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Sample records for abattoir workers exposed

  1. The Impact of Physical and Ergonomic Hazards on Poultry Abattoir Processing Workers: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmse, Johannes L; Engelbrecht, Jacobus C; Bekker, Johan L

    2016-02-06

    The poultry abattoir industry continues to grow and contribute significantly to the gross domestic product in many countries. The industry expects working shifts of eight to eleven hours, during which workers are exposed to occupational hazards which include physical hazards ranging from noise, vibration, exposure to cold and ergonomic stress from manual, repetitive tasks that require force. A PubMed, Medline and Science Direct online database search, using specific keywords was conducted and the results confirmed that physical and ergonomic hazards impact on abattoir processing workers health, with harm not only to workers' health but also as an economic burden due to the loss of their livelihoods and the need for treatment and compensation in the industry. This review endeavours to highlight the contribution poultry processing plays in the development of physical agents and ergonomic stress related occupational diseases in poultry abattoir processing workers. The impact includes noise-induced hearing loss, increased blood pressure, menstrual and work related upper limb disorders. These are summarised as a quick reference guide for poultry abattoir owners, abattoir workers, poultry associations, occupational hygienists and medical practitioners to assist in the safer management of occupational health in poultry abattoirs.

  2. Sero-Prevalence and Risk Factors for Leptospirosis in Abattoir Workers in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anou Dreyfus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an important occupational disease in New Zealand. The objectives of this study were to determine risk factors for sero-prevalence of leptospiral antibodies in abattoir workers. Sera were collected from 567 abattoir workers and tested by microscopic agglutination for Leptospira interrogans sv. Pomona and Leptospira borgpetersenii sv. Hardjobovis. Association between prevalence and risk factors were determined by species specific multivariable analysis. Eleven percent of workers had antibodies against Hardjobovis or/and Pomona. Workers from the four sheep abattoirs had an average sero-prevalence of 10%–31%, from the two deer abattoirs 17%–19% and the two beef abattoirs 5%. The strongest risk factor for sero-positivity in sheep and deer abattoirs was work position. In sheep abattoirs, prevalence was highest at stunning and hide removal, followed by removal of the bladder and kidneys. Wearing personal protective equipment such as gloves and facemasks did not appear to protect against infection. Home slaughtering, farming or hunting were not significantly associated with sero-prevalence. There is substantial risk of exposure to leptospires in sheep and deer abattoirs in New Zealand and a persisting, but lower risk, in beef abattoirs. Interventions, such as animal vaccination, appear necessary to control leptospirosis as an occupational disease in New Zealand.

  3. Sero-prevalence and risk factors for leptospirosis in abattoir workers in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, Anou; Benschop, Jackie; Collins-Emerson, Julie; Wilson, Peter; Baker, Michael G; Heuer, Cord

    2014-02-05

    Leptospirosis is an important occupational disease in New Zealand. The objectives of this study were to determine risk factors for sero-prevalence of leptospiral antibodies in abattoir workers. Sera were collected from 567 abattoir workers and tested by microscopic agglutination for Leptospira interrogans sv. Pomona and Leptospira borgpetersenii sv. Hardjobovis. Association between prevalence and risk factors were determined by species specific multivariable analysis. Eleven percent of workers had antibodies against Hardjobovis or/and Pomona. Workers from the four sheep abattoirs had an average sero-prevalence of 10%-31%, from the two deer abattoirs 17%-19% and the two beef abattoirs 5%. The strongest risk factor for sero-positivity in sheep and deer abattoirs was work position. In sheep abattoirs, prevalence was highest at stunning and hide removal, followed by removal of the bladder and kidneys. Wearing personal protective equipment such as gloves and facemasks did not appear to protect against infection. Home slaughtering, farming or hunting were not significantly associated with sero-prevalence. There is substantial risk of exposure to leptospires in sheep and deer abattoirs in New Zealand and a persisting, but lower risk, in beef abattoirs. Interventions, such as animal vaccination, appear necessary to control leptospirosis as an occupational disease in New Zealand.

  4. Food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the abattoir workers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Auwalu; Hassan, Azmi; Kadarman, Norizhar; Saleh, Ahmadu; Baraya, Yusha'u Shu'aibu; Lua, Pei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne diseases are common in the developing countries due to the predominant poor food handling and sanitation practices, particularly as a result of inadequate food safety laws, weak regulatory structures, and inadequate funding as well as a lack of appropriate education for food-handlers. The most frequently involved foods in disease outbreaks are of animal origin. However, in spite of the adequate legislation and laws governing the abattoir operation in Malaysia, compliance with food safety requirements during meat processing and waste disposal is inadequate. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the workers in Terengganu, Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using simple random sampling technique in the six districts of Terengganu: two districts were used for the pilot study and the remaining four were used for the main study. One hundred sixty-five abattoir workers from the selected districts were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The mean and standard deviation of knowledge, attitude, and practice scores of the workers were 6.02 and 1.954, 45.16 and 4.496, and 18.03 and 3.186, respectively. The majority of the workers (38.8%) had a low level of knowledge and 91.7% had a positive attitude, while 77.7% had a good practice of compliance. Sex had a significant association with the level of knowledge (P<0.001) and practice (P=0.044) among the workers. The females had a higher level of knowledge than the males, while the males had a better practice of compliance than females. Similarly, knowledge also had a significant (P=0.009) association with the level of practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the workers. The abattoir workers had a positive attitude and good practice, but a low level of knowledge toward compliance with the abattoir laws. Therefore, public awareness, workshops, and seminars relevant to the abattoir

  5. Food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the abattoir workers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Auwalu Abdullahi,1–3 Azmi Hassan,1 Norizhar Kadarman,2 Ahmadu Saleh,4 Yusha’u Shu’aibu Baraya,5 Pei Lin Lua,61Institute for Community Development and Quality of Life  (i-CODE, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA, Kampus Gong Badak, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA, Kampus Kota, Jalan Sultan Mahmud, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia; 3Department of Animal Health and Husbandry, Audu Bako College of Agriculture, Dambatta, Kano, Nigeria; 4School of Animal Science, Faculty of Bio-resources and Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA, Terengganu, Malaysia; 5Department of Chemical Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM, Malaysia; 6Community Health Research Cluster, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA, Kampus Gong Badak, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia Purpose: Foodborne diseases are common in the developing countries due to the predominant poor food handling and sanitation practices, particularly as a result of inadequate food safety laws, weak regulatory structures, and inadequate funding as well as a lack of appropriate education for food-handlers. The most frequently involved foods in disease outbreaks are of animal origin. However, in spite of the adequate legislation and laws governing the abattoir operation in Malaysia, compliance with food safety requirements during meat processing and waste disposal is inadequate. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the workers in Terengganu, Malaysia. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using simple random sampling technique in the six districts of Terengganu: two districts were used for the pilot study and the remaining four were used for the main study. One hundred sixty

  6. Occupational hazards among the abattoir workers associated with noncompliance to the meat processing and waste disposal laws in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Auwalu; Hassan, Azmi; Kadarman, Norizhar; Junaidu, Yakubu Muhammad; Adeyemo, Olanike Kudrat; Lua, Pei Lin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the occupational hazards among the abattoir workers associated with noncompliance to the meat processing and waste disposal laws in Terengganu State, Malaysia. Occupational hazards are the major source of morbidity and mortality among the animal workers due to exposure to many hazardous situations in their daily practices. Occupational infections mostly contracted by abattoir workers could be caused by iatrogenic or transmissible agents, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites and the toxins produced by these organisms. The methodology was based on a cross-sectional survey using cluster sampling technique in the four districts of Terengganu State, Malaysia. One hundred and twenty-one abattoir workers from five abattoirs were assessed using a validated structured questionnaire and an observation checklist. The mean and standard deviation of occupational hazards scores of the workers were 2.32 (2.721). Physical, chemical, biological, psychosocial, musculoskeletal, and ergonomics hazards were the major findings of this study. However, the highest prevalence of occupational hazards identified among the workers was injury by sharp equipment such as a knife (20.0%), noise exposure (17.0%), and due to offensive odor within the abattoir premises (12.0%). The major occupational hazards encountered by the workers in the study area were physical, chemical, biological, psychosocial, musculoskeletal, and ergonomics hazards. To ensure proper control of occupational health hazards among the abattoir workers, standard design and good environmental hygiene must be taken into consideration all the time. Exposure control plan, which includes risk identification, risk characterization, assessment of workers at risk, risk control, workers' education/training, and implementation of safe work procedures, should be implemented by the government and all the existing laws governing the abattoir operation in the country should be enforced.

  7. A Q fever cluster among workers at an abattoir in south-western Sydney, Australia, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Lord

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In September 2015, the Public Health Unit of the South Western Sydney Local Health District was notified of two possible Q fever cases. Case investigation identified that both cases were employed at an abattoir, and both cases advised that co-workers had experienced similar symptoms. Public Health Unit staff also recalled interviewing in late 2014 at least one other Q fever case who worked at the same abattoir. This prompted an outbreak investigation. Methods: The investigation incorporated active case finding, microbiological analysis, field investigation and a risk factor survey. Included cases were laboratory definitive or suspected cases occurring from October 2014 to October 2015, residing or working in south-western Sydney. A suspected case had clinically compatible illness, high-risk exposure and was epidemiologically linked to another confirmed case. A confirmed case included laboratory detection of C. burnetii. Results: Eight cases met the case definition with seven confirmed (including a deceased case and one suspected. The eight cases were all males who had been employed at an abattoir in south-western Sydney during their incubation period; symptom onset dates ranged from November 2014 to September 2015. Field investigation identified multiple potential risk factors at the abattoir, and the majority (75% of employees were not vaccinated against Q fever despite this high-risk setting. Conclusion: This cluster of Q fever in a single abattoir confirms the significance of this zoonotic disease as an occupational hazard among persons working in high-risk environments. Implementation of Q fever vaccination programmes should eliminate Q fever in high-risk occupational settings.

  8. Occupational hazards among the abattoir workers associated with noncompliance to the meat processing and waste disposal laws in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi A

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Auwalu Abdullahi,1–3 Azmi Hassan,1 Norizhar Kadarman,2 Yakubu Muhammad Junaidu,3 Olanike Kudrat Adeyemo,4,5 Pei Lin Lua6 1Institute for Community Development and Quality of Life (i-CODE, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA, Kampus Gong Badak, 2Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA, Kampus Kota, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia; 3Department of Animal Health and Husbandry, Audu Bako College of Agriculture Dambatta, Kano, Nigeria; 4Center for Human and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Physiological Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 5Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; 6Community Health Research Cluster, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA, Kampus Gong Badak, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia Purpose: This study aims to investigate the occupational hazards among the abattoir workers associated with noncompliance to the meat processing and waste disposal laws in Terengganu State, Malaysia. Occupational hazards are the major source of morbidity and mortality among the animal workers due to exposure to many hazardous situations in their daily practices. Occupational infections mostly contracted by abattoir workers could be caused by iatrogenic or transmissible agents, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites and the toxins produced by these organisms. Materials and methods: The methodology was based on a cross-sectional survey using cluster sampling technique in the four districts of Terengganu State, Malaysia. One hundred and twenty-one abattoir workers from five abattoirs were assessed using a validated structured questionnaire and an observation checklist. Results: The mean and standard deviation of occupational hazards scores of the workers were 2.32 (2.721. Physical, chemical, biological, psychosocial, musculoskeletal, and ergonomics hazards

  9. A Prospective Follow-Up Study on Transmission of Campylobacter from Poultry to Abattoir Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Ingrid; Söderström, Claes; Engvall, Eva Olsson; Rautelin, Hilpi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Contact with poultry or poultry meat is a well-known risk factor for campylobacteriosis, but prospective studies on transmission of Campylobacter from chickens to humans during slaughter are scarce. In this study, we monitored transmission of Campylobacter from slaughtered chicken to originally culture-negative abattoir workers during the peak season of colonized chicken and human Campylobacter infection. Stool samples were obtained from 28 abattoir workers together with data on health status once a month between June and September 2010, with a follow-up sample collected in February 2011. Campylobacter-positive individuals and chicken flocks were identified by culture, and isolates were further characterized using molecular techniques. Campylobacter was isolated from seven asymptomatic individuals. Four of them had been newly employed and had not reported any previous Campylobacter infection. Four human isolates had matching genetic fingerprints with isolates from recently slaughtered chickens. Our results further support the role of chicken as the source of human Campylobacter infection but suggest that asymptomatic Campylobacter infection may occur even in individuals with only limited earlier exposure to Campylobacter. PMID:24885791

  10. Antimicrobial drug resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry abattoir workers at risk and broilers on antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.W. Oguttu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial usage in food animals increases the prevalence of antimicrobial drug resistance among their enteric bacteria. It has been suggested that this resistance can in turn be transferred to people working with such animals, e.g. abattoir workers. Antimicrobial drug resistance was investigated for Escherichia coli from broilers raised on feed supplemented with antimicrobials, and the people who carry out evisceration, washing and packing of intestines in a high-throughput poultry abattoir in Gauteng, South Africa. Broiler carcasses were sampled from 6 farms, on each of which broilers are produced in a separate 'grow-out cycle'. Per farm, 100 caeca were randomly collected 5 minutes after slaughter and the contents of each were selectively cultured for E. coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of each isolate was determined for the following antimicrobials : doxycycline, trimethoprim, sulphamethoxazole, ampicillin, enrofloxacin, fosfomycin, ceftriaxone and nalidixic acid. The same was determined for the faeces of 29 abattoir workers and 28 persons used as controls. The majority of isolates from broilers were resistant, especially to antimicrobials that were used on the farms in the study. Overall median MICs and the number of resistant isolates from abattoir workers (packers plus eviscerators tended to be higher than for the control group. However, no statistically significant differences were observed when the median MICs of antimicrobials used regularly in poultry and percentage resistance were compared, nor could an association between resistance among the enteric E. coli from packers and those from broilers be demonstrated.

  11. Risk of infection and associated influenza-like disease among abattoir workers due to two Leptospira species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, A; Heuer, C; Wilson, P; Collins-Emerson, J; Baker, M G; Benschop, J

    2015-07-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the annual incidence of infection with Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona and/or Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo and its association with influenza-like illness (ILI) in meat workers in New Zealand. Sera were collected twice, 50-61 weeks apart, from 592 workers at eight abattoirs slaughtering sheep (n = 4), cattle (n = 2) and deer (n = 2), and tested by the microscopic agglutination test for Hardjo and Pomona. Forty-nine (8·3%) participants either seroconverted or had at least a twofold increased serological titre against either serovar. The worker infection risk was higher in sheep abattoirs (11·9%) than in abattoirs processing deer (0%) or cattle (1·2%) (P Leptospira serovars was 2·7%. This study has demonstrated that meat workers are at substantial risk of infection and clinical disease, suggesting further investigation of infection sources and preventive measures are warranted.

  12. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Hernández, Gerardo [Section of Methodology of Science, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica [Faculty of Medicine, UJED, Durango, DGO (Mexico); Maldonado-Vega, María [CIATEC, León, GTO (Mexico); Rosas-Flores, Margarita [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor, E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca{sup 2+}], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers

  13. Interphase cytogenetics of workers exposed to benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.; Wang, Yunxia; Venkatesh, P. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful new technique that allows numerical chromosome aberrations (aneuploidy) to be detected in interphase cells. In previous studies, FISH has been used to demonstrate that the benzene metabolites hydroquinone and 1,2,4-benzenetriol induce aneuploidy of chromosomes 7 and 9 in cultures of human cells. In the present study, we used an interphase FISH procedure to perform cytogenetic analyses on the blood cells of 43 workers exposed to benzene (median=31 ppm, 8-hr time-weighted average) and 44 matched controls from Shanghai, China. High benzene exposure (>31 ppm, n=22) increased the hyperdiploid frequency of chromosome 9 (p<0.01), but lower exposure (<31 ppm, n=21) did not. Trisomy 9 was the major form of benzene-induced hyperdiploidy. The level of hyperdiploidy in exposed workers correlated with their urinary phenol level (r= 0.58, p < 0.0001), a measure of internal benzene close. A significant correlation was also found between hyperdiploicly and decreased absolute lymphocyte count, an indicator of benzene hematotoxicity, in the exposed group (r=-0.44, p=0.003) but not in controls (r=-0.09, P=0.58). These results show that high benzene exposure induces aneuploidy of chromosome 9 in nondiseased individuals, with trisomy being the most prevalent form. They further highlight the usefulness of interphase cytogenetics and FISH for the rapid and sensitive detection of aneuploidy in exposed human populations. 35 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Mortality patterns among workers exposed to acrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.J.; Swaen, G.M.; Marsh, G.M.; Utidjian, H.M.; Caporossi, J.C.; Lucas, L.J. (American Cyanamid Co., Wayne, NJ (USA))

    1989-07-01

    A cohort of 8854 men, 2293 of whom were exposed to acrylamide, was examined from 1925 to 1983 for mortality. This cohort consisted of four plant populations in two countries: the United States and The Netherlands. No statistically significant excess of all-cause or cause-specific mortality was found among acrylamide workers. Analysis by acrylamide exposure levels showed no trend of increased risk of mortality from several cancer sites. These results do not support the hypothesis that acrylamide is a human carcinogen.

  15. Cancer occurrence among workers exposed to acrylonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, K J

    1994-10-01

    A MEDLINE search identified 12 published epidemiologic studies that have reported incidence or mortality experience among workers exposed to acrylonitrile. Many of the studies contain scanty descriptions of subject ascertainment, and most do not have good information on exposure assessment. Many also may have suffered from incomplete follow-up, as evinced by an overall deficit in the number of deaths observed, compared with the number expected from general population mortality rates. Such problems are not unique to studies on acrylonitrile, and to some extent they reflect the difficulties of conducting retrospective cohort studies. Despite these drawbacks, a simplified meta-analysis of the mortality experience reported for these cohorts revealed little evidence for carcinogenicity. Approximately the same number of cancer deaths was observed as was expected according to general population mortality rates (standardized mortality ratio 1.03, 90% confidence interval 0.92-1.15). The combined information from these studies is insufficient to support confidence about a lack of carcinogenicity at all sites. Nevertheless, despite the flaws in some of the individual studies, the summarized findings offer reassurance that workers exposed to acrylonitrile face no striking increases in mortality for all cancers or for respiratory cancer.

  16. Neurotoxicity of Acrylamide in Exposed Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, Manuela; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Puglisi, Valentina; Vinciguerra, Luisa; Vacante, Marco; Malaguarnera, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    Acrylamide (ACR) is a water-soluble chemical used in different industrial and laboratory processes. ACR monomer is neurotoxic in humans and laboratory animals. Subchronic exposure to this chemical causes neuropathies, hands and feet numbness, gait abnormalities, muscle weakness, ataxia, skin and in some cases, cerebellar alterations. ACR neurotoxicity involves mostly the peripheral but also the central nervous system, because of damage to the nerve terminal through membrane fusion mechanisms and tubulovescicular alterations. Nevertheless, the exact action mechanism is not completely elucidated. In this paper we have reviewed the current literature on its neurotoxicity connected to work-related ACR exposure. We have analyzed not only the different pathogenetic hypotheses focusing on possible neuropathological targets, but also the critical behavior of ACR poisoning. In addition we have evaluated the ACR-exposed workers case studies. Despite all the amount of work which have being carried out on this topic more studies are necessary to fully understand the pathogenetic mechanisms, in order to propose suitable therapies. PMID:23985770

  17. Neurotoxicity of Acrylamide in Exposed Workers

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    Mariano Malaguarnera

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide (ACR is a water-soluble chemical used in different industrial and laboratory processes. ACR monomer is neurotoxic in humans and laboratory animals. Subchronic exposure to this chemical causes neuropathies, hands and feet numbness, gait abnormalities, muscle weakness, ataxia, skin and in some cases, cerebellar alterations. ACR neurotoxicity involves mostly the peripheral but also the central nervous system, because of damage to the nerve terminal through membrane fusion mechanisms and tubulovescicular alterations. Nevertheless, the exact action mechanism is not completely elucidated. In this paper we have reviewed the current literature on its neurotoxicity connected to work-related ACR exposure. We have analyzed not only the different pathogenetic hypotheses focusing on possible neuropathological targets, but also the critical behavior of ACR poisoning. In addition we have evaluated the ACR-exposed workers case studies. Despite all the amount of work which have being carried out on this topic more studies are necessary to fully understand the pathogenetic mechanisms, in order to propose suitable therapies.

  18. [Anemia in workers exposed to lead: update on differential diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, L; Soleo, L; Cassano, F; Elia, G; Schiavulli, N; Martino, M G; Corfiati, M; Bulfaro, D; Apostoli, P

    2005-01-01

    Occupational lead exposure can cause anemia at blood lead levels >50 microg/dl, as high as rarely occurs in industrialized countries nowadays. Whereas other forms of anemia are fairly probable to be found in lead exposed workers, especially in areas highly endemicfor extraoccupational anemias, such as beta thalassemia and iron deficiency anemia. The etiology of anemias has to be correctly defined in order to assess suitable therapeutical approaches and medicolegal consequences. The objective of this study is to verify in male lead exposed workers whether an accurate evaluation of hemocromocytometric parameters and of usual biological indices of lead exposure and effect on heme can differentiate the most common forms of anemia in Southern Italy. 68 workers occupationally exposed to low to moderate lead doses were studied and 59 workers of an alimentary plant have been taken as control group. On venous blood samples collected from these workers a complete hemocromocytometric test was performed and blood lead and erythrocytic zincoprotoporphyrin were determined. Anemia (Hb lead exposed workers and in a nonexposed worker. The reasoned evaluation of laboratory parameters led to identify among lead exposed workers four subjects with high probability of beta-thalassemic trait and two with lead poisoning anemia. Moreover a diagnostic algorithm was developed based on literature that seems to be able to discriminate lead poisoning from other causes of anemia in lead exposed workers in this study.

  19. Health effects among refrigeration repair workers exposed to fluorocarbons.

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Refrigeration repair workers may be intermittently exposed to fluorocarbons and their thermal decomposition products. A case of peripheral neuropathy (distal axonopathy) in a commercial refrigeration repairman prompted an epidemiological investigation of the health of refrigeration repair workers. No additional cases of peripheral neuropathy were identified among the 27 refrigeration repair workers studied. A reference group of 14 non-refrigeration repair workers was also studied. No differen...

  20. Medical surveillance of occupationally exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-05-15

    The guide covers medical surveillance of workers engaged in radiation work and their fitness for this work, protection of the foetus and infant during the worker's pregnancy or breastfeeding, and medical surveillance measures to be taken when the dose limit has been exceeded. The guide also covers recognition of practitioners responsible for medical surveillance of category A workers, medical certificates to be issued to workers, and preservation and transfer of medical records. The medical surveillance requirements specified in this Guide cover the use of radiation and nuclear energy. The guide also applies to exposure to natural radiation in accordance with section 28 of the Finnish Radiation Decree

  1. Investigating genetic damage in workers occupationally exposed to methotrexate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何继亮

    2005-01-01

    @@ In this article, the genetic damage at 3 genetic endpoints in the workers occupationally exposed to antineoplastc drug was studied with micronucleus test, comet assay, hprt gene mutation assay and TCR gene mutation assay.

  2. Chromosomic aberrations in female workers exposed to pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Cuenca, Patricia; Ramírez, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine if the occupational exposure to those pesticides used at banana plantations’ packaging plants produces genetic damage to somatic cells of female workers. Chromosomal aberrations were scored in lymphocytes of 20 women, 10 female exposed workers and 10 female controls. Workers were recruited from independent farms from two locations in Costa Rica, during January through June in 1996 and 1997. These females had a minimum of three months of work, had neve...

  3. Health of workers exposed to electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadbent, D.E.; Broadbent, M.H.; Male, J.C.; Jones, M.R.

    1985-02-01

    The results of health questionnaire interviews with 390 electrical power transmission and distribution workers, together with long term estimates of their exposure to 50 Hz electric fields, and short term measurements of the actual exposure for 287 of them are reported. Twenty eight workers received measurable exposures, averaging about 30 kVm-1h over the two week measurement period. Estimated exposure rates were considerably greater, but showed fair correlation with the measurements. Although the general level of health was higher than we have found in manual workers in other industries, there were significant differences in the health measures between different categories of job, different parts of the country, and in association with factors such as overtime, working alone, or frequently changing shift. After allowing for the effects of job and location, however, we found no significant correlations of health with either measured or estimated exposure to electric fields.

  4. Cataract incidence in the cohort of occupationally exposed workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Bragin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess cataract incidence in the cohort of workers occupationally exposed to prolonged radiation. Material and Methods: Cataract incidence was studied in the cohort of workers of the first Russian nuclear enterprise — the Mayak, who were firstly employed at one of the main facilities (reactors, radiochemical and plutonium production plants in 1948‑1958 and followed up to the end of 2008 (12210 persons. Total of 3100 cataract cases were registered in the study cohort. All cataract cases were reviewed and verified by experts; the study included only confirmed senile cataracts. All workers of the study cohort were exposed to external gamma-rays; mean cumulative dose from external gamma-rays was 0.91±0.01 Gy in males and 0.65±0.01 Gy in females. Statistical analysis provided non-standardized and standardized incidence rates per 100 000 workers. Standardization by sex and age was performed by indirect method using internal reference.Results: 2523 cases of senile cataract were included in the study. Mean age of cataract diagnosis was 62.88±0.26 years in males and 64.88±0.28 years in females. Standardized incidence rates of cataract in females were significantly higher as compared to males and increased with workers age. Comparison between the subcohorts of workers with / without diagnosed cataracts demonstrated that among workers with cataracts the proportions of the following groups of workers were significantly higher: workers employed before 1954; workers employed at reactors; smoking workers; workers with the smoking index exceeding 20 pack*years; workers who consumed alcohol; workers with excessive body weight; workers with glaucoma and arterial hypertension. Moreover the mean cumulative dose from external gamma-rays and / or neutron exposure was significantly higher in the subcohort of workers diagnosed with cataracts than that in the subcohort of workers free of the disease. The highest cataract incidence

  5. The thyroid: medical surveillance of exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virgili, M. [Radiation Protection ASL Frosinone (Italy); Strambi, E. [Board for the new Technologies, the Energy and the Environment (ENEA), Rome (Italy); Trenta, G. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Frascati, Roma (Italy)

    2000-05-01

    In this paper the authors, on the basis of a prevalence study of thyroid diseases on a group of 234 radiation workers observed over a ten-years (1989-1999): discuss the issues and suggest an up-to-date approach to diagnosis and management of nodular thyroid diseases in the medical surveillance of radiation protection; identify and discuss, specific clinical situations, which, representing special problems, deserve a more restrictive judgement of fitness; intend to demonstrate that the diagnostic protocol used conciliates with due economy but with the right balance, the real requirements of medical surveillance reducing as far as possible undesirable effects such as damage from excessive protection and patient/physician delay, which is extremely dangerous in the early diagnosis of tumours. (author)

  6. Serum beta2-microglobulin in cadmium exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscator, M

    1978-09-01

    In cadmium exposed workers with renal tubular dysfunction the determination of beta2m in urine is an important diagnostic test. Cadmium exposure's influence on serum beta2m levels and its relationship to urinary excretion of beta2m were studied in 24 cadmium exposed workers with normal serum creatinine levels (less than 10 mg/l)) and no obvious tubular dysfunction. With increasing blood levels of cadmium beta2m was found to increase in serum. There was no concomitant increase in the urinary excretion of beta2m. Serum beta2m was not dependent on serum creatinine within the range studied. The results suggest that for evaluating renal glomerular function in cadmium exposed workers, it might be better to use the serum creatinine level, creatinine clearance or inulin clearance since beta2m might give some false positive results.

  7. [Biochemical evaluation on rural workers exposed to pesticides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoniello, María Fernanda; Kleinsorge, Elisa C; Carballo, Marta A

    2010-01-01

    Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops but may represent a potential risk to farmers and the environment. The aim of this work was to evaluate horticultural workers exposed to pesticide, categorized by: direct exposure (n = 45), indirect exposure (n = 50) and controls (n = 50) using exposure and effect biomarkers: cholinesterase (ChE), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), catalase (CAT), lipid peroxidation (TBARS), Damage Index Comet Assay (IDEC) and Damage Index Repair Assay (IDER). Our results show: a) an AChE inhibition in directly and indirectly exposed population (p damage in exposed workers. These findings represent a contribution to the sub-clinical evaluation of subjects exposed to agrochemicals in our country.

  8. Tuberculosis among workers exposed to free silica dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Rajnarayan R; Sharma, Yashwant K; Saiyed, Habibullah N

    2007-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a global emergency. Poverty, increasing migration, homelessness and the compulsions to live and work in high-risk environments are making people increasingly susceptible to the disease. Those working in mines, construction work, stone-crushing and in other similar occupations where there is a greater level of exposure to silica dust are specially vulnerable. Though the association between TB and silicosis has been firmly established by the results of epidemiologic studies no attempts have been made to study the epidemiological features of radiologically active TB among free silica exposed workers. Thus the cross sectional study was carried out among slate pencil workers and quartz stone crushers to assess the prevalence of TB and some associated epidemiological factors. It included 253 quartz workers and 102 slate pencil workers. Clinical history and chest radiographs were used for labeling the subjects as tuberculotic. The pulmonary functions of the subjects were measured using Spirovit SP- 10. Statistical analysis was carried out using statistical software package Epi Info 3.3.2. Among stone crushers the prevalence of TB was found to be 10.7% while among slate pencil workers it was as high as 22.5%. Among the quartz stone-crushers the workers aged ≥35 years, those exposed for ≥3 years and those who were smokers had higher risk TB while among the slate pencil workers, only those exposed for ≥10 years had higher risk. Though the FVC and FEV(1) values of the workers having TB were lower than those having normal radiographs, the differences were found to statistically non-significant.

  9. Tuberculosis among workers exposed to free silica dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwari Rajnarayan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a global emergency. Poverty, increasing migration, homelessness and the compulsions to live and work in high-risk environments are making people increasingly susceptible to the disease. Those working in mines, construction work, stone-crushing and in other similar occupations where there is a greater level of exposure to silica dust are specially vulnerable. Though the association between TB and silicosis has been firmly established by the results of epidemiologic studies no attempts have been made to study the epidemiological features of radiologically active TB among free silica exposed workers. Thus the cross sectional study was carried out among slate pencil workers and quartz stone crushers to assess the prevalence of TB and some associated epidemiological factors. It included 253 quartz workers and 102 slate pencil workers. Clinical history and chest radiographs were used for labeling the subjects as tuberculotic. The pulmonary functions of the subjects were measured using Spirovit SP- 10. Statistical analysis was carried out using statistical software package Epi Info 3.3.2. Among stone crushers the prevalence of TB was found to be 10.7% while among slate pencil workers it was as high as 22.5%. Among the quartz stone-crushers the workers aged ≥35 years, those exposed for ≥3 years and those who were smokers had higher risk TB while among the slate pencil workers, only those exposed for ≥10 years had higher risk. Though the FVC and FEV 1 values of the workers having TB were lower than those having normal radiographs, the differences were found to statistically non-significant.

  10. Behavioral evaluation of workers exposed to mixtures of organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maizlish, N.A.; Langolf, G.D.; Whitehead, L.W.; Fine, L.J.; Albers, J.W.; Goldberg, J.; Smith, P.

    1985-09-01

    Reports from Scandinavia have suggested behavioral impairment among long term workers exposed to solvents below regulatory standards. A cross sectional study of behavioral performance was conducted among printers and spray painters exposed to mixtures of organic solvents to replicate the Scandinavian studies and to examine dose-response relationships. Eligible subjects consisted of 640 hourly workers from four midwestern United States companies. Of these, 269 responded to requests to participate and 240 were selected for study based on restrictions for age, sex, education, and other potentially confounding variables. The subjects tested had been employed on average for six years. Each subject completed an occupational history, underwent a medical examination, and completed a battery of behavioural tests. These included the Fitts law psychomotor task, the Stroop color-word test, the Sternberg short term memory scanning test, the short term memory span test, and the continuous recognition memory test. Solvent exposure for each subject was defined as an exposed or non-exposed category based on a plant industrial hygiene walk-through and the concentration of solvents based on an analysis of full shift personal air samples by gas chromatography. The first definition was used to maintain consistency with Scandinavian studies, but the second was considered to be more accurate. The average full shift solvent concentration was 302 ppm for the printing plant workers and 6-13 ppm for the workers at other plants. Isopropanol and hexane were the major components, compared with toluene in Scandinavian studies.

  11. Screening and surveillance of workers exposed to mineral dusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.R.

    1997-12-31

    This publication resulted from a World Health Organisation initiated project to investigate the harmonisation of definitions, approaches and methodologies for the screening and surveillance of workers exposed to mineral dust. The first part of the book provides definitions of screening and surveillance and describes the main elements of such programmes. The second part discusses the practical aspect of the screening and surveillance of working populations exposed to crystalline silica, coal mine dust and asbestos. Although no single set of guidelines is applicable to the development and implementation of a programme for the screening and surveillance of workers exposed to mineral dust, the recommendations, together with certain caveats, should provide a useful starting point. Annexes provide examples of existing programmes in various countries and environments and discuss the use and interpretation of questionnaires, lung spirometry and chest radiography. Overall the book should be of interest to occupational health professionals.

  12. Self-reported hearing performance in workers exposed to solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Fuente

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare hearing performance relating to the peripheral and central auditory system between solvent-exposed and non-exposed workers. METHODS: Forty-eight workers exposed to a mixture of solvents and 48 non-exposed control subjects of matched age, gender and educational level were selected to participate in the study. The evaluation procedures included: pure-tone audiometry (500 - 8,000 Hz, to investigate the peripheral auditory system; the Random Gap Detection test, to assess the central auditory system; and the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap, to investigate subjects' self-reported hearing performance in daily-life activities. A Student t test and analyses of covariance (ANCOVA were computed to determine possible significant differences between solvent-exposed and non-exposed subjects for the hearing level, Random Gap Detection test and Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap. Pearson correlations among the three measures were also calculated. RESULTS: Solvent-exposed subjects exhibited significantly poorer hearing thresholds for the right ear than non-exposed subjects. Also, solvent-exposed subjects exhibited poorer results for the Random Gap Detection test and self-reported poorer listening performance than non-exposed subjects. Results of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap were significantly correlated with the binaural average of subject pure-tone thresholds and Random Gap Detection test performance. CONCLUSIONS: Solvent exposure is associated with poorer hearing performance in daily life activities that relate to the function of the peripheral and central auditory system.

  13. Self-reported hearing performance in workers exposed to solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Fuente

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare hearing performance relating to the peripheral and central auditory system between solvent-exposed and non-exposed workers. METHODS: Forty-eight workers exposed to a mixture of solvents and 48 non-exposed control subjects of matched age, gender and educational level were selected to participate in the study. The evaluation procedures included: pure-tone audiometry (500 - 8,000 Hz, to investigate the peripheral auditory system; the Random Gap Detection test, to assess the central auditory system; and the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap, to investigate subjects' self-reported hearing performance in daily-life activities. A Student t test and analyses of covariance (ANCOVA were computed to determine possible significant differences between solvent-exposed and non-exposed subjects for the hearing level, Random Gap Detection test and Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap. Pearson correlations among the three measures were also calculated. RESULTS: Solvent-exposed subjects exhibited significantly poorer hearing thresholds for the right ear than non-exposed subjects. Also, solvent-exposed subjects exhibited poorer results for the Random Gap Detection test and self-reported poorer listening performance than non-exposed subjects. Results of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap were significantly correlated with the binaural average of subject pure-tone thresholds and Random Gap Detection test performance. CONCLUSIONS: Solvent exposure is associated with poorer hearing performance in daily life activities that relate to the function of the peripheral and central auditory system.

  14. Serological prevalence of leptospirosis in cattle slaughtered in the Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel O. Ngbede

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an occupational zoonosis caused by pathogenic leptospires. In this study, the presence and prevalence of antibodies specific to Leptospira spp. serovar Hardjo in 142 cattle slaughtered between June and July 2011 was investigated using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Five (3.50% of the 142 cattle sampled were seropositive for antibodies to Leptospira spp. serovar Hardjo. Despite the fact that there was no significant difference (p>0.05 in seropositivity between sexes and between breeds sampled, there was a significant difference (p<0.05 in sero-positivity between the different age groups examined. Leptospirosis is present in cattle slaughtered in the Zango abattoir; butchers and abattoir workers are exposed to infected animals and are at risk of being infected by Leptospira spp. serovar Hardjo.

  15. Prevalence of latent and active tuberculosis among dairy farm workers exposed to cattle infected by Mycobacterium bovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Torres-Gonzalez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis is a zoonosis presently considered sporadic in developed countries, but remains a poorly studied problem in low and middle resource countries. The disease in humans is mainly attributed to unpasteurized dairy products consumption. However, transmission due to exposure of humans to infected animals has been also recognized. The prevalence of tuberculosis infection and associated risk factors have been insufficiently characterized among dairy farm workers (DFW exposed in settings with poor control of bovine tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tuberculin skin test (TST and Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA were administered to 311 dairy farm and abattoir workers and their household contacts linked to a dairy production and livestock facility in Mexico. Sputa of individuals with respiratory symptoms and samples from routine cattle necropsies were cultured for M. bovis and resulting spoligotypes were compared. The overall prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI was 76.2% (95% CI, 71.4-80.9% by TST and 58.5% (95% CI, 53.0-64.0% by IGRA. Occupational exposure was associated to TST (OR 2.72; 95% CI, 1.31-5.64 and IGRA (OR 2.38; 95% CI, 1.31-4.30 adjusting for relevant variables. Two subjects were diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis, both caused by M. bovis. In one case, the spoligotype was identical to a strain isolated from bovines. CONCLUSIONS: We documented a high prevalence of latent and pulmonary TB among workers exposed to cattle infected with M. bovis, and increased risk among those occupationally exposed in non-ventilated spaces. Interspecies transmission is frequent and represents an occupational hazard in this setting.

  16. Biomonitoring of a population of Portuguese workers exposed to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lestón, Julia; Roma-Torres, Joana; Vilares, Maria; Pinto, Rui; Cunha, Luís M; Prista, João; Teixeira, Joao Paulo; Mayan, Olga; Pásaro, Eduardo; Méndez, Josefina; Laffon, Blanca

    2011-03-18

    Lead is a heavy metal that has been used for many centuries and it is still used for various industrial purposes thanks to its physical and chemical characteristics. Human exposure to lead can result in a wide range of biological effects depending upon the level and duration of exposure. Despite the fact that lead has been found capable of eliciting genotoxic responses in a wide range of tests, not all studies have been conclusive. Although several experimental studies have shown that lead may modulate immune responses, data in exposed humans are still preliminary. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the genotoxic and immunotoxic effects of lead exposure in a group of 70 male workers from two Portuguese factories. The control group comprised 38 healthy males. The exposed individuals showed significantly higher levels of lead in blood and zinc protoporphyrin, and significantly lower δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity than the controls, suggesting a relatively high lead exposure. Nevertheless, the limit of 70 μg/dl for lead in blood established by the Portuguese regulation was never reached. Results of the comet assay were not modified by the exposure, but a significant increase in the mutation frequency in the exposed workers was obtained in the T-cell receptor mutation assay. Furthermore, data obtained in the analysis of the different lymphocyte subsets showed a significant decrease in %CD8+ cells and a significant increase in the %CD4+/%CD8+ ratio in exposed individuals with regard to the controls. No clear effect was observed for vitamin D receptor genetic polymorphism on the parameters evaluated. In view of our results showing mutagenic and immunotoxic effects related to lead exposure in occupational settings, it seems that the Portuguese biological exposure limit for lead needs to be revised in order to increase the safety of exposed workers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Airway inflammation among compost workers exposed to actinomycetes spores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Kulvik Heldal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To study the associations between exposure to bioaerosols and work-related symptoms, lung function and biomarkers of airway inflammation in compost workers. Materials and method. Personal full-shift exposure measurements were performed on 47 workers employed at five windrow plants (n=20 and five reactor plants (n=27. Samples were analyzed for endotoxins, bacteria, fungal and actinomycetes spores. Health examinations were performed on workers and 37 controls before and after work on the day exposure was measured. The examinations included symptoms recorded by questionnaire, lung function by spirometry and nasal dimensions by acoustic rhinometry (AR. The pneumoproteins CC16, SP-D and SP-A were measured in a blood sample drawn at the end of the day. Results. The levels of endotoxins (median 3 EU/m[sup]3[/sup] , range 0–730 EU/m[sup]3[/sup] and actinomycetes spores (median 0.2 × 10[sup]6[/sup] spores/m[sup]3[/sup] , range 0–590 × 10[sup]6[/sup] spores/m[sup]3[/sup] were significantly higher in reactor plants compared to windrow plants. However, windrow composting workers reported more symptoms than reactor composting workers, probably due to use of respiratory protection. Exposure-response relationships between actinomycetes spores exposure and respiratory effects, found as cough and nose irritation during a shift, was significantly increased (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.1–16, OR 6.1, 95% CI 1.5–25, respectively, p<0.05 among workers exposed to 0.02–0.3 × 10[sup]6[/sup] actinomycetes spores/m 3 , and FEV1/FVC% decreased cross shift (b=–3.2, SE=1.5%, p<0.01. Effects were weaker in the highest exposed group, but these workers used respiratory protection, frequently limiting their actual exposure. No relationships were found between exposure and pneumoprotein concentrations. Conclusions. The major agent in the aerosol generated at compost plants was actinomycetes spores which was associated with work related cough symptoms and work

  18. Optimization of Routine Monitoring of Workers Exposed to Plutonium Aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davesne, Estelle; Quesne, Benoit; De Vita, Antoine; Chojnacki, Eric; Blanchardon, Eric; Franck, Didier

    2016-10-01

    In case of incidental confinement failure, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel preparation may expose workers to plutonium aerosols. Due to its potential toxicity, occupational exposure to plutonium compounds should be kept as low as reasonably achievable. To ensure the absence of significant intake of radionuclides, workers at risk of internal contamination are monitored by periodic bioassay planned in a routine monitoring programme. From bioassay results, internal dose may be estimated. However, accurate dose calculation relies on known exposure conditions, which are rarely available when the exposure is demonstrated by routine monitoring only. Therefore, internal dose calculation is subject to uncertainty from unknown exposure conditions and from activity measurement variability. The present study calculates the minimum detectable dose (MDD) for a routine monitoring programme by considering all plausible conditions of exposure and measurement uncertainty. The MDD evaluates the monitoring quality and can be used for optimization. Here, MDDs were calculated for the monitoring of workers preparing MOX fuel. Uncertain parameters were modelled by probability distributions defined according to information provided by experts of routine monitoring, of workplace radiological protection and of bioassay analysis. Results show that the current monitoring is well adapted to potential exposure. A sensitivity study of MDD highlights high dependence on exposure condition modelling. Integrating all expert knowledge is therefore crucial to obtain reliable MDD estimates, stressing the value of a holistic approach to worker monitoring.

  19. P300 brain potential among workers exposed to organic solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente E. Moen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SUMMARYThe P300 component of the auditory event-related brain potential was examined in a group of 11workers exposed to low levels of organic solvents in a paint factory and 11 unexposed controls beforeand after 3 weeks of summer vacation. The P300 latency time was found to be prolonged among theexposed workers compared to the reference group before the summer vacation, and to be significantlylonger before the vacation than after in the exposed group.The P300 component was also examined in a group of 85 seamen from chemical tankers, experiencingpeak exposures to organic solvents. They were compared to a reference group of unexposedseamen. Comparing these two groups, no difference was found in the P300 latency time. No relationshipbetween the P300 latency time and exposure was found in a multiple regression analysis, includingthe variables age, alcohol consumption, smoking and cerebral concussions.The study indicates the occurrence of an acute biological effect in the nervous system related toorganic solvent exposure, expressed by prolonged P300 latency time. This was found at very lowexposure levels and should be studied further.

  20. Evoked otoacoustic emissions in workers exposed to noise: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcarás, Patrícia Arruda de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The otoacoustic emissions test is an essential tool in the evaluation of auditory function, since it allows the early detection of cochlear damage of occupational origin. Objective: To present a review of the literature and analyze the effectiveness of the clinical application of the otoacoustic emissions test in workers exposed to noise. Methods: A bibliographical search covering a period of 10 years was performed in the Virtual Health Library including published articles in national and international journals indexed in the internationally recognized databases for the health sciences, LILACS, SCIELO, and MEDLINE, using the terms "otoacoustic emissions" and "occupational exposure." The type of published article (national/international, the type and intensity of the stimulus most commonly used for the evoked otoacoustic emissions, the gender and age of the subjects, and the conclusions from the retrospective studies were all taken into consideration. Results and Conclusions: A total of 19 articles were analyzed, 7 national and 12 international, covering subjects from 17 to 77 years of age, mostly men. The type of stimulus most commonly used for the evoked otoacoustic emissions was the distortion method (12. Through this review, we have concluded that testing of evoked otoacoustic emissions in workers exposed to noise is an important tool in the early diagnosis of noise-induced cochlear hearing disorders.

  1. Genotoxic damage in pathology anatomy laboratory workers exposed to formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Solange; Coelho, Patrícia; Costa, Carla; Silva, Susana; Mayan, Olga; Santos, Luís Silva; Gaspar, Jorge; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2008-10-30

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a chemical traditionally used in pathology and anatomy laboratories as a tissue preservative. Several epidemiological studies of occupational exposure to FA have indicated an increased risk of nasopharyngeal cancers in industrial workers, embalmers and pathology anatomists. There is also a clear evidence of nasal squamous cell carcinomas from inhalation studies in the rat. The postulated mode of action for nasal tumours in rats was considered biologically plausible and considered likely to be relevant to humans. Based on the available data IARC, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, has recently classified FA as a human carcinogen. Although the in vitro genotoxic as well as the in vivo carcinogenic potentials of FA are well documented in mammalian cells and in rodents, evidence for genotoxic effects and carcinogenic properties in humans is insufficient and conflicting thus remains to be more documented. To evaluate the genetic effects of long-term occupational exposure to FA a group of 30 Pathological Anatomy laboratory workers was tested for a variety of biological endpoints, cytogenetic tests (micronuclei, MN; sister chromatid exchange, SCE) and comet assay. The level of exposure to FA was evaluated near the breathing zone of workers, time weighted average of exposure was calculated for each subject. The association between the biomarkers and polymorphic genes of xenobiotic metabolising and DNA repair enzymes was also assessed. The mean level of exposure was 0.44+/-0.08ppm (0.04-1.58ppm). MN frequency was significantly higher (p=0.003) in the exposed subjects (5.47+/-0.76) when compared with controls (3.27+/-0.69). SCE mean value was significantly higher (p<0.05) among the exposed group (6.13+/-0.29) compared with control group (4.49+/-0.16). Comet assay data showed a significant increase (p<0.05) of TL in FA-exposed workers (60.00+/-2.31) with respect to the control group (41.85+/-1.97). A positive correlation was found between FA

  2. Chromosome aberrations in pesticide-exposed greenhouse workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, B F; Knudsen, L E; Gamborg, M O; Järventaus, H; Norppa, H

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of subtoxic exposure to pesticides causing chromosome aberrations in greenhouse workers. In a cross-sectional and prospective study design chromosome aberration frequencies in cultured lymphocytes were examined for 116 greenhouse workers exposed to a complex mixture of almost 50 insecticides, fungicides, and growth regulators and also for 29 nonsmoking, nonpesticide-exposed referents. The preseason frequencies of chromosome aberrations were slightly but not statistically significantly elevated for the greenhouse workers when they were compared with the referents. After a summer season of pesticide spraying in the greenhouses, the total frequencies of cells with chromosome aberrations were significantly higher than in the preseason samples (P=0.02) and also higher than for the referents (P=0.05). This finding was especially due to an increased number of cells with chromatid gaps between the first and second samples (P=0.001). The results may reflect an additive genotoxic effect of the spraying season, for which the use of insecticides and growth regulators (but not fungicides) culminates. The highest elevation in the risk of chromatid gaps was observed for persons who did not use gloves during re-entry activities such as nipping, cutting, pricking, and potting (risk ratio 2.88, 95% confidence interval 1.63-5.11). The present results suggest a genotoxic effect from a complex subtoxic occupational pesticide exposure. In general, the findings indicate the importance of personal protection, during high-exposure re-entry activities, in preventing pesticide uptake and genetic damage.

  3. [Targeting abattoirs to control cystic echinococcosis in Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchikh ElFegoun, M C; Kohil, K; L'Ollivier, C; Lleu, M; Babelhadj, B; Piarroux, M; Gharbi, M; Piarroux, R

    2016-08-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important anthropozoonotic parasitic common in Algeria. The predominant life cycle of E. granulosus is a synanthropic cycle with domestic dogs as definitive hosts and livestock animals as intermediate hosts. Slaughter activity represents a potential source for dogs to access infected offal. The aim of the present study was to determine if the contact between dogs and potentially infected offal was possible in licensed abattoirs. Eighty-one private and public abattoirs located in eastern Algeria were assessed with respect to their level of protection against the intrusion of dogs.We have demonstrated that in 42 % of these abattoirs, dogs could easily come in contact with potentially parasitized offal. The most common incorrect practices were the dumping of offal freely into the environment, the feeding of dogs with offal, and the leaving of unattended offal in an unsealed chamber. Overall, some hazardous practices remained common customs of workers, and enough abattoirs remain non-compliant that the cattledog domestic cycle of CE is unlikely to be broken. Hence, some recommended measures to interrupt parasite transmission include the following: recognition of the importance of abattoirs in the maintenance of canine echinococcosis, the controlled and proper disposal of offal, the abolishment of the custom of feeding dogs with infected offal and improvements in the level of health education of abattoir staff.

  4. Cytogenetic monitoring of nuclear workers occupationally exposed to ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gricienė, B; Slapšytė, G; Mierauskienė, J

    2014-06-01

    Chromosome aberration (CA) analysis using Giemsa techniques was performed in blood lymphocytes of 84 nuclear workers with cumulative doses of 1-632 mSv during employment periods of 1-25 y. The control group comprised 82 healthy male donors. An estimated CA frequency in the total radiation-exposed group was significantly higher when compared with the controls (2.27 vs. 1.76 CA/100 cells, p 0.05). However, significant increase in the total CA frequency was determined in workers with additional internal exposure (2.54 CA/100 cells, p < 0.05) and those with registered neutron doses (2.95 CA/100 cells, p < 0.01). No correlation was found between CA frequency and occupational exposure dose. Borderline significant correlation was found between duration of employment and total CA (r = 0.218, p = 0.046, Fig. 2) and chromosome-type aberration (r = 0.265, p = 0.015) frequency.

  5. DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to pesticide mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoniello, M F; Kleinsorge, E C; Scagnetti, J A; Grigolato, R A; Poletta, G L; Carballo, M A

    2008-11-01

    Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops but represent at the same time a potential risk to farmers and environment. The aim of this work is the evaluation of 54 subjects occupationally exposed to pesticides and 30 subjects as a control group using the quantification of DNA damage level by means of the alkaline Comet assay and the evaluation of repair processes. Damage index Comet assay (DICA) and damage index repair assay (DIRA) were studied in 27 pesticide applicator workers, 27 non-pesticide applicators and controls. Our results show that both exposed groups revealed significant increase in DICA when compared with controls (P pesticides was investigated and no significant differences were observed considering age, gender, smoking and alcohol consumption in relation to DICA and DIRA. Since DNA damage is an important step in events leading from carcinogen exposure to cancer disease, our study highlights the potential health risk associated with agrochemical exposure in developing countries with vast cultivated areas, such as Argentina.

  6. Comparison of knee gait kinematics of workers exposed to knee straining posture to those of non-knee straining workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Nathaly; Hagemeister, Nicola; Poitras, Stéphane; de Guise, Jacques A

    2013-06-01

    Workers exposed to knee straining postures, such as kneeling and squatting, may present modifications in knee gait kinematics that can make them vulnerable to osteoarthritis. In this study, knee kinematics of workers exposed to occupational knee straining postures (KS workers) were compared to those of non-knee straining (non-KS) workers. Eighteen KS workers and 20 non-KS workers participated in the study. Three-dimensional gait kinematic data were recorded at the knee using an electromagnetic motion tracking system. The following parameters were extracted from flexion/extension, adduction/abduction and internal/external rotation angle data and used for group comparisons: knee angle at initial foot contact, peak angles, minimal angles and angle range during the entire gait cycle. Group comparisons were performed with Student t-tests. In the sagittal plane, KS workers had a greater knee flexion angle at initial foot contact, a lower peak knee flexion angle during the swing phase and a lower angle range than non-KS workers (p<0.05). In the frontal plane, all parameters indicated that KS workers had their knees more adducted than non-KS workers. External/internal rotation range was greater for KS workers. This study provides new knowledge on work related to KS postures and knee kinematics. The results support the concept that KS workers might exhibit knee kinematics that are different from those of non-KS workers.

  7. Psychophysical Evaluation of Achromatic and Chromatic Vision of Workers Chronically Exposed to Organic Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Eliza Maria da Costa Brito; Lima, Monica Gomes; Rodrigues, Anderson Raiol; Teixeira, Cláudio Eduardo Correa; de Lima, Lauro José Barata; Ventura, Dora Fix; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate achromatic and chromatic vision of workers chronically exposed to organic solvents through psychophysical methods. Thirty-one gas station workers (31.5 ± 8.4 years old) were evaluated. Psychophysical tests were achromatic tests (Snellen chart, spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity, and visual perimetry) and chromatic tests (Ishihara's test, color discrimination ellipses, and Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test—FM100). Spatial contrast sensitivities of exposed workers were lower than the control at spatial frequencies of 20 and 30 cpd whilst the temporal contrast sensitivity was preserved. Visual field losses were found in 10–30 degrees of eccentricity in the solvent exposed workers. The exposed workers group had higher error values of FM100 and wider color discrimination ellipses area compared to the controls. Workers occupationally exposed to organic solvents had abnormal visual functions, mainly color vision losses and visual field constriction. PMID:22220188

  8. Psychophysical Evaluation of Achromatic and Chromatic Vision of Workers Chronically Exposed to Organic Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Maria da Costa Brito Lacerda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to evaluate achromatic and chromatic vision of workers chronically exposed to organic solvents through psychophysical methods. Thirty-one gas station workers (31.5 ± 8.4 years old were evaluated. Psychophysical tests were achromatic tests (Snellen chart, spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity, and visual perimetry and chromatic tests (Ishihara's test, color discrimination ellipses, and Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test—FM100. Spatial contrast sensitivities of exposed workers were lower than the control at spatial frequencies of 20 and 30 cpd whilst the temporal contrast sensitivity was preserved. Visual field losses were found in 10–30 degrees of eccentricity in the solvent exposed workers. The exposed workers group had higher error values of FM100 and wider color discrimination ellipses area compared to the controls. Workers occupationally exposed to organic solvents had abnormal visual functions, mainly color vision losses and visual field constriction.

  9. Cancer incidence in Swedish sterilant workers exposed to ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmar, L; Mikoczy, Z; Welinder, H

    1995-03-01

    To assess the risk of cancer, especially leukaemia, in a cohort of sterilant workers exposed to ethylene oxide (EtO). A cohort of 2170 workers employed for at least one year in two plants that produce disposable medical equipment sterilised with EtO has previously been established. The results of an update with four more years of observation are presented. The cancer incidence was assessed for the periods 1976 to 1990 and 1972 to 1990 and cause specific standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated. Individual cumulative exposure to EtO, expressed as ppm-years, was estimated and used in exposure-response analyses. Six lymphohaematopoietic tumours were observed (SIR 1.78, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.65-3.88), of which two were leukaemias (SIR 2.44; 95% CI 0.30-8.81). When those with cumulative exposures to EtO below the median value (0.13 ppm-years) were excluded, and a minimum of 10 years induction latency period was applied, the incidence ratio for leukaemia increased further (SIR 7.14, 95% CI 0.87-25.8), but was still not significantly enhanced. The risk estimate for leukaemia increased, but non-significantly, with time since start of exposure, and with cumulative exposures to EtO above the median value. The subjects with leukaemia had, however, only slightly higher cumulative exposure estimates for EtO than the average cohort member. Nevertheless, the present results may add some minor evidence for an association between EtO and an increased risk of leukaemia.

  10. Genetic monitoring of aluminum workers exposed to coal tar pitch volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heussner, J C; Ward, J B; Legator, M S

    1985-03-01

    A group of 50 workers exposed to coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPV) in an aluminum reduction plant and a group of 50 non-exposed workers were selected to evaluate the genotoxic effects of CTPV exposure. A battery of tests was performed on 3 different body fluids; urine, blood and semen. Urine samples were evaluated for mutagenic constituents using the Ames/Salmonella assay. Cultured lymphocytes from blood samples were used to perform cytogenetic analysis. Semen samples were used to measure sperm count, percent abnormal sperm morphology and frequency of sperm carrying double fluorescent bodies (2-F). 14 of 28 (50%) exposed workers and 7 of 36 (19.4%) non-exposed workers had mutagenic urine. This difference was significant (p less than 0.01). Among the non-smokers a significantly higher percentage of workers who were exposed had positive urine (36%) compared to the non-exposed workers (5%) (p less than 0.05). Among the exposed group, more mechanics had mutagenic urine than did other types of workers. Overall chromosome aberration rates were similar in both exposed and non-exposed workers. Among exposed workers a significant inverse correlation (p less than 0.05) between age and chromatid aberration rate was observed. Results of semen analysis failed to detect differences between exposed and non-exposed workers. Results of these tests lend support to a battery approach to genetic monitoring and suggest a link between exposure to CTPV and genotoxic effects. Detection of exposure to mutagens at an early time offers an opportunity for disease prevention by the reduction of exposure.

  11. Persistent symptoms in agricultural workers exposed to organophosphate pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Martha E. Palacios N; María P. Paz

    2011-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the prevalence of these symptoms and their relationship with pesticide exposure and the cholinesterase levels in agricultural workers. Methodology: an analytical cross-sectional study conducted in Mexico. Cholinesterase concentration and symptom frequency were assessed for 106 agricultural workers. Exposure was defined with a composed index of 15 variables. Results: symptom prevalence was 52 out of 100 workers. 31% of workers had 1 to 3 of the symptoms, 16% had 4 to 9 ...

  12. Critical organ concentration of cadmium in occupationally-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, K.J.; Morgan, W.D.; Yasumura, S.; Vartsky, D.; Zanzi, I.; Cohn, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the present Brookhaven facility for in vivo measurements of cadmium in man and provides a comparison with other portable systems. The cadmium detection limits are 2.2 mg in the kidney and 1.5 ppM in the liver for the Brookhaven system. In a recent field study, the cadmium content of the left kidney and concentration in the liver were measured in 82 occupationally exposed workers and 10 control subjects. Organ content ranged up to 57 mg in the kidney and up to 120 ppM in the liver for the industrial group. By contrast, the values for the control group ranged from 0.4 to 11.8 mg for the kidney and 0.7 to 7.9 ppM for the liver. The geometric means were 3.7 mg for the kidney and 2.7 ppM for the liver in the control group. When the data were analyzed to provide an estimate of the critical concentration for the kidney, a range of 300 to 400 ..mu..g/g for the renal cortex was calculated. The corresponding cadmium concentrations in the liver and urine were 30 to 42 ppM (liver) and 22 to 28 ..mu..g/g creatinine (urine), respectively. Blood and urine levels of cadmium and ..beta../sub 2/-microgloubin were also evaluated as possible biological indicators of organ content.

  13. Epidemiologic Study of One Million American Workers and Military Veterans Exposed to Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boice, John D. [International Epidemiology Inst. Ltd., Rockville, MD (United States)

    2015-02-27

    A pilot study was completed demonstrating the feasibility of conducting an epidemiologic study assessing cancer and other disease mortality among nearly one million US veterans and workers exposed to ionizing radiation, a population 10 times larger than atomic bomb survivor study with high statistical power to evaluate low dose rate effects. Among the groups enumerated and/or studied were: (1) 194,000 Department of Energy Uranium Workers; (2) 6,700 Rocketdyne Radiation Workers; (3) 7,000 Mound Radiation Workers; (4) 156,000 DOE Plutonium Workers; (5) 212,000 Nuclear Power Plant Workers; (6) 130,000 Industrial Radiography Workers; (7) 1.7 million Medical Workers and (8) 135,000 Atomic Veterans.

  14. Persistent symptoms in agricultural workers exposed to organophosphate pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha E. Palacios N

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the prevalence of these symptoms and their relationship with pesticide exposure and the cholinesterase levels in agricultural workers. Methodology: an analytical cross-sectional study conducted in Mexico. Cholinesterase concentration and symptom frequency were assessed for 106 agricultural workers. Exposure was defined with a composed index of 15 variables. Results: symptom prevalence was 52 out of 100 workers. 31% of workers had 1 to 3 of the symptoms, 16% had 4 to 9 of them and 5% had 10 or more of the symptoms. There was an association, p = 0.03, between days of exposure and persistent symptoms. Likewise, there was an association between exposure level and the presence of probable and specific symptoms. Patients with the highest exposure level had 20% more chances of exhibiting symptoms. Cholinesterase concentration ranges were normal. Anemia was detected in 28% of the population. It was three times as frequent in females as in males (p < 0.001. Conclusions: it was possible to identify the increase of persistent symptoms in workers with cholinesterase levels that are usually considered to be normal.

  15. Chromosome aberrations in pesticide-exposed greenhouse workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, B F; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Gamborg, M O

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of subtoxic exposure to pesticides causing chromosome aberrations in greenhouse workers. METHODS: In a cross-sectional and prospective study design chromosome aberration frequencies in cultured lymphocytes were examined for 116 ...... pesticide exposure. In general, the findings indicate the importance of personal protection, during high-exposure re-entry activities, in preventing pesticide uptake and genetic damage.......OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of subtoxic exposure to pesticides causing chromosome aberrations in greenhouse workers. METHODS: In a cross-sectional and prospective study design chromosome aberration frequencies in cultured lymphocytes were examined for 116...... workers when they were compared with the referents. After a summer season of pesticide spraying in the greenhouses, the total frequencies of cells with chromosome aberrations were significantly higher than in the preseason samples (P=0.02) and also higher than for the referents (P=0.05). This finding...

  16. Cytogenetic analysis of an exposed-referent study: perchloroethylene-exposed dry cleaners compared to unexposed laundry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKernan Lauralynn

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Significant numbers of people are exposed to tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE every year, including workers in the dry cleaning industry. Adverse health effects have been associated with PCE exposure. However, investigations of possible cumulative cytogenetic damage resulting from PCE exposure are lacking. Methods Eighteen dry cleaning workers and 18 laundry workers (unexposed controls provided a peripheral blood sample for cytogenetic analysis by whole chromosome painting. Pre-shift exhaled air on these same participants was collected and analyzed for PCE levels. The laundry workers were matched to the dry cleaners on race, age, and smoking status. The relationships between levels of cytological damage and exposures (including PCE levels in the shop and in workers' blood, packyears, cumulative alcohol consumption, and age were compared with correlation coefficients and t-tests. Multiple linear regressions considered blood PCE, packyears, alcohol, and age. Results There were no significant differences between the PCE-exposed dry cleaners and the laundry workers for chromosome translocation frequencies, but PCE levels were significantly correlated with percentage of cells with acentric fragments (R2 = 0.488, p Conclusions There does not appear to be a strong effect in these dry cleaning workers of PCE exposure on persistent chromosome damage as measured by translocations. However, the correlation between frequencies of acentric fragments and PCE exposure level suggests that recent exposures to PCE may induce transient genetic damage. More heavily exposed participants and a larger sample size will be needed to determine whether PCE exposure induces significant levels of persistent chromosome damage.

  17. Assessment of micronuclei in lymphocytes from workers exposed to vapours and aerosols of bitumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welge, Peter; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Spickenheuer, Anne; Kendzia, Benjamin; Heinze, Evelyn; Angerer, Jürgen; Käfferlein, Heiko U; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the micronucleus frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 225 mastic asphalt workers (age 17-62 years) and 69 non-bitumen-exposed road construction workers (age 18-64 years) in Germany before and after the working shift. Median shift exposure to vapours and aerosols of bitumen of exposed workers was 3.0 mg/m³. Micronuclei (MN) were determined with a standard method using cytochalasin B. Median MN frequency was 6.0 (interquartile range (IQR) 4.0-8.5) MN/1,000 binucleated lymphocytes (MN/1,000 BNC) in exposed workers and 6.0 (IQR 4.0-8.3) MN/1,000 BNC in non-exposed workers before shift. After shift, we observed 6.5 (IQR 4.4-9.3) MN/1,000 BNC in exposed workers and 6.5 (IQR 4.0-9.0) MN/1,000 BNC in non-exposed workers. Regression models were applied with the log-transformed MN frequency as the dependent variable in order to estimate the effects of exposure to vapours and aerosols of bitumen and of potential confounders. Age was the strongest predictor of MN formation in both exposed workers and referents. Our data suggest that MN formation was not associated with concentration of vapours and aerosols of bitumen during shift at the individual level. Although similar MN frequencies were observed in both groups, the modelling of factors potentially influencing MN frequency revealed a weak group difference in the post-shift model. We conclude that this small difference cannot be judged to be a relevant mutagenic effect of exposure to vapours and aerosols of bitumen, also with regard to the lack of adjustment for multiple testing and the lack of a group effect in the original data.

  18. Survey of reproductive hazards among oil, chemical, and atomic workers exposed to halogenated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savitz, D.A.; Harley, B.; Krekel, S.; Marshall, J.; Bondy, J.; Orleans, M.

    1984-01-01

    Several halogenated hydrocarbons are suspected of causing adverse reproductive effects. Because of such concerns, the Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers International Union surveyed the reproductive histories of two groups of workers. One group worked at plants engaged in the production or use of halogenated hydrocarbons (exposed) whereas the others had no such opportunity for exposure (nonexposed). Although a low response rate precludes firm conclusions, the 1,280 completed questionnaires provide useful data for generating hypotheses in this developing field of interest. A history of diagnosed cancer was reported more frequently among exposed workers. The infant mortality rate was also significantly elevated among the offspring of exposed workers. No risk gradient was observed for episodes of infertility, fetal loss, congenital defects, or low-birthweight offspring. Concerns with nonresponse, exposure characterization, possible confounding factors, and limited statistical power are addressed. The results provide further suggestions which help to direct studies of occupational reproductive risks.

  19. Food safety knowledge and practices of abattoir and butchery shops and the microbial profile of meat in Mekelle City, Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mekonnen Haileselassie; Habtamu Taddele; Kelali Adhana; Shewit Kalayou

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the food safety knowledge and practices in meat handling, and to determine microbial load and pathogenic organisms in meat at Mekelle city. Methods: A descriptive survey design was used to answer questions concerning the current status of food hygiene and sanitation practiced in the abattoir and butcher shops. Workers from the abattoir and butcher shops were interviewed through a structured questionnaire to assess their food safety knowledge. Bacterial load was assessed by serial dilution method and the major bacterial pathogens were isolated by using standard procedures. Results: 15.4% of the abattoir workers had no health certificate and there was no hot water, sterilizer and cooling facility in the abattoir. 11.3% of the butchers didn't use protective clothes. There was a food safety knowledge gap within the abattoir and butcher shop workers. The mean values of bacterial load of abattoir meat, butcher shops and street meat sale was found to be 1.1×105, 5.6×105 and 4.3×106 cfu/g, respectively. The major bacterial pathogens isolated were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Conclusions: The study revealed that there is a reasonable gap on food safety knowledge by abattoir and butcher shop workers. The microbial profile was also higher compared to standards set by World Health Organization. Due attention should be given by the government to improve the food safety knowledge and the quality standard of meat sold in the city.

  20. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Świątkowska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, tar...

  1. [Expression of protein p53 in workers occupationally exposed to benzidine and bladder cancer patients.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chun-lin; Xiang, Cui-qin; Zhang, Yun-ying; Qin, Yi-qiu; Liu, Cha-qin; Chen, Ji-gang; Zhang, Sheng-nian

    2005-02-01

    To study expression of mutant p53 protein in workers occupationally exposed to benzidine and bladder cancer patients. Mutant p53 protein in serum from the workers occupationally exposed to benzidine and bladder cancer patients were determined with Immuno-PCR, while exfoliated urothelial cells in the urine samples were classified with Papanicolau grading. Positive rate of mutant p53 protein increased with the exposed intensity index in workers occupationally exposed to benzidine. The positive rate of mutant p53 protein in bladder cancer patients (83.3%) was significantly higher than that in the group 1 of exposed intensity index. The average scanning integrals of PCR amplified band in the group of bladder cancer patients and group 2 of exposed intensity index were both higher than that in the group 1 significantly. Workers in the groups of different exposed intensity indices were further stratified according to Papanicolau grades. In the group 2 of exposed intensity index, the average scanning integrals of PCR amplified band in the stratum of Papanicolau grade II and III were significantly higher than that in the strata of Papanicolau grade I. And in the group 3 of exposed intensity index, the positive rate of mutant p53 protein in the strata of Papanicolau grade III was higher than that in the strata of Papanicolau grade I significantly. The increase of exposed intensity may not only result in the positive rate of mutant p53 protein, but also the quantity of mutant p53 protein in serum within the low range of benzidine exposure. Once the exposed intensity was beyond that spectrum, the positive rate of mutant p53 protein in serum and the average scanning integrals of PCR amplified band were no longer enhanced with the increase of exposed intensity. There was tight correlation between Papanicolau grade of exfoliated urothelial cells and the positive rate or the quantity of mutant p53 protein for the higher benzidine exposure intensity.

  2. Assessment of functional integrity of liver among workers exposed to soluble nickel compounds during nickel plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalahasthi Ravi Babu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the functional integrity of liver among workers exposed to nickel during nickel-plating process. The functional integrity of liver was assessed in 69 workers who are exposed to nickel during nickel plating and considered as nickel-exposed workers; and 50 administrative workers residing in same city, but away from the place of work of study group, were considered as control group. The level of urine nickel was measured by using a flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Using kits supplied by Bayer Diagnostics, we determined serum markers of liver function tests. Results: The levels of urine nickel were significantly increased in high-and moderate-exposure groups as compared to control group. The levels of serum transaminases -viz, alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase-were significantly increased in nickel-exposed workers, who had high urine nickel levels as compared to control group. The level of serum albumin was negatively correlated with urine nickel levels. The levels of serum transaminases and serum g- glutamyl- transpeptidase were positively and significantly correlated with urine nickel levels. Conclusion: Results indicate that workers who had high urine nickel levels had a consistent effect on hepatic inflammatory function.

  3. Urinary mutagenic activity in workers exposed to diesel exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenker, M.B.; Samuels, S.J.; Kado, N.Y. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States)); Hammond, S.K.; Woskie, S.R.; Smith, T.J. (Univ. of Massachusetts, Worcester (United States))

    1992-04-01

    The authors measured postshift urinary mutagenicity on a population of railroad workers with a range of diesel exhaust exposures. Postshift urinary mutagenicity was determined by a sensitive microsuspension procedure using Salmonella strain TA 98 {plus minus} S9. Number of cigarettes smoked on the study day and urinary cotinine were highly correlated with postshift urinary mutagenicity. Diesel exhaust exposure was measured over the work shift by constant-flow personal sampling pumps. The relative ranking of jobs by this adjusted respirable particle concentration (ARP) was correlated with relative contact the job groups have with operating diesel locomotives. After adjustment for cigarette smoking in multiple regressions, there was no independent association of diesel exhaust exposure, as estimated by ARP, with postshift urinary mutagenicity among smokers or nonsmokers. An important finding is the detection of baseline mutagenicity in most of the nonsmoking workers. Despite the use of individual measurements of diesel exhaust exposure, the absence of a significant association in this study may be due to the low levels of diesel exposure, the lack of a specific marker for diesel exhaust exposure, and/or urinary mutagenicity levels from diesel exposure below the limit of sensitivity for the mutagenicity assay.

  4. Identification of workers exposed concomitantly to heat stress and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbonnais, Robert; Zayed, Joseph; Lévesque, Martine; Busque, Marc-Antoine; Duguay, Patrice; Truchon, Ginette

    2013-01-01

    In the context of climate change, concomitant exposure to heat stress and chemicals takes on great importance. However, little information is available in this regard. The purpose of this research, therefore, was to develop an approach aimed at identifying worker groups that would be potentially most at risk. The approach comprises 5 consecutive steps: - Establishment of a list of occupations for all industry sectors - Determination of heat stress parameters - Identification of occupations at risk of heat stress - Determination of exposure to chemicals - Identification of occupations potentially most at risk. Overall, 1,010 occupations were selected due to their representativeness of employment sectors in Québec. Using a rating matrix, the risk stemming from exposure to heat stress was judged "critical" or "significant" for 257 occupations. Among these, 136 occupations were identified as showing a high potential of simultaneous exposure to heat stress and chemicals. Lastly, a consultation with thirteen experts made it possible to establish a list of 22 priority occupations, that is, 20 occupations in the metal manufacturing sector, as well as roofers and firefighters. These occupations would merit special attention for an investigation and evaluation of the potential effects on workers' health.

  5. [An epidemiological survey of malignant tumors among fluoride-exposed workers in aluminum industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-ping; Duan, Peng; Li, Bao-xiu; Qin, Li-lin; Lu, Ji-pei; Wei, Jia-xing; Wei, Xiao-min

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the incidence of malignant tumors among fluoride-exposed workers in aluminum industry. Sampling points were set in the working positions at different radii around an workshop for treating the waste gas from aluminum electrolysis, and the concentrations of fluoride ions, aluminum, and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in air were measured by electrode method, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The incidence of tumors among the workers in the aluminum plant from 1995 to 2009 was investigated by questionnaires and medical records and then statistically analyzed. There was a negative correlation between the concentrations of fluoride and aluminum and the radius around the fluoride source at each sampling point. B[a]P was not detected at each sampling point. The crude incidence rate of tumors among factory workers was 117.95/100 000 (standardized rate = 58.81/100 000); the standardized incidence rate of tumors was higher in female workers than in male workers (male-to-female ratio = 1:2.64). The peak age of onset of tumors was 40 ∼ 49 years. The most and second most common tumors were liver cancer and lung cancer in male workers and breast cancer and lung cancer in female workers. Compared with the unexposed population in the city where the aluminum plant was located, the female fluoride-exposed workers had an increased tumor incidence, 2.14 times that of the city's average level, and the fluoride-exposed workers had a younger age of onset of tumors and approximately the same types of tumors. Fluoride exposure may lead to an increasing trend in tumor incidence among female workers in aluminum industry.

  6. [Hematologic changes in workers exposed to radio wave radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinscak, V; Goldoni, J; Sarić, M

    1991-12-01

    Haematological parameters were measured in 43 radar operators employed in air traffic control occupationally exposed to microwave radiation of low intensity over a period of four years. Exposure to heat, soft X-ray radiation and noise were within maximally allowed limits. The haematological changes included a decreased number of erythrocytes, reticulocytes, platelets, segmented granulocytes and monocytes, and an increased number of leucocytes and lymphocytes. The changes were not pathologically significant and most of them were reversible.

  7. Cancer incidence and mortality in workers exposed to fluoride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, P; Olsen, J H; Jensen, O M;

    1992-01-01

    Although a recent bioassay showed increased frequency of bone cancer in rats with high oral intake of fluoride, the data are reported as equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity. In humans, occupational fluoride exposure may cause skeletal fluorosis, and our earlier follow-up of fluoride-exposed wor......Although a recent bioassay showed increased frequency of bone cancer in rats with high oral intake of fluoride, the data are reported as equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity. In humans, occupational fluoride exposure may cause skeletal fluorosis, and our earlier follow-up of fluoride...

  8. Health risk assessment of workers exposed to metals from an aluminium production plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranatrevedh, Surasak

    2010-12-01

    Foundry is an industry involved various kinds of metals and chemicals. Workers who work in foundry industry are at risk of exposure to these metals and chemicals. Objective of this study was to conduct quantitative health risk assessment for workers who exposed to metals from an aluminium production industry. The U.S. National Academy of Sciences' four steps of health risk assessment were used to conduct quantitative health risk assessment in this study. This study showed that there were 6 types of metals involved in the aluminium foundry in this study. These metals could cause various health effects but not cancers. Workers were mostly exposed to these metals by inhalation. Calculated reference dose (RfD) for inhalation of aluminium used in this assessment was 0.000015 mg/kg/day. Calculated RID for inhalation of manganese used in this assessment was 0.000002 mg/kg/day. Calculated RfD for inhalation of copper used in this assessment was 0.000028 mg/kg/day. Calculated RID for inhalation of zinc used in this assessment was 0.000083 mg/ kg/day. Calculated RID for inhalation of magnesium used in this assessment was 0.949833 mg/kg/day. Calculated RID for inhalation of iron used in this assessment was 10.6219 mg/kg/day. Maximum daily doses (MDDs) for workers who exposed to metals measured in this foundry were 0, 0, 0.000463, 0.0000927, 0.000162 and 0 mg/kg/day for manganese, zinc, aluminium, iron, magnesium and copper, respectively. Finally, risk characterization for workers exposed to metals in this aluminium foundry showed that workers in this foundry had 31 times higher risk of developing diseases from aluminium than persons who were not exposed to aluminium. These workers had the same risk of developing diseases from other metals and chemicals as persons who were not exposed to those metals and chemicals. Workers who exposed to aluminium in this aluminium production plant had 31 times risk of developing non-carcinogenic effects from aluminium compared with normal

  9. Assessment of DNA damage in WBCs of workers occupationally exposed to fumes and aerosols of bitumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczynski, Boleslaw; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Preuss, Ralf; Kappler, Martin; Schott, Klaus; Pesch, Beate; Zoubek, Gerd; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Mensing, Thomas; Angerer, Jürgen; Käfferlein, Heiko U; Brüning, Thomas

    2006-04-01

    We conducted a cross-shift study with 66 bitumen-exposed mastic asphalt workers and 49 construction workers without exposure to bitumen. Exposure was assessed using personal monitoring of airborne bitumen exposure, urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and the sum of 1-, 2 + 9-,3-,4-hydroxyphenanthrene (OHPH). Genotoxic effects in WBC were determined with nonspecific DNA adduct levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) and the formation of DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites. Concentration of fumes and aerosols of bitumen correlated significantly with the concentrations of 1-OHP and OHPH after shift (r(s) = 0.27; P = 0.03 and r(s) = 0.55; P Bitumen-exposed workers had more DNA strand breaks than the reference group (P bitumen nor with urinary metabolite concentrations. Significantly more DNA adducts were observed after shift not only in bitumen-exposed workers but also in the reference group. Only low-exposed workers had significantly elevated 8-oxodGuo adduct levels before as well as after shift (P = 0.0002 and P = 0.02, respectively). Our results show that exposure to fumes and aerosols of bitumen may contribute to an increased DNA damage assessed with strand breaks.

  10. Pulmonary pathology in workers exposed to nonasbestiform talc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallyathan, N V; Craighead, J E

    1981-01-01

    We studied pulmonary tissue from seven men employed in the mining and milling of talc that contained minimal amounts of crystalline silica and asbestiform minerals. The lungs exhibited varying degrees of fibrosis, located either adjacent to the vessels and bronchi or diffusely. Semiquantitative estimations of talc in the lung tissue indicated that the extent of the pulmonary lesions corresponded to its concentration in the tissue. Histopathologic findings were evaluated with regard to duration of occupational exposure and radiographic changes in the chest. In three of the seven workers with exposures of 26, 27, and 27 years chest roentgenographic changes were consistent with pneumoconiosis. The lung tissues from four other patients with exposure histories of four, five, 13, and 19 years exhibited focal and diffuse fibrosis with accumulations of talc, but the chest x-ray films were negative. Crystallographic studies of digestates of lung tissue indicated that the talc contained few mineral impurities. An increase in dust load in the lungs was associated with duration of employment.

  11. Mortality of workers occupationally exposed to refractory ceramic fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMasters, Grace Kawas; Lockey, James E; Yiin, James H; Hilbert, Timothy J; Levin, Linda S; Rice, Carol H

    2003-04-01

    This study was prompted by refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) inhalation studies at high dose levels in animals that demonstrated positive effects for lung fibrosis, mesothelioma, and lung cancer. Current and former male workers employed between 1952 and 2000 at two RCF manufacturing facilities were followed to investigate a possible excess in mortality. The mortality analytic methods included: (1) standardized mortality ratios comparing this cohort to the general and state populations, and (2) a proportional hazards model that relates risk of death to the lifetime cumulative fiber-months/cc exposure among the RCF cohort, adjusted for age at hire and for race. There was no excess mortality related to all deaths, all cancers, or malignancies or diseases of the respiratory system including mesothelioma, but there was a statistically significant association with cancers of the urinary organs SMR = 344.8 (95% CL of 111.6, 805.4). The quality of the data for job history, exposure, and smoking history were very high. Although the cohort was relatively small and young with an average age of 51, the mean latency period was over 21 years. Because of these limitations, the preliminary findings warrant the continuation of this mortality registry for future analyses.

  12. THE EFFECTS OF ABATTOIR WASTE ON WATER QUALITY IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    This paper examined the impact of abattoir wastes on water quality around an abattoir ... Aluminium (Al) Cyanide (Cn), Boron (B), and Nickel (Ni)., as well as some physical and chemical ... Key words: Abattoir; Wastes; Water quality, Pollution.

  13. Glutathione transferases and glutathionylated hemoglobin in workers exposed to low doses of 1,3-butadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavera, Alessandra; Fustinoni, Silvia; Biroccio, Antonino; Ballerini, Sabrina; Urbani, Andrea; Bernardini, Sergio; Federici, Giorgio; Capucci, Enrico; Manno, Maurizio; Lo Bello, Mario

    2008-11-01

    We evaluated glutathione transferase (GST) activities and the levels of glutathionylated hemoglobin in the RBC of 42 workers exposed to 1,3-butadiene in a petrochemical plant, using 43 workers not exposed to 1,3-butadiene and 82 foresters as internal and external controls, respectively. Median 1,3-butadiene exposure levels were 1.5, 0.4, and 0.1 microg/m3 in 1,3-butadiene-exposed workers, in workers not directly exposed to 1,3-butadiene, and in foresters, respectively. In addition, we determined in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of the same individuals the presence of GST polymorphic genes GSTT1 and GSTM1 and the distribution of GSTP1 allelic variants. Comparing the mean values observed in petrochemical workers with those of control foresters, we found a marked decrease of GST enzymatic activity and a significant increase of glutathionylated hemoglobin in the petrochemical workers. A weak but significant negative correlation was found between levels of 1,3-butadiene exposure and GST activity, whereas a positive correlation was found between 1,3-butadiene exposure and glutathionylated hemoglobin. A negative correlation was also observed between GST activity and glutathionylated hemoglobin. No influence of confounders was observed. Using a multiple linear regression model, up to 50.6% and 41.9% of the variability observed in glutathionylated hemoglobin and GST activity, respectively, were explained by 1,3-butadiene exposure, working setting, and GSTT1 genotype. These results indicate that occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene induces an oxidative stress that impairs the GST balance in RBC, and suggest that GST activity and glutathionylated hemoglobin could be recommended as promising biomarkers of effect in petrochemical workers.

  14. Asthma Symptoms and Specific IgE Levels among Toluene Diisocyanate (TDI Exposed Workers in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Sharifi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toluene diisocyanate (TDI is an imperative chemical substance used in the production of polyurethane foams, elastomers, paints and coatings that cause a variety of health problems in workers who are exposed in work places. This study aimed to determine the asthma symptoms and serum specific IgE levels in TDI exposed workers and comparing the results with healthy control group.Methods: All the plants that use TDI in the manufacturing of paint and glue in the west of Tehran Province entered to the study and all the workers (550 completed modified initial questionnaire of the NIOSH, the questions were consisted of asthma symptoms. For each symptomatic exposed worker one healthy, sex and age matched control selected. Total IgE and Specific TDI IgE tests were done for each case and control groups.Results: Among 550 TDI exposed workers, 26(4.7% had asthma symptoms. Nine (34.6% of symptomatic workers who were exposed to TDI were active cigarette consumer versus 3(11.5% unexposed workers, P=0.049(CI= 0.953-17.29 OR=4.059. Nine (34.6% workers had positive family history of atopy versus 1(3.8% unexposed workers, P=0.0138 (CI= 1.45-305.41 OR=13.24. TDI specific IgE was found in 2 TDI exposed workers and 1 unexposed worker (P=0.5. Mean of total IgE was 339.05 in exposed workers (P=0.201.Conclusion: This study provides clinical and paraclinical data of workers exposed to TDI and points to a relation between atopy and smoking habit with asthma symptoms that offer preventing recommendations for TDI exposed workers and their heath administrators.

  15. Studies of biomarkers in aluminum workers occupationally exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovrebø, S; Haugen, A; Hemminki, K; Szyfter, K; Drabløs, P A; Skogland, M

    1995-01-01

    Evaluation of biomarkers for genotoxic exposure are important for future use of such biomarkers in cancer prevention. We have studied a group of aluminum plant workers for a period of 2.5 years. The level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been monitored at the work place (cathode relining). During the study period, urine and blood were sampled up to seven times from the same workers. Mean level of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene varied from 1.08 to 2.44 mumol/mol creatinine in the exposed groups compared with 0.36 and 0.20 mumol/mol creatinine in the two reference groups. For a group of 14 workers the intraindividual variation of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene was analyzed. The relative standard deviation of the values was < or = 0.50 for half of the workers; the relative standard deviation was calculated for individual values divided by mean of each time point. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in white blood cells from exposed and nonexposed workers were measured by both immunoassay and 32P-postlabeling. By 32P-postlabeling mean values of 12.0 adducts/10(8) and 10.8 adducts/10(8) nucleotides were found in a PAH-exposed group and a reference group, respectively. Intraindividual variation of PAH-DNA adducts was also analyzed.

  16. The potential DNA toxic changes among workers exposed to antimony trioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shanawany, Safaa; Foda, Nermine; Hashad, Doaa I; Salama, Naglaa; Sobh, Zahraa

    2017-05-01

    Occupational exposure to antimony has gained much interest when specific toxic effects were noticed among workers processing antimony. Thus, the aim of the present work was to investigate the potential DNA oxidative damage occurring among Egyptian workers occupationally exposed to antimony trioxide. The study was conducted on 25 subjects exposed to antimony trioxide while working in the polymerization process of polyester in Misrayon and Polyester Fiber Company, KafrEldawwar, Beheira, Egypt. Urinary antimony levels were assessed using inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and considered as a biological exposure index. DNA damage and total oxidant capacity (TOC) were assessed using ELISA. DNA damage was detected in the form of increased apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites among antimony trioxide-exposed workers compared to control subjects, but it could not be explained by oxidative mechanisms due to lack of significant correlation between DNA damage and measured TOC. Antimony trioxide might have a genotoxic impact on occupationally exposed workers which could not be attributed to oxidative stress in the studied cases.

  17. [Modifications of hepatic transaminases in workers exposed to low doses of isopropanol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, I; Fontana, L; Iavicoli, S

    2007-01-01

    Isopropanol (IPA) is a volatile solvent that is used in many industrial process. The major symptoms of acute isopropanol toxicity include dizziness, incoordination, headache, hypothermia, eye ataxia, irritation of upper respiratory tract and shortness of breath. Vomiting, hematemesis, diarrhoea and hypotension may occur following accidental ingestion of IPA. No data regarding subchronic or chronic toxicity of IPA were identified. The aim of this study was to measure the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and of gamma-glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT) of the last five years in 40 printer workers after the removal of IPA from the industry. The serum levels of ALT, AST and gamma-GT were higher in the exposed workers than in non exposed. In conclusion, the results of this study show that the removal of IPA from the industry had a positive health effect improving the hepatic function of the workers.

  18. Mortality of aircraft maintenance workers exposed to trichloroethylene and other hydrocarbons and chemicals: extended follow up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radican, Larry; Blair, Aaron; Stewart, Patricia; Wartenberg, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Objective To extend follow-up of 14,455 workers from 1990 to 2000, and evaluate mortality risk from exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) and other chemicals. Methods Multivariable Cox models were used to estimate relative risk for exposed vs. unexposed workers based on previously developed exposure surrogates. Results Among TCE exposed workers, there was no statistically significant increased risk of all-cause mortality (RR=1.04) or death from all cancers (RR=1.03). Exposure-response gradients for TCE were relatively flat and did not materially change since 1990. Statistically significant excesses were found for several chemical exposure subgroups and causes, and were generally consistent with the previous follow up. Conclusions Patterns of mortality have not changed substantially since 1990. While positive associations with several cancers were observed, and are consistent with the published literature, interpretation is limited due to the small numbers of events for specific exposures. PMID:19001957

  19. Lung function status of workers exposed to wood dust in timber markets in Calabar, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwari, O O; Antai, A B; Owu, D U; Peters, E J; Osim, E E

    2005-06-01

    The effect of chronic exposure to dust from local woods such as ebony, achi, and iroko on lung function of timber market workers in Calabar - Nigeria, was studied. Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in one second, (FEV1), Forced Expiratory Volume as a percentage of forced vital capacity (FEV1 %), and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) were measured in 221 workers (aged 20-25 years) exposed to wood dust to assess their lung function and compared with 200 age- and sex- matched control subjects who were not exposed to any known air pollutant. The concentration of respirable dust was significantly higher in the test (Pwood dust had restrictive pattern of ventilatory function impairment. The lung function indices of the timber workers decreased with their length of service. Chronic exposure to wood dust impairs lung function.

  20. Occupational health risks among trichloroethylene-exposed workers in a clock manufacturing factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singthong, Siriporn; Pakkong, Pannee; Choosang, Kantima; Wongsanit, Sarinya

    2014-08-22

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an important volatile organic compound once widely used in industry throughout the world. Occupational exposure to TCE can cause a number of health hazards such as allergic reactions and genetic damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate occupational exposure to TCE, by analysis of the air in the breathing zone and of urine from workers employed in a clock manufacturing factory. A subjective symptom survey was conducted by using a self-administered questionnaire to evaluate the health hazards. Micronucleus (MN) frequency, based on the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes, (PBLs) was used as a biomarker for chromosome damage. A total of 244 participants, including 171 workers occupationally exposed to TCE and 73 non-exposed control employees, working mainly in office jobs in the same factory, were enrolled in this study. Analyses of airborne TCE concentrations in the workplace, and of urinary trichloroacetic acid (TCA) of the workers and controls, were performed by Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD) using the modified headspace technique. The average concentration of TCE in the workplace breathing zone was 27.83 ± 6.02 ppm. The average level of urinary TCA of the exposed workers and controls was 14.84 ± 1.62, 2.95 ± 0.28 mg/L. The frequency of MN/1000BN was 7.029 ± 0.39, significantly higher than for those in the control group (3.57 ± 0.31, p = 0.001). According to multiple linear regression analysis, the results indicated that urinary TCA levels correlated with the increased MN in exposed workers (r = 0.285, p factory is threatening workers' health.

  1. Whole-body measurements of workers occupationally exposed to radionuclides at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Joaquim Carlos S.; Xavier, Marcos, E-mail: jcardoso@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The intake of radioactive material by workers can occur in the radiopharmaceuticals production, during the handling of these in the medical fields (nuclear medicine) and in biological and research laboratories. The workers who work in areas where exposures are significant are routinely monitored to demonstrate that the workers are receiving adequate protection from internal contamination. Direct measurements of whole-body and thyroid contents provide an estimate of the activity of these radionuclides in the potentially exposed workers. The whole-body measurements of the workers, trainees and visitors are routinely performed by the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LMIV) of the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP). The frequency of measurements is defined by the Radioprotection Service (SRP) and the Dose Calculation Group of IPEN. For this purpose LMIV has two counters, whole body. NaITl (8 x 4”), and thyroid one, NaITl (3 x 3”). The system was calibrated in energy and efficiency, with calibration sources of Eu-152, Am-241 and Co-60 with gamma emissions between 59.54 and 1408.08 keV, positioned within Alderson Research Labs. anthropomorphic phantom. The background measures were obtained of worker's spectrum that was not exposed occupationally yet. The concepts adopted in the HPS N13.30 Standard and proposed in ISO documents for standardization were used for activity measurements. During the period January 2010 to December 2014, approximately 4500 measurements had been carried in workers who develop tasks related to the production and research. The activities of the radionuclides and the workers' tasks relationship had been evaluated. (author)

  2. Genotoxic effects of textile printing dye exposed workers in India detected by micronucleus assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellappa, Sudha; Prathyumnan, Shibily; Joseph, Shyn; Keyan, Kripa S; Balachandar, Vellingiri

    2010-01-01

    The textile printing industry in South India employs a great number of workers that may possibly be exposed to toxic compounds. In the present study, subjects from textile printing units were investigated for the presence of genetic damage in their peripheral blood lymphocytes using micronucleus assay. Proliferation was also investigated using a nuclear division index. It was found that the micronucleus frequency was considerably greater in exposed subjects than in non exposed control subjects, but division was not increased in a statistically significant way. For the time being, this investigation should be considered as a preliminary study in which the influence of potential confounders could be adequately assessed. However, our results are non-ambiguous, indicating a potential health risk in these workers.

  3. Evaluation of Occupational Exposure and Biological Monitoring of Sand Washing Workers Exposed to Silica Dusts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Parsaseresht

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives:The health of sand washing workers could be threatened by the crystalline silica dust exposure. The aim of this study was the evaluation of occupational and biological monitoring with crystalline silica dusts in the sand washing workers. Materials and Methods: This was an analytical and cross-sectional study of 44 sand washing workers exposed to crystalline silica and also 63 municipality gardeners as a control group in the city of Dorood. Occupational exposure monitoring to respirable total dust and silica dust was performed according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH methods 0600 and 7602-respectively. Biological monitoring of workers' was carried out according to the Karatas method for the analysis of Malondialdehyde in the blood serum of exposed and control subjects. The informed consents were taken for obtaining blood samples of workers, according to the Helsinki Declaration. Statistical analysis of data was done using SPSS version 16. The statistical test of Pearson, t-tests and linear regression was applied. Results: The occupational exposure of 54.55% was exceeded the occupational exposure limit of Iran at the level of 3 mg/m3. The mean exposure of sand miners and control group to respirable silica dust was evaluated at 0.219 ± 0.177 and 0.010 ± 0.002 as mg/m3respectively. Occupational exposure of all sand washing workers was higher than the occupational exposure limit of Iran at the level of 0.025 mg/m3.The concentration of serum Malondialdehyde (MDA exposed group and the control group were 36.64 ± 10.75 and 19.40 ± 4.68 as µM respectively. Conclusion: Due to the positive correlation between exposure of sand washing workers to silica dust sand serum MDA among exposed group(P-value<0.0001, r=0.881, periodical biological monitoring along with effective control measures of workers are recommended for the health promotion of these workers.

  4. STATUS OF ABATTOIR WASTES RESEARCH IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    the benefits locking in the wastes before safely and economically disposing the ulti- mate wastes. ... pollution, abattoir, abattoir wastes, paunch manure, animal manure. 1. Introduction ... sediments, radioactive materials, hot water, cold water, ... crops stored as food. .... propriate methods for disposing the ultimate wastes after ...

  5. Food safety knowledge and practices of abattoir and butchery shops and the microbial profile of meat in Mekelle City, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mekonnen Haileselassie; Habtamu Taddele; Kelali Adhana; Shewit Kalayou

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the food safety knowledge and practices in meat handling, and to determine microbial load and pathogenic organisms in meat at Mekelle city. Methods: A descriptive survey design was used to answer questions concerning the current status of food hygiene and sanitation practiced in the abattoir and butcher shops. Workers from the abattoir and butcher shops were interviewed through a structured questionnaire to assess their food safety knowledge. Bacterial load was assesse...

  6. [Detection of sister chromatic exchange in workers exposed to coal tar pitch and to coke oven volatiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Chen, C; Wu, Y; Xu, Y

    1998-07-01

    In order to know the changes of genetic toxicological effects on workers occupationally exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), sister chromatic exchange(SCE) was detected by the methods of peripheral lymphocyte culture in 23 workers exposed to coal tar pitch (CTP) and in 19 workers exposed to coke oven volatiles (COV) and 12 normal controls. The results suggested that the SCE in occupational workers was significantly higher than that in controls (11.31 vs 6.37, P 0.05). It is indicated that CTP and COV caused strong genetic toxicity and injury to chromosome.

  7. Sperm quality and DNA integrity of coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Pan, Chih-Hong; Chao, Mu-Rong; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Zhou, Guodong; Chou, Chon-Kit; Lin, Wen-Yi

    2016-11-18

    The objective of this study was to assess sperm quality and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) integrity of coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as compared to control subjects. The coke oven workers (N = 52) and administrative staff (N = 35) of a steel plant served as the exposed and control groups, respectively. Exposure to PAHs was assessed by measuring 1-hydroxypyren. Analysis of sperm quality (concentration, motility, vitality, and morphology) was performed simultaneously with sperm DNA integrity analysis, including DNA fragmentation, denaturation, bulky DNA adducts, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dGuo). A questionnaire was conducted to collect demographic and potential confounding data. The coke oven workers had lower percentages of sperm motility, vitality and normal morphology than the control group, but the difference was not significant. For DNA integrity, the coke oven workers had significantly higher concentrations of bulky DNA adducts and 8-oxo-dGuo than the control subjects (p = 0.009 and p = 0.048, respectively). However, DNA fragmentation percentages did not significantly increase as compared to those in the subjects from the control group (p = 0.232). There was no correlation between sperm quality parameters and DNA integrity indicators. Occupational exposure of the coke oven workers to PAHs was associated with decreased sperm DNA integrity. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6):915-926.

  8. Sperm quality and DNA integrity of coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueiwang Anna Jeng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess sperm quality and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA integrity of coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs as compared to control subjects. Material and methods: The coke oven workers (N = 52 and administrative staff (N = 35 of a steel plant served as the exposed and control groups, respectively. Exposure to PAHs was assessed by measuring 1-hydroxypyren. Analysis of sperm quality (concentration, motility, vitality, and morphology was performed simultaneously with sperm DNA integrity analysis, including DNA fragmentation, denaturation, bulky DNA adducts, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dGuo. A questionnaire was conducted to collect demographic and potential confounding data. Results: The coke oven workers had lower percentages of sperm motility, vitality and normal morphology than the control group, but the difference was not significant. For DNA integrity, the coke oven workers had significantly higher concentrations of bulky DNA adducts and 8-oxo-dGuo than the control subjects (p = 0.009 and p = 0.048, respectively. However, DNA fragmentation percentages did not significantly increase as compared to those in the subjects from the control group (p = 0.232. There was no correlation between sperm quality parameters and DNA integrity indicators. Conclusions: Occupational exposure of the coke oven workers to PAHs was associated with decreased sperm DNA integrity. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6:915–926

  9. Exploring a new method for the biological monitoring of plastic workers exposed to the vinyl chloride monomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari, Mansour Rezazadeh; Tayefeh-Rahimian, Raana; Jafari, Mohamad Javad; Souri, Hamid; Shokoohi, Yasser; Tavakol, Alaheh; Yazdanbakhsh, Zahra

    2016-12-01

    Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is widely used in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. VCM is recognized as a confirmed human and animal carcinogenic compound. Recent studies have reported poor health of plastic workers, even having exposure at concentrations below the permissible limit to VCM. There has not been any study regarding exposed workers to VCM in Iran. Similarly, no information exists as to the biological monitoring of such workers. The main purpose of this study was to conduct a thorough occupational and biological monitoring of Iranian plastic workers exposed to VCM.A total of 100 workers from two plastic manufacturing plants (A and B) in Tehran along with 25 unexposed workers as controls were studied. The personal monitoring of all nonsmoking workers exposed to VCM at two plastic manufacturing plants (A and B) was performed in the morning shift (8 a.m. to 4 p.m.) according to the National Institute For Occupational Safety And Health method no. 1007.Biological monitoring of workers was carried out through collection of exhaled breath of all exposed and control workers in Tedlar bags and with a subsequent analysis using gas chromatography-flame ionization detector.Not only the mean occupational exposure of workers to VCM at plant A was higher than the respective threshold limit value but also the statistical significance was higher than workers at plant B. Similarly, VCM concentration in exhaled breath of workers at plant A was also statistically significantly higher than at plant B. Correlation of occupational exposure of all workers to vinyl chloride with its concentration in exhaled breath was statistically significant.This is the first study on biological monitoring for exposed plastic workers to VCM using exhaled breath. On the basis of the results in this study, a novel method of biological monitoring of plastic workers was proposed.

  10. Respiratory Abnormalities among Occupationally Exposed, Non-Smoking Brick Kiln Workers from Punjab, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Tandon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brick manufacturing industry is one of the oldest and fast-growing industries in India that employs a large section of people. Brick kiln workers are occupationally exposed to air pollutants. Nonetheless, only a few studies have so far been conducted on their respiratory health. Objective: To investigate the extent of respiratory impairment in brick kiln workers and to correlate it with the duration of exposure. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Spirometric parameters of 110 non-smoking male brick kiln workers aged 18–35 years in Patiala district, Punjab, India, were compared with an age-matched comparison group of 90 unexposed individuals. Results: Brick kiln workers showed a significant (p8 years of exposure, the mean values of FEV1 (1.92 L, FVC (2.01 L, FEF25-75% (2.19 L/s and PEFR (4.81 L/s were significantly (p<0.05 lower than those recorded in workers with <8 years of exposure in whom the values were 2.01 L, 2.68 L, 2.71 L/s, and 5.76 L/s, respectively. Conclusion: There is a significant association between exposure to workplace pollutants and lung function deterioration among brick kiln workers.

  11. Occupational allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in workers exposed to polyurethane foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kieć-Świerczyńska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate sensitization to chemicals present in work environment after an outbreak of contact dermatitis in workers of vehicle equipment factory, exposed to polyurethane foam, based on 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI. Material and Methods: From among 300 employees, 21 individuals reporting work-related skin and/or respiratory tract symptoms underwent clinical examination, patch testing, skin prick tests, spirometry and MDI sIgE measurement in serum. Patch tests included isocyanates series, selected rubber additives, metals, fragrances, preservatives, and an antiadhesive agent. Results: Clinical examination revealed current eczema in the area of hands and/or forearms in 10 workers. Positive patch test reactions were found in 10 individuals, the most frequent to diaminodiphenylmethane and 4-phenylenediamine (7 persons. Reactions to an antiadhesive agent were assessed as irritant (5 workers. Except for sensitization to common aeroallergens, no significant abnormalities were found in the remaining tests. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 7 workers, irritant contact dermatitis in 10 and coexisiting allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in 3 workers. Conclusions: In workers manufacturing products from polyurethane foam, attention should be paid to the risk of developing contact dermatitis. Skin problems in our study group were attributable probably to insufficient protection of the skin.

  12. Paraoxonase-1 genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satyender; Kumar, Vivek; Thakur, Sachin; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh; Pasha, Syed Tazeen; Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Ichhpujani, Rattan Lal; Rai, Arvind

    2011-04-15

    Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a lipoprotein-associated enzyme involved in the detoxification of organophosphate pesticides (OPs) by hydrolyzing the bioactive oxons. Polymorphisms of the PON1 gene are responsible for variation in the expression and catalytic activity of PON1 enzyme. In the present study, we have determined (a) the prevalence of two common PON1 polymorphisms, (b) the activity of PON1 and acetylcholinesterase enzymes, and (c) the influence of PON1 genotypes and phenotypes variation on DNA damage in workers exposed to OPs. We examined 230 subjects including 115 workers exposed to OPs and an equal number of normal healthy controls. The results revealed that PON1 activity toward paraoxon (179.19±39.36 vs. 241.52±42.32nmol/min/ml in controls) and phenylacetate (112.74±17.37 vs. 134.28±25.49μmol/min/ml in controls) was significantly lower in workers than in control subjects (p0.05). The PON1 activity toward paraoxonase was found to be significantly higher in the R/R (Arg/Arg) genotypes than Q/R (Gln/Arg) and lowest in Q/Q (Gln/Gln) genotypes in both workers and control subjects (p<0.001). For PON1(55)LM (Leu/Met), PON1 activity toward paraoxonase was observed to be higher in individuals with L/L (Leu/Leu) genotypes and lowest in individuals with M/M (Met/Met) genotypes in both groups (p<0.001). No influence of PON1 genotypes and phenotypes was seen on the activity of acetylcholinesterase and arylesterase. The DNA damage was observed to be significantly higher in workers than in control subjects (p<0.05). Further, the individuals who showed least paraoxonase activity i.e., those with (Q/Q [Gln/Gln] and M/M [Met/Met]) genotypes showed significantly higher DNA damage compared to other isoforms in workers exposed to OPs (p<0.05). The results indicate that the individuals with PON1 Q/Q and M/M genotypes are more susceptible toward genotoxicity. In conclusion, the study suggests wide variation in enzyme activities and DNA damage due to polymorphisms in PON1

  13. DISTORTION PRODUCT OTOACOUSTIC EMISSIONS IN NORMAL - HEARING WORKERS EXPOSED TO OCCUPATIONAL NOISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Escher Boger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction-The otoacoustic emissions test has been highlighted by thepossibility of detecting early cochlear changes resulting from exposureto noise, not identifiedby audiometry.Objective: To evaluate the distortion product otoacoustic emissions innormal-hearing workers exposed to occupational noise.Method: This was a cross-sectionalstudy in steel mills of the Federal District, in which it was evaluated by means of productotoacoustic emissions Distortion, workers of both sexes, aged between 18 and 35 years,thresholds audibility at or below 25 dB HL without hearing impairment.Results: We foundsignificant changes in otoacoustic emissionsin both ears. In the amplitude and signal/noiseratio was observed that the higher the frequency the lower the averages found in otoacousticemissions. How often is the worst records of 6 KHz.Conclusion: The otoacoustic emissionsdistortion product in normal-hearing workers reveal cochlear changes could detect theappearance of the lesion in outer hair cells.

  14. Genotoxic damage in mine workers exposed to diesel exhaust, and the effects of glutathione transferase genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Gaskell, M; Martin, E A

    2005-01-01

    This study was performed in an Estonian shale-oil mine with the purpose to develop and apply a number of biomarkers for occupational diesel-exhaust exposure monitoring. Increased breathing-zone exposures to exhaust from operators of diesel-powered trucks in the mine was confirmed....... The study confirms an increased level of DNA damage in workers exposed to exhaust from truck-driving in the mine. However, the results of the environmental and biological monitoring of 1-NP did not correlate, suggesting that inhalation exposure to diesel exhaust is not reflected by an increase in 1-NP...... in the environmental monitoring part of the study, showing a 7.5-fold higher exposure to particle-associated 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) in 50 underground workers compared with 42 surface workers [P.T.J. Scheepers, D. Coggon, L.E. Knudsen, R. Anzion, H. Autrup, S. Bogovski, R.P. Bos, D. Dahmann, P. Farmer, E.A. Martin, V...

  15. Psychological dysfunctions in lead-exposed workers. Relation to biological parameters of exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandjean, P.; Arnvig, E.; Beckmann, J.

    1978-12-01

    Insidious neurotoxic effects of lead have been studied in a population of 42 lead-exposed workers and a reference group of 22 comparable workers with no lead exposure. The age of the individuals ranged from 18 to 50 years. The complete Wechler Adult Intelligence Scale, as well as psychomotor and memory tests, was included in the test battery. The exposure was assessed by means of the lead concentration in blood and hair and the ratio between zinc protoporphyrin and hemoglobin in the blood. Significant differences were found between the two groups of workers, especially concerning long-term memory, verbal and visuospatial abstraction, and psychomotor speed. Blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin appeared to correlate better with the intellectual impairment than did hair lead.

  16. Compensation for damage to workers health exposed to ionizing radiation in Argentina

    CERN Document Server

    Sobehart, L J

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this report is to analyze the possibility to establish a scheme to compensate damage to workers health exposed to ionizing radiation in Argentina for those cases in which it is possible to assume that the exposure to ionizing radiation is the cause of the cancer suffered by the worker. The proposed scheme is based on the recommendations set out in the 'International Conference on Occupational Radiation Protection: Protecting Workers against Exposure to Ionization Radiation, held in Geneva, Switzerland, August 26-30, 2002. To this end, the study analyzes the present state of scientific knowledge on cancer causation due to genotoxic factors, and the accepted form of the doses-response curve, for the human beings exposure to ionization radiation at low doses with low doses rates. Finally, the labor laws and regulations related to damage compensation; in particular the present Argentine Labor Law; the National Russian Federal Occupational Radiological Health Impairment and Workmen Compensation, t...

  17. [Precancerous conditions of the larynx in workers exposed to dust and their prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podol'skaia, E V

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of examinations of 522 workers exposed to various industrial dusts and 361 workers exposed to different concentrations of carcinogenic asbestos dust. The examinations showed a significantly higher incidence of total processes in the upper respiratory tract which manifested as chronic subatrophic nasopharingitis and hyperplastic laryngitis. Also, they demonstrated a significantly higher incidence of local processes that manifested as hyperplasia of the laryngeal mucosa and contact fibromas. These laryngeal lesions can be viewed as etiologically associated with the effect of industrial dusts having traumatic (abrasive and glass dust) and carcinogenic (asbestos) properties. Patients with the above laryngeal pathologies should be removed from the dust environment and sent to physical examinations with emphasis on occupational diseases.

  18. An expanded cohort study of cancer among benzene-exposed workers in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song-Nian Yin; Gui-Lan Li; Zhi-Nan Zhang [Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine, Bejing (China)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    An expanded cohort study of 74,828 benzene-exposed and 35,805 unexposed workers were followed during 1972 to 1987, based on a previous study in 12 cities in China. A small increase was observed in total cancer mortality among benzene-exposed compared with unexposed Workers (relative risk [RR] = 1-2). Statistically significant excesses were noted for leukemia (RR = 2.3), malignant lymphoma (RR = 4.5), and lung cancer (RR = 1.4). When risks were evaluated by leukemia subtype, only acute myelogenous leukemia was significantly elevated (RR = 3.1), although nonsignificant excesses were also noted for chronic myelogenous leukemia (RR = 2.6) and acute lymphocytic leukemia (RR = 2.3). A significant excess was also found for aplastic anemia. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

  19. Silicosis in Workers Exposed to Artificial Quartz Conglomerates: Does It Differ From Chronic Simple Silicosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, Valentina; Romeo, Riccardo; Sisinni, Antonietta Gerardina; Bartoli, Dusca; Mazzei, Maria Antonietta; Sartorelli, Pietro

    2015-12-01

    Recently, a number of reports have been published on silicosis in workers exposed to artificial quartz conglomerates containing high levels of crystalline silica particles (70-90%) used in the construction of kitchen and bathroom surfaces. Three cases of silicosis in workers exposed to artificial quartz conglomerates are reported. The diagnosis was derived from both the International Labour Office and the International Classification of HRCT for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) classifications and cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In 2 cases, levels of respirable silica greatly in excess of recommended standards were measured in the workplace, and cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid highlighted a prevalence of lymphocytes, meeting criteria for the diagnosis of accelerated silicosis. The prevention of pneumoconiosis caused by the use of innovative materials, such as artificial conglomerates with high crystalline silica content must be addressed.

  20. Serum activities of liver enzymes in workers exposed to sub-TLV levels of dimethylformamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjiang He

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study has been to investigate serum activities of liver enzymes in workers exposed to sub-TLV levels of dimethylformamide (DMF. Material and Methods: Seventy-two workers and 72 healthy controls participated in the study. All subjects underwent complete physical examinations and abdominal ultrasound examination. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and c-glutamyl transpeptidase (c-GT were determined by an auto-chemistry analyzer. The data of airborne concentrations of DMF was obtained from the local Center of Disease Control and Prevention. The level of urine N-acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoylcysteine (AMCC was measured by means of high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: Time weighted average (TWA concentration of the DMF in workplace was 18.6 (range: 9.8–36.2 mg/m3. The concentration of the AMCC in workers’ urine was 28.32 (range: 1.8–58.6 mg/l and 9 workers’ AMCC exceeded the biological exposure index (40 mg/l. Thirty-one workers reported gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, nausea, anorexia and 10 workers reported headache, dizziness and/or palpitation in the exposed group. Serum analysis revealed that both the mean of serum activities of liver enzymes (ALT, AST and c-GT and the percentage of workers with abnormal liver function were significantly higher in the exposed group as compared to the controls. Conclusions: Dimethylformamide can cause liver damage even if air concentration is in the sub-threshold limit value (sub-TLV level. The protection of skin contact against the exposure to the DMF might be a critical issue as far as the occupational health is concerned.

  1. Post-9/11 sarcoidosis in WTC-exposed firefighters and emergency medical service workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Mayris P; Yip, Jennifer; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Moir, William; Ungprasert, Patompong; Crowson, Cynthia S; Hall, Charles B; Jaber, Nadia; Weiden, Michael D; Matteson, Eric L; Prezant, David J

    2017-06-07

    The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster released a huge quantity and variety of toxicants into the environment. To-date, studies from each of the three major cohorts of WTC-exposed workers have suggested "greater than expected" numbers of post-9/11 cases in some workers. We undertook this study to estimate the incidence of post-9/11 sarcoidosis in ∼13,000 male firefighters and EMS workers enrolled in The Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY) WTC Health Program; to compare FDNY incidence to rates from unexposed, demographically similar men in the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP); and, to examine rates by level of WTC exposure. We calculated incidence of sarcoidosis diagnosed from 9/12/2001 to 9/11/2015, and generated expected sex- and age-specific rates based on REP rates. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) based on REP rates, and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated. Two sensitivity analyses limited cases to those with intra-thoracic symptoms or biopsy confirmation. We identified 68 post-9/11 cases in the FDNY cohort. Overall, FDNY rates were significantly higher than expected rates (SIR = 2.8; 95% CI = 2.2, 3.6). Including only symptomatic cases, the SIR decreased (SIR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.5, 3.0), but remained significantly elevated. SIRs ranged from 2.7 (95% CI = 2.0, 3.5) in the lower WTC exposure group to 4.2 (95% CI = 1.9, 8.0) in the most highly exposed. We found excess incident post-9/11 sarcoidosis in WTC-exposed workers. Continued surveillance, particularly of those most highly exposed, is necessary to identify those with sarcoidosis and to follow them for possible adverse effects including functional impairments and organ damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hemoglobinopatias em trabalhadores expostos à riscos ocupacionais Hemoglobinopathies in workers exposed to occupational hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac L. Silva Filho

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopathies have been considered the most frequent hereditary disease in Brazilian population, constituting a Public Health problem. This paper reports on screening in workers at FIOCRUZ-RJ., exposed to some hazards factors such as, chemical substances, radiation, excessive cold and heat etc., with the objective of evaluating the impact of these factors in carriers of hemoglobinopathies, mainly in sickle cell trait (AS.

  3. Health status and PCBs in blood of workers exposed to PCBs and of their children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, I.

    1985-02-01

    A follow-up study of capacitor manufacturing workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their children was conducted since 1973. PCB levels in whole blood of workers as well as in breast milk of the exposed lactating mothers were approximately 10 to 100 times those of nonexposed Japanese. Blood PCB levels had a statistically significant correlation with the duration of PCB handling and breast milk PCB levels. The rate of decline of blood PCB levels, as well as the changes of the gas chromatograph of blood PCB over 7 years was found to vary with the kind of PCB handled. The levels of blood PCB tended to be higher in the children fed PCB-contaminated breast milk for a long period. The great majority of workers handling PCBs had dermatologic complaints. Discontinuance of contact with PCB led to gradual improvement of these lesions. Abnormal results in the blood chemistry of the workers were rare, while serum triglyceride concentration was significantly correlated with blood PCB levels in 1974. In the questionnaire study, the number of complaints in children born from mothers who had handled PCBs, especially those fed breast milk for a long period, was conspicuously higher than that in control groups. Several children were found to have the same medical findings as in Yusho; however, they have not been diagnosed as PCB-poisoning, because these findings were neither so serious nor related to the blood PCB levels.

  4. A health examination of railway high-voltage substation workers exposed to ELF electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, P; Battisti, S; Checcucci, A; Comba, P; Grandolfo, M; Serio, A; Vecchia, P

    1986-01-01

    This is a cross-sectional survey on the health conditions of railways workers active in 258 interconnection and conversion substations all over Italy. Measurements performed in both kinds of substations operating at 220 kV have shown that maximum levels of the electric field strength and of the magnetic flux density at 50 Hz are of the order of 5 kV/m and 15 microT, respectively. Three subject groups, differently exposed (1, 10, 20 h/week), and an unexposed control group, for a total number of 627 workers, constitute the population at study. All subjects underwent a general medical examination, laboratory investigations, and a series of selected examinations relative to three systems (nervous, cardiovascular, and haematopoietic) considered at higher risk. No differences have been found between the exposed and the control groups. It is concluded that workers exposed to ELF electromagnetic fields of moderate strength do not show the presence of clear effects on their state of health.

  5. Respiratory symptoms and airway responsiveness in apparently healthy workers exposed to flour dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohadana, A B; Massin, N; Wild, P; Kolopp, M N; Toamain, J P

    1994-06-01

    Our aim was to measure the levels of exposure to wheat flour dust in a modern industrial bakery, and to assess the relationship between respiratory symptoms, sensitization to wheat flour antigens and airway responsiveness in the workforce. Forty four flour-exposed male workers and 164 unexposed controls were examined. Inspirable dust concentrations were measured using personal samplers. Respiratory symptoms were assessed by questionnaire, sensitization to wheat flour antigens by skin-prick tests, and methacholine airway challenge (MAC) test using an abbreviated method. Subjects were labelled MAC+ if forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) fell by 20% or more. The linear dose-response slope (DRS) was calculated as the percentage fall in FEV1 at last dose divided by the total dose administered. Inspirable dust concentrations were within acceptable limits in all working areas but one. The proportion of subjects with one or more symptoms and with airway hyperresponsiveness was significantly greater among flour-exposed workers than among controls. Using logistic or linear regression analysis, airway responsiveness was found to be strongly related to working at the bakery and to the baseline level of lung function. A positive skin-prick test was found in only 11% of flour-exposed workers and 6% of controls. In conclusion, our data show that despite exposure to relatively low concentration levels of inspirable flour dust, subjects working in the baking industry are at risk of developing both respiratory symptoms and airway hyperresponsiveness.

  6. Urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in workers exposed to vapours and aerosols of bitumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Beate; Spickenheuer, Anne; Kendzia, Benjamin; Schindler, Birgit Karin; Welge, Peter; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Rihs, Hans-Peter; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Angerer, Jürgen; Brüning, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Urinary hydroxylated metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were investigated as potential biomarkers of bitumen exposure in a cross-shift study in 317 exposed and 117 non-exposed workers. Personal measurements of the airborne concentration of vapours and aerosols of bitumen during a working shift were weakly associated with post-shift concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and 1-, 2+9-, 3- and 4-hydroxyphenanthrenes (further referred to their sum as OHPHE), but not 1- and 2-hydroxynaphthalene (OHNA). Smoking showed a strong influence on the metabolite concentrations, in particular on OHNA. Pre-shift concentrations of 1-OHP and OHPHE did not differ between the study groups (P = 0.16 and P = 0.89, respectively). During shift, PAH metabolite concentrations increased in exposed workers and non-exposed smokers. Statistical modelling of post-shift concentrations revealed a small increase in 1-OHP by a factor of 1.02 per 1 mg/m(3) bitumen (P = 0.02) and 1.04 for OHPHE (P < 0.001). A group difference was observed that was diminished in non-smokers. Exposed non-smokers had a median post-shift 1-OHP concentration of 0.42 μg/l, and non-smoking referents 0.13 μg/l. Although post-shift concentrations of 1-OHP and OHPHE were slightly higher than those in the general population, they were much lower than in coke-oven workers. The small content of PAHs in vapours and aerosols of bitumen, the increasing use of additives to asphalt mixtures, the strong impact of smoking and their weak association with airborne bitumen limit the use of PAH metabolites as specific biomarkers of bitumen exposure.

  7. Detection of early kidney damages in workers exposed to lead, mercury, and cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaller, K.H.; Gonzales, J.; Thuerauf, J.; Schiele, R.

    1980-09-01

    Our study was performed to evaluate potential adverse effects on the kidney caused by an occupational exposure to cadmium, lead, and mercury, respectively. We examined 81 individuals of a Zn-Cd-plant and of a Ni-Cd-battery factory, occupationally exposed to cadmium. In a chemical company, synthesizing mercury-compounds, we analyzed 23 exposed workers. The 21 persons with an exposure to lead were employed in a secondary lead smelting plant. To evaluate the degree of the occupational exposure we analysed the concentrations of the heavy metals in blood and urine samples. As indicators of an adverse effect on the kidney the renal elimination of specific proteins was determined. The analysis of proteins with a higher molecular weight, such as albumine and acid ..cap alpha../sub 1/-glycoproteine, was performed using a new developed laser nephelometric method. Patterns of renal eliminated proteins with a lower molecular weight were characterized applying radio immunological determination of ..beta../sub 2/-microglobuline. The results found in workers exposed to cadmium verified previous studies. The occurence of a characteristic ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulinuria takes place after a sufficient long period of exposure. In addition to this,. cadmium exposed workers had an increased elimination of total proteine. Persons with an exposure to mercury also showed a slightly increased elimination of ..beta../sub 2/-microglobuline and total proteine. An intensive long exposure to mercury and its (in-)organic compounds seems to induce an increased renal elimination of proteins. No increased renal elimination was found in persons occupationally exposed to lead.

  8. Sero-prevalence of brucellosis in occupationally exposed human beings of Himachal Pradesh (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalmali; Panda, Ashok Kumar; Chahota, Rajesh

    2012-06-01

    The chief objective of respective study was to investigate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among occupationally exposed human beings in Himachal Pradesh. A total of 165 serum samples that were obtained from human beings from various regions of the state were screened through a battery of serological tests which included RBPT, STAT, 2-MET, dot-ELISA and indirect-ELISA. 165 of human sera samples included 42 from veterinarians, 40 shepherds, 35 livestock owners, 20 workers at veterinary hospitals/clinics, 16 abattoir workers and 12 veterinary pharmacists. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis among occupationally exposed human beings was observed to be 6.66% showing highest in abattoir workers (18.75%) followed by pharmacists (8.33%), veterinarians (7.14%), and livestock owners (5.71%) and shepherds (5.00%). In humans it is prevalent as an occult infection or under diagnosed disease, especially; in case of abattoir workers the highest seropositivity for brucella agglutinins was observed. Indirect-ELISA and Dot-ELISA proved best in the diagnosis of brucellosis.

  9. Sleep disturbances and neurotoxicity in workers exposed to hydrocarbons. An observational study from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekkal, Samira; Casas, Lidia; Haddam, Nahida; Bouhacina, Linda; Scheers, Hans; Taleb, Abdesselam; Nemery, Benoit

    2016-02-01

    Occupational exposure to solvents may lead to neurotoxicity and sleep disturbances. We aimed to investigate the association of occupational exposure to petroleum-derived hydrocarbons with neurotoxicity and sleep disturbance symptoms. We included male workers handling/distributing petroleum products (exposed, n = 250) and electricians (non-exposed, n = 250) from two companies in Tlemcen (Algeria). Neurotoxicity was evaluated with the Q-16 questionnaire, and sleep disturbances with the Epworth and the Berlin questionnaires. Multivariable Poisson regression models with robust error variances were applied obtaining risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence interval (CI). Overall, the prevalence of reported neurotoxicity and sleep disturbance symptoms was higher in exposed than in non-exposed workers. Significant adjusted associations were observed for neurotoxicity, snoring, and excessive sleepiness (RR = 2.2, CI: 1.7-2.8; RR = 1.4; CI: 1.1-1.7; RR = 1.3, CI: 1.2-1.5, respectively). No significant associations were observed with the Epworth score. Our questionnaire-based cross-sectional study suggests that exposure to petroleum-derived hydrocarbons is associated with self-reported sleep disturbances and neurotoxicity symptoms. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Genotoxic biomonitoring of agricultural workers exposed to pesticides in the north of Sinaloa State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Waliszewski, Stefan; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Félix-Gastélum, Rubén; Alvarez-Torres, Armando

    2009-11-01

    Genotoxic damage was evaluated in 70 agricultural workers, 25 women and 45 men, exposed to pesticides in Las Grullas, Ahome, Sinaloa, Mexico, with an average of 7 years of exposure. The effect was detected through the sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in lymphocytes of peripheral blood and micronuclei (MN) and other nuclear anomalies (NA) in buccal exfoliated cells. Also, the influence on cellular proliferation kinetics (CPK) was studied by means of the replication index (RI) and the cytotoxic effect was examined with the mitotic index (MI). The non-exposed group consisted of 70 other persons, 21 women and 47 men from the city of Los Mochis, Sinaloa, Mexico. Significant differences between the exposed and the non-exposed groups were observed in SCE, CPK, MI, MN and NA. Analysis of variance revealed that age, gender, smoking and alcohol consumption did not have a significant effect on genetic damage. However, there was a correlation between exposure time to pesticides and SCE frequency. These results could have been due to the exposure of workers to pesticides containing different chemical compounds. This study afforded valuable data to estimate the possible risk to health associated with pesticide exposure.

  11. Lack of genotoxic effect in workers exposed to very low doses of 1,3-butadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovreglio, Piero; Bukvic, Nenad; Fustinoni, Silvia; Ballini, Andrea; Drago, Ignazio; Foà, Vito; Guanti, Ginevra; Soleo, Leonardo

    2006-06-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD), a probable carcinogen to humans, has been shown to have an ill-defined genotoxicity in occupationally exposed workers. In the present study, the influence of exposure to very low doses of BD and to cigarette smoking was investigated on some cytogenetic endpoints, namely, sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), chromosomal aberrations (CA) and cells with a high frequency of SCE (HFC), in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Twenty-seven male workers employed in a petrochemical plant and 26 matched controls were included in the study. As regards the airborne BD values, there was a significant difference between exposed (median BD value 1.5, min-max 0.2-69.0 microg/m3) and non-exposed workers (median BD value 0.4, min-max <0.1-3.8 microg/m3). Genotoxic biomarkers were not able to distinguish between the two groups. The frequency of SCE was higher in smokers than in non-smokers (p=0.001), with a positive correlation between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and both SCE (r=0.4; p=0.004) and HFC frequency (r=0.3; p=0.04). Multiple regression analysis confirmed the influence of cigarette smoking on the level of SCE and HFC, while these parameters were not affected by personal exposure to BD. Overall, the biomarkers of genotoxic effect investigated in our study were not able to discriminate between workers with a very low exposure to BD and controls, while it was possible to distinguish between smokers and non-smokers on the basis of SCE.

  12. Adverse health effects in workers exposed to trace/toxic metals at workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Rita; Juneja, Meenu

    2003-04-01

    Widespread use of metals in industrial activities has enhanced the occupational exposure to toxic metals as well as the health risks of metal hazards to humans. Elemental analysis in human tissues is the most common application of biological monitoring for screening, diagnosis and assessment of such exposures and risk. Among various biopsy materials, blood, hair, nail, teeth and body fluids may be used as bioindicators for this purpose. The present paper deals with the determination of Pb, Cr, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn elemental concentration in workers exposed to these metals at workplace by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, with adequate quality control measures using hair as biopsy material. The study group includes the male workers such as welders, foundry man, fitter, hammer man, machine man, cupola man etc., besides office workers of locomotive workshop in Ajmer and surrounding areas exposed to different metals. Age and sex matched controls of persons working in the same area of work in offices etc. and not exposed to metal pollution were selected for valid comparison. It is proposed to validate the use of hair as a biological marker for assessing metal body burden of workers. In our study significant correlations have been found between skin disease and Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu; chest pain and Pb; hypertension and Cu, Mn; mental stress and Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn; liver problem and Ni; indigestion and Cr; Ni, diabetes and Cr, Mn, Ni; tuberculosis and Zn; breathing trouble and Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn. The advantages of choosing hair as a biopsy material are also given.

  13. Diagnostic tests in Raynaud's phenomena in workers exposed to vibration: a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N

    1988-01-01

    C, was regarded as an abnormal response, FSP(A) test. A hand cooling, preceded by 30 minute body precooling, was performed in water at 10 degrees C during five minute ischaemia. The finger colours after hand cooling were evaluated by a directly visual inspection, FCV test, and by a blind assessment...... greater than 0.20). The results indicate that a finger colour test may be as valuable as a FSP(0) test for diagnostic purposes. FSP(A) only indicates if a cold response is exaggerated and does not diagnose RP. The pressure measurements may further be of guidance in evaluating preventive measures......Four objective tests to evaluate Raynaud's phenomena (RP) in workers exposed to handarm vibrations were applied on 23 exposed men with RP (vibration induced white finger 18, primary Raynaud's phenomenon 5), 56 exposed men without RP, and 15 male controls. Finger systolic blood pressure was measured...

  14. Assessment of occupational exposure to leptospirosis in a sheep-only abattoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorjee, S; Heuer, C; Jackson, R; West, D M; Collins-Emerson, J M; Midwinter, A C; Ridler, A L

    2011-05-01

    This study estimated the frequency of exposure of meat workers to carcasses infected with Leptospira serovars Hardjobovis or Pomona in a sheep-only abattoir in New Zealand. A stochastic spreadsheet model was developed to assess the daily risk of exposure of eviscerators, meat inspectors and offal handlers to live leptospires in sheep carcasses from May to November 2004 (high-risk period), and from December 2004 to June 2005 (low-risk period). The average sheep processed per day were 225 for an eviscerator, 374 for a meat inspector, and 1123 for an offal handler. The median daily exposures during high- and low-risk periods were 11 [95% distribution interval (DI) 5-19] and three (95% DI 1-8) infected carcasses/day for eviscerators, 18 (95% DI 9-29) and six (95% DI 2-12) for meat inspectors, and 54 (95% DI 32-83) and 18 (95% DI 8-31) for offal handlers, respectively. Stochastic risk modelling provided evidence that processing of sheep carcasses exposed meat workers regularly to live leptospires with substantial seasonal variation.

  15. [Studies on the Ras p21 levels in workers exposed to coal tar pitch and coke oven volatiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Wu, Y; Chen, C

    1998-09-30

    To study the effects of serum p21 levels on the health of coal tar pitch(CTP) and coke oven volatiles (COV) workers recognized as the high risk population of pulmonary carcinoma, serum p21 levels among 24 cases of CTP workers, 25 cases of COV workers and 12 cases of normal control were detected with the method of Western Blotting. The results showed that the mean serum p21 level in exposed group was significantly higher than that in the normal control (366.8 vs 1270.7, P < 0.001). In the COV workers, serum p21 level in coke furnace workers was remarkably higher than that in the workers with other types of work. There were no differences for p21 among workers with different work years and between workers with or without smoking history. It indicates that CTP and COV can cause the p21 protein level increase in the occupational population.

  16. 44. Study the level of DNA breakage in workers exposed to styrene by single cell gel electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Study the level of DNA breakage in workers exposed to styrene. Methods: 35 workers aging from 18 to 40 exposed to styrene half a year above were observed as exposed group, in the mean time, 57 workers in the same district who hadn't been exposed to known genotoxicant were selected as control. Bloods of them were sampled and DNA lesions were detected by single cell gel electrophoresis. Results: Compared with control, the ratio between the length of Comet tail and the total length of Comet in exposed group significantly increased, especially it raised following the styrene concentration exposed, but it was not different among different working age groups. Conclusions: DNA is damaged by styrene, and it appears as dose-response relationship.

  17. Clinical, cytogenetic and toxicological studies in rural workers exposed to pesticides in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salete Marcia Bréga

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides can cause gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations in exposed individuals. We have investigated 24 workers exposed to pesticides. Clinical examinations and cytogenetic and toxicological tests were performed. Ten non-exposed individuals were used as controls. Toxicological dosages of copper, zinc and manganese (metals found in some pesticides, hepatic enzyme dosage (GOT, GPT, AR and acetylcholinesterase activity were performed in 16 workers and 8 controls. In the exposed workers, the most relevant clinical symptoms were poor digestion with fullness sensation after meals, irritated eyes, headache and fasciculations. The exposed group showed significantly lower manganese dosage and acetylcholinesterase activity, and significantly higher levels of alkaline phosphatase. Cytogenetic studies showed significantly higher chromosomal aberrations in the exposed group compared to the control group. Although the workers used protection against the pesticide's fog, the results revealed that the workers were contaminated with the pesticides. Therefore, the cytogenetic, toxicological studies with clinical examination are necessary for monitoring workers who are exposed to pesticides in any situation.

  18. The noise exposed factory workers: the prevalence of sensori-neural hearing loss and their use of personal hearing protection devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisarah, S Z; Said, H

    1993-09-01

    A total of 524 industrial workers were studied. They consisted of 442 noise exposed and 82 non-noise exposed workers. The purpose was to compare the prevalence of sensori-neural hearing loss among the noise exposed and the non-noise exposed workers, to study their knowledge on the hazard of noise to hearing and the workers' attitude towards the hearing protection devices. The prevalence of sensori-neural hearing loss was significantly higher among the noise exposed workers, i.e., 83% versus 31.7% (p workers, only 5.1% were wearing them regularly. The possibility of developing hearing loss due to exposure to excessive noise was only known by 35.5% of the noise exposed workers. This awareness was found to have a positive correlation with the workers' compliance to the hearing protection devices. Our findings highlight the need for workers to be educated on the hazards of excessive noise exposure to hearing.

  19. Biomonitoring for chromium and arsenic in timber treatment plant workers exposed to CCA wood Preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocker, J; Morton, J; Warren, N; Wheeler, J P; Garrod, A N I

    2006-07-01

    This study reports a survey of occupational exposure to copper chrome arsenic (CCA) based wood preservatives during vacuum pressure timber impregnation. The survey involved biological monitoring based on analysis of chromium and arsenic in urine samples collected from UK workers. The aim of the study was to determine the extent of occupational exposure to arsenic and chromium in the UK timber treatment industry. The objectives were to collect and analyse urine samples from as many workers as possible, where CCA wood preservatives might be used, at 6 monthly intervals for 2 years. In addition, to investigate day-to-day variations in urinary excretion of chrome and arsenic by collecting and analysing three samples a week for 3 weeks in subsets of workers and controls (people not occupationally exposed). All urine samples were analysed for chromium and inorganic arsenic. To investigate any residual interference every sample was accompanied by a short questionnaire about recent consumption of seafood and smoking. The analytical methods for arsenic used a hydride generation technique to reduce interference from dietary sources of arsenic and also a technique that would measure total arsenic concentration in urine. The main findings show that workers exposed to CCA wood preservatives have concentrations of inorganic arsenic and chromium in urine that are significantly higher than those from non-occupationally exposed people but below biological monitoring guidance values that would indicate inhalation exposure at UK occupational exposure limits for chromium and arsenic. The effects of consumption of seafood on urinary arsenic were not significant using the hydride generation method for inorganic arsenic but were significant if 'total' arsenic was measured. The 'total' arsenic method could not distinguish CCA workers from controls and is clearly unsuitable for assessment of occupational exposure to arsenic. There was a significant increase in the urinary concentration of

  20. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in workers exposed to PCDD/Fs of metal recovery plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Hsu, Ching-Yi; Hung, Dong-Zong; Hu, Miao-Lin

    2006-12-15

    Secondary copper smelters, which primarily utilize the waste materials that contain organic impurities, and the zinc recovery plant, which handles mostly fly ash and slag from the iron and steel industry, are major emission sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in Taiwan. In this study, we compared the levels of erythrocyte glutathione (GSH), erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) in workers at a secondary copper smelting plant and a zinc recovery plant who may have been exposed to PCDD/Fs. Though the PCDD/F levels were higher in workers of zinc recovery plant than those of secondary copper smelting plant, no significant difference was found for serum PCDD/F levels between the two kinds of plants. We observed a significant difference in plasma MDA levels between workers at the zinc recovery plant (2.54 microM) and those at the copper smelting plant (1.79 microM). There was and a significant positive correlation between plasma MDA levels and the PCDD/Fs levels. In addition, we observed that the MDA levels were not affected by smoking and exercise status. Therefore, the data suggest that the MDA levels of the metal recovery workers are influenced by their PCDD/F exposure. The erythrocyte SOD activity in workers from the zinc recovery plant was marginally higher than that from the secondary copper plant (196 vs. 146 units/ml, pworkers of the zinc recovery plant than in workers of the secondary copper smelting plant in Taiwan.

  1. Investigation on injury of liver and kindey among the workers exposed to terephthalic acid, ethylene glycol and (or) dowtherm A.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study injury of liver and kidney among the workers exposed to terephthalic acid (TPA), ethylene glycol(EG) and (or) dowtherm A(DOW), and to research for the early biological monitoring indexes.

  2. Cancer incidence and mortality in Swedish sterilant workers exposed to ethylene oxide: updated cohort study findings 1972-2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mikoczy, Zoli; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Björk, Jonas; Albin, Maria

    2011-01-01

    To assess whether cancer incidence, mainly from lymphohaematopoietic tumours and breast cancer, and mortality were increased in a cohort of Swedish sterilant workers exposed to low levels of ethylene oxide (EtO...

  3. Neurobehavioral and respiratory findings in jet engine repair workers: A comparison of exposed and unexposed volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, K H

    1999-04-01

    Workers repairing jet engines had respiratory, rheumatic, and neurobehavioral symptoms. They had welded and ground stainless steel parts using hard metal tools and cleaned metal with chlorinated and fluorinated organic solvents. We compared 154 workers and 112 unexposed subjects, all volunteers of similar ages and with similar educational levels, for abnormalities on chest radiographs, spirometric measurements, and questionnaires. Also appraised were performance of reaction time, balance, blink reflex latency, color discrimination, Culture Fair, vocabulary, slotted pegboard, trail making A and B, profile of mood states (POMS), and frequencies of 35 symptoms. Compared to unexposed subjects, workers had significantly more respiratory symptoms but no differences in pulmonary function. They had significantly prolonged simple and choice reaction time (P<0.0001), and abnormal balance with eyes open and eyes closed (P<0. 0001), and abnormal color discrimination. Blink reflex latency was abnormal in both exposed workers and in local unexposed compared to other reference groups. Focus of the inquiry on lung disease helped ensure that for neurobehavioral tests confounding factors were minimal and known biases were small. We tentatively attribute the neurobehavioral impairments and increased symptom frequencies to chlorinated solvent exposure. Excessive respiratory symptoms are attributed to welding stainless steel combined with cigarette smoking. Specifically, manganese exposure may have affected the respiratory and the central nervous systems.

  4. Global DNA methylation and oxidative stress biomarkers in workers exposed to metal oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Wu, Wei-Te; Liao, Hui-Yi [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chao-Yu; Tsai, Cheng-Yen; Jung, Wei-Ting [Department of Chemistry, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Lee, Hui-Ling, E-mail: huilinglee3573@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China)

    2017-06-05

    Highlights: • Global methylation and oxidative DNA damage levels in nanomaterial handling workers were assessed. • 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate of workers exposed to nanoparticles was higher. • 8-OHdG was negatively correlated with global methylation. • Exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles may lead to global methylation and DNA oxidative damage. - Abstract: This is the first study to assess global methylation, oxidative DNA damage, and lipid peroxidation in workers with occupational exposure to metal oxide nanomaterials (NMs). Urinary and white blood cell (WBC) 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) 8-isoprostane were measured as oxidative stress biomarkers. WBC global methylation was measured as an epigenetic alteration. Exposure to TiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2,} and indium tin oxide (ITO) resulted in significantly higher oxidative biomarkers such as urinary 8-OHdG and EBC 8-isoprostane. However, significantly higher WBC 8-OHdG and lower global methylation were only observed in ITO handling workers. Significant positive correlations were noted between WBC and urinary 8-OHdG (Spearman correlation r = 0.256, p = 0.003). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation was found between WBC 8-OHdG and global methylation (r = −0.272, p = 0.002). These results suggest that exposure to metal oxide NMs may lead to global methylation, DNA oxidative damage, and lipid peroxidation.

  5. Latently and uninfected healthcare workers exposed to TB make protective antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Wang, Xing-Xing; Wang, Bin; Fu, Lei; Liu, Guan; Lu, Yu; Cao, Min; Huang, Hairong; Javid, Babak

    2017-05-09

    The role of Igs in natural protection against infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of TB, is controversial. Although passive immunization with mAbs generated against mycobacterial antigens has shown protective efficacy in murine models of infection, studies in B cell-depleted animals only showed modest phenotypes. We do not know if humans make protective antibody responses. Here, we investigated whether healthcare workers in a Beijing TB hospital-who, although exposed to suprainfectious doses of pathogenic Mtb, remain healthy-make antibody responses that are effective in protecting against infection by Mtb. We tested antibodies isolated from 48 healthcare workers and compared these with 12 patients with active TB. We found that antibodies from 7 of 48 healthcare workers but none from active TB patients showed moderate protection against Mtb in an aerosol mouse challenge model. Intriguingly, three of seven healthcare workers who made protective antibody responses had no evidence of prior TB infection by IFN-γ release assay. There was also good correlation between protection observed in vivo and neutralization of Mtb in an in vitro human whole-blood assay. Antibodies mediating protection were directed against the surface of Mtb and depended on both immune complexes and CD4+ T cells for efficacy. Our results indicate that certain individuals make protective antibodies against Mtb and challenge paradigms about the nature of an effective immune response to TB.

  6. Respiratory function and symptoms: an environmental-epidemiological study of rubber workers exposed to a phenolformaldehyde type resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, J F; McMichael, A J; Williams, T; Battigelli, M

    1976-09-01

    Rubber workers exposed to a hexamethylenetetramine-resorcinol (HR) adhesive system reported an excess of acute symptoms and significant reductions in expiratory flow rates at low lung volumes. Smokers exhibited greater reductions in flow rates than nonsmokers. The greatest reductions in ventilatory capacity were associated with HR exposure. There was a moderate association of reduced flow rates with respirable particulate in the HR exposed workers only.

  7. Comparative analysis of urinary N7-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine for ethylene oxide- and non-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Chun Jean; Wu, Chia-Fang; Shih, Wei-Chung; Chen, Ming-Feng; Chen, Chang-Yuh; Chien, Yeh-Chung; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Chiang, Su-Yin; Wu, Kuen-Yuh

    2011-05-10

    Ethylene oxide (EO), a direct alkylating agent and a carcinogen, can attack the nucleophilic sites of DNA bases to form a variety of DNA adducts. The most abundant adduct, N7-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine (N7-HEG), can be depurinated spontaneously or enzymatically from DNA backbone to form abasic sites. Molecular dosimetry of the excised N7-HEG in urine can serve as an EO exposure and potential risk-associated biomarker. This study was to analyze N7-HEG in urine collected from 89 EO-exposed and 48 nonexposed hospital workers and 20 exposed and 10 nonexposed factory workers by using our newly developed on-line solid-phase extraction isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS method. Statistical analysis of data shows that the exposed factory workers excreted significantly greater concentrations of N7-HEG than both the nonexposed factory workers and hospital workers. Multiple linear regression analysis reveals that the EO-exposed factory workers had a significantly greater post-shift urinary N7-HEG than their nonexposed coworkers and hospital workers. These results demonstrate that analysis of urinary N7-HEG can serve as a biomarker of EO exposure for future molecular epidemiology studies to better understand the role of the EO-induced DNA adduct formation in EO carcinogenicity and certainly for routine surveillance of occupational EO exposure for the study of potential health impacts on workers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Urinary homovanillic acid and vanillylmandelic acid in workers exposed to carbon disulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X F; Lee, B L; New, A L; Ong, H Y; Ma, L; Zhang, Q; Ong, C N

    1996-03-01

    Homovanillic acid (HVA) and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), two end products of dopamine metabolism, were measured in 60 workers exposed to carbon disulfide (CS(2)) in a rayon factory and in 48 unexposed workers. The airborne CS(2) concentrations in eight major exposure zones of the plant were measured monthly over a period of 4 years, from 1990 to 1994. In addition, the exposure concentrations and exposure history of each worker were integrated to estimate the overall lifetime exposure. Industrial hygiene data showed that the geometric mean concentrations of CS(2) in the plant ranged from 2.68 to 20.19 ppm, and more than 15% of the studied population had been repeatedly exposed to CS(2) at concentrations exceeding the ACGIH recommended time-weighted average of 10 ppm. The results showed that there was a significantly lower level and a higher proportion of CS(2) workers with decreased HVA and VMA excretion. However, there were no statistical correlations between the two dopaminergic metabolites and the mean CS(2) concentration, and years of employment. In contrast, significant dose-effect relationships were observed between these two metabolites and the integrated cumulative exposure (ICE) variable. The correlation coefficients for ICE and HVA, and ICE and VMA were -0.35 (p < 0.01) and -0.20 (p <0.05), respectively. These data suggest that chronic exposure to CS(2) was associated with measurable reduction in catecholamine metabolite concentrations. This finding is compatible with the earlier observations in laboratory animals that CS(2) exposures interfere with neurochemical metabolism.

  9. Differential pattern of deposition of nanoparticles in the airways of exposed workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fireman, Elizabeth; Edelheit, Rinat; Stark, Moshe; Shai, Amir Bar

    2017-02-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFP) have been postulated to significantly contribute to the adverse health effects associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM). Due to their extremely small size (aerodynamic diameter group differences in pulmonary function test results and differential cell counts, but 63.6% of the exposed subjects had a higher percentage of neutrophils (OR3.28 p = 0.03) compared to the non-exposed subjects. The exposed subjects had higher percentages of UFP between 10 and 50 nm (69.45 ± 18.70 vs 60.11 ± 17.52 for the non-exposed group, p = 0.004). No differences were found in the IS samples. Years of exposure correlated positively to UFP content ( r = 0.342 p = 0.01) and macrophage content ( r = -0.327 p = 0.03). The percentage of small fraction of UFP in EBC, but not IS, is higher in exposed workers, and EBC may be a sensitive biomarker to assess exposure to nanoparticles.

  10. Double Jeopardy: Hearing Loss and Tinnitus Among Noise-Exposed Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, OiSaeng; Chin, Dal Lae; Phelps, Stephanie; Joo, Yoonmee

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of tinnitus and assess the relationship between tinnitus and hearing loss among firefighters and operating engineers, who are exposed to noise on-the-job. The study analyzed existing data from two different populations (154 firefighters and 769 operating engineers) who completed a survey and audiometric tests as part of a hearing loss prevention intervention study. Approximately 40% of both groups reported tinnitus; 34% of firefighters and 59% of operating engineers showed hearing loss at noise-sensitive frequencies (4 kHz and 6 kHz). Firefighters with high frequency hearing loss (odds ratio [OR] = 2.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.05, 5.11]) and those with perceived impaired hearing status (OR = 3.53; 95% CI = [1.27, 9.80]) were significantly more likely to report tinnitus. Similarly, operating engineers who had hearing loss at both low (OR = 2.10; 95% CI = [1.40, 3.15]) and high frequencies (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = [1.37, 2.90]), and perceived impaired hearing status (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = [1.55, 3.05]) were twice as likely to report tinnitus. This study demonstrated that tinnitus is a considerable problem for noise-exposed workers. Workers with hearing loss demonstrated significantly higher rates of tinnitus. Comprehensive workplace hearing conservation programs should include tinnitus management for noise-exposed workers, along with other key elements such as noise control and hearing protection.

  11. ECG changes in factory workers exposed to 27.2  MHz radiofrequency radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingsong; Xu, Guoyong; Lang, Li; Yang, Aichu; Li, Shilin; Yang, Liwen; Li, Chaolin; Huang, Hanlin; Li, Tao

    2013-05-01

    To research the effect of 27.2 MHz radiofrequency radiation on electrocardiograms (ECG), 225 female workers operating radiofrequency machines at a shoe factory were chosen as the exposure group and 100 female workers without exposure from the same factory were selected as the control group. The 6 min electric field strength that the female workers were exposed to was 64.0 ± 25.2 V/m (mean ± SD), which exceeded 61 V/m, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference root mean square levels for occupational exposure. A statistical difference was observed between the exposed group and the control group in terms of the rate of sinus bradycardia (χ(2)  = 11.48, P = 0.003). When several known risk factors for cardiovascular disease were considered, including smoking, age, alcohol ingestion habit, and so on, the exposure duration was not an effective factor for ECG changes, sinus arrhythmia, or sinus bradycardia according to α = 0.05, while P = 0.052 for sinus arrhythmia was very close to 0.05. We did not find any statistical difference in heart rate, duration of the QRS wave (ventricular depolarization), or corrected QT intervals (between the start of the Q wave and end of the T wave) between the exposed and control groups. Occupational exposure to radiofrequency radiation was not found to be a cause of ECG changes after consideration of the confounding factors.

  12. Environmental and biological monitoring of arsenic in outdoor workers exposed to urban air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarrocca, Manuela; Tomei, Gianfranco; Palermo, Paola; Caciari, Tiziana; Cetica, Carlotta; Fiaschetti, Maria; Gioffrè, Pier Agostino; Tasciotti, Zaira; Tomei, Francesco; Sancini, Angela

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate personal exposure to As in urban air in two groups of outdoor workers (traffic policemen and police drivers) of a big Italian city through: (a) environmental monitoring of As obtained by personal samples and (b) biological monitoring of total urinary As. The possible influence of smoking habit on urinary As was evaluated. We studied 122 male subjects, all Municipal Police employees: 84 traffic policemen and 38 police drivers exposed to urban pollutants. Personal exposure to As in air was significantly higher in traffic policemen than in police drivers (p=0.03). Mean age, length of service, alcohol drinking habit, number of cigarettes smoked/day and BMI were comparable between the groups of subjects studied. All subjects were working in the same urban area where they had lived for at least 5 yrs. Dietary habits and consumption of water from the water supply and/or mineral water were similar in traffic policemen and in police drivers. The values of total urinary As were significantly higher in traffic policemen (smokers and non smokers) than in police drivers (smokers and non smokers) (p=0.02). In the subgroup of non-smokers the values of total urinary As were significantly higher in traffic policemen than in police drivers (p=0.03). In traffic policemen and in police drivers total urinary As values were significantly correlated to the values of As in air (respectively r=0.9 and r=0.8, pstudying the exposure to As in outdoor workers occupationally exposed to urban pollutants, such as traffic policemen and police drivers. Personal exposure to As in the air, as well as the urinary excretion of As, is significantly higher in traffic policemen compared to drivers. These results can provide information about exposure to As in streets and in car for other categories of outdoor workers similarly exposed.

  13. [Liver function of workers occupationally exposed to mixed organic solvents in a petrochemical industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-D'Pool, J; Oroño-Osorio, A

    2001-06-01

    A descriptive and cross sectional study was conducted to determine whether hepatic function changes in workers occupationally exposed to a mixture of organic solvents, were due to the exposure or confusing factors. A non random sample of 77 workers, operators and supervisors of the Olefin Plant I and II of a petrochemical industry in Maracaibo, Venezuela, was used. Their mean age was 29 +/- 7 years, and had at least one year of exposure to the solvents. This sample was compared with a group of employees of the administrative offices or control panel workers, with a mean age of 36 +/- 8 year and with similar anthropometric characteristics. Workers with a known history of liver disease, blood transfusions and diabetes mellitus were excluded of the study. In addition to a complete occupational disease medical history and a physical examination, serum samples were obtained to determine the activity of the aspartato aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamiltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (AF), the concentration of the total bile acids (BAS), the surface antigen of hepatitis B(HbsAg) and the hepatitis A virus antibodies: AntiHAV-IgG and the AntiHAV-IgM. An urine sample was taken and analyzed by standard methodology to determine urinary phenols. The air concentrations of benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene and xylene were analyzed by gas chromathography. The serum activities of the liver enzymes, the concentration of bile acids and urinary phenols were not influenced by the exposure to the solvents. The increase of the activity of GGT was associated with obesity and alcohol consumption. The antibodies of the surface antigen of hepatitis A-IgM were normal in both groups and the antibodies for the antigen of hepatitis A-IgG presented a prevalence of 6% in the exposed group and 9% in the non exposed not being associated with liver abnormalities. The individual air concentrations of the solvents were below the environmentally permissible

  14. Genetic polymorphisms of DNA repair genes and chromosomal damage in workers exposed to 1,3-butadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Wang, Ai-hong; Tan, Hong-shan; Feng, Nan-nan; Ye, Yun-jie; Feng, Xiao-qing; Liu, Geoffrey; Zheng, Yu-xin; Xia, Zhao-lin

    2010-05-01

    The base excision repair (BER) pathway is important in repairing DNA damage incurred from occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD). This study examines the relationship between inherited polymorphisms of the BER pathway (x-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) Arg194Trp, Arg280His, Arg399Gln, T-77C, ADPRT Val762Ala, MGMT Leu84Phe and APE1 Asp148Glu) and chromosomal damage in BD-exposed workers, using the cytokinesis-blocked (CB) micronucleus (MN) assay in peripheral lymphocytes of 166 workers occupationally exposed to BD and 41 non-exposed healthy individuals. The MN frequency of exposed workers (3.39 +/- 2.42) per thousand was higher than that of the non-exposed groups (1.48 +/- 1.26) per thousand (P damage among BD-exposed workers. In workers exposed to BD, multiple BER polymorphisms and a XRCC1 haplotype were associated with differential levels of chromosome damage.

  15. Evaluation of DNA damage in agricultural workers exposed to pesticides using single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Raminderjeet; Kaur, Satbir; Lata, Mukesh

    2011-09-01

    Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops, but they pose a potential risk to farmers and environment. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relation between the occupational exposure to various pesticides and the presence of DNA damage. Blood samples of 210 exposed workers (after a day of intense spraying) and 50 control subjects belonging to various districts of Punjab (India) were evaluated using Comet assay. Sixty workers who showed DNA damage were selected for follow up at 5-6 months after the first sampling during a low or null spraying period. Significant differences were found in DNA damage between freshly exposed workers and controls and freshly exposed and followed up cases. There was significant increase in the comet parameters viz. mean comet tail length and frequency of cells showing migration in exposed workers as compared to controls (72.22 ± 20.76 vs. 46.92 ± 8.17, Pdamaged cells as compared to freshly exposed workers of first sampling (Ppesticide exposure, age, smoking, drinking and dietary habits etc which were expected to modulate the damage, were instead found to have no significant effect on DNA fragmentation. The evidence of a genetic hazard related to exposure resulting from the intensive use of pesticides stresses the need for educational programs for agricultural workers to reduce the use of chemicals in agriculture.

  16. Detection of Sperm DNA Damage in Workers Exposed to Benzene by Modified Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo SONG; Zhi-ming CAI; Xin LI; Li-xia DENG; Qiao ZHANG; Lu-kang ZHENG

    2005-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of benzene on sperm DNA damageMethods Twenty-seven benzene-exposed workers were selected as exposed groupand 35 normal sperm donors as control group. Air concentration of benzene series inworkshop was determined by gas chromatography. As an internal exposure dose ofbenzene, the concentration of trans, trans-muconic acid (ttMA) was determined byhigh performance liquid chromatography. DNA was detected by modified single cellgel electrophoresis (SCGE).Results The air concentrations of benzene, toluene and xylene at the workplace were86.49 ± 2.83 mg/m3, 97.20 ±3.52 mg/m3 and 97.45 ±2.10 mg/m3, respectively.Urinary ttMA in exposed group (1.040 ± 0.617 mg/L) was significantly higher thanthat of control group (0.819 ± 0.157 mg/L). The percentage of head DNA, determinedby modified SCGE method, significantly decreased in the exposed group (n=13, 70.18%± 7.36%) compared with the control (n=16, 90.62% ± 2.94%)(P<0.001).Conclusion The modified SCGE method can be used to investigate the damage ofsperm DNA. As genotoxin and reprotoxins, benzene had direct effect on the germ cellsduring the spermatogenesiss.

  17. Increased mortality in COPD among construction workers exposed to inorganic dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergdahl, I A; Torén, K; Eriksson, K; Hedlund, U; Nilsson, T; Flodin, R; Järvholm, B

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to find out if occupational exposure to dust, fumes or gases, especially among never-smokers, increased the mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A cohort of 317,629 Swedish male construction workers was followed from 1971 to 1999. Exposure to inorganic dust (asbestos, man-made mineral fibres, dust from cement, concrete and quartz), gases and irritants (epoxy resins, isocyanates and organic solvents), fumes (asphalt fumes, diesel exhaust and metal fumes), and wood dust was based on a job-exposure matrix. An internal control group with "unexposed" construction workers was used, and the analyses were adjusted for age and smoking. When all subjects were analysed, there was an increased mortality from COPD among those with any airborne exposure (relative risk 1.12 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.22)). In a Poisson regression model, including smoking, age and the major exposure groups, exposure to inorganic dust was associated with an increased risk (hazard ratio (HR) 1.10 (95% CI 1.06-1.14)), especially among never-smokers (HR 2.30 (95% CI 1.07-4.96)). The fraction of COPD among the exposed attributable to any airborne exposure was estimated as 10.7% overall and 52.6% among never-smokers. In conclusion, occupational exposure among construction workers increases mortality due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, even among never-smokers.

  18. [Occupational hazard risk assessment of workers exposed to benzene in a petrochemical enterprise in Shanghai, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; Huang, J S; Zhou, Y L; Sun, P

    2016-10-20

    Objective: To investigate the exposure to benzene, methylbenzene, and dimethylbenzene in workers in a petrochemical enterprise in Shanghai, China, and to conduct occupational hazard risk assessment. Methods: The environmental monitoring data on benzene series in the workplace of this petrochemical enterprise from 2010 to 2014 were collected, as well as workers' general status. The inhalation risk assessment model developed by United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was used for risk assessment to determine the occupational hazard risk level of benzene, methylbenzene, and dimethylbenzene. Results: The pass rate of the monitoring concentration of benzene, methylbenzene, and dimethylbenzene in the workplace of this petrochemical enterprise was 100%. The results of the EPA model showed that benzene had a high carcinogenic risk, benzene and dimethylbenzene had a high non-carcinogenic risk, and methylbenzene had a low non-carcinogenic risk. Conclusion: The workers exposed to benzene in this petrochemical enterprise have a high health risk, and the EPA model can be used for occupational hazard risk assessment in chemical industry.

  19. Work-site clinical and neurobehavioral assessment of solvent-exposed microelectronics workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadwell, D K; Darcey, D J; Hudnell, H K; Otto, D A; Boyes, W K

    1995-05-01

    Twenty-five workers, five currently and 20 formerly involved in the manufacture of hybrid microcircuits, underwent clinical evaluations at the request of a management-union committee concerned about chronic solvent exposures in a research and development laboratory. A battery of neurobehavioral tests was administered to compare the solvent-exposed group with 32 age-, gender-, ethnicity-, and education-matched controls. The tests included: MMPI-I, hand grip strength, tactile sensitivity, dexterity, color discrimination, visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, and tests selected from the computerized Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES2). Clinical narratives and retrospective exposure assessments in the study group suggested chronic low-level exposure to solvents, with intermittent acute excursions. Work-related diagnoses included upper respiratory mucosal irritation and sinusitis (44%), lower respiratory reactive airway disease (12%), and dermatitis (5%). Three workers (12%) had findings consistent with a solvent-induced encephalopathy. Significant differences (after Bonferroni correction) were found between the two groups on 5 of 11 NES subtests: symptom scale, mood scale, finger tapping, simple reaction time, and symbol-digit substitution. Differences also reached significance for overall vibration sensitivity thresholds, visual contrast sensitivity, and grip strength. The MMPI average clinical scale elevation was significantly higher in the exposed group than controls. These results support an association between chronic low-dose solvent exposure and measurable neurobehavioral changes.

  20. Identification of rounded atelectasis in workers exposed to asbestos by contrast helical computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terra-Filho, M. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Instituto do Coracao (InCor). Disciplina de Pneumologia]. E-mail: pnemario@incor.usp.br; Kavakama, J. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Disciplina de Radiologia; Bagatin, E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Area de Medicina Ocupacional; Capelozzi, V.L. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Disciplina de Patologia; Nery, L.E. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM). Disciplina de Pneumologia; Tavares, R. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM). Disciplina de Radiologia

    2003-10-01

    Rounded atelectasis (RA) is a benign and unusual form of sub pleural lung collapse that has been described mostly in asbestos-exposed workers. This form of atelectasis manifests as a lung nodule and can be confused with bronchogenic carcinoma upon conventional radiologic examination. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the variation in contrast uptake in computed tomography for the identification of asbestos-related RA in Brazil. Between January 1998 and December 2000, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was performed in 1658 asbestos-exposed workers. The diagnosis was made in nine patients based on a history of prior asbestos exposure, the presence of characteristic (HRCT) findings and lesions unchanged in size over 2 years or more. In three of them the diagnosis was confirmed during surgery. The dynamic contrast enhancement study was modified to evaluate nodules and pulmonary masses. All nine patients with R A received iodide contrast according to weight. The average enhancement after iodide contrast was infused, reported as Hounsfield units (HU), increased from 62.5{+-}9.7 to 125.4{+-}20.7 (P < 0.05), with a mean enhancement of 62.5{+-}19.7 (range 40 to 89) and with a uniform dense opacification. In conclusion, in this study all patients with R A showed contrast enhancement with uniform dense opacification. The main clinical implication of this finding is that this procedure does not permit differentiation between RA and malignant pulmonary neoplasm. (author)

  1. Plasma microRNAs expression profile in female workers occupationally exposed to mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Enmin; Zhao, Qiuni; Bai, Ying; Xu, Ming; Pan, Liping; Liu, Qingdong; Wang, Bosheng; Song, Xianping; Wang, Jun; Chen, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have attracted interests as non-invasive biomarkers of physiological and pathological conditions. Several studies have examined the potential effects of mercury exposure on miRNAs expression profiles of general population environmentally exposed to mercury. The objective is to identify mercury-related miRNAs of female workers occupationally exposed to mercury. Methods In this case-control study, we used a microarray assay to detect the miRNA expression profiles in pooled plasma samples between (I) chronic mercury poisoning group; (II) mercury absorbing group and (III) control group in the discovery stage. Each group has ten individuals. In addition, we conducted a validation of eight candidate miRNAs in the same 30 workers by quantitative real-time PCR. Results In the discovery stage, eight miRNAs were conformed following our selection criteria. In the validation stage, RT-PCR confirmed up-regulation of miR-92a and miR-486 in the mercury poisoned group (P<0.05) compared to the other two groups. The results were consistent with the microarray analysis. Conclusions Plasma miR-92a-3p and miR-486-5p might prove to be potential biomarkers to indicate responses to mercury exposure. However, further studies are necessary to prove the causal association between miRNAs changes and mercury exposure, and to determine whether these two miRNAs are clear biomarkers to mercury exposure. PMID:27162656

  2. Identification of rounded atelectasis in workers exposed to asbestos by contrast helical computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terra-Filho M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Rounded atelectasis (RA is a benign and unusual form of subpleural lung collapse that has been described mostly in asbestos-exposed workers. This form of atelectasis manifests as a lung nodule and can be confused with bronchogenic carcinoma upon conventional radiologic examination. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the variation in contrast uptake in computed tomography for the identification of asbestos-related RA in Brazil. Between January 1998 and December 2000, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT was performed in 1658 asbestos-exposed workers. The diagnosis was made in nine patients based on a history of prior asbestos exposure, the presence of characteristic (HRCT findings and lesions unchanged in size over 2 years or more. In three of them the diagnosis was confirmed during surgery. The dynamic contrast enhancement study was modified to evaluate nodules and pulmonary masses. All nine patients with RA received iodide contrast according to weight. The average enhancement after iodide contrast was infused, reported as Hounsfield units (HU, increased from 62.5 ± 9.7 to 125.4 ± 20.7 (P < 0.05, with a mean enhancement of 62.5 ± 19.7 (range 40 to 89 and with a uniform dense opacification. In conclusion, in this study all patients with RA showed contrast enhancement with uniform dense opacification. The main clinical implication of this finding is that this procedure does not permit differentiation between RA and malignant pulmonary neoplasm.

  3. Cut and puncture accidents involving health care workers exposed to biological materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Grande Gimenez Marino

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The first report of occupational acquisition of HIV appeared in 1984, and, by June, 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC had reported 52 documented cases of sero-conversion following occupational exposure to HIV-1 by health care workers of those cases. 47 (90.3% were exposed to blood. The most frequent type of accident reported was percutaneous needlestick injury. Prospective studies have estimated that the risk of HIV transmission following percutaneous exposure to infected blood is 0.3% (Confidence Interval 95% = 0.2% to 0.5%. Following a mucous membrane exposure, the risk is 0.09% (CI 95% = 0.006% to 0.5%. The risk of hepatitis B acquisition ranges from 6% to 30%, and hepatitis C acquisition, 3% to 10%. Since 1992, the São Paulo Hospital's Hospital Infection Prevention and Control Service (SPCIH has notified and treated all workers exposed to accidents involving biological materials. In the last six years, we have handled approximately 1,300 cases of reported accidents, of which 90% were percutaneous, most involving needlesticks. Such cases were frequently caused by the inadequate disposal and recapping of needles. In these accidents, 20% of the source patients were HIV positive, 10% were hepatitis C positive, and 7.6% were hepatitis B positive. This review summarizes the guidelines for a standardized response when dealing with accidents involving health care workers. Transmission of hepatitis B and HIV can be reduced if adequate preventive measures are taken in advance. If proper prophylaxis is not being done, it should be initiated immediately.

  4. Retrospective cohort mortality study of workers exposed to formaldehyde in the garment industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stayner, L.T.; Elliott, L.; Blade, L.; Keenlyside, R.; Halperin, W.

    1988-01-01

    In order to assess the possible human carcinogenicity of formaldehyde we conducted a retrospective cohort mortality study of workers exposed for at least three months to formaldehyde in three garment facilities which produced permanent press garments. A total of 11,030 workers contributing 188,025 person-years were included in the study. Vital status was successfully ascertained through 1982 for over 96% of the cohort. The average (TWA) formaldehyde exposure at the three plants monitored in 1981 and 1984 by NIOSH was 0.15 ppm but past exposures may have been substantially higher. In general, mortality from nonmalignant causes was less than expected. A statistically significant excess in mortality from cancers of the buccal cavity (SMR = 343) and connective tissue (SMR = 364) was observed. Statistically nonsignificant excesses in mortality were observed for cancers of the trachea, bronchus and lung (SMR = 114), pharynx (SMR = 112), bladder (SMR = 145), leukemia and aleukemia (SMR = 113), and other lymphopoietic neoplasms (SMR = 170). Mortality from cancers of the trachea, bronchus and lung was inversely related to duration of exposure and latency. In contrast, mortality from cancers of the buccal cavity, leukemias, and other lymphopoietic neoplasms increased with duration of formaldehyde exposure and/or latency. These neoplasms also were found to be highest among workers first exposed during a time period of high potential formaldehyde exposures in this industry (1955-1962). However, it should be recognized that these findings are based on relatively small numbers and that confounding by other factors may still exist. The results from this investigation, although far from conclusive, do provide evidence of a possible relationship between formaldehyde exposure and the development of upper respiratory cancers (buccal), leukemias, and other lymphopoietic neoplasms in humans.

  5. A retrospective cohort mortality study of workers exposed to formaldehyde in the garment industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stayner, L T; Elliott, L; Blade, L; Keenlyside, R; Halperin, W

    1988-01-01

    In order to assess the possible human carcinogenicity of formaldehyde we conducted a retrospective cohort mortality study of workers exposed for at least three months to formaldehyde in three garment facilities which produced permanent press garments. A total of 11,030 workers contributing 188,025 person-years were included in the study. Vital status was successfully ascertained through 1982 for over 96% of the cohort. The average (TWA) formaldehyde exposure at the three plants monitored in 1981 and 1984 by NIOSH was 0.15 ppm but past exposures may have been substantially higher. In general, mortality from nonmalignant causes was less than expected. A statistically significant excess in mortality from cancers of the buccal cavity (SMR = 343) and connective tissue (SMR = 364) was observed. Statistically nonsignificant excesses in mortality were observed for cancers of the trachea, bronchus and lung (SMR = 114), pharynx (SMR = 112), bladder (SMR = 145), leukemia and aleukemia (SMR = 113), and other lymphopoietic neoplasms (SMR = 170). Mortality from cancers of the trachea, bronchus and lung was inversely related to duration of exposure and latency. In contrast, mortality from cancers of the buccal cavity, leukemias, and other lymphopoietic neoplasms increased with duration of formaldehyde exposure and/or latency. These neoplasms also were found to be highest among workers first exposed during a time period of high potential formaldehyde exposures in this industry (1955-1962). However, it should be recognized that these findings are based on relatively small numbers and that confounding by other factors may still exist. The results from this investigation, although far from conclusive, do provide evidence of a possible relationship between formaldehyde exposure and the development of upper respiratory cancers (buccal), leukemias, and other lymphopoietic neoplasms in humans.

  6. Hypermutation and unique mutational signatures of occupational cholangiocarcinoma in printing workers exposed to haloalkanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimaki, Sachiyo; Totsuka, Yukari; Suzuki, Yutaka; Nakai, Chikako; Goto, Masanori; Kojima, Motohiro; Arakawa, Hirofumi; Takemura, Shigekazu; Tanaka, Shogo; Marubashi, Shigeru; Kinoshita, Masahiko; Matsuda, Tomonari; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Ochiai, Atsushi; Kubo, Shoji; Nakamori, Shoji; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Tsuchihara, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a relatively rare cancer, but its incidence is increasing worldwide. Although several risk factors have been suggested, the etiology and pathogenesis of the majority of cholangiocarcinomas remain unclear. Recently, a high incidence of early-onset cholangiocarcinoma was reported among the workers of a printing company in Osaka, Japan. These workers underwent high exposure to organic solvents, mainly haloalkanes such as 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP) and/or dichloromethane. We performed whole-exome analysis on four cases of cholangiocarcinoma among the printing workers. An average of 44.8 somatic mutations was detected per Mb in the genome of the printing workers’ cholangiocarcinoma tissues, approximately 30-fold higher than that found in control common cholangiocarcinoma tissues. Furthermore, C:G-to-T:A transitions with substantial strand bias as well as unique trinucleotide mutational changes of GpCpY to GpTpY and NpCpY to NpTpY or NpApY were predominant in all of the printing workers’ cholangiocarcinoma genomes. These results were consistent with the epidemiological observation that they had been exposed to high concentrations of chemical compounds. Whole-genome analysis of Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 exposed to 1,2-DCP revealed a partial recapitulation of the mutational signature in the printing workers’ cholangiocarcinoma. Although our results provide mutational signatures unique to occupational cholangiocarcinoma, the underlying mechanisms of the disease should be further investigated by using appropriate model systems and by comparison with genomic data from other cancers. PMID:27267998

  7. DNA adducts and strand breaks in workers exposed to vapours and aerosols of bitumen: associations between exposure and effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczynski, Boleslaw; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Spickenheuer, Anne; Pesch, Beate; Kendzia, Benjamin; Mensing, Thomas; Engelhardt, Beate; Lee, Eun-Hyun; Schindler, Birgit K; Heinze, Evelyn; Welge, Peter; Bramer, Rainer; Angerer, Jürgen; Breuer, Dietmar; Käfferlein, Heiko U; Brüning, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    To study the associations between exposure to vapours and aerosols of bitumen and genotoxic effects, a cross-sectional and cross-shift study was conducted in 320 exposed workers and 118 non-exposed construction workers. Ambient air measurements were carried out to assess external exposure to vapours and aerosols of bitumen. Hydroxylated metabolites of naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene were measured in urine, whereas (+)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide ((+)-anti-BPDE), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8oxodGuo) and DNA strand breaks were determined in blood. Significantly higher levels of 8-oxodGuo adducts and DNA strand breaks were found in both pre- and post-shift blood samples of exposed workers compared to those of the referents. No differences between exposed workers and referents were observed for (+)-anti-BPDE. Moreover, no positive associations between DNA damage and magnitude of airborne exposure to vapours and aerosols of bitumen could be observed in our study. Additionally, no relevant association between the urinary metabolites of PAH and the DNA damage in blood was observed. Overall, our results indicate increased oxidative DNA damage in workers exposed to vapours and aerosols of bitumen compared to non-exposed referents at the group level. However, increased DNA strand breaks in bitumen workers were still within the range of those found in non-exposed and healthy persons as reported earlier. Due to the lack of an association between oxidative DNA damage and exposure levels at the workplaces under study, the observed increase in genotoxic effects in bitumen workers cannot be attributed to vapours and aerosols of bitumen.

  8. Conditions of auditory health at work: inquiry of the auditoy effect in workers exposed to the occupationl noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes, Andréa Cintra

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physiologically, the individuals exposed to the noise may develop a very common pathology; the occupational noise induced hearing loss. Objective: Research the by means of a cross-sectional study, prevalence of occupational hearing loss in workers exposed to noise pressure levels over 85 dB NPL. Method: 400 records of workers exposed to noise pressure levels above 85 db NPS, working in companies of different segments. Results: In this sample, statistically significant differences were observed between the low and high frequencies thresholds and that the work duration influenced in the worsening of high frequencies thresholds bilaterally. As for the laterality no significant differences were confirmed between the ears, as well as the absence of correlation between tinnitus and hearing loss. Conclusion: An intensive work of auditory health promotion and/or auditory loss prevention must be emphasized, especially for workers exposed to high level occupational noises, as well as the appropriate features of individual auditory protection equipment.

  9. Cytogenetic biomonitoring of occupationally exposed workers to ashes from burning of sugar cane in Ahome, Sinaloa, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen; Rodríguez-Quintana, Ana Rosa; Meza, Enrique; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Amador-Muñóz, Omar; Mora-Romero, Arlene; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Félix-Gastélum, Rubén; Rodríguez-Romero, Isabel; Caba, Mario

    2015-09-01

    Burning the sugar cane field before harvesting has a negative impact on both air and human health, however this issue had not been explored in Mexico. The objective of this work was to determine the chromosomal damage in workers from sugar cane burning fields in Sinaloa, México. To this purpose, we analyzed 1000 cells of buccal exfoliated epithelia from 60 exposed workers and 60 non-exposed controls to determine micronucleus frequencies and other nuclear abnormalities. The results indicated significant higher values of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities such as binucleate cells, pyknosis, karyolysis, chromatin condensation and nuclear buds frequencies in the exposed subjects compared to those that were not exposed. Our data indicates that sugar cane burning, that generates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, represents a genotoxic risk for workers in this important sugar cane producing area in Mexico. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Association Between Polymorphisms of DNA Repair Gene XRCC1 and DNA Damage in Asbestos-Exposed Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO-HONG ZHAO; GUANG JIA; YONG-QUAN LIU; SHAO-WEI LIU; LEI YAN; YU JIN; NIAN LIU

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare the asbestos-induced DNA damage and repair capacities of DNA damage between 104 asbestos exposed workers and 101 control workers in Qingdao City of China and to investigate the possible association between polymorphisms in codon 399 of XRCC1 and susceptibility to asbestosis. Methods DNA damage levels in peripheral bloodlymphocytes were determined by comet assay, and XRCC 1 genetic polymorphisms of DNA samples from 51 asbestosis cases and 53 non-asbestosis workers with a similar asbestos exposure history were analyzed by PCR/RFLP. Results The basal comet scores (3.95±2.95) were significantly higher in asbestos-exposed workers than in control workers (0.10±0.28). After 1 h H2O2 stimulation, DNA damage of lymphocytes exhibited different increases. After a 4 h repair period, the comet scores were 50.98±19.53 in asbestos-exposed workers and 18.32±12.04 in controls. The residual DNA damage (RD) was significantly greater (P<0.01) in asbestos-exposed workers (35.62%) than in controls (27.75%). XRCC1 genetic polymorphism in 104 asbestos-exposed workers was not associated with increased risk of asbestosis. But compared with polymorphisms in the DNA repair gene XRCC1 (polymorphisms in codon 399) and the DNA damage induced by asbestos, the comet scores in asbestosis cases with Gln/Gln, Gln/Arg, and Arg/Arg were 40.26±18.94, 38.03±28.22, and 32.01±11.65, respectively, which were higher than those in non-asbestosis workers with the same genotypes (25.58±11.08, 37.08±14.74, and 29.38±10.15). There were significant differences in the comet scores between asbestosis cases and non-asbestosis workers with Gln/Gln by Student's t-test (P<0.05 or 0.01). The comet scores were higher in asbestosis workers with Gln/Gln than in those with Arg/Arg and in non-asbestosis workers exposed to asbestos, but without statistically significant difference. Conclusions Exposure to asbestos may be related to DNA damage or the capacity of cells to repair H2O2-induced

  11. Biological monitoring as a useful tool for the detection of a coal-tar contamination in bitumen-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Angerer, J.; Pesch, B.; Marczynski, B.; Hahn, J.U.; Spickenheuer, A.; Preuss, R.; Ruhl, R.; Rode, P.; Bruning, T. [Institute at the Ruhr University of Bochum, Bochum (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In our research project entitled 'Chemical irritative and/or genotoxic effect of fumes of bitumen under high processing temperatures on the airways,' 73 mastic asphalt workers exposed to fumes of bitumen and 49 construction nonexposed workers were analyzed and compared with respect to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and exposure-related health effects. In order to assess the internal exposure the monohydroxylated metabolites of pyrene, 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and phenanthrene, 1-, 2- and 9-, and 3- and 4-hydroxyphenanthrene (OHPH) were determined in pre- and post-shift urinary samples. Significantly higher concentrations 1-OHP and OHPH were detected in the post-shift urine samples of 7 mastic asphalt workers working on the same construction site compared to the reference workers and all other 66 mastic asphalt workers. The adjusted mean OHPH in the reference, 66 mastic worker, and 7 worker subgroups was 1022, 1544, and 12919 ng/g creatinine (crn) respectively, indicating a marked rise in the 7 worker subgroup. In addition, there was a more than 12-fold increase of PAH metabolites from pre- to post-shift in these 7 workers, whereas in the other mastic asphalt workers there was only a twofold rise in PAH-metabolite concentration between pre- and post-shift values. The analysis of a drilling core from the construction site of the seven workers led to the detection of the source for this marked PAH exposure during the working shift as being coal tar plates, which were, without knowledge of the workers and coordinators, the underground material of the mastic asphalt layer. The evaluation of the stationary workplace concentration showed enhanced levels of phenanthrene, pyrene, fluorene, anthracene, and acenaphthene during working shifts at the construction site of these seven workers. Our study shows that biological monitoring is also a useful tool for the detection of unrecognized sources with high PAH concentrations.

  12. Biological monitoring as a useful tool for the detection of a coal-tar contamination in bitumen-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Angerer, Jürgen; Pesch, Beate; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Hahn, Jens Uwe; Spickenheuer, Anne; Preuss, Ralf; Rühl, Reinhold; Rode, Peter; Brüning, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In our research project entitled "Chemical irritative and/or genotoxic effect of fumes of bitumen under high processing temperatures on the airways," 73 mastic asphalt workers exposed to fumes of bitumen and 49 construction nonexposed workers were analyzed and compared with respect to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and exposure-related health effects. In order to assess the internal exposure the monohydroxylated metabolites of pyrene, 1- hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and phenanthrene, 1-, 2- and 9-, and 3- and 4-hydroxyphenanthrene (OHPH) were determined in pre- and post-shift urinary samples. Significantly higher concentrations 1-OHP and OHPH were detected in the post-shift urine samples of 7 mastic asphalt workers working on the same construction site compared to the reference workers and all other 66 mastic asphalt workers. The adjusted mean OHPH in the reference, 66 mastic worker, and 7 worker subgroups was 1022, 1544, and 12919 ng/g creatinine (crn) respectively, indicating a marked rise in the 7 worker subgroup. In addition, there was a more than 12-fold increase of PAH metabolites from pre- to post-shift in these 7 workers, whereas in the other mastic asphalt workers there was only a twofold rise in PAH-metabolite concentration between pre- and post-shift values. The analysis of a drilling core from the construction site of the seven workers led to the detection of the source for this marked PAH exposure during the working shift as being coal tar plates, which were, without knowledge of the workers and coordinators, the underground material of the mastic asphalt layer. The evaluation of the stationary workplace concentration showed enhanced levels of phenanthrene, pyrene, fluorene, anthracene, and acenaphthene during working shifts at the construction site of these seven workers. Our study shows that biological monitoring is also a useful tool for the detection of unrecognized sources with high PAH concentrations.

  13. A comprehensive analysis of plausible genotoxic covariates among workers of a polyvinyl chloride plant exposed to vinyl chloride monomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Alagamuthu Karthick; Balachandar, Vellingiri; Arun, Meyyazhagan; Ahamed, Shafi Ahammed Khan Mustaq; Kumar, Shanmugam Suresh; Balamuralikrishnan, Balasubramanium; Sankar, Kathannan; Sasikala, Keshavarao

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of chromosomal aberrations-including chromatid type aberrations (CTAs), chromosomal type aberrations, micronucleus (MN) comet assay, and XRCC1 399 Arg/Gln polymorphism-in peripheral blood lymphocytes of workers occupationally exposed to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). A total of 52 workers and an equal number of controls were recruited into the study to explore the potential cytogenetic risk of occupational exposure to VCM. Questionnaires were administered to obtain details of habitual cigarette-smoking, alcohol-consumption pattern, and occupation, etc. The exposed subjects and controls were classified into two groups based on age (group I 8 and ≥8 years). CTA, MN, and comet assay frequency were significantly greater in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) factory workers (p < 0.05) with long-duration work. CTA, MN, and comet assay values were found to be increased with age in exposed subjects as well as in controls, with exposed subjects showing a statistically greater degree. An extensively greater MN frequency was observed in smokers exposed to VCM than in the control group (P < 0.05). The mean tail length of exposed subjects was greater compared with controls. The study on XRCC1 399 Arg/gln polymorphism in PVC factory workers showed less significant difference in allele frequency compared with controls. In conclusion, this results of work provides evidence for an apparent genotoxic effect associated with VCM exposure. Our results reinforce the greater sensitivity of cytogenetic assays for biomonitoring of occupationally exposed populations. Statistics indicate that workers exposed to VCM are at carcinogenic risk and should be monitored for long-term adverse effects from their exposure.

  14. Comparison of cancer risks projected from animal bioassays to epidemiologic studies of acrylonitrile-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, C E; Starr, T B

    1993-10-01

    Bioassay findings have demonstrated that acrylonitrile (ACN) is a rodent carcinogen, but the available epidemiologic evidence provides little support for the human carcinogenicity of ACN. This discordance between laboratory animal and human study findings is explored by determining post hoc the statistical power of 11 epidemiologic studies of ACN-exposed workers to detect the all-site and brain cancer excesses that are projected from rodent drinking water bioassay data. At reasonable estimates of the level and duration of exposures among the occupational cohorts, a majority of the human studies had sufficient power (> 80%) to detect the projected excesses, yet such responses were consistently absent. We conclude, subject to certain caveats, that the upper bound estimate of ACN's inhalation cancer potency of 1.5 x 10(-4) per ppm is too high to be consistent with the human ACN experience.

  15. Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Swedish Sterilant Workers Exposed to Ethylene Oxide: Updated Cohort Study Findings 1972–2006

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Albin; Håkan Tinnerberg; Jonas Björk; Zoli Mikoczy

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess whether cancer incidence, mainly from lymphohaematopoietic tumours and breast cancer, and mortality were increased in a cohort of Swedish sterilant workers exposed to low levels of ethylene oxide (EtO), updated with 16 more years of follow up. METHODS: The mortality and cancer incidence 1972-2006 experienced by a cohort of 2,171 male and female workers employed for at least one year in two plants producing medical equipment sterilised with EtO were investig...

  16. Investigation of PAH biomarkers in the urine of workers exposed to hot asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobus, Jon R; McClean, Michael D; Herrick, Robert F; Waidyanatha, Suramya; Onyemauwa, Frank; Kupper, Lawrence L; Rappaport, Stephen M

    2009-08-01

    Airborne emissions from hot asphalt contain mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including several carcinogens. We investigated urinary biomarkers of three PAHs, namely naphthalene (Nap), phenanthrene (Phe), and pyrene (Pyr) in 20 road-paving workers exposed to hot asphalt and in 6 road milling workers who were not using hot asphalt (reference group). Our analysis included baseline urine samples as well as postshift, bedtime, and morning samples collected over three consecutive days. We measured unmetabolized Nap (U-Nap) and Phe (U-Phe) as well as the monohydroxylated metabolites of Nap (OH-Nap), Phe (OH-Phe), and Pyr (OH-Pyr) in each urine sample. In baseline samples, no significant differences in biomarker levels were observed between pavers and millers, suggesting similar background exposures. In postshift, bedtime, and morning urine samples, the high pairwise correlations observed between levels of all biomarkers suggest common exposure sources. Among pavers, levels of all biomarkers were significantly elevated in postshift samples, indicating rapid uptake and elimination of PAHs following exposure to hot asphalt (biomarker levels were not elevated among millers). Results from linear mixed-effects models of levels of U-Nap, U-Phe, OH-Phe, and OH-Pyr across pavers showed significant effects of work assignments with roller operators having lower biomarker levels than the other workers. However, no work-related effect was observed for levels of OH-Nap, apparently due to the influence of cigarette smoking. Biological half-lives, estimated from regression coefficients for time among pavers, were 8 h for U-Phe, 10 h for U-Nap, 13 h for OH-Phe and OH-Pyr, and 26 h for OH-Nap. These results support the use of U-Nap, U-Phe, OH-Phe, and OH-Pyr, but probably not OH-Nap, as short-term biomarkers of exposure to PAHs emanating from hot asphalt.

  17. Shorter telomere length in peripheral blood lymphocytes of workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavanello, Sofia; Pesatori, Angela-C; Dioni, Laura; Hoxha, Mirjam; Bollati, Valentina; Siwinska, Ewa; Mielzyńska, Danuta; Bolognesi, Claudia; Bertazzi, Pier-Alberto; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2010-02-01

    Shorter telomere length (TL) in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) is predictive of lung cancer risk. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are established lung carcinogens that cause chromosome instability. Whether PAH exposure and its molecular effects are linked with shorter TL has never been evaluated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of chronic exposure to PAHs on TL measured in PBLs of Polish male non-current smoking cokeoven workers and matched controls. PAH exposure and molecular effects were characterized using measures of internal dose (urinary 1-pyrenol), effective dose [anti-benzo[a]pyrene diolepoxide (anti-BPDE)-DNA adduct], genetic instability (micronuclei, MN) and DNA methylation [p53 promoter and Alu and long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) repetitive elements, as surrogate measures of global methylation] in PBLs. TL was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cokeoven workers were heavily exposed to PAHs (79% exceeded the urinary 1-pyrenol biological exposure index) and exhibited lower TL (P = 0.038) than controls, as well as higher levels of genetic and chromosomal alterations [i.e. anti-BPDE-DNA adduct and MN (P < 0.0001)] and epigenetic changes [i.e. p53 gene-specific promoter and global methylation (P worker (P = 0.039) and in all subjects with higher levels of anti-BPDE-DNA adduct (P = 0.042), p53 hypomethylation (P = 0.005) and MN (P = 0.009). In multivariate analysis, years of work in cokery (P = 0.008) and p53 hypomethylation (P = 0.001) were the principal determinants of shorter TL. Our results indicate that shorter TL is associated with chronic PAH exposure. The interrelations with other genetic and epigenetic mechanisms in our data suggest that shorter TL could be a central event in PAH carcinogenesis.

  18. Cancer risk evaluation of brick kiln workers exposed to dust bound PAHs in Punjab province (Pakistan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Atif; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Martellini, Tania; Cincinelli, Alessandra

    2014-09-15

    Principal objective of this study was to evaluate the health risks of brick kiln workers to dust bound PAHs exposure in Punjab province (Pakistan). To this aim, surface dust samples were collected from brick kiln units located in Chung Khurd (Lahore city), Gujranwala city and Sohra village (in the vicinity of Gujranwala). The highest ΣPAH levels were measured in the dust samples collected in Sohdra village (mean 2578 ng g(-1) d.w., range 302-6757 ng g(-1) d.w.) followed by Gujranwala city (mean 957, range 16.1-1963 ng g(-1) d.w.) and Chung Khurd (mean 882, range 692-1007 ng g(-1) d.w.). Source identification using diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis identified coal and wood combustion as the major PAHs sources. The cancer risk model (CR-Model 1) and the Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk model (ILCR-Model 2) were used to evaluate the cancer risk assessment via ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact pathways. Both models suggested that brick kiln workers (including adults and children) were exposed to high-potential carcinogenic risk via both ingestion and dermal contact pathways during the brick making process. This study also emphasizes the need for pollution control in the brick kiln industry of Pakistan.

  19. Cancer mortality in workers exposed to dieldrin and aldrin: over 50 years of follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amelsvoort, Ludovic G P M; Slangen, Jos J M; Tsai, Shan P; de Jong, Geert; Kant, Ijmert

    2009-01-01

    Dieldrin and aldrin, pesticides widely used until the 1970s, have been under suspicion of being carcinogenic. In this study, overall and cause-specific mortality was assessed in a cohort of 570 employees occupationally exposed to the pesticides dieldrin and aldrin to investigate the long-term health effects, in particular carcinogenic effects. All of the employees worked in the production plants between January 1954 and January 1970 and were followed for cause-specific mortality until 30 April 2006. Based on dieldrin levels in blood samples taken from 343 workers during the exposure period, the total intake of dieldrin was estimated for each individual subjects in the cohort. The estimated total intake ranged from 11 to 7,755 mg of dieldrin, with an average of 737 mg. Two hundred and twenty-six workers had died before 30 April 2006 compared with an expected number of 327.3, giving a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of 69.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 60.3-78.7). Overall cancer mortality was also significantly lower than expected (SMR: 76.4, 95% CI: 60.8-94.9). Also, none of the specific cancer sites showed a significant excess mortality and no association between exposure level and cancer mortality was found. The results from this study support findings from other epidemiological and recent animal studies concluding that dieldrin and aldrin are not likely human carcinogens.

  20. Mortality of workers exposed to dieldrin and aldrin: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, G; Swaen, G M; Slangen, J J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence of long term health effects in humans exposed to aldrin and dieldrin, with an update of an earlier retrospective cohort mortality study. METHODS: A group of 570 workers employed between 1 January 1954 and 1 January 1970 either in a production or formulation plant were followed up for mortality until 1 January 1993. There were extensive industrial hygiene data available and biological monitoring data of aldrin and dieldrin for most of the workers. From these data individual estimates were made of the total intake of dieldrin. A total number of 2539.37 person-years at risk was added to the original study. RESULTS: 118 deaths were observed compared with 156 expected. No increase in mortality from liver cancer was found. However, there was an excess in mortality from rectal cancer. This excess was inversely related to the dose gradient. An analysis by job title did not show any excess cancer in any particular job. CONCLUSION: The study does not support a carcinogenic effect of dieldrin and aldrin in humans. PMID:9404316

  1. Increased micronucleus, nucleoplasmic bridge, and nuclear bud frequencies in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of diesel engine exhaust-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Duan, Huawei; Gao, Feng; Li, Yuanyuan; Huang, Chuanfeng; Niu, Yong; Gao, Weimin; Yu, Shanfa; Zheng, Yuxin

    2015-02-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has recently reclassified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a Group 1 carcinogen. Micronucleus (MN), nucleoplasmic bridge (NPB), and nuclear bud (NBUD) frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) are associated with cancer risk. However, the impact of DEE exposure on MN frequency has not been thoroughly elucidated due to mixed exposure and its impact on NPB and NBUD frequencies has never been explored in humans. We recruited 117 diesel engine testing workers with exclusive exposure to DEE and 112 non-DEE-exposed workers, and then we measured urinary levels of 4 mono-hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as MN, NPB, and NBUD frequencies in PBLs using cytokinesis-block MN assay. The DEE-exposed workers exhibited significantly higher MN, NPB, and NBUD frequencies than the non-DEE-exposed workers (P frequencies (all P frequencies persisted in DEE-exposed workers (P = 0.001). The percent of MN frequencies increased, on average, by 23.99% (95% confidential interval, 9.64-39.93) per 1-unit increase in ln-transformed 9-OHPh. Our results clearly show that exposure to DEE can induce increases in MN, NPB, and NBUD frequencies in PBLs and suggest that DEE exposure level is associated with MN frequencies.

  2. Dose Estimation by ESR on Tooth Enamel from Two Workers Exposed to Radiation due to the JCO accident

    OpenAIRE

    Kunio, SHIRAISHI; MIDORI, IWASAKI; Chyuzo, Miyazawa; HIDENORI, YONEHARA; Masaki, MATSUMOTO; Ohu University, School of Dentistry; Radon Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences; Environmental Radiation Protection System Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences

    2002-01-01

    ESR dosimetry is useful to estimate the external dose for the general population as well as for occupational workers in a nuclear emergency. Three teeth were extracted from two exposed workers (A and B) related to the JCO criticality accident. Tooth enamel was carefully separated from other tooth parts and subjected to ESR dosimetry. Doses equivalent to the γ-ray dose of ^Co were estimated as follows: for worker A, the buccal and lingual sides of the eighth tooth in the upper right side, 11.8...

  3. Association between sperm DNA integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant levels in health workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Dayanidhi; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Uppangala, Shubhashree; Kumari, Sandhya [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576104 (India); Challapalli, Srinivas [Department of Radiotherapy, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore (India); Chandraguthi, Shrinidhi Gururajarao [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal (India); Jain, Navya; Krishnamurthy, Hanumanthappa [National Centre for Biological Sciences, Bangalore (India); Kumar, Pratap [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal (India); Adiga, Satish Kumar, E-mail: satish.adiga@manipal.edu [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576104 (India)

    2014-07-15

    There is a paucity of data regarding the association between occupational radiation exposure and risk to human fertility. Recently, we provided the first evidence on altered sperm functional characteristics, DNA damage and hypermethylation in radiation health workers. However, there is no report elucidating the association between seminal plasma antioxidants and sperm chromatin integrity in occupationally exposed subjects. Here, we assessed the seminal plasma antioxidants and lipid peroxidation level in 83 men who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation and then correlated with the sperm chromatin integrity. Flow cytometry based sperm chromatin integrity assay revealed a significant decline in αt value in the exposed group in comparison to the non-exposed group (P<0.0001). Similarly, both total and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity in the seminal plasma were significantly higher in exposed group than the non-exposed group (P<0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001, respectively). However, superoxide dismutase level and malondialdehyde level, which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation in the seminal plasma, did not differ significantly between two groups. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and GSH level exhibited a positive correlation with sperm DNA integrity in exposed subjects. To conclude, this study distinctly shows that altered sperm chromatin integrity in radiation health workers is associated with increase in seminal plasma antioxidant level. Further, the increased seminal plasma GSH and TAC could be an adaptive measure to tackle the oxidative stress to protect genetic and functional sperm deformities in radiation health workers. - Highlights: • Seminal plasma antioxidants were measured in men occupationally exposed to radiation. • Sperm chromatin integrity was significantly affected in the exposed group. • Glutathione and total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in exposed group. • Sperm DNA damage in exposed subjects

  4. PON1 status does not influence cholinesterase activity in Egyptian agricultural workers exposed to chlorpyrifos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, Corie A., E-mail: cellison@buffalo.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Crane, Alice L., E-mail: alcrane@buffalo.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Bonner, Matthew R., E-mail: mrbonner@buffalo.edu [Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Knaak, James B., E-mail: jbknaak@aol.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Browne, Richard W., E-mail: rwbrowne@buffalo.edu [Department of Biotechnical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Lein, Pamela J., E-mail: pjlein@ucdavis.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of California School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA 95618 (United States); Olson, James R., E-mail: jolson@buffalo.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Animal studies have shown that paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genotype can influence susceptibility to the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). However, Monte Carlo analysis suggests that PON1 genotype may not affect CPF-related toxicity at low exposure conditions in humans. The current study sought to determine the influence of PON1 genotype on the activity of blood cholinesterase as well as the effect of CPF exposure on serum PON1 in workers occupationally exposed to CPF. Saliva, blood and urine were collected from agricultural workers (n = 120) from Egypt's Menoufia Governorate to determine PON1 genotype, blood cholinesterase activity, serum PON1 activity towards chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPOase) and paraoxon (POase), and urinary levels of the CPF metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy). The PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) but not the PON1 192 genotype had a significant effect on CPOase activity. However, both the PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) and PON1 192 (P ≤ 0.001) genotypes had a significant effect on POase activity. Workers had significantly inhibited AChE and BuChE after CPF application; however, neither CPOase activity nor POase activity was associated with ChE depression when adjusted for CPF exposure (as determined by urinary TCPy levels) and stratified by PON1 genotype. CPOase and POase activity were also generally unaffected by CPF exposure although there were alterations in activity within specific genotype groups. Together, these results suggest that workers retained the capacity to detoxify chlorpyrifos-oxon under the exposure conditions experienced by this study population regardless of PON1 genotype and activity and that effects of CPF exposure on PON1 activity are minimal. -- Highlights: ► CPF exposure resulted in an increase in TCPy and decreases in BuChE and AChE. ► CPOase activity decreased in subjects with the PON1 55LM and PON1 55 MM genotypes. ► Neither PON1 genotype nor CPOase activity had an effect on BuChE or AChE inhibition.

  5. DNA damage in leukocytes of workers occupationally exposed to 1-bromopropane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toraason, Mark; Lynch, Dennis W; DeBord, D Gayle; Singh, Narendra; Krieg, Edward; Butler, Mary Ann; Toennis, Christine A; Nemhauser, Jeffrey B

    2006-01-31

    1-bromopropane (1-BP; n-propyl bromide) (CAS No. 106-94-5) is an alternative to ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons that has a variety of potential applications as a degreasing agent for metals and electronics, and as a solvent vehicle for spray adhesives. Its isomer, 2-brompropane (2-BP; isopropyl bromide) (CAS No. 75-26-3) impairs antioxidant cellular defenses, enhances lipid peroxidation, and causes DNA damage in vitro. The present study had two aims. The first was to assess DNA damage in human leukocytes exposed in vitro to 1- or 2-BP. DNA damage was also assessed in peripheral leukocytes from workers with occupational exposure to 1-BP. In the latter assessment, start-of- and end-of-work week blood and urine samples were collected from 41 and 22 workers at two facilities where 1-BP was used as a solvent for spray adhesives in foam cushion fabrication. Exposure to 1-BP was assessed from personal-breathing zone samples collected for 1-3 days up to 8h per day for calculation of 8h time weighted average (TWA) 1-BP concentrations. Bromide (Br) was measured in blood and urine as a biomarker of exposure. Overall, 1-BP TWA concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 271 parts per million (ppm) at facility A, and from 4 to 27 ppm at facility B. The highest exposures were to workers classified as sprayers. 1-BP TWA concentrations were statistically significantly correlated with blood and urine Br concentrations. The comet assay was used to estimate DNA damage. In vitro, 1- or 2-BP induced a statistically significant increase in DNA damage at 1mM. In 1-BP exposed workers, start-of- and end-of-workweek comet endpoints were stratified based on job classification. There were no significant differences in DNA damage in leukocytes between workers classified as sprayers (high 1-BP exposure) and those classified as non-sprayers (low 1-BP exposure). At the facility with the high exposures, comparison of end-of-week values with start-of-week values using paired analysis revealed non

  6. Estudo da ototoxicidade em trabalhadores expostos a organofosforados Ototoxicity study in workers exposed to organophosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Hiromi Hoshino

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A exposição ocupacional e ambiental aos agrotóxicos evidencia-se como um grave problema de Saúde Pública em nosso país. Entre os sintomas apresentados, a tonteira se destaca, em decorrência de uma provável ação tóxica. OBJETIVO: O objetivo do estudo é caracterizar os resultados do exame vestibular de trabalhadores rurais expostos ocupacionalmente e ambientalmente aos agrotóxicos organofosforados. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foi realizado um estudo de coorte com corte transversal em 18 trabalhadores rurais de Teresópolis, RJ. A faixa etária variou de 16 a 59 anos com uma média de 39,6 anos, sendo 5 trabalhadores do sexo masculino e 13 do sexo feminino. Foram utilizados três questionários com perguntas relacionadas à saúde geral e auditiva e perguntas específicas à tonteira e suas relações com o trabalho. Todos os trabalhadores passaram por uma avaliação clínica e realizaram os exames vectoeletronistagmografia e audiometria. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que 16 trabalhadores apresentaram alterações do equilíbrio corporal de tipo periférico irritativo e 7 trabalhadores apresentaram perdas auditivas do tipo neurossensorial, sugerindo que os agrotóxicos induzem alterações do sistema vestibular através de uma intoxicação lenta e silenciosa. CONCLUSÕES: O olhar clínico sobre esta população exposta a substâncias neuro-ototóxicas requer uma abordagem interdisciplinar, assegurando uma intervenção terapêutica e preventiva eficaz.Occupational and environmental exposure to agricultural pesticides represent an important health care problem in our country. Among the symptoms presented, dizziness stands out, because of a probable toxic action. AIM: The goal of our study was to characterize vestibular test results from rural workers occupationally and environmentally exposed to organophosphates used in agricultural pesticides. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out a cohort cross-sectional study with 18 rural workers

  7. [Blood and urine chromium: compared values between chromium exposed workers and common people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzani, A; Verso, M G; Picciotto, D

    2008-01-01

    Aim of present study is the valutation and quantification of chromium in blood and urine. We compared 3 groups of persons formed by building workers, in particular masons, because cement contains potassium chromate that is dangerous for health, and by common people: urban population and outside the town population. In fact, exposure to CrVI risk is high for people who live near chromate industries. We maked a medical examination, blood and instrumental tests, chromium measuring in blood (recent exposure indicator) and urine (recent and previous indicator). Then we used statistical methods to estimate obtained values of blood and urine chromium among professional exposed people and common people. At the end we think that preventive measures in working environment reduced exposure to CrVI but environmental exposure (for example road dust from catalytic converter erosion, from brake lining erosion, cement dust and tobacco smoke), in the last years, has increased. So there are no difference between urban population and outside the town population and there are also no difference with professional exposed people for work prevention according to law in force, that let down professional risk using safe limits.

  8. Evaluation of DNA damage in agricultural workers exposed to pesticides using single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raminderjeet Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops, but they pose a potential risk to farmers and environment. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relation between the occupational exposure to various pesticides and the presence of DNA damage. Materials and Methods : Blood samples of 210 exposed workers (after a day of intense spraying and 50 control subjects belonging to various districts of Punjab (India were evaluated using Comet assay. Sixty workers who showed DNA damage were selected for follow up at 5-6 months after the first sampling during a low or null spraying period. Results : Significant differences were found in DNA damage between freshly exposed workers and controls and freshly exposed and followed up cases. There was significant increase in the comet parameters viz. mean comet tail length and frequency of cells showing migration in exposed workers as compared to controls (72.22 ± 20.76 vs. 46.92 ± 8.17, P<0.001; 31.79 vs. 5.77, P<0.001. In the second samples, followed up cases showed significant decrease in frequency of damaged cells as compared to freshly exposed workers of first sampling (P<0.05. The confounding factors such as variable duration of pesticide exposure, age, smoking, drinking and dietary habits etc which were expected to modulate the damage, were instead found to have no significant effect on DNA fragmentation. Conclusion : The evidence of a genetic hazard related to exposure resulting from the intensive use of pesticides stresses the need for educational programs for agricultural workers to reduce the use of chemicals in agriculture.

  9. Health impacts of exposure to second hand smoke (SHS amongst a highly exposed workforce: survey of London casino workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmore Anna B

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Casino workers are exposed to high levels of secondhand smoke (SHS at work, yet remain at risk of being excluded from smoke-free legislation around the world. If the prime motivation for smoke-free legislation is the protection of workers, then a workforce experiencing ill-health associated with SHS exposure should not be excluded from legislation. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms among a sample of casino workers, to identify any association between the reporting of symptoms and exposure to SHS at work, and to compare the prevalence of symptoms with that in other workers exposed to SHS. Methods A postal questionnaire survey of 1568 casino workers in London. Using multivariate analysis we identified predictors of respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms. Results 559 workers responded to the questionnaire (response of 36%. 91% of casino workers reported the presence of one or more sensory irritation symptoms in the previous four weeks, while the figure was 84% for respiratory symptoms. The presence of one or more sensory irritation symptoms was most strongly associated with reporting the highest exposure to SHS at work (OR 3.26; 1.72, 6.16. This was also true for reporting the presence of one or more respiratory irritation symptoms (OR 2.24; 1.34, 3.74. Prevalence of irritation symptoms in the casino workers was in general appreciably higher than that reported in studies of bar workers. Conclusion Our research supports the need for comprehensive smoke-free legislation around the world, covering all indoor workplaces including casinos.

  10. Influence of age and sex on hearing threshold levels in workers exposed to different intensity levels of occupational noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szanto, C.; Ionescu, M.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of age, sex and duration of exposure on hearing threshold level (HTL) was assessed in male and female workers exposed to occupational noise. The noise intensities were of 84 and 98 dB(A) continuous equivalent level. Large differences were noted between males and females exposed to 98 dB(A) as well as between males exposed to 98 and 83 dB(A). We concluded that exposure to 98 dB(A) accelerates the evolution of hearing loss, this trend being more pronounced in males. The 83-dB(A) intensity apparently induces a hearing loss above the values due to socioacusis. To evaluate the noxious effect of noise, the HTLs obtained in the group exposed to 98 and 83-dB(A) were compared to those of the non-exposed group of Royster and Thomas. The highest difference was found in males exposed to 98 dB(A).

  11. Risk factors for respiratory work disability in a cohort of pulp mill workers exposed to irritant gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torén Kjell

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between chronic respiratory diseases and work disability has been demonstrated a number of times over the past 20 years, but still little is known about work disability in occupational cohorts of workers exposed to respiratory irritants. This study investigated job or task changes due to respiratory problems as an indicator of work disability in pulp mill workers occupationally exposed to irritants. Methods Data about respiratory symptoms and disease diagnoses, socio-demographic variables, occupational exposures, gassing episodes, and reported work changes due to respiratory problems were collected using a questionnaire answered by 3226 pulp mill workers. Information about work history and departments was obtained from personnel files. Incidence and hazard ratios for respiratory work disability were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results The incidence of respiratory work disability among these pulp mill workers was 1.6/1000 person-years. The hazard ratios for respiratory work disability were increased for workers reporting gassings (HR 5.3, 95% CI 2.7-10.5 and for those reporting physician-diagnosed asthma, chronic bronchitis, and chronic rhinitis, when analyzed in the same model. Conclusions This cohort study of pulp mill workers found that irritant peak exposure during gassing episodes was a strong predictor of changing work due to respiratory problems, even after adjustment for asthma, chronic bronchitis, and chronic rhinitis.

  12. Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, O.; Sánchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodríguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2012-10-01

    Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of "Instituto Nacional de Cancerología" (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are 131I, 18F, 68Ga, 99mTc, 111In and 11C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of "Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares" (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the "Reglamento General de Seguridad Radiológica", México (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the "International Commission on Radiation Protection" (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

  13. Health implication among occupational exposed workers in a chromium alloy factory,Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Muttamara; Shing Tet Leong

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the occupational exposure and its health impact on the chromium alloyworkers. Environmental and biological monitoring, noise and audiometry measurements were done to evaluate theexposure levels in the factory. A total of 112 non-smoking workers were monitored from July 2001 to August 2002.The results showed that most of the chromium and lead exposures in the factory were below the ACGIH-TWA of 50μg/m3 for chromium( Ⅵ ) and OSHA-PEL of 50 μg/m3 for lead. The highest chromium(7.25 ± 0. 16 μg/m3 ) and lead(14.50 ± 0.29 μg/m3) concentrations were measured in the vibro room. The results indicated that elevatedconcentrations of chromium and lead were found in both blood and urine samples especially in those areas whichwere characterized by poor ventilation. The metal contents in blood and urine samples were significantly correlatedwith airborne metal concentrations in the factory. The result demonstrated that blood and urinary levels amongworkers were associated with increasing age and duration of exposure.The background noise level of the factory ranged from 67.6 to 89.2 dBA and was frequently higher than thethreshold limit value for noise(90 dBA). According to the audiometric test, the exposed workers showed signs ofnoise-induced hearing loss. Noise at work continued to be an important factor to hearing loss among exposedworkers. In our statistical analysis, a significant hearing loss was established on age effect and year of exposureamong the workforce.

  14. Mutagenic activity and metabolites in the urine of workers exposed to trinitrotoluene (TNT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlborg, G; Einistö, P; Sorsa, M

    1988-05-01

    Urine samples taken after work and after a free weekend from 50 workers employed in various activities in a chemical plant manufacturing explosives were analysed. On the basis of hygienic surveys, the subjects were divided into three categories of exposure to trinitrotoluene (TNT). The urine analyses consisted of gas chromatographic identification of TNT and its two metabolites, 4-ADNT and 2-ADNT, and a determination of the mutagenic activity. Two frame shift detector strains of Salmonella typhimurium were used, TA 98 and TA 98 NR, the latter being deficient in endogenous nitroreductase activity. On the basis of previous results on TNT mutagenicity, no exogeneous metabolic system was used to test the urine concentrates. Both tester strains showed that the mean urinary mutagenic activity was higher in the after work samples than in post weekend samples from the same subjects, showing that bacterial nitroreductase activity was not significantly responsible for the mutagenicity, although the response was higher with strain TA 98 than with TA 98 NR. The interindividual variation in urine mutagenicity was high, however, and the difference between the two sampling times was statistically significant (p less than 0.05) only for the high exposed group (workers in trotyl foundry and sieve house). Correlation between urinary mutagenicity and concentration of TNT in urine was poor; correlation was significant only with the urinary concentration of 4-ADNT. The correlation between urinary TNT and both metabolites was good (p less than 0.001). These results suggest that analysis of 4-ADNT in urine would be a sufficient biological measure for controlling exposure to TNT.

  15. Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, O.; Sanchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodriguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico) and Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-542, 04510, DF (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando No.22, C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000 DF (Mexico) and Unidad de Investigacion Biomedica en Cancer INCan-UNAM, Av. San Fernando No.22 C.P. 4080 (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando No.22, C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000 DF (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of 'Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia' (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 68}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In and {sup 11}C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of 'Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares' (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the {sup R}eglamento General de Seguridad Radiologica{sup ,} Mexico (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the 'International Commission on Radiation Protection' (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

  16. Examination of ras (P21) proteins in plasma from workers exposed to benzene emissions from petrochemical plants and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D; Hughes, J A; Veidebaum, T; Peltonen, K; Sorsa, M

    1997-11-28

    Exposure of workers to benzene and polyaromatic hydrocarbons has been documented to be at relatively high levels in the production of benzene and in the coking process at a petrochemical plant in the oil shale area in Estonia. Altogether 97 plasma samples from workers and 40 from unexposed matched referents from two samplings in different seasons were analyzed for the presence of ras (P21) proteins; of the workers 50 were exposed to benzene in the benzene production plant and 47 to polyaromatic hydrocarbons and benzene in a cokery. Proteins were separated by gel electrophoresis, transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane by Western blotting and detected by chemiluminescence, using a monoclonal antibody as the primary antibody. There were no statistically significant differences between the exposed and the referent groups. The results are thus in keeping with the lack of exposure related cytogenetic effects for this same workforce.

  17. Mortality of aircraft maintenance workers exposed to trichloroethylene and other hydrocarbons and chemicals: extended follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radican, Larry; Blair, Aaron; Stewart, Patricia; Wartenberg, Daniel

    2008-11-01

    To extend follow-up of 14,455 workers from 1990 to 2000, and evaluate mortality risk from exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) and other chemicals. Multivariable Cox models were used to estimate relative risk (RR) for exposed versus unexposed workers based on previously developed exposure surrogates. Among TCE-exposed workers, there was no statistically significant increased risk of all-cause mortality (RR = 1.04) or death from all cancers (RR = 1.03). Exposure-response gradients for TCE were relatively flat and did not materially change since 1990. Statistically significant excesses were found for several chemical exposure subgroups and causes and were generally consistent with the previous follow-up. Patterns of mortality have not changed substantially since 1990. Although positive associations with several cancers were observed, and are consistent with the published literature, interpretation is limited due to the small numbers of events for specific exposures.

  18. Cohort Studies on Cancer Mortality Among Workers Exposed Only to Chrysotile Asbestos:a Meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU LI; TONG-DA SUN; XING ZHANG; RUI-NAN LAI; XIU-YANG LI; XUE-JIN FAN; KENJI MORINAGA

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether there was excessive risk of cancer among workers exposed to chrysotile fiber alone by applying a meta-analysis technique. Methods All data meeting the criteria of cohort studies on cancer mortality among workers exposed only to chrysotile were incorporated into meta-analysis. Pooled standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for main cancer sites were calculated using two approaches of unweighted ratio and random effect model. The heterogeneity and its sources of the results were examined with a Q-statistic and Z-score test. The dose-response effect as reflected in the percentage of all deaths due to mesothelioma served as a proxy measure of chrysotile exposure. Results A cohort of twenty six workers exposed to chrysotile alone was summarized. The significantly elevated meta-SMRs for all deaths (1.27), all cancers (1.28), cancers of respiratory organs (2.51), cancers of lung (2.35) and cancers of stomach (1.24) were observed. The significantly elevated meta-SMRs for lung cancer within occupational strata were observed among textile workers (3.55), asbestos product manufacturers (3.30), miners and millers (2.24), cement product workers (1.22), and for stomach cancer among asbestos product manufacturers (1.49). Meta-SMRs for cancers at other sites were not significant. Meta-SMR for lung cancer showed an increasing trend with an elevated percentage of all deaths from mesothelioma, but no such trend for stomach cancer. Conclusion There are excessive risks of lung cancer and mesothelioma among workers exposed to chrysotile fiber alone, and likely no convincing indication of an etiological association between chrysotile exposure and cancers at other sites.

  19. Relationship between dose in vivo of ethylene oxide and exposure to ethene studied in exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granath, F; Rohlén, O; Göransson, C; Hansson, L; Magnusson, A L; Törnqvist, M

    1996-10-01

    1. In vivo doses of ethylene oxide, arising from ethene exposure, in plastic industry workers were estimated through hemoglobin adducts. The ethene exposure was assessed through person-worn monitors. The metabolic conversion of ethene to ethylene oxide was estimated from the exposure dose/in vivo dose ratio. 2. Two studies were done: In the first study hemoglobin adducts were determined in samples collected on one occasion in exposed groups and exposure doses were estimated by using exposure data from the hygienic surveillance program. The second study applies a newly developed study design with repeated blood sampling in a few persons combined with a complete personal exposure monitoring during the study period. This makes it possible to relate adduct formation with individual short-time exposure doses, which in theory should overcome the problems with exposure history dependence of the adduct level in a single blood sample. The results of the second study shows that it is possible, through the proposed method, to utilize occupational exposure situations for this kind of studies even if the exposure pattern is irregular and highly variable. Both studies show a metabolic conversion of ethene to ethylene oxide of only 0.5%, which is unexpectedly low. 3. The cancer risk associated with the ethene exposure in the highly exposed group (3.6 p.p.m. 40 h/week) is estimated by applying the radiation-dose-equivalence approach. The result of this evaluation leads to a risk corresponding to a radiation dose of 4 mSv/year which is about a factor 3 below the current dose limit for radiological work recommended by ICRP.

  20. [Early recognition of lung cancer in workers occupationally exposed to asbestos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann-Preiß, K; Rehbock, B

    2016-09-01

    Despite the fact that working with asbestos and placing it on the market have been banned in Germany since 1993 according to the Ordinance on Hazardous Substances, asbestos-related diseases of the lungs and pleura are still the leading cause of death in occupational diseases. The maximum industrial usage of asbestos was reached in former West Germany in the late 1970s and in former East Germany the late 1980s. Occupational diseases, mainly mesotheliomas and lung cancer emerging now are thus caused by asbestos exposure which occurred 30-40 years earlier. It is known that the combination of smoking and asbestos exposure results in a superadditive increase in the risk to develop lung cancer. No suitable screening methods for early detection of malignant mesothelioma are currently available and the therapeutic options are still very limited; however, the national lung screening trial (NLST) has shown for the first time that by employing low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in heavy smokers, lung cancer mortality can be significantly reduced. According to current knowledge the resulting survival benefits far outweigh the potential risks involved in the diagnostic work-up of suspicious lesions. These results in association with the recommendations of international medical societies and organizations were pivotal as the German statutory accident insurance (DGUV) decided to provide LDCT as a special occupational medical examination for workers previously exposed to asbestos and with a particularly high risk for developing lung cancer.

  1. Oxidative stress and genetic damage among workers exposed primarily to organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda-Arce, Rigoberto; Rojas-García, Aurora Elizabeth; Benitez-Trinidad, Alma; Herrera-Moreno, José Francisco; Medina-Díaz, Irma Martha; Barrón-Vivanco, Briscia S; Villegas, Germán Pier; Hernández-Ochoa, Isabel; Sólis Heredia, María de Jesús; Bernal-Hernández, Yael Y

    2017-02-24

    The indiscriminate use of pesticides in agriculture and public health campaigns has been associated with an increase of oxidative stress and DNA damage, resulting in health outcomes. Some defense mechanisms against free radical-induced oxidative damage include the antioxidant enzyme systems. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and the relationship of antioxidant enzyme levels with DNA damage among sprayers (workers) occupationally exposed to pesticides. The determinations of MDA and antioxidant enzymes were performed spectrophotometrically. The genotoxic effects were evaluated using the comet assay. The results showed a marginally significant decrease in SOD and CAT activities in the high exposure group compared to the control group. For MDA, statistically significant differences were found among people working long term vs. those working temporarily (P = 0.02) as sprayers. In the moderate exposure group, a positive correlation was observed between MDA levels and GPx activity. In the high exposure group, a negative correlation was observed between GR and CAT activities, and between MDA levels and GPx activities. Furthermore, in the high exposure group, a positive correlation between DNA damage parameters and MDA levels was observed. The results suggest an important role of antioxidant enzymes for the protection of DNA damage caused by occupational exposure to pesticides.

  2. Assessment of Some Immune Parameters in Occupationally Exposed Nuclear Power Plants Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panova, Delyana; Djounova, Jana; Rupova, Ivanka; Penkova, Kalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the results of a 10-year survey of the radiation effects of some immune parameters of occupationally exposed personnel from the Nuclear Power Plant “Kozloduy”, Bulgaria. 438 persons working in NPP with cumulative doses between 0.06 mSv and 766.36mSv and a control group with 65 persons were studied. Flow cytometry measurements of T, B, natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cell lymphocyte populations were performed. Data were interpreted with regard to cumulative doses, length of service and age. The average values of the studied parameters of cellular immunity were in the reference range relative to age and for most of the workers were not significantly different from the control values. Low doses of ionizing radiation showed some trends of change in the number of CD3+CD4+ helper-inducer lymphocytes, CD3+ CD8+ and NKT cell counts. The observed changes in some of the studied parameters could be interpreted in terms of adaptation processes at low doses. At doses above 100–200 mSv, compensatory mechanisms might be involved to balance deviations in lymphocyte subsets. The observed variations in some cases could not be attributed only to the radiation exposure because of the impact of a number of other exogenous and endogenous factors on the immune system. PMID:26675014

  3. Pesquisa auditiva en trabajadores expuestos al ruido industrial Hearing screening in workers exposed to industrial noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Esteban Moreno Rajadel

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, en la Empresa de Productos Lácteos “Escambray”, de Cumanayagua, Cienfuegos, durante el período de junio a diciembre de 2005, con el objetivo de determinar los niveles de ruidos y evaluar la función auditiva en los 82 trabajadores expuestos a ruidos de intensidad igual o superior a los 85 dB-A. Las variables seleccionadas para el estudio fueron: intensidad de los ruidos, años de exposición, tipo de ruido, información previa sobre el uso de medios de protección y su vía de obtención, así como el uso de los medios de protección y las causas por las cuales no son usados. De las 24 áreas estudiadas, 15 (62,5 % tenían niveles de ruidos igual o superior a 85 dB-A. La información previa sobre el uso de los medios de protección para ruidos fue ínfima, pues el 96,3 % de los trabajadores no los usaban, el 62,2 % llevaba más de 10 años de exposición a ruidos y 24 obreros mostraron pérdidas auditivas, de ellos, 5 (20,8 % sin respuesta a intensidades de 25 dB, 12 (50,0 % a intensidades de 40 dB y 7 (29,2 % no respondieron a estímulos sonoros de 60 dB. A modo de conclusión, consideramos, que la contaminación sonora inherente a la entidad estudiada es elevada, los niveles medidos no cumplen con las recomendaciones que existen a escala internacional ni con los criterios higiénicos industriales, y actúan perjudicialmente sobre la audición, por lo que recomendamos la ejecución de medidas para proteger al personal y atenuar los altos índices de emisiones acústicas contaminantes.A descriptive, cross-sectional study was undertaken at the "Escambray" Dairies Enterprise of Cumanayagua, Cienfuegos, from June to December, 2005, aimed at determining the levels of noise and at evaluating the auditory function among 82 workers exposed to a noise intensity equal to or over 85 dB-A .The variables selected for the study were: noise intensity, years of exposure, type of noise, previous

  4. Abattoir (Slaughterhouse) in Qaladze Sulaymaniyah, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-16

    daily reports. Further, the QC representatives were also present for all significant pours and testing and followed up on the test results. The...Sagrma, Sara, Gmo , and Qandil. Sulaymaniyah is geographically dominated by its rolling terrain, lying at the foothills of the Zagros Mountain range...to as a slaughterhouse, an abattoir 7 is a facility in which animals are killed and processed for meat or meat food products. These animals are

  5. Biomonitoring of diesel exhaust-exposed workers. DNA and hemoglobin adducts and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as markers of exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sabro; Andreassen, Åshild; Farmer, Peter B.;

    1996-01-01

    Diesel exhaust-exposed workers have been shown to have an increased risk of lung cancer. A battery of biomarkers were evaluated for their ability to assess differences in exposure to genotoxic compounds in bus garage workers and mechanics and controls. Lymphocyte DNA adducts were analyzed using...... the 32P-postlabelling method with butanol and P1 enrichment procedures. Hydroxyethylvaline (HOEtVal) adducts in hemoglobin were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and 1-hydroxypyrene (HPU) in urine determined using HPLC analysis. The exposed workers had significantly higher levels...... of all three biomarkers compared to the controls. Total DNA adduct levels were 0.84 fmol/micrograms DNA vs 0.26 in controls (butanol) and 0.65 fmol/micrograms DNA vs. 0.08 (P1 nuclease). Median HOEtVal adduct level in exposed workers was 33.3 pmol/g hemoglobin vs. 22.1 in controls. HOEtVal adducts...

  6. Association between Genetic Polymorphisms of DNA Repair Genes and Chromosomal Damage for 1,3-Butadiene-Exposed Workers in a Matched Study in China

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the association between polymorphisms of DNA repair genes and chromosomal damage of 1,3-butadiene- (BD-) exposed workers. The study was conducted in 45 pairs of occupationally exposed workers in a BD product workshop and matched control workers in an administrative office and a circulatory water workshop in China. Newly developed biomarkers (micronuclei, MNi; nucleoplasmic bridges, NPBs; nuclear buds, NBUDs) in the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) cy...

  7. Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress, improves glutathione metabolism and modifies antioxidant defense systems in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir, E-mail: kaslav@mp.pl [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Dobrakowski, Michał [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Kasperczyk, Janusz [Dept. of Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Ostałowska, Alina; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Birkner, Ewa [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland)

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-carotene administration reduces oxidative stress and influences antioxidant, mainly glutathione-related, defense systems in workers chronically exposed to lead. The population consisted of two randomly divided groups of healthy male volunteers exposed to lead. Workers in the first group (reference group) were not administered any antioxidants, while workers in the second group (CAR group) were treated orally with 10 mg of beta-carotene once a day for 12 weeks. Biochemical analysis included measuring markers of lead-exposure and oxidative stress in addition to the levels and activities of selected antioxidants. After treatment, levels of malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and lipofuscin significantly decreased compared with the reference group. However, the level of glutathione significantly increased compared with the baseline. Treatment with beta-carotene also resulted in significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity compared with the reference group, while the activities of other glutathione-related enzymes and of superoxide dismutase were not significantly changed. However, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase, as well as the level of alpha-tocopherol, were significantly higher after treatment compared with the baseline. Despite controversy over the antioxidant properties of beta-carotene in vivo, our findings showed reduced oxidative stress after beta-carotene supplementation in chronic lead poisoning. - Highlights: • Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene elevates glutathione level in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene administration could be beneficial in lead poisoning.

  8. Neuropsychological Symptoms among Workers Exposed to Toluene and Xylene in Two Paint Manufacturing Factories in Eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamai Thetkathuek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the exposure factors that may lead to neuropsychological symptoms among 92 workers who were exposed to xylene and toluene and 100 workers who were not exposed to the solvents. The airborne concentration of xylene and toluene was evaluated with personal passive badges. The levels of methyl hippuric acid and hippuric acid in urine were assessed, and interviews were performed to observe the neuropsychological symptoms that may result from exposure to the solvents. The result showed that the average concentration for the exposed group of xylene in the paint company working environment was 2.7 (SD = 2.4 ppm and the average concentration of toluene was 9.5 (SD = 10.4 ppm. The average level of methyl hippuric acid in urine was 78 (SD = 74.7 mg/g creatinine. Factors that affected the neuropsychological symptoms included the following. (1 The impact of age: the risk (adjusted odds ratio for getting psychosomatic symptoms in persons over 40 and exposed to xylene was 9.5 and the aOR of those exposed to toluene was 8.3. (2 The impact of not providing personal protective equipment was found to be sleep disturbance; it was found that the aOR of those exposed to xylene was 3.9, and the aOR of those exposed to toluene was 4.4. In summary, periodic examination of workers by occupational physician is needed for detection of early neuropsychological effects, especially psychosomatic symptoms, and sleep disturbances.

  9. Association of ADAM33 gene polymorphism and arginase activity with susceptibility to ventilatory impairment in wood dust-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad-Hussein, A; Thabet, E H; Taha, M M; Shahy, E M; Mahdy-Abdallah, H

    2016-09-01

    ADAM33 represents an important gene of susceptibility for lung function impairment. This work aimed to evaluate the association between genetic polymorphism of ADAM33 at four single nucleotide polymorphisms (T1, T2, S1, and Q1) and arginase activity with respiratory functions impairment in wood workers. The study was done to compare ventilatory functions and arginase activity of 82 wood workers and 81 controls. Genotyping was determined by using the polymerase chain restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) of the workers were significantly reduced compared with the controls. T1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was associated with obvious decline in the FEV1, FVC, and PEF in wood workers, while T2 SNP was associated with decline in FEV1 and PEF. A significant increase in arginase activity was found in T2 and S1 SNPs of the exposed workers. Increase in duration of exposure was correlated with the decline in ventilatory functions. This inverse correlation was significant for pulmonary function indices in AA and GG genotypes of T1 and T2, respectively. Moreover, significance was detected for FVC and FEV1 in AA and GA genotypes of S1 and Q1. A positive correlation between arginase activity and duration of exposure was found to be significant in GG genotype of S1 SNP. An association between ADAM33 gene polymorphism and impaired lung functions was detected in wood dust-exposed workers. Arginase activity may play an associated important role in increasing this impairment in wood workers.

  10. Mortality and cancer incidence of aircraft maintenance workers exposed to trichloroethylene and other organic solvents and chemicals: extended follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, A; Hartge, P; Stewart, P A; McAdams, M; Lubin, J

    1998-03-01

    To extend the follow up of a cohort of 14,457 aircraft maintenance workers to the end of 1990 to evaluate cancer risks from potential exposure to trichloroethylene and other chemicals. The cohort comprised civilians employed for at least one year between 1952 and 1956, of whom 5727 had died by 31 December 1990. Analyses compared the mortality of the cohort with the general population of Utah and the mortality and cancer incidence of exposed workers with those unexposed to chemicals, while adjusting for age, sex and calendar time. In the combined follow up period (1952-90), mortality from all causes and all cancer was close to expected (standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) 97 and 96, respectively). Significant excesses occurred for ischaemic heart disease (SMR 108), asthma (SMR 160), and cancer of the bone (SMR 227), whereas significant deficits occurred for cerebrovascular disease (SMR 88), accidents (SMR 70), and cancer of the central nervous system (SMR 64). Workers exposed to trichloroethylene showed non-significant excesses for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (relative risk (RR) 2.0), and cancers of the oesophagus (RR 5.6), colon (RR 1.4), primary liver (RR 1.7), breast (RR 1.8), cervix (RR 1.8), kidney (RR 1.6), and bone (RR 2.1). None of these cancers showed an exposure-response gradient and RRs among workers exposed to other chemicals but not trichloroethylene often had RRs as large as workers exposed to trichloroethylene. Workers exposed to solvents other than trichloroethylene had slightly increased mortality from asthma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and breast cancer. These findings do not strongly support a causal link with trichloroethylene because the associations were not significant, not clearly dose-related, and inconsistent between men and women. Because findings from experimental investigations and other epidemiological studies on solvents other than trichloroethylene provide some biological plausibility, the suggested links between these

  11. Urinary β2 Microglobulin in Workers Exposed to Arc Welding Fumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Sadeghniiat-Haghighi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Welding is a process in which two or more metals are attached by the use of heat and, in some cases, pressure. Direct exposure and inhalation of welding fumes causes acute and chronic side effects in humans. Kidney damage is one of these important side effects. β2 microglobulin is an 11.8 kilodalton protein and levels increase in the case of some inflammatory and viral diseases, or kidney malfunction and autoimmune diseases. In this study measurements of β2 microglobulin were used as a criterion for assessing effects on the kidneys of workers exposed to welding fumes. The study population were electric arc welders in an industrial plant in Tehran, Iran. For control we selected workers who did not have any exposure to welding fumes. Both groups were selected on the basis of a questionnaire and the consideration of criteria for inclusion and exclusion. In the end 50 cases and 50 controls were chosen. A urine sample was collected from all participants and urinary pH was set to between 6-8 using NaOH (1M. Sample transportation to the laboratory complied with the related standards. The samples were assessed using the ORG 5BM kit. For quantitative assessment of β2 microglobulin we used the Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA method. The ages of the welders ranged from 21 to 48 years (mean=30.5±5.9 yrs and of controls from 23 to 56 years (mean=31.8±5.9 yrs. Mean employment duration was 7.86±5.01years (range 2 to 27 years for welders. Mean β2 microglobulin level was 0.10±0.096 μg/ml in welders and 0.11±0.06 in controls. This difference was not statistically significant (P=0.381. In conclusion we don't find that exposure to electric arc welding fumes cause a significant change in urinary β2 microglobulin compared to the control group.

  12. Lung scintigraphy evaluation in workers exposed to abrasive dusts; Avaliacao cintilografica pulmonar em trabalhadores de industria de abrasivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terra Filho, Mario

    1995-12-31

    The production process of abrasives use aluminium, or silicon carbide a synthetic material with a hardness only slightly less than that of a diamond. It is popularly known as carborundum since it was first manufactured as an abrasive in 1891, produced by the fusion of high grade silica and petroleum coke with sawdust. For many years silicon carbide was thought not to give rise to pulmonary lesions. Recently several researchers suggested the existence of a carborundum pneumoconiosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the pulmonary clearance of {sup 99m} Technetium chelated to diethylene-triamine penta-acetate ({sup 99m} Tc DTPA), and {sup 67} Gallium lung scanning in workers exposed to abrasive dusts. Thirty seven subjects, 13 smokers and 24 nonsmokers and ex smokers were studied. In 32 (86,48%) {sup 67} Gallium lung scanning was positive including 13 (40,62%) retired workers. We conclude that non smoking workers of abrasives plants have a pulmonary alveolar epithelial permeability disturbance similar as observed in smoking workers and smoking controls. Most workers, ex-workers of these industries and in patients with carborundum pneumoconiosis there is an evidence of pulmonary inflammation measured with abnormal {sup 67} Gallium lung scan. (author) 101 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. Blood biomarkers in metal scrap workers accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M L; Srivastava, N N; Dutta, S; Shukla, S K; Dutta, A; Verma, S; Devi, M

    2013-12-01

    The detrimental effect of nuclear accidents due to localized or whole body radiation exposure results in severe cellular damage. The current study was carried out to evaluate radiation-mediated variability in blood components of metal scrap workers exposed accidently to cobalt-60 source. Blood samples collected initially from five hospitalized patients, coded P1-P5, were processed for total leukocyte counts (TLC), platelet (PLT) counts, haemoglobin, estimation of DNA double strand breaks by measuring phosphorylated form of H2AX (γ-H2AX) and chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics). Blood cells count (TLC), in all the patients except P2, was found decreased. Dicentrics increased in all the five patients. γ-H2AX was found significantly elevated in patients P2 and P4. After 3 days, 21 subjects working in close vicinity of accident site were evaluated for the above-mentioned markers to confirm their possibility of radiation exposure; however, all the parameters in these subjects were found within normal limits. Blood from patients P1-P5 was collected again after 11 days. Studies revealed exorbitant increase in γ-H2AX in lymphocytes and monocytes of patients P1, P4 and P5. TLC and PLT count in these patients had fallen further. Dicentrics declined with time in all the five patients. Based on the studied blood biomarkers, we conclude that the five subjects showed signs of radiation exposure. Measurement on radiation dose could not be performed in the current study; however, the generated data particularly on dicentrics provide ample evidence of radiation exposure.

  14. Recent advances in occupational and environmental health hazards of workers exposed to gasoline compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E. Ekpenyong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of health and environmental hazards, associated with the constituents of gasoline, on occupationally exposed workers has been recorded over the past few decades. However, the scientific literature on their pathogenic potential remains incomplete, which could affect the current understanding of the associated health risks. This review provides current information based on recently improved research techniques to evaluate gasoline toxicity profiles for humans. Our current knowledge provides insight into the intricate mechanism of gasoline-induced adverse effects, including the formation of reactive metabolites via bio-activation and subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidative stress, which are involved in multiple mechanisms that are central to the aetiology of gasoline-induced toxicity. These mechanisms include covalent binding to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA, leading to oxidative damage, tumor-suppression gene activity, and activation of pro-oncogenes. Furthermore, it results in induction of autoimmunity and local inflammatory responses, disruption of multiple neurotransmitters and immune cell function, derangement of various enzyme activities (e.g., sodiumpotassium adenosine triphosphate (Na+/K+/ATPase activity, cytochrome P450 (CYP450, nitric oxide synthase (NOS, antioxidant enzyme activities, etc., conjugation of bile, and non-specific cell membrane interaction, leading to damage of the membrane lipid bilayer and proteins. Available data suggests that exposure to gasoline or gasoline constituents have the potential to cause different types of illnesses. The data highlights the need to maintain safety measures via suitable research, medical surveillance, regulatory control, life style modification, early detection, and intervention to minimize exposure and manage suspected cases. They also present novel opportunities to design and develop effective therapeutic strategies against gasoline-induced detrimental

  15. Pleural mesothelioma in household members of asbestos-exposed workers in Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D' Agostin, Flavia; de Michieli, Paola; Negro, Corrado

    2017-05-08

    Malignant mesothelioma is closely associated to asbestos exposure. One such exposure may occur through contact with occupationally exposed household members and their belongings. This study examines the features of pleural mesothelioma attributable only to asbestos brought home by another family member. The data sources were 1063 mesothelioma cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2014, from the Friuli Venezia Giulia Mesothelioma Register. In all cases the diagnosis of mesothelioma was based on the pathology report. Exposure information and demographic data were acquired by an occupational medical standardized questionnaire/interview. Household-exposure mesothelioma cases included 33 women and 2 men. Relationships were: wives (N = 22), daughters (N = 9), sons (N = 2), and mothers (N = 2). Asbestos exposure in the workers predominantly occurred in shipyards. Out of the 35 pleural cases, 19 were epithelial, 9 biphasic, 3 sarcomatoid, and 4 not specified. The mean age at diagnosis was 77 years old. The mean latency was 59 years, with wives having a significant shorter latency than offspring. Latency was not significantly related to morphology and asbestosis. The overall mean survival was 16 months (median 11 months) but treatment was beneficial (mean 16 months vs. 7 months). Biphasic/sarcomatoid histology and presence of asbestosis were associated with a decreased survival, although not with statistical significance. Our data confirms that household exposure increases the risk for pleural mesothelioma amongst women with no history of occupational asbestos exposure. This is an ongoing problem in many countries, as well as in Italy, where the evaluation of a framework for the compensation of these cases is under debate. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(3):419-431.

  16. Chest HRCT signs predict deaths in long-term follow-up among asbestos exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehmas, Tapio, E-mail: tapio.vehmas@ttl.fi [Health and Work Ability, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, FI-00250 Helsinki (Finland); Oksa, Panu, E-mail: panu.oksa@ttl.fi [Health and Work Ability, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Uimalankatu 1, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Much lung and pleural pathology is found in chest CT studies. • HRCT signs were screened and subsequent mortality followed up. • Several signs were related to all-cause and disease specific deaths. • The HRCT classification system used was able to predict mortality. • Secondary preventive strategies should be developed for patients with such signs. - Abstract: Objectives: To study associations between chest HRCT signs and subsequent deaths in long-term follow-up. Methods: Lung and pleural signs of 633 asbestos exposed workers (age 45–86, mean 65) screened with HRCT were recorded by using the International Classification of Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) system, which contains detailed instructions for use and reference images. Subsequent mortality was checked from the national register. Cox regression adjusted for covariates (age, sex, BMI, asbestos exposure, pack-years) was used to explore the relations between HRCT signs and all-cause deaths, cardiovascular and benign respiratory deaths, and deaths from neoplasms – all according to the ICD-10 diagnostic system. Results: The follow-up totalled 5271.9 person-years (mean 8.3 y/person, range .04–10.3). 119 deaths were reported. Irregular/linear opacities, honeycombing, emphysema, large opacities, visceral pleural abnormalities and bronchial wall thickening were all significantly related to all-cause deaths. Most of these signs were associated also with deaths from neoplasms and benign respiratory disease. Deaths from cardiovascular disease were predicted by emphysema and visceral pleural abnormalities. Conclusions: Several HRCT signs predicted deaths. Careful attention should be paid on subjects with radiological signs predictive of deaths and new secondary preventive strategies developed. This calls for further focused studies among different populations.

  17. Follow up study of workers exposed to man made mineral fibres.

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, J. M.; Jones, R. N.; Glindmeyer, H W; Hammad, Y Y; Weill, H.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of workers in seven man made mineral fibre (MMMF) production plants, the subject of a previous report, was conducted, with other blue collar workers serving as regional comparisons. Based on the median reading of chest radiographs by five readers, a low prevalence of small opacities, all at the 1/0 and 1/1 profusion levels, was again found: for workers with MMMFs, 23/1435 (1.6%); for comparison workers, 2/305 (0.7%). Spirometric measurements indicated generally healthy populations, a...

  18. Respiratory function and bronchial responsiveness among industrial workers exposed to different classes of occupational agents: a study from Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoet Peter H

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Occupational exposures play a role in the onset of several chronic airway diseases. We investigated, in a cross-sectional study, lung function parameters and bronchial hyper-responsiveness to histamine in workers exposed to different airborne compounds. The study group totalled 546 male subjects of whom 114 were exposed to welding fumes, 106 to solvents, 107 to mineral dust, 97 to organic dust and 123 without known exposure to airway irritants. A questionnaire was administered and spirometry and bronchial responsiveness to histamine were assessed by one observer, in the morning before work to prevent effects of acute exposure. The mean (SD age of the participants was 39.3 (7.8 years, with a mean duration of employment of 13.8 (6.6 years. Both before and after adjustment for smoking status, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, expressed as % predicted was lower in welders -4.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], -6.3 to -1.8; p = 0.01 and workers exposed to solvents -5.6% (CI: -7.9 to -3.3; p = 0.0009 than in control subjects. Furthermore, solvent workers had an odds ratio of 3.43 (95% CI: 1.09–11.6; p = 0.037 for bronchial hyperresponsiveness compared with the reference group. The higher prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in solvent workers adds to the growing body of evidence of adverse respiratory effects of occupational solvent exposure. These results point to the necessity of preventive measures in solvent workers to avoid these adverse respiratory effects.

  19. Assessment of heart rate response to exercise and recovery during treadmill testing in arsenic-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakulak, Ugur Nadir; Gunduzoz, Meside; Ayturk, Mehmet; Tek Ozturk, Mujgan; Tutkun, Engin; Yilmaz, Omer Hinc

    2017-09-01

    Arsenic exposure is associated with various cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to assess cardiac autonomic function via heart rate response to exercise and recovery period of treadmill testing in arsenic-exposed workers. Sixty-five (65) occupationally arsenic-exposed workers and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. Blood and urinary arsenic levels were analyzed and symptom limited maximal treadmill exercise test were performed. Chronotropic response to exercise including age-predicted maximal heart rate (APMHR), heart rate reserve (HRreserve ), age-predicted HRreserve (APHRreserve ) and adjusted HRreserve and 1st-, 2nd-and 3rd-min heart rate recovery (HRR) indices were calculated. Baseline clinical and echocardiographic parameters, exercise test duration, resting and maximal heart rate, peak exercise capacity, HRreserve , APMHR, APHRreserve , and adjusted HRreserve were found to be similar between groups. HRR1 (22.0 ± 4.3 vs. 24.3 ± 3.1 bpm, p = .003) and HRR2 (43.2 ± 6.2 vs. 46.7 ± 6.4 bpm, p = .012) were significantly lower in arsenic-exposed workers compared to controls. Blood and urinary arsenic levels negatively correlated with HRR1 (r = -.477, p < .001 and r = -.438, p < .001, respectively) and HRR2 (r = -.507, p < .001 and r = -.412, p < .001 respectively). Arsenic-exposed workers had lower HRR indices than normal subjects but chronotropic response were similar. Cardiac autonomic dysregulation may be one of the cardiovascular consequences of arsenic exposure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A study of sister chromatid exchange and somatic cell mutation in hospital workers exposed to ethylene oxide.

    OpenAIRE

    Tomkins, D J; T. Haines; Lawrence, M.; Rosa, N

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the risks of exposure to ethylene oxide (EO) at current permissible levels and at past higher levels, an inception cohort of sterilizer operators and supervisors from the Central Processing Department (CPD), respiratory therapists, and engineers exposed to EO were identified at the McMaster University Medical Centre. A comparison group from Nutrition Services (NUTR) were matched with the CPD workers on the basis of sex, age, and smoking habit. The present report is based on gen...

  1. Parallel assessment of male reproductive function in workers and wild rats exposed to pesticides in banana plantations in Guadeloupe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multigner, Luc; Kadhel, Philippe; Pascal, Michel; Huc-Terki, Farida; Kercret, Henri; Massart, Catherine; Janky, Eustase; Auger, Jacques; Jégou, Bernard

    2008-07-30

    There is increasing evidence that reproductive abnormalities are increasing in frequency in both human population and among wild fauna. This increase is probably related to exposure to toxic contaminants in the environment. The use of sentinel species to raise alarms relating to human reproductive health has been strongly recommended. However, no simultaneous studies at the same site have been carried out in recent decades to evaluate the utility of wild animals for monitoring human reproductive disorders. We carried out a joint study in Guadeloupe assessing the reproductive function of workers exposed to pesticides in banana plantations and of male wild rats living in these plantations. A cross-sectional study was performed to assess semen quality and reproductive hormones in banana workers and in men working in non-agricultural sectors. These reproductive parameters were also assessed in wild rats captured in the plantations and were compared with those in rats from areas not directly polluted by humans. No significant difference in sperm characteristics and/or hormones was found between workers exposed and not exposed to pesticide. By contrast, rats captured in the banana plantations had lower testosterone levels and gonadosomatic indices than control rats. Wild rats seem to be more sensitive than humans to the effects of pesticide exposure on reproductive health. We conclude that the concept of sentinel species must be carefully validated as the actual nature of exposure may varies between human and wild species as well as the vulnerable time period of exposure and various ecological factors.

  2. Respiratory, allergy and eye problems in bagasse-exposed sugar cane workers in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gascon, M.; Kromhout, H.; Heederik, D.; Eduard, W.; van Wendel de Joode, B.N.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate bagasse (sugar cane fibres) and microbiological exposure among sugar cane refinery workers in Costa Rica and its relationships with respiratory, allergy and eye problems. METHODS: Ventilatory lung function and total serum IgE were measured in 104 sugar cane workers in five

  3. Markers of lipid oxidative damage among office workers exposed intermittently to air pollutants including nanoTiO2 particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelclova, Daniela; Zdimal, Vladimir; Kacer, Petr; Komarc, Martin; Fenclova, Zdenka; Vlckova, Stepanka; Zikova, Nadezda; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Makes, Otakar; Navratil, Tomas; Zakharov, Sergey; Bello, Dhimiter

    2017-03-01

    Nanoscale titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2) is a commercially important nanomaterial used in numerous applications. Experimental studies with nanotitania have documented lung injury and inflammation, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity. Production workers in TiO2 manufacturing with a high proportion of nanoparticles and a mixture of other air pollutants, such as gases and organic aerosols, had increased markers of oxidative stress, including DNA and protein damage, as well as lipid peroxidation in their exhaled breath condensate (EBC) compared to unexposed controls. Office workers were observed to get intermittent exposures to nanoTiO2 during their process monitoring. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of such short-term exposures on the markers of health effects in office workers relative to production workers from the same factory. Twenty-two office employees were examined. They were occupationally exposed to (nano)TiO2 aerosol during their daily visits of the production area for an average of 14±9 min/day. Median particle number concentration in office workers while in the production area was 2.32×104/cm3. About 80% of the particles were meaning of their physiological values in the context of chronic disease development and damage-repair kinetics.

  4. Exercise heart rate recovery assessment of the cardiac autonomic nervous system in workers occupationally exposed to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakulak, Uğur Nadir; Yılmaz, Ömer Hınç; Tutkun, Engin; Gündüzöz, Meşide; Evranos, Banu; Ercan Onay, Emine; Aytürk, Mehmet; Tek Öztürk, Müjgan

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess cardiac autonomic function via indices of exercise heart rate recovery (HRR) in workers occupationally exposed to lead. A total of 98 lead-exposed workers and 98 healthy controls were enrolled. All underwent exercise testing and transthoracic echocardiography. HRR indices were calculated by subtracting 1st- (HRR1), 2nd- (HRR2), and 3rd-minute (HRR3) heart rates from maximal heart rate (HR). Exercise test parameters- HRR in particular- were compared between groups, and correlation analysis of blood, 24-hour urine lead levels, and test parameters was performed. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were found to be similar between groups. Mean HRR1 (26.2±3.6 vs 29.0±4.1 bpm, p<0.001), HRR2 (42.6±3.9 vs 46.9±3.7 bpm, p<0.001), and HRR3 (56.6±4.5 vs 61.8±4.3 bpm, p<0.001) values were significantly lower in the lead-exposed group than in the healthy controls. HRR1 was found to be significantly correlated with blood (r:-0.415; p<0.001) and 24-hour urine lead levels (r:-0.446; p<0.001). HRR2 and HRR3 were significantly correlated with 24-hour urine lead level (r:-0.396; p<0.001 and r:-0.233; p=0.021, respectively). Lead-exposed workers had lower HRR indices than normal subjects. Blood and 24-hour urine lead levels were significantly associated with HRR indices. Cardiac autonomic functions may be affected by exposure to lead, and those occupationally exposed should be closely followed for adverse cardiovascular outcome.

  5. Effect of cigarette smoking on noise-induced hearing loss in workers exposed to occupational noise in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Tao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive exposure to high noise level environments has the potential to cause noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL, and cigarette smoking has also been shown to have a potential adverse effect on hearing. The aim of this study was to determine whether smoking interacts with noise in the development of hearing loss, and if so, the extent of the contribution from smoking on NIHL. A cross-sectional study was designed to assess the effect of smoking on NIHL in 517 male workers (non-smokers: N = 199; smokers: N = 318 exposed to a high-level industrial noise environment in China. Shift-long temporal waveforms of the noise that workers were exposed to for evaluation of noise exposures, and audiometric threshold measures were obtained on all selected subjects. The subjects used hearing protection devices only within the last 1-2 years. The results suggest that smoking has an adverse effect on NIHL in workers exposed to high level industrial noise, i.e., the median high frequency hearing thresholds were significantly greater in smokers than non-smokers exposed to noise for more than 10 years. This effect was observed at 4.0 and 6.0 kHz. Smoking did not have an adverse effect on NIHL in workers exposed to noise less than 10 years. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio (OR for high frequency hearing loss (i.e., hearing threshold greater than 40 dB at 4.0 kHz were 1.94 for smokers in comparison to non-smokers. The results suggest that: (1 smokers have a higher risk of developing high frequency hearing loss than non-smokers with a similar occupational noise exposure, and (2 the interaction between cigarette smoking and high-level noise exposure may be additive. There is a need to develop and analyze a larger database of workers with well-documented exposures and smoking histories for better understanding of the effect of smoking on NIHL incurred from high-level industrial noise exposures. A better understanding of the role of smoking may

  6. Comparative analysis of audiometric and impedancemetric findings in workers exposed to the effects of various duration industrial noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živić Ljubica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Industrial noise is produced in workshops due to factory machinery and tools used in technological processes. It has detrimental effect to primarily the organ of the sense of hearing, thus damaging hearing in oversensitive subjects. The aim of the study was to perform a detailed analysis of audiometric and, especially, impedancemetric parameters in workers exposed to the effects of industrial noise of various duration, as well as to determine similarities and differences in workers with differences in sensitivity to damaging effects of noise. Methods. The study included a homogenous group of 173 industrial workers involved in the same department of a huge workshop named 'Kovačica' exposed to noise level above a threshold intensity, and divided into three groups: the group I of 116 workers (232 ears exposed to noise for 8 h in the workshop 'Kovačica', the group II of 41 workers (82 ears exposed to noise only half of the working time, and the group III of 16 workers (32 ears exposed to the same conditions and having the normal hearing sense. The group III served as a control group. Prior to the study any workers went through a thorough anamnesis and complete ORL examination, and then they were submitted to audiometric testing. The study included only the workers with no hearing damage due to diseases, injuries nor other detrimental factors in order to be sure that the hearing findings had been caused by industrial noise. Results. The results obtained by audiometric testing showed that 90.75% of the workers had hearing damage of various degrees, while 9.25 % of the workers had regular hearing although had been exposed to the same conditions. More severe hearing damage was revealed in the workers of the group I. Tympanometricly, in most ears of the group I workers (65.52% a compliance value was found to be more than 0.9 cm3, while in the majority of those of the group II (59.75% a compliance value was in the range from 0.5 to 0

  7. Biomonitoring of agricultural workers exposed to pesticide mixtures in Guerrero state, Mexico, with comet assay and micronucleus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal-López, Yolanda; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Martínez-Arroyo, Amparo

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effect of pesticides in exfoliated buccal cells of workers occupationally exposed in Guerrero, Mexico, using the comet assay and the micronucleus test. The study compared 111 agricultural workers in three rural communities (Arcelia 62, Ajuchitlan 13, and Tlapehuala 36), with 60 non-exposed individuals. All the participants were males. The presence of DNA damage was investigated in the exfoliated buccal cells of study participants with the comet assay and the micronucleus (MN) test; comet tail length was evaluated in 100 nuclei and 3000 epithelial cells of each individual, respectively; other nuclear anomalies such as nuclear buds, karyolysis, karyorrhexis, and binucleate cells were also evaluated. Study results revealed that the tail migration of DNA and the frequency of MN increased significantly in the exposed group, which also showed nuclear anomalies associated with cytotoxic or genotoxic effect. No positive correlation was noted between exposure time and tail length and micronuclei frequencies. No significant effect on genetic damage was observed as a result of age, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The MN and comet assay in exfoliated buccal cells are useful and minimally invasive methods for monitoring genetic damage in individuals exposed to pesticides. This study provided valuable data for establishing the possible risk to human health associated with pesticide exposure.

  8. Increase in DNA damage in lymphocytes and micronucleus frequency in buccal cells in silica-exposed workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajanta Halder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay was applied to study the genotoxic properties of silica in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL. The study was designed to evaluate the DNA damage of lymphocytes and the end points like micronuclei from buccal smears in a group of 45 workers, occupationally exposed to silica, from small mines and stone quarries. The results were compared to 20 sex and age matched normal individuals. There was a statistically significant difference in the damage levels between the exposed group and the control groups. The types of damages (type I -type 1V were used to measure the DNA damage. The numbers of micronuclei were higher in the silica-exposed population. The present study suggests that the silica exposure can induce lymphocyte DNA damage and produces significant variation of micronuclei in buccal smear.

  9. A retrospective cohort study of cause-specific mortality and incidence of hematopoietic malignancies in Chinese benzene-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linet, Martha S; Yin, Song-Nian; Gilbert, Ethel S; Dores, Graça M; Hayes, Richard B; Vermeulen, Roel; Tian, Hao-Yuan; Lan, Qing; Portengen, Lutzen; Ji, Bu-Tian; Li, Gui-Lan; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2015-11-01

    Benzene exposure has been causally linked with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but inconsistently associated with other hematopoietic, lymphoproliferative and related disorders (HLD) or solid tumors in humans. Many neoplasms have been described in experimental animals exposed to benzene. We used Poisson regression to estimate adjusted relative risks (RR) and the likelihood ratio statistic to derive confidence intervals for cause-specific mortality and HLD incidence in 73,789 benzene-exposed compared with 34,504 unexposed workers in a retrospective cohort study in 12 cities in China. Follow-up and outcome assessment was based on factory, medical and other records. Benzene-exposed workers experienced increased risks for all-cause mortality (RR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.2) due to excesses of all neoplasms (RR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.4), respiratory diseases (RR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2, 2.3) and diseases of blood forming organs (RR = ∞, 95% CI = 3.4, ∞). Lung cancer mortality was significantly elevated (RR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.9) with similar RRs for males and females, based on three-fold more cases than in our previous follow-up. Significantly elevated incidence of all myeloid disorders reflected excesses of myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia (RR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.2, 6.6) and chronic myeloid leukemia (RR = 2.5, 95% CI = 0.8, 11), and increases of all lymphoid disorders included excesses of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (RR = 3.9, 95%CI = 1.5, 13) and all lymphoid leukemia (RR = 5.4, 95%CI = 1.0, 99). The 28-year follow-up of Chinese benzene-exposed workers demonstrated increased risks of a broad range of myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms, lung cancer, and respiratory diseases and suggested possible associations with other malignant and non-malignant disorders.

  10. [The study of the characteristics and influencing factors of pneumoconiosis among workers exposed to dusts in an iron mine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Hao; Su, Liang-Ping; Liu, Yue-Wei; Weng, Shao-Fan; Chen, Wei-Hong

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the prevalence characteristics and influence factors of pneumoconiosis of workers exposed to dusts in an iron mine, to provide the base of preventive measures for pneumoconiosis of iron mine. The subjects of cohort study were all workers exposed to dusts for at least one year registered in an iron mine during 1960 to 1974, and followed-up to the end in 2003. The cases with pneumoconiosis were diagnosed by the local diagnosis group of pneumoconiosis, according to the national diagnostic criteria of pneumoconiosis. The risk factors were analyzed with Cox risk model. A total of 3647 miners were included in the cohort study and were followed up by 132 574.4 person years. There were 316 cases with pneumoconiosis, and the incidence of pneumoconiosis for a year was 0.24 per thousand. There were 274 cases (86.7%) with pneumoconiosis in workers exposed to dusts before 1960, the incidence of pneumoconiosis for a year was 0.40 per thousand, which was significantly higher than that (0.07 per thousand) of workers exposed to dusts after 1960. The average latency of pneumoconiosis was 26.0 +/- 7.3 years. The average durations of upgrade from stage 0(+) to I , I to II and II to III were 5.3 +/- 3.2, 6.6 +/- 5.2 and 11.3 +/- 5.0 years, respectively. However, 164 cases with pneumoconiosis were diagnosed after ceasing exposure to dusts for mean 8.3 years. The risk of pneumoconiosis in iron miners increased with exposure doses, and there was an obvious dose-effect relationship. The average cumulative exposure dose of cases with pneumoconiosis was 173.7 +/- 91.6 mg/m3 x y, which was significantly higher than that (112.1 +/- 64.8 mg/m3 x y) of workers without pneumoconiosis. Also the tuberculosis (HR = 5.9, P < 0.001) and smoking (HR = 1.7, P < 0.01) were the main risk factors. There was an obvious dose-effect relationship between the cumulative exposure dose and pneumoconiosis incidence. Tuberculosis and smoking were the main risk factors influencing the pneumoconiosis

  11. Serum metabolomic pertubations among workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi Hosnijeh, Fatemeh; Pechlivanis, Alexandros; Keun, Hector C; Portengen, Lützen; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Heederik, Dick; Vermeulen, Roel

    2013-08-01

    Exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has been associated with multiple health effects. Mechanistic studies using metabolomics could provide supporting evidence for such associations by identifying relevant biological pathways. In this study, we investigated metabolic perturbations in a cohort of TCDD exposed workers to better understand TCDD related health effects. Eighty one workers who had been exposed to TCDD in the past and 63 nonexposed workers were included in the study. Serum metabolites were detected using ultra high pressure liquid chromatography coupled online to a Q-TOF Premier mass spectrometer with a scan range of 70-1,000 m/z. Current plasma levels of TCDD were determined by high-resolution gas chromatography/isotope dilution high resolution mass spectrometry. TCDD blood levels at the time of last exposure were estimated using a one-compartment first order kinetic model. Differentially expressed metabolites were identified using linear regression models, partial least squares regression (PLSr) and a regression-based Bayesian variable selection approach. Features that were present in all quality control samples and had a coefficient of variation 0.05). PLSr analyses and Bayesian variable selection regression analyses revealed no obvious metabolic perturbations associated with TCDD levels. This is the first metabolomic analysis related to TCDD exposure in humans. No significant metabolic features were identified. It is concluded that TCDD exposure at levels present in this study does not lead to significant perturbations of the serum metabolome.

  12. Antioxidant enzymes status and reproductive health of adult male workers exposed to brick kiln pollutants in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Sarwat; Falah, Samreen; Ullah, Hizb; Ullah, Asad; Rauf, Naveed

    2016-07-01

    The present study was designed to study the effect of brick kilns emissions on the reproductive health and biochemical status of brick kiln workers and people living in the area near brick kilns. Body mass index (BMI) was significantly reduced in brick makers, carriers, and bakers compared to the control. Red blood cells count and hematocrit (%) were significantly high in brick bakers while MCH was significantly reduced in brick makers and brick bakers. Heavy metals (lead, cadmium, and chromium) concentration in whole blood of the brick kiln workers were significantly higher as compared to the control. Antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, POD, GSH, and GR) were significantly reduced in brick kiln workers as compared to the control while TBARS level were significantly high in brick bakers as compared to the control. Plasma leutinizing hormone (LH) was significantly high in brick bakers while testosterone concentrations were significantly reduced in brick makers, carriers, and bakers. The present study shows that brick kiln workers and people living in the brick kiln vicinity are exposed to heavy metals and other pollutants that is a serious threat to their health. Alternate technology is needed to be developed and brick kilns should be replaced.

  13. Dose estimation by ESR on tooth enamel from two workers exposed to radiation due to the JCO accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Kunio; Iwasaki, Midori; Miyazawa, Chyuzo; Yonehara, Hidenori; Matsumoto, Masaki

    2002-09-01

    ESR dosimetry is useful to estimate the external dose for the general population as well as for occupational workers in a nuclear emergency. Three teeth were extracted from two exposed workers (A and B) related to the JCO criticality accident. Tooth enamel was carefully separated from other tooth parts and subjected to ESR dosimetry. Doses equivalent to the gamma-ray dose of 60Co were estimated as follows: for worker A, the buccal and lingual sides of the eighth tooth in the upper right side, 11.8 +/- 3.6 and 12.0 +/- 3.6 Gy, respectively; for worker B, the buccal and lingual sides of the fourth tooth in the upper right side and the fifth tooth in the upper left side, 11.3 +/- 3.4 and 10.8 +/- 3.3 Gy, 11.7 +/- 3.5 and 11.4 +/- 3.4 Gy, respectively. The estimated doses were found to be similar and not dependent on the tooth positions, whether the buccal or lingual sides in each tooth.

  14. Retrospective diagnosis of Q fever in a country abattoir by the use of specific IgM globulin estimations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, A.M.; Hunt, J.G.

    1981-10-03

    Twenty-two cases of pyrexial illness which occurred amongst workers in a country abattoir were investigated retrospectively for Q fever, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. In 18, the illness was shown to be Q fever. No diagnoses were established for the other four. The demonstration of circulating Q-fever-specific IgM globulin was instrumental in establishing the diagnosis in many of the cases.

  15. Thermographic Evaluation of the Hands of Pig Slaughterhouse Workers Exposed to Cold Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Eliane

    2017-01-01

    Brazil was rated the fourth leading producer and exporter of pork meat in the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the temperature of the hands of pig slaughterhouse workers and its relation to the thermal sensation of the hands and the use of a cutting tool. The study included 106 workers in a pig slaughterhouse. An infrared camera FlirThermaCAM E320 (Flir Systems, Wilsonville, OR, USA) was used to collect the images of the dorsal and palmar surfaces of both hands. A numerical scale was used to obtain the thermal sensation. Chi-square test, Pearson correlation and Student’s t test or Wilcoxon were used (p ≤ 0.05). The majority of workers felt cold in the hands (66%) and workers who used the knife felt the coldest. There was an association between the thermal sensation and the use of knife (p = 0.001). Workers who used the tool showed correlation between the thermal sensation and the temperatures of the left fingers, with a difference between the temperatures of the right and left hands of those who used the knife (p ≤ 0.05). The hands (left) that manipulated the products presented the lowest temperatures. Findings indicate that employers of pig slaughterhouses should provide gloves with adequate thermal insulation to preserve the health of workers’ hands.

  16. Carcinogenesis and Inflammatory Effects of Plutonium-Nitrate Retention in an Exposed Nuclear Worker and Beagle Dogs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Xihai [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Robinson, Robert J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brooks, Antone L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lovaglio, Jamie A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Patton, Kristin M. [Battelle Toxicology Northwest, Richland, WA (United States); McComish, Stacey [United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries, Washington State University, College of Pharmacy, Richland, WA (United States); Tolmachev, Sergei Y. [United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries, Washington State University, College of Pharmacy, Richland, WA (United States); Morgan, William F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The genetic and inflammatory response pathways elicited following plutonium exposure in archival lung tissue of an occupationally exposed human and experimentally exposed beagle dogs were investigated. These pathways include: tissue injury, apoptosis and gene expression modifications related to carcinogenesis and inflammation. In order to determine which pathways are involved, multiple lung samples from a plutonium exposed worker (Case 0269), a human control (Case 0385), and plutonium exposed beagle dogs were examined using histological staining and immunohistochemistry. Examinations were performed to identify target tissues at risk of radiation-induced fibrosis, inflammation, and carcinogenesis. Case 0269 showed interstitial fibrosis in peripheral and subpleural regions of the lung, but no pulmonary tumors. In contrast, the dogs with similar and higher doses showed pulmonary tumors primarily in brochiolo-alveolar, peripheral and subpleural alveolar regions. The TUNEL assay showed slight elevation of apoptosis in tracheal mucosa, tumor cells, and nuclear debris was present in the inflammatory regions of alveoli and lymph nodes of both the human and the dogs. The expression of apoptosis and a number of chemokine/cytokine genes was slightly but not significantly elevated in protein or gene levels compared to that of the control samples. In the beagles, mucous production was increased in the airway epithelial goblet cells and glands of trachea, and a number of chemokine/cytokine genes showed positive immunoreactivity. This analysis of archival tissue from an accidentally exposed worker and in a large animal model provides valuable information on the effects of long-term retention of plutonium in the respiratory tract and the histological evaluation study may impact mechanistic studies of radiation carcinogenesis.

  17. Dental erosion in workers exposed to sulfuric acid in lead storage battery manufacturing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Yuji; Takaku, Satoru; Okawa, Yoshikazu; Matsukubo, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Dental erosion, and specifically its symptoms, has long been studied in Japan as an occupational dental disease. However, in recent years, few studies have investigated the development of this disease or labor hygiene management aimed at its prevention. As a result, interest in dental erosion is comparatively low, even among dental professionals. Our investigation at a lead storage battery factory in 1991 found that the work environmental sulfuric acid density was above the tolerable range (1.0mg/m(3)) and that longterm workers had dental erosion. Therefore, workers handling sulfuric acid were given an oral examination and rates of dental erosion by tooth type, rates of erosion by number of working years and rates of erosion by sulfuric acid density in the work environment investigated. Where dental erosion was diagnosed, degree of erosion was identified according to a diagnostic criterion. No development of dental erosion was detected in the maxillary teeth, and erosion was concentrated in the anterior mandibular teeth. Its prevalence was as high as 20%. Rates of dental erosion rose precipitously after 10 working years. The percentages of workers with dental erosion were 42.9% for 10-14 years, 57.1% for 15-19 years and 66.7% for over 20 years with 22.5% for total number of workers. The percentages of workers with dental erosion rose in proportion to work environmental sulfuric acid density: 17.9% at 0.5-1.0, 25.0% at 1.0-4.0 and 50.0% at 4.0-8.0mg/m(3). This suggests that it is necessary to evaluate not only years of exposure to sulfuric acid but also sulfuric acid density in the air in factory workers.

  18. Whole Genome Expression in Peripheral-Blood Samples of Workers Professionally Exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ming-Tsang; Lee, Tzu-Chi; Su, Hung-Ju; Huang, Jie-Len; Peng, Chiung-Yu; Wang, Weihsin; Chou, Ting-Yu; Lin, Ming-Yen; Lin, Wen-Yi; Huang, Chia-Tsuan; Pan, Chih-Hong; Ho, Chi-Kung

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to examine global gene expression profiles before and after the work-shift among coke-oven workers (COW). COW work six consecutive days and then take two days off. Two blood and urine samples in each worker were collected before starting to work after two-days off and end-of-shift in the sixth-day work in 2009. Altered gene expressions (ratio of gene expression levels between end-of-shift and pre-shift work) were performed by Human OneArray expression system which probes ∼30,0...

  19. Respiratory function and exposure-effect relationships in wood dust-exposed and control workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holness, D L; Sass-Kortsak, A M; Pilger, C W; Nethercott, J R

    1985-07-01

    The effect of wood dust exposure on 50 cabinet makers was examined. Woodworkers reported more nasal and eye symptoms and more cough, sputum and wheezing than did 49 control workers. More irritated cells were present in the woodworkers' nasal cytological smears. In contrast to the control workers, the woodworkers had a significant decline in lung function over the workshift. An inverse correlation between baseline lung function and an exposure index (mean area dust level multiplied by length of exposure) was demonstrated in the woodworkers. Greater dust exposure was not associated with larger falls in lung function over the work shift.

  20. CaNa2EDTA chelation attenuates cell damage in workers exposed to lead--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čabarkapa, A; Borozan, S; Živković, L; Stojanović, S; Milanović-Čabarkapa, M; Bajić, V; Spremo-Potparević, B

    2015-12-05

    Lead induced oxidative cellular damage and long-term persistence of associated adverse effects increases risk of late-onset diseases. CaNa2EDTA chelation is known to remove contaminating metals and to reduce free radical production. The objective was to investigate the impact of chelation therapy on modulation of lead induced cellular damage, restoration of altered enzyme activities and lipid homeostasis in peripheral blood of workers exposed to lead, by comparing the selected biomarkers obtained prior and after five-day CaNa2EDTA chelation intervention. The group of smelting factory workers diagnosed with lead intoxication and current lead exposure 5.8 ± 1.2 years were administered five-day CaNa2EDTA chelation. Elevated baseline activity of antioxidant enzymes Cu, Zn-SOD and CAT as well as depleted thiols and increased protein degradation products-carbonyl groups and nitrites, pointing to Pb induced oxidative damage, were restored toward normal values following the treatment. Lead showed inhibitor potency on both RBC AChE and BChE in exposed workers, and chelation re-established the activity of BChE, while RBC AChE remained unaffected. Also, genotoxic effect of lead detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes was significantly decreased after therapy, exhibiting 18.9% DNA damage reduction. Administration of chelation reversed the depressed activity of serum PON 1 and significantly decreased lipid peroxidation detected by the post-chelation reduction of MDA levels. Lactate dehydrogenase LDH1-5 isoenzymes levels showed evident but no significant trend of restoring toward normal control values following chelation. CaNa2EDTA chelation ameliorates the alterations linked with Pb mediated oxidative stress, indicating possible benefits in reducing health risks associated with increased oxidative damage in lead exposed populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Synergistic exposure to noise and styrene and cochlear functionality in a sample of exposed workers: preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisto, R; Cerini, L; Garofani, P; Gatto, M P; Gherardi, M; Gordiani, A; Paci, E; Sanjust, E; Papaleo, B; Tranfo, G

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed at testing the cochlear functionality using otoacoustic emissions, analyzing the synergistic effects of simultaneous exposure to noise and organic solvents EBTx on workers of a glass-reinforced plastic products factory. Exposure to organic solvents was assessed using ambiental measurements and evaluation of the salivary concentration. Biological monitoring was performed evaluating the urinary concentration of the styrene metabolites. Statistical analysis shows that otoacoustic tests can discriminate between different exposure groups. Significant differences were found between controls and subjects exposed to high styrene and low noise levels, showing the ototoxic effect (at sub-clinical level) of the styrene exposure.

  2. Sensitisation to common allergens and respiratory symptoms in endotoxin exposed workers: a pooled analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basinas, Ioannis; Schlünssen, Vivi; Heederik, Dick

    2012-01-01

    , and levels above 100 EU/m3 significantly increased the risk of chronic bronchitis (p.... Heterogeneity was primarily present for biofuel workers. Conclusions Occupational endotoxin exposure has a protective effect on allergic sensitisation and hay fever but increases the risk for organic dust toxic syndrome and chronic bronchitis. Endotoxin's protective effects are most clearly observed among...

  3. [Gastroduodenal system state and levels of gastro-intestinal peptides in workers exposed to fluor compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, A A; Gromov, A S

    2007-01-01

    Studies in 45 cryolite production workers (facing chronic gastritis and gastroduodenitis) demonstrated that the diseases in them have moderate inflammatory activity, atrophy of gastric lining contaminated with Helicobacter pylori, hypergastrine mia, hypopancreozymine mia and hyposecretine mia in half of the examinees.

  4. Genetic polymorphisms and surface expression of CTLA-4 and PD-1 on T cells of silica-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Michelle C; Santos, Leonilda M B; Bagatin, Ericson; Cohen Tervaert, Jan W; Damoiseaux, Jan G M C; Lido, Alessandro V; Longhini, Ana L; Torello, Cristiane O; Queiroz, Mary L S

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to silica dust has been examined as a possible risk factor for autoimmune diseases, including scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Since CTLA-4 [CD152] and PD-1 [CD279] are important for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance by regulating T cell responsiveness, we evaluated the expression of these molecules on the surface of CD4 and CD8 T cells, as well as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in CTLA-4 and PDCD1 genes, of 70 silica-exposed workers and 30 non-exposed, age-, ethnically- and sex-matched controls. Expression of CTLA-4 was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in CD4 T cells of exposed individuals [median=0.1% and interquartile range, IQR 0.0-0.1% (exposed), median=0.20%, IQR 0.0-0.4% (control)]. Also the expression of PD-1 was significantly (P<0.0001) reduced in both CD4 [median=0.9%, IQR 0.4-2.3% (exposed), median=5.7%, IQR 1.4-13.3% (control)] and CD8 T cells [median=0.9%, IQR 0.3-1.9% (exposed), median=5.0%, IQR 3.4-8.9% (control)]. The study of polymorphisms demonstrated a lower frequency of the A allele in the analysis of the PD1.3 SNP in the exposed group, which might be associated with the lower expression of PD-1 on the surface of CD4 T cells. Our findings provide evidence for the association of silica exposure and the maintenance of self-tolerance, i.e., the susceptibility to autoimmune disorders.

  5. Association between Genetic Polymorphisms of DNA Repair Genes and Chromosomal Damage for 1,3-Butadiene-Exposed Workers in a Matched Study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Menglong; Sun, Lei; Dong, Xiaomei; Yang, Huan; Liu, Wen-bin; Zhou, Niya; Han, Xue; Zhou, Ziyuan; Cui, Zhihong; Liu, Jing-yi; Cao, Jia; Ao, Lin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the association between polymorphisms of DNA repair genes and chromosomal damage of 1,3-butadiene- (BD-) exposed workers. The study was conducted in 45 pairs of occupationally exposed workers in a BD product workshop and matched control workers in an administrative office and a circulatory water workshop in China. Newly developed biomarkers (micronuclei, MNi; nucleoplasmic bridges, NPBs; nuclear buds, NBUDs) in the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) cytome assay were adopted to detect chromosomal damage. PCR and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) are adopted to analyze polymorphisms of DNA repair genes, such as X-ray repair cross-complementing Group 1 (XRCC1), O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerases (ADPRT), and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonucleases (APE1). The BD-exposed workers exhibited increased frequencies of MNi and NPBs when compared to subjects in the control group. The results also show that the BD-exposed workers carrying XRCC1 diplotypes TCGA-CCGG (4.25 ± 2.06 ‰) (FR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.03-4.28) and TCGG-TCGA (5.80 ± 3.56 ‰) (FR = 2.75, 95% CI: 0.76-2.65) had statistically higher NBUD frequencies than those who carried diplotype TCGG-TCGG (1.89 ± 1.27 ‰). Our study suggests that polymorphisms of XRCC1 gene may influence chromosomal damage in BD-exposed workers.

  6. Acute liver injury in two workers exposed to chloroform in cleanrooms: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Young Joong; Ahn, Jungho; Hwang, Yang-In

    2014-01-01

    We report 2 cases of hepatotoxicity in cleanroom workers due to high retained chloroform air concentrations. The women, aged 34 and 41 years, who had been working in a medical endoscopic device manufacturer as cleanroom workers for approximately 40-45 days suffered severe liver damage. Two measured time-weighted averages of the chloroform concentration in the air in the cleanroom were 82.74 and 64.24 ppm, which are more than 6 times the legal occupational exposure limit in Korea. Only 7% of the cleanroom air was newly introduced from outside. The clinical courses of these cases and workplace inspection, led us to conclude that both cases of hepatotoxicity were caused by chloroform exposure.

  7. Spontaneous and radiation-induced micronucleus frequencies in low dose radiation exposed worker's peripheral blood lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hee Kyung; Lee, Hye Jin; Park, Mi Young; Park, Hyun Jin; Kim, Tae Hwan [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ji, Young Hoon; Kim, Ki Sup; Lee, Su Jae; Lee, Yun Sil; Cho, Chul Koo; Choi, Soo Yong; Kang, Chang Mo [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Many studies have been performed to assess the development and application of potentially useful biodosimetry. At present, although chromosome dicentric assay is a sensitive method for dose estimation, it is laborious and requires enough experience for estimation, and without automation its scope for population screening is limited. Therefore, we need an alternative cytogenetic dosimetry to estimate the absorbed dose of victims after low dose exposure such as radiation accidents in hospital workers and workers of radiation related facilities. An alternative and simple cytogenetic technique is the measurement of the micronucleus frequency in cultured human lymphocytes. The reliability of conventional micronucleus (MN) assays is diminished owing to the inclusion of nondividing cells in the estimate, but this problem has been overcome by the development of the cytokinesisblocked (CB) MN assay. The reliable and ease assays of the cytokinesis blocked-approach are obvious advantages in biological monitoring, but there are no developed recognizable and reliable techniques for biological dosimetry of a low dose exposure until recently. Adaptive response is important in determining the biological responses at low doses of radiation and has the potential to impact the shape of the dose-response relationship. We analyzed the frequency of both spontaneous and in vitro {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays-induced MNs to estimate the low dose radiation-exposed workers as a screening test.

  8. A study on oxidative stress and antioxidant status of agricultural workers exposed to organophosphorus insecticides during spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastogi S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress status and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity were studied in blood samples obtained from 61 agricultural workers engaged in spraying organophosphorus (OP insecticides in the mango plantation, with a minimum work history of one year, in the age range of 12-55 years. Controls were age-matched, unexposed workers, who never had any exposure to OP pesticides. They were evaluated for oxidative stress markers MDA (end product of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH, and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE levels in blood. The results showed a marked inhibition of the AChE and BChE activities in the sprayers as compared to the controls. The malondialdehyde(MDA, the last product of lipid peroxidation was found to be increased significantly in sprayers(p< 0.05, while depletion in the concentration of antioxidant glutathione(GSH was also observed in the sprayers but the difference was statistically not significant. It was concluded on the basis of biochemical analysis that pesticides sprayers are exposed to more oxidative stress as evidenced by the changes in antioxidant status. The measurement of the AChE and BChE activities in agricultural workers who spray OPs could be a good biomonitoring factor and is recommended to be performed on a regular basis.

  9. The health status of northern Omo State Farm workers exposed to chlorpyrifos and profenofos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, K; Mekonnen, Y

    1998-07-01

    The health effects of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides on cholinesterase (ChE) activities were assessed among 81 pest control workers from Northern Omo State Farm (Ethiopia), following the occupational use of Chlorpyrifos 25 and 48% ULV and Profenifos 250 EC/ULV. Plasma ChE (PChE) and erythrocyte ChE (AChE) activities were determined electrometrically before and after pesticide exposure. Plasma alkaline phosphatase (AP) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) values were estimated colorimetrically. Risk factors of pesticide poisoning and related occupational factors were assessed following the WHO recommendations. The mean PChE and AChE activities determined after pesticide exposures were significantly lower than the pre-exposure values (P < 0.05); 16% and 40% of the pest control workers had PChE and AChE levels below 50% of the pre-exposure values, respectively. The mean plasma AP and GPT values were found to be within the recommended normal limits. No significant difference in either of the ChE activities was observed between the spray men and the pest assessors, although the former were believed to have frequent contact with the concentrated OP formulations. Risk factors of pesticide poisoning such as workers ignorance about the toxicity of pesticides, poor personal hygiene and total absence or improper use of personal protective devices were prevalent. Measures that should be considered to minimize the problem in the farm population are recommended.

  10. Plasma cytokine concentrations in workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh eSaberi Hosnijeh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesFew epidemiological studies have studied the effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p dioxin (TCDD on blood cytokine levels. In this study we investigated changes in plasma levels of a large panel of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors among workers from a Dutch historical cohort occupationally exposed to chlorophenoxy herbicides and contaminants including TCDD.MethodsEighty-five workers who had been exposed to either high (n=47 or low (n=38 TCDD levels more than 30 years before serum collection were included in the current investigation. Plasma level of 16 cytokines, 10 chemokines and 6 growth factors were measured. Current plasma levels of TCDD (TCDDCurrent were determined by high resolution gas chromatography/isotope dilution high resolution mass spectrometry. TCDD blood levels at the time of last exposure (TCDDmax were estimated using a one-compartment first order kinetic model. ResultsBlood levels of most analytes had a negative association with current and estimated past maximum TCDD levels. These decreases reached formal statistical significance for fractalkine, transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2 with increasing TCDD levels.ConclusionsOur study showed a general reduction in most analyte levels with the strongest effects for fractalkine, FGF2 and TGF-α. These findings suggest that TCDD exposure could suppress the immune system and that chemokine and growth factor-dependent cellular pathway changes by TCDD may play role in TCDD toxicity and associated health effects.

  11. Peak expiratory flow rate in asymptomatic male workers exposed to chemical fumes, in various industries of Hyderabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padaki Samata K, Dambal Amrut , Kokiwar Prashant

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Context: The prevalence of occupational health hazards and mortality has been reported to be unusually high among people of India. Although developed countries are very much careful about the health in occupations it is quite neglected in the developing countries like India. Aims: To record PEFR in asymptomatic male workers exposed to chemical fumes for more than 2 years and compare the results with age matched unexposed, healthy male controls. Methods and Material: This was a comparative study between 50 asymptomatic male workers exposed to chemical fumes for more than 2 years in various industries located at Jeedimetla Industrial Area and 50 unexposed healthy male individuals from general population. The sampling was done by simple random sampling (lottery method. The data was collected in the Research Laboratory of Physiology. Anthropometry like weight, height, was measured and the PEFR test was performed in the standing position by taking a deep inspiration and then blowing out as hard and as quickly as possible with their nose closed. Data was analyzed by using SPSS package and was expressed in terms of mean ± SD. Results: It was observed that mean PEFR was statistically highly significant in cases (p = 0.0001, and PEFR decreased with increase in duration of exposure. Conclusions: Thus, it can be concluded that apparently healthy individuals may also have abnormal PEFR findings. Hence, a regular check on these parameters will help them in reducing the chances of its manifestation at a future date.

  12. Evaluating levels and health risk of heavy metals in exposed workers from surgical instrument manufacturing industries of Sialkot, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junaid, Muhammad; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-09-01

    The study aimed to monitor heavy metal (chromium, Cr; cadmium, Cd; nickel, Ni; copper, Cu; lead, Pb; iron, Fe; manganese, Mn; and zinc, Zn) footprints in biological matrices (urine, whole blood, saliva, and hair), as well as in indoor industrial dust samples, and their toxic effects on oxidative stress and health risks in exposed workers. Overall, blood, urine, and saliva samples exhibited significantly higher concentrations of toxic metals in exposed workers (Cr; blood 16.30 μg/L, urine 58.15 μg/L, saliva 5.28 μg/L) than the control samples (Cr; blood 5.48 μg/L, urine 4.47 μg/L, saliva 2.46 μg/L). Indoor industrial dust samples also reported to have elevated heavy metal concentrations, as an example, Cr quantified with concentration of 299 mg/kg of dust, i.e., more than twice the level of Cr in household dust (136 mg/kg). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) level presented significant positive correlation (p ≤ 0.01) with Cr, Zn, and Cd (Cr > Zn > Cd) which is an indication of heavy metal's associated raised oxidative stress in exposed workers. Elevated average daily intake (ADI) of heavy metals resulted in cumulative hazard quotient (HQ) range of 2.97-18.88 in workers of different surgical units; this is an alarming situation of health risk implications. Principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR)-based pie charts represent that polishing and cutting sections exhibited highest metal inputs to the biological and environmental matrices than other sources. Heavy metal concentrations in biological matrices and dust samples showed a significant positive correlation between Cr in dust, urine, and saliva samples. Current study will help to generate comprehensive base line data of heavy metal status in biomatrices and dust from scientifically ignored industrial sector. Our findings can play vital role for health departments and industrial environmental management system (EMS) authorities in policy making and implementation.

  13. Abattoir operations and waste management in Nigeria: A review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abattoir operations and waste management in Nigeria: A review of challenges and ... meat have been issues of public health and global environmental concerns. ... if the current challenges militating against the establishment, operations and ...

  14. Impact of effluent from Bodija abattoir on the physico- chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-06

    Aug 6, 2007 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. ... effluent and stream water (before and after mixing with effluent) were studied using the ..... from abattoir compared with WHO and European Community (EC). .... Industrial waste control.

  15. Gender and respiratory findings in workers occupationally exposed to organic aerosols: A meta analysis of 12 cross-sectional studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustajbegovic Jadranka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender related differences in respiratory disease have been documented. The aim of this study was to investigate gender related differences in respiratory findings by occupation. We analyzed data from 12 of our previously published studies. Methods Three thousand and eleven (3011 workers employed in "organic dust" industries (1379 female and 1632 male were studied. A control group of 806 workers not exposed to any kind of dust were also investigated (male = 419, female = 387. Acute and chronic respiratory symptoms and lung function were measured. The weighted average method and the Mantel-Haentszel method were used to calculate the odds ratios of symptoms. Hedge's unbiased estimations were used to measure lung function differences between men and women. Results There were high prevalences of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms in all the "dusty" studied groups compared to controls. Significantly less chronic cough, chronic phlegm as well as chronic bronchitis were found among women than among men after the adjustments for smoking, age and duration of employment. Upper respiratory tract symptoms by contrast were more frequent in women than in men in these groups. Significant gender related lung function differences occurred in the textile industry but not in the food processing industry or among farmers. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that in industries processing organic compounds there are gender differences in respiratory symptoms and lung function in exposed workers. Whether these findings represent true physiologic gender differences, gender specific workplace exposures or other undefined gender variables not defined in this study cannot be determined. These data do not suggest that special limitations for women are warranted for respiratory health reasons in these industries, but the issue of upper respiratory irritation and disease warrants further study.

  16. Toxoplasma gondii infection in workers occupationally exposed to unwashed raw fruits and vegetables: a case control seroprevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarado-Esquivel Cosme

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Through a case control seroprevalence study, we sought to determine the association of Toxoplasma gondii infection with occupational exposure to unwashed raw fruits and vegetables. Methods Subjects, numbering 200, who worked growing or selling fruits and vegetables, and 400 control subjects matched by age, gender, and residence were examined by enzyme immunoassays for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. Socio-demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics from the study subjects were obtained. Results Of the 200 fruit and vegetable workers, 15 (7.5% of whom, and 31 (7.8% of the 400 controls were positive for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies (P = 0.96. Anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies were found in 2 (1% of the fruit workers and in 11 (2.8% of the control subjects (P = 0.23. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma antibodies increased with age (P = 0.0004. In addition, seropositivity to Toxoplasma was associated with ill status (P = 0.04, chronic tonsillitis (P = 0.03, and reflex impairment (P = 0.03. Multivariate analysis showed that Toxoplasma infection was associated with consumption of raw meat (OR = 5.77; 95% CI: 1.15-28.79; P = 0.03, unwashed raw fruits (OR = 2.50; 95% CI: 1.11-5.63; P = 0.02, and living in a house with soil floors (OR = 3.10; 95% CI: 1.22-7.88; P = 0.01, whereas Toxoplasma infection was negatively associated with traveling abroad (OR = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.12-0.67; P = 0.005. Conclusions This is the first report of seroprevalence and contributing factors for Toxoplasma infection in workers occupationally exposed to unwashed raw fruits and vegetables, and the results may help in the design of optimal preventive measures against Toxoplasma infection especially in female workers at reproductive age.

  17. Metabolic Polymorphisms and Clinical Findings Related to Benzene Poisoning Detected in Exposed Brazilian Gas-Station Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Mitri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Benzene is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and an important industrial chemical present in both gasoline and motor vehicle emissions. Occupational human exposure to benzene occurs in the petrochemical and petroleum refining industries as well as in gas-station workers, where it can lead to benzene poisoning (BP, but the mechanisms of BP are not completely understood. In Brazil, a significant number of gas-station service workers are employed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate alterations related to BP and metabolic polymorphisms in gas-station service workers exposed to benzene in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Occupational exposure was based on clinical findings related to BP, and metabolic polymorphisms in 114 Brazilian gas-station attendants. These workers were divided into No Clinical Findings (NCF and Clinical Findings (CF groups. Neutrophil and Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV showed a significant difference between the two study groups, and neutrophil has the greatest impact on the alterations suggestive of BP. The clinical findings revealed higher frequencies of symptoms in the CF group, although not all members presented statistical significance. The frequencies of alleles related to risk were higher in the CF group for GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP2E1 7632T > A, but lower for NQO1 and CYP2E1 1053C > T genotypes. Moreover, an association was found between GSTM1 null and alterations related to BP, but we did not observe any effects of other polymorphisms. Variations in benzene metabolizing genes may modify benzene toxicity and should be taken into consideration during risk assessment evaluations.

  18. Risk of lower extremity arterial disease in a cohort of workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation over a prolonged period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizova, Tamara V.; Bannikova, Maria V.; Grigorieva, Evgenia S.; Bagaeva, Yaroslava P.; Azizova, Elena V. [Southern Urals Biophysics Institute, Ozyorsk Chelyabinsk Region (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    In this study the incidence risk of lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD; international classification of diseases version 9 code 440.2) was assessed in a cohort of workers occupationally exposed to radiation over a prolonged period. The study cohort includes 22,377 workers of the Mayak Production Association (25 % of whom are females) first employed at one of the main facilities in 1948-1982 and followed up to the end of 2008. Dose estimates used in the study are provided by Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2008. The mean total dose from external gamma-rays is 0.54 Gy for males and 0.44 Gy for females. The mean absorbed liver dose from internal alpha-radiation due to incorporated plutonium is 0.23 Gy in males and 0.44 Gy in females. Relative risks and excess relative risks per unit dose (ERR/Gy) are calculated based on maximum likelihood. A total of 943 cases of LEAD are registered in the study cohort during the follow-up of 512,801 person-years. A significant association of LEAD incidence with total dose from external gamma-rays (based on a linear model) was revealed, and the ERR/Gy is 0.27 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.11; 0.48). It turned out that a linear-exponential model provides a better fit of the data (∇AIC = 9.957). Inclusion of an adjustment for internal alpha-radiation dose resulted in the reduction of the ERR/Gy to 0.19 (95 % CI 0.05; 0.39), but the risk remains significant. No association of LEAD incidence with dose from internal alpha-radiation was found in the study worker cohort. It is concluded that this study provides evidence for an association of LEAD incidence with dose from external gamma-rays taking non-radiation factors into account. (orig.)

  19. The hepatitis B vaccine protects re-exposed health care workers, but does not provide sterilizing immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jens M; Abdalla, Adil; Gara, Naveen; Ghany, Marc G; Rehermann, Barbara

    2013-11-01

    Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be prevented by vaccination with HB surface (HBs) antigen, which induces HBs-specific antibodies and T cells. However, the duration of vaccine-induced protective immunity is poorly defined for health care workers who were vaccinated as adults. We investigated the immune mechanisms (antibody and T-cell responses) of long-term protection by the HBV vaccine in 90 health care workers with or without occupational exposure to HBV, 10-28 years after vaccination. Fifty-nine of 90 health care workers (65%) had levels of antibodies to HBs antigen above the cut-off (>12 mIU/mL) and 30 of 90 (33%) had HBs-specific T cells that produced interferon-gamma. Titers of antibodies to HBs antigen correlated with numbers of HBs-specific interferon-gamma-producing T cells, but not with time after vaccination. Although occupational exposure to HBV after vaccination did not induce antibodies to the HBV core protein (HBcore), the standard biomarker for HBV infection, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells against HBcore and polymerase antigens were detected. Similar numbers of HBcore- and polymerase-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were detected in health care workers with occupational exposure to HBV and in patients who acquired immunity via HBV infection. Most of the HBcore- and polymerase-specific T cells were CD45RO(+)CCR7(-)CD127(-) effector memory cells in exposed health care workers and in patients with acquired immunity. In contrast, most of the vaccine-induced HBs-specific T cells were CD45RO(-)CCR7(-)CD127(-) terminally differentiated cells. HBs antigen vaccine-induced immunity protects against future infection but does not provide sterilizing immunity, as evidenced by HBcore- and polymerase-specific CD8(+) T cells in vaccinated health care workers with occupational exposure to HBV. The presence of HBcore- and HBV polymerase-specific T-cell responses is a more sensitive indicator of HBV exposure than detection of HBcore-specific antibodies

  20. Proportionate mortality study of workers in the garment industry exposed to formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stayner, L.; Smith, A.B.; Reeve, G.; Blade, L.; Elliott, L.; Keenlyside, R.; Halperin, W.

    1985-01-01

    In order to evaluate the human carcinogenicity of formaldehyde, the authors conducted a proportionate mortality study of garment workers engaged in the production of shirts from formaldehyde-treated cloth. This study included three plants, and was based upon 256 deaths identified from a death-benefit insurance fund. No deaths due to nasal cancer were observed, and the mortality from respiratory cancer (11 cases, PMR = 95) was slightly less than expected. Statistically significant (p less than . 05) elevations in proportionate mortality were observed for malignant neoplasms of the ''buccal cavity'' (three cases, PMR = 750), for ''biliary passages and liver'' (four cases, PMR = 313) and for ''other lymphatic and hematopoietic sites'' (four cases, PMR = 400). A proportionate cancer mortality (PCMR) analysis also was conducted, and cancer of the ''buccal cavity'' (three cases, PCMR = 682), and other ''lymphatic and hematopoietic sites'' (four cases, PCMR = 342) were still significantly elevated. The observed excesses in cancer mortality were primarily experienced by white females, who made up the major portion of the workforce, and workers with more than 10 years of latency and duration of exposure, a criterion for inclusion for most workers in the study group. The neoplasms observed were not equally distributed among the three facilities included in the study. Because of the small number of deaths involved and the lack of consistency with other studies, the authors believe that these findings should be viewed cautiously, pending the outcome of more definitive studies.

  1. Nocturnal 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate excretion in female workers exposed to magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juutilainen, J (Kuopio, University of); Stevens, Richard G.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Anderson, Larry E.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Hansen, Norman H.(WAVEID); Kilpelainen, M (Kuopio, University of); Kumlin, T (Kuopio, University of); Laitinen, J T.(Kuopio, University of); Sobell, Eugene (Southern California, Univ Of); Wilson, Bary W.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2000-03-15

    The objective of this study was to determine whether daytime occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (MFs) suppresses nocturnal melatonin production. Sixty female volunteers were recruited. Thirty-nine worked in a garment factory, and 21 office workers served as a reference group. Exposure assessment was based on the type of sewing machine used and MF measurements around each type of machine. Eye-level MF flux density was used to classify the operators to higher (> 1 microT) and lower (0.3-1 microT) exposure categories. A third group of factory workers had diverse MF exposures from other sources. The reference group had average exposure of about 0.15 microT. Urine samples were collected on Friday and Monday for three consecutive weeks. Melatonin production was assessed as urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (6-OHMS) excretion. The ratio of Friday morning/Monday morning 6-OHMS was used to test the hypothesis that melatonin production is suppressed after 4 days of occupational MF exposure with significant recovery during the weekend. Possible chronic suppression of melatonin production was evaluated by studying exposure-related differences in the Friday values by multivariate regression analysis. The Monday/Friday ratios were close to 1.0, suggesting that there is no increase in melatonin production over the weekend. The average 6-OHMS excretion on Friday was lower among the factory workers than in the reference group, but no monotonous dose-response was observed. Multivariate regression analysis identified MF exposure, smoking, and age as significant explanatory variables associated with decreased 6-OHMS excretion.

  2. Thyroid examination in highly radiation-exposed workers after the Chernobyl accident

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); M. Steinert (Marianna); J.W. Dietrich (Johannes); R.U. Peter (Ralf Uwe); D. Belyi (David); G. Wagemaker (Gerard); S. Rosinger (Silke); T.M. Friedner (Theodor); M. Weiss (Melanie)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractContext: Radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl nuclear accident that happened on the morning of 26th April 1986 had a major impact on thyroid health in the Belarus region. Objective: Observational study of a cohort of 99 adults, most strongly exposed to ionizing radioactivity.

  3. Thyroid examination in highly radiation-exposed workers after the Chernobyl accident

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); M. Steinert (Marianna); J.W. Dietrich (Johannes); R.U. Peter (Ralf Uwe); D. Belyi (David); G. Wagemaker (Gerard); S. Rosinger (Silke); T.M. Friedner (Theodor); M. Weiss (Melanie)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractContext: Radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl nuclear accident that happened on the morning of 26th April 1986 had a major impact on thyroid health in the Belarus region. Objective: Observational study of a cohort of 99 adults, most strongly exposed to ionizing radioactivity. Des

  4. Telomere Length in Aged Mayak PA Nuclear Workers Chronically Exposed to Internal Alpha and External Gamma Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherthan, Harry; Sotnik, Natalia; Peper, Michel; Schrock, Gerrit; Azizova, Tamara; Abend, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Telomeres consist of GC-rich DNA repeats and the "shelterin" protein complex that together protect chromosome ends from fusion and degradation. Telomeres shorten with age due to incomplete end replication and upon exposure to environmental and intrinsic stressors. Exposure to ionizing radiation is known to modulate telomere length. However, the response of telomere length in humans chronically exposed to radiation is poorly understood. Here, we studied relative telomere length (RTL) by IQ-FISH to leukocyte nuclei in a group of 100 workers from the plutonium production facility at the Mayak Production Association (PA) who were chronically exposed to alpha-emitting ((239)Pu) radiation and/or gamma (photon) radiation, and 51 local residents serving as controls, with a similar mean age of about 80 years. We applied generalized linear statistical models adjusted for age at biosampling and the second exposure type on a linear scale and observed an age-dependent telomere length reduction. In those individuals with the lowest exposure, a significant reduction of about 20% RTL was observed, both for external gamma radiation (≤1 Gy) and internal alpha radiation (≤0.05-0.1 Gy to the red bone marrow). In highly exposed individuals (>0.1 Gy alpha, 1-1.5 Gy gamma), the RTL was similar to control. Stratification by gender revealed a significant (∼30%) telomere reduction in low-dose-exposed males, which was absent in females. While the gender differences in RTL may reflect different working conditions, lifestyle and/or telomere biology, absence of a dose response in the highly exposed individuals may reflect selection against cells with short telomeres or induction of telomere-protective effects. Our observations suggest that chronic systemic exposure to radiation leads to variable dose-dependent effects on telomere length.

  5. Evaluation of workers exposed to ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jiyoung; Yoon, Chungsik; Byun, Hyaejeong; Kim, Yangho; Park, Donguk; Ha, Kwonchul; Lee, Sang man; Park, Sungki; Chung, Eunkyo

    2012-01-01

    Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (EGMEA) are widely used in industries as solvents for coatings, paint and ink, but exposure data are limited because they are minor components out of mixed solvents, as well as because of inconsistency in desorption solvent use. The objective of this study was to investigate the worker exposure profile of EGME and EGMEA. Our study investigated 27 workplaces from June to September 2008 and detected EGME and EGMEA in 20 and 13, respectively. Both personal and area sampling were conducted using a charcoal tube to collect EGME and EGMEA. Gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector was used to analyze these compounds after desorption using a mixture of methylene chloride and methanol. The arithmetic mean concentrations of EGME and EGMEA during periods of full work shifts were 2.59 ppm and 0.33 ppm, respectively. The exposure levels were lower than the Korean Ministry of Labor (MOL) OEL (5 ppm) but higher than the ACGIH TLV (0.1 ppm). In general, the working environments were poor and required much improvement, including the use of personal protective equipment. Only 50% of the workplaces had local exhaust ventilation systems in operation. The average capture velocity of the operating local exhaust ventilation systems was 0.27 m/s, which did not meet the legal requirement of 0.5 m/s. Educating workers to clearly understand the handling and use of hazardous chemicals and improving working conditions are strongly suggested.

  6. Assessment of Some Immune Parameters in Occupationally Exposed Nuclear Power Plant Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkova, Kalina Ivanova; Rupova, Ivanka Tankova; Panova, Delyana Yonkova; Djounova, Jana Nikolaeva

    2015-01-01

    A 10-year survey of immune status of nuclear power plant (NPP) workers was assessed by cellular and humoral immune parameters. The cumulative doses of NPP workers were in the range of 0.06 to 766.36 mSv. The results did not show significant deviations in the studied parameters of cellular and humoral immunity, but a tendency of elevated values in CD3+4+ helper inducers cells, especially its CD4+62L+ subpopulation, regulatory CD4+25+ cells, CD8+28+ cytotoxic subpopulation, and immunoglobulin M, was established. The observed trend of the above-mentioned parameters could be interpreted by assumption that while the adaptation processes are dominated with low prevalence of T-helper (Th) 1 immune response to cumulative doses less than 100 mSv, a switch to Th-2 response occurred at doses above 100 mSv. The impact of a number of other confounding factors on the immune system does not allow definitive conclusions about the direct radiation-induced changes in immune parameters. PMID:26740807

  7. Assessment of Some Immune Parameters in Occupationally Exposed Nuclear Power Plant Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Mihaylova Gyuleva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year survey of immune status of nuclear power plant (NPP workers was assessed by cellular and humoral immune parameters. The cumulative doses of NPP workers were in the range of 0.06 to 766.36 mSv. The results did not show significant deviations in the studied parameters of cellular and humoral immunity, but a tendency of elevated values in CD3+4+ helper inducers cells, especially its CD4+62L+ subpopulation, regulatory CD4+25+ cells, CD8+28+ cytotoxic subpopulation, and immunoglobulin M, was established. The observed trend of the above-mentioned parameters could be interpreted by assumption that while the adaptation processes are dominated with low prevalence of T-helper (Th 1 immune response to cumulative doses less than 100 mSv, a switch to Th-2 response occurred at doses above 100 mSv. The impact of a number of other confounding factors on the immune system does not allow definitive conclusions about the direct radiation-induced changes in immune parameters.

  8. Assessment of DNA integrity (COMET assay) in sperm cells of boron-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duydu, Yalçin; Başaran, Nurşen; Ustündağ, Aylin; Aydin, Sevtap; Undeğer, Ulkü; Ataman, Osman Yavuz; Aydos, Kaan; Düker, Yalçin; Ickstadt, Katja; Waltrup, Britta Schulze; Golka, Klaus; Bolt, Hermann M

    2012-01-01

    An extension of a male reproductive study conducted in a boric acid/borate production zone at Bandırma, Turkey, is presented. The relation between DNA-strand breaks (COMET assay, neutral and alkaline version) in sperm cells and previously described sperm quality parameters was investigated in boron-exposed males. A correlation between blood boron levels and mean DNA-strand breaks in sperm was weak, and DNA-strand breaks in sperm were statistically not different between control and exposed groups. Therefore, increasing boron exposures had no additional contribution in addition to already pre-existing DNA-strand breaks in the sperm cells. Weak but statistically significant correlations between DNA-strand breaks and motility/morphology parameters of sperm samples were observed in the neutral version of the COMET assay, while correlations between the same variables were statistically not significant in the alkaline version. A likely reason for these negative results, even in highly exposed humans, is that experimental exposures that had led to reproductive toxicity in animals were significantly higher than any boron exposures, which may be reached under realistic human conditions.

  9. Health care of people at work. Workers exposed to lead. I. Inorganic lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldron, H.A.

    1978-01-01

    The risks associated with exposure to inorganic lead and the means by which these risks can be minimized are outlined. Lead is used to make a variety of metal products, the grids and oxides in storage batteries, pigments, chemicals, and also for lead plating. In the United States about 70% of the total lead consumption is related to transportation. Uptake of inorganic lead is by ingestion and inhalation. About 90% of the total body burden of lead is contained within the skeletal tissues. Lead is excreted in the kidney, in sweat, and in milk. Toxic effects are directed against the blood, the nervous system, and the kidney. Symptoms of lead poisoning are abdominal pain, constipation, vomiting, asthenia, paresthesia, psychological symptoms, and diarrhea. Physical and biological monitoring can serve to protect workers. Diagnosis of lead poisoning is not easy. Treatment involves removal from exposure and/or treatment with a chelating agent.

  10. Mortality among mound workers exposed to polonium-210 and other sources of radiation, 1944-1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, John D; Cohen, Sarah S; Mumma, Michael T; Ellis, Elizabeth Dupree; Cragle, Donna L; Eckerman, Keith F; Wallace, Phillip W; Chadda, Bandana; Sonderman, Jennifer S; Wiggs, Laurie D; Richter, Bonnie S; Leggett, Richard W

    2014-02-01

    Polonium-210 is a naturally occurring radioactive element that decays by emitting an alpha particle. It is in the air we breathe and also a component of tobacco smoke. Polonium-210 is used as an anti-static device in printing presses and gained widespread notoriety in 2006 after the poisoning and subsequent death of a Russian citizen in London. More is known about the lethal effects of polonium-210 at high doses than about late effects from low doses. Cancer mortality was examined among 7,270 workers at the Mound nuclear facility near Dayton, OH where polonium-210 was used (1944-1972) in combination with beryllium as a source of neutrons for triggering nuclear weapons. Other exposures included external gamma radiation and to a lesser extent plutonium-238, tritium and neutrons. Vital status and cause of death was determined through 2009. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed for comparisons with the general population. Lifetime occupational doses from all places of employment were sought and incorporated into the analysis. Over 200,000 urine samples were analyzed to estimate radiation doses to body organs from polonium and other internally deposited radionuclides. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate dose-response relationships for specific organs and tissues. Vital status was determined for 98.7% of the workers of which 3,681 had died compared with 4,073.9 expected (SMR 0.90; 95% CI 0.88-0.93). The mean dose from external radiation was 26.1 mSv (maximum 939.1 mSv) and the mean lung dose from external and internal radiation combined was 100.1 mSv (maximum 17.5 Sv). Among the 4,977 radiation workers, all cancers taken together (SMR 0.86; 95% CI 0.79-0.93), lung cancer (SMR 0.85; 95% CI 0.74-0.98), and other types of cancer were not significantly elevated. Cox regression analysis revealed a significant positive dose-response trend for esophageal cancer [relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval at 100 mSv of 1.54 (1.15-2.07)] and a

  11. A mortality study of workers exposed to insoluble forms of beryllium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffetta, Paolo; Fordyce, Tiffani; Mandel, Jack S

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated lung cancer and other diseases related to insoluble beryllium compounds. A cohort of 4950 workers from four US insoluble beryllium manufacturing facilities were followed through 2009. Expected deaths were calculated using local and national rates. On the basis of local rates, all-cause mortality was significantly reduced. Mortality from lung cancer (standardized mortality ratio 96.0; 95% confidence interval 80.0, 114.3) and from nonmalignant respiratory diseases was also reduced. There were no significant trends for either cause of death according to duration of employment or time since first employment. Uterine cancer among women was the only cause of death with a significantly increased standardized mortality ratio. Five of the seven women worked in office jobs. This study confirmed the lack of an increase in mortality from lung cancer and nonmalignant respiratory diseases related to insoluble beryllium compounds.

  12. Influence of CYP2C9, GSTM1, GSTT1 and NAT2 genetic polymorphisms on DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satyender; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Priyanka; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh; Pasha, Syed Tazeen; Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Rai, Arvind

    2012-01-24

    Previous studies have revealed that organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are primarily metabolized by xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs). Very few studies have explored genetic polymorphisms of XMEs and their association with DNA damage in pesticides-exposed workers. Present study was designed to determine the influence of CYP2C9, GSTM1, GSTT1 and NAT2 genetic polymorphisms on DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to OPs. We examined 268 subjects including 134 workers occupationally exposed to OPs and an equal number of normal healthy controls. The DNA damage was evaluated using alkaline comet assay and genotyping was done using individual polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Acetylcholinesterase and paraoxonase activity were found to be significantly lowered in workers as compared to control subjects which were analyzed as biomarkers of toxicity due to OPs exposure (p<0.001). Workers showed significantly higher DNA tail moment (TM) compared to control subjects (14.32±2.17 vs. 6.24±1.37 tail % DNA, p<0.001). GSTM1 null genotype was found to influence DNA TM in workers (p<0.05). DNA TM was also found to be increased with concomitant presence of NAT2 slow acetylation and CYP2C9*3/*3 or GSTM1 null genotypes (p<0.05). DNA TM was found increased in NAT2 slow acetylators with mild and heavy smoking habits in control subjects and workers, respectively (p<0.05). The results of this study suggest that GSTM1 null genotypes, and an association of NAT2 slow acetylation genotypes with CYP2C9*3/*3 or GSTM1 null genotypes may modulate DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to OPs.

  13. Cancer incidence and mortality in Swedish sterilant workers exposed to ethylene oxide: updated cohort study findings 1972-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikoczy, Zoli; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Björk, Jonas; Albin, Maria

    2011-06-01

    To assess whether cancer incidence, mainly from lymphohaematopoietic tumours and breast cancer, and mortality were increased in a cohort of Swedish sterilant workers exposed to low levels of ethylene oxide (EtO), updated with 16 more years of follow up. The mortality and cancer incidence 1972-2006 experienced by a cohort of 2,171 male and female workers employed for at least one year in two plants producing medical equipment sterilised with EtO were investigated. Individual cumulative exposure to EtO was assessed by occupational hygienists. Cause-specific standardized rate ratios were calculated using the regional general population as a comparison for mortality (SMR) and cancer incidence (SIR). Internal Poisson-regression analyses were performed for selected causes. The median cumulative exposure to EtO was 0.13 ppm-years. The overall cancer incidence was close to unity (SIR 0.94, 95% CI 0.82-1.08). Eighteen cases of lymphohaematopoietic cancer were observed (SIR 1.25, 95% CI 0.74-1.98). A healthy worker effect was indicated from a significantly decreased overall mortality and mortality from cardiovascular diseases. Internal analyses found significantly increased rate ratios for breast cancer for the two upper quartiles of cumulative exposure as compared to the lowest 50% of the cohort (IRR 2.76, 95% CI 1.20-6.33 and IRR 3.55, 95% CI 1.58-7.93). The findings from this updated study indicate limited or low risks for human cancer due to occupational exposure from ethylene oxide at the low cumulative exposure levels in this cohort. However a positive exposure-response relation with breast cancer was observed though.

  14. Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Swedish Sterilant Workers Exposed to Ethylene Oxide: Updated Cohort Study Findings 1972–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikoczy, Zoli; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Björk, Jonas; Albin, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess whether cancer incidence, mainly from lymphohaematopoietic tumours and breast cancer, and mortality were increased in a cohort of Swedish sterilant workers exposed to low levels of ethylene oxide (EtO), updated with 16 more years of follow up. Methods: The mortality and cancer incidence 1972–2006 experienced by a cohort of 2,171 male and female workers employed for at least one year in two plants producing medical equipment sterilised with EtO were investigated. Individual cumulative exposure to EtO was assessed by occupational hygienists. Cause-specific standardized rate ratios were calculated using the regional general population as a comparison for mortality (SMR) and cancer incidence (SIR). Internal Poisson-regression analyses were performed for selected causes. Results: The median cumulative exposure to EtO was 0.13 ppm-years. The overall cancer incidence was close to unity (SIR 0.94, 95% CI 0.82–1.08). Eighteen cases of lymphohaematopoietic cancer were observed (SIR 1.25, 95% CI 0.74–1.98). A healthy worker effect was indicated from a significantly decreased overall mortality and mortality from cardiovascular diseases. Internal analyses found significantly increased rate ratios for breast cancer for the two upper quartiles of cumulative exposure as compared to the lowest 50% of the cohort (IRR 2.76, 95% CI 1.20–6.33 and IRR 3.55, 95% CI 1.58–7.93). Conclusions: The findings from this updated study indicate limited or low risks for human cancer due to occupational exposure from ethylene oxide at the low cumulative exposure levels in this cohort. However a positive exposure-response relation with breast cancer was observed though. PMID:21776215

  15. Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Swedish Sterilant Workers Exposed to Ethylene Oxide: Updated Cohort Study Findings 1972–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Albin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess whether cancer incidence, mainly from lymphohaematopoietic tumours and breast cancer, and mortality were increased in a cohort of Swedish sterilant workers exposed to low levels of ethylene oxide (EtO, updated with 16 more years of follow up. Methods: The mortality and cancer incidence 1972–2006 experienced by a cohort of 2,171 male and female workers employed for at least one year in two plants producing medical equipment sterilised with EtO were investigated. Individual cumulative exposure to EtO was assessed by occupational hygienists. Cause-specific standardized rate ratios were calculated using the regional general population as a comparison for mortality (SMR and cancer incidence (SIR. Internal Poisson-regression analyses were performed for selected causes. Results: The median cumulative exposure to EtO was 0.13 ppm-years. The overall cancer incidence was close to unity (SIR 0.94, 95% CI 0.82–1.08. Eighteen cases of lymphohaematopoietic cancer were observed (SIR 1.25, 95% CI 0.74–1.98. A healthy worker effect was indicated from a significantly decreased overall mortality and mortality from cardiovascular diseases. Internal analyses found significantly increased rate ratios for breast cancer for the two upper quartiles of cumulative exposure as compared to the lowest 50% of the cohort (IRR 2.76, 95% CI 1.20–6.33 and IRR 3.55, 95% CI 1.58–7.93. Conclusions: The findings from this updated study indicate limited or low risks for human cancer due to occupational exposure from ethylene oxide at the low cumulative exposure levels in this cohort. However a positive exposure-response relation with breast cancer was observed though.

  16. Respiratory symptoms among industrial workers exposed to water aerosol. A pilot study of process water and air microbial quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Krogulska

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The frequency of respiratory symptoms in workers exposed to water aerosol was evaluated along with the preliminary assessment of microbiological contamination of air and water used in glass processing plants. Material and Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted in 131 workers from 9 glass processing plants. Questions focused on working conditions, respiratory symptoms and smoking habits. A pilot study of air and water microbiological contamination in one glass processing plant was performed. Water samples were tested for Legionella in accordance with EN ISO 11731-2:2008 and for total colony count according to PN-EN ISO 6222:2004. Air samples were tested for total numbers of molds and mildews. Results: During the year preceding the survey acute respiratory symptoms occurred in 28.2% of participants, while chronic symptoms were reported by 29% of respondents. Increased risks of cough and acute symptoms suggestive of pneumonia were found among the respondents working at a distance up to 20 m from the source of water aerosol compared to other workers (OR = 2.7, with no difference in the frequency of other symptoms. A microbiological analysis of water samples from selected glass plant revealed the presence of L. pneumophila, exceeding 1000 cfu/100 ml. The number of bacteria and fungi detected in air samples (above 1000 cfu/m3 suggested that water aerosol at workplaces can be one of the sources of the air microbial contamination. Conclusions: The questionnaire survey revealed an increased risk of cough and acute symptoms suggestive of pneumonia in the group working at a shortest distance form the source of water aerosol. Med Pr 2013;64(1:47–55

  17. Evaluation in vinyl chloride monomer-exposed workers and the relationship between liver lesions and gene polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shou-Min Zhu; Xue-Feng Pen; Jun-Xiang Wan; Zhao-Lin Xia

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To analyze occupational health hazards exposure to doses lower than the Chinese occupational health standard in a selected VC polymerization plant in China,and also to elucidate the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and genetic susceptibility on liver lesions of workers exposed to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM).METHODS: In order to explore the mechanism of VCM-related health effects, we used a case-control design to investigate the association between the genetic polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes and liver lesions in workers occupationally exposed to VCM. Genotypes of CYP2E1, GSTT1, GSTM1, ALDH2 and ADH2 were identified using PCR and PCR-RFLP.RESULTS: Even when the concentration of VCM was lower than the current Chinese occupational health standard,neurasthenia, pharyngeal irritation, liver ultrasonography abnormalities and hemoglobin disorders were significantly higher in exposure subjects compared to non-exposure subjects, and the relative risks (RR and 95% CI) were 1.74 (1.06-2.85), 1.97 (1.56-2.48), 10.69 (4.38-26.12),and 2.07 (1.20-3.57). CYP2E1 c1c2/c2c2 genotype was significantly associated with liver damages (OR 3.29, 95% CI 1.51-7.20, P<0.01).CONCLUSION: The incidences of neurasthenia and liver ultrasonography abnormalities significantly increase when the cumulative exposure dose increases. The genotypes of metabolic enzymes (CYP2E1 c1c2/c2c2, null GSTT1 and ADH2 1-1) play important roles in VCM metabolism.Polymorphisms of CYP 2E1, GSTT1 and ADH2 may be a major reason of genetic susceptibility in VCM-induced hepatic damage.

  18. Effects of orally administered antioxidants on micronuclei and sister chromatid exchange frequency in workers professionally exposed to antineoplastic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrđanović, Jasminka; Jungić, Saša; Šolajić, Slavica; Bogdanović, Višnja; Jurišić, Vladimir

    2012-08-01

    The widespread use of antineoplastic drugs in cancer treatment increased concern about possible hazard to workers involved in the preparation and administration of these drugs. In the present study, the effects of commercial antioxidative drug Oligogal Se on genome protection were analyzed in 15 nurses handling the antineoplastic drugs at the Oncology Department in comparison to twenty healthy volunteers. The nurses took antioxidant mixture Oligogal Se, consisting of vitamins C, E, A and selenium, one capsule per day, over a period of 6 months. Genome damage was measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes by usage of sister chromatid exchange test and the cytokinesis-block micronuclei test. The frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronuclei (MN) in the exposed group was significantly higher when compared to the control group (SCE, p<0.05; MN, p<0.01 respectively). After antioxidant supplementation, the frequency of sister chromatid exchange and micronuclei decreased (p<0.05) when compared with the values from the beginning of the study, but were still above the values of the control group. The effects of confounding factors such as cigarette smoking and cytostatics exposure time were also evaluated. The data indicated that Oligogal Se contributed to the decreasing of genome damages in workers handling the cytostatics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Design of digital filters for frequency weightings (A and C) required for risk assessments of workers exposed to noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimell, Andrew N; Mansfield, Neil J; Paddan, Gurmail S

    2015-01-01

    Many workers are exposed to noise in their industrial environment. Excessive noise exposure can cause health problems and therefore it is important that the worker's noise exposure is assessed. This may require measurement by an equipment manufacturer or the employer. Human exposure to noise may be measured using microphones; however, weighting filters are required to correlate the physical noise sound pressure level measurements to the human's response to an auditory stimulus. IEC 61672-1 and ANSI S1.43 describe suitable weighting filters, but do not explain how to implement them for digitally recorded sound pressure level data. By using the bilinear transform, it is possible to transform the analogue equations given in the standards into digital filters. This paper describes the implementation of the weighting filters as digital IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) filters and provides all the necessary formulae to directly calculate the filter coefficients for any sampling frequency. Thus, the filters in the standards can be implemented in any numerical processing software (such as a spreadsheet or programming language running on a PC, mobile device or embedded system).

  20. A study of sister chromatid exchange and somatic cell mutation in hospital workers exposed to ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, D J; Haines, T; Lawrence, M; Rosa, N

    1993-10-01

    To investigate the risks of exposure to ethylene oxide (EO) at current permissible levels and at past higher levels, an inception cohort of sterilizer operators and supervisors from the Central Processing Department (CPD), respiratory therapists, and engineers exposed to EO were identified at the McMaster University Medical Centre. A comparison group from Nutrition Services (NUTR) were matched with the CPD workers on the basis of sex, age, and smoking habit. The present report is based on genetic test results for the 94 CPD and matched NUTR workers only. Statistical analysis based on the mean SCE frequency in the top 5, top 10, and all cells (50 cells scored per individual) and high frequency cells (HFC) based on the 95th percentile for nonsmoking control subjects showed a direct association with current smoking but not with EO exposure. Similarly, statistical analysis of the somatic cell mutation (SCMT) variant frequencies did not demonstrate an association with EO exposure, nor with smoking. Regression analysis indicated that sex was the only other covariate that significantly affected SCE. Age was weakly associated with SCMT. A statistically significant interaction between occupational exposure and smoking habits was observed only for the mean SCE frequency of the top 5 and top 10 cells when the 11 current CPD/NUTR pairs were not included. Thus, this interaction should be interpreted with caution.

  1. Relationship between urinary levels of 1-hydroxypyrene and 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene for workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gendre, C.; Lafontaine, M.; Morele, Y.; Payan, J.P.; Simon, P. [Institut National de Recherche et Securite, Vandoeuvre Les Nancy (France)

    2002-07-01

    Biomonitoring of workers was carried out in three working areas - an artificial target factory, an aluminum plant, and an electrometallurgy plant - to assess exposure to PAHs. All the 48 hr-voided urine samples of the exposed workers were collected and the 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene (3-OHBaP) and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPy) analyzed according to procedures using automated column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography. The exposure profiles indicate an important log between the excretion of the two metabolites: the maximum of 3-OHBaP urinary excretion is observed 10 to 17 hr after the 1-OHPy maximum, with a much closer correlation (r = 0.81) than that obtained with both metabolites in real time (r = 0.21). This delayed excretion agrees with data from animal intoxication studies (intravenous administration or inhalation). Mean ratios of 1-OHPy to 3-OHBaP were studied without lag (varying from 2,230 to 15,330) and with a tag of 16 hr (varying from 940 to 8,390).

  2. Salmonella cross-contamination in swine abattoirs in Portugal: Carcasses, meat and meat handlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Neves, Eduarda; Antunes, Patrícia; Tavares, Alcina; Themudo, Patrícia; Cardoso, Margarida Fonseca; Gärtner, Fátima; Costa, José Manuel; Peixe, Luísa

    2012-06-15

    In this study the occurrence of Salmonella in swine, pork meat and meat handlers along with their clonal relatedness is evaluated at abattoir level. Samples from the lymph nodes, carcass surface and meat of 100 pigs and 45 meat handlers were collected in eight abattoirs (July 2007-August 2008). Salmonella isolates were serotyped and genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). From the pigs tested, 42 produced at least one positive sample. A relatively high frequency of Salmonella occurrence was found in the ileoceacal lymph node samples (26.0%), followed by carcass (16.0%) and meat samples (14.0%). However, ileoceacal lymph nodes that test positive for Salmonella are not found to be a predictor of positive test results further on in the process. Besides the slaughterhouse environment, meat handlers were identified as a possible source of subsequent contamination, with 9.3% of the sample testing positive. Diverse Salmonella enterica serotypes were detected, mainly S. Typhimurium and the monophasic variant S. 4,[5],12:i:-, but also S. Derby, S. Rissen, S. Mbandaka, S. London, S. Give, S. Enteritidis and S. Sandiego, in total corresponding to 17 PFGE types. Our results demonstrate that besides a high level of Salmonella swine contamination at pre-harvest level, slaughtering, dressing, cutting and deboning operations are contributing to the occurrence of clinically relevant clones (e.g. S. Typhimurium DT104 and S. 4,[5],12:i:-) in pork products. This study also highlights the possibility of an ongoing Salmonella community being spread by abattoir workers.

  3. [Immunological variants and free radical characteristics of workers exposed to epoxy resins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavorovskiĭ, A P; Kuiun, L A; Afonina, G B; Paustovskiĭ, Iu A; Veremeĭ, M I

    2001-01-01

    Workers on exposure to epoxy resins (ER) have been shown to reveal several variants of immunogrammes of blood, expression of Fas-ligands and oxygen-dependent metabolism of phagocytes. These are as follows: the immune deficiency variant (38.1%), the autoimmune one (33.3%), the state of norm (28.6%). The blood phagocyte oxygen-dependent metabolism tends towards activation but the phagocyte functional reserve is reduced which facts suggest depression of metabolism and phagocytic defence in the organism. Identified in the study are several variants of kinetic parameters of the blood serum chemiluminescence suggesting activation/inhibition of process of free radical oxidation, strengthening/weakening of the blood antioxidant defence, which events can be regarded as early diagnostic and prognostic criteria of adverse effects of epoxy resins on the organism of those handling them. These data suggest to us an insufficient reliability of the existing maximum permissible concentration of epoxy resins in the air of the working zone and attest to the need for its reconsideration.

  4. Dermatological findings in capacitor manufacturing workers exposed to dielectric fluids containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischbein, A.; Wolff, M.S.; Bernstein, J.; Selikoff, I.J.; Thornton, J.

    1982-03-01

    Significant occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may occur in the manufacturing of capacitors and transformers, in which PCBs are used as electrical insulators. Reports of adverse health effects resulting from PCB exposure have come primarily from an incident resulting from the accidental ingestion of contaminated rice oil in Japan in 1968 (''Yusho''). Dermatological findings were prominent features and included pigmentation disturbances and chloracne. To evaluate the dermatological effects of long-term occupational exposure to PCBs, a cross-section clinical survey was conducted of 326 capacitor manufacturing workers. A high prevalence (37%) of dermatological abnormalities was found, but typical PCB-associated signs, such as chloracne, were less frequent than among patients with ''Yusho,'' despite high concentrations of plasma PCB. An association between dermatological signs and plasma levels of higher homologues of PCBs was suggested, but contaminants which have been reported to be present in commercial PCB mixtures (polychlorinated dibenzofurans) should be considered an etiologic factor or co-factor in the development of ''PCB-associated'' dermatological findings.

  5. Modeling signal-to-noise ratio of otoacoustic emissions in workers exposed to different industrial noise levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Nassiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Noise is considered as the most common cause of harmful physical effects in the workplace. A sound that is generated from within the inner ear is known as an otoacoustic emission (OAE. Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs assess evoked emission and hearing capacity. The aim of this study was to assess the signal-to-noise ratio in different frequencies and at different times of the shift work in workers exposed to various levels of noise. It was also aimed to provide a statistical model for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of OAEs in different frequencies based on the two variables of sound pressure level (SPL and exposure time. Materials and Methods: This case–control study was conducted on 45 workers during autumn 2014. The workers were divided into three groups based on the level of noise exposure. The SNR was measured in frequencies of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz in both ears, and in three different time intervals during the shift work. According to the inclusion criterion, SNR of 6 dB or greater was included in the study. The analysis was performed using repeated measurements of analysis of variance, spearman correlation coefficient, and paired samples t-test. Results: The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the three exposed groups in terms of the mean values of SNR (P > 0.05. Only in signal pressure levels of 88 dBA with an interval time of 10:30–11:00 AM, there was a statistically significant difference between the right and left ears with the mean SNR values of 3000 frequency (P = 0.038. The SPL had a significant effect on the SNR in both the right and left ears (P = 0.023, P = 0.041. The effect of the duration of measurement on the SNR was statistically significant in both the right and left ears (P = 0.027, P < 0.001. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrated that after noise exposure during the shift, SNR of OAEs reduced from the

  6. 35. Detection of numerical chromosome aberrations in sperm of workers exposed to benzene series by two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To study the frequency of numerical chromosome aberrations in sperm of workers exposed to benzene series, the aneuploidy frequencies of 9 and 18 chromosomes were detected in sperm of workers by two color fluorescence in situ hybridization with digoxingenin labeled 9 chromosome probe (D9zl) and biotin labeled 18 chromosome probe (D18zl). The timeweight average air concentration (TWA ) of benzene in the workplace was 86.49 mg/m3, it was two fold higher than the national maximum allowable concentration. The concentration of urinary trans,trans-muconic acid (ttMA) in exposed group was significantly higher than that of control group. The sperms counted in 14 exposed workers and 16 control workers were 136 401 and 156 955 respectively. The results showed that the disomy frequencies of sperm for chromosome 9, 18 in (0.168%±0.063% and 0.055%±0.031% respectively) and the frequency of diploidy sperm (0.073%±0.045%) were statistically increased over that of the control group(0.050%±0.030%; 0.033%±0.025% and 0.040%±0.036%, respectively). The nullisomic frequencies of 9,18 chromosome in the exposed group (0.206%±0.047%, 0.068%±0.044%) were statistically increased over that of the control group too (0.067%±0.037%, 0.048%±0.034%). The frequency of overall numerical chromosome aberrations in the exposed group was 0.570%±0.144%, when this value was compared with that of control (0.218%±0.071%), a statistically significance was presented. Our experiments showed that exposed to benzene at higher concentration may induce increase in aneuploidy frequency of sperm autosomal chromosome in exposed workers.

  7. An optimized assay of specific IgE antibodies to reactive dyes and studies of immunologic responses in exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wass, U; Nilsson, R; Nordlinder, R; Belin, L

    1990-03-01

    Methods of assaying reactive dye-specific IgE antibodies were investigated with a RAST. Sera from three patients, occupationally exposed to a reactive dye, Remazol black B (Chemical Abstract registry number 17095-24-8), were used. Directly dyed disks, that is, disks without any carrier protein, resulted in poor and unreliable measures of specific IgE. In contrast, optimized preparation of conjugates between the dye and human serum albumin resulted in efficient binding of specific IgE. The patients' RAST results were strongly positive, whereas sera from 36 exposed workers but without symptoms and sera from unexposed subjects with high levels of total IgE were negative. The hapten and carrier specificity of the IgE antibodies was studied by direct RAST and RAST inhibition. In one patient, the antibodies were principally hapten specific, whereas another patient was found to have antibodies with a high degree of specificity to the carrier. The third patient's antibodies were intermediate between the other two patients' antibodies in this respect, suggesting that antibody specificity is dependent not only on the nature of the hapten but also on individual immune response factors. The study demonstrates that it is important to use an optimized preparation of dye-protein conjugates to elicit reliable results and a high degree of specific IgE binding in the RAST.

  8. High-performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Urinary Trans, Trans-Muconic Acid Excreted by Workers Occupationally Exposed to Benzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA-MIN HU; SHI-ZHEN SONG; FANG-LI YE; LI-WEN LIU

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between trans, trans-muconic acid (ttMA) as benzene metabolite of occupational workers and benzene concentration in air. Methods A rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography was developed to determine the level of urinary ttMA. ttMA was extrated from urinary samples in liquid-liquid phase a ODS (2) (5u) column (Φ4.6 mm× 150 mm) and detected at wavelength 264 nm in a UV detector using vanillic acid as an internal standard. The mobile phase was acetaticacid/tetrahydrofuran/methanol/water (v/v, 1:2:10:87). The method was validated with 56 urine samples collected from occupationally benzene-exposed individuals. Results A correlation coefficient (r = 0.9963 ) was found for ttMA ranging 0.10-10.00 μg/mL. The limit of detection was 0.10 μg/mL. The recovery and reproducibility were generally over 90%. There was a positive correlation between ttMA and benzene level in air. The equation was Y=0.859+0.108C (before work, r=-0.6200) or Y=1.980+0.179C (after work, r=0.7930). Conclusion This method can be used to determine and control the level of urinary ttMA in those who are occupationally exposed to benzene.

  9. Professional Development for Library Workers: Exposing the Complicated Problems of Equity and Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Neigel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the constant, if not escalating, need for professional development within the library workforce, the discourse of professional development lacks critical and evidence-based considerations. This paper discusses major factors that complicate the notion of professional development including the commodification of education, the rise of contingent labour, and a heightened emphasis on individualism.These difficulties point to a desperate need for a broader discussion and research focus on professional development so that library workers and library leaders can make informed and strategic decisions about the skills and knowledge required for the 21st century. Malgré le besoin constant, et même croissant, de développement professionnel au sein du personnel de la bibliothèque, le discours portant sur le développement professionnel connait un manque de considérations critiques et fondées sur des preuves. Cet article traite des facteurs importants qui compliquent la notion de développement professionnel y compris la marchandisation de l’éducation, la montée du travail contingent et l’importance accrue accordée à l’individualisme. Ces difficultés indiquent l’existence d’un grand besoin pour des discussions et de la recherche ayant une plus grande portée sur le développement professionnel afin que les employés et les dirigeants des bibliothèques puissent prendre des décisions éclairées et stratégiques concernant les habiletés et les connaissances requises au 21e siècle.

  10. The effect of Abattoir effluent waste water on soils of Gandu area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Abattoir effluent waste water on soils of Gandu area of Sokoto, Sokoto ... of abattoir wastewater on the microbiological and physicochemical properties of ... The physicochemical parameters examined were pH, electric conductivity, ...

  11. Cytogenotoxicity of Abattoir Effluent in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 Using Micronucleus Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibuisi G. Alimba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cytogenotoxic potential of abattoir effluent from Bodija, Nigeria, was investigated using micronucleus test in Clarias gariepinus. Fish was exposed to five different concentrations: 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, and 3.1% of the effluent for 7, 14, and 28 days. Tap water and 0.02 mL/L of benzene were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Physicochemical parameters and heavy metals were analyzed in the effluent in accordance with standard methods. After exposure, blood was collected from the treated and control fish and slides were prepared for micronuclei (MN and nuclear abnormality evaluation in the peripheral erythrocytes. The effluent induced significant (p<0.05 increase in the frequency of MN in a time dependent manner. Similarly, the frequency of total nuclear abnormalities (blebbing, notch, bud, binucleation, and vacuolation was higher in the exposed fish than the negative control. Electrical conductivity, nitrate, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, arsenic, and copper analyzed in the effluent may have provoked the observed cytogenetic damage. The findings herein suggest the presence of clastogens and cytotoxins in Bodija abattoir wastewater which are capable of increasing genomic instability in aquatic biota.

  12. Neurological and neurophysiological examinations of workers occupationally exposed to organic solvent mixtures used in the paint and varnish production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indulski, J A; Sińczuk-Walczak, H; Szymczak, M; Wesołowski, W

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the nervous system of workers chronically exposed to mixtures of organic solvent at concentrations within or slightly exceeding the MAC values, used in the manufacture of paints and lacquers. The tests were performed on a group of 175 people, 107 men aged 22-59 (x = 41.25), and 68 women aged 20-55 (x = 38.62). The period of employment was x = 17.34 years and cumulative dose index 16.97 for males; for females, the corresponding values were x = 14.75 and x = 11.42, respectively. The control group included 175 people (107 men and 68 women) not exposed to chemicals matched according to sex, age, and work shift distribution. The neurological examinations included subjective and objective examinations of the nervous system, electroencephalographic (EEG) and visual evoked potential (VEP) evaluations. The assessment of organic solvent exposure was performed according to the method described in PN89/Z-04008/07, and the solvent mixtures were shown to contain xylenes, ethyltoluenes, trimethylbenzenes, propylbenzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, aliphatic hydrocarbons and the components of painter's naphtha. The most frequent complaints among the exposed males included headache, vertigo, concentration difficulties, sleep disorders, sleepiness during the day, increased emotional irritability, mood swings with a tendency to anxiety. The objective neurological examinations did not reveal organic lesions in the central or peripheral nervous systems. Generalised and paroxysmal changes were most common recordings in the abnormal EEG. VEP examinations revealed abnormalities, primarily in the latency of the response evoked. The results of this study suggest that exposures to concentrations within MAC values, or below 1.5 of the MAC values of organic solvents mixtures used in the manufacture of paints and lacquers produce subclinical health effect in the nervous system.

  13. Association between Genetic Polymorphisms of DNA Repair Genes and Chromosomal Damage for 1,3-Butadiene-Exposed Workers in a Matched Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menglong Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the association between polymorphisms of DNA repair genes and chromosomal damage of 1,3-butadiene- (BD- exposed workers. The study was conducted in 45 pairs of occupationally exposed workers in a BD product workshop and matched control workers in an administrative office and a circulatory water workshop in China. Newly developed biomarkers (micronuclei, MNi; nucleoplasmic bridges, NPBs; nuclear buds, NBUDs in the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN cytome assay were adopted to detect chromosomal damage. PCR and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP are adopted to analyze polymorphisms of DNA repair genes, such as X-ray repair cross-complementing Group 1 (XRCC1, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT, poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerases (ADPRT, and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonucleases (APE1. The BD-exposed workers exhibited increased frequencies of MNi and NPBs when compared to subjects in the control group. The results also show that the BD-exposed workers carrying XRCC1 diplotypes TCGA-CCGG (4.25±2.06‰ (FR=2.10, 95% CI: 1.03–4.28 and TCGG-TCGA (5.80±3.56‰ (FR=2.75, 95% CI: 0.76–2.65 had statistically higher NBUD frequencies than those who carried diplotype TCGG-TCGG (1.89±1.27‰. Our study suggests that polymorphisms of XRCC1 gene may influence chromosomal damage in BD-exposed workers.

  14. Pulmonary function in wood workers exposed to formaldehyde: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandersson, R; Hedenstierna, G

    1989-01-01

    Employees exposed to formaldehyde in the woodworking industry (N = 47) and nonexposed control subjects (N = 20) were examined in 1980 by spirometry and the nitrogen washout technique. A transient impairment of lung function was noted over a work shift. Five years later, 21 subjects were still experiencing exposure to formaldehyde. A transient decrease in lung function was again found over a work shift, as evidenced by a reduction in forced mid-expiratory flow (FEF25-75) of 0.15 l/s and an increase in closing volume (CV%) of 3.0% in nonsmokers. Significant decreases in forced expired volume in 1 s as a percent of forced vital capacity (FEV1.0/FVC) and FEF25-75 were also noted over the 5 y in nonsmokers (0.4% and 0.2 l.s/y, respectively, after correction for normal aging). After 4 wk of no exposure (holidays), FEF25-75 and forced expired vital capacity (FVC, FEV1.0) returned to normal in the smoking group. Lung function in smokers improved less during the holiday. A dose-response relationship was found between exposure to formaldehyde and decrease in lung function. Thus, industrial exposure to formaldehyde causes transient lung function impairment over a work shift, with a cumulative effect over the years. The impairment, however, can be reversed with 4 wk of no exposure.

  15. Waste-handling practices at red meat abattoirs in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Hester; de Jager, Linda; Blight, Geoffrey

    2009-02-01

    Abattoir waste disposal must be carefully managed because the wastes can be a source of food-borne diseases (Nemerow & Dasgupta Industrial and Hazardous Waste Treatment, p. 284, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1991; Bradshaw et al. The Treatment and Handling of Wastes, p. 183, The Royal Society, Chapman & Hall, London, 1992). Disposal of food that has been condemned because it is known to be diseased is of particular concern, and this paper looks at current disposal methods for such waste in the light of new scientific developments and waste-management strategies. Questionnaires were presented to management and workers at low- and high-throughput red meat abattoirs in the Free State Province, South Africa to determine current waste-handling procedures for condemned products. The waste-handling practices, almost without exception, did not fully comply with the requirements of the South African Red Meat Regulations of 2004, framed under the Meat Safety Act (Act 40 of 2000). The survey highlighted the need to improve current waste-handling strategies to prevent condemned products from re-entering the food chain and contributing to environmental pollution.

  16. Determining fitness to work after implantation of a cardiac defibrillator in a worker exposed to magnetic fields; Quelle conduite tenir apres l'implantation d'un defibrillateur cardiaque chez un travailleur expose aux champs magnetiques?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magne, I. [Electricite de France, R and D, Lab. des Materiels Electriques, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France); Souques, M. [Electricite de France, EDF-Gaz de France, Service des Etudes Medicales, 75 - Paris (France); Hero, M. [MEDTRONIC France, 92 - Boulogne-Billancourt (France)

    2007-04-15

    An EDF worker potentially exposed to high-intensity 50 Hz magnetic fields had a cardiac defibrillator implanted. Theoretically its operation could be disturbed by magnetic field exposure at work. We use this case study to present an approach to evaluating work safety and the worker's fitness in such situations. The protocol consisted of measuring the magnetic field at the different places where the worker performed his job duties, in his presence, and simultaneously monitoring the operation of the device. The Medtronic device was programmed in bipolar mode. Throughout the workplace, the maximal magnetic field intensity measured at the device level was 650 {mu}T. No dysfunction was recorded in bipolar mode. Following these measurements and device controls, the worker was declared fit and resumed his previous job. Two years later, no incident has been reported. (authors)

  17. Is trimellitic anhydride skin testing a sufficient screening tool for selectively identifying TMA-exposed workers with TMA-specific serum IgE antibodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jonathan A; Ghosh, Debajyoti; Sublett, Wesley J; Wells, Heather; Levin, Linda

    2011-10-01

    Trimellitic anhydride (TMA) can elicit specific IgE-mediated immune responses leading to asthma. This single-blinded study investigated the ability of TMA skin testing to identify workers with TMA-serum specific IgE antibodies. Forty TMA-exposed workers who were previously screened for the presence of TMA-IgG and/or IgE serum specific antibodies were skin tested to a TMA-human serum albumin reagent by nurses blinded to their antibody responses. Findings from skin-prick tests were positive in 8 of 11 workers with TMA-serum specific IgE antibodies. Intracutaneous testing, performed only on skin prick testing-negative workers, was positive in two additional workers with TMA-serum specific IgE antibodies. A significant correlation was found between serum and skin test dilutions eliciting positive responses (ρ = 0.87, P TMA skin testing provides an alternative and potentially more practical method for monitoring TMA-exposed workers for developing IgE sensitization.

  18. Dichotic multiple-frequency auditory steady-state responses in evaluating the hearing thresholds of occupational noise-exposed workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruey-Fen Hsu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available An objective, fast, and reasonably accurate assessment test that allows for easy interpretation of the responses of the hearing thresholds at all frequencies of a conventional audiogram is needed to resolve the medicolegal aspects of an occupational hearing injury. This study evaluated the use of dichotic multiple-frequency auditory steady-state responses (Mf-ASSR to predict the hearing thresholds in workers exposed to high levels of noise. The study sample included 34 workers with noise-induced hearing impairment. Thresholds of pure-tone audiometry (PTA and Mf-ASSRs at four frequencies were assessed. The differences and correlations between the thresholds of Mf-ASSRs and PTA were determined. The results showed that, on average, Mf-ASSR curves corresponded well with the thresholds of the PTA contours averaged across subjects. The Mf-ASSRs were 20±8 dB, 16±9 dB, 12±9 dB, and 11±12 dB above the thresholds of the PTA for 500 Hz, 1,000 Hz, 2,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz, respectively. The thresholds of the PTA and the Mf-ASSRs were significantly correlated (r=0.77–0.89. We found that the measurement of Mf-ASSRs is easy and potentially time saving, provides a response at all dichotic multiple frequencies of the conventional audiogram, reduces variability in the interpretation of the responses, and correlates well with the behavioral hearing thresholds in subjects with occupational noise-induced hearing impairment. Mf-ASSR can be a valuable aid in the adjustment of compensation cases.

  19. Plasma dioxin levels and cause-specific mortality in an occupational cohort of workers exposed to chlorophenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols and contaminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, D.; Portengen, L.; Turner, W.E.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Heederik, D.; Vermeulen, R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We recently reported increased risks for all cancers and urinary cancers in workers exposed to chlorophenoxy herbicides using data from the Dutch herbicide cohort study. These risks could not be linked to the qualitative exposure proxies available. Here, we re-investigate exposure-respon

  20. Handling of indicators in the evaluation of the medical monitoring in workers occupational exposed; Manejo de indicadores en la evaluacion de la vigilancia medica en trabajadores ocupacionalmente expuestos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frometa Suarez, Ileana; Lopez Pumar, Georgina Maritza [Instituto Nacional salud de los Trabajadores, La Habana (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The present time the medical surveillance of exposed workers is an active surveillance of the adverse effect associated with radiation exposure. The purpose of this paper is to propose indices of the effectiveness and effect of the occupational service and activity from evaluation of the medical surveillance. (author)

  1. Estimation of risk of developing bladder cancer among workers exposed to coal tar pitch volatiles in the primary aluminum industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, C; Armstrong, B; Thériault, G; Brodeur, J

    1995-03-01

    To confirm the relationship between exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles and bladder cancer among primary aluminum production workers, we carried out a case-control study among blue-collar workers who had worked more than 1 year between 1950-1979 in a major plant using mostly the Soderberg process in the Province of Québec. Cases of bladder cancer (ICD code 188) diagnosed between 1970-1979 (n = 69) were mostly included in a previously reported study. To these were added cases diagnosed between 1980-1988 (n = 69). Each case was matched to three controls on date of birth, date of hiring, and length of service at the company. Smoking habits were assessed from the medical records at the company. Benzene-soluble matter (BSM) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) were used as indicators of environmental exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles in the workplace. The estimated risk for current smokers was 2.63 (95% C.I. 1.29-5.37). Estimates of risk by occupational exposure were adjusted for smoking. Men who had worked in the Soderberg potrooms were at higher risk of developing the disease, the risk increasing with the time spent in these departments. Similarly, a strong association between risk and cumulative exposure to BSM or to BaP was observed. The risks associated with cumulative exposure to BSM (mg/m3-years) and to BaP (microgram/m3-years) were described with mathematical models. Using a linear model (1 + bx) and lagging 10 years before the diagnosis, BaP cumulative exposure was a better indicator of risk than BSM cumulative exposure. The risk for each year of exposure to BaP at a concentration of 1 microgram/m3 increased by 1.7% (0.8%-3.2%). Using the same model for BSM, a worker exposed to the current threshold limit value of 0.2 mg/m3 for 40 years will sustain a risk of 2.22 (1.56-3.48). Comparison of risks according to different periods of diagnosis (1970-1979 vs. 1980-1988) did not reveal any significant temporal changes on risk estimates.

  2. Use of Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling to Simulate the Profiles of 3-Hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene in Workers Exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia Ortiz, Roberto; Maître, Anne; Barbeau, Damien; Lafontaine, Michel; Bouchard, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    Biomathematical modeling has become an important tool to assess xenobiotic exposure in humans. In the present study, we have used a human physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model and an simple compartmental toxicokinetic model of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) kinetics and its 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene (3-OHBaP) metabolite to reproduce the time-course of this biomarker of exposure in the urine of industrially exposed workers and in turn predict the most plausible exposure scenarios. The models were constructed from in vivo experimental data in rats and then extrapolated from animals to humans after assessing and adjusting the most sensitive model parameters as well as species specific physiological parameters. Repeated urinary voids from workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been collected over the course of a typical workweek and during subsequent days off work; urinary concentrations of 3-OHBaP were then determined. Based on the information obtained for each worker (BaP air concentration, daily shift hours, tasks, protective equipment), the time courses of 3-OHBaP in the urine of the different workers have been simulated using the PBPK and toxicokinetic models, considering the various possible exposure routes, oral, dermal and inhalation. Both models were equally able to closely reproduce the observed time course of 3-OHBaP in the urine of workers and predicted similar exposure scenarios. Simulations of various scenarios suggest that the workers under study were exposed mainly by the dermal route. Comparison of measured air concentration levels of BaP with simulated values needed to obtain a good approximation of observed time course further pointed out that inhalation was not the main route of exposure for most of the studied workers. Both kinetic models appear as a useful tool to interpret biomonitoring data of PAH exposure on the basis of 3-OHBaP levels. PMID:25032692

  3. An epidemiological study of cancer risk among workers exposed to ethylene oxide using hemoglobin adducts to validate environmental exposure assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmar, L; Welinder, H; Lindén, K; Attewell, R; Osterman-Golkar, S; Törnqvist, M

    1991-01-01

    Cancer morbidity was investigated in a cohort of 2,170 ethylene oxide (EO)-exposed workers from 2 plants producing disposable medical equipment. The subjects had been employed for at least 1 year during the periods 1970-1985 and 1964-1985, respectively. The exposure to EO was assessed for each of six job categories in the plants with respect to each calendar year, on which basis values for individual cumulative exposure to EO (ppm-years) were calculated. The levels of hydroxyethyl adducts to N-terminal valine (HOEtVal) in hemoglobin fitted well with the values estimated for airborne exposure to EO. No increased cancer incidence was found [standardized morbidity ratio (SMR), 0.78; 95% CI, 0.49-1.21)]. No leukemia was observed, but one case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, one case of myeloma, and one case of polycythemia vera were diagnosed as compared with two expected hematopoietic and lymphatic tumors (SMR, 1.54; 95% CI, 0.32-4.5). No stomach cancer was detected as compared with the 0.5 case expected. There were no significant exposure-response associations between estimates of exposure to EO and cancer morbidity.

  4. A case-control study of lung cancer in a cohort of workers potentially exposed to slag wool fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, O; Foliart, D; Trent, L S

    1991-12-01

    A cohort of 4841 men were identified as having worked for more than a year at nine slag wool plants. Some of these men were potentially exposed to man made vitreous fibres (MMVF). The vital status of the entire cohort was ascertained to the end of 1989. Of the 504 deaths that occurred between 1970 and 1989, 61 were attributed to lung cancer (cases). Individually matched controls were randomly selected from the remaining deaths. Attempts were made to locate and interview the surviving families of the cases and controls. The families of three lung cancer cases could not be located and no matched controls were found for another three cases. Included in the final analysis were 55 cases and 98 controls. Estimates of individual exposure to MMVF were based on employment records and industrial hygiene surveys. Data on smoking and histories of employment outside the MMVF industry were obtained from telephone interviews and employment records. Relative risks were calculated for cigarette smoking and exposure to MMVF. No increased risk of lung cancer was found associated with exposure to MMVF, and analysis by cumulative fibre exposure did not indicate any trend. As expected, cigarette smoking was found to be responsible for the observed increase in mortality from lung cancer in this group of MMVF workers, and the risk increased with increasing pack-years of cigarette smoking.

  5. Elemental bio-imaging of thorium, uranium, and plutonium in tissues from occupationally exposed former nuclear workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Dominic; Tolmachev, Sergei; James, Anthony; Bishop, David; Austin, Christine; Fryer, Fred; Doble, Philip

    2010-04-15

    Internal exposure from naturally occurring radionuclides (including the inhaled long-lived actinides (232)Th and (238)U) is a component of the ubiquitous background radiation dose (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Ionizing radiation exposure of the population of the United States; NCRP Report No. 160; NCRP: Bethesda, MD, 2009). It is of interest to compare the concentration distribution of these natural alpha-emitters in the lungs and respiratory lymph nodes with those resulting from occupational exposure, including exposure to anthropogenic plutonium and depleted and enriched uranium. This study examines the application of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) to quantifying and visualizing the mass distribution of uranium and thorium isotopes from both occupational and natural background exposure in human respiratory tissues and, for the first time, extends this application to the direct imaging of plutonium isotopes. Sections of lymphatic and lung tissues taken from deceased former nuclear workers with a known history of occupational exposure to specific actinide elements (uranium, plutonium, or americium) were analyzed by LA-ICPMS. Using a previously developed LA-ICPMS protocol for elemental bio-imaging of trace elements in human tissue and a new software tool, we generated images of thorium ((232)Th), uranium ((235)U and (238)U), and plutonium ((239)Pu and (240)Pu) mass distributions in sections of tissue. We used a laboratory-produced matrix-matched standard to quantify the (232)Th, (235)U, and (238)U concentrations. The plutonium isotopes (239)Pu and (240)Pu were detected by LA-ICPMS in 65 mum diameter localized regions of both a paratracheal lymph node and a sample of lung tissue from a person who was occupationally exposed to refractory plutonium (plutonium dioxide). The average (overall) (239)Pu concentration in the lymph node was 39.2 ng/g, measured by high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma

  6. Genetic polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 and susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satyender; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Priyanka; Thakur, Sachin; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh; Pasha, Syed Tazeen; Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Rai, Arvind

    2011-10-09

    GSTM1, T1 and P1 are important enzymes of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), involved in the metabolism of many endogenous and exogenous compounds. Individual genetic variation in these metabolizing enzymes may influence the metabolism of their substrates. The present study was designed to determine the genotoxic effects using DNA damage and its association with GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 (Ile105Val) genetic polymorphisms in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides (OPs). We examined 230 subjects including 115 workers occupationally exposed to OPs and an equal number of normal healthy controls. The DNA damage was evaluated using the alkaline comet assay and genotyping was done using individual PCR or PCR-RFLP. Significantly higher DNA tail moment (TM) was observed in workers as compared to control subjects (14.41 ± 2.25 vs. 6.36 ± 1.41 tail % DNA, pdamage arises from the gene-environment interactions in workers occupationally exposed to OPs. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A review of job-exposure matrix methodology for application to workers exposed to radiation from internally deposited plutonium or other radioactive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanhua; Wakeford, Richard; Riddell, Anthony; O'Hagan, Jacqueline; MacGregor, David; Agius, Raymond; Wilson, Christine; Peace, Mark; de Vocht, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Any potential health effects of radiation emitted from radionuclides deposited in the bodies of workers exposed to radioactive materials can be directly investigated through epidemiological studies. However, estimates of radionuclide exposure and consequent tissue-specific doses, particularly for early workers for whom monitoring was relatively crude but exposures tended to be highest, can be uncertain, limiting the accuracy of risk estimates. We review the use of job-exposure matrices (JEMs) in peer-reviewed epidemiological and exposure assessment studies of nuclear industry workers exposed to radioactive materials as a method for addressing gaps in exposure data, and discuss methodology and comparability between studies. We identified nine studies of nuclear worker cohorts in France, Russia, the USA and the UK that had incorporated JEMs in their exposure assessments. All these JEMs were study or cohort-specific, and although broadly comparable methodologies were used in their construction, this is insufficient to enable the transfer of any one JEM to another study. Moreover there was often inadequate detail on whether, or how, JEMs were validated. JEMs have become more detailed and more quantitative, and this trend may eventually enable better comparison across, and the pooling of, studies. We conclude that JEMs have been shown to be a valuable exposure assessment methodology for imputation of missing exposure data for nuclear worker cohorts with data not missing at random. The next step forward for direct comparison or pooled analysis of complete cohorts would be the use of transparent and transferable methods.

  8. DNA adducts and PM(10) exposure in traffic-exposed workers and urban residents from the EPIC-Florence City study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palli, Domenico; Saieva, Calogero; Munnia, Armelle; Peluso, Marco; Grechi, Daniele; Zanna, Ines; Caini, Saverio; Decarli, Adriano; Sera, Francesco; Masala, Giovanna

    2008-09-15

    Air pollution and particulate matter in urban areas have been associated with increased mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and increased cancer risk. Carcinogenic effects of particulate matter have been related to the contents of specific compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The latter may form bulky DNA adducts, that may be considered as candidate markers of cancer risk. We have recently shown that traffic-exposed workers and the general population in Florence have divergent levels of DNA adducts, possibly related to different levels of exposure to genotoxic agents from vehicle emissions. In the current study, in a series of 214 Florence City healthy adults enrolled in a prospective study in the period 1993-1998 (152 residents / 62 traffic-exposed workers), we investigated the correlation between individual levels of DNA bulky adducts and PM(10) exposure scores based on daily environmental measures provided by the local Environmental Protection Agency for the whole study period, by two types of urban monitoring stations (high- and low-traffic). We found that PM(10) cumulative scores from high-traffic stations over the last 1-2 weeks prior to blood drawing significantly correlated (r=0.58, p=0.02) with DNA adduct levels among non-smoking traffic-exposed workers (but not among residents with no occupational exposure to vehicle emissions). A multivariate regression analysis adjusted for possible confounders confirmed these findings. PM(10) scores from low-traffic stations did not show any correlation. These results show that DNA adduct levels in non-smoking workers reflect the average levels of exposure to PM(10) in high-traffic urban areas experienced over a time period of 1-2 weeks. Since DNA adduct levels have been found predictive of lung cancer risk, our findings provide clues relevant to the reduction of genotoxic damage and possibly cancer risk among traffic-exposed urban workers.

  9. Reappraisal of Blood Lead Levels and Relation to Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase, Zinc Protoporphyrin and Urinary ALA Level in Thai Normal Adults and Lead Exposed Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watcharachai Rujirojkul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available All studied participants of 65 lead-exposed workers and 52 non lead-exposed persons who voluntarily participated and signed consents were interviewed about their working duration, type of work, risk behavior and personal data. Blood and urine samples were drawn for PbB, d-ALAD, ZPP and ALAU analysis respectively. The mean PbB level for workers in lead smelters, 22.4 +/- 17.9 microgram/dl (range 1.3-67.2 microgram/dl was found higher than that for the non-exposed persons (mean = 5.0 +/- 2.4 microgram/dl, range 2.0-13.2 microgram/dl. In relative to previous studies, mean PbB concentration found in the unexposed persons tended to decreased follows the reduced use of leaded gasoline in 1996 in Thailand. A highly significant negative correlation (R2 = 0.86 was observed between PbB concentration and d-ALAD activities among lead exposed persons. Statistical analysis showed that d-ALAD activities significantly decreased (p10 microgram/dl. ZPP measurement is simple and inexpensive, but less sensitive and could be used for screening only in those high lead contaminated persons (PbB>40 microgram/dl. ALAU measurement cannot be served as early biochemical indices of lead exposure both in lead exposed and non-lead exposed persons.

  10. Diseases that disable workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation in Instituto Nacional de Oncologia - INOR; Enfermedades discapacitantes en trabajadores ocupacionalmente expuestos a radiaciones ionizantes del INOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frometa Suarez, Ileana [Instituto Nacional Salud de los Trabajadores, La Habana (Cuba); Hernandez, Jose Marcos [Instituto Nacional de Oncologia y Radiobiologia, La Habana (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The medical surveillance define the capacity of workers exposed to ionizing radiations according to legal recommendations, though another facultative may to diagnose diseases with disable. This present paper performs an analysis of the occupational morbidity reported of workers of the National Oncology Institute at Cuba. The distribution of frequency, gravity and duration of the diseases is presented. The sources information was personnel radiological records. The osteomuscular and genitourinary system were more percent of incapacity. The loss day index is high. The gravity index is high too from the hematopoietic system. (author)

  11. Study of Peak Expiratory Flow Rate as the Assessment of Lung Function in Occupationally Exposed Petrol Pump Workers of Western Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Smita V

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fast urbanization trends, rapid industrial growth, globalization, and poor environmental conditions at work places have created a lot of healthrelated issues. Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR as the assessment of lung function in occupationally exposed petrol pump workers and also check whether PEFR increases or decreases with duration of exposure. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 60 male petrol pump workers between age group of 20-40 years who were working as petrol filling attendants for more than one year from western Maharashtra. 50 normal healthy males with same socioeconomic status were chosen as controls to find out the effect of occupational exposure to petroleum product on PEFR as the assessment of lung function tests. Petrol pump workers were divided into three groups based on their duration of exposure i.e. 1- 5 yrs, 6- 10 yrs and more than 11 years. PEFR of petrol pump workers and control was measured by using a Mini Wright peak flow meter which is a portable device for measuring ventilator functions. Comparisons was done using unpaired t-test for 2 groups comparisons and one way ANOVAfor multiple groups of exposures. Results: The PEFR was significantly lower decrease (p=0.001 around petrol pump workers (389.17 as compared to control (534.2. As year of exposure increased mean value of PEFR was significantly decreased from 452.17, 378.00 and 283.64 respectively in petrol pump workers. Conclusion: The results suggested that respiratory functions i.e. PEFR of occupationally exposed petrol pump workers are significantly reduced as compared to controls, also PEFR is significantly reduced with increase in the duration of exposure.

  12. HEV prevalence in the general population and among workers at zoonotic risk in Latium Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulcano, A; Angelucci, M; Candelori, E; Martini, V; Patti, A M; Mancini, C; Santi, A L; Calvani, A; Casagni, L; Lamberti, A

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) infections are responsible for large waterborne outbreaks in developing countries. Sporadic cases in the developed world are mainly imported from endemic areas. HEV has been suggested to be a zoonotic infection, for which pigs may be the reservoir; specific swine strains of HEV have been identified. Humans are susceptible to infections with swine strains. The aim of this study was to analyse whether Italian pig farmers, veterinarians and abattoir workers are more exposed than persons with other occupations. A total of 92 workers at zoonotic risk and 3511 controls from the general population of two Latium cities, Rome and Rieti, were tested for IgG-HEV antibodies. No significant difference in anti-HEV prevalence was observed between the two groups. The prevalence of general population was 2.9% against 3.3% of pig breeders, while there was a statistically significant difference (p = .0004) between subjects recruited in Rome (prevalence 2.5%) and those recruited in Rieti (prevalence 5.5%). Moreover, in some subgroups of general population and in a subgroup of pig breeders, the prevalence was higher than that previously reported in Italy and in other European countries. The highest value (33%) was found in male housekeepers enrolled in Rome; an analogous value was found in the employees of abattoirs (33%). Further studies are needed to elucidate the transmission routes.

  13. Increased urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels in workers exposed to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in a waste plastic recycling site in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Wang, Li; Chen, Xi; Rao, Kai Min; Lu, Shao You; Ma, Sheng Tao; Jiang, Pu; Zheng, Dan; Xu, Shun Qing; Zheng, Hong Yan; Wang, Jian Shu; Yu, Zhi Qiang; Zhang, Rong; Tao, Yong; Yuan, Jing

    2011-07-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a common plasticizer used in industrial and diverse consumer products. Animal studies indicate DEHP caused developmental, reproductive, and hepatic toxicities. However, human studies of the potential effects of DEHP are limited. The exposed site with a history of over 20 years of waste plastic recycling was located in Hunan Province, China. The reference site without known DEHP pollution source was about 50 km far away from the exposed site. In this study, 181 workers working in plastic waste recycling and 160 gender-age matched farmers were recruited. DEHP concentrations in water and cultivated soil samples, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and micronuclei frequency in human capillary blood lymphocytes were analyzed. Mean levels of DEHP were greater in environment at the recycling site than at reference site (industry wastewater for the exposed: 42.43 μg/l; well water: 14.20 vs. 0.79 μg/l, pond water: 135.68 vs. 0.37 μg/l, cultivated soil: 13.07 vs. 0.81 mg/kg, p waste plastic recycling was an independent risk factor for the increased urinary 8-OHdG levels in the male workers (p < 0.01). The occupational DEHP exposure might contribute to oxidative deoxyribonucleic acid damage in the male workers.

  14. Cohorte poblacional de trabajadores expuestos a amianto: Navarra 1999-2004 Cohort of asbestos exposed workers: Navarre (Spain 1999-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Artieda

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento. La construcción de una cohorte poblacional de trabajadores expuestos a amianto es importante porque facilita la vigilancia, permite cumplir con la obligación ética de reconocer el origen laboral de las lesiones y contribuye al desarrollo de la investigación científica. El objetivo es describir el procedimiento que se ha seguido para identificar a los trabajadores expuestos a amianto en Navarra y conocer su respuesta a la oferta de vigilancia de la salud. Metodología. El registro de trabajadores expuestos a amianto se crea en 1999, incorporando empresas y trabajadores a partir de las fuentes de información disponibles, de ámbito nacional y regional, y se consolida con la búsqueda activa de expuestos, tanto activos como inactivos. Resultados. La cohorte es de 2.294 trabajadores, de 33 empresas; 40% están activos, la mitad trabajan fabricando vehículos de motor, 91% expuestos a crisotilo, 25% expuestos a concentraciones de fibras de amianto iguales o superior a 0,20 por cm³ de crisotilo ó 0,10 para otros. En los años 70 y 90 es cuando mayor número de trabajadores inicia la exposición; quienes comenzaron en los años 40 y 50 tienen tiempos de exposición más altos. En la vigilancia médica 72% acepta la oferta, con mayor participación de los activos. Conclusiones. La creación de la cohorte y su seguimiento han permitido reconocer el triple de casos de patología por amianto en relación con los declarados espontáneamente en los once años anteriores al programa, lo que refleja su importancia. El nivel de aceptación de la vigilancia es adecuado, dada la metodología del programa.Background. The identification of a population cohort of workers exposed to asbestos is important because it facilitates health surveillance, allowing us to fulfil the ethical obligation of recognizing the occupational origin of the illness and contributing to the development of scientific research. The goal of this study is to identify the

  15. Serum Neuron-Specific Enolase, Biogenic Amino-Acids and Neurobehavioral Function in Lead-Exposed Workers from Lead-Acid Battery Manufacturing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ravibabu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The interaction between serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE, biogenic amino-acids and neurobehavioral function with blood lead levels in workers exposed to lead form lead-acid battery manufacturing process was not studied. Objective: To evaluate serum NSE and biogenic amino-acids (dopamine and serotonin levels, and neurobehavioral performance among workers exposed to lead from lead-acid storage battery plant, and its relation with blood lead levels (BLLs. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we performed biochemical and neurobehavioral function tests on 146 workers exposed to lead from lead-acid battery manufacturing process. BLLs were assessed by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum NSE, dopamine and serotonin were measured by ELISA. Neurobehavioral functions were assessed by CDC-recommended tests—simple reaction time (SRT, symbol digit substitution test (SDST, and serial digit learning test (SDLT. Results: There was a significant correlation (r 0.199, p<0.05 between SDST and BLL. SDLT and SRT had also a significant positive correlation (r 0.238, p<0.01. NSE had a negative correlation (r –0.194, p<0.05 with serotonin level. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that both SRT and SDST had positive significant associations with BLL. SRT also had a positive significant association with age. Conclusion: Serum NSE cannot be used as a marker for BLL. The only domain of neurobehavioral function tests that is affected by increased BLL in workers of lead-acid battery manufacturing process is that of the “attention and perception” (SDST.

  16. Mutagenic activity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels in urine of workers exposed to coal tar pitch volatiles in an anode plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venier, P; Clonfero, E; Cottica, D; Gava, C; Zordan, M; Pozzoli, L; Levis, A G

    1985-05-01

    The mutagenicity of urinary extracts and the excretion of PAH from workers occupationally exposed to coal tar pitch volatiles in an anode plant were analyzed. Mutagenicity of the urinary extracts was measured by means of the plate test using S. typhimurium strain TA 98. After concentration, hydrolysis and reduction of the urine samples, PAH levels were measured by high resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. No significant difference was found in the mutagenicity of the urinary extracts of non-smokers occupationally exposed to PAH as compared with the controls. Low PAH concentrations were found in the urine of the exposed subjects, which lends further support to the negative results obtained with the Ames' test. The increase of urinary PAH excretion, in relation to occupational exposure, was mainly due to the less mutagenic, low molecular weight compounds.

  17. Nail-fold capillaroscopic monitoring of radio exposed workers for radioprotection: preliminary results; Controle capillaroscopique sous-ungueal des personnels radio-exposes: resultats preliminaires et incidence en radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdereau, B.; Cosset, J.M. [Institut Curie, Dept. Oncologie, Radiotherapie, Radiopathologie clinique, 75 - Paris (France); Brixy, F.; Gauron, C. [Institut Curie, Medecine du Travail, 75 - Paris (France); Pennarrola, R. [Facolta Medicina e Chirurgia Medicina del Lavoro, Radiopatologia, Napoli (Italy)

    2000-09-01

    The cutaneous capillary network of the nail-fold region represents a very sensitive marker of alterations induced by ionising radiation. The authors propose to use this vascular characteristic to ensure surveillance of the hands of workers occupationally exposed to repeated low doses of radiation over many years throughout their career. On the basis of the results of this study, they propose an easy-to-use, inexpensive, and safe method of radio-pathological monitoring. Application of the data provided by percutaneous capillaroscopy, with quantitative analysis of 10 criteria, increases the sensitivity of the technique (capillarometry). A more detailed analysis is necessary to meet the new radioprotection requirements in application of European directives based on CIPR publication 60. This more detailed analysis is necessary to analyse the late repercussions of cumulative doses to the hands, the main targets at workplace irradiation (nuclear medicine, brachytherapy departments, biomedical laboratories, and especially interventional imaging teams). The low cost of the method constitutes an additional advantage allowing it to be proposed for the occupational health care surveillance of exposed workers, especially their hands. Application of this method to 19 subjects occupationally exposed to low doses in hospital revealed that, many years of radio exposition in this environment, in the absence of any overexposure, one half of hands presented abnormalities suggestive of chronic effects of ionising radiation and 4 subjects (20% of the study population) presented obvious features of chronic radiation damage. (authors)

  18. 1-溴丙烷对接触工人肝肾功能的影响%Effects of 1-bromopropane on liver and kidney functions of exposed workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房中华; 缪荣明; 杨德一; 吉洁; 吴为民; 张颖轶; 姬泽薇; 石亚娟; 朱宝立

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨1-溴丙烷(1-BP)对职业接触工人肝肾功能的影响.方法 选择3个1-BP生产工厂进行职业卫生调查.选取1-BP生产线的54名工人为接触组,以同厂非1-BP生产线的工人42名为对照组.对工人进行问卷调查以及肝功能、肾功能的检测.结果 工龄对接触组工人的肝肾功能影响差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);与对照组相比,接触组肝肾功能各项指标差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 该研究尚不能确定暴露1-BP对工人的肝肾功能产生影响.%Objective To study the effects of 1-bromopropane (1-BP) on liver and kidney functions of exposed workers.Methods Occupational health situation in three 1-BP plants was investigated.Fifty-four workers from the 1-BP manufacturing line were chose to be contact group,while 42 workers from non-l-BP manufacturing line as control group.All workers underwent questionnaire survey,liver function test as well as kidney function test.Result Working years has no impact on liver and kidney functions of workers from contact group.Compared with the control,liver and kidney functions test of the two groups showed no statistical difference either.Conclusion The present investigation doesn't prove any impact of occupational 1-BP exposure on worker' s liver and kidney functions.

  19. Radiation surveillance of exposed workers during activities of moving of the earth area of Montecillo; Vigilancia radiologica de los trabajadores expuestos durante las actividades de movimiento de tierras del area del Montecillo del CIEMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, M. T.; Alvarez, A.; Garcia, E.; Diaz, P.; Quinones, J.

    2013-07-01

    One of the objectives of this study was to limit the doses received by exposed workers and the public (in this case the workers of the CIEMATs buildings next to the work) by setting the appropriate criteria of optimization and protection.In addition was a theoretical evaluation of the dose inhalation, workers would have received if ALARA study protection measures has not been established. (Author)

  20. Early recognition of lung cancer in workers occupationally exposed to asbestos; Frueherkennung von Lungenkrebs bei asbestexponierten Arbeitnehmern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann-Preiss, K. [BDT MVZ Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Rehbock, B. [Praxis fuer Diagnostische Radiologie mit pneumologischem Schwerpunkt, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    Despite the fact that working with asbestos and placing it on the market have been banned in Germany since 1993 according to the Ordinance on Hazardous Substances, asbestos-related diseases of the lungs and pleura are still the leading cause of death in occupational diseases. The maximum industrial usage of asbestos was reached in former West Germany in the late 1970s and in former East Germany the late 1980s. Occupational diseases, mainly mesotheliomas and lung cancer emerging now are thus caused by asbestos exposure which occurred 30-40 years earlier. It is known that the combination of smoking and asbestos exposure results in a superadditive increase in the risk to develop lung cancer. No suitable screening methods for early detection of malignant mesothelioma are currently available and the therapeutic options are still very limited; however, the national lung screening trial (NLST) has shown for the first time that by employing low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in heavy smokers, lung cancer mortality can be significantly reduced. According to current knowledge the resulting survival benefits far outweigh the potential risks involved in the diagnostic work-up of suspicious lesions. These results in association with the recommendations of international medical societies and organizations were pivotal as the German statutory accident insurance (DGUV) decided to provide LDCT as a special occupational medical examination for workers previously exposed to asbestos and with a particularly high risk for developing lung cancer. (orig.) [German] Asbestbedingte Erkrankungen von Lunge und Pleura sind in Deutschland noch immer die haeufigsten zum Tode fuehrenden Berufskrankheiten, obwohl die Verarbeitung und das Inverkehrbringen von Asbest gemaess der Gefahrstoffverordnung seit 1993 verboten sind. Das Maximum des Rohasbestverbrauchs in den alten Bundeslaendern war Ende der 70er, in den neuen Bundeslaendern Ende der 80er Jahre erreicht. Heute neu diagnostizierte

  1. Evaluación bioquímica de trabajadores rurales expuestos a pesticidas Biochemical evaluation on rural workers exposed to pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Simoniello

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los pesticidas utilizados en agricultura pueden representar un riesgo potencial para la salud de los agricultores expuestos y para el medio ambiente. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar trabajadores frutihortícolas expuestos a plaguicidas, categorizados por: exposición directa (n = 45, exposición indirecta (n = 50 y controles (n = 50 mediante biomarcadores de exposición y efecto: colinesterasa (ChE, acetilcolinesterasa (AChE, catalasa (CAT, peroxidación de lípidos (TBARS, Indice de Daño Ensayo Cometa (IDEC e Indice de Daño Ensayo Reparación (IDER. Los resultados indican: a inhibición significativa de AChE (p Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops but may represent a potential risk to farmers and the environment. The aim of this work was to evaluate horticultural workers exposed to pesticide, categorized by: direct exposure (n = 45, indirect exposure (n = 50 and controls (n = 50 using exposure and effect biomarkers: cholinesterase (ChE, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, catalase (CAT, lipid peroxidation (TBARS, Damage Index Comet Assay (IDEC and Damage Index Repair Assay (IDER. Our results show: a an AChE inhibition in directly and indirectly exposed population (p < 0.001, b significant increase in the levels of TBARS in direct exposure (p < 0.001, c the CAT reduction was significant (p < 0.01, d a significant increase in IDEC and IDER in both exposed groups (p < 0.001. Our results evidence variations in oxidative balance and DNA damage in exposed workers. These findings represent a contribution to the sub-clinical evaluation of subjects exposed to agrochemicals in our country.

  2. Analysis on the neurobehavioral function of vanadium-exposed workers%钒化合物对作业工人神经行为功能影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封承勇; 周鼎伦; 兰亚佳; 黄升; 王治明

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨接触钒化合物对工人神经行为功能的损害作用及表现特征.方法 采用WHO推荐的神经行为测试组合(NCTB)对暴露组和对照组做测试,其中接钒工人193人,对照组273人.结果 ①暴露组代表消极情感的“紧张-焦虑”、“抑郁-沮丧”、“愤怒-敌意”、“疲劳-惰性”、“困惑-迷茫”得分均高于对照组,代表积极情感的“有力-好动”得分低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).②顺背数字、圣地安娜提转敏捷度、数字译码、视觉保留、目标追踪,均是暴露组得分低于对照组(P<0.05).③简单反应时两组间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 钒作业工人神经行为功能测试差于对照组工人,表现在消极情绪增加、积极情绪降低,视觉记忆力下降、运动速度减慢、运动稳定性下降,提示钒接触有可能造成神经行为功能的损害.%OBJECTIVE To explore the characteristics of neurobehavioral functions of workers exposed to vanadium compound. METHODS WHO-NCTB was applied to evaluate the neurobehavioral functions of all subjects. 193 vanadium-exposed workers and 273 non-exposed workers were recruited. RESULTS ① The scores of positive mood in exposure group, including tension-anxiety, depress-dejection, anger-hostility, fatigue-inertia and confusion-bewilderment, which were significantly higher than those of control group. The scores of negative moods, named "Vigor-activity", in exposure group were lower than control group. ② Digit span in forward, Santa Ana dexterity, Benton visual retention and pursuit aiming II in exposure group were significantly lower than those in control group. ③ As simple reaction time, no significant difference was observed between exposed group and unexposed group. CONCLUSION Score of neurobehavioral function test on vanadium-exposed workers was lower than non-exposed workers, including disorder of mood states, vision-memory, motor speed and motor

  3. Epidemiological study of workers at risk of internal exposure to uranium; Etude epidemiologique des travailleurs exposes au risque d'incorporation d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guseva Canu, I.

    2008-09-15

    This work is a pilot-study among nuclear fuel cycle workers potentially exposed to alpha radiation. Internal exposure from inhalation of uranium compounds during uranium conversion and enrichment operations was estimated at the AREVA NC Pierrelatte plant. A plant specific semi-quantitative job exposure matrix (JEM) was elaborated for 2709 workers employed at this plant between 1960 and 2006. The JEM has permitted to estimate the exposure to uranium and 16 other categories of pollutants and to calculate individual cumulative exposure score. Numerous correlations were detected between uranium compounds exposure and exposure to other pollutants, such as asbestos, ceramic refractive fibers, TCE and so on. 1968-2005 mortality follow-up showed an increasing risk of mortality from pleural cancer, rectal cancer and lymphoma on the basis of national mortality rates. Analyses of association between cancer mortality and uranium exposure suggested an increase in mortality due to lung cancer among workers exposed to slowly soluble uranium compounds derived from natural and reprocessed uranium. However these results are not statistically significant and based on a small number of observed deaths. These results are concordant with previously reported results from other cohorts of workers potentially exposed to uranium. Experimental studies of biokinetic and action mechanism of slowly soluble uranium oxides bear the biological plausibility of the observed results. Influence of bias was reduced by taking into account of possible confounding including co-exposure to other carcinogenic pollutants and tobacco consumption in the study. Nevertheless, at this stage statistical power of analyses is too limited to obtain more conclusive results. This pilot study shows the interest and feasibility of an epidemiological investigation among workers at risk of internal exposure to uranium and other alpha emitters at the national level. It demonstrates the importance of exposure assessment for

  4. Use of Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling to Simulate the Profiles of 3-Hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene in Workers Exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Heredia Ortiz; Anne Maître; Damien Barbeau; Michel Lafontaine; Michèle Bouchard

    2014-01-01

    Biomathematical modeling has become an important tool to assess xenobiotic exposure in humans. In the present study, we have used a human physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model and an simple compartmental toxicokinetic model of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) kinetics and its 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene (3-OHBaP) metabolite to reproduce the time-course of this biomarker of exposure in the urine of industrially exposed workers and in turn predict the most plausible exposure scenarios. The models ...

  5. Plasma Cytokine Concentrations in Workers Exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saberi Hosnijeh, F.; Boers, D.; Portengen, L.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Heederik, D.; Vermeulen, R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Few epidemiological studies have studied the effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on blood cytokine levels. In this study we investigated changes in plasma levels of a large panel of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors among workers from a Dutch historical cohort oc

  6. Inpatient hospital admission rates for nonmalignant respiratory disease among workers exposed to metal removal fluids at a U.S. automobile manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Gordon R; Stout, Allen W; Hands, David; Curry, Emmanuel

    2003-11-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the impact of exposure to metal removal fluids (MRFs) on the respiratory health of exposed workers. The outcome measure selected was the rate of hospital admissions for nonmalignant respiratory disease episodes as determined from healthcare insurance claims data. A cohort of MRF-exposed employees was assembled from 11 manufacturing facilities where MRFs were extensively used in the manufacture of automotive engines, transmissions, and other machined parts. The MRF-exposed cohort included 20,434 employees of such facilities who worked at any time from 1993 through 1997. A non-MRF-exposed cohort was assembled from other employees of the same company during the same time period, but working in warehouse operations and other manufacturing facilities that did not use MRFs or any known respiratory sensitizing agents. The non-exposed cohort included 8681 employees. The crude hospital admission rate for the MRF-exposed cohort was 44 percent higher than that of the non-exposed cohort over the 5-year study period (6.67 vs. 4.62 per 1000 person years at risk, p risk of hospital admission increased with the level of MRF exposure in the population working in MRF plants. The industrial hygiene reconstruction found the levels of exposures of both cases and controls to be very low, with the vast majority of study subjects (more than 90%) having exposures of less than 0.5 mg/m(3). The case-control study did not find any association between increased levels of MRF exposure and risk of hospitalization. The study did document an elevated risk of hospitalization among a sizable population employed in manufacturing operations where MRFs are used.

  7. A cytogenetic study of hospital workers occupationally exposed to radionuclides in Serbia. Premature centromere division as novel biomarker of exposure?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajic, Jelena; Rakic, Boban [Serbian Institute of Occupational Health ' ' Dr Dragomir Karajovic' ' , Belgrade (Serbia). Biodosimetry Dept.; Jovicic, Dubravka [Univ. ' ' Singidunum' ' , Belgrade (Serbia). Genotoxicology Dept.; Milovanovic, Aleksandar [Serbian Institute of Occupational Health ' ' Dr Dragomir Karajovic' ' , Belgrade (Serbia). Biodosimetry Dept.; Belgrade Univ. (Serbia). Occupational Health Dept.

    2016-04-15

    The health risk of chronic exposure to radionuclides includes changes in the genome (e.g., chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei) that increase chromosomal instability. There are also other phenomena, which seem to appear more frequently in metaphases of exposed persons (such as premature centromere division). The aim of this study was to discover whether or not there is correlation between incidence of named cytogenetic changes in persons occupationally exposed to radionuclides in comparison with unexposed control group, and if significant correlation is determined, can premature centromere division be consider as a biomarker of radiation exposure? The exposed group comprised 50 individuals occupationally exposed to radionuclides. The reference control group consisted of 40 unexposed individuals. Chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei and premature centromere division were analyzed according to a standard International Atomic Energy Agency protocol. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0 statistics.The means for analyzed cytogenetic changes were significantly higher in the exposed group. Positive correlation between them was found in exposed group. Premature centromere division parameter PCD5-10 was selected as particularly suitable for separating groups (exposed/unexposed). Identification of other phenomena related to radionuclide exposure, beside well known, may clarify recent problems in radiobiology concerning the biological response to low doses of ionizing radiation and its consequences.

  8. Sintomatología persistente en trabajadores industrialmente expuestos a plaguicidas organofosforados Persistent symptomatology in workers industrially exposed to organophosphate pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Edilia Palacios-Nava

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir los patrones de ocurrencia de sintomatología persistente en trabajadores industrialmente expuestos a plaguicidas organofosforados. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal y observacional. Se aplicó un cuestionario a las autoridades de la empresa y otro a 89 trabajadores a quienes se les determinó el nivel de colinesterasa sanguínea con los métodos Magnotti y Lovibond. Para la descripción de la información se elaboraron tasas, medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión. Para evaluar la diferencia entre grupos se utilizó la prueba ji² y se calculó razón de momios. Resultados. La prevalencia de sintomatología persistente fue de 6.3 por cada 10 trabajadores; 50% tuvo seis síntomas o más. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el riesgo de padecer sintomatología persistente de acuerdo con la edad, antigüedad, área de trabajo y puesto. No obstante, las proporciones más altas de síntomas se encontraron en los trabajadores de 31 a 40 años de edad, con 6 a 13 años de antigüedad en la fábrica, en el área de mantenimiento y en los puestos de obrero general y supervisor. En los 13 trabajadores que tuvieron antecedentes de intoxicación previa, la prevalencia de sintomatología persistente fue de 6.9 contra 6.1 de los que nunca se habían intoxicado. El riesgo de intoxicación aguda previa entre quienes tenían más de 14 años de antigüedad en la empresa fue cuatro veces mayor que el de aquellos con menos de 14 años (pObjective. To describe the patterns of persistent symptomatology in workers industrially exposed to organophosphate pesticides. Material and Methods. An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study was performed. A questionnaire was applied to managers of a factory and to 89 workers, whose erythrocytic cholinesterase level was measured with the Magnotti and Lovibond method. Information is described through rates, central tendency

  9. Seroprevalence of leptospires in sheep slaughtered at Sokoto metropolitan Abattoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bashiru

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In a study to determine the seroprevalence of leptospiralantibodies in sheep slaughtered at Sokoto metropolitan abattoir, Nigeria, bloodwas collected from 282 sheep made up of both male and female. The serum wascollected and analysed using an antigen coated IgG ELISA, out of which 20 tested positive by the ELISA giving anoverall prevalence of 7.1%. Prevalences recorded for age was 18.48% for ≤ 2yrsand 1.58% for > 2yrs, and sex was 3.09% for male and 12.50% for females.There was a significant (P

  10. Chromosome-wide aneuploidy study of cultured circulating myeloid progenitor cells from workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lan, Qing; Smith, Martyn T; Tang, Xiaojiang; Guo, Weihong; Vermeulen, Roel; Ji, Zhiying; Hu, Wei; Hubbard, Alan E; Shen, Min; McHale, Cliona M; Qiu, Chuangyi; Liu, Songwang; Reiss, Boris; Beane-Freeman, Laura; Blair, Aaron; Ge, Yichen; Xiong, Jun; Li, Laiyu; Rappaport, Stephen M; Huang, Hanlin; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zhang, Luoping

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is an economically important industrial chemical to which millions of people worldwide are exposed environmentally and occupationally. Recently, the International Agency for Cancer Research concluded that there is sufficient evidence that FA causes leukemia, particularly myeloid le

  11. Raman microspectroscopy of exhaled breath condensate and urine in workers exposed to fine and nano TiO2 particles: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelclova, Daniela; Barosova, Hana; Kukutschova, Jana; Zdimal, Vladimir; Navratil, Tomas; Fenclova, Zdenka; Vlckova, Stepanka; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Zikova, Nadezda; Kacer, Petr; Komarc, Martin; Belacek, Jaroslav; Zakharov, Sergey

    2015-07-14

    The health effects of engineered nanoparticles in humans are not well-understood; however experimental data support the theory of oxidative stress promoting fibrogenesis and carcinogenicity. The aim of this study was to detect TiO2 particles in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and urine samples to ascertain their presence and potential persistence and excretion in urine.EBC and urine samples were collected from 20 workers exposed to TiO2 aerosol; among them, 16 had a higher risk level of exposure (production workers) and four had medium risk level (research workers); in addition to 20 controls. Titanium levels in EBC and urine were analysed using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. A Raman microspectroscopic analysis was performed in EBC and urine to identify the phase composition of TiO2 particles observed. Aerosol exposure in the workplaces was measured using SMPS and APS spectrometers and P-TRAK and DustTRAK DRX monitors.The median concentration of TiO2 aerosol was 1.98 × 10(4) particles cm(-3), the interquartile range (IQR) was 1.50 × 10(4) - 3.01 × 10(4) particles cm(-3) and the median mass concentration was 0.65 mg m(-3) (IQR 0.46-.0.83 mg m(-3)); 70-82% of the particles were smaller than 100 nm in diameter. In any part of the plant, the median TiO2 air concentration did not exceed the national airborne exposure limit of 10 mg m(-3) for inert dust. Particles of rutile and/or anatase were found in the EBC of exposed workers in 8/20 (40%) of the pre-shift and 14/20 (70%) of the post-shift samples. In the urine of workers, TiO2 particles were detected in 2/20 post-shift urine samples only. The mean concentration of titanium in the EBC in production workers was 24.1 ± 1.8 µg/l. In the research workers the values were below the limit of quantitation; LOQ = 4.0 ± 0.2 µg/l), as well as in the controls. In the urine samples of all of the subjects, titanium was under the limit of detection (LOD = 1

  12. Susceptibility factors and DNA adducts in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of aluminium smelter workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuominen, Rainer; Warholm, Margareta; Rannug, Agneta [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); National Institute for Working Life, Stockholm (Sweden); Baranczewski, Pawel; Moeller, Lennart [Center for Nutrition and Toxicology, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge (Sweden); Hagmar, Lars [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital, (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    Formation of DNA adducts as a result of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was studied in 98 potroom workers from an aluminium smelting plant and in 55 blue-collar workers without occupational PAH exposure. DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was used for quantitation of individual PAH-DNA adducts by {sup 32}P-postlabelling/high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Four individual DNA adducts (denoted A, B, C and D) were quantified in 141 of a total of 153 subjects. Genetic polymorphisms for cytochrome P-4501A1 (CYP1A1), microsomal epoxide hydrolase, N-acetyltransferase 2, glutathione transferases M1, P1 and T1 (GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1, respectively) and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) were analysed. For 52 subjects, analysis of mRNA inducibility of CYP1A1 was performed. No statistically significant differences in the levels of total or individual DNA adducts A, C and D were found between potroom workers and control subjects. All potroom workers and the subgroup of potroom workers who reported to never/sometimes use personal respiratory protection (n=72) were found to have a significantly higher likelihood of having high levels of adduct B than control subjects [odds ratio (OR) =3.4 with 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.3-9.2, and OR=4.2 with 95% CI 1.6-11.5, respectively]. In the subgroup, levels of adducts A and B were found to be significantly higher among workers with employment time of less than 6 months (n=5). Also, the levels of the individual DNA adducts were to some extent modified by genetic polymorphisms in CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTP1 and NQO1 and by CYP1A1 inducibility. In conclusion, levels of adduct B, identified by {sup 32}P-postlabelling/HPLC methodology as an indicator of PAH exposure in aluminium production, were modified by the use of respiratory protection, length of employment and genetic polymorphisms. (orig.)

  13. Shared Resilience in a Traumatic Reality: A New Concept for Trauma Workers Exposed Personally and Professionally to Collective Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttman-Shwartz, Orit

    2015-10-01

    This article proposes a new concept, shared resilience in a traumatic reality (SRTR), which refers to trauma workers in shared reality situations. Based on the literature that emphasizes the positive effects of exposure to traumatic events for workers in this field, this article expands the perception of shared traumatic situations and examines the ability of trauma workers to cope, to show resilience, and to grow as a result of the mutual relationship with their clients. The literature review presents a variety of terms referring to the positive effects of working with trauma survivors on therapists as a basis for the new concept proposed here. These terms highlight the importance of empathic mutual aid relationships, which are a basic component for promoting resilience in a shared traumatic reality. The relative nature of shared resilience is discussed, bearing in mind that resilience can be manifested as emotions, behaviors, and conceptions. Various findings relating to shared resilience in traumatic situations are reviewed, and recommendations for research, practice, and policy are offered. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Correlation of chromosome damage and promoter methylation status of the DNA repair genes MGMT and hMLH1 in Chinese vinyl chloride monomer (VCM-exposed workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Wu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the association of the methylation status of MGMT and hMLH1 with chromosome damage induced by vinyl chloride monomer (VCM. Materials and Methods: Methylation of MGMT and hMLH1 was measured in 101 VCM-exposed workers by methylation-specifi c PCR. Chromosome damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes was measured by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. The subjects were divided into chromosome damaged and non-damaged groups based on the normal reference value of micronuclei frequencies determined for two control groups. Results: MGMT promoter methylation was detectable in 5 out of 49 chromosome damaged subjects, but not in the chromosome non-damaged subjects; there was a signifi cant difference in MGMT methylation between the two groups (p < 0.05. Conclusions: We detected aberrant promoter methylation of MGMT in a small number of chromosome damaged VCM-exposed workers, but not in the chromosome non-damaged subjects. This preliminary observation warrants further investigation in a larger study.

  15. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and structural changes in carotid arteries in normotensive workers occupationally exposed to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreba, Rafał; Poreba, Małgorzata; Gać, Paweł; Andrzejak, Ryszard

    2011-09-01

    Occupational exposure to lead may cause an increase in blood pressure. The aim of the study was to estimate the effect of occupational exposure to lead on selected parameters of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and structural changes in carotid arteries. The study included 33 normotensive men occupationally exposed to lead and 39 unexposed men employed in administration of the foundry. All of the men underwent 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography to determine intima-media thickness (IMT). The group of men occupationally exposed to lead manifested significantly higher mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP), mean diastolic blood pressure (MDBP), mean blood pressure (MBP), pulse pressure (PP), variability of diastolic blood pressure (VDBP), and IMT than the unexposed group. The studied groups did not differ in mean values of variability of systolic blood pressure (VSBP). As compared to the unexposed group, in men exposed to lead, atherosclerotic plaques were significantly more common. In the group of persons exposed to lead the Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis revealed significant linear positive correlations between MSBP and IMT, between lead level and the number of atherosclerotic plaques, and between lead level and PP. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that higher lead level in blood and higher triglyceride concentration in blood represent independent risk factors of an increased pulse pressure in the group of individuals occupationally exposed to lead. Occupational exposure to lead can be associated with increased blood pressure and accelerated progression of atherosclerosis.

  16. Cytogenetic evaluation of hospital workers occupationally exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. Assessment of two cytogenetic procedures: accumulated dosimetry versus radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Sagredo, J. M.; Villalon, C.; Lopez-Abente, G.; Arranz, L.; Ferro, M. T.; Ferrando, P.; Pollan, M.; Aragones, N.; Ferrer, N.; Sastre, J. M.

    2004-07-01

    We try to establish a cumulative ionising radiation (IR) biologicla dosimetry in occupationally exposed workers as a routine health tes, analysing chromosome translocations. 100 hospital workers occupationally exposed to low levels of X-ray, g-ray and radioactive isotopes are included in this study. Blood samples were cultured for cytogenetic analysis. Chromosome translocatiosn were scored using whole chromosome paint probes cocktail (Vysis) for chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Furthermore, a personal detailed interview about confounding factors, as tobacco smoking X-ray examination, occupational exposure to chemotherapeutics agents and solvents, electromagnetic fields exposure, and others was done. Our results showed that there is no statistical association between cumulative doses of IRE, type of LET and chromosome translocation rate. For the contraty, we have found a translocation risk increase related with IR equivalent dose rate, independently of the time of exposure and age. Those workers receiving 1mSv/year or more vs<1mSv/year show a relative risk of 2.56 (95% confidence interval 1.10-5.95). A comparison of translocationrate and different confounding factors suggest a relative risk increase in intensive users of mobile phones. Other exposures as tobacco smoking solvents, UV radiation anaesthetic gases and any other confounding factors have not shown assocaition with translocation rate. At the same time, we try to analyse radiosensitivity through the CBMN-test (cytokinesis block micronucelus test). Results on CBMN are in progress. Finally we try to asses the two cytogentic procedures as the most suitable routine health test in radiation occupational protection. (Author)

  17. Prevalence of bovine Cysticercosis of Slaughtered Cattle in Meshkinshahr Abattoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Garedaghi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The occurrence of the larvae of Taenia saginata (T. saginata in cattle musculature causes T. saginata cysticercosis or bovine cysticercosis while the adult worms in human small intestines cause taeniasis. Approach: In this study, the prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in cattle slaughtered for meat in Meshkinshahr Abattoir, Iran between September 2010 and August 2011 was reported. Results: The examination of various organs of 500 cattle in Meshkinshahr Abattoir showed that 15(3% were infected with T. saginata cysticercosis. The tongue, masseter muscles, cardiac muscles, triceps muscles and thigh muscles were the main predilection sites of the cysts. The cysts of bovine cysticercosis were also identified on the spleen, intercostal muscles, diaphragm and liver. Out of 460 male cattle, examined, 14 (3% had cysts of bovine cysticercosis while 1 (2.5% of the 40 female animals investigated were infected. Conclusion: The animals slaughtered were all adults. No significant difference in prevalence rates was recorded between the sexes. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was higher in local sarabi cattle breeds than Holstein-Frisian cattle.

  18. Screening for occupational vitiligo in workers exposed to hydroquinone monomethyl ether and to paratertiary-amyl-phenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, J.J.; Stevenson, C.J.

    1981-11-01

    Two men reported previously with vitiligo after occupational exposure to hydroquinone monomethyl ether (HMME) have been reviewed after eight years. Repigmentation of significant degree was found in one man and of limited degree in the other. One hundred and sixty-nine men in the same works have been screened with Wood's light for evidence of vitiligo. No cases were found in the 148 men exposed to HMME (colleagues who screened 100 men exposed to HMME in two other factories also found no case) or in the 129 who had been exposed to paratertiary-amyl-phenol. Loss of light reflection on Wood's light examination was observed in 13 men due to scars or to other skin disorders.

  19. N-acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-l-cysteine in urine from workers exposed to 1-bromopropane in foam cushion spray adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Kevin W; Petersen, Martin R; Cheever, Kenneth L; Luo, Lian

    2009-10-01

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) has been marketed as an alternative for ozone depleting and other solvents; it is used in aerosol products, adhesives, metal, precision, and electronics cleaning solvents. Mechanisms of toxicity of 1-BP are not fully understood, but it may be a neurological and reproductive toxicant. Sparse exposure information prompted this study using 1-BP air sampling and urinary metabolites. Mercapturic acid conjugates are excreted in urine from 1-BP metabolism involving debromination. Research objectives were to evaluate the utility of urinary N-acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-L-cysteine (AcPrCys) for assessing exposure to 1-BP and compare it to urinary bromide [Br((-))] previously reported for these workers. Forty-eight-hour urine specimens were obtained from 30 workers at two factories where 1-BP spray adhesives were used to construct polyurethane foam seat cushions. Urine specimens were also obtained from 21 unexposed control subjects. All the workers' urine was collected into composite samples representing three time intervals: at work, after work but before bedtime, and upon awakening. Time-weighted average (TWA) geometric mean breathing zone concentrations were 92.4 and 10.5 p.p.m. for spraying and non-spraying jobs, respectively. Urinary AcPrCys showed the same trend as TWA exposures to 1-BP: higher levels were observed for sprayers. Associations of AcPrCys concentrations, adjusted for creatinine, with 1-BP TWA exposure were statistically significant for both sprayers (P < 0.05) and non-sprayers (P < 0.01). Spearman correlation coefficients for AcPrCys and Br((-)) analyses determined from the same urine specimens were highly correlated (P < 0.0001). This study confirms that urinary AcPrCys is an important 1-BP metabolite and an effective biomarker for highly exposed foam cushion workers.

  20. Farm to abattoir conditions, animal factors and their subsequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and beef quality — A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njisane, Yonela Zifikile; Muchenje, Voster

    2017-01-01

    The current review seeks to highlight the concerns that have been raised on pre-slaughter stress, contributing factors and its consequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and the quality of beef; inter-linking the activities involved from birth to slaughter. Such information is crucial in light of the consumer concerns on overall animal welfare, quality of meat and food security. Slaughter animals are exposed to different conditions during production and transportation to abattoirs on a daily basis. However; the majority of studies that have been done previously singled out different environments in the meat production chain, while conclusions have been made that the welfare of slaughter animals and the quality of meat harvested from them is dependent on the whole chain. Behaviour is a critical component used to evaluate the animals’ wellbeing and it has been reported to have an effect on product quality. Apart from the influence of on-farm, transportation and abattoir conditions, the genetic background of the animal also affects how it perceives and responds to certain encounters. Stress activates the animals’ hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity, triggering release of various stress hormones such as catecholamines and cortisol, thus glycogen depletion prior slaughter, elevated ultimate pH and poor muscle-meat conversion. Pre-slaughter stress sometimes results to cattle attaining bruises, resulting to the affected parts of the carcass being trimmed and condemned for human consumption, downgrading of the carcass and thus profit losses. PMID:27608639

  1. Quantitative cancer risk assessment based on NIOSH and UCC epidemiological data for workers exposed to ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Flores, Ciriaco; Sielken, Robert L; Teta, M Jane

    2010-04-01

    The most recent epidemiological data on individual workers in the NIOSH and updated UCC occupational studies have been used to characterize the potential excess cancer risks of environmental exposure to ethylene oxide (EO). In addition to refined analyses of the separate cohorts, power has been increased by analyzing the combined cohorts. In previous SMR analyses of the separate studies and the present analyses of the updated and pooled studies of over 19,000 workers, none of the SMRs for any combination of the 12 cancer endpoints and six sub-cohorts analyzed were statistically significantly greater than one including the ones of greatest previous interest: leukemia, lymphohematopoietic tissue, lymphoid tumors, NHL, and breast cancer. In our study, no evidence of a positive cumulative exposure-response relationship was found. Fitted Cox proportional hazards models with cumulative EO exposure do not have statistically significant positive slopes. The lack of increasing trends was corroborated by categorical analyses. Cox model estimates of the concentrations corresponding to a 1-in-a-million extra environmental cancer risk are all greater than approximately 1ppb and are more than 1500-fold greater than the 0.4ppt estimate in the 2006 EPA draft IRIS risk assessment. The reasons for this difference are identified and discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mortality among workers exposed to coal tar pitch volatiles and welding emissions: an exercise in epidemiologic triage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, M; Maizlish, N; Park, R; Mirer, F

    1985-11-01

    The United Automobile Workers International Union has established a system of epidemiologic triage to evaluate patterns of mortality among groups of union members. In response to worker concerns, the Union examined mortality at a metal stamping plant, using a method which linked pension records with the State of Michigan computerized death registry. The observed proportion of malignant neoplasms was nearly twice that expected (95% Confidence Limits 1.36, 2.62). Two- to five-fold excess proportional mortality from cancer of the digestive organs, lung cancer, and leukemia accounted for most of the overall excess. Strong associations were found between lung and digestive organ cancer and employment as maintenance welders or millwrights in the plant (odds ratios greater than 10). High levels of six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with mutagenic and carcinogenic properties were found during hot coal tar application to wood block floors, work conducted by the high-risk groups. These levels were substantially reduced following the purchase of new tar pots. The example demonstrates that epidemiologic tools can play a valuable role in occupational health decision making, but care must be taken to avoid mechanical reliance on quantitative testing and to acknowledge the important role of social and political value judgments in the establishment of responsible public policy.

  3. Chromosomal aberrations, sister-chromatid exchanges, cells with high frequency of SCE, micronuclei and comet assay parameters in 1, 3-butadiene-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srám, R J; Rössner, P; Peltonen, K; Podrazilová, K; Mracková, G; Demopoulos, N A; Stephanou, G; Vlachodimitropoulos, D; Darroudi, F; Tates, A D

    1998-11-09

    The association of occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD) and induction of cytogenetic damage in peripheral lymphocytes was studied in 19 male workers from a monomer production unit and 19 control subjects from a heat production unit. The exposure to BD was measured by passive personal monitors. The following biomarkers were used: chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), cells with a high frequency of SCE (HFC), micronuclei, comet assay parameters like tail length (TL) and percentage of DNA in tail [T (%)] and polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes. BD exposure with a median value of 0.53 mg/m3 (range: 0.024-23.0) significantly increased (a) the percentage of cells with chromosomal aberrations in exposed vs. control groups (3.11% vs. 2.03%, P<0.01), (b) the frequency of SCE per cell (6.96 vs. 4.87, P<0.001), and (c) the percentage of HFC (19.9% vs. 4.1%, P<0.001). BD exposure had no significant effects on formation of micronuclei and on comet assay parameters. Effect of smoking was observed only for HFC in BD-exposed group. GSTM1 genotype affected chromosomal aberrations in exposed group, while GSTT1 genotype affected chromosomal aberrations in controls. No effect of GSTM1 or GSTT1 genotypes was observed on any other biomarkers used.

  4. 三硝基甲苯作业工人白内障患病调查%Prevalence of cataract among workers exposed to trinitrotoluene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈于; 张华东; 付婷婷; 秦启忠; 韩令力; 张晓丽

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the harmful effect of trinitrotoluene (TNT) on workers'eyes. Methods Ocular examinations including optometry, type-B ultrasonic, astigmatism, and turbidity were carried out among 542 workers exposed to TNT and the results were analyzed. Results There were 90 patients diagnosed as cataract ( 1 patient of 3rd stage,17 of 2nd,and 72 of 1st stage) with a total prevalence rate of 16. 6% and a higher prevalence of 23.46% in the male than that of in the female (3.26% ,P < 0. 05 ). Totally 343 workers were classified as the subjects to be followed-up for occupational hazards with a total detection rate of 63.28% and a higher rate for the male ( 75.70% ) than the female ( 39. 13% ) ( P < 0. 05). The prevalence rate of cataract increased with age,TNT exposure. and working years ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion The prevalence rate of cataract among the workers exposed to TNT was relatively high and closely related to gender, type of work,age,and working years.%目的 了解三硝基甲苯(TNT)作业人员眼部的损害情况.方法 对某炸药厂作业人员542人进行体检,重点检查眼部白内障患病情况,对结果进行统计学分析.结果 检出TNT白内障患者90例,其中Ⅲ期患者1例,Ⅱ期17例,Ⅰ期72例,总患病率为16.6%,其中男性23.46%,女性3.26%;检出观察对象343人,总检出率63.28%,其中男性75.70%,女性39.13%,患病率及检出率男性均高于女性(P<0.05);患病率随年龄、TNT暴露程度以及工龄增加而上升(P<0.05).结论 所调查炸药厂三硝基甲苯作业人员白内障患病率较高,性别、工种、年龄、工龄与TNT白内障发生密切相关.

  5. Animal Models in Studies of Cardiotoxicity Side Effects from Antiblastic Drugs in Patients and Occupational Exposed Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Lamberti; Giancarlo Giovane; Garzillo, Elpidio M.; Franca Avino; Antonia Feola; Stefania Porto; Vincenzo Tombolini; Marina Di Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Cardiotoxicity is an important side effect of cytotoxic drugs and may be a risk factor of long-term morbidity for both patients during therapy and also for staff exposed during the phases of manipulation of antiblastic drugs. The mechanism of cardiotoxicity studied in vitro and in vivo essentially concerns the formation of free radicals leading to oxidative stress, with apoptosis of cardiac cells or immunologic reactions, but other mechanisms may play a role in antiblastic-induced cardiotoxic...

  6. [DNA damage in female workers exposed to pesticides in banana plantations at Limón, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Vanessa; Cuenca, Patricia

    2002-06-01

    Pesticide use in Costa Rica is very high and all year round. A high percentage of what is sprayed remains in the environment and in the living organisms around. This situation brings contamination and health problems to people in contact with them. The onset of adverse effects may be in the short or the long term, and symptoms vary widely, from headaches to cancer. Much research in this area has been devoted to acute or chronic effects, and not until recently to the genotoxic effect of pesticides. This study evaluated the genotoxic effect of pesticides used in banana packing activities, using the comet assay (single cell electrophoresis) as the biological marker in lymphocytes. This was a case-control double blind study of 30 exposed women from 15 banana farms and 28 women not occupationally exposed to pesticides from the same geographic area. Results show damage to single stranded DNA after working from 5 to 15 years (R2 = 0.12). In Costa Rica we do not have an historical record of the kind of pesticides used in banana farms, the period of time and for how long were they used. This prevented further analysis concerning dose, frequency of exposure and use of new or old kind of pesticides in the farms in relation to DNA damage. The comet assay is of value in the genetic monitoring of pesticide exposed populations.

  7. An overview of male reproductive studies of boron with an emphasis on studies of highly exposed Chinese workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scialli, Anthony R; Bonde, Jens Peter; Brüske-Hohlfeld, Irene

    2010-01-01

    Boron treatment of rats, mice, and dogs has been associated with testicular toxicity, characterized by inhibited spermiation at lower dose levels and a reduction in epididymal sperm count at higher dose levels. The no-adverse-effect level for reproductive effects in male rats is 17.5mg B/kg bw....../day. Earlier studies in human workers and populations have not identified adverse effects of boron exposure on fertility, but outcome measures in these studies were relatively insensitive, based mainly on family size and did not include an evaluation of semen end points. A recent study of nearly 1000 men...... working in boron (B) mining or processing in Liaoning province in northeast China has been published in several Chinese and a few English language papers. This study included individual assessment of boron exposure, interview data on reproductive experience and semen analysis. Employed men living...

  8. 有机磷农药生产工人体检结果对比分析%Analysis of physical examination data of workers exposed to organophosphorous pesticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏运梅; 王娴默; 谢良才

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effectiveness of labor protection measures through analysis of physical examination data of workers from certain pesticide factory. Methods Changes of serum cholinesterase levels of all workers, continuously detected for five years,and related reasons were analyzed. Finished product packing workers and administrative workers were enrolled as contact group and control group respectively. Results There was no significant change of serum cholinesterase level in control group during 2008 and 2010. The abnormal rate of serum cholinesterase level in contract group significantly decreased after the improvement of packaging line and ventilation facility at the end of 2008(Pworkers,exposed to organ phosphorus pesticide.%目的 通过对某农药厂工人的体检结果分析,研究劳动保护措施的有效性.方法 对该厂工人3年血清胆碱酯酶体检结果进行对照分析,研究其变化及原因.将成品包装车间工人资料作为接触组,行政后勤人员资料作为对照组.结果 2008~2010年对照组血清胆碱酯酶测定均值无显著变化.2008年底更新包装流水线并对厂房通风设施进行更换后接触组血清胆碱酯酶异常率降低(P<0.01),测定均值显著提高(P<0.01).结论 环境条件的改善有助于有机磷农药作业工人健康水平的提高.

  9. Saúde auditiva de trabalhadores expostos a ruído e inseticidas Hearing health of workers exposed to noise and insecticides

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    Cleide Fernandes Teixeira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações auditivas periféricas em um grupo de trabalhadores exposto a inseticidas, organofosforados e piretróides, utilizados em campanhas de controle de vetores. MÉTODOS: Estudo de prevalência de uma população de 98 indivíduos que pulverizavam venenos nas campanhas de prevenção do dengue, da febre amarela e da doença de Chagas. A amostra foi de tipo finalística, considerando o universo dos trabalhadores de um distrito sanitário, em Pernambuco, no ano de 2000. Utilizou-se questionário contendo questões de identificação de riscos ocupacional e não ocupacional, medidas de segurança utilizadas, antecedentes de problemas auditivos e sintomas referidos. Foi investigada a historia pregressa de exposição ao ruído, por ser um fator de confusão para a perda auditiva. Todos os indivíduos foram avaliados pelo teste de audiometria tonal. RESULTADOS: Dos expostos apenas aos inseticidas, 63,8% apresentaram perda auditiva. Para o grupo com exposição concomitantemente aos inseticidas e ao ruído, a perda auditiva foi de 66,7%. O tempo mediano para o desenvolvimento de alterações auditivas nas freqüências médias altas, para as exposições combinadas de inseticidas e ruído, foi de 3,4 anos e para as exposições apenas aos inseticidas foi de 7,3 anos. A perda auditiva para as exposições concomitantes aos dois fatores foi de maior intensidade nessas freqüências, do que o observado na exposição apenas aos inseticidas. CONCLUSÕES: Há evidência de que a exposição aos inseticidas induz dano auditivo periférico e que o ruído é um fator que interage com os inseticidas, potencializando seus efeitos ototóxicos. Faz-se necessário avaliar essa possível associação através de estudos epidemiológicos de caráter analítico.OBJECTIVE: To examine the peripheral auditory disorders in a group of workers exposed to organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides, used in vector control campaigns. METHODS: The

  10. Perfil de 300 trabalhadores expostos à sílica atendidos ambulatorialmente em Belo Horizonte Profile of 300 workers exposed to silica seen in an university outpatient clinic

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    ANA PAULA SCALIA CARNEIRO

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A silicose é a pneumoconiose de maior prevalência no Brasil, sendo a maioria dos casos proveniente do Estado de Minas Gerais. Apesar de ser uma doença evitável, continuam ocorrendo epidemias localizadas. Objetivo: Descrever o perfil dos trabalhadores atendidos no Ambulatório de Doenças Profissionais do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Material e métodos: Foram estudados 300 prontuários de trabalhadores expostos à sílica em diversas atividades profissionais, atendidos no período de 1989 a 2000, sendo analisados dados clínico-ocupacionais, espirométricos e radiológicos. Realizaram-se análises univariadas, utilizando o teste do qui-quadrado e teste t. Resultados e conclusão: A média de idade dos pacientes expostos foi de 51 anos, com tempo médio de exposição de 15,6 anos. Diagnosticaram-se radiologicamente 126 (42% casos de silicose, constatando-se que, quanto mais avançada a categoria radiológica da doença, piores foram os resultados à espirometria e mais freqüentes as associações com tuberculose e com limitação crônica ao fluxo aéreo. O mercado de trabalho formal representou o principal vínculo empregatício, sendo a mineração a principal atividade exercida, responsável pela exposição de 197 indivíduos (66%. Os trabalhadores do mercado informal foram aqueles que apresentaram achados radiológicos indicativos de formas mais avançadas da doença, sugerindo piores condições de exposição à sílica, neste grupo de trabalhadores.Introduction: Silicosis is the most prevalent pneumoconiosis in Brazil, with most of the registered cases occurring in the State of Minas Gerais. Although it is a preventable disease, silicosis is still epidemic in some areas. Objective: To describe the profile of workers seen at the Clinics Hospital of the Federal University of Minas Gerais. Patients and methods: 300 medical records of silica-exposed workers in different occupations, seen

  11. A Modified HPLC Method for the Determination of 2-thiothaozolodine-4-carboxylic Acid in Biological Monitoring of the Workers who Exposed to Carbon Disulfide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaodongTan; YangLi; YongyiBi; FuyuanWang; JunYan; MichelVanhoorne

    2000-01-01

    According to the role that chemicals will resolve each other if they have similar property, this article presents a modified determination method of TTCA that is used as a biological monitoring for the workers who exposed to carbon disulfide. The proposed method adds a Na2HPO4- NaH2PO4 buffer extracted process. This twice extracted pre-clean method with diethyl-ether and Na2HPO4-NaH2PO4 buffer for TTCA determination could increase the separation efficiency from the adiacent peaks. The average recovery ratio was about 79-81% and detection limit was 5μg/L. The modified analytic process become more sensitive and useful for the biological monitoring of carbon disulfide exposure comparing the other analytic methods.

  12. Causality pattern of the blood lead, monoamine oxidase A, and serotonin levels in brass home industry workers chronically exposed to lead

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    Aditya Marianti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to analyse the effects of lead (Pb chronic exposure on blood lead levels, Monoamine oxidase A enzyme (MAO A and serotonin levels of brass craftsmen in Pati, Central Java, Indonesia, and to examine the connections among these three variables. The brass home industry area was polluted by lead. Thus, it chronically exposes the workers to lead pollution. Therefore, their blood lead level increased and later raised the level of MAO A and reduced the level of serotonin. Path analysis results show that the path coefficient (ñ of lead effects in decreasing serotonin through MAO A pathway is -0.411. Furthermore, lead effects that directly affect serotonin level without passing through MAO A pathway is -0.391 with residual coefficient (e of 0.572. In conclusion, the increase of blood lead level causes an increase in level of MAO A and drop in the level of serotonin.

  13. Bacterial ecology of abattoir wastewater treated by an anaerobic digestor

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    Linda Jabari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Wastewater from an anaerobic treatment plant at a slaughterhouse was analysed to determine the bacterial biodiversity present. Molecular analysis of the anaerobic sludge obtained from the treatment plant showed significant diversity, as 27 different phyla were identified. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Thermotogae, Euryarchaeota (methanogens, and msbl6 (candidate division were the dominant phyla of the anaerobic treatment plant and represented 21.7%, 18.5%, 11.5%, 9.4%, 8.9%, and 8.8% of the total bacteria identified, respectively. The dominant bacteria isolated were Clostridium, Bacteroides, Desulfobulbus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfovibrio and Desulfotomaculum. Our results revealed the presence of new species, genera and families of microorganisms. The most interesting strains were characterised. Three new bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion of abattoir wastewater were published.

  14. Microbiological contamination of lamb carcasses at abattoirs of Istanbul

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    Tolga Kahraman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of a hundred lamb carcasses were sampled over a 12 month period at abattoirs in Istanbul, Turkey. Each sample examined for total aerobic mesophilic counts (TMC, Enterobacteriaceae count (EC, Salmonella spp. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes was obtained from 100 cm2 areas on four sides of lamb carcasses using the wet and dry cotton swab technique. The study revealed that total aerobic mesophilic counts in all carcasses ranged between 4.18 and 5.95 log/cm2; Enterobacteriaceae counts between 1.60 and 2.30 CFU/cm2. All samples were negative for Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. Furthermore Salmonella spp. was detected on four carcasses. The data confirms bacteriological monitoring of lamb carcasses as a useful criteria for the verification of slaughter hygiene.

  15. 石场接尘工人肺通气功能检查结果分析%Analysis on pulmonary function test results of quarry workers exposed to dust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟东明; 朱如芳; 陈真富

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pulmonary function abnormalities of quarry workers exposed to dust.Methods Epidemiological tools was used to detect and analyze 260 workers exposed to dust from 8 quarry (including FVC,FEV1,MMF,V50,V75),compared with 246 cases of regular workers without dust exposure as control.Results The pulmonary function of workers exposed to dust quarry was significantly lower than that of the control group,lung function abnormalities increased with length of service with the trend,and female workers' lung function abnormalities was higher than that of male workers.Conclusion Damage is detected to lung function of quarry workers,and there is difference in dust seniority and gender,therefore,the occupational protection should be strengthened,and health surveillance records should be implemented to dust-exposed workers.%目的 探讨石场接尘工人肺通气功能异常情况.方法 运用流行病学手段,对8间石场260例接尘工人进行肺功能测定(包括FVC、FEV1、MMF、V50、V75),并与246例无接尘正常工人做对照.结果 石场接尘工人肺通气功能显著低于对照组工人,肺通气功能异常有随着工龄增长而增加的趋势,并女工肺功能异常率高于男工.结论 石场接尘人工肺功能有损伤,并在接尘工龄、性别上有差异,因此,提倡加强职业防护,做好粉尘作业工人健康监护.

  16. Occupation Health Survey Lead Battery Enterprises in Lead Exposed Workers%某铅蓄电池企业铅作业工人职业健康调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宜庆; 王苗苗; 苏瑶

    2014-01-01

    目的了解某铅蓄电池厂铅作业工人的职业健康情况。方法通过职业卫生学现场调查,了解工作场所现状,识别职业危害因素并检测铅烟、铅尘浓度;通过职业健康检查了解工人血铅水平及铅危害程度。结果该企业工作环境中铅烟、铅尘超标率93.3%,铅作业人员血铅超标率为20.09%,且神经衰弱症状较为严重。结论该企业铅危害严重,建议改善工作环境,降低岗位铅浓度,加强作业人员相关健康知识和个人防护意识。%Objective To investigate the occupational hazards for the lead-exposed workers in a private lead bat ery enterprise. Methods Occupational field investigation was used to learn about the work environment and occupational hazard factors,then detected and analyzed the lead smoke and dust in work place. Occupational health surveilance results were used to learn about the blood lead levels and hazard degree of lead workers. Results The exceeding rate for lead smoke and lead dust is 93.3%, the rate for the workers with higher blood lead is 20.09%, and most works had neurasthenia symptoms. Conclusion This private enterprise had serious lead related hazardous and suggest the enterprise improve the enviroment to reduce the lead concentration, and strengthen occupational health knowledge and personnel protection awareness.

  17. Prevalence and correlates of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder among Chinese healthcare workers exposed to physical violence: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Wang, Lingling; Jia, Xiaoli; Li, Zhe; Mu, Huitong; Liu, Xin; Peng, Boshi; Li, Anqi; Fan, Lihua

    2017-08-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychological maladjustment to undergoing a traumatic event. Our aim was to measure the prevalence of PTSD among Chinese healthcare workers exposed to physical violence' and explore the associations of their demographic characteristics, social support, personality traits' and coping styles with their PTSD symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the Workplace Violence Scale, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Scale and Trait Coping Style Questionnaire. We used convenience sampling method to collect data from March 2015 to September 2016. Healthcare workers (n=2706) from 39 public hospitals located in Heilongjiang, Hebei and Beijing provinces of China completed the questionnaires (effective response rate=84.25%). Overall, the prevalence of physical violence in the previous 12 months was 13.60% (n=2706). The prevalence of PTSD among the healthcare workers who experienced physical violence was 28.0% (n=368). Most of the victims of physical violence (50.80%) did not exhibit PTSD symptoms based on their PCL-C scores, and 47.0% did not manifest the diagnostic criteria for PTSD after experiencing physical violence. The level of PTSD symptoms was negatively correlated with their scores on the SSRS (r=-0.188, pworkers' coping styles influenced the development of PTSD symptoms. Therefore, adopting effective coping styles and receiving social support have potential roles in the recovery from trauma after experiencing physical violence. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Circulating soluble CD27 and CD30 in workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi Hosnijeh, Fatemeh; Portengen, Lützen; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Heederik, Dick; Vermeulen, Roel

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies suggest that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure may be associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) but findings remain inconclusive. There is a need for mechanistic studies to evaluate the biologic plausibility of this association. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated changes in plasma levels of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1RA) and soluble (s)CD27 and sCD30 which have been found to be predictive of lymphoma, among workers of a cohort occupationally exposed to TCDD. Eighty-five workers who had been exposed to TCDD more than 30 years before blood collection were included in the current investigation. Plasma level of the markers was measured by ELISA. Current plasma levels of TCDD were determined by high-resolution gas chromatography/isotope dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry. TCDD blood levels at time of last exposure were estimated using a one-compartment first order kinetic model. Exposure-response analyses showed no significant association between blood levels of sCD27, and sCD30 and current and estimated TCDD levels at time of last exposure. IL1RA showed a borderline significant decrease with increasing plasma TCDD levels (P = 0.07), which reached formal statistical significance when excluding subjects with chronic diseases. In conclusion, no clear dose-response relationship was observed between the measured markers and TCDD level. However, there was a suggestion that markers in particular IL1RA tended to decrease with increasing TCDD levels. This observation is consistent with our earlier observation on decreasing cytokine levels, suggesting immunosuppression, with increasing exposures. These findings possibly provide new insights in the etiology of NHL and the mechanisms through which TCDD can increase lymphoma risk.

  19. The influence of genetic polymorphisms in XRCC3 and ADH5 genes on the frequency of genotoxicity biomarkers in workers exposed to formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeira, Carina; Viegas, Susana; Carolino, Elisabete; Gomes, Manuel C; Brito, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified formaldehyde as carcinogenic to humans because there is "sufficient epidemiological evidence that it causes nasopharyngeal cancer in humans". Genes involved in DNA repair and maintenance of genome integrity are critically involved in protecting against mutations that lead to cancer and/or inherited genetic disease. Association studies have recently provided evidence for a link between DNA repair polymorphisms and micronucleus (MN) induction. We used the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN assay) in peripheral lymphocytes and MN test in buccal cells to investigate the effects of XRCC3 Thr241Met, ADH5 Val309Ile, and Asp353Glu polymorphisms on the frequency of genotoxicity biomarkers in individuals occupationally exposed to formaldehyde (n = 54) and unexposed workers (n = 82). XRCC3 participates in DNA double-strand break/recombination repair, while ADH5 is an important component of cellular metabolism for the elimination of formaldehyde. Exposed workers had significantly higher frequencies (P < 0.01) than controls for all genotoxicity biomarkers evaluated in this study. Moreover, there were significant associations between XRCC3 genotypes and nuclear buds, namely XRCC3 Met/Met (OR = 3.975, CI 1.053-14.998, P = 0.042) and XRCC3 Thr/Met (OR = 5.632, CI 1.673-18.961, P = 0.005) in comparison with XRCC3 Thr/Thr. ADH5 polymorphisms did not show significant effects. This study highlights the importance of integrating genotoxicity biomarkers and genetic polymorphisms in human biomonitoring studies. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Adverse respiratory health and hematological alterations among agricultural workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides: a cross-sectional study in North India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fareed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-protective work practices followed by farm workers during spraying of pesticides lead to occupational exposure among them. OBJECTIVE: This study is designed to explore the respiratory health and hematological profile of agricultural workers occupationally exposed to OP pesticides. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was undertaken among 166 pesticide sprayers working in mango orchards of Lucknow district in North India compared with 77 controls to assess the respiratory illness, lung functions, cholinesterase levels and hematological profile. A questionnaire based survey and clinical examination for respiratory health were conducted among study subjects. Lung function test was conducted among study subjects by using spirometer. Cholinesterase level as biomarker of OP pesticides and hematological profile of study subjects were investigated in the laboratory by following the standard protocols. RESULTS: Overall respiratory morbidity observed among exposed subjects was 36.75%. Symptoms for respiratory illness like dry cough, productive cough, wheezing, irritation of throat and blood stained sputum were found to be significantly more (p<0.05 among pesticide sprayers than controls. Lung function parameters viz. PEFR, FEV1, %PEFR predicted, %FEV1 predicted and FEV1/FVC were found to be significantly decreased (p<0.05 among pesticide sprayers as compared to controls. Exposure wise distribution of respiratory illness and lung functions among pesticide sprayers show that the exposure duration significantly elevates (p<0.05 the respiratory problems and significantly decreases (p<0.001 lung functions among pesticide sprayers. Activities of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase were found to be significantly depleted (p<0.001 among pesticide sprayers as compared to controls which show the exposure of OP pesticides among them. The hematological profile viz. RBC, WBC, monocytes, neutrophils, MCV, MCH, MCHC and platelet

  1. Urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A & B in workers exposed to cadmium at cadmium plating

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    Rajan BK

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The present study was carried out to determine the effect of cadmium exposure on Urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B in workers exposed at cadmium plating. Methods 50 subjects using cadmium during cadmium plating formed the study group. An equal number of age-sex matched subjects working in administrative section formed the control group. Urinary cadmium levels were determined by using a flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B were determined by using spectrophotmetric method. Results A significant increase of urinary total N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B profiles were noted in study as compared to controls. The levels of urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B profiles were positively and significantly correlated with cadmium levels in urine. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the effect of urinary cadmium or life style confounding factors (age, BMI, smoking and alcohol consumption on urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B. The analysis showed that the study subjects who had urine cadmium levels greater than 5 μg/g of creatinine, work duration >15 years, smoking and body mass index variables were significantly associated with urinary total N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase but not on isoenzymes A&B. Conclusion The results presented in this study shows that the increased levels of urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase observed in cadmium-exposed workers could be used as biomarkers for suggesting preventive measure.

  2. Polyacrylate/nanosilica causes pleural and pericardial effusion, and pulmonary fibrosis and granuloma in rats similar to those observed in exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoli; Cao, Wen; Chang, Bing; Zhang, Linyuan; Qiao, Peihuan; Li, Xue; Si, Lifang; Niu, Yingmei; Song, Yuguo

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials offer great benefit as well as potential damage to humans. Workers exposed to polyacrylate coatings have pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, and pulmonary fibrosis and granuloma, which are thought to be related to the high exposure to nanomaterials in the coatings. The study aimed to determine whether polyacrylate/silica nanoparticles cause similar toxicity in rats, as observed in exposed workers. Ninety male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups with 18 rats in each group. The groups included the saline control group, another control group of polyacrylate only, and low-, intermediate-, and high-dose groups of polyacrylate/nanosilica with concentrations of 3.125, 6.25, and 12.5 mg/kg. Seventy-five rats for the 1-week study were terminated for scheduled necropsy at 24 hours, 3 days, and 7 days postintratracheal instillation. The remaining 15 rats (three males/group) had repeated ultrasound and chest computed tomography examinations in a 2-week study to observe the pleural and pericardial effusion and pulmonary toxicity. We found that polyacrylate/nanosilica resulted in pleural and pericardial effusions, where nanosilica was isolated and detected. Effusion occurred on day 3 and day 5 post-administration of nanocomposites in the 6.25 and 12.5 mg/kg groups, it gradually rose to a maximum on days 7-10 and then slowly decreased and disappeared on day 14. With an increase in polyacrylate/nanosilica concentrations, pleural effusion increased, as shown by ultrasonographic qualitative observations. Pulmonary fibrosis and granuloma were also observed in the high-dose polyacrylate/nanosilica group. Our study shows that polyacrylate/nanosilica results in specific toxicity presenting as pleural and pericardial effusion, as well as pulmonary fibrosis and granuloma, which are almost identical to results in reported patients. These results indicate the urgent need and importance of nanosafety and awareness of toxicity of polyacrylate/nanosilica.

  3. The problematic on the cancer development in occupationally exposed workers to ionizing radiations; A problematica do desenvolvimento de canceres em trabalhadores ocupacionalmente expostos as radiacoes ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouailhetas, Y.; Mezrahi, A.; Heilbron Filho, P.F.L.; Oliveira, S.M.V. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Superintendencia de Licenciamento e Controle

    1996-07-01

    Frequently and in an increasing perspective, the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission is inquired on the development of cancer in occupationally exposed workers to ionizing radiation. These workers try to compensate their state of ill health juridically. Taking into account that cancer is a probabilistic effect of radiation, it could be only detected by an increase in cases that normally occur in a particular population. Whether or not the occurrence of the illness is identified as having occupational origin misses scientific consistence. Regarding the probabilistic effect of low level radiation doses, radiation protection is founded on the linear dose-effect without threshold hypothesis. Thus, it could be call into a question: is it possible that the illness, presented by an individual, derives from occupational causes. If the answer is positive, the responsibility can be imputed, at first, to the employer and the link of causality turns out to be fundamented not any more in measurable objective facts but in social, economic, ethic and moral aspects, which arise from the radiological protection quality and measures offered by the employer. (author)

  4. CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase IV (CD26/DPPIV is highly expressed in peripheral blood of HIV-1 exposed uninfected Female sex workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyers Adrienne FA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Design of effective vaccines against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 continues to present formidable challenges. However, individuals who are exposed HIV-1 but do not get infected may reveal correlates of protection that may inform on effective vaccine design. A preliminary gene expression analysis of HIV resistant female sex workers (HIV-R suggested a high expression CD26/DPPIV gene. Previous studies have indicated an anti-HIV effect of high CD26/DPPIV expressing cells in vitro. Similarly, high CD26/DPPIV protein levels in vivo have been shown to be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. We carried out a study to confirm if the high CD26/DPPIV gene expression among the HIV-R were concordant with high blood protein levels and its correlation with clinical type 2 diabetes and other perturbations in the insulin signaling pathway. Results A quantitative CD26/DPPIV plasma analysis from 100 HIV-R, 100 HIV infected (HIV + and 100 HIV negative controls (HIV Neg showed a significantly elevated CD26/DPPIV concentration among the HIV-R group (mean 1315 ng/ml than the HIV Neg (910 ng/ml and HIV + (870 ng/ml, p Conclusion HIV resistant sex workers have a high expression of CD26/DPPIV in tandem with lowered immune activation markers. This may suggest a novel role for CD26/DPPIV in protection against HIV infection in vivo.

  5. Determination of radionuclides produced by neutrons in heavily exposed workers of the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura for estimating an individual's neutron fluence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Y; Noda, Y; Yonehara, H; Ishigure, N; Yoshida, S; Yukawa, M; Tagami, K; Ban-Nai, T; Uchida, S; Hirama, T; Akashi, M; Nakamura, Y

    2001-09-01

    In the Tokai-mura criticality accident, three workers were heavily exposed. Biological materials, such as blood, urine, vomit and hair, were collected from the workers and analyzed for radioactivities, produced by the neutron irradiation. Activation products. such as 24Na, -K and 82Br, were found in these materials by gamma-ray spectrometry. The radionuclide of the highest activity observed in biological materials was 24Na, e.g. the concentrations of this nuclide in the blood samples from the three patients at the accident time were 169, 92 and 23 Bq/ml, respectively. The concentrations of stable sodium in the same samples were determined by ICP-AES to obtain specific activities of 24Na (concentration ratio between the produced 24Na and stable 23Na), which are essential for estimating the neutron fluences and radiation doses. The specific activities of 24Na obtained for the three patients through the blood analysis were 8.2 x 10(4),4.3 x 10(4) and 1.2 x 10(4) Bq24Na/g23Na. Based on these values, individual's neutron fluences were estimated to be 5.7 x 10(11), 3.0 x 10(-1) and 0.85 x 10(11) cm(-2), respectively.

  6. Urinary bromide and breathing zone concentrations of 1-bromopropane from workers exposed to flexible foam spray adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, K W; Petersen, M; Curwin, B D; Sanderson, W T

    2006-08-01

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) has been marketed as an alternative for ozone depleting solvents and suspect carcinogens and is in aerosol products, adhesives and solvents used for metal, precision and electronics cleaning. Toxicity of 1-BP is poorly understood, but it may be a neurologic, reproductive and hematologic toxin. Sparse exposure information prompted this exposure assessment study using air sampling, and measurement of urinary metabolites. Mercapturic acid conjugates are excreted in urine from 1-BP metabolism involving removal of bromide (Br) from the propyl group. One research objective was to evaluate the utility of urinary Br analysis for assessing 1-BP exposure using a relatively inexpensive, commercially available method. Complete 48 h urine specimens were obtained from 30 workers on two consecutive days at two facilities using 1-BP adhesives to construct polyurethane foam seat cushions and from seven unexposed control subjects. All of the workers' urine was collected into composite samples representing three daily time intervals (at work; after work but before bedtime; and upon wake-up) and analyzed for Br ion by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Full-shift breathing zone samples were collected for 1-BP on Anasorb carbon molecular sieve sorbent tubes and analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection via NIOSH method 1025. Geometric mean (GM) breathing zone concentrations of 1-BP were 92 parts per million (p.p.m.) for adhesive sprayers and 11 p.p.m. for other jobs. For sprayers, urinary Br concentrations ranged from 77 to 542 milligrams per gram of creatinine [mg (g-cr)(-1)] at work; from 58 to 308 mg (g-cr)(-1) after work; and from 46 to 672 mg (g-cr)(-1) in wake-up samples. Pre-week urinary Br concentrations for sprayers were substantially higher than for the non-sprayers and controls, with GMs of 102, 31 and 3.8 mg (g-cr)(-1), respectively. An association of 48 h urinary Br concentration with 1-BP exposure was statistically

  7. Improved identification and enrolment into care of HIV-exposed and -infected infants and children following a community health worker intervention in Lilongwe, Malawi

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    Saeed Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early identification and entry into care is critical to reducing morbidity and mortality in children with HIV. The objective of this report is to describe the impact of the Tingathe programme, which utilizes community health workers (CHWs to improve identification and enrolment into care of HIV-exposed and -infected infants and children. Methods: Three programme phases are described. During the first phase, Mentorship Only (MO (March 2007–February 2008 on-site clinical mentorship on paediatric HIV care was provided. In the second phase, Tingathe-Basic (March 2008–February 2009, CHWs provided HIV testing and counselling to improve case finding of HIV-exposed and -infected children. In the final phase, Tingathe-PMTCT (prevention of mother-to-child transmission (March 2009–February 2011, CHWs were also assigned to HIV-positive pregnant women to improve mother-infant retention in care. We reviewed routinely collected programme data from HIV testing registers, patient mastercards and clinic attendance registers from March 2005 to March 2011. Results: During MO, 42 children (38 HIV-infected and 4 HIV-exposed were active in care. During Tingathe-Basic, 238 HIV-infected children (HIC were newly enrolled, a six-fold increase in rate of enrolment from 3.2 to 19.8 per month. The number of HIV-exposed infants (HEI increased from 4 to 118. During Tingathe-PMTCT, 526 HIC were newly enrolled over 24 months, at a rate of 21.9 patients per month. There was also a seven-fold increase in the average number of exposed infants enrolled per month (9.5–70 patients per month, resulting in 1667 enrolled with a younger median age at enrolment (5.2 vs. 2.5 months; p<0.001.During the Tingathe-Basic and Tingathe-PMTCT periods, CHWs conducted 44,388 rapid HIV tests, 7658 (17.3% in children aged 18 months to 15 years; 351 (4.6% tested HIV-positive. Over this time, 1781 HEI were enrolled, with 102 (5.7% found HIV-infected by positive PCR. Additional HIC

  8. Asbestosis and other pulmonary fibrosis in asbestos-exposed workers: high-resolution CT features with pathological correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, Hiroaki [Dokkyo Medical University, Department of Radiology, Mibu, Tochigi (Japan); Kishimoto, Takumi [Okayama Rosai Hospital, Asbestos Research Center, Okayama (Japan); Ashizawa, Kazuto [Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Clinical Oncology, Nagasaki (Japan); Kato, Katsuya [Kawasaki Medical School, Department of Diagnostic Radiology 2, Okayama (Japan); Okamoto, Kenzo [Hokkaido Chuo Hospital, Department of Pathology, Iwamizawa, Hokkaido (Japan); Honma, Koichi [Dokkyo Medical University, Department of Pathology, Mibu, Tochigi (Japan); Hayashi, Seiji [National Hospital Organization Kinki-Chuo Chest Medical Center, Osaka (Japan); Akira, Masanori [National Hospital Organization Kinki-Chuo Chest Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose was to identify distinguishing CT features of pathologically diagnosed asbestosis, and correlate diagnostic confidence with asbestos body burden. Thirty-three workers (mean age at CT: 73 years) with clinical diagnoses of asbestosis, who were autopsied (n = 30) or underwent lobectomy (n = 3), were collected. Two radiologists independently scored high-resolution CT images for various CT findings and the likelihood of asbestosis was scored. Two pathologists reviewed the pathology specimens and scored the confidence of their diagnoses. Asbestos body count was correlated with CT and pathology scores. Pathologically, 15 cases were diagnosed as asbestosis and 18 cases with various lung fibroses other than asbestosis. On CT, only the score of the subpleural curvilinear lines was significantly higher in asbestosis (p = 0.03). Accuracy of CT diagnosis of asbestosis with a high confidence ranged from 0.73 to 0.79. Asbestos body count positively correlated with CT likelihood of asbestosis (r = 0.503, p = 0.003), and with the confidence level of pathological diagnosis (r = 0.637, p < 0.001). Subpleural curvilinear lines were the only clue for the diagnosis of asbestosis. However, this was complicated by other lung fibrosis, especially at low asbestos body burden. (orig.)

  9. [Influence of a genetic component on the propensity of dust-exposed workers to visceropathies (on the pattern of detecting polymorphisms in the transmembrane conductance regulatory protein CFTR gene)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskov, S A; Bravve, Iu I; Maslennikov, A B; Poteriaeva, E L; Smirnova, E L; Poliakov, A Ia; Nikiforova, N G

    2013-01-01

    Obtained results of molecular genetics testing of workers' groups exposed to dust show the elimination of carriers of defective variants in the CFTR gene among workers exposed to dust. We can establish a fact that in spite of law frequency of detected major mutations of the CFTR gene in explored selections they have big importance as individual factors in the stage of preliminary medical examinations in terms of prediction of possible occupational development risk and progression of productionally mediated visceropathies and diseases, as well as a conscious choice of occupation by an individual.

  10. Update: cohort mortality study of workers highly exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs during the manufacture of electrical capacitors, 1940-1998

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    Whelan Elizabeth A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health previously reported mortality for a cohort of workers considered highly exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs between 1939 and 1977 at two electrical capacitor manufacturing plants. The current study updated vital status, examined liver and rectal cancer mortality previously reported in excess in this cohort and evaluated mortality from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL and cancers of the stomach, intestine, breast, prostate, skin (melanoma and brain reported to be in excess in other cohort and case-control studies of PCB-exposed persons. Methods Mortality was updated through 1998 for 2572 workers. Age-, gender-, race- and calendar year-adjusted standardized mortality ratios (SMRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using U.S., state and county referent rates. SMRs using U.S. referent rates are reported. Duration of employment was used as a surrogate for exposure. Results Consistent with the previous follow-up, mortality from biliary passage, liver and gall bladder cancer was significantly elevated (11 deaths, SMR 2.11, CI 1.05 – 3.77, but mortality from rectal cancer was not (6 deaths, SMR 1.47, CI 0.54 – 3.21. Among women, mortality from intestinal cancer (24 deaths, SMR 1.89, CI 1.21 – 2.82 and from "other diseases of the nervous system and sense organs", which include Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, (15 deaths, SMR 2.07, CI 1.16 – 3.42 were elevated. There were four ALS deaths, all women (SMR 4.35, CI 1.19–11.14. Mortality was elevated for myeloma (7 deaths, SMR 2.11, CI 0.84 – 4.34, particularly among workers employed 10 years or more (5 deaths, SMR 2.80, CI 0.91 – 6.54. No linear associations between mortality and duration of employment were observed for the cancers of interest. Conclusion This update found that the earlier reported excess in this cohort for biliary, liver and gall bladder cancer persisted with

  11. The importance of lung function, non-malignant diseases associated with asbestos, and symptoms as predictors of ischaemic heart disease in shipyard workers exposed to asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandén, A; Järvholm, B; Larsson, S

    1993-01-01

    The mortality from ischaemic heart disease was studied in a prospective cohort of 1725 shipyard workers exposed to asbestos. The analyses were stratified for age and smoking habits and restricted to men. In agreement with other findings, men with impaired lung function had a significantly higher risk (relative risk (RR) = 3.5) of dying from ischaemic heart disease than men with normal lung function. Men with asbestosis or suspected asbestosis had a significantly higher risk (RR = 3.1) of dying from ischaemic heart disease than men without asbestosis. Thus asbestosis or suspected asbestosis also seemed to be a risk factor for ischaemic heart disease. This finding was independent of respiratory function. There was no increased risk for ischaemic heart disease in men with compared with men without pleural plaques. Men with production of phlegm or sputum and wheezing or whistling had no increased risk for ischaemic heart disease compared with men without these symptoms. In the group with normal lung function men with dyspnoea had a significantly higher risk of dying from ischaemic heart disease than men without dyspnoea. The findings for men with asbestosis or suspected asbestosis indicated a further risk factor besides impaired lung function, in persons exposed to asbestos. Perhaps this risk factor is due to lesions of the pericardium with consequences for heart function. PMID:8398871

  12. Dependence of Papanicolaou gradings of exfoliated urothelial cells upon GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphism in benzidine-exposed workers of the Shanghai dye industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Guofang; Ma Qingwen; Shen Jianhua; Zhang Dongsheng [Shanghai Inst. of Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Chen Jigang; Xiang Cuiqing [Municipal Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Shanghai (China); Golka, K. [Institute of Occupational Physiology, Univ. of Dortmund (Germany)

    2001-11-01

    The distribution of the polymorphic alleles of the genes coding for glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) M1 and T1 was compared with the results of cytological grading of exfoliated urothelial cells (Pap test) in a non-diseased high-risk group of workers formerly exposed to benzidine in the Shanghai dyestuff industry (n=317). All subjects were genotyped for GSTT1 and M1 gene polymorphism by allele-specific PCR. Individuals were stratified according to their job and duration of exposure. A subgroup of 78 individuals with cytological gradings of grade III or higher in the Pap test showed a significant under-representation of the combination of GSTT1 0/0 and M1 0/0 genotypes compared with 238 subjects with a cytological classification lower than grade III (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.31-0.98, P=0.04). These results suggest that neither the GSTM1 0/0 or GSTT1 0/0 genotype alone nor their combination had a clear association with cytopathological changes in exfoliated urothelial cells from individuals previously exposed to benzidine in Shanghai. This contradicts the results of studies indicating that the GSTM1 0/0 genotype is associated with an increased risk for bladder cancer in the general population, mostly outside China. (orig.)

  13. Microdistribution and Long-Term Retention of 239Pu (NO3)4 in the Respiratory Tracts of an Acutely Exposed Plutonium Worker and Experimental Beagle Dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Christopher E.; Wilson, Dulaney A.; Brooks, Antone L.; McCord, Stacey; Dagle, Gerald E.; James, Anthony C.; Tolmachev, Sergei Y.; Thrall, Brian D.; Morgan, William F.

    2012-11-01

    The long-term retention of inhaled soluble forms of plutonium raises concerns as to the potential health effects in persons working in nuclear energy or the nuclear weapons program. The distributions of long-term retained inhaled plutonium-nitrate [239Pu (NO3)4] deposited in the lungs of an accidentally exposed nuclear worker (Human Case 0269) and in the lungs of experimentally exposed beagle dogs with varying initial lung depositions were determined via autoradiographs of selected histological lung, lymph node, trachea, and nasal turbinate tissue sections. These studies showed that both the human and dogs had a non-uniform distribution of plutonium throughout the lung tissue. Fibrotic scar tissue effectively encapsulated a portion of the plutonium and prevented its clearance from the body or translocation to other tissues and diminished dose to organ parenchyma. Alpha radiation activity from deposited plutonium in Human Case 0269 was observed primarily along the sub-pleural regions while no alpha activity was seen in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of this individual. However, relatively high activity levels in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of the beagles indicated the lymphatic system was effective in clearing deposited plutonium from the lung tissues. In both the human case and beagle dogs, the appearance of retained plutonium within the respiratory tract was inconsistent with current biokinetic models of clearance for soluble forms of plutonium. Bound plutonium can have a marked effect on the dose to the lungs and subsequent radiation exposure has the potential increase in cancer risk.

  14. Microdistribution and long-term retention of 239Pu (NO3)4 in the respiratory tracts of an acutely exposed plutonium worker and experimental beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Christopher E; Wilson, Dulaney A; Brooks, Antone L; McCord, Stacey L; Dagle, Gerald E; James, Anthony C; Tolmachev, Sergei Y; Thrall, Brian D; Morgan, William F

    2012-11-01

    The long-term retention of inhaled soluble forms of plutonium raises concerns as to the potential health effects in persons working in nuclear energy or the nuclear weapons program. The distributions of long-term retained inhaled plutonium-nitrate [(239)Pu (NO(3))(4)] deposited in the lungs of an accidentally exposed nuclear worker (Human Case 0269) and in the lungs of experimentally exposed beagle dogs with varying initial lung depositions were determined via autoradiographs of selected histologic lung, lymph node, trachea, and nasal turbinate tissue sections. These studies showed that both the human and dogs had a nonuniform distribution of plutonium throughout the lung tissue. Fibrotic scar tissue effectively encapsulated a portion of the plutonium and prevented its clearance from the body or translocation to other tissues and diminished dose to organ parenchyma. Alpha radiation activity from deposited plutonium in Human Case 0269 was observed primarily along the subpleural regions while no alpha activity was seen in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of this individual. However, relatively high activity levels in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of the beagles indicated the lymphatic system was effective in clearing deposited plutonium from the lung tissues. In both the human case and beagle dogs, the appearance of retained plutonium within the respiratory tract was inconsistent with current biokinetic models of clearance for soluble forms of plutonium. Bound plutonium can have a marked effect on the dose to the lungs and subsequent radiation exposure has the potential to increase cancer risk.

  15. - On Investigating Pollution of Groundwater from Atenda Abattoir Wastes, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

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    Adewoye, Abosede Olufunmilayo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of waterborne diseases arising from pollution of shallow wells in abattoir environment has been on the increase in Ogbomoso community. This project work was carried out in order to examine the geochemical constituents of water samples taken from selected wells in Atenda abattoir environment, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. The effect of abattoir wastes on the groundwater samples and geotechnical analyses of soil samples taken from two points around the abattoir waste dump, and another sample from a control point free from pollution and far away from where the first two samples were taken, were also carried out. Geophysical investigation of the Atenda area was carried out using Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES of Electrical Resistivity Method (ERM, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT, and also, Very Low Frequency (VLF electromagnetic method. The geophysical investigation was carried out to determine the lithology of the study area, track the contaminant plume view and compute the depth to bedrock in the study area. It was observed that a strong correlation exist between leachates from the Atenda abattoir location and sampled wells in the immediate environment. A groundwater monitoring programme to determine groundwater quality status of wells in the neighbourhood of abattoirs is recommended for implementation to safeguard the health of innocent residents in the vicinity.

  16. Vitamin E supplementation on biochemical changes observed in agricultural field workers exposed to different classes of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakasam, A; Sethupathy, S

    2001-07-01

    A total of 41 healthy male pesticide sprayers exposed to different clases of pesticides for 3-5 years were compared with 21 controls matched for age and economic status with respect to free radical generation, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant status, cholesterol, lipoprotein status and haematological profile. Plasma lipid peroxidation was estimated in the form of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) produced. Significant increase in TBARS was observed in sprayers population when compared with control subjects and the level of TBARS increased with increase in the duration of exposure. The levels of antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH) were significantly depleted, whereas those of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were remarkably increased than control population. Significant reduction in total cholesetrol, alteration in lipoprotein fractions and nonsignificant changes in hematological parameters were observed. These results suggested that exposure to pesticidal residual drift augments the free radical generation, and lipid peroxidation. Decline in non-enzymatic antioxidant and elevation of enzymatic antioxidant were observed. Supplementation of α-tocopherol for 45 days resulted in the partial restoration of these biochemical changes produced by pesticides.

  17. Role of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and PON1 in the modulation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satyender; Kumar, Vivek; Vashisht, Kapil; Singh, Priyanka; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh; Pasha, Syed Tazeen; Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Rai, Arvind

    2011-11-15

    Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are primarily metabolized by several xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs). Very few studies have explored genetic polymorphisms of XMEs and their association with DNA damage in pesticide-exposed workers. The present study was designed to determine the role of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and PON1 in the modulation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to OPs. We examined 284 subjects including 150 workers occupationally exposed to OPs and 134 normal healthy controls. The DNA damage was evaluated using the alkaline comet assay and genotyping was done using PCR-RFLP. The results revealed that the PONase activity toward paraoxonase and AChE activity was found significantly lowered in workers as compared to control subjects (pdamage compared to control subjects (14.37±2.15 vs. 6.24±1.37 tail% DNA, pdamage when compared to other genotypes (pdamage was also observed in workers with concomitant presence of certain CYP2D6 and PON1 (Q192R and L55M) genotypes which need further extensive studies. In conclusion, the results indicate that the PON1 and CYP2D6 genotypes can modulate DNA damage elicited by some OPs possibly through gene-environment interactions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Estudo de imunoglobulinas, complementos e auto-anticorpos em 58 trabalhadores expostos à sílica Immunoglobulins, complements and autoantibodies in 58 workers exposed to silica

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    Hermano Albuquerque de Castro

    2004-06-01

    of workers, with or without silicosis, exposed to silica. METHODS: Fifty-eight male workers were studied. All had been exposed to silica. Immunologic, radiologic and functional evaluations were made. The immunoglobulins IgG, IgA, and IgM, the complement system components C3 and C4, and the autoantibodies were assessed. RESULTS: Chest X-rays were normal in 20 of the 58 workers and compatible with silicosis in 38. Among the 38 who were positive, IgG values were, on average, higher than in the group with normal X-rays (p 0.05. The percentage of autoantibody positivity was higher in the silicosis group than in the group with normal X-rays. CONCLUSION: The increased levels of IgG in patients with silicosis constitutes an important discovery. It may represent continuity of the granulomatous reaction, even when the individual is no longer being exposed to silica. However, further studies are necessary in order to increase understanding of the mechanism involved in the silicosis immunologic process.

  19. Diffusing capacity and forced vital capacity in 5,003 asbestos-exposed workers: relationships to interstitial fibrosis (ILO profusion score) and pleural thickening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Albert; Warshaw, Raphael; Nezamis, James

    2013-12-01

    Asbestosis is an interstitial lung disease whose radiographic severity has long been graded by the International Labour Office (ILO) profusion score. Its effect on pulmonary function is further impacted by asbestos related pleural thickening. This report aims to describe the relationships between radiographic grading of interstitial and pleural fibrosis and a key test of pulmonary function, the diffusing capacity, which measures gas exchange and has rarely been assessed in large groups, and to confirm the relationship to an independent test of pulmonary function, the vital capacity, which measures a mechanical property of the lungs. The data were derived from a survey during the period 1997-2004 of 5,003 workers (all white males) exposed to asbestos in various trades. Tests included chest radiographs read by a certified expert ("B") reader, forced vital capacity (FVC), and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLco). Cigarette smoking was adjusted for in the predictive equation for DLCO . Workers were evaluated at a mobile facility at work sites in four southern states. Both diffusing capacity and vital capacity were negatively correlated with profusion score over the full spectrum of radiographic severity. ILO profusion scores 0/1 (conventionally classified as normal) and 1/0 (conventionally classified as abnormal) were associated with similar diffusing capacity and vital capacity values. The highest profusion scores were associated with a greater proportionate decrease in diffusing capacity than in FVC. Both tests showed an effect of pleural fibrosis. Both radiographic severity graded by the profusion score and pleural thickening are correlated with two independent measures of pulmonary function. FVC (which had been reported in smaller work forces) and DLCO (which has not been reported). Both measures show a decrease from normal to intermediate (0/1, 1/0) scores and a further decrease with greater scores, demonstrating the consistency of radiographic and functional

  20. Avaliação audiológica em trabalhadores expostos a ruído e praguicida Audiological evaluation in workers exposed to noise and pesticide

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    Heraldo Lorena Guida

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A perda auditiva induzida por ruído é estudada há muitos anos, e atualmente a literatura especializada estuda também a ação sinérgica dos produtos químicos, uma vez que eles podem ser potencialmente ototóxicos. OBJETIVO: Pesquisar os achados audiológicos em trabalhadores expostos ao ruído ocupacional e a praguicidas e comparar com os dados obtidos em trabalhadores expostos ao ruído. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram analisados os prontuários de indivíduos que foram expostos ao praguicida e ao ruído (grupo I, e indivíduos que foram somente expostos ao ruído (grupo II. RESULTADOS: A classificação dos achados audiométricos revelou para o grupo I: 35% orelhas normais, 53,75% com perda auditiva de grau 1 e 11,25% com perda de grau 2. Enquanto que o grupo II apresentou 57,5% de orelhas normais, 40% com perda auditiva de grau 1 e apenas 2,5% com perda de grau 2. A análise dos achados audiométricos demonstrou também uma piora significativa após a comparação entre os limiares do grupo I e grupo II, na frequência de 3 kHz orelha esquerda e na frequência de 4kHz em ambas as orelhas. CONCLUSÃO: A análise mostrou que o grupo I tem limiares audiométricos piores comparado ao grupo II.Noise-induced hearing loss has been studied for many years and today many experts also investigate the synergic action of chemical products, since they can be potentially ototoxic. AIM: to investigate the audiological findings in workers exposed to occupational noise and pesticide and to compare it to data from noise-exposed workers. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical retrospective. MATERIAL AND METHOD: individuals that had been exposed to pesticide and noise (group I, and individuals that had been exposed to noise only (group II. RESULTS: The classification of the audiometric findings showed in that group I: 35% had normal hearing thresholds, 53.75% had degree 1 hearing loss and 11.25% had degree 2 hearing loss; and group II had

  1. Abattoir survey on extra-cerebral coenurosis in goats

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    Schuster R. K.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Out of 19,046 goats aged between 5 and 6 month and slaughtered at an abattoir in Dubai between September 2012 and March 2014, 57 carcasses were objected at meat inspection due to the presence of bladder worms of the coenurus type. The majority showed single cysts that were cut out but 10 carcasses had to be discharged due to the presence of multiple cysts and with a maximum number of 41 coenuri. In the majority of carcasses, cysts were located in the legs (n=45 followed by abdominal muscles (n=16, diaphragm (n=14 and shoulder (n=13. Loin, rack, renal fat, heart, neck, masseter were other cyst locations. The size of the detected parasitic cysts ranged from 0.7 ml to 90 ml. The maximum number of 1,102 scolices was counted in an 86 ml coenurus found in the leg of a goat. Cysticercus tenuicollis was another cestode larval stage found in livers of 302 goats. A mixed infection with both parasites was detected in 35 carcasses.

  2. Blunted IL17/IL22 and pro-inflammatory cytokine responses in the genital tract and blood of HIV-exposed, seronegative female sex workers in Kenya.

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    Duncan Chege

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Identifying the immune correlates of reduced susceptibility to HIV remains a key goal for the HIV vaccine field, and individuals who are HIV-exposed, seronegative (HESN may offer important clues. Reduced systemic immune activation has been described in HESN individuals. Conversely, pro-inflammatory T cell subsets, particularly CD4+ T cells producing the cytokine IL17 (Th17 cells, may represent a highly susceptible target for HIV infection after sexual exposure. Therefore, we characterized the cellular pro-inflammatory and IL17/IL22 cytokine immune milieu in the genital mucosa and blood of HESN female sex workers (FSWs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Blinded lab personnel characterized basal and mitogen-induced gene and cytokine immune responses in the cervix and blood of HESN FSWs (n = 116 and non-FSW controls (n = 17 using qPCR and ELISA. IL17 and IL22 production was significantly reduced in both the cervix and blood of HESNs, both in resting cells and after mitogen stimulation. In addition, HESN participants demonstrated blunted production of both pro-inflammatory cytokines and β-chemokines. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that HIV exposure without infection was associated with blunted IL17/IL22 and pro-inflammatory responses, both systemically and at the site of mucosal HIV exposure. It will be important for further studies to examine the causal nature of the association and to define the cell subsets responsible for these differences.

  3. Assessment of Some Immune Parameters in Occupationally Exposed Nuclear Power Plants Workers: Flowcytometry Measurements of T, B, NK and NKT Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuleva, Ilona; Panova, Delyana; Djounova, Jana; Rupova, Ivanka; Penkova, Kalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the results of a 10-year survey of the radiation effects of some immune parameters of occupationally exposed personnel from the Nuclear Power Plant "Kozloduy", Bulgaria. 438 persons working in NPP with cumulative doses between 0.06 mSv and 766.36mSv and a control group with 65 persons were studied. Flow cytometry measurements of T, B, natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cell lymphocyte populations were performed. Data were interpreted with regard to cumulative doses, length of service and age. The average values of the studied parameters of cellular immunity were in the reference range relative to age and for most of the workers were not significantly different from the control values. Low doses of ionizing radiation showed some trends of change in the number of CD3+CD4+ helper-inducer lymphocytes, CD3+ CD8+ and NKT cell counts. The observed changes in some of the studied parameters could be interpreted in terms of adaptation processes at low doses. At doses above 100-200 mSv, compensatory mechanisms might be involved to balance deviations in lymphocyte subsets. The observed variations in some cases could not be attributed only to the radiation exposure because of the impact of a number of other exogenous and endogenous factors on the immune system.

  4. Características do zumbido em trabalhadores expostos a ruído The characteristics of tinnitus in workers exposed to noise

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    Luciara Giacobe Steinmetz

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O zumbido é um sintoma auditivo relatado por indivíduos expostos ao ruído. OBJETIVO: Estudar as características do zumbido relatadas por indivíduos expostos ao ruído ocupacional. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Descritivo prospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Participaram 52 indivíduos com idade média de 29 anos que faziam parte do programa de prevenção da perda auditiva de um frigorífico. Os indivíduos responderam a uma anamnese e suas audiometrias realizadas em 2005 e 2006 foram utilizadas. RESULTADOS: No presente estudo, 71% dos indivíduos apresentaram audiometria normal. A prevalência do zumbido para o sexo masculino foi de 16% e para o sexo feminino foi de 9% apresentando tempo médio de exposição ao ruído de sete anos a um nível médio de ruído entre 86 e 91 dBA (48%. Verificou-se um predomínio do zumbido bilateral (46%, do tipo chiado (40% de intensidade média (49%, com tempo de instalação do sintoma entre um a cinco anos (67%, sendo sua freqüência semanal (41% e a noite o período que mais perturba (34%. Encontrou-se significância entre a periodicidade do zumbido e o nível de ruído. CONCLUSÃO: Recomenda-se a inclusão do tema zumbido em programas de prevenção da perda auditiva a fim de promover a saúde auditiva dos trabalhadores.Tinnitus is a common auditory complaint among individuals exposed to noise. AIM: this paper aims to study the characteristics of tinnitus in workers exposed to noise. STUDY DESIGN: this is a descriptive prospective study. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Fifty-two individuals averaging 29 years of age were enrolled in a hearing loss prevention program at a meat processing plant. The participants were interviewed and had their hearing tested in 2005 and 2006. RESULTS: seventy-one percent of the participants were found to have normal hearing. Tinnitus was present in 16% of the males and in 9% of the females. Mean noise exposure length was 7 years and noise levels ranged from 86 to 91 dBA (48%. Bilateral tinnitus

  5. Role of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and PON1 in the modulation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Satyender [Division of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, National Centre for Disease Control 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India); Kumar, Vivek [Environmental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, University College of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital, University of Delhi, Dilshad Garden, Delhi-110095 (India); Vashisht, Kapil; Singh, Priyanka [Division of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, National Centre for Disease Control 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India); Banerjee, Basu Dev, E-mail: banerjeebd@hotmail.com [Environmental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, University College of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital, University of Delhi, Dilshad Garden, Delhi-110095 (India); Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh; Pasha, Syed Tazeen [Division of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, National Centre for Disease Control 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India); Jain, Sudhir Kumar [Centre for Epidemiology and Parasitic Diseases, National Centre for Disease Control 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India); Rai, Arvind [Division of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, National Centre for Disease Control 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India)

    2011-11-15

    Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are primarily metabolized by several xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs). Very few studies have explored genetic polymorphisms of XMEs and their association with DNA damage in pesticide-exposed workers. The present study was designed to determine the role of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and PON1 in the modulation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to OPs. We examined 284 subjects including 150 workers occupationally exposed to OPs and 134 normal healthy controls. The DNA damage was evaluated using the alkaline comet assay and genotyping was done using PCR-RFLP. The results revealed that the PONase activity toward paraoxonase and AChE activity was found significantly lowered in workers as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). Workers showed significantly higher DNA damage compared to control subjects (14.37 {+-} 2.15 vs. 6.24 {+-} 1.37 tail% DNA, p < 0.001). Further, the workers with CYP2D6*3 PM and PON1 (QQ and MM) genotypes were found to have significantly higher DNA damage when compared to other genotypes (p < 0.05). In addition, significant increase in DNA damage was also observed in workers with concomitant presence of certain CYP2D6 and PON1 (Q192R and L55M) genotypes which need further extensive studies. In conclusion, the results indicate that the PON1 and CYP2D6 genotypes can modulate DNA damage elicited by some OPs possibly through gene-environment interactions. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Role of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C, CYP2D6 and PON1 genotypes on DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Workers exposed to some OPs demonstrated increased DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CYP2D6 *3 PM and PON1 (Q192R and L55M) genotypes are associated with DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concomitant presence of certain CYP2D6 and PON1 genotypes can increase DNA damage.

  6. Influenza A virus infection of healthy piglets in an abattoir in Brazil: animal-human interface and risk for interspecies transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Ribeiro Amorim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic influenza virus infections in pigs are frequent and the lack of measures for controlling viral spread facilitates the circulation of different virus strains between pigs. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the circulation of influenza A virus strains among asymptomatic piglets in an abattoir in Brazil and discuss the potential public health impacts. Tracheal samples (n = 330 were collected from asymptomatic animals by a veterinarian that also performed visual lung tissue examinations. No slaughtered animals presented with any noticeable macroscopic signs of influenza infection following examination of lung tissues. Samples were then analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction that resulted in the identification of 30 (9% influenza A positive samples. The presence of asymptomatic pig infections suggested that these animals could facilitate virus dissemination and act as a source of infection for the herd, thereby enabling the emergence of influenza outbreaks associated with significant economic losses. Furthermore, the continuous exposure of the farm and abattoir workers to the virus increases the risk for interspecies transmission. Monitoring measures of swine influenza virus infections and vaccination and monitoring of employees for influenza infection should also be considered. In addition regulatory agencies should consider the public health ramifications regarding the potential zoonotic viral transmission between humans and pigs.

  7. Polyacrylate/nanosilica causes pleural and pericardial effusion, and pulmonary fibrosis and granuloma in rats similar to those observed in exposed workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu X

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoli Zhu,1 Wen Cao,2 Bing Chang,3 Linyuan Zhang,3 Peihuan Qiao,3 Xue Li,4 Lifang Si,5 Yingmei Niu,1 Yuguo Song1 1Department of Occupational Medicine and Clinical Toxicology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Ultrasound, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Toxicology, National Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control, China CDC, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Pathology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 5Department of Radiology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Nanomaterials offer great benefit as well as potential damage to humans. Workers exposed to polyacrylate coatings have pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, and pulmonary fibrosis and granuloma, which are thought to be related to the high exposure to nanomaterials in the coatings. The study aimed to determine whether polyacrylate/silica nanoparticles cause similar toxicity in rats, as observed in exposed workers. Ninety male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups with 18 rats in each group. The groups included the saline control group, another control group of polyacrylate only, and low-, intermediate-, and high-dose groups of polyacrylate/nanosilica with concentrations of 3.125, 6.25, and 12.5 mg/kg. Seventy-five rats for the 1-week study were terminated for scheduled necropsy at 24 hours, 3 days, and 7 days postintratracheal instillation. The remaining 15 rats (three males/group had repeated ultrasound and chest computed tomography examinations in a 2-week study to observe the pleural and pericardial effusion and pulmonary toxicity. We found that polyacrylate/nanosilica resulted in pleural and pericardial effusions, where nanosilica was isolated and detected

  8. Highly-Exposed HIV-1 seronegative Female Commercial Sex Workers sustain in their genital mucosa increased frequencies of tolerogenic myeloid and regulatory T-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, V.; Fourcade, L.; Labbé, A.-C.; Alary, M.; Guédou, F.; Poudrier, J.; Roger, M.

    2017-01-01

    We and others have shown that HIV-1 highly-exposed seronegative (HESN) female commercial sex workers (CSWs) maintain low genital inflammatory conditions to prevent HIV infection. HIV-1 interacts with toll-like receptors (TLR)-7/8 to induce interferon (IFN)-α, an important antiviral and immunomodulatory cytokine, which act together with interleukin (IL)-10, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G and immunoglobulin-like transcript (ILT)-4 to initiate a “tolerogenic/regulatory” anti-inflammatory loop. In view of further unravelling elements associated with natural immunity to HIV-1, we have characterised TLR-7, IFN-α, IL-10, HLA-G and ILT-4 expression profiles in the genital tract of female CSWs and HIV-1-uninfected non-CSWs from Benin. Endocervical myeloid HLA-DR+ cells from HESN CSWs expressed higher levels of IFN-α, TLR-7, IL-10 and HLA-G than those from both HIV-1-infected CSWs and HIV-1-uninfected non-CSWs. Further characterization of the endocervical myeloid HLA-DR+ cells in HESN CSWs revealed a population of “tolerogenic” CD103+ CD14+ CD11c+ myeloid cells expressing high levels of IFN-α and IL-10. Concomitantly, HESN CSWs had higher frequencies of endocervical regulatory CD4+ T-cells when compared to those from the two other groups of women. These novel findings provide strong evidence to support the implication of tolerogenic myeloid cells expressing high levels of antiviral molecules in shaping the genital mucosal immune response to prevent HIV infection. PMID:28262752

  9. Chromium in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), erythrocytes, plasma and urine in the biomonitoring of chrome-plating workers exposed to soluble Cr(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldoni, Matteo; Caglieri, Andrea; De Palma, Giuseppe; Acampa, Olga; Gergelova, Petra; Corradi, Massimo; Apostoli, Pietro; Mutti, Antonio

    2010-02-01

    Chromium (Cr) levels measured in exhaled breath condensate (EBC-Cr) and urine (Cr-U) at the beginning and end of working shifts were related to those measured in erythrocytes (Cr-RBC) and plasma in 14 non-smoking male chrome-plating workers exposed to Cr(VI) in soluble aerosol form who did not report any significant current or past respiratory disease. Cr-U mainly correlated with Cr-P (Cr in plasma) at the end of the working shift (r(2) = 0.59, p < 0.01), whereas Cr-RBC correlated with EBC-Cr (r(2) = 0.32, p < 0.05); at the beginning of the shift, the only significant correlation was between Cr-U and Cr-RBC (r(2) = 0.74, p < 0.01). The clearance of Cr(iii) arising from Cr(VI) reduction was rapid, thus making Cr-U and Cr-P ideal biomarkers of the most recent exposure, whereas Cr-RBC may represent the fraction of Cr(VI) that reaches the bloodstream in non-reduced form and therefore depends on the airway inhaled dose represented by EBC-Cr. Cr-RBC clearance is slower and not only involves the free diffusion of Cr(iii) from RBC to plasma, but probably also involves more complicated kinetic phenomena involving other tissues and organs, which may explain the correlation between Cr-RBC and Cr-U and the lack of correlation Cr-RBC and Cr-P at least 36 h after the last exposure. In conclusion, our findings reinforce the idea that measuring Cr in EBC can significantly contribute to traditional biomonitoring by providing specific information at the target organ level and integrating our knowledge of Cr toxicokinetics.

  10. Risk of Lung Cancer in Workers Exposed to Benzidine and/or Beta-Naphthylamine: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Kimiko; Saeki, Keigo; Obayashi, Kenji; Kurumatani, Norio

    2016-09-05

    Benzidine (BZ) and beta-naphthylamine (BNA) have been classified as definite human carcinogens for bladder cancer by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. However, the epidemiological evidence for an association between exposure to BZ and/or BNA and lung cancer has been inconclusive. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the risk for lung cancer among workers exposed to BZ/BNA. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify studies that had reported occupational BZ/BNA exposure and the outcome of interest (lung cancer death and/or incidence). Meta-analyses were performed using random effects models to combine standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) or standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). We identified 23 retrospective cohort studies including 1745 cases of lung cancer; only one study reported smoking-adjusted lung cancer risk. A significantly increased lung cancer risk (pooled SMR/SIR 1.28; 95% CI, 1.14-1.43) was observed by combining all studies, with significant heterogeneity among studies (I(2) = 64.1%, P BZ/BNA exposure (ie, dyestuff and manufacturing industries) (pooled SMR/SIR 1.58; 95% CI, 1.31-1.89), and studies that identified BZ/BNA-associated bladder cancer with SMR/SIR ≥4.7 (pooled SMR/SIR 1.68; 95% CI, 1.35-2.09). Effect estimates were similar for studies with and without concomitant occupational exposure to chromium, asbestos, arsenic, or bis(chloromethyl) ether. The cumulative meta-analysis showed that the evidence of association between occupational BZ/BNA exposure and lung cancer has been stable since 1995. Although the results of this meta-analysis have the potential for confounding by smoking and heterogeneity, our findings suggest that a finding of lung cancer following occupational BZ/BNA exposure should be considered to be a potential occupational disease.

  11. Application of different statistical methods to estimate relative risk for self-reported health complaints among shoe factory workers exposed to organic solvents and plastic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoun Nijem

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives  : Prevalence odds ratio (POR is commonly used as a surrogate for relative risk (RR in crosssectional studies. When prevalences are high, POR may be a poor approximation for RR. Prevalence ratios (PRs are more easily interpretable when evaluating exposure effects. Our objectives were to compare estimates of PRs and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs using three different statistical methods on a real data set, furthermore, to report possible practical problems in applying the methods.           Methods: Two statistical methods were compared: log-binomial regression and Cox regression. We examined selected high prevalence symptoms: headache, tingling of limbs, and breathing difficulty, and their association with solvent-exposed work tasks in 164 Hebron shoe factory workers.  Results: The two methods estimated identical crude point PR estimates and quite similar adjusted estimates. CIs were wider in Cox regression than in log-binominal regression, as exemplified by adjusted estimates for the association between participation in cleaning tasks and tingling of limbs in log-binomial regression (PR=1.78; CI=1.25–2.54, Cox regression (PR=1.76; CI=1.01–3.06. When we used Cox regression with robust variance we obtained narrower CIs (PR=1.76; CI=1.19–2.60. In the log-binomial regression analysis we had to exclude a few subjects with a predicted risk exceeding one. Conclusions: Log-binomial regression is appropriate from a theoretical viewpoint. However, some individuals had a predicted risk larger than one, which caused the computation to abort. Cox regression could produce heavy ties when adjusted for confounders and yielded rather wide CIs, however, by using robust variance we will obtain narrow CIs. In conclusion, the two suggested methods have certain limitations and difficulties. However, Cox regression encountered less serious problems than in the other methods, and is also widely available.

  12. 铅作业工人血清NO水平检测研究%Detection of seurm NO level in workers exposed to lead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小玉; 王新朝; 李志远; 马玉英; 张巧

    2001-01-01

    Objective In order to explore the relationship between the serum NO level and laed intoxication. Methods The contents of serum NO and blood lead in 30 battery workers exposed to lead and in 33 controls without lead exposure were studied. The blood was determined using differential potentiometriic stripping analysis (DPSA). The level of NO was determined using nitrate reductase. Results The content of serum NO was remarkably higher in lead exposure group than that in control group (P<0.05). No difference of NO content was found in different work-age groups. Also, no linear correlation could be shown between content of serum NO and blood lead, and urinary or δ-ALA. Conclusion The serum NO might play certain role in lead intoxication but need further study.%目的 探讨NO与铅的毒作用之间的关系。方法 某个体蓄电池厂30名铅作业工人为研究对象,以33名非铅接触者为对照组,以微分电位溶出法测定血铅;以硝酸还原酶法测定血清NO含量。结果 铅接触组血清NO含量高于对照组(P<0.05)。但不同工龄组间血清NO含量无显著性差异(P>0.05)。血清NO含量与血铅浓度及尿δ-ALA含量无直线相关关系(P>0.05)。结论 一氧化氮在铅毒作用机制中可能有一定的意义。

  13. 高温作业对工人心电图影响的Meta分析%ECG Changes in Workers Exposed to High-Temperature:A Meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鲁众; 杨腾飞; 黄晶晶; 阿克力白克·阿满吐尔; 李光; 关雪莱

    2011-01-01

    目的 采用Meta分析方法对高温作业所致工人心电图异常改变进行系统评价.方法 计算机检索中周知网CNKI全文数据库、维普数据库、万方数据库和中国生物医学文献数据库,查找1990年至2009年5月公开发表的研究高温作业和心电图异常关系的回顾性队列研究.按照纳入与排除标准选择文献、评价质量和提取数据,而后采用RevMan 4.2.2软件进行Meta分析.结果 共纳入20个研究.Meta分析结果显示,高温组心电图异常率明显高于对照组,其差异有统计学意义[OR=2.76,95%CI(2.37,3.20),P<0.00001].高温作业对工人心电图的左室高电压[OR=3.49,95%CI(2.83,4.31),P<0.00001]、窦性心律过缓[OR=2.83,95%CI(2.33,3.43),P<0.00001]、ST-T段改变[OR=2.63,95%CI(1.48,4.68),P=0.00010]有显著影响,说明左室高电压、窦性心律过速、窦性心律过缓、ST-T段改变等异常心电图改变是监测高温工作人员心血管疾病的敏感指标.结论 高温作业会使工人的心电图异常率显著高于对照组,应加强对高温作业工人的健康监测和劳动保护.%Objective To conduct a systematic review on the Electrocardiogram (ECG) changes in the workers exposed to high temperatures by means of meta-analysis. Methods The retrospective cohort studies on the relationship between high temperature and ECG abnormalities published from 1990 to May 2009 were searched in CNKI, VIP, WanFang database and CBM database. The literatures meeting the inclusive criteria were selected, the quality was assessed, the data were extracted, and the meta-analyses were conducted with RevMan 4.2.2 software. Results A total of 20 studies were included. The results of meta-analyses showed: the ECG abnormality rate of the high-temperature group was obviously superior to that of the control group with significant difference (OR=2.76, 95%CI 2.37 to 3.20, P<0.000 01 ). The high-temperature severely affected left ventricular hypertrophy (OR=3

  14. Listeria monocytogenes in poultry and poultry products: Epidemiological investigations in seven Danish abattoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojeniyi, B.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Jensen, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    abattoirs including poultry processing line samples, and final products were also examined for L. monocytogenes. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated in 0 . 3% to 18 . 7% of the samples collected in the different abattoirs. Epidemiological typing of 247 L. monocytogenes isolates, including serotyping, phage...... typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and ribotyping revealed 62 different clones. Based upon typability and discriminatory power, DNA typing methods used were found equally suitable as epidemiological markers. Serotyping and phage typing were not found useful as epidemiological markers for poultry...

  15. Pain and Prejudice: Does Collecting Information From the Standpoint of Exposed Workers Improve Scientific Examination of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messing, Karen

    2016-07-01

    The meaning, feasibility, and importance of scientific objectivity have been debated among public health scientists. The debate is particularly relevant to occupational health, because of frequent opposition between employer and worker interests. This article suggests that the concept of standpoint (J. Eakin) may be more useful than that of objectivity in framing discussion of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Studies done from a "worker" standpoint can, for example, investigate and characterize environmental risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders, while studies from an "employer" standpoint may concentrate on identifying individual workers likely to report work-related musculoskeletal disorders or those for whom consequences of work-related musculoskeletal disorders are more severe. Within "worker" standpoints, a distinction between "high-prestige worker" and "lower-prestige worker" standpoints can be identified in the current scientific debate about the health costs and benefits of prolonged standing vs prolonged sitting at work. Contact with workers, particularly lower-prestige workers, is critical to developing and sustaining a worker-based standpoint among researchers in occupational health. This contact can be facilitated by formal collaborations between universities and unions or other community groups.

  16. Occupational health condition investigation of 262 lead exposed workers in Wanzhou%万州区262名铅作业工人职业健康调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴萍; 陈雁冰

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the health conditions of lead exposed workers in Wanzhou. Methods; Occupational health examinations were performed on 262 lead exposed workers in Wanzhou and their blood samples were collected to determine lead concentrations. Results: Among these workers, blood lead levels of 8 cases were higher than 600 μg/L, which were regarded as lead poisoning, and 30 people were diagnosed as possible candidates for lead poisoning with their blood lead levels ranging from 400 μg/L -599 μg/L. Abnormal blood lead concentrations were more frequency among older workers and those who had worked for longer years. Female workers got higher morbidity of neurasthenia, abnormal blood and urine routine examinations and abnormal electrocardiogram, compared with male workers. Conclusion; Lead exposed workers are facing with occupational hazards, therefore, enterprises should adopt effective measures to prevent and control those harms. Occupational health examinations should be carried out among workers and lead - eliminating treatment should be given to those whose blood lead concentrations are beyond the limit level, so as lo prevent the occurrence of lead poisoning.%目的:了解重庆万州区铅作业工人的健康状况.方法:对万州区262名铅作业工人进行职业健康检查和血铅含量测定.结果:262名铅作业工人中血铅含量超过≥600 μg/L诊断值达到铅中毒水平有8人,含量在400 μg/L~599μg/L铅中毒观察对象30人.年龄越大工龄越长的工人血铅异常率越高.女性神经衰弱症状、血常规、尿常规、心电图异常率均高于男性.结论:铅作业工人存在职业危害,企业应采取有效的职业病防治措施,对劳动者进行职业健康监护,血铅超标者驱铅治疗,预防控制铅中毒发生.

  17. Characterization of mortality among workers exposed to ionizing radiation in Cuba, 1988-1998; Caracterizacion de la mortalidad en trabajadores expuestos a radiaciones ionizantes en Cuba, 1988-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frometa Suarez, Ileana; Lopez Pumar, Georgina M. [Instituto Nacional Salud de Trabajadores, La Habana (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    At the moment in Cuba have not antecedent of the study about mortality and occupational radiation exposure. This paper report results from the study of mortality among personnel exposed only to ionizing radiation sources used in medicine between 1998 and 1998, according to occupational characteristics. A total 60 deaths in 11 causes of deaths, cancer represent about the 31.1%, after cardiovascular diseases and accidents were also noted. Cancer mortality appeared as been as first cause of the death between technicians workers exposed to ray X diagnostic. (author)

  18. Bovine tuberculosis: prevalence and diagnostic efficacy of routine meat inspection procedure in Woldiya municipality abattoir north Wollo zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylate, Alemu; Shah, Shahid Nazir; Aleme, Haileluel; Gizaw, Tarkegn Tintagu

    2013-03-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread and endemic disease of cattle in Ethiopia posing a significant threat to public health. Regular surveillance by skin test, bacteriology, and molecular methods is not feasible due to lack of resources. Thus, routine abattoir (RA) inspection will continue to play a key role for national surveillance. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Woldiya municipal abattoir from April 1, 2009 to April 5, 2010 to estimate the prevalence of BTB in slaughtered cattle on the basis of detailed abattoir inspection and to compare efficacy of RA inspection with respect to detailed abattoir inspection and isolation and identification of Mycobacterium. Diagnostic accuracies (with corresponding measures of statistical uncertainty) were determined by computing test property statistics (sensitivity and specificity). Agreement between RA and detailed abattoir inspections was measured using kappa statistics. Out of 1,029 slaughtered heads of cattle examined during the study period, 63 (6.12 %) and 15 (1.45 %) were diagnosed with gross tuberculous lesions by detailed abattoir meat inspections and RA meat inspections, respectively, making a prevalence of 6.12 % (95 % CI: 5.2-7.1) on the basis of detailed abattoir inspection. About 59.45 % of tuberculous lesions were observed in the lungs and associated lymph nodes, whereas 35.13 % lesions were from the lymph nodes of the head. From 63 cattle suspected with tuberculosis (TB) based on detailed abattoir meat inspection, nine (19.05 %) were identified as Mycobacterium bovis, while three (4.8 %) as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The sensitivity of RA meat inspection was 23.8 % in comparison to the detailed abattoir meat inspection and 25 % in comparison to culture, respectively. Poor agreement (k = 0.37) was seen between RA meat examination and detailed abattoir meat examination methods. Similarly, poor agreement (k = 0.013) was seen between RA meat examination and culture results. In

  19. Epidemiological Investigations Utilizing Industry Abattoir Data - a Study in Finishing Pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Vazquez, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Routine post-mortem inspections are enforced by governments worldwide to maintain meat hygiene standards. Through these systems, several pathologies and abnormalities are detected. In parallel, the industries of a number of countries have developed their own abattoir-based health schemes. These prog

  20. Factors influencing Salmonella carcass prevalence in Danish pig abattoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freitas de Matos Baptista, Filipa; Dahl, J.; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2010-01-01

    The Danish Salmonella Surveillance-and-Control Programme in finisher pigs includes both herd and carcass surveillance. Herd surveillance consists of serological testing of meat-juice samples and classification of herds into three Salmonella seroprevalence levels. At the abattoirs, carcass swabs f...

  1. Identification of Brucella spp. in feral swine (Sus scrofa) at abattoirs in Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various tissues, nasal swabs, urine, and blood samples were collected from 376 feral swine at two federally-inspected abattoirs in Texas during six separate sampling periods in 2015. Samples were tested for Brucella spp. by culture and serology. Brucella spp. were cultured from 13.0% of feral swin...

  2. Analysis on Pure Tone Audiometry of Workers Exposed to Noise in A Civil Airport%某民用飞机场接触噪声作业工人纯音听阈测试分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆强

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨生产性噪声对作业工人听力的影响.方法 测定各噪声作业车间的噪声强度,对808名噪声作业人员进行纯音听阈测试,并对听力损失与工龄、工种的关系分别进行统计学分析.结果 4 000 Hz高频听阈听力损失人数最多;随着工龄的增加,听力损失检出率亦增加,不同工龄组间听力损失比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),不同工种组间听力损失比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 噪声作业环境对作业工人高频听阈听力影响显著,随着噪声作业工龄的增加,听力损失检出率增加,建议加强个人防护,建立健康监护档案,控制职业性噪声聋发生.%[ Objective] To investigate the effect of noise on workers with occupational exposure. [ Methods] The noise intensity was measured in noise exposed workshops, 808 noise exposed workers were tested in terms of the pure tone audibility threshold, and the statistical analysis was carried out to identify the correlation between hearing loss and service length/type of work. [ Results ] There was the largest number of workers who suffered from hearing loss of 4 000 Hz high frequency audibility threshold; The heating loss detected rate rose along with the increase of service length , The hearing loss was significantly different between groups with different service length ( P <0.01). The hearing loss was not significantly different between worker of different type of work ( P > 0.05 ). [ Conclusion ] The noise exposed workers' high frequency audibility threshold is evidently influenced by the noise exposed working conditions. The hearing loss detected rate rises along with the increase of noise exposed length. It is recommended to strengthen self- protection and establish a health monitoring and protection record to avoid hearing loss induced by occupational noise.

  3. SU-E-T-365: Estimation of Neutron Ambient Dose Equivalents for Radioprotection Exposed Workers in Radiotherapy Facilities Based On Characterization Patient Risk Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irazola, L; Terron, J; Sanchez-Doblado, F [Departamento de Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Servicio de Radiofisica, Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Sevilla (Spain); Domingo, C; Romero-Exposito, M [Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Garcia-Fuste, M [Health and Safety Department, ALBA Synchrotron Light Source, Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Sanchez-Nieto, B [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Bedogni, R [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) (Italy)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Previous measurements with Bonner spheres{sup 1} showed that normalized neutron spectra are equal for the majority of the existing linacs{sup 2}. This information, in addition to thermal neutron fluences obtained in the characterization procedure{sup 3}3, would allow to estimate neutron doses accidentally received by exposed workers, without the need of an extra experimental measurement. Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) simulations demonstrated that the thermal neutron fluence distribution inside the bunker is quite uniform, as a consequence of multiple scatter in the walls{sup 4}. Although inverse square law is approximately valid for the fast component, a more precise calculation could be obtained with a generic fast fluence distribution map around the linac, from MC simulations{sup 4}. Thus, measurements of thermal neutron fluences performed during the characterization procedure{sup 3}, together with a generic unitary spectra{sup 2}, would allow to estimate the total neutron fluences and H*(10) at any point{sup 5}. As an example, we compared estimations with Bonner sphere measurements{sup 1}, for two points in five facilities: 3 Siemens (15–23 MV), Elekta (15 MV) and Varian (15 MV). Results: Thermal neutron fluences obtained from characterization, are within (0.2–1.6×10{sup 6}) cm−{sup 2}•Gy{sup −1} for the five studied facilities. This implies ambient equivalent doses ranging from (0.27–2.01) mSv/Gy 50 cm far from the isocenter and (0.03–0.26) mSv/Gy at detector location with an average deviation of ±12.1% respect to Bonner measurements. Conclusion: The good results obtained demonstrate that neutron fluence and H*(10) can be estimated based on: (a) characterization procedure established for patient risk estimation in each facility, (b) generic unitary neutron spectrum and (c) generic MC map distribution of the fast component. [1] Radiat. Meas (2010) 45: 1391 – 1397; [2] Phys. Med. Biol (2012) 5 7:6167–6191; [3] Med. Phys (2015) 42

  4. Evaluation of the national health surveillance program of workers previously exposed to asbestos in Spain (2008) Evaluación del programa integral de vigilancia de la salud de los trabajadores que han estado expuestos a amianto en España (2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Montserrat García Gómez; Rosario Castañeda; Vega García López; Manuel Martínez Vidal; Vicent Villanueva; Mercedes Elvira Espinosa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Although asbestos was banned in Spain in 2001, monitoring the health of previously-exposed workers is required. In 2002 the Ministry of Health and the autonomous regions of Spain planned a health surveillance program for workers exposed to asbestos (Programa de Vigilancia de la Salud de los Trabajadores Expuestos al Amianto [PIVISTEA]) with employers' organizations, trade unions and scientific societies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the PIVISTEA to improve its effectivene...

  5. Influence of Serum Levels of Vitamins A, D, and E as well as Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphisms on Micronucleus Frequencies and Other Biomarkers of Genotoxicity in Workers Exposed to Formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeira, Carina; Pádua, Mário; Veiga, Luísa; Viegas, Susana; Carolino, Elisabete; Gomes, Manuel C; Brito, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde is classified as carcinogenic to humans, making it a major concern, particularly in occupational settings. Fat-soluble vitamins, such as vitamins A, D, and E, are documented as antigenotoxic and antimutagenic and also correlate with the cell antioxidant potential. This study investigates the influence of these vitamins on genotoxicity biomarkers of formaldehyde-exposed hospital workers. The target population were hospital workers exposed to formaldehyde (n = 55). Controls were nonexposed individuals (n = 80). The most used genotoxicity biomarkers were the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay for lymphocytes and the micronucleus test for exfoliated buccal cells. Vitamins A and E were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms by real-time PCR. Significant correlations were found between genotoxicity biomarkers and between vitamins A and E in controls. Multiple regression showed that vitamin A was significantly associated with a higher mean of nucleoplasmic bridges (p < 0.001), and vitamin E was significantly associated with a decreased frequency of nuclear buds (p = 0.045) in the exposed group. No effect of vitamin D was observed. The VDRBsmI TT genotype carriers presented higher means of all the genotoxicity biomarkers; however, we found no significant associations. The study suggests that vitamin levels may modulate direct signs of genotoxicity. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. The protection effect of garlic on biological membrane and on cellular immunity in workers exposed to coke oven volatiles%大蒜对锅炉工生物膜和细胞免疫的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ The workers exposed to coke oven volatile are the risk population of occupational lung cancer than genera population. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),a component of coke oven volatile (COE), are the species considered to be the responsible for this high risk of occupational lung cancer. One of most important mechanism of occupational lung cancer induced by PAHs is believed to be due to the accumulation of free radicals associated with COV and subsequent biological member injury caused by free radical reaction as well as decrease in cell immunity. Garlic is the consumed vegetable with a variety of medical functions.

  7. Dose-response relationship between steady noise and hearing loss in exposed workers%稳态噪声作业工人听力损失与噪声接触的剂量-反应关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭慧; 朱益民; 夏予勇

    2001-01-01

    Objective To understand the incidence of hearing loss in the workers exposed to steady noise and its risk factors.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 481 employees exposed to steady noise for one year or more without any ear disorder.Their age,sex and hearing were investigated and noise level in the workplace were monitored.Results Incidence of hearing loss was 11.9% in the workers exposed to noise.There was significant difference in noise level between the workplaces where those with and without hearing loss worked and in length of exposure to noise and index of exposure to noise between workers with and without hearing loss(P<0.05),in a dose-response pattern.Conclusions Noise level,length of exposure to noise and index of noise exposure are major factors causing hearing loss in the workers exposed to noise,and especially the index of noise exposure can be used to reflect the level of their exposure in a more perfect way.%目的研究稳态噪声作业工人的听力损失发生状况以及影响因素。方法采用横断面研究方法,以参加稳态噪声作业一年或一年以上的无耳病史的481名工人为研究对象,调查年龄、性别、噪声作业的工龄、听力损失情况和作业场所噪声强度。结果作业工人听力损失的发生率为11.9%(按人数计)。听力损失者与非听力损失者噪声强度、接噪工龄和接噪指数的分布差别有显著意义(P均小于0.05)。而且与听力损失的危险性存在剂量-反应关系。结论噪声强度、接噪工龄和接噪指数是影响作业工人听力的主要因素,特别是接噪指数能较全面反映作业工人噪声接触水平。

  8. 广州市6100例高温作业工人的空腹血糖回顾性调查%Retrospective survey on fasting blood glucose among 6100 workers exposed to high temperature in Guangzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁灿坤; 赵双玉; 冯惠; 刘文娟; 邱辉强; 秦伟; 杨爱初

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To study the distribution characteristics of fasting blood glucose among manufacturing industry workers exposed to high temperature in Guangzhou City. [Methods] A retrospective survey was conducted on fasting blood glucose screening results of 6 100 manufacturing industry workers exposed to high temperature from 31 enterprises. [ Results ] The detection rate of fasting hyperglycemia, impaired fasting glucose and hyperglycemia was 7. 31% , 4.51% and 2. 80% , respectively. The detection rates increased with increasing age (P<0. 01), and all detection rates of males were higher than those of females significantly (P<0.01). The detection rates of fasting hyperglycemia of the high-temperature exposed workers who worked in waste resources and materials recycling industry, as well as leather, fur, feather (villus) and its products industry were higher. [ Conclusion]It is necessary to strengthen the monitoring of fasting blood glucose among manufacturing industry workers exposed to high temperature, especially in males, high-age group, and those who work in waste resources and materials recycling industry, as well as leather, fur, feather (villus) and its products industry.%目的 探讨广州市制造业高温作业工人的空腹血糖分布特征.方法 回顾性调查31家企业6 100例制造业高温作业工人的空腹血糖检测结果.结果 空腹血糖增高、空腹血糖受损和高糖血症的检出率分别为7.31%、4.51%和2.80%.各检出率随年龄组增大均呈递增趋势(P<0.01),男性各检出率均显著高于女性(P<0.01);废弃资源和废旧材料回收加工业与皮革、毛皮、羽毛(绒)及其制品业高温作业工人空腹血糖增高的检出率较高.结论 该市应继续加强对制造业高温作业工人的空腹血糖监测,重点是男性、高年龄组、废弃资源和废旧材料回收加工业与皮革、毛皮、羽毛(绒)及其制品业工人.

  9. Cytogenetic damage in Turkish coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Association with CYP1A1, CYP1B1, EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ada, Ahmet Oguz; Demiroglu, Canan; Yilmazer, Meltem; Suzen, Halit Sinan; Demirbag, Ali Eba; Efe, Sibel; Alemdar, Yilmaz; Iscan, Mumtaz; Burgaz, Sema

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations (CA) and cytochalasin-blocked micronuclei (CBMN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes from Turkish coke oven workers and the influence of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms on these biomarkers. Cytogenetic analysis showed that occupational exposure significantly increased the CA and CBMN frequencies. Gene polymorphisms, on the other hand, did not affect CA or CBMN in either exposed or control subjects. However, due to the limited sample size, our findings need to be verified in future studies with a larger sample.

  10. Blood Lead, Urine Lead and Blood Test Results of Lead Exposed Workers%铅作业工人血铅、尿铅和血常规检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊宁; 刘凤兰; 蒋培荣

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To compare the difference of levels of blood lead, urine lead and hemoglobin between workers with lead exposure and workers without lead exposure, and understand the health status of workers with long-term lead exposure. [ Methods ] Level determination of blood lead, urine lead and hemoglobin were performed on 400 workers with lead exposure and 120 workers without lead exposure from a storage battery factory in Tianjin in 2009. The results were analyzed statistically. [Results] Hemoglobin levels in lead-exposed workers were lower than those in non lead-exposed workers, while the blood lead, urine lead levels were significantly higher than those in non lead-exposed workers( P <0.01). The blood lead level was negatively associated with the hemoglobin level(r = -0.442). The relevance between urine lead level and blood lead, hemoglobin level is not ideal respectively (r values were -0.026 and -0.018). [ Conclusion]Long-term low lead exposure can induce blood lead and urine lead levels elevated. While the decrease of lead with severe fluctuation of urine lead are induced by many factors, so these indexes can not accurately reflect the lead volume in the body and have less correlation with other indexes.%目的 比较铅作业工人和非铅作业工人血铅、尿铅和血红蛋白浓度的差异.了解长期低铅作业工人的健康状况.方法 对2009年天津市某蓄电池厂400例铅作业工人和120例非铅作业工人分别进行血铅、尿铅和血红蛋白浓度的测定,并对结果进行统计学处理.结果 铅作业组血红蛋白浓度低于非铅作业组.而血铅、尿铅浓度均显著高于非铅作业组(P<0.01).并且血铅和血红蛋白浓度间呈负相关性(r=-0.442),尿铅与血铅和血红蛋白间的相关性均不理想(r值分别为-0.026和-0.018).结论 长期低铅作业可导致人体血铅尿铅升高,血红蛋白降低,但尿铅浓度波动大,且影响因素多,不能精确反映体内铅积蓄量,结果与其他指标的相关性较差.

  11. Point Prevalence of Toxocara vitulorum in Large Ruminants Slaughtered at Multan Abattoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Asif Raza*, Saeed Murtaza1, H. Allah Bachaya2, Abdul Qayyum3, M. Arfan Zaman4

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the point prevalence of Toxocara (T. vitulorum in buffalo and cattle slaughtered at Multan abattoir. Gastro-intestinal tracts of 94 buffaloes and 48 cattle were examined for T. vitulorum. Prevalence of T. vitulorum was 63.83 and 37.50% in buffaloes and cattle, respectively. Sex wise prevalence of T. vitulorum was recorded as 39.46% (30/76 in male and 72.72% (48/66 in female.

  12. Evaluation of toxicological biomarkers in secreted proteins of HepG2 cells exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and their expressions in the plasma of rats and incineration workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phark, Sohee; Park, So-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Choi, Seonyoung; Lim, Ji-youn; Kim, Yoonjin; Seo, Jong Bok; Jung, Woon-Won; Sul, Donggeun

    2016-05-01

    Toxicological biomarkers of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) were investigated in proteins secreted by HepG2 cells and their expression levels were determined in the plasma of rats exposed to 2,3,7,8-TCDD and in the plasma of incineration workers exposed to dioxins. HepG2 cells were treated with various concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 25 nM) for 24 or 48 h. MTT and Comet assays were performed to determine cytotoxicities and genotoxicities to select exposure concentrations for the proteomic analysis of proteins secreted by 2,3,7,8-TCDD-treated cells. In the proteomic analysis, dose- and time-dependent toxicological biomarkers were evaluated using two pI ranges (4-7 and 6-9) using a large gel 2-DE system. Fifteen secreted proteins were identified by a nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS and nano-ESI on a Q-TOF2 MS and the identities of eight secreted proteins including glyoxalase 1 (GLO 1), homogentisate dioxygenase (HGD), peroxiredoxin 1 (PRX 1), proteasome subunit beta type (PSMB) 5 and 6, UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase (UDP-GlcDH), hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HADH) and serotransferrin (STF) were confirmed by western blotting. Of these, PSMB 5 and PRX 1 were also found in the plasma of rats exposed to 2,3,7,8-TCDD, whereas GLO 1, HGD, PSMB 6 and PRX 1 were found in the plasma of incineration workers exposed to dioxins.

  13. Salmonella species on meat contact surfaces and processing water in Sokoto main market and abattoir, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi Oludayo Faleke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine Salmonella contamination of food contact surfaces and processing water in meat, fish and poultry processing units in Sokoto State, Nigeria. A total of 200 swab (100 from abattoir and 100 from poultry and fish markets and 60 processing water samples (30 from abattoir and 30 from poultry and fish markets were collected between May to August 2015. Cultural isolation, bio-typing and sero-grouping using Salmonella Sero-Quick Group Kit was conducted to analyse the samples. Seventy-five (75/260, 28.8 % of the total samples were positive to Salmonella by cultural isolation and bio-typing. Thirty (30/130; 23.1 % of samples collected in abattoir and 45 (45/130; 34.6 % of those collected from poultry and fish markets were positive for Salmonella respectively. Sero-groups D+Vi (Salmonella Typhi, B (Salmonella Paratyphi B, Salmonella Typhimurium and C (Salmonella Paratyphi C, Salmonella Cholerae suis were identified as the prevailing sero-groups in this study. Sero-group D+Vi has the highest prevalence (73.3 %; 55/75 from the positive bio-typing isolates. This study revealed the presence of contaminating and pathogenic Salmonella on food contact surfaces and processing water in the meat retail markets, indicating there is an urgent need to improve on the hygienic status of retail meat, poultry and fish markets.

  14. Human and canine echinococcosis infection in informal, unlicensed abattoirs in Lima, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M Reyes

    Full Text Available Echinococcus granulosus infections are a major public health problem in livestock-raising regions around the world. The life cycle of this tapeworm is sustained between dogs (definitive host, canine echinococcosis, and herbivores (intermediary host, cystic hydatid disease. Humans may also develop cystic hydatid disease. Echinococcosis is endemic in rural areas of Peru; nevertheless, its presence or the extension of the problem in urban areas is basically unknown. Migration into Lima, an 8-million habitant's metropolis, creates peripheral areas where animals brought from endemic areas are slaughtered without veterinary supervision. We identified eight informal, unlicensed abattoirs in a peripheral district of Lima and performed a cross-sectional study in to assess the prevalence of canine echinococcosis, evaluated by coproELISA followed by PCR evaluation and arecoline purge. Eight of 22 dogs (36% were positive to coproELISA, and four (18% were confirmed to be infected with E. granulosus tapeworms either by PCR or direct observation (purge. Later evaluation of the human population living in these abattoirs using abdominal ultrasound, chest X-rays and serology, found 3 out of 32 (9.3% subjects with echinococcal cysts in the liver (two viable, one calcified, one of whom had also lung involvement and a strongly positive antibody response. Autochthonous transmission of E. granulosus is present in Lima. Informal, unlicensed abattoirs may be sources of infection to neighbouring people in this urban environment.

  15. Cause-specific mortality and cancer morbidity in 390 male workers exposed to high purity talc, a six-decade follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wergeland, Ebba; Gjertsen, Finn; Vos, Linda; Grimsrud, Tom K

    2017-09-01

    This study updates information on mortality and cancer morbidity in a cohort of Norwegian talc workers. Follow-up was extended with 24 years, covering 1953-2011. Comparisons were made with the general population and between subgroups within the cohort. Standardized mortality ratio for non-malignant respiratory disease (NMRD) was 0.38 (95%CI: 0.18, 0.69) and for diseases of the circulatory system (CVD) 0.98 (95%CI: 0.82, 1.16). A non-significantly increased NMRD risk was observed at high dust exposures. There were no deaths from pneumoconiosis. With the clear limitations of a small cohort, our results do hint at an effect of talc dust on mortality from NMRD other than pneumoconiosis, covered by a strong and persisting healthy worker effect. Also, an effect on CVD mortality, masked by a healthy worker selection into the cohort cannot be ruled out. Excess mortality from pneumoconiosis seen in other studies, may reflect exposure to quartz and, possibly, bias due to comparability problems. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Quick-response evaluation of energy-related occupational safety and health programs. Task Order 1: mortality study of 50 workers exposed to coal-liquefaction processes at a Union Carbide Plant, Institute, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A.

    1977-11-01

    A study was undertaken of 50 Union Carbide employees who had been exposed to high-boiling oils containing polycyclic hydrocarbons, coal tar, and pitch. The exposures occurred as a result of a coal-hydrogenation process initiated at the West Virginia facility in May of 1952. Workers were given annual physical examinations and, beginning in 1955, quarterly skin inspections. A review of the findings does not support the initial hypothesis that those workers exposed to heavy streams of toxic materials who developed cancerous skin lesions were at risk for developing systemic carcinoma. Indeed, there was a marked lack of cancer-related deaths or morbidity in the study group after a latency period of 18 to 20 years. One case of lung cancer was reported in a subject at 60 years of age, after a lifetime of smoking. One case of prostatic cancer was diagnosed at 77 years of age. A review of the five deaths listed indicated all were cardiac related including coronary disease, arteriosclerotic disease, cor pulmonale, and myocardial disease.

  17. Dose evaluation in occupationally exposed workers through dosimeters ring and wrist type with an anthropomorphic phantom; Evaluacion de la dosis en trabajadores ocupacionalmente expuestos a traves de dosimetros tipo anillo y de muneca con un fantoma antropomorfico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, R.; Gastelo, E. [Univesidad Nacional Pedro Ruiz Gallo, Huamachuco, Lambayeque (Peru); Paucar, R.; Tolentino, D.; Herrera, J. [Complejo Hospitalario San Pablo, Lima (Peru); Armas, D., E-mail: fispalma@hotmail.com [Consorcio Proxtronics del Pacifico S. A. C., Cal. Manuela Estacio Mza. D1-2 Lote 13, San Miguel, Lima (Peru)

    2014-08-15

    In the Nuclear Medicine service of the Clinica San Pablo (Peru), the occupationally exposed workers carried out the preparation and administration of radiopharmaceuticals to patients, so it is vital to measure the equivalent dose to the hands during the procedures in order to optimize the exposure to the ionizing radiation and execute the Radiological Safety Regulation (D.S. No. 009-97-Em) and the standard IR 002.2012 of radiation protection and safety in nuclear medicine. In this paper was designed and built a hand anthropomorphic phantom made of paraffin following the description given for the standard man, later were placed dosimeters ring and wrist type UD-807 model, Panasonic brand. Then we proceeded to irradiate using vial containers of Tc-99 and I-131. The obtained results showed the difference between the equivalent dose obtained among the ring and wrist dosimeter also getting a dose of 153 mSv /year when working with {sup 99m}Tc and of 61 mSv /year when working with iodine-131. Was also demonstrated that the ring dosimeter shows the average dose received in the hand with less dispersion. It was found that under the national regulation on Requirements of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety in Medicine article 63, indicates that higher doses of 150 mSv /year the occupationally exposed workers should have hand dosimetry. Finally the individual dose limit of 500 mSv /year in extremities can be overcome if adequate radiation protection standards do not apply. (author)

  18. MTHFR基因多态性对1,3-丁二烯作业工人DNA损伤的影响%Effects of MTHFR polymorphisms on DNA damage among workers exposed to 1,3-butadiene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘楠; 王学生; 崔涛; 孟会林; 程娟; 肖经纬; 李斌

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨亚甲基四氢叶酸还原酶(MTHFR)基因多态性与1,3-丁二烯作业工人DNA损伤易感性的关系.方法 选取255名1,3-丁二烯作业工人和60名行政人员作为研究对象,采用碱性彗星试验评价个体外周血淋巴细胞DNA损伤,聚合酶链反应-限制性片段长度多态性方法 分析MTHFR基因多态性.结果 暴露组中MTHFR1298位点AA基因型个体彗星尾距(4.7)显著高于AC(4.5)或AC+CC(4.4)基因型个体.而MTHFR基因单体型分析则未发现有显著性差异.结论 1,3-丁二烯作业工人MTHFB A1298C位点的多态性可能影响其染色体损伤的易感性.%Objective To investigate the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and DNA damage in 1,3-butadiene( BD)exposed workers. Methods 255 BD-exposed workers and 60 controls were recruited in this study. DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes was measured by alkaline comet assay. And the polymorphisms of MTHFR were detected by PCR-RFLP. Results Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed that in BD-exposed workers, AA genotype of A1298C exhibited higher Olive TM (4.7) than that of AC (4. 5) or AC + CC genotypes (4.4) significantly. The frequencies of Olive TM of 677T-1298A/677T-1298C haplotype pair were not significantly different. Conclusions The genetic polymorphisms of MTHFR A1298C could influence the chromosomal damage levels in BDexposed workers.

  19. An Application Of Facility Location Models With Hotspot Analysis For Optimal Location Of Abattoir Bio-Energy Plant In Anambra State Of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Chukwuma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Poor waste management strategy in abattoir in the the study area has needs a major attention considering it negative impacts on man land and water. Sitting of centralized biogas plant in a strategic location in the state would be the major means of combating the environmental challenges of increase in abattoir waste generation as result of population explosion in the state. This study investigates optimal location for sitting central abattoir waste treatment facility in Anambra State of Nigeria using facility location models with hotspot analysis in GIS environment. The result of the study shows that Using centre of gravity model the central location was estimated to be at Xc Yc 6.900953016 6.110157865. Based on inadequacy of the model hotspot analysis operation was done the hotspot analysis delineated clusters of abattoirs significantly higher in bio-wastes production than the overall study area. The hotspot analysis shows that the West regions of the study area has many abattoir that is classified as hotspot abattoirs. Using the hotspot abattoirs as proposed sites for load-distance model three abattoirs were identified as proposed sites- Obosi slaugher house Nkpor Private slaughter house and Oye-olise Ogbunike slaugher house. Their load distance values are 17250.40058 16299.24005 and 18210.14631 respectively. The optimal location for construction of central abattoir bio-waste treatment facility based on the application of these location facility models and hotspot analysis is Nkpor private slaughter house or its environs.

  20. 某机械制造企业粉尘作业人员尘肺危害现状调查%A Survey on the Status and Risk of Pneumoconiosis among Workers Exposed to Dust in A Machinery Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖冰冰; 陈达民; 虞慧婷; 赵冬青

    2012-01-01

    [目的] 调查某机械制造企业粉尘作业人员尘肺危害状况,对尘肺发病的风险进行评估,探讨有效的职业病防控对策.[方法] 2009年对粉尘作业车间进行现场职业卫生调查、对216名粉尘作业接触工人进行职业健康检查及问卷调查.[结果] 粉尘作业地点工程防护设施不完善,作业工人个人呼吸防护情况不佳.职业健康检查结果显示,未发现尘肺患者,胸片有异常表现者66人,占总人数的30.56%,其中观察对象有6人.与上年胸片对比,有16人肺部损害呈现加重的趋势.随着接尘工龄的延长,粉尘作业工人胸片有异常表现的比例明显增高( P< 0.001).[结论] 该企业粉尘作业工人尘肺发病的风险增加,应及早建立职业病防控管理体系,通过多种技术手段加强职业病预防控制.对胸片表现异常,包括出现小阴影改变,未达到观察对象标准的粉尘作业人员进行监测和动态观察,可以早期评估尘肺发病的风险.%[ Objective ] To investigate occupational hazards of workers exposed to dust in a machinery plant, and to assess . the risk of pneumoconiosis so as to explore an effective strategy for the control and prevention of occupational diseases. [ Methods] A field survey of occupational health was conducted in the dust workshops of a machinery plant in 2009, in comhination with physical examination and questionnaires among 216 workers exposed to dust. [ Results ] Protection facilities at the worksite were inadequate, and the personal respiratory protection provided to the workers was poor. Occupational health examination found no cases of pneumoconiosis, but there were 66 (30.56%) with chest radiograph abnormalities, with 6 subjects categorized under the group that need medical surveillance. Compared with last year, there were 16 chest radiographs indicating progression of lung damages. With the extension of dust exposure duration, the percentage with chest radiograph

  1. Epinephrine, DNA integrity and oxidative stress in workers exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) at 132 kV substations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ravindra; Lakshmi, N K; Bhargava, S C; Ahuja, Y R

    2015-03-01

    There is apprehension about widespread use of electrical and electromagnetic gadgets which are supposed to emit electromagnetic radiations. Reports are controversy. These electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have considerable effect on endocrine system of exposed subjects. This study was focused to assess the possible bioeffects of extremely low-frequency (ELF)-EMFs on epinephrine level, DNA damage and oxidative stress in subjects occupationally exposed to 132 kV high-voltage substations. The blood sample of 142 exposed subjects and 151 non-exposed individuals was analyzed. Plasma epinephrine was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, DNA damage was studied by alkaline comet assay along with oxidative stress. Epinephrine levels of sub-groups showed mean concentration of 75.22  ±  1.46, 64.43  ±  8.26 and 48.47  ±  4.97 for high, medium and low exposed groups, respectively. DNA damage ranged between 1.69 µm and 9.91 µm. The oxidative stress levels showed significant increase. The individuals employed in the live-line procedures were found to be vulnerable for EM stress with altered epinephrine concentrations, DNA damage and increased oxidative stress.

  2. Cohort studies on cancer mortality of digestive system among workers exposed to asbestos:a meta-analysis%石棉接触人员消化系统癌症死亡队列研究的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙统达; 陈健尔; 张秀娟; 李秀央

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine if there are excessive risks of malignant tumors or not among workers exposed to asbestos by applying a meta-analysis technique. Methods All clata meeting the criteria of cohort studies on cancer mortality of digestive system among workers exposed to asbestos would be incorporated into the meta-analysis. The pooled standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for main cancer sites of digestive system were calculated by using two approaches of unweighted ratio and random effects model. The heterogeneity and its sources of the results were examined with a Q-statistic and Z-score test. Results 69 asbestos-exposed cohorts were summarized. The significantly elevated meta-SMR for all deaths (1.16),all cancers (1.42),cancer of digestive system (1.15) and cancer of stomach (1.20) among workers exposed to chrysotile alone or mixed asbestos were observed (P<0.01). The stomach cancer SMR was significantly increased in the asbestos cement workers,the screening mine workes and the insulators, (1.27,1.21 and 2.13 respectively) (P<0.05). meta-SMR for cancers at other sites of digestive system induding esophagus, colon, rectum and liver were not significant. Conclusion There are likely excessive risks of cancer of stomach among workers exposed to asbestos. However, there is likely no convincing indication of an etiological association between asbestos exposure and cancers at other sites of digestive system.%目的 以Meta分析探讨石棉接触者消化系统癌症是否高发.方法 凡满足明确是石棉接触人员且为消化系统癌症死亡率队列研究的资料均被纳入研究对象,以直接法与随机效应模型法计算消化系统主要部位癌症标准化死亡比(SMR)及其95%可信区间(CI),计算Q统计量与Z值检验研究结果异质性及其来源.结果 共有69个队列符合入选标准,单纯接触温石棉、温石棉与闪石类石棉混合作业的人员,全死因、全癌

  3. A auto-percepção da saúde auditiva e vestibular de trabalhadores expostos a organofosforados Auto-perception of auditory and vestibular health in workers exposed to organophosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Hiromi Hoshino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar os sintomas auditivos e vestibulares de trabalhadores rurais expostos aos agrotóxicos organofosforados. MÉTODOS: foi realizado um estudo epidemiológico descritivo com uma amostra de 50 trabalhadores rurais. A faixa etária variou de 21 a 59 anos, média de 38,3 anos, sendo 20 (40% trabalhadores de sexo masculino e 30 (60% de sexo feminino. Foi utilizado um questionário com perguntas relacionadas à saúde auditiva e dados sobre tempo de exposição ao agrotóxico. RESULTADOS: os resultados mostraram que 38 trabalhadores (76% referiram ter apresentado pelo menos um episódio de tontura em sua vida e destes, 29 (58% trabalhadores ainda sentem tontura; 27 (54% sentem zumbidos; 23 (46% sentem a orelha abafada; 37 (74% acham que possuem boa acuidade auditiva, porém 35 (70% acham que, sentem dificuldades na compreensão de palavras, sugerindo que os agrotóxicos podem induzir alterações do sistema auditivo e vestibular por meio de uma intoxicação lenta e silenciosa. CONCLUSÃO: a tontura e a perda auditiva aparecem como sintomas subjetivos e constantes da exposição ocupacional podendo ser um sinal precoce da intoxicação, prejudicando a qualidade de vida destes trabalhadores.PURPOSE: to characterize the auditory and vestibular symptoms of rural workers under an environmental exposed of organophosphate pesticides. METHODS: this is a descriptive epidemic study that evaluated 50 workers. The age group varied from 21 to 59 years with a mean age of 38.3 years. There were 20 (40% male and 30 (60% female workers. A questionnaire was used with questions related to the auditory health in addition to some specific questions on time exposure. RESULTS: the results showed that 38 (76% workers showed dizziness and 29 (58% of them continued showing these symptom; 27 (54% related tinnitus; 23 (46% fullness sensation. 37 (74% workers don't have problem with hearing but 35 (70% can't understand very well the spoken words. Data suggest

  4. 铅作业人员的尿粪卟啉和血细胞参数的测定意义%Significance of urinary and fecal porphyrins and blood cell parameters in lead-exposed workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯晓敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the effect of lead on the blood system in workers exposed to lead, and the determination significance of urinary coproporphyrin and hemocyte parameters. Methods: 465 lead - exposed workers as observation group and 286 employees without exposing to lead and other industrial toxicants as control group were involved. 20 ml urine and 2 ml EDTA - k2 anticoagulation were taken from people in observation group and control group for urinary coproporphyrin detection by fluorescence colorimetry and blood cell analysis by CA -900 full automatic blood analyzer respectively. Results: The positive rates of urinary coproporphyrin (42. 5% ) , hemoglobin (8. 17% ) and red blood cell reduction(4. 73% ) in lead - exposed group were higher than those in control group (2.10%, 1.75% and 1.04% respectively)(x2 =146.7, P<0.01; x2 = 13.5, P<0.01;x2 =6.36, P<0.05). Conclusion: Effect of lead on blood system of lead - exposed workers performed mainly purine metabolism disorder and hemoglobin synthesis defect, so regular determination of urinary coproporphyrins and blood parameters on lead -exposed workers can keep health of operation personnel.%目的:探讨金属铅对铅作业人员血液系统的影响,及尿粪卟啉和血细胞参数测定的意义.方法:以铅作业工人465人为观察组,以不接触铅和其他生产性毒物的某单位职工286人为对照组,各取尿20 ml和EDTA -K2抗凝血2 ml,用荧光比色法进行尿粪卟啉测定,用CA - 900全自动血液分析仪进行血细胞分析.结果:铅作业组的尿粪卟啉阳性率42.5%明显高于对照组2.10%(x2=146.7,P<0.01),血红蛋白与红细胞降低检出率(8.17%、4.73%)高于对照组的(1.75%、1.04%) (P <0.01,P<0.05).结论:金属铅对铅作业人员的血液系统的影响,主要表现为卟啉代谢紊乱和血红素合成障碍,要定期对铅作业人员测定尿粪卟啉和血细胞参数,及早发现铅中毒人员,维护铅作业人员的身体健康.

  5. 高温工人HSP70基因多态性与高血压易感性%Relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms of HSP70 genes and susceptibility to hypertension in workers exposed to heat stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞芳; 孙建娅; 张萍; 郑金平

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨HSP70基因多态性与高温作业工人高血压发病易感性关系.方法 选取某钢铁企业158名炼钢、轧钢工人为高温组,同厂的76名库工为对照组.使用统一的调查表收集个人信息并测定血压值,聚合酶链式反应-限制性片断长度多态性(PCR - RFLP)方法分析HSP70基因多态性,运用PHASE 2.0遗传分析软件计算单倍型.结果 HSP70各基因型在高温组与对照组及高血压与非高血压人群中的分布差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).进一步将研究对象分为正常血压组、血压高值组和高血压组后发现,高温组血压高值组明显高于高血压组(P<0.05);高温组和对照组2组合并后的总人群中,具有C/C基因型的人群与具有G/G基因型的人群比较,易感血压高值的调整OR(95%CI)为3.52(1.02 ~12.11).高温组血压高值组HSP70 -2基因G/G基因型频率明显高于高血压组及正常血压组,而HSP70 -2基因G/A基因型在血压高值组的分布频率低于高血压组与正常血压组;经Logistic回归分析,高温组具有HSP70-2基因G/A基因型的人群与G/G基因型的人群比较,易感血压高值的调整OR(95%CI)为0.25(0.08~0.78).单倍型对分析,高温组具有GAT/***单倍型的人群与GAT/GAT单倍型对的人群比较,易感高血压的调整OR(95%CI)为1.29(1.02 ~12.44).结论 HSP70 -1基因C/C基因型与人群血压高值有关联.HSP70 -2基因G/G基因型与高温作业工人血压高值有关联,G/A基因型可降低高温作业工人血压高值的风险性,GAT/***单倍型与高温作业工人高血压的易感性有关.%Objective To study the relationship between HSP70 polymorphisms and susceptibility to hypertension in workers exposed to heat stress. Methods Totally 158 steel workers and rollers were selected as the exposure group and 76 workers without heat stress exposure were selected as the control group. The general status and the blood pressure were investigated. HSP70

  6. Production of IL-10, TNF and IL-12 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in Mexican workers exposed to a mixture of benzene-toluene-xylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro-García, Luis Cuauhtémoc; Juárez-Pérez, Cuauhtémoc Arturo; Aguilar-Madrid, Guadalupe; Vélez-Zamora, Nadia Mayola; Muñoz-Navarro, Sergio; Chacón-Salinas, Rommel; González-Bonilla, César Raúl; Iturbe-Haro, Claudia Rosa; Estrada-García, Iris; Borja-Aburto, Víctor Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Occupational exposure to low-level benzene and the joint action of toluene-xylene probably cause effects on circulating monocytes immune response. We undertook this study to determine relationship between occupational exposure to benzene-toluene-xylene mixture (BTX) and IL-10, TNF and IL-12 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Exposure was estimated in 54 workers from a paint company in Mexico City through BTX accumulated potential dose (BTX-APD). Two exposure groups were formed: high and low BTX-APD established with a cutoff point at ≥1.0 of BTX-APD, as a function of the geometric mean of the estimator's value distribution and the higher agreement between BTX-APD ≥1.0 and the areas referred as using (or not) organic solvents in the work process. IL-10, TNF and IL-12 concentrations were measured with ELISA. Through multiple linear regression models, the production of each of the proposed cytokines and of the whole set was assessed. Workers with high BTX-APD showed a significant reduction in TNF production (β = -1,196.0 pg/mL; p = 0.01); a reduction for IL-10 (β = -520.3; p = 0.13) and IL-12 (β = -843.3; p = 0.09) was also observed, although without statistical significance. TNF production assessed in workers with a high BTX-APD is lower than in those with a low BTX-APD, but not in IL-10 and IL-12 production. Copyright © 2012 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of liver enzyme levels in workers exposed to vinyl chloride vapors in a petrochemical complex: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolati Mandana

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyvinyl chloride is used in production and manufacturing of many essential tools (e.g. plastic pipes, photography films, etc.. Its production is impossible without the use of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM, which can cause liver damage in long-term. In this study we intend to assess the effects of mild to moderate long term exposure to VCM on liver and to assess the importance of liver enzyme measurements as a screening tool. Methods In this study, liver enzyme levels of 52 workers were compared to 48 control workers using the T-test. The cases all worked in a PVC production unit in a petrochemical complex and the controls were randomly selected from office personnel of the same complex. A questionnaire was also filled in about information such as age, weight, work history, etc. in both groups. Results Mean comparisons for ALP and GGT using T-test showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. For AST, ALT and bilirubin (total, direct the mean was higher in the case group but this difference was not statistically significant. Discussion This study showed that mild exposure to VCM can cause mild liver cholestasis. So, using cholestasis assessment tests such as ALP and GGT should be considered in periodic assessment of liver function in PVC producing units.

  8. Application of Cloud Point Extraction for Cadmium in Biological Samples of Occupationally Exposed Workers: Relation Between Cadmium Exposure and Renal Lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortada, Wael I; Hassanien, Mohamed M; Donia, Ahmed F; Shokeir, Ahmed A

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) level in blood and urine of soldering iron workers (n=49) and 41 matched healthy controls has been assessed. Cloud point extraction was employed for preconcentration of Cd. The Cd ions formed hydrophobic complex with 9,10-phenanthraquinone monoethyl thiosemicarbazone that was extracted by surfactant-rich phases in the nonionic surfactant Triton X-114. The surfactant-rich phase was diluted with 1 M HNO3 in methanol prior to its analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the proposed method, such as solution pH, amount of complexing agent, surfactant concentration, temperature, and incubation time, were optimized. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the detection limit and the enrichment factor were 0.04 μg L(-1) and 61, respectively. Relative standard deviation of 10 μg L(-1) Cd was less than 3.0%. The accuracy of the method was examined by analysis of certified reference materials. It was observed that soldering iron workers are liable to Cd overload as indicated by higher levels of Cd in blood and urine when compared with the controls. This exposure may lead to kidney damage indicated by elevation of urinary excretion of both N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and β2-microglobulin.

  9. Assessment of Some Immune Parameters in Occupationally Exposed Nuclear Power Plant Workers: Flow Cytometry Measurements of T Lymphocyte Subpopulations and Immunoglobulin Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuleva, Ilona Mihaylova; Penkova, Kalina Ivanova; Rupova, Ivanka Tankova; Panova, Delyana Yonkova; Djounova, Jana Nikolaeva

    2015-01-01

    A 10-year survey of immune status of nuclear power plant (NPP) workers was assessed by cellular and humoral immune parameters. The cumulative doses of NPP workers were in the range of 0.06 to 766.36 mSv. The results did not show significant deviations in the studied parameters of cellular and humoral immunity, but a tendency of elevated values in CD3+4+ helper inducers cells, especially its CD4+62L+ subpopulation, regulatory CD4+25+ cells, CD8+28+ cytotoxic subpopulation, and immunoglobulin M, was established. The observed trend of the above-mentioned parameters could be interpreted by assumption that while the adaptation processes are dominated with low prevalence of T-helper (Th) 1 immune response to cumulative doses less than 100 mSv, a switch to Th-2 response occurred at doses above 100 mSv. The impact of a number of other confounding factors on the immune system does not allow definitive conclusions about the direct radiation-induced changes in immune parameters.

  10. Blood parameters and corneal-reflex of finishing pigs with and without lung affections observed post mortem in two abattoirs stunning with CO₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, R; Rindermann, G; Siegling-Vlitakis, C; Bandick, N; Bräutigam, L; Buschulte, A; Irsigler, H; Wolf, K; Hartmann, H

    2013-02-01

    In two pig abattoirs of different slaughter capacities, the stunning efficacy of CO2 on finishing pigs with and without pneumonic lesions (observed post mortem) was reflected against the corneal-reflex and blood parameters (blood pH, pCO2 and pO2) from individual finishers. Stunning duration was 120 s (abattoir A) and 90 s (abattoir B), respectively. Pneumonia in finisher pigs is frequently observed during post mortem inspection, which may raise concerns about a delay of unconsciousness because of hampered gas exchange in the lungs. The aim of this study was to examine possible pneumonia consequences for stunning efficacy under commercial conditions. For that, corneal reflex, O2 and CO2 partial pressure in the blood as well as blood pH were measured in 2650 finishers from abattoir A and 2100 from abattoir B. The partial pressure of O2 after stunning accounted to about 3 kPa, the partial pressure of CO2 was found at levels of about 24 kPa in abattoir A (after 120 s CO2 exposure) and 17.5 kPa in abattoir B (after 90 s CO2 exposure). In abattoir A, the blood pH was at 6.9, and at 7.0 in abattoir B. The corneal reflex was observed in 6.2% of pigs in abattoir A and 17.1% of pigs in abattoir B. A correlation between pneumonic lesions and blood status was not observed. However, for some individual farms, a significant correlation between pneumonia and corneal reflex was observed.

  11. Factors associated with whole carcass condemnation rates in provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario 2001-2007: implications for food animal syndromic surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alton Gillian D

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ontario provincial abattoirs have the potential to be important sources of syndromic surveillance data for emerging diseases of concern to animal health, public health and food safety. The objectives of this study were to: (1 describe provincially inspected abattoirs processing cattle in Ontario in terms of the number of abattoirs, the number of weeks abattoirs process cattle, geographical distribution, types of whole carcass condemnations reported, and the distance animals are shipped for slaughter; and (2 identify various seasonal, secular, disease and non-disease factors that might bias the results of quantitative methods, such as cluster detection methods, used for food animal syndromic surveillance. Results Data were collected from the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs and the Ontario Cattlemen's Association regarding whole carcass condemnation rates for cattle animal classes, abattoir compliance ratings, and the monthly sales-yard price for various cattle classes from 2001-2007. To analyze the association between condemnation rates and potential explanatory variables including abattoir characteristics, season, year and commodity price, as well as animal class, negative binomial regression models were fit using generalized estimating equations (GEE to account for autocorrelation among observations from the same abattoir. Results of the fitted model found animal class, year, season, price, and audit rating are associated with condemnation rates in Ontario abattoirs. In addition, a subset of data was used to estimate the average distance cattle are shipped to Ontario provincial abattoirs. The median distance from the farm to the abattoir was approximately 82 km, and 75% of cattle were shipped less than 100 km. Conclusions The results suggest that secular and seasonal trends, as well as some non-disease factors will need to be corrected for when applying quantitative methods for syndromic surveillance

  12. Disparities in Beef Tapeworm Identification Rates in the Abattoirs of Gauteng Province, South Africa: A Descriptive Epidemiologic Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nenene Qekwana

    Full Text Available Bovine Taenia saginata cysticercus infections (also called bovine cysticercosis or beef measles is usually diagnosed in cattle only during post-mortem meat inspection. The aim of this study was to investigate the identification rates of these infections in and to identify predictors/determinants of variations in the identification rates in abattoirs in Gauteng province, South Africa.Retrospective data for over 1.4 million cattle carcasses inspected in 26 abattoirs between January 2010 and December 2013 were used for the study. The identification rates (proportion of bovine Taenia saginata cysticercus positive carcasses were computed and generalized estimating equations used to identify predictors/determinants of identification rates.The overall identification rate was 0.70% (95% CI: 0.45, 0.95. Significantly (p0.05 association was identified between identification rates and either the number of meat inspectors per abattoir or the provider of inspection services.Although no significant association was found between identification rates and provider of inspection services, follow-up studies will need to be done to specifically investigate the potential conflict of interest arising from the fact that abattoir owners hire meat inspection services directly. Capture of abattoir surveillance data needs to include farm address and for each case to be reported separately. Finally, information on the type of identified cysts (alive or calcified need to be collected to help better estimate risk to consumers. This study provides useful baseline data to guide future studies, surveillance and control efforts.

  13. Bovine tuberculosis in Rwanda: Prevalence and economic impact evaluation by meat inspection at Société des Abattoirs de Nyabugogo-Nyabugogo Abattoir, Kigali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habarugira, Gervais; Rukelibuga, Joseph; Nanyingi, Mark O; Mushonga, Borden

    2014-11-05

    Despite the significant public health burden of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Rwanda, the prevalence of bTB is poorly documented. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of bTB in cattle using gross examination of granulomatous lesions, to identify mycobacteria species in suspected samples, and to evaluate the economic impact of meat condemnation based on bTB-like lesions in the meat industry in Rwanda. Routine meat inspection was conducted at Société des Abattoirs de Nyabugogo (SABAN)-Nyabugogo Abattoir. Tissue samples including 31 lymph nodes, 3 lungs and 2 livers were obtained from cattle of different ages with gross tuberculous lesions. Mycobacterium bovis was identified using microscopy with Kinyoun staining and isolation of mycobacterial species in culture on Löwenstein-Jensen and Colestos media, further identified using biochemical tests. Our findings, based on culture and postmortem results, show that the prevalence of bTB is 0.5%(0.587*148/16753), with an overall gross tuberculous lesion prevalence of 0.9% (148/16753). The presence of lesions were higher in cattle aged 2 years and older (1.6% vs. 0.6%, p Bovine tuberculosis caused condemnation of 1683.5 kg of meat, resulting in an estimated loss of $4810. Our findings indicate that the prevalence of bTB in Rwanda is significant, and that bTB is a major cause of meat condemnation requiring continued implementation of surveillance and control measures. Furthermore, the results from this study also show important variations in sensitivity of the different tests that were used to determine the prevalence of bTB in cattle in Rwanda.

  14. Features of hearing loss in noise-exposed workers in electronic technology enterprises%电子技术企业噪声作业工人听力损失特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆年; 陈真富; 钟茂耀; 吴木生; 张盈盈

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解电子技术企业噪声作业工人听力损失的特点,为采取控制和消除职业性噪声聋的发生提供依据.方法 对两家电子技术企业进行职业卫生调查,以噪声作业车间495名工人为噪声组,以150例无职业危害作业工人为对照组,用常规方法测量每个工人的左右耳气导听阈,按照GBZ47-2007计算平均听阈和判定听力状态,比较两组工人听力状况,并对噪声组听力损失进行统计学分析.结果 噪声组、对照组听力损失检出率分别为14.9%和1.3%,两组比较,差异有极显著性(P< 0.01).噪声组中,接触非稳态噪声、稳态噪声工人的听力损失检出率分别为15.3%、12.5%,冲压、打磨和粉碎工种工人的听力损失检出率分别为15.3%、13.3%和11.8%,工龄为<5、5~、10~年组工人的听力损失检出率分别为8.2%、28.4%和38.3%,年龄为<25、25~、39~岁组工人的听力损失检出率分别为0.0%、17.9%和29.6%;不同工种、不同类型噪声接触工人的听力损失检出率比较,差异均无显著性(P> 0.05);x2趋势检验示,随着噪声作业工龄的增加、年龄的增加,听力损失检出率增加(P<0.01);逐步多因素Logistic回归分析显示,工龄、年龄是听力损失的独立危险因素.结论 电子技术行业高强度噪声引起作业人员听力损失,加强职业病防治管理措施,对降低职业性噪声聋的发生有重要意义.%Objective To provide support for the control and elimination of occupational noise-induced hearing loss by exploring the features of hearing loss in noise-exposed workers in electronic technology enterprises.Methods A survey on occupational health was conducted in two enterprises.495 workers exposed to environmental noise in the enterprises were studied as noise-exposed group and 160 workers with no noise exposure enrolled as control group.The air conduction thresholds were detected in both ears by routine

  15. Health status of workers exposed to noise in a papermaking enterprise of Zhenjiang City%镇江市某造纸企业噪声作业工人健康状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢石; 葛琴娟; 李艳平; 钱海洋

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查造纸生产过程噪声对造纸作业人员身体健康的影响.方法 选取镇江市某大型造纸企业,对其作业场所噪声强度进行监测;同时选择该企业接触噪声的1717名作业人员作为观察组,其他单位410名行政管理人员作为对照组,对他们进行听力测定、血压、心电图等职业健康检查.对不同工龄接触噪声作业人员体检结果异常率进行统计分析.结果 接触噪声作业人员高频听损率、语频听损率、高血压患病率和心电图异常率分别为22.6%、12.3%、10.4%、22.1%,均高于对照组的8.5%、4.6%、5.4%、16.3%,差异均有统计学意义(x2值分别为41.1、5.6、9.7、6.7,均P<0.05).结论 该造纸生产企业噪声污染普遍存在.长期接触噪声对作业人员的听觉系统及心血管系统影响较大.因此,应对造纸行业的噪声危害采取切实有效的防范措施,以保护工人的健康.%[Objective] To investigate the influence of paper manufacturing noise to the health of the workers with exposure, t Methods] The noise density of different work place was detected in a large papermaking enterprise. The papermaking workers who exposed to noise in the factory were selected as exposed group and some administration staffs in the other factory were recruited as control group. Their physical examination including audiometry, ECG and blood pressure. The abnormal rate of examination results between workers with different length of noise exposure was analyzed statistically. [ Results] The rate of high-frequency hearing loss rate, speech frequency hearing loss rate, abnormal rate of hypertension and abnormal ECG in exposed group (22.6% , 12. 3% , 10.4% , 22.1% respectively) was higher than those of control group(8.5% , 4.6% , 5.4% , 16.3% , respectively. There were significant differences (all P <0.05). [ Conclusion] Noise pollution is prevalent in the papermaking enterprise. The noise has great influence to the

  16. Bacterial and parasitic zoonoses encountered at slaughter in Maiduguri abattoir, Northeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Emmanuel Garba

    Full Text Available An abattoir survey to determine the prevalence of zoonotic diseases encountered at postmortem examination of organs and carcasses was conducted in Maiduguri municipality, Nigeria, between 2000 and 2009. A total of 1,378,066 animals were examined and slaughtered from which 403,560 were cattle, 381,601 goats, 373,567 sheep and 219,308 camels. Out of these numbers, a total of 14,944 bacterial and parasitic zoonotic diseases were diagnosed which included tuberculosis (67.6%, dermatophilosis (15.8%, mange (16.7%, fascioliasis (1.5% and hydatidosis (4.3%. Occurrence of the diseases based on sex, species of animals and season of the year did not show any significant difference (P>0.05. It was not possible to get the exact records on breed and age for each slaughtered animal due to poor recording systems at the abattoir. With regards to the type of animals brought for slaughter, almost all animals come from the traditional sector and it was difficult to precisely trace back the geographical origins of all animals slaughtered due to lack of reliable animal identification method and so relating the finding of the study to a particular locality becomes difficult. Species-specific prevalence of tuberculosis was 1.6%, 0.4%, 0.3%, 0.3% for cattle, sheep, goats and camels respectively with a 0.7% crude prevalence. Analysis of the tuberculosis cases showed a high rate of occurrence in cattle (P<0.05 and the most affected organs were the lungs (55.1% and associated lymph nodes (27.7% (P<0.05. It was concluded that zoonotic diseases such as tuberculosis, dermatophilosis and mange are endemic in the study area. Abattoir records are invaluable in epidemiological surveillance and other aspects of disease control and prevention strategies. [Vet. World 2011; 4(10.000: 437-443

  17. Survey on Sarcocystis in bovine carcasses slaughtered at the municipal abattoir of El-Kharga, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Meawad Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The main objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of Sarcocystis sp. infection in cattle and buffalo carcasses slaughtered at El-Kharga abattoir, New Valley Governorate, Egypt. Materials and Methods: The slaughtered animals were daily inspected for Sarcocystis macrocysts through a year (2015. Macroscopic Sarcocystis was detected from a total of 2120 cattle and buffalo carcasses. In addition, 100 meat samples were collected from female cattle and buffalo (50 each and were examined microscopically for sarcocystosis. Results: The overall incidence of Sarcocystis macrocyst among bovine carcasses was 159/2120 (7.5%. Total incidence in cattle was 149/2000 (7.45%, whereas it was 10/120 (8.33% in buffalo carcasses. Concerning gender, the overall prevalence of Sarcocystis infection was 127/1790 (7.09% in male and 32/330 (9.69% in females bovine carcasses. The highest detection rate of Sarcocystis lesions was from the esophagus (76.3% followed by throat muscles (35.3%, tongue (33.8%, and diaphragm muscles (18.71%. Macrocysts from cattle were identified to Sarcocystis hirsuta, whereas Sarcocystis fusiformis was identified from buffalo carcasses. By microscopic examination, 18 (36% of 50 female cattle carcasses harbor Sarcocystis sp., whereas 11 (22% of buffalo carcasses were harbored Sarcocystis microcysts. Conclusion: A high incidence of Sarcocystis infection was detected among slaughtered bovines in El-Kharga abattoir, Egypt. Sarcocystis macrocysts were a higher incidence in female elder animals macrocysts were identified to S. hirsuta in cattle and S. fusiformis in buffaloes. Sarcocystosis constitute a major cause of economic losses at El-Kharga abattoir. Beef meat may carry health risks to consumers.

  18. The follow-up study of ras P21 oncoprotein in workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons%多环芳烃接触者P21蛋白跟踪研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons(PAHs),first determined as a sort of chemical carcinogen, can exist in chemical substance such as coal tar pitch (CTP) and coke oven volatiles (COV). The carcinogenesis of PAHs has been confirmed by epidemiological studies among high risk population and animal experiments. The excessive mortality of lung cancer has been found in workers exposed to CTP and COV. Lung cancer can be induced in rats or mice with CTP by inspiring CTP fog or intratracheal instillations. The latest advance in the study of molecular biology has been applied to the fields of occupational cancer prevention and diagnosis. The study of the amount, effect, and injury of carcinogen with biomarkers has become one of the imporant methods for the early detection for occupational lung cancer.

  19. 优化正己烷作业人群职业健康监护技术方案研究%Study on optimization of technical program of occupational health surveillance for workers exposed to n-hexane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嘉斌; 黄汉林; 李宏玲; 江嘉欣

    2014-01-01

    Objective To carry out an optimization of technical program of occupational health surveillance( OHS)for workers exposed to n-hexane,and to improve its accessibility. Methods According to the theory of evidence-based medi-cine,this research analyzed the target diseases,screening items and interval period of the pre-employment/on-job/off-post physical examination required by GBZ 188 Technical Specifications of Occupational Health Surveillance,and reviewed the collected articles on common issues of OHS from literature database,such as the China National Knowledge Internet ( CNKI),WanFang and PubMed,in order to select proper indicators,promote an optimization and guideline of OHS for workers exposed to n-hexane with primary application. Results The optimization of technical program and application guide of OHS for workers exposed to n-hexane was established by altering nerve conduction velocity and serum neuron-specific enolase as biomarkers of effect,urine 2,5-hexanedione as biomarkers of exposure;adding urine glucose as identifi-cation indicators;adding diabetes complicated with peripheral nerve damage,vitamin B deficiency,minors and female employees with pregnancy or lactation as occupational contraindications. Conclusion The optimization is practical and proved to be applicable in OHS for workers exposed to n-hexane.%目的:建立正己烷作业人群职业健康监护( OHS )优化方案和应用指南,提高职业健康监护的可操作性。方法从循证医学角度出发,对GBZ 188《职业健康监护技术规范》规定的对正己烷作业人群开展上岗前、在岗期间和离岗时OHS的目标疾病、健康检查内容和周期等内容进行分析,以OHS工作中的常见问题为线索,通过中国期刊全文数据库( CNKI)、万方数据库和PubMed进行文献检索,筛选优化指标,提出正己烷作业人群OHS技术优化方案和应用指南,初步推广应用。结果成功建立正己烷作业人群OHS技术

  20. Associations among gait score, production data, abattoir registrations, and postmortem tibia measurements in broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kittelsen, K.E.; David, B.; Moe, R.O.

    2017-01-01

    Lameness and impaired walking ability in rapidly growing meat-type broiler chickens are major welfare issues that cause economic losses. This study analyzed the prevalence of impaired walking and its associations with production data, abattoir registrations, and postmortem tibia measurements......, although the mean slaughter age is only 31 d and the maximum allowed animal density is relatively low. Impaired walking ability could not be predicted by the welfare indicators footpad lesion score, total on-farm mortality, and decreasing DOA prevalence. Further studies are needed to explore...

  1. Anaerobic treatment abattoir wastewater; Depuracion anaerobia de aguas residuales de mataderos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Borges, E.; Segovia Castillo, E.

    1998-12-01

    The different operations in the abattoirs generated complex effluents which can be treated by anaerobic digestion. The experiment described here used a 20-litre UASB anaerobic digester fitted with a solids separator. Three hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were tested: 4 days, 2.5 days and 16 days. These HRTs gave average efficiency rates for the removal of chemical oxygen demand of 59%, 45% and 37% respectively. The resulting organic loads under these conditions were 1.5 kg COD/m``3/day, 2.8 kgCOD/m``3/day and 4.3 kgCOD/m``3/day. (Author) 12 refs.

  2. 3-(2-deoxy-β-d-erythro-pentafuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-α]purin-10(3H)-one deoxyguanosine adducts of workers exposed to asbestos fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonassi, Stefano; Cellai, Filippo; Munnia, Armelle; Ugolini, Donatella; Cristaudo, Alfonso; Neri, Monica; Milić, Mirta; Bonotti, Alessandra; Giese, Roger W; Peluso, Marco E M

    2017-03-15

    Asbestos is the commercial name for a group of silicate minerals naturally occurring in the environment and widely used in the industry. Asbestos exposure has been associated with pulmonary fibrosis, mesothelioma, and malignancies, which may appear after a period of latency of 20-40 years. Mechanisms involved in the carcinogenic effects of asbestos are still not fully elucidated, although the oxidative stress theory suggests that phagocytic cells produce large amounts of reactive oxygen species, due to their inability to digest asbestos fiber. We have conducted a mechanistic study to evaluate the association between 3-(2-deoxy-β-d-erythro-pentafuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-α]purin-10(3H)-one deoxyguanosine (M1dG) adducts, a biomarker of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, and asbestos exposure in the peripheral blood of 327 subjects living in Tuscany and Liguria, Italy, stratified by occupational exposure to asbestos. Adduct frequency was significantly greater into exposed subjects with respect to the controls. M1dG per 10(8) normal nucleotides were 4.0±0.5 (SE) in 156 asbestos workers, employed in mechanic, naval, petrochemical, building industries, and in pottery and ceramic plants, versus a value of 2.3±0.1 (SE) in 171 controls (pasbestos workers, mainly employed in building renovation industry (2.9±0.3 (SE)), and in 102 former asbestos workers (4.5±0.7 (SE)), with p-values of 0.033, and asbestos-induced toxicity.

  3. Simultaneous determination of N-hydroxymethyl-N-methylformamide, N-methylformamide and N-acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)cystein in urine samples from workers exposed to N,N-dimethylformamide by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jae Ho; Han, Min Jeong; Lee, Mi Young; Kang, Seong-Kyu; Yang, Jeong Sun

    2005-02-07

    N-Hydroxymethyl-N-methylformamide (HMMF) and N-methylformamide (NMF) in urine samples from workers exposed to N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) cannot be distinguished by a gas chromatographic method because HMMF is converted to NMF at the injection port of gas chromatography (GC). Total NMF (HMMF+NMF) has been measured instead. Also, the determination of N-acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)cystein (AMCC), which is supposed to be related to the toxicity of DMF, needs multiple treatments to convert to a volatile compound before GC analysis. There is no previous report of a simultaneous determination of three major metabolites of DMF in urine. The aim of this study is to develop a simple and selective method for the determination of DMF metabolite in urine. By using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we can directly distinguish these three major metabolites of DMF in a single run. The diluted urine samples were analyzed on Capcell Pak MF SG80 column with the mobile phase of methanol in 2mM formic acid (10:90, v/v). The analytes were detected by an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in the multiple-reaction-monitoring mode. The standard curves were linear (r>0.999) over the concentration ranges of 0.004-8 microg/mL. The precision and accuracy of quality control samples for inter-batch (n=6) analyses were in the range of 1.3-9.8% and 94.7-116.8, respectively. The sum of each HMMF and NMF concentration determined by LC-MS/MS method shows high correlation (r=0.9927 with the slope of 1.0415, p<0.0001) with NMF included HMMF concentration determined by GC method for 13 urine samples taken from workers exposed to DMF. The excretion ratio of HMMF:NMF:AMCC is approximately 4:1:1 in molar concentration.

  4. Workers exposed to thermal degradation products of TDI- and MDI-based polyurethane: biomonitoring of 2,4-TDA, 2,6-TDA, and 4,4'-MDA in hydrolyzed urine and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalene, M; Skarping, G; Lind, P

    1997-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate biomarkers of exposure to thermal degradation products of 2,4- and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate (TDI)- and 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI)-based polyurethane and the toxicokinetics of these products. Blood and urine were collected from 15 factory workers exposed to thermal degradation products of MDI-based polyurethane glue and TDI-based flexible foam. Four of these workers were also studied during an exposure-free period. Urine and plasma were analyzed after acidic hydrolysis and the concentrations of the isocyanates' corresponding amines, 2,4-, 2,6-toluenediamine (TDA), and 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA), were determined as derivatives of pentafluoropropionic anhydride by gas chromatography using chemical ionization mass spectrometry monitoring negative ions. Urinary elimination rates were in the range of TDA per hour, TDA per hour, and TDA per mL, TDA per mL, and TDA, 2,6-TDA, and 4,4'-MDA in urine varied during and between workdays. The individual variation in plasma concentrations of 2,4-TDA, 2,6-TDA, and 4,4'-MDA with time was small, but between individuals the variation was great.

  5. Comparison of in vivo translocation frequencies with in vitro G{sub 2} radiosensitivity in radiation workers occupationally exposed to external radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwell, Kevin K; Whitehouse, Caroline A; Tawn, E Janet [Westlakes Research Institute, Moor Row, Cumbria, CA24 3JY (United Kingdom); Tarone, Robert E [International Epidemiology Institute, 1455 Research Boulevard, Rockcliffe, MD 20850 (United States)], E-mail: ejtawn@uclan.ac.uk

    2008-03-01

    A group of retired workers from the British Nuclear Fuels plc facility at Sellafield who had been studied for in vivo translocation frequencies in blood lymphocytes were resampled and analysed for in vitro chromosomal radiosensitivity. Significant variation in response to a dose of 0.5 Gy given at the G{sub 2} stage of the cell cycle was observed between individuals (P < 0.001). In a regression analysis that included age, cumulative occupational radiation dose and in vitro G{sub 2} radiation-induced aberration frequencies as independent variables, only cumulative occupational radiation dose had a significant influence on chromosomal translocation frequency (P = 0.0036). G{sub 2} in vitro radiosensitivity is assumed to be a marker for genetic polymorphic variation in DNA damage recognition and repair genes. Therefore, since in vivo translocation frequencies can be considered a surrogate for cancer risk, this lack of association with G{sub 2} in vitro radiosensitivity suggests that such genetic variation has no impact on the response to low dose chronic exposure. (note)

  6. 福建省男性健康接尘工人肺通气功能预计值探讨%Study on the reference data of lung function among healthy workers exposed to dust in Fujian province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁萌; 梁立徽; 林嗣豪; 魏木水; 谢德兴; 王治国; 陈生枝; 陈启裕; 郑忠武

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the lung function among healthy workers exposed to dust from Fujian province.Methods: Seven hundred and ninty-four healthy workers exposed to dust were involved.Lung function indexes including FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC% , V50,V25, MMEF and their prediction percentage were tested by German Yege apparatus.The parameters including age, body height, body weight and employing years were selected as independent variable, and lung function indexes as variable.Multiple regression and percentile were used to analyze the lung function reference data.Results: FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC% were normal in 794 workers exposed to dust.All the lung function indexes were normal among 70% workers.Small airway function V25 and MMEF both declined slightly among 20% workers.V50, V25 and MMEF decreased simultaneously among 10% workers.Lung function was negatively related with age and employing years, positively related with height and weight.The indicator value of airway function decreased with age.This value in 20 ~ 29 years old people, which exceeded the current reference value (0.70 ) , were singinificaly different with those in 40 ~ 49 and 50 ~ 59 years old people (P <0.05).Other values in different age showed no significant difference.FVC and FEV1 were higher than current reference value (0.80) , while MMEF and V50 slightly decreased.Conclusion: Normal reference value of FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC% should increase 0.05 among the workers exposed to dust in Fujian, especially in 20 ~29 years old people.The indexes of airway function, such as MMEF and V50, should both decrease 0.05.It is alert signal that the values of lung function become lower than those mentioned above.%目的:探讨福建省男性健康接尘工人肺通气功能的预计值.方法:选择794名男性健康接尘工人,采用德国耶格肺功能仪,测定FVC、FEV1、FEV1/FVC%,最大呼气中期流速(MMEF)、肺容量50%及肺容量25%时呼气流速(V50、V25),计算实测值占仪

  7. Analysis on results of occupational health examination among dust-exposed workers in a wooden door manufacturing enterprise%深圳市某木门制造企业接尘工人职业健康检查结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈自然

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析木尘对作业工人的健康损害,探讨健康监护指标.方法 对深圳市某木门制造企业接触木尘作业工人257名及对照组243人进行职业健康检查.结果 接触木粉尘作业工人临床症状以咳嗽、咳痰、气促、胸部不适为主,检出率分别为18.7%、17.9%、19.1%和19.5%;接尘工人肺功能指标FEV1.0、FVC、FEV1.0/FVC分别为(3 124.3 ±432.7)ml、(4 012.6±465.6)ml、(77.9±8.32)ml,明显低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(t值分别为5.405、3.054、4.122,均P值<0.01),接尘工人肺功能损害随年龄、工龄呈增长而升高,差异有统计学意义(x2值分别为30.142和14.316,均P<0.01);高千伏X线胸片结果显示观察组肺纹理增多增粗比例明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(x2=6.733,P值<0.01).观察组还确诊2例尘肺,5例肺结核;对照组确诊1例肺结核.结论 木尘对作业工人呼吸系统和心血管系统有一定的损害,木粉尘暴露是否可致肺组织纤维化病变仍不确定.%[ Objective] To analyze the damage caused by wood dust in workers, discuss the indexes of health surveillance. [Methods]The occupational health examination was conducted in 257 workers exposed to wood dust and 243 controls in a wooden door manufacturing enterprise of Shenzhen City. [ Results] The clinical symptoms in workers exposed to wood dust mainly included cough, sputum, anhelation and chest discomfort, which the detection rate was 18.7%, 17.9%, 19.1% and 19.5% , respectively. The pulmonary function indexes of FEV1. 0, FVC and FEV1. 0/FVC in dust-exposed workers was respectively (3 124. 3 ±432.7) ml, (4 012.6 ±65.6) ml and (77.9±.32) ml, which was significantly lower than that in the controls (t = 5.405, 3.054,4.122, all P < 0. 01). The level of lung function impairment in dust-exposed workers increased with increasing age and length of service, and the differences were significant (x2 =30.142, 14.316, both P < 0.01). High KV chest

  8. 粉尘作业者呼吸防护用品现场使用情况评价方法构建%Construction of Evaluation in Dust Exposed Workers With Respiratory Protective Equipment Use of Site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭晓兵

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the dust exposed workers with respiratory protective equipment use of the site and construction of evaluation.Methods Investigation of respiratory protective equipment for 246 dust exposed workers in an enterprise in three workshop use case,the site and the form of questionnaire survey,on-site construction workers through the analysis of dust comprehensive evaluation of respiratory protective equipment using the method product. Results The respiratory protection plans of the enterprise fails to make the choice,three types of dust workshop operators of respiratory protective equipment,the average monthly payment number change and the success rate of the rate of wear rates were significantly different (P < 0.05),the whole enterprise breath basic protection of the qualified rate was 19.65%,the unqualified rate was 80.35%,the difference was statistical y significant(P<0.05). High KV chest radiograph revealed pneumoconiosis respiratory protective or observation object group qualified rate was significantly lower than control group(P<0.05). Conclusion By constructing a comprehensive evaluation of dust exposed workers respiratory protection products and use method develop respiratory protection plan,effectively regulate the use of respiratory protective equipment,to prevent the occurrence of pneumoconiosis.%目的:探讨粉尘作业者呼吸防护用品现场使用情况且构建评价方法。方法对于某企业3个车间的246名粉尘作业者的呼吸防护用品使用情况进行调查,采用现场及问卷调查的形式,通过构建粉尘作业者呼吸防护用品使用的综合评价方法品进行现场分析。结果显示该企业未制定的呼吸保护计划,3个车间的粉尘作业者呼吸防护用品的选择类型、月均发放数更换达标率及佩戴率的达标率均具有差异(P<0.05);全企业呼吸防护基本合格率为19.65%,不合格率为80.35%,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);高

  9. Mudança significativa do limiar auditivo em trabalhadores expostos a diferentes níveis de ruído Significant auditory threshold shift among workers exposed to different noise levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Cardoso Oliva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a audição e a ocorrência de mudança significativa do limiar auditivo em trabalhadores de frigoríficos expostos a níveis de ruído abaixo das Normas e Regulamentações nacionais e internacionais e compará-los com trabalhadores expostos a níveis de ruído considerados excessivos. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se um banco de dados contendo informações longitudinais de 266 trabalhadores. Foram selecionados trabalhadores com um mínimo de três exames audiométricos e os que continham dados de exposição ao ruído. Foram mantidos 63 exames, classificados de acordo com sua exposição ao ruído em três níveis: 79 a 84,9 dB(A, 85 a 89,9 dB(A e 90 a 98,8 dB(A. Foi avaliada a ocorrência de perdas auditivas e de mudança significativa de limiar auditivo dos participantes de cada subgrupo. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se diferenças em todas as frequências nos testes de comparação entre a média dos limiares auditivos para cada frequência em função do nível de exposição ao ruído. A correlação entre a ocorrência de Perda Auditiva Induzida por Níveis de Pressão Sonora Elevados (PAINPSE e os anos de exposição ao ruído dentro da empresa atual foi significativa (R=0,373; p=0,079. Foram encontradas mudanças permanentes de limiar auditivo nos três níveis de exposição ao ruído. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados do presente estudo sugerem a existência de uma associação entre mudança significativa do limiar auditivo dos trabalhadores e os anos de exposição ao ruído considerado de baixo risco.PURPOSE: To assess the hearing status and signs of significant auditory threshold shifts in meat-processing facility workers who are exposed to noise levels below nationally and internationally recommended exposure limits, and to compare these results with data from workers exposed to excessive noise levels. METHODS: Longitudinal audiometric data from 266 workers were evaluated, and only workers with a minimum of three audiometric test results

  10. Study of microbial contamination of broilers in modern abattoirs in Khartoum state

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    S.E. Mohamed-Noor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the contaminating microorganisms that can be found on the breast, legs and backs of broilers during processing. A total of 81 swab samples from 27 carcasses were collected randomly from chicken carcasses slaughtered at modern poultry abattoir in Khartoum State, the Sudan. The samples were taken from 9 Critical Control Points (CCPs, namely; after bleeding with feathers, after scalding, after defeathering, after evisceration, after spray wash, after chilling and packing, workers’ hand, knives and Scalding water. Total Viable Count (TVC was carried for each sample besides isolation and identification of contaminating bacteria. The study revealed a statistically significant difference at P-value (p≤0.05 in the 9 CCPs between the legs, backs and breast respectively. The isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albus and Salmonella species. Sudanese abattoirs may reflect the hygienic status of chicken meat production in the developing countries and the implementation of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP in poultry industry is extremely important, because it involves the constant monitoring of all steps of the process.

  11. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle slaughtered at two abattoirs in Algeria

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    Ouzrout Rachid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine Tuberculosis is prevalent in Algeria despite governmental attempts to control the disease. The objective of this study was to conduct, for the first time, molecular characterization of a population sample of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from slaughter cattle in Algeria. Between August and November 2007, 7250 animals were consecutively screened at the abattoirs of Algiers and Blida. In 260 animals, gross visible granulomatous lesions were detected and put into culture. Bacterial isolates were subsequently analysed by molecular methods. Results Altogether, 101 bacterial strains from 100 animals were subjected to molecular characterization. M. bovis was isolated from 88 animals. Other bacteria isolated included one strain of M. caprae, four Rhodococcus equi strains, three Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM and five strains of other bacterial species. The M. bovis strains isolated showed 22 different spoligotype patterns; four of them had not been previously reported. The majority of M. bovis strains (89% showed spoligotype patterns that were previously observed in strains from European cattle. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR typing supported a link between M. bovis strains from Algeria and France. One spoligotype pattern has also been shown to be frequent in M. bovis strains from Mali although the VNTR pattern of the Algerian strains differed from the Malian strains. Conclusion M. bovis infections account for a high amount of granulomatous lesions detected in Algerian slaughter cattle during standard meat inspection at Algiers and Blida abattoir. Molecular typing results suggested a link between Algerian and European strains of M. bovis.

  12. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle slaughtered at two abattoirs in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraoui, Naima; Müller, Borna; Guetarni, Djamel; Boulahbal, Fadéla; Yala, Djamel; Ouzrout, Rachid; Berg, Stefan; Smith, Noel H; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    Background Bovine Tuberculosis is prevalent in Algeria despite governmental attempts to control the disease. The objective of this study was to conduct, for the first time, molecular characterization of a population sample of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from slaughter cattle in Algeria. Between August and November 2007, 7250 animals were consecutively screened at the abattoirs of Algiers and Blida. In 260 animals, gross visible granulomatous lesions were detected and put into culture. Bacterial isolates were subsequently analysed by molecular methods. Results Altogether, 101 bacterial strains from 100 animals were subjected to molecular characterization. M. bovis was isolated from 88 animals. Other bacteria isolated included one strain of M. caprae, four Rhodococcus equi strains, three Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) and five strains of other bacterial species. The M. bovis strains isolated showed 22 different spoligotype patterns; four of them had not been previously reported. The majority of M. bovis strains (89%) showed spoligotype patterns that were previously observed in strains from European cattle. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) typing supported a link between M. bovis strains from Algeria and France. One spoligotype pattern has also been shown to be frequent in M. bovis strains from Mali although the VNTR pattern of the Algerian strains differed from the Malian strains. Conclusion M. bovis infections account for a high amount of granulomatous lesions detected in Algerian slaughter cattle during standard meat inspection at Algiers and Blida abattoir. Molecular typing results suggested a link between Algerian and European strains of M. bovis. PMID:19173726

  13. The slaughter of increased numbers of pregnant cows in Tanga abattoir, Tanzania: A cause for concern?

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    Emmanuel S. Swai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Information on the level of foetal wastage in slaughtered cattle in Tanzania is limited. A three-month observational study (April – June 2014 of animals slaughtered at the Tanga abattoir in Tanga region, Tanzania was carried out to determine the number of pregnant cows slaughtered. The total number of cattle slaughtered during the study period was 3643, representing a monthly kill average of 1214 and a daily kill average of 40. Over 98% of the cattle presented to the abattoir for slaughter were local breed (Tanzania shorthorn zebu and most were above 3 years of age. Improved breeds of cattle represented only 1.3% of all slaughters. Of the cattle slaughtered, 2256 (61.9% were female and 1387 (38.1% were male. A total of 655 slaughtered cows were pregnant, representing a foetal wastage of 29.1%. Of the 655 recovered foetuses, 333 (50.8% were male and 322 (49.2% were female. Of the recovered foetuses, 25.8% were recovered in the first, 42.7% in the second and 31.6% in the third trimester. This study indicates cases of significant foetal losses, negatively impacting future replacement stock as a result of the slaughter of pregnant animals. The indiscriminate slaughter of pregnant cows suggests that existing animal welfare legislation is not sufficiently enforced and routine veterinary ante-mortem inspection of trade animals is failing to prevent the high level of foetal wastage.

  14. Analysis on occupational hearing loss of noise-exposed workers in an aircraft maintenance engineering company%某飞机维修工程公司噪声作业人员听力损伤分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张君

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]To investigate the noise-exposed workers in an aircraft maintenance engineering company, to analyze their hearing impairment status, and put forward suggestions for prevention of occupational hearing loss and occupational noise deafness. [Methods] A total of 1 067 noise-exposed workers were recruited as noise group and 111 without noise exposure as control group. MM-622 pure tone audiometer by the zero-level correction was adopted for pure tone air conduction checks at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3. 0, 4.0, 6.0 kHz on ears of workers. Assessment standards of hearing impairment: speech frequency at 0. 5, 1.0, 2.0 kHz in average >25dB, high-frequency at 3.0, 4.0, 6.0 kHz respectively ≥30 dB. [Results] A total of 1 067 workers (2 134 ears) were investigated, 345 (647 ears) had hearing impairment, the prevalence was 32. 33% . High-frequency hearing loss occurred on 320 workers (614 ears) , speech frequency hearing loss on 25 workers (33 ears). Of 111 workers in control group, 4 workers (6 ears) had hearing impairment, all were high-frequency hearing loss, the prevalence was 3. 60%. The prevalence of hearing impairment of noise group was obviously higher than that of control group, with significant difference ( x2 = 39. 80,P <0.01). [Conclusion] Noise influences the high-frequency hearing threshold of workers with exposure . And the risk of hearing loss rate inceases with the extending of service length. It is suggested to strengthen personal protection, to establish health records and control occupational noise deafness.%目的 对某飞机维修工程公司噪声作业人员进行调查,分析该公司噪声作业人员的听力损伤现状,以期对预防职业性听力损伤和职业性噪声聋提出建议.方法 设噪声作业组1067人,非噪声接触人员111人为对照组,均使用丹麦产MM-622型纯音听力计(经零级校正),对两组人员双耳0.5、1.0、2.0、3.0、4.0、6.0 kHz的纯音气导进行检查,听力损伤的评定标准:语频听损以0

  15. Are genetic polymorphisms in OGG1, XRCC1 and XRCC3 genes predictive for the DNA strand break repair phenotype and genotoxicity in workers exposed to low dose ionising radiations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aka, Peter [Laboratory for Cell Genetics, Department of Biology, Free University of Brussels, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: paka@vub.ac.be; Mateuca, Raluca [Laboratory for Cell Genetics, Department of Biology, Free University of Brussels, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Buchet, Jean-Pierre [Unit of Industrial Toxicology and Occupational Medicine, Catholic University of Louvain, Clos Chapelle, Aux-Champs, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium); Thierens, Hubert [Department of Biomedical Physics and Radiation Protection, University of Ghent, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Kirsch-Volders, Micheline [Laboratory for Cell Genetics, Department of Biology, Free University of Brussels, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2004-11-22

    Identification of higher risk individuals carrying genetic polymorphisms responsible for reduced DNA repair capacity has substantial preventive implications as these individuals could be targeted for cancer prevention. We have conducted a study to assess the predictivity of the OGG1, XRCC1 and XRCC3 genotypes and the in vitro single strand break repair phenotype for the induction of genotoxic effects. At the population level, a significant contribution of the OGG1 genotypes to the in vitro DNA strand break repair capacity was found. At an individual level, the OGG1 variants Ser/Cys and Cys/Cys genotypes showed a slower in vitro DNA repair than the Ser/Ser OGG1genotype. A multivariate analysis performed with genotypes, age, cumulative dose, exposure status and smoking as independent variables indicated that in the control population, repair capacity is influenced by age and OGG1 polymorphisms. In the exposed population, DNA damage is greater in older men and in smokers. Repair capacity is slower in individuals with Ser/Cys or Cys/Cys OGG1 genotypes compared to those with the Ser/Ser OGG1 genotype. Micronuclei (MN) frequencies increased with age and the cumulative dose of {gamma}-rays. Analysis of the total population revealed that genetic polymorphisms in XRCC1 resulted in higher residual DNA (RDNA) values and the Met/Met variant of XRCC3 resulted in an increased frequency of micronuclei. The analysis confirms that MN frequencies are reliable biomarkers for the assessment of genetic effects in workers exposed to ionising radiation (IR). A combined analysis of the three genotypes, OGG1, XRCC1 and XRCC3 polymorphisms is advised in order to assess individual susceptibility to ionising radiation. As an alternative or complement, the in vitro DNA strand break repair phenotype which integrates several repair pathways is recommended. Smokers with OGG1 polymorphisms who are exposed to ionising radiation represent a specific population requiring closer medical surveillance

  16. 镉致作业工人肾功能损害可逆性研究初探%Study on the Reversibility of Renal Dysfunction in Workers Exposed to Cadmium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴训伟; 黄波; 等

    2001-01-01

    [Objective] This study was to explore the reversibility of renal dysfunction induced by cadmium in workers. [Methods] The changes of urinary cadmium (UCd) and renal dysfunction in cadmium-exposed workers treated by ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) promoting excretion of cadmium in urine were observed. From 1986,the annual records of UCd and β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) of pre- and post- treatment of EDTA were collected from 17 workers (male:14,female:3) in this study. [Results] It is shown that levels of urinary cadmium in workers,whose urinary β2-MG excretion was always abnormal (≥0.8 mg/g Cr) or became abnormal during the treatment period,were above 10 μg/gCr basically. Conversely,UCd concentration was below 10 μg/gCr in those workers whose urinary β2-MG excretion was always normal (<0.8 mg/gCr) or became normal during this treatment period. The prevalence of renal dysfunction increased regardless of UCd increasing or not,and didn’t decreased with the increasing of the time of removal from cadmium exposure. The renal dysfunction will be reversible if UCd<10 μg/gCr,or be irreversible when UCd>10 μg/gCr. [Conclusion] The level of urinary cadmium is a major factor,which affects the change of renal dysfunction caused by cadmium in workers,and no significant curative effect of EDTA treatment on renal dysfunction resulted from cadmium exposure was found.%[目的]观察接受依地酸二钠(EDTA)治疗慢性镉接触工人尿镉和肾功能改变,以探讨镉接触致肾损害的可逆性。[方法]收集1986年以来某冶炼厂接受EDTA治疗的17名镉接触工人(其中男14名,女3名)每年治疗前后尿镉和尿β2-微球蛋白(β2-MG)的记录,分析其变化的情况。[结果]尿β2-MG一直异常(≥0.8 mg/g*Cr)或由正常转为异常的工人,尿镉平均水平基本高于10 μg/g*Cr,治疗期间尿β2-MG一直正常或出现异常又转为正常的工人,尿镉平均水平在10 μg/g*Cr以下;

  17. Bovine tuberculosis in Rwanda: Prevalence and economic impact evaluation by meat inspection at Société des Abattoirs de Nyabugogo-Nyabugogo Abattoir, Kigali

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    Gervais Habarugira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the significant public health burden of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in Rwanda, the prevalence of bTB is poorly documented. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of bTB in cattle using gross examination of granulomatous lesions, to identify mycobacteria species in suspected samples, and to evaluate the economic impact of meat condemnation based on bTB-like lesions in the meat industry in Rwanda. Routine meat inspection was conducted at Société des Abattoirs de Nyabugogo (SABAN-Nyabugogo Abattoir. Tissue samples including 31 lymph nodes, 3 lungs and 2 livers were obtained from cattle of different ages with gross tuberculous lesions. Mycobacterium bovis was identified using microscopy with Kinyoun staining and isolation of mycobacterial species in culture on Löwenstein–Jensen and Colestos media, further identified using biochemical tests. Our findings, based on culture and postmortem results, show that the prevalence of bTB is 0.5%(0.587*148/16753, with an overall gross tuberculous lesion prevalence of