WorldWideScience

Sample records for abatement programs transportation

  1. Study of Statewide Type II Noise Abatement Program for the Texas Department of Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    This project will provide sufficient information to the Texas Department of Transportation and the Texas Transportation Commission to make an informed decision regarding the development and implementation of a statewide Type II Noise Abatement Progra...

  2. Urban Rail Noise Abatement Program : A Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    This report presents the background, current activities, and future plans for the Urban Rail Noise Abatement Program. This program, sponsored by the Office of Technology Development and Deployment of the Urban Mass Transportation Administration (UMTA...

  3. Rapid transit system noise abatement program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    This program plan describes a broad program for the reduction of noise and vibration in rapid transit systems, which impacts the patrons and inhabitants of the nearby commuity. An UMTA/TSC survey has provided data on the most urgent needs and state-o...

  4. FUEL/CARBON PRICE VS. ABATEMENT TECHNOLOGY IN FREIGHT TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Ferdinand Spangenberg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current situation is the exponential increase in greenhouse gases (GHG, which is mainly caused by industrial and transport activities. The recent Paris agreement in 2015 (Framework Convention on Climate Change COP21, UNFCCC made it clear to everyone that CO2 emissions are to be limited in all areas of life. Alternative fuels with a lower environmental impact than carbon (CO2 emissions are hard to find if the overall footprint is to be taken into account. Nevertheless, there are some fuels that have less impact on climate change. One the other hand, the production of biofuels is a controversial matter, although it is a viable alternative to emissions reduction. CNG or LNG-powered vehicles are also better in terms of environmental pollution, but are hardly better with regard to CO2 impact when a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA is carried out. LNG (liquid natural gas, for example, is the future fuel in the maritime sector because of the stricter environmental regulations (SOx,NOx in the shipping industry. The battery-powered vehicle is another example of an environmentally friendly solution. The afore-mentioned measures can be considered as “abatement“ necessary in order to limit CO2 impact. The study shows that there are significant differences in the environmental impact between transport systems and the corresponding drive-system or associated energy base. The polluter should pay, which is a common basic principle in economic research. The Emission Trading Scheme (ETS has been introduced in order to ensure a reduction in CO2 output – emissions come with a price tag. An overall view is necessary, both en-vironmental and economic impact must be reconciled (cf. Spangenberg - TQI. The future viability of the transport system as we know it may change significantly over time if new environmental requirements or e.g. CO2 taxes or ETS are introduced in the freight sector. The abatement of CO2 should be effected primarily through technological

  5. First annual report on the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loar, J.M.; Amano, H.; Jimenez, B.D.; Kitchings, J.T.; Meyers-Schoene, L.; Mohrbacher, D.A.; Olsen, C.R.

    1992-08-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the first of a series of annual reports presenting the results of BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from March through December 1986

  6. First annual report on the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J. M. [ed.; Adams, S. M.; Blaylock, B. G.; Boston, H. L.; Frank, M. L.; Garten, C. T.; Houston, M. A.; Kimmel, B. L.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.; Stewart, A. J.; Walton, B. T.; Berry, J. B.; Talmage, S. S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Amano, H. [JAERI, Tokai Res., Establishment, Ibari-Ken (Japan); Jimenez, B. D. [School of Pharmacy, Univ. of Puerto Rico (San Juan); Kitchings, J. T. [ERCE, Denver, CO (United States); Meyers-Schoene, L. [Advanced Sciences, Inc., Fernald, OH (United States); Mohrbacher, D. A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Olsen, C. R. [USDOE Office of Energy Research, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Health and Environmental Research

    1992-08-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the first of a series of annual reports presenting the results of BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from March through December 1986.

  7. Pollution abatement from road transport: cross-sectoral implications, climate co-benefits and behavioural change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxley, T.; Elshkaki, A.; Kwiatkowski, L.; Castillo, A.; Scarbrough, T.; ApSimon, H.

    2012-01-01

    With the abatement potential of end-of-pipe technologies for road transport becoming increasingly marginal, and with greater emissions reductions still needed in order to reduce pollution, alternative strategies involving behavioural change and choices between fossil fuelled or low carbon vehicles becomes more important. The environmental requirements include local air quality objectives, meeting national emissions ceilings to limit transboundary effects, and to aspire to significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper we use the BRUTAL sub-model of the UK integrated Assessment Model (UKIAM) to investigate a selection of alternative strategies including downsizing of cars, switching from petrol to diesel, and the introduction of electric, bio-fuelled or hydrogen vehicles into the fleet, relative to a business-as-usual projection for 2020. Projected impacts upon air quality limit values, national emissions ceilings and CO 2 emissions are assessed in relation to local, national and international objectives. We discuss related life-cycle impacts, implications for infrastructure, and potential impacts upon emissions from other sectors in order to highlight the full potential implications of the different strategies within the context of changes resulting from other policy developments at different scales.

  8. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Giddings, J.M.; McCarthy, J.F.; Southworth, G.R.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Springborn Bionomics, Inc., Wareham, MA (USA); Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-10-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a nuclear weapons components production facility located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the US Department of Energy. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek), in particular, the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life, as designated by the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment. A second purpose for the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that will include construction of nine new wastewater treatment facilities over the next 4 years. Because of the complex nature of the effluent discharged to East Fork Poplar Creek and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the effluent (i.e., temporal variability related to various pollution abatement measures that will be implemented over the next several years and spatial variability caused by pollutant inputs downstream of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant), a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed for the BMAP. 39 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program (BMAP) plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Cicerone, D.S.

    1998-02-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y-12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided, but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas or a reduction in sampling intensity in others. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide them in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions

  10. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program (BMAP) plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Cicerone, D.S. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y-12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided, but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas or a reduction in sampling intensity in others. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide them in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  11. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.JR.; Hill, W.R.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-09-01

    The revised Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted as required by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Science Division (ESD) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the request of the Y-12 Plant. The revision to the BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted during the period of 1985 to present. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided; experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional bioaccumulation monitoring if results indicate unexpectedly high PCBs or Hg) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is still observed). The program scope will be re-evaluated annually. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of Y-12 Plant operations (past and present) on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  12. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Blaylock, B.G.; Greeley, M.S.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Hinzman, R.L. (Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)); Shoemaker, B.A. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States))

    1993-04-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP is based on results of biological monitoring conducted from 1986 to 1992 and discussions held on November 12, 1992, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the K-25 Site), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Department of Energy Oversight Division. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  13. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L. A.; Adams, S. M.; Ashwood, T. L.; Blaylock, B. G.; Greeley, M. S.; Loar, J. M.; Peterson, M. J.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Shoemaker, B. A. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Hinzman, R. L. [Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)

    1993-02-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  14. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kszos, L.A.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Blaylock, B.G.; Greeley, M.S.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Shoemaker, B.A.; Hinzman, R.L.

    1993-02-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions

  15. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kszos, L.A.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Blaylock, B.G.; Greeley, M.S.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Hinzman, R.L.; Shoemaker, B.A.

    1993-04-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP is based on results of biological monitoring conducted from 1986 to 1992 and discussions held on November 12, 1992, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the K-25 Site), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Department of Energy Oversight Division. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions

  16. OAK RIDGE Y-12 PLANT BIOLOGICAL MONITORING AND ABATEMENT PROGRAM (BMAP) PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, S.M.; BRANDT, C.C.; CHRISTENSEN, S.W.; CICERONE, D.S.; GREELEY, M.S.JR; HILL, W.R.; HUSTON, M.S.; KSZOS, L.A.; MCCARTHY, J.F.; PETERSON, M.J.; RYON, M.G.; SMITH, J.G.; SOUTHWORTH, G.R.; STEWART, A.J.

    1998-10-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y- 12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional toxicity testing if initial results indicate low survival or reproduction) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is observed). By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  17. Flight evaluation of three-dimensional area navigation for jet transport noise abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denery, D. G.; Bourquin, K. R.; White, K. C.; Drinkwater, F. J., III

    1972-01-01

    The NASA, working with American Airlines, has completed the first phase of research to evaluate the operational feasibility of two-segment approaches for noise abatement. For these tests, area navigation was used to establish the upper glide slope and an ILS was used to establish the lower. The flight director was modified to provide command information during the entire approach. Twenty-eight pilots representing the airlines, professional pilot associations, FAA, and NASA participated. With an ILS approach for comparison, the procedure gave a noise reduction of 18 EPNdB at the outer marker and 8 EPNdB 1.1 n. mi. from touchdown.

  18. A Review of the Pollution Abatement Programs Relating to the Petroleum Refinery Industry in the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    or animal carcinogen, confirmed genotoxic teratogen , or confirmed hereditary mutagen. OHIO PROGRAMS Pollution abatement of the petroleum refining...Beryllium Chronium 12 (86%) 0.002 0.68 0.19 Silver Copper 14 (100%) 0.003 0.037 0.013 Thallium Iron 14 (100%) 0.24 2.35 0.60 Cobalt Lead 10 (71%) 0.002

  19. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Second report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loar, J.M.; Appellanis, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D.; Huq, M.V.; Meyers-Schone, L.J.; Mohrbacher, D.A.; Olsen, C.R.

    1992-12-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the second of a series of annual reports, described the results of BMAP studies conducted in 1987

  2. Second report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Cox, D.K.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Loar, J.M.; Olsen, C.R.; Ryon, M.G.; Shugart, L.R.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Talmage, S.S.; Murphy, J.B.; Valentine, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Appellanis, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D. [Puerto Rico Univ., San Juan (Puerto Rico); Huq, M.V. [Connecticut Dept. of Environmental Protection, Hamden, CT (United States); Meyers-Schone, L.J. [Frankfurter, Gross-Gerau (Germany); Mohrbacher, D.A. [Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Olsen, C.R. [USDOE Office of Energy Research, Washington, DC (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Stout, J.G. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States)

    1992-12-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the second of a series of annual reports, described the results of BMAP studies conducted in 1987.

  3. Water Resources Research Program. Abatement of malodors at diked, dredged-material disposal sites. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; Dravnieks, A.; Zussman, R.; Goltz, R.

    1976-06-01

    Samples of malodorous air and dredged material were collected at diked disposal sites at the following locations: Buffalo, NY; Milwaukee, WI; Mobile, AL; York Harbor, ME; Houston, TX; Detroit, MI; and Anacortes, WA; during the period July--October, 1975. Odorous compounds in the air samples were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, while the detection threshold, intensity, and character of the various odors were determined by experienced panelists using a dynamic, forced-choice-triangle olfactometer. Although significant problems with malodors were not observed beyond the disposal-area dikes during site visits, noteworthy odor episodes had occurred at some sites. An odor-abatement strategy is presented for handling the expected range of odor conditions at dredged-material disposal sites. Its aim is to reduce to an acceptable level the intensity of malodors in an affected community. The main steps in the strategy cover selection of the disposal site, site preparation, odor characterization of sediments to be dredged, malodor abatement during dredging and disposal operations, malodor abatement after filling of the disposal site, and the handling of malodor complaints.

  4. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring And Abatement Program 2008 Calendar Year Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M. J.; Greeley Jr., M. S.; Mathews, T. J.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2009-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located off

  5. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program 2007 Calendar Yeare Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M.J.; Greeley, M. S. Jr.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryan, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2008-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located

  6. Influência do estresse causado pelo transporte e método de abate sobre o rigor mortis do tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Maia Mendes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO presente trabalho avaliou a influência do estresse pré-abate e do método de abate sobre o rigor mortis do tambaqui durante armazenamento em gelo. Foram estudadas respostas fisiológicas do tambaqui ao estresse durante o pré-abate, que foi dividido em quatro etapas: despesca, transporte, recuperação por 24 h e por 48 h. Ao final de cada etapa, os peixes foram amostrados para caracterização do estresse pré-abate por meio de análises dos parâmetros plasmáticos de glicose, lactato e amônia e, em seguida, os peixes foram abatidos por hipotermia ou por asfixia com gás carbônico para o estudo do rigor mortis. Verificou-se que o estado fisiológico de estresse dos peixes foi mais agudo logo após o transporte, implicando numa entrada em rigor mortis mais rápida: 60 minutos para tambaquis abatidos por hipotermia e 120 minutos para tambaquis abatidos por asfixia com gás carbônico. Nos viveiros, os peixes abatidos logo após a despesca apresentaram estado de estresse intermediário, sem diferença no tempo de entrada em rigor mortis em relação ao método de abate (135 minutos. Os peixes que passaram por recuperação ao estresse causado pelo transporte em condições simuladas de indústria apresentaram entrada em rigor mortis mais tardia: 225 minutos (com 24 h de recuperação e 255 minutos (com 48 h de recuperação, igualmente sem diferença em relação aos métodos de abate testados. A resolução do rigor mortis foi mais rápida nos peixes abatidos após o transporte, que foi de 12 dias. Nos peixes abatidos logo após a despesca, a resolução ocorreu com 16 dias e, nos peixes abatidos após recuperação, com 20 dias para 24 h de recuperação ao estresse pré-abate e 24 dias para 48 h de recuperação, sem influência do método de abate na resolução do rigor mortis. Assim, é desejável que o abate do tambaqui destinado à indústria seja feito após período de recuperação ao estresse, com vistas a aumentar sua

  7. Second report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.G. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Hinzman, R.L.; Kszos, L.A.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Crumby, W.D. [Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    On September 11, 1986, a modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site), a former uranium-enrichment production facility. As required in Part III of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) and submitted for approval to the US EPA and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The plan described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. The objectives of the BMAP are to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, and to document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities. The BMAP consists of four tasks: ambient toxicity testing; bioaccumulation studies; biological indicator studies; and ecological surveys of stream communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document is the second in a series of reports presenting the results of the studies that were conducted over various periods of time between August 1987 and June 1990.

  8. Third report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinzman, R.L.

    1995-08-01

    As a condition of the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch or K-1700 stream). On October 1, 1992, a renewed NPDES permit was issued for the K-25 Site. A biological monitoring plan was submitted for Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, Poplar Creek Embayment of the Clinch River and any unnamed tributaries of these streams. The objectives of BMAP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life and (2) document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities, including the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator. The BMAP consists of four tasks: (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring; (3) assessment of fish health; and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document, the third in a series, reports on the results of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site BMAP; it describes studies that were conducted over various periods of time between June 1990 and December 1993, although monitoring conducted outside this time period is included, as appropriate

  9. Third report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    As a condition of the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch or K-1700 stream). On October 1, 1992, a renewed NPDES permit was issued for the K-25 Site. A biological monitoring plan was submitted for Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, Poplar Creek Embayment of the Clinch River and any unnamed tributaries of these streams. The objectives of BMAP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life and (2) document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities, including the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator. The BMAP consists of four tasks: (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring; (3) assessment of fish health; and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document, the third in a series, reports on the results of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site BMAP; it describes studies that were conducted over various periods of time between June 1990 and December 1993, although monitoring conducted outside this time period is included, as appropriate.

  10. Noise Abatement Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    A former NASA employee who discovered a kind of plastic that soaked up energy, dampened vibrations, and was a good noise abatement material, founded a company to market noise deadening adhesives, sheets, panels and enclosures. Known as SMART products, they are 75-80% lighter than ordinary soundproofing material and have demonstrated a high degree of effectiveness. The company, Varian Associates, makes enclosures for high voltage terminals and other electronic system components, and easily transportable audiometric test booths.

  11. Flight evaluation of two segment approaches for jet transport noise abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, R. A.; Wohl, B.; Gale, C. M.

    1973-01-01

    A 75 flight-hour operational evaluation was conducted with a representative four-engine fan-jet transport in a representative airport environment. The flight instrument systems were modified to automatically provide pilots with smooth and continuous pitch steering command information during two-segment approaches. Considering adverse weather, minimum ceiling and flight crew experience criteria, a transition initiation altitude of approximately 800 feet AFL would have broadest acceptance for initiating two-segment approach procedures in scheduled service. The profile defined by the system gave an upper glidepath of approximately 6 1/2 degrees. This was 1/2 degree greater than inserted into the area navigation system. The glidepath error is apparently due to an erroneous along-track, distance-to-altitude profile.

  12. Noise Abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    SMART, Sound Modification and Regulated Temperature compound, is a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy and sound absorbing qualities. It is derived from a very elastic plastic which was an effective noise abatement material in the Apollo Guidance System. Discovered by a NASA employee, it is marketed by Environmental Health Systems, Inc. (EHS). The product has been successfully employed by a diaper company with noisy dryers and a sugar company with noisy blowers. The company also manufactures an audiometric test booth and acoustical office partitions.

  13. NWMO transportation technical work program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes technical work program for the transportation nuclear waste by the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO). Transportation work program involves risk assessment which under normal conditions involves dose assessment to the worker and the public as well as consideration of transportation system routing and operations. It also involves possible accident scenarios using forensic modelling and probability analysis.

  14. Third report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D. [and others

    1994-03-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. The BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs at ORNL. These are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL). The investigation of contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system was originally a task of the BMAP but, in 1988, was incorporated into the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation for the Clinch River, a separate study to assess offsite contamination from all three Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge.

  15. Third report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D.

    1994-03-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. The BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs at ORNL. These are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL). The investigation of contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system was originally a task of the BMAP but, in 1988, was incorporated into the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation for the Clinch River, a separate study to assess offsite contamination from all three Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge

  16. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinzman, R.L.; Black, M.C.

    1993-06-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NDPES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a Water Pollution Control Program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing; (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic (bottom-dwelling) macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the second in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted between July 1986 and July 1988, although additional data collected outside this time period are included, as appropriate

  17. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Adams, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Black, M.C. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)] [and others

    1993-06-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NDPES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a Water Pollution Control Program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing; (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic (bottom-dwelling) macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the second in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted between July 1986 and July 1988, although additional data collected outside this time period are included, as appropriate.

  18. First report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Black, M.C. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)); Gatz, A.J. Jr. (Ohio Wesleyan Univ., Delaware, OH (United States)); Hinzman, R.L. (Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)); Jimenez, B.D. (Puerto Rico Univ.,

    1992-07-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of the BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE)], and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. The BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the first in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from May 1985 through September 1986.

  19. Defense Programs Transportation Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology used in a probabilistic transportation risk assessment conducted to assess the probabilities and consequences of inadvertent dispersal of radioactive materials arising from severe transportation accidents. The model was developed for the Defense Program Transportation Risk Assessment (DPTRA) study. The analysis incorporates several enhancements relative to previous risk assessments of hazardous materials transportation including newly-developed statistics on the frequencies and severities of tractor semitrailer accidents and detailed route characterization using the 1990 Census data

  20. First report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.G. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.

    1993-08-01

    A modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986. The Oak Ridge K-25 Site is a former uranium-enrichment production facility, which is currently managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. for the US Department of Energy. As required in Part III (L) of that permit, a plan for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) was prepared and submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (Loar et al. 1992b)]. The K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. Because it was anticipated that the composition of existing effluent streams entering Mitchell Branch would be altered shortly after the modified permit was issued, sampling of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities (Task 4 of BMAP) was initiated in August and September 1986 respectively.

  1. First report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.G.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.

    1993-08-01

    A modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986. The Oak Ridge K-25 Site is a former uranium-enrichment production facility, which is currently managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. for the US Department of Energy. As required in Part III (L) of that permit, a plan for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) was prepared and submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (Loar et al. 1992b)]. The K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. Because it was anticipated that the composition of existing effluent streams entering Mitchell Branch would be altered shortly after the modified permit was issued, sampling of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities (Task 4 of BMAP) was initiated in August and September 1986 respectively

  2. Tennessee's East Fork Poplar Creek: A biological monitoring and abatement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbrook, R.S.; Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Black, M.C.; Boston, H.L.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Hill, W.R.; Hinzman, R.L.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Schilling, E.M.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Gatz, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    On May 1985, a Biological Monitoring Program was developed for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in eastern Tennessee, United States. This stream originates within the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant that produces nuclear weapons components for the Department of Energy. Water and sediment in the stream contain metals, organic chemicals, and radionuclides from releases that have occurred over the past 45 years. The creek also receives urban and some agricultural runoff and effluent from the City of Oak Ridge's Wastewater Treatment Facility (WTF). The biological monitoring program includes four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing: (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological monitoring of stream communities, including periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Biological conditions are monitored at six sites on EFPC ranging from kilometer 24.4 near the headwaters to kilometer 6.3 near the month. A site on Brushy Fork, A stream just north of Oak Ridge, is used as reference. Ambient (instream) toxicity was monitored through the use of 7-day static-renewal tests that measured the survival and growth of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae and the survival and reproduction of a microstrustacean (Ceriodaphnia dubia). Full-strength water from EFPC within the Y-12 Plant boundary was frequently toxic to Ceriodaphnia, but less frequently toxic to the minnow larvae. Chlorine has been identified as an important toxicant in upper EFPC. Water samples from six sites in EFPC downstream from the Y-12 Plant boundary were tested eight times with both species during a 2-year period (October, 1986 through October, 1988). These sites were ranked by the number of times they were ''best'' or ''worst'' for each species. Water samples collected for use in the ambient toxicity tests were routinely analyzed for conductivity, pH, alkalinity, hardness, total residual and free chlorine, and temperature

  3. Subsurface transport program: Research summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    DOE's research program in subsurface transport is designed to provide a base of fundamental scientific information so that the geochemical, hydrological, and biological mechanisms that contribute to the transport and long term fate of energy related contaminants in subsurface ecosystems can be understood. Understanding the physical and chemical mechanisms that control the transport of single and co-contaminants is the underlying concern of the program. Particular attention is given to interdisciplinary research and to geosphere-biosphere interactions. The scientific results of the program will contribute to resolving Departmental questions related to the disposal of energy-producing and defense wastes. The background papers prepared in support of this document contain additional information on the relevance of the research in the long term to energy-producing technologies. Detailed scientific plans and other research documents are available for high priority research areas, for example, in subsurface transport of organic chemicals and mixtures and in the microbiology of deep aquifers. 5 figs., 1 tab

  4. Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John J.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Langley's Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program employs a heavily instrumented, B 737-100 as its Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TRSV). The TRSV has been used during the demonstration trials of the Time Reference Scanning Beam Microwave Landing System (TRSB MLS), the '4D flight-management' concept, ATC data links, and airborne windshear sensors. The credibility obtainable from successful flight test experiments is often a critical factor in the granting of substantial commitments for commercial implementation by the FAA and industry. In the case of the TRSB MLS, flight test demonstrations were decisive to its selection as the standard landing system by the ICAO.

  5. Fourth report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M. [ed.

    1994-04-01

    In response to a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC) and selected tributaries. BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake. The ecological characterization of the WOC watershed will provide baseline data that can be used to document the ecological effects of the water pollution control program and the remedial action program. The long-term nature of BMAP ensures that the effectiveness of remedial measures will be properly evaluated.

  6. Transport and abatement of fluorescent silica nanoparticle (SiO{sub 2} NP) in granular filtration: effect of porous media and ionic strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Chao, E-mail: chaozeng@email.arizona.edu; Shadman, Farhang; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes [University of Arizona, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering (United States)

    2017-03-15

    The extensive production and application of engineered silica nanoparticles (SiO{sub 2} NPs) will inevitably lead to their release into the environment. Granular media filtration, a widely used process in water and wastewater treatment plants, has the potential for NP abatement. In this work, laboratory-scale column experiments were performed to study the transport and retention of SiO{sub 2} NPs on three widely used porous materials, i.e., sand, anthracite, and granular activated carbon (GAC). Synthetic fluorescent core-shell SiO{sub 2} NPs (83 nm) were used to facilitate NP detection. Sand showed very low capacity for SiO{sub 2} filtration as this material had a surface with limited surface area and a high concentration of negative charge. Also, we found that the stability and transport of SiO{sub 2} NP were strongly dependent on the ionic strength of the solution. Increasing ionic strength led to NP agglomeration and facilitated SiO{sub 2} NP retention, while low ionic strength resulted in release of captured NPs from the sand bed. Compared to sand, anthracite and GAC showed higher affinity for SiO{sub 2} NP capture. The superior capacity of GAC was primarily due to its porous structure and high surface area. A process model was developed to simulate NP capture in the packed bed columns and determine fundamental filtration parameters. This model provided an excellent fit to the experimental data. Taken together, the results obtained indicate that GAC is an interesting material for SiO{sub 2} NP filtration.

  7. Quality Assurance Plan for Transportation Management Division Transportation Training Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) implemented new rules requiring minimum levels of training for certain key individuals who handle, package, transport, or otherwise prepare hazardous materials for transportation. In response to these rules, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Transportation Management Division (TMD), has developed a transportation safety training program. This program supplies designed instructional methodology and course materials to provide basic levels of DOT training to personnel for whom training has become mandatory. In addition, this program provides advanced hazardous waste and radioactive material packaging and transportation training to help personnel achieve proficiency and/or certification as hazardous waste and radioactive material shippers. This training program does not include site-specific or task-specific training beyond DOT requirements

  8. SDDOT transportation systems management & operations program plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this project is the development of a comprehensive Transportation Systems Management and : Operations (TSM&O) Program Plan for the South Dakota Department of Transportation. This plan guides : business planning and strategic decision...

  9. Personal Computer Transport Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Frank, III; Wobick, Craig; Chapman, Kirt; McCloud, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Personal Computer Transport Analysis Program (PCTAP) is C++ software used for analysis of thermal fluid systems. The program predicts thermal fluid system and component transients. The output consists of temperatures, flow rates, pressures, delta pressures, tank quantities, and gas quantities in the air, along with air scrubbing component performance. PCTAP s solution process assumes that the tubes in the system are well insulated so that only the heat transfer between fluid and tube wall and between adjacent tubes is modeled. The system described in the model file is broken down into its individual components; i.e., tubes, cold plates, heat exchangers, etc. A solution vector is built from the components and a flow is then simulated with fluid being transferred from one component to the next. The solution vector of components in the model file is built at the initiation of the run. This solution vector is simply a list of components in the order of their inlet dependency on other components. The component parameters are updated in the order in which they appear in the list at every time step. Once the solution vectors have been determined, PCTAP cycles through the components in the solution vector, executing their outlet function for each time-step increment.

  10. Dwight David Eisenhower Transportation Fellowship Program System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — DDETFP is a web-based application used to measure the performance of the DDETFP program, enhance reporting, and evaluate the programs' effectiveness in meeting goals...

  11. Sustainable Transportation Program 2011 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, Kathi H [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    Highlights of selected research and development efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory funded by the Vehicle Technologies Program, Biomass Program, and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program of the Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; and the Department of Transportation.

  12. Radioactive material transportation information program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taynton, L.F.; Blalock, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    We are working closely with DOE's field traffic managers to help develop useful public information materials because these managers are familiar with ongoing problems in their areas of operation. In addition, proposals are being prepared to make use of existing traveling exhibitry and to have personnel available to respond immediately to incidents. A close working relationship between traffic managers and state legislators is being cultivated to ensure that new legislation is based on fact. It is our intent to help inform the American public that an excellent track record has been established for transporting radioactive materials and that the transportation industry can be trusted to maintain this record of safety

  13. Arctic Marine Transportation Program 1979-1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this program was to collect data relevant to developing year-round transportation capabilities in the Arctic Ocean. The US Maritime Administration...

  14. Fuzzy linear programming approach for solving transportation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Transportation problem (TP) is an important network structured linear programming problem that arises in several contexts and has deservedly received a great deal of attention in the literature. The central concept in this problem is to find the least total transportation cost of a commodity in order to satisfy ...

  15. Pupil Transportation Safety Program Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahanty, Joseph F.; And Others

    This study has been undertaken to assess the magnitude of the school bus safety problem and to develop a plan to improve pupil transportation safety. The resulting report provides estimates of school bus population and daily usage, gives an account of injuries and fatalities that occur annually, and compares the safety records of school buses to…

  16. 49 CFR 613.200 - Statewide transportation planning and programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statewide transportation planning and programming. 613.200 Section 613.200 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Transportation Planning and Programming § 613.200 Statewide transportation planning and programming. The...

  17. An interval-based possibilistic programming method for waste management with cost minimization and environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y P; Huang, G H

    2010-09-15

    Considerable public concerns have been raised in the past decades since a large amount of pollutant emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal of processes pose risks on surrounding environment and human health. Moreover, in MSW management, various uncertainties exist in the related costs, impact factors and objectives, which can affect the optimization processes and the decision schemes generated. In this study, an interval-based possibilistic programming (IBPP) method is developed for planning the MSW management with minimized system cost and environmental impact under uncertainty. The developed method can deal with uncertainties expressed as interval values and fuzzy sets in the left- and right-hand sides of constraints and objective function. An interactive algorithm is provided for solving the IBPP problem, which does not lead to more complicated intermediate submodels and has a relatively low computational requirement. The developed model is applied to a case study of planning a MSW management system, where mixed integer linear programming (MILP) technique is introduced into the IBPP framework to facilitate dynamic analysis for decisions of timing, sizing and siting in terms of capacity expansion for waste-management facilities. Three cases based on different waste-management policies are examined. The results obtained indicate that inclusion of environmental impacts in the optimization model can change the traditional waste-allocation pattern merely based on the economic-oriented planning approach. The results obtained can help identify desired alternatives for managing MSW, which has advantages in providing compromised schemes under an integrated consideration of economic efficiency and environmental impact under uncertainty. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. OWI transportation/logistics program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.; Joy, D.S.; Heiskell, M.M.; Turner, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    In development of a comprehensive plan to assure the availability of a transport system by 1985 capable of moving commercial radioactive wastes to federal waste repositories, a series of concerns were identified as having the potential to interfere seriously with the overall objective. These are tabulated and briefly reviewed. Activities to counteract these concerns were formulated. Logistics models were then developed. The spent fuel logistics model is described

  19. Climate modelling with endogenous technical change: Stochastic learning and optimal greenhouse gas abatement in the PAGE2002 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberth, Stephan; Hope, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This paper looks at the impact of ETC on the costs and benefits of different abatement strategies using a modified version of the PAGE2002 model. It was found that for most standard abatement paths there would be an initial 'learning investment' required that would substantially reduce the unit costs of CO 2 abatement as compared to a business as usual scenario. Furthermore, optimising an abatement program where ETC has been included leads to an increase in cost uncertainty during the period of widespread CO 2 abatements due to our lack of knowledge of the learning investments involved. Finally, the inclusion of ETC leads to a slightly deferred optimised abatement path followed by a rapid abatement program. Together, the results draw attention to the possibilities of 'uncovering uncertainty' through proactive abatements. 'Learning about learning' could become an important consideration for any plan to optimise future abatements

  20. Emission Abatement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander

    2003-05-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  1. Hazardous and Mixed Waste Transportation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Glass, R.E.; McAllaster, M.E.; Nigrey, P.J.; Trennel, A.J.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1991-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a program to address the packaging needs associated with the transport of hazardous and mixed waste during the United States' Department of Energy (DOE) remediation efforts. The program addresses the technology needs associated with the transport of materials which have components that are radioactive and chemically hazardous. The mixed waste transportation activities focus on on-site specific applications of technology to the transport of hazardous and mixed wastes. These activities were identified at a series of DOE-sponsored workshops. These activities will be composed of the following: (1) packaging concepts, (2) chemical compatibility studies, and (3) systems studies. This paper will address activities in each of these areas

  2. ANSI / FM Approvals 2510 flood abatement equipment test standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravetz Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural hazards, including flooding, continue to be the leading cause of commercial and industrial property damage worldwide. Until recently, there has been a limited amount of readily available guidance on choosing flood abatement protection. FM Approvals, a division of FM Global, one of the world’s largest business property insurers, working together with the Association of State Floodplain Managers and the US Army Corps of Engineers have developed a National Flood Barrier Test Program after recognizing the urgent demand for reliable flood abatement products to mitigate potential losses. This lead to the ANSI/ FM2510 flood abatement equipment standard.

  3. Pontos críticos no manejo pré-abate de frango de corte: jejum, captura, carregamento, transporte e tempo de espera no abatedouro Critical points in the pre-slaughter management of broiler: feed withdrawal, capture and catching, transport and lairage time in the plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Rogério Rui

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, a produção avícola brasileira configura o Brasil como o terceiro maior produtor mundial de carne de frango. A cadeia avícola é um setor extremamente organizado em todos seus segmentos, do nascimento ao abate das aves. Um dos procedimentos mais laboriosos é o período pré-abate, que compreende desde o jejum até o tempo de espera no abatedouro. Devido a esse fato, este trabalho salienta os principais pontos críticos existentes no período pré-abate: o jejum, a captura, o carregamento, o transporte e tempo de espera no abatedouro.Today the brazilian poultry industry sets Brazil as the third largest producer of chicken meat. The poultry production sector is extremely organized in all its segments, from birth to slaughter poultry. One of the most laborious is the pre-slaughter, which ranges from the feed withdrawal to the lairage time at the plant. Due to this fact this research highlights the most critical points in the pre-slaughter period, as: feed withdrawal, capture, catching, transport and lairage time in the plant.

  4. 75 FR 23841 - Commercial Space Transportation Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ..., improvement, and design and engineering of space transportation infrastructure, including facilities and... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Grant... for the Commercial Space Transportation Grant Program. SUMMARY: The FAA's Office of Commercial Space...

  5. 76 FR 15039 - Commercial Space Transportation Grants Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    .... Construction, improvement, design, and engineering of space transportation infrastructure (including facilities... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... proposals for the Commercial Space Transportation Grant Program. SUMMARY: This notice solicits Fiscal Year...

  6. 78 FR 37648 - Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching (STIM) Grants Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Space Transportation Infrastructure...-availability of Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching Grants in FY 2013. SUMMARY: The Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST) will not solicit or award grants under the STIM program this fiscal...

  7. Salt Repository Project transportation program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, R.L.; Greenberg, A.H.; Anderson, T.L.; Yates, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Salt Repository Project (SRP) has the responsibility to develop a comprehensive transportation program plan (TrPP) that treats the transportation of workers, supplies, and high-level radioactive waste to the site and the transportation of salt, low-level, and transuranic wastes from the site. The TrPP has developed a systematic approach to transportation which is directed towards satisfying statutes, regulations, and directives and is guided by a hierarchy of specific functional requirements, strategies, plans, and reports. The TrPP identifies and develops the planning process for transportation-related studies and provides guidance to staff in performing and documenting these activities. The TrPP also includes an explanation of the responsibilities of the organizational elements involved in these transportation studies. Several of the report chapters relate to identifying routes for transporting nuclear waste to the site. These include a chapter on identifying an access corridor for a new rail route leading to the site, identifying and evaluating emergency-response preparedness capabilities along candidate routes in the state, and identifying alternative routes from the state border, ports, or in-state reactors to the site. The TrPP also includes plans for identifying salt disposal routes and a discussion of repository/transportation interface requirements. 89 refs., 6 figs

  8. Human health risks associated with asbestos abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrostowski, P C; Foster, S A; Anderson, E L

    1991-09-01

    Upperbound lifetime excess cancer risks were calculated for activities associated with asbestos abatement using a risk assessment framework developed for EPA's Superfund program. It was found that removals were associated with cancer risks to workers which were often greater than the commonly accepted cancer risk of 1 x 10(-6), although lower than occupational exposure limits associated with risks of 1 x 10(-3). Removals had little effect in reducing risk to school populations. Risks to teachers and students in school buildings containing asbestos were approximately the same as risks associated with exposure to ambient asbestos by the general public and were below the levels typically of concern to regulatory agencies. During abatement, however, there were increased risks to both workers and nearby individuals. Careless, everyday building maintenance generated the greatest risk to workers followed by removals and encapsulation. If asbestos abatement was judged by the risk criteria applied to EPA's Superfund program, the no-action alternative would likely be selected in preference to removal in a majority of cases. These conclusions should only be interpreted within the context of an overall asbestos risk management program, which includes consideration of specific fiber types and sizes, sampling and analytical limitations, physical condition of asbestos-containing material, episodic peak exposures, and the number of people potentially exposed.

  9. 49 CFR 613.100 - Metropolitan transportation planning and programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... programming. 613.100 Section 613.100 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming § 613.100 Metropolitan transportation planning and programming. The regulations in 23 CFR 450, subpart C, shall be followed in complying with the requirements of...

  10. Opportunities to Improve Air Quality through Transportation Pricing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is intended to give state and local air quality and transportation planners,elected government officials, and other interested parties background information on transportation pricing programs.

  11. 23 CFR 772.11 - Noise abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Noise abatement. 772.11 Section 772.11 Highways FEDERAL... OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.11 Noise abatement. (a) In determining and abating traffic noise impacts, primary consideration is to be given to exterior areas. Abatement will...

  12. Lightweight materials for transportation: Program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    This Program Plan has been prepared by the Office of Transportation Materials in response to a request by the House Committee on Appropriations. It recognizes that a significant commitment to long-term, stable materials research and development (R&D) is required to realize the benefits of lighter weight vehicles, including economic, environmental and energy related benefits. Extensive input was obtained from the major US automakers and from representative materials and component suppliers. Considerable interaction with the key members of the US Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) has ensured consistency of technical direction. The program will support R&D activity at industrial sites through competitively bid subcontracts with cost sharing anticipated at 30--50%, with the higher amounts in process scale-up and manufacturing technology development. The recommended LWM Program will enable industry to develop pecessary technology by utilizing their capabilities as well as accessing supporting technology at national laboratories, universities, ongoing program activity at NASA, DoD, DOT, NIST, etc., and thereby leverage industry resources through integrated team approaches. Many individual program efforts are currently in place that address small portions of the overall needs of the LWM Program, both within DOE and in other agencies. Cognizance of these and overall integration of research activities are planned as significant program management tasks. Because of the international nature of the automobile business, benchmarking of foreign technology and tracking of worldwide developments are also key program elements.

  13. 78 FR 27284 - Public Transportation on Indian Reservations Program; Tribal Transit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Public Transportation on Indian Reservations Program; Tribal Transit Program AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Funding Availability: Solicitation of Grant Applications for FY 2013 Tribal Transit Program Funds...

  14. New school radon abatement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.F.; Maniscalco, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the methods used to develop a state-of-the-art Radon Abatement system: all aspects of design and implementation from proper sizing radon ventilation ductwork (RVD) in relationship to the amount of free air available in sub-slab aggregate, review of electrical systems with their monitoring devices from the very basic to the more sophisticated type of installation, review abatement designs for their durability and application as well as methods and techniques. Building codes will also be reviewed for commercial construction applications, spot-lighting the usage of specific materials and techniques and their impact on the industry

  15. 78 FR 64048 - Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice.... Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice. The Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program Advisory... implementation of intelligent transportation systems. Through its sponsor, the ITS Joint Program Office (JPO...

  16. 77 FR 26067 - Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice.... Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice. The Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program Advisory... of intelligent transportation systems. Through its sponsor, the ITS Joint Program Office, the ITS PAC...

  17. 77 FR 57640 - Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice.... Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice. The Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program Advisory... intelligent transportation systems. Through its sponsor, the ITS Joint Program Office, the ITS PAC makes...

  18. Asbestos Abatement--Practical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedrel, Roy A.

    Illinois Senate Bill 1644, the recently passed "Asbestos Abatement Act," requires all schools in the state, public and private alike, to remove friable asbestos by whichever comes first: July 1, 1989, or 3 years following the establishment of a system for state funding for corrective action. This document addresses practical…

  19. 36 CFR 212.2 - Forest transportation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the forest transportation system shall be developed each fiscal year in accordance with procedures... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Forest transportation program... TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.2 Forest transportation...

  20. Developing an interdisciplinary certificate program in transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This project develops and implements a graduate certificate in transportation planning. Texas A&M : University (A&M) currently offers instruction in transportation through its Master of Urban Planning (MUP) : and Civil Engineering (CE) programs; howe...

  1. An integrated strategy for aircraft/airport noise abatement: A legal-institutional control act section 7 to the noise control act of 1972 and proposals based thereon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    The development of the aircraft noise control structure since the Griggs case of 1962 was examined. The Noise Control Act of 1972 is described which undertook to establish the legal-institutional framework within which an adequate aircraft/airport noise abatement program might be initiated with concern for full recognition of all the beneficial and detrimental consequences of air transportation and appropriate distribution of benefits and costs.

  2. Space Transportation Engine Program (STEP), phase B

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The Space Transportation Engine Program (STEP) Phase 2 effort includes preliminary design and activities plan preparation that will allow smooth and time transition into a Prototype Phase and then into Phases 3, 4, and 5. A Concurrent Engineering approach using Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, is being applied to define an oxygen-hydrogen engine. The baseline from Phase 1/1' studies was used as a point of departure for trade studies and analyses. Existing STME system models are being enhanced as more detailed module/component characteristics are determined. Preliminary designs for the open expander, closed expander, and gas generator cycles were prepared, and recommendations for cycle selection made at the Design Concept Review (DCR). As a result of July '90 DCR, and information subsequently supplied to the Technical Review Team, a gas generator cycle was selected. Results of the various Advanced Development Programs (ADP's) for the Advanced Launch Systems (ALS) were contributive to this effort. An active vehicle integration effort is supplying the NASA, Air Force, and vehicle contractors with engine parameters and data, and flowing down appropriate vehicle requirements. Engine design and analysis trade studies are being documented in a data base that was developed and is being used to organize information. To date, seventy four trade studies were input to the data base.

  3. Noise Abatement Tradeoff Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    The intent of this study is to obtain information on small high-speed engines so that their effect on the urban environment may be assessed, and if necessary, programs devised to reduce the noise and other emissions from vehicles using these "highly ...

  4. Maximum noise abatement trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeldin, S.; Speyer, J.

    1972-01-01

    Minimum noise annoyance trajectories for developing STOL operation procedures are obtained by modulating five control variables in two dimensions. The performance index is formulated such that it explicitly assigns the same relative importance to thrust as it does to distances between discrete listeners and the aircraft. However, using a steepest descent optimization program, results indicate that it is preferable to keep the thrusters at their maximum value to minimize the integrated annoyance rather than to reduce thrust which would lower the instantaneous annoyance. Thrust decreases below its bound only when the instantaneous noise at a listener is limited.

  5. Thoughts on abatement and adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revelle, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    A number of questions having to do with the themes of abatement and adaptation are discussed. Under the first rubric are questions of future concentrations of radiatively active trace gases, the linkage of these gases with greenhouse warming, and other environmental problems. Also examined in the abatement context are opportunities to reduce fossil fuel use and therefore the emission of greenhouse gases, and the likelihood that natural forest expansion may provide an opportunity to control the rate of carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulation in the atmosphere. Also discussed are the possible effects of greenhouse warming on agriculture in the United States and in the developing world. Finally, some suggestions are given on capturing and retaining interest in greenhouse warming on the part of the decision making public

  6. Compendium of student papers : 2010 undergraduate transportation scholars program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This report is a compilation of research papers written by students participating in the 2010 Undergraduate : Transportation Scholars Program. The 10-week summer program, now in its 20th year, provides : undergraduate students in Civil Engineering th...

  7. Compendium of student papers : 2011 undergraduate transportation scholars program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This report is a compilation of research papers written by students participating in the 2011 Undergraduate : Transportation Scholars Program. The 10-week summer program, now in its 21st year, provides : undergraduate students in Civil Engineering th...

  8. Compendium of student papers : 2009 undergraduate transportation engineering fellows program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    This report is a compilation of research papers written by students participating in the 2009 Undergraduate : Transportation Scholars Program. The ten-week summer program, now in its nineteenth year, provides : undergraduate students in Civil Enginee...

  9. Summer Youth Program in Rail and Intermodal Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-22

    For the past five years, Michigan Technological University has been running a Summer Youth Program (SYP) in Rail and Intermodal Transportation. The program has seen continuous growth along with a diverse group of students, grades 9-11. The structure ...

  10. Compendium of student papers : 2013 undergraduate transportation scholars program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report is a compilation of research papers written by students participating in the 2013 Undergraduate Transportation Scholars Program. The 10-week summer program, now in its 23nd year, provides undergraduate students in Civil Engineering the op...

  11. Sustainable transportation for tourism : green certification programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The overall project goal of guiding planning and management of transportation to serve the needs of : sustainable tourism focused on three tourism-related transportation contexts. The first context was : selected types of roads important to tourism i...

  12. Regional differences in China's CO2 abatement cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Under a framework of output distance function with multiple outputs, the study discusses the carbon abatement cost at provincial and regional levels in China, using the shadow price analysis. The findings show that the abatement cost, reflecting the marginal opportunity cost of carbon reduction, varies greatly among the provinces. On average, the abatement cost of the eastern region was much higher than that of the mid-western region during the observed period. The findings provide evidence that the carbon prices in the current ETS pilots have been much lower than desired levels, implying inefficiency of the markets. The wide range of the abatement cost estimates supports that the equi-marginal principle does not hold for the regulations on carbon pollution at regional levels. The regional cost differences indicate the huge potential for China to minimize the total abatement cost with policy instruments that may motive the emissions moving from areas of low abatement cost to where the abatement cost is higher. For a few undeveloped provinces that are environmentally fragile and have high abatement cost, supplementary measures will be needed to reduce the negative impact of carbon cutbacks on the poor to the minimum. - Highlights: • The marginal abatement cost of CO 2 is defined by the shadow price measure. • A linear programming model based on distance function is established. • Marginal abatement costs at provincial level are empirical investigated. • The abatement cost varies across provinces and regions in China. • The findings provide evidence that the current ETS pilots are inefficient

  13. 77 FR 51845 - Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice.... Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice. The Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program Advisory..., development, and implementation of intelligent transportation systems. Through its sponsor, the ITS Joint...

  14. 77 FR 20872 - Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice.... Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice. The Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program Advisory..., development, and implementation of intelligent transportation systems. Through its sponsor, the ITS Joint...

  15. Third-order TRANSPORT: A computer program for designing charged particle beam transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, D.C.; Brown, K.L.; Rothacker, F.

    1995-05-01

    TRANSPORT has been in existence in various evolutionary versions since 1963. The present version of TRANSPORT is a first-, second-, and third-order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of static-magnetic beam transport systems. This report discusses the following topics on TRANSPORT: Mathematical formulation of TRANSPORT; input format for TRANSPORT; summaries of TRANSPORT elements; preliminary specifications; description of the beam; physical elements; other transformations; assembling beam lines; operations; variation of parameters for fitting; and available constraints -- the FIT command

  16. Third-order TRANSPORT: A computer program for designing charged particle beam transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, D.C. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Brown, K.L.; Rothacker, F. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    TRANSPORT has been in existence in various evolutionary versions since 1963. The present version of TRANSPORT is a first-, second-, and third-order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of static-magnetic beam transport systems. This report discusses the following topics on TRANSPORT: Mathematical formulation of TRANSPORT; input format for TRANSPORT; summaries of TRANSPORT elements; preliminary specifications; description of the beam; physical elements; other transformations; assembling beam lines; operations; variation of parameters for fitting; and available constraints -- the FIT command.

  17. Environmental Pollution Prevention, Control and Abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-30

    AD-A271 117 fDATE August 30. 1977 ASD (ORA&L) Department of Defense Instruction SUBJECT: Environmental Pollution Prevention, Control and Abatement...Ensure that any funds appropriated and apportioned for the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution are not used for any other...77 References (a) Executive Order 11752, "Prevention, Control, and Abatement of Environmental Pollution at Federal Facilities," December 19, 1973 (b

  18. Assessing the effects of noise abatement measures on health risks: A case study in Istanbul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongel, Aybike; Sezgin, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, noise pollution caused by industrialization and increased motorization has become a major concern around the world because of its adverse effects on human well-being. Therefore, transportation agencies have been implementing noise abatement measures in order to reduce road traffic noise. However, limited attention is given to noise in environmental assessment of road transportation systems. This paper presents a framework for a health impact assessment model for road transportation noise emissions. The model allows noise impacts to be addressed with the health effects of air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions from road transportation. The health damages assessed in the model include annoyance, sleep disturbance, and cardiovascular disease in terms of acute myocardial infarction. The model was applied in a case study in Istanbul in order to evaluate the change in health risks from the implementation of noise abatement strategies. The noise abatement strategies evaluated include altering pavement surfaces in order to absorb noise and introducing speed limits. It was shown that significant improvements in health risks can be achieved using open graded pavement surfaces and introducing speed limits on highways. - Highlights: • Transportation noise has a significant effect on health. • Noise should be included in the environmental assessment of transportation systems. • Traffic noise abatement measures include noise reducing pavements and speed limits. • Noise abatement measures help reduce the health risks of transportation noise. • Speed limit reduction on uncongested roads is an effective way to reduce health risks.

  19. Assessing the effects of noise abatement measures on health risks: A case study in Istanbul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ongel, Aybike, E-mail: aybike.ongel@eng.bahcesehir.edu.tr [Bahcesehir University, Department of Civil Engineering, Istanbul 34353 (Turkey); Sezgin, Fatih, E-mail: fatih.sezgin@ibb.gov.tr [Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, Environmental Protection Agency, Istanbul 34169 (Turkey)

    2016-01-15

    In recent decades, noise pollution caused by industrialization and increased motorization has become a major concern around the world because of its adverse effects on human well-being. Therefore, transportation agencies have been implementing noise abatement measures in order to reduce road traffic noise. However, limited attention is given to noise in environmental assessment of road transportation systems. This paper presents a framework for a health impact assessment model for road transportation noise emissions. The model allows noise impacts to be addressed with the health effects of air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions from road transportation. The health damages assessed in the model include annoyance, sleep disturbance, and cardiovascular disease in terms of acute myocardial infarction. The model was applied in a case study in Istanbul in order to evaluate the change in health risks from the implementation of noise abatement strategies. The noise abatement strategies evaluated include altering pavement surfaces in order to absorb noise and introducing speed limits. It was shown that significant improvements in health risks can be achieved using open graded pavement surfaces and introducing speed limits on highways. - Highlights: • Transportation noise has a significant effect on health. • Noise should be included in the environmental assessment of transportation systems. • Traffic noise abatement measures include noise reducing pavements and speed limits. • Noise abatement measures help reduce the health risks of transportation noise. • Speed limit reduction on uncongested roads is an effective way to reduce health risks.

  20. Fuzzy linear programming approach for solving transportation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ALI EBRAHIMNEJAD

    satisfy demands at destinations using available supplies at origins. Transportation problem can be used for a wide vari- ety of situations such as scheduling, production, investment, plant location, inventory control, employment scheduling and many others. In general, transportation problems are solved with the assumptions ...

  1. Regional Marginal Abatement Cost Curves for NOx

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data underlying the figures included in the manuscript "Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and...

  2. Maryland Cleaning & Abatement Services Corp. Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland Cleaning & Abatement Services Corp. (the Company) is located in Baltimore, Maryland. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Baltimore, Maryland.

  3. Transportation and retention in outpatient drug abuse treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, P D; Lemon, S C; Stein, M D

    2001-09-01

    To determine whether certain types of transportation assistance improve outpatient treatment retention beyond thresholds shown to have therapeutic benefits, we analyzed data from 1,144 clients in 22 outpatient methadone maintenance (OMM) programs and 2,031 clients in 22 outpatient drug-free (ODF) programs in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcomes Study (DATOS), a national, 12-month, longitudinal study of drug abuse treatment programs. Directors' surveys provided information about provision of car, van, or contracted transportation services or individual vouchers/payment for public transportation. Chart-abstracted treatment retention was dichotomized at 365 days for OMM and 90 days for ODF. Separate multivariate hierarchical linear models revealed that provision of car, van, or contracted transportation services improved treatment retention beyond these thresholds for both OMM and ODF, but individual vouchers or payment for public transportation did not. Future research should validate whether car, van, or contracted transportation services improve retention and other treatment outcomes in outpatient drug abuse treatment.

  4. [Legal aspects of noise abatement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierski, W S

    1976-12-02

    Noise abatement is a problem of technology, medicine, law, and education. In the technical field, the problem of avoiding hazards is the primary one. In respect of encroachment upon neighbours mutual regard should be the foremost consideration. From the legal angle, a distinction is made between protection of the individial-above all under the provisions of the German Civil Code (Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch)-and of the community-under the provisions of criminal law and administrative law. Future legislation will have to concentrate increasingly upon governmental control measures especially with a view to prevention, instead of the issue of protection of the individual.

  5. Computer programs for thermodynamic and transport properties of hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, W. J.; Mc Carty, R. D.; Roder, H. M.

    1968-01-01

    Computer program subroutines provide the thermodynamic and transport properties of hydrogen in tabular form. The programs provide 18 combinations of input and output variables. This program is written in FORTRAN 4 for use on the IBM 7044 or CDC 3600 computers.

  6. Financially Constrained Transportation Planning and Programming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    This case study report is intended to provide metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs), state departments of transportation and transit agencies with a greater understanding of the important role that financial information plays in the planning and...

  7. DOE program for transportation R and D: a progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisler, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    The Transportation Branch of the Division of Environmental Control Technology (ECT), US Department of Energy (DOE), is managing a research and development program oriented toward the environmental and safety aspects of the transportation of energy materials. This program was started under the US Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), and in October 1977 became one of the programs of the newly formed DOE. The objectives of the current R and D program include: (1) development of data and methodology for environment and safety (E and S) assessments including development of transportation environmental data, severe accident analysis and risk assessment; (2) confirmatory full-scale testing of package and vehicular systems to improve scale modeling and analytical techniques for transport system safety assessment; (3) development of an improved capability for assessing the dynamic performance of nuclear packaging under severe accident conditions; (4) evaluation and verification of existing transportation standards to assure adequate environmental controls; and (5) development of the needed information system tools such as films, booklets, and exhibits to permit the public and other interested parties to have access to the results of the R and D program. This paper summarizes the history of this program, describes the accomplishments, includes references to published reports, and discusses the current status of the environmental and safety R and D program as related to transportation of energy material. Comments are also included regarding the future direction of the program

  8. Preslaughter transportation and shower management on broiler chicken Dead on Arrival (DOA incidenceManejo pré-abate de transporte e banho sobre a incidência de mortalidade de frangos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Oba

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the management conditions and distance to a commercial plant on chicken broilers Dead on Arrival (DOA. This work was conducted in the winter and summer seasons of 2008 in a commercial plant. In the winter season, the transport distances were 15 and 57 km, and in the summer season the distances were 15 and 55 km from the farm to the slaughterhouse and the experiments were carried out in duplicate. In the summer, to evaluate the effect of water bath over the birds before the actual transportation, a group of two trucks were submitted to a water bath (GWthB and the other without water bath treatment (GWoutB. The results showed that in the winter, the DOA was not influenced to distance of transport. In the summer, the DOA values for GWthB group varied from 0.12 to 0.17% while for the GWoutB the DOA values ranged from 0.16 to 0.27% indicating that the bath treatment after broilers truck loading and before transportation reduced broiler chicken mortality.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da distância de transporte e do banho após o carregamento sobre a mortalidade de frangos na chegada ao abatedouro, denominada Mortalidade na Chegada, do ingles Dead on Arrival – DOA. O estudo foi conduzido no inverno e no verão de 2008 em abatedouro comercial. No inverno, as distâncias de transporte foram de 15 e 57 km, e no verão foram de 15 e 55 km, sendo os experimentos realizados em duplicata. No verão, para avaliar o efeito do banho sobre os frangos após o carregamento no caminhão, foram avaliados dois lotes em cada distância, lote sem banho (LSB e lote com banho (LCB. Pelos resultados verificou-se que, no inverno o DOA não foi alterado pela distância de transporte. Enquanto que no verão, o DOA variou de 0,16% a 0,27 % nos lotes LSB e de 0,12% a 0,17% nos lotes LCB. No verão, foram observados menores valores de DOA nos lotes LCB nas duas distâncias de transporte indicando que o

  9. Arctic Marine Transportation Program 1979-1986, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this program was to collect data relevant to developing year-round transportation capabilities in the Arctic Ocean. The US Maritime Administration...

  10. Developing a market-sensitive intelligent transportation systems educational program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Results of research undertaken to evaluate the educational needs of the emerging field of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSs) are presented, and whether course offerings in academic programs meet these needs is ascertained. A survey was conduct...

  11. Pennsylvania Department of Transportation's Local Technical Assistance Program (LTAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The Pennsylvania Department of Transportations (PennDOT) Local Technical Assistance Program : (LTAP) was awarded to the Pennsylvania State Association of Township Supervisors (PSATS), with the : contract start date of December 1, 2005. PSATS led t...

  12. Object oriented programming in simulation of ions transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wenyong; Wang Tongquan; Xiao Yabin; Dai Hongyi; Chen Yuzhong

    2001-01-01

    Using Object Oriented Programming (OOP) method can make our program more reliable and easier to read, debug, maintain and upgrade. This paper compared FORTRAN90-the language widely used in science computing with C ++ --An Object Oriented Language, and the conclusion was made that although FORTRAN90 have many deficiencies, it can be used in Object Oriented programming. Then OOP method was used in programming of Monte Carlo simulation of ions transport and the general process of OOP was given

  13. Fuzzy linear programming approach for solving transportation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ALI EBRAHIMNEJAD

    fuzzy modified distribution method to obtain the optimal solution in terms of fuzzy numbers. Pandian & Natarajan. [13] introduced a new algorithm namely, fuzzy zero point method for finding fuzzy optimal solution for such FTP in which the transportation cost, supply and demand are represented by trapezoidal fuzzy numbers.

  14. Transportation System Risk Assessment on DOE Defense Program shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumburgh, G.P.; Kimura, C.Y.; Alesso, H.P.; Prassinos, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    Substantial effort has been expended concerning the level of safety provided to persons, property, and the environment from the hazards associated with transporting radioactive material. This work provided an impetus for the Department of Energy to investigate the use of probabilistic risk assessment techniques to supplement the deterministic approach to transportation safety. The DOE recently decided to incorporate the methodologies associated with PRAs in the process for authorizing the transportation of nuclear components, special assemblies, and radioactive materials affiliated with the DOE Defense Program. Accordingly, the LLNL, sponsored by the DOE/AL, is tasked with developing a safety guide series to provide guidance to preparers performing a transportation system risk assessment

  15. Radioactive waste transportation systems analysis and program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shappert, L.B.; Joy, D.S.; Heiskell, M.M.

    1978-03-01

    The objective of the Transportation/Logistics Study is to ensure the availability of a viable system for transporting the wastes to a federal repository in 1985. In order to accomplish this objective, a systems analysis of waste transportation has been directed by ORNL to determine the problems that must be solved and to develop a program plan that identifies which problems must first be pursued. To facilitate this overall approach and to provide for short- and long-range waste management, logistics models have been developed to determine the transportation fleet requirements and costs. Results of the study are described in this report.

  16. Radioactive waste transportation systems analysis and program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.; Joy, D.S.; Heiskell, M.M.

    1978-03-01

    The objective of the Transportation/Logistics Study is to ensure the availability of a viable system for transporting the wastes to a federal repository in 1985. In order to accomplish this objective, a systems analysis of waste transportation has been directed by ORNL to determine the problems that must be solved and to develop a program plan that identifies which problems must first be pursued. To facilitate this overall approach and to provide for short- and long-range waste management, logistics models have been developed to determine the transportation fleet requirements and costs. Results of the study are described in this report

  17. Program strategy document for the Nuclear Materials Transportation Technology Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, R.M.

    1979-07-01

    A multiyear program plan is presented which describes the program of the Nuclear Materials Transportation Technology Center (TIC) at Sandia Laboratories. The work element plans, along with their corresponding work breakdown structures, are presented for TTC activities in the areas of Technology and Information Center, Systems Development, Technology, and Institutional Issues for the years from 1979 to 1985

  18. Marginal abatement cost curves for policy recommendation – A method for energy system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaschek, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The transport sector is seen as one of the key factors for driving future energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In order to rank possible measures marginal abatement cost curves have become a tool to graphically represent the relationship between abatement costs and emission reduction. This paper demonstrates how to derive marginal abatement cost curves for well-to-wheel GHG emissions of the transport sector considering the full energy provision chain and the interlinkages and interdependencies within the energy system. Presented marginal abatement cost curves visualize substitution effects between measures for different marginal mitigation costs. The analysis makes use of an application of the energy system model generator TIMES for South Africa (TIMES-GEECO). For the example of Gauteng province, this study exemplary shows that the transport sector is not the first sector to address for cost-efficient reduction of GHG emissions. However, the analysis also demonstrates that several options are available to mitigate transport related GHG emissions at comparable low marginal abatement costs. This methodology can be transferred to other economic sectors as well as to other regions in the world to derive cost-efficient GHG reduction strategies

  19. US Department of Energy Transportation Programs: computerized techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.; Fore, C.S.; Peterson, B.E.

    1984-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is currently sponsoring the development of four specialized transportation programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The programs function as research tools that provide unique computerized techniques for planning the safe shipment of radioactive and hazardous materials. Major achievements include the development of rail and highway routing models, an emergency response assistance program, a data base focusing on legislative requirements, and a resource file identifying key state and local contacts. A discussion of each program and data base is presented, and several examples reflecting each project's applications to the overall DOE transportation program are provided. The interface of these programs offers a dynamic resource of data for use during preshipment planning stages. 9 references, 10 figures, 2 tables

  20. 78 FR 69173 - University Transportation Centers Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... Email [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Background II. Eligibility.... 5505(b)(2) as amended by Pub. L. 112- 141, Sec. 52009 (effective Oct. 1, 2012)). These restrictions.... US DOT will conduct the UTC program selection based on principles of full and open competition. Two...

  1. Third-Order Transport with MAD Input: A Computer Program for Designing Charged Particle Beam Transport Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Karl

    1998-10-28

    TRANSPORT has been in existence in various evolutionary versions since 1963. The present version of TRANSPORT is a first-, second-, and third-order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of static-magnetic beam transport systems.

  2. Relative Greenhouse Gas Abatement Cost Competitiveness of Biofuels in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Millinger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Transport biofuels derived from biogenic material are used for substituting fossil fuels, thereby abating greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Numerous competing conversion options exist to produce biofuels, with differing GHG emissions and costs. In this paper, the analysis and modeling of the long-term development of GHG abatement and relative GHG abatement cost competitiveness between crop-based biofuels in Germany are carried out. Presently dominant conventional biofuels and advanced liquid biofuels were found not to be competitive compared to the substantially higher yielding options available: sugar beet-based ethanol for the short- to medium-term least-cost option and substitute natural gas (SNG for the medium to long term. The competitiveness of SNG was found to depend highly on the emissions development of the power mix. Silage maize-based biomethane was found competitive on a land area basis, but not on an energetic basis. Due to land limitations, as well as cost and GHG uncertainty, a stronger focus on the land use of crop-based biofuels should be laid out in policy.

  3. DOE/PNC joint program on transportation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, M.; Kajitani, M.; Seya, M.; Yoshimura, H.R.; Moya, J.L.; May, R.A.; Huerta, M.; Stenberg, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes the work performed in a cooperative program on transportation technology between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan. This work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The joint program emphasized the safety analysis for truck transportation of special nuclear materials (SNM) in Japan. Tasks included structural analyses and testing, thermal testing, leak rate studies and tests, and transportation risk assessments. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of full-scale structural and thermal tests conducted on a PNC development SNM transport system. Correlation of full-scale impact test results with structural analysis and scale model testing will also be reviewed

  4. The transportation management division institutional program: Networking and problem solving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, K.A.; Peterson, J.M.

    1989-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has several programs related to transportation. While these programs may have differing missions and legislative authority, the required activities are frequently similar. To ensure a DOE-wide perspective in developing transportation policies and procedures, a DOE Transportation Institutional Task Force (Task Force) has been formed, which is the primary focus of this paper. The Task Force, composed of representatives from each of the major DOE transportation programs, meets periodically to exchange experiences and insights on institutional issues related to Departmental shipping. The primary purpose of the group is to identify opportunities for productive interactions with the transportation community, including interested and affected members of the public. This paper will also focus sharply on the networking of DOE with the State, Tribal, and local officials in fostering better understanding and in solving problems. An example of such activity is the DOE's cooperative agreement with the Energy Task Force of the Urban Consortium. A major effort is to encourage cooperative action in identifying, addressing, and resolving issues that could impede the transportation of radioactive materials

  5. 75 FR 77955 - Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Research and Innovative Technology Administration Intelligent... the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program Advisory Committee (ITSPAC). The meeting will be... of intelligent transportation systems. Through its sponsor, the ITS Joint Program Office (JPO), the...

  6. Reduced Insecticide Susceptibility in Aedes vexans (Diptera: Culicidae) Where Agricultural Pest Management Overlaps With Mosquito Abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Mike W; Bachmann, Amanda; Varenhorst, Adam J

    2018-01-21

    Mosquito abatement programs in Midwestern communities frequently exist within landscapes dominated by agriculture. Although separately managed, both agricultural pests and mosquitoes are targeted by similar classes of insecticides. As a result, there is the potential for unintended insecticide exposure to mosquito populations from agricultural pest management. To determine the impact that agricultural management practices have on mosquito insecticide susceptibility we compared the mortality of Aedes vexans (Meigen; Diptera: Culicidae) between populations sampled from locations with and without mosquito abatement in South Dakota, a region dominated by agricultural production. Collection locations were either within towns with mosquito abatement programs (n = 2; Brookings and Sioux Falls, SD) or located > 16 km from towns with mosquito abatement programs (n = 2; areas near Harrold and Willow Lake, SD). WHO bioassays were used to test susceptibly of adults to differing insecticide classes relative to their respective controls; 1) an organochlorine (dieldrin 4%), 2) an organophosphate (malathion 5%), and 3) a pyrethroid (lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05%). Corrected mortality did not significantly differ between locations with or without abatement; however, when locations were analized by proportion of developed land within the surrounding landscape pyrethroid mortality was significantly lower where crop production dominated the surrounding landscape and mosquito abatement was present. These data suggest that agricultural pest management may incidentally contribute to reduced mosquito susceptibility where overlap between agricultural pest management and mosquito abatement exists. Decoupling insecticide classes used by both agricultural and public health pest management programs may be necessary to ensure continued efficacy of pest management tools. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For

  7. Field research program for unsaturated flow and transport experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tidwell, V.C.; Rautman, C.A.; Glass, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, a field research program has been developed to refine and validate models for flow and transport through unsaturated fractured rock. Validation of these models within the range of their application for performance assessment requires a more sophisticated understanding of the processes that govern flow and transport within fractured porous media than currently exists. In particular, our research is prioritized according to understanding and modeling processes that, if not accurately incorporated into performance assessment models, would adversely impact the project's ability to evaluate repository performance. For this reason, we have oriented our field program toward enhancing our understanding of scaling processes as they relate to effective media property modeling, as well as to the conceptual modeling of complex flow and transport phenomena

  8. Synthesis report: program ecosystems, transport, pollutions, 1998 - 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etchelecou, A.; Deletraz, G.; Elichegaray, Ch.

    2001-04-01

    The ''Ecosystems, Transports, Pollution Program'' ETP Program, has been elaborated to evaluate the road pollution impacts on the mountain ecosystems. Four mountains valleys have been chosen: two in Alps (Chamonix and Maurienne) and two in Pyrenees (Biriatou and Vallee d'Aspe). This Program presents six objectives: the road traffic characterization, the pollutants emission estimation, the pollutants concentrations in the air, the pollutants dispersion according to relief, the relationships between pollutants emissions and bio-monitoring, the road pollution effects on nearby ecosystems. (A.L.B.)

  9. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.; Grohnheit, P.E.

    1992-04-01

    The project initiated by the United Nations Environment Programme aims to clarify some economic issues involved in greenhouse gas limitation by carrying out comparative studies of various nations. The programme should contribute to the establishment of a consistent methodological framework for making cost assessments of greenhouse gas abatement and help to support countries in the process of establishing national and international agreements on actions to combat climate change. The publication gives a survey of Danish energy demand and supply, emissions and current energy policy issues and reviews existing studies of carbon dioxide reductions. This includes the overall national environmental policy and the plan of action for the transport sector. Conclusions are that there seems to be a long-term potential for significant reduction of CO 2 emission by 10-15% by 2010 with no additional costs, a 50% reduction will cost DKK 25-50 per kg reduced CO 2 . The most promising options include increased use of cogeneration of heat and electricity, and electricity conservation in households, services and in industry. Economic growth is forecast as ca. 2.7% and energy prices for oil products should increase by ca. 4.8%. A 40% reduction of CO 2 emission in the year 2005 would increase costs by 1-2%, and a reduction of two thirds of present emission should be possible at no additional cost compared to the reference cases. There is general agreement that a reduction of carbon dioxide emission of 15-30% by 2005-10 should involve no additional costs to society. (AB) (11 refs.)

  10. Environmental development plan for transportation programs: FY80 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saricks, C.L.; Singh, M.K.; Bernard, M.J. III; Bevilacqua, O.M.

    1980-09-01

    This is the second annual update of the environmental development plan (EDP) for transportation programs. It has been prepared as a cooperative effort of the Assistant Secretaries for Conservation and Solar Energy (ASCS) Office of Transportation Programs (CS/TP) and the Environment (ASEV) Office of Environmental Assessments. EDPs identify the ecosystem, resource, physical environment, health, safety, socioeconomic, and environmental control concerns associated with DOE programs. The programs include the research, development, demonstration, and assessment (RDD and A) of 14 transportation technologies and several strategy implementation projects. This EDP update presents a research and assessment plan for resolving any potentially adverse environmental concerns arising from these programs. The EDP process provides a framework for: incorporating environmental concerns into CS/TP planning and decision processes early to ensure they are assigned the same importance as technological, fiscal, and institutional concerns in decision making; resolving environmental concerns concurrently with energy technology and strategy development; and providing a research schedule that mitigates adverse environmental effects through sound technological design or policy analysis. This EDP also describes the status of each environmental concern and the plan for its resolution. Much of ongoing DOE reseirch and technology development is aimed at resolving concerns identified in this EDP. Each EDP is intended to be so comprehensive that no concerns escape notice. Care is taken to include any CS/TP action that may eventually require an Environmental Impact Statement. Because technology demonstration and commercialization tend to raise more environmental concerns than other portions of the transportation program, most of this EDP addresses these concerns.

  11. 76 FR 22940 - Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice...-363; 5 U.S.C. app. 2), a Web conference of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program... implementation of intelligent transportation systems. Through its sponsor, the ITS Joint Program Office (JPO...

  12. Estimating the National Carbon Abatement Potential of City Policies: A Data- Driven Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric O’Shaughnessy, Jenny Heeter, David Keyser, Pieter Gagnon, and Alexandra Aznar

    2016-10-01

    Cities are increasingly taking actions such as building code enforcement, urban planning, and public transit expansion to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide in their communities and municipal operations. However, many cities lack the quantitative information needed to estimate policy impacts and prioritize city actions in terms of carbon abatement potential and cost effectiveness. This report fills this research gap by providing methodologies to assess the carbon abatement potential of a variety of city actions. The methodologies are applied to an energy use data set of 23,458 cities compiled for the U.S. Department of Energy’s City Energy Profile tool. The analysis estimates the national carbon abatement potential of the most commonly implemented actions in six specific policy areas. The results of this analysis suggest that, in aggregate, cities could reduce nationwide carbon emissions by about 210 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (MMT CO2) per year in a "moderate abatement scenario" by 2035 and 480 MMT CO2/year in a "high abatement scenario" by 2035 through these common actions typically within a city’s control in the six policy areas. The aggregate carbon abatement potential of these specific areas equates to a reduction of 3%-7% relative to 2013 U.S. emissions. At the city level, the results suggest the average city could reduce carbon emissions by 7% (moderate) to 19% (high) relative to current city-level emissions. City carbon abatement potential is sensitive to national and state policies that affect the carbon intensity of electricity and transportation. Specifically, the U.S. Clean Power Plan and further renewable energy cost reductions could reduce city carbon emissions overall, helping cities achieve their carbon reduction goals.

  13. Carbon dioxide abatement as a differential game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahvonen, O.

    1993-01-01

    The report combines predictions on greenhouse warming, CO 2 abatement costs and adaptation costs in a differential game framework. The specified model makes it possible to solve the payoffs of the subgame perfect solution of a two state variable nonautonomous problem with N unequal countries. Abatement cost parameters are calibrated with a global energy sector model and climate parameters are based on empirical time series. Simulation suggests that the backstop technology assumption in the abatement cost model may imply drastic cuts in optimal emission levels. Compared to the Nash noncooperative equilibrium a pareto optimal agreement is found to be beneficial for developing countries but more costly for the industrial world. Given the present damage estimates, the losses due to an emission stabilizing agreement may be 400 times higher than maximum potential gains from cooperation

  14. GAC as a method for radon abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.D.; Smith, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    Perhaps one of the most mysterious abatement procedures is that of the remediation of waterborne radon contamination in residential structures. Many mitigators have been led to believe that the use of GAC as an abatement technique is in appropriate due to the potential creation of a hazardous waste disposal problem. This paper sheds light on the use of GAC as a true alternative to costly aeration mitigation techniques, and can be used as a resource tool for mitigators who need to understand the limits of activity surrounding GAC, and what, if any, shielding may be needed for the protection of residential occupants

  15. Optimal traffic control in highway transportation networks using linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning

    2014-06-01

    This article presents a framework for the optimal control of boundary flows on transportation networks. The state of the system is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law (Lighthill-Whitham-Richards PDE). Based on an equivalent formulation of the Hamilton-Jacobi PDE, the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link in a finite horizon can be posed as a Linear Program. Assuming all intersections in the network are controllable, we show that the optimization approach can be extended to an arbitrary transportation network, preserving linear constraints. Unlike previously investigated transportation network control schemes, this framework leverages the intrinsic properties of the Halmilton-Jacobi equation, and does not require any discretization or boolean variables on the link. Hence this framework is very computational efficient and provides the globally optimal solution. The feasibility of this framework is illustrated by an on-ramp metering control example.

  16. Transport Coefficients for the NASA Lewis Chemical Equilibrium Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svehla, Roger A.

    1995-01-01

    The new transport property data that will be used in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Chemical Equilibrium and Applications Program (CEA) is presented. It complements a previous publication that documented the thermodynamic and transport property data then in use. Sources of the data and a brief description of the method by which the data were obtained are given. Coefficients to calculate the viscosity, thermal conductivity, and binary interactions are given for either one, or usually, two temperature intervals, typically 300 to 1000 K and 1000 to 5000 K. The form of the transport equation is the same as used previously. The number of species was reduced from the previous database. Many species for which the data were estimated were eliminated from the database. Some ionneutral interactions were added.

  17. US Department of Energy fuel cell program for transportation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Pandit G.

    1992-01-01

    Fuel cells of offer promise as the best future replacement for internal combustion engines in transportation applications. Fuel cells operate more efficiently than internal combustion engines, and are capable of running on non-petroleum fuels such as methanol, ethanol, natural gas or hydrogen. Fuel cells can also have a major impact on improving air quality. They virtually eliminate particulates, NO(x) and sulfur oxide emissions, and significantly reduce hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. The U.S. Department of Energy program on fuel cells for transportation applications is structured to advance fuel cells technologies from the R&D phase, through engineering design and scale-tip, to demonstration in cars, trucks, buses and locomotives, in order to provide energy savings, fuel flexibility and air quality improvements. This paper describes the present status of the U.S. program.

  18. Comparison of two head-up displays in simulated standard and noise abatement night visual approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronn, F.; Palmer, E. A., III

    1975-01-01

    Situation and command head-up displays were evaluated for both standard and two segment noise abatement night visual approaches in a fixed base simulation of a DC-8 transport aircraft. The situation display provided glide slope and pitch attitude information. The command display provided glide slope information and flight path commands to capture a 3 deg glide slope. Landing approaches were flown in both zero wind and wind shear conditions. For both standard and noise abatement approaches, the situation display provided greater glidepath accuracy in the initial phase of the landing approaches, whereas the command display was more effective in the final approach phase. Glidepath accuracy was greater for the standard approaches than for the noise abatement approaches in all phases of the landing approach. Most of the pilots preferred the command display and the standard approach. Substantial agreement was found between each pilot's judgment of his performance and his actual performance.

  19. Save water to save carbon and money: developing abatement costs for expanded greenhouse gas reduction portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Hendrickson, Thomas P; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-12-02

    The water-energy nexus is of growing interest for researchers and policy makers because the two critical resources are interdependent. Their provision and consumption contribute to climate change through the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs). This research considers the potential for conserving both energy and water resources by measuring the life-cycle economic efficiency of greenhouse gas reductions through the water loss control technologies of pressure management and leak management. These costs are compared to other GHG abatement technologies: lighting, building insulation, electricity generation, and passenger transportation. Each cost is calculated using a bottom-up approach where regional and temporal variations for three different California water utilities are applied to all alternatives. The costs and abatement potential for each technology are displayed on an environmental abatement cost curve. The results reveal that water loss control can reduce GHGs at lower cost than other technologies and well below California's expected carbon trading price floor. One utility with an energy-intensive water supply could abate 135,000 Mg of GHGs between 2014 and 2035 and save--rather than spend--more than $130/Mg using the water loss control strategies evaluated. Water loss control technologies therefore should be considered in GHG abatement portfolios for utilities and policy makers.

  20. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The research conducted during 1984 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance, control and display concepts. An overview of the year's activities for each of the schools is also presented.

  1. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1988-1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The research conducted during 1988 to 1989 under the NASA/FAA-sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include computer science, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, flight dynamics, and applied experimental psychology. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  2. Transportation Improvement Program of the Mid-Ohio Regional Planning Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-20

    The MORPC Transportation Improvement program (TIP) is a staged, multi-year schedule of regionally significant transportation improvements in the Columbus area. The Federal-aid Highway Act of 1962 and the federal Urban Mass Transportation Act of 1964 ...

  3. 78 FR 43273 - Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Research and Innovative Technology Administration Intelligent... Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program Advisory Committee (ITS PAC) will hold a meeting on August 7..., development, and implementation of intelligent transportation systems. Through its sponsor, the ITS Joint...

  4. Infectious disease risk in asbestos abatement workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, John H; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Cegolon, Luca

    2012-08-16

    The current literature reports increased infectious disease occurrence in various construction occupations, as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality arising from employment.These observations should be expanded to asbestos abatement workers, as the abatement can create an environment favorable for bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Asbestos abatement work employs activities resulting in cuts, blisters and abrasions to the skin, work in a dirty environment and exposure to dust, mists and fumes.Furthermore, this population exhibits a high smoking rate which increases the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and respiratory infections.In addition, these workers also commonly employ respirators, which can accumulate dirt and debris magnifying exposure to microbes. Use of respirators and related types of personal protective equipment, especially if shared and in the close environment experienced by workers, may enhance communicability of these agents, including viruses. Abatement workers need to be provided with information on hazards and targeted by appropriate health education to reduce the infection risk. Epidemiological studies to investigate this risk in asbestos removers are recommended.

  5. 29 CFR 4207.3 - Abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... section, as appropriate. If a bond or escrow has been provided to the plan under § 4207.4, the plan sponsor shall send a copy of the notice to the bonding or escrow agent. (c) Effects of abatement. If the... applicable; (3) Any bonds furnished under § 4207.4 shall be cancelled and any amounts held in escrow under...

  6. TRANSPORT: a computer program for designing charged particle beam transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.L.; Rothacker, F.; Carey, D.C.; Iselin, C.

    1977-05-01

    TRANSPORT is a first- and second-order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of static-magnetic beam transport systems. It has been in existence in various evolutionary versions since 1963. The present version, described in the manual given, includes both first- and second-order fitting capabilities. TRANSPORT will step through the beam line, element by element, calculating the properties of the beam or other quantities, described below, where requested. Therefore one of the first elements is a specification of the phase space region occupied by the beam entering the system. Magnets and intervening spaces and other elements then follow in the sequence in which they occur in the beam line. Specifications of calculations to be done or of configurations other than normal are placed in the same sequence, at the point where their effect is to be made

  7. 23 CFR 450.216 - Development and content of the statewide transportation improvement program (STIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Programming § 450.216 Development and content of the statewide transportation improvement program (STIP). (a... Equity Bonus funds; (5) Emergency relief projects (except those involving substantial functional...

  8. TRECII: a computer program for transportation risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    A risk-based fault tree analysis method has been developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for analysis of nuclear fuel cycle operations. This methodology was developed for the Department of Energy (DOE) as a risk analysis tool for evaluating high level waste management systems. A computer package consisting of three programs was written at that time to assist in the performance of risk assessment: ACORN (draws fault trees), MFAULT (analyzes fault trees), and RAFT (calculates risk). This methodology evaluates release consequences and estimates the frequency of occurrence of these consequences. This document describes an additional risk calculating code which can be used in conjunction with two of the three codes for transportation risk assessment. TRECII modifies the definition of risk used in RAFT (prob. x release) to accommodate release consequences in terms of fatalities. Throughout this report risk shall be defined as probability times consequences (fatalities are one possible health effect consequence). This methodology has been applied to a variety of energy material transportation systems. Typically the material shipped has been radioactive, although some adaptation to fossil fuels has occurred. The approach is normally applied to truck or train transport systems with some adaptation to pipelines and aircraft. TRECII is designed to be used primarily in conjunction with MFAULT; however, with a moderate amount of effort by the user, it can be implemented independent of the risk analysis package developed at PNL. Code description and user instructions necessary for the implementation of the TRECII program are provided

  9. TRECII: a computer program for transportation risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    A risk-based fault tree analysis method has been developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for analysis of nuclear fuel cycle operations. This methodology was developed for the Department of Energy (DOE) as a risk analysis tool for evaluating high level waste management systems. A computer package consisting of three programs was written at that time to assist in the performance of risk assessment: ACORN (draws fault trees), MFAULT (analyzes fault trees), and RAFT (calculates risk). This methodology evaluates release consequences and estimates the frequency of occurrence of these consequences. This document describes an additional risk calculating code which can be used in conjunction with two of the three codes for transportation risk assessment. TRECII modifies the definition of risk used in RAFT (prob. x release) to accommodate release consequences in terms of fatalities. Throughout this report risk shall be defined as probability times consequences (fatalities are one possible health effect consequence). This methodology has been applied to a variety of energy material transportation systems. Typically the material shipped has been radioactive, although some adaptation to fossil fuels has occurred. The approach is normally applied to truck or train transport systems with some adaptation to pipelines and aircraft. TRECII is designed to be used primarily in conjunction with MFAULT; however, with a moderate amount of effort by the user, it can be implemented independent of the risk analysis package developed at PNL. Code description and user instructions necessary for the implementation of the TRECII program are provided.

  10. 25 CFR 170.403 - What IRR Program funds can be used for transportation planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What IRR Program funds can be used for transportation... Program Facilities Transportation Planning § 170.403 What IRR Program funds can be used for transportation planning? Funds as defined in 23 U.S.C. 204(j) are specifically reserved for a tribal government's...

  11. Review of the DOE Packaging and Transportation Safety Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, B.J.; Cece, J.M.

    1992-12-01

    This report documents the results of a year-long self-assessment of DOE-EH transportation and packaging safety activities. The self-assessment was initiated in September 1991 and concluded in August 1992. The self-assessment identified several significant issues, some of which have been resolved by EH. Also, improvements in the EH program were made during the course of the self-assessment. The report reflects the status of the EH transportation and packaging safety activities at the conclusion of the self-assessment. This report consists of several sections which discuss background, objectives and description of the review. Another section includes summary discussion and key conclusions. Appendix A, Issues, Observations and Recommendations, lists fifteen issues, including appropriate observations and recommendations. A Corrective Action Plan, which documents EH managements resolve to implement the agreed-upon recommendations, is included. The Corrective Action Plan reflects the status of completed and planned actions as of the date of the report

  12. National Program Plan Fuel Cells in Transportation. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    Fuel cells are being developed for application in the transportation sector because they will convert hydrogen to electric power at high efficiencies with virtually no detrimental environmental impact. To realize these energy, environmental, and economic benefits, developers of FCVs need to (1) reduce the size and weight of current designs, (2) develop fuel cell propulsion systems with rapid start-up and greater load-following capability, (3) reduce system cost and/or improve performance, and (4) utilize alternative fuels to a large extent. This Plan addresses the FCV-related requirements of the Energy Act, describing a development program for light- and heavy-duty propulsion systems, a basic R&D program on fuel cell technology that is separate from, but feeds into, the system development activities, and supporting analyses. Implementation of the Program Plan by means of industry/government alliances will accelerate the commercialization of FCVs. In the long term, the successful deployment of large numbers of FCVs promises to eliminate the transportation sector as a major contributor to the nation`s environmental problems.

  13. Regional decision-making and competitive funding : metropolitan planning organizations and the transportation investments generating economic recovery program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Transportation benefits and economic stimulus were behind the creation of the Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery (TIGER) program in 2009. New transportation funding programs exist in a landscape of other programs, and in addition ...

  14. Vienna international airport noise abatement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidelinde Jelinek-Nigitz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: On the topic of sustainable aviation a study was carried out to measure the difference between the actual change in air traffic noise and the airport’s residents’ perception of the noise change at Vienna International Airport. Therefore, a questionnaire was developed in cooperation with the airport and an online survey was conducted. Design/methodology/approach: For the survey of the opinion of the affected population of the surrounding communities, a web based online questionnaire is created and distributed via various channels including e-mail, and online forums. After the basic structure of the questionnaire had been defined, the questions were developed in cooperation with employees form the environmental department of VIE, who had a sustainable influence on the questions’ order and formulation. As the survey was supposed to be answered by residents around VIE. Findings: Results of the online study show that only parts of the participants are affected by air traffic noise at VIE. Even less experienced a significant change over the last five years. About one third of the participants stated that they are affected by air traffic noise in one way or another. The majority of these people live in Lower Austria, the federal state in which the airport is located. The participants obviously judge air traffic noise during day time more importantly than air traffic noise at night. Research limitations/implications: Due to the low number of returns, no statistically relevant conclusions can be drawn, the results of the survey can be used to make some general statements. Originality/value: Economic growth and deregulation lead to growing aircraft operations. Vienna International Airport with its approximately 260,000 flight movements per year is the biggest airport in Austria and a major hub in Europe. The combination of constantly growing air transport and the resulting noise exposure, as well as the steadily increasing

  15. Transportation Engineering Education and Outreach Program Designed for the Collegiate Level. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Beverly T.

    The Transportation Engineering Education and Outreach Program was organized to develop and disseminate educational and outreach materials that would encourage students in colleges, universities, and technical schools to select transportation as a career path and to attract more students into transportation graduate programs. The research…

  16. 75 FR 8526 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... 2105-AD64 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of..., U.S. Department of Transportation, Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance, 1200 New Jersey.... PART 40--PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS 0 Accordingly, the...

  17. Development of CANDU 6 Primary Heat Transport System Modeling Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Hyung-beom; Kim, Sung-min; Park, Joong-woo; Kim, Kwang-su; Ko, Dae-hack; Han, Bong-seob

    2007-01-01

    NUCIRC is a steady-state thermal-hydraulic code used for design and performance analyses of CANDU Heat Transport System. The code is used to build PHT model in Wolsong NPP and to calculate channel flow distribution. Wolsong NPP has to calculate channel flow distribution and quality of coolant at the ROH header after every outage by OPP (Operating Policy and Principal). PHT modeling work is time consuming which need a lot of operation experience and specialty. It is very difficult to build PHT model as plant operator in two weeks which is obligate for plant operation after every outage. That is why Wolsong NPP develop NUMODEL (NUcirc MODELing) with many-years experience and a know-how of using NUCIRC code. NUMODEL is computer program which is used to create PHT model based on utilizing NUCIRC code

  18. NURail Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Summer Program in Multimodal Freight Transportation Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    NURail hosted an REU Summer Program in Multimodal Freight Transportation Risk at the Rail Transportation and Engineering Center (RailTEC) in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC...

  19. Use of GIS technologies to facilitate the transportation project programming process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Transportation project programming in a transportation agency is a process of matching : potential projects with available funds to accomplish the agencys mission and goals of a : given period of time. Result of this process is normally a transpor...

  20. Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratory and Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Lyons

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this program was to quantify the emissions from heavy-duty vehicles operating on alternative fuels or advanced fuel blends, often with novel engine technology or aftertreatment. In the first year of the program West Virginia University (WVU) researchers determined that a transportable chassis dynamometer emissions measurement approach was required so that fleets of trucks and buses did not need to be ferried across the nation to a fixed facility. A Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory (Translab) was designed, constructed and verified. This laboratory consisted of a chassis dynamometer semi-trailer and an analytic trailer housing a full scale exhaust dilution tunnel and sampling system which mimicked closely the system described in the Code of Federal Regulations for engine certification. The Translab was first used to quantify emissions from natural gas and methanol fueled transit buses, and a second Translab unit was constructed to satisfy research demand. Subsequent emissions measurement was performed on trucks and buses using ethanol, Fischer-Tropsch fuel, and biodiesel. A medium-duty chassis dynamometer was also designed and constructed to facilitate research on delivery vehicles in the 10,000 to 20,000lb range. The Translab participated in major programs to evaluate low-sulfur diesel in conjunction with passively regenerating exhaust particulate filtration technology, and substantial reductions in particulate matter were recorded. The researchers also participated in programs to evaluate emissions from advanced natural gas engines with closed loop feedback control. These natural gas engines showed substantially reduced levels of oxides of nitrogen. For all of the trucks and buses characterized, the levels of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and particulate matter were quantified, and in many cases non-regulated species such as aldehydes were also sampled. Particle size was also

  1. Evaluating the economic benefits of nonmotorized transportation : case studies and methods for the nonmotorized transportation pilot program communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report examines potential methods for evaluating the economic benefits from nonmotorized transportation investments. The variety of potential economic benefits of bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure and programming investments discussed includ...

  2. Modeling for waste management associated with environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Li, Y P; Huang, G H; Zhang, J L

    2015-04-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment can generate significant amounts of pollutants, and thus pose a risk on human health. Besides, in MSW management, various uncertainties exist in the related costs, impact factors, and objectives, which can affect the optimization processes and the decision schemes generated. In this study, a life cycle assessment-based interval-parameter programming (LCA-IPP) method is developed for MSW management associated with environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty. The LCA-IPP can effectively examine the environmental consequences based on a number of environmental impact categories (i.e., greenhouse gas equivalent, acid gas emissions, and respiratory inorganics), through analyzing each life cycle stage and/or major contributing process related to various MSW management activities. It can also tackle uncertainties existed in the related costs, impact factors, and objectives and expressed as interval numbers. Then, the LCA-IPP method is applied to MSW management for the City of Beijing, the capital of China, where energy consumptions and six environmental parameters [i.e., CO2, CO, CH4, NOX, SO2, inhalable particle (PM10)] are used as systematic tool to quantify environmental releases in entire life cycle stage of waste collection, transportation, treatment, and disposal of. Results associated with system cost, environmental impact, and the related policy implication are generated and analyzed. Results can help identify desired alternatives for managing MSW flows, which has advantages in providing compromised schemes under an integrated consideration of economic efficiency and environmental impact under uncertainty.

  3. Emission abatement system utilizing particulate traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander

    2004-04-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  4. Collateral benefits and hidden hazards of soil arsenic during abatement assessment of residential lead hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elless, M.P.; Ferguson, B.W.; Bray, C.A.; Patch, S.; Mielke, H.; Blaylock, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Abatement of soil-lead hazards may also reduce human exposure to other soil toxins, thereby achieving significant collateral benefits that are not accounted for today. This proposition was tested with the specific case of soil-arsenic, where 1726 residential soil samples were collected and analyzed for lead and arsenic. The study found that these two toxins coexisted in most samples, but their concentrations were weakly correlated, reflecting the differing sources for each toxin. Collateral benefits of 9% would be achieved during abatement of the lead-contaminated soils having elevated arsenic concentrations. However, a hidden hazard of 16% was observed by overlooking elevated arsenic concentrations in soils having lead concentrations not requiring abatement. This study recommends that soil samples collected under HUD programs should be collected from areas of lead and arsenic deposition and tested for arsenic as well as lead, and that soil abatement decisions consider soil-arsenic as well as soil-lead guidelines. - Coexistence of arsenic at elevated concentrations with lead in residential soils undergoing lead hazard assessment is often overlooked, providing either collateral benefits or hidden hazards

  5. Transportation risk management : international practices for program development and project delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Managing transportation networks, including agency : management, program development, and project : delivery, is extremely complex and fraught with : uncertainty. Administrators, planners, and engineers : coordinate a multitude of organizational and ...

  6. Nonmotorized transportation pilot program : continued progress in developing walking and bicycling networks - May 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    In 2005, the United States Congress directed the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to develop the Nonmotorized Transportation Pilot Program (NTPP). The program provided over $25 million in contract authority to four pilot communities (Columbia, M...

  7. FY 1987 program summary document: Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    This document describes the Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM) Program as supported by the President's Fiscal Year (FY) 1987 Budget Request to Congress. It specifically addresses the program's organization, objectives, strategies, and plans for FY 1987

  8. Advanced Technologies for Transportation Research Program at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-30

    This report documents the results of the research program completed by the Advanced Technologies for Transportation Research Program (ATTRP) at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC) under Federal Transit Administration Cooperative Agreemen...

  9. 23 CFR 450.324 - Development and content of the transportation improvement program (TIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Programming § 450.324 Development and content of the transportation improvement program (TIP). (a) The MPO, in...) Emergency relief projects (except those involving substantial functional, locational, or capacity changes...

  10. Evaluating department of transportation's research program : a methodology and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    An effective research program within a transportation organization can be a valuable asset to accomplish the goals of the overall : mission. Determining whether a research program is pursuing relevant research projects and obtaining results for the s...

  11. NOx Abatement Pilot Plant 90-day test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCray, J.A.; Boardman, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are calcined in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to provide both volume reduction and a more stable waste form. Because a large component of the HLW is nitric acid, high levels of oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) are produced in the process and discharged to the environment via the calciner off-gas. The NO x abatement program is required by the new Fuel Processing Restoration (FPR) project permit to construct to reduce NO x emissions from the NWCF. Extensive research and development has indicated that the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process is the most promising technology for treating the NWCF off-gas. Pilot plant tests were performed to determine the compatibility of the SCR process with actual NWCF off-gas. Test results indicate that the SCR process is a viable method for abating the NO x from the NWCF off-gas. Reduction efficiencies over 95% can be obtained, with minimal amounts of ammonia slip, provided favorable operating conditions exist. Two reactors operated with series flow will provide optimum reduction capabilities. Typical operation should be performed with a first reactor stage gas space velocity of 20,000 hr -1 and an inlet temperature of 320 degrees C. The first stage exhaust NO x concentration will then dictate the parameter settings for the second stage. Operation should always strive for a peak reactor temperature of 520 degrees C in both reactors, with minimal NH 3 slip from the second reactor. Frequent fluctuations in the NWCF off-gas NO x concentration will require a full-scale reduction facility that is versatile and quick-responding. Sudden changes in NWCF off-gas NO x concentrations will require quick detection and immediate response to avoid reactor bed over-heating and/or excessive ammonia slip

  12. Initial flight and simulator evaluation of a head up display for standard and noise abatement visual approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourquin, K.; Palmer, E. A.; Cooper, G.; Gerdes, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary assessment was made of the adequacy of a simple head up display (HUD) for providing vertical guidance for flying noise abatement and standard visual approaches in a jet transport. The HUD featured gyro-stabilized approach angle scales which display the angle of declination to any point on the ground and a horizontal flight path bar which aids the pilot in his control of the aircraft flight path angle. Thirty-three standard and noise abatement approaches were flown in a Boeing 747 aircraft equipped with a head up display. The HUD was also simulated in a research simulator. The simulator was used to familiarize the pilots with the display and to determine the most suitable way to use the HUD for making high capture noise abatement approaches. Preliminary flight and simulator data are presented and problem areas that require further investigation are identified.

  13. Damage control productivity : an input damage abatement approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Carpentier, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper compares the value of the marginal product of three different pesticides from different specifications of the production function. The specifications are the output damage abatement specification proposed by Lichtenberg and Zilberman, a general input damage abatement specification and a

  14. Economic effects of noise abatement regulations on the helicopter industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Conner, Alexander Nicholson

    1982-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited This thesis discusses the economic effects of noise abatement regulations on the helicopter industry. Increased manufacturing and operating costs from noise abatement regulations on Sikorsky's S-75 helicopter are estimated. The effects on consumer utilization are also discussed. An appendix compares two independent research studies that used weight estimating relationships and cost estimating relationships to estimate...

  15. 76 FR 39368 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... promulgating migratory bird permit regulations for a permit to use raptors (birds of prey) in abatement activities. Abatement means the use of trained raptors to flush, scare (haze), or take birds or other.... The policy memorandum and conditions govern current administration of Federal Migratory Bird Special...

  16. 76 FR 67650 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... and suggestions on migratory bird permit regulations for a permit to use raptors (birds of prey) in abatement activities. Abatement means the use of trained raptors to flush, scare (haze), or take birds or... and held in ``temporary'' caging for extended periods of time, i.e., multiple birds held in a trailer...

  17. (COMEDIE program review and fission product transport in MHTGR reactor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stansfield, O.M.

    1990-03-15

    The subcontract between Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., and the CEA provides for the refurbishment of the high pressure COMEDIE test loop in the SILOE reactor and a series of experiments to characterize fission product lift-off from MHTGR heat exchanger surfaces under several depressurization accident scenarios. The data will contribute to the validation of models and codes used to predict fission product transport in the MHTGR. In the meeting at CEA headquarters in Paris the program schedule and preparation for the DCAA and Quality Assurance audits were discussed. Long-range interest in expanded participation in the gas-cooled reactor technology Umbrella Agreement was also expressed by the CEA. At the CENG, in Grenoble, technical details on the loop design, fabrication components, development of test procedures, and preparation for the DOE quality assurance (QA) audit in May were discussed. After significant delays in CY 1989 it appears that good progress is being made in CY 1990 and the first major test will be initiated by December. An extensive list of agreements and commitments was generated to facilitate the coordination and planning of future work. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Risk management for sulfur dioxide abatement under multiple uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, C.; Sun, W.; Tan, Q.; Liu, Y.; Lu, W. T.; Guo, H. C.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, interval-parameter programming, two-stage stochastic programming (TSP), and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) were incorporated into a general optimization framework, leading to an interval-parameter CVaR-based two-stage programming (ICTP) method. The ICTP method had several advantages: (i) its objective function simultaneously took expected cost and risk cost into consideration, and also used discrete random variables and discrete intervals to reflect uncertain properties; (ii) it quantitatively evaluated the right tail of distributions of random variables which could better calculate the risk of violated environmental standards; (iii) it was useful for helping decision makers to analyze the trade-offs between cost and risk; and (iv) it was effective to penalize the second-stage costs, as well as to capture the notion of risk in stochastic programming. The developed model was applied to sulfur dioxide abatement in an air quality management system. The results indicated that the ICTP method could be used for generating a series of air quality management schemes under different risk-aversion levels, for identifying desired air quality management strategies for decision makers, and for considering a proper balance between system economy and environmental quality.

  19. Computer program for calculation of complex chemical equilibrium compositions and applications. Supplement 1: Transport properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, S.; Mcbride, B.; Zeleznik, F. J.

    1984-01-01

    An addition to the computer program of NASA SP-273 is given that permits transport property calculations for the gaseous phase. Approximate mixture formulas are used to obtain viscosity and frozen thermal conductivity. Reaction thermal conductivity is obtained by the same method as in NASA TN D-7056. Transport properties for 154 gaseous species were selected for use with the program.

  20. The USERDA transport R and D program for environment and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisler, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration's (ERDA) transportation environment and safety research and development program for energy fuels and wastes, including background, current activities, and future plans. It will serve as an overview and integrating factor for the several related technical papers to be presented at this meeting which will enlarge on the detail of specific projects. The transportation R and D program provides for the environmental and safety review of transport systems and procedures; standards development; and package, vehicle, and systems testing for nuclear materials transport. A primary output of the program is the collection, processing, and dissemination of transport environment and safety data, shipment statistics, and technical information. Special transport projects which do not easily fit elsewhere in ERDA are usually done as a part of this program. (author)

  1. Cogeneration plant noise: Environmental impacts and abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Renzio, M.; Ciocca, B.

    1991-01-01

    In Italy, ever increasing attention to environmental problems has led to legislation requiring cogeneration plant owners to perform environmental impact assessments in order to determine plant conformity with pollution laws. This paper, based on an in-depth analysis of physics fundamentals relevant to the nature and effects of noise, examines the principal sources of noise in industrial cogeneration plants and the intensity and range of the effects of this noise on the local environment. A review is then made of the different methods of noise pollution abatement (e.g., heat and corrosion resistant silencers for gas turbines, varying types and thicknesses of acoustic insulation placed in specific locations) that can be effectively applied to cogeneration plant equipment and housing

  2. Final Rule on Ozone Transport Commission; Low Emission Vehicle Program for the Northeast Ozone Transport Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is announcing its final determination that reduction of new motor vehicle emissions throughout the Northeast Ozone Transport Region (OTR) is necessary to mitigate the effects of air pollution transport.

  3. Computer program for calculating thermodynamic and transport properties of fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Braon, A. K.; Peller, I. C.

    1975-01-01

    Computer code has been developed to provide thermodynamic and transport properties of liquid argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, fluorine, helium, methane, neon, nitrogen, oxygen, and parahydrogen. Equation of state and transport coefficients are updated and other fluids added as new material becomes available.

  4. Abatement strategies to reduce air pollution from transport in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kugler, U.; Theloke, J.; Thiruchittampalam, B.; Geftler, T.; Uzbasich, M.; Köble, R.; Friedrich, R.; Builtjes, P.; Gon, H.D. van der; Stern, R.; Jörb, W.; Dämmgen, U.; Appelhans, J.

    2010-01-01

    Large scale exceedances of PM10 and N02 ambient air limit values will continue in Germany despite the implementation of national and international policies. An integrated approach has therefore been developed to assess different cost-effective mitigation strategies for all

  5. The Intelligent Transportation Systems Public Safety Program : opportunities for technological advancement in detecting, responding, and recovering from community emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    During the summer and fall of 2000, a group of high level public safety and transportation officials was brought together by the US Department of Transportations (USDOT) Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program to consider the interaction bet...

  6. Surface transportation : clear federal role and criteria-based selection process could improve three national and regional infrastructure programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    To help meet increasing transportation demands, the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU) created three programs to invest federal funds in national and regional transportation infrastructur...

  7. 77 FR 10599 - Surface Transportation Project Delivery Pilot Program; Caltrans Audit Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... information gathering. Limited scope of Pilot Program project development activity. Caltrans has not operated... Program areas within the scope and the limitations of the audit, with the exceptions noted in the... Federal Highway Administration Surface Transportation Project Delivery Pilot Program; Caltrans Audit...

  8. Gearing up for transportation engineering summer program (GUTEP) : phase VIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    The numbers of female and minority students enrolled in engineering schools are increasing slowly, however there is still a relatively small percentage drawn to the field of transportation civil engineering. As a consequence, there is a need to educa...

  9. Neural network-genetic programming for sediment transport

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, A.K.; Deo, M.C.; SanilKumar, V.

    The planning, operation, design and maintenance of almost all harbour and coastal engineering facilities call for an estimation of the longshore sediment transport rate. This is currently and popularly done with the help of empirical equations...

  10. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials: summary program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    This document contains summaries or abstracts of reports presented at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials. Separate indexing has been performed on individual items presented at this conference. (DC)

  11. Transportation engineering advancement and mentoring program : phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The numbers of female and minority students enrolled in engineering schools are increasing slowly; however, there are still : relatively small percentages drawn to the field of transportation civil engineering. As a consequence, there is a need to ed...

  12. An eCertificate Program in Transportation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    In this project, researchers developed a proposal to extend the delivery of the recently developed : Graduate Certificate in Transportation Planning at Texas A&M University (TAMU) to a wider audience via : distance education (online or eCertificate)....

  13. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials: summary program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This document contains summaries or abstracts of reports presented at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials. Separate indexing has been performed on individual items presented at this conference

  14. Complementary programs for stochastic analysis of radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Hernandez, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The present programs will permit to analyze the risks using parametric and non parametric technic. The programs are presented in two groups: 1) variable estimation through indicator krigeaje and variable estimation by Cokrigeaje 2) variable simulation with multi gassiness stochastic model and non gassiness. This report includes new programs for the non parametric geostatistics

  15. Jejum Pré-abate em Frangos de Corte

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes,AA

    2001-01-01

    As condições ideais dos frangos de corte no momento do abate devem ser conhecidas a fim de possibilitar a produção de carne de excelente qualidade, uma vez que diversos fatores pré e pós-abate estão envolvidos na qualidade final. Em condições normais de abate e processamento, a retirada de ração é feita de 6 a 8 horas antes da apanha das aves, resultando em um período total de jejum de 8 a 12 horas antes do abate, para esvaziar o intestino e com isso minimizar a contaminação no abatedouro. A ...

  16. Synthesis report: program ecosystems, transport, pollutions, 1998 - 2001; Rapport de synthese: programme ecosystemes, transport, pollutions, 1998 - 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etchelecou, A.; Deletraz, G.; Elichegaray, Ch

    2001-04-01

    The ''Ecosystems, Transports, Pollution Program'' ETP Program, has been elaborated to evaluate the road pollution impacts on the mountain ecosystems. Four mountains valleys have been chosen: two in Alps (Chamonix and Maurienne) and two in Pyrenees (Biriatou and Vallee d'Aspe). This Program presents six objectives: the road traffic characterization, the pollutants emission estimation, the pollutants concentrations in the air, the pollutants dispersion according to relief, the relationships between pollutants emissions and bio-monitoring, the road pollution effects on nearby ecosystems. (A.L.B.)

  17. EXAMPLES OF TRAFFIC NOISE ABATEMENT IN THE CITY OF OSIJEK

    OpenAIRE

    Zagvozda, Martina; Dragovan, Hrvoje; Dragčević, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Noise pollution is a major environmental problem in urban spaces worldwide. The first step toward noise abatement is determining and evaluating noise levels in order to best prioritize and implement protective measures. The city of Osijek, as is obligated by law and the European Directive, has done this by creating a noise map. In this paper, we present measures for noise abatement, showing some of the measures implemented in Osijek based on their noise map, and review possible methods for ab...

  18. Sulfamethoxazole abatement by photo-Fenton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Oscar; Sans, Carme; Esplugas, Santiago

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the abatement of 200 mg L -1 sulfamethoxazole (SMX) solution by means of photo-Fenton process. Biodegradability of the treated solutions was followed by the ratio biochemical oxygen demand at five days/chemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 /COD) and toxicity by Microtox[reg] and inhibition tests. Experiments with different initial concentration of H 2 O 2 were carried out. The initial amount of Fe 2+ and pH of the solution were set at 10 mg L -1 and 2.8 respectively. The temperature of the reactor was kept constant in all the experiments (25 ± 0.8 deg. C). Photo-Fenton process is thought to be a successful treatment step to improve the biodegradability of wastewater containing SMX. The complete antibiotic removal was achieved for a H 2 O 2 dose over 300 mg L -1 . Biodegradability (BOD 5 /COD) rose from zero (SMX solution) to values higher than 0.3 (treated solutions). Toxicity and inhibition tests pointed out in the same direction: oxidized intermediates for initial H 2 O 2 dose over 300 mg L -1 showed no toxicity effects on pure bacteria and no inhibition on activated sludge activity

  19. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakespeare Maya, R.; Muguti, E.; Fenhann, J.; Morthorst, P.E.

    1992-08-01

    The UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) programme of Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies is intended to clarify the economic issues involved in assessing the costs of limiting emissions of greenhouse gases and to propose approaches to comparable costing studies. Phase 1 of the Zimbabwe country study describes the current energy situation in Zimbabwe related to the national economy, energy supply and demand and amounts of greenhouse gas emissions. Factors regarding the geography, (including a map illustrating the degree and character of land degradation by erosion) population, politics, international relations, land-use and management of the energy sector are dealt with in detail and the text is illustrated with data compiled from the study. It is estimated that Zimbabwe consumed 270.4 Tj of energy during 1988 and emitted 21.7 tonnes of carbon dioxide. An emission intensity of 80.2 tonnes/Tj for the whole economy and 63.6 tonnes/Tj for electric power generation alone was calculated. Forecasting for the year 2020 estimated carbon dioxide emission intensities of 73.5 tonnes/Tj for the whole economy and 43.7 tonnes for power generation. Net carbon dioxide emissions are predicted to be 30-42 tonnes during 2020. (AB)

  20. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maya, R.S.; Nziramasanga, N.; Muguti, E.; Fenhann, J.

    1993-10-01

    The aim was to assess options and cost of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (with emphasis on carbon dioxide) from human activity in Zimbabwe. A brief description of the country's economy and energy sector, policy and pricing and regulations is given and substantial data related to the country's economy, technology, energy consumption, emission and fuel prices are presented. The energy demand in households and for other sectors in Zimbabwe are assessed, and documented in the case of the former. The reference scenarios on energy demand and supply assess greenhouse gas emissions under conditions whereby the present economic growth trends predominate. Energy efficiency improvements are discussed. Abatement technology options are stated as afforestation for carbon sequestration, more efficient coal-fired industrial boilers, extended use of hydroelectricity, prepayment electric meters, minimum tillage, optimization of coal-fired tobacco barns, industrial power factor correction equipment, domestic biogas digesters, solar water heating systems, time switches in electric geysers, optimization of industrial furnaces, photovoltaic water pumps, production of ammonia from coal for fertilizing purposes, and recovery of coke oven gases for use in thermal power generation. (AB)

  1. Developing an interdisciplinary certificate program in transportation planning, phase 2 : the eCertificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This proposal extends the delivery of the recently developed graduate Certificate in Transportation : Planning to a wider audience through the establishment of an Executive Certificate Program by distance : (eCertificate). While the need for an inter...

  2. Quantifying the Emissions Benefits of the Transportation Efficiency and SOV Travel Reduction Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Some of the most effective investments and programs to reduce pollution from the transportation sector, such as land use planning, improved urban design and alternative transit infrastructure investment, have the greatest potential to achieve emissio...

  3. Environmental research program. 1992 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the Environmental Research Program is to contribute to the understanding of the formation, mitigation, transport, transformation, and ecological effects of energy-related pollutants on the environment. The program is multidisciplinary and includes fundamental and applied research in chemistry, physics, biology, engineering, and ecology. The program undertakes research and development in efficient and environmentally benign combustion, pollution abatement and destruction, and novel methods of detection and analysis of criteria and non-criteria pollutants. This diverse group investigates combustion, atmospheric processes, flue-gas chemistry, and ecological systems.

  4. 75 FR 13009 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 40 [Docket DOT-OST-2008-0088] RIN OST 2105-AD84 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs Correction In rule document 2010-3731 beginning on page 8528 in the issue of Thursday, February 25, 2010, make the...

  5. Economic aspects of air pollution abatement. Air pollution abatement recommended for economic reasons; Oekonomische Aspekte des Klimaschutzes. Gerade aus oekonomischer Sicht ist Klimaschutz sinnvoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasper, J.; Serger, H. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Mikrooekonomik

    2005-07-01

    Climate change is not only dangerous but also expensive. On the other hand, air pollution abatement measures are costly as well. Scientists of the Microeconomics Department investigated how air pollution abatement and cost efficiency can best be combined. (orig.)

  6. 77 FR 14462 - Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching Grants Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... opportunity for a public hearing has been provided to consider the economic, social, and environmental impacts...(5), a ``public agency'' is a State or agency of a State, a political subdivision of a State, or a tax-supported organization. Grant Award The FAA/AST intends to award Space Transportation...

  7. Electron ray tracing programs for gun design and beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1988-05-01

    Computer simulation of electron and ion sources is made by using a class of computer codes known as gun design programs. In this paper, we shall first list most of the necessary and some optional capabilities of such programs. Then we will briefly note specific codes and/or authors of codes with attention to specialized applications if any. There may be many more such programs in use than are treated here; we are only trying to cover a range of examples, not perform a comprehensive survey

  8. Planning the low-carbon city. Thoughts about abatement costs of mobility policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-02-01

    This publication proposes a summary of a research thesis which studied how to address urban climate policies from an economic point of view. This thesis shows that it is possible to develop tools for an economic analysis of local climate policies which would take urban peculiarities into account, notably the systemic aspect, and the importance of positive and negative externalities. The author puts forward the abatement cost which relies on a set of conventions, and is studied through a given analysis table. The application of a urban planning-transport model to the Grenoble area with different scenarios of urban development confirms that abatement costs of measures of reduction of greenhouse gases in the field of mobility are high in comparison with other values (building sector, Quinet value). However, taking co-benefits (or positive externalities) into account allows these costs to be reduced, that which makes investments in the transport sector more attractive. The author shows that reaching the factor 4 in urban transports seems difficult

  9. 77 FR 43136 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Philadelphia International Airport, Philadelphia, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... and Noise Abatement Act, hereinafter referred to as ``the Act'') and 14 Code of Federal Regulations... approval of such program. The submitted program contained twenty-two proposed actions for noise abatement... a noise abatement advisory committee; continue to develop the responsibilities of the Philadelphia...

  10. 76 FR 46352 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for San Diego International, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... approved. No program elements relating to new or revised flight procedures for noise abatement were... actions for noise abatement, noise mitigation, land use planning and program management on and off the... environmental analysis. Any new procedures proposed for noise abatement at SAN may not be implemented prior to a...

  11. Selection of organic chemicals for subsurface transport. Subsurface transport program interaction seminar series. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachara, J.M.; Wobber, F.J.

    1984-11-01

    Model compounds are finding increasing use in environmental research. These individual compounds are selected as surrogates of important contaminants present in energy/defense wastes and their leachates and are used separately or as mixtures in research to define the anticipated or ''model'' environmental behavior of key waste components and to probe important physicochemical mechanisms involved in transport and fate. A seminar was held in Germantown, Maryland, April 24-25, 1984 to discuss the nature of model organic compounds being used for subsurface transport research. The seminar included participants experienced in the fields of environmental chemistry, microbiology, geohydrology, biology, and analytic chemistry. The objectives of the seminar were two-fold: (1) to review the rationale for the selection of organic compounds adopted by research groups working on the subsurface transport of organics, and (2) to evaluate the use of individual compounds to bracket the behavior of compound classes and compound constructs to approximate the behavior of complex organic mixtures

  12. Optimum Repartition of Transport Capacities in the Logistic System using Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe BĂŞANU

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Transportations take an essential role in logistics, interconnecting the majority of processes and operations within logistic system. The efficient use of transportation capacity is a priority whose achievement can diminish logistic costs. This objective is today difficult to achieve due to increasing complexity of transportation monitoring and coordination. This complexity is determined by transportation number and diversity, by the volume and diversity of orders, by increasing the targets to be supplied.Dynamic programming represents a highly useful tool for logistic managers, considering that its specific techniques and methods are oriented toward solving problems related to resource optimum allocation and utilization.The present paper presents briefly a series of theoretical elements of dynamic programming applied in logistics, based on which it is shown a mathematic model to determine the optimum policy for transport capacity repartition for the area attached to a logistic centre, through three distribution centres.

  13. Solving the Single-Sink, Fixed-Charge, Multiple-Choice Transportation Problem by Dynamic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tue; Andersen, Kim Allan; Klose, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers a minimum-cost network flow problem in a bipartite graph with a single sink. The transportation costs exhibit a staircase cost structure because such types of transportation cost functions are often found in practice. We present a dynamic programming algorithm for solving...... this so-called single-sink, fixed-charge, multiple-choice transportation problem exactly. The method exploits heuristics and lower bounds to peg binary variables, improve bounds on flow variables, and reduce the state-space variable. In this way, the dynamic programming method is able to solve large...... instances with up to 10,000 nodes and 10 different transportation modes in a few seconds, much less time than required by a widely used mixed-integer programming solver and other methods proposed in the literature for this problem....

  14. Transportation energy strategy: Project {number_sign}5 of the Hawaii Energy Strategy Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This study was prepared for the State Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT) as part of the Hawaii Energy Strategy program. Authority and responsibility for energy planning activities, such as the Hawaii Energy Strategy, rests with the State Energy Resources Coordinator, who is the Director of DBEDT. Hawaii Energy Strategy Study No. 5, Transportation Energy Strategy Development, was prepared to: collect and synthesize information on the present and future use of energy in Hawaii`s transportation sector, examine the potential of energy conservation to affect future energy demand; analyze the possibility of satisfying a portion of the state`s future transportation energy demand through alternative fuels; and recommend a program targeting energy use in the state`s transportation sector to help achieve state goals. The analyses and conclusions of this report should be assessed in relation to the other Hawaii Energy Strategy Studies in developing a comprehensive state energy program. 56 figs., 87 tabs.

  15. Lei do Abate, guerra às drogas e defesa nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Raposo Pereira Feitosa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa o processo de criação e regulamentação da Lei do Abate no Brasil, que autoriza a derrubada em pleno voo de aeronaves civis suspeitas de envolvimento no tráfico de drogas. Investigam-se as relações entre a elaboração da Lei do Abate, a política de guerra às drogas propagada pelos EUA e as preocupações estratégicas dos militares brasileiros acerca da segurança da Região Amazônica. Como parte da contextualização da criação dos programas de interdição aérea baseados no abate de aeronaves, estudam-se as origens e as transformações das políticas antidrogas dos EUA desde a década de 1960 e o modelo de guerra às drogas (War on Drugs. Analisa-se também o processo de discussão parlamentar no Brasil sobre a Lei do Abate e os debates para a sua regulamentação. A pesquisa ocorreu por meio da análise de documentos produzidos pelos governos dos EUA (abertos e sigilosos reclassificados e do Brasil, da investigação dos anais do Congresso Nacional e do estudo de livros e artigos científicos nacionais e estrangeiros. Verifica-se que os programas que autorizam o abate nascem sob a justificativa do combate ao tráfico, mas se ligam às necessidades militares específicas de Peru e Colômbia. A lei brasileira surge para combater o transporte aéreo ilícito vinculado ao tráfico; contudo, sua origem e os debates posteriores para sua regulamentação submetem-se ao condicionamento dos temores e projetos militares em torno da defesa da soberania sobre a Amazônia brasileira.

  16. 75 FR 8528 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... OST 2105-AD84 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office... technical amendments to its drug and alcohol testing procedures to authorize employers to begin using the... INFORMATION CONTACT: For program issues, Bohdan Baczara, Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance...

  17. 75 FR 8524 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... 2105-AD67 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of... employers in the Department's drug and alcohol testing program to disclose to State commercial driver licensing (CDL) authorities the drug and alcohol violations of employees who hold CDLs and operate...

  18. 75 FR 26183 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... 2105-AE01 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of...: For program issues, Bohdan Baczara, Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance, 1200 New Jersey..., Alcohol abuse, Alcohol testing, Drug abuse, Drug testing, Laboratories, Reporting and recordkeeping...

  19. 78 FR 53712 - Surface Transportation Project Delivery Program Application Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... NPRM does not address other aspects of the Program, such as the auditing and monitoring requirements..., participate, and budget for the auditing and monitoring process. Furthermore, it is more common for MARAD and... include those that cross State boundaries and those that cross or are at international boundaries. Federal...

  20. Automotive Service Technician. Program CIP: 47.0604 - Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agee, Kelly, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  1. Aging Evaluation Programs for Jet Transport Aircraft Structural Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borivoj Galović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with criteria and procedures in evaluationof timely preventive maintenance recommendations that willsupport continued safe operation of aging jet transports untiltheir retirement from service. The active service life of commercialaircraft has increased in recent years as a result of low fuelcost, and increasing costs and delivery times for fleet replacements.Air transport industry consensus is that older jet transportswill continue in service despite anticipated substantial increasesin required maintenance. Design concepts, supportedby testing, have worked well due to the system that is used to ensureflying safety. Continuing structural integrity by inspectionand overhaul recommendation above the level contained inmaintenance and service bulletins is additional requirement, insuch cases. Airplane structural safety depends on the performanceof all participants in the system and the responsibility forsafety cannot be delegated to a single participant. This systemhas three major participants: the manufacturers who design,build and support airplanes in service, the airlines who operate,inspect and mantain airplanes and the airworthiness authoritieswho establish rules and regulations, approve the design andpromote airline maintenance performance.

  2. Program analysis methodology Office of Transportation Technologies: Quality Metrics final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-03-01

    "Quality Metrics" is the analytical process for measuring and estimating future energy, environmental and economic benefits of US DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE/RE) programs. This report focuses on the projected benefits of the programs currently supported by the Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT) within EE/RE. For analytical purposes, these various benefits are subdivided in terms of Planning Units which are related to the OTT program structure.

  3. Optimal investment and uncertainty on China's carbon emission abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingxi; Wang Mingrong; Wang Shouyang

    2012-01-01

    To realize environmentally sustainable development of the economy, China has decided to cut carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 40 to 45 percent by 2020, compared with the level in 2005. Based on China's emission abatement target, this paper first analyzes enterprises' emission reduction pathways in practical production processes, and then develops a framework to derive the magnitude of investment required in each pathway in order to achieve the designated target at the minimal cost. Under the framework, it is found that in the absence of policy guidance, individual enterprises' emission reduction investments deviate from the optimal level. To correct the distortion, an alternative option is provided. Meanwhile, to ensure achievement of the emission reduction target, a stochastic model is introduced to measure the uncertainty arising from emission abatement investment. The results show that an appropriate emission abatement ratio can reduce ‘the systemic risk’ of emission abatement. Finally, a simulation is given to demonstrate the results derived from the stochastic model. - Highlights: ► We formulate enterprises' emission–reduction pathways. ► We examine the cost-minimization problem with emission budget. ► A random model is established to measure the uncertainty of emission abatement. ► Several policy recommendations are proposed.

  4. Global forestry emission projections and abatement costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, H.; Gusti, M.; Mosnier, A.; Havlik, P.; Obersteiner, M.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we present forestry emission projections and associated Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACCs) for individual countries, based on economic, social and policy drivers. The activities cover deforestation, afforestation, and forestry management. The global model tools G4M and GLOBIOM, developed at IIASA, are applied. GLOBIOM uses global scenarios of population, diet, GDP and energy demand to inform G4M about future land and commodity prices and demand for bioenergy and timber. G4M projects emissions from afforestation, deforestation and management of existing forests. Mitigation measures are simulated by introducing a carbon tax. Mitigation activities like reducing deforestation or enhancing afforestation are not independent of each other. In contrast to existing forestry mitigation cost curves the presented MACCs are not developed for individual activities but total forest land management which makes the estimated potentials more realistic. In the assumed baseline gross deforestation drops globally from about 12 Mha in 2005 to below 10 Mha after 2015 and reach 0.5 Mha in 2050. Afforestation rates remain fairly constant at about 7 Mha annually. Although we observe a net area increase of global forest area after 2015 net emissions from deforestation and afforestation are positive until 2045 as the newly afforested areas accumulate carbon rather slowly. About 200 Mt CO2 per year in 2030 in Annex1 countries could be mitigated at a carbon price of 50 USD. The potential for forest management improvement is very similar. Above 200 USD the potential is clearly constrained for both options. In Non-Annex1 countries avoided deforestation can achieve about 1200 Mt CO2 per year at a price of 50 USD. The potential is less constrained compared to the potential in Annex1 countries, achieving a potential of 1800 Mt CO2 annually in 2030 at a price of 1000 USD. The potential from additional afforestation is rather limited due to high baseline afforestation rates assumed

  5. Integrated assessment of energy efficiency technologies and CO2 abatement cost curves in China’s road passenger car sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Bin-Bin; Fan, Ying; Xu, Jin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy efficiency technologies in Chinese passenger cars are classified in detail. • CO 2 -reduction potential and abatement cost are analyzed for technology bundles. • Marginal abatement cost curve is established from both micro and macro perspectives. • Spark ignition, diesel and hybrid electric vehicle paths should be firstly promoted. • Technology promotion should start from the area of taxies and high-performance cars. - Abstract: Road transport is one of the main sources of energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. It is essential to conserve energy and reduce emissions by promoting energy efficiency technologies (EETs) in this sector. This study first identifies EETs for the passenger cars and then classifies them into various technology bundles. It then analyzes the CO 2 -reduction potentials and emissions abatement costs of 55 type-path, 246 type-path-technology, and 465 type-path-subtechnology bundles from micro-vehicular and macro-industrial perspectives during 2010–2030, based on which marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve for China’s road passenger car sector is established. Results show that the cumulative CO 2 -reduction potential of EETs on passenger cars in China during 2010–2030 is about 2698.8 Mt, but only 4% is cost-effective. The EETs with low emissions abatement costs are mainly available in the spark ignition (SI), diesel, and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) paths on the taxis and high-performance cars, and also in the transmission, vehicle body and SI technologies on the private cars, which could be promoted at present. The technologies with large emissions reduction potential are mainly available in the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and electric vehicle (EV) paths, which would be the main channels for reducing carbon emissions in the long run.

  6. How to encourage road noise abatement in Nordic municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2008-01-01

    Road noise nuisance is a huge problem in the Nordic countries, and it seems diffi cult for Nordic countries to meet national targets for its reduction. One reason for this is the lack of municipal activities in the fi eld. Th us the research question that this article seeks to answer in relation...... to already existing residential areas and roads is: which conditions in the municipal organisation and its institutional environment contribute to making municipalities provide and implement noise abatement measures? Th e assumption is that three factors infl uence how the municipalities prioritize among...... political issues: the municipal organisation itself, the local institutional environment (citizens, business and NGOs), and the state and trans-municipal networks. A study of the anatomy of municipal road noise abatement policy shows that conditions for implementing road noise abatement in existing...

  7. PATH: a lumped-element beam-transport simulation program with space charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    PATH is a group of computer programs for simulating charged-particle beam-transport systems. It was developed for evaluating the effects of some aberrations without a time-consuming integration of trajectories through the system. The beam-transport portion of PATH is derived from the well-known program, DECAY TURTLE. PATH contains all features available in DECAY TURTLE (including the input format) plus additional features such as a more flexible random-ray generator, longitudinal phase space, some additional beamline elements, and space-charge routines. One of the programs also provides a simulation of an Alvarez linear accelerator. The programs, originally written for a CDC 7600 computer system, also are available on a VAX-VMS system. All of the programs are interactive with input prompting for ease of use

  8. 40 CFR 745.327 - State or Indian Tribal lead-based paint compliance and enforcement programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-based paint program. Indian Tribes are not required to exercise criminal enforcement jurisdiction as a... discipline (e.g., abatement supervisor, and/or abatement worker, and/or lead-based paint inspector, and/or...

  9. Behind the wheel: community consultation informs adaptation of safe-transport program for older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxon, Kristy; Keay, Lisa

    2015-12-09

    Safe-transport is important to well-being in later life but balancing safety and independence for older drivers can be challenging. While self-regulation is a promising tool to promote road safety, more research is required to optimise programs. Qualitative research was used to inform the choice and adaptation of a safe-transport education program for older drivers. Three focus groups were conducted with older drivers living in northwest Sydney to explore four key areas related to driving in later life including aged-based licensing, stopping or limiting driving, barriers to driving cessation and alternative modes of transportation. Data were analysed using content analysis. Four categories emerged from the data; bad press for older drivers, COMPETENCE not age, call for fairness in licensing regulations, and hanging up the keys: It's complicated! Two key issues being (1) older drivers wanted to drive for as long as possible but (2) were not prepared for driving cessation; guided the choice and adaption of the Knowledge Enhances Your Safety (KEYS) program. This program was adapted for the Australian context and focus group findings raised the need for practical solutions, including transport alternatives, to be added. Targeted messages were developed from the data using the Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM), allowing the education to be tailored to the individual's stage of behaviour change. Adapting our program based on insights gained from community consultation should ensure the program is sensitive to the needs, skills and preferences of older drivers.

  10. Update to the Fissile Materials Disposition program SST/SGT transportation estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Didlake

    1999-01-01

    This report is an update to ''Fissile Materials Disposition Program SST/SGT Transportation Estimation,'' SAND98-8244, June 1998. The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition requested this update as a basis for providing the public with an updated estimation of the number of transportation loads, load miles, and costs associated with the preferred alternative in the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)

  11. Economic incentives for optimal sulfur abatement in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halkos, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews and develops theoretical and empirical representations of economic incentives for implementing pollution control strategies. A number of alternative economic instruments exist, which, if applied internationally, could encourage implementation of abatement strategies by counties. The article considers means of persuading countries to minimize abatement costs. A comparison between the pollution targets achieved by the imposition of a uniform charge rate and by differentiated charge rates is discussed, and empirical results are provided with associated conclusions. These results are compared with a simple standards setting in the form of critical loads, in order to assess empirically if economic instruments work better than regulations

  12. Subsurface transport with emphasis on hydrology: research needs. Subsurface Transport Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachara, J.M.; Wildung, R.E.

    1982-03-01

    A number of energy technologies presently in operation or under development generate solid wastes in large quantities as a major byproduct. These wastes will, for the most part, be disposed to the ground in landfills or inactive mine sites. Although the waste materials differ significantly among technologies, most contain residual, water-soluble chemical components which are of ecological and human health concern. Thus, in ground disposal may have a significant long-term impact on water supplies and human health if not properly conducted. With the growing magnitude of solid waste disposal operations, it becomes imperative to establish common ground between technologies such that research in this complex area can be efficiently managed to benefit a variety of users. This report develops the concept of multitechnology or generic research in subsurface transport with emphasis on hydrogeochemistry. Initially, a generic research approach was developed independent of waste characteristics. This approach both identified and prioritized the research information or experimentation and data management tools (models) required to resolve major technical concerns for in ground disposal. Waste characteristics were then evaluated to identify the common, cross-technology information needs. This evaluation indicated that solid wastes from energy producing technologies have physiocochemical properties in common which serve as a useful basis for identification of fundamental, generic research needs. Priority research projects are suggested for addressing contaminant identification, solubilization, transformation and transport. 38 references, 3 tables

  13. The New England Transportation Consortium (NETC) : a summary of the multistate cooperative research program between 1994 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The six New England state transportation agencies are cooperating with the six New England state land-grant : universities and the Federal Highway Administration in a program of transportation research. This joint venture is : called the New Engla...

  14. Progress and applications of MCAM. Monte Carlo automatic modeling program for particle transport simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guozhong; Zhang Junjun; Xiong Jian

    2010-01-01

    MCAM (Monte Carlo Automatic Modeling program for particle transport simulation) was developed by FDS Team as a CAD based bi-directional interface program between general CAD systems and Monte Carlo particle transport simulation codes. The physics and material modeling and void space modeling functions were improved and the free form surfaces processing function was developed recently. The applications to the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) building model and FFHR (Force Free Helical Reactor) model have demonstrated the feasibility, effectiveness and maturity of MCAM latest version for nuclear applications with complex geometry. (author)

  15. Recovery Act - Sustainable Transportation: Advanced Electric Drive Vehicle Education Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caille, Gary

    2013-12-13

    The collective goals of this effort include: 1) reach all facets of this society with education regarding electric vehicles (EV) and plug–in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), 2) prepare a workforce to service these advanced vehicles, 3) create web–based learning at an unparalleled level, 4) educate secondary school students to prepare for their future and 5) train the next generation of professional engineers regarding electric vehicles. The Team provided an integrated approach combining secondary schools, community colleges, four–year colleges and community outreach to provide a consistent message (Figure 1). Colorado State University Ventures (CSUV), as the prime contractor, plays a key program management and co–ordination role. CSUV is an affiliate of Colorado State University (CSU) and is a separate 501(c)(3) company. The Team consists of CSUV acting as the prime contractor subcontracted to Arapahoe Community College (ACC), CSU, Motion Reality Inc. (MRI), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) and Ricardo. Collaborators are Douglas County Educational Foundation/School District and Gooru (www.goorulearning.org), a nonprofit web–based learning resource and Google spin–off.

  16. Manejo pré-abate e bem-estar dos suínos em frigoríficos brasileiros

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Aurélia Pereira [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar um levantamento em quatro frigoríficos comerciais da Região Sul do Brasil, com a finalidade de fornecer um panorama das condições do manejo pré-abate visando o bem-estar animal. A avaliação das condições do manejo pré-abate foi realizada mediante um questionário fornecido aos motoristas responsáveis pelo transporte dos suínos até o frigorífico. Neste questionário foram obtidas informações referentes às condições do acesso à propriedade, do embarcad...

  17. Modular, object-oriented redesign of a large-scale Monte Carlo neutron transport program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskowitz, B.S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the modular, object-oriented redesign of a large-scale Monte Carlo neutron transport program. This effort represents a complete 'white sheet of paper' rewrite of the code. In this paper, the motivation driving this project, the design objectives for the new version of the program, and the design choices and their consequences will be discussed. The design itself will also be described, including the important subsystems as well as the key classes within those subsystems

  18. 75 FR 39614 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Modesto City-County Airport, Modesto, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... under the provisions of Title I of the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act, as amended, (Pub. L. 96..., 2010. Under section 104(a) of the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act of 1979, as amended (herein... Compatibility Program recommended two noise abatement elements, four land use management elements and one...

  19. Marginal abatement cost curves for NOx that account for ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their respective cost effectiveness. Alternative measures, such as renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching (RE/EE/FS), are not considered as it is difficult to quantify their abatement potential. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of an energy system model to develop a MACC for nitrogen oxides (NOx) that incorporates both end-of-pipe controls and these alternative measures. We decompose the MACC by sector, and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of RE/EE/FS relative to end-of-pipe controls. RE/EE/FS are shown to produce considerable emission reductions after end-of-pipe controls have been exhausted. Furthermore, some RE/EE/FS are shown to be cost-competitive with end-of-pipe controls. Demonstrate how the MARKAL energy system model can be used to evaluate the potential role of renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching (RE/EE/FS) in achieving NOx reductions. For this particular analysis, we show that RE/EE/FSs are able to increase the quantity of NOx reductions available for a particular marginal cost (ranging from $5k per ton to $40k per ton) by approximately 50%.

  20. Noise levels near streets, effectiveness and cost abatement measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J.

    1980-01-01

    During the years 1975-1978, research was carried concerning the current noise levels near streets, the annoyance felt by the population, possible noise abatement measures for these streets, and the economic impact of such measures. The results of the research are summarized.

  1. Gas Flaring, Environmental Pollution and Abatement Measures in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The environmental impact of gas flaring on the oil bearing enclave of the Niger Delta, Nigeria, was examined with a view to evaluating the abatement measures put in place by the Federal government of Nigeria and the oil producing companies. Primary and secondary information and data were analyzed during the study.

  2. Efficient air pollution abatement for regions in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, J.L. [National Chiao Tung University, Taipei (Taiwan). Inst. for Business & Management

    2006-08-15

    This paper computes the efficient air pollution abatement ratios of 30 regions in China during the period 1996-2002. Three air emissions (SO{sub 2}, soot and dust) are considered. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) with a single output (real GDP) and five inputs (labour, real capital stock, SO{sub 2}, dust and soot emissions) is used to compute the target emissions of each region for each year. The efficient abatement ratios of each region in each year are then obtained by dividing the target emission by the actual emission of an air pollutant. Our major findings are: 1. The eastern area is the most efficient region with respect to SO{sub 2}, soot and dust emissions in every year during the research period. 2. The eastern, central and western areas have the lowest, medium and highest 1996-2002 average target abatement ratios of SO, (22.09%, 42.23% and 57.58%), soot (26.19%, 56.34% and 66.37%) and dust (15.20%, 29.09% and 40.59%), respectively. 3. These results are consistent with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) theory, whereby a more developed area will use environmental goods more efficiently than a less developed area. 4. Compared to dust emission, the average target abatement ratios for SO{sub 2} and soot emissions (as direct outcomes of burning coal) are relatively much higher for all three areas.

  3. 26 CFR 1.507-9 - Abatement of taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Abatement of taxes. 1.507-9 Section 1.507-9 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... calendar months, or (2) Effective assurance is given to the Commissioner in accordance with paragraphs (b...

  4. Marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating both controls and alternative measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the efficient marginal abatement cost level for any aggregate emissions target when a least cost approach is implemented. In order for it to represent the efficient MAC level, all abatement opportunities across all sectors and loc...

  5. A Hybrid Dynamic Programming for Solving Fixed Cost Transportation with Discounted Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Ghassemi Tari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of allocating different types of vehicles for transporting a set of products from a manufacturer to its depots/cross docks, in an existing transportation network, to minimize the total transportation costs, is considered. The distribution network involves a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles, with a variable transportation cost and a fixed cost in which a discount mechanism is applied on the fixed part of the transportation costs. It is assumed that the number of available vehicles is limited for some types. A mathematical programming model in the form of the discrete nonlinear optimization model is proposed. A hybrid dynamic programming algorithm is developed for finding the optimal solution. To increase the computational efficiency of the solution algorithm, several concepts and routines, such as the imbedded state routine, surrogate constraint concept, and bounding schemes, are incorporated in the dynamic programming algorithm. A real world case problem is selected and solved by the proposed solution algorithm, and the optimal solution is obtained.

  6. Understanding the Geographies of Transport and Cultural Heritage: Comparing Two Urban Development Programs in Oslo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Tønnesen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper elaborates on how policies and strategies for sustainable urban development can be understood and shows how development programs can be strategically important and flexible tools in the creation of the modern city. We examine two typical contemporary cases for urban development, inner city/waterfront and modernistic suburbs, using the two areas of transport and cultural heritage as prisms to explore divergences or convergences between the two programs, and ask: How come two urban development programs within the same city turn out so differently? By comparing these programs, urban development trends relating to entrepreneurialism are highlighted. There are clear differences between the two programs under study, and the paper tries to grasp their internal logic in order to shed light on their strengths and weaknesses. While the city center program has much to do with realizing the commercial potential of the area and strengthening sustainable transport through large-scale changes in infrastructure, such means seem to be outside the scope of the suburban program. Meanwhile, cultural heritage is interwoven with entrepreneurial projection-strategies in the city center, whereas heritage sites and projects are used more as a means for social cohesion in the suburb. The paper concludes that the programs vary in the two policy fields in accordance with the institutionalized and anticipated potential of the urban areas in question.

  7. 77 FR 26471 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ...). Consumption of food products (e.g., poppy seeds) must not be considered a legitimate medical explanation for... 2105-AE14 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: 6-acetylmorphine... Department is amending certain provisions of its drug testing procedures for 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM), a...

  8. 78 FR 13143 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Small Business Transportation Resource Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ...) transportation-related trade associations; (3) colleges and universities; (4) community colleges or; (5) chambers... businesses to take advantage of those business opportunities; and to make arrangements to carry out the above...-published marketing materials, such as Short Term Lending Program (STLP) Information, Bonding Education...

  9. 78 FR 26684 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Small Business Transportation Resource Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ...) transportation-related trade associations; (3) colleges and universities; (4) community colleges or; (5) chambers... disadvantaged businesses to take advantage of those business opportunities; and to make arrangements to carry... (STLP) Information, Bonding Education Program (BEP) information, SBTRC brochures and literature...

  10. 78 FR 41817 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Small Business Transportation Resource Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-11

    ...) transportation-related trade associations; (3) colleges and universities; (4) community colleges or; (5) chambers... businesses to take advantage of those business opportunities; and to make arrangements to carry out the above...-published marketing materials, such as Short Term Lending Program (STLP) Information, Bonding Education...

  11. 77 FR 67439 - Fiscal Year 2013 Public Transportation on Indian Reservations Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Overview II. Questions on Proposed Tribal Transit Formula Program.... Overview Section 3013 of Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for... funds? h. In some instances tribal operators may serve multiple reservations. Should FTA combine poverty...

  12. DIAMANT2 - A multigroup neutron transport program for triangular and hexagonal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuefner, K.; Heger, R.

    1980-09-01

    DIAMANT2 evolved out of the DIAMANT-code. DIAMANT2 solves the multigroup neutron transport equation in planar geometry using the Ssub(N) method. Spatial discretization is accomplished by taking finite differences on a meshgrid composed of equilateral triangles. This report contains a detailed documentation of the program and the input description. (orig./HJ) [de

  13. FMCEIR: a Monte Carlo program for solving the stationary neutron and gamma transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taormina, A.

    1978-05-01

    FMCEIR is a three-dimensional Monte Carlo program for solving the stationary neutron and gamma transport equation. It is used to study the problem of neutron and gamma streaming in the GCFR and HHT reactor channels. (G.T.H.)

  14. An evaluation of the Cray T3D programming paradigms in atmospheric chemistry/transport models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Blom (Joke); C. Keßler (Carsten); J.G. Verwer (Jan)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we compare the different programming paradigms available on the Cray T3D for the implementation of a 3D prototype of an Atmospheric Chemistry/Transport Model. We discuss the amount of work needed to convert existing codes to the T3D and the portability of the resulting

  15. 78 FR 59751 - Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) Program; Agency Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... serve as the applicant (public-sector agency or private-sector firm),whether the applicant the same... Office of the Secretary Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) Program... Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to renew an Information Collection Request in accordance with the...

  16. 78 FR 76187 - Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) Program; Agency Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... private-sector firm),whether the applicant the same entity as the borrower (detail project team members... Office of the Secretary Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) Program... the publication of its 60-day notice of proposed information collection. As identified in the 60-day...

  17. 75 FR 38422 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... 2105-AD84 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of..., Bohdan Baczara, Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington..., Alcohol abuse, Alcohol testing, Drug abuse, Drug testing, Laboratories, Reporting and recordkeeping...

  18. 75 FR 59105 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: Federal Drug Testing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... 2105-AE03 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: Federal Drug..., Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590; 202... Part 40 Administrative practice and procedures, Alcohol abuse, Alcohol testing, Drug abuse, Drug...

  19. 75 FR 5722 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... 2105-AD95 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of..., Senior Policy Advisor (S- 1), Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance, 1200 New Jersey Ave., SE..., Alcohol testing, Drug abuse, Drug testing, Laboratories, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Safety...

  20. 75 FR 49850 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... 2105-AD95 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of... Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590; telephone... methodology upon which DOT can rely in making its drug and alcohol testing regulations; we follow the HHS...

  1. Development Of A Transportation And Land Use Public Policy Education Program For Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    This literature review serves as a foundation for a transportation and land use public policy education program for Iowa. The objective of the review is to summarize relevant research findings, to review the state of practice and policies of other st...

  2. Research and Development Program for transportation packagings at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Sorenson, K.B.

    1995-01-01

    This document contains information about the research and development programs dealing with waste transport at Sandia National Laboratories. This paper discusses topics such as: Why new packaging is needed; analytical methodologies and design codes;evaluation of packaging components; materials characterization; creative packaging concepts; packaging engineering and analysis; testing; and certification support

  3. 78 FR 16030 - Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... of Meeting AGENCY: ITS Joint Program Office, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S... Capitol Hill/Navy Yard Hotel, 140 L Street SE., Washington, DC 20003. The ITS PAC, established under... to: U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, ITS Joint...

  4. Abatement of tetrafluoromethane by chemical absorption with molten aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhongning; Cao, Dao; Tang, Wei; Hu, Xianwei; Wang, Zhaowen

    2017-12-15

    Chemical absorption with molten aluminum to abate tetrafluoromethane (CF 4 ) was investigated in this paper. The experiments were conducted at a series of different temperatures of 973 K, 1003 K, 1103 K, and 1188 K and the abatement rate of CF 4 was calculated. It was found that CF 4 can be adsorbed firstly and then react with molten aluminum automatically. The initial abatement rate of CF 4 in molten aluminum was 3.10 × 10 -2  mol·m -3 ·s -1 at 973 K, while it reached its maximum value of 1.08 × 10 -1  mol·m -3 ·s -1 at the temperature of 1103 K. The highest abatement efficiency was 48.4%, reached at 1003 K. Higher temperatures up to 1188 K did not affect the abatement efficiency, however, they accelerated slightly the initial reaction rate. The products of the chemical absorption are white solid AlF 3 and black graphite powder identified by XRD and SEM-EDS analysis. Due to density differences, solid AlF 3 and graphite powder in the product tend to accumulate on the top of molten aluminum where they form two separate layers. This makes them recover more easily. The gas-liquid reaction process between CF 4 and molten aluminum is accorded with the two-film theory model, diffusion process is considered to be the control step of the whole process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The high speed civil transport and NASA's High Speed Research (HSR) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    Ongoing studies being conducted not only in this country but in Europe and Asia suggest that a second generation supersonic transport, or High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), could become an important part of the 21st century international air transportation system. However, major environmental compatibility and economic viability issues must be resolved if the HSCT is to become a reality. This talk will overview the NASA High-Speed Research (HSR) program which is aimed at providing the U.S. industry with a technology base to allow them to consider launching an HSCT program early in the next century. The talk will also discuss some of the comparable activities going on within Europe and Japan.

  6. BEAMR: An interactive graphic computer program for design of charged particle beam transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, R. F.; Giamati, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program for a PDP-15 is presented which calculates, to first order, the characteristics of charged-particle beam as it is transported through a sequence of focusing and bending magnets. The maximum dimensions of the beam envelope normal to the transport system axis are continuously plotted on an oscilloscope as a function of distance along the axis. Provision is made to iterate the calculation by changing the types of magnets, their positions, and their field strengths. The program is especially useful for transport system design studies because of the ease and rapidity of altering parameters from panel switches. A typical calculation for a system with eight elements is completed in less than 10 seconds. An IBM 7094 version containing more-detailed printed output but no oscilloscope display is also presented.

  7. Development of a Computer Program (CASK) for the Analysis of Logistics and Transportation Cost of the Spent Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Jeong-Hun; Choi, Heui-Joo; Cho, Dong-Keun; Kim, Seong-Ki; Lee, Jong-Youl; Choi, Jong-Won

    2008-07-01

    The cost for the spent fuel management includes the costs for the interim storage, the transportation, and the permanent disposal of the spent fuels. The CASK(Cost and logistics Analysis program for Spent fuel transportation in Korea) program is developed to analyze logistics and transportation cost of the spent fuels. And the total amount of PWR spent fuels stored in four nuclear plant sites, a centralized interim storage facility near coast and a permanent disposal facility near the interim storage facility are considered in this program. The CASK program is developed by using Visual Basic language and coupled with an excel sheet. The excel sheet shows a change of logistics and transportation cost. Also transportation unit cost is easily changed in the excel sheet. The scopes of the report are explanation of parameters in the CASK program and a preliminary calculation. We have developed the CASK version 1.0 so far, and will update its parameters in transportation cost and transportation scenario. Also, we will incorporate it into the program which is used for the projection of spent fuels from the nuclear power plants. Finally, it is expected that the CASK program could be a part of the cost estimation tools which are under development at KAERI. And this program will be a very useful tool for the establishment of transportation scenario and transportation cost in Korean situations

  8. Development of a Computer Program (CASK) for the Analysis of Logistics and Transportation Cost of the Spent Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jeong-Hun; Choi, Heui-Joo; Cho, Dong-Keun; Kim, Seong-Ki; Lee, Jong-Youl; Choi, Jong-Won

    2008-07-15

    The cost for the spent fuel management includes the costs for the interim storage, the transportation, and the permanent disposal of the spent fuels. The CASK(Cost and logistics Analysis program for Spent fuel transportation in Korea) program is developed to analyze logistics and transportation cost of the spent fuels. And the total amount of PWR spent fuels stored in four nuclear plant sites, a centralized interim storage facility near coast and a permanent disposal facility near the interim storage facility are considered in this program. The CASK program is developed by using Visual Basic language and coupled with an excel sheet. The excel sheet shows a change of logistics and transportation cost. Also transportation unit cost is easily changed in the excel sheet. The scopes of the report are explanation of parameters in the CASK program and a preliminary calculation. We have developed the CASK version 1.0 so far, and will update its parameters in transportation cost and transportation scenario. Also, we will incorporate it into the program which is used for the projection of spent fuels from the nuclear power plants. Finally, it is expected that the CASK program could be a part of the cost estimation tools which are under development at KAERI. And this program will be a very useful tool for the establishment of transportation scenario and transportation cost in Korean situations.

  9. LLNL SFA FY11 Program Management and Performance Report: Environmental Transport of Plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersting, Annie B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Powell, Brian A. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Moser, Duane [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Carroll, Susan A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Maxwell, Robert [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dai, Zurong [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Williams, Ross [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tumey, Scott [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhao, Pihong [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tinnacher, Ruth [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Huang, Patrick [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kips, Ruth [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mason, Harris [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Begg, James [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fisher, Jen [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Simpkins, Laura [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Zimmerman, Trevor [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Jablonski, Joseph [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Snow, Matthew [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The major challenge in predicting the mobility and transport of plutonium (Pu) is determining the dominant geochemical processes that control its behavior in the subsurface. The reaction chemistry of Pu (i.e., aqueous speciation, solubility, sorptivity, redox chemistry, and affinity for colloidal particles, both abiotic and microbially mediated) is particularly complicated. It is generally thought that due to its low solubility and high sorptivity, Pu migration in the environment occurs only when facilitated by transport on particulate matter (i.e., colloidal particles). Despite the recognized importance of colloid-facilitated transport of Pu, very little is known about the geochemical and biochemical mechanisms controlling Pu-colloid formation and association, particularly at femtomolar Pu concentrations observed at DOE sites. This 5-year program is designed to test the important biogeochemical processes governing colloid-facilitated Pu transport in the field.

  10. Forecasting of the radioactive material transport demand for the Brazilian Nuclear Program and the security aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meldonian, Nelson Leon

    1979-01-01

    In the nuclear fuel cycle, a lot of radioactive materials are produced. These radioactive materials must be transported in order to promote the integration of the fuel cycle units. Considerations about the transport characteristics of radioactive material were made for each section of the fuel cycle. These considerations were based on the experience of several countries and in accordance with the International Atomic Energy Agency regulations. A prediction of transport demands for the Brazilian Nuclear Program until year 2.010 was made. The prediction refers mainly to the quantity of radioactive material produced in each section of the cycle the quantity of vehicles needed for the transport of these materials. Several safety aspects were considered specially, the accidents predictions for years 2.000 and 2.010. The accident probability in Brazilian railroads and highways was compared with that of the USA. (author)

  11. Energy balance and GHG-abatement cost of cassava utilization for fuel ethanol in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan Thi; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Garivait, Savitri

    2007-01-01

    Since 2001, in order to enhance ethanol's cost competitiveness with gasoline, the Thai government has approved the exemption of excise tax imposed on ethanol, controlling the retail price of gasohol (a mixture of ethanol and gasoline at a ratio of 1:9) to be less than that of octane 95 gasoline, within a range not exceeding 1.5 baht a litre. The policy to promote ethanol for transport is being supported by its positive effects on energy security and climate change mitigation. An analysis of energy, greenhouse gas (GHG) balances and GHG abatement cost was done to evaluate fuel ethanol produced from cassava in Thailand. Positive energy balance of 22.4 MJ/L and net avoided GHG emission of 1.6 kg CO 2 eq./L found for cassava-based ethanol (CE) proved that it would be a good substitute for gasoline, effective in fossil energy saving and GHG reduction. With a GHG abatement cost of US$99 per tonne of CO 2 , CE is rather less cost effective than the many other climate strategies relevant to Thailand in the short term. Opportunities for improvements are discussed to make CE a reasonable option for national climate policy

  12. 76 FR 44394 - Public Transportation on Indian Reservations Program; Tribal Transit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... tribe? iii. Will the project improve access to important destinations and services? iv. Are there other... provide other services or manage other programs; and v. Project funds are used in coordination with other... program eligibility information for FY 2011 projects. This announcement is available on the FTA Web site...

  13. 75 FR 27114 - Public Transportation on Indian Reservations Program; Tribal Transit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    .... Will the project improve access to important destinations and services? d. Are there other qualitative... or manage other programs; and e. Project funds are used in coordination with other services for... program eligibility information for FY 2010 projects. This announcement is available on the FTA Web site...

  14. Telehealth-Enabled Emergency Medical Services Program Reduces Ambulance Transport to Urban Emergency Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Robert Langabeer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Emergency medical services (EMS agencies transport a significant majority of patients with low acuity and non-emergent conditions to local emergency departments (ED, affecting the entire emergency care system’s capacity and performance. Opportunities exist for alternative models that integrate technology, telehealth, and more appropriately aligned patient navigation. While a limited number of programs have evolved recently, no empirical evidence exists for their efficacy. This research describes the development and comparative effectiveness of one large urban program. Methods The Houston Fire Department initiated the Emergency Telehealth and Navigation (ETHAN program in 2014. ETHAN combines telehealth, social services, and alternative transportation to navigate primary care-related patients away from the ED where possible. Using a case-control study design, we describe the program and compare differences in effectiveness measures relative to the control group. Results During the first 12 months, 5,570 patients participated in the telehealth-enabled program, which were compared against the same size control group. We found a 56% absolute reduction in ambulance transports to the ED with the intervention compared to the control group (18% vs. 74%, P<.001. EMS productivity (median time from EMS notification to unit back in service was 44 minutes faster for the ETHAN group (39 vs. 83 minutes, median. There were no statistically significant differences in mortality or patient satisfaction. Conclusion We found that mobile technology-driven delivery models are effective at reducing unnecessary ED ambulance transports and increasing EMS unit productivity. This provides support for broader EMS mobile integrated health programs in other regions.

  15. Personal transportation plan pilot program phase 1 : exploring the transportation behaviors and needs of veterans and people with physical disabilities and mobility constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This report summarizes the initial phase of the Personal Transportation Plan Pilot Program (PTP3). The purpose of the PTP3 initiative is to develop a personal transportation planning tool that can be used by disabled Vermonters and Vermont veterans t...

  16. Quality Assurance Program Plan for the Hazardous Materials Transportation and Packaging Program. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calihan, T.W. III; Votaw, E.F.

    1995-05-01

    This QAPP covers only the implementation accomplished through Level I and II manuals. It covers the quality affecting activities identified in USDOE orders (both HQ and Richland Operations Office), US DOT, US EPA, and NRC regulations, IAEA guidelines, and the WHC manuals. It covers activities related to hazardous materials transportation performed on and off the Hanford site under the jurisdictional authority of WHC. (Hazardous materials include radioactive, hazardous waste, and mixed waste.)

  17. Quality Assurance Program Plan for the Hazardous Materials Transportation and Packaging Program. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calihan, T.W. III; Votaw, E.F.

    1995-01-01

    This QAPP covers only the implementation accomplished through Level I and II manuals. It covers the quality affecting activities identified in USDOE orders (both HQ and Richland Operations Office), US DOT, US EPA, and NRC regulations, IAEA guidelines, and the WHC manuals. It covers activities related to hazardous materials transportation performed on and off the Hanford site under the jurisdictional authority of WHC. (Hazardous materials include radioactive, hazardous waste, and mixed waste.)

  18. Potential Cost-Effective Opportunities for Methane Emission Abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Ethan [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Steinberg, Daniel [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Hodson, Elke [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Heath, Garvin [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The energy sector was responsible for approximately 84% of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the U.S. in 2012 (EPA 2014a). Methane is the second most important GHG, contributing 9% of total U.S. CO2e emissions. A large portion of those methane emissions result from energy production and use; the natural gas, coal, and oil industries produce approximately 39% of anthropogenic methane emissions in the U.S. As a result, fossil-fuel systems have been consistently identified as high priority sectors to contribute to U.S. GHG reduction goals (White House 2015). Only two studies have recently attempted to quantify the abatement potential and cost associated with the breadth of opportunities to reduce GHG emissions within natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains in the United States, namely the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2013a) and ICF (2014). EPA, in its 2013 analysis, estimated the marginal cost of abatement for non-CO2 GHG emissions from the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains for multiple regions globally, including the United States. Building on this work, ICF International (ICF) (2014) provided an update and re-analysis of the potential opportunities in U.S. natural gas and oil systems. In this report we synthesize these previously published estimates as well as incorporate additional data provided by ICF to provide a comprehensive national analysis of methane abatement opportunities and their associated costs across the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains. Results are presented as a suite of marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs), which depict the total potential and cost of reducing emissions through different abatement measures. We report results by sector (natural gas, oil, and coal) and by supply chain segment - production, gathering and boosting, processing, transmission and storage, or distribution - to facilitate identification of which sectors and supply chain

  19. Research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated, fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.J.; Tidwell, V.C.

    1991-09-01

    As part of the Yucca Mountain Project, our research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated fractured rock integrates fundamental physical experimentation with conceptual model formulation and mathematical modeling. Our research is directed toward developing and validating macroscopic, continuum-based models and supporting effective property models because of their widespread utility within the context of this project. Success relative to the development and validation of effective property models is predicted on a firm understanding of the basic physics governing flow through fractured media, specifically in the areas of unsaturated flow and transport in a single fracture and fracture-matrix interaction

  20. Research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated, fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.J.; Tidwell, V.C.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the Yucca Mountain Project, our research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated fractured rock integrates fundamental physical experimentation with conceptual model formulation and mathematical modeling. Our research is directed toward developing and validating macroscopic, continuum-based models and supporting effective property models because of their widespread utility within the context of this project. Success relative to the development and validation of effective property models is predicated on a firm understanding of the basic physics governing flow through fractured media, specifically in the areas of unsaturated flow and transport in a single fracture and fracture-matrix interaction. 43 refs

  1. Occurrence Classifications, Severity Weighting, and Normalization for the DOE Packaging and Transportation Safety Metrics Indicator Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, L.S.; Pope, R.B.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Harrison, I.G.; Hermann, B.; Lester, P.B.

    1999-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) is an interactive computer system designed to support DOE-owned or -operated facilities in reporting and processing information concerning occurrences related to facility operations. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been charged by the DOE National Transportation Program Albuquerque (NTPA) with the responsibility of retrieving reports and information pertaining to packaging and transportation (P and T) incidents from the centralized ORPS database. These selected reports are analyzed for trends, impact on P and T operations and safety concerns, and ''lessons learned'' in P and T safety.

  2. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-01-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions. The impact of DG on large industrial sites is well known, and mostly, the potentials are already harvested. In contrast, little is known about the impact of DG on commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how DG with combined heat and power (CHP) may be implemented within the context of a cost minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various smart energy technologies, such as thermal and photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has the minimization of a site's annual energy costs as objective. Using 138 representative commercial sites in California (CA) with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find the greenhouse gas reduction potential for California's commercial sector. This paper shows results from the ongoing research project and finished work from a two year U.S. Department of Energy research project. To show the impact of the different technologies on CO2 emissions, several sensitivity runs for different climate zones within CA with different technology performance expectations for 2020 were performed. The considered sites can contribute between 1 Mt/a and 1.8 Mt/a to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goal of 6.7Mt/a CO2 abatement potential in 2020. Also, with lower PV and storage costs as well as consideration of a CO2 pricing scheme, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption can compete rather than supplement each other when the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply have been taken into consideration. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries will be charged also by CHP systems during off-peak and mid-peak hours and

  3. Advanced Noise Abatement Procedures for a Supersonic Business Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.; Jones, Scott M.; Seidel, Jonathan A.; Huff, Dennis L.

    2017-01-01

    Supersonic civil aircraft present a unique noise certification challenge. High specific thrust required for supersonic cruise results in high engine exhaust velocity and high levels of jet noise during takeoff. Aerodynamics of thin, low-aspect-ratio wings equipped with relatively simple flap systems deepen the challenge. Advanced noise abatement procedures have been proposed for supersonic aircraft. These procedures promise to reduce airport noise, but they may require departures from normal reference procedures defined in noise regulations. The subject of this report is a takeoff performance and noise assessment of a notional supersonic business jet. Analytical models of an airframe and a supersonic engine derived from a contemporary subsonic turbofan core are developed. These models are used to predict takeoff trajectories and noise. Results indicate advanced noise abatement takeoff procedures are helpful in reducing noise along lateral sidelines.

  4. Economic restructuring in Eastern Europe and acid rain abatement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, Markus; Klaassen, Ger; Schoepp, Wolfgang; Soerensen, Lene; Hordijk, Leen

    1992-01-01

    Acid rain abatement strategies in Europe are currently being discussed in view of the expiration of the Helsinki Protocol on SO 2 emission reduction. The changing energy situation in Eastern European countries is expected to have an influence on the deposition pattern in Europe. The paper presents a consistent energy scenario for Eastern European countries and compares optimal strategies to reduce SO 2 emissions. These strategies are based on runs with the RAINS model in which environmental targets have been set based on critical loads for sulphur. The analysis shows that economic restructuring and efficiency improvements in Eastern European countries, as well as in Western Europe, may result in significantly lower sulphur abatement costs. Potential assistance to Eastern Europe to guarantee desired environmental standards in Western countries should therefore focus not only on providing emission control devices but also on the success of the economic transition process. (author)

  5. Marginal abatement cost curves for Heavy Duty Vehicles. Background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroten, A.; Warringa, G.; Bles, M.

    2012-09-15

    Cost curves were calculated for CO2 abatement technologies for Heavy Duty Vehicles. These curves were elaborated for eight different vehicle categories (six categories of truck and two subcategories), as well as for an 'average' truck and bus. Given that cost curves depend very much on underlying assumptions, the MACH model (Marginal Abatement Costs of Heavy duty vehicles) was developed. This model allows users to enter their own assumptions with respect to parameters like fuel prices and cost and lifetime of individual technologies, with the model then generating new cost curves for the various vehicle categories. This background report contains a description of the model and a summary of the results of several model runs.

  6. Development and testing of technical measures for the abatement of PM10 emissions from poultry housings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogink, N.W.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Mosquera, J.; Winkel, A. [Wageningen UR Livestock Research, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    In order to comply with the European Union's ambient air quality standards, the Netherlands must reduce emissions of PM10. As a contributor to PM10, the poultry industry must implement mitigation measures before 2012. An extensive research and development program was launched in 2008 to provide abatement technology for broiler and layer houses. This paper presented results from studies carried out in 2008 and 2009 by Wageningen UR Livestock Research. The supply industry and poultry farmers participated in the study in which different methods and approaches were examined, including bedding material, light schedules, oil spraying systems, ionization systems, water scrubbers, combined scrubbers, electrostatic filters, and dry filters. Most methods were first tested and optimized in small units at an experimental poultry facility Lelystad. Several methods were validated in a next step on poultry farms, where PM10 emissions were measured to establish official emission factors. The oil spraying system and ionization system were tested in broiler houses and are nearing implementation. Reductions in PM10 emissions by different methods ranged from no effect to levels of 60 per cent. An outlook on adequate dust abatement measures for poultry housings was also provided.

  7. A Methodology for Constructing Marginal Abatement Cost Curves for Climate Action in Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Ibrahim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As drivers of climate action, cities are taking measures to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, which if left unabated pose a challenge to meeting long-term climate targets. The economics of climate action needs to be at the forefront of climate dialogue to prioritize investments among competing mitigation measures. A marginal abatement cost (MAC curve is an effective visualization of climate action that initiates a technical and economic discussion of the cost-effectiveness and abatement potential of such actions among local leaders, policy makers, and climate experts. More commonly demonstrated for countries, MAC curves need to be developed for cities because of their heterogeneity, which vary in their urban activities, energy supply, infrastructure stock, and commuting patterns. The methodology for constructing bottom-up MAC curves for cities is presented for technologies that offer fuel switching and/or energy efficiencies, while considering technology lifetimes, city-specific electricity and fuel prices, and emission intensities. Resulting MAC curves are unique to every city, and chart the pathway towards low-carbon growth by prioritizing measures based on cost-effectiveness. A case study of Toronto’s climate targets demonstrates the prioritization of select technologies. Leveraging MAC curves to support climate programs enables cities to strategically invest in financing climate action and designing incentives.

  8. PARTICULATE EMISSION ABATEMENT FOR KRAKOW BOILERHOUSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce H. Easom; Leo A, Smolensky; S. Ronald Wysk; Jan Surowka; Miroslaw Litke; Jacek Ginter

    1998-09-30

    A U.S./Polish Bilateral Steering Committee (BSC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) selected LSR Technologies, Inc. as a contractor to participate in the Krakow Clean Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. The objective of this program was the formation of business ventures between U.S. and Polish firms to provide equipment and services to reduce air emissions in the city of Krakow. A cooperative agreement was entered into by DOE and LSR to begin work in April 1994 involving implementation of particulate control technology called a Core Separator{trademark} for coal-fueled boilerhouses in the city. The major work tasks included: (1) conducting a market analysis, (2) completion of a formal marketing plan, (3) obtaining patent protection within Poland, (4) selecting a manufacturing partner, and (5) completing a demonstration unit and commercial installations. In addition to work performed by LSR Technologies, key contributors to this project were (1) the Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE), a non-profit consulting organization specializing in energy and environmental-related technologies, and (2) EcoInstal, a privately held Polish company serving the air pollution control market. As the project concluded in late 1998, five (5) Core Separator{trademark} installations had been implemented in the city of Krakow, while about 40 others were completed in other regions of Poland.

  9. 77 FR 14465 - Public Transportation on Indian Reservations Program; Tribal Transit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ....dot.gov/tribaltransit . Important: FTA urges applicants to submit their project proposals at least 72... tribe? c. Will the project improve or maintain access to important destinations and services? d. Are... ability to provide other services or manage other programs; and e. Project funds are used in coordination...

  10. DRONE - a tool for urban traffic noise abatement policy evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaskar, A.; Chung, E.; Kuwahara, M.

    2005-01-01

    Areawide Dynamic ROad traffic NoisE simulator-DRONE, been has developed by the integration of a road traffic noise prediction model (ASJ MODEL-1998) with road traffic simulator (AVENUE) which is further linked with GIS to provide areawide dynamic road traffic noise contour maps. This tool provides an engineering solution for the prediction of road traffic noise in urban network. Noise reduction in an urban area can be achieved by noise abatement policie...

  11. OCRWM [Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management] transportation program reference: Glossary, acronym list, bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    A successful transportation system for nuclear waste must be safe, efficient, and widely acceptable. To achieve the necessary public understanding, there must be an exchange of information and an identification of issues. This booklet has been developed to assist in that exchange of information and help in the communication of issues. It will provide a glossary of commonly used terms, a list of acronyms, a bibliography selected from the public information developed by the OCRWM Program, and contacts for additional information. Transportation is an integral and essential part of the projected waste management system. The United States has a long history of transporting radioactive material. Commercial spent fuel has been shipped for over 20 years and high-level waste from defense activities for an even longer period. These shipments have been conducted without any accidents causing death or environmental damage because of the radiological nature of the cargo. DOE is taking measures to ensure that this safety record continues. 24 refs

  12. A Collaborative Approach to Transportation Planning: Federal and State Perspectives on Section 180(c) Program Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macaluso, C.; Strong, T.; Janairo, L.; Helvey, E.

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) committed in its November 2003 Strategic Plan for the Safe Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste to Yucca Mountain: A Guide to Stakeholder Interactions to develop the transportation system collaboratively with stakeholders. The Strategic Plan further stated that four state regional groups (SRGs) would be the 'anchors' for OCRWM's collaboration with the states. The first major transportation planning activity that OCRWM initiated after publication of the Strategic Plan was the development of the Section 180(c) grant program. This document describes that collaboration and its outcomes from the perspective of the OCRWM participants and one of the SRGs, the Council of State Governments - Midwestern Office (CSG Midwest). (authors)

  13. Interactive FORTRAN IV computer programs for the thermodynamic and transport properties of selected cryogens (fluids pack)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarty, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The thermodynamic and transport properties of selected cryogens had programmed into a series of computer routines. Input variables are any two of P, rho or T in the single phase regions and either P or T for the saturated liquid or vapor state. The output is pressure, density, temperature, entropy, enthalpy for all of the fluids and in most cases specific heat capacity and speed of sound. Viscosity and thermal conductivity are also given for most of the fluids. The programs are designed for access by remote terminal; however, they have been written in a modular form to allow the user to select either specific fluids or specific properties for particular needs. The program includes properties for hydrogen, helium, neon, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and methane. The programs include properties for gaseous and liquid states usually from the triple point to some upper limit of pressure and temperature which varies from fluid to fluid.

  14. Pollution Emissions, Environmental Policy, and Marginal Abatement Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling-Yun; Ou, Jia-Jia

    2017-12-05

    Pollution emissions impose serious social negative externalities, especially in terms of public health. To reduce pollution emissions cost-effectively, the marginal abatement costs (MACs) of pollution emissions must be determined. Since the industrial sectors are the essential pillars of China's economic growth, as well as leading energy consumers and sulfur dioxide (SO₂) emitters, estimating MACs of SO₂ emissions at the industrial level can provide valuable information for all abatement efforts. This paper tries to address the critical and essential issue in pollution abatement: How do we determine the MACs of pollution emissions in China? This paper first quantifies the SO₂ emission contribution of different industrial sectors in the Chinese economy by an Input-Output method and then estimates MACs of SO₂ for industrial sectors at the national level, provincial level, and sectoral level by the shadow price theory. Our results show that six sectors (e.g., the Mining and Washing of Coal sector) should be covered in the Chinese pollution emission trading system. We have also found that the lowest SO₂ shadow price is 2000 Yuan/ton at the national level, and that shadow prices should be set differently at the provincial level. Our empirical study has several important policy implications, e.g., the estimated MACs may be used as a pricing benchmark through emission allowance allocation. In this paper, the MACs of industrial sectors are calculated from the national, provincial and sectoral levels; therefore, we provide an efficient framework to track the complex relationship between sectors and provinces.

  15. Systems engineering approach to U.S. Department of Energy's commercial nuclear waste transportation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardue, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has been given the responsibility of developing a program to transport commercially produced spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes to disposal sites or storage facilities safely and cost-effectively. To accomplish this task it is desirable to plan, perform, and document all technical activities based on systems engineering principles. This paper presents an overview of the systems engineering approach being developed by Battelle for consideration by DOE, specifically the early identification of the required technical activities and approaches to technical management and decision making. The program should support the development of an integrated, well-documented transportation system acceptable to regulatory agencies and the public

  16. Summary report of the state surveillance program on the transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    From 1973 to 1976, a surveillance program was conducted in New Jersey, Oregon, Missouri, New York, Illinois, Texas, Louisiana, South Carolina, Minnesota, and New York City to provide training support for State radiation personnel and to determine actual radiation exposure conditions and radioactive material package handling practices through the terminals of air carriers and freight forwarders. NRC and DOT along with the participating States, developed the surveillance program. In general, the results did not indicate a public health or safety problem due to the transportation of radioactive materials. Some employees of several freight forwarders, are, however, receiving annual exposures in excess of 500 mrem. Recommendations are given

  17. A calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy wood; Energiapuun korjuun ja kuljetuksen kustannuslaskentaohjelmisto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuitto, P.J.

    1996-12-31

    VTT Energy is compiling a large and versatile calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy wood. The work has been designed and will be carried out in cooperation with Metsaeteho and Finntech Ltd. The program has been realised in Windows surroundings using SQLWindows graphical database application development system, using the SQLBase relational database management system. The objective of the research is to intensify and create new possibilities for comparison of the utilization costs and the profitability of integrated energy wood production chains with each other inside the chains

  18. Optimal Control of Scalar Conservation Laws Using Linear/Quadratic Programming: Application to Transportation Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a new optimal control framework for transportation networks in which the state is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law. Using an equivalent formulation based on a Hamilton-Jacobi (H-J) equation and the commonly used triangular fundamental diagram, we pose the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link, in a finite horizon, as a Linear Program (LP). We then show that this framework can be extended to an arbitrary transportation network, resulting in an LP or a Quadratic Program. Unlike many previously investigated transportation network control schemes, this method yields a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling shocks (i.e., discontinuities in the state of the system). As it leverages the intrinsic properties of the H-J equation used to model the state of the system, it does not require any approximation, unlike classical methods that are based on discretizations of the model. The computational efficiency of the method is illustrated on a transportation network. © 2014 IEEE.

  19. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  20. Bilevel Programming Model of Private Capital Investment in Urban Public Transportation: Case Study of Jinan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqiang Xue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing public transportation subsidies have created fiscal pressures for governments. To ease this financial pressure, Chinese government strongly encourages private capital investment in public transportation. However, previous private capital investments in public transportation operations have largely failed, mainly due to low ticket fares that cannot support sustainable operations. To address this issue, several previous research projects have developed methods to facilitate private capital investment. The majority of the research focuses on qualitative analysis and value for money analysis. Our research proposed a new method of private capital investment in public transportation operations based on the concept of “passenger value.” The feasibility of the proposed method of private investment was analyzed quantitatively by constructing a bilevel programming model. The model was verified based on a sample analysis of Jinan city traffic. Results showed that effective private capital investment increases the total societal benefit from the public transportation system and additionally that the investment method considering “passenger value” is superior to the traditional one. A quantitative tool was provided by the model to evaluate private capital investment effects, design investment policies, and develop further research.

  1. Noise-abatement method for explosives testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, H E; Odell, B N; Arganbright, V E

    1980-09-01

    When Lawrence Livermore Laboratory started detonating explosives at its Site 300 test location in the sparsely populated hills east of the Laboratory, residents in neighboring areas complained of sudden loud noises. A combined literature and research study, coupled with an experimental test program, indicated the combination of air temperatures and winds at various elevations was primarily responsible for blast or sound waves being returned to the surface. To solve the noise problem, the Laboratory devised a method for determining the maximum amount of explosives that could be detonated aboveground under various atmospheric conditions without creating excessive noise in populated areas. This method for predicting explosives weight limits using pressure-distance-weight nomograms and the slope of a sound-velocity curve is described in this paper. The sound-velocity curve is computed with temperature information from the U.S. Weather Bureau and wind data from a target-acquisition radar system. By following this method, the Laboratory has been able to detonate thousands of shots without creating excessive noise in nearby communities.

  2. Establishment and utilization of radiological protection programs for the transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez V, J.; Capadona, N.

    2006-01-01

    The present work has by objective to indicate rules for the establishment and the use of the Radiological Protection Programs (PPR) that are of application to the transport of radioactive materials according to that required by the Transport Regulation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The PPR are established and applied in systematic form for remittent, transport and addressees, to consider the measures of radiological protection and its appropriately control during the transport stages of radioactive material. In particular, in the work it is analyzed the PPR applied to the operative stage, in the one that can be considered as one of the more important documents to use since it summarizes the evaluations and the necessary controls of radiological protection. Also it is analyzed the importance that this document gets ready on the base that it converges in the the analyses, evaluations and data that have been kept in mind during the previous stages of design of bundles and production of packings, the types and quantities of involved bundles, as well as of considering the quantities of expeditions and its frequencies, the ways of transport, etc. It is included a brief description of the parts that the PPR conforms on the base of that suggested in the advanced draft of the TS-G-1.5 Guide 'Radiation Protection Programmes for Transport of Radioactive Material', of October, 2005, of the IAEA: objectives. necessity, scope, basic elements of a PPR in function of the occupational dose. assignment of functions and responsibilities for the establishment of a PPR, evaluation and dose optimization, surface contamination, segregation and other protection measures, responses in emergencies. training and administration systems for baled and transport of radioactive material. Next an example of PPR for the transport of bundles of the A Type by lorry with content of radiopharmaceuticals that are the bundles more used worldwide in the expeditions of radioactive

  3. Essays on carbon abatement and electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, John Timothy

    In the first chapter of this dissertation, I study the effects of a number of policies which affect the electric grid using the SuperOPF, a full AC optimization/simulation framework with optimal investment developed at Cornell University. A 36-node model of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council is used to test policies that aim to reduce CO2, other emissions, or otherwise impact the operation of the electric grid: a base case, with no new environmental legislation; enactment of the Kerry-Lieberman CO2 allowance proposal in 2012; following Fukishima, a retirement of all US nuclear plants by 2022 with and without Kerry-Lieberman; marginal damages from SO2 and NOX emissions charged to coal, gas and oil-fired generation; plug-in hybrid electric vehicle load filling; wind incentives in place; and two cases which combine these. The cases suggest that alternative policies may have very different outcomes in terms of electricity prices, emissions, and health outcomes. In all cases, however, the optimal strategy for future investment is investment in new natural gas combined cycle plants. Policies can change how much new generation is built, whether other plants are built, or what types of plants are retired. The second chapter of my dissertation utilizes the SuperOPF and the model of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council to analyze the issue of carbon leakage. I analyze the effects of a regionally-limited carbon cap and trade program, the Regional Greenhouse Initiative (RGGI), when additional generating assets in non-affected states are included in the analysis. In the face of different carbon prices on generating assets in covered and non-covered states, generation is expected to shift from states bound by RGGI to states outside of RGGI. This carbon leakage may undermine some or all of the benefits of RGGI while simultaneously increasing prices for customers in the area. Even though carbon prices under RGGI are very low, some leakage is occurring, and this leakage

  4. Nuclear waste transportation package testing: A review of selected programs in the United States and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snedeker, D.F.

    1990-12-01

    This report provides an overview of some recent nuclear waste transportation package development programs. This information is intended to aid the State of Nevada in its review of US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear waste transportation programs. This report addresses cask testing programs in the United Kingdom and selected 1/4 and full scale testing in the US. Facilities that can provide cask testing services, both in the US and to a limited extent abroad, are identified. The costs for different type test programs are identified as a means to estimate costs for future test programs. Not addressed is the public impact such testing might have in providing an increased sense of safety or confidence. The British test program was apparently quite successful in demonstrating safety to the public at the time. There is no US test effort that is similar in scope for direct comparison. Also addressed are lessons learned from testing programs and areas that may merit possible future integrated examination. Areas that may require further examination are both technical and institutional. This report provides information which, when combined with other sources of information will enable the State of Nevada to assess the following areas: feasibility of full scale testing; costs of full scale tests; potential benefits of testing; limits that full scale testing impose; and disadvantages of emphasis on testing vs analytical solutions. This assessment will then allow the state to comment on DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) plans for the development and licensing of new shipping cask designs. These plans currently expect contractors to perform engineering testing for materials development, quarter scale model testing to validate analytical assessments and full scale prototype testing of operational features. DOE currently plans no full scale or extra-regulatory destructive testing to aid in cask licensing. 1 tab

  5. Interrupting a narrative transportation experience: program placement effects on responses to antismoking advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Sarah; Wakefield, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    It is thought that "transportation"--absorption into the narrative flow of a story--may play a role in influencing resistance to persuasion. We hypothesized that advertising that disrupts the experience of narrative transportation may be adversely appraised by audiences. This study aimed to explore the influence of two types of television programs: narratives (dramas, comedies, and soap operas) versus nonnarratives (light entertainment, sports, documentaries, and news), on smokers' reactions to antismoking advertisements. In preexposure interviews, daily smokers (n = 779) were asked to watch a particular television program they usually watched. Postexposure interviews were conducted within 3 days of exposure. Results indicated that placing an antismoking ad within a program in which the viewer is focused on the narrative flow of a story may lead to reduced immediate cognitive and emotional impact of the ad and reduced intentions to quit, especially among those for whom the ad is most relevant, such as those preparing to quit smoking. Placing antismoking advertising in light entertainment, sports, documentaries, and news programs may make scarce public health dollars go further.

  6. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, Douglas; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  7. Assessment model validity document. NAMMU: A program for calculating groundwater flow and transport through porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cliffe, K.A.; Morris, S.T.; Porter, J.D.

    1998-05-01

    NAMMU is a computer program for modelling groundwater flow and transport through porous media. This document provides an overview of the use of the program for geosphere modelling in performance assessment calculations and gives a detailed description of the program itself. The aim of the document is to give an indication of the grounds for having confidence in NAMMU as a performance assessment tool. In order to achieve this the following topics are discussed. The basic premises of the assessment approach and the purpose of and nature of the calculations that can be undertaken using NAMMU are outlined. The concepts of the validation of models and the considerations that can lead to increased confidence in models are described. The physical processes that can be modelled using NAMMU and the mathematical models and numerical techniques that are used to represent them are discussed in some detail. Finally, the grounds that would lead one to have confidence that NAMMU is fit for purpose are summarised

  8. Computer programs for thermodynamic and transport properties of hydrogen (tabcode-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, H. M.; Mccarty, R. D.; Hall, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The thermodynamic and transport properties of para and equilibrium hydrogen have been programmed into a series of computer routines. Input variables are the pair's pressure-temperature and pressure-enthalpy. The programs cover the range from 1 to 5000 psia with temperatures from the triple point to 6000 R or enthalpies from minus 130 BTU/lb to 25,000 BTU/lb. Output variables are enthalpy or temperature, density, entropy, thermal conductivity, viscosity, at constant volume, the heat capacity ratio, and a heat transfer parameter. Property values on the liquid and vapor boundaries are conveniently obtained through two small routines. The programs achieve high speed by using linear interpolation in a grid of precomputed points which define the surface of the property returned.

  9. Stochastic Fractional Programming Approach to a Mean and Variance Model of a Transportation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Charles

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a stochastic programming model, which considers a ratio of two nonlinear functions and probabilistic constraints. In the former, only expected model has been proposed without caring variability in the model. On the other hand, in the variance model, the variability played a vital role without concerning its counterpart, namely, the expected model. Further, the expected model optimizes the ratio of two linear cost functions where as variance model optimize the ratio of two non-linear functions, that is, the stochastic nature in the denominator and numerator and considering expectation and variability as well leads to a non-linear fractional program. In this paper, a transportation model with stochastic fractional programming (SFP problem approach is proposed, which strikes the balance between previous models available in the literature.

  10. Greenhouse gas abatement cost curves of the residential heating market. A microeconomic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckhoener, Caroline; Hecking, Harald

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a microeconomic approach to deduce greenhouse gas abatement cost curves of the residential heating sector. By accounting for household behavior, we find that welfare-based abatement costs are generally higher than pure technical equipment costs. Our results are based on a microsimulation of private households' investment decision for heating systems until 2030. The households' investment behavior in the simulation is derived from a discrete choice estimation which allows investigating the welfare costs of different abatement policies in terms of the compensating variation and the excess burden. We simulate greenhouse gas abatements and welfare costs of carbon taxes and subsidies on heating system investments until 2030 to deduce abatement curves. Given utility maximizing households, our results suggest a carbon tax to be the welfare efficient policy. Assuming behavioral misperceptions instead, a subsidy on investments might have lower marginal greenhouse gas abatement costs than a carbon tax.

  11. PHAST--a program for simulating ground-water flow, solute transport, and multicomponent geochemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, David L.; Kipp, Kenneth L.; Engesgaard, Peter; Charlton, Scott R.

    2004-01-01

    The computer program PHAST simulates multi-component, reactive solute transport in three-dimensional saturated ground-water flow systems. PHAST is a versatile ground-water flow and solute-transport simulator with capabilities to model a wide range of equilibrium and kinetic geochemical reactions. The flow and transport calculations are based on a modified version of HST3D that is restricted to constant fluid density and constant temperature. The geochemical reactions are simulated with the geochemical model PHREEQC, which is embedded in PHAST. PHAST is applicable to the study of natural and contaminated ground-water systems at a variety of scales ranging from laboratory experiments to local and regional field scales. PHAST can be used in studies of migration of nutrients, inorganic and organic contaminants, and radionuclides; in projects such as aquifer storage and recovery or engineered remediation; and in investigations of the natural rock-water interactions in aquifers. PHAST is not appropriate for unsaturated-zone flow, multiphase flow, density-dependent flow, or waters with high ionic strengths. A variety of boundary conditions are available in PHAST to simulate flow and transport, including specified-head, flux, and leaky conditions, as well as the special cases of rivers and wells. Chemical reactions in PHAST include (1) homogeneous equilibria using an ion-association thermodynamic model; (2) heterogeneous equilibria between the aqueous solution and minerals, gases, surface complexation sites, ion exchange sites, and solid solutions; and (3) kinetic reactions with rates that are a function of solution composition. The aqueous model (elements, chemical reactions, and equilibrium constants), minerals, gases, exchangers, surfaces, and rate expressions may be defined or modified by the user. A number of options are available to save results of simulations to output files. The data may be saved in three formats: a format suitable for viewing with a text editor; a

  12. PHAST Version 2-A Program for Simulating Groundwater Flow, Solute Transport, and Multicomponent Geochemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, David L.; Kipp, Kenneth L.; Charlton, Scott R.

    2010-01-01

    The computer program PHAST (PHREEQC And HST3D) simulates multicomponent, reactive solute transport in three-dimensional saturated groundwater flow systems. PHAST is a versatile groundwater flow and solute-transport simulator with capabilities to model a wide range of equilibrium and kinetic geochemical reactions. The flow and transport calculations are based on a modified version of HST3D that is restricted to constant fluid density and constant temperature. The geochemical reactions are simulated with the geochemical model PHREEQC, which is embedded in PHAST. Major enhancements in PHAST Version 2 allow spatial data to be defined in a combination of map and grid coordinate systems, independent of a specific model grid (without node-by-node input). At run time, aquifer properties are interpolated from the spatial data to the model grid; regridding requires only redefinition of the grid without modification of the spatial data. PHAST is applicable to the study of natural and contaminated groundwater systems at a variety of scales ranging from laboratory experiments to local and regional field scales. PHAST can be used in studies of migration of nutrients, inorganic and organic contaminants, and radionuclides; in projects such as aquifer storage and recovery or engineered remediation; and in investigations of the natural rock/water interactions in aquifers. PHAST is not appropriate for unsaturated-zone flow, multiphase flow, or density-dependent flow. A variety of boundary conditions are available in PHAST to simulate flow and transport, including specified-head, flux (specified-flux), and leaky (head-dependent) conditions, as well as the special cases of rivers, drains, and wells. Chemical reactions in PHAST include (1) homogeneous equilibria using an ion-association or Pitzer specific interaction thermodynamic model; (2) heterogeneous equilibria between the aqueous solution and minerals, ion exchange sites, surface complexation sites, solid solutions, and gases; and

  13. Risk assessment of DOE defense program packages in a beyond 10 CFR 71.73 transportation accident environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.; Bennion, J.S.; Moore, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive program is being conducted by the DOE to determine the risks related to the domestic transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials associated with nuclear weapons. The program is designed to identify, quantify and manage potential risks to public health and safety including potential radiological and toxicological health consequences which may exceed the 10 CFR 71.73 transportation accident environment A major objective of this program being performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of Utah is to provide the DOE with the methodology and bases for evaluating highway transportation activities by DOE contractors. This paper describes the approach and the HITRA model which is based upon probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology and route specific data associated with the proposed transportation activity. The model is capable of providing detailed, location and time specific data for assessing projected risks to public health and safety from DOE defense program materials shipments

  14. Michigan Department of Transportation state planning and research part II program : research and implementation manual [revised June 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The Research and Implementation Manual describes the administrative processes used by : Research Administration to develop and implement the Michigan Department of Transportation : (MDOT) research program. Contents of this manual include a discussion...

  15. Michigan Department of Transportation state planning and research part II program : research and implementation manual [revision 3: October 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Research and Implementation Manual describes the administrative processes used by Research Administration to develop and implement the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT) research program. Contents of this manual include a discussion of ...

  16. Planning and environment linkages program : a guide to measuring progress in linking transportation planning and environmental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Transportation agencies use a variety of metrics to document progress toward achieving specific goals and objectives. This guide, developed by Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Planning and Environmental Linkages (PEL) program, is intended to hel...

  17. Developing guidelines for incorporating managing demand into WSDOT planning and programming: transportation demand management guidance for corridor planning studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) regional planning programs address current and forecasted deficiencies of State highways through the conduct of corridor studies. This Guidance for the conduct of corridor planning studies is ...

  18. Solving the Single-Sink, Fixed-Charge, Multiple-Choice Transportation Problem by Dynamic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauff Lind Christensen, Tue; Klose, Andreas; Andersen, Kim Allan

    The Single-Sink, Fixed-Charge, Multiple-Choice Transportation Problem (SSFCMCTP) is a problem with versatile applications. This problem is a generalization of the Single-Sink, Fixed-Charge Transportation Problem (SSFCTP), which has a fixed-charge, linear cost structure. However, in at least two...... are neglected in the SSFCTP. The SSFCMCTP overcome this problem by incorporating a staircase cost structure in the cost function instead of the usual one used in SSFCTP. We present a dynamic programming algorithm for the resulting problem. To enhance the performance of the generic algorithm a number...... of enhancements is employed. The problem instance is reduced by variable pegging using a Lagrangean relaxation from which also a flow augmentation scheme is derived. Additionally a reduction in the search space is employed along with a variable transformation which generalizes a transformation known from...

  19. A Combined Impact-Process Evaluation of a Program Promoting Active Transport to School: Understanding the Factors That Shaped Program Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, S.; Garrard, J.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study was a comprehensive impact-process evaluation of the Ride2School program in metropolitan and regional areas in Victoria, Australia. The program aimed to promote transport to school for primary school children. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected at baseline and followup from two primary schools involved in the pilot phase of the program and two matched comparison schools, and a further 13 primary schools that participated in the implementation phase of the program. Classroom surveys, structured and unstructured observations, and interviews with Ride2School program staff were used to evaluate the pilot program. For the 13 schools in the second phase of the program, parents and students completed questionnaires at baseline (N = 889) and followup (N = 761). Based on the quantitative data, there was little evidence of an overall increase in active transport to school across participating schools, although impacts varied among individual schools. Qualitative data in the form of observations, interviews, and focus group discussions with students, school staff, and program staff provided insight into the reasons for variable program impacts. This paper highlights the benefits of undertaking a mixed methods approach to evaluating active transport to school programs that enables both measurement and understanding of program impacts. PMID:23606865

  20. Transportation Problems in Special Education Programs in Rural Areas - A Specific Solution and Some Suggestions for Delivery System Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Z. H.

    The paper describes transportation problems encountered and solutions employed in delivering systems of comprehensive services to handicapped children in Anderson County, Tennessee, a predominantly rural area with considerable mountain area. Detailed are methods of transportation utilized in the four different program areas of the county special…

  1. PUNCTURE: a computer program for puncture analysis of radioactive material transport casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikushima, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-09-01

    In the drop puncture analyses for radioactive transport casks, it has become possible to perform them in detail by using interaction evaluation computer programs such as DYNA3D. However, the considerable cost and the computer time are necessitated to perform analyses by these programs. To decrease the computer cost and time, a simplified computer program PUNCTURE has been developed. The PUNCTURE is a static calculation computer program based on the Onat`s theory and Asada`s research. The PUNCTURE is capable of evaluating the acceleration of cask bodies, the deformation of punctured plates and, the stress and the deformation of puncture bars. Main features of the computer program are as follows; (1) three analysis models for punctured plate are used that are the fixed supported bending plate model, the simply supported bending plate model and the fixed supported membrane plate model, (2) it is capable of graphical representations for calculation results and (3) not only main frame computers (OS MSP) but also work stations (OS: UNIX) and personal computers (OS: Windows) are available for use of PUNCTURE. In the paper, brief illustration of calculation method using the Onat`s theory and Asada`s research is presented. The second section presents comparisons between calculation and experimental results. The third section provides a user`s guide for PUNCTURE. (author)

  2. Validation of a fracture mechanics approach to nuclear transportation cask design through a drop test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, K.B.

    1986-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), under contract to the Department of Energy, is conducting a research program to develop and validate a fracture mechanics approach to cask design. A series of drop tests of a transportation cask is planned for the summer of 1986 as the method for benchmarking and, thereby, validating the fracture mechanics approach. This paper presents the drop test plan and background leading to the development of the test plan including structural analyses, material characterization, and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques necessary for defining the test plan properly

  3. FAA/NASA Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research 1994-1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, J. H.

    1998-01-01

    The Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research (JUP) is a coordinated set of three grants co-sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Under JUP, three institutions: the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Princeton, and Ohio Universities receive research grants and collaborate with FAA and NASA in defining and performing civil aeronautics research in a multitude of areas. Some of these disciplines are artificial intelligence, control theory, atmospheric hazards, navigation, avionics, human factors, flight dynamics, air traffic management, and electronic communications.

  4. Program to solve the multigroup discrete ordinates transport equation in (x,y,z) geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathrop, K.D.

    1976-04-01

    Numerical formulations and programming algorithms are given for the THREETRAN computer program which solves the discrete ordinates, multigroup transport equation in (x,y,z) geometry. An efficient, flexible, and general data-handling strategy is derived to make use of three hierarchies of storage: small core memory, large core memory, and disk file. Data management, input instructions, and sample problem output are described. A six-group, S 4 , 18 502 mesh point, 2 800 zone, k/sub eff/ calculation of the ZPPR-4 critical assembly required 144 min of CDC-7600 time to execute to a convergence tolerance of 5 x 10 -4 and gave results in good qualitative agreement with experiment and other calculations. 6 references

  5. FAA/NASA Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1992-1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The research conducted during the academic year 1992-1993 under the FAA/NASA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The year end review was held at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, 17-18 June 1993. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration and NASA Langley Research Center, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance, and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, human factors and air traffic management. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  6. FAA/NASA Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research: 1993-1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueschen, Richard M. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the research conducted during the academic year 1993-1994 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research. The year end review was held at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, July 14-15, 1994. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (NGL-22-009-640), Ohio University (NGR-36-009-017), and Princeton University (NGL-31-001-252). Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics which include navigation, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, human factors, and expert systems concepts applied to aircraft and airport operations. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  7. Computational programs for shielding calculation with transport of one dimensional and monoenergetic SN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Carlos Eduardo A.; Barros, Ricardo C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a computational program for result simulation of neutron transport problems at one velocity with isotropic scattering in Cartesian onedimensional geometry. Describing the physical modelling, the next phase is a mathematical modelling of the physical problem for simulation of the neutron distribution. The mathematical modelling uses the linearized Boltzmann equation which represents a balance among the production and loss of particles. The formulation of the discrete ordinates S N consists of discretization of angular variables at N directions (discrete ordinates), and using a set of angular quadratures for the approximation of integral terms of scattering sources. The S N equations are numerically solved. This work describes three numerical methods: diamond difference, step and characteristic step. The paper also presents numerical results for illustration of the efficiency of the developed program

  8. Hampton Roads, Virginia eight-hour ozone maintenance area transportation conformity analysis : 2030 long range transportation plan and FY 09-12 transportation improvement program, draft executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    This report presents the regional conformity analysis and recommendation for a finding of conformity for the Hampton Roads 2030 Long Range Transportation Plan (LRTP, or "Plan") and associated Fiscal Year (FY) 2009-2012 Transportation Improvement Prog...

  9. Hampton Roads, Virginia eight-hour ozone maintenance area transportation conformity analysis : 2030 long range transportation plan and FY 09-12 transportation improvement program, draft report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    This report presents the regional conformity analysis and recommendation for a finding : of conformity for the Hampton Roads 2030 Long Range Transportation Plan (LRTP, or : "Plan") and associated Fiscal Year (FY) 2009-2012 Transportation Improvement ...

  10. 75 FR 38605 - Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... supporting accurate models and tools for evaluating transportation measures and developed indicators of... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Surface Transportation Environment and...: Notice. SUMMARY: Section 5207 of the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A...

  11. 76 FR 50312 - Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... supporting accurate models and tools for evaluating transportation measures and developing indicators of... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Surface Transportation Environment and...: Notice. SUMMARY: Section 5207 of the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A...

  12. A Status of the Advanced Space Transportation Program from Planning to Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Garry; Griner, Carolyn

    1998-01-01

    A Technology Plan for Enabling Commercial Space Business was presented at the 48th International Astronautical Congress in Turin, Italy. This paper presents a status of the program's accomplishments. Technology demonstrations have progressed in each of the four elements of the program; (1) Low Cost Technology, (2) Advanced Reusable Technology, (3) Space Transfer Technology and (4) Space Transportation Research. The Low Cost Technology program element is primarily focused at reducing development and acquisition costs of aerospace hardware using a "design to cost" philosophy with robust margins, adapting commercial manufacturing processes and commercial off-the-shelf hardware. The attributes of this philosophy for small payload launch are being demonstrated at the component, sub-system, and system level. The X-34 "Fastrac" engine has progressed through major component and subsystem demonstrations. A propulsion system test bed has been implemented for system-level demonstration of component and subsystem technologies; including propellant tankage and feedlines, controls, pressurization, and engine systems. Low cost turbopump designs, commercial valves and a controller are demonstrating the potential for a ten-fold reduction in engine and propulsion system costs. The Advanced Reusable Technology program element is focused on increasing life through high strength-to-weight structures and propulsion components, highly integrated propellant tanks, automated checkout and health management and increased propulsion system performance. The validation of rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) propulsion is pro,-,ressing through component and subsystem testing. RBCC propulsion has the potential to provide performance margin over an all rocket system that could result in lower gross liftoff weight, a lower propellant mass fraction or a higher payload mass fraction. The Space Transfer Technology element of the program is pursuing technology that can improve performance and

  13. GRUNCLE, 1. Collision Source Calculation for Program DOT. DOT-3.5, 2-D Neutron Transport, Gamma Transport Program DOT with New Space-Scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A - Nature of problem or function: DOT solves the Boltzmann transport equation in two-dimensional geometries. Principal applications are to neutron and/or photon transport, although the code can be applied to transport problems for any particles not subject to external force fields. Both homogeneous and external-source problems can be solved. Searches on multiplication factor, time absorption, nuclide concentration, and zone thickness are available for reactor problems. Numerous edits and output data sets for subsequent use are available. DOT-3.5 improves the space-scaling algorithm. DOT-3.5/CAB contains group by group UPSCATTER scaling method. DUCT calculates perturbations to the scalar flux caused by the presence of ducts filled with coolant. VIP is a program for cross section sensitivity analysis using two- dimensional discrete ordinates transport calculations. DGRAD calculates the directional flux gradients from DOT-3 diffusion theory flux tapes. In conjunction with VIP and TPERT, it allows the use of diffusion theory fluxes to obtain exact and first-order perturbation reactivity changes. In order to calculate the reactivity associated with changes in reactor compositions using diffusion theory, it is necessary to fold not only the scalar fluxes with the appropriate cross sections, but also the average flux gradients with the diffusion coefficients. Since DOT diffusion theory does not directly calculate these gradients, it was necessary to calculate the needed quantities external to the DOT code. TPERT is a perturbation code to obtain exact and first-order reactivity changes. TPERT is coupled to VIP which generates adjoint forward flux tables using DOT-3 scalar flux tape information. GRTUNCL calculates an analytical first-collision source for subsequent use in DOT. B - Method of solution: The method of discrete ordinates is used. Balance equations are solved for the density of particles moving along discrete directions in each cell of a two-dimensional spatial

  14. Tradeable emission permit in Dutch acidification abatement policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruyssenaars, P.; Sliggers, J. [Ministry of Environment (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Target groups as well as the government are under the spell of economic instruments as part of environmental policy. Under this heading fall (regulatory) taxes and tradeable emission permits (VER). Of the two, VER, particularly, receive a lot of attention. From the target groups, because the flexibility of VER means working cost-effectively, which could lead to cost savings. From the government, because it can have more faith in the viability of emission ceilings, and has less need to pass detailed legislation. The latter conforms nicely to the philosophy `government at arm`s length`. The Ministry of Environment has had a study made on the feasibility of VER in the context of the acidification abatement policy in the Netherlands. The development and implementation of policy concerning acidification abatement is at an advanced stage, with deposition targets already set for 2000 and 2010 (2400 and 1400 acid equivalents/ha/year, respectively, averaged for afforested areas). From these, also emission reduction targets per target group are deduced, which can be used in a VER system. The main starting point of the study was to gain more insight into the practical aspects of VER. One important question is what form a VER system for the Netherlands should have to take. Also, an investigation was made into the activities which are necessary to introduce a VER system as well as the time, manpower and money these activities entail

  15. Hanford Tank Farm Vapors Abatement Technology and Vendor Proposals Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, H. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Farrar, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fink, S. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-20

    Suspected chemical vapor releases from the Hanford nuclear waste tank system pose concerns for worker exposure. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) contracted the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to explore abatement technologies and strategies to remediate the vapors emitted through the ventilation system. In response, SRNL conducted an evaluation of technologies to abate, or reduce, vapor emissions to below 10% of the recognized occupational exposure limits (OELs). The evaluation included a review of published literature and a broadly communicated Request for Information to commercial vendors through a Federal Business Opportunities (Fed Biz Opps) web posting. In addition, SRNL conducted a workshop and post-workshop conference calls with interested suppliers (vendors) to assess proposals of relevant technologies. This report reviews applicable technologies and summarizes the approaches proposed by the vendors who participated in the workshop and teleconference interviews. In addition, the report evaluates the estimated performance of the individual technologies for the various classes of chemical compounds present in the Hanford Chemicals of Potential Concern (COPCs) list. Similarly, the report provides a relative evaluation of the vendor proposed approaches against criteria of: technical feasibility (and maturity), design features, operational considerations, secondary waste generation, safety/regulatory, and cost / schedule. These rough order-of-magnitude (ROM) cost estimates are intended to provide a comparison basis between technologies and are not intended to be actual project estimates.

  16. Abatement costs of post-Kyoto climate regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzen, Michel den; Lucas, Paul; Vuuren, Detlef van

    2005-01-01

    This article analyses the abatement costs of three post-Kyoto regimes for differentiating commitments compatible with stabilising atmospheric greenhouse gases concentrations at 550 ppmv CO 2 equivalent in 2100. The three regimes explored are: (1) the Multi-Stage approach assumes a gradual increase in the number of Parties involved who are adopting either emission intensity or reductions targets; (2) the Brazilian Proposal approach, i.e. the allocation or reductions based on countries' contribution to temperature increase; (3) Contraction and Convergence, with full participation in convergence of per capita emission allowances. In 2050, the global costs increase up to about 1% of the world GDP, ranging from 0.5% to 1.5%, depending on baseline scenario and marginal abatement costs. Four groups of regions can be identified on the basis of similar costs (expressed as the percentage of GDP). These are: (1) OECD regions with average costs; (2) FSU, the Middle East and Latin America with high costs; (3) South-East Asia and East Asia (incl. China) with low costs; and (4) South Asia (incl. India) and Africa with net gains from emissions trading for most regimes. The Brazilian Proposal approach gives the highest costs for groups 1 and 2. The distribution of costs for the Contraction and Convergence approach highly depends on the convergence year. The Multi-Stage approach and Contraction and Convergence (convergence year 2050) seem to result in relatively the most even distribution of costs amongst all Parties

  17. Technical and economic assessment for asbestos abatement within Facility 20470, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, S.M.; Ogle, R.B.

    1988-03-01

    This report presents the results of a technical and economic assessment of available alternatives for asbestos abatement within Facility 20470 at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio. Each alternative was screened on the basis of technical feasibility, environmental impact, economics, and fulfillment of the IRP goals. Four alternatives for study are: establishing a special operations and maintenance program; enclosure; encapsulation with sealants; and removal, disposal, and replacement. Each of these alternatives was assessed for capability to control the release of asbestos fibers within Facility 20470. Alternatives 1 and 4 were determined to be acceptable, while Alternatives 2 and 3 were found to be unacceptable. 2 refs., 6 figs

  18. TMI-2 transportation program - Design considerations for the NUPAC 125-B cask handling and loading/unloading equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmoker, D.S.; Schmitt, R.C.; Barkanic, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Removal, transport and receipt of core debris from the damaged reactor at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) required the design of transport cask handling and ''dry'' loading and unloading equipment. The system for ''dry'' (not underwater) loading of the transport cask includes; 1) equipment for handling the cask, 2) equipment for loading core debris canisters into the cask at TMI, and 3) equipment for removing the canisters in a hot cell facility. This paper reviews the technical design considerations operational parameters and summarizes lessons learned in the design, testing, startup and use of the equipment provided for the TMI-2 Transportation Program

  19. Promoting active transportation as a partnership between urban planning and public health: the columbus healthy places program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christine Godward; Klein, Elizabeth G

    2011-01-01

    Active transportation has been considered as one method to address the American obesity epidemic. To address obesity prevention through built-environment change, the local public health department in Columbus, Ohio, established the Columbus Healthy Places (CHP) program to formally promote active transportation in numerous aspects of community design for the city. In this article, we present a case study of the CHP program and discuss the review of city development rezoning applications as a successful strategy to link public health to urban planning. Prior to the CHP review, 7% of development applications in Columbus included active transportation components; in 2009, 64% of development applications adopted active transportation components specifically recommended by the CHP review. Active transportation recommendations generally included adding bike racks, widening or adding sidewalks, and providing sidewalk connectivity. Recommendations and lessons learned from CHP are provided.

  20. GO, an exec for running the programs: CELL, COLLIDER, MAGIC, PATRICIA, PETROS, TRANSPORT, and TURTLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoaee, H.

    1982-05-01

    An exec has been written and placed on the PEP group's public disk to facilitate the use of several PEP related computer programs available on VM. The exec's program list currently includes: CELL, COLLIDER, MAGIC, PATRICIA, PETROS, TRANSPORT, and TURTLE. In addition, provisions have been made to allow addition of new programs to this list as they become available. The GO exec is directly callable from inside the Wylbur editor (in fact, currently this is the only way to use the GO exec.). It provides the option of running any of the above programs in either interactive or batch mode. In the batch mode, the GO exec sends the data in the Wylbur active file along with the information required to run the job to the batch monitor (BMON, a virtual machine that schedules and controls execution of batch jobs). This enables the user to proceed with other VM activities at his/her terminal while the job executes, thus making it of particular interest to the users with jobs requiring much CPU time to execute and/or those wishing to run multiple jobs independently. In the interactive mode, useful for small jobs requiring less CPU time, the job is executed by the user's own Virtual Machine using the data in the active file as input. At the termination of an interactive job, the GO exec facilitates examination of the output by placing it in the Wylbur active file

  1. GO, an exec for running the programs: CELL, COLLIDER, MAGIC, PATRICIA, PETROS, TRANSPORT and TURTLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoaee, H.

    1982-05-01

    An exec has been written and placed on the PEP group's public disk (PUBRL 192) to facilitate the use of several PEP related computer programs available on VM. The exec's program list currently includes: CELL, COLLIDER, MAGIC, PATRICIA, PETROS, TRANSPORT, and TURTLE. In addition, provisions have been made to allow addition of new programs to this list as they become available. The GO exec is directly callable from inside the Wylbur editor (in fact, currently this is the only way to use the GO exec.) It provides the option of running any of the above programs in either interactive or batch mode. In the batch mode, the GO exec sends the data in the Wylbur active file along with the information required to run the job to the batch monitor (BMON, a virtual machine that schedules and controls execution of batch jobs). This enables the user to proceed with other VM activities at his/her terminal while the job executes, thus making it of particular interest to the users with jobs requiring much CPU time to execute and/or those wishing to run multiple jobs independently. In the interactive mode, useful for small jobs requiring less CPU time, the job is executed by the user's own Virtual Machine using the data in the active file as input. At the termination of an interactive job, the GO exec facilitates examination of the output by placing it in the Wylbur active file

  2. 29 CFR 1960.30 - Abatement of unsafe or unhealthful working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abatement of unsafe or unhealthful working conditions. 1960.30 Section 1960.30 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... unhealthful working conditions. (a) The agency shall ensure the prompt abatement of unsafe and unhealthful...

  3. 29 CFR 4207.4 - Withdrawal liability payments during pendency of abatement determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... establish an escrow account for, the plan that satisfies the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section... withdrawal liability. An employer that applies for abatement and neither provides a bond/escrow nor pays its withdrawal liability payments remains eligible for abatement. (b) Bond/escrow. The bond or escrow allowed by...

  4. 29 CFR 4208.5 - Withdrawal liability payments during pendency of abatement determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 4208.5 Withdrawal liability payments during pendency of abatement determination. (a) Bond/Escrow. An... to, or establish an escrow account for, the plan that satisfies the requirements of paragraph (b) of... second consecutive plan year. An employer that applies for abatement and neither provides a bond/escrow...

  5. Effects-based integrated assessment modelling for the support of European air pollution abatement policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettelingh, J.P.; Posch, M.; Slootweg, J.; Reinds, G.J.; Vries, de W.; Gall, Le A.; Maas, R.

    2015-01-01

    Critical load and exceedance based indicators for effects of air pollution are used to define and compare air pollution abatement scenarios, thus assisting in the framing of policies and strategies, of emission abatement options. In this chapter the effects-based support of European air pollution

  6. Public Education as an Approach to Future Planning for Pollution Abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Eliot R.

    One approach to the abatement of pollution is that which stresses that an informed public will, because of an altruistic motive termed "civic responsibility," control the disruption of the environment, before such disruption reaches a perceived 'crisis' state. This paper discusses the public approach to pollution abatement in terms of long-range…

  7. Marginal Abatement Cost of CO2 in China Based on Directional Distance Function: An Industry Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowen Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial sectors account for around 70% of the total energy-related CO2 emissions in China. It is of great importance to measure the potential for CO2 emissions reduction and calculate the carbon price in industrial sectors covered in the Emissions Trading Scheme and carbon tax. This paper employs the directional distance function to calculate the marginal abatement costs of CO2 emissions during 2005–2011 and makes a comparative analysis between our study and the relevant literature. Our empirical results show that the marginal abatement costs vary greatly from industry to industry: high marginal abatement costs occur in industries with low carbon intensity, and vice versa. In the application of the marginal abatement cost, the abatement distribution scheme with minimum cost is established under different abatement targets. The conclusions of abatement distribution scheme indicate that those heavy industries with low MACs and high carbon intensity should take more responsibility for emissions reduction and vice versa. Finally, the policy implications for marginal abatement cost are provided.

  8. Adolescents Exiting Homelessness over Two Years: The Risk Amplification and Abatement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rice, Eric; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Mallett, Shelley; Rosenthal, Doreen; Batterham, Phillip; May, Susanne J.; Witkin, Andrea; Duan, Naihua

    2009-01-01

    The Risk Amplification and Abatement Model (RAAM) demonstrates that negative contact with socializing agents amplify risk, while positive contact abates risk for homeless adolescents. To test this model, the likelihood of exiting homelessness and returning to familial housing at 2 years and stably exiting over time are examined with longitudinal…

  9. 41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80.20 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? Federal...

  10. 75 FR 39820 - Procedures for Abatement of Highway Traffic Noise and Construction Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ...-2008-0114] RIN 2125-AF26 Procedures for Abatement of Highway Traffic Noise and Construction Noise... the Federal regulations on the Procedures for Abatement of Highway Traffic Noise and Construction Noise. The final rule clarifies and adds definitions, the applicability of this regulation, certain...

  11. Radiation protection program for transport of radiopharmaceutical and labelled compounds in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador, Zayda H.; Perez, Saul; Ayra, Fernando E.; Torres, Mirta B.

    2008-01-01

    The Centre of Isotopes (CENTIS) is the main consignor and carrier of radioactive material in Cuba. The purpose of this work is to describe the Radiation Protection Program (RPP) implemented inside the Organization Quality Management System, to achieve and maintain an optimized standard of protection in the accomplishment of these functions. All those areas involving radiation exposures are considered (e.g. design of type A packages, packing, loading, handling, in-transit storage, road transport and inspection and maintenance of packaging). The quality assurance requirements for packaging components were established using a grading process. A material to absorb twice the volume of the liquid contents is tested and its water absorptivity, grammage and capillary rise were estimated. Categories and transport indexes for 56 packages of radiopharmaceuticals incorporating radioiodine, 32 P, 188 Re and 90 Y and technetium generators, are determined. Tests for demonstrating compliance with requirements for type A packages with liquid and solid radioactive content and for air transport are performed and documented. A numeric code for each package by consignee is registered and controlled in each step of the process and as a guarantee of its traceability. Safety and security of radioactive materials during storage in transit and transport are supervised. Training of workers trough periodic curses and emergency exercises is implementing. Individual Licensing of this staff is conducted by CENTIS and presented to the Cuban Regulatory Authority. The effective annual doses distributions are reported since 1996 to 2007. Occupational exposure is acceptably low and less than 6 mSv. It has not been reported any incident in about two thousand road shipments carried out. CENTIS' RPP has been under review, detailed appraisals and audits. The Certification of the management system by ISO 9001:2000 has been identified as a goal and a way for the continuous improvement. (author)

  12. CO2 emissions abatement and geologic sequestration - industrial innovations and stakes - status of researches in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This colloquium was jointly organized by the French institute of petroleum (IFP), the French agency of environmental and energy mastery (Ademe) and the geological and mining research office (BRGM). This press kit makes a status of the advances made in CO 2 emissions abatement and geological sequestration: technological advances of CO 2 capture and sequestration, geological reservoir dimensioning with respect to the problem scale, duration of such an interim solution, CO 2 emissions abatement potentialities of geological sequestration, regulatory, economical and financial implications, international stakes of greenhouse gas emissions. This press kit comprises a press release about the IFP-Ademe-BRGM colloquium, a slide presentation about CO 2 abatement and sequestration, and four papers: a joint IFP-Ademe-BRGM press conference, IFP's answers to CO 2 emissions abatement, Ademe's actions in CO 2 abatement and sequestration, and BRGM's experience in CO 2 sequestration and climatic change expertise. (J.S.)

  13. CRACKER - a program coupling chemistry and transport. Version 92-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emren, A.

    1992-12-01

    CRACKER is a program coupling chemistry and transport. It simulates chemical reactions of groundwater flowing through a plane fracture. Properties like initial composition of the water, mineralogical composition of the rock and temperature gradients and flow velocity of the water serve as input for the modelling. The program is designed to handle heterogeneous rock properties, like redox fronts, regions with different mineralogy etc. It is even able to handle the common situation of a rock violating the phase rule. In the CRACKER model, a rock is formed by a more or less random distribution of minerals across the surfaces of a fracture. Water moves along the fracture (in present version at a constant velocity). No diffusion parallel to the flow direction is simulated. CRACKER is a package of several programs, most of them written in C. Chemical equilibrium calculations are mostly performed by the well-known geochemical program PHREEQE. The main program, CRACKER, manages information flow and determines which subprograms to use for specific tasks. Further it is responsible for the user interface. Essentially a simulation proceeds by alternate call to the HACKER and PHREEQE subprograms. HACKER is responsible for generating the rock, water propagation, mixing of waters and sampling the results. PHREEQE is used to solve the chemical equilibrium equations. The directory structure and the data structures used by CRACKER are described in separate sections. Further, the different subprograms are described with respect to purposes and methods used to handle the problems. The purpose of each first level function in the subprograms is described. (author)

  14. Regional and sectoral marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  15. On the fair division of greenhouse gas abatement cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph [University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics, Ammerlaender Heerstrasse 114-118, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany); Helm, Carsten [Darmstadt University of Technology, Department of Law and Economics, Marktplatz 15, D-64283 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    This paper introduces a solution for the fair division of emission reduction costs in the climate change regime. Our primary focus is on the fair division of efficiency gains that arise from exchanging the initial allocation of emission entitlements, rather than the initial allocation itself. We propose to complement the competitive Walrasian solution with welfare bounds, the ethical justification of which rests on commonality of ownership. Simulations with an intertemporal computable general equilibrium model illustrate the relevance of such welfare bounds. For a wide range of initial allocations of emission entitlements - including an equal per capita allocation - we find that developing countries should be fully compensated for their emission abatement efforts, but should not receive any further transfers. (author)

  16. Jejum Pré-abate em Frangos de Corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes AA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available As condições ideais dos frangos de corte no momento do abate devem ser conhecidas a fim de possibilitar a produção de carne de excelente qualidade, uma vez que diversos fatores pré e pós-abate estão envolvidos na qualidade final. Em condições normais de abate e processamento, a retirada de ração é feita de 6 a 8 horas antes da apanha das aves, resultando em um período total de jejum de 8 a 12 horas antes do abate, para esvaziar o intestino e com isso minimizar a contaminação no abatedouro. A escalda, depena e evisceração são pontos importantes de contaminação cruzada no abatedouro devido à grande quantidade de microorganismos aderidos às penas, pele e patas das aves e ao rompimento das vísceras durante a evisceração. Entretanto, a desidratação da carcaça começa imediatamente após o início do jejum. Períodos prolongados de jejum podem afetar o pH das diversas partes do intestino, aumentando a presença de Salmonella e outros microorganismos patogênicos. Além disso, determinam uma maior contaminação pela bile, e são, subjetivamente, associados à fragilidade dos intestinos durante a evisceração mecânica. Portanto, os esquemas de processamento devem ser estabelecidos levando-se em conta a integridade e o esvaziamento do intestino e da vesícula biliar, bem como a desidratação e os seus efeitos sobre o bem estar das aves, contaminação da carcaça e qualidade da carne. Como alguns efeitos do jejum ainda não são bem conhecidos, sugerem-se pesquisas nas seguintes áreas: definir o tempo ótimo de jejum para atender o bem estar das aves, minimizar a contaminação e otimizar os parâmetros de qualidade de carcaça; estudar os efeitos de períodos prolongados de jejum sobre o pH e a colonização do papo, pró-ventrículo, moela, intestino delgado, intestino grosso e cecos por enterobactérias, como Salmonella, por exemplo; efeito do jejum sobre o tamanho e cor do fígado. O resultado esperado é um aumento

  17. A computational study of stimulus driven epileptic seizure abatement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Neal Taylor

    Full Text Available Active brain stimulation to abate epileptic seizures has shown mixed success. In spike-wave (SW seizures, where the seizure and background state were proposed to coexist, single-pulse stimulations have been suggested to be able to terminate the seizure prematurely. However, several factors can impact success in such a bistable setting. The factors contributing to this have not been fully investigated on a theoretical and mechanistic basis. Our aim is to elucidate mechanisms that influence the success of single-pulse stimulation in noise-induced SW seizures. In this work, we study a neural population model of SW seizures that allows the reconstruction of the basin of attraction of the background activity as a four dimensional geometric object. For the deterministic (noise-free case, we show how the success of response to stimuli depends on the amplitude and phase of the SW cycle, in addition to the direction of the stimulus in state space. In the case of spontaneous noise-induced seizures, the basin becomes probabilistic introducing some degree of uncertainty to the stimulation outcome while maintaining qualitative features of the noise-free case. Additionally, due to the different time scales involved in SW generation, there is substantial variation between SW cycles, implying that there may not be a fixed set of optimal stimulation parameters for SW seizures. In contrast, the model suggests an adaptive approach to find optimal stimulation parameters patient-specifically, based on real-time estimation of the position in state space. We discuss how the modelling work can be exploited to rationally design a successful stimulation protocol for the abatement of SW seizures using real-time SW detection.

  18. 77 FR 38709 - Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... for evaluating transportation measures and developing indicators of economic, social, and environmental performance of transportation systems to facilitate alternative analysis; (4) Developing and deploying research to address congestion reduction efforts; (5) Developing transportation safety planning...

  19. Cost-effectiveness of active transport for primary school children - Walking School Bus program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swinburn Boyd

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess from a societal perspective the incremental cost-effectiveness of the Walking School Bus (WSB program for Australian primary school children as an obesity prevention measure. The intervention was modelled as part of the ACE-Obesity study, which evaluated, using consistent methods, thirteen interventions targeting unhealthy weight gain in Australian children and adolescents. Methods A logic pathway was used to model the effects on body mass index [BMI] and disability-adjusted life years [DALYs] of the Victorian WSB program if applied throughout Australia. Cost offsets and DALY benefits were modelled until the eligible cohort reached 100 years of age or death. The reference year was 2001. Second stage filter criteria ('equity', 'strength of evidence', 'acceptability', feasibility', sustainability' and 'side-effects' were assessed to incorporate additional factors that impact on resource allocation decisions. Results The modelled intervention reached 7,840 children aged 5 to 7 years and cost $AUD22.8M ($16.6M; $30.9M. This resulted in an incremental saving of 30 DALYs (7:104 and a net cost per DALY saved of $AUD0.76M ($0.23M; $3.32M. The evidence base was judged as 'weak' as there are no data available documenting the increase in the number of children walking due to the intervention. The high costs of the current approach may limit sustainability. Conclusion Under current modelling assumptions, the WSB program is not an effective or cost-effective measure to reduce childhood obesity. The attribution of some costs to non-obesity objectives (reduced traffic congestion and air pollution etc. is justified to emphasise the other possible benefits. The program's cost-effectiveness would be improved by more comprehensive implementation within current infrastructure arrangements. The importance of active transport to school suggests that improvements in WSB or its variants need to be developed and fully evaluated.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of active transport for primary school children - Walking School Bus program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Marjory; Haby, Michelle; Galvin, Leah; Swinburn, Boyd; Carter, Robert

    2009-09-14

    To assess from a societal perspective the incremental cost-effectiveness of the Walking School Bus (WSB) program for Australian primary school children as an obesity prevention measure. The intervention was modelled as part of the ACE-Obesity study, which evaluated, using consistent methods, thirteen interventions targeting unhealthy weight gain in Australian children and adolescents. A logic pathway was used to model the effects on body mass index [BMI] and disability-adjusted life years [DALYs] of the Victorian WSB program if applied throughout Australia. Cost offsets and DALY benefits were modelled until the eligible cohort reached 100 years of age or death. The reference year was 2001. Second stage filter criteria ('equity', 'strength of evidence', 'acceptability', feasibility', sustainability' and 'side-effects') were assessed to incorporate additional factors that impact on resource allocation decisions. The modelled intervention reached 7,840 children aged 5 to 7 years and cost $AUD22.8M ($16.6M; $30.9M). This resulted in an incremental saving of 30 DALYs (7:104) and a net cost per DALY saved of $AUD0.76M ($0.23M; $3.32M). The evidence base was judged as 'weak' as there are no data available documenting the increase in the number of children walking due to the intervention. The high costs of the current approach may limit sustainability. Under current modelling assumptions, the WSB program is not an effective or cost-effective measure to reduce childhood obesity. The attribution of some costs to non-obesity objectives (reduced traffic congestion and air pollution etc.) is justified to emphasise the other possible benefits. The program's cost-effectiveness would be improved by more comprehensive implementation within current infrastructure arrangements. The importance of active transport to school suggests that improvements in WSB or its variants need to be developed and fully evaluated.

  1. Abatement vs. treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebeling, P C; Cunha, M C; Arroja, L; van Grieken, M E

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments. The delivery of water pollutants can be reduced through water pollution abatement as well as water pollution treatment. Hence, sustainable economic development of coastal regions requires balancing of the marginal costs from water pollution abatement and/or treatment and the associated marginal benefits from marine resource appreciation. Water pollution delivery reduction costs are, however, not equal across abatement and treatment options. In this paper, an optimal control approach is developed and applied to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems. For the case of diffuse source dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution in the Tully-Murray region, Queensland, Australia, (agricultural) water pollution abatement cost, (wetland) water pollution treatment cost and marine benefit functions are determined to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment. Considering partial (wetland) treatment costs and positive water quality improvement benefits, results show that welfare gains can be obtained, primarily, through diffuse source water pollution abatement (improved agricultural management practices) and, to a minor extent, through diffuse source water pollution treatment (wetland restoration).

  2. Prospective life cycle carbon abatement for pyrolysis biochar systems in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Jim; Shackley, Simon; Sohi, Saran; Brownsort, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) of slow pyrolysis biochar systems (PBS) in the UK for small, medium and large scale process chains and ten feedstocks was performed, assessing carbon abatement and electricity production. Pyrolysis biochar systems appear to offer greater carbon abatement than other bioenergy systems. Carbon abatement of 0.7-1.3 t CO 2 equivalent per oven dry tonne of feedstock processed was found. In terms of delivered energy, medium to large scale PBS abates 1.4-1.9 t CO 2 e/MWh, which compares to average carbon emissions of 0.05-0.30 t CO 2 e/MWh for other bioenergy systems. The largest contribution to PBS carbon abatement is from the feedstock carbon stabilised in biochar (40-50%), followed by the less certain indirect effects of biochar in the soil (25-40%)-mainly due to increase in soil organic carbon levels. Change in soil organic carbon levels was found to be a key sensitivity. Electricity production off-setting emissions from fossil fuels accounted for 10-25% of carbon abatement. The LCA suggests that provided 43% of the carbon in the biochar remains stable, PBS will out-perform direct combustion of biomass at 33% efficiency in terms of carbon abatement, even if there is no beneficial effect upon soil organic carbon levels from biochar application. - Research highlights: → Biochar systems offer greater carbon abatement than combustion or gasification. → Carbon abatement of 0.7-1.4t CO 2 e/dry tonne of feedstock processed was found. → Change in soil organic carbon stocks induced by biochar is the key sensitivity. → Biochar systems produce less electricity then combustion or gasification.

  3. Fuel cells for transportation program: FY1997 national laboratory annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cells for Transportation Program is structured to effectively implement the research and development (R and D) required for highly efficient, low or zero emission fuel cell power systems to be a viable replacement for the internal combustion engine in automobiles. The Program is part of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), a government-industry initiative aimed at development of an 80 mile-per-gallon vehicle. This Annual Report summarizes the technical accomplishments of the laboratories during 1997. Participants include: Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). During 1997, the laboratory R and D included one project on solid oxide fuel cells; this project has since been terminated to focus Department resources on PEM fuel cells. The technical component of this report is divided into five key areas: fuel cell stack research and development; fuel processing; fuel cell modeling, testing, and evaluation; direct methanol PEM fuel cells; and solid oxide fuel cells.

  4. Transporting ideas between marine and social sciences: experiences from interdisciplinary research programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy M. Turner

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The oceans comprise 70% of the surface area of our planet, contain some of the world’s richest natural resources and are one of the most significant drivers of global climate patterns. As the marine environment continues to increase in importance as both an essential resource reservoir and facilitator of global change, it is apparent that to find long-term sustainable solutions for our use of the sea and its resources and thus to engage in a sustainable blue economy, an integrated interdisciplinary approach is needed. As a result, interdisciplinary working is proliferating. We report here our experiences of forming interdisciplinary teams (marine ecologists, ecophysiologists, social scientists, environmental economists and environmental law specialists to answer questions pertaining to the effects of anthropogenic-driven global change on the sustainability of resource use from the marine environment, and thus to transport ideas outwards from disciplinary confines. We use a framework derived from the literature on interdisciplinarity to enable us to explore processes of knowledge integration in two ongoing research projects, based on analyses of the purpose, form and degree of knowledge integration within each project. These teams were initially focused around a graduate program, explicitly designed for interdisciplinary training across the natural and social sciences, at the Gothenburg Centre for Marine Research at the University of Gothenburg, thus allowing us to reflect on our own experiences within the context of other multi-national, interdisciplinary graduate training and associated research programs.

  5. 23 CFR 450.222 - Applicability of NEPA to statewide transportation plans and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Secretary concerning a long-range statewide transportation plan or STIP developed through the... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of NEPA to statewide transportation plans... TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Statewide Transportation Planning and...

  6. 23 CFR 450.336 - Applicability of NEPA to metropolitan transportation plans and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Secretary concerning a metropolitan transportation plan or TIP developed through the processes... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of NEPA to metropolitan transportation... TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and...

  7. A Hybrid Dynamic Programming for Solving Fixed Cost Transportation with Discounted Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Farhad Ghassemi Tari

    2016-01-01

    The problem of allocating different types of vehicles for transporting a set of products from a manufacturer to its depots/cross docks, in an existing transportation network, to minimize the total transportation costs, is considered. The distribution network involves a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles, with a variable transportation cost and a fixed cost in which a discount mechanism is applied on the fixed part of the transportation costs. It is assumed that the number of available vehicles i...

  8. Establishment and utilization of radiological protection programs for the transport of radioactive material; Establecimiento y utilizacion de programas de proteccion radiologica para el transporte de material radiactivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez V, J.; Capadona, N. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250 (1429) Buenos Aires, (Argentina)]. e-mail: jlvietri@sede.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    The present work has by objective to indicate rules for the establishment and the use of the Radiological Protection Programs (PPR) that are of application to the transport of radioactive materials according to that required by the Transport Regulation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The PPR are established and applied in systematic form for remittent, transport and addressees, to consider the measures of radiological protection and its appropriately control during the transport stages of radioactive material. In particular, in the work it is analyzed the PPR applied to the operative stage, in the one that can be considered as one of the more important documents to use since it summarizes the evaluations and the necessary controls of radiological protection. Also it is analyzed the importance that this document gets ready on the base that it converges in the the analyses, evaluations and data that have been kept in mind during the previous stages of design of bundles and production of packings, the types and quantities of involved bundles, as well as of considering the quantities of expeditions and its frequencies, the ways of transport, etc. It is included a brief description of the parts that the PPR conforms on the base of that suggested in the advanced draft of the TS-G-1.5 Guide 'Radiation Protection Programmes for Transport of Radioactive Material', of October, 2005, of the IAEA: objectives. necessity, scope, basic elements of a PPR in function of the occupational dose. assignment of functions and responsibilities for the establishment of a PPR, evaluation and dose optimization, surface contamination, segregation and other protection measures, responses in emergencies. training and administration systems for baled and transport of radioactive material. Next an example of PPR for the transport of bundles of the A Type by lorry with content of radiopharmaceuticals that are the bundles more used worldwide in the expeditions of

  9. The economics of greenhouse gas mitigation: Insights from illustrative global abatement scenarios modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurney, Andrew; Ahammad, Helal; Ford, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the Global Trade and Environment Model (GTEM) and MAGICC are used to simulate a number of global emission mitigation scenarios devised by the EMF 22 Transition Scenarios group in which radiative forcing goals and the architecture of developing economies' participation in hypothetical mitigation actions are varied. This paper presents a reference case of the world economy to 2100 and analyses some key regional and global results for the various global mitigation scenarios, including emission prices, emission levels, primary energy consumption and economic growth. Modelling results suggest that a transition to a low-carbon world would require a significant decarbonisation of electricity generation without necessarily cutting the electricity output in the long run. With the uptake of hybrids and non-fossil-fuel technologies, the transport sector could make an important contribution to global abatement of greenhouse gases. Furthermore, with substantial international mitigation efforts and uptake of low- and/or zero-emission technologies, the achievement of 3.7 W/m 2 and 4.5 W/m 2 radiative forcing targets by the end of the century could occur at emission prices of up to $550/t CO 2 -e. However, achieving the 2.6 W/m 2 (overshoot) radiative forcing target would require considerably higher emission prices and an immediate global mitigation action.

  10. Mixed-integer programming methods for transportation and power generation problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damci Kurt, Pelin

    This dissertation conducts theoretical and computational research to solve challenging problems in application areas such as supply chain and power systems. The first part of the dissertation studies a transportation problem with market choice (TPMC) which is a variant of the classical transportation problem in which suppliers with limited capacities have a choice of which demands (markets) to satisfy. We show that TPMC is strongly NP-complete. We consider a version of the problem with a service level constraint on the maximum number of markets that can be rejected and show that if the original problem is polynomial, its cardinality-constrained version is also polynomial. We propose valid inequalities for mixed-integer cover and knapsack sets with variable upper bound constraints, which appear as substructures of TPMC and use them in a branch-and-cut algorithm to solve this problem. The second part of this dissertation studies a unit commitment (UC) problem in which the goal is to minimize the operational cost of power generators over a time period subject to physical constraints while satisfying demand. We provide several exponential classes of multi-period ramping and multi-period variable upper bound inequalities. We prove the strength of these inequalities and describe polynomial-time separation algorithms. Computational results show the effectiveness of the proposed inequalities when used as cuts in a branch-and-cut algorithm to solve the UC problem. The last part of this dissertation investigates the effects of uncertain wind power on the UC problem. A two-stage robust model and a three-stage stochastic program are compared.

  11. Optimal strategies for the abatement of gaseous air pollutant emissions produced by human mobility. The Rome case study; Strategie ottimali per la riduzione delle emissioni di inquinanti gassosi prodotte dalla mobilita' urbana. Un'applicazione al caso di Roma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santostefano, S.; Cirillo, M.C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    In this paper a cost-effectiveness of gaseous vehicular emission reduction has been carried out for human mobility, over the transport network in Rome: in other words, once a reduction target of total emissions has been fixed for each pollutant, the most efficient abatement measures from a technical-economic point of view are selected. The optimization problem has been formalized considering linear functions both for the objective function and for constrains, i.e. within the classic linear programming framework, the objective being that of finding the diversion of present vehicular traffic to alternative technologies with lower emissions at minimum costs. A set of transport alternative measures has been considered and emission abatement cost minimization has been assumed as an objective function; specified abatements for CO (Carbon monoxide), NO{sub x} (nitrogen oxides) and VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) emissions have been introduced as constraints to the problem, expressed as reduction rates of estimated present emissions in the considered area. Model results show the distribution of present transportation capacity among possible alternatives for different hypothesis of emission reduction rates (reduction of 25%, 50%, 75%, 85% of present emissions and maximum feasible reduction within the specified constraints), and related costs. [Italian] In questo rapporto e' stata condotta un'analisi costi-efficacia relativa alla riduzione delle emissioni gassose veicolari dovute alla mobilita' urbana sulla rete di trasporto di Roma: in altre parole, fissata una quota di abbattimento delle emissioni complessive per ogni inquinante, sono state individuate le misure piu' efficienti dal punto di vista tecnico-economico che permettono di perseguire la riduzione prefissata. Il problema di ottimizzazione e' stato formalizzato definendo sia la funzione obiettivo che i relativi vincoli come funzioni lineari, e quindi nell'ambito della programmazione

  12. Living City: community mobilization to build active transport policies and programs in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sagaris

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the usefulness of walking and cycling to promote health is increasingly recognized, the importance of civil society leadership in developing new policies and activities is often overlooked. This case study, of Living City (Ciudad Viva a community-based organization in Santiago, Chile, examines how several communities used knowledge about transport’s impact on the environment and health, gained through opposition to a major highway project, to build effective sustainable urban transport initiatives.Inspired by urban reforms in Bogot´a, Living City now focuses mainly on “active transport” (formerly nonmotorized, building the policies, attitudes and infrastructure necessary to encourage walking and cycling, and the inclusion of the differently abled. It has won two major awards for innovation and now partners with NGOs in The Netherlands and elsewhere in Chile and Latin America.Moreover, Living City now organizes cycling-inclusive training programs, design charrettes and participatory processes in cooperation with Santiago’s regional and national authorities. Its publication, La Voz de La Chimba, distributed free throughout the city by volunteers, has helped to open people’s eyes to the implications of active transport for social equality and health, and provided support to other citizens’ initiatives, struggling to get off the ground.This experience illustrates how citizens’ and community organizations acquire important knowledge and practical experience in learning by doing situations, and how they can learn to reach out to ordinary people and key policymakers, building bridges across the citizen-policy divide to produce innovative, win-win programs that simultaneously bring change at micro- and macro-levels.Bien que la nécessité de marcher et de faire du vélo pour rester en bonne santé soit de plus en plus reconnue, l’importance du rôle prépondérant de la société civile dans le développement de nouvelles

  13. A bottom-up method to develop pollution abatement cost curves for coal-fired utility boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijay, Samudra; DeCarolis, Joseph F.; Srivastava, Ravi K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper illustrates a new method to create supply curves for pollution abatement using boiler-level data that explicitly accounts for technology cost and performance. The Coal Utility Environmental Cost (CUECost) model is used to estimate retrofit costs for five different NO x control configurations on a large subset of the existing coal-fired, utility-owned boilers in the US. The resultant data are used to create technology-specific marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs) and also serve as input to an integer linear program, which minimizes system-wide control costs by finding the optimal distribution of NO x controls across the modeled boilers under an emission constraint. The result is a single optimized MACC that accounts for detailed, boiler-specific information related to NO x retrofits. Because the resultant MACCs do not take into account regional differences in air-quality standards or pre-existing NO x controls, the results should not be interpreted as a policy prescription. The general method as well as NO x -specific results presented here should be of significant value to modelers and policy analysts who must estimate the costs of pollution reduction.

  14. Virtual Reality Platform Based Simulation System of Environmental Noise Abatement Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yijun, Liu; Yu, Fang; Xiaoman, He; Yongyou, Wang

    The general mathematic mode of computing noise abatement is commonly used for most project planning and appraisal of environmental noise abatement projects. However, the inconvenient and impracticable mode and algorithm usually cannot meet the real world computation and testing. Therefore, a more practicable abatement mode and algorithm (multiple noise sources with multiband under sound barriers) which had been applied to VR based simulation system. That implemented the function of real-time demonstrating noise scattering condition within 3D virtual space, furthermore, with sound barriers added in 3D scene, the effectiveness of denoise by sound barriers also can be demonstrated within this system. That provides a significant solution for environmental noise abatement projects as a whole.

  15. Noise Assessment and Abatement in Rapid Transit Systems: Report on the MBTA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-09-01

    A methodology is described for assessing the noise climate and for selecting the combination of abatement techniques which reduces the existing noise to user specified levels for minimum cost. This methodology, developed in a pilot study of the Massa...

  16. Investigation into effective traffic noise abatement design solutions for mountain corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Traffic noise abatement in mountain corridors can be difficult because traditional roadside barriers may be ineffective : due to topography or may not fit the setting. This study examined current best practices from around the world to gather : conce...

  17. Upper Blackstone Water Pollution Abatement District Chief Operator Recognized for Outstanding Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Nowak, a resident of Ware Mass. and Chief Operator of the Upper Blackstone Water Pollution Abatement District (District) in Milbury, Mass., was honored by EPA with a 2016 Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator of the Year Excellence Award.

  18. Emigrants in Flight. The Novel of Carmine Abate and the Peasant Fights in Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiuscia FLORIANI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The novel "La moto de Skanderberg" by Carmine Abate tells the story of the arberesh people's emigration and its involmement in the village conflict; the novel tells also the journey of identity construction of the young protagonist.

  19. Cigar Lake project abatement of August 2008 inflow - a story of innovation and relentless teamwork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, R.; Dixon, B.; King, C.; Dent, A.

    2010-01-01

    'Full text:' The presentation recounts the process of finding August 2008 inflow, as well as planning and executing the inflow abatement project. Brian Dixon will speak regarding locating the inflow, preparing the inflow abatement plan, and preparing the underground work site at the (underwater) 420 meter level. Craig King will speak regarding design, procurement, and installation of the grout bag barrier adjacent to the No. 1 Shaft at the underwater work site. April Dent will speak regarding the surface abatement drilling and backfilling/grouting, as well as the testing of the completed inflow abatement work. The team will discuss the innovative methods to locate the source of inflow and steps taken to remediate it. (author)

  20. Inter-terminal transfer between port terminals. A continuous mathematical programming model to optimize scheduling and deployment of transport units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Fusco, P.; Pedrielli, G.; Zhou, C.; Hay Lee, L.; Peng Chew, E.

    2016-07-01

    In most large port cities, the challenge of inter-terminal transfers (ITT) prevails due to the long distance between multiple terminals. The quantity of containers requiring movement between terminals as they connect from pre-carrier to on-carrier is increasing with the formation of the mega-alliances. The paper proposes a continuous time mathematical programming model to optimize the deployment and schedule of trucks and barges to minimize the number of operating transporters, their makespan, costs and the distance travelled by the containers by choosing the right combination of transporters and container movements while fulfilling time window restrictions imposed on reception of the containers. A multi-step routing problem is developed where transporters can travel from one terminal to another and/or load or unload containers from a specific batch at each step. The model proves successful in identifying the costless schedule and means of transportation. And a sensibility analysis over the parameters used is provided. (Author)

  1. Air quality analysis of MDT transportation improvements, cost-effectiveness analysis of the MACI Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    "Under TEA-21, part of Montana's CMAQ apportionment is dedicated to Missoula and at the direction of the : Montana Transportation Commission, the Montana Department of Transportation (MDT) directs the remainder of : the CMAQ apportionment to areas in...

  2. Air quality analysis of MDT transportation improvements : cost-effectiveness analysis of the MACI program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    Under TEA-21, part of Montana's CMAQ apportionment is dedicated to Missoula and at the direction of the : Montana Transportation Commission, the Montana Department of Transportation (MDT) directs the remainder of : the CMAQ apportionment to areas in ...

  3. Charge transport and storage of low programming voltage SONOS/MONOS memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libsch, Frank R.; White, Marvin H.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, a model based on two carrier conduction (electrons and holes) at both injecting boundaries (semiconductor bulk and gate electrode) is introduced to interpret the ERASE/WRITE characteristics of scaled SONOS devices. The amphoteric statistics describe the positive and negative charging of the deep-level traps in the nitride "memory" layer. Scaled SONOS/MONOS (polysilicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-semiconductor)/(metal-oxide- nitride-oxide-semiconductor) transistors and capacitors with the bottom ('tunnel') oxide layer thickness around 20 Å, the final nitride layer thickness below 100 Å, and the top ('blocking') oxide layer thickness between 35-50 Å, have been fabricated and characterized. The results of the model are consistent with the experimental data, which permits physical insight into the mechanisms of charge injection, transport and storage during the ERASE/WRITE operation. Lattice imaging electron microscopy (TEM), ellipsometry, electrical capacitance, and chemical etchback techniques have been used to determine scaled SONOS/MONOS material parameters. The linear voltage ramp technique, which simultaneously measures the flatband voltage shift and separates the charges at the injecting boundary, and the dynamic pulse techniques of flatband tracking and threshold monitoring, which measure ERASE/WRITE, retention and endurance operations, have been employed to electrically characterize the scaled SONOS/MONOS devices. We have demonstrated a differential, saturated ERASE/WRITE flatband shift of 3.8 V with a ±5 V programming voltage for scaled-down SONOS/MONOS devices with dimensions of 20 Å for the tunnel oxide, 50 Å for the nitride, and 35 Å for the blocking oxide. With ±5 V saturated ERASE/WRITE programming voltages and 10 6 ERASE/WRITE cycles, extrapolated retention gives a projected 10 year 0.5 V memory window at room temperature.

  4. Energy conservation and CO2-emission abatement potential in the Greek residential services sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A policy for CO 2 -emission abatement will have to allow for the sectoral energy-conservation potential. The present paper outlines the energy-analysis method applied to the Greek residential and services sectors. The trends in energy requirements for 1990-2000 are forecast and energy-conservation and CO 2 -abatement measures are proposed. A Maximum Action Scenario (MAS) and a Realistic Scenario (RS) are compared with a No-Action Scenario (NAS). (Author)

  5. Benefit measures for noise abatement: Calculations for road and rail traffic noise

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Henrik; Jonsson, Lina; Ögren, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    Purpose : the aim of this study is to estimate monetary abatement values for road and rail traffic noise that can be used for policy purposes. However, a main objective is to critically discuss the assumptions necessary to convert the monetary values elicited in willingness to pay (WTP) studies to values than can be use for policy purposes. Methods : we employ the hedonic regression technique on Swedish data to elicit individuals’ preferences for noise abatement. Our elicited values are then ...

  6. Using cerium oxides as catalysts for the abatement of trichloroethylene by plasma-catalysis route

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbroucke, Arne; Mora, Manuel; Jimenéz-Sanchidrián, C; Romero-Salguero, Francisco; De Geyter, Nathalie; Leys, Christophe; Morent, Rino

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the abatement of trichloroethylene was examined with a negative DC corona/glow discharge with CeO2 catalyst downstream. The abatement with the plasma alone system showed a poor COx selectivity. However, by combining the plasma source with CeO2 catalyst the COx selectivity was greatly improved, proving that this plasma-catalysis route shows great potential as air pollution control technology for low concentrated VOC air streams.

  7. Adolescents Exiting Homelessness Over Two Years: The Risk Amplification and Abatement Model

    OpenAIRE

    Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rice, Eric; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Mallett, Shelley; Rosenthal, Doreen; Batterham, Phillip; May, Susanne J.; Witkin, Andrea; Duan, Naihua

    2009-01-01

    The Risk Amplification and Abatement Model (RAAM), demonstrates that negative contact with socializing agents amplify risk, while positive contact abates risk for homeless adolescents. To test this model, the likelihood of exiting homelessness and returning to familial housing at 2 years and stably exiting over time are examined with longitudinal data collected from 183 newly homeless adolescents followed over 2 years in Los Angeles, CA. In support of RAAM, unadjusted odds of exiting at 2 yea...

  8. Solar energy and the abatement of atmospheric emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirasgedis, S.; Diakoulaki, D.; Assimacopoulos, D.

    1996-01-01

    In spite of the fact that solar energy is a ''clean'' energy form, gaseous pollutants are emitted during the manufacturing of the systems necessary for its utilisation. An attempt is made in this paper to estimate the level of atmospheric pollutants emitted during the successive stages which make up the manufacture process for solar water heating (SWH) systems, and to evaluate these results in comparison with the respective pollutant emission levels attributed to the generation of electricity in Greece's conventional power plants. As energy consumption is recognised as the main source of atmospheric pollution, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) method was applied, focusing on the most energy-consuming stages of the SWH system production process. The conclusions of the analysis indicate that the emissions of gaseous pollutants associated with the utilisation of solar energy are considerably lower than those caused by the production of electricity in conventional systems, thereby substantiating that solar energy utilisation can make a notable contribution to the abatement of atmospheric pollution. (author)

  9. Transportation Education and Outreach Pilot Program Targeting Students in Grades K-12. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Beverly T.

    The transportation engineering profession faces a challenging future in the 21st century. Over the past decade, advances in transportation and technology applications have altered and expanded the list of knowledge, skills, and abilities that transportation professionals must have. The end result is a rapidly changing industry that needs qualified…

  10. Acoustic programming in step-split-flow lateral-transport thin fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratier, Claire; Hoyos, Mauricio

    2010-02-15

    We propose a new separation scheme for micrometer-sized particles combining acoustic forces and gravitational field in split-flow lateral-transport thin (SPLITT)-like fractionation channels. Acoustic forces are generated by ultrasonic standing waves set up in the channel thickness. We report on the separation of latex particles of two different sizes in a preliminary experiment using this proposed hydrodynamic acoustic sorter, HAS. Total binary separation of 5 and 10 microm diameter particles has been achieved. Numerical simulations of trajectories of particles flowing through a step-SPLITT under the conditions which combine acoustic standing waves and gravity show a very good agreement with the experiment. Calculations in order to compare separations obtained by the acoustic programming s-SPLITT fractionation and the conventional SPLITT fractionation show that the improvement in separation time is around 1 order of magnitude and could still be improved; this is the major finding of this work. This separation technique can be extended to biomimetic particles and blood cells.

  11. A Solution Methodology and Computer Program to Efficiently Model Thermodynamic and Transport Coefficients of Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlemann, Paul G.

    2000-01-01

    A solution methodology has been developed to efficiently model multi-specie, chemically frozen, thermally perfect gas mixtures. The method relies on the ability to generate a single (composite) set of thermodynamic and transport coefficients prior to beginning a CFD solution. While not fundamentally a new concept, many applied CFD users are not aware of this capability nor have a mechanism to easily and confidently generate new coefficients. A database of individual specie property coefficients has been created for 48 species. The seven coefficient form of the thermodynamic functions is currently used rather then the ten coefficient form due to the similarity of the calculated properties, low temperature behavior and reduced CPU requirements. Sutherland laminar viscosity and thermal conductivity coefficients were computed in a consistent manner from available reference curves. A computer program has been written to provide CFD users with a convenient method to generate composite specie coefficients for any mixture. Mach 7 forebody/inlet calculations demonstrated nearly equivalent results and significant CPU time savings compared to a multi-specie solution approach. Results from high-speed combustor analysis also illustrate the ability to model inert test gas contaminants without additional computational expense.

  12. Climate and air quality-driven scenarios of ozone and aerosol precursor abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rypdal, Kristin; Rive, Nathan; Berntsen, Terje; Fagerli, Hilde; Klimont, Zbigniew; Mideksa, Torben K.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to causing domestic and regional environmental effects, many air pollutants contribute to radiative forcing (RF) of the climate system. However, climate effects are not considered when cost-effective abatement targets for these pollutants are established, nor are they included in current international climate agreements. We construct air pollution abatement scenarios in 2030 which target cost-effective reductions in RF in the EU, USA, and China and compare these to abatement scenarios which instead target regional ozone effects and particulate matter concentrations. Our analysis covers emissions of PM (fine, black carbon and organic carbon), SO 2 , NO x , CH 4 , VOCs, and CO. We find that the effect synergies are strong for PM/BC, VOC, CO and CH 4 . While an air quality strategy targeted at reducing ozone will also reduce RF, this will not be the case for a strategy targeting particulate matter. Abatement in China dominates RF reduction, but there are cheap abatement options also available in the EU and USA. The justification for international cooperation on air quality issues is underlined when the co-benefits of reduced RF are considered. Some species, most importantly SO 2 , contribute a negative forcing on climate. We suggest that given current knowledge, NO x and SO 2 should be ignored in RF-targeted abatement policies.

  13. Marginal abatement cost curve for nitrogen oxides incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, Daniel H; Macpherson, Alexander J; Kaufman, Katherine R; Keaveny, Brian N

    2017-10-01

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs are typically developed by sorting control technologies by their relative cost-effectiveness. Other potentially important abatement measures such as renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching (RE/EE/FS) are often not incorporated into MACCs, as it is difficult to quantify their costs and abatement potential. In this paper, a U.S. energy system model is used to develop a MACC for nitrogen oxides (NO x ) that incorporates both traditional controls and these additional measures. The MACC is decomposed by sector, and the relative cost-effectiveness of RE/EE/FS and traditional controls are compared. RE/EE/FS are shown to have the potential to increase emission reductions beyond what is possible when applying traditional controls alone. Furthermore, a portion of RE/EE/FS appear to be cost-competitive with traditional controls. Renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching can be cost-competitive with traditional air pollutant controls for abating air pollutant emissions. The application of renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching is also shown to have the potential to increase emission reductions beyond what is possible when applying traditional controls alone.

  14. Transportable educational programs for scientific and technical professionals: More effective utilization of automated scientific and technical data base systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D.

    1987-01-01

    This grant final report executive summary documents a major, long-term program addressing innovative educational issues associated with the development, administration, evaluation, and widespread distribution of transportable educational programs for scientists and engineers to increase their knowledge of, and facilitate their utilization of automated scientific and technical information storage and retrieval systems. This educational program is of very broad scope, being targeted at Colleges of Engineering and Colleges of Physical sciences at a large number of colleges and universities throughout the United States. The educational program is designed to incorporate extensive hands-on, interactive usage of the NASA RECON system and is supported by a number of microcomputer-based software systems to facilitate the delivery and usage of the educational course materials developed as part of the program.

  15. Design study of RL10 derivatives. Volume 3, part 2: Operational and flight support plan. [analysis of transportation requirements for rocket engine in support of space tug program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubert, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    Transportation requirements are considered during the engine design layout reviews and maintenance engineering analyses. Where designs cannot be influenced to avoid transportation problems, the transportation representative is advised of the problems permitting remedies early in the program. The transportation representative will monitor and be involved in the shipment of development engine and GSE hardware between FRDC and vehicle manufacturing plant and thereby will be provided an early evaluation of the transportation plans, methods and procedures to be used in the space tug support program. Unanticipated problems discovered in the shipment of development hardware will be known early enough to permit changes in packaging designs and transportation plans before the start of production hardware and engine shipments. All conventional transport media can be used for the movement of space tug engines. However, truck transport is recommended for ready availability, variety of routes, short transit time, and low cost.

  16. Future needs for ship emission abatement and technical measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa ANTES

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Maritime Organization (IMO has revised air pollution regulations in MARPOL Annex VI. In 2012 Emission Control Areas (ECA will limit fuel sulphur content to 1% and from 2015 to 0.1%. NOx emissions based on ships engine speed are also reduced for new vessels (2012 & 2016. Facing this legislation, ship owners have the alternative either to operate ships with costly low-sulphur fuels, or to keep using HFO but together with a gas cleaning equipment at the ship stack in order to reduce the rejected amount of SO2 gas in the atmosphere. To achieve this requirement, research and development organizations came out with proposing a solution that uses a device for cleaning exhaust gas of marine diesel engines. The paper presents a short communication about the DEECON project, which aim is to create a novel on-board after-treatment unit more advanced than any currently available. Each sub-unit of the system will be optimized to remove a specific primary pollutant. In particular, the technology within the DEECON system is based on novel or improved abatement techniques for reducing SOx, NOx, Particulate Matter (PM, CO and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC. Some of these technologies are completely new for the maritime sector and they will represent a breakthrough in the reduction of the atmospheric emissions of ships, moving forward the performance of exhaust gas cleaning systems and fostering and anticipating the adoption of future and tighter regulatory requirements. In addition, an after-treatment strategy enables the possible adoption of alternative fuels, which often have their own emissions characteristics.

  17. Chamber transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Craig L.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system

  18. OCWM Transportation Institutional Program Update on Collaborative Efforts with Key Stakeholders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saris, E.; Austin, P.; Offner, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) created the Office of National Transportation in 2003 recognizing the need to revitalize and accelerate development of the transportation system. The Department has made a commitment to work through a collaborative planning process before developing specific policies and procedures and making transportation decisions. OCRWM has begun to build the institutional framework to support development of this transportation system. Interactions with stakeholders have been initiated. The authors describe the key stakeholders, identified issues, regional and national planning activities, and mechanisms for interaction

  19. Office Civilian Waste Management Transportation Institutional Program Update on Collaborative Efforts with Key Stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Saris; P. Austin; J.J. Offner

    2004-12-29

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) created the Office of National Transportation in 2003 recognizing the need to revitalize and accelerate development of the transportation system. The Department has made a commitment to work through a collaborative planning process before developing specific policies and procedures and making transportation decisions. OCRWM has begun to build the institutional framework to support development of this transportation system. Interactions with stakeholders have been initiated. The authors describe the key stakeholders, identified issues, regional and national planning activities, and mechanisms for interaction.

  20. 76 FR 5244 - Alternative Transportation in Parks and Public Lands Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ...; reduce congestion and pollution; improve visitor mobility and accessibility; enhance visitor experience... projects across the country, ranging from bus purchases to installation of Intelligent Transportation...

  1. 77 FR 5617 - Alternative Transportation in Parks and Public Lands Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... pollution; improve visitor mobility and accessibility; enhance visitor experience; and ensure access to all... country, ranging from bus purchases to installation of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), and are...

  2. 75 FR 25913 - Alternative Transportation in Parks and Public Lands Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ...; reduce congestion and pollution; improve visitor mobility and accessibility; enhance visitor experience... projects across the country, ranging from bus purchases to installation of Intelligent Transportation...

  3. Market reaction to economic climate change policy : The merit order effect and the limits of marginal abatement cost curves

    OpenAIRE

    Levihn, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    Governments around the world have introduced economic policies to combat global warming. In the form of taxes, emissions trading schemes and subsidies, these polices seek to influence market actors to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. One tool used to understand market reactions to such policy is marginal abatement cost curves. These curves optimise the two dimensions of cost per abatement and abatement. However; in reality corporations instead optimize for cost reductions, not the combined co...

  4. RISKIND: A computer program for calculating radiological consequences and health risks from transportation of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Y.C.; Chen, S.Y.; LePoire, D.J.

    1993-02-01

    This report presents the technical details of RISIUND, a computer code designed to estimate potential radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the collective population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel. RISKIND is a user-friendly, semiinteractive program that can be run on an IBM or equivalent personal computer. The program language is FORTRAN-77. Several models are included in RISKIND that have been tailored to calculate the exposure to individuals under various incident-free and accident conditions. The incidentfree models assess exposures from both gamma and neutron radiation and can account for different cask designs. The accident models include accidental release, atmospheric transport, and the environmental pathways of radionuclides from spent fuels; these models also assess health risks to individuals and the collective population. The models are supported by databases that are specific to spent nuclear fuels and include a radionudide inventory and dose conversion factors

  5. RISKIND: A computer program for calculating radiological consequences and health risks from transportation of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Y.C. [Square Y, Orchard Park, NY (United States); Chen, S.Y.; LePoire, D.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.; Rothman, R. [USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1993-02-01

    This report presents the technical details of RISIUND, a computer code designed to estimate potential radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the collective population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel. RISKIND is a user-friendly, semiinteractive program that can be run on an IBM or equivalent personal computer. The program language is FORTRAN-77. Several models are included in RISKIND that have been tailored to calculate the exposure to individuals under various incident-free and accident conditions. The incidentfree models assess exposures from both gamma and neutron radiation and can account for different cask designs. The accident models include accidental release, atmospheric transport, and the environmental pathways of radionuclides from spent fuels; these models also assess health risks to individuals and the collective population. The models are supported by databases that are specific to spent nuclear fuels and include a radionudide inventory and dose conversion factors.

  6. Transportation Workforce Development: Sustaining and Expanding High School Outreach Programs and Multi-agency Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    This project supported a multi-university/agency partnership between Prairie View A&M University (PVAMU), the Texas A&M Transportation Institute (TTI), and Texas A&M University (TAMU) that focuses on producing high-quality transportation professional...

  7. 76 FR 30990 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Small Business Transportation Resource Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... limited to, vocational interest in transportation-related careers, academic success, work experience and... agreement on a best value basis, using the following criteria to rate and rank applications: Applications... immediate families, do not have a personal, business or financial interest in any DOT-funded transportation...

  8. 78 FR 43261 - Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) Program; Agency Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... serve as applicant (public-sector agency or private-sector firm), whether the applicant the same entity... Office of the Secretary of Transportation Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act... Collection Request in accordance with the requirements of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13...

  9. Engineering simulation evaluation of the two-segment noise abatement approach in the Douglas DC-8-61

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylen, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    The development and operational evaluation are discussed of a noise abatement two-segment approach which is safe and operationally acceptable for routine use in air carrier service. An engineering simulation evaluation was conducted; it was found that the entry speed and initial configuration are more important in the DC-8-61 than in the 727 because of the DC-8's aerodynamic cleanliness and drag programming constraints. It was also found that the altitude required for the DC-8 upper and lower transitions is less than the 727 transitions principally due to the pitching moment from the underslung DC-8 engines as compared to the 727 engines which produce no pitching moment with a change in thrust. The 727 approach was a reduced flaps (30 degrees) procedure with a 10-knot airspeed bleed in the lower transition; the DC-8 approach is a full flaps (50 degrees) procedure with constant airspeed established as soon as possible after upper segment transition.

  10. Consumer-Based Carbon Reduction Incentives: A Proposed Mixed Incentive Scheme for Reducing CO2 Emissions from Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Niemeyer, S. J.; Tisdell, J. G.

    1998-01-01

    To be cost effective the abatement greenhouse gases should be spread across the spectrum of emission sources. While energy production generates the largest share of greenhouse gases, emissions produced by vehicular transport in Australia is still a significant contributor and should bear at least some burden of abatement. Approaches to reducing greenhouse gases have tended thus far to focus on industry. In the transport sector, this industry-based approach has focussed on emission standards. ...

  11. Transportation risk assessment of radioactive wastes generated by the N-Reactor stabilization program at the Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, T.

    1994-12-01

    The potential radiological and nonradiological risks associated with specific radioactive waste shipping campaigns at the Hanford Site are estimated. The shipping campaigns analyzed are associated with the transportation of wastes from the N-Reactor site at the 200-W Area, both within the Hanford Reservation, for disposal. The analysis is based on waste that would be generated from the N-Reactor stabilization program

  12. Working Group 'Air pollution abatement' of the University of Stuttgart -ALS. Annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Despite considerable efforts for air pollution abatement - examples are here desulphurization and nitrogen removal in power and large combustion plants as well as catalytic converters for automobiles there are still many problems to solve. Many small and medium-size companies still have to reduce production-related pollutant emissions, traffic still is a major source of pollutants. Air pollution abatement in the new Federal states and other Eastern European countries is a particularly urgent task and reductions of CO 2 emissions from energy production processes with fossil fuels are not least a great challenge. Apart from industry, legislation and administration especially science is called upon to find solutions to these problems. The university of Stuttgart takes up the challenge. Numerous institutes - 17 of 8 faculties -united in the working group ''air pollution abatement'' of the university of Stuttgart which carries out in interdisciplinary cooperation research work in the area of air pollution abatement. In this annual report activities of individual member states institutes in the area of air pollution abatement (fields of study, current research projects, cooperations and publications in 1991) as well as joint projects are presented. (orig./KW) [de

  13. Emission abatement: Untangling the impacts of the EU ETS and the economic crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel, Germà; Joseph, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    In this study we use historical emission data from installations under the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) to evaluate the impact of this policy on greenhouse gas emissions during the first two trading phases (2005–2012). As such the analysis seeks to disentangle two causes of emission abatement: that attributable to the EU ETS and that attributable to the economic crisis that hit the EU in 2008/09. To do so, we use a dynamic panel data approach. Our results suggest that, by far, the biggest share of abatement was attributable to the effects of the economic crisis. This finding has serious implications for future policy adjustments affecting core elements of the EU ETS, including the distribution of EU emission allowances. - Highlights: • We untangle the effects of the EU ETS from those of the economic crisis on industrial emission abatement. • The empirical analysis uses verified emission data instead of estimated emission data. • Abatement of emissions in EU in the last years has been mainly due to the impact of the economic crisis. • Low level of abatement attributable to the EU ETS suggests that important changes must be made in environmental policy

  14. Waste isolation safety assessment program. Collection and generation of transport data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apps, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A project devoted to evaluation of mechanisms and rates of radioactive waste transport in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks is described. The research effort includes/ (1) calculation of the range of concentration expected for different radionuclides in given geologic environments by computer simulation of the groundwater chemistry; (2) development of a comprehensive theory relating exchange constants (K/sub D/s) to significant variables; (3) fabrication of test equipment to measure waste radionuclide transport rates in rock samples; (4) identification of transport rate controlling mechanisms; (5) experiments to determine K/sub D/ values for important radioactive waste elements for a variety of rock types and environmental conditions

  15. Rules of the Road for Transporting Children--Guidelines for Developing a Motor Vehicle Safety Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Bruce; Gearhart, Kentin

    1999-01-01

    Discusses safety issues for child care centers that provide transportation for children. Notes the importance of vehicle usage and control, driver qualifications, vehicle maintenance, child securement, accident procedures, and driver education and training. (JPB)

  16. Workshop to review problem-behavior research programs : pedestrian, bicycle, and pupil transportation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the proceedings of a workshop on pedestrian, bicycle, and pupil transportation safety. The purpose of this workshop was to develop specific recommendations for the planning and implementation of NHTSA research, development, and d...

  17. Different training programs for the transport of radioactive goods proposed by the INSTN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, O.

    2004-01-01

    To meet the statutory requirements of the ADR pertaining to training, the INSTN (National Institute for Nuclear Sciences and Technology) proposes different courses on the transport of radioactive materials

  18. Wearable Sensors in Transportation - Exploratory Advanced Research Program Initial Stage Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report summarizes an initial stage investigation into wearable sensors for transportation research : applications. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has observed significant activity in this area and : seeks to obtain an understanding of...

  19. System response of a DOE Defense Program package in a transportation accident environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.F.; Hovingh, J.; Kimura, C.Y.

    1992-01-01

    The system response in a transportation accident environment is an element to be considered in an overall Transportation System Risk Assessment (TSRA) framework. The system response analysis uses the accident conditions and the subsequent accident progression analysis to develop the accident source term, which in turn, is used in the consequence analysis. This paper proposes a methodology for the preparation of the system response aspect of the TSRA

  20. Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarosch, T.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.A.; Raymond, R.; Young, J.E.; Lombard, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development's VOC's in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry

  1. Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarosch, T.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.A.; Raymond, R.; Young, J.E.; Lombard, K.H.

    1995-01-23

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development`s VOC`s in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry.

  2. Heterogeneous IT Knowledge of Students: the Didactic Approach how to meet it in the Interdisciplinary Course Program Intelligent Transport Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Wahl

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available At the University of Applied Sciences (UAS Technikum Wien, Intelligent Transport System is a highly interdisciplinary Bachelor's degree program. Its curriculum covers several mainly technical oriented disciplines. Especially the IT courses account for the high drop-out rate of the course program. Students come with different IT knowledge depending on the one hand on their previous school education and on the other hand depending on their personal interest in IT topics. Normally, for students, IT is not the number one reason for choosing this program. Nevertheless, IT is extremely important as it interacts with all other disciplines. Especially the heterogeneity of the IT knowledge made it necessary to rethink the way of teaching. The paper describes the new didactic approach of the IT courses in the course program Intelligent Transport Systems. The new approach faces the students' difficulties and tries to overcome the varying pre-knowledge of students. Furthermore, it tries to increase students' motivation by paying particular attention to the students' assumed interests.

  3. Estimating the National Carbon Abatement Potential of City Policies: A Data-Driven Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aznar, Alexandra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Cities are increasingly taking actions such as building code enforcement, urban planning, and public transit expansion to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide in their communities and municipal operations. However, many cities lack the quantitative information needed to estimate policy impacts and prioritize city actions in terms of carbon abatement potential and cost effectiveness. This report fills this research gap by providing methodologies to assess the carbon abatement potential of a variety of city actions. The methodologies are applied to an energy use data set of 23,458 cities compiled for the U.S. Department of Energy City Energy Profile tool. The analysis develops a national estimate of the carbon abatement potential of realizable city actions in six specific policy areas encompassing the most commonly implemented city actions. The results of this analysis suggest that, in aggregate, cities could reduce nationwide carbon emissions by about 210 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (MMT CO2) per year in a 'moderate abatement scenario' by 2035 and 480 MMT CO2/year in a 'high abatement scenario' by 2035 through these common actions typically within a city's control in the six policy areas. The aggregate carbon abatement potential of these specific areas equates to a reduction of 3%-7% relative to 2013 U.S. emissions. At the city level, the results suggest the average city could reduce carbon emissions by 7% (moderate) to 19% (high) relative to current city-level emissions. In the context of U.S. climate commitments under the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties (COP21), the estimated national abatement potential of the city actions analyzed in this report equates to about 15%-35% of the remaining carbon abatement necessary to achieve the U.S. COP21 target. Additional city actions outside the scope of this report, such as community choice aggregation (city-level purchasing of renewable energy), zero energy districts, and multi

  4. Benefits from restoring wetlands for nitrogen abatement: A case study of Gotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gren, I.M.

    1992-01-01

    The values of nitrogen abatement by measures involving restoration of wetlands, sewage treatment plants and agriculture are calculated and compared. The analytical results show that the value of wetlands is likely to exceed the values of other measures due to the multi-functionality of wetlands and their self-organizing ability. The multi-functionality implies that, in addition to nitrogen abatement, other outputs like buffering of water and biodiversity are produced and the self-organizing feature reduces the rate at which future values of outputs are discounted. According to the empirical results applied to Gotland, a Swedish island in the Baltic with high concentrations of nitrate in the ground water, the imputed value of wetlands exceeds the corresponding values of the other nitrogen abatement measures by several hundred per cent. 21 refs, 6 tabs

  5. 25 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B - Allowable Uses of IRR Program Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... restoration and pollution abatement. 59. Trail development and related activities as identified in §§ 170.135... transportation project. 63. Construction of permanent fixed or moveable structures for snow or sand control. 64...

  6. National program of struggle against the climate change; Programme national de lutte contre le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-17

    The French national program of struggle against the climate change deals with the principal sources of pollution i.e. industry, transports, buildings, agriculture and forests wastes, gas refrigerants and power production. The document contains 12 chapters. First chapter concerns the France's responsibilities regarding the climatic change. The following issues are addressed: 1. The phenomenon, the gas releases and the potential impact; 2. The international negotiations and the European engagements; 3. France's effort for pollutant release abatement. The second chapter describes the principal options of the program. It presents: measures, economical constraints, long term structure actions upon offer. The third and the forth chapters deal with the industrial and transport releases and relating abatement measures. Chapter number five concerns the pollutant released in the building sector, i.e. those related to the dwelling houses, the current and proposed measures for reducing the harmful releases. The issue of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrogen oxide releases and absorptions in the sector agriculture-forests is addressed in chapter 6. The contribution of these releases to the greenhouse effect amounts up to 18% (with 11, 33% and 56%, fractions from the three gas emissions, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, respectively). Measures for release reduction are presented as well as actions to improve the knowledge of the processes. A special addendum gives estimates and the implications the storms of December 1999 had upon the national program. The waste sector contributes by 3% to the greenhouse effect while the power production sector, by 8%. The fraction of release of the three principal pollutant gases are 87%, 12% and 1%, respectively. The results of a scenario based on extant and proposed measures for release abatement are presented for the period 1990-2010. The chapter 8 devoted to the power production sector presents also the results obtained from the

  7. Airspace Systems Program: Next Generation Air Transportation System Concepts and Technology Development FY2010 Project Plan Version 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2010-01-01

    This document describes the FY2010 plan for the management and execution of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Concepts and Technology Development (CTD) Project. The document was developed in response to guidance from the Airspace Systems Program (ASP), as approved by the Associate Administrator of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), and from guidelines in the Airspace Systems Program Plan. Congress established the multi-agency Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) in 2003 to develop a vision for the 2025 Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) and to define the research required to enable it. NASA is one of seven agency partners contributing to the effort. Accordingly, NASA's ARMD realigned the Airspace Systems Program in 2007 to "directly address the fundamental research needs of the Next Generation Air Transportation System...in partnership with the member agencies of the JPDO." The Program subsequently established two new projects to meet this objective: the NextGen-Airspace Project and the NextGen-Airportal Project. Together, the projects will also focus NASA s technical expertise and world-class facilities to address the question of where, when, how and the extent to which automation can be applied to moving aircraft safely and efficiently through the NAS and technologies that address optimal allocation of ground and air technologies necessary for NextGen. Additionally, the roles and responsibilities of humans and automation influence in the NAS will be addressed by both projects. Foundational concept and technology research and development begun under the NextGen-Airspace and NextGen-Airportal projects will continue. There will be no change in NASA Research Announcement (NRA) strategy, nor will there be any change to NASA interfaces with the JPDO, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Research Transition Teams (RTTs), or other stakeholders

  8. A comprehensive worksite wellness program in Austin, Texas: partnership between Steps to a Healthier Austin and Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lynn; Loyo, Karina; Glowka, Aerie; Schwertfeger, Rick; Danielson, Lisa; Brea, Cecily; Easton, Alyssa; Griffin-Blake, Shannon

    2009-04-01

    In 2003, Steps to a Healthier Austin was funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to implement chronic disease prevention and health promotion activities. We report Steps to a Healthier Austin's partnership with Health & Lifestyles Corporate Wellness, Inc (Health & Lifestyles), to provide a worksite wellness program for Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Capital Metro), Austin's local transit authority. Capital Metro employs 1,282 people. In 2003, Health & Lifestyles was hired to help promote healthier lifestyles, increase employee morale, and combat rising health care costs and absenteeism rates. Health & Lifestyles provided consultations with wellness coaches and personal trainers, a 24-hour company fitness center, personalized health assessments, and preventive screenings. The program expanded to include healthier food options, cash incentives, health newsletters, workshops, dietary counseling, smoking cessation programs, and a second fitness center. Participants in the wellness program reported improvements in physical activity, healthy food consumption, weight loss, and blood pressure. Capital Metro's total health care costs increased by progressively smaller rates from 2003 to 2006 and then decreased from 2006 to 2007. Absenteeism has decreased by approximately 25% since the implementation of the program, and the overall return on the investment was calculated to be 2.43. Since the implementation of the wellness program in 2003, Capital Metro has seen a reduction in costs associated with employee health care and absenteeism.

  9. Modeling and experimental validation of TCE abatement and ozone formation with non thermal plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbroucke, Arne; Aerts, Robby; Morent, Rino; De Geyter, Nathalie; Bogaerts, Annemie; Leys, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the formation of ozone and the abatement of trichloroethylene (TCE) with non thermal plasma was experimentally and theoretically investigated. The model predicts that the ozone formation increases with the energy deposition and decreases with the relative humidity (RH) of the air, which is qualitatively in agreement with experimental data. For an energy deposition of 0.136 J/cm³, the abatement of 1000 ppm TCE in air with 5 % RH is dominated by atomic oxygen and to a lesser exte...

  10. Water Pollution abatement programme, The Czech republic Pollution abatement analysis and strengthening of water resources management, Odra River Catchment, phase II

    OpenAIRE

    Dagestad, K.; Ratnaweera, H.; Ibrekk, H.O.; Hansen, J.H.; Tridlica, L.; Brezina, P.; Skacel, A.

    1995-01-01

    Odra river is extremely polluted by organic matter, nitrates, ammonia, phosphorus, bacteria, particles, heavy metals and other micro pollutants from municipalities, industries and agriculture. The poor water quality severely affects the ecology and represents a risk to human health. The water has a very limited value of use. This report presents an abatement programme with both technical and accompanying measures. In order to identify the major polluters several multi criteria analysis have b...

  11. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  12. The new Space Shuttle Transportation System (STS) - Problem, performance, supportability, and programmatic trending program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, J. L.; Rodney, G. A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the NASA Space Shuttle Trend Analysis program. The four main areas of the program - problem/reliability, performance, supportability, and programmatic trending - are defined, along with motivation for these areas, the statistical methods used, and illustrative Space Shuttle applications. Also described is the NASA Safety, Reliability, Maintainability and Quality Assurance (SRM&QA) Management Information Center, used to focus management attention on key near-term launch concerns and long-range mission trend issues. Finally, the computer data bases used to support the program and future program enhancements are discussed.

  13. SHIELD-HIT12A - a Monte Carlo particle transport program for ion therapy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Hansen, David Christoffer; Lühr, Armin

    2014-01-01

    . We experienced that new users quickly learn to use SHIELD-HIT12A and setup new geometries. Contrary to previous versions of SHIELD-HIT, the 12A distribution comes along with easy-to-use example files and an English manual. A new implementation of Vavilov straggling resulted in a massive reduction...... of computation time. Scheduled for later release are CT import and photon-electron transport. Conclusions: SHIELD-HIT12A is an interesting alternative ion transport engine. Apart from being a flexible particle therapy research tool, it can also serve as a back end for a MC ion treatment planning system. More...

  14. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report; Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2013/FY 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    Compliance rates for covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets under the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program (pursuant to the Energy Policy Act or EPAct) are reported for MY 2013/FY 2014 in this publication.

  15. A study to determine the applicability of noise abatement approach procedures to McDonnell Douglas Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, J. A.; Shannon, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses of McDonnell Douglas DC-8, DC-9, and DC-10 jet transports were conducted to investigate the applicability of two segment approach noise abatement procedures to these airplanes. All models had the required glide slope capability at the certified landing flap settings. The DC-8 models would probably be limited to an upper segment glide slope of 5.5 degrees and would probably not be suitable for the two segment procedure in icing conditions. The DC-8 would not be compatible with this procedure at a reduced landing flap setting. The feasibility of installing a two segment approach system in the Douglas-built fleet of commercial jet transports from a hardware viewpoint is discussed. The candidate system consists of a two segment computer plus the necessary peripheral equipment interfaced with the existing autopilot and associated avionics. The required modifications and additions to existing equipment are described and the attendant costs estimated. Potential problems which may be encountered are also discussed.

  16. Development of a New Transportation/Storage Cask System for Use by the DOE Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. Tyacke; Frantisek Svitak; Jiri Rychecky; Miroslav Picek; Alexey Smirnov; Sergey Komarov; Edward Bradley; Alexander Dudchenko; Konstantin Golubkin

    2007-10-01

    The United States, the Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have been working together on a program called the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) Program. The purpose of this program is to return Soviet or Russian-supplied high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel, currently stored at Russian-designed research reactors throughout the world, to Russia. To accommodate transport of the HEU spent nuclear fuel (SNF), a new large-capacity transport/storage cask system was specially designed for handling and operations under the unique conditions at these research reactor facilities. This new cask system is named the ŠKODA VPVR/M cask. The design, licensing, testing, and delivery of this new cask system result from a significant international cooperative effort by several countries and involved numerous private and governmental organizations. This paper contains the following sections: 1) Introduction; 2) VPVR/M Cask Description; 3) Ancillary Equipment, 4) Cask Licensing; 5) Cask Demonstration and Operations; 6) IAEA Procurement, Quality Assurance Inspections, Fabrication, and Delivery; and, 7) Conclusions.

  17. Transport jet aircraft noise abatement in foreign countries: Growth, structure, impact. Volume 1: Europe, July 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, F. A.

    1980-01-01

    The development and implementation of aircraft noise control regulations in various European states are described. The countries include the United Kingdom, France, Switzerland, Federal Republic of Germany, Sweden, Denmark, and the Netherlands. Topics discussed include noise monitoring, airport curfews, land use planning, and the government structure for noise regulation.

  18. ALBEMO, a program for the calculation of the radiation transport in void volumes with reflecting walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, K.; Vossebrecker, H.

    The Monte Carlo Program ALBEMO calculates the distribution of neutrons and gamma rays in void volumes which are bounded by reflecting walls with x, y, z coordinates. The program is based on the albedo method. The effect of significant simplifying assumptions is investigated. Comparisons with experiments show satisfying agreement

  19. 78 FR 25339 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Tribal Transportation Program Safety Funds; and Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... provide concrete evidence of project milestones, financial capacity and commitment in order to support... anticipates high demand for this limited amount of funding and encourages applications for modest-sized... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration [Docket No. FHWA-2013-0012] Notice of...

  20. 75 FR 34336 - Reimbursement Transportation Cost Payment Program for Geographically Disadvantaged Farmers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ...; (5) Name of person or entity providing the service, as applicable, and; (6) Retail sales receipts... contiguous United States) operate at a competitive disadvantage relative to farmers and ranchers in the continental United States. This disadvantage is due to the high cost of transporting agricultural commodities...

  1. Possession, Transportation, and Use of Firearms by Older Youth in 4-H Shooting Sports Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David J.; Williver, S. Todd

    2014-01-01

    Thirty years ago we would think nothing of driving to school with a jackknife in our pocket or rifle in the gun rack. Since then, the practices of possessing, transporting, and using firearms have been limited by laws, rules, and public perception. Despite restrictions on youth, the Youth Handgun Safety Act does afford 4-H shooting sports members…

  2. Evaluation of the transport and resuspension of a simulated nuclear waste slurry: Nuclear Waste Treatment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carleson, T.E.; Drown, D.C.; Hart, R.E.; Peterson, M.E.

    1987-09-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Idaho conducted research on the transport and resuspension of a simulated high-level nuclear waste slurry. In the United States, the reference process for treating both defense and civilian HLLW is vitrification using the liquid-fed ceramic melter process. The non-Newtonian behavior of the slurry complicates the evaluation of the transport and resuspension characteristics of the slurry. The resuspension of a simulated (nonradioactive) melter feed slurry was evaluated using a slurry designated as WV-205. The simulated slurry was developed for the West Valley Demonstration Project and was used during a pilot-scale ceramic melter (PSCM) experiment conducted at PNL in July 1985 (PSCM-21). This study involved determining the transport characteristics of a fully suspended slurry and the resuspension characteristics of settled solids in a pilot-scale pipe loop. The goal was to predict the transport and resuspension of a full-scale system based on rheological data for a specific slurry. The rheological behavior of the slurry was evaluated using a concentric cylinder rotational viscometer, a capillary tube viscometer, and the pilot-scale pipe loop. The results obtained from the three approaches were compared. 40 refs., 74 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. 75 FR 3517 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Small Business Transportation Resource Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ..., business assessment, management training, counseling, technical assistance, marketing and outreach, and the... necessary to improve the management of their own small business to expand their transportation-related..., bonding assistance, business counseling, management assistance and direct referrals to DOT agencies at the...

  4. Evaluation of the transport and resuspension of a simulated nuclear waste slurry: Nuclear Waste Treatment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carleson, T.E.; Drown, D.C.; Hart, R.E.; Peterson, M.E.

    1987-09-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Idaho conducted research on the transport and resuspension of a simulated high-level nuclear waste slurry. In the United States, the reference process for treating both defense and civilian HLLW is vitrification using the liquid-fed ceramic melter process. The non-Newtonian behavior of the slurry complicates the evaluation of the transport and resuspension characteristics of the slurry. The resuspension of a simulated (nonradioactive) melter feed slurry was evaluated using a slurry designated as WV-205. The simulated slurry was developed for the West Valley Demonstration Project and was used during a pilot-scale ceramic melter (PSCM) experiment conducted at PNL in July 1985 (PSCM-21). This study involved determining the transport characteristics of a fully suspended slurry and the resuspension characteristics of settled solids in a pilot-scale pipe loop. The goal was to predict the transport and resuspension of a full-scale system based on rheological data for a specific slurry. The rheological behavior of the slurry was evaluated using a concentric cylinder rotational viscometer, a capillary tube viscometer, and the pilot-scale pipe loop. The results obtained from the three approaches were compared. 40 refs., 74 figs., 15 tabs

  5. Evaluating noise abatement measures using strategic noise maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, H.C.; Miedema, H.M.E.; Laan, W.P.N. van der; Lohman, W.J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Noise annoyance due to transportation is widespread in industrialized countries and in urban areas in the developing countries. The European Noise Directive (END) requires an assessment of the noise situation as well as the formulation of action plans for the reduction of the number of people

  6. Tobacco litter costs and public policy: a framework and methodology for considering the use of fees to offset abatement costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, N Andrew; Kiss, Noemi; Ebeid, Omar; Doyle, Alexis S

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Growing concern over the costs, environmental impact and safety of tobacco product litter (TPL) has prompted states and cities to undertake a variety of policy initiatives, of which litter abatement fees are part. The present work describes a framework and methodology for calculating TPL costs and abatement fees. Methods Abatement is associated with four categories of costs: (1) mechanical and manual abatement from streets, sidewalks and public places, (2) mechanical and manual abatement from storm water and sewer treatment systems, (3) the costs associated with harm to the ecosystem and harm to industries dependent on clean and healthy ecosystems, and (4) the costs associated with direct harm to human health. The experiences of the City of San Francisco's recently proposed tobacco litter abatement fee serve as a case study. Results City and municipal TPL costs are incurred through manual and mechanical clean-up of surfaces and catchment areas. According to some studies, public litter abatement costs to US cities range from US$3 million to US$16 million. TPL typically comprises between 22% and 36% of all visible litter, implying that total public TPL direct abatement costs range from about US$0.5 million to US$6 million for a city the size of San Francisco. The costs of mitigating the negative externalities of TPL in a city the size of San Francisco can be offset by implementing a fee of approximately US$0.20 per pack. Conclusions Tobacco litter abatement costs to cities can be substantial, even when the costs of potential environmental pollution and tourism effects are excluded. One public policy option to address tobacco litter is levying of fees on cigarettes sold. The methodology described here for calculating TPL costs and abatement fees may be useful to state and local authorities who are considering adoption of this policy initiative. PMID:21504923

  7. Beam 25 program for numerical simulation of the processes of high-current electron beam shaping,acceleration and transportation

    CERN Document Server

    Gordeev, V S

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents the description of a self-consistent difference scheme and numerical algorithm of a joint solution of Maxwell equations and equation of charge particle motion on a regular non-uniform mesh. The given algorithm is applied to calculate non-stationary electromagnetic processes in axially symmetric structures consisting of components with different electric and magnetic properties as well as to simulate numerically the processes of high-current electron beam shaping, acceleration and transportation. The example of the program use for the calculation of electron beam characteristics in a STRAUS-2 accelerator diode is given. The obtained coincidence of calculation and experimental data lies within the limits of +- 10%.

  8. TCV software test and validation tools and technique. [Terminal Configured Vehicle program for commercial transport aircraft operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straeter, T. A.; Williams, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes techniques for testing and validating software for the TCV (Terminal Configured Vehicle) program which is intended to solve problems associated with operating a commercial transport aircraft in the terminal area. The TCV research test bed is a Boeing 737 specially configured with digital computer systems to carry out automatic navigation, guidance, flight controls, and electronic displays research. The techniques developed for time and cost reduction include automatic documentation aids, an automatic software configuration, and an all software generation and validation system.

  9. Perverse effects of carbon markets on HFC-23 and SF6 abatement projects in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lambert; Kollmuss, Anja

    2015-12-01

    Carbon markets are considered a key policy tool to achieve cost-effective climate mitigation. Project-based carbon market mechanisms allow private sector entities to earn tradable emissions reduction credits from mitigation projects. The environmental integrity of project-based mechanisms has been subject to controversial debate and extensive research, in particular for projects abating industrial waste gases with a high global warming potential (GWP). For such projects, revenues from credits can significantly exceed abatement costs, creating perverse incentives to increase production or generation of waste gases as a means to increase credit revenues from waste gas abatement. Here we show that all projects abating HFC-23 and SF6 under the Kyoto Protocol’s Joint Implementation mechanism in Russia increased waste gas generation to unprecedented levels once they could generate credits from producing more waste gas. Our results suggest that perverse incentives can substantially undermine the environmental integrity of project-based mechanisms and that adequate regulatory oversight is crucial. Our findings are critical for mechanisms in both national jurisdictions and under international agreements.

  10. Guidelines for Assessment and Abatement of Asbestos-Containing Materials in Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielert, James H.; Mathey, Robert G.

    This report presents guidelines, based on available information, for the assessment and abatement of asbestos-containing materials in buildings. Section 1 provides background information on the history and use of asbestos-containing products in buildings, the characteristics of asbestos fibers, products and materials containing asbestos, and…

  11. Cost-effective analysis of carbon abatement options in China's electricity sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Z.X.

    1998-01-01

    This article attempts to shed light on technological aspects of carbon abatement in China's power industry and is thus devoted to satisfying electricity planning requirements in the CO2 context. To that end, a technology-oriented dynamic optimization model for power system expansion planning has

  12. Sustainable noise abatement along motorways in Germany – an empirical study in the municipality Frasdorf (Bavaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Breuste

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As part of the planned expansion work of the motorway A8 between Rosenheim and Salzburg and the associated legal opportunity to develop new traffic noise protection measures, this study investigated properties of sustainable noise abatement in a community next to the A8. A two-stage empirical survey was conducted integrating a citizen and an expert Delphi survey. The results show that the noise from the motorway heavily affects the quality of life in health, economic and ecological respects. Sustainable noise abatement should take into consideration ecological and social aspects like landscape integration and contribution to local development due to the unique location of the municipality. Enclosed motorway canopies are particularly beneficial to meet these criteria. The costs for sustainable noise abatement measures should be weighted as less important; however, financial costs are crucial for the federal government due to the requirements of the Federal Pollution Control Act. Hence, residents and experts assume that noise barriers as the cheaper noise abatement measures will be implemented. However, the results of the study and the latest developments in the expansion plans suggest that the implementation of enclosed motorway canopies, which go beyond the legal requirements, is feasible through extensive citizen participation and community-specific planning.

  13. The cost of carbon abatement through community forest management in Nepal Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karky, B.S.; Skutsch, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This paper estimates the economic returns to carbon abatement through biological sequestration in community managed forest under future REDD policy, and compares these for three possible management scenarios. For the estimation, the research relies on forest inventory data together with other

  14. Technical efficiency and CO2 abatement policies in the Dutch glasshouse industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a short-run microeconomic simulation model of the Dutch glasshouse industry in order to investigate the relation between technical efficiency and marginal abatement costs of CO2 emission. The model is also used to determine the effects of an emission tax and systems of tradable

  15. Valuation of marginal CO2 abatement options for electric power plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hojeong; Lim, Jaekyu

    2009-01-01

    The electricity generation sector in Korea is under pressure to mitigate greenhouse gases as directed by the Kyoto Protocol. The principal compliance options for power companies under the cap-and-trade include the application of direct CO 2 emission abatement and the procurement of emission allowances. The objective of this paper is to provide an analytical framework for assessing the cost-effectiveness of these options. We attempt to derive the marginal abatement cost for CO 2 using the output distance function and analyze the relative advantages of emission allowance procurement option as compared to direct abatement option. Real-option approach is adopted to incorporate emission allowance price uncertainty. Empirical result shows the marginal abatement cost with an average of Euro 14.04/ton CO 2 for fossil-fueled power plants and confirms the existence of substantial cost heterogeneity among plants which is sufficient to achieve trading gains in allowance market. The comparison of two options enables us to identify the optimal position of the compliance for each plant. Sensitivity analyses are also presented with regard to several key parameters including the initial allowance prices and interest rate. The result of this paper may help Korean power plants to prepare for upcoming regulations targeted toward the reduction of domestic greenhouse gases.

  16. The Copenhagen Accord: abatement costs and carbon prices resulting from the submissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzen, Michel G.J. den; Hof, Andries F.; Mendoza Beltran, Angelica; Grassi, Giacomo; Roelfsema, Mark; Ruijven, Bas van; Vliet, Jasper van; Vuuren, Detlef P. van

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Copenhagen Accord, individual countries have submitted greenhouse gas reduction proposals for the year 2020. This paper analyses the implications for emission reductions, the carbon price, and abatement costs of these submissions. The submissions of the Annex I (industrialised) countries are estimated to lead to a total reduction target of 12-18% below 1990 levels. The submissions of the seven major emerging economies are estimated to lead to an 11-14% reduction below baseline emissions, depending on international (financial) support. Global abatement costs in 2020 are estimated at about USD 60-100 billion, assuming that at least two-thirds of Annex I emission reduction targets need to be achieved domestically. The largest share of these costs are incurred by Annex I countries, although the costs as share of GDP are similar for Annex I as a group and the seven emerging economies as a group, even when assuming substantial international transfers from Annex I countries to the emerging economies to finance their abatement costs. If the restriction of achieving two-thirds of the emission reduction target domestically is abandoned, it would more than double the international carbon price and at the same time reduce global abatement costs by almost 25%.

  17. 78 FR 70617 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Small Business Transportation Resource Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... trade associations; (3) colleges and universities; (4) community colleges or; (5) chambers of commerce... disadvantaged businesses to take advantage of those business opportunities; and to make arrangements to carry... (STLP) Information, Bonding Education Program (BEP) information, SBTRC brochures and literature...

  18. 78 FR 4973 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Small Business Transportation Resource Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ...) colleges and universities; (4) community colleges; or (5) chambers of commerce, registered with the... services, that will enable small disadvantaged businesses to take advantage of those business opportunities... Education Program (BEP) information, SBTRC brochures and literature, Procurement Forecasts; Contracting with...

  19. 77 FR 42790 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Small Business Transportation Resource Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... associations, colleges and universities, community colleges, or chambers of commerce registered with the... will enable small disadvantaged businesses to take advantage of those business opportunities; and to... Education Program (BEP) information, SBTRC brochures and literature, Procurement Forecasts; Contracting with...

  20. 77 FR 36034 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Small Business Transportation Resource Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ...) colleges and universities; (4) community colleges; or (5) chambers of commerce, registered with the... services, that will enable small disadvantaged businesses to take advantage of those business opportunities... Education Program (BEP) information, SBTRC brochures and literature, Procurement Forecasts; Contracting with...

  1. 78 FR 1301 - Fiscal Year 2012 Public Transportation on Indian Reservations Program Project Selections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... Program supports capital projects, operating costs and planning activities that are eligible under the... million, indicating significant demand for funds for new transit services, enhancement or expansion of existing transit services, and planning studies including operational planning. Project proposals were...

  2. Program strategy document for the nuclear materials. Transportation Technology Center (FY 80)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, R.M.

    1980-04-01

    The TTC's program is divided into four principal areas, Technology and Information Center, Systems Development, Technology, and Institutional Issues. These areas are broken into activities, elements, and subelements which are delineated in this document

  3. 75 FR 15613 - Hazardous Materials Transportation; Registration and Fee Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ...(e) of Federal hazmat law. IME asserts that this $4 million training program is a double taxation for... exempt from taxation under 26 U.S.C. 501(a). (3) Other than a small business or not-for-profit...

  4. Transportability of an empirically supported dissonance-based prevention program for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Marisol; Becker, Carolyn Black; Ramirez, Ana

    2010-06-01

    This study sought to evaluate the degree to which positive effects remained when a well studied cognitive dissonance eating disorder prevention program was disseminated through a large national sorority under naturalistic conditions. All participants underwent a 2-session program run by peer facilitators. The sample included 182 undergraduate women from a local chapter of a national sorority at a large public university. Analyses revealed that the program significantly reduced body dissatisfaction, thin ideal internalization, dietary restraint, and the use of the media as a source of information about beauty, and restrained eating. Importantly, effect sizes were maintained at 5-months and 1-year follow-up. These findings demonstrate that empirically supported programs can remain effective when disseminated with careful training in large social systems. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. A Research Program for Fission Product/Dust Transport in HTGR’s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyalka, Sudarshan [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2016-02-01

    High and Very High Temperatures Gas Reactors (HTGRs/VHTRs) have five barriers to fission product (FP) release: the TRISO fuel coating, the fuel elements, the core graphite, the primary coolant system, and the reactor building. This project focused on measurements and computations of FP diffusion in graphite, FP adsorption on graphite and FP interactions with dust particles of arbitrary shape. Diffusion Coefficients of Cs and Iodine in two nuclear graphite were obtained by the release method and use of Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and Instrumented Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). A new mathematical model for fission gas release from nuclear fuel was also developed. Several techniques were explored to measure adsorption isotherms, notably a Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometer (KEMS) and Instrumented Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Some of these measurements are still in progress. The results will be reported in a supplemental report later. Studies of FP interactions with dust and shape factors for both chain-like particles and agglomerates over a wide size range were obtained through solutions of the diffusion and transport equations. The Green's Function Method for diffusion and Monte Carlo technique for transport were used, and it was found that the shape factors are sensitive to the particle arrangements, and that diffusion and transport of FPs can be hindered. Several journal articles relating to the above work have been published, and more are in submission and preparation.

  6. A Research Program for Fission Product/Dust Transport in HTGR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loyalka, Sudarshan

    2016-01-01

    High and Very High Temperatures Gas Reactors (HTGRs/VHTRs) have five barriers to fission product (FP) release: the TRISO fuel coating, the fuel elements, the core graphite, the primary coolant system, and the reactor building. This project focused on measurements and computations of FP diffusion in graphite, FP adsorption on graphite and FP interactions with dust particles of arbitrary shape. Diffusion Coefficients of Cs and Iodine in two nuclear graphite were obtained by the release method and use of Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and Instrumented Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). A new mathematical model for fission gas release from nuclear fuel was also developed. Several techniques were explored to measure adsorption isotherms, notably a Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometer (KEMS) and Instrumented Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Some of these measurements are still in progress. The results will be reported in a supplemental report later. Studies of FP interactions with dust and shape factors for both chain-like particles and agglomerates over a wide size range were obtained through solutions of the diffusion and transport equations. The Green's Function Method for diffusion and Monte Carlo technique for transport were used, and it was found that the shape factors are sensitive to the particle arrangements, and that diffusion and transport of FPs can be hindered. Several journal articles relating to the above work have been published, and more are in submission and preparation.

  7. CO2 abatement costs of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation by different biogas conversion pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehl, T; Müller, J

    2013-01-15

    Biogas will be of increasing importance in the future as a factor in reducing greenhouse gas emissions cost-efficiently by the optimal use of available resources and technologies. The goal of this study was to identify the most ecological and economical use of a given resource (organic waste from residential, commercial and industry sectors) using one specific treatment technology (anaerobic digestion) but applying different energy conversion technologies. Average and marginal abatement costs were calculated based on Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. Eight new biogas systems producing electricity, heat, gas or automotive fuel were analyzed in order to identify the most cost-efficient way of reducing GHG emissions. A system using a combined heat and power station (which is connected to waste treatment and digestion operation facilities and located nearby potential residential, commercial or industrial heat users) was found to be the most cost-efficient biogas technology for reducing GHG emissions. Up to € 198 per tonne of CO(2) equivalents can be saved by replacing the "business as usual" systems based on fossil resources with ones based on biogas. Limited gas injection (desulfurized and dried biogas, without compression and upgrading) into the gas grid can also be a viable option with an abatement cost saving of € 72 per tonne of CO(2) equivalents, while a heating plant with a district heating grid or a system based on biogas results in higher abatement costs (€ 267 and € 270 per tonne CO(2) eq). Results from all systems are significantly influenced by whether average or marginal data are used as a reference. Beside that energy efficiency, the reference system that was replaced and the by-products as well as feedstock and investment costs were identified to be parameters with major impacts on abatement costs. The quantitative analysis was completed by a discussion of the role that abatement cost methodology can play in

  8. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Winkelman; Tim Hargrave; Christine Vanderlan

    1999-10-01

    The authors conclude in this report that an upstream system would ensure complete regulatory coverage of transportation sector emissions in an efficient and feasible manner, and as such represents a key component of a national least-cost GHG emissions abatement strategy. The broad coverage provided by an upstream system recommends this approach over vehicle-maker based approaches, which would not cover emissions from heavy-duty vehicles and the aviation, marine and off-road sub-sectors. The on-road fleet approach unfairly and inefficiently burdens vehicle manufacturers with responsibility for emissions that they cannot control. A new vehicles approach would exclude emissions from vehicles on the road prior to program inception. The hybrid approach faces significant technical and political complications, and it is not clear that the approach would actually change behavior among vehicle makers and users, which is its main purpose. They also note that a trading system would fail to encourage many land use and infrastructure measures that affect VMT growth and GHG emissions. They recommend that this market failure be addressed by complementing the trading system with a program specifically targeting land use- and infrastructure-related activities. A key issue that must be addressed in designing a national GHG control strategy is whether or not it is necessary to guarantee GHG reductions from the transport sector. Neither an upstream system nor a downstream approach would do so, since both would direct capital to the least-cost abatement opportunities wherever they were found. They review two reasons why it may be desirable to force transportation sector reductions: first, that the long-term response to climate change will require reductions in all sectors; and second, the many ancillary benefits associated with transportation-related, and especially VMT-related, emissions reduction activities. If policy makers find it desirable to establish transportation

  9. TOURGHREACT: A Simulation Program for Non-isothermal MultiphaseReactive Geochemical Transport in Variably Saturated GeologicMedia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tianfu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Spycher, Nicolas; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-12-07

    TOUGHREACT is a numerical simulation program for chemically reactive non-isothermal flows of multiphase fluids in porous and fractured media. The program was written in Fortran 77 and developed by introducing reactive geochemistry into the multiphase fluid and heat flow simulator TOUGH2. A variety of subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes are considered under a wide range of conditions of pressure, temperature, water saturation, ionic strength, and pH and Eh. Interactions between mineral assemblages and fluids can occur under local equilibrium or kinetic rates. The gas phase can be chemically active. Precipitation and dissolution reactions can change formation porosity and permeability. The program can be applied to many geologic systems and environmental problems, including geothermal systems, diagenetic and weathering processes, subsurface waste disposal, acid mine drainage remediation, contaminant transport, and groundwater quality. Here we present two examples to illustrate applicability of the program: (1) injectivity effects of mineral scaling in a fractured geothermal reservoir and (2) CO2 disposal in a deep saline aquifer.

  10. Evaluation of Storage for Transportation Equipment, Unfueled Convertors, and Fueled Convertors at the INL for the Radioisotope Power Systems Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. G. Johnson; K. L. Lively

    2010-05-01

    This report contains an evaluation of the storage conditions required for several key components and/or systems of the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These components/systems (transportation equipment, i.e., type ‘B’ shipping casks and the radioisotope thermo-electric generator transportation systems (RTGTS), the unfueled convertors, i.e., multi-hundred watt (MHW) and general purpose heat source (GPHS) RTGs, and fueled convertors of several types) are currently stored in several facilities at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) site. For various reasons related to competing missions, inherent growth of the RPS mission at the INL and enhanced efficiency, it is necessary to evaluate their current storage situation and recommend the approach that should be pursued going forward for storage of these vital RPS components and systems. The reasons that drive this evaluation include, but are not limited to the following: 1) conflict with other missions at the INL of higher priority, 2) increasing demands from the INL RPS Program that exceed the physical capacity of the current storage areas and 3) the ability to enhance our current capability to care for our equipment, decrease maintenance costs and increase the readiness posture of the systems.

  11. The impact of public transportation strikes on use of a bicycle share program in London: interrupted time series design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Daniel; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Cummins, Steven; Ogilvie, David

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the immediate and sustained effects of two London Underground strikes on use of a public bicycle share program. An interrupted time series design was used to examine the impact of two 24 hour strikes on the total number of trips per day and mean trip duration per day on the London public bicycle share program. The strikes occurred on September 6th and October 4th 2010 and limited service on the London Underground. The mean total number of trips per day over the whole study period was 14,699 (SD=5390) while the mean trip duration was 18.5 minutes (SD=3.7). Significant increases in daily trip count were observed following strike 1 (3864: 95% CI 125 to 7604) and strike 2 (11,293: 95% CI 5169 to 17,416). Events that greatly constrain the primary motorised mode of transportation for a population may have unintended short-term effects on travel behaviour. These findings suggest that limiting transportation options may have the potential to increase population levels of physical activity by promoting the use of cycling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. THE CO2 ABATEMENT POTENTIAL OF CALIFORNIA'S MID-SIZED COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Lipman, Tim; Megel, Olivier; Ganguly, Srirupa; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-12-31

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) todetermine the potential role of commercial sector distributed generation (DG) with combined heat and power (CHP) capability deployment in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) reductions. CHP applications at large industrial sites are well known, and a large share of their potential has already been harvested. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the potential of medium-sized commercial buildings, i.e. ones with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how this sector might implement DG with CHP in cost minimizing microgrids that are able to adopt and operate various energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaics (PV), on-site thermal generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We apply a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that minimizes a site?s annual energy costs as its objective. Using 138 representative mid-sized commercial sites in California (CA), existing tariffs of three major electricity distribution ultilities, and performance data of available technology in 2020, we find the GHG reduction potential for this CA commercial sector segment, which represents about 35percent of total statewide commercial sector sales. Under the assumptions made, in a reference case, this segment is estimated to be capable of economically installing 1.4 GW of CHP, 35percent of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) statewide 4 GW goal for total incremental CHP deployment by 2020. However, because CARB?s assumed utilization is far higher than is found by the MILP, the adopted CHP only contributes 19percent of the CO2 target. Several sensitivity runs were completed. One applies a simple feed-in tariff similar to net metering, and another includes a generous self-generation incentive program (SGIP) subsidy for fuel cells. The feed-in tariff proves ineffective at

  13. Relação vitamina E: vitamina C sobre a qualidade da carne de frangos submetidos ao estresse pré-abate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.I.M. Fernandes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a melhor relação vitamina E:vitamina C em dietas para frangos de corte, visando ao melhor desempenho produtivo e à melhor qualidade da carne das aves submetidas ao estresse pré-abate. Utilizaram-se 800 pintos de corte, machos, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2x4, com dois níveis de suplementação de vitamina E - 0 e 250mg/kg - e quatro de vitamina C - 0, 150, 300 e 450mg/kg. Aos 42 dias de idade, 12 horas ante mortem, amostras de aves de cada tratamento foram submetidas ao estresse por calor e, em seguida, pelo transporte. Foram avaliadas características de desempenho - peso vivo, consumo de ração e conversão alimentar - , bem como rendimento de carcaça e qualidade da carne de peito e coxas - perda de água, cor e pH. Os níveis de vitaminas avaliadas não influenciaram nas características de desempenho avaliadas. Houve menor rendimento de peito (34,2 vs. 34,9% e maior pH inicial (6,3 vs. 6,1 dos cortes, para aves que sofreram estresse em relação àquelas que não foram submetidas ao estresse pré-abate.

  14. State-of-the-Art Review on Sustainable Design and Construction of Quieter Pavements—Part 1: Traffic Noise Measurement and Abatement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD Ohiduzzaman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Noise pollution due to highway traffic has drawn the attention of transportation agencies worldwide. Noise pollution is an irritant to residents, especially in urban areas near roads with high traffic volume. In addition to its adverse effects on the quality of life, traffic noise can induce stress that could lead to sleep disturbance and anxiety. Traditionally, noise barrier walls have been used for highways to mitigate traffic noise. However, using barrier walls as a noise abatement measure has proven to be very expensive. In addition to the cost, noise barrier walls are not always effective because they must break the line of sight to work properly, which is not always possible in case of intersections or driveways. Therefore, researchers especially from Europe and USA have been very proactive to reduce the noise at source. A number of research studies show traffic noise can be reduced by using an alternative surface type or changing texture of the pavement while complying with other requirements of sustainability, i.e., safety, structural durability, construction and maintenance costs. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the research conducted on this subject. A review of the tire-pavement noise generation and amplification mechanism, various traffic noise measurement methods and correlation among these methods, in addition to the abatement techniques used by various agencies to reduce pavement noise, is also presented.

  15. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Marshall Space Flight Center Space Transportation Directorate Risk Management Implementation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Luis Alberto; Kross, Denny (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The US civil aerospace program has been a great contributor to the creation and implementation of techniques and methods to identify, analyze, and confront risk. NASA has accomplished mission success in many instances, but also has had many failures. Anomalies have kept the Agency from achieving success on other occasions, as well. While NASA has mastered ways to prevent risks, and to quickly and effectively react and recover from anomalies or failures, it was not until few years ago that a comprehensive Risk Management process started being implemented in some of its programs and projects. A Continuous Risk Management (CRM) cycle process was developed and has been promoted and used successfully in programs and projects across the Agency.

  16. Optimization of ion source extraction and transport with symbolic manipulation programs: electrostatic lenses formulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavenago, M.

    1996-01-01

    The partly built line of the ECR ion source Alice, mainly based on electrostatic elements, needs several optimizations for different ion beam (A/q ranges from 2 to 9). Numerical codes easy to maintain and fast to execute were in demand. Beam optics codes are usually implemented as a kind of object oriented programs followed by a purposely written high level interpreter. This level was here replaced by general programs, combining symbolic and numerical capability, which therefore support different programming styles and a much finer physical description. Highly efficient linear tracking of electrostatic elements was obtained combining piecewise analytical solutions for quadratic and linear elements; some basic formulas and a sample result for Alice line are shown. Extension of elements to nonlinear case is given here, with detail for the anode lens. (author)

  17. Green Marine: An environmental program to establish sustainability in marine transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tony R

    2016-04-15

    European maritime companies have adopted programs to limit operational impacts on the environment. For maritime companies in North America, the Green Marine Environmental Program (GMEP) offers a framework to establish and reduce environmental footprints. Green Marine (GM) participants demonstrate annual improvements of specific environmental performance indicators (e.g., reductions in air pollution emissions) to maintain certification. Participants complete annual self-evaluations with results determining rankings for performance indicators on a 1-to-5 scale. Self-evaluations are independently verified every two years to ensure rigor and individual results are made publicly available annually to achieve transparency. GM benefits the marine industry across North America by encouraging sustainable development initiatives. GM's credibility is reflected through a diverse network of environmental groups and government agencies that endorse and help shape the program. Merits of this relatively new maritime certification (not previously described in the academic literature), are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Private industry opportunity and challenge: Participation in the DOE/NWPA transportation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, L.H.

    1986-01-01

    The program within the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the DOE has been structured so as to tap all of our resources and the author briefly describes in this paper how it does so. Then, he describes one of the greatest challenges of obtaining a certificate of compliance from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for innovative cask designs. The program consists of four major elements: Cask system acquisition; institutional planning and coordination; environmental and economic analyses; and operations. The purpose of this paper is to describe system acquisition and its technical aspects

  19. Microbial mediation of radionuclide transport -significance for the nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champ, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    The role that microbially catalyzed processes may play in determining, or altering, radionuclide migration is an unresolved question in the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. This report documents the results of a review of the available information on the existence and biochemical capabilities of micro-organisms and the potential for their involvement in processes affecting the migration of radionuclides of interest. The potential was judged sufficient to warrant conducting experiments to assess their role. The outline of an experimental program to address the role of micro-organisms is presented

  20. User's guide to PHREEQC, a computer program for speciation, reaction-path, advective-transport, and inverse geochemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    PHREEQC is a computer program written in the C pwgranuning language that is designed to perform a wide variety of aqueous geochemical calculations. PHREEQC is based on an ion-association aqueous model and has capabilities for (1) speciation and saturation-index calculations, (2) reaction-path and advective-transport calculations involving specified irreversible reactions, mixing of solutions, mineral and gas equilibria surface-complex-ation reactions, and ion-exchange reactions, and (3) inverse modeling, which finds sets of mineral and gas mole transfers that account for composition differences between waters, within specified compositional uncertainties. PHREEQC is derived from the Fortran program PHREEQE, but it has been completely rewritten in C with the addition many new capabilities. New features include the capabilities to use redox couples to distribute redox elements among their valence states in speciation calculations; to model ion-exchange and surface-compiexation reactions; to model reactions with a fixed-pressure, multicomponent gas phase (that is, a gas bubble); to calculate the mass of water in the aqueous phase during reaction and transport calculations; to keep track of the moles of minerals present in the solid phases and determine antomaticaHy the thermodynamically stable phase assemblage; to simulate advective transport in combination with PHREEQC's reaction-modeling capability; and to make inverse modeling calculations that allow for uncertainties in the analytical data. The user interface is improved through the use of a simplified approach to redox reactions, which includes explicit mole-balance equations for hydrogen and oxygen; the use of a revised input that is modular and completely free format; and the use of mineral names and standard chemical symbolism rather than index numbers. The use of (2 eliminates nearly all limitations on army sizes, including numbers of elements, aqueous species, solutions, phases, and lengths of character

  1. 76 FR 18072 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs CFR Correction In Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations...) * * * (2) * * * (i) Positive, with drug(s)/metabolite(s) noted, with numerical values for the drug(s) or drug metabolite(s). (ii) Positive-dilute, with drug(s)/metabolite(s) noted, with numerical values for...

  2. Abatement costs of soil conservation in China's Loess Plateau: balancing income with conservation in an agricultural system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lingling; Hoag, Dana L K; Keske, Catherine M H

    2015-02-01

    This study proposes the use of marginal abatement cost curves to calculate environmental damages of agricultural systems in China's Loess Plateau. Total system costs and revenues, management characteristics and pollution attributes are imputed into a directional output distance function, which is then used to determine shadow prices and abatement cost curves for soil and nitrogen loss. Marginal abatement costs curves are an effective way to compare economic and conservation tradeoffs when field-specific data are scarce. The results show that sustainable agricultural practices can balance soil conservation and agricultural production; land need not be retired, as is current policy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. TOUGHREACT User's Guide: A Simulation Program for Non-isothermal Multiphase Reactive geochemical Transport in Variably Saturated Geologic Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Tianfu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Spycher, Nicolas; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-01-01

    Coupled modeling of subsurface multiphase fluid and heat flow, solute transport and chemical reactions can be used for the assessment of mineral alteration in hydrothermal systems, waste disposal sites, acid mine drainage remediation, contaminant transport, and groundwater quality. A comprehensive non-isothermal multi-component reactive fluid flow and geochemical transport simulator, TOUGHREACT, has been developed. A wide range of subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes is considered under various thermohydrological and geochemical conditions of pressure, temperature, water saturation, and ionic strength. The program can be applied to one-, two- or three-dimensional porous and fractured media with physical and chemical heterogeneity. The model can accommodate any number of chemical species present in liquid, gas and solid phases. A variety of equilibrium chemical reactions are considered, such as aqueous complexation, gas dissolution/exsolution, and cation exchange. Mineral dissolution/precipitation can proceed either subject to local equilibrium or kinetic conditions. Changes in porosity and permeability due to mineral dissolution and precipitation can be considered. Linear adsorption and decay can be included. For the purpose of future extensions, surface complexation by double layer model is coded in the program. Xu and Pruess (1998) developed a first version of a non-isothermal reactive geochemical transport model, TOUGHREACT, by introducing reactive geochemistry into the framework of the existing multi-phase fluid and heat flow code TOUGH2 (Pruess, 1991). Xu, Pruess, and their colleagues have applied the program to a variety of problems such as: (1) supergene copper enrichment (Xu et al, 2001), (2) caprock mineral alteration in a hydrothermal system (Xu and Pruess, 2001a), and (3) mineral trapping for CO 2 disposal in deep saline aquifers (Xu et al, 2003b and 2004a). For modeling the coupled thermal, hydrological, and chemical processes during heater

  4. Essays on the economics of energy markets. Security of supply and greenhouse gas abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckhoener, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    In summary, the presented thesis analyzes two distinct economic subjects: security of supply in natural gas markets and greenhouse gas abatement potentials in the residential heating market. These subjects considered both reflect key points in the triangle of energy policy and are both associated with transnational market failures within energy markets. The security of supply analyses in an intermeshed network are approached from a rather normative, top-down perspective of a social planner. On the contrary, the analyses of greenhouse gases emitted by households are positive analyses of consumer choices. The normative analyses of security of supply in natural gas markets and the positive analyses on greenhouse gas abatement in the residential heating market are organized in two parts of the thesis. 1. Normative analyses - Security of supply in natural gas markets: The two papers of the first part of the dissertation thesis are based on a normative approach with the European natural gas market and infrastructure model TIGER that allows for security of supply analyses. The general idea behind the modeling approach is based on the assumption of a social planner and finds an efficient utilization of the natural gas infrastructure. More precisely, the security of supply analyses conducted in the first part of the thesis refer to scenario simulations of disrupted supply routes in the European natural gas network. The effects of these security of supply scenarios on the usage of other infrastructure components, on marginal supply costs and disruptions to consumers are investigated. 2. Positive analyses of greenhouse gas abatement potentials - Econometric modeling of consumer choices and evaluation of public policies: The second part of the thesis includes two positive analyses which investigate household choices to derive greenhouse gas abatement potentials. In the residential heating market, the energy efficiency level exhibited and the type of energy carrier used are

  5. Essays on the economics of energy markets. Security of supply and greenhouse gas abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckhoener, Caroline

    2013-02-01

    In summary, the presented thesis analyzes two distinct economic subjects: security of supply in natural gas markets and greenhouse gas abatement potentials in the residential heating market. These subjects considered both reflect key points in the triangle of energy policy and are both associated with transnational market failures within energy markets. The security of supply analyses in an intermeshed network are approached from a rather normative, top-down perspective of a social planner. On the contrary, the analyses of greenhouse gases emitted by households are positive analyses of consumer choices. The normative analyses of security of supply in natural gas markets and the positive analyses on greenhouse gas abatement in the residential heating market are organized in two parts of the thesis. 1. Normative analyses - Security of supply in natural gas markets: The two papers of the first part of the dissertation thesis are based on a normative approach with the European natural gas market and infrastructure model TIGER that allows for security of supply analyses. The general idea behind the modeling approach is based on the assumption of a social planner and finds an efficient utilization of the natural gas infrastructure. More precisely, the security of supply analyses conducted in the first part of the thesis refer to scenario simulations of disrupted supply routes in the European natural gas network. The effects of these security of supply scenarios on the usage of other infrastructure components, on marginal supply costs and disruptions to consumers are investigated. 2. Positive analyses of greenhouse gas abatement potentials - Econometric modeling of consumer choices and evaluation of public policies: The second part of the thesis includes two positive analyses which investigate household choices to derive greenhouse gas abatement potentials. In the residential heating market, the energy efficiency level exhibited and the type of energy carrier used are

  6. Chromate abatement in the Y-12 Plant's New Hope Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMonbrum, J.R.; Muenzer, W.A.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported from a 15-months field study that utilized four nonchromate-based water-treatment programs in 16 low-temperature (less than 100 0 F) cooling towers using corrosion and deposition studies, microbiological control, and plant effluent creek analyses as evaluation parameters. The study succeeded in bringing the chromate content of effluent of the New Hope Pond at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to the limits established by the Environmental Protection Agency. (auth)

  7. HIGHWAY, a transportation routing model: program description and revised users' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.

    1983-10-01

    A computerized transportation routing model has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to be used for predicting likely routes for shipping radioactive materials. The HIGHWAY data base is a computerized road atlas containing descriptions of the entire Interstate System, the federal highway system, and most of the principal state roads. In addition to its prediction of the most likely commercial route, options incorporated in the HIGHWAY model can allow for maximum use of Interstate highways or routes that will bypass urbanized areas containing populations greater than 100,000 persons. The user may also interactively modify the data base to predict routes that bypass any particular state, city, town, or specific highway segment

  8. Urbanization and climate change: the role of road transport in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urbanization and climate change: the role of road transport in carbon dioxide emission in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria. S.U. Usman, A.I. Abdulhamid, S Gwadabe, A.K. Usman, B Isah, I Mallam. Abstract. No Abstract. Keywords: CO2 abatement, automobile density, climate change, global warming, greenhouse gases. Full Text:.

  9. Methods for estimating costs of transporting spent fuel and defense high-level radioactive waste for the civilian radioactive waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrough, M.E.; Lilly, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), through the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, is planning and developing a transportation program for the shipment of spent fuel and defense high-level waste from current storage locations to the site of the mined geologic repository. In addition to its responsibility for providing a safe transportation system, the DOE will assure that the transportation program will function with the other system components to create an integrated waste management system. In meeting these objectives, the DOE will use private industry to the maximum extent practicable and in a manner that is cost effective. This paper discusses various methodologies used for estimating costs for the national radioactive waste transportation system. Estimating these transportation costs is a complex effort, as the high-level radioactive waste transportation system, itself, will be complex. Spent fuel and high-level waste will be transported from more than 100 nuclear power plants and defense sites across the continental US, using multiple transport modes (truck, rail, and barge/rail) and varying sizes and types of casks. Advance notification to corridor states will be given and scheduling will need to be coordinated with utilities, carriers, state and local officials, and the DOE waste acceptance facilities. Additionally, the waste forms will vary in terms of reactor type, size, weight, age, radioactivity, and temperature

  10. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-08-15

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions. The impact of DG on large industrial sites is well known, and mostly, the potentials are already harvested. In contrast, little is known about the impact of DG on commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how DG with combined heat and power (CHP) may be implemented within the context of a cost minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various smart energy technologies, such as thermal and photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has the minimization of a site's annual energy costs as objective. Using 138 representative commercial sites in California (CA) with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find the greenhouse gas reduction potential for California's commercial sector. This paper shows results from the ongoing research project and finished work from a two year U.S. Department of Energy research project. To show the impact of the different technologies on CO2 emissions, several sensitivity runs for different climate zones within CA with different technology performance expectations for 2020 were performed. The considered sites can contribute between 1 Mt/a and 1.8 Mt/a to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goal of 6.7Mt/a CO2 abatement potential in 2020. Also, with lower PV and storage costs as well as consideration of a CO2 pricing scheme, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption can compete rather than supplement each other when the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply have been taken into consideration. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries will be charged also by CHP systems during off-peak and mid

  11. Expression of the Arabidopsis high-affinity hexose transporter STP13 correlates with programmed cell death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Morten Helge Hauberg; Nour-Eldin, Hussam H; Brodersen, Peter

    2006-01-01

    GFP expression only in the vascular tissue in emerging petals under non-stressed conditions. Quantitative PCR and the pSTP13-GFP plants show induction of STP13 in programmed cell death (PCD) obtained by treatments with the fungal toxin fumonisin B1 and the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. A role for STP......13 in PCD is supported by microarray data from e.g. plants undergoing senescence and a strong correlation between STP13 transcripts and the PCD phenotype in different accelerated cell death (acd11) mutants....

  12. Mitigation of socio-economic impacts due to the construction of energy projects in rural communities: an evaluation of the Hartsville nuclear power plant transportation-mitigation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, T.C.

    1982-01-01

    This study analyzes the effects of a commuter ride-sharing program in mitigating the harmful socio-economic impacts of a short-term, labor-intensive nuclear-power-plant construction project. The major hypothesis is that transportation-mitigation programs are more cost-effective in reducing the undesirable socio-economic impacts of large-scale construction projects than programs designed to mitigate impacts through the provision of public services for migrating workers. The dissertation begins by delineating the socio-economic effects of large-scale construction projects in rural areas. It proceeds to show how some of the deleterious impacts were mitigated using a commuter ride-sharing program. After the range of potential socio-economic impacts was established, a framework was developed to evaluate the effects of the transportation-mitigation program in mediating the harmful impacts. The framework involved the integration of the cost-benefit technique with social-impact assessment. The evaluation was grounded in a comparative framework whereby the Hartsville project community was compared with a similar community undergoing the construction of a nuclear power plant but without a commuter ride-sharing program, and a community not experiencing a major construction project. The research findings indicated that the transportation-mitigation program substantially reduced the in-migration of construction workers into the Hartsville-Trousdale County area. Further, the program was cost effective, with a benefit-cost ratio of 2.5 and net benefits totalling 28 million dollars

  13. Lay First Responder Training in Eastern Uganda: Leveraging Transportation Infrastructure to Build an Effective Prehospital Emergency Care Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Peter G; Bamuleke, Richard; Lee, Yang Jae

    2018-01-18

    Though road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a major cause of mortality in East Africa, few countries have emergency medical services. The aim was to create a sustainable and efficient prehospital lay first responder program, creating a system with lay first responders spread through the 53 motorcycle taxi stages of Iganga Municipality. One hundred and fifty-four motorcycle taxi riders were taught a first aid curriculum in partnership with a local Red Cross first aid trainer and provided with a first aid kit following WHO guidelines for basic first aid. Pre- and post-survey tests measured first aid knowledge improvement over the course. Post-implementation incident report forms were collected from lay first responders after each patient encounter over 6 months. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 110 of 154 trainees, 9 months post-training. Improvement was measured across all five major first aid categories: bleeding control (56.9 vs. 79.7%), scene management (37.6 vs. 59.5%), airway and breathing (43.4 vs. 51.6%), recovery position (13.1 vs. 43.4%), and victim transport (88.2 vs. 94.3%). From the incident report findings, first responders treated 250 victims (82.8% RTI related) and encountered 24 deaths (9.6% of victims). Of the first aid skills, bleeding control and bandaging was used most often (55.2% of encounters). Lay first responders provided transport in 48.3% of encounters. Of 110 lay first responders surveyed, 70 of 76 who had used at least one skill felt "confident" in the care they provided. A prehospital care system composed of lay first responders can be developed leveraging existing transport organizations, offering a scalable alternative for LMICs, demonstrating usefulness in practice and measurable educational improvements in trauma skills for non-clinical lay responders.

  14. RISKIND: A computer program for calculating radiological consequences and health risks from transportation of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Y.C.; Chen, S.Y.; Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.

    1995-11-01

    This report presents the technical details of RISKIND, a computer code designed to estimate potential radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the collective population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel. RISKIND is a user-friendly, interactive program that can be run on an IBM or equivalent personal computer under the Windows trademark environment. Several models are included in RISKIND that have been tailored to calculate the exposure to individuals under various incident-free and accident conditions. The incident-free models assess exposures from both gamma and neutron radiation and can account for different cask designs. The accident models include accidental release, atmospheric transport, and the environmental pathways of radionuclides from spent fuels; these models also assess health risks to individuals and the collective population. The models are supported by databases that are specific to spent nuclear fuels and include a radionuclide inventory and dose conversion factors. In addition, the flexibility of the models allows them to be used for assessing any accidental release involving radioactive materials. The RISKIND code allows for user-specified accident scenarios as well as receptor locations under various exposure conditions, thereby facilitating the estimation of radiological consequences and health risks for individuals. Median (50% probability) and typical worst-case (less than 5% probability of being exceeded) doses and health consequences from potential accidental releases can be calculated by constructing a cumulative dose/probability distribution curve for a complete matrix of site joint-wind-frequency data. These consequence results, together with the estimated probability of the entire spectrum of potential accidents, form a comprehensive, probabilistic risk assessment of a spent nuclear fuel transportation accident

  15. RISKIND: A computer program for calculating radiological consequences and health risks from transportation of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Y.C. [Square Y Consultants, Orchard Park, NY (US); Chen, S.Y.; Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (US)

    1995-11-01

    This report presents the technical details of RISKIND, a computer code designed to estimate potential radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the collective population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel. RISKIND is a user-friendly, interactive program that can be run on an IBM or equivalent personal computer under the Windows{trademark} environment. Several models are included in RISKIND that have been tailored to calculate the exposure to individuals under various incident-free and accident conditions. The incident-free models assess exposures from both gamma and neutron radiation and can account for different cask designs. The accident models include accidental release, atmospheric transport, and the environmental pathways of radionuclides from spent fuels; these models also assess health risks to individuals and the collective population. The models are supported by databases that are specific to spent nuclear fuels and include a radionuclide inventory and dose conversion factors. In addition, the flexibility of the models allows them to be used for assessing any accidental release involving radioactive materials. The RISKIND code allows for user-specified accident scenarios as well as receptor locations under various exposure conditions, thereby facilitating the estimation of radiological consequences and health risks for individuals. Median (50% probability) and typical worst-case (less than 5% probability of being exceeded) doses and health consequences from potential accidental releases can be calculated by constructing a cumulative dose/probability distribution curve for a complete matrix of site joint-wind-frequency data. These consequence results, together with the estimated probability of the entire spectrum of potential accidents, form a comprehensive, probabilistic risk assessment of a spent nuclear fuel transportation accident.

  16. The effect of carbon tax on carbon emission abatement and GDP: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Leung, Yee; Xu, Yuan; Yung, Linda Chor Wing

    2017-10-01

    Carbon tax has been advocated as an effective economic instrument for the abatement of CO2 emission by various countries, including China, the world's biggest carbon emission country. However, carbon emission abatement cannot be done while ignoring the impact on economic growth. A delicate balance needs to be achieved between the two to find an appropriate pathway for sustainable development. This paper applies a multi-objective optimization approach to analyze the impact of levying carbon tax on the energy-intensive sectors of Guangdong province in China under the constraint of emission reduction target. This approach allows us to evaluate carbon emission minimization while maximizing GDP. For policy analysis, we construct five scenarios for evaluation and optimal choice. The results of the analysis show that a lower initial carbon tax rate is not necessarily better, and that a carbon tax is an effective means to reduce CO2 emissions while maintaining a certain level of GDP growth.

  17. Efficiency, equity or disagreement? The economics of international carbon abatement negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabey, N.; Smith, C.

    1995-01-01

    The current international effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as embodied in the Framework Convention on Climate Change, is often criticized as inefficient by economists because it uses uniform targets instead of more theoretically efficient instruments such as international taxes. However, the effectiveness of any international treaty in producing environmental benefits is not wholly dependent on its economic efficiency but also on its political stability and the ability to accurately monitor and enforce its conditions. Stability depends on the magnitude and distribution of costs and benefits between countries which have heterogeneous economies, environmental damages, trading partners and abatement costs. The distribution of costs between countries will also depend on the type of policy instrument used to coordinate international abatement efforts. This paper analyses trade-offs that must be made when negotiating international agreements in order to balance the need for administrative convenience and economic efficiency with the realization that any agreement is better than no agreement

  18. The timing of pollution abatement investments and the business cycle. An international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouman, M.; Hofkes, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    A simple equilibrium business-cycle model for an economy with both clean- and dirty-producing plants is developed. The authors derive that the optimal timing of cleaning the production process is during a slowdown of the economy. Due to external effects and market failures the timing of pollution abatement investments is not expected to be optimal in the real world. We test the optimality of the timing of those investments with data for Germany, the Netherlands and the U.S.A. It appears that for more than 25 percent of the sectors pollution abatement investments show counter-cyclical behaviour, while in only one sector these investments are pro-cyclical. 1 tab., 3 appendices, 10 refs

  19. Research on the application of active sound barriers for the transformer noise abatement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sound barriers are a type of measure most commonly used in the noise abatement of transformers. In the noise abatement project of substations, the design of sound barriers is restrained by the portal frames which are used to hold up outgoing lines from the main transformers, which impacts the noise reduction effect. If active sound barriers are utilized in these places, the noise diffraction of sound barriers can be effectively reduced. At a 110kV Substation, an experiment using a 15-channel active sound barrier has been carried out. The result of the experiment shows that the mean noise reduction value (MNRV of the noise measuring points at the substation boundary are 1.5 dB (A. The effect of the active noise control system is impacted by the layout of the active noise control system, the acoustic environment on site and the spectral characteristic of the target area.

  20. A program to qualify ductile cast iron for use as a containment material for type B transport cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golliher, K.G.; Sorenson, K.B.; Witt, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the Department of Energy (DOE) investigations for the use of ductile cast iron (DCI) as a candidate material for radioactive material transportation cask construction. The investigation will include materials testing and full-scale cask testing. The major effort will focus on materials qualification and cask evaluation of the 9 meter and puncture drop test events. Interaction by contract with the private industry, the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Committee A4.04, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) will be actively pursued to establish material specification acceptance criteria for ductile iron use as a cask material in the United States of America (USA). All test results will be documented in the safety analysis report for packaging for submission to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The goal of this program is a certificate of compliance for DCI from the NRC to transport high-level radioactive materials. The acceptance of DCI within the USA cask design community will offer an alternative to present-day materials for cask construction, and its entry has the potential of providing significant cost-savings