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Sample records for abatement program bmap

  1. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program (BMAP) plan

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Cicerone, D.S. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y-12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided, but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas or a reduction in sampling intensity in others. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide them in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  2. OAK RIDGE Y-12 PLANT BIOLOGICAL MONITORING AND ABATEMENT PROGRAM (BMAP) PLAN

    ADAMS, S.M.; BRANDT, C.C.; CHRISTENSEN, S.W.; CICERONE, D.S.; GREELEY, M.S.JR; HILL, W.R.; HUSTON, M.S.; KSZOS, L.A.; MCCARTHY, J.F.; PETERSON, M.J.; RYON, M.G.; SMITH, J.G.; SOUTHWORTH, G.R.; STEWART, A.J.

    1998-10-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y- 12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional toxicity testing if initial results indicate low survival or reproduction) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is observed). By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  3. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    Kszos, L.A.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Blaylock, B.G.; Greeley, M.S.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Hinzman, R.L. (Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)); Shoemaker, B.A. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States))

    1993-04-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP is based on results of biological monitoring conducted from 1986 to 1992 and discussions held on November 12, 1992, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the K-25 Site), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Department of Energy Oversight Division. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  4. Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; currently the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) was prepared in December 1986, as required by the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit that was issued on September 11, 1986. The effluent discharges to Mitchell Branch are complex, consisting of trace elements, organic chemicals, and radionuclides in addition to various conventional pollutants. Moreover, the composition of these effluent streams will be changing over time as various pollution abatement measures are implemented over the next several years. Although contaminant inputs to the stream originate primarily as point sources from existing plant operations, area sources, such as the classified burial grounds and the K-1407-C holding pond, can not be eliminated as potential sources of contaminants. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities. BMAP will determine whether the effluent limits established for ORGDP protect the designated use of the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch) for growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life. Another objective of the program is to document the ecological effects resulting from various pollution abatement projects, such as the Central Neutralization Facility.

  5. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    Kszos, L. A.; Adams, S. M.; Ashwood, T. L.; Blaylock, B. G.; Greeley, M. S.; Loar, J. M.; Peterson, M. J.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Shoemaker, B. A. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Hinzman, R. L. [Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)

    1993-02-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  6. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Giddings, J.M.; McCarthy, J.F.; Southworth, G.R.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Springborn Bionomics, Inc., Wareham, MA (USA); Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-10-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a nuclear weapons components production facility located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the US Department of Energy. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek), in particular, the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life, as designated by the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment. A second purpose for the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that will include construction of nine new wastewater treatment facilities over the next 4 years. Because of the complex nature of the effluent discharged to East Fork Poplar Creek and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the effluent (i.e., temporal variability related to various pollution abatement measures that will be implemented over the next several years and spatial variability caused by pollutant inputs downstream of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant), a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed for the BMAP. 39 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Third report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    As a condition of the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch or K-1700 stream). On October 1, 1992, a renewed NPDES permit was issued for the K-25 Site. A biological monitoring plan was submitted for Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, Poplar Creek Embayment of the Clinch River and any unnamed tributaries of these streams. The objectives of BMAP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life and (2) document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities, including the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator. The BMAP consists of four tasks: (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring; (3) assessment of fish health; and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document, the third in a series, reports on the results of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site BMAP; it describes studies that were conducted over various periods of time between June 1990 and December 1993, although monitoring conducted outside this time period is included, as appropriate.

  8. Fourth report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Loar, J.M. [ed.

    1994-04-01

    In response to a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC) and selected tributaries. BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake. The ecological characterization of the WOC watershed will provide baseline data that can be used to document the ecological effects of the water pollution control program and the remedial action program. The long-term nature of BMAP ensures that the effectiveness of remedial measures will be properly evaluated.

  9. First report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Black, M.C. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)); Gatz, A.J. Jr. (Ohio Wesleyan Univ., Delaware, OH (United States)); Hinzman, R.L. (Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)); Jimenez, B.D. (Puerto Rico Univ.,

    1992-07-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of the BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE)], and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. The BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the first in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from May 1985 through September 1986.

  10. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Adams, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Black, M.C. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)] [and others

    1993-06-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NDPES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a Water Pollution Control Program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing; (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic (bottom-dwelling) macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the second in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted between July 1986 and July 1988, although additional data collected outside this time period are included, as appropriate.

  11. First annual report on the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Loar, J. M. [ed.; Adams, S. M.; Blaylock, B. G.; Boston, H. L.; Frank, M. L.; Garten, C. T.; Houston, M. A.; Kimmel, B. L.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.; Stewart, A. J.; Walton, B. T.; Berry, J. B.; Talmage, S. S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Amano, H. [JAERI, Tokai Res., Establishment, Ibari-Ken (Japan); Jimenez, B. D. [School of Pharmacy, Univ. of Puerto Rico (San Juan); Kitchings, J. T. [ERCE, Denver, CO (United States); Meyers-Schoene, L. [Advanced Sciences, Inc., Fernald, OH (United States); Mohrbacher, D. A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Olsen, C. R. [USDOE Office of Energy Research, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Health and Environmental Research

    1992-08-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the first of a series of annual reports presenting the results of BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from March through December 1986.

  12. Second report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Loar, J.M. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Cox, D.K.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Loar, J.M.; Olsen, C.R.; Ryon, M.G.; Shugart, L.R.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Talmage, S.S.; Murphy, J.B.; Valentine, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Appellanis, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D. [Puerto Rico Univ., San Juan (Puerto Rico); Huq, M.V. [Connecticut Dept. of Environmental Protection, Hamden, CT (United States); Meyers-Schone, L.J. [Frankfurter, Gross-Gerau (Germany); Mohrbacher, D.A. [Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Olsen, C.R. [USDOE Office of Energy Research, Washington, DC (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Stout, J.G. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States)

    1992-12-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the second of a series of annual reports, described the results of BMAP studies conducted in 1987.

  13. Second report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Smith, J.G. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Hinzman, R.L.; Kszos, L.A.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Crumby, W.D. [Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    On September 11, 1986, a modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site), a former uranium-enrichment production facility. As required in Part III of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) and submitted for approval to the US EPA and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The plan described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. The objectives of the BMAP are to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, and to document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities. The BMAP consists of four tasks: ambient toxicity testing; bioaccumulation studies; biological indicator studies; and ecological surveys of stream communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document is the second in a series of reports presenting the results of the studies that were conducted over various periods of time between August 1987 and June 1990.

  14. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring And Abatement Program 2008 Calendar Year Report

    Peterson, M. J.; Greeley Jr., M. S.; Mathews, T. J.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2009-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located off

  15. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program 2007 Calendar Yeare Report

    Peterson, M.J.; Greeley, M. S. Jr.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryan, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2008-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located

  16. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program Plan

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.JR.; Hill, W.R.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-09-01

    The revised Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted as required by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Science Division (ESD) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the request of the Y-12 Plant. The revision to the BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted during the period of 1985 to present. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided; experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional bioaccumulation monitoring if results indicate unexpectedly high PCBs or Hg) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is still observed). The program scope will be re-evaluated annually. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of Y-12 Plant operations (past and present) on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  18. Third report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Loar, J.M. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D. [and others

    1994-03-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. The BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs at ORNL. These are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL). The investigation of contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system was originally a task of the BMAP but, in 1988, was incorporated into the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation for the Clinch River, a separate study to assess offsite contamination from all three Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge.

  19. First report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Smith, J.G. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.

    1993-08-01

    A modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986. The Oak Ridge K-25 Site is a former uranium-enrichment production facility, which is currently managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. for the US Department of Energy. As required in Part III (L) of that permit, a plan for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) was prepared and submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (Loar et al. 1992b)]. The K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. Because it was anticipated that the composition of existing effluent streams entering Mitchell Branch would be altered shortly after the modified permit was issued, sampling of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities (Task 4 of BMAP) was initiated in August and September 1986 respectively.

  20. Biological monitoring and abatement program plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Kszos, L.A.; Anderson, G.E.; Gregory, S.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Schilling, E.M.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Phipps, T.L. [CKY, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The overall purpose of this plan is to evaluate the receiving streams` biological communities for the duration of the permit and meet the objectives for the ORNL BMAP as outlined in the NPDES permit (Appendix). The ORNL BMAP will focus on those streams in the WOC watershed that (1) receive NPDES discharges and (2) have been identified as ecologically impacted. In response to the newly issued NPDES permit, the tasks that are included in this BMAP plan include monitoring biological communities (fish and benthic invertebrates), monitoring mercury contamination in fish and water, monitoring polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in fish, and evaluating temperature loading from ORNL outfalls. The ORNL BMAP will evaluate the effects of sediment and oil and grease, as well as the chlorine control strategy through the use of biological community data. Monitoring will be conducted at sites in WOC, First Creek, Fifth Creek, Melton Branch, and WOL.

  1. The hydrogen sulfide emissions abatement program at the Geysers Geothermal Power Plant

    Allen, G. W.; Mccluer, H. K.

    1974-01-01

    The scope of the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) abatement program at The Geysers Geothermal Power Plant and the measures currently under way to reduce these emissions are discussed. The Geysers steam averages 223 ppm H2S by weight and after passing through the turbines leaves the plant both through the gas ejector system and by air-stripping in the cooling towers. The sulfide dissolved in the cooling water is controlled by the use of an oxidation catalyst such as an iron salt. The H2S in the low Btu ejector off gases may be burned to sulfur dioxide and scrubbed directly into the circulating water and reinjected into the steam field with the excess condensate. Details are included concerning the disposal of the impure sulfur, design requirements for retrofitting existing plants and modified plant operating procedures. Discussion of future research aimed at improving the H2S abatement system is also included.

  2. Optimal hysteretic control for a BMAP/SM/1/N queue with two operation modes

    Alexander N. Dudin

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider BMAP/SM/1 type queueing system with finite buffer of size N. The system has two operation modes, which are characterized by the matrix generating function of BMAP-input, the kernel of the semi-Markovian service process, and utilization cost. An algorithm for determining the optimal hysteresis strategy is presented.

  3. BIOLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM FOR EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK

    ADAMS, S.M.; ASHWOOD, T.L.; BEATY, T.W.; BRANDT, C.C.

    1997-10-24

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y- 12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  4. BIOLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM FOR EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK

    ADAMS, S.M.; BEATY, T.W.; BRANDT, C.C.; CHRISTENSEN, S.W.; CICERONE, D.S.

    1998-09-09

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  5. Water Resources Research Program. Abatement of malodors at diked, dredged-material disposal sites. Final report

    Harrison, W.; Dravnieks, A.; Zussman, R.; Goltz, R.

    1976-06-01

    Samples of malodorous air and dredged material were collected at diked disposal sites at the following locations: Buffalo, NY; Milwaukee, WI; Mobile, AL; York Harbor, ME; Houston, TX; Detroit, MI; and Anacortes, WA; during the period July--October, 1975. Odorous compounds in the air samples were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, while the detection threshold, intensity, and character of the various odors were determined by experienced panelists using a dynamic, forced-choice-triangle olfactometer. Although significant problems with malodors were not observed beyond the disposal-area dikes during site visits, noteworthy odor episodes had occurred at some sites. An odor-abatement strategy is presented for handling the expected range of odor conditions at dredged-material disposal sites. Its aim is to reduce to an acceptable level the intensity of malodors in an affected community. The main steps in the strategy cover selection of the disposal site, site preparation, odor characterization of sediments to be dredged, malodor abatement during dredging and disposal operations, malodor abatement after filling of the disposal site, and the handling of malodor complaints.

  6. Quarterly Progress Report on the Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Cicerone, D.S.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Hill, W.R.; Kszos, L.A.

    1996-12-30

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program ( BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  7. Report on the biological monitoring program for Bear Creek at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 1989-1994

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Cada, G.F.; Peterson, M.J. [and others

    1996-04-01

    The Bear Creek Valley watershed drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in the Bear Creek Valley resulted in the contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Ecological monitoring by the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was initiated in the Bear Creek watershed in May 1984 and continues at present. Studies conducted during the first year provided a detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek. The initial characterization was followed by a biological monitoring phase in which studies were conducted at reduced intensities.

  8. Killing of trypanosomatid parasites by a modified bovine host defense peptide, BMAP-18.

    Lee R Haines

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tropical diseases caused by parasites continue to cause socioeconomic devastation that reverberates worldwide. There is a growing need for new control measures for many of these diseases due to increasing drug resistance exhibited by the parasites and problems with drug toxicity. One new approach is to apply host defense peptides (HDP; formerly called antimicrobial peptides to disease control, either to treat infected hosts, or to prevent disease transmission by interfering with parasites in their insect vectors. A potent anti-parasite effector is bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide-27 (BMAP-27, a member of the cathelicidin family. Although BMAP-27 is a potent inhibitor of microbial growth, at higher concentrations it also exhibits cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. We tested the anti-parasite activity of BMAP-18, a truncated peptide that lacks the hydrophobic C-terminal sequence of the BMAP-27 parent molecule, an alteration that confers reduced toxicity to mammalian cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BMAP-18 showed strong growth inhibitory activity against several species and life cycle stages of African trypanosomes, fish trypanosomes and Leishmania parasites in vitro. When compared to native BMAP-27, the truncated BMAP-18 peptide showed reduced cytotoxicity on a wide variety of mammalian and insect cells and on Sodalis glossindius, a bacterial symbiont of the tsetse vector. The fluorescent stain rhodamine 123 was used in immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry experiments to show that BMAP-18 at low concentrations rapidly disrupted mitochondrial potential without obvious alteration of parasite plasma membranes, thus inducing death by apoptosis. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that higher concentrations of BMAP-18 induced membrane lesions in the parasites as early as 15 minutes after exposure, thus killing them by necrosis. In addition to direct killing of parasites, BMAP-18 was shown to inhibit LPS

  9. Effect of BMAP-28 antimicrobial peptides on Leishmania major promastigote and amastigote growth: role of leishmanolysin in parasite survival.

    Miriam A Lynn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protozoan parasites, such as Leishmania, still pose an enormous public health problem in many countries throughout the world. Current measures are outdated and have some associated drug resistance, prompting the search into novel therapies. Several innovative approaches are under investigation, including the utilization of host defence peptides (HDPs as emerging anti-parasitic therapies. HDPs are characterised by their small size, amphipathic nature and cationicity, which induce permeabilization of cell membranes, whilst modulating the immune response of the host. Recently, members of the cathelicidin family of HDPs have demonstrated significant antimicrobial activities against various parasites including Leishmania. The cathelicidin bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide 28 (BMAP-28 has broad antimicrobial activities and confers protection in animal models of bacterial infection or sepsis. We tested the effectiveness of the use of BMAP-28 and two of its isomers the D-amino acid form (D-BMAP-28 and the retro-inverso form (RI-BMAP-28, as anti-leishmanial agents against the promastigote and amastigote intracellular Leishmania major lifecycle stages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An MTS viability assay was utilized to show the potent antiparasitic activity of BMAP-28 and its protease resistant isomers against L. major promastigotes in vitro. Cell membrane permeability assays, caspase 3/7, Tunel assays and morphologic studies suggested that this was a late stage apoptotic cell death with early osmotic cell lysis caused by the antimicrobial peptides. Furthermore, BMAP-28 and its isomers demonstrated anti-leishmanial activities against intracellular amastigotes within a macrophage infection model. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Interestingly, D-BMAP-28 appears to be the most potent antiparasitic of the three isomers against wild type L. major promastigotes and amastigotes. These exciting results suggest that BMAP-28 and its protease resistant

  10. On a BMAP/G/1 G-queue with Setup Times andMultiple Vacations

    Yi PENG; Xiang-qun YANG

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,we consider a BMAP/G/1 G-queue with setup times and multiple vacations.Arrivals of positive customers and negative customers follow a batch Markovian arrival process (BMAP) and Markovian arrival process (MAP) respectively.The arrival of a negative customer removes all the customers in the system when the server is working.The server leaves for a vacation as soon as the system empties and is allowed to take repeated (multiple) vacations.By using the supplementary variables method and the censoring technique,we obtain the queue length distributions.We also obtain the mean of the busy period based on the renewal theory.

  11. Effect of BMAP-28 antimicrobial peptides on Leishmania major promastigote and amastigote growth

    Lynn, Miriam A.; Kindrachuk, Jason; Marr, Alexandra K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Protozoan parasites, such as Leishmania, still pose an enormous public health problem in many countries throughout the world. Current measures are outdated and have some associated drug resistance, prompting the search into novel therapies. Several innovative approaches are under...... antiparasitic of the three isomers against wild type L. major promastigotes and amastigotes. These exciting results suggest that BMAP-28 and its protease resistant isomers have significant therapeutic potential as novel anti-leishmanials....

  12. Insect abatement system

    Spiro, Clifford Lawrence (Inventor); Burnell, Timothy Brydon (Inventor); Wengrovius, Jeffrey Hayward (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An insect abatement system prevents adhesion of insect debris to surfaces which must be kept substantially free of insect debris. An article is coated with an insect abatement coating comprising polyorganosiloxane with a Shore A hardness of less than 50 and a tensile strength of less than 4 MPa. A method for preventing the adhesion of insect debris to surfaces includes the step of applying an insect abatement coating to a surface which must be kept substantially free of insect debris.

  13. Subexponential tail equivalence of the queue length distributions of BMAP/GI/1 queues with and without retrials

    2013-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is to prove the subexponential tail equivalence of the stationary queue length distributions in the BMAP/GI/1 queues with and without retrials. We first present a stochastic-decomposition-like result of the stationary queue length in the BMAP/GI/1 retrial queue, which is an extension of the stochastic decomposition of the stationary queue length in the M${}^X$/GI/1 retrial queue. The stochastic-decomposition-like result shows that the stationary queue lengt...

  14. ANSI / FM Approvals 2510 flood abatement equipment test standard

    Kravetz Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural hazards, including flooding, continue to be the leading cause of commercial and industrial property damage worldwide. Until recently, there has been a limited amount of readily available guidance on choosing flood abatement protection. FM Approvals, a division of FM Global, one of the world’s largest business property insurers, working together with the Association of State Floodplain Managers and the US Army Corps of Engineers have developed a National Flood Barrier Test Program after recognizing the urgent demand for reliable flood abatement products to mitigate potential losses. This lead to the ANSI/ FM2510 flood abatement equipment standard.

  15. A spectral approach to compute the mean performance measures of the queue with low-order BMAP input

    Ho Woo Lee

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper targets engineers and practitioners who want a simple procedure to compute the mean performance measures of the Batch Markovian Arrival process (BMAP/G/1 queueing system when the parameter matrices order is very low. We develop a set of system equations and derive the vector generating function of the queue length. Starting from the generating function, we propose a spectral approach that can be understandable to those who have basic knowledge of M/G/1 queues and eigenvalue algebra.

  16. Pollution Abatement and Control Expenditures Survey (PACE)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pollution Abatement Costs and Expenditures (PACE) survey is the most comprehensive national source of pollution abatement costs and expenditures related to...

  17. Asbestos Abatement: Start to Finish.

    Makruski, Edward D.

    1984-01-01

    An EPA survey of the largest school districts in the nation revealed that over 50 percent have not inspected for asbestos and two-thirds have failed to notify parents adequately. Seven steps are therefore provided for successful asbestos abatement, in anticipation of tougher regulations now under consideration. (TE)

  18. Asbestos Abatement--Practical Considerations.

    Sedrel, Roy A.

    Illinois Senate Bill 1644, the recently passed "Asbestos Abatement Act," requires all schools in the state, public and private alike, to remove friable asbestos by whichever comes first: July 1, 1989, or 3 years following the establishment of a system for state funding for corrective action. This document addresses practical…

  19. Antimicrobial activity of cathelicidins BMAP28, SMAP28, SMAP29, and PMAP23 against Pasteurella multocida is more broad-spectrum than host species specific.

    Brogden, Kim A; Nordholm, Gwen; Ackermann, Mark

    2007-01-17

    The antimicrobial activity of linear, cationic alpha-helical peptides from cattle (BMAP28), sheep (SMAP28 and SMAP29), and pigs (PMAP23) were assessed to determine if activity was selective for Pasteurella multocida from a particular animal species or broad-spectrum against all P. multocida tested. The antimicrobial activities of synthetic peptides were determined for P. multocida isolated from cattle (10 isolates), sheep (10 isolates), and pigs (10 isolates) in a broth microdilution assay. All thirty isolates of P. multocida were susceptible to BMAP28 (MICs and MBCs, 1.0-1.9 microM); SMAP28 and SMAP29 (MICs and MBCs, 0.2-0.7 microM); and PMAP23 (MICs and MBCs, 4.3 to > or = 6.8 microM). Overall, the results of this study suggest that synthesized cathelicidins from cattle, sheep, and pigs had broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against all P. multocida.

  20. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Adams, S. M.; Christensen, S. W.; Greeley, M.S. jr; McCracken, M.K.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth G. R.; Stewart, A. J.

    2001-01-19

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (formerly the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant). As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Complex on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the

  1. Greenhouse gas abatement under ambiguity

    Welsch, H. [Cologne Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Energy Economics

    1995-04-02

    Observing that energy related climate change is an ambiguous prospect, rather than a risky one, this paper examines the consequences of different degrees of and attitudes towards ambiguity. Ambiguous choices differ from risky choices in that decision makers hold no firm probability distribution as to the consequence of their actions, but recognize that preliminary probability estimates may be revised in the light of new information. This (ex ante) recognition may lead to ambiguous choices and risky choices being evaluated differently. The paper offers an explanation of why the evaluation of abatement programmes can differ among people who are likely to suffer similar climate impacts and might be thought to hold similar probability assessments. (author)

  2. Emission taxes and the market for abatement goods and services

    David, Maia [INRA-AgroParisTech UMR Economie Publique, F-78000 Thiverval-Grignon (France); Nimubona, Alain-Desire [Department of Economics, University of Waterloo (Canada); Sinclair-Desgagne, Bernard [HEC Montreal, CIRANO and CIRAIG (Canada); Ecole Polytechnique (France)

    2011-01-15

    This paper examines the effect of emission taxes on pollution abatement and social welfare, when abatement goods and services are provided by a Cournot oligopoly with free-entry. We point out initially that a higher tax not only increases demand for abatement; it also makes polluters less sensitive to price. This attracts a larger number of abatement suppliers while possibly inducing each one of them to produce less. Total abatement always goes up, however, when the delivery of abatement goods and services exhibits decreasing returns to scale. We then calculate the welfare-maximizing emission tax and compare it to the Pigouvian tax. (author)

  3. Analysis of Quality of Service Performances of Connection Admission Control Mechanisms in OFDMA IEEE 802.16 Network using BMAP Queuing

    Bouchti, Abdelali El; Kafhali, Said El

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a single-cell IEEE 802.16 environment in which the base station allocates subchannels to the subscriber stations in its coverage area. The subchannels allocated to a subscriber station are shared by multiple connections at that subscriber station. To ensure the Quality of Service (QoS) performances, two Connection Admission Control (CAC) mechanisms, namely, threshold-based and queue-aware CAC mechanisms are considered at a subscriber station. A queuing analytical framework for these admission control mechanisms is presented considering Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) based transmission at the physical layer. Then, based on the queuing model, both the connection-level and the packet-level performances are studied and compared with their analogues in the case without CAC. The connection arrival is modeled by a Poisson process and the packet arrival for a connection by Batch Markov Arrival Process (BMAP). We determine analytically and numerically different QoS per...

  4. 24 CFR 35.1325 - Abatement.

    2010-04-01

    ...-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint... authorized by EPA, or by EPA at 40 CFR 745.227(e), and shall be completed by achieving clearance in... accordance with § 35.1355. Abatement of an intact, factory-applied prime coating on metal surfaces is...

  5. Infectious disease risk in asbestos abatement workers

    Lange John H

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current literature reports increased infectious disease occurrence in various construction occupations, as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality arising from employment. These observations should be expanded to asbestos abatement workers, as the abatement can create an environment favorable for bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Discussion Asbestos abatement work employs activities resulting in cuts, blisters and abrasions to the skin, work in a dirty environment and exposure to dust, mists and fumes. Furthermore, this population exhibits a high smoking rate which increases the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and respiratory infections. In addition, these workers also commonly employ respirators, which can accumulate dirt and debris magnifying exposure to microbes. Use of respirators and related types of personal protective equipment, especially if shared and in the close environment experienced by workers, may enhance communicability of these agents, including viruses. Summary Abatement workers need to be provided with information on hazards and targeted by appropriate health education to reduce the infection risk. Epidemiological studies to investigate this risk in asbestos removers are recommended.

  6. Water condensation for submicronic particles abatement

    Cozzolino, Gennaro

    2013-01-01

    Control of particulate matter (PM) emissions from industrial processes is important for protection of human health and the environment. A promising technique for submicron PM abatement is by condensing water vapor onto the particles, which enhances particle growth and improves the performance of traditional particle collection devices. This thesis analyzes the flue gases cleaning process by means of activation heterogeneous water nucleation mechanism on particles surface as a function of work...

  7. Costs and global impacts of black carbon abatement strategies

    K. Rypdal; Rive, N.; T. K. Berntsen; Z. Klimont; Mideksa, T.K.; G. Myhre; R. B. Skeie

    2009-01-01

    Abatement of particulate matter has traditionally been driven by health concerns rather than its role in global warming. Here we assess future abatement strategies in terms of how much they reduce the climate impact of black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) from contained combustion. We develop global scenarios which take into account regional differences in climate impact, costs of abatement and ability to pay, as well as both the direct and indirect (snow-albedo) climate impact of BC ...

  8. Nutrient abatement potential and abatement costs of waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea region.

    Hautakangas, Sami; Ollikainen, Markku; Aarnos, Kari; Rantanen, Pirjo

    2014-04-01

    We assess the physical potential to reduce nutrient loads from waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea region and determine the costs of abating nutrients based on the estimated potential. We take a sample of waste water treatment plants of different size classes and generalize its properties to the whole population of waste water treatment plants. Based on a detailed investment and operational cost data on actual plants, we develop the total and marginal abatement cost functions for both nutrients. To our knowledge, our study is the first of its kind; there is no other study on this issue which would take advantage of detailed data on waste water treatment plants at this extent. We demonstrate that the reduction potential of nutrients is huge in waste water treatment plants. Increasing the abatement in waste water treatment plants can result in 70 % of the Baltic Sea Action Plan nitrogen reduction target and 80 % of the Baltic Sea Action Plan phosphorus reduction target. Another good finding is that the costs of reducing both nutrients are much lower than previously thought. The large reduction of nitrogen would cost 670 million euros and of phosphorus 150 million euros. We show that especially for phosphorus the abatement costs in agriculture would be much higher than in waste water treatment plants.

  9. Emissions to the atmosphere - monitoring and abatement

    Sage, P.W. [British Coal Corp., Cheltenham (United Kingdom); Ford, N.W.J. [CRE Group Ltd., Cheltenham (United Kingdom)

    1995-06-01

    In 1996, paper-mills will be subject to the requirements of the UK Environmental Protection Act 1990. This will involve the monitoring and reduction of emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. This paper describes the sources of these emissions - fluidised bed boilers, stoker fuel beds, pulverized fuel -and the available technologies for monitoring and abating them. The cost and effectiveness of pollution control is site specific. Large mills may benefit from the installation of Pound 100k monitoring systems with annual running costs of Pound 50 k; while small mills may achieve the desired results through periodic monitoring by consultants at Pound 10k a year. (author)

  10. Risk management for sulfur dioxide abatement under multiple uncertainties

    Dai, C.; Sun, W.; Tan, Q.; Liu, Y.; Lu, W. T.; Guo, H. C.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, interval-parameter programming, two-stage stochastic programming (TSP), and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) were incorporated into a general optimization framework, leading to an interval-parameter CVaR-based two-stage programming (ICTP) method. The ICTP method had several advantages: (i) its objective function simultaneously took expected cost and risk cost into consideration, and also used discrete random variables and discrete intervals to reflect uncertain properties; (ii) it quantitatively evaluated the right tail of distributions of random variables which could better calculate the risk of violated environmental standards; (iii) it was useful for helping decision makers to analyze the trade-offs between cost and risk; and (iv) it was effective to penalize the second-stage costs, as well as to capture the notion of risk in stochastic programming. The developed model was applied to sulfur dioxide abatement in an air quality management system. The results indicated that the ICTP method could be used for generating a series of air quality management schemes under different risk-aversion levels, for identifying desired air quality management strategies for decision makers, and for considering a proper balance between system economy and environmental quality.

  11. Risk management for sulfur dioxide abatement under multiple uncertainties

    C.DAI; W.SUN; Q.TAN; Y.LIU; W.T.LU; H.C.GUO

    2016-01-01

    In this study,interval-parameter programming,two-stage stochastic programming (TSP),and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) were incorporated into a general optimization framework,leading to an interval-parameter CVaR-based two-stage programming (ICTP) method.The ICTP method had several advantages:(i) its objective function simultaneously took expected cost and risk cost into consideration,and also used discrete random variables and discrete intervals to reflect uncertain properties;(ii) it quantitatively evaluated the right tail of distributions of random variables which could better calculate the risk of violated environmental standards;(iii) it was useful for helping decision makers to analyze the trade-offs between cost and risk;and (iv) it was effective to penalize the second-stage costs,as well as to capture the notion of risk in stochastic programming.The developed model was applied to sulfur dioxide abatement in an air quality management system.The results indicated that the ICTP method could be used for generating a series of air quality management schemes under different risk-aversion levels,for identifying desired air quality management strategies for decision makers,and for considering a proper balance between system economy and environmental quality.

  12. 76 FR 39368 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    2011-07-06

    ... migratory bird abatement permit. On January 12, 2007, we published a Federal Register notice (72 FR 1556..., we published a Federal Register notice (72 FR 69705-69706) announcing final permit conditions. This... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AW75 Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement...

  13. 76 FR 67650 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    2011-11-02

    ... for a specific permit authorizing the use of raptors in abatement activities (76 FR 39368). The... the advance notice of proposed rulemaking, please refer to that document at 76 FR 39368 (July 6, 2011... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AW75 Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement...

  14. Optimized combinations of abatement strategies for urban mobile sources.

    Yu, T Y; Lin, Y C; Chang, L F

    2000-08-01

    The maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) scale was chosen as a practical index for quantifying ozone-forming impacts. The integer linear and nonlinear programming techniques were employed as the optimization method to maximize MIR and volatile organic compound (VOC) reductions, and minimize ozone's marginal cost with varied control costs. Mobile vehicles were divided into nine categories according to the demands of decision makers and the distinctive features of local circumstance in metro-Taipei. The emission factor (EF) and vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT) of each kind of vehicle were estimated by MOBILE5B model via native parameters and questionnaires. Compressed natural gas (CNG) and inspection and maintenance (I/M) were the alternative control programs for buses and touring buses; liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), I/M, methanol, electrical vehicle (EV) were for taxis and low duty gasoline vehicles. EV, methanol, and I/M were the possible control methods for two-stroke and four-stroke engine motorcycles; I/M programs for low-duty diesel trucks, heavy-duty diesel trucks, and low-duty gasoline trucks. The results include the emission ratios of specific vehicle to all vehicles, the best combination of abated measures based on different objectives, and the marginal cost for ozone and VOC with varied control costs.

  15. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

    1989-02-28

    A screening study was performed on a laboratory scale downfired combustor to determine the effect of various variables on the effectiveness of the reburning process as a technique for NO{sub X} abatement. The objective was to define optimum conditions under which reburning can be used and to be able to compare the reburning performance of our combustor to those reported by others. For this purpose, a statistically designed parametric investigation was conducted to determine how a set of controlled variables (primary and secondary stoichiometric ratios, location and length of the reburn zone and primary fuel load) would affect the reduction in NO emissions due to reburning. Also, the effects of other variables (NO in the primary zone, temperatures in the primary, reburn and burnout zones and the residence time in the reburn zone) were also investigated.

  16. How to encourage road noise abatement in Nordic municipalities

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2008-01-01

    to already existing residential areas and roads is: which conditions in the municipal organisation and its institutional environment contribute to making municipalities provide and implement noise abatement measures? Th e assumption is that three factors infl uence how the municipalities prioritize among...... political issues: the municipal organisation itself, the local institutional environment (citizens, business and NGOs), and the state and trans-municipal networks. A study of the anatomy of municipal road noise abatement policy shows that conditions for implementing road noise abatement in existing...... residential areas are poor, though, possibly, the large municipalities represent an exception to this rule. In general, road traffi c noise abatement does not seem to be institutionalised, whether it be in the municipal organisation or the institutional environment. Two case studies of municipalities involved...

  17. Poverty and pollution abatement. Evidence from lead phase-out

    Hilton, F.G. [Department of Economics, Loyola College in Maryland, 4501 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21210 (United States)

    2006-01-01

    An extensive literature suggests that poverty prevents nations from abating many forms of pollution. Considerable research also proposes a competing claim, that poverty delays but does not prevent pollution abatement. Neither position enjoys persuasive empirical support. Data describing the phase-out of leaded gasoline allow for empirical investigation and they support the latter claim-that poverty delays but does not prevent pollution abatement. Many poor nations have solved the problem of vehicular lead pollution and they have tended to follow rich nations in doing so. The phase-out achievements of richer nations have generated much of the ability and will that has enabled poor countries to solve the problem. The pattern of abatement sequencing and its root causes present important implications for environmental policy and research. (author)

  18. Special Taxing Districts, Real Estate Abatements, Published in 2006, Freelance.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Special Taxing Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as 'Real Estate Abatements'....

  19. Field characterization of external grease abatement devices.

    Aziz, Tarek N; Holt, Leon M; Keener, Kevin M; Groninger, John W; Ducoste, Joel J

    2012-03-01

    This study characterized some of the physical and chemical features of large outside field grease abatement devices (GADs). 24-hour measurements of several food service establishments' (FSEs') influent GAD flowrates indicated highly intermittent conditions with hydraulic retention times (HRTs) that exceeded the common recommendation (30 minutes) by two to five times. Investigation into the chemical characteristics of GADs indicated highly variable influent and effluent fat, oil, and grease (FOG) concentrations. Low pH and dissolved oxygen values were measured throughout the GAD, indicating the likely occurrence of anaerobic microbial processes. Detailed spatial and temporal observations of the accumulation of FOG and food solids were also discussed. Though the FOG layer remained relatively constant for all GAD configurations investigated, results indicated that commonly-used GAD configurations with a straight submerged inlet tee or no-inlet tee configuration may result in the transport of food solids into the second compartment. The present research showed increased accumulation of food solids in the first compartment with a retro-fit flow distributive inlet. This retro-fit displays promise for potentially improving the separation characteristics of existing GADs.

  20. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

    1988-12-27

    A screening study was performed on a laboratory scale downfired combustor to determine the effect of various variables on the effectiveness of the reburning process as a technique for NO{sub x} abatement. The objective was to define optimum conditions under which reburning can be used and to be able to compare the reburning performance of our combustor to those reported by others. For this purpose, a statistically designed parametric investigation was conducted to determine how a set of controlled variables (primary and secondary stoichiometric ratios, location of the reburn zone and primary fuel load) would affect the reduction in NO emissions in a classical reburning configuration. Also, the effects of other variables (NO in the primary zone, temperatures in the primary, reburn and burnout zones and the residence time in the reburn zone) were also investigated. Empirical correlations relating reburning effectiveness to various parameters were derived. There correlations were used to investigate the effect of each individual parameter on reburning effectiveness. An optimum reburn zone stoichiometric ratio was identified at 0.8. At this stoichiometry, a high level of NO reduction (up to 80%) can be achieved beyond which little or no improvement is easily achieved.

  1. Economic aspects of air pollution abatement. Air pollution abatement recommended for economic reasons; Oekonomische Aspekte des Klimaschutzes. Gerade aus oekonomischer Sicht ist Klimaschutz sinnvoll

    Jasper, J.; Serger, H. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Mikrooekonomik

    2005-07-01

    Climate change is not only dangerous but also expensive. On the other hand, air pollution abatement measures are costly as well. Scientists of the Microeconomics Department investigated how air pollution abatement and cost efficiency can best be combined. (orig.)

  2. Global forestry emission projections and abatement costs

    Böttcher, H.; Gusti, M.; Mosnier, A.; Havlik, P.; Obersteiner, M.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we present forestry emission projections and associated Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACCs) for individual countries, based on economic, social and policy drivers. The activities cover deforestation, afforestation, and forestry management. The global model tools G4M and GLOBIOM, developed at IIASA, are applied. GLOBIOM uses global scenarios of population, diet, GDP and energy demand to inform G4M about future land and commodity prices and demand for bioenergy and timber. G4M projects emissions from afforestation, deforestation and management of existing forests. Mitigation measures are simulated by introducing a carbon tax. Mitigation activities like reducing deforestation or enhancing afforestation are not independent of each other. In contrast to existing forestry mitigation cost curves the presented MACCs are not developed for individual activities but total forest land management which makes the estimated potentials more realistic. In the assumed baseline gross deforestation drops globally from about 12 Mha in 2005 to below 10 Mha after 2015 and reach 0.5 Mha in 2050. Afforestation rates remain fairly constant at about 7 Mha annually. Although we observe a net area increase of global forest area after 2015 net emissions from deforestation and afforestation are positive until 2045 as the newly afforested areas accumulate carbon rather slowly. About 200 Mt CO2 per year in 2030 in Annex1 countries could be mitigated at a carbon price of 50 USD. The potential for forest management improvement is very similar. Above 200 USD the potential is clearly constrained for both options. In Non-Annex1 countries avoided deforestation can achieve about 1200 Mt CO2 per year at a price of 50 USD. The potential is less constrained compared to the potential in Annex1 countries, achieving a potential of 1800 Mt CO2 annually in 2030 at a price of 1000 USD. The potential from additional afforestation is rather limited due to high baseline afforestation rates assumed

  3. PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION FOR NOx ABATEMENT: DEVELOPMENT OF A KINETIC EXPRESSION AND DESIGN TOOLS

    Rajiv Srivastava; M. A. Ebadian

    2000-09-15

    The ''Nitrogen Oxides Emission Reduction Program'' and ''Ozone Non-Attainment Program'' in the 1990 Clean Air Act provide guidelines for controlling NOx (NO and NO{sub 2}) emissions in new and existing stationary sources. NOx emissions have local (air quality), regional (acid rain), and global (ozone production) consequences. This study aids in developing the photocatalyst technology that has potential for use in abatement of NOx. The objective of the proposed project is to apply the principles of chemical engineering fundamentals--reaction kinetics, transport phenomena and thermodynamics--in the process design for a system that will utilize a photocatalytic reactor to oxidize NOx to nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). HNO{sub 3} can be more easily trapped than NOx on adsorbent surfaces or in water. The project dealt with the engineering aspect of the gas-solid heterogeneous oxidation of NOx. The experiments were conducted in a photocatalyst wash-coated glass flow tube reactor. A mathematical model was developed based on a rigorous description of the physical and chemical processes occurring in the reactor. The mathematical model took into account (1) intrinsic reaction kinetics (i.e., true reaction rates), (2) transport phenomena that deal with the mass transfer effects in the reactor, and (3) the geometry of the reactor. The experimental results were used for validation of the mathematical model that provides the basis for a versatile and reliable method for the purpose of design, scale-up and process control. The NOx abatement was successfully carried out in a flow tube reactor surrounded by black lights under the exploratory grant. Due to lack of funds, a comprehensive kinetic analysis for the photocatalytic reaction scheme could not be carried out. The initial experiments look very promising for use of photocatalysis for NOx abatement.

  4. Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  5. 29 CFR 1960.30 - Abatement of unsafe or unhealthful working conditions.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abatement of unsafe or unhealthful working conditions. 1960... unhealthful working conditions. (a) The agency shall ensure the prompt abatement of unsafe and unhealthful conditions. Where a Notice of an Unsafe or Unhealthful Working Condition has been issued, abatement shall...

  6. Efficient air pollution abatement for regions in China

    Hu, J.L. [National Chiao Tung University, Taipei (Taiwan). Inst. for Business & Management

    2006-08-15

    This paper computes the efficient air pollution abatement ratios of 30 regions in China during the period 1996-2002. Three air emissions (SO{sub 2}, soot and dust) are considered. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) with a single output (real GDP) and five inputs (labour, real capital stock, SO{sub 2}, dust and soot emissions) is used to compute the target emissions of each region for each year. The efficient abatement ratios of each region in each year are then obtained by dividing the target emission by the actual emission of an air pollutant. Our major findings are: 1. The eastern area is the most efficient region with respect to SO{sub 2}, soot and dust emissions in every year during the research period. 2. The eastern, central and western areas have the lowest, medium and highest 1996-2002 average target abatement ratios of SO, (22.09%, 42.23% and 57.58%), soot (26.19%, 56.34% and 66.37%) and dust (15.20%, 29.09% and 40.59%), respectively. 3. These results are consistent with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) theory, whereby a more developed area will use environmental goods more efficiently than a less developed area. 4. Compared to dust emission, the average target abatement ratios for SO{sub 2} and soot emissions (as direct outcomes of burning coal) are relatively much higher for all three areas.

  7. Contracting for Asbestos Abatement: What You Need to Know.

    Bittle, Edgar H.; McAllister, Jane B.

    1990-01-01

    School districts are required to determine if asbestos-containing materials exist at school facilities and design and implement asbestos abatement. Reviews how to select a contractor, draft the contract, and ensure its proper implementation by complying with the law and avoiding liability. (MLF)

  8. Do abatement quotas lead to more successful climate coalitions?

    Altamirano-Cabrera, J.-C.; Dellink, R. [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group; Finus, M. [Univ. of Hagen (Germany). Dept. of Economics

    2007-07-01

    Casual empirical evidence has already shown that existing international environmental agreements (IEAs) depart from a globally optimal solution typically in three respects. Firstly, not all countries that are responsible for negative transboundary spillovers participate in IEAs. A typical example is the Kyoto Protocol on the reduction of greenhouse gases that cause global warming. Neither the USA, a major current emitter of greenhouse gases, nor major future emitters such as China and India, have accepted quantified emission reductions under this agreement. Secondly, total abatement of the coalition is below coalitional optimal levels. For framework conventions (such as the Vienna Convention preceding the Montreal Protocol on CFC-reductions, the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) preceding the Kyoto Protocol on greenhouse gases reduction or the Convention Long Range Transboundary Pollution (LRTAP) preceding the Helsinki and Oslo Protocols on sulfur reductions) this is evident as they are mere declarations of intentions without abatement obligations. However, this suboptimality is also true for other conventions which is supported by empirical studies, suggesting that emission reduction targets are not much higher than in the absence of these agreements. Thirdly, emission reduction efforts are not cost-effectively allocated. Abatement obligations are often specified as uniform emission reduction quotas, even though countries face different marginal abatement costs. In the non-cooperative game theoretical literature on IEAs, the first type of deficiency has received much attention. A common assumption in many of these studies is that total abatement within a coalition is chosen optimally. The first papers shwoing that only small coalitions are self-enforcing go back to Barrett (1994) and Carraro and Siniscalco (1993), which has recently been confirmed by Breton et al. (2006). Later papers have addressed the problem of heterogeneous payoff functions and

  9. Endogenous Technological Progress with Uncertainty and Carbon Abatement Polices

    Cho, G.L. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    Most greenhouse gas abatement policy models tend to neglect a potentially important element that is relevant to the induced technology changes(ITC). These models that incorporate technological change treat such a change as autonomous, that is, unaffected by changes in prices brought about by policy reforms. However, climate change policies can create economic incentives to engage in more extensive R and D oriented toward the discovery of new production techniques that mitigate a reliance on convectional fuels, ultimately resulting in impacts on the policies themselves. In order to investigate the significance of induced technology for the attractiveness of abatement policies, this study develop the multi-sectoral dynamic CGE model by incorporating two characteristics of technological progress: the endogenous growth model with externality of technology in Romer (1986) and Lucas(1988) and the technological changes resulting from profit maximizing investment in R and D in Rebelo(1991) and Jones and Manuelli(1990). Furthermore, technological progress is affected by not only the economical factors but also the political and institutional system that cannot be captured in this model. This study considers such uncertainty in the technological progress as technology shock as in RBC school. This study shows that the presence of ITC implies lower costs of achieving a given abatement target in terms of the reduction cost per ton of carbon and GDP losses. The presence of ITC reduces the GDP losses by 0.9%p{approx}1.5%p compared with the absence of the ITC. As the abatement target is substantially high, R and D is reduced significantly even in the presence of ITC. Therefore, it is necessary to seriously consider the tax recycling for enhancing R and D investment, which minimizes the GDP losses. The reduction cost is highly sensitive to the uncertainty in technological progress. The technology shock leads the reduction cost to widely vary, in terms of standard deviation, 3

  10. Potential Cost-Effective Opportunities for Methane Emission Abatement

    Warner, Ethan [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Steinberg, Daniel [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Hodson, Elke [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Heath, Garvin [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The energy sector was responsible for approximately 84% of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the U.S. in 2012 (EPA 2014a). Methane is the second most important GHG, contributing 9% of total U.S. CO2e emissions. A large portion of those methane emissions result from energy production and use; the natural gas, coal, and oil industries produce approximately 39% of anthropogenic methane emissions in the U.S. As a result, fossil-fuel systems have been consistently identified as high priority sectors to contribute to U.S. GHG reduction goals (White House 2015). Only two studies have recently attempted to quantify the abatement potential and cost associated with the breadth of opportunities to reduce GHG emissions within natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains in the United States, namely the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2013a) and ICF (2014). EPA, in its 2013 analysis, estimated the marginal cost of abatement for non-CO2 GHG emissions from the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains for multiple regions globally, including the United States. Building on this work, ICF International (ICF) (2014) provided an update and re-analysis of the potential opportunities in U.S. natural gas and oil systems. In this report we synthesize these previously published estimates as well as incorporate additional data provided by ICF to provide a comprehensive national analysis of methane abatement opportunities and their associated costs across the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains. Results are presented as a suite of marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs), which depict the total potential and cost of reducing emissions through different abatement measures. We report results by sector (natural gas, oil, and coal) and by supply chain segment - production, gathering and boosting, processing, transmission and storage, or distribution - to facilitate identification of which sectors and supply chain

  11. Marginal abatement cost curves for Heavy Duty Vehicles. Background report

    Schroten, A.; Warringa, G.; Bles, M.

    2012-09-15

    Cost curves were calculated for CO2 abatement technologies for Heavy Duty Vehicles. These curves were elaborated for eight different vehicle categories (six categories of truck and two subcategories), as well as for an 'average' truck and bus. Given that cost curves depend very much on underlying assumptions, the MACH model (Marginal Abatement Costs of Heavy duty vehicles) was developed. This model allows users to enter their own assumptions with respect to parameters like fuel prices and cost and lifetime of individual technologies, with the model then generating new cost curves for the various vehicle categories. This background report contains a description of the model and a summary of the results of several model runs.

  12. Private sector investments in pollution abatement and control

    Gagnon, P.

    1996-06-01

    Capital expenditures for pollution abatement and control in the business sector were presented. An analysis of the data showed that from 1985 to 1993, expenditures increased from $141 million to $1.1 billion. The analysis was based on industry sectors, i. e., the manufacturing sector, the paper and allied products industry, the primary metals industry, the chemical and chemical products industry, the mining industry, and electricity, gas and other utilities. Results were classified by province. The annex on environmental statistics includes a section of summary statistics for the NAFTA countries.It was suggested that the substantial increase in capital expenditures for pollution abatement and control ought to be seen in the context of general public awareness of environmental problems. Stricter regulation of polluting industries also has been a contributing factor.

  13. PARTICULATE EMISSION ABATEMENT FOR KRAKOW BOILERHOUSES

    Bruce H. Easom; Leo A, Smolensky; S. Ronald Wysk; Jan Surowka; Miroslaw Litke; Jacek Ginter

    1998-09-30

    A U.S./Polish Bilateral Steering Committee (BSC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) selected LSR Technologies, Inc. as a contractor to participate in the Krakow Clean Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. The objective of this program was the formation of business ventures between U.S. and Polish firms to provide equipment and services to reduce air emissions in the city of Krakow. A cooperative agreement was entered into by DOE and LSR to begin work in April 1994 involving implementation of particulate control technology called a Core Separator{trademark} for coal-fueled boilerhouses in the city. The major work tasks included: (1) conducting a market analysis, (2) completion of a formal marketing plan, (3) obtaining patent protection within Poland, (4) selecting a manufacturing partner, and (5) completing a demonstration unit and commercial installations. In addition to work performed by LSR Technologies, key contributors to this project were (1) the Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE), a non-profit consulting organization specializing in energy and environmental-related technologies, and (2) EcoInstal, a privately held Polish company serving the air pollution control market. As the project concluded in late 1998, five (5) Core Separator{trademark} installations had been implemented in the city of Krakow, while about 40 others were completed in other regions of Poland.

  14. Suspended solid abatement in a conical fluidized bed flocculator

    Dandan ZHOU; Shuangshi DONG; Keyu LI; Huizhong JIANG; Dandan SHANG

    2013-01-01

    With the random movement of silica gel beads in a conical fluidized bed, micro-vortices resulting from the fluidization promoted the collision and aggregation of suspended fine kaolin powders. The abatement efficiencies of the suspended fine solids under several hydrodynamic conditions were studied, and a suitable control strategy for operating the conical fluidized bed flocculators was identified. The suspended solids abatement efficiency was found to increase with increasing Camp Number and flocculation time (T), but decreased with the increase of velocity gradient (G) within the range studied in this research (165.1-189.6s-1). The abatement efficiencies were all more than 60% at the range of G = 165-180 s 1 and T = 15-33 s at an initial kaolin solid concentration of 150mg·L-1, polymer aluminum chloride dosage of 60 mg· L -1 and sedimentation time of 20 min. However, the formation of flocs was influenced by the liquid back- mixing. Excessive backmixing caused the breakup of ftocs and resulted in difficulty for the fine powders to aggregate and sediment to the reactor bottom. The results of the calculated fractal dimension and measured free sedimenta- tion velocity of flocs obtained at different runs showed similar flocs properties, and indicated an easy control strategy for sedimentation of the flocs.

  15. Essays on carbon abatement and electricity markets

    Taber, John Timothy

    In the first chapter of this dissertation, I study the effects of a number of policies which affect the electric grid using the SuperOPF, a full AC optimization/simulation framework with optimal investment developed at Cornell University. A 36-node model of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council is used to test policies that aim to reduce CO2, other emissions, or otherwise impact the operation of the electric grid: a base case, with no new environmental legislation; enactment of the Kerry-Lieberman CO2 allowance proposal in 2012; following Fukishima, a retirement of all US nuclear plants by 2022 with and without Kerry-Lieberman; marginal damages from SO2 and NOX emissions charged to coal, gas and oil-fired generation; plug-in hybrid electric vehicle load filling; wind incentives in place; and two cases which combine these. The cases suggest that alternative policies may have very different outcomes in terms of electricity prices, emissions, and health outcomes. In all cases, however, the optimal strategy for future investment is investment in new natural gas combined cycle plants. Policies can change how much new generation is built, whether other plants are built, or what types of plants are retired. The second chapter of my dissertation utilizes the SuperOPF and the model of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council to analyze the issue of carbon leakage. I analyze the effects of a regionally-limited carbon cap and trade program, the Regional Greenhouse Initiative (RGGI), when additional generating assets in non-affected states are included in the analysis. In the face of different carbon prices on generating assets in covered and non-covered states, generation is expected to shift from states bound by RGGI to states outside of RGGI. This carbon leakage may undermine some or all of the benefits of RGGI while simultaneously increasing prices for customers in the area. Even though carbon prices under RGGI are very low, some leakage is occurring, and this leakage

  16. Greenhouse gas abatement cost curves of the residential heating market. A microeconomic approach

    Dieckhoener, Caroline; Hecking, Harald

    2012-10-15

    In this paper, we develop a microeconomic approach to deduce greenhouse gas abatement cost curves of the residential heating sector. By accounting for household behavior, we find that welfare-based abatement costs are generally higher than pure technical equipment costs. Our results are based on a microsimulation of private households' investment decision for heating systems until 2030. The households' investment behavior in the simulation is derived from a discrete choice estimation which allows investigating the welfare costs of different abatement policies in terms of the compensating variation and the excess burden. We simulate greenhouse gas abatements and welfare costs of carbon taxes and subsidies on heating system investments until 2030 to deduce abatement curves. Given utility maximizing households, our results suggest a carbon tax to be the welfare efficient policy. Assuming behavioral misperceptions instead, a subsidy on investments might have lower marginal greenhouse gas abatement costs than a carbon tax.

  17. Hanford Tank Farm Vapors Abatement Technology and Vendor Proposals Assessment

    Burns, H. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Farrar, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fink, S. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-20

    Suspected chemical vapor releases from the Hanford nuclear waste tank system pose concerns for worker exposure. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) contracted the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to explore abatement technologies and strategies to remediate the vapors emitted through the ventilation system. In response, SRNL conducted an evaluation of technologies to abate, or reduce, vapor emissions to below 10% of the recognized occupational exposure limits (OELs). The evaluation included a review of published literature and a broadly communicated Request for Information to commercial vendors through a Federal Business Opportunities (Fed Biz Opps) web posting. In addition, SRNL conducted a workshop and post-workshop conference calls with interested suppliers (vendors) to assess proposals of relevant technologies. This report reviews applicable technologies and summarizes the approaches proposed by the vendors who participated in the workshop and teleconference interviews. In addition, the report evaluates the estimated performance of the individual technologies for the various classes of chemical compounds present in the Hanford Chemicals of Potential Concern (COPCs) list. Similarly, the report provides a relative evaluation of the vendor proposed approaches against criteria of: technical feasibility (and maturity), design features, operational considerations, secondary waste generation, safety/regulatory, and cost / schedule. These rough order-of-magnitude (ROM) cost estimates are intended to provide a comparison basis between technologies and are not intended to be actual project estimates.

  18. Hanford Tank Farm Vapors Abatement Technology and Vendor Proposals Assessment

    Burns, H. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Farrar, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fink, S. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-20

    Suspected chemical vapor releases from the Hanford nuclear waste tank system pose concerns for worker exposure. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) contracted the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to explore abatement technologies and strategies to remediate the vapors emitted through the ventilation system. In response, SRNL conducted an evaluation of technologies to abate, or reduce, vapor emissions to below 10% of the recognized occupational exposure limits (OELs). The evaluation included a review of published literature and a broadly communicated Request for Information to commercial vendors through a Federal Business Opportunities (Fed Biz Opps) web posting. In addition, SRNL conducted a workshop and post-workshop conference calls with interested suppliers (vendors) to assess proposals of relevant technologies. This report reviews applicable technologies and summarizes the approaches proposed by the vendors who participated in the workshop and teleconference interviews. In addition, the report evaluates the estimated performance of the individual technologies for the various classes of chemical compounds present in the Hanford Chemicals of Potential Concern (COPCs) list. Similarly, the report provides a relative evaluation of the vendor proposed approaches against criteria of: technical feasibility (and maturity), design features, operational considerations, secondary waste generation, safety/regulatory, and cost / schedule. These rough order magnitude (ROM) cost estimates are intended to provide a comparison basis between technologies and are not intended to be actual project estimates.

  19. Tradeable emission permit in Dutch acidification abatement policy

    Ruyssenaars, P.; Sliggers, J. [Ministry of Environment (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Target groups as well as the government are under the spell of economic instruments as part of environmental policy. Under this heading fall (regulatory) taxes and tradeable emission permits (VER). Of the two, VER, particularly, receive a lot of attention. From the target groups, because the flexibility of VER means working cost-effectively, which could lead to cost savings. From the government, because it can have more faith in the viability of emission ceilings, and has less need to pass detailed legislation. The latter conforms nicely to the philosophy `government at arm`s length`. The Ministry of Environment has had a study made on the feasibility of VER in the context of the acidification abatement policy in the Netherlands. The development and implementation of policy concerning acidification abatement is at an advanced stage, with deposition targets already set for 2000 and 2010 (2400 and 1400 acid equivalents/ha/year, respectively, averaged for afforested areas). From these, also emission reduction targets per target group are deduced, which can be used in a VER system. The main starting point of the study was to gain more insight into the practical aspects of VER. One important question is what form a VER system for the Netherlands should have to take. Also, an investigation was made into the activities which are necessary to introduce a VER system as well as the time, manpower and money these activities entail

  20. Cashing in on VAM : capturing value by generating carbon offset credits from ventilation air methane abatement

    Lakhan, S.; Buchanan, M. [Verdeo Group, Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The recent developments in greenhouse gas (GHG) policies and carbon offset markets have created an opportunity for coal mines to extract value from their ventilation air methane (VAM) emissions. The methane that is discharged from ventilation systems accounts for nearly half of all methane emissions from active coal mines in the United States. Some mining companies have already begun capitalizing on this revenue opportunity, and are in the process of designing and implementing VAM oxidation for emission abatement purposes. Using existing regenerative thermal oxidizer technology, coal mines with sufficiently high methane concentrations in their discharged ventilation air can develop projects with internal rates of return greater than 25 per cent, merely by monetizing the emission reduction to generate a tradable carbon offset credit. Although the federal carbon offset program in the United States depends on the passage of federal climate change legislation, many States have already begun developing their own cap-and-trade programs. Several voluntary programs have also developed frameworks to certify carbon offset projects and register credits. The Climate Action Reserve program has approved VAM oxidation as an eligible project type. 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  1. 40 CFR 280.62 - Initial abatement measures and site check.

    2010-07-01

    ... to monitor and mitigate any additional fire and safety hazards posed by vapors or free product that... release confirmation, site investigation, abatement, or corrective action activities. If these remedies... initial abatement steps taken under paragraph (a) of this section and any resulting information or data....

  2. 23 CFR 772.9 - Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures.

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures... Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures. (a) The highway agency shall determine and... environmental effects. (b) The traffic noise analysis shall include the following for each alternative...

  3. 41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80.20 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?...

  4. Regional and sectoral marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  5. Asia: Inflation is Abating,But More Challenges Lie Ahead

    Nicholas Kwan

    2011-01-01

    No quick monetary easingAcross Asia,there are signs that the current round of consumer price inflation is abating,as we predicted earlier this year.But it is much too early for Asian governments to claim victory in their efforts to achieve price stability.Even assuming the battle against consumer price inflation is won,the more challenging war against asset-price inflation is yet to fully unfold.Tne next three to six months will be critical.Monetary policy needs to remain tight,or even be tightened further.More importantly,macro-prudential measures and other policy tools are required to contain leverage and the risk of asset bubbles.While inflation numbers may moderate further,investors looking for a quick reversal of theregion's tight monetary policy are likely to be disappointed,and markets could turn more volatile in anticipation of policy changes.

  6. SMA Hybrid Composites for Dynamic Response Abatement Applications

    Turner, Travis L.

    2000-01-01

    A recently developed constitutive model and a finite element formulation for predicting the thermomechanical response of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures is briefly described. Attention is focused on constrained recovery behavior in this study, but the constitutive formulation is also capable of modeling restrained or free recovery. Numerical results are shown for glass/epoxy panel specimens with embedded Nitinol actuators subjected to thermal and acoustic loads. Control of thermal buckling, random response, sonic fatigue, and transmission loss are demonstrated and compared to conventional approaches including addition of conventional composite layers and a constrained layer damping treatment. Embedded SMA actuators are shown to be significantly more effective in dynamic response abatement applications than the conventional approaches and are attractive for combination with other passive and/or active approaches.

  7. Air pollution abatement in heating sector in Poland

    Van Dalen, J.; Pytel, P.; Romanczak, A.; Velina, S.; Verkleij, J.; Yasko, D. [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering Science, and Research Center for Photoenergetics of Organic Materials, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    The aim of the study on the title subject was to formulate recommendations to reduce the air pollution in the heating sector in Poland. influence the use of energy by changing their behaviour. The main question concerns the options, related policy instruments and their effects on air pollution reduction. Five sub-questions were formulated (1) how is the heating sector structured and what are the effects of the related air pollution?; (2) What are the technological, organizational and behavioral options for pollution reduction, and how much do they contribute to pollution abatement?; (3) What are the policy instruments to implement the options?; (4) What are the financial and environmental effects of related options and instruments?; and (5) How can the various options and policy instruments be combined into a policy proposal? The main questions for this research have been elaborated by literature study and by interviews, both in the Netherlands and in Poland. figs., tabs., 67 refs.

  8. Jejum Pré-abate em Frangos de Corte

    Mendes AA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available As condições ideais dos frangos de corte no momento do abate devem ser conhecidas a fim de possibilitar a produção de carne de excelente qualidade, uma vez que diversos fatores pré e pós-abate estão envolvidos na qualidade final. Em condições normais de abate e processamento, a retirada de ração é feita de 6 a 8 horas antes da apanha das aves, resultando em um período total de jejum de 8 a 12 horas antes do abate, para esvaziar o intestino e com isso minimizar a contaminação no abatedouro. A escalda, depena e evisceração são pontos importantes de contaminação cruzada no abatedouro devido à grande quantidade de microorganismos aderidos às penas, pele e patas das aves e ao rompimento das vísceras durante a evisceração. Entretanto, a desidratação da carcaça começa imediatamente após o início do jejum. Períodos prolongados de jejum podem afetar o pH das diversas partes do intestino, aumentando a presença de Salmonella e outros microorganismos patogênicos. Além disso, determinam uma maior contaminação pela bile, e são, subjetivamente, associados à fragilidade dos intestinos durante a evisceração mecânica. Portanto, os esquemas de processamento devem ser estabelecidos levando-se em conta a integridade e o esvaziamento do intestino e da vesícula biliar, bem como a desidratação e os seus efeitos sobre o bem estar das aves, contaminação da carcaça e qualidade da carne. Como alguns efeitos do jejum ainda não são bem conhecidos, sugerem-se pesquisas nas seguintes áreas: definir o tempo ótimo de jejum para atender o bem estar das aves, minimizar a contaminação e otimizar os parâmetros de qualidade de carcaça; estudar os efeitos de períodos prolongados de jejum sobre o pH e a colonização do papo, pró-ventrículo, moela, intestino delgado, intestino grosso e cecos por enterobactérias, como Salmonella, por exemplo; efeito do jejum sobre o tamanho e cor do fígado. O resultado esperado é um aumento

  9. Pulsed Corona Discharges and Their Applications in Toxic VOCs Abatement

    MuhammadArifMalik; SalmanAkbarMalik

    1999-01-01

    plasma processes are among the emerging technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sbatoment. Both thermal plasmas and non-equil[brimn plasmas (cold plasmas) are being developed for VOCs clesnup. Particularly, pulsed corona discharges offer several edvantages over conventional VOCs abatement tochniqvee, To optimize the existing technology and to developit further, there is need to understand the mechanlsms involved in plasma chemical reacticms, Furthermore, it is strongly desirable to be able to predict the behavior of new VOCs in non-equillbrlum plasma enviromuent from the data known for a few representative oompounds, Pulsed corona discharge technique is introduced here with dtafion of refevant literature, Fundamental principfes,useful for predicting the VOCs' decomposition behavior, have been worked out from the published literature. Latest developments in the area, targeted to minimize the enersy losses, improve the VOCs destruction efficiency and reduce the generation of unwanted organic and inorganic by-products, are presented.

  10. Upper Blackstone Water Pollution Abatement District Chief Operator Recognized for Outstanding Service

    Joseph Nowak, a resident of Ware Mass. and Chief Operator of the Upper Blackstone Water Pollution Abatement District (District) in Milbury, Mass., was honored by EPA with a 2016 Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator of the Year Excellence Award.

  11. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Air Pollution Abatement Policy of Hong Kong

    TU E Y; CHOU C K; TU G B

    2007-01-01

    As only about 15% of the total time of people in Hong Kong was spent outdoors, it would be more valuable if the associated effectiveness and impact of the recently proposed abatement measures could be expressed in terms of the improvement in the total exposure levels. This paper uses an exposure assessment model developed from the local microenvironment concentration data together with our surveyed time activity patterns to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed air pollution abatement policy. Prior to the enforcement of abatement measures, about 2.5 % of the young group and 1.2% of the adult group having their exposure levels exceeded that defined by the current 8-hour PM10 standard (180 μg/m3). With the enforcement of abatement measures, only 0.3% of the adult group would be restored to a safe level.

  12. Long-term abatement potential and current policy trajectories in Latin American countries

    Clarke, Leon; McFarland, James; Octaviano, Claudia; van Ruijven, Bas; Beach, Robert; Daenzer, Kathryn; Herreras Martínez, Sara; Lucena, André F. P.; Kitous, Alban; Labriet, Maryse; Loboguerrero Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Mundra, Anupriya; van der Zwaan, Bob

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides perspectives on the role of Latin American and Latin American countries in meeting global abatement goals, based on the scenarios developed through the CLIMACAP-LAMP modeling study.

  13. Analysis on Impacts and Co-Abatement Effects of Implementing the Low Carb on Cement Standard

    PANG Jun; SHI Yuan-Chang; FENG Xiang-Zhao; WU Shi-Yu; SUN Wen-Long

    2014-01-01

    Based on the MAP-CGE model, this paper simulated the impacts on the output, energy consumption and pollutant emissions of different cement production processes when implementing a low carbon cement standard in China. It also calculated the impacts on the marginal abatement cost and equilibrium price of the cement industry, and analyzed the co-abatement effects of different pollutants. The results showed that implementing the low carbon cement standard will be beneficial in promoting an upgrading of cement production processes, and strengthening the energy conservation and emission reduction in the cement industry. If there is no change in the existing technology, the cement industry will reduce SO2 emissions by 1.17 kg and NOx emissions by 4.44 kg per ton of CO2 emission reduction. Implementing low carbon cement standard can also promote NOx abatement in the cement industry. However, the cement industry will bear the abatement costs, and their equilibrium price will increase slightly.

  14. Cost-benefit analysis of abatement measures for nutrient emission from agriculture

    2008-01-01

    In intensive animal husbandry areas surface water N and P concentrations often remain too high. The Water Framework Directive calls for additional nutrient emission abatement measures. Therefore, costs and benefits for possible agricultural measures in Flanders were first analysed in terms of soil balance surplus. Finally, abatement measures for agriculture, households and industry were set off against each other and ranked according to their cost-efficiency by the Environmental Costing Model...

  15. CO2 Abatement In The Iron And Steel Industry

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    The iron and steel industry is the largest industrial source of CO2 emissions due to the energy intensity of steel production, its reliance on carbon-based fuels and reductants, and the large volume of steel produced -- over 1414 Mt in 2010. With the growing concern over climate change, steel makers are faced with the challenge of finding ways of lowering CO2 emissions without seriously undermining process efficiency or considerably adding to costs. This report examines ways of abating CO2 emissions from raw materials preparation (coking, sintering and pelletising plants) through to the production of liquid steel in basic oxygen furnaces and electric arc furnaces. Direct reduction and smelting reduction processes are covered, as well as iron making in a blast furnace. A range of technologies and measures exist for lowering CO2 emissions including minimising energy consumption and improving energy efficiency, changing to a fuel and/or reducing agent with a lower CO2 emission factor (such as wood charcoal), and capturing the CO2 and storing it underground. Significant CO2 reductions can be achieved by combining a number of the available technologies. If carbon capture and storage is fitted than steel plants could become near zero emitters of CO2.

  16. Amine-functionalized porous silicas as adsorbents for aldehyde abatement.

    Nomura, Akihiro; Jones, Christopher W

    2013-06-26

    A series of aminopropyl-functionalized silicas containing of primary, secondary, or tertiary amines is fabricated via silane-grafting on mesoporous SBA-15 silica and the utility of each material in the adsorption of volatile aldehydes from air is systematically assessed. A particular emphasis is placed on low-molecular-weight aldehydes such as formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, which are highly problematic volatile organic compound (VOC) pollutants. The adsorption tests demonstrate that the aminosilica materials with primary amines most effectively adsorbed formaldehyde with an adsorption capacity of 1.4 mmolHCHO g(-1), whereas the aminosilica containing secondary amines showed lower adsorption capacity (0.80 mmolHCHO g(-1)) and the aminosilica containing tertiary amines adsorbed a negligible amount of formaldehyde. The primary amine containing silica also successfully abated higher aldehyde VOC pollutants, including acetaldehyde, hexanal, and benzaldehyde, by effectively adsorbing them. The adsorption mechanism is investigated by (13)C CP MAS solid-state NMR and FT-Raman spectroscopy, and it is demonstrated that the aldehydes are chemically attached to the surface of aminosilica in the form of imines and hemiaminals. The high aldehyde adsorption capacities of the primary aminosilicas in this study demonstrate the utility of amine-functionalized silica materials for reduction of gaseous aldehydes.

  17. Modeling for waste management associated with environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty.

    Li, P; Li, Y P; Huang, G H; Zhang, J L

    2015-04-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment can generate significant amounts of pollutants, and thus pose a risk on human health. Besides, in MSW management, various uncertainties exist in the related costs, impact factors, and objectives, which can affect the optimization processes and the decision schemes generated. In this study, a life cycle assessment-based interval-parameter programming (LCA-IPP) method is developed for MSW management associated with environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty. The LCA-IPP can effectively examine the environmental consequences based on a number of environmental impact categories (i.e., greenhouse gas equivalent, acid gas emissions, and respiratory inorganics), through analyzing each life cycle stage and/or major contributing process related to various MSW management activities. It can also tackle uncertainties existed in the related costs, impact factors, and objectives and expressed as interval numbers. Then, the LCA-IPP method is applied to MSW management for the City of Beijing, the capital of China, where energy consumptions and six environmental parameters [i.e., CO2, CO, CH4, NOX, SO2, inhalable particle (PM10)] are used as systematic tool to quantify environmental releases in entire life cycle stage of waste collection, transportation, treatment, and disposal of. Results associated with system cost, environmental impact, and the related policy implication are generated and analyzed. Results can help identify desired alternatives for managing MSW flows, which has advantages in providing compromised schemes under an integrated consideration of economic efficiency and environmental impact under uncertainty.

  18. Abatement of Perfluorinated Compounds Using Cylindrical Microwave Plasma Source at Low Pressure

    Kim, Seong Bong; Park, S.; Park, Y.; Youn, S.; Yoo, S. J.

    2016-10-01

    Microwave plasma source with a cylindrical cavity has been proposed to abate the perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). This plasma source was designed to generate microwave plasma with the cylindrical shape and to be easily installed in existing exhaust line. The microwave frequency is 2.45 GHz and the operating pressure range is 0.1 Torr to 0.3 Torr. The plasma characteristic of the cylindrical microwave plasma source was measured using the optical spectrometer, and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). The destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of CF4 and CHF3 were measured by a quadrupole mass spectroscopy (QMS) with the various operation conditions. The effect of the addition of the oxygen gas were tested and also the correlation between the plasma parameters and the DRE are presented in this study. This work was supported by R&D Program of ``Plasma Advanced Technology for Agriculture and Food (Plasma Farming)'' through the National Fusion Research Institute of Korea (NFRI) funded by the Government funds.

  19. Future needs for ship emission abatement and technical measures

    Teresa ANTES

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Maritime Organization (IMO has revised air pollution regulations in MARPOL Annex VI. In 2012 Emission Control Areas (ECA will limit fuel sulphur content to 1% and from 2015 to 0.1%. NOx emissions based on ships engine speed are also reduced for new vessels (2012 & 2016. Facing this legislation, ship owners have the alternative either to operate ships with costly low-sulphur fuels, or to keep using HFO but together with a gas cleaning equipment at the ship stack in order to reduce the rejected amount of SO2 gas in the atmosphere. To achieve this requirement, research and development organizations came out with proposing a solution that uses a device for cleaning exhaust gas of marine diesel engines. The paper presents a short communication about the DEECON project, which aim is to create a novel on-board after-treatment unit more advanced than any currently available. Each sub-unit of the system will be optimized to remove a specific primary pollutant. In particular, the technology within the DEECON system is based on novel or improved abatement techniques for reducing SOx, NOx, Particulate Matter (PM, CO and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC. Some of these technologies are completely new for the maritime sector and they will represent a breakthrough in the reduction of the atmospheric emissions of ships, moving forward the performance of exhaust gas cleaning systems and fostering and anticipating the adoption of future and tighter regulatory requirements. In addition, an after-treatment strategy enables the possible adoption of alternative fuels, which often have their own emissions characteristics.

  20. Estimating the National Carbon Abatement Potential of City Policies: A Data- Driven Approach

    Eric O’Shaughnessy, Jenny Heeter, David Keyser, Pieter Gagnon, and Alexandra Aznar

    2016-10-01

    Cities are increasingly taking actions such as building code enforcement, urban planning, and public transit expansion to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide in their communities and municipal operations. However, many cities lack the quantitative information needed to estimate policy impacts and prioritize city actions in terms of carbon abatement potential and cost effectiveness. This report fills this research gap by providing methodologies to assess the carbon abatement potential of a variety of city actions. The methodologies are applied to an energy use data set of 23,458 cities compiled for the U.S. Department of Energy’s City Energy Profile tool. The analysis estimates the national carbon abatement potential of the most commonly implemented actions in six specific policy areas. The results of this analysis suggest that, in aggregate, cities could reduce nationwide carbon emissions by about 210 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (MMT CO2) per year in a "moderate abatement scenario" by 2035 and 480 MMT CO2/year in a "high abatement scenario" by 2035 through these common actions typically within a city’s control in the six policy areas. The aggregate carbon abatement potential of these specific areas equates to a reduction of 3%-7% relative to 2013 U.S. emissions. At the city level, the results suggest the average city could reduce carbon emissions by 7% (moderate) to 19% (high) relative to current city-level emissions. City carbon abatement potential is sensitive to national and state policies that affect the carbon intensity of electricity and transportation. Specifically, the U.S. Clean Power Plan and further renewable energy cost reductions could reduce city carbon emissions overall, helping cities achieve their carbon reduction goals.

  1. Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds

    Jarosch, T.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.A.; Raymond, R.; Young, J.E.; Lombard, K.H.

    1995-01-23

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development`s VOC`s in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry.

  2. Estimating the National Carbon Abatement Potential of City Policies: A Data-Driven Approach

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aznar, Alexandra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Cities are increasingly taking actions such as building code enforcement, urban planning, and public transit expansion to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide in their communities and municipal operations. However, many cities lack the quantitative information needed to estimate policy impacts and prioritize city actions in terms of carbon abatement potential and cost effectiveness. This report fills this research gap by providing methodologies to assess the carbon abatement potential of a variety of city actions. The methodologies are applied to an energy use data set of 23,458 cities compiled for the U.S. Department of Energy City Energy Profile tool. The analysis develops a national estimate of the carbon abatement potential of realizable city actions in six specific policy areas encompassing the most commonly implemented city actions. The results of this analysis suggest that, in aggregate, cities could reduce nationwide carbon emissions by about 210 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (MMT CO2) per year in a 'moderate abatement scenario' by 2035 and 480 MMT CO2/year in a 'high abatement scenario' by 2035 through these common actions typically within a city's control in the six policy areas. The aggregate carbon abatement potential of these specific areas equates to a reduction of 3%-7% relative to 2013 U.S. emissions. At the city level, the results suggest the average city could reduce carbon emissions by 7% (moderate) to 19% (high) relative to current city-level emissions. In the context of U.S. climate commitments under the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties (COP21), the estimated national abatement potential of the city actions analyzed in this report equates to about 15%-35% of the remaining carbon abatement necessary to achieve the U.S. COP21 target. Additional city actions outside the scope of this report, such as community choice aggregation (city-level purchasing of renewable energy), zero energy districts, and multi

  3. Modeling and experimental validation of TCE abatement and ozone formation with non thermal plasma

    Vandenbroucke, Arne; Aerts, Robby; Morent, Rino; De Geyter, Nathalie; Bogaerts, Annemie; Leys, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the formation of ozone and the abatement of trichloroethylene (TCE) with non thermal plasma was experimentally and theoretically investigated. The model predicts that the ozone formation increases with the energy deposition and decreases with the relative humidity (RH) of the air, which is qualitatively in agreement with experimental data. For an energy deposition of 0.136 J/cm³, the abatement of 1000 ppm TCE in air with 5 % RH is dominated by atomic oxygen and to a lesser exte...

  4. Forest Tree Growth as a Bioindicator of Pollution Abatement Systems at the Radford Army Ammunition Plant.

    1982-01-14

    U-0Al C 0LIGNAPLTCGICIS P TT IY BLCSUG-EC FS1/ FOREST TREE GROWTH AS A BIOINDICATOR OF POLLUTION ABATEMENT SYS--ETC(I 𔃾- oa2 JAN 62 J M SKELLY. L W...947! FOREST TREE GROWTH AS A BIOINDICATOR OF POLLUTION ABATEMENT SYSTEMS AT THE RADFORD ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT Accession For FINAL REPORT Dr. John M...test potential bioindicator systems. x The study objectives of this research were: i’l) To determine if the pollution levels alone were responsible

  5. Environmental cost-benefit analysis of alternative timing strategies in greenhouse gas abatement: A data envelopment analysis approach

    Kuosmanen, T.K.; Bijsterbosch, N.; Dellink, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    Assessing the benefits of climate policies is complicated due to ancillary benefits: abatement of greenhouse gases also reduces local air pollution. The timing of the abatement measures influences both the economic costs and ancillary benefits. This paper conducts efficiency analysis of ten alternat

  6. Zeolite ZSM5 catalysts for abatement of nitrogen oxide

    Ganemi, Bager

    1999-07-01

    Airborne pollutants from the combustion of fossil fuels are a global problem. Emission of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) is increasing with the worldwide increase in the use of energy. Atmospheric and photochemical reactions link nitrogen oxides to hydrocarbons and tropospheric ozone. The emission of NO{sub x} has to be tackled urgently in order to limit the harmful effects of anthropogenic activity on the environment. The subject of this thesis is catalytic nitrogen oxide abatement through direct decomposition and reduction by methane over ion-exchanged zeolite ZSM5. The work covers catalytic conversion and surface intermediates, including correlations with the level of exchanged Cu{sup 2+} cations and Ni{sup 2+} or Pd{sup 2+} co-cations. Special attention is given to the aluminium content of the support and changes in structural parameters. It was found that NO{sub x} conversion over cation-exchanged ZSM5 is strongly influenced by the ion-exchange procedure and by the above material parameters. Characterization of Cu-ZSM5 reveals that approximately two molecules of water per Cu{sup 2+} ion desorb at temperatures between 150 and 350 Deg C, in addition to the conventional dehydration at lower temperatures. The desorbed water comes from the decomposition of Cu(OH){sub 2}. Decomposition of hydroxylated copper ions results in the formation Of Cu{sup 2+}-O-Cu{sup 2+} dimers, which are suggested to be the active sites for catalytic decomposition of NO. Acid sites are important for the dispersion of copper ions on the catalyst surface. Acid sites are also important for the interaction between copper species and the zeolite. Increased acidity leads to a stronger interaction between the exchanged cation and the framework, i.e. the exchanged cations become more resistant to mobility. The stronger bond between the exchanged cations and lattice oxygen also prevents dealumination of the catalyst and decreases the thermal expansion at higher temperatures. The temperature of

  7. Cost-effective analysis of carbon abatement options in China's electricity sector

    Zhang, Z.X.

    1998-01-01

    This article attempts to shed light on technological aspects of carbon abatement in China's power industry and is thus devoted to satisfying electricity planning requirements in the CO2 context. To that end, a technology-oriented dynamic optimization model for power system expansion planning has bee

  8. 75 FR 39820 - Procedures for Abatement of Highway Traffic Noise and Construction Noise

    2010-07-13

    ... Noise and Construction Noise AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule... Noise and Construction Noise. The final rule clarifies and adds definitions, the applicability of this regulation, certain analysis requirements, and the use of Federal funds for noise abatement measures....

  9. Guidelines for Assessment and Abatement of Asbestos-Containing Materials in Buildings.

    Pielert, James H.; Mathey, Robert G.

    This report presents guidelines, based on available information, for the assessment and abatement of asbestos-containing materials in buildings. Section 1 provides background information on the history and use of asbestos-containing products in buildings, the characteristics of asbestos fibers, products and materials containing asbestos, and…

  10. The abatement market. A proposal for environmental cooperation among asymmetric countries

    Mendez, L.; Trelles, R. [University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2000-05-01

    We present a model of interaction among technologically asymmetric countries whose use of an open-access environmental resource generates mutual externalities. We show that countries can improve both environmental quality and their individual welfare levels by buying/selling pollution abatement. This market mechanism, which reduces incentive for free-riding, is more effective the larger the technological gap between countries. 15 refs.

  11. Perverse effects of carbon markets on HFC-23 and SF6 abatement projects in Russia

    Schneider, Lambert; Kollmuss, Anja

    2015-12-01

    Carbon markets are considered a key policy tool to achieve cost-effective climate mitigation. Project-based carbon market mechanisms allow private sector entities to earn tradable emissions reduction credits from mitigation projects. The environmental integrity of project-based mechanisms has been subject to controversial debate and extensive research, in particular for projects abating industrial waste gases with a high global warming potential (GWP). For such projects, revenues from credits can significantly exceed abatement costs, creating perverse incentives to increase production or generation of waste gases as a means to increase credit revenues from waste gas abatement. Here we show that all projects abating HFC-23 and SF6 under the Kyoto Protocol’s Joint Implementation mechanism in Russia increased waste gas generation to unprecedented levels once they could generate credits from producing more waste gas. Our results suggest that perverse incentives can substantially undermine the environmental integrity of project-based mechanisms and that adequate regulatory oversight is crucial. Our findings are critical for mechanisms in both national jurisdictions and under international agreements.

  12. Payback Period for Emissions Abatement Alternatives: Role of Regulation and Fuel Prices

    Zis, Thalis; Angeloudis, Panagiotis; Bell, Michael G. H.;

    2016-01-01

    of the fuel used. This paper presents a literature review of emissions abatement options and relevant research in the field. A cost–benefit methodology to assess emission reduction investments from ship owners is also presented. A study examined the effects of recent drops in bunker fuel price to the payback...

  13. Abatement of waste gases and water during the processes of semiconductor fabrication

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the methodsand equipment for abating waste gases and water produced during themanufacture of semiconductor materials and devices. Threeseparating methods and equipment are presented in this article tocontrol three different groups of electronic wastes. The firstgroup includes arsine and phosphine emitted during the processes ofsemiconductor materials manufacture. The abatement procedure forthis group of pollutants consists of adding iodates, cupric andmanganese salts to a multiple shower tower (MST) structure. Thesecond group includes pollutants containing arsenic, phosphorus,HF, HCl, NO2, and SO3 emitted during the manufacture ofsemiconductor materials and devices. The abatement procedureinvolves mixing oxidants and bases in an oval column with aseparator in the middle. The third group consists of the ions ofAs, P and heavy metals contained in the waste water. The abatement procedure includes adding CaCO3 and ferric salts in aflocculation-sedimentation compact device equipment. Test resultsshowed that all waste gases and water after the abatementprocedures presented in this article passed the discharge standardsset by the state Environmental Protection Administrationof china.

  14. CO2 abatement costs of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation by different biogas conversion pathways.

    Rehl, T; Müller, J

    2013-01-15

    Biogas will be of increasing importance in the future as a factor in reducing greenhouse gas emissions cost-efficiently by the optimal use of available resources and technologies. The goal of this study was to identify the most ecological and economical use of a given resource (organic waste from residential, commercial and industry sectors) using one specific treatment technology (anaerobic digestion) but applying different energy conversion technologies. Average and marginal abatement costs were calculated based on Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. Eight new biogas systems producing electricity, heat, gas or automotive fuel were analyzed in order to identify the most cost-efficient way of reducing GHG emissions. A system using a combined heat and power station (which is connected to waste treatment and digestion operation facilities and located nearby potential residential, commercial or industrial heat users) was found to be the most cost-efficient biogas technology for reducing GHG emissions. Up to € 198 per tonne of CO(2) equivalents can be saved by replacing the "business as usual" systems based on fossil resources with ones based on biogas. Limited gas injection (desulfurized and dried biogas, without compression and upgrading) into the gas grid can also be a viable option with an abatement cost saving of € 72 per tonne of CO(2) equivalents, while a heating plant with a district heating grid or a system based on biogas results in higher abatement costs (€ 267 and € 270 per tonne CO(2) eq). Results from all systems are significantly influenced by whether average or marginal data are used as a reference. Beside that energy efficiency, the reference system that was replaced and the by-products as well as feedstock and investment costs were identified to be parameters with major impacts on abatement costs. The quantitative analysis was completed by a discussion of the role that abatement cost methodology can play in

  15. Cost-Effective Emission Abatement in Europe Considering Interrelations in Agriculture

    Corjan Brink

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is an important source of ammonia (NH3, which contributes to acidification and eutrophication, as well as emissions of the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O and methane (CH4. Controlling emissions of one of these pollutants through application of technical measures might have an impact (either beneficial or adverse on emissions of the others. These side effects are usually ignored in policy making. This study analyses cost-effectiveness of measures to reduce acidification and eutrophication as well as agricultural emissions of N2O and CH4 in Europe, taking into account interrelations between abatement of NH3, N2O, and CH4 in agriculture. The model used is based on the RAINS (Regional Air pollution INformation and Simulation model for air pollution in Europe, which includes emissions, abatement options, and atmospheric source-receptor relationships for pollutants contributing to acidification and eutrophication. We used an optimisation model that is largely based on the RAINS model but that also includes emissions of N2O and CH4 from agriculture and technical measures to reduce these emissions. For abatement options for agricultural emissions we estimated side effects on other emissions. The model determines abatement strategies to meet restrictions on emission and/or deposition levels at the least cost. Cost-effective strategies to reduce acidification and eutrophication in Europe were analysed. We found that NH3 abatement may cause an increase in N2O emissions. If total agricultural N2O and CH4 emissions in Europe were not allowed to increase, cost-effective allocation of emission reductions over countries in Europe changed considerably.

  16. THE CO2 ABATEMENT POTENTIAL OF CALIFORNIA'S MID-SIZED COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Lipman, Tim; Megel, Olivier; Ganguly, Srirupa; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-12-31

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) todetermine the potential role of commercial sector distributed generation (DG) with combined heat and power (CHP) capability deployment in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) reductions. CHP applications at large industrial sites are well known, and a large share of their potential has already been harvested. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the potential of medium-sized commercial buildings, i.e. ones with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how this sector might implement DG with CHP in cost minimizing microgrids that are able to adopt and operate various energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaics (PV), on-site thermal generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We apply a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that minimizes a site?s annual energy costs as its objective. Using 138 representative mid-sized commercial sites in California (CA), existing tariffs of three major electricity distribution ultilities, and performance data of available technology in 2020, we find the GHG reduction potential for this CA commercial sector segment, which represents about 35percent of total statewide commercial sector sales. Under the assumptions made, in a reference case, this segment is estimated to be capable of economically installing 1.4 GW of CHP, 35percent of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) statewide 4 GW goal for total incremental CHP deployment by 2020. However, because CARB?s assumed utilization is far higher than is found by the MILP, the adopted CHP only contributes 19percent of the CO2 target. Several sensitivity runs were completed. One applies a simple feed-in tariff similar to net metering, and another includes a generous self-generation incentive program (SGIP) subsidy for fuel cells. The feed-in tariff proves ineffective at

  17. Effects of dietary ABATE? on reproductive success, duckling survival, behavior, and clinical pathology in game-farm mallards

    Franson, J.C.; Spann, J.W.; Heinz, G.H.; Bunck, C.M.; Lamont, T.

    1983-01-01

    Forty-four pairs of game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed ABATE? E (temephos) to yield 0, 1, or 10 ppm ABATE? beginning before the initiation of lay, and terminating when ducklings were 21 days of age. The mean interval between eggs laid was greater for hens fed 10 ppm ABATE? than for controls. Clutch size, fertility, hatchability, nest attentiveness of incubating hens, and avoidance behavior of ducklings were not significantly affected by ABATE? ingestion. The percentage survival of ducklings to 21 days of age was significantly lower in both treated groups than in controls, but brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was not inhibited in young which died before termination of the study. In 21-day-old ducklings, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity increased and plasma nonspecific cholinesterase (ChE) activity was inhibited by about 20% in both treatment groups, but there were no significant differences in brain AChE or plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities, or plasma uric acid concentration. Clinical chemistry values of adults were not affected. No ABATE?, ABATE? sulfoxide, or ABATE? sulfone residues were found in eggs or tissue samples.

  18. Abatement costs of soil conservation in China's Loess Plateau: balancing income with conservation in an agricultural system.

    Hou, Lingling; Hoag, Dana L K; Keske, Catherine M H

    2015-02-01

    This study proposes the use of marginal abatement cost curves to calculate environmental damages of agricultural systems in China's Loess Plateau. Total system costs and revenues, management characteristics and pollution attributes are imputed into a directional output distance function, which is then used to determine shadow prices and abatement cost curves for soil and nitrogen loss. Marginal abatement costs curves are an effective way to compare economic and conservation tradeoffs when field-specific data are scarce. The results show that sustainable agricultural practices can balance soil conservation and agricultural production; land need not be retired, as is current policy.

  19. Essays on the economics of energy markets. Security of supply and greenhouse gas abatement

    Dieckhoener, Caroline

    2013-02-01

    In summary, the presented thesis analyzes two distinct economic subjects: security of supply in natural gas markets and greenhouse gas abatement potentials in the residential heating market. These subjects considered both reflect key points in the triangle of energy policy and are both associated with transnational market failures within energy markets. The security of supply analyses in an intermeshed network are approached from a rather normative, top-down perspective of a social planner. On the contrary, the analyses of greenhouse gases emitted by households are positive analyses of consumer choices. The normative analyses of security of supply in natural gas markets and the positive analyses on greenhouse gas abatement in the residential heating market are organized in two parts of the thesis. 1. Normative analyses - Security of supply in natural gas markets: The two papers of the first part of the dissertation thesis are based on a normative approach with the European natural gas market and infrastructure model TIGER that allows for security of supply analyses. The general idea behind the modeling approach is based on the assumption of a social planner and finds an efficient utilization of the natural gas infrastructure. More precisely, the security of supply analyses conducted in the first part of the thesis refer to scenario simulations of disrupted supply routes in the European natural gas network. The effects of these security of supply scenarios on the usage of other infrastructure components, on marginal supply costs and disruptions to consumers are investigated. 2. Positive analyses of greenhouse gas abatement potentials - Econometric modeling of consumer choices and evaluation of public policies: The second part of the thesis includes two positive analyses which investigate household choices to derive greenhouse gas abatement potentials. In the residential heating market, the energy efficiency level exhibited and the type of energy carrier used are

  20. Cost-Effective Abatement of Multiple Production Externalities

    Connor, Jeffery D.; Perry, Gregory M.; Adams, Richard M.

    1995-07-01

    This article explores the issue of multiple externalities through a case study of irrigated agricultural production in eastern Oregon. A mathematical programming model is used to demonstrate the manner in which a policy directed at one externality (soil erosion) may influence the incidence of another externality (groundwater pollution). A key determinant of multiple externality outcomes is interdependence in the processes producing agricultural commodities and externalities. Potential benefits from coordinating a policy to address multiple environmental objectives are discussed.

  1. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-08-15

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions. The impact of DG on large industrial sites is well known, and mostly, the potentials are already harvested. In contrast, little is known about the impact of DG on commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how DG with combined heat and power (CHP) may be implemented within the context of a cost minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various smart energy technologies, such as thermal and photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has the minimization of a site's annual energy costs as objective. Using 138 representative commercial sites in California (CA) with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find the greenhouse gas reduction potential for California's commercial sector. This paper shows results from the ongoing research project and finished work from a two year U.S. Department of Energy research project. To show the impact of the different technologies on CO2 emissions, several sensitivity runs for different climate zones within CA with different technology performance expectations for 2020 were performed. The considered sites can contribute between 1 Mt/a and 1.8 Mt/a to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goal of 6.7Mt/a CO2 abatement potential in 2020. Also, with lower PV and storage costs as well as consideration of a CO2 pricing scheme, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption can compete rather than supplement each other when the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply have been taken into consideration. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries will be charged also by CHP systems during off-peak and mid

  2. The role of abatement costs in GHG permit allocations : a global reduction scenario with the World-MARKAL model

    Vaillancourt, K.; Kanudia, A. [Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada). Groupe d' etudes et de recherche en analyse des decisions; Loulou, R. [Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada). Groupe d' etudes et de recherche en analyse des decisions]|[McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2004-05-01

    The World-MARKAL model was used to examine a permit trading system to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions. The model considered the participation of all countries, including developing countries. Allocation schemes aimed at fair distribution of net abatement costs among world regions were proposed. The net abatement costs for each region are good indicators of where more abatement measures are needed. Equity issues relative to permit allocations and burden sharing were also presented along with the allocation methodology. The gross abatement costs before permit trading were calculated for each region. The main advantages and disadvantages of this approach were listed. It was concluded that permit allocation schemes based on cost distribution make it possible to obtain solutions with equalized net costs per gross domestic product for all regions. 30 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  3. Research on the application of active sound barriers for the transformer noise abatement

    Hu Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sound barriers are a type of measure most commonly used in the noise abatement of transformers. In the noise abatement project of substations, the design of sound barriers is restrained by the portal frames which are used to hold up outgoing lines from the main transformers, which impacts the noise reduction effect. If active sound barriers are utilized in these places, the noise diffraction of sound barriers can be effectively reduced. At a 110kV Substation, an experiment using a 15-channel active sound barrier has been carried out. The result of the experiment shows that the mean noise reduction value (MNRV of the noise measuring points at the substation boundary are 1.5 dB (A. The effect of the active noise control system is impacted by the layout of the active noise control system, the acoustic environment on site and the spectral characteristic of the target area.

  4. Modelling air pollution abatement in deep street canyons by means of air scrubbers

    De Giovanni, Marina; Avveduto, Alessandro; Pace, Lorenzo; Salisburgo, Cesare Dari; Giammaria, Franco; Monaco, Alessio; Spanto, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Deep street canyons are characterized by weak ventilation and recirculation of air. In such environment, the exposure to particulate matter and other air pollutants is enhanced, with a consequent worsening of both safety and health. The main solution adopted by the international community is aimed at the reduction of the emissions. In this theoretical study, we test a new solution: the removal of air pollutants close to their sources by a network of Air Pollution Abatement (APA) devices. The APA technology depletes gaseous and particulate air pollutants by a portable and low-consuming scrubbing system, that mimics the processes of wet and dry deposition. We estimate the potential pollutant abatement efficacy of a single absorber by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. The presence of the scrubber effectively creates an additional sink at the bottom of the canyon, accelerating its cleaning process by up to 70%, when an almost perfect scrubber (90% efficiency) is simulated. The efficacy of absorber is not...

  5. Estimation of marginal abatement costs for undesirable outputs in India's power generation sector: An output distance function approach.

    Manish Gupta

    2005-01-01

    Many production activities generate undesirable byproducts in conjunction with the desirable outputs they produce. The present study uses an output distance function approach and its duality with the revenue function to estimate the marginal abatement cost of CO2 emissions from a sample of thermal plants in India. Two sets of exercises have been undertaken. The marginal abatement cost is first estimated without considering the distinction between the clean and the dirty plants (model-1) and t...

  6. A Survey of Researches on Synergy and Toxicity Abatement of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Radiotherapy of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    刘城林; 刘丽萍; 李佩文

    2001-01-01

    @@ Even though radiotherapy is a therapy of first choice in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, its radiotoxicity is often difficult to bear for patients in addition to the unsatisfactory effect in some patients. Therefore, an important problem in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma is to abate radiotherapeutic toxicity and improve its effect. Some progresses in promoting the effect of radiotherapy and abating its toxicity have been made through application of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) which is briefly reviewed as follows.

  7. Socio-economic impact analysis: Centralia mine fire abatement alternatives. Draft report

    1980-11-07

    The overall purpose of information contained in the following text is to document the likely social and economic impacts upon the Borough of Centralia through implementation of various mine fire abatement alternatives. Much of the data presented herein and utilized in preparing conclusions and recommendations have been derived from those individuals whose lives are now, or may eventually be, impacted by the underground mine fire.

  8. Reduction of Baltic Sea Nutrient Inputs and Allocation of Abatement Costs Within the Baltic Sea Catchment

    Wulff, Fred; Andersen, Hans Estrup; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Czajkowski, Mikolaj; Elofsson, Katarina; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders; Hasler, Berit; Humborg, Christoph; Hong, Bongghi; Jansons, Viestur; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Thodsen, Hans; Smart, James C. R.; Smedberg, Erik; Stålnacke, Per

    2014-01-01

    The Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) requires tools to simulate effects and costs of various nutrient abatement strategies. Hierarchically connected databases and models of the entire catchment have been created to allow decision makers to view scenarios via the decision support system NEST. Increased intensity in agriculture in transient countries would result in increased nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea, particularly from Poland, the Baltic States, and Russia. Nutrient retentions are high, wh...

  9. Abatement costs of SO{sub 2}-control options in the Mexican electric-power sector

    Islasa, Jorge [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Colonia Centro, Temixco, Morelos 62580, (Mexico); Grandeb, Genice [Posgrado en Ingenieria de Sistemas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, D.F. 04510, (Mexico)

    2008-02-15

    Mexico's electricity-sector contributes over 75% of national SO{sub 2}-emissions, causing economic and health damage. These emissions come mostly from the combustion of fossil-fuels, whereas a minor share comes from biomass (wood fuel and sugar cane) burning emissions as well as those produced by industrial processes. For this reason, this study assesses the abatement costs of several SO{sub 2}-control options (including flue-gas desulphurization technologies, hydrotreatment of fuel oil, and the substitution of high-sulfur by low-sulfur content fuels). Likewise, this study has evaluated the implementation of such options in 10 selected power-plants - the main SO{sub 2} emitters in the Mexican Electric Power Sector (MEPS) - with the aim of suggesting solutions for SO{sub 2}-emissions reduction and estimating the corresponding abatement, investment and total costs during the analyzed period. Study's results indicate that the best SO{sub 2}-abatement-costs route may account for a reduction of 41% of MEPS SO{sub 2}-emissions and would require investment and total costs of $841 and $477 million, respectively. This means that an important reduction in the national SO{sub 2}-emissions may be achieved with a relatively small effort.(author)

  10. 40 CFR 233.40 - Requirements for compliance evaluation programs.

    2010-07-01

    ... DUMPING 404 STATE PROGRAM REGULATIONS Compliance Evaluation and Enforcement § 233.40 Requirements for compliance evaluation programs. (a) In order to abate violations of the permit program, the State shall... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for compliance...

  11. Lei do Abate, guerra às drogas e defesa nacional

    Gustavo Raposo Pereira Feitosa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa o processo de criação e regulamentação da Lei do Abate no Brasil, que autoriza a derrubada em pleno voo de aeronaves civis suspeitas de envolvimento no tráfico de drogas. Investigam-se as relações entre a elaboração da Lei do Abate, a política de guerra às drogas propagada pelos EUA e as preocupações estratégicas dos militares brasileiros acerca da segurança da Região Amazônica. Como parte da contextualização da criação dos programas de interdição aérea baseados no abate de aeronaves, estudam-se as origens e as transformações das políticas antidrogas dos EUA desde a década de 1960 e o modelo de guerra às drogas (War on Drugs. Analisa-se também o processo de discussão parlamentar no Brasil sobre a Lei do Abate e os debates para a sua regulamentação. A pesquisa ocorreu por meio da análise de documentos produzidos pelos governos dos EUA (abertos e sigilosos reclassificados e do Brasil, da investigação dos anais do Congresso Nacional e do estudo de livros e artigos científicos nacionais e estrangeiros. Verifica-se que os programas que autorizam o abate nascem sob a justificativa do combate ao tráfico, mas se ligam às necessidades militares específicas de Peru e Colômbia. A lei brasileira surge para combater o transporte aéreo ilícito vinculado ao tráfico; contudo, sua origem e os debates posteriores para sua regulamentação submetem-se ao condicionamento dos temores e projetos militares em torno da defesa da soberania sobre a Amazônia brasileira.

  12. Nonpoint source water pollution abatement and the feasibility of voluntary programs

    Sawicki, David S.; Judd, Lynne B.

    1983-09-01

    This article details a case study of a voluntary, decentralized institutional arrangement for nonpint source water pollution control used in the Root River watershed in southeastern Wisconsin. This watershed was chosen because of its mix of urban, agricultural, and urbanizing land uses. The project objectives were to monitor and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of a voluntary, decentralized institutional system, to specify deficiencies of the approach and suggest means to correct them, and to use the conclusions to speculate about the need for regulations regarding nonpoint source pollution control or the appropriateness of financial incentives for nonpoint source control. Institutional factors considered include diversity of land uses in the watershed, educational needs, economic conditions, personality, water quality, number of agencies involved, definition of authority, and bureaucratic requirements

  13. Oil Spill Response Technology Initiation Decision Report to the Pollution Abatement Ashore Program

    2007-12-01

    too much water. This bilge water, though, is often contaminated. The BioSok is a small, 3- by 10-inch “ sock ” with PRP encased in polypropylene...traditional bailing methods. UniRemInc makes the standard WellBoom by filling a weighted polypropylene sock , 36 inches long and up to 3 inches in...fitted with dual slip -ring assemblies, uniquely allowing full and continuous rotation through 3600 in both vertical and horizontal planes. It can be

  14. Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution abatement cost functions in central portugal.

    Roebeling, P C; Rocha, J; Nunes, J P; Fidélis, T; Alves, H; Fonseca, S

    2014-01-01

    Coastal aquatic ecosystems are increasingly affected by diffuse source nutrient water pollution from agricultural activities in coastal catchments, even though these ecosystems are important from a social, environmental and economic perspective. To warrant sustainable economic development of coastal regions, we need to balance marginal costs from coastal catchment water pollution abatement and associated marginal benefits from coastal resource appreciation. Diffuse-source water pollution abatement costs across agricultural sectors are not easily determined given the spatial heterogeneity in biophysical and agro-ecological conditions as well as the available range of best agricultural practices (BAPs) for water quality improvement. We demonstrate how the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) can be used to estimate diffuse-source water pollution abatement cost functions across agricultural land use categories based on a stepwise adoption of identified BAPs for water quality improvement and corresponding SWAT-based estimates for agricultural production, agricultural incomes, and water pollution deliveries. Results for the case of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) surface water pollution by the key agricultural land use categories ("annual crops," "vineyards," and "mixed annual crops & vineyards") in the Vouga catchment in central Portugal show that no win-win agricultural practices are available within the assessed BAPs for DIN water quality improvement. Estimated abatement costs increase quadratically in the rate of water pollution abatement, with largest abatement costs for the "mixed annual crops & vineyards" land use category (between 41,900 and 51,900 € tDIN yr) and fairly similar abatement costs across the "vineyards" and "annual crops" land use categories (between 7300 and 15,200 € tDIN yr).

  15. Impact of the choice of emission metric on greenhouse gas abatement and costs

    van den Berg, Maarten; Hof, Andries F.; van Vliet, Jasper; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2015-02-01

    This paper analyses the effect of different emission metrics and metric values on timing and costs of greenhouse gas mitigation in least-cost emission pathways aimed at a forcing level of 3.5 W m-2 in 2100. Such an assessment is currently relevant in view of UNFCCC’s decision to replace the values currently used. An emission metric determines the relative weights of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in obtaining CO2-equivalent emissions. For the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, the UNFCCC has used 100 year global warming potential (GWP) values as reported in IPCC’s Second Assessment Report. For the second commitment period, the UNFCCC has decided to use 100 year GWP values from IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report. We find that such a change has only a minor impact on (the optimal timing of) global emission reductions and costs. However, using 20 year or 500 year GWPs to value non-CO2 greenhouse gases does result in a significant change in both costs and emission reductions in our model. CO2 reductions are favored over non-CO2 gases when the time horizon of the GWPs is increased. Application of GWPs with time horizons longer than 100 year can increase abatement costs substantially, by about 20% for 500 year GWPs. Surprisingly, we find that implementation of a metric based on a time-dependent global temperature potential does not necessary lead to lower abatement costs. The crucial factor here is how fast non-CO2 emissions can be reduced; if this is limited, the delay in reducing methane emissions cannot be (fully) compensated for later in the century, which increases total abatement costs.

  16. Measures for noise pollution abatement in existing cooling tower systems; Massnahmen zur Geraeuschminderung an bestehenden Kuehlturmanlagen

    Niessen, R. [Sulzer-Escher Wyss GmbH, Lindau (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The operator`s order discussed by the paper was for planning and performance of backfitting measures for noise pollution abatement in an existing cooling tower system equipped with sound attenuation devices. Although the existing plant was operating in compliance with the legal noise emission limits, residents of neighbouring dwellings had been complaining about noise pollution. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Aufgabe, eine nachtraegliche Massnahme zur Laermminderung an einer bestehenden, mit Schalldaempfern ausgeruesteten Anlage zu planen und durchzufuehren, wurde vom Betreiber einer Rueckkuehlanlage gestellt. Der vom Gesetzgeber definierte Grenzwert fuer den Nachtbetrieb wurde mit der bestehenden Anlage zwar erreicht, doch die Anwohner fuehlten eine Belaestigung durch den Anlagenbetrieb. (orig./GL)

  17. Emission Inventories of Carbon-containing Greenhouse Gases in and Technological Measures for Their Abatement

    Zhuang Yahui; Zhang Hongxun; Wang Xiaoke; Li Changsheng

    2004-01-01

    The report summarizes surveys on carbon inventories and initiatives on sustainable carbon cycling taken by the Research Center for EcoEnvironmental Sciences, where the authors work/worked. The first part of the report, which appeared in the preceding issue of this journal, deals with the concept of sustainable carbon cycling, the historic evolution of carbon cycling processes in China, carbon pool enhancement, value addition,carbon sequestration and carbon balance. This very paper, as the second part of the report, covers the results of carbon dynamics modeling, emission inventories of various carbon-containing greenhouse gases and their potential abatement measures.

  18. Synergetic effects for p-nitrophenol abatement using a combined activated carbon adsorption-electrooxidation process

    周明华; 戴启洲; 雷乐成; 汪大翚

    2004-01-01

    A novel fluidized electrochemical reactor that integrated advanced electrochemical oxidation with activated carbon (AC) fluidization in a single cell was developed to model pollutant p-nitrophenol (PNP) abatement. AC fluidization could enhance COD removal by 22%-30%. In such a combined process, synergetic effects on PNP and COD removal was found, with their removal rate being enhanced by 137.8% and 97.8%, respectively. AC could be electrochemically regen erated and reused, indicating the combined process would be promising for treatment of biorefractory organic pollutants.

  19. Risco de brucelose zoonótica associado a suínos de abate clandestino

    José Arimatéa Freitas; Glaucio Antonio Rocha Galindo; Eváldson Joaquim Corrêa dos Santos; Karine de Almeida Sarraf; Jefferson Pinto de Oliveira

    2001-01-01

    Um total de 59 amostras de soros de suínos, procedentes de vários locais de abate clandestino, apresentaram ao "card test" e à soroaglutinação rápida anticorpos anti-Brucella e títulos de anticorpos sugestivos de infecção brucélica. Ações e medidas de vigilância sanitária são recomendadas para prevenir o risco potencial de infecção brucélica zoonótica.

  20. IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE PONTOS CRÍTICOS PARA SALMONELLA SPP NO ABATE DE SUÍNOS

    Roselena Martins Gamarra

    2007-01-01

    A partir da crescente ênfase na segurança de produtos cárneos que chegam ao consumidor, tem-se estimulado a identificação de meios para reduzir ou eliminar Salmonella spp antes do abate. Assim, a redução das taxas de infecção pré-abate resulta em aumento na segurança dos produtos cárneos. Salmonella spp destaca-se como a principal bactéria patogênica incorporada na linha de abate pelo próprio suíno e sua ausência no produto final é de extrema importância para competir no mercado, que apresent...

  1. The timing of biological carbon sequestration and carbon abatement in the energy sector under optimal strategies against climate risks

    Gitz, V.; Hourcade, J.Ch.; Ciais, Ph

    2005-10-15

    This paper addresses the timing of the use of biological carbon sequestration and its capacity to alleviate the carbon constraint on the energy sector. We constructed a stochastic optimal control model balancing the costs of fossil emission abatement, the opportunity costs of lands allocated to afforestation, and the costs of uncertain climate damages. We show that a minor part of the sequestration potential should start immediately as a 'brake', slowing down both the rate of growth of concentrations and the rate of abatement in the energy sector. thus increasing the option value of the emission trajectories. But, most of the potential is put in reserve to be used as a 'safety valve' after the resolution of uncertainty, if a higher and faster decarbonization is required: sequestration cuts off the peaks of costs of fossil abatement and postpones the pivoting of the energy system by up to two decades. (authors)

  2. Environmental cost-benefit analysis of alternative timing strategies in greenhouse gas abatement. A data envelopment analysis approach

    Kuosmanen, Timo [Economic Research Unit, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Luutnantintie 13, 00410 Helsinki (Finland); Bijsterbosch, Neil [Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen (Netherlands); MWH B.V., Rijnsburgstraat 9-11, 1059 AT Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dellink, Rob [Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen (Netherlands); Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-04-15

    Assessing the benefits of climate policies is complicated due to ancillary benefits: abatement of greenhouse gases also reduces local air pollution. The timing of the abatement measures influences both the economic costs and ancillary benefits. This paper conducts efficiency analysis of ten alternative timing strategies, taking into account the ancillary benefits. We apply the approach by Kuosmanen and Kortelainen [Valuing Environmental Factors in Cost-Benefit Analysis Using Data Envelopment Analysis, Ecological Economics 62 (2007), 56-65], which does not require prior valuation of the environmental impacts. The assessment is based on synthetic data from a dynamic applied general equilibrium model calibrated to The Netherlands. Our assessment shows that if one is only interested in GHG abatement at the lowest economic cost, then equal reduction of GHGs over time is preferred. If society is willing to pay a premium for higher ancillary benefits, an early mid-intensive reduction strategy is optimal. (author)

  3. Characterizing Synergistic Water and Energy Efficiency at the Residential Scale Using a Cost Abatement Curve Approach

    Stillwell, A. S.; Chini, C. M.; Schreiber, K. L.; Barker, Z. A.

    2015-12-01

    Energy and water are two increasingly correlated resources. Electricity generation at thermoelectric power plants requires cooling such that large water withdrawal and consumption rates are associated with electricity consumption. Drinking water and wastewater treatment require significant electricity inputs to clean, disinfect, and pump water. Due to this energy-water nexus, energy efficiency measures might be a cost-effective approach to reducing water use and water efficiency measures might support energy savings as well. This research characterizes the cost-effectiveness of different efficiency approaches in households by quantifying the direct and indirect water and energy savings that could be realized through efficiency measures, such as low-flow fixtures, energy and water efficient appliances, distributed generation, and solar water heating. Potential energy and water savings from these efficiency measures was analyzed in a product-lifetime adjusted economic model comparing efficiency measures to conventional counterparts. Results were displayed as cost abatement curves indicating the most economical measures to implement for a target reduction in water and/or energy consumption. These cost abatement curves are useful in supporting market innovation and investment in residential-scale efficiency.

  4. Hexane abatement and spore emission control in a fungal biofilter-photoreactor hybrid unit.

    Saucedo-Lucero, J O; Quijano, G; Arriaga, S; Muñoz, R

    2014-07-15

    The performance of a fungal perlite-based biofilter coupled to a post-treatment photoreactor was evaluated over 234 days in terms of n-hexane removal, emission and deactivation of fungal spores. The biofilter and photoreactor were operated at gas residence times of 1.20 and 0.14min, respectively, and a hexane loading rate of 115±5gm(-3)h(-1). Steady n-hexane elimination capacities of 30-40gm(-3)h(-1) were achieved, concomitantly with pollutant mineralization efficiencies of 60-90%. No significant influence of biofilter irrigation frequency or irrigation nitrogen concentration on hexane abatement was recorded. Photolysis did not support an efficient hexane post-treatment likely due to the short EBRT applied in the photoreactor, while overall hexane removal and mineralization enhancements of 25% were recorded when the irradiated photoreactor was packed with ZnO-impregnated perlite. However, a rapid catalyst deactivation was observed, which required a periodic reactivation every 48h. Biofilter irrigation every 3 days supported fungal spore emissions at concentrations ranging from 2.4×10(3) to 9.0×10(4)CFUm(-3). Finally, spore deactivation efficiencies of ≈98% were recorded for the photolytic and photocatalytic post-treatment processes. This study confirmed the potential of photo-assisted post-treatment processes to mitigate the emission of hazardous fungal spores and boost the abatement performance of biotechnologies.

  5. {open_quotes}BIOX{close_quotes} hydrogen sulfide abatement process - application analysis

    Gallup, D.L. [UNOCAL Corp., Santa Rosa, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A new hydrogen sulfide abatement process, known as {open_quotes}BIOX,{close_quotes} has been specifically developed for the geothermal industry. {open_quotes}BIOX{close_quotes} (biocide induced oxidation) successfully controls both primary and secondary emissions from cooling towers in pilot, demonstration, and commercial operations by air-wet oxidation. Independent laboratory tests recently controverted the efficacy of {open_quotes}BIOX{close_quotes} to catalytically oxidize sulfides to sulfate. Studies conducted in our laboratory with a simulated cooling tower indicate that the experimental conditions employed by Nardini, et al, are unrealistic for geothermal cooling towers. Furthermore, our investigations demonstrate that the {open_quotes}BIOX{close_quotes} process performs optimally at near neutral pH, a condition common to most geothermal cooling tower circulating water systems. A {open_quotes}BIOX{close_quotes} agent, trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA), proved to mitigate sulfide emissions much more efficiently than air, sodium hypochlorite or chlorine dioxide. {open_quotes}BIOX{close_quotes} is a proven, cost-effective H{sub 2}S abatement technology.

  6. Ammonia emissions from livestock industries in Canada: Feasibility of abatement strategies

    Carew, Richard, E-mail: richard.carew@agr.gc.c [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, 4200 Highway 97, P.O. Box 5000, Summerland, British Columbia, VOH1Z0 (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    An updated national ammonia (NH{sub 3}) emissions inventory was employed to study the relationship between NH{sub 3} emissions and livestock industries in Canada. Emissions from animal agriculture accounted for 322 kilotonnes (kt) or 64% of Canadian NH{sub 3} emissions in 2002. Cattle and swine accounted for the bulk of livestock emissions. The provinces of Alberta, Ontario, Quebec, and Saskatchewan accounted for 28.1%, 22.0%, 18.7%, and 13.1% of total livestock emissions, respectively. Emissions from Ontario and Quebec were attributed to the intensive production of dairy, hogs and poultry. Dairy cattle emissions per hectolitre of milk were higher in Ontario and Quebec than in other provinces, while swine emissions per livestock unit were higher than either beef or dairy cattle. A review of the abatement literature indicated diet manipulation to improve N efficiency and land spreading methods are very effective techniques to lower NH{sub 3} emissions. Future research is required to evaluate the feasibility of biofilters and feces/urine separation methods. - Livestock NH{sub 3} emissions are higher in areas characterized by intensive livestock production with diet manipulation and land spreading offering the greatest potential for NH{sub 3} abatement options.

  7. Two-liquid phase partitioning biotrickling filters for methane abatement: exploring the potential of hydrophobic methanotrophs.

    Lebrero, Raquel; Hernández, Laura; Pérez, Rebeca; Estrada, José M; Muñoz, Raúl

    2015-03-15

    The potential of two-liquid phase biotrickling filters (BTFs) to overcome mass transfer limitations derived from the poor aqueous solubility of CH4 has been scarcely investigated to date. In this context, the abatement of diluted methane emissions in two-liquid phase BTFs was evaluated using two different inocula: a type II methanotrophs culture in BTF 1 and a hydrophobic microbial consortium capable of growing inside silicone oil in BTF 2. Both BTFs supported stable elimination capacities above 45 g m(-3) h(-1) regardless of the inoculum, whereas no improvement derived from the presence of hydrophobic microorganisms compared to the type II metanotrophs culture was observed. Interestingly, the addition of silicone oil mediated a reduced metabolites concentration in the recycling aqueous phase, thus decreasing the needs for mineral medium renewal. Moreover, a 78% similarity was recorded between the microbial communities enriched in both BTFs at the end of the experimental period in spite of the differences in the initial inoculum structure. The results obtained confirmed the superior performance of two-liquid phase BTFs for CH4 abatement compared with conventional biotrickling filters.

  8. Experiments testing the abatement of radiation damage in D-xylose isomerase crystals with cryogenic helium.

    Hanson, B Leif; Harp, Joel M; Kirschbaum, Kristin; Schall, Constance A; DeWitt, Ken; Howard, Andrew; Pinkerton, A Alan; Bunick, Gerard J

    2002-11-01

    Helium is a more efficient cryogen than nitrogen, and for macromolecular data collection at high-flux beamlines will deliver lower temperatures. An open-flow helium cryostat developed at the University of Toledo (the Pinkerton Device) has been used for macromolecular data collection. This device differs from standard commercial He cryostats by having a much narrower aperture providing a high velocity stream of He around the crystal that maximizes convective and conductive heat exchange between the crystal and the cryogen. This paper details a series of experiments conducted at the IMCA-CAT 17ID beamline using one crystal for each experimental condition to examine whether helium at 16 K provided better radiation-damage abatement compared with nitrogen at 100 K. These studies used matched high-quality crystals (0.94 A diffraction resolution) of D-xylose isomerase derived from the commercial material Gensweet SGI. Comparisons show that helium indeed abates the indicators of radiation damage, in this case resulting in longer crystal diffractive lifetimes. The overall trend suggests that crystals maintain order and that high-resolution data are less affected by increased radiation load when crystals are cooled with He rather than N(2). This is probably the result of a lower effective temperature at the crystal with concomitant reduction in free-radical diffusion. Other features, such as an apparent phase transition in macromolecular crystals at lower temperatures, require investigation to broaden the utility of He use.

  9. The abatement strategies assessment model—ASAM: Applications to reductions of sulphur dioxide emissions across Europe

    ApSimon, H. M.; Warren, R. F.; Wilson, J. J. N.

    In May 1991 the 34 nations of the UN ECE region agreed that strategies for the abatement of SO 2 and NO x should be designed in the most cost-effective way, and that the concept of critical loads should serve as a guideline to formulate these strategies where science has provided the necessary information. The ASAM model has been developed in this context, as a computer tool to aid in guiding policy through investigation of the effectiveness of potential abatement strategies in Europe. In evaluating the environmental consequences, it takes into account the geographical distribution of emissions and the patterns of atmospheric transport and deposition; with the introduction of costs of reducing the different emissions, it provides a stepwise optimized approach to attaining specified target loads or critical loads for deposition across Europe, subject to flexible constraints in different countries. This paper describes the ASAM model, and work undertaken to establish the robustness of the model with regard to the assumptions made and uncertainties in the data used; and explores a range of scenarios currently being addressed.

  10. Separating environmental efficiency into production and abatement efficiency. A nonparametric model with application to U.S. power plants

    Hampf, Benjamin

    2011-08-15

    In this paper we present a new approach to evaluate the environmental efficiency of decision making units. We propose a model that describes a two-stage process consisting of a production and an end-of-pipe abatement stage with the environmental efficiency being determined by the efficiency of both stages. Taking the dependencies between the two stages into account, we show how nonparametric methods can be used to measure environmental efficiency and to decompose it into production and abatement efficiency. For an empirical illustration we apply our model to an analysis of U.S. power plants.

  11. Abatement Technologies for Volatile Organic Compounds in Emissions from Biofuel Driers; Reningsteknik foer organiska aemnen i utslaepp till luft vid biobraensletorkning

    Nielsen, Karin; Ehrstedt, Thomas [Sycon Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    This report is a part of a program at Vaermeforsk called Drying of Biofuels and deals with abatement technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOC) in biofuel drier emissions. The report gives an account of the amount of organic matter in wood and in drying gases and also of different abatement technologies for VOC. Processes from about 20 contractors are briefly described. The conclusions from this work are that thermal or catalytic oxidizing technologies in connection with regenerative heat recovery seems to be the most suitable technique for this application. Both technologies should give a degree of purification above 95 %. The purification cost for a typical case has been estimated to about 22 SEK per kg removed organic matter in both cases. The investment cost is higher for the catalytic oxidizer (6-20 MSEK for a 60.000 Nm{sup 3} /h catalytic plant compared to 4-6,5 MSEK for a thermal plant) but the fuel cost is lower. Condensation is a usable technique but it suffers from bad degree of purification. By using a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) the degree of purification can be enhanced but it will still be lower than for the oxidizers. Adsorption and absorption are not suitable for gases at high temperatures containing several different organic compounds at low concentrations, which is the case in biofuel drying. This means high purification costs and low degree of purification. Other technologies that have been found less suitable are biological purification and membrane technology. World-wide there are a few reference plants based on thermal oxidizing in connection with biofuel drying. Otherwise the experiences are very limited. According to this, tests in pilot plant scale are recommended before investment in a full-scale plant for biofuel driers.

  12. Hexane abatement and spore emission control in a fungal biofilter-photoreactor hybrid unit

    Saucedo-Lucero, J.O. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); IPICyT, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, División de Ciencias Ambientales, Camino a la Presa San José No. 2055, C.P., 78216 San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Quijano, G. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Arriaga, S. [IPICyT, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, División de Ciencias Ambientales, Camino a la Presa San José No. 2055, C.P., 78216 San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Muñoz, R., E-mail: mutora@iq.uva.es [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • A fungal biofilter/photoreactor was evaluated in terms of hexane and spore removal. • Biofilter supported elimination capacities of ≈35 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1} and CO{sub 2} yields of ≈75%. • The photocatalytic process slightly boosted the hexane abatement performance. • Biofilter emitted fungal spores at concentrations of 2.4 × 10{sup 3}–9.0 × 10{sup 4} CFU m{sup −3}. • Photo-assisted post-treatments resulted in spore deactivation efficiencies of 98%. - Abstract: The performance of a fungal perlite-based biofilter coupled to a post-treatment photoreactor was evaluated over 234 days in terms of n-hexane removal, emission and deactivation of fungal spores. The biofilter and photoreactor were operated at gas residence times of 1.20 and 0.14 min, respectively, and a hexane loading rate of 115 ± 5 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}. Steady n-hexane elimination capacities of 30–40 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1} were achieved, concomitantly with pollutant mineralization efficiencies of 60–90%. No significant influence of biofilter irrigation frequency or irrigation nitrogen concentration on hexane abatement was recorded. Photolysis did not support an efficient hexane post-treatment likely due to the short EBRT applied in the photoreactor, while overall hexane removal and mineralization enhancements of 25% were recorded when the irradiated photoreactor was packed with ZnO-impregnated perlite. However, a rapid catalyst deactivation was observed, which required a periodic reactivation every 48 h. Biofilter irrigation every 3 days supported fungal spore emissions at concentrations ranging from 2.4 × 10{sup 3} to 9.0 × 10{sup 4} CFU m{sup −3}. Finally, spore deactivation efficiencies of ≈98% were recorded for the photolytic and photocatalytic post-treatment processes. This study confirmed the potential of photo-assisted post-treatment processes to mitigate the emission of hazardous fungal spores and boost the abatement performance of

  13. Too high expectations. Air pollution abatement: Will Germany achieve its goal?; Zuviel versprochen. Klimaschutz: Erreicht Deutschland das Ziel?

    Quaschning, V. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Aussenstelle Plataforma Solar, Almeria (Spain). Abt. Systemanalyse

    2003-04-01

    Germany is the world-wide leader in air pollution abatement, but its ambitious goals will not be met if it does not make bigger efforts. (orig.) [German] Deutschland gilt als Vorreiter im internationalen Klimaschutz und hat sich selbst hohe Ziele gesteckt. Es droht jedoch, an den eigenen Anspruechen zu scheitern, wenn keine groesseren Anstrengungen zum Klimaschutz getroffen werden. (orig.)

  14. Towards spatially smart abatement of human pharmaceuticals in surface waters : Defining impact of sewage treatment plants on susceptible functions

    Coppens, Lieke J C; van Gils, Jos A G; Ter Laak, Thomas L; Raterman, Bernard W; van Wezel, Annemarie P

    2015-01-01

    For human pharmaceuticals, sewage treatment plants (STPs) are a major point of entry to surface waters. The receiving waters provide vital functions. Modeling the impact of STPs on susceptible functions of the surface water system allows for a spatially smart implementation of abatement options at,

  15. DIFERENTES MÉTODOS DE ABATE DO PESCADO PRODUZIDO EM AQUICULTURA, QUALIDADE DA CARNE E BEM ESTAR DO ANIMAL

    Carlos Eduardo Campos Freire

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O pescado constitui uma importante fonte de proteína animal para a população humana. Somada a essa importância, os alimentos oriundos do ambiente aquático, principalmente os peixes de origem marinha, apresentam propriedades e compostos que ajudam a prevenir determinados problemas de saúde. Além disso, a carne magra é recomendada para evitar problemas de saúde e aumentar a longevidade das pessoas. Um aspecto negativo do pescado consiste em sua elevada capacidade de deterioração por processos físicos, químicos e biológicos. Os métodos de abate, nesse sentido, tornam-se importantes fatores a serem considerados para uma melhor preservação das características do alimento, visto que, durante o processo de abate o animal pode se debater bastante fazendo com que as reservas de energia sejam reduzidas drasticamente promovendo o acúmulo de ácido lático, favorecendo a ação de enzimas proteolíticas e levando um sabor indesejado ao produto. Esta revisão descreve os principais mecanismos de abate, publicadas na literatura, nos diferentes tipos de pescado e sua influência na qualidade da carne. Outro aspecto importante, descrito e analisado, foi o bem-estar do animal durante o processo de abate.

  16. Directed technical change and the adoption of CO2 abatement technology: The case of CO2 capture and storage

    Otto, V.M.; Reilly, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the cost-effectiveness of combining traditional environmental policy, such as CO2-trading schemes, and technology policy that has aims of reducing the cost and speeding the adoption of CO2 abatement technology. For this purpose, we develop a dynamic general equilibrium model that

  17. Towards spatially smart abatement of human pharmaceuticals in surface waters: defining impact of sewage treatment plants on susceptible functions

    Gils, J.A.G.; Coppens, L.J.C.; Laak, ter T.L.; Raterman, B.W.; Wezel, van A.P.

    2015-01-01

    For human pharmaceuticals, sewage treatment plants (STPs) are a major point of entry to surface waters. The receiving waters provide vital functions. Modeling the impact of STPs on susceptible functions of the surface water system allows for a spatially smart implementation of abatement options at,

  18. Catalytic wet-oxidation of a mixed liquid waste: COD and AOX abatement.

    Goi, D; de Leitenburg, C; Trovarelli, A; Dolcetti, G

    2004-12-01

    A series of catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) reactions, at temperatures of 430-500 K and in a batch bench-top pressure vessel were carried out utilizing a strong wastewater composed of landfill leachate and heavily organic halogen polluted industrial wastewater. A CeO2-SiO2 mixed oxide catalyst with large surface area to assure optimal oxidation performance was prepared. The catalytic process was examined during batch reactions controlling Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Adsorbable Organic Halogen (AOX) parameters, resulting AOX abatement to achieve better effect. Color and pH were also controlled during batch tests. A simple first order-two stage reaction behavior was supposed and verified with the considered parameters. Finally an OUR test was carried out to evaluate biodegradability changes of wastewater as a result of the catalytic reaction.

  19. Economic and game-theoretical analysis of CO{sub 2} emission abatement

    Tahvonen, O. [Helsinki School of Economics, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Current decisions on greenhouse gas emissions may have effects on human well being for centuries. This project has aimed to extend the economic models designed for analyzing this particular issue. A closely related topic follows from the fact that emitting CO{sub 2} can be interpreted as a utilization of a free access resource, i.e., when countries gain from utilizing cheap fossil fuels (relative to noncarbon energy sources), the possible loss any country suffers from climate change is only a negligible fraction of the total loss of all countries. Thus, from a global point of view, the incentives for an individual country to abate emissions is low. Economic understanding of these problems calls for dynamic game-theoretical models

  20. Reduction of Baltic Sea nutrient inputs and allocation of abatement costs within the Baltic Sea catchment.

    Wulff, Fredrik; Humborg, Christoph; Andersen, Hans Estrup; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Czajkowski, Mikołaj; Elofsson, Katarina; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders; Hasler, Berit; Hong, Bongghi; Jansons, Viesturs; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Smart, James C R; Smedberg, Erik; Stålnacke, Per; Swaney, Dennis P; Thodsen, Hans; Was, Adam; Zylicz, Tomasz

    2014-02-01

    The Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) requires tools to simulate effects and costs of various nutrient abatement strategies. Hierarchically connected databases and models of the entire catchment have been created to allow decision makers to view scenarios via the decision support system NEST. Increased intensity in agriculture in transient countries would result in increased nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea, particularly from Poland, the Baltic States, and Russia. Nutrient retentions are high, which means that the nutrient reduction goals of 135 000 tons N and 15 000 tons P, as formulated in the BSAP from 2007, correspond to a reduction in nutrient loadings to watersheds by 675 000 tons N and 158 000 tons P. A cost-minimization model was used to allocate nutrient reductions to measures and countries where the costs for reducing loads are low. The minimum annual cost to meet BSAP basin targets is estimated to 4.7 billion Euro.

  1. Report on developing bottom-up Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACCS) for representative farm types

    Eory, V.; MacLeod, M.; Faverdin, P.

    2015-01-01

    a gap in our understanding of economic mitigation potential of agriculture in developing and newly industrialised countries. To address these questions this report presents three studies. The first is a literature review of the cost-effectiveness estimates of mitigation measures published in the past 15...... years, discussing the variability in these estimates. The second study reports on marginal abatement cost curves for beef cattle production in Brazil. Finally, the last report presents the conceptual basis of a tool to assess the financial implications of the mitigation measures to be used in parallel......Developing efficient policy instruments and incentive schemes to promote the uptake of greenhouse gas mitigation measures requires some kind of prioritisation of the mitigation measures. An important consideration in this process is the estimated cost and costefficiency the measures. The high...

  2. EURailNoise: a study of European priorities and strategies for railway noise abatement

    Kalivoda, M.; Danneskiold-Samsøe, U.; Krüger, F.; Barsikow, B.

    2003-10-01

    The European Union is developing its noise policy by using a number of expert groups on specific noise issues. One of the most relevant noise problems is railway traffic which is dealt with by Working Group 6 (WG 6). The Commission of the European Union appointed a consortium of six consultants and experts in railway noise to prepare a study on European priorities and strategies for railway noise abatement. The main purpose of this study was to support the work within WG 6 and to create an inventory of measures for future railway noise abatement policy of the European Union. The EURailNoise study was to be completed in autumn 2001. The countries included the European Union member states, together with Norway, and Switzerland, and three prospective members (Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Poland). The EURailNoise study consisted of three main parts. The baseline was a review of current European legislation on railway noise generation as well as noise perception. In parallel a documentation of cases, where technical measures against railway noise had been successfully applied, was prepared using a classification of "good practice", "promising new technology", and "promising research results". The second part covered the potential for further noise reduction demonstrated for High Speed Passenger Traffic, S-Trains, Locomotives, Trams, Freight Traffic, Track Design and finally Wheels and Track Monitoring and Maintenance. Thirdly, a strategy for future activities of the Commission concerning the reduction of rail noise was to be proposed including a proposal for noise emission limits. This paper summarizes the results of the EURailNoise study.

  3. Did policies to abate atmospheric emissions from traffic have a positive effect in London?

    Font, Anna; Fuller, Gary W

    2016-11-01

    A large number of policy initiatives are being taken at the European level, across the United Kingdom and in London to improve air quality and reduce population exposure to harmful pollutants from traffic emissions. Trends in roadside increments of nitrogen oxides (NOX), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM), black carbon (CBLK) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were examined at 65 London monitoring sites for two periods of time: 2005-2009 and 2010-2014. Between 2005 and 2009 there was an overall increase in NO2 reflecting the growing evidence of real world emissions from diesel vehicles. Conversely, NO2 decreased by 10%·year(-1) from 2010 onwards along with PM2.5 (-28%·year(-1)) and black carbon (-11%·year(-1)). Downwards trends in air pollutants were not fully explained by changes in traffic counts therefore traffic exhaust emission abatement policies were proved to be successful in some locations. PM10 concentrations showed no significant overall change suggesting an increase in coarse particles which offset the decrease in tailpipe emissions; this was especially the case on roads in outer London where an increase in the number of Heavy Good Vehicles (HGVs) was seen. The majority of roads with increasing NOX experienced an increase in buses and coaches. Changes in CO2 from 2010 onwards did not match the downward predictions from reduced traffic flows and improved fleet efficiency. CO2 increased along with increasing HGVs and buses. Polices to manage air pollution provided differential benefits across London's road network. To investigate this, k-means clustering technique was applied to group roads which behaved similarly in terms of trends to evaluate the effectiveness of policies to mitigate traffic emissions. This is the first time that London's roadside monitoring sites have been considered as a population rather than summarized as a mean behaviour only, allowing greater insight into the differential changes in air pollution abatement policies.

  4. Manejo pré-abate e qualidade de carne - Handling pre-slaughter and meat quality

    Hernández Treviño Israel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumoObjetivou-se com este trabalho enfatizar como os fatores pré-abateinfluenciam na qualidade da carne. Surgindo a preocupação com ascondições em que os animais são transportados e o manejo que recebematé o momento do abate, ocasionando prejuízos a toda a cadeiaprodutiva e a necessidade de obtenção de produtos seguros que nãoponha em risco a saúde humana, além de que sejam apreciados por suascaracterísticas organolépticas. Um bom manejo durante o processo detransporte, descanso na sala pré-abate e um adequado atordoamentoreflete na qualidade da carne. Com certeza reduzindo os prejuízosocasionados pelo manejo inadequado, por meio de práticas de bem-estaranimal podem-se melhorar os produtos ofertados ao consumidor.SummaryThe aim of this paper is to emphasize how the pre-slaughter factorsinfluencing the quality of meat products. Giving rise to the concern withthe conditions under which animals are transported and managementreceived until the time of sacrifice, causing damage to the entireproduction chain, resulting the need to obtain products that do notthreaten human health. In addition to being appreciated for theirorganoleptic characteristics, a good handling during the transportprocess, rest before slaughter and an appropriate method ofdesensitization influences the quality of the meat. It is certain thatreducing the damage caused by improper handling and through practiceof good animal welfares can improve the products offered to consumers.

  5. Efeito da idade de abate no valor nutritivo e sensorial da carne caprina de animais mestiços

    MADRUGA M. S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da idade de abate na composição centesimal e mineral, no pH, na atividade de água e nas qualidades sensoriais da carne caprina foi estudado, utilizando-se para tanto animais machos abatidos ao completarem 175, 220, 265 e 310 dias de nascimento. Após o abate e a desossa, a carne caprina foi submetida às análises físico-químicas de pH, Aw, Ca, Fe e P; às determinações de composição centesimal (umidade, cinzas, proteínas e gorduras e à análise sensorial, onde foram observados os atributos de: aparência, aroma "caprino", aroma de carne assada, sabor, suculência, maciez, textura e a qualidade da carne. A análise de Variância (ANOVA dos dados mostrou que as concentrações de umidade, proteínas, cálcio, ferro e pH foram significativamente influenciadas pelo fator idade de abate. Os teores de gordura, proteína e ferro aumentaram com a idade de abate, enquanto que a umidade diminuiu. Através dos teste da análise sensorial, ficou evidente que a idade dos caprinos apresentou um efeito significativo nos atributos sensoriais analisados, tendo-se detectado diferenças significativas entre os caprinos de diferentes idades de abate nos atributos de aparência, aroma "caprino", aroma de carne assada, suculência e maciez. A partir dos resultados das análises físico-químicas e sensoriais pôde-se observar, que o abate de animais mais velhos, isto é, com 310 dias, resultou em ganho nos parâmetros químicos (composição centesimal e mineral investigados, embora a carne de caprinos abatidos com menor idade (175 dias tivesse a preferência dos provadores.

  6. Adoption of Emissions Abating Technologies by U.S. Electricity Producing Firms Under the SO2 Emission Allowance Market

    Creamer, Gregorio Bernardo

    The objective of this research is to determine the adaptation strategies that coal-based, electricity producing firms in the United States utilize to comply with the emission control regulations imposed by the SO2 Emissions Allowance Market created by the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990, and the effect of market conditions on the decision making process. In particular, I take into consideration (1) the existence of carbon contracts for the provision of coal that may a affect coal prices at the plant level, and (2) local and geographical conditions, as well as political arrangements that may encourage firms to adopt strategies that appear socially less efficient. As the electricity producing sector is a regulated sector, firms do not necessarily behave in a way that maximizes the welfare of society when reacting to environmental regulations. In other words, profit maximization actions taken by the firm do not necessarily translate into utility maximization for society. Therefore, the environmental regulator has to direct firms into adopting strategies that are socially efficient, i.e., that maximize utility. The SO 2 permit market is an instrument that allows each firm to reduce marginal emissions abatement costs according to their own production conditions and abatement costs. Companies will be driven to opt for a cost-minimizing emissions abatement strategy or a combination of abatement strategies when adapting to new environmental regulations or markets. Firms may adopt one or more of the following strategies to reduce abatement costs while meeting the emission constraints imposed by the SO2 Emissions Allowance Market: (1) continue with business as usual on the production site while buying SO2 permits to comply with environmental regulations, (2) switch to higher quality, lower sulfur coal inputs that will generate less SO2 emissions, or (3) adopting new emissions abating technologies. A utility optimization condition is that the marginal value of each input

  7. Abatement of fluorinated compounds using a 2.45 GHz microwave plasma torch with a reverse vortex plasma reactor

    Kim, J.H.; Cho, C.H.; Shin, D.H. [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 814-2 Oxikdo-dong, Gunsan-city, Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Y.C., E-mail: ychong@nfri.re.kr [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 814-2 Oxikdo-dong, Gunsan-city, Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Y.W. [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 814-2 Oxikdo-dong, Gunsan-city, Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of); School of Advanced Green Energy and Environments, Handong Global University, Heunghae-eup, Buk-gu, Pohang-city, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • We developed a microwave plasma torch with reverse vortex reactor (RVR). • We calculated a volume fraction and temperature distribution of discharge gas and waste. • The performance of reverse vortex reactor increased from 29% to 43% than conventional vortex reactor. - Abstract: Abatement of fluorinated compounds (FCs) used in semiconductor and display industries has received an attention due to the increasingly stricter regulation on their emission. We have developed a 2.45 GHz microwave plasma torch with reverse vortex reactor (RVR). In order to design a reverse vortex plasma reactor, we calculated a volume fraction and temperature distribution of discharge gas and waste gas in RVR by ANSYS CFX of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation code. Abatement experiments have been performed with respect to SF{sub 6}, NF{sub 3} by varying plasma power and N{sub 2} flow rates, and FCs concentration. Detailed experiments were conducted on the abatement of NF{sub 3} and SF{sub 6} in terms of destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The DRE of 99.9% for NF{sub 3} was achieved without an additive gas at the N{sub 2} flow rate of 150 liter per minute (L/min) by applying a microwave power of 6 kW with RVR. Also, a DRE of SF{sub 6} was 99.99% at the N{sub 2} flow rate of 60 L/min using an applied microwave power of 6 kW. The performance of reverse vortex reactor increased about 43% of NF{sub 3} and 29% of SF{sub 6} abatements results definition by decomposition energy per liter more than conventional vortex reactor.

  8. Balancing the carbon market. Analysing the international carbon market and abatement costs in 2020 for low-concentration targets

    Den Elzen, M.G.J.; Mendoza-Beltran, M.A.; Piris-Cabezas, P.; Van Vuuren, D.P.

    2009-08-15

    This report describes our analysis of the impact of various policy choices and scientific uncertainties on the price of tradable emission units on the global carbon market in 2020 and the associated abatement costs. Our analysis was done under the assumption that the overall goal is to stabilise long-term greenhouse gas concentrations at 450 ppm CO2-eq. To meet these stabilisation targets on the long-term, Annex I countries as a group need to reduce by 25-40% below 1990 levels by 2020, and non-Annex I countries as a group need to keep emissions substantially below baseline (about 15 to 30%). The integrated modelling framework FAIR 2.2 is used for our analysis. The main findings of this study are: the degree of ambition for reductions of Annex I and non-Annex I countries is the most important policy choice influencing the price and abatement costs. Other less important policy choices include the ambition of US climate policy and the participation of the developing countries in the global carbon market. By allowing the use of forest-based options - including avoiding deforestation - for compliance in a well-designed carbon trading system, the global abatement costs could be reduced by between 25% and 65%. This would also make ambitious mitigation targets more feasible. In addition to the policy choices, important scientific uncertainties, in particular the baseline emissions (i.e. emissions in the absence of climate policy) and the assumed marginal abatement costs, strongly influence the carbon market.

  9. 75 FR 78799 - Noise Compatibility Program Notice, Fort Worth Alliance Airport, Fort Worth, TX

    2010-12-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Compatibility Program Notice, Fort Worth Alliance Airport, Fort... Administration (FAA) announces its findings on the noise compatibility program submitted by the city of Fort Worth, Texas under the provisions of 49 U.S.C. (the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act,...

  10. 75 FR 48411 - Noise Compatibility Program Notice; Fort Worth Alliance Airport, Fort Worth, TX

    2010-08-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Compatibility Program Notice; Fort Worth Alliance Airport, Fort... Administration (FAA) announces that it is reviewing a proposed noise compatibility program that was submitted for... Noise Abatement Act, hereinafter referred to as ``the Act'') and 14 CFR Part 150 by the city of...

  11. CONTROL OF THE BREEDING OF CULEX LARVAE IN SEWAGE WELLS BY THE USE OF ABATE, 5c

    P.Sanajian

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the control of breeding sources of Culex larvae in sewage wells by the larvicide Abate, some studies were performed in the summer and autumn of 1972. In general, it was noticed in these studies that:1. The wells chosen as a control (5 wells were active throughout the study periods and adult mosquitoes were captured plentifully. 2 In 4 sewage wells which were controlled by kerosene, after the distribution of kerosene the number of adults diminished and in some cases reached zero or near zero. These studies showed that the use of kerosene at ½ to one liter for each well is able to control the production source of mosquitoes for 10 to 12 days.3. Abate capsules were investigated at various quantities. In a number of wells, one capsule was used at the beginning; it was observed that, in some cases, there were not many effects on the mosquito population. The next time, 2 capsules were used and it was noticed that the density of adult mosquitoes decreased considerably and reached zero. In some cases, some of these wells had no activity for mosquito production for 30 days. In some of the other wells, 2 capsules were used initially and it was observed that the density reached zero after 6-7 days, and they then remain zero for 20 to 22 days. In general, these studies showed that the Abate capsule is a larvicide in sewage wells and that can control larvae.

  12. Biotechnologies for greenhouse gases (CH₄, N₂O, and CO₂) abatement: state of the art and challenges.

    López, Juan C; Quijano, Guillermo; Souza, Theo S O; Estrada, José M; Lebrero, Raquel; Muñoz, Raúl

    2013-03-01

    Today, methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions represent approximately 98 % of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory worldwide, and their share is expected to increase significantly in this twenty-first century. CO2 represents the most important GHG with approximately 77 % of the total GHG emissions (considering its global warming potential) worldwide, while CH4 and N2O are emitted to a lesser extent (14 and 8 %, respectively) but exhibit global warming potentials 23 and 298 times higher than that of CO2, respectively. Most members of the United Nations, based on the urgent need to maintain the global average temperature 2 °C above preindustrial levels, have committed themselves to significantly reduce their GHG emissions. In this context, an active abatement of these emissions will help to achieve these target emission cuts without compromising industrial growth. Nowadays, there are sufficient empirical evidence to support that biological technologies can become, if properly tailored, a low-cost and environmentally friendly alternative to physical/chemical methods for the abatement of GHGs. This study constitutes a state-of-the-art review of the microbiology (biochemistry, kinetics, and waste-to-value processes) and bioreactor technology of CH4, N2O, and CO2 abatement. The potential and limitations of biological GHG degradation processes are critically discussed, and the current knowledge gaps and technology niches in the field are identified.

  13. Household Solar Photovoltaics: Supplier of Marginal Abatement, or Primary Source of Low-Emission Power?

    Graham Palmer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available With declining system costs and assuming a short energy payback period, photovoltaics (PV should, at face value, be able to make a meaningful contribution to reducing the emission intensity of Australia’s electricity system. However, solar is an intermittent power source and households remain completely dependent on a “less than green” electricity grid for reliable electricity. Further, much of the energy impact of PV occurs outside of the conventional boundaries of PV life-cycle analyses (LCA. This paper examines these competing observations and explores the broader impacts of a high penetration of household PV using Melbourne, Victoria as a reference. It concludes that in a grid dominated by unsequestered coal and gas, PV provides a legitimate source of emission abatement at high, but declining costs, with the potential for network and peak demand support. It may be technically possible to integrate a high penetration of PV, but the economic and energy cost of accommodating high-penetration PV erodes much of the benefits. Future developments in PV, storage, and integration technologies may allow PV to take on a greater long term role, but in the time horizon usually discussed in climate policy, a large-scale expansion of household PV may hinder rather than assist deep cuts to the emission intensity of Australia’s electricity system.

  14. A Study on Portfolio of Domestic Policies and Measures for GHG emission Abatement

    Lim, J.K. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    After the climate change negotiation reaches an agreement in COP7, the next main issue to be addressed is the way of involvement of developing countries in emission abatement commitments and the development of domestic policies and measures to achieve GHG emission reduction target. Many Annex I countries have developed and implemented policies and measures to achieve its quantified GHG emission reduction target. The purpose of this paper is to propose a portfolio of policies and measures, that is, which policies and measures Korea will have to take in preparing future commitment for GHG emission reduction as well as in strengthening mitigation of climate change. Various policies and measures can be used, such as regulations, economic instruments, and covenants, etc., but it is desirable to implement them in some portfolio, taking advantage of their characteristics. Among the possible policies and measures, this study found that economic instruments such as carbon tax and domestic emissions trading have attracted considerable interest recently due to their cost effectiveness. This study also found that, in practice, many developed countries have used these policy instruments in achieving their quantified GHG emission reduction target. In order to develop a portfolio of policies and measures, the comprehension of the features of each policy and measure and the synergetic reconciliation with other objectives than climate change is important. (author). 82 refs., 11 figs., 31 tabs.

  15. Abatement of VOCs with Alternate Adsorption and Plasma-Assisted Regeneration: A Review

    Sharmin Sultana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption is an important concern for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs from waste air with non-thermal plasma (NTP. Although the combination of NTP with heterogeneous catalysis has shown to reduce the formation of unwanted by-products and improve the energy efficiency of the process, further optimization of these hybrid systems is still necessary to evolve to a competitive air purification technology. A newly developed innovative technique, i.e., the cyclic operation of VOC adsorption and NTP-assisted regeneration has attracted growing interest of researchers due to the optimized energy consumption and cost-effectiveness. This paper reviews this new technique for the abatement of VOCs as well as for regeneration of adsorbents. In the first part, a comparison of the energy consumption between sequential and continuous treatment is given. Next, studies dealing with adsorption followed by NTP oxidation are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the adsorption mechanisms and the regeneration of catalysts with in-plasma and post-plasma processes. Finally, the influence of critical process parameters on the adsorption and regeneration steps is summarized.

  16. Driving gear for cooling towers - design, noise abatement, maintenance; Antriebssysteme fuer Kuehltuerme - Auslegung, Schallschutz, Instandhaltung

    Niestegge, J.; Plesser, J. [Flender (A.F.) und Co., Bocholt (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Any optimal design of a cooling tower driving gear requires as precise as possible information on the operating conditions in practice. In addition, design engineers use verified data warranting reliable operation of the driving gears. From those data together with information on the specific operating environment and position in the cooling system, engineers derive the application-specific design data for the driving mechanisms, such as for instance special protective coatings, or specific bearing geometries. Other requirements considered include aspects of maintenance and noise abatement. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Eine optimale Auslegung von Kuehlturmantrieben bedingt eine moeglichst exakte Angabe der Betriebsbedingungen. Darueber hinaus fliessen in die Auslegung Erfahrungswerte ein, die einen stoerungsfreien Betrieb der Getriebe gewaehrleisten. Mit diesen Daten und unter Beruecksichtigung des speziellen Aufstellortes ergibt sich ein kuehlturmspezifisches Getriebe, das z.B. durch den vergroesserten Lagerabstand oder durch die Sonderlackierung den Anforderungen im Kuehlturmbau in groesstmoeglicher Weise gerecht wird. Massgaben hinsichtlich der Wartungsfreundlichkeit und des Geraeuschverhaltens werden bei der Auslegung ebenfalls beruecksichtigt. (orig.)

  17. Abating New York City transit noise: a matter of will, not way.

    Bronzaft, Arline L

    2010-01-01

    From the latter part of the 19th century, when New York City trains began to operate, until the present time, New York City's Transit Authority has received train noise complaints from riders and residents living near its transit system. The growing body of literature demonstrating the adverse effects of noise on physical and mental health raises the question as to whether transit noise is hazardous to the health of New York City's transit riders and residents living near the transit system. Several studies have examined the impacts of the noise of New York's transit system on hearing, health and learning. Despite the Transit Authority's efforts to remedy transit noise in response to complaints, the noise problem has not yet been satisfactorily ameliorated. This paper will suggest how the Transit Authority could employ techniques that could lower the noise levels of its system and benefit the health and welfare of New Yorkers. The recommendations in this paper could also apply to other cities with major transit systems where noise abatement has not been treated seriously.

  18. Response of meiofaunal and nematode communities to sewage pollution abatement: a field transplantation experiment

    LIU Xiaoshou; CHEUNG Siu Gin; SHIN Paul K.S

    2011-01-01

    To assess the recovery rate of meiofaunal and nematode communities upon abatement of sewage pollution,a field transplantation experiment was conducted in Tai Tam,which is a non-polluted,shallow subtidal habitat on the southern portion of Hong Kong Island.The sediments used were from one site located in Victoria Harbour that was heavily influenced by sewage pollution,and one site in the outside-harbor area,which was relatively clean.In addition,sediments from Tai Tam were used as a control.Fresh sediments with meiofauna were collected from the aforementioned sites,placed in plastic trays and transplanted to Tai Tam.Sediments were retrieved at the beginning of the experiment and at 1-,3-,and 8-weeks after transplantation for analysis of the meiofaunal and nematode communities as well as the sediment characteristics.The results showed that the meiofaunal and nematode communities in the control sediments were consistent at the four sampling periods,while it took three and eight weeks,respectively,for the nematode communities from the outside-harbor and inside-harbor sites to become similar to the control.These findings indicated that the relatively poor habitat quality and the nematode community composition in the sewage polluted inside-harbor sediments required a longer time for recovery than samples from the better habitat quality and the nematode community composition in the outside-harbor sediments.

  19. Abating New York city transit noise: A matter of will, not way

    Arline L Bronzaft

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From the latter part of the 19 th century, when New York City trains began to operate, until the present time, New York City′s Transit Authority has received train noise complaints from riders and residents living near its transit system. The growing body of literature demonstrating the adverse effects of noise on physical and mental health raises the question as to whether transit noise is hazardous to the health of New York City′s transit riders and residents living near the transit system. Several studies have examined the impacts of the noise of New York′s transit system on hearing, health and learning. Despite the Transit Authority′s efforts to remedy transit noise in response to complaints, the noise problem has not yet been satisfactorily ameliorated. This paper will suggest how the Transit Authority could employ techniques that could lower the noise levels of its system and benefit the health and welfare of New Yorkers. The recommendations in this paper could also apply to other cities with major transit systems where noise abatement has not been treated seriously.

  20. Electro-oxidative abatement of low-salinity reverse osmosis membrane concentrates.

    Van Hege, K; Verhaege, M; Verstraete, W

    2004-03-01

    The present study encompasses the application of electrolysis as novel treatment technique for the abatement of low-salinity concentrates generated from the filtrative treatment of water and wastewater. Four different materials have been tested as anode for a number of brine samples in a one-compartment electrolytic cell in galvanostatic mode. It was found that PbO(2) and SnO(2) anodes initiated electrochemical precipitation through an increase of the pH. Boron-doped diamond (BDD) and RuO(2) anodes successfully oxidised the pollutants in the brine and a linear removal of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was observed during the first phase of oxidation. Oxidation was predominantly achieved through indirect hypochlorite bulk oxidation; the higher oxidation rate and extent for the BDD anode was attributed to the higher selectivity and activity of the latter. Overall performance of the BDD electrode was higher than for RuO(2): higher rates for TAN (17.9 vs. 13.5mg/Ah) and COD (74.5 vs. 20.0mg/Ah) removal as well as higher overall current efficiencies (35.2% vs. 14.5%). Extensive colour removal was observed for both anodes (>90% decrease in absorbency at 455 nm).

  1. Irreversible membrane fouling abatement through pre-deposited layer of hierarchical porous carbons

    Hamad, Juma

    2014-11-01

    In this work, dual-templated hierarchical porous carbons (HPCs), produced from a coupled ice-hard templating approach, are shown to be a highly effective solution to the commonly occurring problem of irreversible fouling of low-pressure membranes used for pre-treatment in wastewater reuse. For the first time, dual-templated HPCs, along with their respective counterparts - single-templated meso-porous carbon (MPCs) (without macropores) - are tested in terms of their fouling reduction capacity and ability to remove different effluent organic matter fractions present in wastewater and compared with a commercially available powdered activated carbon (PAC). The synthesized HPCs provided exceptional fouling abatement, a 4-fold higher fouling reduction as compared to the previously reported best performing commercial PAC and ~2.5-fold better fouling reduction than their respective mesoporous counterpart. Thus, it is shown that not only mesoporosity, but macroporosity is also necessary to achieve high fouling reduction, thus emphasizing the need for dual templating. In the case of HPCs, the pre-deposition technique is also found to outperform the traditional sorbent-feed mixing approach, mainly in terms of removal of fouling components. Based on their superior performance, a high permeability (ultra-low-pressure) membrane consisting of the synthesized HPC pre-deposited on a large pore size membrane support (0.45μm membrane), is shown to give excellent pre-treatment performance for wastewater reuse application. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Assessing the real-world performance of modern pollutant abatement systems on motorcycles

    Alvarez, Robert; Weilenmann, Martin; Favez, Jean-Yves

    The present statutory pollutant emission limits Euro-3 for motorcycles imply the use of modern emission abatement systems such as three-way catalytic converters. Determining the quality of implementation of these new systems in different driving situations such as real-world driving is important, since motorcycles are commonly used for personal transportation in urban areas. For this reason, a test bench series was carried out with a sample of 10 motorcycles of state-of-the-art certification category Euro-3. Emission factors of regulated pollutants and CO 2 are presented on the basis of the statutory driving cycle, the latest version of the real-world Worldwide Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC) and the real-world Common Artemis Driving Cycle (CADC). The results of the statutory driving cycle show that 7 out of 10 motorcycles fail to comply with the present emission limits. The results of both real-world driving cycles confirm notable emissions of HC in urban and NO x in motorway driving conditions. CO emissions of motorcycles with small displacement increase significantly in the urban and extra-urban sections of the CADC, which has a more dynamic velocity profile than the equivalent WMTC. Although pollutant emissions of motorcycles show a marked improvement compared with earlier certification classes, they clearly exceed the emission levels of modern light gasoline passenger cars, especially for CO and HC.

  3. The emission abatement policy paradox in Australia: evidence from energy-emission nexus.

    Ahmed, Khalid; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2016-09-01

    This paper attempts to investigate the emissions embodied in Australia's economic growth and disaggregate primary energy sources used for electricity production. Using time series data over the period of 1990-2012, the ARDL bounds test approach to cointegration technique is applied to test the long-run association among the underlying variables. The regression results validate the long-run equilibrium relationship among all vectors and confirm that CO2 emissions, economic growth, and disaggregate primary energy consumption impact each other in the long-run path. Afterwards, the long- and short-run analyses are conducted using error correction model. The results show that economic growth, coal, oil, gas, and hydro energy sources have positive and statistically significant impact on CO2 emissions both in long and short run, with an exception of renewables which has negative impact only in the long run. The results conclude that Australia faces wide gap between emission abatement policies and targets. The country still relies on emission intensive fossil fuels (i.e., coal and oil) to meet the indigenous electricity demand.

  4. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach.

    Hashim, Sarfraz; Yuebo, Xie; Saifullah, Muhammad; Nabi Jan, Ramila; Muhetaer, Adila

    2015-01-01

    Today's ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT) was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU); Gankeng River (GKS); Xia Zhang River (XZY); Fenghu and Song Yang Rivers (FSR); Jiu Haogang River (JHH)) in China. For data analysis, the physiochemical parameters such as temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N) were determined before and after the treatment. Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM) method was used for relative significance of different water quality on each station, based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). The overall results revealed that the pollution is exceeding at "JHH" due to the limit of "COD" as critical water quality parameter and after treatment, an abrupt recovery of the rivers compared with the average improved efficiency of nutrients was 79%, 74%, 68%, and 70% of COD, DO, TP, and NH3N, respectively. The color of the river's water changed to its original form and aquatic living organism appeared with clear effluents from them.

  5. Evaluation and assessment of the efficacy of an abatement strategy in a former lead smelter community, Boolaroo, Australia.

    Harvey, P J; Taylor, M P; Kristensen, L J; Grant-Vest, S; Rouillon, M; Wu, L; Handley, H K

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the recent soil Lead Abatement Strategy (LAS) in Boolaroo, New South Wales, Australia, that was designed to "achieve a reduction in human exposure to lead dust contamination in surface soils". The abatement programme addressed legacy contamination of residential areas following closure of lead smelting operations in 2003 at the Pasminco Cockle Creek Smelter (PCCS). The principal objective of the LAS was to "cap and cover" lead-contaminated soils within the urban environment surrounding the PCCS. Soil lead concentrations of 2500-5000 mg/kg were scheduled for removal and replacement, while concentrations between 1500 and 2500 mg/kg were replaced only under limited circumstances. To date, there has been no industry, government or independent assessment of the clean-up programme that involved >2000 homes in the township of Boolaroo. Thus, by measuring post-abatement soil lead concentrations in Boolaroo, this study addresses this knowledge gap and evaluates the effectiveness of the LAS for reducing the potential for lead exposure. Soil lead concentrations above the Australian residential soil health investigation level value for residential soils (300 mg/kg) were identified at all but one of the residential properties examined (n = 19). Vacuum dust samples (n = 17) from the same homes had a mean lead concentration of 495 mg/kg (median 380 mg/kg). Bio-accessibility testing revealed that lead in household vacuum dust was readily accessible (% bio-accessible) (mean = 92 %, median = 90 %), demonstrating that the risk of exposure via this pathway remains. Assessment of a limited number of properties (n = 8) where pre-abatement soil lead levels were available for comparison showed they were not statistically different to post-abatement. Although the LAS did not include treatment of non-residential properties, sampling of community areas including public sports fields, playgrounds and schools (n = 32) was undertaken to determine the

  6. Shape controllers enhance the efficiency of graphene-TiO2 hybrids in pollutant abatement

    Sordello, F.; Odorici, E.; Hu, K.; Minero, C.; Cerruti, M.; Calza, P.

    2016-02-01

    The addition of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) to TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) has been recently considered as a method to improve the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 by favoring charge carrier separation. Here, we show that it is possible to improve the efficiency of GNP-TiO2 composites by controlling the shape, stability, and facets of TiO2 NPs grown on GNP functionalized with either COOH or NH2 groups, while adding ethylendiamine (EDA) and oleic acid (OA) during a hydrothermal synthesis. We studied the photocatalytic activity of all synthesized materials under UV-A light using phenol as a target molecule. GNP-TiO2 composites synthesized on COOH-functionalized GNP, exposing {101} facets, were more efficient at abating phenol than those synthesized on NH2-functionalized GNP, exposing {101} and {100} facets. However, neither of these composites was stable under irradiation. The addition of both OA and EDA stabilized the materials under irradiation; however, only the composite prepared on COOH-functionalized GNP in the presence of EDA showed a significant increase in phenol degradation rate, leading to results that were better than those obtained with TiO2 alone. This result can be attributed to Ti-OH complexation by EDA, which protects GNP from oxidation. The orientation of the most reducing {101} facets toward GNP and the most oxidizing {100} facets toward the solution induces faster phenol degradation owing to a better separation of the charge carriers.The addition of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) to TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) has been recently considered as a method to improve the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 by favoring charge carrier separation. Here, we show that it is possible to improve the efficiency of GNP-TiO2 composites by controlling the shape, stability, and facets of TiO2 NPs grown on GNP functionalized with either COOH or NH2 groups, while adding ethylendiamine (EDA) and oleic acid (OA) during a hydrothermal synthesis. We studied the photocatalytic

  7. Carbon Abatement and Emissions Associated with the Gasification of Walnut Shells for Bioenergy and Biochar Production.

    Pujol Pereira, Engil Isadora; Suddick, Emma C; Six, Johan

    2016-01-01

    By converting biomass residue to biochar, we could generate power cleanly and sequester carbon resulting in overall greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) savings when compared to typical fossil fuel usage and waste disposal. We estimated the carbon dioxide (CO2) abatements and emissions associated to the concurrent production of bioenergy and biochar through biomass gasification in an organic walnut farm and processing facility in California, USA. We accounted for (i) avoided-CO2 emissions from displaced grid electricity by bioenergy; (ii) CO2 emissions from farm machinery used for soil amendment of biochar; (iii) CO2 sequestered in the soil through stable biochar-C; and (iv) direct CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil. The objective of these assessments was to pinpoint where the largest C offsets can be expected in the bioenergy-biochar chain. We found that energy production from gasification resulted in 91.8% of total C offsets, followed by stable biochar-C (8.2% of total C sinks), offsetting a total of 107.7 kg CO2-C eq Mg-1 feedstock. At the field scale, we monitored gas fluxes from soils for 29 months (180 individual observations) following field management and precipitation events in addition to weekly measurements within three growing seasons and two tree dormancy periods. We compared four treatments: control, biochar, compost, and biochar combined with compost. Biochar alone or in combination with compost did not alter total N2O and CO2 emissions from soils, indicating that under the conditions of this study, biochar-prompted C offsets may not be expected from the mitigation of direct soil GHG emissions. However, this study revealed a case where a large environmental benefit was given by the waste-to-bioenergy treatment, addressing farm level challenges such as waste management, renewable energy generation, and C sequestration.

  8. Integrated cost-effectiveness analysis of greenhouse gas emission abatement. The case of Finland

    Lehtilae, A.; Tuhkanen, S. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1999-11-01

    In Finland greenhouse gas emissions are expected to increase during the next decades due to economic growth, particularly in the energy intensive industrial sectors. The role of these industries is very central in the national economy. The emission control according to the Kyoto Protocol will therefore be quite difficult and costly. The study analyses the cost-effectiveness of different technical options for reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in Finland. The analysis is performed with the help of a comprehensive energy system model for Finland, which has been extended to cover all major sources of methane and nitrous oxide emissions in the energy sector, industry, waste management and agriculture. The focus being on technical options, no consideration is given to possible policy measures, emission trading or joint implementation in the study. Under the boundary conditions given for the development of the Finnish energy economy, cost-effective technical measures in the energy system include increases in the use of wood biomass, natural gas and wind energy, increases in the contribution of CHP to the power supply, and intensified energy conservation in all end-use sectors. Additional cost-effective measures are landfill gas recovery, utilisation of the combustible fraction of waste and catalytic conversion of N{sub 2}O in nitric acid production. With baseline assumptions, the direct annual costs of emission abatement are calculated to be about 2000 MFIM (330 M{epsilon}) in 2010. The marginal costs are estimated to be about 230 FIM (40 {epsilon}) per tonne of CO{sub 2}-equivalent in 2010. The cost curie derived from the analysis could be used in further analyses concerning emissions trading. (orig.) 109 refs. SIHTI Research Programme

  9. Photolysis of inorganic chloramines and efficiency of trichloramine abatement by UV treatment of swimming pool water.

    Soltermann, Fabian; Widler, Tobias; Canonica, Silvio; von Gunten, Urs

    2014-06-01

    Trichloramine, one of the three inorganic chloramines (mono-, di- and trichloramine), is a problematic disinfection by-product in recreational pool water since it causes skin and eye irritations as well as irritations of the respiratory tract. The most commonly used chloramine mitigation strategy in pool water is UV treatment. Experiments with membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) confirmed that inorganic chloramines are effectively degraded by UV irradiation with low-pressure (LP) and medium-pressure (MP) mercury lamps (apparent quantum yields (QY): NH2Cl = 0.50 (LP) and 0.31 (MP) mol einstein(-1), NHCl2: 1.06 (LP) and 0.85 (MP) mol einstein(-1)). Trichloramine showed the fastest depletion with a quantum yield slightly above 2 mol einstein(-1) in purified (LP and MP) and pool water (MP). This high quantum yield can partly be explained by reactions involving OH radicals (purified water) and the reaction of trichloramine with moieties formed during UV irradiation of pool water. The presence of free chlorine affects trichloramine degradation (QY: ∼1.5 mol einstein(-1)) since it scavenges OH radicals and competes with trichloramine for reactive species (e.g. organic amines). Measurements in a pool facility revealed that the installed UV reactors degraded trichloramine by 40-50% as expected from laboratory experiments. However, trichloramine reduction in the pools was less pronounced than in the UV reactors. Model calculations combining pool hydraulics with formation/abatement of trichloramine showed that there was a fast trichloramine formation in the pool from the residual chlorine and nitrogenous precursors. The main factors influencing trichloramine concentrations in pool water are the free chlorine concentration and the UV treatment in combination with the recirculation rate through the water treatment system.

  10. A Novel Combination of Methods Developed for Decision Support on Abatement of Mercury in Europe

    Sundseth K.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available There is clear evidence from the global mercury cycle that there is an urgent need for actions to reduce global anthropogenic mercury emissions. A legally- binding global agreement to reduce emissions of mercury is soon in place, meaning that many countries need to take steps to lower their emissions. Identification and assessment of policy options that already are in place as well as setting pollution control objectives and developing effective strategies to meet these objectives, are depending on a decision support tool that allows for identifying current and future environmental problems and to reduce these problems by providing a holistic management approach. Recent scientific advancement allows a more complete picture of the mercury problems and solutions to the problems, which is of outmost interest when it comes to justifying spending resources on the relevant measures. To make sure that resource allocation is favoring human welfare, the economic costs of introducing these measures need to be compared to their economic benefits. The major goal of this study was to provide a novel combination of assessment tools that form a framework for a decision support system towards environmental policy on mercury in Europe. The decision support tool was intended to act as a guideline for policy makers for the purpose of introducing cost- effective abatement of mercury. It was for the EU 27 countries demonstrated that large economic benefits can be achieved globally with reduced mercury emissions in the EU region. The investigated Baseline scenario thus highlighted the importance of full implementation of existing measures and the importance of making further progress in reducing mercury emissions from European sources. Reducing emissions in developing countries may however, be more cost effective, which basically reconfirms the need for a global convention on mercury.

  11. Effect of TiO2 surface properties on the scr activity of Nox emission abatement catalysis

    2002-01-01

    NOx emission abatement catalysts V2O5 supported on variousTiO2 including anatase, rutile and mixture of both have beeninvestigated with various physico-chemical measurements such asBET, NH3-TPD, NARP, XRD and so on, and the effect of TiO2 surfaceproperties on the SCR activity of V2O5/TiO2 catalysts was studied.It has been found that the TiO2 surface properties had strongaffect on the SCR activity of V2O5/TiO2 catalysts. The strongeracidic property resulted the higher exposure of active sites aswell as the higher SCR activity.

  12. Science Letters:Synergetic effects for p-nitrophenol abatement using a combined activated carbon adsorption-electrooxidation process

    周明华; 戴启洲; 雷乐成; 汪大翚

    2004-01-01

    A novel fluidized electrochemical reactor that integrated advanced electrochemical oxidation with activated carbon (AC) fluidization in a single cell was developed to model pollutant p-nitrophenol (PNP) abatement. AC fluidization could enhance COD removal by 22%-30%. In such a combined process, synergetic effects on PNP and COD removal was found, with their removal rate being enhanced by 137.8% and 97.8%, respectively. AC could be electrochemically regenerated and reused, indicating the combined process would be promising for treatment of biorefractory organic pollutants.

  13. Environmental regulation, productive efficiency and cost of pollution abatement: a case study of the sugar industry in India.

    Murty, M N; Kumar, Surender; Paul, Mahua

    2006-04-01

    In this paper the input distance function is estimated for the Indian Sugar industry under alternative assumptions of weak and strong disposability of bad outputs. The estimated distance function is used to make the estimates of environmental efficiency, Malmquist productivity index and shadow prices of pollutants. The technical efficiency measure estimated under the assumption of weak disposability of bad outputs is utilized to test the Porter hypothesis. Marginal costs of pollution abatement functions are estimated for different pollutants of water. Pollutant specific taxes are computed using the tax-standards method.

  14. Late-gestation heat stress abatement on performance and behavior of Holstein dairy cows.

    Karimi, M T; Ghorbani, G R; Kargar, S; Drackley, J K

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cooling to lessen the effects of heat stress during the last 3 wk of gestation on performance and behavior of multiparous Holstein cows. Twenty nonlactating cows were randomly assigned to treatments approximately 21 d before their expected calving date based on mature equivalent milk production and parity. Treatments were only imposed during the last 3 wk of gestation and included heat stress (HT; n=10) and cooling (CL; n=10), both under a similar photoperiod (14 h of light and 10 h of dark). Dry cows were housed in a sand-bedded stall with the stall areas for CL cows equipped with sprinklers and fans that were on from 0700 to 1900 h, whereas those for the HT cows were not. After parturition, all cows were housed in a barn with cooling devices. Rectal temperatures were measured daily at 1400 h and respiration rates were recorded by counting the flank movements for 1 min at 1500 h on odd days over the last 3 wk of gestation to calving. Daily dry matter intake was measured from -21 d relative to expected calving to 21 d after calving and milk production was recorded daily up to 180 d in milk. Behavioral changes of dry cows were studied continuously for 24 h at -10 d relative to expected calving. The average temperature-humidity index during the last 3 wk of gestation was 69.7 and was not significantly different between treatments. Heat-stressed cows exhibited greater rectal temperatures (39.5 vs. 39.2°C), greater respiration rates (70.4 vs. 63.3 breaths/min), and decreased dry matter intake (13.7 vs. 15.5 kg/d) compared with CL cows. Compared with HT cows, CL cows produced more milk during 180 d in milk (40.5 vs. 44.6 kg/d). Heat stress decreased ruminating (243.2 vs. 282.5 min/d) and chewing times (390.6 vs. 448.7 min/d) at -10 d before calving. The CL cows had shorter standing times than their HT counterparts (390.4 vs. 474.0 min/d). These results confirm that heat stress abatement in the late gestation period improves

  15. Modelling road dust emission abatement measures using the NORTRIP model: Vehicle speed and studded tyre reduction

    Norman, M.; Sundvor, I.; Denby, B. R.; Johansson, C.; Gustafsson, M.; Blomqvist, G.; Janhäll, S.

    2016-06-01

    Road dust emissions in Nordic countries still remain a significant contributor to PM10 concentrations mainly due to the use of studded tyres. A number of measures have been introduced in these countries in order to reduce road dust emissions. These include speed reductions, reductions in studded tyre use, dust binding and road cleaning. Implementation of such measures can be costly and some confidence in the impact of the measures is required to weigh the costs against the benefits. Modelling tools are thus required that can predict the impact of these measures. In this paper the NORTRIP road dust emission model is used to simulate real world abatement measures that have been carried out in Oslo and Stockholm. In Oslo both vehicle speed and studded tyre share reductions occurred over a period from 2004 to 2006 on a major arterial road, RV4. In Stockholm a studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan in 2010 saw a significant reduction in studded tyre share together with a reduction in traffic volume. The model is found to correctly simulate the impact of these measures on the PM10 concentrations when compared to available kerbside measurement data. Importantly meteorology can have a significant impact on the concentrations through both surface and dispersion conditions. The first year after the implementation of the speed reduction on RV4 was much drier than the previous year, resulting in higher mean concentrations than expected. The following year was much wetter with significant rain and snow fall leading to wet or frozen road surfaces for 83% of the four month study period. This significantly reduced the net PM10 concentrations, by 58%, compared to the expected values if meteorological conditions had been similar to the previous years. In the years following the studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan road wear production through studded tyres decreased by 72%, due to a combination of reduced traffic volume and reduced studded tyre share. However, after accounting for exhaust

  16. Environmental research program. 1992 annual report

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the Environmental Research Program is to contribute to the understanding of the formation, mitigation, transport, transformation, and ecological effects of energy-related pollutants on the environment. The program is multidisciplinary and includes fundamental and applied research in chemistry, physics, biology, engineering, and ecology. The program undertakes research and development in efficient and environmentally benign combustion, pollution abatement and destruction, and novel methods of detection and analysis of criteria and non-criteria pollutants. This diverse group investigates combustion, atmospheric processes, flue-gas chemistry, and ecological systems.

  17. Abatement of mercury pollution in the small-scale gold mining industry: restructuring the policy and research agendas.

    Hilson, Gavin

    2006-06-01

    This paper critiques contemporary research and policy approaches taken toward the analysis and abatement of mercury pollution in the small-scale gold mining sector. Unmonitored releases of mercury from gold amalgamation have caused considerable environmental contamination and human health complications in rural reaches of sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and Asia. Whilst these problems have caught the attention of the scientific community over the past 15-20 years, the research that has since been undertaken has failed to identify appropriate mitigation measures, and has done little to advance understanding of why contamination persists. Moreover, the strategies used to educate operators about the impacts of acute mercury exposure, and the technologies implemented to prevent further pollution, have been marginally effective at best. The mercury pollution problem will not be resolved until governments and donor agencies commit to carrying out research aimed at improving understanding of the dynamics of small scale gold mining communities. Acquisition of this knowledge is the key to designing and implementing appropriate support and abatement measures.

  18. Potential of electric discharge plasma methods in abatement of volatile organic compounds originating from the food industry.

    Preis, S; Klauson, D; Gregor, A

    2013-01-15

    Increased volatile organic compounds emissions and commensurate tightening of applicable legislation mean that the development and application of effective, cost-efficient abatement methods are areas of growing concern. This paper reviews the last two decades' publications on organic vapour emissions from food processing, their sources, impacts and treatment methods. An overview of the latest developments in conventional air treatment methods is presented, followed by the main focus of the paper, non-thermal plasma technology. The results of the review suggest that non-thermal plasma technology, in its pulsed corona discharge configuration, is an emerging treatment method with potential for low-cost, effective abatement of a wide spectrum of organic air pollutants. It is found that the combination of plasma treatment with catalysis is a development trend that demonstrates considerable potential. The as yet relatively small number of plasma treatment applications is considered to be due to the novelty of pulsed electric discharge techniques and a lack of reliable pulse generators and reactors. Other issues acting as barriers to widespread adoption of the technique include the possible formation of stable oxidation by-products, residual ozone and nitrogen oxides, and sensitivity towards air humidity.

  19. Energy recovery and abatement potential of CO2 emissions for an integrated iron and steel making enterprise

    2010-01-01

    The typical features for an integrated iron & steelmaking industry are high energy consumption and CO2 emission.The traditional BF-BOF process in an integrated Iron and steelmaking enterprise produces a large amount of residual heat and energy,which has great potential for recovery and abatement potential of CO2 emissions.In this paper,for an integrated Iron & steelmaking enterprise of 10 million tons per year in capacity,the residual heat and energy recovery analysis was conducted.It is indicateded that the residual heat and energy can be recovered as electric power by using present advanced process technology.By means of the distributed power generation,the residual heat and energy can be recovered,with a power generation capacity of 419.5 kWh per ton steel product.Accordingly,the abatement potential of CO2 emissions for an integrated iron & steel making enterprise was also evaluated,which indicated that about 398.5 kg CO2 could be reduced per ton steel product.

  20. Abatement cost of SF6 emissions from medium voltage switchgear. Validation of recent studies for the European Commission

    Benner, J.; Van Lieshout, M.; Croezen, H.

    2012-05-15

    Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) is a gas with applications including use as an insulator and switching medium in medium voltage (MV) switchgear. While having certain unique properties, it is also a greenhouse gas, with a 22,800 times greater impact than CO2 and an atmospheric lifetime of over 3,000 years. Although the use of SF6 in MV switchgear can be avoided, according to recent studies for the European Commission, the abatement costs are high. This study validates the calculated cost levels as well as the general feasibility of determining a fixed cost figure for this purpose. This analysis yields a result which differs from the earlier studies, particularly with respect to the cost aspect, but also in other areas. CE Delft concludes that for the majority of applications cost-effective SF6-free options are available, leading to abatement costs for the use of SF6 in MV switchgear that range from - 40 to 0 euro/tCO2 eq., for all types of switchgear, with voltage levels below 25 kV and situated on relatively dry locations.

  1. The cost effectiveness of a policy to store carbon in Australian agricultural soils to abate greenhouse gas emissions

    White, Robert E.; Davidson, Brian

    2015-07-01

    Data for cropping and pastoral enterprises in south eastern Australia were used in a cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the feasibility of abating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through storing soil carbon (C) as soil organic matter under the Australian government's Carbon Farming Initiative. We used the C credit value for 2013-14 of 24.15 per tonne of CO2- equivalent (CO2-e) and a C storage rate of 0.5 tonne C/hectare/year for conversion of cropland to pasture. Given that a change of enterprise is driven primarily by farmer returns, we found that none of the changes were feasible at current prices, with the exception of wheat to cattle or sheep in an irrigated system, and dryland cotton to cattle or sheep. Given that our model scenario assumed the most favourable economic factors, it is unlikely that increased soil C storage through a change from cropping to pasture can make a significant contribution to abating Australia's CO2 emissions. However, of greater concern to society is the methane emissions from grazing cattle or sheep, which would negate any gain in soil C under pasture, except for a switch from dryland cropping to sheep.

  2. Coupled Climate-Economy-Biosphere (CoCEB) model - Part 1: Abatement share and investment in low-carbon technologies

    Ogutu, K. B. Z.; D'Andrea, F.; Ghil, M.; Nyandwi, C.; Manene, M. M.; Muthama, J. N.

    2015-04-01

    The Coupled Climate-Economy-Biosphere (CoCEB) model described herein takes an integrated assessment approach to simulating global change. By using an endogenous economic growth module with physical and human capital accumulation, this paper considers the sustainability of economic growth, as economic activity intensifies greenhouse gas emissions that in turn cause economic damage due to climate change. Different types of fossil fuels and different technologies produce different volumes of carbon dioxide in combustion. The shares of different fuels and their future evolution are not known. We assume that the dynamics of hydrocarbon-based energy share and their replacement with renewable energy sources in the global energy balance can be modeled into the 21st century by use of logistic functions. Various climate change mitigation policy measures are considered. While many integrated assessment models treat abatement costs merely as an unproductive loss of income, we consider abatement activities also as an investment in overall energy efficiency of the economy and decrease of overall carbon intensity of the energy system. The paper shows that these efforts help to reduce the volume of industrial carbon dioxide emissions, lower temperature deviations, and lead to positive effects in economic growth.

  3. Catalytic abatement of CO and volatile organic compounds in waste gases by gold catalysts supported on ceria-modified mesoporous titania and zirconia

    Vasko Idakiev; Dimitar Dimitrov; Tatyana Tabakova; Krasimir Ivanov; Zhong-Yong Yuan; Bao-Lian Su

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous oxides TiO2 and ZrO2, synthesized by surfactant templating via a neutral C13(EO)6–Zr(OC3H7)4 assembly pathway, and ceria‐modified TiO2 and ZrO2, prepared by a deposi‐tion–precipitation (DP) method, featuring high surface areas and uniform pore size distributions were used as supports for gold catalysts. The supported gold catalysts were assessed for the cata‐lytic abatement of air pollutants, i.e., CO, CH3OH, and (CH3)2O. The gold was supported on the mes‐oporous oxides by a DP method. The supports and catalysts were characterized by powder X‐ray diffraction, high‐resolution transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption–desorption analysis, and temperature‐programmed reduction technique. A high degree of synergistic interaction be‐tween ceria and mesoporous ZrO2 and TiO2 as well as a positive modification of the structural and catalytic properties by ceria was observed. The ceria additive interacts with the mesoporous oxides and induces a strong effect on the reducibility of the supports. The catalytic behavior of the catalysts was discussed to determine the role of the ceria modifying additive and possible interaction be‐tween the gold nanoparticles and ceria‐mesoporous oxide supports. The gold catalysts supported on ceria‐modified mesoporous ZrO2 displayed superior catalytic activity (~100%conversion of CO at 10 °C and CH3OH at 60 °C). The high catalytic activity can be attributed to the ability of the sup‐port to assist oxygen vacancies formation. The studies indicate that the ceria‐modified mesoporous oxide supports have potential as supports for gold‐based catalysts.

  4. Thermal analysis of K(x)/La{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Active catalysts for the abatement of diesel exhaust contaminants

    Milt, V.G.; Querini, C.A.; Miro, E.E. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica-INCAPE (FIQ, UNL-CONICET) Santiago del Estero 2829, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2003-09-04

    Potassium loaded lanthana is a promising catalyst to be used for the abatement of diesel exhaust pollutants. In this paper we have combined several thermal techniques to study relevant processes that take place during the soot combustion reaction. Temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) experiments show that with potassium loadings between 4.5 and 10wt.% and calcination temperatures between 400 and 700C, these catalysts mixed with soot give maximum combustion rates between 350 and 400C. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicate that the reaction coexists with the thermal decomposition of bulk hydroxide species. For the La{sub 2}O{sub 3} solid, the La(OH){sub 3} -> LaO(OH) and LaO(OH) -> La{sub 2}O{sub 3} processes occur at circa 360 and 500C, respectively, whereas the presence of K in the K(x)/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts provokes a shift of these endothermic peaks to higher temperatures. In all the studied solids, oxycarbonates decompose in the 550-800C temperature range. On the other hand, microbalance results show that the bulk carbonate formation depends on both the potassium content and the calcination temperature. The High Frequency CO{sub 2} Pulses technique is useful to study the dynamics of the CO{sub 2} adsorption-desorption process and to characterize the surface basicity of the solids. When both La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and K/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} solids are calcined at 700C, a strong decrease on the CO{sub 2}-surface interaction takes place, which correlates with a small decrease in catalytic activity and with an increase in the K/La surface ratio. These effects may be originated, at least in part, by a decrease in oxygen vacancies concentration and a thermal dehydroxylation of the catalysts.

  5. 76 FR 72025 - Noise Compatibility Program Notice for W.M. Kellogg Airport, Battle Creek, MI

    2011-11-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Compatibility Program Notice for W.M. Kellogg Airport, Battle Creek... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the noise exposure maps submitted by the City of Battle... Safety and Noise Abatement Act, herein after referred to as ``the Act'') and 14 Code of...

  6. 78 FR 19355 - Noise Exposure Map Notice: Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review

    2013-03-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice: Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and... Aviation Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the noise exposure maps submitted by Tucson... Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act, hereinafter referred to as ``the Act'') and 14 CFR Part 150 are...

  7. Energy use, efficiency gains and emission abatement in transitional industrialised economies. Poland and the Baltic states

    Salay, Juergen

    1999-05-01

    with lower sulphur and ash content. Because of higher coal prices and the introduction of hard budget constraints, power plants improved their generation efficiency, which also contributed to the reduction of emissions. After 1994, the decline in SO{sub 2} emissions has continued thanks to the installation of pollution abatement equipment. The final article (Article 6) analyses the conversion of small boilers for heat production from fossil to biomass fuels. It compares the results of six boiler conversion projects in the Baltic states with seven projects in Russia and the Czech Republic. The results show that the conversions in the Baltic states reduced the fuel cost of heat production and achieved cost-effective reductions of SO{sub 2} and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). It also resulted in transfer of technology and know-how, less dependence on imported fuels and the creation of local markets for biofuels 73 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  8. Control of dangerous substances in discharges and microbiological abatement: European framework and a case study of an ozone disinfection system.

    Ostoich, M; Serena, F; Falletti, L; Fantoni, A

    2013-01-01

    Directive 2000/60/EC requires the achievement of a 'good chemical status' for surface water within pre-established dates. Disinfection is needed to achieve compulsory final microbial limit values (in Italy for wastewater discharges the parameter Escherichia coli - EC - is imposed by law with a maximum limit value of 5,000 cfu/100 mL). Liquid waste and disinfection by-products must be considered when designing appropriate monitoring of dangerous substances; the specific classes of substances must be investigated according to the typology of received wastewaters and liquid wastes (where applicable) and specific analytical techniques, with Limit of Detection (LOD) lower than the limit values, must be applied; the difficulties faced by national and regional environmental control Agencies is that these techniques have to be applied during ordinary activity and not only for research purposes. The study aims to present the control of dangerous substances, as a screening view, in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharges in the province of Venice (Northern Italy) for the period 2007-2010 based on available data from institutional controls. In addition, the wastewater disinfection process with ozone applied to a medium size WWTP (45,000 Population Equivalents) is presented as a case study, with a view to assessing the microbiological abatement efficacy and the presence of dangerous substances. Discharge quality of the WWTPs in the province of Venice presented mean values that were higher than the LOD, but only for certain metals. For the Paese plant, zinc and chloroform were the only micro-pollutants detected with a higher level than the LOD. From microbiological data in the period 2006-2011 the disinfection abatement efficiency for Paese was, in most cases above 99% for EC, faecal coliform (FC), faecal streptococci (FS) while efficiency was slightly lower for total coliform (TC); however, the proposed criterion aimed at respecting 99.99% abatement was not completely

  9. Projections of multi-gas emissions and carbon sinks, and marginal abatement cost functions modelling for land-use related sources

    Graveland C; Bouwman AF; Vries B de; Eickhout B; Strengers BJ; MNV

    2003-01-01

    This report presents estimates of the costs of abatement of greenhouse gas emissions associated with landfills as a source of methane (CH4), sewage as a source of methane and nitrous oxide (CH4 and N2O, respectively) and carbon (C) sequestration in forest plantations. This is done in the form of so-

  10. Critérios de correção da linguagem: o uso do Libro dell’Abate Isaac di Siria no Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca

    Cynthia Vilaça

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In questo articolo si presenta un’analisi dell’uso del trattato ascetico Libro dell’Abate Isaac di Siria degli accademici della Crusca come fonte di accreditamento per l’elaborazione del Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca, alla luce dei criteri utilizzati per la costruzione della norma colta discussi da Bechara (2000

  11. Environmental Research Program. 1994 annual report

    Brown, N.J.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of the Environmental Research Program is to enhance the understanding of, and mitigate the effects of pollutants on health, ecological systems, global and regional climate, and air quality. The program is multi-disciplinary and includes fundamental research and development in efficient and environmentally-benign combustion, pollutant abatement and destruction, and novel methods of detection and analysis of criteria and non-criteria pollutants. This diverse group conducts investigations in combustion, atmospheric and marine processes, flue-gas chemistry, and ecological systems.

  12. Heterogeneous Photocatalysis and Photoelectrocatalysis: From Unselective Abatement of Noxious Species to Selective Production of High-Value Chemicals.

    Augugliaro, Vincenzo; Camera-Roda, Giovanni; Loddo, Vittorio; Palmisano, Giovanni; Palmisano, Leonardo; Soria, Javier; Yurdakal, Sedat

    2015-05-21

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis have been considered as oxidation technologies to abate unselectively noxious species. This article focuses instead on the utilization of these methods for selective syntheses of organic molecules. Some promising reactions have been reported in the presence of various TiO2 samples and the important role played by the amorphous phase has been discussed. The low solubility of most of the organic compounds in water limits the utilization of photocatalysis. Dimethyl carbonate has been proposed as an alternative green organic solvent. The recovery of the products by coupling photocatalysis with pervaporation membrane technology seems to be a solution for future industrial applications. As far as photoelectrocatalysis is concerned, a decrease in recombination of the photogenerated pairs occurs, enhancing the rate of the oxidation reactions and the quantum yield. Another benefit is to avoid reaction(s) between the intermediates and the substrate, as anodic and cathodic reactions take place in different places.

  13. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition. Quarterly report No. 6, November 1, 1988--January 31, 1989

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

    1989-02-28

    A screening study was performed on a laboratory scale downfired combustor to determine the effect of various variables on the effectiveness of the reburning process as a technique for NO{sub X} abatement. The objective was to define optimum conditions under which reburning can be used and to be able to compare the reburning performance of our combustor to those reported by others. For this purpose, a statistically designed parametric investigation was conducted to determine how a set of controlled variables (primary and secondary stoichiometric ratios, location and length of the reburn zone and primary fuel load) would affect the reduction in NO emissions due to reburning. Also, the effects of other variables (NO in the primary zone, temperatures in the primary, reburn and burnout zones and the residence time in the reburn zone) were also investigated.

  14. Abatement of morphine-induced slowing in gastrointestinal transit by Dai-kenchu-to, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine.

    Nakamura, Tomonori; Sakai, Akiko; Isogami, Issei; Noda, Kazuhiro; Ueno, Koichi; Yano, Shingo

    2002-02-01

    As a way of alleviating severe constipation in cancer patients taking morphine to relieve pain, effects of Dai-kenchu-to (DKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine (Kampo medicine), on gastrointestinal transit in mice or on the isolated guinea pig ileum were studied in special reference to morphine. Without altering the anti-nociceptive effect of morphine, DKT was significantly effective against morphine-induced disorder of gastrointestinal transit in mice as assessed by the charcoal meal test for the intestine and measurement of transit time for the colon tract. The results of in vitro studies with guinea pig ileum suggest that abatement of morphine-induced disorder of transit by DKT is caused by both moderate contraction of morphine-treated longitudinal muscle and relaxation of morphine-induced tonic contraction of circular muscle.

  15. Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

    Puneet Dwivedi

    Full Text Available Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ-1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

  16. Manejo pré-abate de ovelhas de descarte: perdas de peso corporal, qualidade da carne e comportamento animal

    R.S.B. Pinheiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo conhecer o comportamento de ovelhas da raça Santa Inês em diferentes estágios fisiológicos durante o manejo pré-abate, assim como a perda de peso corporal, valores de hematócrito do sangue das mesmas e a qualidade da carne. Utilizaram-se 21 ovelhas de descarte, que foram distribuídas nos respectivos tratamentos: T1 = ovelhas que permaneceram por 60 dias em lactação com seus respectivos cordeiros e abatidas um dia após o desmame dos mesmos; T2 = ovelhas que permaneceram por 60 dias em lactação com seus respectivos cordeiros e mais um período aproximado de 30 dias sem os cordeiros e posteriormente foram abatidas; e T3 = ovelhas que permaneceram por 60 dias em confinamento e que não pariram durante o ano. O peso das ovelhas após o transporte foi menor para as do tratamento 1 em comparação às do tratamento 2. Os valores de hematócrito no sangue das ovelhas antes do transporte, após o mesmo e após o jejum dos animais no curral de espera não diferiram entre si, com valor médio de 58,50%. Concluiu-se que a qualidade da carne proveniente de ovelhas de descarte em diferentes estágios fisiológicos não é alterada pelo manejo pré-abate, quando realizado de maneira correta (evitando o estresse animal, quanto ao pH da carne.

  17. Enhanced sensitivity to mitomycin C by abating heat shock protein 70 expression in human bladder cancer cell line of BIU-87

    HE Ling-feng; GUAN Kao-peng; YAN Zheng; YE Hai-yun; XU Ke-xin; REN Liang; HOU Shu-kun

    2005-01-01

    Background Bladder cancer is a relatively common tumor in the urinary system, in which mitomycin C (MMC)-based chemotherapy or combination chemotherapy has been mainly used to treat patients with advanced bladder cancer. The prognosis of patients with advanced bladder cancer is still extremely poor in spite of recent therapeutic advances. To improve the prognosis, the sensitivity of tumor cells to mitomycin C by the induction of apoptosis with the abating heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression in human bladder cancer cell lines of BIU-87 was investigated. Methods HSP70 expression was abated in BIU-87 cells by HSP mRNA antisense oligomers. MTT assay and the clone-forming test were used for evaluating the sensitivity of cells to MMC. Apoptosis was assessed using both fluorescent microscopy after staining the cells with Hoechst 33258 and DNA fragment ladder agarose electrophoresis. Thirty-two male six-week-old BALB/c nude mice, at the beginning of the experiment, were used to evaluate the effect of antisense oligomers (ASO) on the tumor formation in vivo. Results HSP70 expression in BIU-87 was effectively abated by HSP70 mRNA antisense oligomers. The percentage of apoptotic cells in ASO group was greater than in sense oligomers (SO) [P50%) was more than that of ASO or MMC group alone (all P<0.05). Conclusions The abating level of HSP70 expression can strengthen the sensitivity of BIU-87 to MMC. One of this effect might be related to the induction of apoptosis by abating HSP70 expression.

  18. 78 FR 77548 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review Seattle...

    2013-12-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice; Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and... Noise Exposure Maps submitted by the Port of Seattle for the Seattle-Tacoma International Airport under the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47501 et. seq. (Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act) and 14 CFR...

  19. 78 FR 8685 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review: Tweed...

    2013-02-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice; Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and... determination that the noise exposure map for Tweed New Haven Regional Airport, as submitted by the Tweed New Haven Airport Authority under the provisions of Title I of the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement...

  20. 76 FR 21939 - Noise Exposure Map; Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review; Lambert-St...

    2011-04-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map; Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for... that the noise exposure maps submitted by the St. Louis Airport Authority for the Lambert-St. Louis International Airport under the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47501 et seq. (Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement...

  1. Managing Asbestos in Place: A Building Owner's Guide to Operations and Maintenance Programs for Asbestos-Containing Materials.

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Instructions for building owners on the selection and application of appropriate asbestos control and abatement actions are presented in this guidebook. Chapter 1 offers background information on the asbestos problem. Chapter 2 describes the purpose and scope of an operations and maintenance (O&M) program. The third chapter discusses planning…

  2. Organic sponges for cost-effective CVOC abatement. Final report, September 1992--April 1994

    Flanagan, W.P.; Grade, M.M.; Horney, D.P.; Mackenzie, P.D.; Salvo, J.J.; Sivavec, T.M.; Stephens, M.L.

    1994-07-01

    Air contaminated with CVOCs (chlorinated volatile organic compounds) arise from air stripping of ground water or from soil and dual phase vapor extraction. A research program was undertaken to develop sorbents better than activated carbon for remediation. Two such sorbents were found: Dow`s XUS polymer and Rohm and Haas` Ambersorb 563 (carbonaceous). Opportunities exist to further develop sorption and biodegradation technologies.

  3. Understanding selected trace elements behavior in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia for assessment of abatement technologies.

    Mokhtar, Mutahharah M; Taib, Rozainee M; Hassim, Mimi H

    2014-08-01

    The Proposed New Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulation 201X (Draft), which replaces the Malaysia Environmental Quality (Clean Air) 1978, specifies limits to additional pollutants from power generation using fossil fuel. The new pollutants include Hg, HCl, and HF with limits of 0.03, 100, and 15 mg/N-m3 at 6% O2, respectively. These pollutants are normally present in very small concentrations (known as trace elements [TEs]), and hence are often neglected in environmental air quality monitoring in Malaysia. Following the enactment of the new regulation, it is now imperative to understand the TEs behavior and to assess the capability of the existing abatement technologies to comply with the new emission limits. This paper presents the comparison of TEs behavior of the most volatile (Hg, Cl, F) and less volatile (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Ni, Se, Pb) elements in subbituminous and bituminous coal and coal combustion products (CCP) (i.e., fly ash and bottom ash) from separate firing of subbituminous and bituminous coal in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia. The effect of air pollution control devices configuration in removal of TEs was also investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of abatement technologies used in the plant. This study showed that subbituminous and bituminous coals and their CCPs have different TEs behavior. It is speculated that ash content could be a factor for such diverse behavior In addition, the type of coal and the concentrations of TEs in feed coal were to some extent influenced by the emission of TEs in flue gas. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and seawater flue gas desulfurization (FGD) used in the studied coal-fired power plant were found effective in removing TEs in particulate and vapor form, respectively, as well as complying with the new specified emission limits. Implications: Coals used by power plants in Peninsular Malaysia come from the same supplier (Tenaga Nasional Berhad Fuel Services), which is a subsidiary of the Malaysia

  4. Phytoremediation, a sustainable remediation technology? II: Economic assessment of CO2 abatement through the use of phytoremediation crops for renewable energy production

    Witters, N.; Mendelsohn, R; Van Passel, S.; Van Slycken, S.; Weyens, N.; Schreurs, E.; Meers, E.; Tack, F.; Vanheusden, B.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2012-01-01

    Phytoremediation could be a sustainable remediation alternative for conventional remediation technologies. However, its implementation on a commercial scale remains disappointing. To emphasize its sustainability, this paper examines whether and how the potential economic benefit of CO2 abatement for different crops used for phytoremediation or sustainable land management purposes could promote phytotechnologies. Our analysis is based on a case study in the Campine region, where agricultural s...

  5. Just in time. Goals and key elements of the German air pollution abatement programme; Just in time. Ziele und Eckpfeiler des Klimaschutzprogramms

    Schafhausen, F.

    2001-03-01

    After prolonged discussions, the German government agreed on a new, 421 page, air pollution abatement programme on 18 October 2000. Funds will be provided from the sales of the UMTS licences. [German] Nach zaehen Verhandlungen innerhalb der Bundesregierung und den finanziellen Moeglichkeiten, die sich aus der Versteigerung der UMTS-Lizenzen voellig unerwartet ergaben, hat das Kabinett am 18. Oktober 2000 dem neuen - 421 Seiten starken - Klimaschutzprogramm zugestimmt. (orig.)

  6. Investigation of nitrous oxide (N2O) abatement technologies. 2; Asanka chisso (N2O) no teigen taisaku ni kansuru chosa. 2

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Emission amount of nitrous oxide (N2O) from anthropogenic sources is analyzed, and reduction effects by the abatement technologies are evaluated. The concentration of nitrous oxide in the atmosphere continues to increase and emissions from agricultural and ecosystem sources are drawing particular attention. For the emission of N2O in Japan, 8.28 Gg-N2O per year is emitted from fossil fuel combustion facilities, 6.95 from waste incineration facilities, 22.5 from transportation vehicles including automobiles, 26.7 from the chemical industry including establishments engaged in adipic acid production, 2.1 from sewage treatment facilities including septic tanks, 6.3 from farmland, and 7.1 from livestock excrement. For the N2O abatement technologies for different sources, fuel improvement, high temperature combustion, acceleration of reduction decomposition reaction, and development of catalysts are significant for the combustion technologies. In connection with N2O discharged in the process of adipic acid production, major businesses have internationally committed to up to 99% abatement of the N2O emissions by 1998. With regard to wastewater and sewage treatment facilities and septic tanks, improvement in COD/NO-N ratio, retention period, pH level, and reduction process is pointed out. 204 refs., 70 figs., 53 tabs.

  7. Impact of Atmospheric Plasma Generated by a DBD Device on Quality-Related Attributes of "Abate Fetel" Pear Fruit

    Berardinelli, Annachiara; Vannini, Lucia; Ragni, Luigi; Guerzoni, M. Elisabetta

    The effects of gas plasma generated by a Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) device on "Abate Fetel" fresh pears were assessed following exposure times from 10 to 90 min. In particular the decontamination efficacy towards the indigenous microflora naturally occurring on the surface of the fruit was evaluated. The main results showed that total mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and moulds had different inactivation dynamics. However, maximum cell decreases of 2.5 Log CFU/fruit were achieved for all the microbial groups after 90 min of treatment at a relative humidity level of 60% (22°C). Immediately after the treatments, no significant effects were observed on the measured quality traits. After storage for 5 days at 20°C significant changes were detected only in the peel (colour and antioxidant capacity) of fruit samples treated for 90 min. The Magness-Taylor flesh firmness (MTf), the soluble solid content (SSC) and the antioxidant capacity of fruits were unaffected by the tested treatments.

  8. Broadening the Appeal of Marginal Abatement Cost Curves: Capturing Both Carbon Mitigation and Development Benefits of Clean Energy Technologies; Preprint

    Cowlin, S.; Cochran, J.; Cox, S.; Davison, C.; van der Gaast, Y.

    2012-08-01

    Low emission development strategies (LEDS) articulate policies and implementation plans that enable countries to advance sustainable, climate-resilient development and private sector growth while significantly reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions traditionally associated with economic growth. In creating a LEDS, policy makers often have access to information on abatement potential and costs for clean energy technologies, but there is a scarcity of economy-wide approaches for evaluating and presenting information on other dimensions of importance to development, such as human welfare, poverty alleviation, and energy security. To address this shortcoming, this paper proposes a new tool for communicating development benefits to policy makers as part of a LEDS process. The purpose of this tool is two-fold: 1. Communicate development benefits associated with each clean energy-related intervention; 2. Facilitate decision-making on which combination of interventions best contributes to development goals. To pilot this tool, the authors created a visual using data on developmental impacts identified through the Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project in Montenegro. The visual will then be revised to reflect new data established through the TNA that provides information on cost, GHG mitigation, as well as the range and magnitude of developmental impacts.

  9. Abatement of SO2-NOx binary gas mixtures using a ferruginous active absorbent: Part I. Synergistic effects and mechanism.

    Han, Yinghui; Li, Xiaolei; Fan, Maohong; Russell, Armistead G; Zhao, Yi; Cao, Chunmei; Zhang, Ning; Jiang, Genshan

    2015-04-01

    A novel ferruginous active absorbent, prepared by fly ash, industrial lime and the additive Fe(VI), was introduced for synchronous abatement of binary mixtures of SO2-NOx from simulated coal-fired flue gas. The synergistic action of various factors on the absorption of SO2 and NOx was investigated. The results show that a strong synergistic effect exists between Fe(VI) dose and reaction temperature for the desulfurization. It was observed that in the denitration process, the synergy of Fe(VI) dose and Ca/(S+N) had the most significant impact on the removal of NO, followed by the synergy of Fe(VI) and reaction temperature, and then the synergy of reaction temperature and flue gas humidity. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an accessory X-ray energy spectrometer (EDS) were used to observe the surface characteristics of the raw and spent absorbent as well as fly ash. A reaction mechanism was proposed based on chemical analysis of sulfur and nitrogen species concentrations in the spent absorbent. The Gibbs free energy, equilibrium constants and partial pressures of the SO2-NOx binary system were determined by thermodynamics.

  10. Surface wave plasma abatement of CHF{sub 3} and CF{sub 4} containing semiconductor process emissions

    Wofford, B.A.; Jackson, M.W. [Rf Environmental Systems, Inc., Seabrook, TX (United States); Hartz, C.; Bevan, J.W. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-06-01

    Projected exponential growth in semiconductor device manufacture over the next few years demands technology to reduce the corresponding increase in etchants such as perfluorocompounds (PFCs), CHF{sub 3}, and SF{sub 6} that would be emitted into the atmosphere. These compounds are a cause for concern because of their large global warming potentials relative to CO{sub 2} and of their long lifetimes in the atmosphere, often tens of thousands of years. The authors demonstrate that a plasma-based technology can yield effective destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs) for CF{sub 4} and CHF{sub 3} present in etch recipes widely used in the semiconductor industry. Specifically, they report application of surface wave plasmas at 2.45 GHz for this purpose. Post-plasma effluent analysis included the determination of DREs and product distributions, simultaneously by gas-phase FTIR and QMS. Application of microwave powers from 500 to 1950 W were investigated and DREs for CF{sub 4} and CHF{sub 3} reported. Final product analysis indicated that PFC conversion was limited to low molecular weight gases such as CO{sub 2}, CO, COF{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and HF. These investigations demonstrate that surface wave plasma destruction of the referenced PFCs at the output of semiconductor etch tools is a viable nonintrusive point of use abatement technology.

  11. Microbial community changes during different empty bed residence times and operational fluctuations in an air diffusion reactor for odor abatement.

    Rodríguez, Elisa; García-Encina, Pedro A; Muñoz, Raúl; Lebrero, Raquel

    2017-03-08

    The succession of bacterial and fungal populations was assessed in an activated sludge (AS) diffusion bioreactor treating a synthetic malodorous emission containing H2S, toluene, butanone and alpha-pinene. Microbial community characteristics (bacterial and fungal diversity, richness, evenness and composition) and bioreactor function relationships were evaluated at different empty bed residence times (EBRTs) and after process fluctuations and operational failures (robustness test). For H2S, butanone and toluene, the bioreactor showed a stable and efficient abatement performance regardless of the EBRT and fluctuations applied, while low alpha-pinene removals were observed. While no clear positive or negative relationship between community characteristics and bioreactor functions was observed, ecological parameters such as evenness and community dynamics seemed to be of importance for maintaining reactor stability. The optimal degree of evenness of the inoculum likely contributed to the high robustness of the system towards the fluctuations imposed. Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Fungi (Hypocreales, Chaeatothyriales) were the most abundant groups retrieved from the AS system with a putative key role in the degradation of butanone and toluene. Typical H2S and alpha-pinene degraders were not retrieved from the system. The inoculation of P. fluorescens, a known alpha-pinene degrader, to the system did not result in the enhancement of the degradation of this compound. This strain was likely outcompeted by the microorganisms already adapted to the AS environment.

  12. Towards spatially smart abatement of human pharmaceuticals in surface waters: Defining impact of sewage treatment plants on susceptible functions.

    Coppens, Lieke J C; van Gils, Jos A G; Ter Laak, Thomas L; Raterman, Bernard W; van Wezel, Annemarie P

    2015-09-15

    For human pharmaceuticals, sewage treatment plants (STPs) are a major point of entry to surface waters. The receiving waters provide vital functions. Modeling the impact of STPs on susceptible functions of the surface water system allows for a spatially smart implementation of abatement options at, or in the service area of, STPs. This study was performed on a nation-wide scale for the Netherlands. Point source emissions included were 345 Dutch STPs and nine rivers from neighboring countries. The Dutch surface waters were represented by 2511 surface water units. Modeling was performed for two extreme discharge conditions. Monitoring data of 7 locations along the rivers Rhine and Meuse fall mostly within the range of modeled concentrations. Half of the abstracted volumes of raw water for drinking water production, and a quarter of the Natura 2000 areas (European Union nature protection areas) hosted by the surface waters, are influenced by STPs at low discharge. The vast majority of the total impact of all Dutch STPs during both discharge conditions can be attributed to only 19% of the STPs with regard to the drinking water function, and to 39% of the STPs with regard to the Natura 2000 function. Attributing water treatment technologies to STPs as one of the possible measures to improve water quality and protect susceptible functions can be done in a spatially smart and cost-effective way, using consumption-based detailed hydrological and water quality modeling.

  13. Carbon abatement via treating the solid waste from the Australian olive industry in mobile pyrolysis units: LCA with uncertainty analysis.

    El Hanandeh, Ali

    2013-04-01

    The olive oil industry in Australia has been growing at a rapid rate over the past decade. It is forecast to continue growing due to the steady increase in demand for olive oil and olive products in the local and regional market. However, the olive oil extraction process generates large amounts of solid waste called olive husk which is currently underutilized. This paper uses life-cycle methodology to analyse the carbon emission reduction potential of utilizing olive husk as a feedstock in a mobile pyrolysis unit. Four scenarios, based on different combinations of pyrolysis technologies (slow versus fast) and end-use of products (land application versus energy utilization), are constructed. The performance of each scenario under conditions of uncertainty was also investigated. The results show that all scenarios result in significant carbon emission abatement. Processing olive husk in mobile fast pyrolysis units and the utilization of bio-oil and biochar as substitutes for heavy fuel oil and coal is likely to realize a carbon offset greater than 32.3 Gg CO2-eq annually in 90% of the time. Likewise, more than 3.2 Gg-C (11.8 Gg CO2-eq) per year could be sequestered in the soil in the form of fixed carbon if slow mobile pyrolysis units were used to produce biochar.

  14. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition. Quarterly report No. 5, August 1, 1988--October 31, 1988

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

    1988-12-27

    A screening study was performed on a laboratory scale downfired combustor to determine the effect of various variables on the effectiveness of the reburning process as a technique for NO{sub x} abatement. The objective was to define optimum conditions under which reburning can be used and to be able to compare the reburning performance of our combustor to those reported by others. For this purpose, a statistically designed parametric investigation was conducted to determine how a set of controlled variables (primary and secondary stoichiometric ratios, location of the reburn zone and primary fuel load) would affect the reduction in NO emissions in a classical reburning configuration. Also, the effects of other variables (NO in the primary zone, temperatures in the primary, reburn and burnout zones and the residence time in the reburn zone) were also investigated. Empirical correlations relating reburning effectiveness to various parameters were derived. There correlations were used to investigate the effect of each individual parameter on reburning effectiveness. An optimum reburn zone stoichiometric ratio was identified at 0.8. At this stoichiometry, a high level of NO reduction (up to 80%) can be achieved beyond which little or no improvement is easily achieved.

  15. Minimization of dioxins in thermal and industrial processes: mechanisms, monitoring and abatement (minidip): main achievements of this EU-project

    Buekens, A.; Segers, P.; Schroyens, K.; Zyaykina, N.

    2002-07-01

    The Minidip Project was prepared with the aim to develop and test a scientifically founded and technically feasible methodology to characterise the relevant major steps of formation, destruction and removal of dioxins in a variety of thermal and metallurgical processes, as a means for optimising primary and secondary measures. The latter were to be proposed after a study of relevant mechanisms in-plant monitoring and abatement measures. For this purpose both major pathways, the precursor and de novo route were to experimentally tested at a lab scale, under conditions typical for those found in industry. Since this approach was novel, it had to be calibrated against actual plant data and experience. In parallel to the lab-scale tests, the formation of dioxins was to be investigated at an industrial scale, in close collaboration with industrial enterprise and featuring innovative methods of monitoring. Major problems in dioxin research have been the minute concentrations of dioxins and the large number of possible factors influencing them. In industrial plant those factors can be varied neither in a wide range, nor independently of other variables. Moreover, memory effects and production priorities preclude a systematic in-plant testing, which was a major justification for the Minidip project. The latter proceeded methodically, by selecting suitable samples to be tested, individually identifying the precise influence of each important variable or other factor, and testing the resulting laboratory findings at a pilot or plant scale. (Author) 4 refs.

  16. Simulation of the GHG Abatement Potentials in the U.S. Building Sector by 2050

    Stadler, Michael; DeForest, Nicholas; Marnay, Chris; Bonnet, Florence; Lai, Judy; Phan, Trucy

    2010-10-01

    various USDOE research funding scenarios on the adoption of these and other building energy technologies. The results demonstrate that passive technologies contain significant potential for carbon reductions - exceeding 1165 Mt cumulative savings between 2005 and 2050 (with 50% likelihood) and outperforming similar R&D funding programs for distributed photovoltaics and high efficiency solid-state lighting.

  17. Effect of water addition and the urease inhibitor NBPT on the abatement of ammonia emission from surface applied urea

    Sanz-Cobena, Alberto; Misselbrook, Thomas; Camp, Vicci; Vallejo, Antonio

    2011-03-01

    Urea is considered the cheapest and most commonly used form of inorganic N fertiliser worldwide. However, it has been estimated that 5-30% of the urea N is lost as volatilised NH 3. Implementation of NH 3 mitigation strategies is crucial in order to reduce both the economic and environmental impact associated with NH 3 losses from urea application. Urease activity inhibitors and water addition to the soil have been proposed by UNECE (i.e. Gothenburg Protocol) as means to reduce NH 3 emission from fertiliser applications. In this study, two field experiments were carried out in order to test the effectiveness of water addition as NH 3 mitigation technique from surface applied urea in comparison with the use of the urease inhibitor NBPT. A system of wind tunnels was used to measure NH 3 fluxes. Contrasting irrigation strategies (or rainfall patterns), in terms of both rate and timing, were used in order to evaluate the amount of water necessary to achieve a significant NH 3 mitigation. The addition of 7 and 14 mm of water to the soil, immediately after urea spreading, reduced NH 3 emission by 77 and 89%, respectively, similar to that achieved using NBPT (77-88% reduction). In contrast, a simulated 3 mm rainfall, immediately after fertilising, significantly enhanced NH 3 volatilisation (with an 8% increase in emission compared to urea application without water addition). These results demonstrate the potential of correct water management in abating NH 3 volatilisation from urea applications to soil, giving a similar effect to that of the urease inhibitor NBPT under the experimental conditions presented here.

  18. Energy conservation, an economically beneficial air pollution abatement measure. Final report; Energiesparen - Klimaschutz, der sich rechnet. Endbericht

    Ostertag, K.; Jochem, E.; Schleich, J.; Walz, R.; Krenicky, G. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Kohlhaas, M.; Diekmann, J.; Ziesing, H.J. [Deutsches Inst. fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany); Strebel, H. [Karl-Franzens-Univ., Graz (Australia). Inst. fuer Innovationsmanagement

    1998-11-01

    The book intends to put the discussion of economic effects of air pollution abatement and energy efficiency increasing measures on a more rational basis. It addresses all parties taking part in the political discussion. ARguments are presented in a clear and transparent form that will also help the layman. The reader is enabled to interpret data and analyze them critically. A very important basis is the recognition of the various decision making patterns in which the cost and benefits of energy efficiency increasing patterns are key arguments. [German] Ziel der vorliegenden Argumentationshilfe ist es, die Diskussion um die wirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen von Klimaschutzmassnahmen, und insbesondere von energieeffizienzsteigernden Massnahmen, zu versachlichen und transparent zu machen. Sie richtet sich insbesondere an Politiker, aber auch an Vertreter von Wirtschaftsverbaenden und anderen Nicht-Regierungsorganisationen, die an dieser politischen Diskussion teilnehmen. Insofern wurde besonderes Gewicht auf eine einfache, klare und anschauliche Argumentation gelegt, die auch fuer betriebs- oder volkswirtschaftliche Laien verstaendlich ist. Die Argumentationshilfe versetzt den Leser in die Lage, die Zahlenangaben zur wirtschaftlichen Bewertung von Massnahmen zur Energieeinsparung zu interpretieren und ihre Herleitung kritisch zu bewerten. Eine erste wichtige Grundlage dafuer ist das Erkennen der verschiedenen Entscheidungszusammenhaenge, in denen mit Kosten und Nutzen von energieeffizienzsteigernden Massnahmen argumentiert wird. Nach einer kurzen Beschreibung und Abgrenzung dieser verschiedenen Argumentationsebenen im Ueberblick (Abschnitt 2) werden anschliessend fuer jede Ebene (Abschnitt 3 bis 5) die zentralen Einflussparameter aufgezeigt, die bestimmen, ob eine eher positive oder eher negative wirtschaftliche Bewertung von Massnahmen zur Steigerung der Energieeffizienz ausgewiesen wird und in welcher Groessenordnung sich die Werte bewegen. Die Annahmen, die in die

  19. Candidate-Gene Screening and Association Analysis at the Autism-Susceptibility Locus on Chromosome 16p: Evidence of Association at GRIN2A and ABAT

    Barnby, Gabrielle; Abbott, Aaron; Sykes, Nuala; Morris, Andrew; Weeks, Daniel E.; Mott, Richard; Lamb, Janine; Bailey, Anthony J.; Monaco, Anthony P.

    2005-01-01

    Autism is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder whose underlying genetic causes have yet to be identified. To date, there have been eight genome screens for autism, two of which identified a putative susceptibility locus on chromosome 16p. In the present study, 10 positional candidate genes that map to 16p11-13 were examined for coding variants: A2BP1, ABAT, BFAR, CREBBP, EMP2, GRIN2A, MRTF-B, SSTR5, TBX6, and UBN1. Screening of all coding and regulatory regions by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography identified seven nonsynonymous changes. Five of these mutations were found to cosegregate with autism, but the mutations are not predicted to have deleterious effects on protein structure and are unlikely to represent significant etiological variants. Selected variants from candidate genes were genotyped in the entire International Molecular Genetics Study of Autism Consortium collection of 239 multiplex families and were tested for association with autism by use of the pedigree disequilibrium test. Additionally, genotype frequencies were compared between 239 unrelated affected individuals and 192 controls. Patterns of linkage disequilibrium were investigated, and the transmission of haplotypes across candidate genes was tested for association. Evidence of single-marker association was found for variants in ABAT, CREBBP, and GRIN2A. Within these genes, 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were subsequently genotyped in 91 autism trios (one affected individual and two unaffected parents), and the association was replicated within GRIN2A (Fisher's exact test, P<.0001). Logistic regression analysis of SNP data across GRIN2A and ABAT showed a trend toward haplotypic differences between cases and controls. PMID:15830322

  20. TiO{sub 2}–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} binary mixed oxide surfaces for photocatalytic NO{sub x} abatement

    Soylu, Asli Melike; Polat, Meryem; Erdogan, Deniz Altunoz; Say, Zafer [Department of Chemistry, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Yıldırım, Cansu [KUYTAM Surface Science and Technology Center, Koç University, 34450 Istanbul (Turkey); Birer, Özgür [KUYTAM Surface Science and Technology Center, Koç University, 34450 Istanbul (Turkey); Department of Chemistry, Koç University, 34450 Istanbul (Turkey); Ozensoy, Emrah, E-mail: ozensoy@fen.bilkent.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-11-01

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} binary oxide photocatalysts were synthesized. • Photocatalysts characterized as a function of temperature and composition. • Photocatalytic NO{sub x} abatement performances investigated. • A novel TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} photocatalyst superior than P25 reported. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2}–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} binary oxide surfaces were utilized in order to develop an alternative photocatalytic NO{sub x} abatement approach, where TiO{sub 2} sites were used for ambient photocatalytic oxidation of NO with O{sub 2} and alumina sites were exploited for NO{sub x} storage. Chemical, crystallographic and electronic structure of the TiO{sub 2}–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} binary oxide surfaces were characterized (via BET surface area measurements, XRD, Raman spectroscopy and DR-UV-Vis Spectroscopy) as a function of the TiO{sub 2} loading in the mixture as well as the calcination temperature used in the synthesis protocol. 0.5 Ti/Al-900 photocatalyst showed remarkable photocatalytic NO{sub x} oxidation and storage performance, which was found to be much superior to that of a Degussa P25 industrial benchmark photocatalyst (i.e. 160% higher NO{sub x} storage and 55% lower NO{sub 2}(g) release to the atmosphere). Our results indicate that the onset of the photocatalytic NO{sub x} abatement activity is concomitant to the switch between amorphous to a crystalline phase with an electronic band gap within 3.05–3.10 eV; where the most active photocatalyst revealed predominantly rutile phase together and anatase as the minority phase.

  1. CO{sub 2} emissions abatement and geologic sequestration - industrial innovations and stakes - status of researches in progress; Reduction des emissions et stockage geologique du CO{sub 2} - innovation et enjeux industriels - le point des recherches en cours

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This colloquium was jointly organized by the French institute of petroleum (IFP), the French agency of environmental and energy mastery (Ademe) and the geological and mining research office (BRGM). This press kit makes a status of the advances made in CO{sub 2} emissions abatement and geological sequestration: technological advances of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration, geological reservoir dimensioning with respect to the problem scale, duration of such an interim solution, CO{sub 2} emissions abatement potentialities of geological sequestration, regulatory, economical and financial implications, international stakes of greenhouse gas emissions. This press kit comprises a press release about the IFP-Ademe-BRGM colloquium, a slide presentation about CO{sub 2} abatement and sequestration, and four papers: a joint IFP-Ademe-BRGM press conference, IFP's answers to CO{sub 2} emissions abatement, Ademe's actions in CO{sub 2} abatement and sequestration, and BRGM's experience in CO{sub 2} sequestration and climatic change expertise. (J.S.)

  2. Pontos críticos de controle de Salmonella spp. no abate de frangos Critical control points for Salmonella spp. in poultry slaughter

    D.A.S. Von Rückert

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a presença de Salmonella spp. em esfregaços superficiais em 135 carcaças de frangos, coletadas em cinco diferentes fases do abate, utilizando os métodos de microbiologia convencional, reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR e imunoanálise. Os três métodos resultaram em tendência semelhante de detecção de Salmonella spp. nas carcaças de frango, ao longo da linha de abate. A maior frequência de Salmonella spp. foi determinada após o chuveiro de lavagem das carcaças, localizado entre a evisceração e o pré-resfriamento. Vinte (14,8% esfregaços foram determinados pela metodologia convencional, 52 (38,5% pela PCR e 66 (48,8% pela imunoanálise. A menor contaminação foi encontrada na saída do pré-resfriamento, com frequências de 3,7%, 0% e 16,7%, respectivamente. Salmonella spp. foi encontrada em todas as fases de abate, mostrando a importância do monitoramento de diferentes pontos críticos de controle eventualmente identificados no abate de frangos.The presence of Salmonella spp. in superficial swabs collected from 135 chicken carcasses in five different slaugther steps using the conventional microbiology, PCR, and immunoanalysis methods was evaluated. The three methods presented similar tendency to detect Salmonella spp. in the chicken carcasses along the slaugther line. The highest frequency of Salmonella spp. was found after the shower, located between the evisceration and the chiller. Twenty (14.8% swabes were determined by the conventional methodology, 52 (38.9% by the PCR, and 66 (48.9% by the immunoanalysis. The lowest contamination was found after chiller tank, where the frequencies were 5 (3.7%, 0 (0%, and 24 (16.7%, respectively. Salmonella spp. was found in all the slaugther steps. This shows the importance for monitoring different CCP (Control Critical Point in the poultry slaughterhouses.

  3. Nitrogen-modified nano-titania: True phase composition, microstructure and visible-light induced photocatalytic NOx abatement

    Tobaldi, D. M.; Pullar, R. C.; Gualtieri, A. F.; Otero-Irurueta, G.; Singh, M. K.; Seabra, M. P.; Labrincha, J. A.

    2015-11-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a popular photocatalyst used for many environmental and anti-pollution applications, but it normally operates under UV light, exploiting ∼5% of the solar spectrum. Nitrification of titania to form N-doped TiO2 has been explored as a way to increase its photocatalytic activity under visible light, and anionic doping is a promising method to enable TiO2 to harvest visible-light by changing its photo-absorption properties. In this paper, we explore the insertion of nitrogen into the TiO2 lattice using our green sol-gel nanosynthesis method, used to create 10 nm TiO2 NPs. Two parallel routes were studied to produce nitrogen-modified TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), using HNO3+NH3 (acid-precipitated base-peptised) and NH4OH (totally base catalysed) as nitrogen sources. These NPs were thermally treated between 450 and 800 °C. Their true phase composition (crystalline and amorphous phases), as well as their micro-/nanostructure (crystalline domain shape, size and size distribution, edge and screw dislocation density) was fully characterised through advanced X-ray methods (Rietveld-reference intensity ratio, RIR, and whole powder pattern modelling, WPPM). As pollutants, nitrogen oxides (NOx) are of particular concern for human health, so the photocatalytic activity of the NPs was assessed by monitoring NOx abatement, using both solar and white-light (indoor artificial lighting), simulating outdoor and indoor environments, respectively. Results showed that the onset of the anatase-to-rutile phase transformation (ART) occurred at temperatures above 450 °C, and NPs heated to 450 °C possessed excellent photocatalytic activity (PCA) under visible white-light (indoor artificial lighting), with a PCA double than that of the standard P25 TiO2 NPs. However, higher thermal treatment temperatures were found to be detrimental for visible-light photocatalytic activity, due to the effects of four simultaneous occurrences: (i) loss of OH groups and water adsorbed

  4. The heme oxygenase system suppresses perirenal visceral adiposity, abates renal inflammation and ameliorates diabetic nephropathy in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Joseph Fomusi Ndisang

    Full Text Available The growing incidence of chronic kidney disease remains a global health problem. Obesity is a major risk factor for type-2 diabetes and renal impairment. Perirenal adiposity, by virtue of its anatomical proximity to the kidneys may cause kidney disease through paracrine mechanisms that include increased production of inflammatory cytokines. Although heme-oxygenase (HO is cytoprotective, its effects on perirenal adiposity and diabetic nephropathy in Zucker-diabetic fatty rats (ZDFs remains largely unclear. Upregulating the HO-system with hemin normalised glycemia, reduced perirenal adiposity and suppressed several pro-inflammatory/oxidative mediators in perirenal fat including macrophage-inflammatory-protein-1α (MIP-1α, endothelin (ET-1, 8-isoprostane, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β. Furthermore, hemin reduced ED1, a marker of pro-inflammatory macrophage-M1-phenotype, but interestingly, enhanced markers associated with anti-inflammatory M2-phenotype such as ED2, CD206 and IL-10, suggesting that hemin selectively modulates macrophage polarization towards the anti-inflammatory M2-phenotype. These effects were accompanied by increased adiponectin, HO-1, HO-activity, atrial-natriuretic peptide (ANP, and its surrogate marker, urinary-cGMP. Furthermore, hemin reduced renal histological lesions and abated pro-fibrotic/extracellular-matrix proteins like collagen and fibronectin that deplete nephrin, an important transmembrane protein which forms the scaffolding of the podocyte slit-diaphragm allowing ions to filter but not massive excretion of proteins, hence proteinuria. Correspondingly, hemin increased nephrin expression in ZDFs, reduced markers of renal damage including, albuminuria/proteinuria, but increased creatinine-clearance, suggesting improved renal function. Conversely, the HO-blocker, stannous-mesoporphyrin nullified the hemin effects, aggravating glucose metabolism, and exacerbating renal injury and function. The hemin effects were less

  5. Reactive nitrogen compounds (RNCs) in exhaust of advanced PM-NO x abatement technologies for future diesel applications

    Heeb, Norbert V.; Zimmerli, Yan; Czerwinski, Jan; Schmid, Peter; Zennegg, Markus; Haag, Regula; Seiler, Cornelia; Wichser, Adrian; Ulrich, Andrea; Honegger, Peter; Zeyer, Kerstin; Emmenegger, Lukas; Mosimann, Thomas; Kasper, Markus; Mayer, Andreas

    2011-06-01

    Long-term exposure to increased levels of reactive nitrogen compounds (RNCs) and particulate matter (PM) affect human health. Many cities are currently not able to fulfill European air quality standards for these critical pollutants. Meanwhile, promising new abatement technologies such as diesel particle filters (DPFs) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are developed to reduce PM and RNC emissions. Herein, effects of a urea-based SCR system on RNC emissions are discussed and we quantified the highly reactive intermediates isocyanic acid (HNCO) and ammonia (NH 3), both potential secondary pollutants of the urea-based SCR chemistry. A diesel engine (3.0 L, 100 kW), operated in the ISO 8178/4 C1, cycle was used as test platform. A V 2O 5-based SCR catalyst was either applied as such or down-stream of a high oxidation potential-DPF (hox-DPF). With active SCR, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) conversion efficiencies of 0.86-0.94 and 0.86-0.99 were obtained. On the other hand, mean HNCO and NH 3 emissions increased to 240-280 and 1800-1900 mg h -1. On a molar basis, HNCO accounted for 0.8-1.4% and NH 3 for 14-25% of the emitted RNCs. On roads, SCR systems will partly be inactive when exhaust temperatures drop below 220 °C. The system was active only during 75% of the test cycle, and urea dosing was stopped and restarted several times. Consequently, NO conversion stopped but interestingly, NO 2 was still converted. Such light-off and shutdown events are frequent in urban driving, compromising the overall deNO x efficiency. Another important effect of the SCR technology is illustrated by the NH 3/NO 2 ratio, which was >1 with active SCR, indicating that exhaust is basic rather than acidic after the SCR catalyst. Under these conditions, isocyanic acid is stable. The widespread use of various converter technologies already affected RNC release. Diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) and hox-DPFs increased NO 2 emissions, three-way catalysts (TWCs

  6. Optimal strategies for the abatement of gaseous air pollutant emissions produced by human mobility. The Rome case study; Strategie ottimali per la riduzione delle emissioni di inquinanti gassosi prodotte dalla mobilita' urbana. Un'applicazione al caso di Roma

    Santostefano, S.; Cirillo, M.C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    In this paper a cost-effectiveness of gaseous vehicular emission reduction has been carried out for human mobility, over the transport network in Rome: in other words, once a reduction target of total emissions has been fixed for each pollutant, the most efficient abatement measures from a technical-economic point of view are selected. The optimization problem has been formalized considering linear functions both for the objective function and for constrains, i.e. within the classic linear programming framework, the objective being that of finding the diversion of present vehicular traffic to alternative technologies with lower emissions at minimum costs. A set of transport alternative measures has been considered and emission abatement cost minimization has been assumed as an objective function; specified abatements for CO (Carbon monoxide), NO{sub x} (nitrogen oxides) and VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) emissions have been introduced as constraints to the problem, expressed as reduction rates of estimated present emissions in the considered area. Model results show the distribution of present transportation capacity among possible alternatives for different hypothesis of emission reduction rates (reduction of 25%, 50%, 75%, 85% of present emissions and maximum feasible reduction within the specified constraints), and related costs. [Italian] In questo rapporto e' stata condotta un'analisi costi-efficacia relativa alla riduzione delle emissioni gassose veicolari dovute alla mobilita' urbana sulla rete di trasporto di Roma: in altre parole, fissata una quota di abbattimento delle emissioni complessive per ogni inquinante, sono state individuate le misure piu' efficienti dal punto di vista tecnico-economico che permettono di perseguire la riduzione prefissata. Il problema di ottimizzazione e' stato formalizzato definendo sia la funzione obiettivo che i relativi vincoli come funzioni lineari, e quindi nell'ambito della programmazione

  7. State-of-the-Art Review on Sustainable Design and Construction of Quieter Pavements—Part 1: Traffic Noise Measurement and Abatement Techniques

    MD Ohiduzzaman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Noise pollution due to highway traffic has drawn the attention of transportation agencies worldwide. Noise pollution is an irritant to residents, especially in urban areas near roads with high traffic volume. In addition to its adverse effects on the quality of life, traffic noise can induce stress that could lead to sleep disturbance and anxiety. Traditionally, noise barrier walls have been used for highways to mitigate traffic noise. However, using barrier walls as a noise abatement measure has proven to be very expensive. In addition to the cost, noise barrier walls are not always effective because they must break the line of sight to work properly, which is not always possible in case of intersections or driveways. Therefore, researchers especially from Europe and USA have been very proactive to reduce the noise at source. A number of research studies show traffic noise can be reduced by using an alternative surface type or changing texture of the pavement while complying with other requirements of sustainability, i.e., safety, structural durability, construction and maintenance costs. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the research conducted on this subject. A review of the tire-pavement noise generation and amplification mechanism, various traffic noise measurement methods and correlation among these methods, in addition to the abatement techniques used by various agencies to reduce pavement noise, is also presented.

  8. Relação vitamina E: vitamina C sobre a qualidade da carne de frangos submetidos ao estresse pré-abate

    J.I.M. Fernandes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a melhor relação vitamina E:vitamina C em dietas para frangos de corte, visando ao melhor desempenho produtivo e à melhor qualidade da carne das aves submetidas ao estresse pré-abate. Utilizaram-se 800 pintos de corte, machos, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2x4, com dois níveis de suplementação de vitamina E - 0 e 250mg/kg - e quatro de vitamina C - 0, 150, 300 e 450mg/kg. Aos 42 dias de idade, 12 horas ante mortem, amostras de aves de cada tratamento foram submetidas ao estresse por calor e, em seguida, pelo transporte. Foram avaliadas características de desempenho - peso vivo, consumo de ração e conversão alimentar - , bem como rendimento de carcaça e qualidade da carne de peito e coxas - perda de água, cor e pH. Os níveis de vitaminas avaliadas não influenciaram nas características de desempenho avaliadas. Houve menor rendimento de peito (34,2 vs. 34,9% e maior pH inicial (6,3 vs. 6,1 dos cortes, para aves que sofreram estresse em relação àquelas que não foram submetidas ao estresse pré-abate.

  9. FIELD ASSESSMENT OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS SEROTYPE H - 14 (BACTIMOS W.P. , ABATE AND FUEL OIL AGAINST ANOPHELES AND CULEX IN SOUTH OF IRAN

    H.Kasir

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The Optimum dosage for field application bactimos (W.P. was determined as 0.04g/m , when efficacy of four concentration of 0.01 , 0.02 , 0.04 and 0.08 gim2 were compared in 1 x I m2 artificial breeding sites. This dosage caused 69.8%, 55.6% and 43.6% anopheline and 83%, 47.8% and 29.7% culicine larval mortality, in 24.48% and 72 hrs post treatment, respectively. Abate and fuel oil were significantly more effective than hactimos (W.P as they caused 100% , 99.7% and 87.2% anopheline and 100% , 93.5% and 87% culicine lavrval mortality , in 24 hr post treatment , respectivelly. In natural breeding sites Abate, fuel oil and Bactimos (W.P. caused 100%, 98% and 69% anopheline and 99.9%, 99% and 79.3% culicine larval mortality, in 24 hr post treatment, respectively. The wettable powder formulation of Bactimos was not regarded as a suitable formulation for anopheline control in Southern Iran.

  10. Methane emissions abatement by multi-ion-exchanged zeolite A prepared from both commercial-grade zeolite and coal fly ash.

    Hui, K S; Chao, C Y H

    2008-10-01

    The performance of multimetal-(Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni, and Co)-ion-exchanged zeolite A prepared from both a commercial-grade sample and one produced from coal fly ash in methane emissions abatement was evaluated in this study. The ion-exchange process was used to load the metal ions in zeolite A samples. The methane conversion efficiency by the samples was studied under various parameters including the amount of metal loading (7.3-19.4 wt%), reaction temperature (25-500 degrees C), space velocity (8400-41 900 h(-1)), and methane concentration (0.5-3.2 vol %). At 500 degrees C, the original commercial-grade zeolite A catalyzed 3% of the methane only, whereas the addition of different percentages of metals in the sample enhanced the methane conversion efficiency by 40-85%. Greater methane conversion was observed by increasing the percentage of metals added to the zeolite even though the BET surface area of the zeolite consequently decreased. Higher percentage methane conversion over the multi-ion-exchanged samples was observed at lower space velocities indicating the importance of the mass diffusion of reactants and products in the zeolite. Compared to the multi-ion-exchanged zeolite A prepared from the commercial-grade zeolite, the one produced from coal fly ash demonstrated similar performances in methane emissions abatement, showing the potential use of this low cost recycled material in gaseous pollutant treatment.

  11. Employing a CGE model in analysing the environmental and economy-wide impacts of CO2 emission abatement policies in Malaysia.

    Yahoo, Masoud; Othman, Jamal

    2017-04-15

    The impact of global warming has received much international attention in recent decades. To meet climate-change mitigation targets, environmental policy instruments have been designed to transform the way goods and services are produced as well as alter consumption patterns. The government of Malaysia is strongly committed to reducing CO2 gas emissions as a proportion of GDP by 40% from 2005 levels by the year 2020. This study evaluates the economy-wide impacts of implementing two different types of CO2 emission abatement policies in Malaysia using market-based (imposing a carbon tax) and command-and-control mechanism (sectoral emission standards). The policy simulations conducted involve the removal of the subsidy on petroleum products by the government. A carbon emission tax in conjunction with the revenue neutrality assumption is seen to be more effective than a command-and-control policy as it provides a double dividend. This is apparent as changes in consumption patterns lead to welfare enhancements while contributing to reductions in CO2 emissions. The simulation results show that the production of renewable energies is stepped up when the imposition of carbon tax and removal of the subsidy is augmented by revenue recycling. This study provides an economy-wide assessment that compares two important tools for assisting environment policy makers evaluate carbon emission abatement initiatives in Malaysia.

  12. Land use efficiency: anticipating future demand for land-sector greenhouse gas emissions abatement and managing trade-offs with agriculture, water, and biodiversity.

    Bryan, Brett A; Crossman, Neville D; Nolan, Martin; Li, Jing; Navarro, Javier; Connor, Jeffery D

    2015-11-01

    Competition for land is increasing, and policy needs to ensure the efficient supply of multiple ecosystem services from land systems. We modelled the spatially explicit potential future supply of ecosystem services in Australia's intensive agricultural land in response to carbon markets under four global outlooks from 2013 to 2050. We assessed the productive efficiency of greenhouse gas emissions abatement, agricultural production, water resources, and biodiversity services and compared these to production possibility frontiers (PPFs). While interacting commodity markets and carbon markets produced efficient outcomes for agricultural production and emissions abatement, more efficient outcomes were possible for water resources and biodiversity services due to weak price signals. However, when only two objectives were considered as per typical efficiency assessments, efficiency improvements involved significant unintended trade-offs for the other objectives and incurred substantial opportunity costs. Considering multiple objectives simultaneously enabled the identification of land use arrangements that were efficient over multiple ecosystem services. Efficient land use arrangements could be selected that meet society's preferences for ecosystem service provision from land by adjusting the metric used to combine multiple services. To effectively manage competition for land via land use efficiency, market incentives are needed that effectively price multiple ecosystem services.

  13. Optimal strategies for VOC emission abatement produced by solvent evaporation. The Italian case study; Strategie ottimali per la riduzione delle emissioni di composti organici volatili da uso di solventi: il caso italiano

    Vetrella, G.; Cirillo, M.C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-07-01

    This work analyses technologies and costs of VOC (volatile organic compounds) abatement in the activities which belong to the solvent evaporation sector, and then it singles out the most successful strategies from the costs point of view to reduce the sector emissions on the base of fixed abatement objectives. The Italian case is discussed. [Italian] Il lavoro analizza tecnologie e costi di abbattimento dei COV (composti organici volatili) nel settore evaporazione solventi, e individua la strategia piu' efficace dal punto di vista dei costi per ridurre le emissioni del settore sulla base di prefissati obiettivi di abbattimento. Analizza la situazione italiana.

  14. Características de carcaça de suínos de três linhagens genéticas em diferentes idades ao abate Carcass characteristics from three swine stocks in different slaughters ages

    Alessandra Fernandes Rosa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as características da carcaça de suínos de diferentes linhagens genéticas, em diferentes idades ao abate. Foram utilizados 88 suínos por linhagem, fêmeas e machos castrados, com idade e peso médio iniciais de 74 dias e 30kg, respectivamente, pertencentes a três linhagens genéticas distintas, designadas de AgroceresPic, Dalland e Seghers. A etapa experimental foi dividida em quatro fases (Crescimento I, Crescimento II, Terminação I e Terminação II. Ao final de cada etapa, foram abatidos 60 animais (10 por linhagem/sexo, para as caracterizações: Peso (PCQ e Rendimento de Carcaça Quente (RCQ, Área de Olho de Lombo (AOL e Espessura de Toucinho (ET. Na análise dos resultados foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com desdobramento dos graus de liberdade em esquema fatorial 4 x 3 x 2, sendo quatro idades ao abate (90, 119, 150 e 186 dias, três linhagens (AgroceresPic, Dalland e Seghers e dois sexos (fêmea e macho castrado, com 10 repetições por tratamento, sendo utilizado o pacote PROC MIXED do Softwear SAS. Os valores médios de peso vivo apresentaram diferença entre as linhagens e interação entre fase e linhagem (PThe aim of this research was to study the carcasses characteristics of swine sire lines from different slaughter weights. In this study were used 88 castrated piglets (castrated males and females per sire line (AgroceresPic, Dalland and Seghers, with initial age of 74 days and live weight of 30kg. The experiment was divided in four phases (Growing I, Growing II, Finishing I and Finishing II. Sixty animals were slaughtered (10 by stock/sex at the end of each experimental phase to determine the post mortem measurements: Carcass Weight (CW, Hot Carcass Yield (HCW, Loin Eye Muscle Area (LMA and Back Fat Thickness (BT. This study was conducted using a completely randomized design, with treatments in complete factorial 4 x 3 x 2, being 4 slaughters ages (90, 119, 150

  15. Influência do jejum e do cloro sobre a microbiologia e morfometria intestinal de frangos de corte durante o período pré-abate

    Barreiro, Fabiana Ribeiro [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo desse experimento foi pesquisar a eficiência do uso de cloro na água de frangos de corte durante o período de jejum pré-abate, para a diminuição de microrganismos como Escherichia coli e enterococos no inglúvio e conteúdo cecal das aves, pois se ocorrer diminuição na quantidade desses microrganismos, é muito provável que os patogênicos também seguirão essa mesma tendência. Também foi avaliado se o cloro associado ao jejum causou algum dano intestinal que poderia facilitar a dissemi...

  16. The ×-BMAP/G/1 Queueing Model: Queue Contents and Delay Analysis

    Bart Steyaert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a single-server discrete-time queueing system with N sources, where each source is modelled as a correlated Markovian customer arrival process, and the customer service times are generally distributed. We focus on the analysis of the number of customers in the queue, the amount of work in the queue, and the customer delay. For each of these quantities, we will derive an expression for their steady-state probability generating function, and from these results, we derive closed-form expressions for key performance measures such as their mean value, variance, and tail distribution. A lot of emphasis is put on finding closed-form expressions for these quantities that reduce all numerical calculations to an absolute minimum.

  17. Influência da Idade de Abate e da Castração nas Qualidades Físico-Químicas, Sensoriais e Aromáticas da Carne Caprina

    Marta Suely Madruga

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Grupos de caprinos mestiços castrados e inteiros foram abatidos com idades de 175, 220, 265 e 310 dias. Os efeitos da castração e idade de abate nas qualidades físico-químicas, sensoriais e aromáticos da carne caprina foi pesquisado. O efeito castração foi observado apenas para o conteúdo de cálcio, no entanto a idade de abate apresentou um efeito significativo nos teores de umidade, proteína, cálcio, ferro e pH. Os fatores idade de abate e castração não apresentaram efeito significativo nos percentuais de fosfolipídeos porém, a idade de abate afetou os percentuais de colesterol. Caprinos castrados apresentaram maior percentual de ácidos graxos insaturados e, conseqüentemente, maior relação PUFA/SFA. Os ácidos graxos foram afetados significativamente pela castração. Não foram observadas variações nos percentuais dos ácidos graxos saturados e insaturados da carne caprina de animais abatidos com diferentes idades. O fator idade de abate apresentou maior efeito nos atributos sensoriais analisados do que o fator castração. Nos extratos da carne caprina foram identificados um total de cento e oito voláteis, sendo estes: 41 hidrocarbonetos alifáticos, 12 hidrocarbonetos alicíclicos, 19 aldeídos, 9 compostos benzênicos, 9 álcoois, 7 cetonas, 4 compostos sulfurados, 2 terpenoídes, 2 ésteres e 3 outros compostos. Os extratos da carne de caprinos castrados continham maior número de compostos voláteis do que os extratos de animais inteiros. O fator idade de abate foi o parâmetro que mais afetou as características físico-químicas e sensoriais da carne caprina. O fator castração afetou diretamente a produção de voláteis.

  18. 基于微分博弈的流域水污染治理区域联盟研究%Study on Regional Coalition of Watershed Water Pollution Abatement Based on Differential Games

    赖苹; 曹国华; 朱勇

    2013-01-01

    Watershed water pollution abatement has become a real and severe challenge for regions to build up the resource-saving and environment-friendly society.Water environment is of quasi-public goods,so it seems necessary and possible to form regional coalition between lower stream and upper stream.We propose a three-player,finite-horizon differential game and analyze the influence of environment projects under three cases:autarky,bilateral coalition and grand coalition.We solve the model by Bellman dynamic programming and compare profits at different time.The results show that bilateral coalition could conform to the actuality and be beneficial to protect watershed ecological environment and promote sustainable development of society and economy.%流域水污染治理是我国建设资源节约型、环境友好型社会面临的一个严峻的现实挑战.由于流域水环境具有准公共物品性质,区域联盟对于流域上下游利益主体变得必然和可能.以流域三地区为研究对象,运用微分博弈法,考虑在连续时间里,分别构建自给自足型、两两联盟型、大联盟型3种区域联盟模型,并采用贝尔曼动态规划方法进行求解,再将各模型在各时点的瞬时利润进行比较.最后,通过数值算例证明:两两联盟型更符合治理实际,更能有效保护流域生态环境,从而促进全流域的社会经济可持续发展.

  19. Efeito do peso de abate nos rendimentos do processamento da piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus, Valenciennes, 1849 Effect of body weight on processing yields of piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes, 1849

    Thiago Archangelo Freato

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, avaliar o efeito do peso de abate sobre os rendimentos do processamento do peixe teleósteo piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus, Valenciennes, 1849. Inicialmente, alevinos com peso médio de 12 g, oriundos da Estação Experimental da Usina Hidrelétrica de Itutinga, foram estocados e cultivados em um viveiro de terra na Estação de Piscicultura do Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Lavras. Ao final de 18 meses de cultivo, 121 peixes foram insensibilizados, abatidos, pesados e dissecados, para a determinação das porcentagens de cabeça (%CAB, nadadeiras (%NAD, vísceras (%VIS, pele com escamas (%PE, e resíduos da filetação (%RF e dos rendimentos de carcaça (RCAR e de filé sem pele (RFSP, em relação ao peso de abate. Para as análises de variância, os dados obtidos foram agrupados em 4 classes de peso (CP1=515 g a 629 g; CP2=630 g a 744 g; CP3=745 g a 859 g; e CP4=860 g a 975 g e as equações de regressão estimadas em função do peso médio de cada classe. Não foi constatado (P>0,05 efeito de classe de peso sobre RCAR, %NAD e %PE. Por outro lado, observaram-se efeito linear do peso de abate sobre %CAB (PThe objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of body weight on processing yields of a teleost fish piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus, Valenciennes, 1849. Firstly, fingerlings were reared in ponds in the Fish Culture of the Animal Sciences Department, Federal University of Lavras, M.G. - Brazil, for 18 months. Then, 121 fishes were insensibilized, slaughtered, weighed and dissected, in order to determine the percentages of head (%CAB, fins (%NAD, visceras (%VIS, skin with scales (%PE, and fillet residues (%RF, and the carcass yield (RCAR and fillet without skin yield (RFSP, in relation to body weight. For analyses of variances, data were distributed over four weight classes (CP1 = 515 to 629g; CP2 = 630 to 744g; CP3 = 745 to 859g; and CP4 = 860 to 975g and the regression

  20. Rendimentos do abate e composição da carne de ema (Rhea americana Slaughtering yield and composition of great rhea meat (Rhea americana

    Amanda Vieira Pereira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o desempenho zootécnico da ema (Rhea americana, rendimentos do abate, composição química e análise sensorial da carne. Onze animais foram submetidos a um sistema de confinamento, recebendo ração balanceada à vontade e com acesso a um piquete. Antes do abate as emas permaneceram em jejum hídrico por 12 h, foram pesadas e submetidas ao processamento: insensibilização, sangria, depenagem manual, esfola e evisceração. As emas apresentaram peso vivo médio, no momento do abate, de 19,393 kg, desempenho médio de 529,82 de consumo de ração/dia, 53,20 g de ganho de peso/dia e 9,44 de conversão alimentar. Em relação ao peso de carcaça, mostraram rendimento médio de 63,33% de carne, 5,09% de gordura e 22% de ossos. A composição centesimal média da carne de ema foi de 22,81% de proteína, 1,59% de lipídios, 1,62% de cinzas e de 74,72% de umidade. O conteúdo de colágeno variou de 0,94% a 1,12% e o teor de colesterol foi de 65,44 mg por 100 g de carne. Pela análise sensorial, verificou-se que a carne de ema processada foi bem aceita pelos provadores. Assim, admite-se que a carne de ema pode ser consumida como fonte de proteína animal com baixo teor de lipídios.The aim of this project is to study the zootechnical performance of rhea (Rhea americana, including slaughtering yields, chemical composition and sensorial analysis of its meat. Eleven birds were kept under confinement and each had a balanced ration on demand and access to run. Before slaughtering, the rhea were not allowed to drink water for 12 h, they were weighed and underwent the following: stunning, bleeding, manual feather plucking, skinning, and evisceration. The average rhea weight at the time of slaughtering was 19.393 kg, their average performance for food intake 529.82 g ration/day, weight gain of 53.20 g/day, and 9.44 food conversion. Relative to the carcass weight, the average meat yield was 63.33%, whereby 5.09% was fat

  1. Importância e encadeamento dos setores de produção e abate e processamento da cadeia suinícola em Minas Gerais

    Marielce de Cássia Ribeiro Tosta

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a importância e os encadeamentos dos setores de produção e abate e processamento da cadeia suinícola em Minas Gerais, nos anos de 1980 e 1995, por meio dos índices de Rasmussen-Hirschman, do campo de influência e do índice puro de ligação (GHS. De acordo com os resultados, ambos os setores analisados foram considerados setores-chave com base apenas no índice de Rasmussen-Hirschman e no campo de influência, ou seja, apresentaram maior relevância quando considerados os seus impactos na demanda final e os seus poderes de encadeamento na economia. Apesar de não terem sido considerados setores-chave pelo GHS, os setores de produção e abate e processamento apresentaram grande potencialidade de impactos para trás. Em face desses resultados e dado que esses setores continuaram aumentando a sua participação na economia de Minas Gerais nos anos subseqüentes a 1995, tem-se indicação de que estes devam ter prioridade na alocação de recursos e na estratégia de promoções industriais por meio de políticas estaduais.The main objective of this study was to establish the importance and the enchainment of the production sector and butchery/making up sector of pork chain in Minas Gerais, in the years of 1980 and 1995, applying the Rasmussen-Hirschman index, the influence field index and GHS index. The results showed that both sectors were considered key sectors only by the Rasmussen-Hirschman index and the influence field index, i.e., they presented greater importance when observed its impacts on the final demand and its power of enchainment in the economy. Despite not being considered key sectors by the GHS index, they presented great potential of backward impacts. This result, and the fact that the participation of these sectors had been increasing in the Minas Gerais economy since 1995, suggests that those sectors the state policy makers need to give priority in resources allocation and in the

  2. 海南省主要外来入侵有害植物现状及清除措施%Status and Abatement Measures of Main Exotic Invasive Plants in Hainan Province

    谌红平

    2014-01-01

    介绍了海南省外来入侵有害植物现状与海南省土壤肥力的退化情况,总结了资源化清除海南外来入侵有害植物的措施,并分析了投入及收益,以期为海南省外来有害植物的清除提供参考。%Status and soil fertility degradation situation of exotic invasive plants in Hainan Province were introduced. Recycling abatement measures of exotic invasive plants in Hainan Province were summarized. Investment and income were analyzed,so as to provide the reference for the abatement of main exotic invasive plants in Hainan Province.

  3. Investigation of the application of noise abatement systems for reduction of blower noise in underground mines; Untersuchung der Einsatzmoeglichkeiten von Antischall-Anlagen zur Verringerung des tonalen Laerms von Hauptgrubenlueftern

    Hansen, J. [Deutsche Montan Technologie GmbH, Essen (Germany). Car Synergies Div.

    2001-07-01

    Noise abatement in mine ventilation systems is investigated. The low-frequency blower components are to be removed, and a modal acoustic field is to be influenced by active noise abatement measures. The investigations show that good results can be achieved without additional internals or duct segments. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit beschaeftigt sich mit der Einsatzmoeglichkeit von verschiedenen Antischalltechniken bei Hauptgrubenlueftern und Luttenventilatoren. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, die stoerenden tieffrequenten Komponenten eines Ventilators mit Hilfe der Antischalltechnik zu beseitigen und ein modales Schallfeld durch den gezielten Einsatz aktiver Laermminderung zu beeinflussen. Die Untersuchungen zeigen, dass sich ein modales Schallfeld mit Hilfe der Antischall-Technik wirksam bedaempfen laesst. Hierfuer sind keine zusaetzlichen Einbauten oder eine Segmentierung des Kanals erforderlich. (orig.)

  4. Global and local - air pollution abatement in the 21st century. Seminar No. 14 of Zentrale Informationsstelle Umweltberatung Bayern; Global und Lokal - Klimaschutz fuer das 21. Jahrhundert. Seminarband der Zentralen Informationsstelle Umweltberatung Bayern. Bd. 14

    Koller, U.; Behling, G.; Rauh, K.; Haury, H.J. (comps.)

    1999-08-01

    Scientists of Germany's major climate research institutes and an expert of the world climate research programme presented current information on climate trends. They informed on the results of international efforts to prevent global warming after the Buenos Aires conference and presented global climate scenarios of the future. Further issues were local air pollution abatement (energy management, thermal insulation), communal air pollution abatement concepts, and state funding in Bavaria and elsewhere. [German] Wissenschaftler aus den bedeutendsten Instituten deutscher Klimaforschung sowie ein Vertreter des Weltklimaforschungsprogramms stellten aktuelle Erkenntnisse zur Entwicklung unseres Klimas vor. Sie informierten ueber Ergebnisse internationaler Klimaschutzpolitik nach der Klimakonferenz in Buenos Aires und praesentierten Szenarien fuer das globale Klima der Zukunft. Sie widmeten sich ausserdem Fragen des lokalen Klimaschutzes unter den Aspekten Energiemanagement, Waermeschutz und diskutierten ueber kommunale Klimaschutzkonzepte sowie Foerdermoeglichkeiten in und ausserhalb Bayerns. (orig.)

  5. Comparative research on environmental policy instruments:Enterprise emission abatement perspective%环境政策工具比较:基于企业减排的视角

    许士春; 何正霞; 龙如银

    2012-01-01

    论文采用企业最优规划模型,通过比较研究方法分析了污染税、可交易污染许可、污染排放标准和减排补贴对企业减排行为的影响、对企业技术更新的激励效果、对污染排放总量的控制和政策实施成本.研究表明:减排的主要影响因素是减排的技术能力和环境政策的严厉程度;污染谎报问题的主要影响因素是环境政策的严厉程度和政府监管力度,而与减排的技术能力无关;在技术更新的激励效果方面,完全遵守的污染排放标准是最优的、其次是不完全遵守的污染排放标准、再次是污染税和减排补贴、可交易污染许可效果最差;在污染排放总量控制方面,若企业存在技术改进可能,污染税、减排补贴和污染排放标准可以达到相同的政策效果,可交易污染许可的效果最差,若企业保持现有技术水平不变,则污染税、可交易污染许可、减排补贴和污染排放标准可以达到相同的政策效果;在政策实施成本方面,污染税、减排补贴和污染排放标准具有相同的实施成本,可交易污染许可的实施成本最低.%The enterprise optimal plan model and comparative analysis are adopted in this paper to analyze the effects of pollution taxes, marketable emission permits, pollution standards and abatement subsidies on enterprise emission abatement, technology adoption incentives, the aggregate emission and the implement cost of the four environmental policy instruments. Conclusions are as follows: the major influences of enterprise abatement are technology adoption ability and the rigorousness of environmental policy; the major influences of the enterprise violation are the rigorousness of environmental policy and the government monitoring while independent of abatement technology adoption. From the technology adoption incentives, pollution standards with perfect compliance is higher than pollution standards with imperfect

  6. 考虑碳减排成本的内生经济增长路径研究%The Optimal Endogenous Economic Growth Considering the Abatement Cost of Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    公维凤; 王传会; 周德群

    2013-01-01

    In order to analyze carbon dioxide abatement impact on the endogenous economic growth,the rate of carbon dioxide abatement was put into the production function.Alert awareness towards climate change was put into utility function.An endogenous economic growth model of considering the abatement cost of carbon dioxide emissions was established.The influence of various parameters on path of the optimal economic growth was analyzed.In the long term,carbon dioxide emissions intensity and rate of carbon dioxide abatement have mutual negative linear relationship with economic growth.Widely using low carbon technology,improving the contribution of technology accumulation from research and development,reducing preference to the current consumption,and strengthening awareness towards climate change would be beneficial to promote economic sustainable development.%为了分析碳减排对内生经济增长的影响,将碳减排比例引入生产函数,将对气候变化的警惕意识引入效用函数,建立了考虑碳减排成本的内生经济增长模型,比较分析了各参数对经济增长路径的影响.长期来看,碳强度、碳减排比例与经济增长之间呈负向关系.低碳技术应用越广泛,研发成果对技术积累贡献率越大,消费者对当前消费的偏好程度越小,人们对气候变化的警惕意识越强,越有利于经济可持续发展.

  7. Effectiveness of urease inhibition on the abatement of ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitric oxide emissions in a non-irrigated Mediterranean barley field.

    Abalos, Diego; Sanz-Cobena, Alberto; Misselbrook, Thomas; Vallejo, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    Urea is considered the cheapest and most commonly used form of inorganic N fertilizer worldwide. However, its use is associated with emissions of ammonia (NH(3)), nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and nitric oxide (NO), which have both economic and environmental impact. Urease activity inhibitors have been proposed as a means to reduce NH(3) emissions, although limited information exists about their effect on N(2)O and NO emissions. In this context, a field experiment was carried out with a barley crop (Hordeum vulgare L.) under Mediterranean conditions to test the effectiveness of the urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) on reducing these gaseous N losses from surface applied urea. Crop yield, soil mineral N concentrations, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), denitrification potential, NH(3), N(2)O and NO fluxes were measured during the growing season. The inclusion of the inhibitor reduced NH(3) emissions in the 30 d following urea application by 58% and net N(2)O and NO emissions in the 95 d following urea application by 86% and 88%, respectively. NBPT addition also increased grain yield by 5% and N uptake by 6%, although neither increase was statistically significant. Under the experimental conditions presented here, these results demonstrate the potential of the urease inhibitor NBPT in abating NH(3), N(2)O and NO emissions from arable soils fertilized with urea, slowing urea hydrolysis and releasing lower concentrations of NH(4)(+) to the upper soil layer.

  8. Photocatalytic NO{sub x} abatement by calcium aluminate cements modified with TiO{sub 2}: Improved NO{sub 2} conversion

    Pérez-Nicolás, M. [MIMED Research Group, Department of Chemistry and Soil Sciences, School of Sciences, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea, 1, 31008 Pamplona (Spain); Balbuena, J.; Cruz-Yusta, M.; Sánchez, L. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, School of Sciences, University of Córdoba, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Marie Curie, 14071 Córdoba (Spain); Navarro-Blasco, I.; Fernández, J.M. [MIMED Research Group, Department of Chemistry and Soil Sciences, School of Sciences, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea, 1, 31008 Pamplona (Spain); Alvarez, J.I., E-mail: jalvarez@unav.es [MIMED Research Group, Department of Chemistry and Soil Sciences, School of Sciences, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea, 1, 31008 Pamplona (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} was studied in two types of calcium aluminate cement (CAC) under two different curing regimes. The effect of the TiO{sub 2} addition on the setting time, consistency and mechanical properties of the CACs was evaluated. The abatement of gaseous pollutants (NO{sub x}) under UV irradiation was also assessed. These cementitious matrices were found to successfully retain NO{sub 2}: more abundant presence of aluminates in white cement (w-CAC, iron-lean) helped to better adsorb NO{sub 2}, thus improving the conversion performance of the catalyst resulting in a larger NO{sub x} removal under UV irradiation. As evidenced by XRD, SEM, EDAX and zeta potential analyses, the presence of ferrite in dark cement (d-CAC, iron-reach) induced a certain chemical interaction with TiO{sub 2}. The experimental findings suggest the formation of new iron titanate phases, namely pseudobrookite. The reduced band-gap energy of these compounds compared with that of TiO{sub 2} accounts for the photocatalytic activity of these samples.

  9. PBN进近航线噪声敏感点规避降噪方法%Noise Abatement Method of PBN Approach Flight Route Steer away from Sensitive Point

    王维; 张清栋

    2016-01-01

    降低机场航空噪声是促进机场发展的重要因素,随着基于性能的导航( PBN)实施的推进,这一新的导航方式为降噪提供了新方法。航空噪声是人的声量感受,机场周围人口较为集中的学校、医院、居民区等构成了航空噪声敏感点,进近航线避开这些噪声敏感点可以达到降噪的效果。根据飞机性能和飞行程序特点,通过确定飞机空间位置,构建了飞行架次-推力-距离( N-F-d)进近航线噪声敏感点规避计算模型;并进行噪声计算模型修正。选取LWECPN为噪声评价量,结合INM噪声评价软件对广州白云机场进行了降噪分析。分析结果表明,噪声敏感点的噪声值显著减小,噪声等值线的影响范围也明显缩小,降噪效果较好。%Airport aviation noise abatement is an important factor to promote the development of airport , as per-formance-based navigation (PBN) implementation, the new navigation mode provide a new method for noise abate-ment.Aviation noise is the volume of feeling , dense population around the airport as school , hospital, residential area are aviation noise sensitive point , approach flight route steer away from noise sensitive point is an effective way of noise abatement .According to characteristics of aircraft and flight procedures , by confirming the plane location , established the calculation model of number of flights-thrust-distance ( N-F-d) approach flight route steer away from noise sensitive point , and amended the noise calculation model .Selected LWECPN as the measurement of noise evalu-ation, used INM noise evaluation software analyzed a case study of Guangzhou Baiyun airport noise abatement effect, the analysis result shows that the value of noise sensitive point reduced obviously , noise contour line nar-rowed down markedly , reveal good effect of noise abatement .

  10. Atmospheric pollutants in peri-urban forests of Quercus ilex: evidence of pollution abatement and threats for vegetation.

    García-Gómez, Héctor; Aguillaume, Laura; Izquieta-Rojano, Sheila; Valiño, Fernando; Àvila, Anna; Elustondo, David; Santamaría, Jesús M; Alastuey, Andrés; Calvete-Sogo, Héctor; González-Fernández, Ignacio; Alonso, Rocío

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetation is generally accepted as a significant remover of atmospheric pollutants, but it could also be threatened by these compounds, with origin in both urban and non-urban areas. To characterize the seasonal and geographical variation of pollutant concentrations and to improve the empirical understanding of the influence of Mediterranean broadleaf evergreen forests on air quality, four forests of Quercus ilex (three peri-urban and one remote) were monitored in different areas in Spain. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3) and ozone (O3) were measured during 2 years in open areas and inside the forests and aerosols (PM10) were monitored in open areas during 1 year. Ozone was the only air pollutant expected to have direct phytotoxic effects on vegetation according to current thresholds for the protection of vegetation. The concentrations of N compounds were not high enough to directly affect vegetation but could be contributing through atmospheric N deposition to the eutrophization of these ecosystems. Peri-urban forests of Q. ilex showed a significant below-canopy reduction of gaseous concentrations (particularly NH3, with a mean reduction of 29-38%), which indicated the feasibility of these forests to provide an ecosystem service of air quality improvement. Well-designed monitoring programs are needed to further investigate air quality improvement by peri-urban ecosystems while assessing the threat that air pollution can pose to vegetation.

  11. A Cu/Al-MCM-41 mesoporous molecular sieve: application in the abatement of no in exhaust gases

    M. S. Batista

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Propane oxidation and reduction of NO to N2 with propane under oxidative conditions on a Cu-Al-MCM-41 mesoporous molecular sieve and Cu-ZSM-5 zeolites were studied. Both types of catalysts were prepared by ion exchange in aqueous solutions of copper acetate and characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD, nitrogen sorption measurement, diffuse reflectance ultra-violet spectroscopy (DRS-UV, diffuse reflectance infra-red Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS of the adsorption of CO on Cu+ and temperature-programmed reduction with hydrogen (H2-TPR. The NO reduction was performed between 200 and 500 ºC using a GHSV = 42,000 h-1. H2-TPR data showed that in the prepared Cu-Al-MCM-41 all the Cu atoms are on the surface of the mesopores as highly dispersed CuO, which results in a decrease in specific surface area and in mesopore volume. H2-TPR together with DRIFTS data provided evidence that in Cu/ZSM-5 catalysts, Cu atoms are found as two different Cu2+ cations: Cualpha2+ and Cubeta2+, which are located on charge compensation sites, and their thermo-redox properties were different from those of Cu atoms in Cu-Al-MCM-41. The specific activity of the Cu2+ exchangeable cations in Cu-ZSM-5, irrespective of their nature, was much greater than that of the Cu2+ in Cu-Al-MCM-41, where they are found as CuO.

  12. Assessment of carbon-rejection processes as a method of CO{sub 2} abatement. IEA greenhouse gas R and D programme United Kingdom

    Lugten, P.E.; Jansen, D.; Van der Burgt, M.J.; Carp, A. [ECN Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands)

    2000-06-01

    As an alternative to the capture and storage Of CO2, it has been suggested that processes which recover energy from the hydrogen content and reject the carbon content of fossil fuels as a solid would be potentially attractive methods of avoiding CO2 emissions. Such processes avoid the need to store CO2 for many years in a save repository. The key reaction involved is thermal decomposition of a fossil fuel. In case of methane decomposition roughly 50% of the energy remains in the rejected carbon and is not recovered. Any version of this process that only makes use of the hydrogen product will therefore have at most a theoretical efficiency of 50%. In practice the efficiency is likely to be significantly less as the reaction is strongly endothermic, 75% of the input mass is rejected as carbon. Some researchers have come to the conclusion that, for such a process to be of interest, the rejected carbon has to be used rather than just stored indefinitely. There are 2 major suggestions involving use of the carbon, which are assessed as part of this study: (1) Use the carbon in established uses for carbon black; and (2) Use the carbon in the metallurgical industry. An alternative application of this technology which will also be assessed in this study has been suggested elsewhere. In the there proposed 'Camol process', the thermal decomposition of methane is integrated with the production of other energy products. Carbon is rejected and the hydrogen produced is reacted with CO2 recovered from power generation to make methanol. The integrated process claimed to result in a net reduction in CO2 emissions compared to conventional processing of oil for transport fuels, together with power generation from fossil fuels. The overall objective of this study is to assess the competitiveness of carbon rejection schemes as means of CO2 abatement. The scope of work for this study is specified in 3 tasks: (1) different types of carbon rejection processes will be assessed to

  13. La Casa dell’abate a San Giovanni in Persiceto: Indagini conoscitive e questioni operative per la conservazione di un «edificio-fossile»

    Squassina, Angela Paola

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Abbot’s House in St. Giovanni in Persiceto (Bologna is a «fossil-building», one of the few surviving timber-framed buildings in Italy, probably the seat of the Abbot of the monastery of Nonantola. It is very interesting because of its rarity, age, building type and the presence of an almost millenarian stratigraphy. The Abbot’s House has been subjected to a slow but continuous transformation process – through a gradual replacement of wooden elements by masonry – modifying its storehouse function for a prevalently residential one. Restoration works in the 1960s deeply modified the structural frame and renewed the external surfaces, transforming thus the old image of the building and making difficult its archaeological analysis. This circumstance makes to think about the relationship between stratigraphic legibility and preservation of material authenticity. Reliability of stratigraphic instrument becomes reduced in such a modified building, being required a different use of stratigraphy by adapting its codes and modes to the study case. The adaptation to different recording conditions gives stratigraphy a different and more articulated role – if it is organically included in the preservation project – and stratigraphic legibility may become a precious alteration index and a technical and cultural project criterion. It becomes a control of transformations, leading to the idea of a minimal intervention and respect toward the fragmentary survivals of past times and of their stratigraphic legibility.manufatto medioevale a struttura mista in legno e muratura, uno dei pochi superstiti in Italia, probabile sede dell’Abate del Monastero di Nonantola. Si tratta di un «edificio-fossile», oggetto di grande interesse data la rarità, l’antichità della struttura e delle modalità costruttive, nonché per la presenza di una stratificazione quasi millenaria. La Casa dell’Abate è stata infatti sottoposta ad un lento ma continuo

  14. Quantitative impact of the recent abatement of air pollution on the weathering of stone and glass of the UNESCO List in Paris

    Lefèvre, Roger; Ionescu, Anda; Desplat, Julien; Kounkou-Arnaud, Raphaëlle; Perrussel, Olivier; Languille, Baptiste

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative impact of the recent abatement of air pollution on the weathering of stone and glass of the UNESCO List in Paris R.-A. Lefèvre1, A. Ionescu1, J. Desplat2, R. Kounkou-Arnaud2, O. Perrussel3, B. Languille4 At the beginning of the 21st century air pollution in Paris continued to considerably decrease. An evident visual consequence was the replacement of thick gypseous black crusts by thin grey coverings on the façades. A quantitative approach of this phenomenon was taken by measurement in the field, followed by calculation using Dose-Response Functions (DRF) and mapping the geographic distribution on a grid of 100m x100m of: 1) The total surface of façades of buildings and monuments in the part of Paris inscribed on the UNESCO List between the Ile Saint-Louis and the Concorde Square; 2) The surface of limestone and window glass present on each façade; 3) The distribution of SO2, NO2 and PM10 concentration every year from 1997 to 2014; 4) The response of materials to climatic and pollution doses; 5) The effective damage to limestone and window glass. Results of measurements in the field: 1) The 772 buildings and monuments inventoried have 20 674 m in length and 414 811 m2 in façade surface: they are representative of the centre of Paris; 2) Limestone occupies 348 268 m2 and window glass 207 394 m2; 3) The mean annual concentration in SO2 dropped from 20 to less than 3 μg m-3; NO2 from 60 to 40 μg m-3 and PM10 from 30 to 20 μg m-3. Results by application of DRF: 4) Limestone recession was divided by 5 in 18 years, from 10 to 2 μm y-1, but with only a spatial variation of 2%; 5) Limestone reflectance increased from 70.5 to 72.5 %; 6) The annual mass of deposited and neo-formed particles on window glass decreased from 100 to 20 μg cm-2; 7) The annual haze of window glass decreased from 8 to 3.5%. Effective damage to stone and glass: 8) The mean annual mass of limestone eroded on the façades decreased according to time but with an irregular

  15. Transport and abatement of fluorescent silica nanoparticle (SiO2 NP) in granular filtration: effect of porous media and ionic strength

    Zeng, Chao; Shadman, Farhang; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2017-03-01

    The extensive production and application of engineered silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) will inevitably lead to their release into the environment. Granular media filtration, a widely used process in water and wastewater treatment plants, has the potential for NP abatement. In this work, laboratory-scale column experiments were performed to study the transport and retention of SiO2 NPs on three widely used porous materials, i.e., sand, anthracite, and granular activated carbon (GAC). Synthetic fluorescent core-shell SiO2 NPs (83 nm) were used to facilitate NP detection. Sand showed very low capacity for SiO2 filtration as this material had a surface with limited surface area and a high concentration of negative charge. Also, we found that the stability and transport of SiO2 NP were strongly dependent on the ionic strength of the solution. Increasing ionic strength led to NP agglomeration and facilitated SiO2 NP retention, while low ionic strength resulted in release of captured NPs from the sand bed. Compared to sand, anthracite and GAC showed higher affinity for SiO2 NP capture. The superior capacity of GAC was primarily due to its porous structure and high surface area. A process model was developed to simulate NP capture in the packed bed columns and determine fundamental filtration parameters. This model provided an excellent fit to the experimental data. Taken together, the results obtained indicate that GAC is an interesting material for SiO2 NP filtration.

  16. Soft Institution, Public Recognition and Efficiency of Air Pollution Abatement%制度软化、公众认同对大气污染治理效率的影响

    蓝庆新; 陈超凡

    2015-01-01

    大气污染治理问题受到了政府和公众的广泛关注,然而传统研究并未对政府、公众行为和大气污染治理之间的关系予以足够重视. 文章构建了一个制度软化、公众认同与大气污染治理之间的理论模型并提出研究假说,采用Super-SBM模型对我国各省份大气污染治理效率进行测算,通过构建面板分位数模型对研究假说进行经验论证,得到以下结论:首先,大气污染治理效率测算结果表明,研究期内我国大气污染治理效率的省际格局变化不大,中部地区大气污染治理效率高于东部和西部地区. 其次,全国、中部及西部经验结论符合研究假说,即财政分权和晋升锦标赛引致的制度软化对区域大气污染治理效率具有负向冲击,公众认同对大气污染治理效率有正向影响,且公众认同在一定程度上可以弥补制度软化引致的效率下降,但东部经验与研究假说相反. 最后,晋升激励使得地方政府容易忽视大气污染治理的供给;环境规制对大气污染治理效率的影响在条件分位上具有"波特拐点"特征;产业转型升级的环境效应在东部地区并不明显,但在中西部地区显著;技术进步促进大气污染治理效率提升在全国范围内显著;外商投资能通过技术外溢、严格的规制标准提升大气污染治理效率,但目前这种正向影响只存在于东部地区. 故需要将环境质量指标及相关要素纳入地方政府的政治考评体系、改革和完善我国的财政分税制体制、引导公民自觉参与和监督大气污染治理、推进传统产业发展与现代服务业的有机融合等.%Air pollution has drawn wide attention and concern of government and the public. But traditional researches did not attach adequate importance to the relationships between the behaviors of government&public and air pollution abatement. Firstly, a model is established to reveal the mechanism between the soft

  17. National program of struggle against the climate change; Programme national de lutte contre le changement climatique

    NONE

    2000-01-17

    The French national program of struggle against the climate change deals with the principal sources of pollution i.e. industry, transports, buildings, agriculture and forests wastes, gas refrigerants and power production. The document contains 12 chapters. First chapter concerns the France's responsibilities regarding the climatic change. The following issues are addressed: 1. The phenomenon, the gas releases and the potential impact; 2. The international negotiations and the European engagements; 3. France's effort for pollutant release abatement. The second chapter describes the principal options of the program. It presents: measures, economical constraints, long term structure actions upon offer. The third and the forth chapters deal with the industrial and transport releases and relating abatement measures. Chapter number five concerns the pollutant released in the building sector, i.e. those related to the dwelling houses, the current and proposed measures for reducing the harmful releases. The issue of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrogen oxide releases and absorptions in the sector agriculture-forests is addressed in chapter 6. The contribution of these releases to the greenhouse effect amounts up to 18% (with 11, 33% and 56%, fractions from the three gas emissions, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, respectively). Measures for release reduction are presented as well as actions to improve the knowledge of the processes. A special addendum gives estimates and the implications the storms of December 1999 had upon the national program. The waste sector contributes by 3% to the greenhouse effect while the power production sector, by 8%. The fraction of release of the three principal pollutant gases are 87%, 12% and 1%, respectively. The results of a scenario based on extant and proposed measures for release abatement are presented for the period 1990-2010. The chapter 8 devoted to the power production sector presents also the results obtained from the

  18. PERFIL SOROLÓGICO E DE ISOLAMENTO DE Salmonella sp. EM SUÍNOS NO INÍCIO DA TERMINAÇÃO E AO ABATE SEROLOGY AND ISOLATION OF SALMONELLA SP. IN PIGS AT THE FINISHING SITE AND AT SLAUGHTER

    Monika Müller

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudos que elucidem a cadeia de transmissão de Salmonella enterica nos sistemas de produção de suínos são importantes para que seja possível implementar programas de controle da infecção. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o índice de animais positivos para Salmonella sp. no início da fase de terminação e ao abate e identificar possíveis fontes de contaminação no período. Em três granjas terminadoras, coletaram-se: suabes de superfície nas baias e nos silos durante o vazio sanitário; amostras de fezes e sangue dos animais no dia do alojamento; alíquotas de todos os lotes de ração e amostras de sangue, linfonodos mesentéricos (LM e conteúdo intestinal (CI ao abate. As amostras de sangue foram submetidas a teste de ELISA-LPS para Salmonella Typhimurium. Nas demais amostras, pesquisou-se a presença de Salmonella sp. As amostras de ração foram adicionalmente submetidas à técnica da Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR amplificando o gene invA. Todos os animais foram negativos para presença de Salmonella sp. nas fezes no início da terminação; entretanto, em duas granjas havia animais soropositivos (12% e 28%, respectivamente. Em duas granjas havia contaminação residual no ambiente e na terceira granja, em um dos lotes de ração, detectou-se a presença de Salmonella sp. pela PCR. Ao abate, acima de 90% dos animais foram positivos no teste de ELISA-LPS, sendo que em todos os lotes encontrou-se um número variável (12-92% de portadores em LM e CI. A partir disso, concluiu-se que a terminação foi a fase crítica para a amplificação da infecção por Salmonella sp., sendo a presença residual do microrganismo na granja e o fornecimento de ração contaminada fontes prováveis de infecção.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Abate, isolamento, Salmonella, sorologia, suíno, terminação.
    Studies assessing the Salmonella transmission chain in pig herds are the first step to start a control program.  The aims

  19. Monitoring energy efficiency and CO{sub 2} abatement policies: what can we learn from indicators UNFCC workshop best practices in PAM

    Bosseboeuf, D. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 49 - Angers (France); Chaterau, B.; Lapillonne, B. [ENERDATA 38 - Gieres (France)

    2000-04-01

    } abatement policies from a selection. of representative policies. Certainly, a.framework based on a 'priority set' of indicators could emerge as a reporting of PAM's initiatives. (authors)

  20. Jointly Sponsored Research Program Energy Related Research

    Western Research Institute

    2009-03-31

    Cooperative Agreement, DE-FC26-98FT40323, Jointly Sponsored Research (JSR) Program at Western Research Institute (WRI) began in 1998. Over the course of the Program, a total of seventy-seven tasks were proposed utilizing a total of $23,202,579 in USDOE funds. Against this funding, cosponsors committed $26,557,649 in private funds to produce a program valued at $49,760,228. The goal of the Jointly Sponsored Research Program was to develop or assist in the development of innovative technology solutions that will: (1) Increase the production of United States energy resources - coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; (2) Enhance the competitiveness of United States energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; (3) Reduce the nation's dependence on foreign energy supplies and strengthen both the United States and regional economies; and (4) Minimize environmental impacts of energy production and utilization. Under the JSR Program, energy-related tasks emphasized enhanced oil recovery, heavy oil upgrading and characterization, coal beneficiation and upgrading, coal combustion systems development including oxy-combustion, emissions monitoring and abatement, coal gasification technologies including gas clean-up and conditioning, hydrogen and liquid fuels production, coal-bed methane recovery, and the development of technologies for the utilization of renewable energy resources. Environmental-related activities emphasized cleaning contaminated soils and waters, processing of oily wastes, mitigating acid mine drainage, and demonstrating uses for solid waste from clean coal technologies, and other advanced coal-based systems. Technology enhancement activities included resource characterization studies, development of improved methods, monitors and sensors. In general the goals of the tasks proposed were to enhance competitiveness of U.S. technology, increase production of domestic resources, and reduce environmental

  1. MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF POLLUTION ABATEMENT

    My career started with Cliff Dahm at the University of New Mexico. The western United States had been experiencing a new “gold rush” using cyanide to mine previously unextractable, low-grade ore and we studied the potential to stimulate native cyanide-degrading micro...

  2. Vienna international airport noise abatement

    Heidelinde Jelinek-Nigitz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: On the topic of sustainable aviation a study was carried out to measure the difference between the actual change in air traffic noise and the airport’s residents’ perception of the noise change at Vienna International Airport. Therefore, a questionnaire was developed in cooperation with the airport and an online survey was conducted. Design/methodology/approach: For the survey of the opinion of the affected population of the surrounding communities, a web based online questionnaire is created and distributed via various channels including e-mail, and online forums. After the basic structure of the questionnaire had been defined, the questions were developed in cooperation with employees form the environmental department of VIE, who had a sustainable influence on the questions’ order and formulation. As the survey was supposed to be answered by residents around VIE. Findings: Results of the online study show that only parts of the participants are affected by air traffic noise at VIE. Even less experienced a significant change over the last five years. About one third of the participants stated that they are affected by air traffic noise in one way or another. The majority of these people live in Lower Austria, the federal state in which the airport is located. The participants obviously judge air traffic noise during day time more importantly than air traffic noise at night. Research limitations/implications: Due to the low number of returns, no statistically relevant conclusions can be drawn, the results of the survey can be used to make some general statements. Originality/value: Economic growth and deregulation lead to growing aircraft operations. Vienna International Airport with its approximately 260,000 flight movements per year is the biggest airport in Austria and a major hub in Europe. The combination of constantly growing air transport and the resulting noise exposure, as well as the steadily increasing sensitization of the population, bring the issue of aircraft noise emission into the increased interest of the stakeholder of an airport. The study compares the extent of the subjective perceived and the actual noise emissions’ change over the last years.

  3. Ammonia abatement by slurry acidification

    Petersen, Søren O.; Hutchings, Nicholas John; Hafner, Sasha

    2016-01-01

    Livestock production systems can be major sources of trace gases including ammonia (NH3), the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and odorous compounds such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Short-term campaigns have indicated that acidification of livestock slurry during in...... sections with 30-32 pigs with or without daily adjustment of slurry pH to below 6. Ammonia losses from reference sections with untreated slurry were between 9.5 and 12.4% of N excreted, and from sections with acidified slurry between 3.1 and 6.2%. Acidification reduced total emissions of NH3 by 66 and 71...

  4. Asbestos Abatement in Oklahoma Schools.

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    The intent of this paper is to provide the information necessary to develop and implement an acceptable asbestos removal plan. The information is taken from current (September 1980) federal and state regulations and recommendations. The information describing asbestos removal operations is organized chronologically to simplify using this document…

  5. Effect of ball-milling and Fe-/Al-doping on the structural aspect and visible light photocatalytic activity of TiO2 towards Escherichia coli bacteria abatement.

    Schlur, Laurent; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Gilliot, Pierre; Gallart, Mathieu; Carré, Gaëlle; Zafeiratos, Spiros; Keller, Nicolas; Keller, Valérie; André, Philippe; Greneche, Jean-Marc; Hezard, Bernard; Desmonts, Marie-Hélène; Pourroy, Geneviève

    2014-05-01

    Escherichia coli abatement was studied in liquid phase under visible light in the presence of two commercial titania photocatalysts, and of Fe- and Al-doped titania samples prepared by high energy ball-milling. The two commercial titania photocatalysts, Aeroxide P25 (Evonik industries) exhibiting both rutile and anatase structures and MPT625 (Ishihara Sangyo Kaisha), a Fe-, Al-, P- and S-doped titania exhibiting only the rutile phase, are active suggesting that neither the structure nor the doping is the driving parameter. Although the MPT625 UV-visible spectrum is shifted towards the visible domain with respect to the P25 one, the effect on bacteria is not increased. On the other hand, the ball milled iron-doped P25 samples exhibit low activities in bacteria abatement under visible light due to charge recombinations unfavorable to catalysis as shown by photoluminescence measurements. While doping elements are in interstitial positions within the rutile structure in MPT625 sample, they are located at the surface in ball milled samples and in isolated octahedral units according to (57)Fe Mössbauer spectrometry. The location of doping elements at the surface is suggested to be responsible for the sample cytotoxicity observed in the dark.

  6. Abatement of Polychoro-1,3-butadienes in Aqueous Solution by Ozone, UV Photolysis, and Advanced Oxidation Processes (O3/H2O2 and UV/H2O2).

    Lee, Minju; Merle, Tony; Rentsch, Daniel; Canonica, Silvio; von Gunten, Urs

    2017-01-03

    The abatement of 9 polychloro-1,3-butadienes (CBDs) in aqueous solution by ozone, UV-C(254 nm) photolysis, and the corresponding advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) (i.e., O3/H2O2 and UV/H2O2) was investigated. The following parameters were determined for 9 CBDs: second-order rate constants for the reactions of CBDs with ozone (kO3) (50% at specific ozone doses of 0.5 gO3/gDOC to ∼100% at ≥1.0 gO3/gDOC) were achieved for tetra-CBDs followed by (Z)-1,1,2,3,4-penta-CBD and hexa-CBD. This is consistent with the magnitude of the determined kO3 and k(•)OH. The formation of bromate, a potentially carcinogenic ozonation byproduct, could be significantly reduced by addition of H2O2. For a typical UV disinfection dose (400 J/m(2)), various extents of phototransformations (10-90%) could be achieved. However, the efficient formation of photoisomers from CBDs with E/Z configuration must be taken into account because of their potential residual toxicity. Under UV-C(254 nm) photolysis conditions, no significant effect of H2O2 addition on CBDs abatement was observed due to an efficient direct phototransformation of CBDs.

  7. Environmental research program. 1995 Annual report

    Brown, N.J.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of the Environmental Research Program is to enhance the understanding of, and mitigate the effects of pollutants on health, ecological systems, global and regional climate, and air quality. The program is multidisciplinary and includes fundamental research and development in efficient and environmentally benign combustion, pollutant abatement and destruction, and novel methods of detection and analysis of criteria and noncriteria pollutants. This diverse group conducts investigations in combustion, atmospheric and marine processes, flue-gas chemistry, and ecological systems. Combustion chemistry research emphasizes modeling at microscopic and macroscopic scales. At the microscopic scale, functional sensitivity analysis is used to explore the nature of the potential-to-dynamics relationships for reacting systems. Rate coefficients are estimated using quantum dynamics and path integral approaches. At the macroscopic level, combustion processes are modelled using chemical mechanisms at the appropriate level of detail dictated by the requirements of predicting particular aspects of combustion behavior. Parallel computing has facilitated the efforts to use detailed chemistry in models of turbulent reacting flow to predict minor species concentrations.

  8. Twenty-Five Years of Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Review of Environmental Problems and Remedial Actions

    Loar, James M.; Stewart, Arthur J.; Smith, John G.

    2011-06-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated once-through cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water

  9. Twenty-Plus Years of Environmental Change and Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Background and Trends in Water Quality

    Smith, John G [ORNL; Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL; Loar, James M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated once-through cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of

  10. Twenty-Five Years of Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Review of Environmental Problems and Remedial Actions

    Smith, John G [ORNL; Loar, James M [ORNL; Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy s Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated oncethrough cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water

  11. Abatement of diesel-exhaust pollutants. NO{sub x} storage and soot combustion on K/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts

    Milt, V.G.; Pissarello, M.L.; Miro, E.E.; Querini, C.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica, INCAPE, CONICET, Santiago del Estero 2829, Santa Fe 3000 (Argentina)

    2003-03-31

    Potassium-loaded lanthana is a promising catalyst to be used for the simultaneous abatement of soot and NO{sub x}, which are the main diesel-exhaust pollutants. With potassium loadings between 4.5 and 10wt.% and calcination temperatures between 400 and 700C, this catalyst mixed with soot gave maximum combustion rates between 350 and 400C in TPO experiments, showing a good hydrothermal stability. There was no difference in activity when it was either mixed by grinding in an agate mortar or mixed by shaking in a sample bottle (tight and loose conditions, respectively). Moreover, when the K-loaded La{sub 2}O{sub 3} is used as washcoat for a cordierite monolith, there were found no significant differences in the catalytic behaviour of the system, which implies its potentiality for practical purposes. The influence of poisons as water and SO{sub 2} was investigated. While water does not affect the soot combustion activity, SO{sub 2} slightly shift the TPO peak to higher temperature. Surface basicity, which is a key factor, was analysed by measuring the interactions of the catalytic surface with CO{sub 2} using the high frequency CO{sub 2} pulses technique, which proved to be very sensitive, detecting minor changes by modifications in the dynamics of the CO{sub 2} adsorption-desorption process. Water diminishes the interaction with CO{sub 2}, probably as a consequence of an adsorption competition. The SO{sub 2} treated catalyst is equilibrated with the CO{sub 2} atmosphere more rapidly if compared with the untreated one, also showing a lower interaction. The lower the interaction with the CO{sub 2}, the lower the activity. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) results indicate that the soot combustion reaction coexists with the thermal decomposition of hydroxide and carbonate species, occurring in the same temperature range (350-460C). The presence of potassium increases surface basicity shifting the endothermic decomposition signal to higher temperatures. We also

  12. Program specialization

    Marlet, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the principles and techniques of program specialization - a general method to make programs faster (and possibly smaller) when some inputs can be known in advance. As an illustration, it describes the architecture of Tempo, an offline program specializer for C that can also specialize code at runtime, and provides figures for concrete applications in various domains. Technical details address issues related to program analysis precision, value reification, incomplete program specialization, strategies to exploit specialized program, incremental specialization, and data speci

  13. Examination of the conditions of a broadening of the general tax for polluting activities to the intermediate energy consumptions. Incentive mechanisms for the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions; Examen des conditions d'un elargissement de la TGAP aux consommations intermediaires d'energie. Mecanismes incitatifs a la reduction des emissions de gaz a effet de serre

    Bureau, D

    2000-05-15

    Among the various existing incentive mechanisms for the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions, like the pollution regulations and the financial help for energy mastery, this document analyzes the conditions of efficiency of the negotiated voluntary agreements and of the tradable emission quotas and their articulation with the fiscality. (J.S.)

  14. Anti-pollution system and equipments devoted to energy saving: abatement of the rental value; Installation antipollution et materiels destines a economiser l'energie: reduction de la valeur locative

    Anon.

    2002-10-01

    Conformably to the article 1518 A of the French general tax law, the rental values that are used for the calculation of the professional and property taxes are considered for only half of their value in the case of the anti-pollution and energy saving equipments. To profit by this regime, these equipments must be the subject of an exceptional amortization conformably to the articles 39 AB, 39 5.E, 39 5.F or 39 5.DA of the general tax law. For the equipments acquired or implemented after January 1, 2002, this condition is soften: the total or partial abatement of their rental value is acquired as soon as these equipments can profit by the exceptional amortization. This fiscal instruction (6E-1-02 from the general direction of taxes) comments this rule. (J.S.)

  15. Report on the Biological Monitoring Program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1992--December 1993

    Kszos, L.A.; Hinzman, R.L.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1995-06-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The goals of BMP are to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, characterize potential health and environmental impacts, document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota, and recommend any program improvements that would increase effluent treatability. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, bioaccumulation studies, and ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report includes ESD activities occurring from December 1992 to December 1993, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  16. Influência das condições térmicas do galpão de espera climatizado na mortalidade pré-abate de frangos de corte

    F.M.C. Vieira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito das condições ambientais da espera pré-abate na mortalidade de frangos de corte, mantidos em galpão climatizado em um abatedouro comercial. Foram avaliados 215 caminhões de transporte de um abatedouro comercial quanto ao número de aves mortas durante as operações pré-abate e à temperatura retal dos animais em condição de espera no abatedouro. Os dados foram obtidos no galpão de espera climatizado por meio de ventiladores e nebulizadores, em diferentes períodos: manhã, tarde e noite. As variáveis térmicas, distância, tempo de espera e densidade de aves por caixa foram consideradas na análise. Destacaram-se os efeitos da temperatura, da umidade relativa e do tempo de espera na variação tanto do número de aves mortas por caminhão quanto da temperatura retal dos animais. Com relação à interação entre temperatura e umidade relativa interna do galpão de espera, houve eficiência do ambiente climatizado no abatedouro quanto à diminuição do número de aves mortas. A climatização foi mais expressiva na redução do número de aves mortas e da temperatura retal quando a temperatura do galpão de espera estava entre 21 e 24°C, principalmente em condições de umidade relativa interna em torno de 70%. Nessas condições climatizadas, o tempo de espera acima de duas horas proporcionou maior conforto às aves.

  17. 基于ArcGIS平台的减噪起飞程序仿真研究%Simulation Research of Noise Abatement Take-off Climb Procedure Based on ArcGIS

    刘雨佳; 朱代武; 陈彬

    2015-01-01

    Airport noise problems have become increasingly prominent,it is important to use noise abatement flight procedures to reduce the scope and strength of airport noise exposure.The article took LWECPN as noise index,established Xiamen airport noise prediction calculation model,calculated predictive noise value and drew noise contour line by ArcGIS software,analyzed the impact of takeoff procedures on aircraft noise.Conclusion shows that noise abatement take-off climb procedures have some influence on takeoff noise;the method can overcome the limitations of traditional airport noise curve drawing.%机场噪声问题日渐突出,研究减噪飞行程序减小机场噪声的影响范围与强度显得非常重要。该文以厦门高崎机场为例建立机场噪声预测模型,采用计权等效连续感觉噪声级作为评价指标,使用Java编程完成噪声值计算及大地坐标转换,使用ArcGIS软件结合地理信息绘制噪声等值线,分析不同爬升梯度下减噪起飞程序产生的噪声影响范围。结论表明,该方法可以量化噪声影响范围,克服传统机场噪声曲线绘制方法的局限性。

  18. Quasiconvex Programming

    Eppstein, David

    2004-01-01

    We define quasiconvex programming, a form of generalized linear programming in which one seeks the point minimizing the pointwise maximum of a collection of quasiconvex functions. We survey algorithms for solving quasiconvex programs either numerically or via generalizations of the dual simplex method from linear programming, and describe varied applications of this geometric optimization technique in meshing, scientific computation, information visualization, automated algorithm analysis, an...

  19. Efeito do método de abate e do sexo sobre a qualidade da carne de capivara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris Effect of slaughter method and gender on the meat quality of capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris L. 1766

    Sandra H. I. Oda

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de dois métodos de abate (MA e do sexo sobre a qualidade de carne de capivaras. Os métodos de abate avaliados foram o humanitário (MH e por tiro (MT, sendo utilizados 2 lotes de 10 animais, um deles contendo 5 machos e 5 fêmeas e outro com 8 machos e 2 fêmeas, nos quais foram avaliados os valores de pH na 1ª, 3ª, 5ª, 7ª, 9ª, 11ª e 24ª horas após o abate e a perda de peso por cozimento (PPC, a cor e a força de cisalhamento (FC, em porções do músculo longissimus dorsi, retiradas entre a 10ª e 12ª vértebras. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que as médias de pH não foram influenciadas pelo MA e pelo sexo. Os valores médios foram: 6,24; 6,05; 6,01; 6,01; 6,03; 6,04 e 5,96 às 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 e 24 horas, respectivamente. Em relação à cor, o MT apresentou valor de L* (32,40 superior (PThe aim of this study was to assess the effect of two slaughter methods (SM and the gender on the quality of capybara meat. The slaughter methods assessed were the humanitarian (HM and by head-shot (HS. Two lots of 10 animals were used, one of them containing 5 males and 5 females and the other containing 8 males and 2 females. Values of pH of the longissimus dorsi muscle (between the vertebras 10th and 12th after 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 24h post mortem (p. m., color (L, a e b, weight losses by cooking (WLC and shear force (SF were assessed on samples obtained at these points. The results indicated that pH means were not influenced by both SM and sex. The medium values were: 6.24; 6.05; 6.01; 6.01; 6.03; 6.04 and 5.96 at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 24 hours respectively. That demonstrated that in those encourage the installation of the rigor mortis superficial with reduced extension glicolitic. Regarding the color, HS presented higher L* (32.40 values (P<0,05 than HM (29.59, and the effect of gender on this parameter was not observed. On the other color parameters and on WLC no differences among

  20. EFEITOS DA UTILIZAÇÃO DO DISPOSITIVO INTRA-UTERINO (DIU SOBRE O GANHO DE PESO E O RENDIMENTO DE CARCAÇA DE NOVILHAS NELORE DESTINADAS AO ABATE

    João Maurício Lucas Gordo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da implantação de dispositivos intra-uterinos (DIU sobre o ganho de peso corpóreo, rendimento e peso de carcaça, assim como sobre a função ovariana, analisando a ocorrência de androgenização natural e endógena, 41 novilhas da raça Nelore, com idade entre treze e quinze meses, foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em dois grupos experimentais, sendo o grupo controle (GC, n=19 sem uso do dispositivo e o grupo tratado (GT-DIU, n=22, com aplicação do DIU. As novilhas foram mantidas, por 421 dias, em sistema extensivo de manejo em pastagem de Brachiaria brizanhta cv. Marandu e suplementadas com mineral durante o período chuvoso e mistura protéica no período da seca, na região do Brasil Central. A avaliação da ocorrência de comportamento estral foi feita com o auxílio de rufiões. Os animais foram pesados no primeiro dia do experimento, e a cada 28 dias, até o abate. Durante as pesagens, foram colhidas amostras de sangue para dosagem sérica de testosterona. Vinte e quatro horas antes do abate, as fêmeas foram pesadas, e durante os procedimentos pós-abate as meias carcaças foram pesadas, calculando-se o rendimento dos quartos. Não houve diferença estatística significante (p<0,05 entre os resultados obtidos para GC e GT quanto aos parâmetros ganho de peso vivo, peso final, rendimento e peso da carcaça quente. Quanto às concentrações séricas de testosterona, não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significativa (P < 0,05 entre os grupos, até o 402º dia de experimento, verificando-se, porém, redução nos níveis séricos de testosterona ao longo do período experimental. Com base nos resultados obtidos e nas condições de desenvolvimento deste experimento, a utilização do DIU não resultou em vantagens quanto ao ganho de peso vivo, rendimento e peso de carcaça, bem como na supressão de cios de novilhas da raça Nelore. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Desempenho, dispositivo intra

  1. Assessment of the Japanese Energy Efficiency Standards Program

    Jun Arakawa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Japanese energy efficiency standards program for appliances is a unique program which sets and revises mandatory standards based on the products of the highest energy efficiency on the markets. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of the standard settings for air conditioner as a major residential appliance or typical example in the program. Based on analyses of empirical data, the net costs and effects from 1999 to 2040 were estimated. When applying a discount rate of 3%, the cost of abating CO2 emissions realized through the considered standards was estimated to be -13700 JPY/t-CO2. The sensitivity analysis, however, showed the cost turns into positive at a discount rate of 26% or higher. The authors also revealed that the standards’ “excellent” cost-effectiveness largely depends on that of the 1st standard setting, and the CO2 abatement cost through the 2nd standard was estimated to be as high as 26800 JPY/t-CO2. The results imply that the government is required to be careful about the possible economic burden imposed when considering introducing new, additional standards.

  2. Program Fullerene

    Wirz, Lukas; Peter, Schwerdtfeger,; Avery, James Emil

    2013-01-01

    Fullerene (Version 4.4), is a general purpose open-source program that can generate any fullerene isomer, perform topological and graph theoretical analysis, as well as calculate a number of physical and chemical properties. The program creates symmetric planar drawings of the fullerene graph, an......-Fowler, and Brinkmann-Fowler vertex insertions. The program is written in standard Fortran and C++, and can easily be installed on a Linux or UNIX environment....

  3. Effective Programming

    Frost, Jacob

    To investigate the use of VTLoE as a basis for formal derivation of functional programs with effects. As a part of the process, a number of issues central to effective formal programming are considered. In particular it is considered how to develop a proof system suitable for pratical reasoning......, how to implement this system in the generic proof assistant Isabelle and finally how to apply the logic and the implementation to programming....

  4. Relação vitamina E: vitamina C sobre a qualidade da carne de frangos submetidos ao estresse pré-abate Vitamin E: vitamin C relationship on meat quality of broiler chicken submitted to pre-slaughter stress

    J.I.M. Fernandes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a melhor relação vitamina E:vitamina C em dietas para frangos de corte, visando ao melhor desempenho produtivo e à melhor qualidade da carne das aves submetidas ao estresse pré-abate. Utilizaram-se 800 pintos de corte, machos, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2x4, com dois níveis de suplementação de vitamina E - 0 e 250mg/kg - e quatro de vitamina C - 0, 150, 300 e 450mg/kg. Aos 42 dias de idade, 12 horas ante mortem, amostras de aves de cada tratamento foram submetidas ao estresse por calor e, em seguida, pelo transporte. Foram avaliadas características de desempenho - peso vivo, consumo de ração e conversão alimentar - , bem como rendimento de carcaça e qualidade da carne de peito e coxas - perda de água, cor e pH. Os níveis de vitaminas avaliadas não influenciaram nas características de desempenho avaliadas. Houve menor rendimento de peito (34,2 vs. 34,9% e maior pH inicial (6,3 vs. 6,1 dos cortes, para aves que sofreram estresse em relação àquelas que não foram submetidas ao estresse pré-abate.The best relationship for vitamin E:vitamin C in diets for broilers regarding growth performance and meat quality of birds submitted to pre-slaughter stress was determined. 800 male chicks at one day of age were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2x4 factorial scheme, with two levels of vitamin E supplementation - 0 and 250mg/kg - and four of vitamin C - 0, 150, 300 and 450mg/kg. At 42 days of age, 12 hours ante-mortem, samples of birds from each treatment were submitted to heat stress and then transportation. The performance characteristics evaluated were body weight, feed intake and feed:gain ratio, carcass yield and meat quality of breast and thighs, water loss, color and pH. The levels of vitamins evaluated did not influence the performance characteristics measured. There was a lower breast yield (34.2 vs 34.9% and higher initial pH (6.3 vs 6.1 in the cuts

  5. Análise e monitoramento de pontos críticos no abate de frangos utilizando indicadores microbiológicos Analysis and monitoring of critical points in the poultry slaughter using microbiological indicators

    Augusto César Almeida Rodrigues

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A presença de microrganismos indicadores de contaminação na linha de abate de frangos foi determinada visando identificar os possíveis pontos de controle e oferecer uma opção para o monitoramento ou a verificação pelo sistema "Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle" (APPCC. A contaminação superficial das carcaças foi determinada pela enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos, coliformes totais, coliformes termotolerantes e de Escherichia coli nas seguintes fases de abate: A - antes do primeiro chuveiro de higienização, B - após o primeiro chuveiro, C - após a evisceração manual, D - após o chuveiro de lavagem final e E - na saída do pré-resfriamento. Não houve diferença significativa (PHygiene indicator microorganisms in a poultry slaughter was evaluated during the processing in order to identify potential critical control points and allow options for monitoring or verification by Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP system. Microbiological superficial contamination of chicken carcasses was establish by the enumeration of mesophilic aerobes, total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia coli in the following steps of processing: A - before the first hygienic shower, B - after the first hygienic shower, C - after manual evisceration, D - after final washing shower, and E - after the chiller tank. The mean counts of mesophilic aerobes, total and thermotolerant coliforms was not significantly different (P<0.05 in the steps A, B, C and D. However, the mean values of these microorganisms in step E (after chilling was significantly lower when compared to the one obtained in the other steps. The mean counts of Escherichia coli were not significantly different, independently of the processing step analyzed. The chances of contamination were estimated by Odds Ration, and it was observed that chances were higher in the step A for mesophilic aerobes, and in the step C for coliforms

  6. Programming Interactivity

    Noble, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Make cool stuff. If you're a designer or artist without a lot of programming experience, this book will teach you to work with 2D and 3D graphics, sound, physical interaction, and electronic circuitry to create all sorts of interesting and compelling experiences -- online and off. Programming Interactivity explains programming and electrical engineering basics, and introduces three freely available tools created specifically for artists and designers: Processing, a Java-based programming language and environment for building projects on the desktop, Web, or mobile phonesArduino, a system t

  7. Programming F#

    Smith, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Why learn F#? This multi-paradigm language not only offers you an enormous productivity boost through functional programming, it also lets you develop applications using your existing object-oriented and imperative programming skills. With Programming F#, you'll quickly discover the many advantages of Microsoft's new language, which includes access to all the great tools and libraries of the .NET platform. Learn how to reap the benefits of functional programming for your next project -- whether it's quantitative computing, large-scale data exploration, or even a pursuit of your own. With th

  8. Computer Programs.

    Anderson, Tiffoni

    This module provides information on development and use of a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) software program that seeks to link literacy skills education, safety training, and human-centered design. Section 1 discusses the development of the software program that helps workers understand the MSDSs that accompany the chemicals with which they…

  9. Choreographic Programming

    Montesi, Fabrizio

    , as they offer a concise view of the message flows enacted by a system. For this reason, in the last decade choreographies have been used in the development of programming languages, giving rise to a programming paradigm that in this dissertation we refer to as Choreographic Programming. Recent studies show...... sessions; it remains thus unclear whether choreographies can still guarantee safety when dealing with such nontrivial features. This PhD dissertation argues for the suitability of choreographic programming as a paradigm for the development of safe distributed systems. We proceed by investigating its...... foundations and application. To this aim, we provide three main contributions. The first contribution is the development of a formal model for choreographic programming that supports asynchrony, mobility, modularity, and multiparty sessions. In the model, choreographies are projected to distributed endpoint...

  10. CO{sub 2} capture - technologies for greenhouse gas emissions abatement; Le captage du CO{sub 2} - des technologies pour reduire les emissions de gaz a effet de serre

    Lecomte, F.; Broutin, P.; Lebas, E

    2009-07-01

    CO{sub 2} capture and geologic sequestration is now recognized as one of the technologies to implement for the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions and to fight against global warming. Where, how and at what price CO{sub 2} can be captured? This book tries to answer these questions by taking stock of the state-of-the-art of the technologies needed. It presents the three main ways involving CO{sub 2} capture technologies that have been considered: the post-combustion way which aims at extracting the CO{sub 2} content of industrial smokes; the oxi-combustion way which consists in using oxygen combustion to obtain CO{sub 2}-enriched smokes; and the pre-combustion way which is used to extract carbon from the source fuel for the production of hydrogen. For each of these ways, the technologies available today or under development are described with precision and with their respective costs. (J.S.)

  11. Comparison between a Water-Based and a Solvent-Based Impregnation Method towards Dispersed CuO/SBA-15 Catalysts: Texture, Structure and Catalytic Performance in Automotive Exhaust Gas Abatement

    Qi Xin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Supported copper oxide nanoparticles are a potential candidate for replacing the rare and expensive precious metals within the automotive three-way catalyst. However, a well-designed dispersion method is necessary to allow a stable high loading of active material, compensating its lower intrinsic activity and stability. In this work, a CuO-loaded SBA-15 catalyst has been manufactured by two methods. The ammonia-driven deposition precipitation (ADP and the molecular designed dispersion (MDD methods are both considered as efficient deposition methods to provide well-dispersed copper oxide-based catalysts. Their morphology, copper dispersion and the chemical state of copper were characterized and compared. Due to the differences in the synthesis approach, a difference in the obtained copper oxide phases has been observed, leading to a distinct behavior in the catalytic performance. The structure-activity correlation of both catalysts has also been revealed for automotive exhaust gas abatement. Results demonstrate that various copper species can be formed depending on the precursor–support interaction, affecting selectivity and conversion during the catalytic reaction.

  12. On Guangxi's CO_2 Abatement by Using Catastrophe Progression Method and Scenario Analysis Method%基于突变级数法与情景分析法的广西CO_2减排研究

    蒙瑞海

    2012-01-01

    Based on related indices from the year 1978 to 2009,using catastrophe progression method,Guangxi's CO2 emissions are analyzed and evaluated.By using scenario analysis method,the impact of different scenarios on Guangxi's CO2 emissions is analyzed,and Guangxi's CO2 emissions of year 2015 are forecasted under different scenarios,in order to make reasonable suggestions for Guangxi's CO2 abatement.%依据广西1978—2009年CO2排放的相关指标数据,采用突变级数法对广西1978—2009年CO2减排作出了相关分析评价.在此基础上,运用情景分析法预测不同情景下广西2015年CO2排放,分析不同情景选择对广西CO2排放的影响,以期为广西开展CO2减排提出合理化建议.

  13. 一种降低手臂疲劳的计算机键盘的设计%A Design on Computer Keyboard to Abate the Tiredness of Human Arms

    张晓凡; 张鹏

    2012-01-01

    分析了标准键盘在使用时引起身体疲劳的因素,基于人机工程学的理论,提出了一种降低手臂疲劳的计算机键盘的设计方案。从键盘的整体布局、外形设计、按键的布置等方面提出具体的措施,以此提高键盘操作的舒适性,降低手臂疲劳,提高工作效率。%It analyzed the factors of causing body tiredness using the standard keyboard.Based on the theories of ergonomics,it proposed a design project of computer keyboard to reduce arm tiredness.New ideas for the arrangement,shape and keystroke-position of the keyboard had been brought up and achieved which would improve the comfort,abate the tiredness of arms and eventually enhance the efficiency of work.

  14. Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek Watershed Monitoring Program

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon; Smith, J.G.

    1999-03-01

    Biological monitoring of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, which border the Paducah Site, has been conducted since 1987. Biological monitoring was conducted by University of Kentucky from 1987 to 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 through March 1999. In March 1998, renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permits were issued to the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Enrichment Corporation. The renewed DOE permit requires that a watershed monitoring program be developed for the Paducah Site within 90 days of the effective date of the renewed permit. This plan outlines the sampling and analysis that will be conducted for the watershed monitoring program. The objectives of the watershed monitoring are to (1) determine whether discharges from the Paducah Site and the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) associated with the Paducah Site are adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assess the ecological health of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, (3) assess the degree to which abatement actions ecologically benefit Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek, (4) provide guidance for remediation, (5) provide an evaluation of changes in potential human health concerns, and (6) provide data which could be used to assess the impact of inadvertent spills or fish kill. According to the cleanup will result in these watersheds [Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks] achieving compliance with the applicable water quality criteria.

  15. Programming Python

    Lutz, Mark

    2011-01-01

    If you've mastered Python's fundamentals, you're ready to start using it to get real work done. Programming Python will show you how, with in-depth tutorials on the language's primary application domains: system administration, GUIs, and the Web. You'll also explore how Python is used in databases, networking, front-end scripting layers, text processing, and more. This book focuses on commonly used tools and libraries to give you a comprehensive understanding of Python's many roles in practical, real-world programming. You'll learn language syntax and programming techniques in a clear and co

  16. Influência da castração e da idade de abate sobre as características subjetivas e instrumentais da carne de cordeiros Corriedale Effects of castration and slaughtering age on the subjective and instrumental characteristics of meat from Corriedale lambs

    Eunice de Leon Rota

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da castração e da idade de abate sobre as características subjetivas e instrumentais da carne de cordeiros Corriedale criados em condições extensivas de pastagem natural. Foram utilizados 60 cordeiros machos (30 não-castrados e 30 castrados abatidos no ano de 2003, aos 120, 210 e 360 dias de idade, nos meses de fevereiro, maio e outubro, respectivamente. As avaliações da carne foram realizadas no músculo Longissimus dorsi. Pela análise da variância, verificou-se que não houve efeito da interação castração × idade de abate nas características estudadas. Foi encontrada significância para a idade de abate nas características subjetivas espessura de gordura de cobertura e marmoreio (os índices foram mais baixos nos animais mais velhos e em todas as características instrumentais avaliadas, principalmente maciez, que diminuiu com o aumento da idade de abate. O efeito da castração foi significativo somente no componente de cor L*. A qualidade da carne foi similar entre cordeiros Corriedale castrados e não-castrados criados extensivamente em pastagem natural, entretanto, a idade de abate influenciou a qualidade da carne, que foi melhor nos animais abatidos aos 120 dias.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of castration and slaughtering age on subjective and instrumental characteristics of meat from Corriedale lambs raised on native pasture. Sixty male lambs (30 castrated and 30 intact slaughtered at 120, 210 and 360 days of age were used in this experiment. The Longissimus dorsi muscle was used for all meat evaluations and analysis. No significant castration × slaughtering age interaction was observed for the studied variables. A significant slaughtering age effect was found for meat fat thickness and marbling, which had lower scores in animals slaughtered at more advanced age as well as for all instrumental characteristics of the meat, mainly

  17. Overseas programs

    1983-06-01

    Subprograms of the Overseas Program of the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources are presented and discussed. Topics addressed in the subprograms include volcanology, the geology and geophysics of Southwest Pacific island arcs and structural basins, and antarctic paleomagnetism and geology.

  18. SPOT Program

    Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; Zimmerman, Patrick L.; Khatri, Reshma

    2010-01-01

    A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

  19. Tempo de jejum na granja sobre o perfil hormonal e os parâmetros fisiológicos em suínos de abate pesados Fasting time at farm on hormonal status and physiological parameters of heavy-weight slaughter pigs

    Osmar Antonio Dalla Costa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o tempo de jejum na granja e a posição dos animais na carroceria do caminhão durante o transporte ao abatedouro sobre o status hormonal e fisiológico de suínos de abate pesados visando obter melhorias no manejo pré-abate e reduzir perdas na qualidade de carne. Foram utilizadas 64 fêmeas com peso médio de 133+11kg, oriundas de duas granjas de terminação. Os tempos de jejum avaliados foram nove, 12, 15 e 18h, enquanto que as posições consideradas na carroceria foram box (frente, meio e atrás, piso (inferior e superior e lado (lateral direita e esquerda. Ao abate, foram medidos os níveis de glicose, lactato e CPK no sangue. A concentração de cortisol na saliva (CCS foi medida nas granjas (24 horas antes e após embarque e no abatedouro (logo após o descarregamento e antes do abate. A freqüência cardíaca foi monitorada durante todo o manejo pré-abate. Foi observado o efeito da interação entre TJG e o local de avaliação sobre a CCS e a freqüência cardíaca. A CCS e a freqüência cardíaca aumentaram significativamente da granja ao desembarque no abatedouro em relação ao descanso pré-abate no abatedouro foi observada uma redução (P0,05 os níveis de glicose, lactato e CPK no abate dos suínos.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fasting time on the farm (TJG and the position of the animals on truck compartment during transport to slaughterhouse in the hormonal and physiological status of heavy-weight swine in order to obtain future management improvements and to reduce meat quality downgrades. Sixty-four females obtained from two farms and averaging 133+11kg body weight were used. Fasting time evaluated on farms were 9, 12, 15 and 18 h while the positions considered in the truck were Box (front, middle, and back, Deck (under and upper level e Side (right and left. Swine blood concentration of glucose, lactate and CPK were evaluated at slaughter. Cortisol concentration

  20. Analysis of risk factors for bovine cysticercosis infection: a casecontrol study starting from abated animalsAnálise de fatores de risco para a infecção de cisticercose bovina: estudo de caso controle a partir de animais abatidos

    Paulo Sérgio Arruda Pinto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonotic infection caused by the larval stage of Taenia Saginata, with origins in poor handling conditions and, above all, the environmental contamination caused by man, host of the adult form of the parasite. Knowing the prevalence of bovine cysticercosis is important for the implementation of control programs, however it is important to determine the source of the infection of the animals. In this paper, a study was conducted based on the records of three refrigerators located in the town of Colatina-ES, the addresses of properties, that sent animals to slaughtering, were obtained through the Animal Transit Guide (GTA. The properties were georeferenced for the mapping of the studied region and analysis of the distribution of cases and controls. Risk factors were studied using the information obtained in an epidemiological survey based on questionnaires application at the properties visited, being the size of the properties, the origin of animals, age of animals acquired and sewer destination, the main factors associated to the infection. The diagnosis of cysticercosis in the slaughterhouse, plus the information of the animal source, allowed defining the areas of disease occurrence and its quantification. Proving to be an important indicator for the establishment of effective programs to combat the parasite. A cisticercose bovina é uma infecção zoonótica causada pelo estágio larval da Taenia saginata. A infecção é favorecida pela contaminação ambiental provocada pelo próprio homem, hospedeiro da forma adulta do parasito e por condições inadequadas de manejo. O conhecimento da prevalência da cisticercose bovina é importante para a implantação de programas de controle, para isto é fundamental determinar a fonte de infecção dos animais. Neste trabalho, foi realizado estudo a partir dos registros da cisticercose de três frigoríficos localizados no município de Colatina-ES. Por meio da guia de tr

  1. Mophologic Analysis of the teeth and his relation with the slaughter age of buffalos ANÁLISE MORFOLÓGICA DOS DENTES E SUA RELAÇÃO COM A IDADE DE ABATE DE BÚFALOS

    Francisco Carneiro Lima

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available t was evaluated to the morphology of the incisors teeth of 100 buffaloes of slaughterhouses in Sao Luiz, seeking to relate them with your age of slaughter. The dental arches of the buffalos were taken to the laboratory of Anatomy/UEMA, for analysis of the incisors teeth. The results showed that the incisors teeth was composed for 4 pair, disposed in semicircle, denominated of 1ts, 2nd, 3rt and 4th pairs of incisors teeth (tweezers, first medium, seconds medium and songs. It was evidenced two teethings, deciduous and definitive, with forms and varied sizes, and variables levels of dental wear and tear, besides the presence of longitudinal grooves in the surface of the deciduous and definitive teeth with coloration varying from brown clear to darkness. With the dental analysis it was possible to distinguish five groups of animals that are depressed in the Maranhão and the group of smaller animals than 2.5 years and larger than 5.5 years were the more frequently observed. After morphologic and chronological evaluation of the incisors teeth of buffaloes, it was conclude that the buffaloes present a dental morphology similar the others ruminants and that, in function of the dental observation, the depressed buffaloes in Maranhão don’t follow pattern defined for discard.

    KEY WORD: Anatomy, buffaloes, teeth, slaughter.

    Avaliou-se a morfologia dos dentes incisivos de cem bubalinos adultos abatidos em matadouros do município de São Luís, Maranhão, visando relacioná-los com a idade de seu abate. Coletaram-se as arcadas dentárias desses animais, as quais foram levadas para o laboratório de Anatomia do Curso de Medicina Veterinária/UEMA, para análise dos dentes incisivos. Os resultados mostraram

  2. NO{sub x}-abatement in bio-fuelled combustion units through catalytic reburning; Minskning av NO{sub x}-emissioner fraan biobraensleeldade anlaeggningar genom katalytisk reburning

    Silversand, F.A. [Katator AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2000-03-01

    A study concerning the possibility of using catalytic reburning in the abatement of nitrogen oxides from bio-fuelled combustion units has been accomplished. In catalytic reburning, the fuel is combusted at a low excess-air-ratio to minimize the necessary amount of reburning gas added downstream the combustion chamber. The reburning fuel (a reducing agent, e.g. natural gas or LPG) will react catalytically with oxygen and nitrogen oxides in the reburning catalyst to produce carbon oxides, water and nitrogen. Secondary air is injected downstream the reburning catalyst to facilitate an effective combustion of remaining CO and hydrocarbons in the oxidation catalyst, usually in a tail-end position. Experiments were carried out in a small-scale combustion unit (10-20 kW{sub fuel} for pellets of bio-fuel). The results indicate possible conversion degrees of 90% with respect to nitrogen oxides, without increased emissions of CO and hydrocarbons. The economic evaluation indicates a great sensitivity to the price of the reburning fuel. Problems with uneven flow conditions and concentration gradients are expected to reduce the performance of catalytic reburning. Damages caused by corrosion at low oxygen concentrations are likely to occur in positions with high metal temperatures, e.g. in the super-heater-portion of the flue-gas-channel. Hydrocarbon-SCR is an alternative method to obtain a reasonable reduction of the emissions of nitrogen oxides. Small amounts of certain hydrocarbons (e.g. LPG) are added to the flue-gas-stream at a normal excess-air-ratio to obtain a conversion degree of 50 - 70% over a transition-metal-exchanged zeolite catalyst. Continued experiments should focus on installations in large bio-fuelled appliances, where a detailed technical and economical evaluation is possible. Especially catalyst deactivation needs to be evaluated further.

  3. Aplicação do programa Seis Sigma em uma indústria de abate de frangos - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v32i2.527

    Roselis Natalina Mazzuchetti

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, a indústria de abate de frango busca fortalecer seus processos, visando atender às necessidades de mercado e, para contribuir com o desenvolvimento desses processos, novos métodos têm sido implantados, entre os quais se destaca o programa Seis Sigma. O presente estudo mostra a utilização deste Programa em um abatedouro de frangos com o objetivo de demonstrar as melhores práticas para a definição e condução de um projeto centrado na melhoria da qualidade dos processos. Para tanto, foram definidos a metodologia e os critérios para a identificação de problemas e a seleção de projetos, além de se ter aplicado o programa Seis Sigma com a utilização do DMAIC em um projeto previamente selecionado, buscando-se demonstrar o desenvolvimento do Programa e utilizando-se mapa de raciocínio. A aplicação do projeto é demonstrada em seis fases, por meio de um mapa de raciocínio para cada fase ou etapa do programa, que detalha as técnicas estatísticas utilizadas até a fase do plano de ação. As fases de verificação e padronização dos processos não são contempladas neste estudo. Os resultados finais demonstram os benefícios da utilização do Programa e a importância da manutenção de banco de dados com o envolvimento das pessoas para o seu sucesso.

  4. Programming Algol

    Malcolme-Lawes, D J

    2014-01-01

    Programming - ALGOL describes the basics of computer programming using Algol. Commands that could be added to Algol and could increase its scope are described, including multiplication and division and the use of brackets. The idea of labeling or naming a command is also explained, along with a command allowing two alternative results. Most of the important features of Algol syntax are discussed, and examples of compound statements (that is, sets of commands enclosed by a begin ... end command) are given.Comprised of 11 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the digital computer an

  5. Programming Interactivity

    Noble, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Ready to create rich interactive experiences with your artwork, designs, or prototypes? This is the ideal place to start. With this hands-on guide, you'll explore several themes in interactive art and design-including 3D graphics, sound, physical interaction, computer vision, and geolocation-and learn the basic programming and electronics concepts you need to implement them. No previous experience is necessary. You'll get a complete introduction to three free tools created specifically for artists and designers: the Processing programming language, the Arduino microcontroller, and the openFr

  6. Simulação da dinâmica operacional de uma linha industrial de abate de suínos Dynamic operacional simulation of an industrial slaughterline for swine

    Carlos Aparecido Fernandes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo implementar um modelo computacional para simular a dinâmica operacional de uma linha industrial de abate de suínos. O sistema real modelado pertence à empresa Frigorífico Frimesa, sediada no município de Medianeira (PR. O modelo implementado é tipo dinâmico, discreto e estocástico. Este simula 34 operações unitárias e foi estruturado com o uso da linguagem de simulação EXTEND TM. Para validação do modelo foram coletados dados relativos a cinco dias de operação, em que foram abatidos 1.346, 1.630, 1.360, 1.585 e 1.550 suínos, respectivamente. Como parâmetros de comparação entre os dados obtidos a partir do sistema e gerados pelo modelo foram selecionadas as seguintes variáveis: (i tempo de duração da operação; (ii tempo de deslocamento da insensibilização até a depiladeira; (iii tempo deslocamento da insensibilização até a câmara fria; (iv número de carcaças re-inspecionadas; e (v número final de carcaças. Na validação do modelo, foi constatado que, para a variável tempo de duração da operação por meio do teste Tukey a 1% de significância, não foram detectadas diferenças estatísticas entre os valores obtidos do sistema real e os gerados pelo modelo. Considerando-se esta e outras análises, foi concluído que o modelo aplica-se à finalidade para a qual foi implementado. Sendo assim, foram realizadas duas análises de sensibilidade. Na primeira, ao alterar o número de suínos a abater de 1 mil para 2 mil, foi determinado que os tempos de duração da operação variariam de 6,20 a 10,10 h, respectivamente. Para a segunda, ao abater 1.340 suínos e alterar a velocidade das nórias de 300 para 600 animais por hora, o tempo de duração da operação passou de 8,10 para 7,40 h, respectivamente.This work was carried out with the objective to implement a computational model for simulating the dynamics of an industrial slaughtering for swine. Modeled real system belongs

  7. Constraint Programming versus Mathematical Programming

    Hansen, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) is a relatively new technique from the 80's with origins in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Lately, much research have been focused on ways of using CLP within the paradigm of Operations Research (OR) and vice versa. The purpose of this paper...

  8. Linear programming

    Karloff, Howard

    1991-01-01

    To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...

  9. Marginal Carbon Abatement Cost Estimation Based on the DDF Dynamic Analysis Model——Taking Tianjin for Example%基于DDF动态分析模型的边际碳减排成本估算——以天津市为例

    陈立芸; 刘金兰; 王仙雅; 张臻

    2014-01-01

    天津市拟在2015年基本完善碳排放权交易市场,研究纳入交易范围的行业边际碳减排成本,能够为碳排放权定价提供参考依据.本文在方向向量中引入了时间、“十二五”规划发展目标以及单位国内生产总值CO2排放下降指标等因素,运用非参数方向距离函数(Directional Distance Function,DDF)方法,构建动态分析模型,估算2015年天津市28个CO2排放相对较高行业的边际碳减排成本,为天津市实施CO2减排、确定碳排放权价格等提供数据支撑.%The carbon emissions trading market will be established basically in Tianjin in 2015.Research on the marginal carbon abatement cost of different industries within trading range can provide a reference for pricing of carbon emission permits.In this paper,the time factor and "12th Five-Year" Plan Development Goals are introduced into the direction vector,and a dynamic analysis model based on the non-parametric directional distance function is built to estimate marginal carbon abatement costs of 28 industries which release relatively high CO2.The result can provide data support for implementing carbon emission abatement and determine the price of carbon emission permits in Tianjin.

  10. Assesing the Impact of Local Incentives on Capital Cost: The Case of the Indiana Era Program

    Esteban G. DALEHITE

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Public policy makers and administrators around the world recurrently face the question of whether to grant tax privileges to businesses in order to promote investment, jobs, or economic development in general. This article analyzes a very popular form of local incentive, the property tax abatement, and its ability to reduce capital cost. The research question is: By how much do property tax abatements reduce the capital cost of business and homes? Results show that abatements can account for quite a large range of possible percentage reductions in the price of investment for firms. The findings provide public administrators and policy makers with data and a tool to assess the benefits that firms derive from abatements. This in turn can contribute to more informed abatement decisions and to an overall assessment concerning the suitability of this tool to promote economic development.

  11. Evaluation of energy efficiency in plants of thermal waste treatment. Statement of the committee VDI 3460 of the commission on air pollution abatement of VDI and DIN - Standardization committee KRdL; Bewertung der Energieeffizienz in Anlagen zur thermischen Abfallbehandlung. Stellungnahme des Ausschusses VDI 3460 der Kommission Reinhaltung der Luft im VDI und DIN - Normenausschuss KRdL

    Beckmann, M. [Bauhaus-Univ. Weimar (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verfahren und Umwelt; Scholz, R. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie- und Verfahrenstechnik

    2007-07-01

    In the year 2006, the commission on air pollution abatement of VDI and DIN submitted the concept of the regulation VDI 3460 with the title ''Reduction of emissions - energy conversion during the thermal waste treatment''. This regulation describes the methodical determination of the energy efficiency in thermal waste treatment plants. The inclusion of the calculation equation into the concept of the regulation mentioned above is not appropriate. For this, the contribution under consideration supplies five substantial points of criticism. Altogether, the proposal of determining the energy efficiency according to the concept of the regulation mentioned above does not correspond to scientific realizations and practical experiences.

  12. Firm′s Optimal Production Decision with Exogenous Abatement Policy%外生减排政策约束下企业最优生产决策分析

    涂强; 李炳丽

    2015-01-01

    通过构建企业利润最大化的动态最优控制模型,分析了企业分别在单一碳限额政策、单一碳税政策,以及由碳税和碳限额组成的混合政策下的生产决策问题。研究表明,相对于单一碳限额政策,混合政策能更早实现目标碳限额量;而相对于单一碳税政策,混合政策下的CO2排放量更小。企业产量在单一碳税政策下随碳税率的递增而递减,而在混合政策下存在碳税率阈值,政府制定的碳税率大于(小于)该阈值时,企业产量随碳税率的增加而增加(减少);最后通过数值模拟验证了所得结论的有效性。%An optimal control model was established to maximize the firm′s profits.The firm′s optimal production decision was analyzed under three different exogenous abatement policies:the carbon tax policy , the carbon constraints policy , and the hy-brid policy of carbon tax and carbon constraints .The results indicate that the firm′s CO2 emissions under the hybrid policy reach the carbon constraints earlier than that under the carbon constraints policy , and CO2 emissions under the hybrid policy are less than that under the carbon tax policy .In addition, the firm′s outputs are declining with the increase of carbon tax rate under the carbon tax policy .However , under the hybrid policy , there exists a threshold .When the carbon tax rate designed by the govern-ment is more (less) than this threshold, the firm′s output are increasing (decreasing) with the increase of carbon tax rate.Fi-nally, one numerical example was given to illustrate the effectiveness of these proposed models .

  13. Avaliação nutricional de dietas contendo farelo de coco fornecido a coelhos destinados ao abate = Nutritional evaluation of diets containing coconut bran supplied to slaughter rabbits

    Cecília Aurea Vasconcelos de Haponik

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou a utilização do farelo de coco (FC na alimentação de coelhos destinados ao abate. No ensaio de desempenho utilizaram-se 60 coelhos com 43 dias de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC com cinco tratamentos, sendo 12 repetições por tratamento e duração de 42 dias, com inclusão de FC nos níveis de 0; 6,25; 12,5; 18,75 e 25%. Para o ensaio de digestibilidade das dietas usou-se o DIC com cinco tratamentos e três repetições, tendo a duração de cinco dias. Observou-se, entre os tratamentos estudados, excluindo-se o nível zero, que não houve efeito significativo (p > 0,05, sobre as características de ganho de peso e ganho de peso diário. Houve efeito quadrático (p This work evaluated the use of coconut bran (CB in the feeding of slaughter rabbits. For the performance trial, 60 rabbits with 43 days of age were used, distributed in a CRD with 5 treatments, with 12 replications per treatment, lasting 42 days, with the inclusion of CB in the levels of 0, 6.25, 12.5, 18.75 and 25%. To test the digestibility of the diets used o CRD with five treatments and three replications during five days. In the performance test, there was no significant effect (p > 0.05 for the characteristics of weight gain, daily weight gain among the treatments, excluding the zero level. There was a quadratic effect (p < 0.05, among the treatments, excluding the zero level, for daily average intake and feed conversion. The average feed intake was different from the control (diets without CB in the levels of 18.75 and 25%. The CB showed high values for digestibility coefficients (DC of gross energy, crude protein and ether extract, an can be indicated in the diet until the 25% level in relation to food conversion and diets with increasing levels of CB. It has the benefit of improved DE; however, it presents reduction in the CDCP.

  14. Correlações entre características de carcaça avaliadas por ultra-som e pós-abate em novilhos Nelore, alimentados com altas proporções de concentrado

    Silva Saulo da Luz e

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar correlações entre medidas in vivo obtidas por ultra-som (US e algumas características de carcaça. Foram utilizados 22 novilhos Nelore, com peso e idade médios de 279 kg e 24 meses, confinados por 98 dias e alimentados com dietas com elevada proporção de concentrado. O peso vivo, a área olho de lombo (AOLU e a espessura de gordura subcutânea (EGSU por US sobre o músculo "Longissimus dorsi" entre a 12feminine e 13feminine costelas, foram coletados a cada 28 dias. Foi utilizado um equipamento de US Piemedical Scanner 200 VET, com transdutor linear de 18 cm. Após o abate, foi tomado o peso de carcaça quente (PCQ e da gordura renal, pélvica e inguinal (GRPI e calculado o rendimento de carcaça (RC. Após 24 horas de resfriamento, foi medida a área de olho de lombo (AOLC e a espessura de gordura subcutânea (EGSC entre a 12feminine e 13feminine costelas, na carcaça. Tanto a AOLC quanto a EGSC foram subestimadas pelas medidas de US. Foram estimados coeficientes de correlação de Pearson para AOL e EGS medidas na carcaça e por US que foram 0,74 e 0,87, respectivamente. Foram obtidas também correlações de 0,27 entre RC e AOLU , 0,42 entre RC e AOLC, -0,30 entre RC e EGSU e -0,29 entre RC e EGSC. A GRPI apresentou uma correlação de 0,48 tanto com EGSC quanto com EGSU. Também foi estimada a correlação de Spearman entre AOLU e AOLC e EGSU e EGSC, obtendo-se valores de 0,89 e 0,77, respectivamente.

  15. Carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative e DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry em lombo suíno numa linha de abate industrial Meats PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative and DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry of an industrial slaughterline for swine loin

    Magali Bernardes Maganhini

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade para uma maior produção de carne magra em suínos tem acarretado modificações nas características bioquímicas do músculo conduzindo ao desenvolvimento das anomalias nas suas cores, as denominadas carnes PSE e DFD. Estas carnes por apresentarem alterações de suas propriedades funcionais, resultam em grandes perdas econômicas. Nesse experimento, foram utilizadas 946 amostras de Longissimus dorsi m., lombos de suínos da linhagem Dalland, machos castrados e fêmeas, com 100 dias de idade, em um Frigorífico localizado na Região Sul do País. Os lombos foram classificados com base no valor de L*24 h e pH24 h. Foi constatada uma incidência de 22,8% de carnes PSE, 1,0% de DFD e 76,2% de normal. Esses valores relativamente altos de carnes PSE mostram a necessidade de se realizar controles no seu manejo pré e pós-abate para a manutenção da qualidade da carne e evitar o excessivo prejuízo econômico dos frigoríficos decorrentes dessas anormalidades.The needs of higher production of low fat pork have conducted changes on the muscle biochemical characteristics leading to color abnormality producing so-called PSE and DFD meats. The consequence is a relevant economical loss due to the impairment of meat functional properties. In this experiment, 946 samples of Longissimus dorsi m. from barrows and gilts of Dalland lineage, of 100 days of age, were evaluated in a pork abattoir located in the south of Brazil. Samples were classified based on the L*24 h e pH24 h values. Results showed the occurrence of 22.8% of PSE meat, 1.0% de DFD meat and 76.2% of normal meat. These relatively higher values for PSE show undoubtedly the needs to carry out pre- and post-mortem management in order to maintain meat quality thus avoiding the excessive economic cost due to these meat abnormalities.

  16. Comparative evaluation of the efficiency of low-cost adsorbents and ligninolytic fungi to remove a combination of xenoestrogens and pesticides from a landfill leachate and abate its phytotoxicity.

    Loffredo, Elisabetta; Castellana, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, two widely available low-cost adsorbents, almond shells and a green compost, and two ligninolytic fungi, Pleurotus ostreatus and Stereum hirsutum, were used to remove organic contaminants from a landfill leachate (LLe) and abate its phytotoxicity. The methodology adopted was based on the occurrence of two simultaneous processes, such as adsorption and bioremoval. The leachate was artificially contaminated with a mixture of the xenoestrogens bisphenol A (BPA), ethynilestadiol (EE2) and 4-n-nonylphenol (NP), the herbicide linuron and the insecticide dimethoate at concentrations of 10, 1, 1, 10 and 10 mg L(-1), respectively. Three adsorption substrates were prepared: potato dextrose agar alone or the same incorporating each adsorbent. The substrates were either not inoculated or inoculated with each fungus, separately, before to be superimposed on LLe. After 2 months, the residual amount of each contaminant, the electrical conductivity, the pH and the content of total phenols were measured in treated LLe. Germination assays using lettuce, ryegrass and radish were performed to evaluate LLe phytotoxicity. The combination substrate+P. ostreatus showed the best results with average removals of 88, 96, 99, 58 and 46% for BPA, EE2, NP, linuron and dimethoate, respectively. The same treatment considerably reduced the phenol content in LLe compared to no treatment. The combination substrate+S. hirsutum produced average removals of 39, 71, 100, 61 and 32% for BPA, EE2, NP, linuron and dimethoate, respectively. Also uninoculated substrates showed relevant adsorption capacities towards the five contaminants. Most treatments significantly reduced LLe phytotoxicity, especially on lettuce. The best results were obtained with the treatment compost+S. hirsutum, which produced root and shoot lengths and seedling biomass of lettuce, respectively, 2.3, 3.3, and 1.9 times those measured in untreated LLe. In general, germination results were negatively correlated with LLe

  17. Programming Razor

    Chadwick, Jess

    2011-01-01

    Take Razor for a test drive and discover first hand how this scripting syntax simplifies the way you create dynamic, data-driven websites. With this concise guide, you'll work with Razor syntax by building example websites with Microsoft WebMatrix and ASP.NET MVC. You'll quickly learn how Razor lets you combine code and content in a fluid and expressive manner on Windows-based servers. Programming Razor also explores components of the Razor API, and shows you how Razor templates are turned into rendered HTML. By the end of this book, you'll be able to create Razor-based websites with custom

  18. Programming Pig

    Gates, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This guide is an ideal learning tool and reference for Apache Pig, the open source engine for executing parallel data flows on Hadoop. With Pig, you can batch-process data without having to create a full-fledged application-making it easy for you to experiment with new datasets. Programming Pig introduces new users to Pig, and provides experienced users with comprehensive coverage on key features such as the Pig Latin scripting language, the Grunt shell, and User Defined Functions (UDFs) for extending Pig. If you need to analyze terabytes of data, this book shows you how to do it efficiently

  19. Evaluation of the Eological Management and Enhancement Alernative for Remediation of the K1007-P1 Pond

    Peterson, M.J.

    2005-10-31

    An evaluation of the human and ecological risks associated with the P1 Pond and surrounding environs was conducted as part of the ETTP Site-Wide Remedial Investigation. The RI provides the basis for the focus on PCBs as the most important unacceptable risk to human and ecological health in the pond. Other P1 contaminants, media, or pathways of risk to receptors are identified in the RI, but are not addressed as a major risk reduction goal for the ETTP Site-Wide Feasibility Study. Therefore, the goal of the Ecological Management alternative is to reduce unacceptable risks associated with PCBs in fish. Many of the actions proposed for this alternative, however, are likely to reduce risks associated with other contaminants and their pathways. The high PCB concentrations in fish from the P1 Pond are most certainly due in part to the current ecological condition of the pond that maximizes PCB biomagnification. This basic assumption and the factors contributing to it were evaluated by conducting an intensive field study of the P1 Pond in the summer of 2004 (for a thorough presentation of current P1 Pond biological conditions, see Peterson et al. 2005). Major hypotheses regarding the P1 Pond's current fish community, PCB fate and transport processes, pond vegetation, and limnological conditions that contribute to the high PCB levels in fish were validated by the study (Appendix A), The results of the 2004 ecological assessment, in concert with long-term datasets obtained as part of the ETTP Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) and recent abiotic sampling for the RI, provide the basis for the assessment of current conditions.

  20. Report on the Watershed Monitoring Program at the Paducah Site January-December 1998

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1999-03-01

    Watershed Monitoring of Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks has been conducted since 1987. The monitoring was conducted by the University of Kentucky between 1987 and 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 to present. The goals of monitoring are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for DOE protect and maintain the use of Little Bayour and Big Bayou creeks for frowth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, and (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota. The watershed (biological) monitoring discussed in this report was conducted under DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program. Future monitoring will be conducted as required by the Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permit issued to the Department of Energy (DOE) in March 1998. A draft Watershed Monitoring Program plan was approved by the Kentucky Division of Water and will be finalized in 1999. The DOE permit also requires toxicity monitoring of one continuous outfall and of three intermittent outfalls on a quarterly basis. The Watershed Monitoring Program for the Paducah Site during calendar year 1998 consisted of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of fish communities. This report focuses on ESD activities occurring from january 1998 to December 1998, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  1. Geothermal Technologies Program Overview - Peer Review Program

    Milliken, JoAnn [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-06-06

    This Geothermal Technologies Program presentation was delivered on June 6, 2011 at a Program Peer Review meeting. It contains annual budget, Recovery Act, funding opportunities, upcoming program activities, and more.

  2. Helicopter Noise And Noise Abatement Procedures

    Borivoj Galović

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The helicopter generated noise at and around the airports islower than the noise generated by aeroplanes, since their numberof operations, i. e. the number of takeoffs and landings ismuch lower than the takeoffs and landings of the aeroplanes.Out of some hundred operations a day, helicopters participatewith approximately 15%, but the very impact of noise is by nomeans negligible, since the number of helicopter flights aboveurban areas is constantly increasing.This paper attempts to analyse this phenomenon and thetype of helicopter generated noise, its negative impacts, to explainthe flight procedures and the operative procedures duringtakeoff, landing and overflight of helicopters in operations inthe vicinity and outside airports, as well as the methods of measuringand determining the limit of noise [eve~ and the resultingproblems.

  3. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    Wysk, S.R. [LSR Technologies, Inc., Acton, MA (United States); Surowka, J. [Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency, Katowice (Poland)

    1995-11-01

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered top priorities in Poland. The magnitude of environmental problems and public awareness of it has forced the Polish government to implement more aggressive regulatory controls. The extent of this condition has in fact prompted the government to designate pollution control a a top priority for foreign investment. During the past five years, Poland has also made significant progress in reorienting its central-planned economy to one based on open market principals. Efforts to decentralize has led to the privatization of many government-owned businesses with a concomitant shift in buying decisions to privately-owned enterprises. This movement toward privatizing the economy along with cleaning and protecting the environment has created numerous business opportunities for both Polish and foreign companies. As a result, there has been a drastic downsizing of large formerly state-owned companies. And, new startups and small businesses have become the main hope in reviving the Polish economy.

  4. Greenhouse gas abatement strategies for animal husbandry

    Monteny, G.J.; Bannink, A.; Chadwick, D.

    2006-01-01

    Agriculture contributes significantly to the anthropogenic emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide. In this paper, a review is presented of the agriculture related sources of methane and nitrous oxide, and of the main strategies for mitigation. The rumen is the most important

  5. Tylosin abatement in water by photocatalytic process.

    Alatrache, A; Laoufi, N A; Pons, M N; Van Deik, J; Zahraa, O

    2010-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of a macrolide (tylosin) has been studied using immobilized titanium dioxide as photocatalyst in a laboratory reactor under UV illumination (365 nm). The degradation of the antibiotic and of the reaction intermediary product was monitored by UV spectrophotometry and HPLC. Three photocatalysts (P25 from Degussa and PC105 and PC500 from Millennium) immobilized on glass plates were compared. A slightly better degradation was obtained with P25. Then the tylosin degradation kinetics were investigated with the P25 photocatalyst. The kinetic model of Langmuir-Hinshelwood is satisfactorily obeyed at initial time and in the course of the reaction. Adsorption and apparent rate constants were determined. These results suggest that, although an intermediary by-product was detected during the reaction, complete degradation of tylosin can be achieved, which confirms the feasibility of such a photocatalytic treatment for tylosin elimination from wastewater.

  6. Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    David W. DePaoli; Ofodike A. Ezekoye; Costas Tsouris; Valmor F. de Almeida

    2003-01-28

    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electriexecy driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume.

  7. Tylosin abatement in water by photocatalytic process

    Laoufi, N A; Pons, Marie-Noëlle; Zahraa, Orfan

    2009-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of tylosin has been studied using immobilized titanium dioxide as catalyst. T he processes of degradation and reduction of tylosin was examined, and the activity is dominantly dependent on the surface coverage of the catalysts, The Langmuir-Hinshelwood model is satisfactorily obeyed at initial time and in the course of the reaction. These results suggest the feasibility of a photocatalytic system on the elimination of such antibiotic.

  8. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    Wysk, R.

    1995-12-31

    Among the many strategies for improving air quality in Krakow, one possible method is to adapt new and improved emission control technology. This project focuses on such a strategy. In order to reduce dust emissions from coal-fueled boilers, a new device called a Core Separator has been introduced in several boiler house applications. This advanced technology has been successfully demonstrated in Poland and several commercial units are now in operation. Particulate emissions from the Core Separator are typically 3 to 5 times lower than those from the best cyclone collectors. It can easily meet the new standard for dust emissions which will be in effect in Poland after 1997. The Core Separator is a completely inertial collector and is based on a unique recirculation method. It can effectively remove dust particles below 10 microns in diameter, the so-called PM-10 emissions. Its performance approaches that of fabric filters, but without the attendant cost and maintenance. It is well-suited to the industrial size boilers located in Krakow. Core Separators are now being marketed and sold by EcoInstal, one of the leading environmental firms in Poland, through a cooperative agreement with LSR Technologies.

  9. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

    1991-09-20

    Reburning is examined as a means of NO{sub x} destruction in a 17 kW down-fired pulverized coal combustor. In reburning, a secondary fuel is introduced downstream of the primary flame to produce a reducing zone, favorable to NO destruction, and air is introduced further downstream to complete the combustion. Emphasis is on natural gas reburning and a bituminous coal primary flame. A parametric examination of reburning employing a statistical experimental design, is conducted, complemented by detailed experiments. Mechanisms governing the inter-conversion of nitrogenous species in the fuel rich reburn zone is explored. The effect of reburning on N{sub 2}O emissions, the effect of primary flame mode (premixed and diffusion) and the effect of distributing the reburning fuel, are also investigated.

  10. Abatement of trichloroethylene using DBD plasma

    Vesali-Naseh, M.; Xu, S.; Xu, L.; Khodadadi, A.; Mortazavi, Y.; Ostrikov, K.

    2014-08-01

    Dielectric barrier discharge plasma was used to oxidize trichloroethylene (TCE) in 21% of O2 in carriers of N2 and He. The degradation products of TCE were analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. TCE was decomposed completely at optimum energy density of 260 and 300 J/l for He and N2, respectively and its conversion followed zero order reaction. The TCE removal efficiency is decreased in humid air due to interception of reactive intermediates by OH radicals.

  11. Human Reliability Program Overview

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  12. Functional Python programming

    Lott, Steven

    2015-01-01

    This book is for developers who want to use Python to write programs that lean heavily on functional programming design patterns. You should be comfortable with Python programming, but no knowledge of functional programming paradigms is needed.

  13. Stop smoking support programs

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... It is hard to quit smoking if you are acting alone. Smokers may have a ... of quitting with a support program. Stop smoking programs ...

  14. Energy efficiency programs and policies in the industrial sector in industrialized countries

    Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst

    2004-06-01

    About 37% of the primary energy consumed both in the U.S. and globally is used by the industrial sector. A variety of energy efficiency policies and programs have been implemented throughout the world in an effort to improve the energy efficiency of this sector. This report provides an overview of these policies and programs in twelve industrialized nations and the European Union (EU). We focus on energy efficiency products and services that are available to industrial consumers, such as reports, guidebooks, case studies, fact sheets, profiles, tools, demonstrations, roadmaps and benchmarking. We also focus on the mechanisms to communicate the availability and features of these products and services and to disseminate them to the industrial consumers who can use them. Communication channels include customer information centers and websites, conferences and trade shows, workshops and other training mechanisms, financial assistance programs, negotiated agreements, newsletters, publicity, assessments, tax and subsidy schemes and working groups. In total, over 30 types of industrial sector energy efficiency products, services and delivery channels have been identified in the countries studied. Overall, we found that the United States has a large variety of programs and offers industry a number of supporting programs for improving industrial energy efficiency. However, there are some products and services found in other industrialized countries that are not currently used in the U.S., including benchmarking programs, demonstration of commercialized technologies and provision of energy awareness promotion materials to companies. Delivery mechanisms found in other industrialized countries that are not employed in the U.S. include negotiated agreements, public disclosure and national-level tax abatement for energy-efficient technologies.

  15. Behavioral program synthesis with genetic programming

    Krawiec, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Genetic programming (GP) is a popular heuristic methodology of program synthesis with origins in evolutionary computation. In this generate-and-test approach, candidate programs are iteratively produced and evaluated. The latter involves running programs on tests, where they exhibit complex behaviors reflected in changes of variables, registers, or memory. That behavior not only ultimately determines program output, but may also reveal its `hidden qualities' and important characteristics of the considered synthesis problem. However, the conventional GP is oblivious to most of that information and usually cares only about the number of tests passed by a program. This `evaluation bottleneck' leaves search algorithm underinformed about the actual and potential qualities of candidate programs. This book proposes behavioral program synthesis, a conceptual framework that opens GP to detailed information on program behavior in order to make program synthesis more efficient. Several existing and novel mechanisms subs...

  16. Qualidade da água de córrego em função do lançamento de efluente de abate de bovino Water quality of stream due to release of effluent from cattle slaughter

    Erlon A. Ribeiro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a influência do lançamento de efluente de um frigorífico de abate de bovinos sobre a qualidade da água do córrego Jurubatuba, Anápolis, GO. Analisaram-se: o efluente tratado antes do lançamento no córrego e a água do córrego 50 m à montante e 50 e 500 m à jusante do ponto de lançamento. Foram realizadas oito coletas no período seco (08/07 a 24/09/09 e oito no chuvoso (01/10 a 03/12/09 quantificando o pH, turbidez, oxigênio dissolvido, saturação de oxigênio, carbono orgânico total, cloro, alumínio, amônia, cobre, manganês, ferro total, fósforo total, sulfeto, sódio, demanda biológica de oxigênio, demanda química de oxigênio, nitrogênio total, condutividade elétrica, nitrato e nitrito. Os valores de pH, NH3-, Zn+, sulfeto, NO3-, e cloreto nos dois períodos e em todos os pontos analisados no córrego, atenderam aos critérios para água de classe 2; o Na+, NH3-, carbono orgânico total, P total, CE e NO3-, aumentaram nos pontos após o lançamento do efluente. A turbidez, Al e o Mg no efluente tratado foram, nos períodos seco e chuvoso, maiores ao permitido para corpos hídricos de classe 2; o Fe total no efluente apresentou risco médio para uso na irrigação.The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of release of effluent from a cattle slaughter house on water quality of Jurubatuba stream, in Anápolis - Goiás. The treated effluent before release into the stream, the stream water at 50 m upstream, and 50 and 500 m downstream from the launch place were analysed. Eight samples were taken during the dry season (08/07 to 24/09/2009 and eight in the rainy season (01/10 to 03/12/2009, quantifying pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen saturation, total organic carbon, chlorine, aluminum, ammonia, copper, manganese, total iron, total phosphorus, sulfate, sodium, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, electrical conductivity, nitrate and

  17. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1993 to December 1994

    Kszos, L.A. [ed.

    1996-05-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The PGDP BMP was implemented in 1987 by the University of Kentucky. Research staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) served as reviewers and advisers to the University of Kentucky. Beginning in fall 1991, ESD added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The goals of BMP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota, and (4) recommend any program improvements that would increase effluent treatability. In September 1992, a renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permit was issued to PGDP. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report includes ESD activities occurring from December 1993 to December 1994, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  18. Purely Functional Structured Programming

    Obua, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The idea of functional programming has played a big role in shaping today's landscape of mainstream programming languages. Another concept that dominates the current programming style is Dijkstra's structured programming. Both concepts have been successfully married, for example in the programming language Scala. This paper proposes how the same can be achieved for structured programming and PURELY functional programming via the notion of LINEAR SCOPE. One advantage of this proposal is that m...

  19. System programming languages

    ŠMIT, MATEJ

    2016-01-01

    Most operating systems are written in the C programming language. Similar is with system software, for example, device drivers, compilers, debuggers, disk checkers, etc. Recently some new programming languages emerged, which are supposed to be suitable for system programming. In this thesis we present programming languages D, Go, Nim and Rust. We defined the criteria which are important for deciding whether programming language is suitable for system programming. We examine programming langua...

  20. Technical and economic evaluation of emission abatement options of HFC{sub s}, PFC{sub s} and SF{sub 6}. The case of Finland; HFC- ja PFC-yhdisteiden sekae SF6:n paeaestoejen tekniset vaehentaemiskeinot ja niiden kustannukset Suomessa

    Oinonen, T.; Soimakallio, S. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    2001-07-01

    Emissions of the so called new greenhouse gases - HFC{sub s}, PFC{sub s} and SF6 - are expected to grow globally in the near future. Sources, magnitudes and projections of future emissions differ significantly between countries, mainly due to structural differences between countries' industries, as well as the rate and phase of the substitution of ozone depleting substances by HFC{sub s} and PFC{sub s}. This study focuses on Finnish emissions of the new greenhouse gases, the projected growth in emissions, and the resulting need to reduce these emissions. Currently, emissions of new greenhouse gases amount to some 0.5 Mt of CO{sub 2}-eq. in Finland. Emissions are expected to quadruple by 2010 and to be five-fold by 2020, at which time they represent a much larger share of Finnish emissions of Kyoto greenhouse gases than presently. The substitution of ozone depleting substances by HFC-refrigerants was indentified as a major driver behind the expected growth of emissions. After the first Kyoto commitment period, emissions of HFC-refrigerants were projected to contribute some 90% of the total emissions of new greehouse gases in Finland. The application of emission reduction technologies to an existing equipment base is usually more problematic and less effective than applying these technologies to new equipment. For this reason, the emission reduction potential is conditional on schedule of introducing abatement measures. In the calculations of this study, most of the abatement measures were introduced in 2002. The measures considered consisted mainly of two kinds of technical reduction options: i) alternative gases and technologies and ii) leakage reduction (containment). Measures focusing on application of altenatives were significantly more expensive compared to leakage reduction. Average abatement costs of leakage reduction, weighted by potential emission reductions, were estimated as 80 FIM/t CO{sub 2}-eq. during the first Kyoto commitment period and 60 FIM

  1. Jointly Sponsored Research Program on Energy Related Research

    No, author

    2013-12-31

    several criteria. Using the deployment of the federal funding with industrial participation as a performance criterion, over the course of the program, the copsonsors contributed more dollars than the federal funds. As stated earlier, a little more than half of the funding for the Program was derived from industrial partners. The industrial partners also enthusiastically supported the research and development activities with cash contribution of $4,710,372.67, nearly 65% of the required cost share. Work on all of the tasks proposed under the Cooperative Agreement has been completed. This report summarizes and highlights the results from the Program. Under the Cooperative Agreement Program, energy-related tasks emphasized petroleum processing, upgrading and characterization, coal and biomass beneficiation and upgrading, coal combustion systems development including oxy-combustion, emissions monitoring and abatement, coal gasification technologies including gas clean-up and conditioning, hydrogen and liquid fuels production, and the development of technologies for the utilization of renewable energy resources. Environmental-related activities emphasized cleaning contaminated soils using microbial fuel cells, development of processes and sorbents for emissions reduction and recovery of water from power plant flue gas, and biological carbon capture and reuse. Technology enhancement activities included resource characterization studies, development of improved methods, monitors and sensors. In general the goals of the tasks proposed were to enhance competitiveness of U.S. technology, increase production of domestic resources, and reduce environmental impacts associated with energy production and utilization. Technologies being brought to commercialization as a result of the funds provided by the Cooperative Agreement contribute to the overall goals of the USDOE and the nation. Each has broad applicability both within the United States and abroad, thereby helping to enhance the

  2. Structured Programming: An Introduction.

    Moulton, Peter

    Designed for use by computer programming teachers, this booklet presents the concepts of structured programming and provides examples of how to implement this methodology, which provides a systematic way of organizing programs so that even large and complex programs are easier to understand and modify than unstructured programs. After a brief…

  3. Lippincott Basic Reading Program.

    Monterey Peninsula Unified School District, Monterey, CA.

    This program, included in "Effective Reading Programs...," serves 459 students in grades 1-3 at 15 elementary schools. The program employs a diagnostic-prescriptive approach to instruction in a nongraded setting through the use of the Lippincott Basic Reading program. When a child enters the program, he is introduced to a decoding…

  4. Energy Technology Programs: program summaries for 1979

    1979-12-01

    The Energy Technology Programs in the BNL Department of Energy and Environment cover a broad range of activities, namely: electrochemical research, chemical energy storage, chemical heat pumps, solar technology, fossil technology, catalytic systems development, space-conditioning technology, and technical support/program management. Summaries of the individual tasks associated with these activities along with publications, significant accomplishments, and program funding levels are presented.

  5. How effective is dog culling in controlling zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis? a critical evaluation of the science, politics and ethics behind this public health policy Quanto é efetivo o abate de cães para o controle do calazar zoonótico? uma avaliação crítica da ciência, política e ética por trás desta política de saúde pública

    Carlos Henrique Nery Costa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Zoonotic kala-azar, a lethal disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania is considered out of control in parts of the world, particularly in Brazil, where transmission has spread to cities throughout most of the territory and mortality presents an increasing trend. Although a highly debatable measure, the Brazilian government regularly culls seropositive dogs to control the disease. Since control is failing, critical analysis concerning the actions focused on the canine reservoir was conducted. METHODS: In a review of the literature, a historical perspective focusing mainly on comparisons between the successful Chinese and Soviet strategies and the Brazilian approach is presented. In addition, analyses of the principal studies regarding the role of dogs as risk factors to humans and of the main intervention studies regarding the efficacy of the dog killing strategy were undertaken. Brazilian political reaction to a recently published systematic review that concluded that the dog culling program lacked efficiency and its effect on public policy were also reviewed. RESULTS: No firm evidence of the risk conferred by the presence of dogs to humans was verified; on the contrary, a lack of scientific support for the policy of killing dogs was confirmed. A bias for distorting scientific data towards maintaining the policy of culling animals was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Since there is no evidence that dog culling diminishes visceral leishmaniasis transmission, it should be abandoned as a control measure. Ethical considerations have been raised regarding distorting scientific results and the killing of animals despite minimal or absent scientific evidenceINTRODUÇÃO: O calazar zoonótico, uma doença fatal causada por protozoários do gênero Leishmania, é considerada fora de controle, particularmente no Brasil, onde se urbaniza e a letalidade aumenta. Apesar de ser uma medida muito controversa, o governo brasileiro abate c

  6. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Full Text Available ... Education Trauma Systems Conference Publications and Posters Injury Prevention and Control Strong for Surgery Strong for Surgery ... Safety Resources About the Patient Education Program The Recovery Room Choosing Wisely Educational Programs Educational Programs Educational ...

  7. [Theme: Horticulture Programs.

    Henderson, Jan; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A series of articles discusses requirements for optimum growth of horticulture education programs. Includes beginning a program, simulating working conditions, the need for mechanical skills, starting a business, and other areas to be considered for a successful horticultural program. (JOW)

  8. Health Programs for Veterans

    ... Health Administration » Health Programs for Veterans Veterans Health Administration Health Programs for Veterans Beyond the doctors and nurses who ... Veterans Plain Language Surviving Spouses & Dependents Adaptive Sports Program ... Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery ...

  9. Composição nutricional do casco da tartaruga-da-Amazônia (Podocnemis expansa criada em cativeiro e em idade de abate Centesimal nutrition of the tartaruga-da-Amazônia Podocnemis expansa shell bred in captivity and at slaughter age

    Renata Cristina Scarlato

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A criação de tartarugas em cativeiro no Brasil vem se expandindo nos últimos anos, destacando-se o aumento do volume de abate da espécie Podocnemis expansa para obtenção de carne. Este estudo foi realizado na UFRuralRJ, objetivando-se analisar quantitativamente a composição centesimal, valor calórico, teor de colesterol, perfil em ácidos graxos e aminoácidos, e minerais de 60 cascos de P. expansa em idade de abate mantidas em criatório legalizado e registrado pelo IBAMA. Concluiu-se que o casco de P. expansa é rico em nutrientes, apresentando proteína de alto valor biológico para adultos, lipídios, ácidos graxos essenciais, minerais e baixo teor de colesterol, possibilitando sua utilização como suplemento nutricional após estudos futuros comprobatórios da biodisponibilidade dos nutrientes presentes.Breeding of turtles in Brazil has increased recently, and the increase of the volume of the species Podocnemis expansa to obtain meat is significant. This study was done at UFRuralRJ, and the aim was to analyse the centesimal composition, caloric value, tenor of cholesterol, fatty acids and amino acids and minerals of 60 P. expansa shells quantitativity at slaughter age maintained by IBAMA, a legal and registered breeder. It can be concluded that the P. expansa shell is rich in nutrients, with a high biological value protein for adults, lipids, essentials fatty acids, minerals and low tenor of cholesterol, possible to use as a nutritional supplement after corroborating future studies of the biodisponibility of the present nutrients.

  10. LANL Meteorology Program

    Dewart, Jean Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-09

    The goal of the Meteorology Program is to provide all routine meteorology measurements for LANL operational requirements. This report discusses the program, its routine operations, and other services.

  11. Macroscopia, histopatologia e bacteriologia de fígados de frangos (Gallus gallus condenados no abate Gross, microscopic and bacteriologic evaluations of broiler chicken livers (Gallus gallus condemned at slaughter

    Aleverson da Silva Barcelos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou, através da macroscopia, histopatologia e bacteriologia, fígados de frangos (Gallus gallus condenados no abate. Cem fígados de frango foram coletados na linha de inspeção. Noventa deles tinham sido condenados por apresentarem alterações macroscópicas. Dez fígados não apresentavam alterações macroscópicas. As coletas foram feitas em dois abatedouros localizados no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. No laboratório, fez-se detalhada descrição das alterações macroscópicas dos fígados condenados e exames histopatológicos e bacteriológicos complementares. Para a descrição macroscópica, os seguintes parâmetros foram avaliados: forma, coloração, tamanho, consistência, odor e presença de lesões visíveis. Foram observados fígados com alterações na cor, forma, tamanho e/ou consistência em 47/90 amostras; fígados marrom-pálidos e com outras alterações macroscópicas associadas perfizeram 19/90 amostras; 5/90 fígados estavam amarelos ou amarelados e com outras alterações macroscópicas associadas; 19/90 fígados estavam verdes ou esverdeados e com outras alterações macroscópicas associadas. Os principais diagnósticos histopatológicos foram de colângio-hepatite heterofílica multifocal, degeneração e/ou necrose hepatocelular centrolobular e em ponte, hepatite necrosante aleatória, pericolangite heterofílica multifocal e peri-hepatite fibrinosa subaguda difusa acentuada. A bacteriologia foi direcionada para pesquisa de Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. e Staphylococcus sp. Utilizando-se cultivo direto das amostras de fígado em meios de cultura seletivos, isolou-se E. coli em 26/100 amostras e Staphylococcus sp. em 24/100 amostras. Para pesquisa de salmonelas, utilizou-se a metodologia convencional preconizada para esta bactéria, entretanto não houve isolamento de nenhuma espécie deste gênero. Através das avaliações realizadas pode-se confirmar o predomínio de lesões sugestivas de

  12. The geological perspective of Italy and Chile by Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina between the 18th and 19th centuries La perspectiva geolgica del Abate Juan Ignacio Molina sobre Italia y Chile entre los siglos XVIII y XIX

    Marco Menichetti

    2011-09-01

    Tierra. En este trabajo Molina compara repetidamente los paisajes del norte y el sur, la actividad volcnica y la geologa de Italia y Chile. Su prxima obra, Memorie di storia naturale, fue publicada en 1821 y estuvo basada en sus clases dadas en la Academia de Ciencias de Bolonia. Contena 14 Memoria -clases- referidas a diferentes aspectos de las ciencias naturales, incluyendo seis tpicos geolgicos. En 1815, en una de las clases de Molina -posteriormente Memoria XIV-, fue publicado bajo el ttulo Analogas menos observadas de los tres reinos de la naturaleza. En esta clase Molina discuta las similitudes entre minerales, vegetales y animales dentro del marco de la entonces aceptada filosofa de la Gran Cadena del Ser. Debido a que sus ideas y enunciados, que aparentemente dotaban a plantas y animales caractersticas humanas, Molina fue denunciado y posteriormente apartado por heterodoxia. El Abate Molina hizo una importante contribucin para el estudio de la Historia Natural de Chile, y en general para las ciencias naturales de Amrica del Sur. Aunque Molina vivi la mayor parte de su vida fuera de Chile, aliment un profundo amor y orgullo por su pas. Este cuadro que emerge de sus escritos contribuy en un alto grado a que el mundo conociera su tierra nativa y su gente.

  13. The Cybernetic Writing Program.

    Lowe, Kelly Fisher

    This paper looks at the role of a Writing Program Administrator, and applies the idea of a cybernetic system to the administration of the program. In this cybernetic model, the Writing Program Administrator (WPA) works as both a problem solver and problem causer, with the responsibility of keeping the program in proper balance. A cybernetic…

  14. Programs as Data Objects

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second Symposium on Programs as Data Objects, PADO 2001, held in Aarhus, Denmark, in May 2001. The 14 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 30 submissions. Various aspects of looking at programs as data objects...... are covered from the point of view of program analysis, program transformation, computational complexity, etc....

  15. Generating Consistent Program Tutorials

    Vestdam, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a tool that supports construction of program tutorials. A program tutorial provides the reader with an understanding of an example program by interleaving fragments of source code and explaining text. An example program can for example illustrate how to use a library...

  16. Developing Parallel Programs

    Ranjan Sen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Parallel programming is an extension of sequential programming; today, it is becoming the mainstream paradigm in day-to-day information processing. Its aim is to build the fastest programs on parallel computers. The methodologies for developing a parallelprogram can be put into integrated frameworks. Development focuses on algorithm, languages, and how the program is deployed on the parallel computer.

  17. Laser Programs Highlights 1998

    Lowdermilk, H.; Cassady, C.

    1999-12-01

    This report covers the following topics: Commentary; Laser Programs; Inertial Confinement Fusion/National Ignition Facility (ICF/NIF); Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS); Laser Science and Technology (LS&T); Information Science and Technology Program (IS&T); Strategic Materials Applications Program (SMAP); Medical Technology Program (MTP) and Awards.

  18. Light water reactor program

    Franks, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s Light Water Reactor Program is outlined. The scope of the program consists of: design certification of evolutionary plants; design, development, and design certification of simplified passive plants; first-of-a-kind engineering to achieve commercial standardization; plant lifetime improvement; and advanced reactor severe accident program. These program activities of the Office of Nuclear Energy are discussed.

  19. Stochastic Constraint Programming

    Walsh, Toby

    2009-01-01

    To model combinatorial decision problems involving uncertainty and probability, we introduce stochastic constraint programming. Stochastic constraint programs contain both decision variables (which we can set) and stochastic variables (which follow a probability distribution). They combine together the best features of traditional constraint satisfaction, stochastic integer programming, and stochastic satisfiability. We give a semantics for stochastic constraint programs, and propose a number...

  20. Viking Lander reliability program

    Pilny, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Viking Lander reliability program is reviewed with attention given to the development of the reliability program requirements, reliability program management, documents evaluation, failure modes evaluation, production variation control, failure reporting and correction, and the parts program. Lander hardware failures which have occurred during the mission are listed.

  1. [PIC Program Evaluation Forms.

    Short, N. J.

    These 4 questionnaires are designed to elicit teacher and parent evaluations of the Prescriptive Instruction Center (PIC) program. Included are Teacher Evaluation of Program Effectiveness (14 items), M & M Evaluation of Program Implementation (methods and materials specialists; 11 items), Teacher Evaluation of Program Effectiveness--Case Study…

  2. C++ Programming Language

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    C++ Programming Language: The C++ seminar covers the fundamentals of C++ programming language. The C++ fundamentals are grouped into three parts where each part includes both concept and programming examples aimed at for hands-on practice. The first part covers the functional aspect of C++ programming language with emphasis on function parameters and efficient memory utilization. The second part covers the essential framework of C++ programming language, the object-oriented aspects. Information necessary to evaluate various features of object-oriented programming; including encapsulation, polymorphism and inheritance will be discussed. The last part of the seminar covers template and generic programming. Examples include both user defined and standard templates.

  3. Nitrous Oxide Formation and Destruction by Industrial No Abatement Techniques Including Scr Emissions des protoxides d'azote par des techniques industrielles d'abattement de NO y compris le SCR

    De Soete G. G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Systematic investigations on N2O emission from full scale stationary combustion units, equipped with primary or secondary NO control techniques, are scarce or inexistent. Recent results obtained from laboratory scale studies are presented, from which it appears that fuel staging, selective non catalytic NO reduction with ammonia and selective catalytic NO reduction in the presence of ammonia, should be considered as potential sources of nitrous oxide emission enhancement. For the two mentioned gas phase NO abatement techniques (fuel staging and NCSR, this N2O emission enhancement is clearly linked with a decrease of the temperature, a result that might have been expected from the known gas phase reactions of N2O formation and destruction. Production of N2O from NCSR is more important than from fuel staging, and increases with ammonia concentration; this probably is related to the fact that ammonia yields N2O precursors (NH, NH2 readily by its decomposition. Separate injection of pure NO or NH3 suggests that N2O is a product of the interaction of those two reactants, whereas NO also is formed as a primary ammonia decomposition product in the presence of oxygen. A kinetic investigation of N2O formation from SCR has been made. It is shown that catalytic decomposition of neat ammonia yields both NO and N2O, the former as a primary product (from adsorbed ammonia and solid bound oxygen, the latter as a secondary product (from NO and adsorbed ammonia. Both NO and N2O subsequently undergo catalytic decomposition. In the presence of molecular oxygen, another NO formation (from O2 and adsorbed ammonia manifests itself at somewhat higher temperatures, creating the well known optimum temperature window . Comparative tests conducted on a number of metal oxides, tend to show that high efficiency for NO decomposition is often related to high production of N2O within the temperature window . On ne dispose actuellement pas encore de résultats d

  4. Technology Commercialization Program 1991

    1991-11-01

    This reference compilation describes the Technology Commercialization Program of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs. The compilation consists of two sections. Section 1, Plans and Procedures, describes the plans and procedures of the Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Program. The second section, Legislation and Policy, identifies legislation and policy related to the Program. The procedures for implementing statutory and regulatory requirements are evolving with time. This document will be periodically updated to reflect changes and new material.

  5. Introduction to parallel programming

    Brawer, Steven

    1989-01-01

    Introduction to Parallel Programming focuses on the techniques, processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in parallel programming. The book first offers information on Fortran, hardware and operating system models, and processes, shared memory, and simple parallel programs. Discussions focus on processes and processors, joining processes, shared memory, time-sharing with multiple processors, hardware, loops, passing arguments in function/subroutine calls, program structure, and arithmetic expressions. The text then elaborates on basic parallel programming techniques, barriers and race

  6. Multiobjective programming and planning

    Cohon, Jared L

    2004-01-01

    This text takes a broad view of multiobjective programming, emphasizing the methods most useful for continuous problems. It reviews multiobjective programming methods in the context of public decision-making problems, developing each problem within a context that addresses practical aspects of planning issues. Topics include a review of linear programming, the formulation of the general multiobjective programming problem, classification of multiobjective programming methods, techniques for generating noninferior solutions, multiple-decision-making methods, multiobjective analysis of water reso

  7. Willingness-to-pay for an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey.

    Halasa, Yara A; Shepard, Donald S; Wittenberg, Eve; Fonseca, Dina M; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean; Gaugler, Randy; Strickman, Daniel; Clark, Gary G

    2012-09-01

    Using contingent valuation we estimated the perceived value of an area-wide integrated pest management program for the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, implemented in Monmouth and Mercer counties, NJ. We estimated residents' maximum willingness-to-pay and perceived monetary benefits (willingness-to-pay excluding residents who protested all types of payments) and payment modality through a telephone survey of 51 randomly selected households. The mean (+/- SE) perceived monetary benefits for an enhanced mosquito abatement program was $9.54 +/- 2.90 per capita per year. Most respondents would have been willing to pay through taxes (35%) or charitable donations (6%) starting then, or through one of these approaches in the future (43%), whereas 16% were completely unwilling to pay any additional costs whatsoever. We projected that the perceived monetary benefits to the counties' 1.01 million residents for an enhanced mosquito control program would be $9.61 million annually. Thus, collectively residents perceived monetary benefits of 3.67 times the combined 2008 annual operating costs of the counties' existing mosquito control programs of $2.61 million.

  8. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January--December 1996

    Kszos, L.A. [ed.; Konetsky, B.K.; Peterson, M.J.; Petrie, R.B.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1997-06-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous diffusion Plant (PGDP). The PGDP BMP was conducted by the University of Kentucky Between 1987 and 1992 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 to present. The goals of BMP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, and (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report focuses on ESD activities occurring from January 1996 to December 1996, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  9. Including non-point sfources in a water quality trading permit program.

    Collentine, D

    2005-01-01

    There has been overwhelming interest in addressing water quality issues through the use of economic instruments. Much of this attention has focused on the cost efficiencies offered by Transferable Discharge Permit (TDP) systems. Unfortunately, the attempts to start up permit markets which are able to exploit abatement cost differences between sources have not met with the success expected. Two of the reasons for the lack of success that have been taken up in analysis of these programs have been the problem of transaction costs and in the case of non-point sources (NPS), undefined property rights. The composite market design is a proposal for a TDP system which specifically includes agricultural non-point source (NPS) dischargers and addresses both property rights and transaction cost problems. The composite market consists of three interrelated markets each serving a particular function. When the composite market is mature, the total number of permits issued represents the cap on discharges allowed in the catchment. The structure of the composite market allows this system to be phased in over time with existing institutions and limited demands on financing.

  10. On finitely recursive programs

    Baselice, Sabrina; Criscuolo, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    Disjunctive finitary programs are a class of logic programs admitting function symbols and hence infinite domains. They have very good computational properties, for example ground queries are decidable while in the general case the stable model semantics is highly undecidable. In this paper we prove that a larger class of programs, called finitely recursive programs, preserves most of the good properties of finitary programs under the stable model semantics, namely: (i) finitely recursive programs enjoy a compactness property; (ii) inconsistency checking and skeptical reasoning are semidecidable; (iii) skeptical resolution is complete for normal finitely recursive programs. Moreover, we show how to check inconsistency and answer skeptical queries using finite subsets of the ground program instantiation. We achieve this by extending the splitting sequence theorem by Lifschitz and Turner: We prove that if the input program P is finitely recursive, then the partial stable models determined by any smooth splittin...

  11. Programming Models in HPC

    Shipman, Galen M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-13

    These are the slides for a presentation on programming models in HPC, at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Parallel Computing Summer School. The following topics are covered: Flynn's Taxonomy of computer architectures; single instruction single data; single instruction multiple data; multiple instruction multiple data; address space organization; definition of Trinity (Intel Xeon-Phi is a MIMD architecture); single program multiple data; multiple program multiple data; ExMatEx workflow overview; definition of a programming model, programming languages, runtime systems; programming model and environments; MPI (Message Passing Interface); OpenMP; Kokkos (Performance Portable Thread-Parallel Programming Model); Kokkos abstractions, patterns, policies, and spaces; RAJA, a systematic approach to node-level portability and tuning; overview of the Legion Programming Model; mapping tasks and data to hardware resources; interoperability: supporting task-level models; Legion S3D execution and performance details; workflow, integration of external resources into the programming model.

  12. Analyzing Array Manipulating Programs by Program Transformation

    Cornish, J. Robert M.; Gange, Graeme; Navas, Jorge A.; Schachte, Peter; Sondergaard, Harald; Stuckey, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    We explore a transformational approach to the problem of verifying simple array-manipulating programs. Traditionally, verification of such programs requires intricate analysis machinery to reason with universally quantified statements about symbolic array segments, such as "every data item stored in the segment A[i] to A[j] is equal to the corresponding item stored in the segment B[i] to B[j]." We define a simple abstract machine which allows for set-valued variables and we show how to translate programs with array operations to array-free code for this machine. For the purpose of program analysis, the translated program remains faithful to the semantics of array manipulation. Based on our implementation in LLVM, we evaluate the approach with respect to its ability to extract useful invariants and the cost in terms of code size.

  13. Crescimento alométrico de osso, músculo e gordura em cortes da carcaça de cordeiros Texel segundo os métodos de alimentação e peso de abate Muscle, fat and bone allometric growth in Texel lambs carcasses cuts in relation to the feeding methods and slaughter weight

    Gilberto Teixeira da Rosa

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento teve como objetivo estudar o crescimento alométrico dos diferentes tecidos do pescoço, costela, paleta e perna em relação ao peso do corte de cordeiros e cordeiras. Foram utilizados 22 machos inteiros e 23 fêmeas da raça Texel. Desses, sete foram abatidos no início do experimento e os demais, aos pesos de 25 ou 33kg. As ovelhas mais cordeiros foram distribuídos em três métodos de alimentação: M1 -Silagem de milho e concentrado, apenas aos cordeiros até o desmame, aos 60 dias; M2 - Silagem de milho e concentrado, apenas aos cordeiros até o desmame, aos 45 dias e M3 - Silagem de milho e concentrado para ovelha mais cordeiro até o desmame com 60 dias. Após o desmame, os cordeiros receberam silagem mais concentrado. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial 3 x 2 x 2 (3 métodos, 2 sexos e 2 pesos de abate. A determinação do crescimento foi obtida através da equação log y = log.a + b log.x, utilizando-se o logaritmo do peso de osso, músculo e gordura em função do logaritmo do peso do corte. Observou-se que o osso do pescoço e da costela foram precoce (b1 independente de sexo e método de alimentação com coeficientes de alometria variando de 1,78 a 2,15 (pescoço e 1,51 a 1,65 (costela. Na paleta, o osso foi precoce em ambos os sexos, com coeficientes de alometria variando de 0,76 a 0,79 e 0,54 a 0,58 respectivamente para machos e fêmeas. O músculo apresentou crescimento isométrico (b=1, independente de sexo e peso de abate. A gordura foi tardia (b>1 independente de peso de abate e sexo, com coeficientes de alometria variando de 1,80 a 2,12. Na perna o osso apresentou crescimento precoce nas fêmeas e isométricas nos machos, com coeficientes de alometria variando de 0,57 a 0,63 e 0,78 a 0,80 respectivamente para ambos os sexos O músculo apresentou crescimento isométrico (b=1, independente de sexo e peso de abate. A gordura foi tardia (b>1 independente de peso de abate e

  14. Thermal stress related with mortality rates on broilers' preslaughter operations: a lairage time effect study Estresse térmico relacionado com taxas de mortalidade durante as operações pré-abate de frangos de corte: um estudo sobre os efeitos do tempo de espera

    Frederico Márcio Corrêa Vieira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Concerning the reduction of preslaughter death losses, high temperature and relative humidity in the tropics are the major concerns regarding broiler survival prior slaughtering. However, the relationship between different lairage times under controlled environment and the thermal condition outside the holding area is still unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare different intervals of lairage time with different environmental temperature and relationship with poultry mortality rates. A study was conducted in a commercial poultry abattoir in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in the year of 2006. The historical data set from 13,937 trucks, about broiler mortality during preslaughter operations, was given by the abattoir. Factors that influence the welfare of birds were studied, such as lairage time in abattoir and hourly dry-bulb temperature. The statistical analysis was performed using the Double Generalized Linear Models. The lower incidence of death losses before arrival at the processing plant (approximately 13 dead birds per truck was observed when the lairage time was between 1 to 3 hours, under high temperatures (above 22°C. This effect was more pronounced under critical (25-28°C and lethal intervals (above 29°C (12 and 13 dead birds per truck, respectively. In relation to lairage time, the reduction in mortality rates was more pronounced in the intervals up to 1 hour of lairage under climatized conditions, with a reduction of 3 dead birds per truck. It was concluded that thermal stress have negative influence for broilers welfare kept under preslaughter conditions and variations on mortality rate are strongly related with different lairage times.No que diz respeito à redução das perdas por mortalidade pré-abate, as temperaturas e umidades relativas elevadas nos trópicos são as maiores preocupações quanto à sobrevivência de frangos de corte antes do abate. Entretanto, a relação entre diferentes tempos de espera em

  15. Efeito do peso ao abate de cordeiros Santa Inês e Bergamácia sobre o perfil de ácidos graxos, colesterol e propriedades químicas Effects of different lamb breeds and their slaughter weights on cholersterol, fatty acids and proximate composition

    Juan Ramon Olalgaquiaga Perez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 36 cordeiros machos inteiros, 24 da raça Santa Inês (SI e 12 da raça Bergamácia (BE, distribuídos aleatoriamente nos grupos de peso ao abate de 15, 25, 35 e 45kg. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a composição centesimal, composição em ácidos graxos por cromatografia gasosa e colesterol por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência no músculo longissimus dorsi (LD. Os parâmetros estudados foram submetidos à análise de regressão. O teor de umidade diminuiu, enquanto que a fração de lipídeos aumentou linearmente com o aumento do peso de abate, e o conteúdo de cinza permaneceu constante. A raça BE apresentou maior umidade e menor teor de lipídeos no músculo LD do que a SI. O conteúdo de colesterol foi similar em ambas as raças, mas diminuiu linearmente com o aumento do peso de abate. Foram identificados 12 ácidos graxos e os resultados indicaram que o C16:0 aumentou linearmente com o aumento do peso. O C18:0 diminuiu linearmente nos cordeiros SI e ajustou-se através de equação quadrática nos BE, com ponto máximo no peso do animal de 35kg. A porcentagem total de ácidos graxos saturados foi semelhante para todos os pesos ao abate e raças, com média de 43,6±2,5%. O C18:1ômega9 e o total de ácidos graxos monoinsaturados foram maiores na raça SI e em ambas as raças aumentaram linearmente com o aumento do peso. O total de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados das duas raças teve sua quantidade decrescida com o aumento do peso ao abate, sendo que os dados da raça SI ajustaram-se através de equação exponencial e da raça BE, por equação linear.In the experiment, thirty-six entire male lambs were used, 24 of Santa Inês breed (SI and 12 of Bergamácia breed (BE. At random six SI and three BE, which weighed 15kg at the beginning of the experiment, were slaughtered and the rest when they reached the slaughtering weights of 25, 35 and 45kgs. The objective of the study was to evaluate the basic chemical

  16. Environmental and Economic Optimization Model for Electric System Planning in Ningxia, China: Inexact Stochastic Risk-Aversion Programming Approach

    L. Ji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to provide a novel risk aversion model for long-term electric power system planning from the manager’s perspective with the consideration of various uncertainties. In the proposed method, interval parameter programming and two-stage stochastic programming are integrated to deal with the technical, economics, and policy uncertainties. Moreover, downside risk theory is introduced to balance the trade-off between the profit and risk according to the decision-maker’s risk aversion attitude. To verify the effectiveness and practical application of this approach, an inexact stochastic risk aversion model is developed for regional electric system planning and management in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China. The series of solutions provide the decision-maker with the optimal investment strategy and operation management under different future emission reduction scenarios and risk-aversion levels. The results indicated that pollution control devices are still the main measures to achieve the current mitigation goal and the adjustment of generation structure would play an important role in the future cleaner electricity system with the stricter environmental policy. In addition, the model can be used for generating decision alternatives and helping decision-makers identify desired energy structure adjustment and pollutants/carbon mitigation abatement policies under various economic and system-reliability constraints.

  17. Comparison of mosquito control programs in seven urban sites in Africa, the Middle East, and the Americas

    Impoinvil, Daniel E.; Ahmad, Sajjad; Troyo, Adriana; Keating, Joseph; Githeko, Andrew K.; Mbogo, Charles M; Kibe, Lydiah; Githure, John I.; Gad, Adel M.; Hassan, Ali N.; Orshan, Laor; Warburg, Alon; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Sánchez-Loría, Victoria M.; Velit-Suarez, Rosanna; Chadee, Dave D.; Novak, Robert J.; Beier, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Mosquito control programs at seven urban sites in Kenya, Egypt, Israel, Costa Rica, and Trinidad are described and compared. Site-specific urban and disease characteristics, organizational diagrams, and strengths, weaknesses, obstacles and threats (SWOT) analysis tools are used to provide a descriptive assessment of each mosquito control program, and provide a comparison of the factors affecting mosquito abatement. The information for SWOT analysis is collected from surveys, focus group discussions, and personal communication. SWOT analysis identified various issues affecting the efficiency and sustainability of mosquito control operations. The main outcome of our work was the description and comparison of mosquito control operations within the context of each study site’s biological, social, political, management, and economic conditions. The issues identified in this study ranged from lack of inter-sector collaboration to operational issues of mosquito control efforts. A lack of sustainable funding for mosquito control was a common problem for most sites. Many unique problems were also identified, which included lack of mosquito surveillance, lack of law enforcement, and negative consequences of human behavior. Identifying common virtues and shortcomings of mosquito control operations is useful in identifying “best practices” for mosquito control operations, thus leading to better control of mosquito biting and mosquito-borne disease transmission. PMID:17316882

  18. Learning Programming Using MATLAB

    Sayood, Khalid

    2007-01-01

    This book is intended for anyone trying to learn the fundamentals of computer programming. The chapters lead the reader through the various steps required for writing a program, introducing the MATLABr(R) constructs in the process. MATLABr(R) is used to teach programming because it has a simple programming environment. It has a low initial overhead which allows the novice programmer to begin programming immediately and allows the users to easily debug their programs. This is especially useful for people who have a "mental block" about computers. Although MATLABr(R) is a high-level la

  19. Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan Program Portfolio Management 2008

    None, None

    2008-01-01

    Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan 2008 for program portfolio management, including the program portfolio management process, program analysis, performance assessment, stakeholder interactions, and cross-cutting issues.

  20. Modeling EERE deployment programs

    Cort, K. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hostick, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, D. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Livingston, O. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address possible improvements to the modeling process, and note gaps in knowledge for future research.

  1. Early Retirement Programs.

    Everett, Peter W.

    1984-01-01

    Early retirement programs offer individuals an alternative to the work ethic while allowing them to maintain job security. Examples are given of several early, partial, and phased retirement programs currently being used in universities and public school systems. (DF)

  2. Veterans Choice Program

    Department of Veterans Affairs — If you are already enrolled in VA health care, the Choice Program allows you to receive health care within your community. Using this program does NOT impact your...

  3. Parallel programming with PCN

    Foster, I.; Tuecke, S.

    1991-12-01

    PCN is a system for developing and executing parallel programs. It comprises a high-level programming language, tools for developing and debugging programs in this language, and interfaces to Fortran and C that allow the reuse of existing code in multilingual parallel programs. Programs developed using PCN are portable across many different workstations, networks, and parallel computers. This document provides all the information required to develop parallel programs with the PCN programming system. In includes both tutorial and reference material. It also presents the basic concepts that underly PCN, particularly where these are likely to be unfamiliar to the reader, and provides pointers to other documentation on the PCN language, programming techniques, and tools. PCN is in the public domain. The latest version of both the software and this manual can be obtained by anonymous FTP from Argonne National Laboratory in the directory pub/pcn at info.mcs.anl.gov (c.f. Appendix A).

  4. Entrez Programming Utilities

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Entrez Programming Utilities (E-utilities) are a set of eight server-side programs that provide a stable interface into the Entrez query and database system at...

  5. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Full Text Available ... Care Organizations Other Publications Surgery Workforce Policy Program Current Projects Journal Publications from Surgery Workforce Policy Program ... ACS ACS and Veterans Diversity at ACS Benefits Current Openings Newsroom Newsroom Newsroom Press Releases Media Resources ...

  6. HUD Program Income Limits

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Income limits used to determine the income eligibility of applicants for assistance under three programs authorized by the National Housing Act. These programs are...

  7. Radiologic Technology Program Standards.

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the radiologic technology program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories; Foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); Admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); Program…

  8. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for...

  9. Kickstarting Choreographic Programming

    Montesi, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of some recent efforts aimed at the development of Choreographic Programming, a programming paradigm for the production of concurrent software that is guaranteed to be correct by construction from global descriptions of communication behaviour.

  10. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Full Text Available ... Participate in Improvement Activities How to Participate in Cost Federal Legislation Federal Legislation Federal Legislation Health Care ... Care Organizations Other Publications Surgery Workforce Policy Program Current Projects Journal Publications from Surgery Workforce Policy Program ...

  11. Software Acquisition Program Dynamics

    2011-10-24

    techniques to avoid these problems The Objective • Improve acquisition program staff decision-making, and thus improve acquisition program outcomes...classroom training, eLearning , certification, and more—to serve the needs of customers and partners worldwide.

  12. ICASE Computer Science Program

    1985-01-01

    The Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering computer science program is discussed in outline form. Information is given on such topics as problem decomposition, algorithm development, programming languages, and parallel architectures.

  13. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Full Text Available ... Opportunities Leadership Opportunities Leadership & Advocacy Summit Get Involved in ACS Surgeons as Leaders Course Webinars for Surgeons ... Quality Programs Overview About Quality Programs ACS Leadership in Quality ACS Leadership in Quality Inspiring Quality Initiative ...

  14. National Toxicology Program

    ... to Main Navigation Skip to Site Sidebar National Toxicology Program http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov Home Testing ... NTP Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation Studies The National Toxicology Program (NTP) has been conducting experiments in rats ...

  15. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Full Text Available ... Other Publications Surgery Workforce Policy Program Current Projects Journal Publications from Surgery Workforce Policy Program AMA House ... the ACS Catalog Find a Product Contribute Education Journal of the American College of Surgeons About JACS ...

  16. Quality program plan

    Kelly, D.P.

    1977-07-15

    This report describes a quality program plan for the Mound laboratory. Areas include variation engineering, technical manual process control systems, process performance data, product index system, promotional marketing program, quality engineering staff, ultimate use education, and management reporting.

  17. Crab Rationalization Permit Program

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Crab Rationalization Program (Program) allocates BSAI crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities. The North Pacific Fishery Management...

  18. The robot programming network

    Cervera Mateu, Enric; Martinet, Philippe; Marín Prades, Raúl; Moughlbay, Amine A.; Pascual del Pobil Ferré, Ángel; Alemany, Jaime; Esteller Curto, Roger; Casañ Núñez, Gustavo Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    The Robot Programming Network (RPN) is an initiative for creating a network of robotics education laboratories with remote programming capabilities. It consists of both online open course materials and online servers that are ready to execute and test the programs written by remote students. Online materials include introductory course modules on robot programming, mobile robotics and humanoids, aimed to learn from basic concepts in science, technology, engineering, and math...

  19. Photovoltaic systems. Program summary

    None

    1978-12-01

    Each of the Department of Energy's Photovoltaic Systems Program projects funded and/or in existence during fiscal year 1978 (October 1, 1977 through September 30, 1978) are described. The project sheets list the contractor, principal investigator, and contract number and funding and summarize the programs and status. The program is divided into various elements: program assessment and integration, research and advanced development, technology development, system definition and development, system application experiments, and standards and performance criteria. (WHK)

  20. Acquisition Support Program Overview

    2016-06-30

    Principles of Effective Acquisition © 2006 by Carnegie Mellon University page 31 Summary The SEI, through the Acquisition Support Program , works directly...2006 by Carnegie Mellon University page 1 Acquisition Support Program Overview Brian Gallagher Director, Acquisition Support Program 9 March, 2006...MAR 2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Acquisition Support Program Overview 5a. CONTRACT

  1. Think Portfolios, Not Programs

    2014-12-01

    Defense AT&L: November–December 2014 12 Think Portfolios , Not Programs Mike Janiga n Pete Modigliani Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB...00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Think Portfolios , Not Programs 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...warfighter by designing acquisition portfolios that deliver an integrated suite of capabilities. Program executive officers (PEOs) today often focus

  2. Reactive Programming in Java

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Reactive Programming in gaining a lot of excitement. Many libraries, tools, and frameworks are beginning to make use of reactive libraries. Besides, applications dealing with big data or high frequency data can benefit from this programming paradigm. Come to this presentation to learn about what reactive programming is, what kind of problems it solves, how it solves them. We will take an example oriented approach to learning the programming model and the abstraction.

  3. Joint Program Management Handbook

    1994-12-01

    the Engieermg and Manufacuring Devopment Phase. Nfilestoae HI- Develommen Annros Devopment approval marks a significant step for any program, but it is...to review concept formulaton. Systems Engilneertn As with service programs, systems engineering in joint program management is an essential tool . I...MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK On=e wd Umawtaiutt As discussed in Chapter 7, systems analysis of relationships is a usef tool for joint program managers. The joint

  4. [Family planning programs and birth control in the third world].

    Wohlschlagl, H

    1991-01-01

    The population explosion has been abating since the 2nd half of the 1960s. The birth rate of the 3rd World dropped from 45/1000 during 1950-55 to 31/1000 during 1985-90. From the 1st half of the 1960s to the 1st half of the 1980s the total fertility of such countries dropped from 6.1 to 4.2 children/woman. In Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Malaysia living standards improved as a result of industrialization, and fertility decreased significantly. In Sri Lanka, China, North Vietnam, and Thailand the drop of fertility is explained by cultural and religious factors. In 1982 about 78% of the population of developing countries lived in 39 states that followed an official policy aimed at reducing the population. Another 16% lived in countries supporting the concept of a desired family size. However, World Bank data showed that in the mid-1980s in 27 developing countries no state family planning (FP) programs existed. India adopted an official FP program in 1952, Pakistan followed suit in 1960, South Korea in 1961, and China in 1962. In Latin America a split policy manifested itself: in Brazil birth control was rejected, only Colombia had a FP policy. In 1986 the governments of 68 of 131 developing countries representing 3.1 billion people considered the number of children per woman too high. 31 of these countries followed concrete population control policies. On the other hand, in 1986 24 countries of Africa with 40% of the continent's population took no measures to influence population growth. In Latin America and the Caribbean 18 of 33 countries were idle, except for Mexico that had a massive state FP program. These programs also improve maternal and child health with birth spacing of at least 2 years, and the prevention of pregnancies of too young women or those over 40. The evaluation of rapidly spreading FP programs in the 1970s was carried out by the World Fertility Survey in 41 countries. The impact of FP programs was more substantial than

  5. Certification Programs for Citrus

    Citrus certification programs designed to ensure that healthy plants of the highest genetic potential are being planted in the field are the basic building block of an integrated pest management program. Certification programs began for citrus began with the discovery that the diseases were graft t...

  6. Language Program Evaluation

    Norris, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Language program evaluation is a pragmatic mode of inquiry that illuminates the complex nature of language-related interventions of various kinds, the factors that foster or constrain them, and the consequences that ensue. Program evaluation enables a variety of evidence-based decisions and actions, from designing programs and implementing…

  7. Programming the BBC micro

    Ferguson, John D; Macari, Louie; Williams, Peter H

    1983-01-01

    Programming the BBC Micro is a 12-chapter book that begins with a description of the BBC microcomputer, its peripheral, and faults. Subsequent chapters focus on practice in programming, program development, graphics, words, numbers, sound, bits, bytes, and assembly language. The interfacing, file handling, and detailed description of BBC microcomputer are also shown.

  8. Special Milk Program

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Special Milk Program provides milk to children in schools, child care institutions and eligible camps that do not participate in other Federal child nutrition meal service programs. The program reimburses schools and institutions for the milk they serve. In 2008, 4,676 schools and residential child care institutions participated, along with…

  9. College Outcomes Evaluation Program.

    Hollander, T. Edward

    Guidelines and implementation options for a program to evaluate the outcomes of collegiate education in New Jersey are discussed. A good program must seek to: (1) maintain public confidence; (2) nuture institutional autonomy and individual diversity; and (3) stimulate educational excellence. College outcomes that the program should cover are:…

  10. Gifted Program Evaluation

    Neumeister, Kristie Speirs; Burney, Virginia Hays

    2012-01-01

    Faced with significant budget challenges, many districts cannot afford to hire an outside consultant to conduct a formal evaluation of their gifted programs. As an interim solution, districts may wish to conduct their own in-house program evaluation. "Gifted Program Evaluation: A Handbook for Administrators and Coordinators" is designed to assist…

  11. The Zero Program

    Roland, Erling; Midthassel, Unni Vere

    2012-01-01

    Zero is a schoolwide antibullying program developed by the Centre for Behavioural Research at the University of Stavanger, Norway. It is based on three main principles: a zero vision of bullying, collective commitment among all employees at the school using the program, and continuing work. Based on these principles, the program aims to reduce…

  12. Programming Agents with Emotions

    Dastani, Mehdi; Floor, Chr.; Meyer, John-Jules Charles

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show how a cognitive agent programming language can be endowed with ways to program emotions. In particular we show how the programming language 2APL can be augmented so that it can work together with the computational emotion model ALMA to deal with appraisal, emotion/mood generati

  13. Mapper of FORTRAN Programs

    Guest, Clayton J.

    1988-01-01

    SUPERMAP computer program designed to produce map of all components and attributes of FORTRAN program. Maps usage of all variables and all COMMONs used in FORTRAN program. Maps alignment of subprograms CALLed with the arguments and dummy arguments of the CALLed subprogram. Tallies externals called by each module. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  14. Technical Program, 1974,

    proposed AGARD Technical Program and Budget for 1974. The report reflects the program that was unanimously approved by the AGARD National Delegates Board...required to support the proposed 1974 AGARD technical program is presented in Section 3. The separate publications summary shown in Section 4 identifies by

  15. Employment and Training Programs.

    Minnesota State Office of the Legislative Auditor, St. Paul. Program Evaluation Div.

    This report examines the effectiveness of employment and training programs in Minnesota and discusses the impact of the 1985 Jobs Bill state legislation. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to Minnesota's programs and to studies of employment and training programs conducted nationwide. Chapter 2 studies the use of Job Training Partnership Act funds…

  16. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009

    None

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009 is to provide an updated status of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCT). These demonstrations have been performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2009 provides: (1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation’s energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation’s most abundant energy resource—coal; (2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and (3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, along with fact sheets for projects that are active, recently completed, or recently discontinued.

  17. Scallop License Limitation Program (SLLP) Permit Program

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A federal Scallop License Limitation Program (SLLP) license is required onboard any vessel deployed in scallop fisheries in Federal waters off Alaska (except for...

  18. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program - Weatherization Assistance Program

    None

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program reduces energy costs for low-income households by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes, while ensuring their health and safety.

  19. Returns to Scale of Pollution Abatement and Emergence of EKC:An Empirical Test from China%污染治理的规模收益与环境库兹涅茨曲线的出现--来自中国的实证检验

    刘玉萍; 郭郡郡; 李维莉

    2014-01-01

    该文利用1992-2008年中国省级面板数据,以四种工业污染物,两类环境质量衡量指标为因变量,对影响污染物排放的各因素进行实证研究,结果发现:各污染物的排放均符合环境库兹涅茨曲线假设,环境库兹涅茨曲线的形状以及污染拐点的位置与污染物、模型以及环境质量衡量指标的选择有关,且以污染排放强度指标为因变量计算的污染拐点小于以污染排放量指标为因变量计算的污染拐点;没有系统的证据可以支持污染避难所假说在中国的成立;与污染治理的规模收益递增的假设相反,大型企业规模的扩张显著地增加了中国的环境污染,而中小企业则无此明显的负面影响。%The return to scale of pollution abatement explains the emergence of Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) and implies the existence of positive economies of scale for pollution abatement. Using the provincial level panel data of four industrial pollutants in China from 1992 to 2008, two types of environmental quality measure as the dependent variable, empirical study the factors which affect the emission of pollutants, the results showed that: Pollutant emissions are in line with the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis. The shape of Environmental Kuznets curve and the position of peak turns are related to pollutants, models, and the choice of indicators to measure environmental quality. And the peak turns calculated which intensify index as the dependent variable less than quantitative indicators of pollution as the dependent variable. No systematic evidence supports the pollution haven hypothesis established in China. In the opposite of increasing returns to scale,the expansion of large scale enterprises significantly increased China's environmental pollution, but the SME does not have this significant negative impact.

  20. Influência do sexo e faixas de peso ao abate nas características físico-químicas da carne de capivara Effect of the factors sex and different slaughter weight in the physico-chemical characteristics of capybara meat (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris

    Maria C. Bressan

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito dos fatores sexo e faixas de peso ao abate (30-40, 40-50, 50-60kg sobre o declínio de pH, pH final, cor, capacidade de retenção de água (CRA, perda de peso por cozimento (PPC e força de cisalhamento (FC da carne de capivara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris. As amostras do músculo longissimus dorsi (LD foram obtidas de 28 capivaras (16 machos e 12 fêmeas, provenientes de um zoocriadouro. Não houve influência dos fatores sexo e faixas de peso ao abate sobre o pH as 2h (6,29, 5h (6,29, 8h (6,25 e 24h (6,01 post mortem; na cor (Sistema CIE LAB para luminosidade (34,28, teor de vermelho (10,74 e teor de amarelo (1,74; CRA (0,47, PPC (32,27% e FC (5,20kgf/g. Comparando com espécies domésticas, a carne de capivara apresentou pH final elevado; índice de luminosidade baixo e teor de vermelho elevado, assemelhando-se à carnes de bovinos e ovinos (carnes vermelhas; CRA e PPC dentro dos limites considerados normais; e, textura (FC considerada macia.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of the factors sex and different slaughter weight groups (30-40, 40-50, 50-60kg in the pH decline, ultimate pH, colour, water holding capacity (WHC, cooking loss (CL and shear force (SF of capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris meat. Samples were constituted of longissimus dorsi (LD muscle of 28 capybaras (16 males and 12 females from the same farm. There were no effect of the factors sex and slaughter weight groups on the pH values at 2h (6.29, 5h (6.29, 8h (6.25 and 24h (6.01 post mortem; on colour values (CIE LAB System for brightness (34.28, redness (10.74 and yellowness (1.74; WHC (0.47, CL (32.27% and SF (5.20kgf/g. Comparing to livestock species, capybara meat had a high ultimate pH value, low values of brightness and high values of redness, looking like bovine and ovine meats (red meats; WHC and CL inside limits considered normal; and SF considered soft.

  1. Isolamento de Salmonella sp e Staphylococcus aureus no processo do abate suíno como subsídio ao sistema de Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle - APPCC Isolation of Salmonella sp and Staphylococcus aureus at swine slaughtering as subsidy for HACCP, the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system

    Emilia do Socorro C. de Lima

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado para avaliar a presença de Salmonella sp e o número de Staphylococcus aureus na superfície de carcaças suínas e caracterizar os perigos microbiológicos em diferentes etapas do abate e pontos críticos de controle (PCCs, através da quantificação de riscos (odds ratio. Um total de 120 esfregaços superficiais de carcaça suína foi coletado em um matadouro-frigorífico, após o escaldamento/depilação (ponto A, antes da evisceração (B, após evisceração e serragem da carcaça (C e após 24 horas de refrigeração (D. Salmonella sp foi encontrada com uma freqüência média de 11,7% (14 nas carcaças, enquanto o número de S. aureus variou entre 1,2 e 1,5 log UFC/cm² em 11,7% das carcaças amostradas, sem evidenciar diferença estatística entre os pontos A, B, C e D. Pode-se concluir que os riscos de contaminação por Salmonella sp e S. aureus foram os mesmos nas etapas do abate de suínos consideradas neste estudo.This study was done to evaluate the superficial contamination of swine carcasses by Salmonella sp and Staphylococcus aureus, the identification of microbiological hazards in different segments of the processing line, and critical control points (CCPs, through the quantification of risks. A total of 120 surface swabbing carcasses were collected in a slaughterhouse: after the scalding/dehairing (point A, before evisceration (B, after evisceration and splitting (C, and after 24 hours of refrigeration (D. Salmonella sp and S. aureus were isolated from 14 (11.7% carcasses. No statistical difference between the points studied was observed. The number of S. aureus isolated was between 1.2 and 1.5 log UFC/cm². It was concluded that the risks observed were the same for both microorganisms.

  2. Fuels from biomass program. Program summary

    None

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the ongoing research, development, and demonstration efforts of the period Oct. 1, 1976--Sept. 30, 1977 is presented. Accomplishments are highlighted and plans for continued activities are included. Discussion is presented under the following section headings: the Fuels from Biomass Program; organizational and functional responsibilities; program funding; fiscal year 1977 summary tables; current projects: production and collection of biomass and conversion of biomass; bibliography; index of contractors; and, appendix--unsolicited proposal requirements. (JGB)

  3. Beginning programming for dummies

    Wang, Wallace

    2011-01-01

    Do you think the programmers who work at your office are magical wizards who hold special powers that manipulate your computer? Believe it or not, anyone can learn how to write programs, and it doesn't take a higher math and science education to start. Beginning Programming for Dummies shows you how computer programming works without all the technical details or hard programming language. It explores the common parts of every computer programming language and how to write for multiple platforms like Windows, Mac OS X, or Linux. This easily accessible guide provides you with the tools

  4. C++ how to program

    Deitel, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    This best-selling comprehensive text is aimed at readers with little or no programming experience. It teaches programming by presenting the concepts in the context of full working programs and takes an early-objects approach. The authors emphasize achieving program clarity through structured and object-oriented programming, software reuse and component-oriented software construction. The Ninth Edition encourages students to connect computers to the community, using the Internet to solve problems and make a difference in our world. All content has been carefully fine-tuned in response to a team of distinguished academic and industry reviewers.

  5. Programming in COBOL

    Lancaster, G T

    2014-01-01

    Programming in COBOL is a simple yet concise how-to book that teaches the programming language in a short yet effective step-by-step manner, which can be easily understood by anyone with sufficient knowledge in information technology. Covering first the advantages of COBOL over other programming languages, the book discusses COBOL's divisions - identification, environment, procedure, and data, and then describes the testing of the COBOL source programs and program questions. The book is valuable for those who wish to learn basic COBOL language, but do not have the time to take manufacturers' o

  6. Programming for microprocessors

    Colin, Andrew John Theodore

    1979-01-01

    Programming for Microprocessors deals with the basics of programming for microprocessors and contains practical aids to programming. Topics covered range from assembly language and microprocessor design to the Motorola 6800, programming techniques, control of peripheral devices, and high-level languages. Emphasis is given to the computer-like aspects of microprocessors. This text is comprised of 12 chapters; the first of which provides a general overview of microprocessors, differences between hardwired and programmed devices, and different kinds of microprocessors. The reader is then introduc

  7. Choosing the Right Program

    2006-01-01

    @@ Given the transient nature of the job market, fewer companies are willing to fund the better quality international or global programs, programs that can clearly add value for those focusing on a career in China. "The connection between the pricing point and the perceived value is missing, even when the same program, quality and degree are twice as much in the US. There is absolutely a disconnection between the local market and the high-end foreign or joint programs," says Ira Cohen, Rutgers International Executive MBA Program China director.

  8. Variational Program Inference

    Harik, Georges

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a framework for representing a variety of interesting problems as inference over the execution of probabilistic model programs. We represent a "solution" to such a problem as a guide program which runs alongside the model program and influences the model program's random choices, leading the model program to sample from a different distribution than from its priors. Ideally the guide program influences the model program to sample from the posteriors given the evidence. We show how the KL- divergence between the true posterior distribution and the distribution induced by the guided model program can be efficiently estimated (up to an additive constant) by sampling multiple executions of the guided model program. In addition, we show how to use the guide program as a proposal distribution in importance sampling to statistically prove lower bounds on the probability of the evidence and on the probability of a hypothesis and the evidence. We can use the quotient of these two bounds as an estimate of ...

  9. Computer network programming

    Hsu, J.Y. [California Polytechnic State Univ., San Luis Obispo, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The programs running on a computer network can be divided into two parts, the Network Operating System and the user applications. Any high level language translator, such as C, JAVA, BASIC, FORTRAN, or COBOL, runs under NOS as a programming tool to produce network application programs or software. Each application program while running on the network provides the human user with network application services, such as remote data base search, retrieval, etc. The Network Operating System should provide a simple and elegant system interface to all the network application programs. This programming interface may request the Transport layer services on behalf of a network application program. The primary goals are to achieve programming convenience, and to avoid complexity. In a 5-layer network model, the system interface is comprised of a group of system calls which are collectively known as the session layer with its own Session Protocol Data Units. This is a position paper discussing the basic system primitives which reside between a network application program and the Transport layer, and a programming example of using such primitives.

  10. Efeito da Duração do Período de Jejum Pré-Abate Sobre Rendimento de Carcaça e a Qualidade da Carne do Peito de Frangos de Corte Effect of Feed and Water Withdrawal on Carcass Yield and Breast Meat Quality of Broilers

    JC Denadai

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo de estudo foi o de avaliar o efeito do jejum de ração e água antes do abate sobre o rendimento de carcaça e cortes, perda de peso vivo, conteúdo do papo, intestino e moela, matéria seca das fezes, bem como volume globular médio e proteína total plasmática do soro. Foram utilizados 600 pintos machos da linhagem Ross, criados até 42 dias de idade, quando foram submetidos a três períodos de jejum (zero, quatro ou oito horas. A duração do período de jejum afetou (p0,05 do período de jejum sobre as demais variáveis estudadas.The objective of this estudy was to evaluate the effect of feed and water withdrawal on carcass yield and parts, body weight loss, content of crop, gizzard and intestine, dry matter content of faeces and breast meat quality, as well as plasma total protein and packed cell volume. Six hundred day-old Ross chicks were reared until 42 days of age when they were submited to one of three feed withdrawal period (0, 4 or 8 hours. Feed withdrawal period affected (p0.05 of feed withdrawal period on the other variables evaluated.

  11. Simulation of N2O Abatement in Waste Gases by Its Decomposition over a K-Promoted Co-Mn-Al Mixed Oxide Catalyst%钾促进的Co-Mn-Al混合氧化物催化剂上模拟废气中N2O的分解减排

    Lucie OBALOV(A); Kv(e)tu(s)e JIR(A)TOV(A); Kate(r)ina KAR(A)SKOV(A); Franti(s)ek KOVANDA

    2011-01-01

    Intrinsic data of N2O catalytic decomposition over a K-promoted Co-Mn-Al mixed oxide prepared by the thermal treatment of a layered double hydroxide was used for the design of a pilot reactor for the abatement of N2O emissions from the off-gases in HNO3 production. A pseudo-homogeneous one-dimensional model of an ideal plug flow reactor under an isothermal regime (450 ℃) was used for reactor design. A catalyst particle diameter of 3 mm is a compromise size because increasing the size of the catalyst particle leads to a decrease in the reaction rate because of an internal diffusion limitation, and particles with a smaller diameter cause a large pressure drop. A catalyst bed of 11.5 m3 was estimated for the target N2O conversion of 90% upon the treatment of 30000 m3/h of exhaust gas (0.1 mol% N2O, 0.005 mol% NO, 0.9 mol% H2O, 5 mol% O2) at 450 ℃ and 130 kPa.

  12. Site Support Program Plan Infrastructure Program

    NONE

    1995-09-26

    The Fiscal Year 1996 Infrastructure Program Site Support Program Plan addresses the mission objectives, workscope, work breakdown structures (WBS), management approach, and resource requirements for the Infrastructure Program. Attached to the plan are appendices that provide more detailed information associated with scope definition. The Hanford Site`s infrastructure has served the Site for nearly 50 years during defense materials production. Now with the challenges of the new environmental cleanup mission, Hanford`s infrastructure must meet current and future mission needs in a constrained budget environment, while complying with more stringent environmental, safety, and health regulations. The infrastructure requires upgrading, streamlining, and enhancement in order to successfully support the site mission of cleaning up the Site, research and development, and economic transition.

  13. Radioisotope Power Systems Program: A Program Overview

    Hamley, John A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program continues to plan, mature research in energy conversion, and partners with the Department of Energy (DOE) to make RPS ready and available to support the exploration of the solar system in environments where the use of conventional solar or chemical power generation is impractical or impossible to meet potential future mission needs. Recent programs responsibilities include providing investment recommendations to NASA stakeholders on emerging thermoelectric and Stirling energy conversion technologies and insight on NASA investments at DOE in readying a generator for the Mars 2020 mission. This presentation provides an overview of the RPS Program content and status and the approach used to maintain the readiness of RPS to support potential future NASA missions.

  14. A Report on Asbestos Management.

    Centifonti, Gary J.; Gerber, Donald R.

    1997-01-01

    A series of studies in New Jersey schools documented asbestos abatement and management activities in 17 schools representing 20 abatement sites. Findings demonstrate that school officials must increase their awareness of asbestos issues, improve the oversight of asbestos abatement and management programs, and improve lines of communication among…

  15. Test-driven programming

    Georgiev, Bozhidar; Georgieva, Adriana

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, are presented some possibilities concerning the implementation of a test-driven development as a programming method. Here is offered a different point of view for creation of advanced programming techniques (build tests before programming source with all necessary software tools and modules respectively). Therefore, this nontraditional approach for easier programmer's work through building tests at first is preferable way of software development. This approach allows comparatively simple programming (applied with different object-oriented programming languages as for example JAVA, XML, PYTHON etc.). It is predictable way to develop software tools and to provide help about creating better software that is also easier to maintain. Test-driven programming is able to replace more complicated casual paradigms, used by many programmers.

  16. Programming in Biomolecular Computation

    Hartmann, Lars; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2010-01-01

    Our goal is to provide a top-down approach to biomolecular computation. In spite of widespread discussion about connections between biology and computation, one question seems notable by its absence: Where are the programs? We introduce a model of computation that is evidently programmable......, by programs reminiscent of low-level computer machine code; and at the same time biologically plausible: its functioning is defined by a single and relatively small set of chemical-like reaction rules. Further properties: the model is stored-program: programs are the same as data, so programs are not only...... in a strong sense: a universal algorithm exists, that is able to execute any program, and is not asymptotically inefficient. A prototype model has been implemented (for now in silico on a conventional computer). This work opens new perspectives on just how computation may be specified at the biological level....

  17. Programming Scala Scalability = Functional Programming + Objects

    Wampler, Dean

    2009-01-01

    Learn how to be more productive with Scala, a new multi-paradigm language for the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) that integrates features of both object-oriented and functional programming. With this book, you'll discover why Scala is ideal for highly scalable, component-based applications that support concurrency and distribution. Programming Scala clearly explains the advantages of Scala as a JVM language. You'll learn how to leverage the wealth of Java class libraries to meet the practical needs of enterprise and Internet projects more easily. Packed with code examples, this book provides us

  18. Los Alamos Programming Models

    Bergen, Benjamin Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-07

    This is the PDF of a powerpoint presentation from a teleconference on Los Alamos programming models. It starts by listing their assumptions for the programming models and then details a hierarchical programming model at the System Level and Node Level. Then it details how to map this to their internal nomenclature. Finally, a list is given of what they are currently doing in this regard.

  19. Meteorological Monitoring Program

    Hancock, H.A. Jr. [ed.; Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of the meteorological monitoring program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The principle function of the program is to provide current, accurate meteorological data as input for calculating the transport and diffusion of any unplanned release of an atmospheric pollutant. The report is recommended for meteorologists, technicians, or any personnel who require an in-depth understanding of the meteorological monitoring program.

  20. ON NONDETERMINISTIC DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING

    2008-01-01

    R. Bellman left a lot of research problems in his work “Dynamic Programming" (1957). Having received ideas from Bellman, S. Iwamoto has extracted, out of his problems, a problem on nondeterministic dynamic programming (NDP). Instead of stochastic dynamic programming which has been well studied, Iwamoto has opened a gate to NDP. This report presents speci_c optimal solutions for NDPs on continuous state and decision spaces.

  1. Programming Language Pragmatics

    Scott, Michael L

    2009-01-01

    Programming Language Pragmatics is the most comprehensive programming language textbook available today. Taking the perspective that language design and language implementation are tightly interconnected, and that neither can be fully understood in isolation, this critically acclaimed and bestselling book has been thoroughly updated to cover the most recent developments in programming language design. With a new chapter on run-time program management and expanded coverage of concurrency, this new edition provides both students and professionals alike with a solid understanding of the most impo

  2. Programming language structures

    Organick, Elliott Irving; Plummer, Robert P

    1978-01-01

    Programming Language Structures deals with the structures of programming languages and introduces the reader to five important programming languages: Algol, Fortran, Lisp, Snobol, and Pascal. The fundamental similarities and differences among these languages are discussed. A unifying framework is constructed that can be used to study the structure of other languages, such as Cobol, PL/I, and APL. Several of the tools and methodologies needed to construct large programs are also considered.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with a summary of the relevant concepts and principles about al

  3. Construction program management

    Delaney, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Although construction is one of the largest industries in the United States, it lags behind other industries in its implementation of modern management techniques such as those contained in the Standard for Program Management (the Standard) by the Project Management Institute (PMI(R)). Construction Program Management details the successful use of the PMI(R) approach for the construction of capital programs. It demonstrates, through case studies, how implementation of PMI's set of tools and techniques can improve the chances of program success. Exploring tactical and strategic management method

  4. Introduction to dynamic programming

    Cooper, Leon; Rodin, E Y

    1981-01-01

    Introduction to Dynamic Programming provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of dynamic programming. This book considers problems that can be quantitatively formulated and deals with mathematical models of situations or phenomena that exists in the real world.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the fundamental components of any mathematical optimization model. This text then presents the details of the application of dynamic programming to variational problems. Other chapters consider the application of dynamic programming to inventory theory, Mark

  5. Surface-Shading Program

    Plessel, Todd

    1991-01-01

    Surface Shading computer program, SURF, developed in support of work of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Part of CFD graphics software. Accepts input in form of grid and solution files otherwise normally fed to Ames Research Center's version of PLOT3D software from "flow solver" programs. Interactively creates wire-frame, shaded, and function-map parts viewed and then transferred to Ames Research Graphic (ARCGRAPH) standard files, animated with GAS (COSMIC Program ARC-12379). Written in C programming language and requires Silicon Graphics "include" files (e.g., stdio.h, gl.h).

  6. An extended day program

    Ševkušić-Mandić Slavica G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a pilot project evaluation, carried out as an action investigation whose aim was to provide a better quality extended day for primary school students. The project included the training of teachers involved in extended day program, designing of special activities performed by teachers with children once a week as well as changes and equipping of premises where children stay. The aims of the program were conception and performance of activities in a less formal way than during regular instructional days, linking of learning at school and acquired knowledge to everyday experiences, and work on contents contributing to the development of child's interests and creativity. The program was accomplished in a Belgrade primary school during the 2001/2002 academic year, comprising students of 1st and 2nd grades (N=77. The effects of the program were monitored throughout the academic year (observation and teachers' reports on accomplished workshops and at the end of the academic year (teachers and students' opinions of the program, academic achievement and creativity of students attending the extended day program compared with students not attending it. Findings about positive effects of the program on students' broadening of interests and willingness to express themselves creatively, indicate unequivocally that there is a need for developing special extended day programs. The extended day program is an opportunity for school to exert greater educational influence that has yet to be tapped.

  7. Veterinary Services Program

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Mission:To provide quality veterinary medical care and environmental enrichment programs for all animals, representing nine different species.To provide guidance for...

  8. Joint Robotics Program

    2008-04-23

    Åèìáëáíáçå= oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=póãéçëáìã= JOINT ROBOTICS PROGRAM Published: 23 April 2008 by Joel Brown and Paul Varian 5th Annual Acquisition Research...3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Joint Robotics Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...ëóåÉêÖó=Ñçê=áåÑçêãÉÇ=ÅÜ~åÖÉ=======- 464 - = = Joint Robotics Program Presenter: Joel Brown, Defense Acquisition University Author: Paul Varian

  9. Sandia Laboratories energy programs

    Lundergan, C.D.; Mead, P.L.; Gillespie, R.S. (eds.)

    1977-03-01

    As one of the multiprogram laboratories of the Energy Research and Development Administration, Sandia Laboratories applies its resources to a number of nationally important programs. About 75 percent of these resources are applied to research and development for national security programs having to do primarily with nuclear weapons--the principal responsibility of the Laboratories. The remaining 25 percent are applied to energy programs and energy-related activities, particularly those requiring resources that are also used in nuclear weapon and other national security programs. Examples of such energy programs and activities are research into nuclear fusion, protection of nuclear materials from theft or diversion, and the disposal of radioactive waste. A number of technologies and disciplines developed for the weapon program are immediately applicable for the development of various energy sources. Instruments developed to detect, measure, and record the detonation of nuclear devices underground, now being used to support the development of in-situ processing of coal and oil shale, are examples. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of these and other energy programs being conducted by these laboratories in the development of economical and environmentally acceptable alternative energy sources. Energy programs are undertaken when they require capabilities used at the Laboratories for the weapon program, and when they have no adverse effect upon that primary mission. The parallel operation of weapon and energy activities allows optimum use of facilities and other resources.

  10. Transit Benefit Program Data -

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains information about any US government agency participating in the transit benefits program, funding agreements, individual participating Federal...

  11. Mini Project Programming Exams

    Nørmark, Kurt; Thomsen, Lone Leth; Torp, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    A number of different types of final programming exams used or considered at the Department of Computer Science, Aalborg University, are identified and analyzed. Based on this analysis, a new type of programming exam is introduced called a Mini Project Programming (MIP) exam. MIP is a group...... years. The MIP exam is a compromise between (1) a long problem-based project exam and (2) a short oral or written programming exam. It is concluded that the strengths of MIP are the high degree of realism in the exam assignment and comprehensiveness relative to the course syllabus. The main challenge...

  12. Practical C programming

    Oualline, Steve

    1997-01-01

    There are lots of introductory C books, but this is the first one that has the no-nonsense, practical approach that has made Nutshell Handbooks® famous. C programming is more than just getting the syntax right. Style and debugging also play a tremendous part in creating programs that run well and are easy to maintain. This book teaches you not only the mechanics of programming, but also describes how to create programs that are easy to read, debug, and update. Practical rules are stressed. For example, there are fifteen precedence rules in C (&& comes before || comes before ?:). The practi

  13. Revealing the programming process

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because the textb......One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...... process for which process recordings are a valuable communication media in order to enhance the learning process. Student feedback indicates both high learning outcome and superior learning potential compared to traditional classroom teaching....

  14. Veterinary Services Program

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Mission: To provide quality veterinary medical care and environmental enrichment programs for all animals, representing nine different species. To provide guidance...

  15. Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan Program Overview 2008

    None, None

    2008-01-01

    Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan Program Overview 2008, including market overview and federal role, program vision, mission, design and structure, and goals and multi-year targets.

  16. A Silent Safety Program

    Goodin, James Ronald

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) referred 8 times to the NASA "Silent Safety Program." This term, "Silent Safety Program" was not an original observation but first appeared in the Rogers Commission's Investigation of the Challenger Mishap. The CAIB on page 183 of its report in the paragraph titled 'Encouraging Minority Opinion,' stated "The Naval Reactor Program encourages minority opinions and "bad news." Leaders continually emphasize that when no minority opinions are present, the responsibility for a thorough and critical examination falls to management. . . Board interviews revealed that it is difficult for minority and dissenting opinions to percolate up through the agency's hierarchy. . ." The first question and perhaps the only question is - what is a silent safety program? Well, a silent safety program may be the same as the dog that didn't bark in Sherlock Holmes' "Adventure of the Silver Blaze" because system safety should behave as a devil's advocate for the program barking on every occasion to insure a critical review inclusion. This paper evaluates the NASA safety program and provides suggestions to prevent the recurrence of the silent safety program alluded to in the Challenger Mishap Investigation. Specifically targeted in the CAM report, "The checks and balances the safety system was meant to provide were not working." A silent system safety program is not unique to NASA but could emerge in any and every organization. Principles developed by Irving Janis in his book, Groupthink, listed criteria used to evaluate an organization's cultural attributes that allows a silent safety program to evolve. If evidence validates Jams's criteria, then Jams's recommendations for preventing groupthink can also be used to improve a critical evaluation and thus prevent the development of a silent safety program.

  17. Child Nutrition Program

    潘志强

    2005-01-01

    The Child Nutrition Program invites all students to participate in the school breakfast and lunch program at school. Our goal is to improve the health and education of students by providing nutritious meals that promote food choices for a healthy diet. Failure to eat balanced meals increases the risk of illness including obesity ,

  18. Quantum programming languages

    2008-01-01

    After giving a bird's view of some existing quantum programming languages,this paper reports the recent results made by the quantum computation group of the State Key Laboratory for Novel Software Technology and the Department of Computer Science and Technology at Nanjing University,i.e.,the quantum programming languages NDQJava,NDQFP and their processing systems.

  19. Modeling EERE Deployment Programs

    Cort, K. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hostick, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, D. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Livingston, O. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-11-01

    This report compiles information and conclusions gathered as part of the “Modeling EERE Deployment Programs” project. The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address possible improvements to the modeling process, and note gaps in knowledge in which future research is needed.

  20. Programs and Expertise

    2001-01-01

    Description of programs and expertise implemented by Radiation Protection Centre is presented. RPC implements study assessing the doses received by air crew members of Lithuanian Airlines. In 2001 RPC started measurements of indoor radon concentrations in the houses of regions with karst formations, commenced new program analyzing amounts of radionuclides in typical diet of hospital patients.

  1. The Greenfoot Programming Environment

    Kolling, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Greenfoot is an educational integrated development environment aimed at learning and teaching programming. It is aimed at a target audience of students from about 14 years old upwards, and is also suitable for college- and university-level education. Greenfoot combines graphical, interactive output with programming in Java, a standard, text-based…

  2. Undergraduate Educational Opportunity Programs.

    Valien, Preston

    The lack of financial resources is no longer seen as the only hurdle to be surmounted by the poor potential college student. The Upward Bound program was created in 1964 to provide cultural and educational activities during the summer for disadvantaged high school students. The Educational Talen t Search program began in 1965 as a supplement to…

  3. Programming the social computer.

    Robertson, David; Giunchiglia, Fausto

    2013-03-28

    The aim of 'programming the global computer' was identified by Milner and others as one of the grand challenges of computing research. At the time this phrase was coined, it was natural to assume that this objective might be achieved primarily through extending programming and specification languages. The Internet, however, has brought with it a different style of computation that (although harnessing variants of traditional programming languages) operates in a style different to those with which we are familiar. The 'computer' on which we are running these computations is a social computer in the sense that many of the elementary functions of the computations it runs are performed by humans, and successful execution of a program often depends on properties of the human society over which the program operates. These sorts of programs are not programmed in a traditional way and may have to be understood in a way that is different from the traditional view of programming. This shift in perspective raises new challenges for the science of the Web and for computing in general.

  4. Environmental Horticulture Program Guide.

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide contains the standard environmental horticulture curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum encompasses the minimum competencies required for entry-level workers in the environmental horticulture field. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description,…

  5. Programming in biomolecular computation

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    Our goal is to provide a top-down approach to biomolecular computation. In spite of widespread discussion about connections between biology and computation, one question seems notable by its absence: Where are the programs? We identify a number of common features in programming that seem conspicu...

  6. The evolution of programs

    Dershowitz, Nachum

    1983-01-01

    -Ecclesiastes 12:12 Programs are invariably subjected to many rorms or transrormation. After an initial version of a program has been designed and developed, it undergoes debugging and certification. In addition, most long-lived pro­ grams have a liCe-cycle that includes modifications to meet amended specifications and extensions for expanded capabilities. Such evolution­ ary aspects of programming are the topic of this monograph. We present rormal methods for manipulating programs and illustrate their applica­ tion with numerous examples. Such methods could be incorporated in semi-automated programming environments, where they would serve to ease the burden on the programmer. We begin by describing a method whereby a given program that achieves one goal can be modified to achieve a different goal or a pro­ gram that computes wrong results can be debugged to achieve the 2 Preface intended results. The abstraction of a set of cognate programs to obtain a program schema, and the instantiation of abstract sc...

  7. International Summer Programs.

    Cox, June

    1979-01-01

    The article describes five summer programs for gifted and talented students offered internationally. The programs outlined are workshops in the publication arts, a study of humanistic development; computer science, writing, and photography workshops; a language study; a historical/social study of English history; and a workshop on photography,…

  8. Evaluating Afterschool Programs

    Little, Priscilla M.

    2014-01-01

    Well-implemented afterschool programs can promote a range of positive learning and developmental outcomes. However, not all research and evaluation studies have shown the benefits of participation, in part because programs and their evaluation were out of sync. This chapter provides practical guidance on how to foster that alignment between…

  9. Walking Advisement: Program Description.

    Byram Hills School District, Armonk, NY.

    The Walking Advisement program at Crittenden Middle School in Armonk, New York was started during the 1984-1985 school year. It was based on the work of Alfred Arth, a middle school specialist at the University of Wyoming. Essentially, the program attempts to expand the guidance function of the school by bringing faculty and students together to…

  10. BMDO photovoltaics program overview

    Caveny, Leonard H.; Allen, Douglas M.

    1994-01-01

    This is an overview of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) Photovoltaic Program. Areas discussed are: (1) BMDO advanced Solar Array program; (2) Brilliant Eyes type satellites; (3) Electric propulsion; (4) Contractor Solar arrays; (5) Iofee Concentrator and Cell development; (6) Entech linear mini-dome concentrator; and (7) Flight test update/plans.

  11. Radiologic Technology Program Guide.

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This guide presents the standard curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum addresses the minimum competencies for a radiologic technology program. The guide contains four major sections. The General Information section contains an introduction giving an overview and defining purpose and objectives; a program description,…

  12. Eating Disorder Prevention Programming.

    Sapia, Jennifer L.

    This paper provides information for school psychologists regarding the necessity and benefits of school-based prevention programming for students at risk for developing eating disorders (i.e., females). School-based programming is a cost-effective means of reaching the largest number of individuals at once and identifying those individuals…

  13. Marketing University Outreach Programs.

    Foster, Ralph S., Jr., Ed.; And Others

    A collection of 12 essays and model program descriptions addresses issues in the marketing of university extension, outreach, and distance education programs. They include: (1) "Marketing and University Outreach: Parallel Processes" (William I. Sauser, Jr. and others); (2) "Segmenting and Targeting the Organizational Market"…

  14. Multiprocessor programming environment

    Smith, M.B.; Fornaro, R.

    1988-12-01

    Programming tools and techniques have been well developed for traditional uniprocessor computer systems. The focus of this research project is on the development of a programming environment for a high speed real time heterogeneous multiprocessor system, with special emphasis on languages and compilers. The new tools and techniques will allow a smooth transition for programmers with experience only on single processor systems.

  15. The Seinhorst Research Program

    Schomaker, C.H.; Been, T.H.

    1998-01-01

    We propose the 'Seinhorst Research Program', derived from Seinhorst's empirical philosophy. All theories of the 'Seinhorst Research Program' are developed by searching for recurring regularities (patterns) in a collection of observations, named 'the empirical base'. To prevent 'ghost theories from s

  16. Learning Apex programming

    Kaufman, Matt

    2015-01-01

    If you are a developer who has some object-oriented programming experience, Learning Apex Programming is the perfect book for you. This book is most appropriate for developers who wish to gain an understanding of the Force.com platform and how to use Apex to create business applications.

  17. Programmed cell death

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this conference to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the role programmed cell death plays in normal development and homeostasis of many organisms. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: invertebrate development; immunology/neurology; bcl-2 family; biochemistry; programmed cell death in viruses; oncogenesis; vertebrate development; and diseases.

  18. Child Psychology Experiences Program.

    Walla Walla Coll., WA.

    Recognizing the need for trained teachers to enter the classroom with confidence and professional capacity, Walla Walla College introduced a Child Psychology Experience program. Personnel from several departments contribute to this program. In connection with the child psychology courses, the project features a laboratory/demonstration center…

  19. NVLAP calibration laboratory program

    Cigler, J.L.

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the progress up to April 1993 in the development of the Calibration Laboratories Accreditation Program within the framework of the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

  20. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Full Text Available ... Stereotactic Breast Biopsy Accreditation Program Cancer Programs Staff Information Surgeon Specific Registry Surgeon Specific Registry Surgeon Specific Registry Features of the SSR News and Updates CMS Physician Quality Reporting System MOC Part 4 and Recertification SSR Login Quality ...