Ia supernovae indicate that distant supernovae are substantially fainter than expected from the standard flat cold dark matter model. One possible explanation is that the energy density in our universe is in fact dominated by a cosmological constant. Another possible solution is that there are large amounts of grey dust in the intergalactic medium. Dust grains can be grey either because they are non-spherical or very large. We have numerically investigated whether grey dust can be emitted from high redshift galaxies without also emitting standard, reddening dust, which would have been visible in the spectra of high redshift objects. Our finding is that grain velocities are almost independent of ellipticity so that if greyness are due to the grains being elongated, it will not be possible to separate grey dust from ordinary dust. We also find that velocities are fairly independent of grain size, but we cannot rule out possible sputtering of small grains, so that large, grey dust gra...

  16. Tunnelling with a negative cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, G. W.

    1996-02-01

    The point of this paper is to see what light new results in hyperbolic geometry may throw on gravitational entropy and whether gravitational entropy is relevant for the quantum origin of the universe. We introduce some new gravitational instantons which mediate the birth from nothing of closed universes containing wormholes and suggest that they may contribute to the density matrix of the universe. We also discuss the connection between their gravitational action and the topological and volumetric entropies introduced in hyperbolic geometry. These coincide for hyperbolic 4-manifolds, and increase with increasing topological complexity of the 4-manifold. We raise the question of whether the action also increases with the topological complexity of the initial 3-geometry, measured either by its 3-volume or its Matveev complexity. We point out, in distinction to the non-supergravity case, that universes with domains of negative cosmological constant separated by supergravity domain walls cannot be born from nothing. Finally we point out that our wormholes provide examples of the type of Perpetual Motion machines envisaged by Frolov and Novikov.

  17. Accurate lineshape spectroscopy and the Boltzmann constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, G-W; Anstie, J D; May, E F; Stace, T M; Luiten, A N

    2015-10-14

    Spectroscopy has an illustrious history delivering serendipitous discoveries and providing a stringent testbed for new physical predictions, including applications from trace materials detection, to understanding the atmospheres of stars and planets, and even constraining cosmological models. Reaching fundamental-noise limits permits optimal extraction of spectroscopic information from an absorption measurement. Here, we demonstrate a quantum-limited spectrometer that delivers high-precision measurements of the absorption lineshape. These measurements yield a very accurate measurement of the excited-state (6P1/2) hyperfine splitting in Cs, and reveals a breakdown in the well-known Voigt spectral profile. We develop a theoretical model that accounts for this breakdown, explaining the observations to within the shot-noise limit. Our model enables us to infer the thermal velocity dispersion of the Cs vapour with an uncertainty of 35 p.p.m. within an hour. This allows us to determine a value for Boltzmann's constant with a precision of 6 p.p.m., and an uncertainty of 71 p.p.m.

  18. The Constant Comparative Method of Qualitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the general approaches to the analysis of qualitative data are these:1. If the analyst wishes to convert qualitative data into crudely quantifiable form so that he can provisionally test a hypothesis, he codes the data first and then analyzes it. He makes an effort to code “all relevant data [that] can be brought to bear on a point,” and then systematically assembles, assesses and analyzes these data in a fashion that will “constitute proof for a given proposition.”i2. If the analyst wishes only to generate theoretical ideasnew categories and their properties, hypotheses and interrelated hypotheses- he cannot be confined to the practice of coding first and then analyzing the data since, in generating theory, he is constantly redesigning and reintegrating his theoretical notions as he reviews his material.ii Analysis with his purpose, but the explicit coding itself often seems an unnecessary, burdensome task. As a result, the analyst merely inspects his data for new properties of his theoretical categories, and writes memos on these properties.We wish to suggest a third approach

  19. Time constant of the cerebral arterial bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprowicz, Magdalena; Diedler, Jennifer; Reinhard, Matthias; Carrera, Emmanuel; Smielewski, Peter; Budohoski, Karol P; Sorrentino, Enrico; Haubrich, Christina; Kirkpatrick, Peter J; Pickard, John D; Czosnyka, Marek

    2012-01-01

    We have defined a novel cerebral hemodynamic index, a time constant of the cerebral arterial bed (τ), the product of arterial compliance (C(a)) and cerebrovascular resistance (CVR). C(a) and CVR were calculated based on the relationship between pulsatile arterial blood pressure (ABP) and transcranial Doppler cerebral blood flow velocity. This new parameter theoretically estimates how fast the cerebral arterial bed is filled by blood volume after a sudden change in ABP during one cardiac cycle. We have explored this concept in 11 volunteers and in 25 patients with severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery (ICA). An additional group of 15 subjects with non-vascular dementia was studied to assess potential age dependency of τ. The τ was shorter (p = 0.011) in ICA stenosis, both unilateral (τ = 0.18 ± 0.04 s) and bilateral (τ = 0.16 ± 0.03 s), than in controls (τ = 0.22 ± 0.0 s). The τ correlated with the degree of stenosis (R = -0.62, p = 0.001). In controls, τ was independent of age. Further study during cerebrovascular reactivity tests is needed to establish the usefulness of τ for quantitative estimation of haemodynamics in cerebrovascular disease.

  20. Type Ia Supernovae and the Hubble Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Branch, D

    1998-01-01

    The focus of this review is the work that has been done during the 1990s on using Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to measure the Hubble constant ($H_0$). SNe Ia are well suited for measuring $H_0$. A straightforward maximum-light color criterion can weed out the minority of observed events that are either intrinsically subluminous or substantially extinguished by dust, leaving a majority subsample that has observational absolute-magnitude dispersions of less than $\\sigma_{obs}(M_B) \\simeq \\sigma_{obs}(M_V) \\simeq 0.3$ mag. Correlations between absolute magnitude and one or more distance-independent SN Ia or parent-galaxy observables can be used to further standardize the absolute magnitudes to better than 0.2 mag. The absolute magnitudes can be calibrated in two independent ways --- empirically, using Cepheid-based distances to parent galaxies of SNe Ia, and physically, by light curve and spectrum fitting. At present the empirical and physical calibrations are in agreement at $M_B \\simeq M_V \\simeq -19.4$ or -19....

  1. Holographic Dark Energy with Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Yazhou; Li, Nan; Zhang, Zhenhui

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the multiverse scenario, we study a heterotic dark energy model in which there are two parts, the first being the cosmological constant and the second being the holographic dark energy, thus this model is named the $\\Lambda$HDE model. By studying the $\\Lambda$HDE model theoretically, we find that the parameters $c$ and $\\Omega_{hde}$ are divided into a few domains in which the fate of the universe is quite different. We investigate dynamical behaviors of this model, and especially the future evolution of the universe. We perform fitting analysis on the cosmological parameters in the $\\Lambda$HDE model by using the recent observational data. We find the model yields $\\chi^2_{\\rm min}=426.27$ when constrained by Planck+SNLS3+BAO+HST, comparable to the results of the HDE model (428.20) and the concordant $\\Lambda$CDM model (431.35). At 68.3\\% CL, we obtain $-0.07<\\Omega_{\\Lambda0}<0.68$ and correspondingly $0.04<\\Omega_{hde0}<0.79$, implying at present there is considerable degeneracy bet...

  2. Optical Constants of Cadmium Telluride Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithyakalyani, P.; Pandiaraman, M.; Pannir, P.; Sanjeeviraja, C.; Soundararajan, N.

    2008-04-01

    Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) is II-VI direct band gap semiconductor compound with potential application in Solar Energy conversion process. CdTe thin film of thickness 220 mn was prepared by thermal evaporation technique at a high vacuum better than 10-5 m.bar on well cleaned glass substrates of dimensions (l cm×3 cm). The transmittance spectrum and the reflectance spectrum of the prepared CdTc thin film was recorded using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer in the wavelength range between 300 nm and 900 nm. These spectral data were analyzed and the optical band and optical constants of CdTe Thin film have been determined by adopting suitable relations. The optical band gap of CdTe thin film is found to be 1.56 eV and this value is also agreeing with the published works of CdTe thin film prepared by various techniques. The absorption coefficient (α) has been higher than 106 cm-1. The Refractive index (n) and the Extinction Coefficient (k) are found to be varying from 3.0 to 4.0 and 0.1 Cm-1 to 0.5 Cm-1 respectively by varying the energy from l.0 eV to 4.0 eV. These results are also compared with the literature.

  3. Determination of the Hubble Constant Using Cepheids

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Sabour, Mohamed; Issa, Issa Ali; El-Nawawy, Mohamed Saleh; Kordi, Ayman; Almostafa, Zaki; El-Said, Ahmad Essam; Ali, Gamal Bakr

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a statistical treatment to use Cepheid variable stars as distance indicators. The expansion rate of the Universe is also studied here through deriving the value of the Hubble constant H0. A Gaussian function approximation is proposed to fit the absolute magnitude and period of Cepheid variables in our galaxy. The calculations are carried out on samples of Cepheids observed in 23 galaxies to derive the distance modulus (DM) of these galaxies based on the frequency distributions of their periods and intrinsic apparent magnitudes. The DM is the difference between the apparent magnitude for extragalactic Cepheids and the absolute magnitude of the galactic Cepheids at maximum number. It is calculated by using the comparison of the period distribution of Cepheids in our galaxy and in other galaxies. This method is preferred due to its simplicity to use and its efficiency in providing reliable DM. A linear fit with correlation coefficient of 99.68% has been found between the published distance ...

  4. Expanding Taylor bubble under constant heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voirand, Antoine; Benselama, Adel M.; Ayel, Vincent; Bertin, Yves

    2016-09-01

    Modelization of non-isothermal bubbles expanding in a capillary, as a contribution to the understanding of the physical phenomena taking place in Pulsating Heat Pipes (PHPs), is the scope of this paper. The liquid film problem is simplified and solved, while the thermal problem takes into account a constant heat flux density applied at the capillary tube wall, exchanging with the liquid film surrounding the bubble and also with the capillary tube outside medium. The liquid slug dynamics is solved using the Lucas-Washburn equation. Mass and energy balance on the vapor phase allow governing equations of bubble expansion to be written. The liquid and vapor phases are coupled only through the saturation temperature associated with the vapor pressure, assumed to be uniform throughout the bubble. Results show an over-heating of the vapor phase, although the particular thermal boundary condition used here always ensures an evaporative mass flux at the liquid-vapor interface. Global heat exchange is also investigated, showing a strong decreasing of the PHP performance to convey heat by phase change means for large meniscus velocities.

  5. Analysis constants for database of neutron nuclear data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedenko, S. V.; Jeremiah, J. Joseph; Knyshev, V. V.; Shamanin, I. V.

    2016-07-01

    At present there is a variety of experimental and calculation nuclear data which are rather entirely presented in the following evaluated nuclear data libraries: ENDF (USA), JEFF (Europe), JENDL (Japan), TENDL (Russian Federation), ROSFOND (Russian Federation). Libraries of nuclear data, used for neutron-physics calculations in programs: Scale (Origen-Arp), MCNP, WIMS, MCU, and others. Nevertheless all existing nuclear data bases, including evaluated ones, contain practically no information about threshold neutron reactions on 232Th nuclei; available values of outputs and cross-sections significantly differ by orders. The work shows necessity of nuclear constants corrections which are used in the calculations of grids and thorium storage systems. The results of numerical experiments lattices and storage systems with thorium.

  6. Tunneling for Dirac Fermions in Constant Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Choubabi, El Bouazzaoui; Jellal, Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    The tunneling effect of two-dimensional Dirac fermions in a constant magnetic field is studied. This can be done by using the continuity equation at some points to determine the corresponding reflexion and transmission coefficients. For this, we consider a system made of graphene as superposition of two different regions where the second is characterized by an energy gap t'. In fact, we treat concrete systems to practically give two illustrations: barrier and diode. For each case, we discuss the transmission in terms of the ratio of the energy conservation and t'. Moreover, we analyze the resonant tunneling by introducing a scalar Lorentz potential where it is shown that a total transmission is possible.

  7. Further Evidence for Cosmological Evolution of the Fine Structure Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, J K; Flambaum, V V; Dzuba, V A; Barrow, John D; Churchill, C W; Prochaska, J X; Wolfe, A M

    2001-01-01

    We summarise the results of a search for time variability of the fine structure constant, alpha, using absorption systems in the spectra of distant quasars. Three large optical datasets and two 21cm/mm absorption systems provide four independent samples, spanning approximately 23% to 87% of the age of the universe. Each sample yields a negative Delta(alpha)/alpha (smaller alpha in the past) and the whole optical sample shows a 4-sigma deviation: Delta(alpha)/alpha = -0.72 +/- 0.18 x 10^{-5} over the redshift range 0.5 < z < 3.5. A comprehensive search for systematic effects reveals none which can explain our results. The only potentially significant systematic effects push Delta(alpha)/alpha towards positive values, i.e. our results would become more significant were we to correct for them.

  8. Isothermal titration calorimetry in nanoliter droplets with subsecond time constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, Brad; Baudenbacher, Franz

    2011-10-15

    We reduced the reaction volume in microfabricated suspended-membrane titration calorimeters to nanoliter droplets and improved the sensitivities to below a nanowatt with time constants of around 100 ms. The device performance was characterized using exothermic acid-base neutralizations and a detailed numerical model. The finite element based numerical model allowed us to determine the sensitivities within 1% and the temporal dynamics of the temperature rise in neutralization reactions as a function of droplet size. The model was used to determine the optimum calorimeter design (membrane size and thickness, junction area, and thermopile thickness) and sensitivities for sample volumes of 1 nL for silicon nitride and polymer membranes. We obtained a maximum sensitivity of 153 pW/(Hz)(1/2) for a 1 μm SiN membrane and 79 pW/(Hz)(1/2) for a 1 μm polymer membrane. The time constant of the calorimeter system was determined experimentally using a pulsed laser to increase the temperature of nanoliter sample volumes. For a 2.5 nanoliter sample volume, we experimentally determined a noise equivalent power of 500 pW/(Hz)(1/2) and a 1/e time constant of 110 ms for a modified commercially available infrared sensor with a thin-film thermopile. Furthermore, we demonstrated detection of 1.4 nJ reaction energies from injection of 25 pL of 1 mM HCl into a 2.5 nL droplet of 1 mM NaOH.

  9. Development of constant-power driving control for light-emitting-diode (LED) luminaire

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2013-01-01

    The illumination of an LED may be affected by operating temperature even under constant-current condition. A constant-power driving technique is proposed in the present study for LED luminaire. A linear system dynamics model of LED luminaire is first derived and used in the design of the feedback control system. The PI controller was designed and tuned taking into account the control accuracy and robust properties with respect to plant uncertainty and variation of operating conditions. The control system was implemented on a microprocessor and used to control a 150W LED luminaire. The test result shows that the feedback system accurately controls the input power of LED luminaire to within 1.3 per cent error. As the ambient temperature changes from 0 to 40 °C, the LED illumination varies slightly (-1.7%) for constant-power driving, as compared to that of constant-current driving (-12%) and constant-voltage driving (+50%). The constant-power driving has revealed advantage in stabilizing the illumination of LED under large temperature variation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Constraints on the Moment of Inertia of a Proto Neutron Star from the Hyperon Coupling Constants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xian-Feng Zhao; Huan-Yu Jia

    2012-09-01

    The influence of the hyperon coupling constants on the moment of inertia of a proto neutron star has been investigated within the framework of relativistic mean field theory for the baryon octet {, , , -, 0, +, Ξ-, Ξ0} system. It is found that for a proto neutron star, the mass, the moment of inertia and their own maximum values as a function of radius or / are all more sensitive to the hyperon coupling constants. For all the different hyperon coupling constants mentioned, the case of no hyperons corresponds to the largest moment of inertia.

  11. Manifestations of a spatial variation of fundamental constants on atomic clocks, Oklo, meteorites, and cosmological phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Berengut, J C

    2010-01-01

    The remarkable detection of a spatial variation in the fine-structure constant, alpha, from quasar absorption systems must be independently confirmed by complementary searches. In this letter, we discuss how terrestrial measurements of time-variation of the fundamental constants in the laboratory, meteorite data, and analysis of the Oklo nuclear reactor can be used to corroborate the spatial variation seen by astronomers. Furthermore, we show that spatial variation of the fundamental constants may be observable as spatial anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background, the accelerated expansion (dark energy), and large-scale structure of the Universe.

  12. Study on cipher propertys of constant weight codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Bogang

    2006-01-01

    Constant weight code is an important error-correcting control code in communications. Basic structure of constant weight codes for some arriving at Johnson bound, A(n, 2u, w), is presented. Some correlative propertys of the codes, the solution of arriving at Johnson bound, and the results on the couple constant code and some constant weight codes are discussed. The conclusion is verified through four examples.

  13. Deformed extra space and the smallness of the cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Sergey G

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of different universes formation is elaborated. Each universe is characterized by a unique cosmological constant. It is shown that the set of cosmological constants has the cardinality of the continuum and contains zero cosmological constant. Those universes with cosmological constants near zero could be filled by complex structures. There is no necessity in a special mechanism of the fine tuning. The role of quantum fluctuations is studied.

  14. The type Ia supernovae and the Hubble's constant

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The Hubble's constant is usually surmised to be a constant; but the experiments show a large spread and conflicting estimates. According to the plasma-redshift theory, the Hubble's constant varies with the plasma densities along the line of sight. It varies then slightly with the direction and the distance to a supernova and a galaxy. The relation between the magnitudes of type Ia supernovae and their observed redshifts results in an Hubble's constant with an average value in intergalactic sp...

  15. A relation between diffusion,temperature and the cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Haba, Z

    2016-01-01

    We show that the temperature of a diffusing fluid with the diffusion constant \\kappa^{2} in an expanding universe approaches a constant limit T=\\kappa^{2}/H in its final de Sitter stage characterized by the horizon 1/H determined by the Hubble constant. If de Sitter surface temperature in the final equilibrium state coincides with the fluid temperature then the cosmological constant \\Lambda=3H^{2}=6\\pi\\kappa^{2}.

  16. Tailoring automatic exposure control toward constant detectability in digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvagnini, Elena, E-mail: elena.salvagnini@uzleuven.be [Department of Imaging and Pathology, Medical Physics and Quality Assessment, KUL, Herestraat 49, Leuven B-3000, Belgium and SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, Mol 2400 (Belgium); Bosmans, Hilde [Department of Imaging and Pathology, Medical Physics and Quality Assessment, KUL, Herestraat 49, Leuven B-3000, Belgium and Department of Radiology, UZ Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, Leuven B-3000 (Belgium); Struelens, Lara [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, Mol 2400 (Belgium); Marshall, Nicholas W. [Department of Radiology, UZ Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, Leuven B-3000 (Belgium)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The automatic exposure control (AEC) modes of most full field digital mammography (FFDM) systems are set up to hold pixel value (PV) constant as breast thickness changes. This paper proposes an alternative AEC mode, set up to maintain some minimum detectability level, with the ultimate goal of improving object detectability at larger breast thicknesses. Methods: The default “OPDOSE” AEC mode of a Siemens MAMMOMAT Inspiration FFDM system was assessed using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) of thickness 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 mm to find the tube voltage and anode/filter combination programmed for each thickness; these beam quality settings were used for the modified AEC mode. Detectability index (d′), in terms of a non-prewhitened model observer with eye filter, was then calculated as a function of tube current-time product (mAs) for each thickness. A modified AEC could then be designed in which detectability never fell below some minimum setting for any thickness in the operating range. In this study, the value was chosen such that the system met the achievable threshold gold thickness (T{sub t}) in the European guidelines for the 0.1 mm diameter disc (i.e., T{sub t} ≤ 1.10 μm gold). The default and modified AEC modes were compared in terms of contrast-detail performance (T{sub t}), calculated detectability (d′), signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR), and mean glandular dose (MGD). The influence of a structured background on object detectability for both AEC modes was examined using a CIRS BR3D phantom. Computer-based CDMAM reading was used for the homogeneous case, while the images with the BR3D background were scored by human observers. Results: The default OPDOSE AEC mode maintained PV constant as PMMA thickness increased, leading to a reduction in SDNR for the homogeneous background 39% and d′ 37% in going from 20 to 70 mm; introduction of the structured BR3D plate changed these figures to 22% (SDNR) and 6% (d′), respectively

  17. Stresses and elastic constants of crystalline sodium, from molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiferl, S.K.

    1985-02-01

    The stresses and the elastic constants of bcc sodium are calculated by molecular dynamics (MD) for temperatures to T = 340K. The total adiabatic potential of a system of sodium atoms is represented by pseudopotential model. The resulting expression has two terms: a large, strictly volume-dependent potential, plus a sum over ion pairs of a small, volume-dependent two-body potential. The stresses and the elastic constants are given as strain derivatives of the Helmholtz free energy. The resulting expressions involve canonical ensemble averages (and fluctuation averages) of the position and volume derivatives of the potential. An ensemble correction relates the results to MD equilibrium averages. Evaluation of the potential and its derivatives requires the calculation of integrals with infinite upper limits of integration, and integrand singularities. Methods for calculating these integrals and estimating the effects of integration errors are developed. A method is given for choosing initial conditions that relax quickly to a desired equilibrium state. Statistical methods developed earlier for MD data are extended to evaluate uncertainties in fluctuation averages, and to test for symmetry. 45 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Validation of models with constant bias: an applied approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Medina-Peralta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This paper presents extensions to the statistical validation method based on the procedure of Freese when a model shows constant bias (CB in its predictions and illustrate the method with data from a new mechanistic model that predict weight gain in cattle. Materials and methods. The extensions were the hypothesis tests and maximum anticipated error for the alternative approach, and the confidence interval for a quantile of the distribution of errors. Results. The model evaluated showed CB, once the CB is removed and with a confidence level of 95%, the magnitude of the error does not exceed 0.575 kg. Therefore, the validated model can be used to predict the daily weight gain of cattle, although it will require an adjustment in its structure based on the presence of CB to increase the accuracy of its forecasts. Conclusions. The confidence interval for the 1-α quantile of the distribution of errors after correcting the constant bias, allows determining the top limit for the magnitude of the error of prediction and use it to evaluate the evolution of the model in the forecasting of the system. The confidence interval approach to validate a model is more informative than the hypothesis tests for the same purpose.

  19. Infrared Spectra and Optical Constants of Elusive Amorphous Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerakines, Perry A.; Hudson, Reggie L.

    2015-01-01

    New and accurate laboratory results are reported for amorphous methane (CH4) ice near 10 K for the study of the interstellar medium (ISM) and the outer Solar System. Near- and mid-infrared (IR) data, including spectra, band strengths, absorption coefficients, and optical constants, are presented for the first time for this seldom-studied amorphous solid. The apparent IR band strength near 1300 cm(exp -1) (7.69 micrometer) for amorphous CH4 is found to be about 33% higher than the value long used by IR astronomers to convert spectral observations of interstellar CH4 into CH4 abundances. Although CH4 is most likely to be found in an amorphous phase in the ISM, a comparison of results from various laboratory groups shows that the earlier CH4 band strength at 1300 cm(exp -1) (7.69 micrometer) was derived from IR spectra of ices that were either partially or entirely crystalline CH4 Applications of the new amorphous-CH4 results are discussed, and all optical constants are made available in electronic form.

  20. A novel constant degree and constant congestion DHT scheme for peer-to-peer networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dongsheng; LU Xicheng

    2005-01-01

    Degree, diameter and congestion are important measures of distributed hash table (DHT) schemes for peer-to-peer networks. Many proposed DHT schemes are based on some traditional interconnection topologies and the Kautz graph is a topology with good properties such as optimal network diameter. In this paper, FissionE, a novel DHT scheme based on the Kautz graph, is proposed. FissionE is the first constant degree and O(logN) diameter DHT scheme with (1+o(1))-congestion. FissionE shows that the DHT scheme with constant degree and constant congestion can achieve O(logN) diameter, which is better than the lower bound Ω(N1/d) conjectured before. The average degree of FissionE is 4 and the diameter is 2*log2N, and the average routing path length is about Iog2N. The average path length of FissionE is shorter than CAN or Koorde with the same degree when the P2P network is large scale.